Sample records for rapidly rotating low-mass

  1. for the internal rotation evolution of low-mass stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinçon Charly


    Full Text Available Due to the space-borne missions CoRoT and Kepler, noteworthy breakthroughs have been made in our understanding of stellar evolution, and in particular about the angular momentum redistribution in stellar interiors. Indeed, the high-precision seismic data provide with the measurement of the mean core rotation rate for thousands of low-mass stars from the subgiant branch to the red giant branch. All these observations exhibit much lower core rotation rates than expected by current stellar evolution codes and they emphasize the need for an additional transport process. In this framework, internal gravity waves (herefater, IGW could play a signifivative role since they are known to be able to transport angular momentum. In this work, we estimate the effciency of the transport by the IGW that are generated by penetrative convection at the interface between the convective and the radiative regions. As a first step, this study is based on the comparison between the timescale for the waves to modify a given rotation profile and the contraction/expansion timescale throughout the radiative zone of 1.3M⊙ stellar models. We show that IGW, on their own, are ineffcient to slow down the core rotation of stars on the red giant branch, where the radiative damping becomes strong enough and prevent the IGW from reaching the innermost layers. However, we find that IGW generated by penetrative convection could effciently modify the core rotation of subgiant stars as soon as the amplitude of the radial differential rotation between the core and the base of the convective zone is high enough, with typical values close to the observed rotation rates in these stars. This result argues for the necessity to account for IGW generated by penetrative convection in stellar modeling and in the angular momentum redistribution issue.

  2. Rapidly rotating red giants (United States)

    Gehan, Charlotte; Mosser, Benoît; Michel, Eric


    Stellar oscillations give seismic information on the internal properties of stars. Red giants are targets of interest since they present mixed modes, wich behave as pressure modes in the convective envelope and as gravity modes in the radiative core. Mixed modes thus directly probe red giant cores, and allow in particular the study of their mean core rotation. The high-quality data obtained by CoRoT and Kepler satellites represent an unprecedented perspective to obtain thousands of measurements of red giant core rotation, in order to improve our understanding of stellar physics in deep stellar interiors. We developed an automated method to obtain such core rotation measurements and validated it for stars on the red giant branch. In this work, we particularly focus on the specific application of this method to red giants having a rapid core rotation. They show complex spectra where it is tricky to disentangle rotational splittings from mixed-mode period spacings. We demonstrate that the method based on the identification of mode crossings is precise and efficient. The determination of the mean core rotation directly derives from the precise measurement of the asymptotic period spacing ΔΠ1 and of the frequency at which the crossing of the rotational components is observed.

  3. Internal rotation of 13 low-mass low-luminosity red giants in the Kepler field (United States)

    Triana, S. A.; Corsaro, E.; De Ridder, J.; Bonanno, A.; Pérez Hernández, F.; García, R. A.


    Context. The Kepler space telescope has provided time series of red giants of such unprecedented quality that a detailed asteroseismic analysis becomes possible. For a limited set of about a dozen red giants, the observed oscillation frequencies obtained by peak-bagging together with the most recent pulsation codes allowed us to reliably determine the core/envelope rotation ratio. The results so far show that the current models are unable to reproduce the rotation ratios, predicting higher values than what is observed and thus indicating that an efficient angular momentum transport mechanism should be at work. Here we provide an asteroseismic analysis of a sample of 13 low-luminosity low-mass red giant stars observed by Kepler during its first nominal mission. These targets form a subsample of the 19 red giants studied previously, which not only have a large number of extracted oscillation frequencies, but also unambiguous mode identifications. Aims: We aim to extend the sample of red giants for which internal rotation ratios obtained by theoretical modeling of peak-bagged frequencies are available. We also derive the rotation ratios using different methods, and compare the results of these methods with each other. Methods: We built seismic models using a grid search combined with a Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm and obtained rotation averages employing Bayesian inference and inversion methods. We compared these averages with those obtained using a previously developed model-independent method. Results: We find that the cores of the red giants in this sample are rotating 5 to 10 times faster than their envelopes, which is consistent with earlier results. The rotation rates computed from the different methods show good agreement for some targets, while some discrepancies exist for others.

  4. Tidal Dissipation In Rotating Low Mass Stars: Implications For The Orbital Evolution Of Close In Planets (United States)

    Gallet, Florian; Bolmont, Emeline; Mathis, Stéphane; Charbonnel, Corinne; Amard, Louis; Alibert, Yann


    Close-in planets represent a large fraction of the population of confirmed exoplanets. To understand the dynamical evolution of these planets, star-planet interactions must be taken into account. In particular, the dependence of the tidal interactions on the structural parameters of the star, its rotation, and its metallicity should be treated in the models. We quantify how the tidal dissipation in the convective envelope of rotating low-mass stars evolves in time. We also investigate the possible consequences of this evolution on planetary orbital evolution. In Gallet et al. (2017) and Bolmont et al. (2017) we generalized the work of Bolmont & Mathis (2016) by following the orbital evolution of close-in planets using the new tidal dissipation predictions for advanced phases of stellar evolution and non-solar metallicity. We find that during the pre-main sequence the evolution of tidal dissipation is controlled by the evolution of the internal structure of the star through the stellar contraction. On the main-sequence tidal dissipation is strongly driven by the evolution of the surface rotation that is impacted by magnetized stellar winds braking. Finally, during the more evolved phases, the tidal dissipation sharply decreases as radiative core retreats in mass and radius towards the red-giant branch. Using an orbital evolution model, we also show that changing the metallicity leads to diUerent orbital evolutions (e.g., planets migrate farther out from an initially fast rotating metal rich star). By using this model, we qualitatively reproduced the observational trends of the population of hot Jupiters with the metallicity of their host stars. However, more work still remain to be do so as to be able to quantitatively fit our results to the observations.


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    Costa, A. D.; Martins, B. L. Canto; Bravo, J. P.; Paz-Chinchón, F.; Chagas, M. L. das; Leão, I. C.; Oliveira, G. Pereira de; Silva, R. Rodrigues da; Roque, S.; Oliveira, L. L. A. de; Silva, D. Freire da; De Medeiros, J. R., E-mail: [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitário, Natal RN (Brazil)


    Rapidly rotating giant stars are relatively rare and may represent important stages of stellar evolution, resulting from stellar coalescence of close binary systems or accretion of substellar companions by their hosting stars. In the present Letter, we report 17 giant stars observed in the scope of the Kepler space mission exhibiting rapid rotation behavior. For the first time, the abnormal rotational behavior for this puzzling family of stars is revealed by direct measurements of rotation, namely from photometric rotation period, exhibiting a very short rotation period with values ranging from 13 to 55 days. This finding points to remarkable surface rotation rates, up to 18 times the rotation of the Sun. These giants are combined with six others recently listed in the literature for mid-infrared (IR) diagnostics based on Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer information, from which a trend for an IR excess is revealed for at least one-half of the stars, but at a level far lower than the dust excess emission shown by planet-bearing main-sequence stars.

  6. The β Pictoris association low-mass members: Membership assessment, rotation period distribution, and dependence on multiplicity (United States)

    Messina, S.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Malo, L.; Desidera, S.; Buccino, A.; Zhang, L.; Artemenko, S.; Millward, M.; Hambsch, F.-J.


    Context. Low-mass members of young loose stellar associations and open clusters exhibit a wide spread of rotation periods. Such a spread originates from the distributions of masses and initial rotation periods. However, multiplicity can also play a significant role. Aims: We aim to investigate the role played by physical companions in multiple systems in shortening the primordial disk lifetime, anticipating the rotation spin up with respect to single stars. Methods: We have compiled the most extensive list to date of low-mass bona fide and candidate members of the young 25-Myr β Pictoris association. We have measured from our own photometric time series or from archival time series the rotation periods of almost all members. In a few cases the rotation periods were retrieved from the literature. We used updated UVWXYZ components to assess the membership of the whole stellar sample. Thanks to the known basic properties of most members we built the rotation period distribution distinguishing between bona fide members and candidate members and according to their multiplicity status. Results: We find that single stars and components of multiple systems in wide orbits (>80 AU) have rotation periods that exhibit a well defined sequence arising from mass distribution with some level of spread likely arising from initial rotation period distribution. All components of multiple systems in close orbits (<80 AU) have rotation periods that are significantly shorter than their equal-mass single counterparts. For these close components of multiple systems a linear dependence of rotation rate on separation is only barely detected. A comparison with the younger 13 Myr h Per cluster and with the older 40-Myr open clusters and stellar associations NGC 2547, IC 2391, Argus, and IC 2602 and the 130-Myr Pleiades shows that whereas the evolution of F-G stars is well reproduced by angular momentum evolution models, this is not the case for the slow K and early-M stars. Finally, we find

  7. New BVI C Photometry of Low-Mass Pleiades Stars: Exploring the Effects of Rotation on Broadband Colors (United States)


    wide-field photometric 1 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is...statistical significance, the sug- gestion of Stauffer et al. (2003) that for K and early M dwarfs (1.0 < B−V < 1.45) in the Pleiades rapid rotation

  8. Models of low-mass helium white dwarfs including gravitational settling, thermal and chemical diffusion, and rotational mixing (United States)

    Istrate, A. G.; Marchant, P.; Tauris, T. M.; Langer, N.; Stancliffe, R. J.; Grassitelli, L.


    A large number of extremely low-mass helium white dwarfs (ELM WDs) have been discovered in recent years. The majority of them are found in close binary systems suggesting they are formed either through a common-envelope phase or via stable mass transfer in a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) or a cataclysmic variable (CV) system. Here, we investigate the formation of these objects through the LMXB channel with emphasis on the proto-WD evolution in environments with different metallicities. We study for the first time the combined effects of rotational mixing and element diffusion (e.g. gravitational settling, thermal and chemical diffusion) on the evolution of proto-WDs and on the cooling properties of the resulting WDs. We present state-of-the-art binary stellar evolution models computed with MESA for metallicities of Z = 0.02, 0.01, 0.001 and 0.0002, producing WDs with masses between 0.16-0.45 M⊙. Our results confirm that element diffusion plays a significant role in the evolution of proto-WDs that experience hydrogen shell flashes. The occurrence of these flashes produces a clear dichotomy in the cooling timescales of ELM WDs, which has important consequences e.g. for the age determination of binary millisecond pulsars. In addition, we confirm that the threshold mass at which this dichotomy occurs depends on metallicity. Rotational mixing is found to counteract the effect of gravitational settling in the surface layers of young, bloated ELM proto-WDs and therefore plays a key role in determining their surface chemical abundances, I.e. the observed presence of metals in their atmospheres. We predict that these proto-WDs have helium-rich envelopes through a significant part of their lifetime. This is of great importance as helium is a crucial ingredient in the driving of the κ-mechanism suggested for the newly observed ELM proto-WD pulsators. However, we find that the number of hydrogen shell flashes and, as a result, the hydrogen envelope mass at the beginning of

  9. Onset of chaos in rapidly rotating nuclei

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    Aberg, S. (Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility, Oak Ridge, TN (USA) Department of Mathematical Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden))


    The onset of chaos is investigated for excited, rapidly rotating nuclei, utilizing a schematic two-body residual interaction added to the cranked Nilsson Hamiltonian. Dynamical effects at various degrees of mixing between regularity and chaos are studied in terms of fragmentation of the collective rotational strength. It is found that the onset of chaos is connected to a saturation of the average standard deviation of the rotational strength function. Still, the rotational-damping width may exhibit motional narrowing in the chaotic regime.


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    El-Badry, Kareem; Geha, Marla [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Wetzel, Andrew; Hopkins, Philip F. [TAPIR, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA USA (United States); Kereš, Dusan; Chan, T. K. [Department of Physics, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla (United States); Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy and CIERA, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States)


    We examine the effects of stellar feedback and bursty star formation on low-mass galaxies (M{sub star} = 2 × 10{sup 6} − 5 × 10{sup 10} M{sub ⊙}) using the Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE) simulations. While previous studies emphasized the impact of feedback on dark matter profiles, we investigate the impact on the stellar component: kinematics, radial migration, size evolution, and population gradients. Feedback-driven outflows/inflows drive significant radial stellar migration over both short and long timescales via two processes: (1) outflowing/infalling gas can remain star-forming, producing young stars that migrate ∼1 kpc within their first 100 Myr, and (2) gas outflows/inflows drive strong fluctuations in the global potential, transferring energy to all stars. These processes produce several dramatic effects. First, galaxies’ effective radii can fluctuate by factors of >2 over ∼200 Myr, and these rapid size fluctuations can account for much of the observed scatter in the radius at fixed M{sub star}. Second, the cumulative effects of many outflow/infall episodes steadily heat stellar orbits, causing old stars to migrate outward most strongly. This age-dependent radial migration mixes—and even inverts—intrinsic age and metallicity gradients. Thus, the galactic-archaeology approach of calculating radial star formation histories from stellar populations at z = 0 can be severely biased. These effects are strongest at M{sub star} ≈ 10{sup 7–9.6} M{sub ⊙}, the same regime where feedback most efficiently cores galaxies. Thus, detailed measurements of stellar kinematics in low-mass galaxies can strongly constrain feedback models and test baryonic solutions to small-scale problems in ΛCDM.

  11. Instability windows and evolution of rapidly rotating neutron stars. (United States)

    Gusakov, Mikhail E; Chugunov, Andrey I; Kantor, Elena M


    We consider an instability of rapidly rotating neutron stars in low-mass x-ray binaries (LMXBs) with respect to excitation of r modes (which are analogous to Earth's Rossby waves controlled by the Coriolis force). We argue that finite temperature effects in the superfluid core of a neutron star lead to a resonance coupling and enhanced damping (and hence stability) of oscillation modes at certain stellar temperatures. Using a simple phenomenological model we demonstrate that neutron stars with high spin frequency may spend a substantial amount of time at these "resonance" temperatures. This finding allows us to explain puzzling observations of hot rapidly rotating neutron stars in LMXBs and to predict a new class of hot, nonaccreting, rapidly rotating neutron stars, some of which may have already been observed and tentatively identified as quiescent LMXB candidates. We also impose a new theoretical limit on the neutron star spin frequency, which can explain the cutoff spin frequency ∼730  Hz, following from the statistical analysis of accreting millisecond x-ray pulsars. In addition to explaining the observations, our model provides a new tool to constrain superdense matter properties by comparing measured and theoretically predicted resonance temperatures.

  12. Rapid Rotation of a Heavy White Dwarf (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    New Kepler observations of a pulsating white dwarf have revealed clues about the rotation of intermediate-mass stars.Learning About ProgenitorsStars weighing in at under 8 solar masses generally end their lives as slowly cooling white dwarfs. By studying the rotation of white dwarfs, therefore, we are able to learn about the final stages of angular momentum evolution in these progenitor stars.Most isolated field white dwarfs cluster in mass around 0.62 solar masses, which corresponds to a progenitor mass of around 2.2 solar masses. This abundance means that weve already learned a good deal about the final rotation of low-mass (13 solar-mass) stars. Our knowledge about the angular momentum of intermediate-mass (38 solar-mass) stars, on the other hand, remains fairly limited.Fourier transform of the pulsations from SDSSJ0837+1856. The six frequencies of stellar variability, marked with red dots, reveal a rotation period of 1.13 hours. [Hermes et al. 2017]Record-Breaking FindA newly discovered white dwarf, SDSSJ0837+1856, is now helping to shed light on this mass range. SDSSJ0837+1856 appears to be unusually massive: its measured at 0.87 solar masses, which corresponds to a progenitor mass of roughly 4.0 solar masses. Determining the rotation of this white dwarf would therefore tell us about the final stages of angular momentum in an intermediate-mass star.In a new study led by J.J. Hermes (Hubble Fellow at University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill), a team of scientists presents a series of measurements of SDSSJ0837+1856 that suggest its the highest-mass and fastest-rotating isolated pulsating white dwarf known.Histogram of rotation rates determined from the asteroseismology of pulsating white dwarfs (marked in red). SDSSJ0837+1856 (indicated in black) is more massive and rotates faster than any other known pulsating white dwarf. [Hermes et al. 2017]Rotation from PulsationsWhy pulsating? In the absence of measurable spots and other surface features, the way we

  13. Implications for the origin of early-type dwarf galaxies - the discovery of rotation in isolated, low-mass early-type galaxies (United States)

    Janz, Joachim; Penny, Samantha J.; Graham, Alister W.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Davies, Roger L.


    We present the discovery of rotation in quenched, low-mass early-type galaxies that are isolated. This finding challenges the claim that (all) rotating dwarf early-type galaxies in clusters were once spiral galaxies that have since been harassed and transformed into early-type galaxies. Our search of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data within the Local Volume (z < 0.02) has yielded a sample of 46 galaxies with a stellar mass M⋆ ≲ 5 × 109 M⊙ (median M⋆ ˜ 9.29 × 108 M⊙), a low Hα equivalent width EWHα < 2 Å, and no massive neighbour (M⋆ ≳ 3 × 1010 M⊙) within a velocity interval of ΔV = 500 km s-1 and a projected distance of ˜1 Mpc. Nine of these galaxies were subsequently observed with Keck Echellette Spectrograph and Imager and their radial kinematics are presented here. These extend out to the half-light radius Re in the best cases, and beyond Re/2 for all. They reveal a variety of behaviours similar to those of a comparison sample of early-type dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster observed by Toloba et al. Both samples have similar frequencies of slow and fast rotators, as well as kinematically decoupled cores. This, and especially the finding of rotating quenched low-mass galaxies in isolation, reveals that the early-type dwarfs in galaxy clusters need not be harassed or tidally stirred spiral galaxies.

  14. The β Pictoris association: Catalog of photometric rotational periods of low-mass members and candidate members (United States)

    Messina, S.; Millward, M.; Buccino, A.; Zhang, L.; Medhi, B. J.; Jofré, E.; Petrucci, R.; Pi, Q.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Kehusmaa, P.; Harlingten, C.; Artemenko, S.; Curtis, I.; Hentunen, V.-P.; Malo, L.; Mauas, P.; Monard, B.; Muro Serrano, M.; Naves, R.; Santallo, R.; Savuskin, A.; Tan, T. G.


    Aims: We intended to compile the most complete catalog of bona fide members and candidate members of the β Pictoris association, and to measure their rotation periods and basic properties from our own observations, public archives, and exploring the literature. Methods: We carried out a multi-observatories campaign to get our own photometric time series and collected all archived public photometric data time series for the stars in our catalog. Each time series was analyzed with the Lomb-Scargle and CLEAN periodograms to search for the stellar rotation periods. We complemented the measured rotational properties with detailed information on multiplicity, membership, and projected rotational velocity available in the literature and discussed star by star. Results: We measured the rotation periods of 112 out of 117 among bona fide members and candidate members of the β Pictoris association and, whenever possible, we also measured the luminosity, radius, and inclination of the stellar rotation axis. This represents to date the largest catalog of rotation periods of any young loose stellar association. Conclusions: We provided an extensive catalog of rotation periods together with other relevant basic properties useful to explore a number of open issues, such as the causes of spread of rotation periods among coeval stars, evolution of angular momentum, and lithium-rotation connection. Tables 1 and 2 are also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via 3 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientique of France, and

  15. Accretion turnoff and rapid evaporation of very light secondaries in low-mass X-ray binaries

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    Ruderman, M.; Shaham, J.; Tavani, M.


    The illumination of companion stars in very low mass X-ray binaries by various kinds of radiation from the neighborhood of the neutron star after accretion has terminated or during accretion is considered. If a neutron star's spun-up period approaches 0.001 s, pulsar kHz radiation can quench accretion by pushing surrounding plasma away from the neutron star, and may leave the companion to be evaporated by the high-energy radiation component expected from an isolated millisecond radiopulsar. Expected accretion-powered MeV gamma-rays and e(+ or -) winds may also be effective in evaporating dwarf companions. Neutron star spin-down energy release may sustain the power in these radiation mechanisms even while accretion falls. Accretion-powered soft X-rays may speed the mass loss of highly evolved dwarf companions, particularly those with a large fraction of carbon and oxygen. 30 references.

  16. Rotation periods and photometric variability of rapidly rotating ultracool dwarfs (United States)

    Miles-Páez, P. A.; Pallé, E.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.


    We used the optical and near-infrared imagers located on the Liverpool, the IAC80, and the William Herschel telescopes to monitor 18 M7-L9.5 dwarfs with the objective of measuring their rotation periods. We achieved accuracies typically in the range ±1.5-28 mmag by means of differential photometry, which allowed us to detect photometric variability at the 2σ level in the 50 per cent of the sample. We also detected periodic modulation with periods in the interval 1.5-4.4 h in 9 out of 18 dwarfs that we attribute to rotation. Our variability detections were combined with data from the literature; we found that 65 ± 18 per cent of M7-L3.5 dwarfs with v sin I ≥ 30 km s-1 exhibit photometric variability with typical amplitudes ≤20 mmag in the I band. For those targets and field ultracool dwarfs with measurements of v sin I and rotation period we derived the expected inclination angle of their rotation axis, and found that those with v sin I ≥ 30 km s-1 are more likely to have inclinations ≳40 deg. In addition, we used these rotation periods and others from the literature to study the likely relationship between rotation and linear polarization in dusty ultracool dwarfs. We found a correlation between short rotation periods and large values of linear polarization at optical and near-infrared wavelengths.

  17. Low-mass vector-meson production at forward rapidity in $p$$+$$p$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV

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Jeon, S J; Jezghani, M; Jia, J; Jiang, X; John, D; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, E; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kamin, J; Kaneti, S; Kang, B H; Kang, J H; Kang, J S; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawall, D; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Key, J A; Khachatryan, V; Khanzadeev, A; Kihara, K; Kijima, K M; Kim, B I; Kim, C; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E -J; Kim, H -J; Kim, M; Kim, Y -J; Kim, Y K; Kinney, E; Kiss, Á; Kistenev, E; Klatsky, J; Kleinjan, D; Kline, P; Koblesky, T; Kochenda, L; Kofarago, M; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotov, D; Král, A; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, S H; Lee, S R; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Leitgab, M; Li, X; Lim, S H; Levy, L A Linden; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Makek, M; Manion, A; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masui, H; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; McGlinchey, D; McKinney, C; Means, N; Meles, A; Mendoza, M; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Miki, K; Miller, A J; Milov, A; Mishra, D K; Mitchell, J T; Miyachi, Y; Miyasaka, S; Mizuno, S; Mohanty, A K; Montuenga, P; Moon, H J; Moon, T; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Motschwiller, S; Moukhanova, T V; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Mwai, A; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakagomi, H; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nattrass, C; Netrakanti, P K; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Niida, T; Nouicer, R; Novitzky, N; Nyanin, A S; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Oka, M; Okada, K; Koop, J D Orjuela; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozaki, H; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, B H; Park, I H; Park, S; Park, S K; Pate, S F; Patel, L; Patel, M; Pei, H; Peng, J -C; Pereira, H; Perepelitsa, D V; Perera, G D N; Peressounko, D Yu; Perry, J; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pinson, R; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Qu, H; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reygers, K; Reynolds, D; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Riveli, N; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosendahl, S S E; Rowan, Z; Rubin, J G; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sako, H; Samsonov, V; Sano, S; Sarsour, M; Sato, S; Sato, T; Savastio, M; Sawada, S; Schaefer, B; Schmoll, B K; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Sen, A; Seto, R; Sett, P; Sexton, A; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T -A; Shigaki, K; Shim, H H; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slunečka, M; Sodre, T; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sumita, T; Sun, J; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Takahara, A; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Taneja, S; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Tennant, E; Themann, H; Thomas, D; Tieulent, R; Timilsina, A; Todoroki, T; Togawa, M; Tomášek, L; Tomášek, M; Torii, H; Towell, M; Towell, R; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Utsunomiya, K; Vale, C; van Hecke, H W; Vargyas, M; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Virius, M; Vossen, A; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Watanabe, Y S; Wei, F; Wei, R; Wessels, J; Whitaker, S; White, S N; Winter, D; Wolin, S; Woody, C L; Wright, R M; Wysocki, M; Xia, B; Xue, L; Yalcin, S; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; Yoo, J S; Yoon, I; You, Z; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zelenski, A; Zhou, S


    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has measured low mass vector meson, $\\omega$, $\\rho$, and $\\phi$, production through the dimuon decay channel at forward rapidity ($1.2<|y|<2.2$) in $p$$+$$p$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV. The differential cross sections for these mesons are measured as a function of both $p_T$ and rapidity. We also report the integrated differential cross sections over $1

  18. Rapid X-ray variability properties during the unusual very hard state in neutron-star low-mass X-ray binaries (United States)

    Wijnands, R.; Parikh, A. S.; Altamirano, D.; Homan, J.; Degenaar, N.


    Here, we study the rapid X-ray variability (using XMM-Newton observations) of three neutron-star low-mass X-ray binaries (1RXS J180408.9-342058, EXO 1745-248 and IGR J18245-2452) during their recently proposed very hard spectral state. All our systems exhibit a strong to very strong noise component in their power density spectra (rms amplitudes ranging from 34 per cent to 102 per cent) with very low characteristic frequencies (as low as 0.01 Hz). These properties are more extreme than what is commonly observed in the canonical hard state of neutron-star low-mass X-ray binaries observed at X-ray luminosities similar to those we observe from our sources. This suggests that indeed the very hard state is a spectral-timing state distinct from the hard state, although we argue that the variability behaviour of IGR J18245-2452 is very extreme and possibly this source was in a very unusual state. We also compare our results with the rapid X-ray variability of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars IGR J00291+5934 and Swift J0911.9-6452 (also using XMM-Newton data) for which previously similar variability phenomena were observed. Although their energy spectra (as observed using the Swift X-ray telescope) were not necessarily as hard (i.e. for Swift J0911.9-6452) as for our other three sources, we conclude that likely both sources were also in very similar state during their XMM-Newton observations. This suggests that different sources that are found in this new state might exhibit different spectral hardness and one has to study both the spectral and the rapid variability to identify this unusual state.

  19. Hydromagnetic quasi-geostrophic modes in rapidly rotating planetary cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canet, E.; Finlay, Chris; Fournier, A.


    The core of a terrestrial-type planet consists of a spherical shell of rapidly rotating, electrically conducting, fluid. Such a body supports two distinct classes of quasi-geostrophic (QG) eigenmodes: fast, primarily hydrodynamic, inertial modes with period related to the rotation time scale and ...

  20. Limb-effect of rapidly rotating stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Morcos


    Full Text Available Kerr metric is used to study the limb-effect phenomenon for axially rotating massive stars. The limb-effect phenomenon is concerned by the variation of the red-shift from the center to the limb of star. This phenomenon has been studied before for the sun. The solar gravitational field is assumed to be given by Schwarzschild and Lense-Thirring fields. In this trial, a study of the limb-effect for a massive axially symmetric rotating star is done. The line of site of inclination and the motion of the observer are taken into consideration to interpret a formula for this phenomenon using a general relativistic red-shift formula. A comparison between the obtained formula and previous formulae is given.

  1. Experimental investigation of a rapidly rotating turbulent duct flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maartensson, G.E.; Johansson, A.V. [Department of Mechanics, KTH, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Gunnarsson, J. [Bombardier Transportation, Vaesteraas (Sweden); Moberg, H. [Alfa Laval, 14780 Tumba (Sweden)


    Rapidly rotating duct flow is studied experimentally with Rotation numbers in the interval. To achieve this, in combination with relatively high Reynolds numbers (5,000-30,000 based on the hydraulic radius), water was used as the working medium. Square and rectangular duct cross-sections were used and the angle between the rotation vector and the main axis of the duct was varied. The influence of the rotation on the pressure drop in the duct was investigated and suitable scalings of this quantity were studied. (orig.)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, R. Rodrigues; Canto Martins, B. L.; De Medeiros, J. R., E-mail: [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitário, Natal RN (Brazil)


    We present an analysis of the nature of the rapidly rotating, apparently single giant based on rotational and radial velocity measurements carried out by the CORAVEL spectrometers. From the analyzed sample, composed of 2010 spectroscopic, apparently single, evolved stars of luminosity classes IV, III, II, and Ib with spectral types G and K, we classified 30 stars that presented unusual, moderate to rapid rotation. This work reports, for the first time, the presence of these abnormal rotators among subgiant, bright giant, and Ib supergiant stars. To date, this class of stars was reported only among giant stars of luminosity class III. Most of these abnormal rotators present an IRAS infrared excess, which, in principle, can be related to dust around these stars.

  3. Galaxy stellar mass functions from ZFOURGE/CANDELS: An excess of low-mass galaxies since z = 2 and the rapid buildup of quiescent galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomczak, Adam R.; Tran, Kim-Vy H.; Papovich, Casey; Kawinwanichakij, Lalitwadee; Mehrtens, Nicola; Spitler, Lee R.; Tilvi, Vithal [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Quadri, Ryan F.; Kelson, Daniel D.; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Monson, Andrew J.; Persson, S. Eric [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Labbé, Ivo; Straatman, Caroline M. S. [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Glazebrook, Karl; Allen, Rebecca; Kacprzak, Glenn G. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Brammer, Gabriel B. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Van Dokkum, Pieter, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)


    Using observations from the FourStar Galaxy Evolution Survey (ZFOURGE), we obtain the deepest measurements to date of the galaxy stellar mass function (SMF) at 0.2 < z < 3. ZFOURGE provides well-constrained photometric redshifts made possible through deep medium-bandwidth imaging at 1-2 μm. We combine this with Hubble Space Telescope imaging from the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey, allowing for the efficient selection of both blue and red galaxies down to stellar masses of ∼10{sup 9.5} M {sub ☉} at z ∼ 2.5. The total surveyed area is 316 arcmin{sup 2} distributed over three independent fields. We supplement these data with the wider and shallower NEWFIRM Medium-Band Survey to provide stronger constraints at high masses. Several studies at z ≤ 1.5 have revealed a steepening of the slope at the low-mass end of the SMF, leading to an upturn at masses <10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} that is not well described by a standard single-Schechter function. We find evidence that this feature extends to at least z ∼ 2 and that it can be found in both the star-forming and quiescent populations individually. The characteristic mass (M*) and slope at the lowest masses (α) of a double-Schechter function fit to the SMF stay roughly constant at Log(M/M {sub ☉}) ∼ 10.65 and ∼ – 1.5, respectively. The SMF of star-forming galaxies has evolved primarily in normalization, while the change in shape is relatively minor. Our data allow us, for the first time, to observe a rapid buildup at the low-mass end of the quiescent SMF. Since z = 2.5, the total stellar mass density of quiescent galaxies (down to 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}) has increased by a factor of ∼12, whereas the mass density of star-forming galaxies only increases by a factor of ∼2.2.

  4. Asymmetric core collapse of rapidly rotating massive star (United States)

    Gilkis, Avishai


    Non-axisymmetric features are found in the core collapse of a rapidly rotating massive star, which might have important implications for magnetic field amplification and production of a bipolar outflow that can explode the star, as well as for r-process nucleosynthesis and natal kicks. The collapse of an evolved rapidly rotating MZAMS = 54 M⊙ star is followed in three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using the FLASH code with neutrino leakage. A rotating proto-neutron star (PNS) forms with a non-zero linear velocity. This can contribute to the natal kick of the remnant compact object. The PNS is surrounded by a turbulent medium, where high shearing is likely to amplify magnetic fields, which in turn can drive a bipolar outflow. Neutron-rich material in the PNS vicinity might induce strong r-process nucleosynthesis. The rapidly rotating PNS possesses a rotational energy of E_rot ≳ 10^{52} erg. Magnetar formation proceeding in a similar fashion will be able to deposit a portion of this energy later on in the supernova ejecta through a spin-down mechanism. These processes can be important for rare supernovae generated by rapidly rotating progenitors, even though a complete explosion is not simulated in the present study.

  5. Cloud Atlas: Discovery of Rotational Spectral Modulations in a Low-mass, L-type Brown Dwarf Companion to a Star (United States)

    Manjavacas, Elena; Apai, Dániel; Zhou, Yifan; Karalidi, Theodora; Lew, Ben W. P.; Schneider, Glenn; Cowan, Nicolas; Metchev, Stan; Miles-Páez, Paulo A.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Radigan, Jacqueline; Bedin, Luigi R.; Lowrance, Patrick J.; Marley, Mark S.


    Observations of rotational modulations of brown dwarfs and giant exoplanets allow the characterization of condensate cloud properties. As of now, rotational spectral modulations have only been seen in three L-type brown dwarfs. We report here the discovery of rotational spectral modulations in LP261-75B, an L6-type intermediate surface gravity companion to an M4.5 star. As a part of the Cloud Atlas Treasury program, we acquired time-resolved Wide Field Camera 3 grism spectroscopy (1.1–1.69 μm) of LP261-75B. We find gray spectral variations with the relative amplitude displaying only a weak wavelength dependence and no evidence for lower-amplitude modulations in the 1.4 μm water band than in the adjacent continuum. The likely rotational modulation period is 4.78 ± 0.95 hr, although the rotational phase is not well sampled. The minimum relative amplitude in the white light curve measured over the whole wavelength range is 2.41% ± 0.14%. We report an unusual light curve, which seems to have three peaks approximately evenly distributed in rotational phase. The spectral modulations suggests that the upper atmosphere cloud properties in LP261-75B are similar to two other mid-L dwarfs of typical infrared colors, but differ from that of the extremely red L-dwarf WISE0047.

  6. Electromagnetic radiation from a rapidly rotating magnetized star in orbit (United States)

    Hacyan, Shahen


    A general formula for the electromagnetic energy radiated by a rapidly rotating magnetic dipole in arbitrary motion is obtained. For a pulsar orbiting in a binary system, it is shown that the electromagnetic radiation produced by the orbital motion is usually weaker than the gravitational radiation, but not entirely negligible for general relativistic corrections.

  7. In situ deformations in the immature brain during rapid rotations. (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nicole G; Natesh, Rahul; Szczesny, Spencer E; Ryall, Karen; Eucker, Stephanie A; Coats, Brittany; Margulies, Susan S


    Head trauma is the leading cause of death and debilitating injury in children. Computational models are important tools used to understand head injury mechanisms but they must be validated with experimental data. In this communication we present in situ measurements of brain deformation during rapid, nonimpact head rotation in juvenile pigs of different ages. These data will be used to validate computational models identifying age-dependent thresholds of axonal injury. Fresh 5 days (n=3) and 4 weeks (n=2) old piglet heads were transected horizontally and secured in a container. The cut surface of each brain was marked and covered with a transparent, lubricated plate that allowed the brain to move freely in the plane of rotation. For each brain, a rapid (20-28 ms) 65 deg rotation was applied sequentially at 50 rad/s, 75 rad/s, and 75 rad/s. Each rotation was digitally captured at 2500 frames/s (480x320 pixels) and mark locations were tracked and used to compute strain using an in-house program in MATLAB. Peak values of principal strain (E(peak)) were significantly larger during deceleration than during acceleration of the head rotation (p<0.05), and doubled with a 50% increase in velocity. E(peak) was also significantly higher during the second 75 rad/s rotation than during the first 75 rad/s rotation (p<0.0001), suggesting structural alteration at 75 rad/s and the possibility that similar changes may have occurred at 50 rad/s. Analyzing only lower velocity (50 rad/s) rotations, E(peak) significantly increased with age (16.5% versus 12.4%, p<0.003), which was likely due to the larger brain mass and smaller viscoelastic modulus of the 4 weeks old pig brain compared with those of the 5 days old. Strain measurement error for the overall methodology was estimated to be 1%. Brain tissue strain during rapid, nonimpact head rotation in the juvenile pig varies significantly with age. The empirical data presented will be used to validate computational model predictions of

  8. Spherical convective dynamos in the rapidly rotating asymptotic regime

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, Julien; Fournier, Alexandre


    Self-sustained convective dynamos in planetary systems operate in an asymptotic regime of rapid rotation, where a balance is thought to hold between the Coriolis, pressure, buoyancy and Lorentz forces (the MAC balance). Classical numerical solutions have previously been obtained in a regime of moderate rotation where viscous and inertial forces are still significant. We define a unidimensional path in parameter space between classical models and asymptotic conditions from the requirements to enforce a MAC balance and to preserve the ratio between the magnetic diffusion and convective overturn times (the magnetic Reynolds number). Direct numerical simulations performed along this path show that the spatial structure of the solution at scales larger than the magnetic dissipation length is largely invariant. This enables the definition of large-eddy simulations resting on the assumption that small-scale details of the hydrodynamic turbulence are irrelevant to the determination of the large-scale asymptotic state...

  9. Dawn-Dusk Asymmetries in Rapidly Rotating Magnetospheres (United States)

    Jia, X.; Kivelson, M.


    Spacecraft measurements reveal perplexing dawn-dusk asymmetries of field and plasma properties in the magnetospheres of Saturn and Jupiter. Here we describe a previously unrecognized source of dawn-dusk asymmetry in a rapidly rotating magnetosphere. As plasma rotates from dawn to noon on a dipolarizing flux tube, it flows away from the equator at close to the sound speed. As plasma rotates from noon to dusk on a stretching flux tube, it is accelerated back to the equator by centrifugal acceleration at flow speeds typically smaller than the sound speed. Correspondingly, the plasma sheet remains far thicker in the afternoon than in the morning. Using two magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we analyze the forces that account for flows along and across the field in Saturn's magnetosphere and point out analogous effects at Jupiter. Different radial force balance in the morning and afternoon sectors produces net dusk to dawn flow, or equivalently, a large-scale electric field oriented from post-noon to pre-midnight.

  10. Low mass integrated cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Mapelli, Alessandro


    Low mass on - detec tor cooling systems are being developed and stud ied by the Detector Technology group (PH - DT) in the CERN Physics Department in close collaboration with LHC and non - LHC experiments . Two approaches are currently being investigated. The first approach, for barrel configurations, consists in integrating the cooli ng apparatus in light mechanical structures support ing the detectors. In this case , the thermal management can be achieved either with light cooling pipes and thin plates or with a network of microchannels embedded in thin strips of silicon or polyimide . Both configuratio ns are being investigated in the context of the 2018 upgrade program of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). Moreover, it is also possible to use a s ilicon microchannel cooling device itself as structural support for the detectors and electronics. Such a configur ation has been adopted by the NA62 collaboration for the ir GigaTracKer (GTK) as well as by the LHCb collaboration for the 2018 major upgrade of...

  11. Orbital and physical parameters of eclipsing binaries from the All-Sky Automated Survey catalogue. III. Two new low-mass systems with rapidly evolving spots (United States)

    Hełminiak, K. G.; Konacki, M.; Złoczewski, K.; Ratajczak, M.; Reichart, D. E.; Ivarsen, K. M.; Haislip, J. B.; Crain, J. A.; Foster, A. C.; Nysewander, M. C.; Lacluyze, A. P.


    Aims: We present the results of our spectroscopic and photometric analysis of two newly discovered low-mass detached eclipsing binaries found in the All-Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) catalogue: ASAS J093814-0104.4 and ASAS J212954-5620.1. Methods: Using the Grating Instrument for Radiation Analysis with a Fibre-Fed Echelle (GIRAFFE) on the 1.9-m Radcliffe telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) and the University College London Echelle Spectrograph (UCLES) on the 3.9-m Anglo-Australian Telescope, we obtained high-resolution spectra of both objects and derived their radial velocities (RVs) at various orbital phases. The RVs of both objects were measured with the two-dimensional cross-correlation technique (TODCOR) using synthetic template spectra as references. We also obtained V and I band photometry using the 1.0-m Elizabeth telescope at SAAO and the 0.4-m Panchromatic Robotic Optical Monitoring and Polarimetry Telescopes (PROMPT) located at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). The orbital and physical parameters of the systems were derived with PHOEBE and JKTEBOP codes. We compared our results with several sets of widely-used isochrones. Results: Our multi-epoch photometric observations demonstrate that both objects show significant out-of-eclipse modulations, which vary in time. We believe that this effect is caused by stellar spots, which evolve on time scales of tens of days. For this reason, we constructed our models on the basis of photometric observations spanning short time scales (less than a month). Our modeling indicates that (1) ASAS J093814-0104.04 is a main sequence active system with nearly-twin components with masses of M1 = 0.771 ± 0.033 M⊙, M2 = 0.768 ± 0.021 M⊙ and radii of R1 = 0.772 ± 0.012 R⊙ and R2 = 0.769 ± 0.013 R⊙. (2) ASAS J212954-5620.1 is a main sequence active binary with component masses of M1 = 0.833 ± 0.017 M⊙, M2 = 0.703 ± 0.013 M⊙ and radii of R1 = 0.845 ± 0.012 R⊙ and R2

  12. Numerical Simulations of Thermal Convection in Rapidly Rotating Spherical Shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenkov, Constantine; Peltier, Richard, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Toronto Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7 (Canada)


    We present a novel numerical model used to simulate convection in the atmospheres of the Gas Giant planets Jupiter and Saturn. Nonlinear, three-dimensional, time-dependant solutions of the anelastic hydrodynamic equations are presented for a stratified, rotating spherical fluid shell heated from below. This new model is specified in terms of a grid-point based methodology which employs a hierarchy of tessellations of the regular icosahedron onto the sphere through the process of recurrent dyadic refinements of the spherical surface. We describe discretizations of the governing equations in which all calculations are performed in Cartesian coordinates in the local neighborhoods of the almost uniform icosahedral grid, a methodology which avoids the potential mathematical and numerical difficulties associated with the pole problem in spherical geometry. Using this methodology we have built our model in primitive equations formulation, whereas the three-dimensional vector velocity field and temperature are directly advanced in time. We show results of thermal convection in rapidly rotating spherical shell which leads to the formation of well pronounced prograde zonal jets at the equator, results which previous experiments with two-dimensional models in the limit of freely evolving turbulence were not able to achieve.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachon, Leonardo A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellin (Colombia); Rueda, Jorge A. [Dipartimento di Fisica and ICRA, Sapienza Universita di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Valenzuela-Toledo, Cesar A., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360, Santiago de Cali (Colombia)


    Whether or not analytic exact vacuum (electrovacuum) solutions of the Einstein (Einstein-Maxwell) field equations can accurately describe the exterior space-time of compact stars still remains an interesting open question in relativistic astrophysics. As an attempt to establish their level of accuracy, the radii of the innermost stable circular orbits (ISCOs) of test particles given by analytic exterior space-time geometries have been compared with those given by numerical solutions for neutron stars (NSs) obeying a realistic equation of state (EOS). It has been so shown that the six-parametric solution of Pachon et al. (PRS) more accurately describes the NS ISCO radii than other analytic models do. We propose here an additional test of accuracy for analytic exterior geometries based on the comparison of orbital frequencies of neutral test particles. We compute the Keplerian, frame-dragging, and precession and oscillation frequencies of the radial and vertical motions of neutral test particles for the Kerr and PRS geometries and then compare them with the numerical values obtained by Morsink and Stella for realistic NSs. We identify the role of high-order multipole moments such as the mass quadrupole and current octupole in the determination of the orbital frequencies, especially in the rapid rotation regime. The results of this work are relevant to cast a separatrix between black hole and NS signatures and to probe the nuclear-matter EOS and NS parameters from the quasi-periodic oscillations observed in low-mass X-ray binaries.

  14. Scientists Detect Radio Emission from Rapidly Rotating Cosmic Dust Grains (United States)


    Astronomers have made the first tentative observations of a long-speculated, but never before detected, source of natural radio waves in interstellar space. Data from the National Science Foundation's 140 Foot Radio Telescope at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, W.Va., show the faint, tell-tale signals of what appear to be dust grains spinning billions of times each second. This discovery eventually could yield a powerful new tool for understanding the interstellar medium - the immense clouds of gas and dust that populate interstellar space. The NRAO 140 Foot Radio Telescope The NRAO 140-Foot Radio Telescope "What we believe we have found," said Douglas P. Finkbeiner of Princeton University's Department of Astrophysics, "is the first hard evidence for electric dipole emission from rapidly rotating dust grains. If our studies are confirmed, it will be the first new source of continuum emission to be conclusively identified in the interstellar medium in nearly the past 20 years." Finkbeiner believes that these emissions have the potential in the future of revealing new and exciting information about the interstellar medium; they also may help to refine future studies of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. The results from this study, which took place in spring 1999, were accepted for publication in Astrophysical Journal. Other contributors to this paper include David J. Schlegel, department of astrophysics, Princeton University; Curtis Frank, department of astronomy, University of Maryland; and Carl Heiles, department of astronomy, University of California at Berkeley. "The idea of dust grains emitting radiation by rotating is not new," comments Finkbeiner, "but to date it has been somewhat speculative." Scientists first proposed in 1957 that dust grains could emit radio signals, if they were caused to rotate rapidly enough. It was believed, however, that these radio emissions would be negligibly small - too weak to be of any impact to

  15. Featured Image: Making a Rapidly Rotating Black Hole (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    These stills from a simulation show the evolution (from left to right and top to bottom) of a high-mass X-ray binary over 1.1 days, starting after the star on the right fails to explode as a supernova and then collapses into a black hole. Many high-mass X-ray binaries like the well-known Cygnus X-1, the first source widely accepted to be a black hole host rapidly spinning black holes. Despite our observations of these systems, however, were still not sure how these objects end up with such high rotation speeds. Using simulations like that shown above, a team of scientists led by Aldo Batta (UC Santa Cruz) has demonstrated how a failed supernova explosion can result in such a rapidly spinning black hole. The authors work shows that in a binary where one star attempts to explode as a supernova and fails it doesnt succeed in unbinding the star the large amount of fallback material can interact with the companion star and then accrete onto the black hole, spinning it up in the process. You can read more about the authors simulations and conclusions in the paper below.CitationAldo Batta et al 2017 ApJL 846 L15. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa8506

  16. Vega: A rapidly rotating pole-on star (United States)

    Gulliver, Austin F.; Hill, Graham; Adelman, Saul J.


    High-dispersion (2.4 A/mm), ultrahigh signal-to-noise ratio (3000:1) Reticon spectra of Vega revealed two distinct types of profiles. The strong lines exhibit classical rotational profiles with enhanced wings, but the weak lines have distinctly different, flat-bottomed profiles. Using ATLAS9 model atmopheres and SYNTHE synthetic spectra, Vega has been modeled as a rapidly rotating, pole-on star with a gradient in temperature and gravity over the photosphere. By fitting to the flat-bottomed line profiles of Fe 1 lambda 4528 and Ti 2 lambda 4529, we find least-squares fit values of V sin i = 21.8 plus or minus 0.2 km/sec polar T(sub eff) = 9695 plus or minus 25 K, polar log(base 10)g = 3.75 plus or minus 0.02 dex, V(sub eq) = 245 plus or minus 15 km/sec, and inclination 5 deg .1 plus or minus 0 deg .3. The variations in T(sub eff) and log(base 10)g over the photosphere total 390 K and 0.08 dex, respectively. Assuming V sin i = 21.8 km/sec, an independent fit to the observed continuous flux from 1200 to 10,500 A produced a similar set of values with polar T(sub eff) = 9595 plus or minus 20 K, polar log(base 10)g = 3.80 plus or minus 0.03 dex, and inclination 6 deg .0 plus or minus 0 deg .7.

  17. Feasibility study of rapid opioid rotation and titration. (United States)

    Korkmazsky, Marina; Ghandehari, Javid; Sanchez, Angela; Lin, Hung-Mo; Lin, Huong-Mo; Pappagallo, Marco


    Opioid guidelines recommend opioid rotation and switching for patients who do not achieve adequate pain relief or who experience intolerable adverse events (AEs) with their current opioid. However, specific recommendations and protocols for opioid rotation are lacking, making the practice time consuming and difficult for primary care physicians to accomplish independently or coordinate with a pain specialist. To assess the safety and feasibility of using 24-hour intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) to achieve rapid opioid rotation and titration (RORT). Open-label pilot study. Hospital research center. At admission, patients (aged ≥ 18 years) with treatment-refractory chronic pain who were taking morphine or oxycodone for ≥ 3 months and had pain scores ≥ 4 on a 10-point scale, underwent opioid rotation to oral oxymorphone extended release (ER). They also received IV-PCA oxymorphone for 24 hours as needed. At discharge, the participants were taking oral oxymorphone ER with oxymorphone immediate release (IR) as needed based on their total 24-hour oral plus IV-PCA oxymorphone use. During a 2-week follow-up, their oxymorphone usage was titrated as needed. Main outcome measures were AEs, Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC), Brief Pain Inventory (0 = no pain/interference, 10 = worst pain/complete interference), treatment satisfaction, and change in oxymorphone dose. Twelve patients enrolled and completed the 24-hour IV-PCA; 10 completed the 2-week follow-up post-24-hour IV-PCA. PGIC status improved by 12 hours (odds ratio [OR], 0.19, 95% CI, 0.08 - 0.44; P < 0.001), and both PGIC status and activity scores improved by 24 hours (OR, 0.23, 95% CI, 0.09 - 0.55; P = 0.001; OR, 0.49, 95% CI, 0.25 - 0.96; P = 0.04, respectively) and 2 weeks (OR, 0.14, 95% CI, 0.04 - 0.46; P = 0.001; OR, 0.21, 95% CI, 0.06 - 0.72; P = 0.01) versus 6 hours. During the 24-hour IV-PCA time period, 6 of 10 patients accomplished ≥ 50% of their overall dose titration. At 2

  18. Hydrodynamics of rapidly rotating superfluid neutron stars with mutual friction (United States)

    Passamonti, A.; Andersson, N.


    We study the hydrodynamics of superfluid neutron stars, focusing on the nature of the oscillation spectrum, the effect of mutual friction force on the oscillations and the spin-up phase of pulsar glitches. We linearize the dynamical equations of a Newtonian two-fluid model for rapidly rotating backgrounds. In the axisymmetric equilibrium configurations, the two-fluid components corotate and are in β-equilibrium. We use analytical equations of state that generate stratified and non-stratified stellar models, which enable us to study the coupling between the dynamical degrees of freedom of the system. By means of time-evolutions of the linearized dynamical equations, we determine the spectrum of axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric oscillation modes, accounting for the contribution of the gravitational potential perturbations, that is, without adopting the Cowling approximation. We study the mutual friction damping of the superfluid oscillations and consider the effects of the non-dissipative part of the mutual friction force on the mode frequencies. We also provide technical details and relevant tests for the hydrodynamical model of pulsar glitches discussed by Sidery, Passamonti & Andersson. In particular, we describe the method used to generate the initial data that mimic the pre-glitch state and derive the equations that are used to extract the gravitational-wave signal.

  19. Thermohaline mixing in evolved low-mass stars


    Cantiello, M.; Langer, N.


    Thermohaline mixing has recently been proposed to occur in low-mass red giants, with large consequence for the chemical yields of low-mass stars. We investigate the role of thermohaline mixing during the evolution of stars between 1Msun and 3Msun, in comparison to other mixing processes acting in these stars. We use a stellar evolution code which includes rotational mixing, internal magnetic fields and thermohaline mixing. We confirm that during the red giant stage, thermohaline mixing has th...

  20. Current reversals in rapidly rotating ultracold Fermi gases (United States)

    Bencheikh, K.; Medjedel, S.; Vignale, G.


    We study the equilibrium current density profiles of harmonically trapped ultracold Fermi gases in quantum Hall-like states that appear when the quasi-two-dimensional trap is set in fast rotation. The density profile of the gas (in the rotating reference frame) consists of incompressible strips of constant quantized density separated by compressible regions in which the density varies. Remarkably, we find that the atomic currents flow in opposite directions in the compressible and incompressible regions—a prediction that should be amenable to experimental verification.

  1. Asymptotic and Numerical Methods for Rapidly Rotating Buoyant Flow (United States)

    Grooms, Ian G.

    This thesis documents three investigations carried out in pursuance of a doctoral degree in applied mathematics at the University of Colorado (Boulder). The first investigation concerns the properties of rotating Rayleigh-Benard convection -- thermal convection in a rotating infinite plane layer between two constant-temperature boundaries. It is noted that in certain parameter regimes convective Taylor columns appear which dominate the dynamics, and a semi-analytical model of these is presented. Investigation of the columns and of various other properties of the flow is ongoing. The second investigation concerns the interactions between planetary-scale and mesoscale dynamics in the oceans. Using multiple-scale asymptotics the possible connections between planetary geostrophic and quasigeostrophic dynamics are investigated, and three different systems of coupled equations are derived. Possible use of these equations in conjunction with the method of superparameterization, and extension of the asymptotic methods to the interactions between mesoscale and submesoscale dynamics is ongoing. The third investigation concerns the linear stability properties of semi-implicit methods for the numerical integration of ordinary differential equations, focusing in particular on the linear stability of IMEX (Implicit-Explicit) methods and exponential integrators applied to systems of ordinary differential equations arising in the numerical solution of spatially discretized nonlinear partial differential equations containing both dispersive and dissipative linear terms. While these investigations may seem unrelated at first glance, some reflection shows that they are in fact closely linked. The investigation of rotating convection makes use of single-space, multiple-time-scale asymptotics to deal with dynamics strongly constrained by rotation. Although the context of thermal convection in an infinite layer seems somewhat removed from large-scale ocean dynamics, the asymptotic

  2. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Ultra-Rapid Earth Rotation Product from NASA CDDIS (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This derived product set consists of Global Navigation Satellite System Ultra-Rapid Earth Rotation Product (ERP) from the NASA Crustal Dynamics Data Information...

  3. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Rapid Earth Rotation Product from NASA CDDIS (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This derived product set consists of Global Navigation Satellite System Rapid Earth Rotation Product (ERP) from the NASA Crustal Dynamics Data Information System...

  4. Rossby-wave turbulence in a rapidly rotating sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Schaeffer


    Full Text Available We use a quasi-geostrophic numerical model to study the turbulence of rotating flows in a sphere, with realistic Ekman friction and bulk viscous dissipation. The forcing is caused by the destabilization of an axisymmetric Stewartson shear layer, generated by differential rotation, resulting in a forcing at rather large scales. The equilibrium regime is strongly anisotropic and inhomogeneous but exhibits a steep m-5 spectrum in the azimuthal (periodic direction, at scales smaller than the injection scale. This spectrum has been proposed by Rhines for a Rossby wave turbulence. For some parameter range, we observe a turbulent flow dominated by a large scale vortex located in the shear layer, reminding us of the Great Red Spot of Jupiter.

  5. Electromagnetically driven zonal flows in a rapidly rotating spherical shell


    Hollerbach, Rainer; Wei, Xing; Noir, Jérõme; JACKSON, Andrew


    We consider the flow of an electrically conducting fluid confined in a rotating spherical shell. The flow is driven by a directly imposed electromagnetic body force, created by the combination of an electric current flowing from the inner sphere to a ring-shaped electrode around the equator of the outer sphere and a separately imposed predominantly axial magnetic field. We begin by numerically computing the axisymmetric basic states, which consist of a strong zonal flow. We nex...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, O.; Yadav, R.; Garraffo, C.; Saar, S. H.; Wolk, S. J.; Kashyap, V. L.; Drake, J. J.; Pillitteri, I. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)


    Observations indicate that magnetic fields in rapidly rotating stars are very strong, on both small and large scales. What is the nature of the resulting corona? Here we seek to shed some light on this question. We use the results of an anelastic dynamo simulation of a rapidly rotating fully convective M star to drive a physics-based model for the stellar corona. We find that due to the several kilo Gauss large-scale magnetic fields at high latitudes, the corona, and its X-ray emission are dominated by star-size large hot loops, while the smaller, underlying colder loops are not visible much in the X-ray. Based on this result, we propose that, in rapidly rotating stars, emission from such coronal structures dominates the quiescent, cooler but saturated X-ray emission.

  7. Oscillation modes of rapidly rotating neutron stars in scalar-tensor theories of gravity (United States)

    Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.; Doneva, Daniela D.; Kokkotas, Kostas D.


    We perform the first study of the oscillation frequencies of rapidly rotating neutron stars in alternative theories of gravity, focusing mainly on the fundamental f modes. We concentrated on a particular class of alternative theories—the (massive) scalar-tensor theories. The generalization to rapid rotation is important because on one hand the rapid rotation can magnify the deviations from general relativity compared to the static case and on the other hand some of the most efficient emitters of gravitational radiation, such as the binary neutron star merger remnants, are supposed to be rotating close to their Kepler (mass-shedding) limits shortly after their formation. We have constructed several sequences of models starting from the nonrotating case and reaching up to the Kepler limit, with different values of the scalar-tensor theory coupling constant and the scalar field mass. The results show that the deviations from pure Einstein's theory can be significant, especially in the case of nonzero scalar field mass. An important property of the oscillation modes of rapidly rotating stars is that they can become secularly unstable due to the emission of gravitational radiation, the so-called Chandrasekhar-Friedman-Schutz instability. Such unstable modes are efficient emitters of gravitational radiation. Our studies show that the inclusion of a nonzero scalar field would decrease the threshold value of the normalized angular momentum where this instability starts to operate, but the growth time of the instability seems to be increased compared to pure general relativity.

  8. The Hawking evaporation process of rapidly-rotating black holes: an almost continuous cascade of gravitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emek Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Institute, Jerusalem (Israel)


    It is shown that rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes are characterized by the dimensionless ratio τ{sub gap}/τ{sub emission} = O(1), where τ{sub gap} is the average time gap between the emissions of successive Hawking quanta and τ{sub emission} is the characteristic timescale required for an individual Hawking quantum to be emitted from the black hole. This relation implies that the Hawking cascade from rapidly-rotating black holes has an almost continuous character. Our results correct some inaccurate claims that recently appeared in the literature regarding the nature of the Hawking black-hole evaporation process. (orig.)

  9. Rapid determination of Faraday rotation in optical glasses by means of secondary Faraday modulator. (United States)

    Sofronie, M; Elisa, M; Sava, B A; Boroica, L; Valeanu, M; Kuncser, V


    A rapid high sensitive method for determining the Faraday rotation of optical glasses is proposed. Starting from an experimental setup based on a Faraday rod coupled to a lock-in amplifier in the detection chain, two methodologies were developed for providing reliable results on samples presenting low and large Faraday rotations. The proposed methodologies were critically discussed and compared, via results obtained in transmission geometry, on a new series of aluminophosphate glasses with or without rare-earth doping ions. An example on how the method can be used for a rapid examination of the optical homogeneity of the sample with respect to magneto-optical effects is also provided.

  10. Laboratory-numerical models of rapidly rotating convection in planetary cores (United States)

    Cheng, J. S.; Stellmach, S.; Ribeiro, A.; Grannan, A.; King, E. M.; Aurnou, J. M.


    We present laboratory and numerical models investigating the behavioural regimes of rapidly rotating convection in high-latitude planetary core-style settings. Our combined laboratory-numerical approach, utilizing simplified geometries, can access more extreme parameters (e.g. Rayleigh numbers Ra ≲ 1013; Nusselt numbers Nu ≲ 103; Ekman numbers E ≳ 3 × 10- 8) than current global-scale dynamo simulations. Using flow visualizations and heat transfer measurements, we study the axialized flows that exist near the onset of rotating convection, as well as the 3-D flows that develop with stronger forcing. With water as the working fluid (Prandtl number Pr ≃ 7), we find a steep scaling trend for rapidly rotating convective heat transfer, Nu ˜ (Ra/RaC)3.6, that is associated with the existence of coherent, axialized columns. This rapidly rotating trend is steeper than the trends found at moderate values of the Ekman number, and continues a trend of ever-steepening scalings as the rotation rate of the system is increased. In contrast, in more strongly forced or lower rotation rate cases, the heat transfer scaling consistently follows a shallower slope equivalent to that of non-rotating convection systems. The steep heat transfer scaling in the columnar convection regime, corroborated by our laboratory flow visualizations, imply that coherent, axial columns have a relatively narrow range of stability. Thus, we hypothesize that coherent convection columns are not stable in planetary core settings, where the Ekman number is estimated to be ˜10-15. As a consequence, convective motions in the core may not be related to the columnar motions found in present-day global-scale models. Instead, we hypothesize that turbulent rotating convection cascades energy upwards from 3-D motions to large-scale quasi-2-D flow structures that are capable of efficiently generating planetary-scale magnetic fields. We argue that the turbulent regimes of rapidly rotating convection are

  11. Rapidly Rotating, X-Ray Bright Stars in the Kepler Field (United States)

    Howell, Steve B.; Mason, Elena; Boyd, Patricia; Smith, Krista Lynne; Gelino, Dawn M.


    We present Kepler light curves and optical spectroscopy of twenty X-ray bright stars located in the Kepler field of view. The stars, spectral type F-K, show evidence for rapid rotation including chromospheric activity 100 times or more above the Sun at maximum and flaring behavior in their light curves. Eighteen of our objects appear to be (sub)giants and may belong to the class of FK Com variables, which are evolved rapidly spinning single stars with no excretion disk and high levels of chromospheric activity. Such stars are rare and are likely the result of W UMa binary mergers, a process believed to produce the FK Com class of variable and their descendants. The FK Com stage, including the presence of an excretion disk, is short lived but leads to longer-lived stages consisting of single, rapidly rotating evolved (sub)giants with high levels of stellar activity.

  12. Anisotropic emission of neutrino and gravitational-wave signals from rapidly rotating core-collapse supernovae (United States)

    Takiwaki, Tomoya; Kotake, Kei


    We present analysis on neutrino and GW signals based on three-dimensional (3D) core-collapse supernova simulations of a rapidly rotating 27 M⊙ star. We find a new neutrino signature that is produced by a lighthouse effect where the spinning of strong neutrino emission regions around the rotational axis leads to quasi-periodic modulation in the neutrino signal. Depending on the observer's viewing angle, the time modulation will be clearly detectable in IceCube and the future Hyper-Kamiokande. The GW emission is also anisotropic where the GW signal is emitted, as previously identified, most strongly towards the equator at rotating core-collapse and bounce, and the non-axisymmetric instabilities in the postbounce phase lead to stronger GW emission towards the spin axis. We show that these GW signals can be a target of LIGO-class detectors for a Galactic event. The origin of the postbounce GW emission naturally explains why the peak GW frequency is about twice of the neutrino modulation frequency. We point out that the simultaneous detection of the rotation-induced neutrino and GW signatures could provide a smoking-gun signature of a rapidly rotating proto-neutron star at the birth.

  13. A large-scale dynamo and magnetoturbulence in rapidly rotating core-collapse supernovae. (United States)

    Mösta, Philipp; Ott, Christian D; Radice, David; Roberts, Luke F; Schnetter, Erik; Haas, Roland


    Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is important in many high-energy astrophysical systems, where instabilities can amplify the local magnetic field over very short timescales. Specifically, the magnetorotational instability and dynamo action have been suggested as a mechanism for the growth of magnetar-strength magnetic fields (of 10(15) gauss and above) and for powering the explosion of a rotating massive star. Such stars are candidate progenitors of type Ic-bl hypernovae, which make up all supernovae that are connected to long γ-ray bursts. The magnetorotational instability has been studied with local high-resolution shearing-box simulations in three dimensions, and with global two-dimensional simulations, but it is not known whether turbulence driven by this instability can result in the creation of a large-scale, ordered and dynamically relevant field. Here we report results from global, three-dimensional, general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence simulations. We show that hydromagnetic turbulence in rapidly rotating protoneutron stars produces an inverse cascade of energy. We find a large-scale, ordered toroidal field that is consistent with the formation of bipolar magnetorotationally driven outflows. Our results demonstrate that rapidly rotating massive stars are plausible progenitors for both type Ic-bl supernovae and long γ-ray bursts, and provide a viable mechanism for the formation of magnetars. Moreover, our findings suggest that rapidly rotating massive stars might lie behind potentially magnetar-powered superluminous supernovae.

  14. R-mode frequencies of rapidly and differentially rotating relativistic neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Jasiulek, Michael


    R-modes of neutron stars could be a source of gravitational waves for ground based detectors. If the precise frequency $\\sigma$ is known, guided gravitational wave searches with enhanced detectability are possible. Because of its physical importance many authors have calculated the r-mode frequency. For the dominant mode, the associated gravitational wave frequency is 4/3 times the angular velocity of the star $\\Omega$, subject to various corrections of which relativistic and rotational corrections are the most important. This has led several authors to investigate the dependence of the r-mode frequency on factors such as the relativistic compactness parameter ($M/R$) and the angular velocity of stars with different equations of state. The results found so far, however, are almost independent of the equation of state. Here we investigate the effect of rapid rotation and differential rotation on $\\sigma$. We evolve the perturbation equations using the Cowling approximation by applying finite differencing metho...

  15. Validity of sound-proof approaches in rapidly-rotating compressible convection: marginal stability versus turbulence (United States)

    Verhoeven, Jan; Glatzmaier, Gary A.


    The validity of the anelastic approximation has recently been questioned in the regime of rapidly-rotating compressible convection in low Prandtl number fluids (Calkins et al. 2015). Given the broad usage and the high computational efficiency of sound-proof approaches in this astrophysically relevant regime, this paper clarifies the conditions for a safe application. The potential of the alternative pseudo-incompressible approximation is investigated, which in contrast to the anelastic approximation is shown to never break down for predicting the point of marginal stability. Its accuracy, however, decreases close to the parameters corresponding to the failure of the anelastic approach, which is shown to occur when the sound-crossing time of the domain exceeds a rotation time scale, i.e. for rotational Mach numbers greater than one. Concerning the supercritical case, which is naturally characterised by smaller rotational Mach numbers, we find that the anelastic approximation does not show unphysical behaviour. Growth rates computed with the linearised anelastic equations converge toward the corresponding fully compressible values as the Rayleigh number increases. Likewise, our fully nonlinear turbulent simulations, produced with our fully compressible and anelastic models and carried out in a highly supercritical, rotating, compressible, low Prandtl number regime show good agreement. However, this nonlinear test example is for only a moderately low convective Rossby number of 0.14.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egeland, Ricky [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Metcalfe, Travis S. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut St. Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Hall, Jeffrey C. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Henry, Gregory W., E-mail: [Center of Excellence in Information Systems, Tennessee State University, 3500 John A. Merritt Blvd., Box 9501, Nashville, TN 37209 (United States)


    A growing body of evidence suggests that multiple dynamo mechanisms can drive magnetic variability on different timescales, not only in the Sun but also in other stars. Many solar activity proxies exhibit a quasi-biennial (∼2 year) variation, which is superimposed upon the dominant 11 year cycle. A well-characterized stellar sample suggests at least two different relationships between rotation period and cycle period, with some stars exhibiting long and short cycles simultaneously. Within this sample, the solar cycle periods are typical of a more rapidly rotating star, implying that the Sun might be in a transitional state or that it has an unusual evolutionary history. In this work, we present new and archival observations of dual magnetic cycles in the young solar analog HD 30495, a ∼1 Gyr old G1.5 V star with a rotation period near 11 days. This star falls squarely on the relationships established by the broader stellar sample, with short-period variations at ∼1.7 years and a long cycle of ∼12 years. We measure three individual long-period cycles and find durations ranging from 9.6 to 15.5 years. We find the short-term variability to be intermittent, but present throughout the majority of the time series, though its occurrence and amplitude are uncorrelated with the longer cycle. These essentially solar-like variations occur in a Sun-like star with more rapid rotation, though surface differential rotation measurements leave open the possibility of a solar equivalence.

  17. Frequency regularities of acoustic modes and multi-colour mode identification in rapidly rotating stars (United States)

    Reese, D. R.; Lignières, F.; Ballot, J.; Dupret, M.-A.; Barban, C.; van't Veer-Menneret, C.; MacGregor, K. B.


    Context. Mode identification has remained a major obstacle in the interpretation of pulsation spectra in rapidly rotating stars. This has motivated recent work on calculating realistic multi-colour mode visibilities in this type of star. Aims: We would like to test mode identification methods and seismic diagnostics in rapidly rotating stars, using oscillation spectra that are based on these new theoretical predictions. Methods: We investigate the auto-correlation function and Fourier transform of theoretically calculated frequency spectra, in which modes are selected according to their visibilities. Given that intrinsic mode amplitudes are determined by non-linear saturation and cannot currently be theoretically predicted, we experimented with various ad-hoc prescriptions for setting the mode amplitudes, including using random values. Furthermore, we analyse the ratios between mode amplitudes observed in different photometric bands to see up to what extent they can identify modes. Results: When non-random intrinsic mode amplitudes are used, our results show that it is possible to extract a mean value for the large frequency separation or half its value and, sometimes, twice the rotation rate, from the auto-correlation of the frequency spectra. Furthermore, the Fourier transforms are mostly sensitive to the large frequency separation or half its value. The combination of the two methods may therefore measure and distinguish the two types of separations. When the intrinsic mode amplitudes include random factors, which seems more representative of real stars, the results are far less favourable. It is only when the large separation or half its value coincides with twice the rotation rate, that it might be possible to detect the signature of a frequency regularity. We also find that amplitude ratios are a good way of grouping together modes with similar characteristics. By analysing the frequencies of these groups, it is possible to constrain mode identification, as

  18. Weakened magnetic braking as the origin of anomalously rapid rotation in old field stars. (United States)

    van Saders, Jennifer L; Ceillier, Tugdual; Metcalfe, Travis S; Aguirre, Victor Silva; Pinsonneault, Marc H; García, Rafael A; Mathur, Savita; Davies, Guy R


    A knowledge of stellar ages is crucial for our understanding of many astrophysical phenomena, and yet ages can be difficult to determine. As they become older, stars lose mass and angular momentum, resulting in an observed slowdown in surface rotation. The technique of 'gyrochronology' uses the rotation period of a star to calculate its age. However, stars of known age must be used for calibration, and, until recently, the approach was untested for old stars (older than 1 gigayear, Gyr). Rotation periods are now known for stars in an open cluster of intermediate age (NGC 6819; 2.5 Gyr old), and for old field stars whose ages have been determined with asteroseismology. The data for the cluster agree with previous period-age relations, but these relations fail to describe the asteroseismic sample. Here we report stellar evolutionary modelling, and confirm the presence of unexpectedly rapid rotation in stars that are more evolved than the Sun. We demonstrate that models that incorporate dramatically weakened magnetic braking for old stars can--unlike existing models--reproduce both the asteroseismic and the cluster data. Our findings might suggest a fundamental change in the nature of ageing stellar dynamos, with the Sun being close to the critical transition to much weaker magnetized winds. This weakened braking limits the diagnostic power of gyrochronology for those stars that are more than halfway through their main-sequence lifetimes.

  19. Subcritical Thermal Convection of Liquid Metals in a Rapidly Rotating Sphere (United States)

    Kaplan, E. J.; Schaeffer, N.; Vidal, J.; Cardin, P.


    Planetary cores consist of liquid metals (low Prandtl number Pr) that convect as the core cools. Here, we study nonlinear convection in a rotating (low Ekman number Ek) planetary core using a fully 3D direct numerical simulation. Near the critical thermal forcing (Rayleigh number Ra), convection onsets as thermal Rossby waves, but as Ra increases, this state is superseded by one dominated by advection. At moderate rotation, these states (here called the weak branch and strong branch, respectively) are smoothly connected. As the planetary core rotates faster, the smooth transition is replaced by hysteresis cycles and subcriticality until the weak branch disappears entirely and the strong branch onsets in a turbulent state at Ek <10-6. Here, the strong branch persists even as the thermal forcing drops well below the linear onset of convection (Ra =0.7 Racrit in this study). We highlight the importance of the Reynolds stress, which is required for convection to subsist below the linear onset. In addition, the Péclet number is consistently above 10 in the strong branch. We further note the presence of a strong zonal flow that is nonetheless unimportant to the convective state. Our study suggests that, in the asymptotic regime of rapid rotation relevant for planetary interiors, thermal convection of liquid metals in a sphere onsets through a subcritical bifurcation.

  20. Circular Polarizations of Gravitational Waves from Core-Collapse Supernovae: A Clear Indication of Rapid Rotation. (United States)

    Hayama, Kazuhiro; Kuroda, Takami; Nakamura, Ko; Yamada, Shoichi


    We propose to employ the circular polarization of gravitational waves emitted by core-collapse supernovae as an unequivocal indication of rapid rotation deep in their cores just prior to collapse. It has been demonstrated by three dimensional simulations that nonaxisymmetric accretion flows may develop spontaneously via hydrodynamical instabilities in the postbounce cores. It is not surprising, then, that the gravitational waves emitted by such fluid motions are circularly polarized. We show, in this Letter, that a network of the second generation detectors of gravitational waves worldwide may be able to detect such polarizations up to the opposite side of the Galaxy as long as the rotation period of the core is shorter than a few seconds prior to collapse.

  1. Universality of the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of a rapidly rotating neutron star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlGendy, Mohammad; Morsink, Sharon M. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada)


    On the surface of a rapidly rotating neutron star, the effective centrifugal force decreases the effective acceleration due to gravity (as measured in the rotating frame) at the equator while increasing the acceleration at the poles due to the centrifugal flattening of the star into an oblate spheroid. We compute the effective gravitational acceleration for relativistic rapidly rotating neutron stars and show that for a star with mass M, equatorial radius R{sub e} , and angular velocity Ω, the deviations of the effective acceleration due to gravity from the nonrotating case take on a universal form that depends only on the compactness ratio M/R{sub e} , the dimensionless square of the angular velocity Ω{sup 2}R{sub e}{sup 3}/GM, and the latitude on the star's surface. This dependence is universal, in that it has very little dependence on the neutron star's equation of state. The effective gravity is expanded in the slow-rotation limit to show the dependence on the effective centrifugal force, oblate shape of the star, and the quadrupole moment of the gravitational field. In addition, an empirical fit and simple formula for the effective gravity is found. We find that the increase in the acceleration due to gravity at the poles is of the same order of magnitude as the decrease in the effective acceleration due to gravity at the equator for all realistic value of mass, radius, and spin. For neutron stars that spin with frequencies near 600 Hz, the difference between the effective gravity at the poles and the equator is about 20%.

  2. Low-Mass VOST Valve Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two low-mass, linear throttling, high-efficiency, leak-proof cryogenic valves of diameters 1/2" and 4" will be built and tested. Based upon cryogenically-proven...

  3. Low-Mass VOST Valve Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A cylindrical, low-mass, high-efficiency, leak-proof cryogenic valve will be designed using composites and exotic metals. Based upon cryogenically-proven Venturi...

  4. Climate and Water Contents on Rocky Planets Near the Inner Boundary of Habitable Zones (IHZ) Around Low Mass Star (United States)

    Bin, Jiayu; Tian, Feng


    Exoplanets around low mass stars are the focus of the search for habitable exoplanets. Previous general circulation models (GCM) studied the locations of the IHZ around stars with effective temperature from 3300 to 4500K (Yang et al. 2014, Kopparapu et al. 2016). However, water vapor mixing ratios at 3 hPa pressure level do not satisfy what is required for scenarios of rapid water loss in the "last converged solution" for stars cooler than 4000 K. In this work we use the Community Earth System Model (CESM) to investigate the IHZ problem for low mass stars. The model includes atmospheres with 1 bar of N2, 1 ppm of CO2, and slab oceans with thermodynamic sea ice. Rotation period is determined by the mass and luminosity of the star and planet orbital distance. Black body spectra of low mass stars are used to obtain top-of-atmosphere incident short wavelength radiation. Our model results are qualitatively consistent but quantitatively different from those in earlier works. Specifically, water vapor mixing ratios required by rapid water loss are found at 3 hPa for hosts star warmer than 3650 K.

  5. Inverse cascade and symmetry breaking in rapidly-rotating Boussinesq convection

    CERN Document Server

    Favier, B; Proctor, M R E


    In this paper we present numerical simulations of rapidly-rotating Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection in the Boussinesq approximation with stress-free boundary conditions. At moderately low Rossby number and large Rayleigh number, we show that a large-scale depth-invariant flow is formed, reminiscent of the condensate state observed in two-dimensional flows. We show that the large-scale circulation shares many similarities with the so-called vortex, or slow-mode, of forced rotating turbulence. Our investigations show that at a fixed rotation rate the large-scale vortex is only observed for a finite range of Rayleigh numbers, as the quasi-two-dimensional nature of the flow disappears at very high Rayleigh numbers. We observe slow vortex merging events and find a non-local inverse cascade of energy in addition to the regular direct cascade associated with fast small-scale turbulent motions. Finally, we show that cyclonic structures are dominant in the small-scale turbulent flow and this symmetry breaking persists in ...

  6. Miniaturized rotating disc rheometer test for rapid screening of drag reducing marine coatings (United States)

    Dennington, Simon; Mekkhunthod, Ponkrit; Rides, Martin; Gibbs, David; Salta, Maria; Stoodley, Victoria; Wharton, Julian; Stoodley, Paul


    Frictional drag from the submerged hull surface of a ship is a major component of the resistance experienced when moving through water. Techniques for measuring frictional drag on test surfaces include towing tanks, flow tunnels and rotating discs. These large-scale methods present practical difficulties that hinder their widespread adoption and they are not conducive to rapid throughput. In this study a miniaturized benchtop rotating disc method is described that uses test discs 25 mm in diameter. A highly sensitive analytical rheometer is used to measure the torque acting on the discs rotating in water. Frictional resistance changes are estimated by comparing momentum coefficients. Model rough surfaces were prepared by attaching different grades of sandpaper to the disc surface. Discs with experimental antifouling coatings applied were exposed in the marine environment for the accumulation of microbial fouling, and the rotor was capable of detecting the increased drag due to biofilm formation. The drag due to biofilm was related to an equivalent sand roughness.

  7. Bounds on Heat Transport in Rapidly Rotating Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard Convection

    CERN Document Server

    Grooms, Ian


    The heat transport in rotating Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection is considered in the limit of rapid rotation (small Ekman number $E$) and strong thermal forcing (large Rayleigh number $Ra$). The analysis proceeds from a set of asymptotically reduced equations appropriate for rotationally constrained dynamics; the conjectured range of validity for these equations is $Ra \\lesssim E^{-8/5}$. A rigorous bound on heat transport of $Nu \\le 20.56Ra^3E^4$ is derived in the limit of infinite Prandtl number using the background method. We demonstrate that the exponent in this bound cannot be improved on using a piece-wise monotonic background temperature profile like the one used here. This is true for finite Prandtl numbers as well, i.e. $Nu \\lesssim Ra^3$ is the best upper bound for this particular setup of the background method. The feature that obstructs the availability of a better bound in this case is the appearance of small-scale thermal plumes emanating from (or entering) the thermal boundary layer.

  8. The Taylor-Proudman column in a rapidly-rotating compressible fluid I. energy transports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Sang [Halla University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)


    A theoretical study is made of the steady flow of a compressible fluid in a rapidly rotating finite cylinder. Flow is generated by imposing mechanical and/or thermal disturbances at the rotating endwall disks. Both the Ekman and Rossby numbers are small. An examination is made of the energy budget for a control volume in the Ekman boundary layer. A combination of physical variables, which is termed the energy flux content, consisting of temperature and modified angular momentum, emerges to be relevant. The distinguishing features of a compressible fluid, in contrast to those of an incompressible fluid, are noted. A plausible argument is given to explain the difficulty in achieving the Taylor-Proudman column in a compressible rotating fluid. For the Taylor-Proudman column to be sustained, in the interior, it is shown that the net energy transport between the solid disk wall and the interior fluid should vanish. Physical rationalizations are facilitated by resorting to the concept of the afore-stated energy flux content.

  9. Rotations (United States)

    John R. Jones; Wayne D. Shepperd


    The rotation, in forestry, is the planned number of years between formation of a crop or stand and its final harvest at a specified stage of maturity (Ford-Robertson 1971). The rotation used for many species is the age of culmination of mean usable volume growth [net mean annual increment (MAI)]. At that age, usable volume divided by age reaches its highest level. That...

  10. On the effect of laterally varying boundary heat flux on rapidly rotating spherical shell convection (United States)

    Sahoo, Swarandeep; Sreenivasan, Binod


    The onset of convection in a rotating spherical shell subject to laterally varying heat flux at the outer boundary is considered in this paper. The focus is on the geophysically relevant regime of rapid rotation (low Ekman number) where the natural length scale of convection is significantly smaller than the length scale imposed by the boundary heat flux pattern. Contrary to earlier studies at a higher Ekman number, we find a substantial reduction in the onset Rayleigh number Rac with increasing lateral variation. The decrease in Rac is shown to be closely correlated to the equatorial heat flux surplus in the steady, basic state solution. The consistency of such a correlation makes the estimation of Rac possible without solving the full stability problem. The steady baroclinic flow has a strong cyclone-anticyclone asymmetry in the kinetic helicity only for equatorially symmetric lateral variations, with possible implications for dynamo action. Equatorially antisymmetric variations, on the other hand, break the symmetry of the mean flow, in turn negating its helicity. Analysis of the perturbation solution reveals strongly localized clusters through which convection rolls drift in and out at a frequency higher than that for the reference case with homogeneous boundary heat flux. Large lateral variations produce a marked decrease in the azimuthal length scale of columns, which indicates that small-scale motions are essential to the transport of heat in rapidly rotating, localized convection. With an equatorially antisymmetric heat flux pattern, convection in individual clusters goes through an asynchronous wax-wane cycle whose frequency is much lower than the drift rate of the columns. These continual variations in convection intensity may in turn result in fluctuations in the magnetic field intensity, an effect that needs to be considered in dynamo models. Finally, there is a notable analogy between the role of a laterally varying boundary heat flux and the role of a

  11. Fourier analysis of He 4471/Mg 4481 line profiles for separating rotational velocity and axial inclination in rapidly rotating B-type stars (United States)

    Takeda, Y.; Kawanomoto, S.; Ohishi, N.


    While the effect of rotation on spectral lines is complicated in rapidly rotating stars because of the appreciable gravity-darkening effect differing from line to line, it is possible to make use of this line-dependent complexity to separately determine the equatorial rotation velocity (ve) and the inclination angle (I) of rotational axis. Although linewidths of spectral lines were traditionally used for this aim, we tried in this study to apply the Fourier method, which utilizes the unambiguously determinable first-zero frequency (σ1) in the Fourier transform of line profile. Equipped with this technique, we analysed the profiles of He I 4471 and Mg I 4481 lines of six rapidly rotating (ve sin I ˜ 150-300 km s-1) late B-type stars, while comparing them with the theoretical profiles simulated on a grid of models computed for various combination of (ve, I). According to our calculation, σ1 tends to be larger than the classical value for given ve sin I. This excess progressively grows with an increase in ve, and is larger for the He line than the Mg line, which leads to {σ} 1^He > {σ} 1^Mg. It was shown that ve and I are separately determinable from the intersection of two loci (sets of solutions reproducing the observed σ1 for each line) on the ve versus I plane. Yet, line profiles alone are not sufficient for their unique discrimination, for which photometric information (such as colours) needs to be simultaneously employed.

  12. Scaling and excitation of combined convection in a rapidly rotating plane layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starchenko, S. V., E-mail: [Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnesium, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (Russian Federation)


    The optimum (to my mind) scaling of the combined thermal and compositional convection in a rapidly rotating plane layer is proposed.This scaling follows from self-consistent estimates of typical physical quantities. Similarity coefficients are introduced for the ratio convection dissipation/convection generation (s) and the ratio thermal convection/compositional convection (r). The third new and most important coefficient δ is the ratio of the characteristic size normal to the axis of rotation to the layer thickness. The faster the rotation, the lower δ. In the case of the liquid Earth core, δ ~ 10{sup –3} substitutes for the generally accepted Ekman number (E ~ 10{sup –15}) and s ~ 10{sup –6} substitutes for the inverse Rayleigh number 1/Ra ~ 10{sup –30}. It is found that, at turbulent transport coefficients, number s and the Prandtl number are on the order of unity for any objects and δ is independent of transport coefficients. As a result of expansion in powers of δ, an initially 3D system of six variables is simplified to an almost 2D system of four variables without δ. The problem of convection excitation in the main volume is algebraically solved and this problem for critical values is analytically solved. Dispersion relations and general expressions for critical wavenumbers, numbers s (which determine Rayleigh numbers), other critical parameters, and asymptotic solutions are derived. Numerical estimates are made for the liquid cores in the planets that resemble the Earth. Further possible applications of the results obtained are proposed for the interior of planets, moons, their oceans, stars, and experimental objects.

  13. Production of gamma-ray bursts near rapidly rotating accreting black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piran, T.; Shaham, J.


    A model for the production of ..gamma..-rays during the occurrence of instabilities in accretion of matter onto rapidly rotating black holes is described. Gamma rays are produced by Compton scattering of infalling X-ray photons, whenever the optical depth in the deep ergosphere is of the order of the gravitational distance. The initial photons are produced farther away by viscous processes in the infalling plasma, and contribute to the lower-energy regime of the burst spectrum, along with low-energy photons produced in the deep ergosphere. Calculated spectra for that specific Compton scattering may account for burst spectra in the range approx.300 keV--3 MeV.

  14. Approaching the Asymptotic Regime of Rapidly Rotating Convection: Boundary Layers vs Interior Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Stellmach, S; Julien, K; Vasil, G; Cheng, J S; Ribeiro, A; King, E M; Aurnou, J M


    Rapidly rotating Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection is studied by combining results from direct numerical simulations (DNS), laboratory experiments and asymptotic modeling. The asymptotic theory is shown to provide a good description of the bulk dynamics at low, but finite Rossby number. However, large deviations from the asymptotically predicted heat transfer scaling are found, with laboratory experiments and DNS consistently yielding much larger Nusselt numbers than expected. These deviations are traced down to dynamically active Ekman boundary layers, which are shown to play an integral part in controlling heat transfer even for Ekman numbers as small as $10^{-7}$. By adding an analytical parameterization of the Ekman transport to simulations using stress-free boundary conditions, we demonstrate that the heat transfer jumps from values broadly compatible with the asymptotic theory to states of strongly increased heat transfer, in good quantitative agreement with no-slip DNS and compatible with the experimental d...

  15. Low-Cost Rotating Experimentation in Compressor Aerodynamics Using Rapid Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Michaud


    Full Text Available With the rapid evolution of additive manufacturing, 3D printed parts are no longer limited to display purposes but can also be used in structural applications. The objective of this paper is to show that 3D prototyping can be used to produce low-cost rotating turbomachinery rigs capable of carrying out detailed flow measurements that can be used, among other things, for computational fluid dynamics (CFD code validation. A fully instrumented polymer two-stage axial-mixed flow compressor test rig was designed and fabricated with stereolithography (SLA technology by a team of undergraduate students as part of a senior-year design course. Experiments were subsequently performed on this rig to obtain both the overall pressure rise characteristics of the compressor and the stagnation pressure distributions downstream of the blade rows for comparison with CFD simulations. In doing so, this work provides a first-of-a-kind assessment of the use of polymer additive technology for low-cost rotating turbomachinery experimentation with detailed measurements.

  16. Subcritical convection in a rapidly rotating sphere at low Prandtl number

    CERN Document Server

    Guervilly, Celine


    We study non-linear convection in a low Prandtl number fluid ($Pr = 0.01-0.1$) in a rapidly rotating sphere with internal heating. We use a numerical model based on the quasi-geostrophic approximation, in which variations of the axial vorticity along the rotation axis are neglected, whereas the temperature field is fully three-dimensional. We identify two separate branches of convection close to onset: (i) a well-known weak branch for Ekman numbers greater than $10^{-6}$, which is continuous at the onset (supercritical bifurcation) and consists of a superposition of thermal Rossby waves, and (ii) a novel strong branch at lower Ekman numbers, which is discontinuous at the onset. The strong branch becomes subcritical for Ekman numbers of the order of $10^{-8}$. On the strong branch, the Reynolds number of the flow is greater than $10^3$, and a strong zonal flow with multiple jets develops, even close to the non-linear onset of convection. We find that the subcriticality is amplified by decreasing the Prandtl nu...

  17. Sensitivity of rapidly rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection to Ekman pumping (United States)

    Plumley, Meredith; Julien, Keith; Marti, Philippe; Stellmach, Stephan


    The dependence of the heat transfer, as measured by the nondimensional Nusselt number Nu, on Ekman pumping for rapidly rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection in an infinite plane layer is examined for fluids with Prandtl number Pr=1 . A joint effort utilizing simulations from the composite non-hydrostatic quasi-geostrophic model and direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the incompressible fluid equations has mapped a wide range of the Rayleigh number Ra-Ekman number E parameter space within the geostrophic regime of rotating convection. Corroboration of the Nu-Ra relation at E =10-7 from both methods along with higher E covered by DNS and lower E by the asymptotic model allows for this extensive range of the heat transfer results. For stress-free boundaries, the relation Nu-1 ∝(RaE4/3) α has the dissipation-free scaling of α =3 /2 for all E ≤10-7 . This is directly related to a geostrophic turbulent interior that throttles the heat transport supplied to the thermal boundary layers. For no-slip boundaries, the existence of ageostrophic viscous boundary layers and their associated Ekman pumping yields a more complex two-dimensional surface in Nu(E ,Ra) parameter space. For E <10-7 results suggest that the surface can be expressed as Nu-1 ∝[1 +P (E ) ] (RaE4/3) 3 /2 indicating the dissipation-free scaling law is enhanced by Ekman pumping by the multiplicative prefactor [1 +P (E )] where P (E ) ≈5.97 E1 /8 . It follows for E <10-7 that the geostrophic turbulent interior remains the flux bottleneck in rapidly rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection. For E ˜10-7 , where DNS and asymptotic simulations agree quantitatively, it is found that the effects of Ekman pumping are sufficiently strong to influence the heat transport with diminished exponent α ≈1.2 and Nu-1 ∝(RaE4/3) 1.2 .

  18. Asymptotic g modes: Evidence for a rapid rotation of the solar core (United States)

    Fossat, E.; Boumier, P.; Corbard, T.; Provost, J.; Salabert, D.; Schmider, F. X.; Gabriel, A. H.; Grec, G.; Renaud, C.; Robillot, J. M.; Roca-Cortés, T.; Turck-Chièze, S.; Ulrich, R. K.; Lazrek, M.


    , P0 is measured to be 34 min 01 s, with a 1 s uncertainty. The previously unknown g-mode splittings have now been measured from a non-synodic reference with very high accuracy, and they imply a mean weighted rotation of 1277 ± 10 nHz (9-day period) of their kernels, resulting in a rapid rotation frequency of 1644 ± 23 nHz (period of one week) of the solar core itself, which is a factor 3.8 ± 0.1 faster than the rotation of the radiative envelope. Conclusions: The g modes are known to be the keys to a better understanding of the structure and dynamics of the solar core. Their detection with these precise parameters will certainly stimulate a new era of research in this field.

  19. The rapid formation of a large rotating disk galaxy three billion years after the Big Bang. (United States)

    Genzel, R; Tacconi, L J; Eisenhauer, F; Schreiber, N M Förster; Cimatti, A; Daddi, E; Bouché, N; Davies, R; Lehnert, M D; Lutz, D; Nesvadba, N; Verma, A; Abuter, R; Shapiro, K; Sternberg, A; Renzini, A; Kong, X; Arimoto, N; Mignoli, M


    Observations and theoretical simulations have established a framework for galaxy formation and evolution in the young Universe. Galaxies formed as baryonic gas cooled at the centres of collapsing dark-matter haloes; mergers of haloes and galaxies then led to the hierarchical build-up of galaxy mass. It remains unclear, however, over what timescales galaxies were assembled and when and how bulges and disks--the primary components of present-day galaxies--were formed. It is also puzzling that the most massive galaxies were more abundant and were forming stars more rapidly at early epochs than expected from models. Here we report high-angular-resolution observations of a representative luminous star-forming galaxy when the Universe was only 20% of its current age. A large and massive rotating protodisk is channelling gas towards a growing central stellar bulge hosting an accreting massive black hole. The high surface densities of gas, the high rate of star formation and the moderately young stellar ages suggest rapid assembly, fragmentation and conversion to stars of an initially very gas-rich protodisk, with no obvious evidence for a major merger.

  20. 30 Doradus: The Low-Mass Stars (United States)

    Zinnecker, H.; Brandl, B.; Brandner, W.; Moneti, A.; Hunter, D.

    We have obtained HST/NICMOS H-band images of the central 1'x1' field around the R136 starburst cluster in the 30 Doradus HII region, in an attempt to reveal the presence (or absence) of a low-mass stellar population (M VIH 3-colour image of the central 30" x 30" area. The result clearly shows unexpected patches of extinction, with one patch only about 5" from the cluster core.

  1. Star Formation in low mass galaxies (United States)

    Mehta, Vihang


    Our current hierarchical view of the universe asserts that the large galaxies we see today grew via mergers of numerous smaller galaxies. As evidenced by recent literature, the collective impact of these low mass galaxies on the universe is more substantial than previously thought. Studying the growth and evolution of these low mass galaxies is critical to our understanding of the universe as a whole. Star formation is one of the most important ongoing processes in galaxies. Forming stars is fundamental to the growth of a galaxy. One of the main goals of my thesis is to analyze the star formation in these low mass galaxies at different redshifts.Using the Hubble UltraViolet Ultra Deep Field (UVUDF), I investigate the star formation in galaxies at the peak of the cosmic star formation history using the ultraviolet (UV) light as a star formation indicator. Particularly, I measure the UV luminosity function (LF) to probe the volume-averaged star formation properties of galaxies at these redshifts. The depth of the UVUDF is ideal for a direct measurement of the faint end slope of the UV LF. This redshift range also provides a unique opportunity to directly compare UV to the "gold standard" of star formation indicators, namely the Hα nebular emission line. A joint analysis of the UV and Hα LFs suggests that, on average, the star formation histories in low mass galaxies (~109 M⊙) are more bursty compared to their higher mass counterparts at these redshifts.Complementary to the analysis of the average star formation properties of the bulk galaxy population, I investigate the details of star formation in some very bursty galaxies at lower redshifts selected from Spitzer Large Area Survey with Hyper-Suprime Cam (SPLASH). Using a broadband color-excess selection technique, I identify a sample of low redshift galaxies with bright nebular emission lines in the Subaru-XMM Deep Field (SXDF) from the SPLASH-SXDF catalog. These galaxies are highly star forming and have

  2. Strong-field dynamo action in rapidly rotating convection with no inertia. (United States)

    Hughes, David W; Cattaneo, Fausto


    The earth's magnetic field is generated by dynamo action driven by convection in the outer core. For numerical reasons, inertial and viscous forces play an important role in geodynamo models; however, the primary dynamical balance in the earth's core is believed to be between buoyancy, Coriolis, and magnetic forces. The hope has been that by setting the Ekman number to be as small as computationally feasible, an asymptotic regime would be reached in which the correct force balance is achieved. However, recent analyses of geodynamo models suggest that the desired balance has still not yet been attained. Here we adopt a complementary approach consisting of a model of rapidly rotating convection in which inertial forces are neglected from the outset. Within this framework we are able to construct a branch of solutions in which the dynamo generates a strong magnetic field that satisfies the expected force balance. The resulting strongly magnetized convection is dramatically different from the corresponding solutions in which the field is weak.

  3. A UV spectroscopic snapshot survey of low-mass stars in the Hyades (United States)

    Agueros, Marcel


    Because of its proximity, the 650-Myr-old Hyades open cluster is a unique resource for exploring the relationship between magnetic activity, rotation, and age in low-mass stars. While the cluster has been largely ignored in UV studies of the dependence of activity on rotation, we now have an extensive and growing set of complementary rotation period, Halpha, and X-ray measurements with which to examine in detail the rotation-activity relation at 650 Myr and to constrain theories of magnetic heating. We propose to measure Mg II line emission, the strongest NUV activity tracer, in COS spectra of 86 Hyads ranging in spectral type from G to M with known rotation periods or currently being observed by K2. These stars form a representative sample of low-mass Hyads with known periods and are a significant addition to, and expansion of, the sample of 20 mainly solar-mass rotators with existing (mostly low-resolution) IUE NUV spectra. The Mg II measurements will contribute significantly to our goal of mapping out the rotation-activity relation star-by-star in this benchmark open cluster. This, in turn, will move us toward an improved understanding of the radiation environment and habitability of the exoplanets we continue to find around low-mass stars.

  4. Numerical Simulations of Low Mass Star Formation (United States)

    Bhandare, Asmita; Kuiper, R.; Henning, T.; Fendt, C.; Koelligan, A.


    Stars are formed by gravitational collapse of dense cores in magnetized molecular clouds. Details of the earliest epochs of star formation process and protostellar evolution are only vaguely known and strongly depend on the accretion history. Thermodynamical modeling in terms of radiation transport and phase transitions is crucial to identify meaningful results. In this study, we use a gray treatment of radiative transfer coupled with hydrodynamics to simulate Larson's collapse. In spherically symmetric collapse simulations, we investigate properties of prestellar cores in the low mass regime.

  5. Deuterated Formaldehyde in the low mass protostar HH212 (United States)

    Sahu, Dipen; Minh, YC; Lee, Chin-Fei; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Das, Ankan; Chakrabarti, SK; Sivaraman, Bhala


    HH212, a nearby (400 pc) object in Orion, is a Class 0 protostellar system with a Keplerian disk and collimated bipolar SiO jets. Deuterated water, HDO and a deuterated complex molecule, methanol (CH2DOH) have been reported in the source. Here, we report the HDCO (deuterated formaldehyde) line observation from ALMA data to probe the inner region of HH212. We compare HDCO line with other molecular lines to understand the possible chemistry and physics of the source. The distribution of HDCO emission suggests it may be associated with the base of the outflow. The emission also shows a rotation but it is not associated with the Keplerian rotation of disk or the rotating infalling envelope, rather it is associated with the outflow as previously seen in C34S. From the possible deuterium fractionation, we speculate that the gas phase formation of deuterated formaldehyde is active in the central hot region of the low-mass protostar system, HH212.

  6. Numerical simulations of thermal convection in rapidly rotating spherical fluid shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Z.P.


    Numerical simulations of thermal convection in rapidly rotating spherical shells of Boussinesq fluid have been carried out with a nonlinear, three-dimensional, time-dependent spectral-transform code. The basic state is hydrostatic, spherically symmetric, and independent of time. The numerical methods, the numerical stability, and the adequacy of the spatial resolution were examined by a benchmarking study. A sequence of bifurcations from the onset of a steadily propagating convective state, to a periodic state, to a quasi-periodic state and thence a chaotic state has been found. Convective solutions at each stage along the route to chaos have been studied. The emphases are on the three-dimensional and time-dependent convective structures and associated mean zonal flow. The spherical shell is heated from both below and within. The boundaries are isothermal and stress-free. The author has also explored the consequences of imposing a spatially varying temperature anomaly on the upper surface of a spherical shell on thermal convection in the shell. The spherical shell is heated from below and cooled from above. The lower boundary is isothermal and both boundaries are rigid and impermeable. The results show that the patterns and amplitudes of the convective motions and associated mean zonal and meridional flows depend largely on the pattern and amplitude of the imposted thermal anomaly. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the influence of thermal conditions in the lower mantle on motions in the Earth's liquid outer core. The author has carried out numerical simulations at both high Taylor and Rayleigh numbers. The spherical shell is heated from below and cooled from above. The boundaries are isothermal and stress-free. Columnar rolls that are quasi-layered in cylindrical radius and associated banded mean zonal flow are obtained. The quasi-layered convective structure and the banded zonal wind are consequent upon both the high Taylor and Rayleigh numbers.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doneva, Daniela D.; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.; Kokkotas, Kostas D. [Theoretical Astrophysics, Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Tübingen 72076 (Germany); Stergioulas, Nikolaos, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)


    It was shown recently that normalized relations between the moment of inertia (I), the quadrupole moment (Q), and the tidal deformability (Love number) exist and for slowly rotating neutron stars they are almost independent of the equation of state (EOS). We extend the computation of the I-Q relation to models rotating up to the mass-shedding limit and show that the universality of the relations is lost. With increasing rotation rate, the normalized I-Q relation departs significantly from its slow-rotation limit, deviating up to 40% for neutron stars and up to 75% for strange stars. The deviation is also EOS dependent and for a broad set of hadronic and strange matter EOSs the spread due to rotation is comparable to the spread due to the EOS, if one considers sequences with fixed rotational frequency. Still, for a restricted sample of modern realistic EOSs one can parameterize the deviations from universality as a function of rotation only. The previously proposed I-Love-Q relations should thus be used with care, because they lose their universality in astrophysical situations involving compact objects rotating faster than a few hundred Hz.

  8. Non-radial oscillations of the rapidly rotating Be star HD 163868

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savonije, G.J.


    Context: Oscillations in rotating stars with frequency barsigma of the same order or smaller than the rotation rate Omega cannot be described by a single spherical harmonic due to the effect of the Coriolis force. This is a serious complication which is usually treated by writing the eigenfunctions

  9. Detection of Binary and Multiple Systems Among Rapidly Rotating K and M Dwarf Stars From Kepler Data (United States)

    Oláh, K.; Rappaport, S.; Joss, M.


    From an examination of ˜18,000 Kepler light curves of K- and M-stars we find some 500 which exhibit rotational periods of less than 2 days. Among such stars, approximately 50 show two or more incommensurate periodicities. We discuss the tools that allow us to differentiate between rotational modulation and other types of light variations, e.g., due to pulsations or binary modulations. We find that these multiple periodicities are independent of each other and likely belong to different, but physically bound, stars. This scenario was checked directly by UKIRT and adaptive optics imaging, time-resolved Fourier transforms, and pixel-level analysis of the data. Our result is potentially important for discovering young multiple stellar systems among rapidly rotating K- and M-dwarfs.

  10. Exploring Our Low-Mass Neighbors (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    The Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, located in Socorro, NM. [John Fowler]Taking advantage of a program offered by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), an undergraduate class has observed local dwarf galaxies to learn about their properties.The Benefits of Nearby DwarfsIf you want to learn about the physical properties of low-mass galactic halos, the best place to look is nearby dwarf galaxies. These objects have the benefit of being close enough that we can resolve individual stars, allowing us to explore the relationship between star formation and the surrounding interstellar medium. They also allow us to directly measure bulk velocities, so we can interpret the distributions of both dark and baryonic matt5ter in these galaxies.HI images of UGC 11411. Left: HI mass surface density. Right: the intensity-weighted velocity field of the HI gas, which reveals the bulk kinematics of the galaxy. [Bralts-Kelly et al. 2017]Though thousands of local-volume, gas-rich objects have been explored by gas surveys in the past, many have slipped through the cracks due to the varied selection criteria of these different surveys. In a new study, neutral atomic hydrogen observations are presented for the first time for two of these star-forming, gas-rich dwarf galaxies.A Class in ActionGuided by Professor John Cannon and collaborators at other universities, a class of undergraduates at Macalester College in St. Paul, Minnesota, has coauthored a study of the neutral interstellar medium of these two local dwarf galaxies. The project was made possible by the Observing for University Classes program offered by NRAOs Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), in which university classes in observational astronomy can apply for observing time with the VLA.Top: a view of UGC 11411s stars from Hubble. Middle: the locations of the galaxys star formation, as traced by SAOs telescopes observations of H. Bottom: UGC 11411s neutral interstellar medium distribution (red contour), overlaid


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The flow phenomena occurring around a rotating shaft are extremely complex and are a common feature in turbomachinery such as the bearing chambers of aero engines. As the liquid jet impinges onto the shaft, circumferential streams of lubricating liquid droplets centrifuge away from the rotor surface and impinge onto the inner circumference of the stationary case. A further break-up of drops occurred whilst rotating around the shaft before impacting on to the casing surface. Non-intrusive laser techniques have been employed to aid the visualisation processes and the analysis of the flow phenomena occurring within the rotating annular enclosure. Results reveal that, the liquid flow conditions and the shaft rotation regimes, along with the aerodynamic movement of the air circulating around the shaft influence the dynamics of the droplets and consequently the lubrication processes within the bearing chambers.

  12. Outflows in low-mass galaxies at z >1 (United States)

    Maseda, Michael V.; MUSE GTO Consortium


    Star formation histories of local dwarf galaxies, derived through resolved stellar populations, appear complex and varied. The general picture derived from hydrodynamical simulations is one of cold gas accretion and bursty star formation, followed by feedback from supernovae and winds that heat and eject the central gas reservoirs. This ejection halts star formation until the material cools and re-accretes, resulting in an episodic SFH, particularly at stellar masses below ~ 109 M⊙. Such feedback has often been cited as the driving force behind the observed slowly-rising rotation curves in local dwarfs, due to an under-density of dark matter compared to theoretical models, which is one of the primary challenges to LCDM cosmology. However, these events have not yet been directly observed at high-redshift. Recently, using HST imaging and grism spectroscopy, we have uncovered an abundant population of low-mass galaxies (M* < 109 M⊙) at z = 1 - 2 that are undergoing strong bursts of star formation, in agreement with the theoretical predictions. These Extreme Emission Line Galaxies, with high specific SFRs and shallow gravitational potential wells, are ideal places to test the theoretical prediction of strong feedback-driven outflows. Here we use deep MUSE spectroscopy to search these galaxies for signatures of outflowing material, namely kinematic offsets between absorption lines (in the restframe optical and UV), which trace cool gas, and the nebular emission lines, which define the systemic redshift of the galaxy. Although the EELGs are intrinsically very faint, stacked spectra reveal blueshifted velocity centroids for Fe II absorption, which is indicative of outflowing cold gas. This represents the first constraint on outflows in M* < 109 M⊙ galaxies at z = 1 - 2. These outflows should regulate the star formation histories of low-mass galaxies at early cosmic times and thus play a crucial role in galaxy growth and evolution.

  13. Ginga observations of dipping low mass X ray binaries (United States)

    Smale, Alan P.; Mukai, Koji; Williams, O. Rees; Jones, Mark H.; Parmar, Arvind N.; Corbet, Robin H. D.


    Ginga observations of several low mass X ray binaries displaying pronounced dips of variable depth and duration in their X ray light curves are analyzed. The periodic occultation of the central X ray source by azimuthal accretion disk structure is considered. A series of spectra selected by intensity from the dip data from XB1916-053, are presented. The effects of a rapidly changing column density upon the spectral fitting results are modeled. EXO0748-676 was observed in March 1989 for three days. The source was found to be in a bright state with a 1 to 20 keV flux of 8.8 x 10 (exp -10) erg/sqcms. The data include two eclipses, observed with high time resolution.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Z. G.; Wang, S. Q.; Wang, J. S. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang, L. J. [Key Laboratory of Space Astronomy and Technology, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Yu, Y. W., E-mail: [Institute of Astrophysics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China)


    In this paper we show that the most luminous supernova discovered very recently, ASASSN-15lh, could have been powered by a newborn ultra-strongly magnetized pulsar, which initially rotates near the Kepler limit. We find that if this pulsar is a neutron star, its rotational energy could be quickly lost as a result of gravitational-radiation-driven r-mode instability; if it is a strange quark star (SQS), however, this instability is highly suppressed due to a large bulk viscosity associated with the nonleptonic weak interaction among quarks and thus most of its rotational energy could be extracted to drive ASASSN-15lh. Therefore, we conclude that such an ultra-energetic supernova provides a possible signature for the birth of an SQS.

  15. Patterns, an efficient way to analyse the p-mode content in rapidly rotating stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández A. García


    Full Text Available High precision photometric observations from space has led to the detection of hundreds of frequencies in the light curves of δ Scuti pulsators. In this work, we analyzed a sample of Kepler δ Sct stars to search for frequency patterns in the p-mode regime. To avoid g-modes, we looked at the mode density histogram (MDH. We then used the Fourier transform technique (FT, histograms of frequency differences (HFD and Echelle diagrams (ED to find periodicities in the frequency content. We compared the results with those expected for SCF rotating models [4] with the aim of identifying large separations and rotational splittings.

  16. Evolution of rapidly rotating metal-poor massive stars towards gamma-ray bursts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoon, S.-C.; Langer, N.


    Recent models of rotating massive stars including magnetic fields prove it difficult for the cores of single stars to retain enough angular momentum to produce a collapsar and gamma-ray burst. At low metallicity, even very massive stars may retain a massive hydrogen envelope due to the weakness of

  17. Radiation Driven Instability of Rapidly Rotating Relativistic Stars: Criterion and Evolution Equations Via Multipolar Expansion of Gravitational Waves (United States)

    Chugunov, A. I.


    I suggest a novel approach for deriving evolution equations for rapidly rotating relativistic stars affected by radiation-driven Chandrasekhar-Friedman-Schutz instability. This approach is based on the multipolar expansion of gravitational wave emission and appeals to the global physical properties of the star (energy, angular momentum, and thermal state), but not to canonical energy and angular momentum, which is traditional. It leads to simple derivation of the Chandrasekhar-Friedman-Schutz instability criterion for normal modes and the evolution equations for a star, affected by this instability. The approach also gives a precise form to simple explanation of the Chandrasekhar-Friedman-Schutz instability; it occurs when two conditions are met: (a) gravitational wave emission removes angular momentum from the rotating star (thus releasing the rotation energy) and (b) gravitational waves carry less energy, than the released amount of the rotation energy. To illustrate the results, I take the r-mode instability in slowly rotating Newtonian stellar models as an example. It leads to evolution equations, where the emission of gravitational waves directly affects the spin frequency, being in apparent contradiction with widely accepted equations. According to the latter, effective spin frequency decrease is coupled with dissipation of unstable mode, but not with the instability as it is. This problem is shown to be superficial, and arises as a result of specific definition of the effective spin frequency applied previously. Namely, it is shown, that if this definition is taken into account properly, the evolution equations coincide with obtained here in the leading order in mode amplitude. I also argue that the next-to-leading order terms in evolution equations were not yet derived accurately and thus it would be more self-consistent to omit them.

  18. The GLAaS algorithm for portal dosimetry and quality assurance of RapidArc, an intensity modulated rotational therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogliata Antonella


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To expand and test the dosimetric procedure, known as GLAaS, for amorphous silicon detectors to the RapidArc intensity modulated arc delivery with Varian infrastructures and to test the RapidArc dosimetric reliability between calculation and delivery. Methods The GLAaS algorithm was applied and tested on a set of RapidArc fields at both low (6 MV and high (18 MV beam energies with a PV-aS1000 detector. Pilot tests for short arcs were performed on a 6 MV beam associated to a PV-aS500. RapidArc is a novel planning and delivery method in the category of intensity modulated arc therapies aiming to deliver highly modulated plans with variable MLC shapes, dose rate and gantry speed during rotation. Tests were repeated for entire (360 degrees gantry rotations on composite dose plans and for short partial arcs (of ~6 or 12 degrees to assess GLAaS and RapidArc mutual relationships on global and fine delivery scales. The gamma index concept of Low and the Modulation Index concept of Webb were applied to compare quantitatively TPS dose matrices and dose converted PV images. Results The Gamma Agreement Index computed for a Distance to Agreement of 3 mm and a Dose Difference (ΔD of 3% was, as mean ± 1 SD, 96.7 ± 1.2% at 6 MV and 94.9 ± 1.3% at 18 MV, over the field area. These findings deteriorated slightly is ΔD was reduced to 2% (93.4 ± 3.2% and 90.1 ± 3.1%, respectively and improved with ΔD = 4% (98.3 ± 0.8% and 97.3 ± 0.9%, respectively. For all tests a grid of 1 mm and the AAA photon dose calculation algorithm were applied. The spatial resolution of the PV-aS1000 is 0.392 mm/pxl. The Modulation Index for calculations resulted 17.0 ± 3.2 at 6 MV and 15.3 ± 2.7 at 18 MV while the corresponding data for measurements were: 18.5 ± 3.7 and 17.5 ± 3.7. Partial arcs findings were (for ΔD = 3%: GAI = 96.7 ± 0.9% for 6° rotations and 98.0 ± 1.1% for 12° rotations. Conclusion The GLAaS method can be considered as a valid

  19. The T Tauri Phase Down to Nearly Planetary Masses: Echelle Spectra of 82 Very Low Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs (United States)

    Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Jayawardhana, Ray; Basri, Gibor


    Using the largest high-resolution spectroscopic sample to date of young, very low mass stars and brown dwarfs, we investigate disk accretion in objects ranging from just above the hydrogen-burning limit all the way to nearly planetary masses. Our 82 targets span spectral types from M5 to M9.5, or masses from 0.15 Msolar down to about 15 jupiters. They are confirmed members of the ρ Ophiuchus, Taurus, Chamaeleon I, IC 348, R Coronae Australis, Upper Scorpius, and TW Hydrae star-forming regions and young clusters, with ages from =M6.5). We have previously presented high-resolution optical spectra for roughly half the sample; the rest are new. This is a close to complete survey of all confirmed brown dwarfs known so far in the regions examined, except in ρ Oph and IC 348 (where we are limited by a combination of extinction and distance). We find that (1) classical T Tauri-like disk accretion persists in the substellar domain down to nearly the deuterium-burning limit; (2) while an Hα 10% width >~200 km s-1 is our prime accretion diagnostic (following our previous work), permitted emission lines of Ca II, O I, and He I are also good accretion indicators, just as in classical T Tauri stars (we caution against a blind use of Hα width alone, since inclination and rotation effects on the line are especially important at the low accretion rates in very low mass objects); (3) the Ca II λ8662 line flux is an excellent quantitative measure of the accretion rate in very low mass stars and brown dwarfs (as in higher mass classical T Tauri Stars), correlating remarkably well with the M˙ obtained from veiling and Hα modeling; (4) the accretion rate diminishes rapidly with mass-our measurements support previous suggestions that M˙~M2* (albeit with considerable scatter) and extend this correlation to the entire range of substellar masses; (5) the fraction of very low mass stellar and substellar accretors decreases substantially with age, as in higher mass stars; (6) at any

  20. Impacts of Earth rotation parameters on GNSS ultra-rapid orbit prediction: Derivation and real-time correction (United States)

    Wang, Qianxin; Hu, Chao; Xu, Tianhe; Chang, Guobin; Hernández Moraleda, Alberto


    Analysis centers (ACs) for global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs) cannot accurately obtain real-time Earth rotation parameters (ERPs). Thus, the prediction of ultra-rapid orbits in the international terrestrial reference system (ITRS) has to utilize the predicted ERPs issued by the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) or the International GNSS Service (IGS). In this study, the accuracy of ERPs predicted by IERS and IGS is analyzed. The error of the ERPs predicted for one day can reach 0.15 mas and 0.053 ms in polar motion and UT1-UTC direction, respectively. Then, the impact of ERP errors on ultra-rapid orbit prediction by GNSS is studied. The methods for orbit integration and frame transformation in orbit prediction with introduced ERP errors dominate the accuracy of the predicted orbit. Experimental results show that the transformation from the geocentric celestial references system (GCRS) to ITRS exerts the strongest effect on the accuracy of the predicted ultra-rapid orbit. To obtain the most accurate predicted ultra-rapid orbit, a corresponding real-time orbit correction method is developed. First, orbits without ERP-related errors are predicted on the basis of ITRS observed part of ultra-rapid orbit for use as reference. Then, the corresponding predicted orbit is transformed from GCRS to ITRS to adjust for the predicted ERPs. Finally, the corrected ERPs with error slopes are re-introduced to correct the predicted orbit in ITRS. To validate the proposed method, three experimental schemes are designed: function extrapolation, simulation experiments, and experiments with predicted ultra-rapid orbits and international GNSS Monitoring and Assessment System (iGMAS) products. Experimental results show that using the proposed correction method with IERS products considerably improved the accuracy of ultra-rapid orbit prediction (except the geosynchronous BeiDou orbits). The accuracy of orbit prediction is enhanced by at least 50

  1. Effect of Finite-Range Interactions on Rapidly Rotating Ultracold Bosonic Atoms (United States)

    Hamamoto, Nobukuni


    We investigate the effects of the finite-range interactions of six rotating ultracold bosonic atoms using a Gaussian-type interatomic interaction model. The model is analyzed numerically by exact diagonalization within the Lowest Landau Level (LLL) approximation and semiclassical approximation. The result of exact diagonalization shows that the ground-state angular momentum changes discretely with increasing angular velocity. For the short-range limit, the ground-state angular momentum and wavefunctions agree with those of the delta interaction evaluated by Bertsch and Papenbrock [" xlink:type="simple">Phys. Rev. A 63, 023616 (2001)]. Different from the delta interaction, the ground-state angular momenta higher than 30, i.e., N(N - 1), are observed at a high angular frequency as a result of the finite-range two-body interactions. For the intermediate-range interaction, the sequence of ground-state angular momenta increases in steps of five, which was not found in previous works on the Gaussian interaction. For the long-range limit of Gaussian interaction, we find that the ground-state angular momenta increase in steps of six. These steps of the ground-state angular momentum according to the width of the Gaussian interactions are explained by semiclassical and classical analysis based on the rovibrating molecule picture. The increments of the ground-state angular momentum of five and six are explained by the semiclassical quantization condition of the rotational and vibrational modes of fivefold and sixfold molecules, respectively. Our analysis based on the classical model also confirms that the fivefold molecule picture is more stable than the sixfold molecule picture in the intermediate range of the Gaussian interaction. These results suggest that the Gaussian interaction model can be used to emulate and characterize interactions by their width as the model can reproduce various rotational states including the ground

  2. Examining magnetic activity in low-mass Hyads using UV spectroscopy (United States)

    Gibson, Rose; Agüeros, Marcel; Douglas, Stephanie; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.


    Because of its proximity and well-established membership, the Hyades open cluster is as an ideal laboratory for examining the relationship between magnetic activity and rotation in late-type stars. Our previous work on Halpha and X-ray activity in low-mass Hyads found that these two standard proxies for the stellar magnetic field strength depend differently on rotation, suggesting differences in the heating mechanisms at play in the chromospheres and coronae of these stars. Here, we use 245 archival International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spectra (1850-3300 \\AA) of Hyads to examine how magnetic activity traced by a transition region proxy, namely the Mg II h&k emission features (2803 and 2796 \\AA, respectively), depend on rotation and compare to our other activity proxies for these same stars. Fifty-five IUE spectra are high-resolution (R = 0.1-0.3 \\AA), but are mostly for early type stars; with these data we confirm that Hyads begin showing Mg II emission at spectral type F0. The bulk of the IUE spectra are low-resolution (R = 6-7 \\AA), so that the h&k features are blended, but extend down to M3 cluster members. We use these data to quantify the relationship between UV activity and rotation of both the individual and blended Mg II h&k features. Our recently approved Hubble Space Telescope spectroscopic campaign, and the likely addition of new rotation periods for Hyads from K2's campaign 13, will extend this study further into the low-mass regime, thereby mapping out how magnetic heating depends on rotation and manifests itself in different layers of a low-mass star's atmosphere.

  3. Rapidly rotating second-generation progenitors for the 'blue hook' stars of ω Centauri. (United States)

    Tailo, Marco; D'Antona, Francesca; Vesperini, Enrico; Di Criscienzo, Marcella; Ventura, Paolo; Milone, Antonino P; Bellini, Andrea; Dotter, Aaron; Decressin, Thibaut; D'Ercole, Annibale; Caloi, Vittoria; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, Roberto


    Horizontal branch stars belong to an advanced stage in the evolution of the oldest stellar galactic population, occurring either as field halo stars or grouped in globular clusters. The discovery of multiple populations in clusters that were previously believed to have single populations gave rise to the currently accepted theory that the hottest horizontal branch members (the 'blue hook' stars, which had late helium-core flash ignition, followed by deep mixing) are the progeny of a helium-rich 'second generation' of stars. It is not known why such a supposedly rare event (a late flash followed by mixing) is so common that the blue hook of ω Centauri contains approximately 30 per cent of the horizontal branch stars in the cluster, or why the blue hook luminosity range in this massive cluster cannot be reproduced by models. Here we report that the presence of helium core masses up to about 0.04 solar masses larger than the core mass resulting from evolution is required to solve the luminosity range problem. We model this by taking into account the dispersion in rotation rates achieved by the progenitors, whose pre-main-sequence accretion disk suffered an early disruption in the dense environment of the cluster's central regions, where second-generation stars form. Rotation may also account for frequent late-flash-mixing events in massive globular clusters.

  4. Thermohaline mixing in low-mass giants: RGB and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantiello, M.; Hoekstra, H.; Langer, N.; Poelarends, A.J.T.


    Thermohaline mixing has recently been proposed to occur in low mass red giants, with large consequence for the chemical yields of low mass stars.We investigate the role of thermohaline mixing during the evolution of stars between 1M⊙ and 3M⊙, in comparison to other mixing processes acting in these

  5. Thermohaline mixing in evolved low-mass stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantiello, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304840866; Langer, N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829498


    Context. Thermohaline mixing has recently been proposed to occur in low-mass red giants, with large consequence for the chemical yields of low-mass stars. Aims. We investigate the role of thermohaline mixing during the evolution of stars between 1 M and 3 M , in comparison with other mixing

  6. 2D dynamics of the radiative core of low mass stars (United States)

    Hypolite, Delphine; Mathis, Stéphane; Rieutord, Michel


    Understanding the internal rotation of low mass stars all along their evolution is of primary interest when studying their rotational dynamics, internal mixing and magnetic field generation. In this context, helio- and asteroseismology probe angular velocity gradients deep within solar type stars at different evolutionary stages. Still the rotation close to the center of such stars on the main sequence is hardly detectable and the dynamical interaction of the radiative core with the surface convective envelope is not well understood. For instance, the influence of the differential rotation profile sustained by convection and applied as a boundary condition to the radiation zone is very important in the formation of tachoclines. In this work, we study a 2D hydrodynamical model of a radiative core when an imposed, solar or anti-solar, differential rotation is applied at the upper boundary. This model uses the Boussinesq approximation and we find that the shear induces a cylindrical differential rotation associated with a unique cell of meridional circulation in each hemisphere (counterclockwise when the shear is solar-like and clockwise when it is anti-solar). The results are discussed in the framework of seismic observables (internal rotation rate, core-to-surface rotation ratio) while perspectives to improve our modeling by including magnetic field or transport by internal gravity waves will be discussed.

  7. 2D dynamics of the radiative core of low mass stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hypolite Delphine


    Full Text Available Understanding the internal rotation of low mass stars all along their evolution is of primary interest when studying their rotational dynamics, internal mixing and magnetic field generation. In this context, helio- and asteroseismology probe angular velocity gradients deep within solar type stars at different evolutionary stages. Still the rotation close to the center of such stars on the main sequence is hardly detectable and the dynamical interaction of the radiative core with the surface convective envelope is not well understood. For instance, the influence of the differential rotation profile sustained by convection and applied as a boundary condition to the radiation zone is very important in the formation of tachoclines. In this work, we study a 2D hydrodynamical model of a radiative core when an imposed, solar or anti-solar, differential rotation is applied at the upper boundary. This model uses the Boussinesq approximation and we find that the shear induces a cylindrical differential rotation associated with a unique cell of meridional circulation in each hemisphere (counterclockwise when the shear is solar-like and clockwise when it is anti-solar. The results are discussed in the framework of seismic observables (internal rotation rate, core-to-surface rotation ratio while perspectives to improve our modeling by including magnetic field or transport by internal gravity waves will be discussed.

  8. CN Jet Morphology and the Very Rapidly Changing Rotation Period of Comet 41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresak (United States)

    Schleicher, David G.; Eisner, Nora; Knight, Matthew M.; Thirouin, Audrey


    In the first half of 2017, Comet 41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresak had its best apparition since its first discovery in 1858, remaining within 0.15 AU of Earth for three weeks and within 0.20 AU over a two month interval. These circumstances allowed us to study its coma morphology in search of possible jets, whose appearance and motion as a function of time would yield the rotation period and, with appropriate modeling, the pole orientation of the nucleus and source location(s). Imaging was obtained on a total of 45 nights between February 16 and July 2, using Lowell Observatory's 4.3-m Discovery Channel Telescope, the Hall 1.1-m telescope, and the robotic 0.8-m telescope. All narrowband CN images exhibit either one or two gas jets, and on most nights both jets appear as partial spirals with a clockwise rotation. Only a slow evolution of the jet morphology took place from mid-March to early June, presumably due to viewing geometry changes coupled with seasonal changes. Our coverage in late March was sufficient to rule out aliases of the rotation period, and further revealed a rapidly increasing period from about 24 hr to about 27 hr at the end of the month (Knight et al. 2017, CBET 4377). This rate of increase is roughly consistent with the solution of 19.9 hr found by Farnham et al. (2017, CBET 4375) in early March. Images from April 15 to May 4 yield an accelerating change in periods, passing 48 hr approximately on April 28. This is the fastest rate of change ever measured for a comet nucleus. These and other results, including those from Monte Carlo jet modeling just begun by us, will be presented.These studies were supported by NASA Planetary Astronomy grant NNX14AG81G and the Marcus Cometary Research Fund.

  9. Discovery and characteristics of the rapidly rotating active asteroid (62412) 2000 SY178 in the main belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, Scott S. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution for Science, 5241 Broad Branch Road. NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Trujillo, Chadwick, E-mail: [Gemini Observatory, 670 North A‘ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)


    We report a new active asteroid in the main belt of asteroids between Mars and Jupiter. Object (62412) 2000 SY178 exhibited a tail in images collected during our survey for objects beyond the Kuiper Belt using the Dark Energy Camera on the CTIO 4 m telescope. We obtained broadband colors of 62412 at the Magellan Telescope, which, along with 62412's low albedo, suggests it is a C-type asteroid. 62412's orbital dynamics and color strongly correlate with the Hygiea family in the outer main belt, making it the first active asteroid known in this heavily populated family. We also find 62412 to have a very short rotation period of 3.33 ± 0.01 hours from a double-peaked light curve with a maximum peak-to-peak amplitude of 0.45 ± 0.01 mag. We identify 62412 as the fastest known rotator of the Hygiea family and the nearby Themis family of similar composition, which contains several known main belt comets. The activity on 62412 was seen over one year after perihelion passage in its 5.6 year orbit. 62412 has the highest perihelion and one of the most circular orbits known for any active asteroid. The observed activity is probably linked to 62412's rapid rotation, which is near the critical period for break-up. The fast spin rate may also change the shape and shift material around 62412's surface, possibly exposing buried ice. Assuming 62412 is a strengthless rubble pile, we find the density of 62412 to be around 1500 kg m{sup −3}.

  10. The asymptotic equivalence of fixed heat flux and fixed temperature thermal boundary conditions for rapidly rotating convection

    CERN Document Server

    Calkins, Michael A; Julien, Keith; Nieves, David; Driggs, Derek; Marti, Philippe


    The influence of fixed temperature and fixed heat flux thermal boundary conditions on rapidly rotating convection in the plane layer geometry is investigated for the case of stress-free mechanical boundary conditions. It is shown that whereas the leading order system satisfies fixed temperature boundary conditions implicitly, a double boundary layer structure is necessary to satisfy the fixed heat flux thermal boundary conditions. The boundary layers consist of a classical Ekman layer adjacent to the solid boundaries that adjust viscous stresses to zero, and a layer in thermal wind balance just outside the Ekman layers adjusts the temperature such that the fixed heat flux thermal boundary conditions are satisfied. The influence of these boundary layers on the interior geostrophically balanced convection is shown to be asymptotically weak, however. Upon defining a simple rescaling of the thermal variables, the leading order reduced system of governing equations are therefore equivalent for both boundary condit...

  11. The Formation of Rapidly Rotating Black Holes in High-mass X-Ray Binaries (United States)

    Batta, Aldo; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Fryer, Chris


    High-mass X-ray binaries (HMXRBs), such as Cygnus X-1, host some of the most rapidly spinning black holes (BHs) known to date, reaching spin parameters a≳ 0.84. However, there are several effects that can severely limit the maximum BH spin parameter that could be obtained from direct collapse, such as tidal synchronization, magnetic core-envelope coupling, and mass loss. Here, we propose an alternative scenario where the BH is produced by a failed supernova (SN) explosion that is unable to unbind the stellar progenitor. A large amount of fallback material ensues, whose interaction with the secondary naturally increases its overall angular momentum content, and therefore the spin of the BH when accreted. Through SPH hydrodynamic simulations, we studied the unsuccessful explosion of an 8 {M}⊙ pre-SN star in a close binary with a 12 {M}⊙ companion with an orbital period of ≈1.2 days, finding that it is possible to obtain a BH with a high spin parameter a≳ 0.8 even when the expected spin parameter from direct collapse is a≲ 0.3. This scenario also naturally explains the atmospheric metal pollution observed in HMXRB stellar companions.

  12. Low-Mass Planar Photonic Imaging Sensor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a revolutionary electro-optical (EO) imaging sensor concept that provides a low-mass, low-volume alternative to the traditional bulky optical telescope...

  13. Nuclear effects on low-mass Drell-Yan pairs at RHIC (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Fai, George; Qiu, Jianwei


    We calculate the transverse-momentum distribution of low-mass Dell-Yan pairs in QCD perturbation theory with all-order resummation for p-p, d-Au and Au-Au collisions. We demonstrate that the transverse momentum distribution of low-mass Drell-Yan pairs is an advantageous source of the information on gluon distribution. We also calculate R_AB for dAu and AuAu in both the central and the forward rapidity region. The effects from isospin and the nuclear modification of parton distribution functions are studied separately. Our results show that the behavior of R_dAu and R_AuAu is quit different in the central rapidity region and the forward region. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy,under grants DE-FG02-86ER40251 and DE-FG02-87ER40371.

  14. Imaging characterization of the rapid adiabatic passage in a source-rotatable, crossed-beam scattering experiment (United States)

    Pan, Huilin; Mondal, Sohidul; Yang, Chung-Hsin; Liu, Kopin


    In order to achieve a more efficient preparation of a specific ro-vibrationally excited reactant state for reactive scattering experiments, we implemented the rapid adiabatic passage (RAP) scheme to our pulsed crossed-beam machine, using a single-mode, continuous-wave mid-infrared laser. The challenge for this source-rotatable apparatus lies in the non-orthogonal geometry between the molecular beam and the laser propagation directions. As such, the velocity spread of the supersonic beam results in a significantly broader Doppler distribution that needs to be activated for RAP to occur than the conventional orthogonal configuration. In this report, we detail our approach to shifting, locking, and stabilizing the absolute mid-infrared frequency. We exploited the imaging detection technique to characterize the RAP process and to quantify the excitation efficiency. We showed that with appropriate focusing of the IR laser, a nearly complete population transfer can still be achieved in favorable cases. Compared to our previous setup—a pulsed optical parametric oscillator/amplifier in combination with a multipass ring reflector for saturated absorption, the present RAP scheme with a single-pass, continuous-wave laser yields noticeably higher population-transfer efficiency.

  15. Irradiation and mass transfer in low-mass compact binaries


    Ritter, H.; Kolb, U.; Zhang, Z. -Y.


    We study the reaction of low-mass stars to anisotropic irradiation and its importance for the long-term evolution of compact binaries binaries. We show by means of a simple homology model that if the energy outflow through the surface layers of a low-mass main sequence star is blocked over a fraction s_eff < 1 of its surface it will inflate only modestly and that the maximum contribution to mass transfer is s_eff times what one obtains in the isotropic case. The duration of this mass transfer...

  16. Low-mass X-ray binary evolution and the origin of millisecond pulsars (United States)

    Frank, Juhan; King, Andrew R.; Lasota, Jean-Pierre


    The evolution of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) is considered. It is shown that X-ray irradiation of the companion stars causes these systems to undergo episodes of rapid mass transfer followed by detached phases. The systems are visible as bright X-ray binaries only for a short part of each cycle, so that their space density must be considerably larger than previously estimated. This removes the difficulty in regarding LMXBs as the progenitors of low-mass binary pulsars. The low-accretion-rate phase of the cycle with the soft X-ray transients is identified. It is shown that 3 hr is likely to be the minimum orbital period for LMXBs with main-sequence companions and it is suggested that the evolutionary endpoint for many LMXBs may be systems which are the sites of gamma-ray bursts.

  17. Heavy water stratification in a low-mass protostar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coutens, A.; Vastel, C.; Cazaux, S.; Bottinelli, S.; Caux, E.; Ceccarelli, C.; Demyk, K.; Taquet, V.; Wakelam, V.

    Context. Despite the low elemental deuterium abundance in the Galaxy, enhanced molecular deuterium fractionation has been found in the environments of low-mass star-forming regions and, in particular, the Class 0 protostar IRAS 16293-2422. Aims. The key program Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star

  18. Origin of the hot gas in low-mass protostars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Kempen, T. A.; Kristensen, L. E.; Herczeg, G. J.


    Aims. "Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel" (WISH) is a Herschel key programme aimed at understanding the physical and chemical structure of young stellar objects (YSOs) with a focus on water and related species. Methods. The low-mass protostar HH 46 was observed with the Photodetector Ar...

  19. Low-Mass, Low-Power Hall Thruster System (United States)

    Pote, Bruce


    NASA is developing an electric propulsion system capable of producing 20 mN thrust with input power up to 1,000 W and specific impulse ranging from 1,600 to 3,500 seconds. The key technical challenge is the target mass of 1 kg for the thruster and 2 kg for the power processing unit (PPU). In Phase I, Busek Company, Inc., developed an overall subsystem design for the thruster/cathode, PPU, and xenon feed system. This project demonstrated the feasibility of a low-mass power processing architecture that replaces four of the DC-DC converters of a typical PPU with a single multifunctional converter and a low-mass Hall thruster design employing permanent magnets. In Phase II, the team developed an engineering prototype model of its low-mass BHT-600 Hall thruster system, with the primary focus on the low-mass PPU and thruster. The goal was to develop an electric propulsion thruster with the appropriate specific impulse and propellant throughput to enable radioisotope electric propulsion (REP). This is important because REP offers the benefits of nuclear electric propulsion without the need for an excessively large spacecraft and power system.

  20. Simulating Radio Emission from Low-mass Stars (United States)

    Llama, Joe; Jardine, Moira M.; Wood, Kenneth; Hallinan, Gregg; Morin, Julien


    Understanding the origins of stellar radio emission can provide invaluable insight into the strength and geometry of stellar magnetic fields and the resultant space weather environment experienced by exoplanets. Here, we present the first model capable of predicting radio emission through the electron cyclotron maser instability using observed stellar magnetic maps of low-mass stars. We determine the structure of the coronal magnetic field and plasma using spectropolarimetric observations of the surface magnetic fields and the X-ray emission measure. We then model the emission of photons from the locations within the corona that satisfy the conditions for electron cyclotron maser emission. Our model predicts the frequency and intensity of radio photons from within the stellar corona. We have benchmarked our model against the low-mass star V374 Peg. This star has both radio observations from the Very Large Array and a nearly simultaneous magnetic map. Using our model we are able to fit the radio observations of V374 Peg, providing additional evidence that the radio emission observed from low-mass stars may originate from the electron cyclotron maser instability. Our model can now be extended to all stars with observed magnetic maps to predict the expected frequency and variability of stellar radio emission in an effort to understand and guide future radio observations of low-mass stars.

  1. Stellar Midlife Crises: Challenges and Advances in Simulating Convection and Differential Rotation in Sun-like Stars (United States)

    Nelson, Nicholas J.; Payne, Charles; Sorensen, Cameron Michael


    Low mass, main sequence stars like our Sun exhibit a wide variety of rotational and magnetic states. Observational and theoretical advances have led to a renewed emphasis on understanding the rotational and magnetic evolution of sun-like stars has become a pressing problem in stellar physics. We use global 3D convection and convective dynamo simulations in rotating spherical shells and with realistic stellar stratification to explore the behavior of ``middle-aged'' stars. We show that for stars with slightly less rotational influence than our Sun a transition occurs from solar-like (fast equator, slow poles) to anti-solar (slow equator, fast poles) differential rotation. We investigate this transition using two different treatments for the upper boundary of our simulations and we hypothesize that this transition from solar-like to anti-solar differential rotation may be responsible for observations of anomalously rapid rotation for stars older than our Sun.

  2. Towards the geophysical regime in numerical dynamo models: studies of rapidly-rotating convection driven dynamos with low Pm and constant heat flux boundary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheyko, A.A.; Finlay, Chris; Marti, P.

    We present a set of numerical dynamo models with the convection strength varied by a factor of 30 and the ratio of magnetic to viscous diffusivities by a factor of 20 at rapid rotation rates (E =nu/(2 Omega d^2 ) = 10-6 and 10-7 ) using a heat flux outer BC. This regime has been little explored...... on the structure of the dynamos and how this changes in relation to the selection of control parameters, a comparison with the proposed rotating convection and dynamo scaling laws, energy spectra of steady solutions and inner core rotation rates. Magnetic field on the CMB. E=2.959*10-7, Ra=6591.0, Pm=0.05, Pr=1....

  3. Star Formation Modes in Low-Mass Disk Galaxies


    Gallagher, J. S.; Matthews, L. D.


    Low-mass disk galaxies with well-organized structures are relatively common in low density regions of the nearby Universe. They display a wide range in levels of star formation activity, extending from sluggishly evolving `superthin' disk systems to nearby starbursts. Investigations of this class of galaxy therefore provides opportunities to test and define models of galactic star formation processes. In this paper we briefly explore characteristics of examples of quiescent and starbursting l...

  4. The formation of low-mass helium white dwarfs orbiting pulsars . Evolution of low-mass X-ray binaries below the bifurcation period (United States)

    Istrate, A. G.; Tauris, T. M.; Langer, N.


    Context. Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are generally believed to be old neutron stars (NSs) that have been spun up to high rotation rates via accretion of matter from a companion star in a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB). This scenario has been strongly supported by various pieces of observational evidence. However, many details of this recycling scenario remain to be understood. Aims: Here we investigate binary evolution in close LMXBs to study the formation of radio MSPs with low-mass helium white dwarf companions (He WDs) in tight binaries with orbital periods Porb ≃ 2-9h. In particular, we examine i) if the observed systems can be reproduced by theoretical modelling using standard prescriptions of orbital angular momentum losses (i.e. with respect to the nature and the strength of magnetic braking), ii) if our computations of the Roche-lobe detachments can match the observed orbital periods, and iii) if the correlation between WD mass and orbital period (MWD, Porb) is valid for systems with Porb< 2 days. Methods: Numerical calculations with a detailed stellar evolution code were used to trace the mass-transfer phase in ~400 close LMXB systems with different initial values of donor star mass, NS mass, orbital period, and the so-called γ-index of magnetic braking. Subsequently, we followed the orbital and the interior evolution of the detached low-mass (proto) He WDs, including stages with residual shell hydrogen burning. Results: We find that severe fine-tuning is necessary to reproduce the observed MSPs in tight binaries with He WD companions of mass <0.20 M⊙, which suggests that something needs to be modified or is missing in the standard input physics of LMXB modelling. Results from previous independent studies support this conclusion. We demonstrate that the theoretically calculated (MWD, Porb)-relation is in general also valid for systems with Porb< 2 days, although with a large scatter in He WD masses between 0.15-0.20 M⊙. The results of the thermal

  5. Small low mass advanced PBR's for bi-modal operation (United States)

    Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.; Powell, J. R.


    A preliminary assessment is made of a low mass bimodal reactor for use as a propulsion unit and as a heat source for generating electricity. This reactor is based on the particle bed reactor (PBR) concept. It will be able to generate both thrust and electricity simultaneously. This assessment indicates that the reactor can generate approximately 6.8 (4) N of thrust using hydrogen as a coolant and 100 KWe using a closed Brayton cycle (CBC) power conversion system. Two cooling paths pass through the reactor allowing a simultaneous operation of both modes. The development of all the components for this reactor are within the experience base of the NTP project.

  6. Supernova Enrichment of Planetary Systems in Low Mass Star Clusters (United States)

    Nicholson, Rhana; Parker, R.


    Short-lived radioactive species have been detected in chondritic meteorites from the early epoch of the Solar system. This implies that the Sun formed in the vicinity of the supernovae of one or more massive stars. Massive stars are more likely to form in massive star clusters (1000 Msun) than lower mass clusters (50-200 Msun). We show that direct enrichment of protoplanetary discs via supernovae occurs as frequently in low mass clusters containing one or two massive stars as in more populous clusters. This significantly relaxes the constraints on the birth environment of the Solar System.

  7. Seismic Evidence for a Rapidly Rotating Core in a Lower-giant-branch Star Observed with Kepler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deheuvels, S.; García, R.A.; Chaplin, W.J.; Basu, S.; Antia, H.M.; Appourchaux, T.; Benomar, O.; Davies, G.R.; Elsworth, Y.; Gizon, L.; Goupil, M.J.; Reese, D.R.; Regulo, C.; Schou, J.; Stahn, T.; Casagrande, L.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Fischer, D.; Hekker, S.; Kjeldsen, H.; Mathur, S.; Mosser, B.; Pinsonneault, M.; Valenti, J.; Christiansen, J.L.; Kinemuchi, K.; Mullally, F.


    Rotation is expected to have an important influence on the structure and the evolution of stars. However, the mechanisms of angular momentum transport in stars remain theoretically uncertain and very complex to take into account in stellar models. To achieve a better understanding of these

  8. An ALMA survey for disks orbiting low-mass stars in the TW Hya Association (United States)

    Rodriguez, David R.; van der Plas, Gerrit; Kastner, Joel H.; Schneider, Adam C.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Mardones, Diego; Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Principe, David


    We carried out an ALMA survey of 15 confirmed or candidate low-mass (M4-L0 and hence represent the extreme low end of the TWA's mass function. Our ALMA survey has yielded detections of 1.3 mm continuum emission around 4 systems (TWA 30B, 32, 33, and 34), suggesting the presence of cold dust grains. All continuum sources are unresolved. TWA 34 further shows 12CO(2-1) emission whose velocity structure is indicative of Keplerian rotation. Among the sample of known ~7-10 Myr-old star/disk systems, TWA 34, which lies just ~50 pc from Earth, is the lowest mass star thus far identified as harboring cold molecular gas in an orbiting disk.

  9. The Mega-MUSCLES Treasury Survey: Measurements of the Ultraviolet Spectral Characteristics of Low-mass Exoplanetary Systems (United States)

    Froning, Cynthia


    JWST will be able to observe the atmospheres of rocky planets transiting nearby M dwarfs. A few such planets are already known (around GJ1132, Proxima Cen, and Trappist-1) and TESS is predicted to find many more, including 14 habitable zone planets. To interpret observations of these exoplanets' atmospheres, we must understand the high-energy SED of their host stars: X-ray/EUV irradiation can erode a planet's gaseous envelope and FUV/NUV-driven photochemistry shapes an atmosphere's molecular abundances, including potential biomarkers like O2, O3, and CH4. Our MUSCLES Treasury Survey (Cycles 19+22) used Hubble/COS+STIS UV observations with contemporaneous X-ray and ground-based data to construct complete SEDs for 11 low-mass exoplanet hosts. MUSCLES is the most widely used database for early-M and K dwarf (>0.3 M_sun) irradiance spectra and has supported a wide range of atmospheric stability and biomarker modeling work. However, TESS will find most of its habitable planets transiting stars less massive than this, and these will be the planets to characterize with JWST. Here, we propose to expand the MUSCLES project to: (a) new M dwarf exoplanet hosts with varying properties; (b) reference M dwarfs below 0.3 solar masses that may be used as proxies for M dwarf planet hosts discovered after HST's lifetime; and (c) more rapidly rotating stars of GJ1132's mass to probe XUV evolution over gigayear timescales. We propose to gather the first panchromatic SEDs of rocky planet hosts GJ1132 and Trappist-1. This proposal extends proven methods to a key new sample of stars, upon which critically depends the long-term goal of studying habitable planet atmospheres with JWST and beyond.

  10. Evidence for AGN feedback in low-mass galaxies (United States)

    Masters, Karen; Penny, Sam; Smethurst, Rebecca; Krawczyk, Coleman; Nichol, Bob; SDSS-IV MaNGA


    Despite being the dominant galaxy population by number in groups and clusters, the formation and quenching mechanism of dwarf galaxies remains unknown. We present evidence for AGN feedback in a subset of 69 quenched low-mass galaxies (M* less than 5e9 Msun, fainter than Mr = -19) selected from the first two years of the MaNGA survey. The majority (85 per cent) of these quenched galaxies appear to reside in a group environment. We find 6 galaxies in our sample that appear to have an active AGN that is preventing on-going star-formation; this is the first time such a feedback mechanism has been observed in this mass range. Interestingly, five of these six galaxies have an ionised gas component that is kinematically offset from their stellar component, suggesting the gas is either recently accreted or outflowing. We hypothesise these six galaxies are low-mass equivalents to the “red geysers” observed in more massive galaxies. Of the other 62 galaxies in the sample, we find 8 do appear to have some low-level, residual star formation, or emission from hot, evolved stars. The remaining galaxies in our sample have no detectable ionised gas emission throughout their structures, consistent with them being quenched. I will show that despite being the "simplest" galaxies in our current models of galaxy formation, these quenched dwarf galaxies are a diverse population.

  11. Low-mass stars: Open problems all along their evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heners N.


    Full Text Available Although low-mass stars have a comparatively simple structure, current stellar models are far from reproducing them accurately. In light of the observational progress, in particular of asteroseismology, the deficits of the theory of stellar structure and evolution become increasingly evident, and can no longer be hidden under the carpet of observational errors. In my brief review I will discuss a number of obvious problems of the models, which are mainly – and not surprisingly so – connected with convective and other mixing processes. They begin already on the pre-main sequence and continue throughout the complete evolution. In addition to the deficits in the treatment of physical processes I will also address our difficulties in obtaining completely satisfying agreement between different numerical codes. It will be shown that this concerns already the main sequence evolution of low-mass stars without a convective core. Keeping this in mind, it is no surprise that models for stars on the Asymptotic Giant Branch differ widely.

  12. Dynamical shake-up and the low mass of Mars (United States)

    Bromley, Benjamin C.; Kenyon, Scott


    The low mass of Mars and the lack of planets in the asteroid belt are important constraints on theories of planet formation. We revisit the idea that sweeping secular resonances involving the gas giants and theSun's dissipating protoplanetary disk can explain these features of our Solar System. To test this "dynamical shake-up" scenario, we perform an extensive suite of simulations to track terrestrial planet formation from planetesimals. We find that if the Sun’s gas disk depletes in roughly a million years, then a sweeping resonance with Jupiter inhibits planet formation in the asteroid belt and substantially limits the mass of Mars. We explore how this phenomenon might lead to asteroid belt analogs around other stars with long-period, massive planets.

  13. Outflows from low mass young stars and brown dwarfs (United States)

    Ray, T. P.

    The phenomenon of jets from young stars has been known for over two decades. In most cases the jet is generated either by an embedded (IRAS Class I) low mass star or its more evolved, optically visible counterpart (a classical T Tauri star). In the case of the latter the flow can be traced optically right back to the star although its apparent length may be small in angular terms (typically a few arcseconds). For this reason such jets are sometimes referred to as ``micro-jets''. It is argued that brown dwarfs (BDs) outflows, when observed will almost certainly look like scaled-down versions of the micro-jet phenomenon observed in classical T Tauri stars. Not only then will we need large telescopes to detect such flows but it may also be necessary to employ special techniques, like spectro-astrometry, to resolve them.

  14. The quest for very low-mass planets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayor, M; Udry, S [Geneva Observatory, Geneva University, 51 ch des Maillettes, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland)], E-mail:


    The statistical results gathered on exoplanet properties over the past decade provide strong constraints for planet-formation models. They now prove to be especially important for the new category of very low-mass solid planets recently revealed by improved radial velocities, obtained mainly with the HARPS spectrograph. We review here the emerging properties of this newly discovered population, in the light of results from state-of-the-art planet-formation models. We also discuss the limitations of the radial-velocity method and the associated optimistic perspectives for the future detection of Earth-like planets in the Habitable Zone of solar-type stars, with radial velocities alone or in complement to space photometry.

  15. Spectroscopic Study of Low Mass Members of NGC 2244 (United States)

    Alty, Michelle; Ybarra, Jason E.; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos G.; Lada, Elizabeth A.


    The results of a near-infrared spectroscopic study of low-mass stars in open cluster NGC 2244 are presented. JH spectra of the stars were obtained using the FLAMINGOS instrument at KPNO. To determine cluster membership, we used Spitzer Space Telescope mid-infrared photometry along with X-ray detections from the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The stars were spectral typed using absorption line ratios and spectral shapes. The stars were then plotted on an H-R diagram along with theoretical isochrones. We discuss these results in context of cluster evolution in the Rosette Molecular Complex. Work supported, in part, by the Dr. John W. Martin Summer Science Research Institute at Bridgewater College.

  16. Feedback in low-mass galaxies in the early Universe. (United States)

    Erb, Dawn K


    The formation, evolution and death of massive stars release large quantities of energy and momentum into the gas surrounding the sites of star formation. This process, generically termed 'feedback', inhibits further star formation either by removing gas from the galaxy, or by heating it to temperatures that are too high to form new stars. Observations reveal feedback in the form of galactic-scale outflows of gas in galaxies with high rates of star formation, especially in the early Universe. Feedback in faint, low-mass galaxies probably facilitated the escape of ionizing radiation from galaxies when the Universe was about 500 million years old, so that the hydrogen between galaxies changed from neutral to ionized-the last major phase transition in the Universe.

  17. Low Mass Printable Devices for Energy Capture, Storage, and Use (United States)

    Frazier, Donald O.; Singer, Christopher E.; Rogers, Jan R.; Schramm, Harry F.; Fabisinski, Leo L.; Lowenthal, Mark; Ray, William J.; Fuller, Kirk A.


    The energy-efficient, environmentally friendly technology that will be presented is the result of a Space Act Agreement between NthDegree Technologies Worldwide, Inc., and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The work combines semiconductor and printing technologies to advance lightweight electronic and photonic devices having excellent potential for commercial and exploration applications. Device development involves three projects that relate to energy generation and consumption: (1) a low-mass efficient (low power, low heat emission) micro light-emitting diode (LED) area lighting device; (2) a low-mass omni-directional efficient photovoltaic (PV) device with significantly improved energy capture; and (3) a new approach to building super-capacitors. These three technologies, energy capture, storage, and usage (e.g., lighting), represent a systematic approach for building efficient local micro-grids that are commercially feasible; furthermore, these same technologies, appropriately replacing lighting with lightweight power generation, will be useful for enabling inner planetary missions using smaller launch vehicles and to facilitate surface operations during lunar and planetary surface missions. The PV device model is a two sphere, light trapped sheet approximately 2-mm thick. The model suggests a significant improvement over current thin film systems. For lighting applications, all three technology components are printable in-line by printing sequential layers on a standard screen or flexographic direct impact press using the three-dimensional printing technique (3DFM) patented by NthDegree. One primary contribution to this work in the near term by the MSFC is to test the robustness of prototype devices in the harsh environments that prevail in space and on the lunar surface. It is anticipated that this composite device, of which the lighting component has passed off-gassing testing, will function

  18. Fast migration of low-mass planets in radiative discs (United States)

    Pierens, A.


    Low-mass planets are known to undergo Type I migration and this process must have played a key role during the evolution of planetary systems. Analytical formulae for the disc torque have been derived assuming that the planet evolves on a fixed circular orbit. However, recent work has shown that in isothermal discs, a migrating protoplanet may also experience dynamical corotation torques that scale with the planet drift rate. The aim of this study is to examine whether dynamical corotation torques can also affect the migration of low-mass planets in non-isothermal discs. We performed 2D radiative hydrodynamical simulations to examine the orbital evolution outcome of migrating protoplanets as a function of disc mass. We find that a protoplanet can enter a fast migration regime when it migrates in the direction set by the entropy-related horseshoe drag and when the Toomre stability parameter is less than a threshold value below which the horseshoe region contracts into a tadpole-like region. In that case, an underdense trapped region appears near the planet, with an entropy excess compared to the ambient disc. If the viscosity and thermal diffusivity are small enough so that the entropy excess is conserved during migration, the planet then experiences strong corotation torques arising from the material flowing across the planet orbit. During fast migration, we observe that a protoplanet can pass through the zero-torque line predicted by static torques. We also find that fast migration may help in disrupting the mean-motion resonances that are formed by convergent migration of embryos.

  19. Empirical Isochrones for Low Mass Stars in Nearby Young Associations (United States)

    Herczeg, Gregory J.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.


    Absolute ages of young stars are important for many issues in pre-main-sequence stellar and circumstellar evolution but long have been recognized as difficult to derive and calibrate. In this paper, we use literature spectral types and photometry to construct empirical isochrones in Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams for low mass stars and brown dwarfs in the η Cha, ɛ Cha, and TW Hya Associations and the β Pic and Tuc-Hor Moving Groups. A successful theory of pre-main-sequence evolution should match the shapes of the stellar loci for these groups of young stars. However, when comparing the combined empirical isochrones to isochrones predicted from evolutionary models, discrepancies lead to a spectral type (mass) dependence in stellar age estimates. Improved prescriptions for convection and boundary conditions in the latest models of pre-main-sequence evolution lead to a significantly improved correspondence between empirical and model isochrones, with small offsets at low temperatures that may be explained by observational uncertainties or by model limitations. Independent of model predictions, linear fits to combined stellar loci of these regions provide a simple empirical method to order clusters by luminosity with a reduced dependence on spectral type. Age estimates calculated from various sets of modern models that reproduce Li depletion boundary ages of the β Pic Moving Group also imply a ˜4 Myr age for the low mass members of the Upper Sco OB Association, which is younger than the 11 Myr age that has been recently estimated for intermediate and high mass members.

  20. Turbulent transport of a passive contaminant in an initially anisotropic turbulence subjected to rapid rotation: an analytical study using linear theory (United States)

    El Bach, A.; Salhi, A.; Cambon, Claude


    The linear effect of rapid rotation is studied on the transport by homogeneous turbulence of a passive scalar with vertical mean scalar gradient. Connection with one-particle diffusion studied by Cambon et al. [C. Cambon, F.S. Godeferd, F. Nicolleau, J.C. Vassilicos, Turbulent diffusion in rapidly rotating turbulence with and without stable stratification, J. Fluid Mech. 499 (2004) 231-255] is discussed. The input of the initial anisotropy of the velocity field is then investigated in the axisymmetric case, using a general and systematic way to construct axisymmetric initial data: a classical expansion in terms of scalar spherical harmonics for the 3D spectral density of kinetic energy and a modified expansion for the polarization anisotropy. The scalar variance exhibits a quadratic evolution (∝t) for short times and a linear one (∝t) for larger times. The long-time behaviour looks similar to the classical 'Brownian' evolution but it has a very different origin: a linear impact of dispersive inertial waves via phase-mixing instead of a nonlinearly-induced random walk. It is shown that this trend is not altered by the polarization anisotropy. The vertical scalar flux varies linearly with time for short times and tends to a plateau for larger times. To cite this article: A. El Bach et al., C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  1. Detection of the Earth rotation response to a rapid fluctuation of Southern Ocean circulation in November 2009 (United States)

    Marcus, S. L.; Dickey, J. O.; Fukumori, I.; de Viron, O.


    At seasonal and shorter periods the solid Earth and its overlying geophysical fluids form a closed dynamical system, which (except for tidal forcing) conserves its total angular momentum. While atmospheric effects dominate changes in the Earth's rate of rotation and hence length-of-day (LOD) on these time scales, the addition of oceanic angular momentum (OAM) estimates has been shown to improve closure of the LOD budget in a statistical sense. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, the signature of a specific, sub-monthly ocean current fluctuation on the Earth's rotation rate, coinciding with recently-reported anomalies which developed in southeast Pacific surface temperature and bottom pressure fields during late 2009. Our results show that concurrent variations in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), which saw a sharp drop and recovery in zonal transport during a two-week period in November, were strong enough to cause a detectable change in LOD following the removal of atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) computed from the Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) database. The strong OAM variations driving the LOD-AAM changes were diagnosed from ocean state estimates of the Consortium for Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO) and involved roughly equal contributions from the current and pressure terms, with in situ confirmation for the latter provided by tide-corrected bottom pressure recorder data from the South Drake Passage site of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current Levels by Altimetry and Island Measurements (ACCLAIM) network.

  2. A rapid three-dimensional vortex micromixer utilizing self-rotation effects under low Reynolds number conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Che Hsin, Lin; Lung Ming, Fu; 10.1088/0960-1317/15/5/006


    This paper proposes a novel three-dimensional (3D) vortex micromixer for micro-total-analysis-systems ( mu TAS) applications which utilizes self-rotation effects to mix fluids in a circular chamber at low Reynolds numbers (Re). The microfluidic mixer is fabricated in a three-layer glass structure for delivering fluid samples in parallel. The fluids are driven into the circular mixing chamber by means of hydrodynamic pumps from two fluid inlet ports. The two inlet channels divide into eight individual channels tangent to a 3D circular chamber for the purpose of mixing. Numerical simulation of the microfluidic dynamics is employed to predict the self-rotation phenomenon and to estimate the mixing performance under various Reynolds number conditions. Experimental flow visualization by mixing dye samples is performed in order to verify the numerical simulation results. A good agreement is found to exist between the two sets of results. The numerical results indicate that the mixing performance can be as high as 9...

  3. SHIELD: EVLA HI Spectral Line Observations of Low-mass Dwarfs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miazzo, Masao; Ruvolo, Elizabeth; Cannon, John M.; McNichols, Andrew; Teich, Yaron; Adams, Elizabeth A.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; McQuinn, Kristen B.; Salzer, John Joseph; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Elson, Edward C.; Haurberg, Nathalie C.; Huang, Shan; Janowiecki, Steven; Jozsa, Gyula; Leisman, Luke; Ott, Juergen; Papastergis, Emmanouil; Rhode, Katherine L.; Saintonge, Amelie; Van Sistine, Angela; Warren, Steven R.

    The “Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs” (SHIELD) is a multiwavelength study of local volume low-mass galaxies. Using the now-complete Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) source catalog, 82 systems are identified that meet distance, line width, and HI flux criteria for being gas-rich, low-mass


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Berg, Danielle [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S.E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Salzer, John J.; Rhode, Katherine L. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Adams, Elizabeth A. K. [ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Girardi, Léo, E-mail: [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, INAF, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy)


    Leo P is a low-luminosity dwarf galaxy discovered through the blind H i Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey. The H i and follow-up optical observations have shown that Leo P is a gas-rich dwarf galaxy with active star formation, an underlying older population, and an extremely low oxygen abundance. We have obtained optical imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope to two magnitudes below the red clump in order to study the evolution of Leo P. We refine the distance measurement to Leo P to be 1.62 ± 0.15 Mpc, based on the luminosity of the horizontal branch stars and 10 newly identified RR Lyrae candidates. This places the galaxy at the edge of the Local Group, ∼0.4 Mpc from Sextans B, the nearest galaxy in the NGC 3109 association of dwarf galaxies of which Leo P is clearly a member. The star responsible for ionizing the H ii region is most likely an O7V or O8V spectral type, with a stellar mass ≳25 M{sub ⊙}. The presence of this star provides observational evidence that massive stars at the upper end of the initial mass function are capable of being formed at star formation rates as low as ∼10{sup −5} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. The best-fitting star formation history (SFH) derived from the resolved stellar populations of Leo P using the latest PARSEC models shows a relatively constant star formation rate over the lifetime of the galaxy. The modeled luminosity characteristics of Leo P at early times are consistent with low-luminosity dSph Milky Way satellites, suggesting that Leo P is what a low-mass dSph would look like if it evolved in isolation and retained its gas. Despite the very low mass of Leo P, the imprint of reionization on its SFH is subtle at best, and consistent with being totally negligible. The isolation of Leo P, and the total quenching of star formation of Milky Way satellites of similar mass, implies that the local environment dominates the quenching of the Milky Way satellites.

  5. The Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs: A Multi-Wavelength Perspective on Low-Mass Galaxy Evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cannon, John M.; McNichols, Andrew; Teich, Yaron; Adams, Elizabeth A.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; McQuinn, Kristen B.; Salzer, John Joseph; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Elson, Edward C.; Haurberg, Nathalie C.; Huang, Shan; Janowiecki, Steven; Jozsa, Gyula; Leisman, Luke; Ott, Juergen; Papastergis, Emmanouil; Rhode, Katherine L.; Saintonge, Amelie; Van Sistine, Angela; Warren, Steven R.


    The “Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs” (SHIELD) is a multiwavelength study of local volume low-mass galaxies drawn from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) catalog. HST/Spitzer joint program GO-12658 revealed the stellar populations of the first 12 SHIELD galaxies (Cannon et al. 2011),

  6. Magnetic Braking of Sun-like and Low-mass Stars: Dependence on Coronal Temperature (United States)

    Pantolmos, George; Matt, Sean P.


    Sun-like and low-mass stars possess high-temperature coronae and lose mass in the form of stellar winds, which are driven by thermal pressure and complex magnetohydrodynamic processes. These magnetized outflows probably do not significantly affect the star’s structural evolution on the main sequence, but they brake the stellar rotation by removing angular momentum, a mechanism known as magnetic braking. Previous studies have shown how the braking torque depends on the magnetic field strength and geometry, stellar mass and radius, mass-loss rate, and rotation rate of the star, assuming a fixed coronal temperature. For this study, we explore how different coronal temperatures can influence the stellar torque. We employ 2.5D, axisymmetric, magnetohydrodynamic simulations, computed with the PLUTO code, to obtain steady-state wind solutions from rotating stars with dipolar magnetic fields. Our parameter study includes 30 simulations with different coronal temperatures and surface magnetic field strengths. We consider a Parker-like (I.e., thermal-pressure-driven) wind, and therefore coronal temperature is the key parameter determining the velocity and acceleration profile of the flow. Since the mass-loss rates for these types of stars are not well-constrained, we determine how the torque scales for a vast range of stellar mass-loss rates. Hotter winds lead to faster acceleration, and we show that (for a given magnetic field strength and mass-loss rate) a hotter outflow leads to a weaker torque on the star. We derive new predictive torque formulae that quantify this effect over a range of possible wind acceleration profiles.

  7. Coorbital thermal torques on low-mass protoplanets (United States)

    Masset, Frédéric S.


    Using linear perturbation theory, we investigate the torque exerted on a low-mass planet embedded in a gaseous protoplanetary disc with finite thermal diffusivity. When the planet does not release energy into the ambient disc, the main effect of thermal diffusion is the softening of the enthalpy peak near the planet, which results in the appearance of two cold and dense lobes on either side of the orbit, of size smaller than the thickness of the disc. The lobes exert torques of opposite sign on the planet, each comparable in magnitude to the one-sided Lindblad torque. When the planet is offset from corotation, the lobes are asymmetric and the planet experiences a net torque, the `cold' thermal torque, which has a magnitude that depends on the relative value of the distance to corotation to the size of the lobes {˜ }√{χ /Ω _p}, χ being the thermal diffusivity and Ωp the orbital frequency. We believe that this effect corresponds to the phenomenon named `cold finger' recently reported in numerical simulations, and we argue that it constitutes the dominant mode of migration of sub-Earth-mass objects. When the planet is luminous, the heat released into the ambient disc results in an additional disturbance that takes the form of hot, low-density lobes. They give a torque, named heating torque in previous work, that has an expression similar, but of opposite sign, to the cold thermal torque.

  8. Chandra Observation of Polaris: Census of Low-mass Companions (United States)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Guinan, Edward; Engle, Scott; Wolk, Scott J.; Schlegel, Eric; Mason, Brian D.; Karovska, Margarita; Spitzbart, Bradley


    We have observed Cepheid Polaris (α UMi A: F7 Ib [Aa] + F6 V [Ab]) with Chandra ACIS-I for 10 ks. An X-ray source was found at the location of Polaris with log LX = 28.89 erg s-1 (0.3-8 keV) and kT = 0.6 keV. A spectrum this soft could come from either the supergiant or the dwarf, as shown by comparable coronal stars. Two resolved low-mass visual companions, "C" and "D," are not physical members of the system based on the lack of X-rays (indicating an age older than the Cepheid) and inconsistent proper motions. Polaris B is not an X-ray source, consistent with its early F spectral type, and probably does not have a lower mass companion itself. A possible more distant member is identified, and an additional less plausible one. This provides a complete census of companions out to 0.1 pc covering a mass ratio range of an order of magnitude and a ΔV of nearly 15 mag. Based on observations made with the NASA Chandra Satellite.

  9. Super-Low-Mass Spaceborne SAR Array Concepts (United States)

    Huang, J.; Lou,M.; Caro, E.


    For Earth remote sensing applications, a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) typically employs an antenna with a fairly long along-track aperture in order to achieve the desired performance. At orbital velocities, the antenna along-track dimension is driven by a careful trade off between resolution, swath width, and available data rate and is independent of wavelength. 10 to 20 m long antennas have been flown or proposed in previous spaceborne SAR designs. To maintain an acceptable electrical flatness across this long aperture, very massive antenna support structures, weighing several hundred kilograms or more, have been used to date. For example, the fixed-beam L-band SeaSat antenna, which used a microstrip array with honeycomb substrate, had a mass of 250 Kg (including deployment mechanism). The beam-scanning L/C/X-band shuttle-based SIR-C antenna has a mass of l,800 Kg. These massive antenna systems generally require a launch vehicle with large stowage volume and heavy-payload-lift capability. To achieve good launch volume efficiency and to reduce payload weight, three super-low-mass array concepts are proposed and described here. With these new concepts, the mass of the future Earth remote sensing SAR antennas is expected to be less than 100 Kg.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breger, M.; Robertson, P. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Fossati, L. [Department of Physical Sciences, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Balona, L. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935 (South Africa); Kurtz, D. W. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Bohlender, D. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Lenz, P. [N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warszawa (Poland); Mueller, I.; Lueftinger, Th. [Institut fuer Astronphysik der Universitaet Wien, Tuerkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria); Clarke, Bruce D. [SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Hall, Jennifer R.; Ibrahim, Khadeejah A. [Orbital Sciences Corporation/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)


    Two years of Kepler data of KIC 8054146 ({delta} Sct/{gamma} Dor hybrid) revealed 349 statistically significant frequencies between 0.54 and 191.36 cycles day{sup -1} (6.3 {mu}Hz to 2.21 mHz). The 117 low frequencies cluster in specific frequency bands, but do not show the equidistant period spacings predicted for gravity modes of successive radial order, n, and reported for at least one other hybrid pulsator. The four dominant low frequencies in the 2.8-3.0 cycles day{sup -1} (32-35 {mu}Hz) range show strong amplitude variability with timescales of months and years. These four low frequencies also determine the spacing of the higher frequencies in and beyond the {delta} Sct pressure-mode frequency domain. In fact, most of the higher frequencies belong to one of three families with spacings linked to a specific dominant low frequency. In the Fourier spectrum, these family regularities show up as triplets, high-frequency sequences with absolutely equidistant frequency spacings, side lobes (amplitude modulations), and other regularities in frequency spacings. Furthermore, within two families the amplitude variations between the low and high frequencies are related. We conclude that the low frequencies (gravity modes, rotation) and observed high frequencies (mostly pressure modes) are physically connected. This unusual behavior may be related to the very rapid rotation of the star: from a combination of high- and low-resolution spectroscopy we determined that KIC 8054146 is a very fast rotator ({upsilon} sin i = 300 {+-} 20 km s{sup -1}) with an effective temperature of 7600 {+-} 200 K and a surface gravity log g of 3.9 {+-} 0.3. Several astrophysical ideas explaining the origin of the relationship between the low and high frequencies are explored.

  11. Low Mass Stellar Companions to Nearby A and B Stars (United States)

    Gullikson, Kevin; Kraus, Adam L.


    Recent discoveries of planets orbiting retired A-stars on close orbits and young A-stars on very wide orbits have renewed interest in the properties of nearby intermediate-mass stars. Especially interesting are the young stars, because directly-imaged planets orbiting them may be bright enough for characterization (e.g. HR 8799, Beta Pictoris, etc). However, intermediate-mass stars and especially young intermediate mass stars are part of multiple systems more often than not. Close stellar companions may affect the formation and orbital evolution of any planets, and the properties of the companions can help constrain the binary formation mechanism. The mass ratio distribution of a population of stars, especially if it is significantly different from the distribution for wide companions, is helpful to distinguish companions that were born in or affected by the circumprimary disk from those which formed through fragmentation of the molecular core. We have conducted a spectroscopic survey of 400 nearby A- and B-type stars, aimed at detecting stellar companions as late as M4 for all orbital separations <100 AU. We have searched for companions to the stars by cross-correlating the spectra against model templates for F-M type stars; a significant peak in the cross-correlation function indicates a detection. Our cross-correlation technique can detect low-mass companions with orbits that are too wide to detect with radial velocity monitoring and too small to detect with imaging techniques, making it complementary to work already done. We present initial results from our survey and present the distribution of mass ratios for inner companions.

  12. Low-Mass Dark Matter Search with CDMSlite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnese, R.; et al.


    The SuperCDMS experiment is designed to directly detect WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) that may constitute the dark matter in our galaxy. During its operation at the Soudan Underground Laboratory, germanium detectors were run in the CDMSlite (Cryogenic Dark Matter Search low ionization threshold experiment) mode to gather data sets with sensitivity specifically for WIMPs with masses ${<}10$ GeV/$c^2$. In this mode, a large detector-bias voltage is applied to amplify the phonon signals produced by drifting charges. This paper presents studies of the experimental noise and its effect on the achievable energy threshold, which is demonstrated to be as low as 56 eV$_{\\text{ee}}$ (electron equivalent energy). The detector biasing configuration is described in detail, with analysis corrections for voltage variations to the level of a few percent. Detailed studies of the electric-field geometry, and the resulting successful development of a fiducial parameter, eliminate poorly measured events, yielding an energy resolution ranging from ${\\sim}$9 eV$_{\\text{ee}}$ at 0 keV to 101 eV$_{\\text{ee}}$ at ${\\sim}$10 keV$_{\\text{ee}}$. New results are derived for astrophysical uncertainties relevant to the WIMP-search limits, specifically examining how they are affected by variations in the most probable WIMP velocity and the galactic escape velocity. These variations become more important for WIMP masses below 10 GeV/$c^2$. Finally, new limits on spin-dependent low-mass WIMP-nucleon interactions are derived, with new parameter space excluded for WIMP masses ${\\lesssim}$3 GeV/$c^2$.

  13. Black Hole Mergers and Recoils in Low-Mass Galaxies (United States)

    Blecha, Laura; Kelley, Luke; Koss, Michael; Satyapal, Shobita


    Mergers between massive black holes (BHs) in the intermediate-mass range are one of the most promising sources of gravitational waves (GWs) detectable with LISA. These highly energetic GW events could be observed out to very high redshift, in the epoch where massive BH seeds are thought to form. Despite recent progress, however, much is still not known about the low-mass BH population even in the local Universe. The rates of BH binary formation, inspiral, and merger are also highly uncertain across the BH mass scale. To address these pressing issues in advance of LISA, cosmological hydrodynamics simulations and semi-analytic modeling are being used to model the formation and evolution of BH binaries, and the GW signals they produce. Efforts are also underway to understand the electromagnetic (EM) signatures of the BH binary population. These have proven largely elusive thus far, but an increasing population of BH pairs has been found, and advances in the coming years will provide important comparisons for models of GW sources. Moreover, asymmetry in the GW emission from BH mergers imparts a recoil kick to the merged BH, which in extreme cases can eject the BH from its host galaxy. This creates additional uncertainty in the BH merger rate, but the remnant recoiling BH could be observed as an offset quasar. Identifications of such objects would provide another EM signature of BH mergers that would help pave the way for LISA. We will review model predictions of the BH inspiral and merger rate across the mass scale. We will also describe how the EM signatures of active, merging BHs can be used to constrain theoretical merger rates. Finally, we will discuss the predicted observability of recoiling BHs and ongoing efforts to identify and confirm candidate recoils.

  14. Determining the masses and radii of rapidly rotating, oblate neutron stars using energy-resolved waveforms of their X-ray burst oscillations (United States)

    Lamb, Frederick K.; Miller, M. Coleman


    We have developed new, more sophisticated, and much faster Bayesian analysis methods that enable us to estimate the masses and radii of rapidly rotating, oblate neutron stars using the energy-resolved waveforms of their X-ray burst oscillations and to determine the uncertainties in these mass and radius estimates. We first generate the energy-resolved burst oscillation waveforms that would be produced by a hot spot on various rapidly rotating, oblate stars, using the oblate-star Schwarzschild-spacetime (OS) approximation. In generating these synthetic data, we assume that 1 million counts have been collected from the hot spot and that the background is 9 million counts. This produces a realistic modulation amplitude and a total number of counts comparable to the number that could be obtained by a future space mission such as the proposed LOFT or AXTAR missions or the accepted NICER mission by combining data from many bursts from a given star. We then compute the joint posterior distribution of the mass M and radius R in standard models, for each synthetic waveform, and use these posterior distributions to determine the 1-, 2-, and 3-sigma confidence regions in the M-R plane for each synthetic waveform and model. We report here the confidence regions obtained when Schwarzschild+Doppler (S+D) and OS waveform models are used, including results obtained when the properties of the star used to generate the synthetic waveform data differ from the properties of the star used in modeling the waveform. These results are based on research supported by NSF grant AST0709015 at the University of Illinois and NSF grant AST0708424 at the University of Maryland.

  15. Invisible decays of low mass Higgs bosons in supersymmetric models (United States)

    Pandita, P. N.; Patra, Monalisa


    The discovery of a 126 GeV Higgs-like scalar at the LHC along with the nonobservation of the supersymmetric particles has in turn led to constraining various supersymmetric models through the Higgs data. We here consider the case of both the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) as well its extension containing an additional chiral singlet superfield, the next-to-minimal or nonminimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM). A lot of work has been done in the context of the lightest scalar of these models being identified as the 126 GeV state discovered at the LHC. We here, however, concentrate on the case where we identify the second lightest Higgs boson as the 126 GeV state discovered at the CERN LHC and consider the invisible decays of the low mass Higgs bosons in both the MSSM and NMSSM. In the case of the MSSM we consider H ≈126 GeV and h ≈98 GeV, known as the nondecoupling regime, whereas in the case of the NMSSM h2≈126 GeV, with mh_1 and ma1 varying depending on the parameter space. We find that, in the case of the MSSM with universal boundary conditions at the grand unified theory (GUT) scale, it is not possible to have light neutralinos leading to the decay channel H→χ ˜10χ ˜10. The invisible decay mode is allowed in the case of certain SO(10) and E6 grand unified models with large representations and nonuniversal gaugino masses at the GUT scale. In the case of the NMSSM, for the parameter space considered it is possible to have the invisible decay channel with universal gaugino masses at the GUT scale. We furthermore consider the most general case, with M1 and M2 as independent parameters for both the MSSM and NMSSM. We isolate the regions in parameter space in both cases where the second lightest Higgs boson has a mass of 126 GeV and then concentrate on the invisible decay of Higgs bosons to lighter neutralinos. The other nonstandard decay mode of the Higgs boson is also considered in detail. The invisible Higgs branching ratio being

  16. Exomoon habitability and tidal evolution in low-mass star systems (United States)

    Zollinger, Rhett R.; Armstrong, John C.; Heller, René


    Discoveries of extrasolar planets in the habitable zone (HZ) of their parent star lead to questions about the habitability of massive moons orbiting planets in the HZ. Around low-mass stars, the HZ is much closer to the star than for Sun-like stars. For a planet-moon binary in such an HZ, the proximity of the star forces a close orbit for the moon to remain gravitationally bound to the planet. Under these conditions, the effects of tidal heating, distortion torques, and stellar perturbations become important considerations for exomoon habitability. Utilizing a model that considers both dynamical and tidal interactions simultaneously, we performed a computational investigation into exomoon evolution for systems in the HZ of low-mass stars (≲0.6 M⊙). We show that dwarf stars with masses ≲0.2 M⊙ cannot host habitable exomoons within the stellar HZ due to extreme tidal heating in the moon. Perturbations from a central star may continue to have deleterious effects in the HZ up to ≈0.5 M⊙, depending on the host planet's mass and its location in the HZ, amongst others. In addition to heating concerns, torques due to tidal and spin distortion can lead to the relatively rapid inward spiraling of a moon. Therefore, moons of giant planets in HZs around the most abundant type of star are unlikely to have habitable surfaces. In cases with lower intensity tidal heating, the stellar perturbations may have a positive influence on exomoon habitability by promoting long-term heating and possibly extending the HZ for exomoons.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristallo, S.; Piersanti, L.; Gobrecht, D. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Teramo, I-64100 (Italy); Karinkuzhi, D.; Goswami, A. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India)


    We analyze a set of published elemental abundances from a sample of CH stars which are based on high resolution spectral analysis of ELODIE and SUBARU/HDS spectra. All the elemental abundances were derived from local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis using model atmospheres, and thus they represent the largest homogeneous abundance data available for CH stars to date. For this reason, we can use the set to constrain the physics and the nucleosynthesis occurring in low mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) s.tars. CH stars have been polluted in the past from an already extinct AGB companion and thus show s-process enriched surfaces. We discuss the effects induced on the surface AGB s-process distributions by different prescriptions for convection and rotation. Our reference theoretical FRUITY set fits only part of the observations. Moreover, the s-process observational spread for a fixed metallicity cannot be reproduced. At [Fe/H] > −1, a good fit is found when rotation and a different treatment of the inner border of the convective envelope are simultaneously taken into account. In order to increase the statistics at low metallicities, we include in our analysis a selected number of CEMP stars and, therefore, we compute additional AGB models down to [Fe/H] = −2.85. Our theoretical models are unable to attain the large [hs/ls] ratios characterizing the surfaces of those objects. We speculate on the reasons for such a discrepancy, discussing the possibility that the observed distribution is a result of a proton mixing episode leading to a very high neutron density (the so-called i-process).


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Kun; Li, Xiang-Dong, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China)


    Redback millisecond pulsars (MSPs; hereafter redbacks) are a subpopulation of eclipsing MSPs in close binaries. The formation processes of these systems are not clear. The three pulsars showing transitions between rotation- and accretion-powered states belong to both redbacks and transient low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), suggesting a possible evolutionary link between them. Through binary evolution calculations, we show that the accretion disks in almost all LMXBs are subject to the thermal-viscous instability during certain evolutionary stages, and the parameter space for the disk instability covers the distribution of known redbacks in the orbital period—companion mass plane. We accordingly suggest that the abrupt reduction of the mass accretion rate during quiescence of transient LMXBs provides a plausible way to switch on the pulsar activity, leading to the formation of redbacks, if the neutron star has been spun up to be an energetic MSP. We investigate the evolution of redbacks, taking into account the evaporation feedback, and discuss its possible influence on the formation of black widow MSPs.

  19. In-Medium Modifications of Low-Mass Vector Mesons in PHENIX at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuchimoto, Yuji


    Measurements at RHIC have established the creation of a Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) in most central heavy-ion collisions. An important tool to understand properties of the QGP is study of the spectral shapes of low-mass vector mesons (LVM's), $\\rho$, $\\omega$ and $\\phi$, which can be modified in the medium by partial restoration of chiral symmetry. This modification may be accessed directly by measuring low-momentum LVM's via their decays into lepton pairs inside the hot matter. Since leptons are not subject to the strong interaction, they do not rescatter on their way out of the medium. The PHENIX experiment at RHIC has measured LVM production at mid-rapidity in $p$ + $p$, $d$+Au and Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}$ = 200 GeV\\@. Mass peaks for the LVM's have been observed in the di-electron invariant mass spectra with a resolution of 10 MeV/$c^2$ in all of the three collision systems. The extracted spectra, mass and width of $\\omega$ and $\\phi$ in $p$ + $p$, $d$+Au and Au+Au, in the leptonic and hadronic...

  20. Star formation in the lagoon nebula & low-mass stars and brown dwarfs (United States)

    Castro, Philip J.

    Topic I of this thesis reports on star formation in the Lagoon Nebula. We report on deep Chandra X-Ray Observatory observations of the Lagoon Nebula (NGC 6530 and the Hourglass Nebula) totaling 233 ks. We find 1482 X-ray sources, 1130 associated with catalogued near-infrared or optical stars. These X-ray sources are mainly concentrated in the young Hourglass Nebula Cluster (HNC), the older NGC 6530 cluster, and the young M8E cluster in the southern rim. The clustering of X-ray sources near 850mum emission along the central ridge of NGC 6530, M8E, the southern ridge, and coincident with the Hourglass Nebula, provides evidence of triggered star formation. Chandra point-source density contours show a ridge of increased density between NGC 6530 and the HNC, 9 Sgr and the HNC, and class III/II contours stretching from 9 Sgr to the HNC, respectively, provide support for a proposed sequence of star formation in the Lagoon Nebula. Topic II of this thesis reports on low-mass stars and brown dwarfs (BDs). We report on Chandra X-Ray Observatory observations of the TW Hydrae BD 2MASSW J1139511-315921 (2M1139). In the combined 31 ks ACIS-S exposure, 2M1139 is detected at the 3sigma confidence level. This object is similar to another TW Hydrae BD member, CD-33 7795B (TWA 5B), previously detected in X-rays an order of magnitude more luminous than 2M1139. We find the discrepancy between their X-ray luminosities is consistent with BDs of similar spectral type in the Orion Nebula Cluster. Though rotation may play a role in the X-ray activity of ultracool dwarfs like 2M1139 and TWA 5B, the discrepancy cannot be explained by rotation alone. We discover five high proper motion spectroscopically confirmed L dwarfs by comparing WISE to 2MASS. Two of these are L dwarfs at the L/T transition within 10 pc, and three are early L dwarfs within 25 pc. Of the early L dwarfs, one is a member of the class of unusually red L dwarfs whose red spectra can not be easily attributed to youth.

  1. Star Formation in Low Mass Magnetized Cores: The Formation of Disks and Outflows (United States)

    Duffin, Dennis F.


    Protostellar discs are generally thought to drive molecular outflows and jets observed in star forming regions, but there has been some debate as to how they form. The details of the driving and collimation of outflows help determine how much mass is cleared out and how much energy is fed back into the surroundings. Recently it has been argued that the magnetic brake is so strong that early protostellar disks cannot form. We have performed 3D ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of collapsing Bonnor-Ebert spheres, employing sink particles within an AMR grid and using a cooling function to model radiative cooling of the gas. This allows us to follow the formation and early evolution of the accretion disc (2-8)×10^4 years further into the Class 0 phase of its evolution. We form a rotationally dominated disc with a radius of 100 AU embedded inside a transient, unstable, flattened, rotating structure extending out to 2000 AU. The inner disc becomes unstable to a warping instability due to the magnetic structure of the outflow, warping 30 deg with respect to the rotation-axis by the end of the simulation. The disc is unstable to a Parker instability and sheds magnetic loops, degrading the orientation of the mean threading field. This reduces and locally reverses the magnetic braking torque of the large scale field back upon the disc. The reduction of magnetic braking allows a nearly Keplerian disc to form and may be the key way in which low mass stellar systems produce rotationally dominated discs. We discuss the relevance of our disc misalignment concerning the formation of mis-aligned hot Jupiters. Protostellar outflows are implicated in clearing mass from collapsing cores, and limiting the final mass of newly formed stars. The details of the driving and collimation of outflows help determine how much mass is cleared out and how much energy is fed back into the surroundings. The simulations generate outflows which are precessing, kinked, contain internal

  2. Wireless, Low Mass, High Sensitivity Sensing Sheet for Structural Sensing and Long Term Analysis Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA needs sensor systems to inspect space structures with minimum human interaction. These systems must be highly integrated and self-sufficient, low mass, simple...

  3. Low-mass dark matter search results from full exposure of PandaX-I experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Xiang; Tan, Andy; Chen, Yunhua; Cui, Xiangyi; Fang, Deqing; Fu, Changbo; Giboni, Karl L; Gong, Haowei; Guo, Guodong; He, Ming; Ji, Xiangdong; Ju, Yonglin; Lei, Siao; Li, Shaoli; Lin, Qing; Liu, Huaxuan; Liu, Jianglai; Liu, Xiang; Lorenzon, Wolfgang; Ma, Yugang; Mao, Yajun; Ni, Kaixuan; Pushkin, Kirill; Ren, Xiangxiang; Schubnell, Michael; Shen, Manbing; Shi, Yuji; Stephenson, Scott; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Jiming; Wang, Meng; Wang, Siguang; Wang, Xuming; Wang, Zhou; Wu, Shiyong; Xiao, Mengjiao; Xie, Pengwei; Yan, Binbin; You, Yinghui; Zeng, Xionghui; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Li; Zhou, Xiaopeng; Zhu, Zhonghua


    We report the results of a weakly-interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter search using the full 80.1\\;live-day exposure of the first stage of the PandaX experiment (PandaX-I) located in the China Jin-Ping Underground Laboratory. The PandaX-I detector has been optimized for detecting low-mass WIMPs, achieving a photon detection efficiency of 9.6\\%. With a fiducial liquid xenon target mass of 54.0\\,kg, no significant excess event were found above the expected background. A profile likelihood analysis confirms our earlier finding that the PandaX-I data disfavor all positive low-mass WIMP signals reported in the literature under standard assumptions. A stringent bound on the low mass WIMP is set at WIMP mass below 10\\,GeV/c$^2$, demonstrating that liquid xenon detectors can be competitive for low-mass WIMP searches.

  4. Full transverse-momentum spectra of low-mass Drell-Yan pairs at LHC energies

    CERN Document Server

    Fái, G; Zhang, X; Fai, George; Qiu, Jianwei; Zhang, Xiaofei


    The transverse momentum distribution of low-mass Drell-Yan pairs is calculated in QCD perturbation theory with all-order resummation. We argue that at LHC energies the results should be reliable for the entire transverse momentum range. We demonstrate that the transverse momentum distribution of low-mass Drell-Yan pairs is an advantageous source of constraints on the gluon distribution and its nuclear dependence.

  5. Measurement of low mass muon pairs in sulphur-nucleus collisions with an optimized HELIOS muon spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia


    Dileptons provide a unique and specific tool to detect collective behaviour and to probe for signs of quark gluon plasma formation in nucleus-nucleus interactions. In particular, in the low transverse mass region, below the rho meson, dimuons probe the thermal nature of the interaction while their multiplicity dependence can indicate nuclear volume effects. \\\\\\\\This experiment uses the (almost) unchanged HELIOS muon spectrometer and a combination of a new carefully designed light absorber, at an optimized distance from the target, and multiplicity measurements provided by new Silicon ring detectors, covering more than the muon rapidity acceptance. It intends to improve in quality and quantity on the low mass, low $p_{T}$ dimuon signal already observed in the NA34/2 experiment. The wide range of rapidity from 3.5 to 6.0 will enable us to explore the rapidity dependence of the signal from high energy density at nearly central rapidity up to very forward rapidities. \\\\\\\\The commissioning of the new apparatus (...

  6. New Light on Dark Stars Red Dwarfs, Low-Mass Stars, Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, I. Neill


    There has been very considerable progress in research into low-mass stars, brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets during the past few years, particularly since the fist edtion of this book was published in 2000. In this new edtion the authors present a comprehensive review of both the astrophysical nature of individual red dwarf and brown dwarf stars and their collective statistical properties as an important Galactic stellar population. Chapters dealing with the observational properies of low-mass dwarfs, the stellar mass function and extrasolar planets have been completely revised. Other chapters have been significantly revised and updated as appropriate, including important new material on observational techniques, stellar acivity, the Galactic halo and field star surveys. The authors detail the many discoveries of new brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets made since publication of the first edition of the book and provide a state-of-the-art review of our current knowledge of very low-mass stars, brown dwarfs a...

  7. Dissociative shocks in the inner 100 AU of low-mass protostars (United States)

    Kristensen, L. E.


    Even for low-mass protostars (Lbol 500 K) remains largely uncharacterized in spite of the fact that it is observed toward nearly every low-mass protostar with Herschel-PACS. Recent observations obtained with Herschel-HIFI as part of the "Water in star-forming regions with Herschel" program (WISH) will be presented. The velocity-resolved line profiles of water and related hydrides (OH+, OH, CH+) point to a physical origin of the hot gas to be in dissociative shocks located in the inner few 100 AU of the protostar. Complementary SubMillimeter Array (SMA) data shed further light on both the spatial location and excitation conditions in these shocks. Finally, ALMA Science Verification data show how and where gas is put in motion on small scales (~ 100 AU). All of these observations pave the way for future studies of shocks and entrainment in low-mass protostars.

  8. Low-mass Stars with Extreme Mid-Infrared Excesses: Potential Signatures of Planetary Collisions (United States)

    Theissen, Christopher; West, Andrew


    I investigate the occurrence of extreme mid-infrared (MIR) excesses, a tracer of large amounts of dust orbiting stars, in low-mass stellar systems. Extreme MIR excesses, defined as an excess IR luminosity greater than 1% of the stellar luminosity (LIR/L* ≥ 0.01), have previously only been observed around a small number of solar-mass (M⊙) stars. The origin of this excess has been hypothesized to be massive amounts of orbiting dust, created by collisions between terrestrial planets or large planetesimals. Until recently, there was a dearth of low-mass (M* ≤ 0.6M⊙) stars exhibiting extreme MIR excesses, even though low-mass stars are ubiquitous (~70% of all stars), and known to host multiple terrestrial planets (≥ 3 planets per star).I combine the spectroscopic sample of low-mass stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (70,841 stars) with MIR photometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), to locate stars exhibiting extreme MIR excesses. I find the occurrence frequency of low-mass field stars (stars with ages ≥ 1 Gyr) exhibiting extreme MIR excesses is much larger than that for higher-mass field stars (0.41 ± 0.03% versus 0.00067 ± 0.00033%, respectively).In addition, I build a larger sample of low-mass stars based on stellar colors and proper motions using SDSS, WISE, and the Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (8,735,004 stars). I also build a galactic model to simulate stellar counts and kinematics to estimate the number of stars missing from my sample. I perform a larger, more complete study of low-mass stars exhibiting extreme MIR excesses, and find a lower occurrence frequency (0.020 ± 0.001%) than found in the spectroscopic sample but that is still orders of magnitude larger than that for higher-mass stars. I find a slight trend for redder stars (lower-mass stars) to exhibit a higher occurrence frequency of extreme MIR excesses, as well as a lower frequency with increased stellar age. These samples probe important

  9. Rotational seismology (United States)

    Lee, William H K.


    Rotational seismology is an emerging study of all aspects of rotational motions induced by earthquakes, explosions, and ambient vibrations. It is of interest to several disciplines, including seismology, earthquake engineering, geodesy, and earth-based detection of Einstein’s gravitation waves.Rotational effects of seismic waves, together with rotations caused by soil–structure interaction, have been observed for centuries (e.g., rotated chimneys, monuments, and tombstones). Figure 1a shows the rotated monument to George Inglis observed after the 1897 Great Shillong earthquake. This monument had the form of an obelisk rising over 19 metres high from a 4 metre base. During the earthquake, the top part broke off and the remnant of some 6 metres rotated about 15° relative to the base. The study of rotational seismology began only recently when sensitive rotational sensors became available due to advances in aeronautical and astronomical instrumentations.

  10. Spectral and timing properties of neutron-star low-mass X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyu, Ming


    In this thesis I analyzed the neutron-star low-mass X-ray binaries using data from several X-ray telescopes. I found that the relations of fluxes of different radiation components in 4U 1636-53 is more complicated than what the simple reflction model predicts. This may be due to either changes in

  11. No Evidence of Mass Segregation in the Low-mass Galactic Globular Cluster NGC 6101

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalessandro, E.; Ferraro, F. R.; Massari, D.; Lanzoni, B.; Miocchi, P.; Beccari, G.

    We used a combination of Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based data to probe the dynamical state of the low-mass Galactic globular cluster NGC 6101. We have rederived the structural parameters of the cluster by using star counts and we find that it is about three times more extended than thought

  12. The Low-Mass Stellar Content of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB Association (United States)

    Yorke, H.; Kunkel, M.; Brander, W.; Zinnecker, H.; Neuhauser, R.; Schmitt, J.; Mayor, M.; Udry, S.


    Based on ROSAT observations and data obtained with ground-based telescopes, we have carried out an extensive study of the low-mass pre-main-sequence population in Upper Scorpius, the youngest subgroup of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association.

  13. Low Mass AGN: Combining IRAC With Near-IR Grism Spectroscopy (United States)

    Colbert, James; Teplitz, Harry; Malkan, Matt; Scarlata, Claudia; Bagley, Micaela; Baronchelli, Ivano; Hayden-Pawson, Connor; Rafelski, Marc


    Low mass AGN are critical to understanding the evolution of AGNs and stars in galaxies, marking the time periods of highest accretion efficiency and greatest likely deviations from the black hole mass - sigma correlation. Using the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP), we have just recently identified 68 candidate z > 1 AGN in 27 fields from their near-infrared emission line ratios. The WISP survey selects emission line galaxies without any pre-selection bias and is exquisitely sensitive to low mass (down to 10^7 solar masses), high-equivalent width galaxies that are missed by most other surveys. We propose to take IRAC 4.5 micron imaging of these AGN candidate fields in order to confirm 68 low mass AGN candidates, identify additional low mass IR-AGN missed by emission line selection, and produce the SED fits that can separate hot dust from star light, allowing comparison of stellar mass to AGN bolometric luminosity. The upcoming Euclid and WFIRST missions will generate hundreds of thousands of near-infrared spectra over a similar redshift range to WISP. For most of these objects, near-infrared emission line ratios will be the only viable AGN diagnostic. The Spitzer IRAC color AGN selection is one of the most robust AGN identifiers available. We wish to test these near-infrared emission line selection methods against the IRAC selection in order to evaluate the reliability of the AGN these future missions are likely to produce.

  14. Microlensing discovery of a population of very tight, very low mass binary brown dwarfs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, J.-Y.; Han, C.; Udalski, A.


    Although many models have been proposed, the physical mechanisms responsible for the formation of low-mass brown dwarfs (BDs) are poorly understood. The multiplicity properties and minimum mass of the BD mass function provide critical empirical diagnostics of these mechanisms. We present the disc...

  15. Simulations of Magnetic Flux Emergence in Cool, Low-Mass Stars: Toward Linking Dynamo Action with Starspots (United States)

    Weber, Maria Ann; Browning, Matthew; Nelson, Nicholas


    Starspots are windows into a star’s internal dynamo mechanism. However, the manner by which the dynamo-generated magnetic field traverses the stellar interior to emerge at the surface is not especially well understood. Establishing the details of magnetic flux emergence plays a key role in deciphering stellar dynamos and observed starspot properties. In the solar context, insight into this process has been obtained by assuming the magnetism giving rise to sunspots consists partly of idealized thin flux tubes (TFTs). Here, we present three sets of TFT simulations in rotating spherical shells of convection: one representative of the Sun, the second of a solar-like rapid rotator, and the third of a fully convective M dwarf. Our solar simulations reproduce sunspot observables such as low-latitude emergence, tilting action toward the equator following the Joy’s Law trend, and a phenomenon akin to active longitudes. Further, we compare the evolution of rising flux tubes in our (computationally inexpensive) TFT simulations to buoyant magnetic structures that arise naturally in a unique global simulation of a rapidly rotating Sun. We comment on the role of rapid rotation, the Coriolis force, and external torques imparted by the surrounding convection in establishing the trajectories of the flux tubes across the convection zone. In our fully convective M dwarf simulations, the expected starspot latitudes deviate from the solar trend, favoring significantly poleward latitudes unless the differential rotation is sufficiently prograde or the magnetic field is strongly super-equipartition. Together our work provides a link between dynamo-generated magnetic fields, turbulent convection, and observations of starspots along the lower main sequence.

  16. Hubble Space Telescope Proper Motion (HSTPROMO) Catalogs of Galactic Globular Clusters. V. The Rapid Rotation of 47 Tuc Traced and Modeled in Three Dimensions (United States)

    Bellini, A.; Bianchini, P.; Varri, A. L.; Anderson, J.; Piotto, G.; van der Marel, R. P.; Vesperini, E.; Watkins, L. L.


    High-precision proper motions of the globular cluster 47 Tuc have allowed us to measure for the first time the cluster rotation in the plane of the sky and the velocity anisotropy profile from the cluster core out to about 13‧. These profiles are coupled with prior measurements along the line of sight (LOS) and the surface brightness profile and fit all together with self-consistent models specifically constructed to describe quasi-relaxed stellar systems with realistic differential rotation, axisymmetry, and pressure anisotropy. The best-fit model provides an inclination angle i between the rotation axis and the LOS direction of 30° and is able to simultaneously reproduce the full three-dimensional kinematics and structure of the cluster, while preserving a good agreement with the projected morphology. Literature models based solely on LOS measurements imply a significantly different inclination angle (i = 45°), demonstrating that proper motions play a key role in constraining the intrinsic structure of 47 Tuc. Our best-fit global dynamical model implies an internal rotation higher than previous studies have shown and suggests a peak of the intrinsic V/σ ratio of ∼0.9 at around two half-light radii, with a nonmonotonic intrinsic ellipticity profile reaching values up to 0.45. Our study unveils a new degree of dynamical complexity in 47 Tuc, which may be leveraged to provide new insights into the formation and evolution of globular clusters. Based on archival observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  17. From nearby low-mass protostars to high redshift starbursts: protostellar outflows tracing the IMF (United States)

    Kristensen, Lars E.; Bergin, Edwin


    Embedded low-mass protostars are notoriously difficult to observe even in the nearest Galactic high-mass clusters where they outnumber the high-mass protostars by orders of magnitude. Thus, without a good tracer of the low-mass population, we do not have a good handle on the shape of the initial (core) mass function, leaving little hope for extrapolating to extragalactic regions where we will never have neither the sensitivity nor the resolution to directly observe this population. A good tracer of the low-mass population is needed.One such physical tracer is outflows. Outflow emission is directly proportional to envelope mass, and outflows are predominantly active during the deeply embedded phases of star formation. What is required for this method to work is species and transitions tracing outflows uniquely such that any signal is not diluted by the surrounding cloud, such as certain methanol transitions, water, high-J CO (J > 10).I will present a statistical model of a forming high-mass cluster. The model includes what we currently know about Galactic high-mass clusters and incorporates outflow emission from low-mass protostars. The latter component is obtained from observations of tens of nearby embedded low-mass protostellar outflows in the above-mentioned tracers. The model is benchmarked against ALMA and Herschel-HIFI observations of Galactic clusters proving the concept, and preliminary extrapolations to the extragalactic regime are presented. With this new probe, and traditional probes of the distant star formation which predominantly trace high mass stars, we will be able to explore the IMF in starburst galaxies from low to high redshift.

  18. Energy dependence of normal branch quasi-periodic intensity oscillations in low-mass X-ray binaries (United States)

    Miller, Guy S.; Lamb, Frederick K.


    The properties of the approximately 6 Hz quasi-periodic X-ray intensity oscillations observed in the low-mass X-ray binary Cyg X-2 when it is on the normal spectral branch are shown to be consistent with a model in which photons from a central source with a fixed spectrum are Comptonized by an oscillating radial inflow. As the electron scattering optical depth of the flow varies, the spectrum of the escaping X-rays appears to rotate about a pivot energy that depends mainly on the electron temperature in the flow. The temperature derived from the observed energy dependence of the Cyg X-2 normal branch oscillations is approximately 1 keV, in good agreement with the estimated Compton temperature of its X-ray spectrum. The mean optical depth tau of the Comptonizing flow is inferred to be about 10, while the change in tau over an oscillation is estimated to be about 1; both values are in good agreement with radiation hydrodcode simulations of the radial flow.

  19. Determining the Physical Properties of Very-Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs in the Near-Infrared (United States)

    Rice, Emily L.; Barman, Travis S.; McLean, Ian S.; Prato, L.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy


    Accurate measurements of the fundamental physical properties of very-low-mass stars and brown dwarfs are crucial for calibrating evolutionary models. Photometry and low-resolution spectroscopy effectively average over absorption features that sample different layers in complex cool atmospheres. By studying a large sample of objects bright enough for high-resolution spectroscopy, we can develop methods for determining physical properties as accurately and efficiently as possible. As part of the Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey (BDSS [1, 2]), we are conducting a detailed comparison of observed and synthetic spectra for a sample of young M and L dwarfs and field M, L, and T dwarfs (~50 objects in total). High-resolution near-infrared spectra from NIRSPEC on Keck II provide an unequaled combination of resolving power and wavelength coverage. Synthetic spectra were created from PHOENIX atmosphere models calculated exclusively for this project with updated line lists and solar abundances. Combined with spectral types from photometric studies and low-resolution spectra and surface gravity estimates from age determination, the high-resolution spectra enable precise measurements of effective temperature and surface gravity, as well as accurate determination of radial velocity and projected rotational velocity. Our preliminary observation-model comparisons distinguish between wavelength regimes for which the models reproduce observed high-resolution spectra and regimes in which model data (line lists, oscillator strengths, etc.) are lacking.

  20. Very Low Mass Stellar and Substellar Companions to Solar-like Stars from MARVELS. IV. A Candidate Brown Dwarf or Low-mass Stellar Companion to HIP 67526 (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Ge, Jian; Cargile, Phillip; Crepp, Justin R.; De Lee, Nathan; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Esposito, Massimiliano; Ferreira, Letícia D.; Femenia, Bruno; Fleming, Scott W.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Ghezzi, Luan; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Hebb, Leslie; Lee, Brian L.; Ma, Bo; Stassun, Keivan G.; Wang, Ji; Wisniewski, John P.; Agol, Eric; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Chang, Liang; Nicolaci da Costa, Luiz; Eastman, Jason D.; Ebelke, Garrett; Gary, Bruce; Kane, Stephen R.; Li, Rui; Liu, Jian; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Malanushenko, Viktor; Malanushenko, Elena; Muna, Demitri; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Oravetz, Audrey; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Pepper, Joshua; Paegert, Martin; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Rebolo, Rafael; Santiago, Basilio X.; Schneider, Donald P.; Shelden Bradley, Alaina C.; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Snedden, Stephanie; van Eyken, J. C.; Wan, Xiaoke; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Zhao, Bo


    We report the discovery of a candidate brown dwarf (BD) or a very low mass stellar companion (MARVELS-5b) to the star HIP 67526 from the Multi-object Apache point observatory Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS). The radial velocity curve for this object contains 31 epochs spread over 2.5 yr. Our Keplerian fit, using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach, reveals that the companion has an orbital period of 90.2695^{+0.0188}_{-0.0187} days, an eccentricity of 0.4375 ± 0.0040, and a semi-amplitude of 2948.14^{+16.65}_{-16.55} m s-1. Using additional high-resolution spectroscopy, we find the host star has an effective temperature T eff = 6004 ± 34 K, a surface gravity log g (cgs) =4.55 ± 0.17, and a metallicity [Fe/H] =+0.04 ± 0.06. The stellar mass and radius determined through the empirical relationship of Torres et al. yields 1.10 ± 0.09 M ⊙ and 0.92 ± 0.19 R ⊙. The minimum mass of MARVELS-5b is 65.0 ± 2.9M Jup, indicating that it is likely to be either a BD or a very low mass star, thus occupying a relatively sparsely populated region of the mass function of companions to solar-type stars. The distance to this system is 101 ± 10 pc from the astrometric measurements of Hipparcos. No stellar tertiary is detected in the high-contrast images taken by either FastCam lucky imaging or Keck adaptive optics imaging, ruling out any star with mass greater than 0.2 M ⊙ at a separation larger than 40 AU.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Peng; Ge Jian; De Lee, Nathan; Fleming, Scott W.; Lee, Brian L.; Ma Bo; Wang, Ji [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, P.O. Box 112055, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Cargile, Phillip; Hebb, Leslie; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Ferreira, Leticia D. [Observatorio do Valongo, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ladeira do Pedro Antonio, 43, CEP: 20080-090, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Esposito, Massimiliano; Femenia, Bruno; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay I. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/Via Lactea S/N, E-38200 La Laguna (Spain); Gaudi, B. Scott [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ghezzi, Luan [Laboratorio Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia (LIneA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400 (Brazil); Wisniewski, John P. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Agol, Eric, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); and others


    We report the discovery of a candidate brown dwarf (BD) or a very low mass stellar companion (MARVELS-5b) to the star HIP 67526 from the Multi-object Apache point observatory Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS). The radial velocity curve for this object contains 31 epochs spread over 2.5 yr. Our Keplerian fit, using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach, reveals that the companion has an orbital period of 90.2695{sup +0.0188}{sub -0.0187} days, an eccentricity of 0.4375 {+-} 0.0040, and a semi-amplitude of 2948.14{sup +16.65}{sub -16.55} m s{sup -1}. Using additional high-resolution spectroscopy, we find the host star has an effective temperature T{sub eff} = 6004 {+-} 34 K, a surface gravity log g (cgs) =4.55 {+-} 0.17, and a metallicity [Fe/H] =+0.04 {+-} 0.06. The stellar mass and radius determined through the empirical relationship of Torres et al. yields 1.10 {+-} 0.09 M{sub Sun} and 0.92 {+-} 0.19 R{sub Sun }. The minimum mass of MARVELS-5b is 65.0 {+-} 2.9M{sub Jup}, indicating that it is likely to be either a BD or a very low mass star, thus occupying a relatively sparsely populated region of the mass function of companions to solar-type stars. The distance to this system is 101 {+-} 10 pc from the astrometric measurements of Hipparcos. No stellar tertiary is detected in the high-contrast images taken by either FastCam lucky imaging or Keck adaptive optics imaging, ruling out any star with mass greater than 0.2 M{sub Sun} at a separation larger than 40 AU.

  2. What can we learn from atmospheres of transitioning low-mass towards habitable planets? (United States)

    Ikoma, Masahiro


    Transit observations with the Kepler space telescope revealed that planets smaller than Neptune are much more abundant than gas giants beyond our Solar System. The observed mass-radius relationships for such small planets are known to be diverse, which may mean that the amount of the atmospheric gas differs from planet to planet. Also, recent observational characterization of atmospheres of some transiting low-mass exoplanets suggests that the atmospheric composition is also diverse. Thus, understanding the diversity of atmospheres of transiting low-mass planets and their origins must be a key to predicting possible diversity of planets in habitable zones. In this paper, I will overview recent theories of the formation and evolution of planetary atmosphere. I will also discuss what we can learn from on-going and future observations for characterizing transiting planet atmospheres.

  3. Low mass dimuon production in indium-indium collisions at 158 A GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Usai, G; Averbeck, R; Banicz, K; Castor, J; Chaurand, B; Cicalò, C; Colla, A; Cortese, P; Damjanovic, S; David, A; De Falco, A; Devaux, A; Drees, A; Ducroux, L; Enyo, H; Ferretti, A; Floris, M; Force, P; Guettet, N; Guichard, A; Gulkanian, H R; Heuser, J; Keil, M; Kluberg, L; Lozano, J; Lourenço, C; Manso, F; Masoni, A; Martins, P; Neves, A; Ohnishi, H; Oppedisano, C; Parracho, P; Pillot, P; Puddu, G; Radermacher, E; Ramalhete, P; Rosinsky, P; Scomparin, E; Seixas, J; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sonderegger, P; Specht, H J; Tieulent, R; Veenhof, R; Wöhri, H K


    The NA60 experiment studies open charm and prompt dimuon production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at the CERN SPS. During 2003 the experiment collected data in indium-indium collisions at 158 GeV per nucleon. Almost 240 million dimuon events were recorded. New results on J/psi suppression, open-charm production and low mass dimuons should help clarify some interesting questions left open by previous experiments. After a brief detector description, this paper focuses on the analysis of the low mass dimuons. Preliminary results are presented on the phi/omega production cross section ratios and on the phi transverse momentum distributions, both as a function of collision centrality.

  4. Can newly born neutron star collapse to low-mass black hole?

    CERN Document Server

    Miyazaki, K


    We investigate for the first time the newly born neutron star (NS) containing both hyperons and kaons as strange hadrons within the relativistic mean-field theory. It is found that the maximum baryonic mass of the newly born NS is lower than that of the cold deleptonized NS. Against the suggestion by Brown and Bethe, there is no possibility of the delayed collapse of NS to low-mass black hole.

  5. CANDELS Sheds Light on the Environmental Quenching of Low-mass Galaxies (United States)

    Guo, Yicheng; Bell, Eric F.; Lu, Yu; Koo, David C.; Faber, Sandra M.; CANDELS


    We investigate the environmental quenching of galaxies, especially those with stellar masses (M*) smaller than 10^9.5 M⊙, beyond the local universe. Essentially all local low-mass quenched galaxies (QGs) are believed to live close to massive central galaxies, which is a demonstration of environmental quenching. We use CANDELS data to test whether or not such a dwarf QG--massive central galaxy connection exists beyond the local universe. For this purpose, we only need a statistically representative, rather than a complete, sample of low-mass galaxies, which enables our study out to z > 1.5. For each low-mass galaxy, we measure the projected distance (dproj) to its nearest massive (M* > 10^10.5 M⊙) neighbor within a redshift range. At a given z and M*, the environmental quenching effect is considered to be observed if the dproj distribution of QGs is significantly skewed toward lower values than that of star-forming galaxies (SFGs). For galaxies with 10^8 M⊙ distributions of quenched and star-forming populations is detected up to z ˜ 1. Also, about 10% of the quenched galaxies in our sample are located between two and four virial radii (R_Vir) of the massive halos. The median projected distance from low-mass QGs to their massive neighbors (dproj/R_Vir) decreases with satellite M* at M* 10^9.5 M⊙. This trend suggests a smooth, if any, transition of the quenching timescale around M* of 10^9.5 M⊙ at 0.5 < z < 1.0.

  6. Astrometric orbit of a low-mass companion to an ultracool dwarf


    {Sahlmann} J.; {Lazorenko} P.~F.; {S{é}gransan}}} D.; {Mart{í}}}n}} E.~L.; {Queloz} D.; {Mayor} M.; {Udry} S.


    Little is known about the existence of extrasolar planets around ultracool dwarfs. Furthermore, binary stars with Sun-like primaries and very low-mass binaries composed of ultracool dwarfs show differences in the distributions of mass ratio and orbital separation that can be indicative of distinct formation mechanisms. Using FORS2/VLT optical imaging for high precision astrometry we are searching for planets and substellar objects around ultracool dwarfs to investigate their multiplicity prop...

  7. A refined analysis of the low-mass eclipsing binary system T-Cyg1-12664 (United States)

    Iglesias-Marzoa, Ramón; López-Morales, Mercedes; Arévalo, María J.; Coughlin, Jeffrey L.; Lázaro, Carlos


    Context. The observational mass-radius relation of main sequence stars with masses between 0.3 and 1.0 M⊙ reveals deviations between the stellar radii predicted by models and the observed radii of stars in detached binaries. Aims: We generate an accurate physical model of the low-mass eclipsing binary T-Cyg1-12664 in the Kepler mission field to measure the physical parameters of its components and to compare them with the prediction of theoretical stellar evolution models. Methods: We analyze the Kepler mission light curve of T-Cyg1-12664 to accurately measure the times and phases of the primary and secondary eclipse. In addition, we measure the rotational period of the primary component by analyzing the out-of-eclipse oscillations that are due to spots. We accurately constrain the effective temperature of the system using ground-based absolute photometry in B, V, RC, and IC. We also obtain and analyze VRCIC differential light curves to measure the eccentricity and the orbital inclination of the system, and a precise Teff ratio. From the joint analysis of new radial velocities and those in the literature we measure the individual masses of the stars. Finally, we use the PHOEBE code to generate a physical model of the system. Results: T-Cyg1-12664 is a low eccentricity system, located d = 360 ± 22 pc away from us, with an orbital period of P = 4.1287955(4) days, and an orbital inclination I = 86.969 ± 0.056 degrees. It is composed of two very different stars with an active G6 primary with Teff1 = 5560 ± 160 K, M1 = 0.680 ± 0.045 M⊙, R1 = 0.799 ± 0.017 R⊙, and a M3V secondary star with Teff2 = 3460 ± 210 K, M2 = 0.376 ± 0.017 M⊙, and R2 = 0.3475 ± 0.0081 R⊙. Conclusions: The primary star is an oversized and spotted active star, hotter than the stars in its mass range. The secondary is a cool star near the mass boundary for fully convective stars (M 0.35 M⊙), whose parameters appear to be in agreement with low-mass stellar model. Full Tables 1

  8. Extremely Low Mass: The Circumstellar Envelope of a Potential Proto-Brown Dwarf (United States)

    Wiseman, Jennifer


    What is the environment for planet formation around extremely low mass stars? Is the environment around brown dwarfs and extremely low mass stars conducive and sufficiently massive for planet production? The determining conditions may be set very early in the process of the host object's formation. IRAS 16253-2429, the source of the Wasp-Waist Nebula seen in Spitzer IRAC images, is an isolated, very low luminosity ("VeLLO") Class 0 protostar in the nearby rho Ophiuchi cloud. We present VLA ammonia mapping observations of the dense gas envelope feeding the central core accreting system. We find a flattened envelope perpendicular to the outflow axis, and gas cavities that appear to cradle the outflow lobes as though carved out by the flow and associated (apparently precessing) jet, indicating environmental disruption. Based on the NH3 (1,1) and (2,2) emission distribution, we derive the mass, velocity fields and temperature distribution for the envelope. We discuss the combined evidence for this source to be one of the youngest and lowest mass sources in formation yet known, and discuss the ramifications for planet formation potential in this extremely low mass system.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, P.-E. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21218 (United States); Gianninas, A.; Kilic, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK, 73019 (United States); Ludwig, H.-G. [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Königstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Steffen, M. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Freytag, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy at Uppsala University, Regementsvägen 1, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Hermes, J. J., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)


    We present an extended grid of mean three-dimensional (3D) spectra for low-mass, pure-hydrogen atmosphere DA white dwarfs (WDs). We use CO5BOLD radiation-hydrodynamics 3D simulations covering T{sub eff} = 6000–11,500 K and log g = 5–6.5 (g in cm s{sup −2}) to derive analytical functions to convert spectroscopically determined 1D temperatures and surface gravities to 3D atmospheric parameters. Along with the previously published 3D models, the 1D to 3D corrections are now available for essentially all known convective DA WDs (i.e., log g = 5–9). For low-mass WDs, the correction in temperature is relatively small (a few percent at the most), but the surface gravities measured from the 3D models are lower by as much as 0.35 dex. We revisit the spectroscopic analysis of the extremely low-mass (ELM) WDs, and demonstrate that the 3D models largely resolve the discrepancies seen in the radius and mass measurements for relatively cool ELM WDs in eclipsing double WD and WD + millisecond pulsar binary systems. We also use the 3D corrections to revise the boundaries of the ZZ Ceti instability strip, including the recently found ELM pulsators.

  10. Large-scale correlations in gas traced by Mg II absorbers around low-mass galaxies (United States)

    Kauffmann, Guinevere


    The physical origin of the large-scale conformity in the colours and specific star formation rates of isolated low-mass central galaxies and their neighbours on scales in excess of 1 Mpc is still under debate. One possible scenario is that gas is heated over large scales by feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), leading to coherent modulation of cooling and star formation between well-separated galaxies. In this Letter, the metal line absorption catalogue of Zhu & Ménard is used to probe gas out to large projected radii around a sample of a million galaxies with stellar masses ˜1010M⊙ and photometric redshifts in the range 0.4 statistically significant excess of Mg II absorbers is present around the red-low-mass galaxies compared to their blue counterparts out to projected radii of 10 Mpc. In addition, the equivalent width distribution function of Mg II absorbers around low-mass galaxies is shown to be strongly affected by the presence of a nearby (Rp < 2 Mpc) radio-loud AGNs out to projected radii of 5 Mpc.

  11. Securing the Extremely Low-Densities of Low-Mass Planets Characterized by Transit Timing Variations (United States)

    Ford, Eric B.


    Transit timing variations (TTVs) provide an excellent tool to characterize the masses and orbits of dozens of small planets, including many at orbital periods beyond the reach of both Doppler surveys and photoevaporation-induced atmospheric loss. Dynamical modeling of these systems has identified low-mass planets with surprisingly large radii and low densities (e.g., Kepler-79d, Jontof-Hutter et al. 2014; Kepler-51, Masuda 2014; Kepler-87c, Ofir et al. 2014). Additional low-density, low-mass planets will likely become public before ESS III (Jontof-Hutter et al. in prep). Collectively, these results suggest that very low density planets with masses of 2-6 MEarth are not uncommon in compact multiple planet systems. Some astronomers have questioned whether there could be an alternative interpretation of the TTV observations. Indeed, extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence. While the physics of TTVs is rock solid, the statistical analysis of Kepler observations can be challenging, due to the complex interactions between model parameters and high-dimensional parameter spaces that must be explored. We summarize recent advances in computational statistics that enable robust characterization of planetary systems using TTVs. We present updated analyses of a few particularly interesting systems and discuss the implications for the robustness of extremely low densities for low-mass planets. Such planets pose an interesting challenge for planet formation theory and are motivating detailed theoretical studies (e.g., Lee & Chiang 2015 and associated ESS III abstracts).

  12. Complex molecules in the hot core of the low-mass protostar NGC 1333 IRAS 4A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottinelli, S; Ceccarelli, C; Lefloch, B; Williams, JP; Castets, A; Caux, E; Cazaux, S; Maret, S; Parise, B; Tielens, AGGM


    We report the detection of complex molecules (HCOOCH3, HCOOH, and CH3CN), signposts of a hot core like region, toward the low-mass Class 0 source NGC 1333 IRAS 4A. This is the second low-mass protostar in which such complex molecules have been searched for and reported, the other source being IRAS

  13. Evidence from Quasi-Periodic Oscillations for a Millisecond Pulsar in the Low Mass X-Ray Binary 4U 0614+091 (United States)

    Ford, E.; Kaaret, P.; Tavani, M.; Barret, D.; Bloser, P.; Grindlay, J.; Harmon, B. A.; Paciesas, W. S.; Zhang, S. N.


    We have detected quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) near 1 kHz from the low mass X-ray binary 4U 0614+091 in observations with RXTE. The observations span several months and sample the source over a large range of X-ray luminosity. In every interval QPOs are present above 400 Hz with fractional RMS amplitudes from 3 to 12% over the full PCA band. At high count rates, two high frequency QPOs are detected simultaneously. The difference of their frequency centroids is consistent with a constant value of 323 Hz in all observations. During one interval a third signal is detected at 328 +/- 2 Hz. This suggests the system has a stable 'clock' which is most likely the neutron star with spin period 3.1 msec. Thus, our observations of 4U 0614+091 and those of 4U 1728-34 provide the first evidence for millisecond pulsars within low-mass X-ray binary systems and reveal the 'missing-link' between millisecond radiopulsars and the late stages of binary evolution in low mass X-ray binaries. The constant difference of the high frequency QPOs sug,,ests a beat-frequency interpretation. In this model, the high frequency QPO is associated with the Keplerian frequency of the inner accretion disk and the lower frequency QPO is a 'beat' between the differential rotation frequency of the inner disk and the spinning neutron star. Assuming the high frequency QPO is a Keplerian orbital frequency for the accretion disk, we find a maximum mass of 1.9 solar mass and a maximum radius of 17 km for the neutron star.

  14. Characterizing K2 Candidate Planetary Systems Orbiting Low-Mass Stars. I. Classifying Low-Mass Host Stars Observed During Campaigns 1-7 (United States)

    Dressing, Courtney D.; Newton, Elisabeth R.; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Charbomeau, David; Krutson, Heather A.; Vanderburg, Andrew; Sinukoff, Evan


    We present near-infrared spectra for 144 candidate planetary systems identified during Campaigns 1-7 of the NASA K2 Mission. The goal of the survey was to characterize planets orbiting low-mass stars, but our Infrared Telescope Facility/SpeX and Palomar/TripleSpec spectroscopic observations revealed that 49% of our targets were actually giant stars or hotter dwarfs reddened by interstellar extinction. For the 72 stars with spectra consistent with classification as cool dwarfs (spectral types K3-M4), we refined their stellar properties by applying empirical relations based on stars with interferometric radius measurements. Although our revised temperatures are generally consistent with those reported in the Ecliptic Plane Input Catalog (EPIC), our revised stellar radii are typically 0.13 solar radius (39%) larger than the EPIC values, which were based on model isochrones that have been shown to underestimate the radii of cool dwarfs. Our improved stellar characterizations will enable more efficient prioritization of K2 targets for follow-up studies.

  15. Characterizing K2 Candidate Planetary Systems Orbiting Low-mass Stars. I. Classifying Low-mass Host Stars Observed during Campaigns 1-7 (United States)

    Dressing, Courtney D.; Newton, Elisabeth R.; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Charbonneau, David; Knutson, Heather A.; Vanderburg, Andrew; Sinukoff, Evan


    We present near-infrared spectra for 144 candidate planetary systems identified during Campaigns 1-7 of the NASA K2 Mission. The goal of the survey was to characterize planets orbiting low-mass stars, but our Infrared Telescope Facility/SpeX and Palomar/TripleSpec spectroscopic observations revealed that 49% of our targets were actually giant stars or hotter dwarfs reddened by interstellar extinction. For the 72 stars with spectra consistent with classification as cool dwarfs (spectral types K3-M4), we refined their stellar properties by applying empirical relations based on stars with interferometric radius measurements. Although our revised temperatures are generally consistent with those reported in the Ecliptic Plane Input Catalog (EPIC), our revised stellar radii are typically 0.13 {R}⊙ (39%) larger than the EPIC values, which were based on model isochrones that have been shown to underestimate the radii of cool dwarfs. Our improved stellar characterizations will enable more efficient prioritization of K2 targets for follow-up studies.

  16. WASP-167b/KELT-13b: joint discovery of a hot Jupiter transiting a rapidly rotating F1V star (United States)

    Temple, L. Y.; Hellier, C.; Albrow, M. D.; Anderson, D. R.; Bayliss, D.; Beatty, T. G.; Bieryla, A.; Brown, D. J. A.; Cargile, P. A.; Collier Cameron, A.; Collins, K. A.; Colón, K. D.; Curtis, I. A.; D'Ago, G.; Delrez, L.; Eastman, J.; Gaudi, B. S.; Gillon, M.; Gregorio, J.; James, D.; Jehin, E.; Joner, M. D.; Kielkopf, J. F.; Kuhn, R. B.; Labadie-Bartz, J.; Latham, D. W.; Lendl, M.; Lund, M. B.; Malpas, A. L.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Myers, G.; Oberst, T. E.; Pepe, F.; Pepper, J.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Rodriguez, J. E.; Ségransan, D.; Siverd, R. J.; Smalley, B.; Stassun, K. G.; Stevens, D. J.; Stockdale, C.; Tan, T. G.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; Villanueva, S.; West, R. G.; Zhou, G.


    We report the joint WASP/KELT discovery of WASP-167b/KELT-13b, a transiting hot Jupiter with a 2.02-d orbit around a V = 10.5, F1V star with [Fe/H] = 0.1 ± 0.1. The 1.5 RJup planet was confirmed by Doppler tomography of the stellar line profiles during transit. We place a limit of <8 MJup on its mass. The planet is in a retrograde orbit with a sky-projected spin-orbit angle of λ = -165° ± 5°. This is in agreement with the known tendency for orbits around hotter stars to be more likely to be misaligned. WASP-167/KELT-13 is one of the few systems where the stellar rotation period is less than the planetary orbital period. We find evidence of non-radial stellar pulsations in the host star, making it a δ-Scuti or γ-Dor variable. The similarity to WASP-33, a previously known hot-Jupiter host with pulsations, adds to the suggestion that close-in planets might be able to excite stellar pulsations.

  17. Rotating Wavepackets (United States)

    Lekner, John


    Any free-particle wavepacket solution of Schrodinger's equation can be converted by differentiations to wavepackets rotating about the original direction of motion. The angular momentum component along the motion associated with this rotation is an integral multiple of [h-bar]. It is an "intrinsic" angular momentum: independent of origin and…

  18. Rotational elasticity (United States)

    Vassiliev, Dmitri


    We consider an infinite three-dimensional elastic continuum whose material points experience no displacements, only rotations. This framework is a special case of the Cosserat theory of elasticity. Rotations of material points are described mathematically by attaching to each geometric point an orthonormal basis that gives a field of orthonormal bases called the coframe. As the dynamical variables (unknowns) of our theory, we choose the coframe and a density. We write down the general dynamic variational functional for our rotational theory of elasticity, assuming our material to be physically linear but the kinematic model geometrically nonlinear. Allowing geometric nonlinearity is natural when dealing with rotations because rotations in dimension three are inherently nonlinear (rotations about different axes do not commute) and because there is no reason to exclude from our study large rotations such as full turns. The main result of the talk is an explicit construction of a class of time-dependent solutions that we call plane wave solutions; these are travelling waves of rotations. The existence of such explicit closed-form solutions is a non-trivial fact given that our system of Euler-Lagrange equations is highly nonlinear. We also consider a special case of our rotational theory of elasticity which in the stationary setting (harmonic time dependence and arbitrary dependence on spatial coordinates) turns out to be equivalent to a pair of massless Dirac equations. The talk is based on the paper [1]. [1] C.G.Boehmer, R.J.Downes and D.Vassiliev, Rotational elasticity, Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, 2011, vol. 64, p. 415-439. The paper is a heavily revised version of preprint


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Simones, Jacob E. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street, S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Salzer, John J. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Adams, Elizabeth A. K. [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7900 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Elson, Ed C. [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Ott, Jürgen, E-mail: [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)


    The Survey of Hi in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs is an on-going multi-wavelength program to characterize the gas, star formation, and evolution in gas-rich, very low-mass galaxies that populate the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function. The galaxies were selected from the first ∼10% of the Hi Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey based on their low Hi mass and low baryonic mass. Here, we measure the star formation properties from optically resolved stellar populations for 12 galaxies using a color–magnitude diagram fitting technique. We derive lifetime average star formation rates (SFRs), recent SFRs, stellar masses, and gas fractions. Overall, the recent SFRs are comparable to the lifetime SFRs with mean birthrate parameter of 1.4, with a surprisingly narrow standard deviation of 0.7. Two galaxies are classified as dwarf transition galaxies (dTrans). These dTrans systems have star formation and gas properties consistent with the rest of the sample, in agreement with previous results that some dTrans galaxies may simply be low-luminosity dwarf irregulars. We do not find a correlation between the recent star formation activity and the distance to the nearest neighboring galaxy, suggesting that the star formation process is not driven by gravitational interactions, but regulated internally. Further, we find a broadening in the star formation and gas properties (i.e., specific SFRs, stellar masses, and gas fractions) compared to the generally tight correlation found in more massive galaxies. Overall, the star formation and gas properties indicate these very low-mass galaxies host a fluctuating, non-deterministic, and inefficient star formation process.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browning, Matthew K.; Weber, Maria A.; Chabrier, Gilles [Dept of Physics and Astronomy, Stocker Road, University of Exeter, EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Massey, Angela P., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)


    Observations have suggested that some low-mass stars have larger radii than predicted by 1D structure models. Some theoretical models have invoked very strong interior magnetic fields (of order 1 MG or more) as a possible cause of such large radii. Whether fields of that strength could in principle be generated by dynamo action in these objects is unclear, and we do not address the matter directly. Instead, we examine whether such fields could remain in the interior of a low-mass object for a significant amount of time, and whether they would have any other obvious signatures. First, we estimate the timescales for the loss of strong fields by magnetic buoyancy instabilities. We consider a range of field strengths and simple morphologies, including both idealized flux tubes and smooth layers of field. We confirm some of our analytical estimates using thin flux tube magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the rise of buoyant fields in a fully convective M-dwarf. Separately, we consider the Ohmic dissipation of such fields. We find that dissipation provides a complementary constraint to buoyancy: while small-scale, fibril fields might be regenerated faster than they rise, the dissipative heating associated with such fields would in some cases greatly exceed the luminosity of the star. We show how these constraints combine to yield limits on the internal field strength and morphology in low-mass stars. In particular, we find that for stars of 0.3 solar masses, no fields in flux tubes stronger than about 800 kG are simultaneously consistent with both constraints.

  1. KELT-21b: A Hot Jupiter Transiting the Rapidly Rotating Metal-poor Late-A Primary of a Likely Hierarchical Triple System (United States)

    Johnson, Marshall C.; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Zhou, George; Gonzales, Erica J.; Cargile, Phillip A.; Crepp, Justin R.; Penev, Kaloyan; Stassun, Keivan G.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Colón, Knicole D.; Stevens, Daniel J.; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Ilyin, Ilya; Collins, Karen A.; Kielkopf, John F.; Oberst, Thomas E.; Maritch, Luke; Reed, Phillip A.; Gregorio, Joao; Bozza, Valerio; Calchi Novati, Sebastiano; D’Ago, Giuseppe; Scarpetta, Gaetano; Zambelli, Roberto; Latham, David W.; Bieryla, Allyson; Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael; Tayar, Jamie; Serenelli, Aldo; Silva Aguirre, Victor; Clarke, Seth P.; Martinez, Maria; Spencer, Michelle; Trump, Jason; Joner, Michael D.; Bugg, Adam G.; Hintz, Eric G.; Stephens, Denise C.; Arredondo, Anicia; Benzaid, Anissa; Yazdi, Sormeh; McLeod, Kim K.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Hancock, Daniel A.; Sorber, Rebecca L.; Kasper, David H.; Jang-Condell, Hannah; Beatty, Thomas G.; Carroll, Thorsten; Eastman, Jason; James, David; Kuhn, Rudolf B.; Labadie-Bartz, Jonathan; Lund, Michael B.; Mallonn, Matthias; Pepper, Joshua; Siverd, Robert J.; Yao, Xinyu; Cohen, David H.; Curtis, Ivan A.; DePoy, D. L.; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Penny, Matthew T.; Relles, Howard; Stockdale, Christopher; Tan, Thiam-Guan; Villanueva, Steven, Jr.


    We present the discovery of KELT-21b, a hot Jupiter transiting the V = 10.5 A8V star HD 332124. The planet has an orbital period of P = 3.6127647 ± 0.0000033 days and a radius of {1.586}-0.040+0.039 {R}{{J}}. We set an upper limit on the planetary mass of {M}Pv\\sin {I}* =146 km s‑1, the highest projected rotation velocity of any star known to host a transiting hot Jupiter. The star also appears to be somewhat metal poor and α-enhanced, with [{Fe}/{{H}}]=-{0.405}-0.033+0.032 and [α/Fe] = 0.145 ± 0.053 these abundances are unusual, but not extraordinary, for a young star with thin-disk kinematics like KELT-21. High-resolution imaging observations revealed the presence of a pair of stellar companions to KELT-21, located at a separation of 1.″2 and with a combined contrast of {{Δ }}{K}S=6.39+/- 0.06 with respect to the primary. Although these companions are most likely physically associated with KELT-21, we cannot confirm this with our current data. If associated, the candidate companions KELT-21 B and C would each have masses of ∼0.12 {M}ȯ , a projected mutual separation of ∼20 au, and a projected separation of ∼500 au from KELT-21. KELT-21b may be one of only a handful of known transiting planets in hierarchical triple stellar systems.

  2. On the horseshoe drag of a low-mass planet. I - Migration in isothermal disks


    Casoli, J.; Masset, F. S.


    We investigate the unsaturated horseshoe drag exerted on a low-mass planet by an isothermal gaseous disk. In the globally isothermal case, we use a formal- ism, based on the use of a Bernoulli invariant, that takes into account pressure effects, and that extends the torque estimate to a region wider than the horse- shoe region. We find a result that is strictly identical to the standard horseshoe drag. This shows that the horseshoe drag accounts for the torque of the whole corotation region, ...

  3. Optical observations of low-mass X-ray binaries and millisecond pulsars (United States)

    Callanan, Paul J.


    We review recent results from optical observations of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) and millisecond pulsars. We discuss the optical and X-ray properties of those LMXBs which have been suspected of harboring black holes, reviewing in particular recent work on GX 339-4. We also present preliminary results from new optical observations of the ablating millisecond pulsar system PSR 1957 + 20. The orbital modulation is smooth and symmetrical, and is at least four magnitudes deep in R. However, the overall shape of the light curve can be reproduced by a simple model assuming blackbody reradiation from the secondary.

  4. Recent results from LHCb on W, Z and low mass Drell-Yan production

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Recent results from the LHCb experiment are presented that test QCD and the electroweak theory. Inclusive and differential cross-sections, as well as cross-section ratios and asymmetries, for W and Z boson production are measured and compared to next-to-next-to-leading order QCD predictions using the most recent parton distribution functions.  In addition, differential cross-sections for low mass Drell-Yan production are presented in the di-muon mass range 5

  5. Water in low-mass star-forming regions with Herschel: HIFI spectroscopy of NGC 1333


    Kristensen, L. E.; Dominik, C.; Whyborn, N.


    “Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel” (WISH) is a key programme dedicated to studying the role of water and related species during the star-formation process and constraining the physical and chemical properties of young stellar objects. The Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) on the Herschel Space Observatory observed three deeply embedded protostars in the low-mass star-forming region NGC 1333 in several H_(2)^(16)O, H_(2)^(18)O, and CO transitions. Line profiles are r...

  6. CubeSat mechanical design: creating low mass and durable structures (United States)

    Fiedler, Gilbert; Straub, Jeremy


    This paper considers the mechanical design of a low-mass, low-cost spacecraft for use in a multi-satellite sensing constellation. For a multi-spacecraft mission, aggregated small mass and cost reductions can have significant impact. One approach to mass reduction is to make cuts into the structure, removing material. Stress analysis is used to determine the level of material reduction possible. Focus areas for this paper include determining areas to make cuts to ensure that a strong shape remains, while considering the comparative cost and skill level of each type of cut. Real-world results for a CubeSat and universally applicable analysis are presented.

  7. Long-term variability of low-mass X-ray binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippova E.


    Full Text Available We consider modulations of mass captured by the compact object from the companion star’s stellar wind in Low Mass X-ray Binaries with late type giants. Based on 3D simulations with two different hydrodynamic codes used Lagrangian and Eulerian approaches – the SPH code GADGET and the Eulerian code PLUTO, we conclude that a hydrodynamical interaction of the wind matter within a binary system even without eccentricity results in variability of the mass accretion rate with characteristic time-scales close to the orbital period. Observational appearances of this wind might be similar to that of an accretion disc corona/wind.

  8. Hydrogen Burning in Low Mass Stars Constrains Scalar-Tensor Theories of Gravity. (United States)

    Sakstein, Jeremy


    The most general scalar-tensor theories of gravity predict a weakening of the gravitational force inside astrophysical bodies. There is a minimum mass for hydrogen burning in stars that is set by the interplay of plasma physics and the theory of gravity. We calculate this for alternative theories of gravity and find that it is always significantly larger than the general relativity prediction. The observation of several low mass red dwarf stars therefore rules out a large class of scalar-tensor gravity theories and places strong constraints on the cosmological parameters appearing in the effective field theory of dark energy.

  9. M Dwarf Rotation from the K2 Young Clusters to the Field. I. A Mass-Rotation Correlation at 10 Myr (United States)

    Somers, Garrett; Stauffer, John; Rebull, Luisa; Cody, Ann Marie; Pinsonneault, Marc


    Recent observations of the low-mass (0.1-0.6 {M}⊙ ) rotation distributions of the Pleiades and Praesepe clusters have revealed a ubiquitous correlation between mass and rotation, such that late M dwarfs rotate an order-of-magnitude faster than early M dwarfs. In this paper, we demonstrate that this mass-rotation correlation is present in the 10 Myr Upper Scorpius association, as revealed by new K2 rotation measurements. Using rotational evolution models, we show that the low-mass rotation distribution of the 125 Myr Pleiades cluster can only be produced if it hosted an equally strong mass-rotation correlation at 10 Myr. This suggests that physical processes important in the early pre-main sequence (PMS; star formation, accretion, disk-locking) are primarily responsible for the M dwarf rotation morphology, and not quirks of later angular momentum (AM) evolution. Such early mass trends must be taken into account when constructing initial conditions for future studies of stellar rotation. Finally, we show that the average M star loses ˜25%-40% of its AM between 10 and 125 Myr, a figure accurately and generically predicted by modern solar-calibrated wind models. Their success rules out a lossless PMS and validates the extrapolation of magnetic wind laws designed for solar-type stars to the low-mass regime at early times.

  10. Formation of millisecond pulsars with low-mass helium white dwarf companions in very compact binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Kun; Li, X.-D., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)


    Binary millisecond pulsars (BMSPs) are thought to have evolved from low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). If the mass transfer in LMXBs is driven by nuclear evolution of the donor star, the final orbital period is predicted to be well correlated with the mass of the white dwarf (WD), which is the degenerate He core of the donor. Here we show that this relation can be extended to very small WD mass (∼0.14-0.17 M {sub ☉}) and narrow orbital period (about a few hours), depending mainly on the metallicities of the donor stars. There is also discontinuity in the relation, which is due to the temporary contraction of the donor when the H-burning shell crosses the hydrogen discontinuity. BMSPs with low-mass He WD companions in very compact binaries can be accounted for if the progenitor binary experienced very late Case A mass transfer. The WD companion of PSR J1738+0333 is likely to evolve from a Pop II star. For PSR J0348+0432, to explain its extreme compact orbit in the Roche-lobe-decoupling phase, even lower metallicity (Z = 0.0001) is required.

  11. Investigating the low-mass slope and possible turnover in the LMC IMF (United States)

    Gennaro, Mario


    We propose to derive the Initial Mass Function (IMF) of the field population of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) down to 0.2 solar masses, probing the mass regime where the characteristic IMF turnover is observed in our Galaxy. The power of the HST, using the WFC3 IR channel, is necessary to obtain photometric mass estimates for the faint, cool, dwarf stars with masses below the expected IMF turnover point. Only by probing the IMF down to such masses, it will be possible to clearly distinguish between a bottom-heavy or bottom-light IMF in the LMC. Recent studies, using the deepest available observations for the Small Magellanic Cloud, cannot find clear evidence of a turnover in the IMF for this galaxy, suggesting a bottom-heavy IMF in contrast to the Milky Way. A similar study of the LMC is needed to confirm a possible dependence of the low-mass IMF with galactic environment. Studies of giant ellipticals have recently challenged the picture of a universal IMF, and suggest an enviromental dependence of the IMF, with the most massive galaxies having a larger fraction of low mass stars and no IMF turnover. A study of possible IMF variations from resolved stellar populations in nearby galaxies is of great importance in sheding light on this issue. Our simple approach, using direct evidence from basic star counts, is much less prone to systematic errors with respect to studies of more distant objects which have to rely on the observations of integrated properties.

  12. Variable Circumstellar Extinction in a Protoplanetary Disk with an Embedded Low-Mass Companion (United States)

    Demidova, T. V.; Grinin, V. P.


    The motion of the low-mass companion embedded in a protoplanetary disk perturbs the disk matter periodically. It leads to the large-scale inhomogenity formation. Such structures in the disk have to influence on the propagation of the radiation from a star to an observer. If the protoplanetary disk is observed almost edge-on the structures will intersect the line of sight periodically. We use the hydrodynamic simulations of such disks to explore how an invisible low-mass companions in protoplanetary disks can affect on the circumstellar extinction and the light curves of the young star. The models with circular and eccentric, inclined and coplanar companions orbits were calculated. Our modification of the GADGET-2 code is used for the calculations. The column density of the test particles on the line of sight was calculated as a function of phase of the orbital period. If we propose the dust is well mixed with gas in the ratio 1:100 the column density function determines the behaviour the circumstellar extinction. Our calculations show the periodic variations of the circumstellar extinction can originate in the CB-disk as well in the CS-disk. The results can be used for the explanation of the cyclic activity of UX Ori type stars.

  13. On the effects of Cosmions upon the structure and evolution of very low mass stars (United States)

    Deluca, E. E.; Griest, K.; Rosner, R.; Wang, J.


    A number of recent studies have suggested that cosmions, or WIMPS, may play an important role in the energetics of the solar interior; in particular, it has been argued that these hypothetical particles may transport sufficient energy within the nuclear-burning solar core so as to depress the solar core temperature to the point of resolving the solar neutrino problem. Solutions to the solar neutrino problem have proven themselves to be quite nonunique, so that it is of some interest whether the cosmion solution can be tested in some independent manner. It is argued that if cosmions solve the solar neutrino problem, then they must also play an important role in the evolution of low mass main sequence stars; and, second, that if they do so, then a simple (long mean free path) model for the interaction of cosmions with baryons leads to changes in the structure of the nuclear-burning core which may be in principal observable. Such changes include suppression of a fully-convective core in very low mass main sequence stars; and a possible thermal runaway in the core of the nuclear burning region. Some of these changes may be directly observable, and hence may provide independent constraints on the properties of the cosmions required to solve the solar neutrino problem, perhaps even ruling them out.

  14. Water in embedded low-mass protostars: cold envelopes and warm outflows (United States)

    Kristensen, Lars E.; van Dishoeck, Ewine; Mottram, Joseph; Schmalzl, Markus; Visser, Ruud


    As stars form, gas from the parental cloud is transported through the molecular envelope to the protostellar disk from which planets eventually form. Water plays a crucial role in such systems: it forms the backbone of the oxygen chemistry, it is a unique probe of warm and hot gas, and it provides a unique link between the grain surface and gas-phase chemistries. The distribution of water, both as ice and gas, is a fundamental question to our understanding of how planetary systems, such as the Solar System, form.The Herschel Space Observatory observed many tens of embedded low-mass protostars in a suite of gas-phase water transitions in several programs (e.g. Water in Star-forming regions with Herschel, WISH, and the William Herschel Line Legacy Survey, WILL), and related species (e.g. CO in Protostars with HIFI, COPS-HIFI). I will summarize what Herschel has revealed about the water distribution in the cold outer molecular envelope of low-mass protostars, and the warm gas in outflows, the two components predominantly traced by Herschel observations. I will present our current understanding of where the water vapor is in protostellar systems and the underlying physical and chemical processes leading to this distribution. Through these dedicated observational surveys and complementary modeling efforts, we are now at a stage where we can quantify where the water is during the early stages of star formation.

  15. Observing water in low-mass proto-stellar outflows: the case of L1448 (United States)

    Santangelo, G.; Nisini, B.; Antoniucci, S.; Giannini, T.; Benedettini, M.; Codella, C.; Liseau, R.; Lorenzani, A.; Tafalla, M.; Vasta, M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Kristensen, L.


    We will present Herschel observations of water emission towards the outflow driven by the L1448 low-mass proto-stellar system, located in the Perseus cloud (d=300 pc). This outflow has been mapped with the PACS and HIFI instruments, in the 557 GHz and 1670 GHz water lines, as part of the WISH (Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel) key project. Two bright shock spots along the outflow have been also observed in an additional set of ortho and para water lines having different excitation conditions. We present here the obtained maps, in comparison with the maps of other shock tracers, such as CO and SiO, discussing how water appears unique in tracing gas components at intermediate radial velocities (10-40 km/s). We will also discuss the analysis performed on the HIFI observations in the two shock spots, showing strong variations in the excitation as a function of velocity and strong chemical differences among the two investigated positions. These observations thus proved how water is a unique and crucial molecule for our understanding of the physical and chemical conditions in outflows driven by low-mass proto-stars.

  16. Two improvements on numerical simulation of 2-DOF vortex-induced vibration with low mass ratio (United States)

    Kang, Zhuang; Ni, Wen-chi; Zhang, Xu; Sun, Li-ping


    Till now, there have been lots of researches on numerical simulation of vortex-induced vibration. Acceptable results have been obtained for fixed cylinders with low Reynolds number. However, for responses of 2-DOF vortex-induced vibration with low mass ratio, the accuracy is not satisfactory, especially for the maximum amplitudes. In Jauvtis and Williamson's work, the maximum amplitude of the cylinder with low mass ratio m*=2.6 can reach as large as 1.5 D to be called as the "super-upper branch", but from current literatures, few simulation results can achieve such value, even fail to capture the upper branch. Besides, it is found that the amplitude decays too fast in the lower branch with the RANS-based turbulence model. The reason is likely to be the defects of the turbulence model itself in the prediction of unsteady separated flows as well as the unreasonable setting of the numerical simulation parameters. Aiming at above issues, a modified turbulence model is proposed in this paper, and the effect of the acceleration of flow field on the response of vortex-induced vibration is studied based on OpenFOAM. By analyzing the responses of amplitude, phase and trajectory, frequency and vortex mode, it is proved that the vortex-induced vibration can be predicted accurately with the modified turbulence model under appropriate flow field acceleration.

  17. Simultaneous, multi-wavelength flare observations of nearby low-mass stars (United States)

    Thackeray, Beverly; Barclay, Thomas; Quintana, Elisa; Villadsen, Jacqueline; Wofford, Alia; Schlieder, Joshua; Boyd, Patricia


    Low-mass stars are the most common stars in the Galaxy and have been targeted in the tens-of-thousands by K2, the re-purposed Kepler mission, as they are prime targets to search for and characterize small, Earth-like planets. Understanding how these fully convective stars drive magnetic activity that manifests as stochastic, short-term brightenings, or flares, provides insight into the prospects of planetary habitability. High energy radiation and energetic particle emission associated with these stars can erode atmospheres, and impact habitability. An innovative campaign to study low mass stars through simultaneous multi-wavelength observations is currently underway with observations ongoing in the X-ray, UV, optical, and radio. I will present early results of our pilot study of the nearby M-Dwarf star Wolf 359 (CN Leo) using K2, SWIFT, and ground based radio observatories, forming a comprehensive picture of flare activity from an M-Dwarf, and discuss the potential impact of these results on exoplanets. "This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program under Grant No. DGE1322106. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation."

  18. A substantial population of low-mass stars in luminous elliptical galaxies. (United States)

    van Dokkum, Pieter G; Conroy, Charlie


    The stellar initial mass function (IMF) describes the mass distribution of stars at the time of their formation and is of fundamental importance for many areas of astrophysics. The IMF is reasonably well constrained in the disk of the Milky Way but we have very little direct information on the form of the IMF in other galaxies and at earlier cosmic epochs. Here we report observations of the Na (I) doublet and the Wing-Ford molecular FeH band in the spectra of elliptical galaxies. These lines are strong in stars with masses less than 0.3M(⊙) (where M(⊙) is the mass of the Sun) and are weak or absent in all other types of stars. We unambiguously detect both signatures, consistent with previous studies that were based on data of lower signal-to-noise ratio. The direct detection of the light of low-mass stars implies that they are very abundant in elliptical galaxies, making up over 80% of the total number of stars and contributing more than 60% of the total stellar mass. We infer that the IMF in massive star-forming galaxies in the early Universe produced many more low-mass stars than the IMF in the Milky Way disk, and was probably slightly steeper than the Salpeter form in the mass range 0.1M(⊙) to 1M(⊙).

  19. Low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity LHC upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonella, Laura


    Reducing material in silicon trackers is of major importance for a good overall detector performance, and poses severe challenges to the design of the tracking system. To match the low mass constraints for trackers in High Energy Physics experiments at high luminosity, dedicated technological developments are required. This dissertation presents three technologies to design low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity upgrades of the LHC. The work targets specifically the reduction of the material from the detector services and modules, with novel powering schemes, flip chip and interconnection technologies. A serial powering scheme is prototyped, featuring a new regulator concept, a control and protection element, and AC-coupled data transmission. A modified flip chip technology is developed for thin, large area Front-End chips, and a via last Through Silicon Via process is demonstrated on existing pixel modules. These technologies, their developments, and the achievable material reduction are discussed using the upgrades of the ATLAS pixel detector as a case study.

  20. From Stars to Superplanets: The Low-Mass Initial Mass Function in the Young Cluster IC 348

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Najita, Joan R; Tiede, Glenn P; Carr, John S


    We investigate the low-mass population of the young cluster IC 348 down to the deuterium-burning limit, a fiducial boundary between brown dwarf and planetary mass objects, using a new and innovative...

  1. Securing HST's UV Legacy in the Local Volume: Probing Star Formation and the Interstellar Medium in Low Mass Galaxies (United States)

    Gilbert, Karoline


    We propose WFC3 ultraviolet imaging of the stellar populations of a volume limited sample of 22 low-mass, nearby (physics of galaxy formation, producing quantitative constraints on the energies and timescales of interactions between gas, dust, and stars in the low-mass, low-metallicity regime. When combined with existing data from HST, Spitzer, VLA, GALEX, and CARMA, the proposed UV data will make these galaxies a benchmark for ISM studies in low metallicity environments.

  2. Low-energy Galactic centre gamma-rays from low-mass X-ray binaries (United States)

    Kluzniak, W.; Ruderman, M.; Shaham, J.; Tavani, M.


    Nonthermal processes in low-mass X-ray binaries concentrated in the Galactic bulge are proposed as the direct source of the three continuum components of the emission from the Galactic center region (GCR) and also, possibly, as the indirect source of the 511-keV electron-positron annihilation line. It is suggested that the softer power-law component of the GCR continuum arises from synchrotron emission of relativistic electrons in the strongly nonuniform magnetic field of the neutron star and, more tentatively, that the MeV bump is the result of interaction of harder gamma rays with power-law photons. The hardest power law may be due to Compton scattering of relativistic electrons or photons.

  3. U-band photometry as a signature of gas accretion in young low-mass stars (United States)

    Restrepo Gaitán, O. A.; Ramírez Suárez, O. L.; Pinzón Estrada, G. A.; Chaparro Molano, G.


    Low-mass pre-main-sequence stars can be classified as accreting/non-accreting by using a spectral-index dependent criterion based on the equivalent width of the Hα emission line. This limit defines the boundary between Classical T Tauri Stars (CTTS) and Weak-lined T Tauri Stars (WTTS) (Barrado et. al 2003). Some of these stars in nearby associations also show an excess in the U magnitude with respect to the Main Sequence, which cannot be solely explained by chromospheric activity. We propose that this excess can be correlated to the Hα accretion criterion due to the fact that hot shocked gas, that accretes onto the stellar surface, generates high energy photons that can be traced by observations in the U band.

  4. Low Mass Ions in Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry of 1-Methoxy-5-aminotetrazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Soo Gyeong; Bae, Kwang Tae; Goh, Eun Mee; Bae, Se Won [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Ik-Soo [Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The development of novel energetic molecules (EMs) with high power, good safety features, great chemical stability, and environmentally less harmful nature is of great interest in the satellite launcher, missile warhead, ammunition, and pyrotechnic researches. Recently, many researchers have focused on aromatic nitrogen heterocycles such as pyrazole, imidazole, triazole, tetrazole, and pentazole as promising candidates to replace the current EMs used in civilian and military applications. We performed MALDI and LDI experiments with energetic tetrazole derivatives which were of great interest for the application of high performance explosives and fast burning propellants. Particularly, LDI experiments provided low mass ion peaks from decomposition of MAT, which were useful to analyze decomposition mechanism of tetrazoles at TOF MS in high vacuum. The LDI experiments showed various decomposed ion products, which implied several decomposition mechanisms including the detachment of side function groups and the fragmentation of tetrazole ring. The high-level DFT calculations also supported the peaks obtained from LDI experiments.

  5. Low-mass, intrinsically-hard high temperature radiator. Final report, Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper reports on the investigation of layered ceramic/metal composites in the design of low-mass hardened radiators for space heat rejection systems. The investigation is part of the Strategic Defence Initiative. This effort evaluated the use of layered composites as a material to form thin-walled, vacuum leaktight heat pipes. The heat pipes would be incorporated into a large heat pipe radiator for waste heat rejection from a space nuclear power source. Composite materials evaluations were performed on combinations of refractory metals and ceramic powders. Fabrication experiments were performed to demonstrate weldability. Two titanium/titanium diboride composite tubes were successfully fabricated into potassium heat pipes and operated at temperatures in excess of 700C. Testing and analysis for composite tubes are described in the report. The study has verified the feasibility of using layered composites for forming thin-walled, light weight heat pipe tubes for use in hardened space radiators.

  6. Measuring the X-ray Emission Impacting the Planets Orbiting Nearby Low-mass Stars (United States)

    Brown, Alexander


    M dwarf planetary systems present a truly exciting opportunity to discover and study the first habitable extrasolar planets in the next 5-10 years. As part of our larger HST MUSCLES project, we propose ACIS-S observations of 4 low-mass exoplanet hosts (3 M dwarfs -- GJ581, GJ1214, GJ849, and 1 K dwarf -- HD97658) that have no existing measurements of their coronal X-ray emission. We will measure their X-ray luminosities and coronal temperatures, and derive the high energy radiation field to facilitate exoplanet atmospheric modeling. These planetary systems allow study of exoplanet atmospheric chemistry and evolution under a wide diversity of physical situations. X-ray heating enhances evaporation and atmospheric escape, which can impact the long-term stability of exoplanetary atmospheres.

  7. On the Distribution of Orbital Eccentricities for Very Low-mass Binaries (United States)

    Dupuy, Trent J.; Liu, Michael C.


    We have compiled a sample of 16 orbits for very low-mass stellar (0.6) binaries at orbital periods comparable to our sample suggests that tidal damping due to gas disks may play too large of a role in the simulations. In contrast, the circumstellar disk fragmentation model of Stamatellos & Whitworth predicts only high-e binaries and thus is highly inconsistent with our sample. These discrepancies could be explained if multiple formation processes are responsible for producing the field population. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  8. Low-mass aluminum microstrips for data transmission in the PANDA MVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quagli, Tommaso [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino (Italy); Calvo, Daniela; Remigis, Paolo de; Mignone, Marco; Wheadon, Richard [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino (Italy); Schnell, Robert [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitaet Bonn (Germany)


    Among the requirements of the PANDA Micro-Vertex-Detector (MVD) there are the capability to handle a high data rate with a continuous readout and a low material budget. These requirements, together with the layout constraints, demand dedicated low-mass cables for data transmission. Differential microstrips, realized with aluminum tracks laminated on a polyimide support, have been produced and experimentally tested for both electrical functionality and radiation hardness, using signal integrity techniques. Furthermore, the capability of the cables to cope with the SLVS signaling standard has been investigated. An overview of the results will be presented, examining the upper frequency limits of the samples and the dependences on layout and track width. Finally, special focus will be given to the results of the radiation hardness measurements, performed with neutron irradiation at the research reactor at LENA (Pavia) and with proton irradiation at the cyclotron in Bonn.

  9. Red Optical Planet Survey: A radial velocity search for low mass M dwarf planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minniti D.


    Full Text Available We present radial velocity results from our Red Optical Planet Survey (ROPS, aimed at detecting low-mass planets orbiting mid-late M dwarfs. The ∼10 ms−1 precision achieved over 2 consecutive nights with the MIKE spectrograph at Magellan Clay is also found on week long timescales with UVES at VLT. Since we find that UVES is expected to attain photon limited precision of order 2 ms−1 using our novel deconvolution technique, we are limited only by the (≤10 ms−1 stability of atmospheric lines. Rocky planet frequencies of η⊕ = 0.3−0.7 lead us to expect high planet yields, enabling determination of η⊕ for the uncharted mid-late M dwarfs with modest surveys.

  10. WISHes coming true: water in low-mass star-forming regions with Herschel (United States)

    Kristensen, L. E.; Visser, R.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Yıldız, U. A.; Herczeg, G. J.; Doty, S.; Jørgensen, J. K.; van Kempen, T. A.; Brinch, C.; Wampfler, S.; Bruderer, S.; Benz, A. O.


    Water is a key molecule for tracing physical and chemical processes in star-forming regions. The key program "Water in star-forming regions with Herschel" is observing several water transitions towards low-mass protostars with HIFI. Results regarding the 557 GHz transition of water are reported here showing that the line is surprisingly broad, and consists of several different velocity components. The bulk of the emission comes from shocks, where the abundance is increased by several orders of magnitude to ~10-4. The abundance of water in the outer envelope is determined to ~10-8, whereas only an upper limit of 10-5 is derived for the inner, warm envelope.

  11. Linear analysis of the evolution of nearly polar low-mass circumbinary discs (United States)

    Lubow, Stephen H.; Martin, Rebecca G.


    In a recent paper Martin & Lubow showed through simulations that an initially tilted disc around an eccentric binary can evolve to polar alignment in which the disc lies perpendicular to the binary orbital plane. We apply linear theory to show both analytically and numerically that a nearly polar aligned low-mass circumbinary disc evolves to polar alignment and determine the alignment time-scale. Significant disc evolution towards the polar state around moderately eccentric binaries can occur for typical protostellar disc parameters in less than a typical disc lifetime for binaries with orbital periods of order 100 yr or less. Resonant torques are much less effective at truncating the inner parts of circumbinary polar discs than the inner parts of coplanar discs. For polar discs, they vanish for a binary eccentricity of unity. The results agree with the simulations in showing that discs can evolve to a polar state. Circumbinary planets may then form in such discs and reside on polar orbits.

  12. Possible lack of low-mass meteoroids in the Earth's meteoroid flux due to space erosion? (United States)

    Rubincam, David Parry


    The Earth's cumulative meteoroid flux, as found by Halliday et al. (1996), may have a shallower slope for meteoroid masses in the range 0.1-2.5 kg compared to those with masses greater than 2.5 kg when plotted on a log flux vs. log mass graph. This would indicate a lack of low-mass objects. While others such as Ceplecha (1992) find no shallow slope, there may be a reason for a lack of 0.1-2.5 kg meteoroids which supports Halliday et al.'s finding. Simple models show that a few centimeters of space erosion in stony meteoroids can reproduce the bend in Halliday et al.'s curve at ∼2.5 kg and give the shallower slope.

  13. Innovative low-mass cooling systems for the ALICE ITS Upgrade detector at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez Marzoa, Manuel

    The Phase-1 upgrade of the LHC to full design luminosity, planned for 2019 at CERN, requires the modernisation of the experiments around the accelerator. The Inner Tracking System (ITS), the innermost detector at the ALICE experiment, will be upgraded by replacing the current apparatus by new silicon pixels arranged in 7 cylindrical layers. Each layer is composed by multiple independent modules, named staves, which provide mechanical support and cooling to the chips. This thesis aims to develop and validate experimentally an ultra-lightweight stave cooling system for the ITS Upgrade. The moderate thermal requirements, with a nominal power density of 0.15 W/cm^2 and a maximum chip temperature of 30ºC, are counterweighted by extreme low-mass restrictions, obliging to resort to lightweight, non-metallic materials, such as carbon fibre-reinforced polymers and plastics. Novel lightweight stave concepts were developed and experimentally validated, meeting the thermal requirements with minimal material inventory. T...

  14. Models of very-low-mass stars, brown dwarfs and exoplanets. (United States)

    Allard, F; Homeier, D; Freytag, B


    Within the next few years, GAIA and several instruments aiming to image extrasolar planets will be ready. In parallel, low-mass planets are being sought around red dwarfs, which offer more favourable conditions, for both radial velocity detection and transit studies, than solar-type stars. In this paper, the authors of a model atmosphere code that has allowed the detection of water vapour in the atmosphere of hot Jupiters review recent advances in modelling the stellar to substellar transition. The revised solar oxygen abundances and cloud model allow the photometric and spectroscopic properties of this transition to be reproduced for the first time. Also presented are highlight results of a model atmosphere grid for stars, brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets.

  15. Low Mass Printable Devices for Energy Capture, Storage, and Use for Space Exploration Missions (United States)

    Frazier, Donald O.; Singer, Christopher E.; Ray, William J.; Fuller, Kirk A.


    The energy-efficient, environmentally friendly technology that will be presented is the result of a Space Act Agreement between -Technologies Worldwide, Inc., and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA s) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This work combines semiconductor and printing technologies to advance lightweight electronic and photonic devices having excellent potential for commercial and exploration applications, and is an example of industry and government cooperation that leads to novel inventions. Device development involves three energy generation and consumption projects: 1) a low mass efficient (low power, low heat emission) micro light-emitting diode (LED) area lighting device; 2) a low-mass omni-directional efficient photovoltaic (PV) device with significantly improved energy capture; and 3) a new approach to building supercapacitors. These three technologies - energy capture, storage, and usage (e.g., lighting) - represent a systematic approach for building efficient local micro-grids that are commercially feasible; furthermore, these same technologies will be useful for lightweight power generation that enables inner planetary missions using smaller launch vehicles and facilitates surface operations. The PV device model is a two-sphere, light-trapped sheet approximately 2-mm thick. The model suggests a significant improvement over current thin film systems. All three components may be printed in line by printing sequential layers on a standard screen or flexographic direct impact press using the threedimensional printing technique (3DFM) patented by NthDegree. MSFC is testing the robustness of prototype devices in the harsh space and lunar surface environments, and available results will be reported. Unlike many traditional light sources, this device does not contain toxic compounds, and the LED component has passed stringent off-gassing tests required for potential manifesting on spacecraft such as the International Space

  16. Low-mass, intrinsically-hard high-temperature radiator. Final report, Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Thermacore, Inc. of Lancaster, Pennsylvania has completed a Phase I SBIR program to investigate the use of layered ceramic/metal composites in the design of low-mass hardened radiators for space heat rejection systems. The program is being monitored by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO). This effort evaluated the use of layered composites as a material to form thin-walled, vacuum leaktight heat pipes. The heat pipes would be incorporated into a large heat pipe radiator for waste heat rejection from a space nuclear power source. This approach forms an attractive alternative to metal or silicon-carbon fiber reinforced metal heat pipes by offering a combination of low mass and improved fabricability. Titanium has been shown to have a yield strength too low at 875{degrees}K to be a useful radiator material. A silicon carbide fiber reinforced titanium material appears to have sufficient strength at 875{degrees}K. but cannot be welded due to the continuous fibers, and the preferred heat pipe working fluid (potassium) has been demonstrated to be incompatible with silicon carbide at 875{degrees}K. Moreover, titanium does not appear to be acceptable for radiators subjected to anticipated laser threats. As part of this effort, Thermacore performed composite material evaluations on combinations of refractory metals and ceramic powders. Layered composite tube samples with wall thicknesses as thin as 0.012 inches were developed. Fabrication experiments were performed that demonstrated the weldability of layered composites. Two titanium/titanium diboride composite tubes were successfully fabricated into potassium heat pipes and operated at temperatures in excess of 700{degrees}C. A hybrid composite tube was also fabricated into a potassium heat pipe. The tube was composed of alternating layers of niobium-1% zirconium foil and layers of a mixture of titanium powder and titanium diboride powder.

  17. The Hunt for Low-Mass Black Holes in the JWST Era (United States)

    Cann, Jenna; Satyapal, Shobita; Abel, Nicholas; Ricci, Claudio; Gliozzi, Mario; Blecha, Laura; Secrest, Nathan


    Most, if not all, massive galaxies have a central supermassive black hole (SMBH) millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun. While the properties of SMBHs and their host galaxies have been well-studied in massive galaxies, very few SMBHs have been found in galaxies with low masses and those with small bulges. This is a significant deficiency, because the study of this population allows us to gain an understanding of merger-free pathways to black hole growth, and to gain insight into the origin and growth of SMBH ‘seeds’, thought to have formed at high redshift. Most studies aimed at finding SMBHs have been conducted using optical spectroscopic studies, where active SMBHs (active galactic nuclei or AGNs) display distinctive optical emission lines indicative of accreting SMBHs. However, in low mass (dwarf) galaxies, the SMBHs will likely be less massive, and can be energetically weak and possibly deeply embedded in their host galaxies. As a result, the optical emission lines may be dominated by star formation regions, severely limiting the diagnostic power of optical surveys in finding and characterizing the properties of the AGN in dwarf galaxies. In such galaxies, infrared coronal lines provide a robust method of finding AGNs. Furthermore, as the black hole mass decreases, the Schwarzschild radius of the black hole decreases, and in response, the temperature of the surrounding accretion disk increases. The shape of the ionizing radiation spectral energy distribution therefore changes with black hole mass, which will affect the emission line spectrum from the surrounding gas. In this work, we investigate the diagnostic power of infrared coronal lines and the effect of black hole mass on the emission line spectra from AGNs, with a particular focus on the emission lines accessible by JWST.

  18. A Multi-Fiber Spectroscopic Search for Low-mass Young Stars in Orion OB1 (United States)

    Loerincs, Jacqueline; Briceno, Cesar; Calvet, Nuria; Mateo, Mario L.; Hernandez, Jesus


    We present here results of a low resolution spectroscopic followup of candidate low-mass pre-main sequence stars in the Orion OB1 association. Our targets were selected from the CIDA Variability Survey of Orion (CVSO), and we used the Michigan/Magellan Fiber Spectrograph (M2FS) on the Magellan Clay 6.5m telescope to obtain spectra of 500 candidate T Tauri stars distributed in seven 0.5 deg diameter fields, adding to a total area of ~5.5 deg2. We identify young stars by looking at the distinctive Hα 6563 Å emission and Lithium Li I 6707 Å absorption features characteristic of young low mass pre-main sequence stars. Furthermore, by measuring the strength of their Hα emission lines, confirmed T Tauri stars can be classified as either Classical T Tauris (CTTS) or Weak-line T Tauris (WTTS), which give indication of whether the star is actively accreting material from a gas and dust disk surrounding the star, which may be the precursor of a planetary system. We confirm a total of 90 T Tauri stars, of which 50% are newly identified young members of Orion; out of the 49 new detections,15 are accreting CTTS, and of these all but one are found in the OB1b sub-region. This result is in line with our previous findings that this region is much younger than the more extended Orion OB1a sub-association. The M2FS results add to our growing census of young stars in Orion, that is allowing us to characterize in a systematic and consistent way the distribution of stellar ages across the entire complex, in order to building a complete picture of star formation in this, one of nearest most active sites of star birth.

  19. The low-mass content of the massive young star cluster RCW 38 (United States)

    Mužić, Koraljka; Schödel, Rainer; Scholz, Alexander; Geers, Vincent C.; Jayawardhana, Ray; Ascenso, Joana; Cieza, Lucas A.


    RCW 38 is a deeply embedded young (˜1 Myr), massive star cluster located at a distance of 1.7 kpc. Twice as dense as the Orion nebula cluster, orders of magnitude denser than other nearby star-forming regions and rich in massive stars, RCW 38 is an ideal place to look for potential differences in brown dwarf formation efficiency as a function of environment. We present deep, high-resolution adaptive optics data of the central ˜0.5 × 0.5 pc2 obtained with NACO at the Very Large Telescope. Through comparison with evolutionary models, we determine masses and extinction for ˜480 candidate members, and derive the first initial mass function (IMF) of the cluster extending into the substellar regime. Representing the IMF as a set of power laws in the form dN/dM ∝ M-α, we derive the slope α = 1.60 ± 0.13 for the mass range 0.5-20 M⊙,which is shallower than the Salpeter slope, but in agreement with results in several other young massive clusters. At the low-mass side, we find α = 0.71 ± 0.11 for masses between 0.02 and 0.5 M⊙, or α = 0.81 ± 0.08 for masses between 0.02 and 1 M⊙. Our result is in agreement with the values found in other young star-forming regions, revealing no evidence that a combination of high stellar densities and the presence of numerous massive stars affects the formation efficiency of brown dwarfs and very-low-mass stars. We estimate that the Milky Way galaxy contains between 25 and 100 billion brown dwarfs (with masses >0.03 M⊙).

  20. HAZMAT. II. Ultraviolet Variability of Low-mass Stars in the GALEX Archive (United States)

    Miles, Brittany E.; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.


    The ultraviolet (UV) light from a host star influences a planet’s atmospheric photochemistry and will affect interpretations of exoplanetary spectra from future missions like the James Webb Space Telescope. These effects will be particularly critical in the study of planetary atmospheres around M dwarfs, including Earth-sized planets in the habitable zone. Given the higher activity levels of M dwarfs compared to Sun-like stars, time-resolved UV data are needed for more accurate input conditions for exoplanet atmospheric modeling. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) provides multi-epoch photometric observations in two UV bands: near-ultraviolet (NUV; 1771-2831 Å) and far-ultraviolet (FUV; 1344-1786 Å). Within 30 pc of Earth, there are 357 and 303 M dwarfs in the NUV and FUV bands, respectively, with multiple GALEX observations. Simultaneous NUV and FUV detections exist for 145 stars in both GALEX bands. Our analyses of these data show that low-mass stars are typically more variable in the FUV than the NUV. Median variability increases with later spectral types in the NUV with no clear trend in the FUV. We find evidence that flares increase the FUV flux density far more than the NUV flux density, leading to variable FUV to NUV flux density ratios in the GALEX bandpasses.The ratio of FUV to NUV flux is important for interpreting the presence of atmospheric molecules in planetary atmospheres such as oxygen and methane as a high FUV to NUV ratio may cause false-positive biosignature detections. This ratio of flux density in the GALEX bands spans three orders of magnitude in our sample, from 0.008 to 4.6, and is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than for G dwarfs like the Sun. These results characterize the UV behavior for the largest set of low-mass stars to date.

  1. Deep O2 observations toward a low-mass protostar with Herschel-HIFI (United States)

    Yildiz, Umut; Acharyya, Kinsuk; Goldsmith, Paul; van Dishoeck, Ewine; Melnick, Gary; Snell, Ronald; Liseau, Rene; Chen, Jo-Hsin; Pagani, Laurent; Bergin, Edwin; Caselli, Paola; Herbst, Eric; Kristensen, Lars; Visser, Ruud; Lis, Dariusz; Gerin, Maryvonne


    Oxygen is the third most abundant element in the Universe, after hydrogen and helium. According to traditional gas-phase chemical models, O2 should be abundant in molecular clouds (X(O2)~7e-5 relative to H2), but until recently, attempts to detect interstellar O2 line emission with ground- and space-based observatories have failed. Following the multi-line detection of O2 with low abundances in the Orion and rho OphA molecular clouds with Herschel, it is important to investigate other environments, and we here quantify the O2 abundance near a solar-mass protostar. Observations of molecular oxygen, O2, at 487 GHz toward a deeply embedded low-mass Class 0 protostar, NGC 1333 IRAS 4A, are presented, using the HIFI on the Herschel Space Observatory. The high spectral resolution data are analysed using radiative transfer models to infer column densities and abundances, and are tested directly against full gas-grain chemical models. The deep HIFI spectrum (rms=1.3 mK) fails to show O2 at the velocity of the dense protostellar envelope, implying one of the deepest abundance upper limits of O2/H2 at water-ice photodesorption yield of a factor of two. The low O2 abundance in the collapsing envelope around a low-mass protostar suggests that the gas and ice entering protoplanetary disks is very poor in O2. This research is described in Yildiz et al. (2013, A&A, astro-ph: 1307.8031).

  2. HAZMAT. II. Ultraviolet Variability of Low-mass Stars in the GALEX Archive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, Brittany E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Shkolnik, Evgenya L., E-mail: [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, 781 S Terrace Road, Tempe, AZ 85281 (United States)


    The ultraviolet (UV) light from a host star influences a planet’s atmospheric photochemistry and will affect interpretations of exoplanetary spectra from future missions like the James Webb Space Telescope . These effects will be particularly critical in the study of planetary atmospheres around M dwarfs, including Earth-sized planets in the habitable zone. Given the higher activity levels of M dwarfs compared to Sun-like stars, time-resolved UV data are needed for more accurate input conditions for exoplanet atmospheric modeling. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer ( GALEX ) provides multi-epoch photometric observations in two UV bands: near-ultraviolet (NUV; 1771–2831 Å) and far-ultraviolet (FUV; 1344–1786 Å). Within 30 pc of Earth, there are 357 and 303 M dwarfs in the NUV and FUV bands, respectively, with multiple GALEX observations. Simultaneous NUV and FUV detections exist for 145 stars in both GALEX bands. Our analyses of these data show that low-mass stars are typically more variable in the FUV than the NUV. Median variability increases with later spectral types in the NUV with no clear trend in the FUV. We find evidence that flares increase the FUV flux density far more than the NUV flux density, leading to variable FUV to NUV flux density ratios in the GALEX bandpasses.The ratio of FUV to NUV flux is important for interpreting the presence of atmospheric molecules in planetary atmospheres such as oxygen and methane as a high FUV to NUV ratio may cause false-positive biosignature detections. This ratio of flux density in the GALEX bands spans three orders of magnitude in our sample, from 0.008 to 4.6, and is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than for G dwarfs like the Sun. These results characterize the UV behavior for the largest set of low-mass stars to date.

  3. Spitzer Space Telescope Spectroscopy of Ices toward Low-Mass Embedded Protostars (United States)

    Boogert, A. C. Adwin; Pontoppidan, Klaus M.; Lahuis, Fred; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Brooke, Timothy Y.; Brown, Joanna; Dullemond, C. P.; Evans, Neal J., II; Geers, Vincent; Hogerheijde, Michiel R.; Kessler-Silacci, Jacqueline; Knez, Claudia; Morris, Pat; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Schöier, Fredrik L.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Allen, Lori E.; Harvey, Paul M.; Koerner, David W.; Mundy, Lee G.; Myers, Philip C.; Padgett, Deborah L.; Sargent, Anneila I.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.


    Sensitive 5-38 μm Spitzer Space Telescope and ground-based 3-5 μm spectra of the embedded low-mass protostars B5 IRS1 and HH 46 IRS show deep ice absorption bands superposed on steeply rising mid-infrared continua. The ices likely originate in the circumstellar envelopes. The CO2 bending mode at 15 μm is a particularly powerful tracer of the ice composition and processing history. Toward these protostars, this band shows little evidence for thermal processing at temperatures above 50 K. Signatures of lower temperature processing are present in the CO and OCN- bands, however. The observed CO2 profile indicates an intimate mixture with H2O, but not necessarily with CH3OH, in contrast to some high-mass protostars. This is consistent with the low CH3OH abundance derived from the ground-based L-band spectra. The CO2:H2O column density ratios are high in both B5 IRS1 and HH 46 IRS (~35%). Clearly, the Spitzer spectra are essential for studying ice evolution in low-mass protostellar environments and for eventually determining the relation between interstellar and solar system ices. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The VLT ISAAC spectra were obtained at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile, in the observing program 272.C-5008.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, W; Laura Tovo, L


    The Siemens Advanced Quantra Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer was evaluated as an alternative instrument to large double focusing mass spectrometers for gas analysis. High resolution mass spectrometers capable of resolving the common mass isomers of the hydrogen isotopes are used to provide data for accurate loading of reservoirs and to monitor separation of tritium, deuterium, and helium. Conventional double focusing magnetic sector instruments have a resolution that is limited to about 5000. The Siemens FTICR instrument achieves resolution beyond 400,000 and could possibly resolve the tritium ion from the helium-3 ion, which differ by the weight of an electron, 0.00549 amu. Working with Y-12 and LANL, SRNL requested Siemens to modify their commercial Quantra system for low mass analysis. To achieve the required performance, Siemens had to increase the available waveform operating frequency from 5 MHz to 40 MHz and completely redesign the control electronics and software. However, they were able to use the previous ion trap, magnet, passive pump, and piezo-electric pulsed inlet valve design. NNSA invested $1M in this project and acquired four systems, two for Y-12 and one each for SRNL and LANL. Siemens claimed a $10M investment in the Quantra systems. The new Siemens Advanced Quantra demonstrated phenomenal resolution in the low mass range. Resolution greater than 400,000 was achieved for mass 2. The new spectrometer had a useful working mass range to 500 Daltons. However, experiments found that a continuous single scan from low mass to high was not possible. Two useful working ranges were established covering masses 1 to 6 and masses 12 to 500 for our studies. A compromise performance condition enabled masses 1 to 45 to be surveyed. The instrument was found to have a dynamic range of about three orders of magnitude and quantitative analysis is expected to be limited to around 5 percent without using complex fitting algorithms

  5. Rotational superradiance in fluid laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Vitor; Richartz, Mauricio; Weinfurtner, Silke


    Rotational superradiance has been predicted theoretically decades ago, and is the chief responsible for a number of important effects and phenomenology in black hole physics. However, rotational superradiance has never been observed experimentally. Here, with the aim of probing superradiance in the lab, we investigate the behaviour of sound and surface waves in fluids resting in a circular basin at the center of which a rotating cylinder is placed. We show that with a suitable choice for the material of the cylinder, surface and sound waves are amplified. By confining the superradiant modes near the rotating cylinder, an instability sets in. Our findings are experimentally testable in existing fluid laboratories and hence offer experimental exploration and comparison of dynamical instabilities arising from rapidly rotating boundary layers in astrophysical as well as in fluid dynamical systems.

  6. Ambipolar diffusion in low-mass star formation. I. General comparison with the ideal MHD case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masson, Jacques; Chabrier, Gilles; Hennebelle, Patrick


    braking processes, allowing the formation of disk structures. Magnetically supported outflows launched in ideal MHD models are weakened when using non-ideal MHD. Contrary to ideal MHD misalignment between the initial rotation axis and the magnetic field direction does not significantly affect the results...

  7. Self-consistent atmosphere modeling with cloud formation for low-mass stars and exoplanets (United States)

    Juncher, Diana; Jørgensen, Uffe G.; Helling, Christiane


    Context. Low-mass stars and extrasolar planets have ultra-cool atmospheres where a rich chemistry occurs and clouds form. The increasing amount of spectroscopic observations for extrasolar planets requires self-consistent model atmosphere simulations to consistently include the formation processes that determine cloud formation and their feedback onto the atmosphere. Aims: Our aim is to complement the MARCS model atmosphere suit with simulations applicable to low-mass stars and exoplanets in preparation of E-ELT, JWST, PLATO and other upcoming facilities. Methods: The MARCS code calculates stellar atmosphere models, providing self-consistent solutions of the radiative transfer and the atmospheric structure and chemistry. We combine MARCS with a kinetic model that describes cloud formation in ultra-cool atmospheres (seed formation, growth/evaporation, gravitational settling, convective mixing, element depletion). Results: We present a small grid of self-consistently calculated atmosphere models for Teff = 2000-3000 K with solar initial abundances and log (g) = 4.5. Cloud formation in stellar and sub-stellar atmospheres appears for Teff < 2700 K and has a significant effect on the structure and the spectrum of the atmosphere for Teff < 2400 K. We have compared the synthetic spectra of our models with observed spectra and found that they fit the spectra of mid- to late-type M-dwarfs and early-type L-dwarfs well. The geometrical extension of the atmospheres (at τ = 1) changes with wavelength resulting in a flux variation of 10%. This translates into a change in geometrical extension of the atmosphere of about 50 km, which is the quantitative basis for exoplanetary transit spectroscopy. We also test DRIFT-MARCS for an example exoplanet and demonstrate that our simulations reproduce the Spitzer observations for WASP-19b rather well for Teff = 2600 K, log (g) = 3.2 and solar abundances. Our model points at an exoplanet with a deep cloud-free atmosphere with a substantial

  8. A fast search strategy for gravitational waves from low-mass X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Messenger, C


    We present a new type of search strategy designed specifically to find continuously emitting gravitational wave sources in known binary systems based on the incoherent sum of frequency modulated binary signal sidebands. The search pipeline can be divided into three stages: the first is a wide bandwidth, F-statistic search demodulated for sky position. This is followed by a fast second stage in which areas in frequency space are identified as signal candidates through the frequency domain convolution of the F-statistic with an approximate signal template. For this second stage only precise information on the orbit period and approximate information on the orbital semi-major axis are required apriori. For the final stage we propose a fully coherent Markov chain monte carlo based follow up search on the frequency subspace defined by the candidates identified by the second stage. This search is particularly suited to the low-mass X-ray binaries, for which orbital period and sky position are typically well known a...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piskorz, Danielle; Knutson, Heather A.; Ngo, Henry; Batygin, Konstantin [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Muirhead, Philip S. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, South Bend, IN (United States); Hinkley, Sasha [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Exeter (United Kingdom); Morton, Timothy D., E-mail: [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)


    Surveys of nearby field stars indicate that stellar binaries are common, yet little is known about the effects that these companions may have on planet formation and evolution. The Friends of Hot Jupiters project uses three complementary techniques to search for stellar companions to known planet-hosting stars: radial velocity monitoring, adaptive optics imaging, and near-infrared spectroscopy. In this paper, we examine high-resolution K band infrared spectra of fifty stars hosting gas giant planets on short-period orbits. We use spectral fitting to search for blended lines due to the presence of cool stellar companions in the spectra of our target stars, where we are sensitive to companions with temperatures between 3500 and 5000 K and projected separations less than 100 AU in most systems. We identify eight systems with candidate low-mass companions, including one companion that was independently detected in our AO imaging survey. For systems with radial velocity accelerations, a spectroscopic non-detection rules out scenarios involving a stellar companion in a high inclination orbit. We use these data to place an upper limit on the stellar binary fraction at small projected separations, and show that the observed population of candidate companions is consistent with that of field stars and also with the population of wide-separation companions detected in our previous AO survey. We find no evidence that spectroscopic stellar companions are preferentially located in systems with short-period gas giant planets on eccentric and/or misaligned orbits.

  10. Tidal Timelines: Evolution of Terrestrial Exoplanet Habitability Around Low Mass Stars (United States)

    Mullins, K.; Barnes, R.


    The range of orbits for planetary habitability have traditionally been based on the stellar flux that allows liquid water to persist on a planetary surface. However, when considering terrestrial (rocky) planets close to a low mass star (≤0.35M⊙), tidal effects must be considered because of the additional energy input from tidal heating. Of further interest is the time over which habitable conditions are generated by tidal interaction. Tides cause orbital evolution, during which the heat flux varies, which may cause the planet to migrate in and out of habitable zones and possibly result in sterilization. So, the heating history of a planet should be a consideration when searching for life-supporting planets. We apply heat flux limitations on habitability (based on observations within our solar system) and tidally evolve planets across a range of initial conditions of orbits and masses. Our results provide a visualization of the time a planet has spent with a favorable amount of tidal heat for habitability and/or the amount of time until the heating is no longer conducive to habitability. As a greater number of close in terrestrial planets are found, these results can provide a method for identifying those planets with the highest potential for life.

  11. Low mass planet migration in magnetically torqued dead zones - I. Static migration torque (United States)

    McNally, Colin P.; Nelson, Richard P.; Paardekooper, Sijme-Jan; Gressel, Oliver; Lyra, Wladimir


    Motivated by models suggesting that the inner planet forming regions of protoplanetary discs are predominantly lacking in viscosity-inducing turbulence, and are possibly threaded by Hall-effect generated large-scale horizontal magnetic fields, we examine the dynamics of the corotation region of a low-mass planet in such an environment. The corotation torque in an inviscid, isothermal, dead zone ought to saturate, with the libration region becoming both symmetrical and of a uniform vortensity, leading to fast inward migration driven by the Lindblad torques alone. However, in such a low viscosity situation, the material on librating streamlines essentially preserves its vortensity. If there is relative radial motion between the disc gas and the planet, the librating streamlines will no longer be symmetrical. Hence, if the gas is torqued by a large-scale magnetic field so that it undergoes a net inflow or outflow past the planet, driving evolution of the vortensity and inducing asymmetry of the corotation region, the corotation torque can grow, leading to a positive torque. In this paper, we treat this effect by applying a symmetry argument to the previously studied case of a migrating planet in an inviscid disc. Our results show that the corotation torque due to a laminar Hall-induced magnetic field in a dead zone behaves quite differently from that studied previously for a viscous disc. Furthermore, the magnetic field induced corotation torque and the dynamical corotation torque in a low viscosity disc can be regarded as one unified effect.

  12. New light on dark stars red dwarfs, low-mass stars, brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, I Neill


    Perhaps the most common question that a child asks when he or she sees the night sky from a dark site for the first time is: 'How many stars are there?' This happens to be a question which has exercised the intellectual skills of many astronomers over the course of most of the last century, including, for the last two decades, one of the authors of this text. Until recently, the most accurate answer was 'We are not certain, but there is a good chance that almost all of them are M dwarfs. ' Within the last three years, results from new sky-surveys - particularly the first deep surveys at near­ infrared wavelengths - have provided a breakthrough in this subject, solidifying our census of the lowest-mass stars and identifying large numbers of the hitherto almost mythical substellar-mass brown dwarfs. These extremely low-luminosity objects are the central subjects of this book, and the subtitle should be interpreted accordingly. The expression 'low-mass stars' carries a wide range of meanings in the astronomical...

  13. Constraints on low-mass WIMP interactions on 19F from PICASSO (United States)

    Archambault, S.; Behnke, E.; Bhattacharjee, P.; Bhattacharya, S.; Dai, X.; Das, M.; Davour, A.; Debris, F.; Dhungana, N.; Farine, J.; Gagnebin, S.; Giroux, G.; Grace, E.; Jackson, C. M.; Kamaha, A.; Krauss, C.; Kumaratunga, S.; Lafrenière, M.; Laurin, M.; Lawson, I.; Lessard, L.; Levine, I.; Levy, C.; MacDonald, R. P.; Marlisov, D.; Martin, J.-P.; Mitra, P.; Noble, A. J.; Piro, M.-C.; Podviyanuk, R.; Pospisil, S.; Saha, S.; Scallon, O.; Seth, S.; Starinski, N.; Stekl, I.; Wichoski, U.; Xie, T.; Zacek, V.


    Recent results from the PICASSO dark matter search experiment at SNOLAB are reported. These results were obtained using a subset of 10 detectors with a total target mass of 0.72 kg of 19F and an exposure of 114 kgd. The low backgrounds in PICASSO allow recoil energy thresholds as low as 1.7 keV to be obtained which results in an increased sensitivity to interactions from Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) with masses below 10 GeV/c2. No dark matter signal was found. Best exclusion limits in the spin dependent sector were obtained for WIMP masses of 20 GeV/c2 with a cross section on protons of σpSD=0.032 pb (90% C.L.). In the spin independent sector close to the low mass region of 7 GeV/c2 favoured by CoGeNT and DAMA/LIBRA, cross sections larger than σpSI=1.41×10-4 pb (90% C.L.) are excluded.

  14. Snake Venom Peptides and Low Mass Proteins: Molecular Tools and Therapeutic Agents. (United States)

    Almeida, J R; Resende, L M; Watanabe, R K; Carregari, V C; Huancahuire-Vega, S; da S Caldeira, C A; Coutinho-Neto, A; Soares, A M; Vale, N; de C Gomes, P A; Marangoni, S; de A Calderon, L; Da Silva, S L


    Snake venoms are natural sources of biologically active molecules that are able to act selectively and specifically on different cellular targets, modulating physiological functions. Thus, these mixtures, composed mainly of proteins and peptides, provide ample and challenging opportunities and a diversified molecular architecture to design and develop tools and agents of scientific and therapeutic interest. Among these components, peptides and small proteins play diverse roles in numerous physiological processes, exerting a wide range of pharmacological activities, such as antimicrobial, antihypertensive, analgesic, antitumor, analgesic, among others. The pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries have recognized the huge potential of these privileged frameworks and believe them to be a promising alternative to contemporary drugs. A number of natural or synthetic peptides from snake venoms have already found preclinical or clinical applications for the treatment of pain, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and aging skin. A well-known example is captopril, whose natural peptide precursor was isolated from Bothrops jararaca snake venom, which is a peptide-based drug that inhibits the angiotensin-converting enzyme, producing an anti-hypertensive effect. The present review looks at the main peptides (natriuretic peptides, bradykinin-potentiating peptides and sarafotoxins) and low mass proteins (crotamine, disintegrins and three-Finger toxins) from snake venoms, as well as synthetic peptides inspired by them, describing their biochemical, structural and physiological features, as well as their applications as research tools and therapeutic agents. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  15. Low-mass X-ray binaries and globular clusters streamers and arcs in NGC 4278

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Abrusco, R.; Fabbiano, G. [Harvard-Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brassington, N. J. [Center for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane Campus, Hatfield, Hertordshire, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)


    We report significant inhomogeneities in the projected two-dimensional spatial distributions of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) and globular clusters (GCs) of the intermediate mass elliptical galaxy NGC 4278. In the inner region of NGC 4278, a significant arc-like excess of LMXBs extending south of the center at ∼50'' in the western side of the galaxy can be associated with a similar overdensity of the spatial distribution of red GCs from Brassington et al. Using a recent catalog of GCs produced by Usher et al. and covering the whole field of the NGC 4278 galaxy, we have discovered two other significant density structures outside the D {sub 25} isophote to the W and E of the center of NGC 4278, associated with an overdensity and an underdensity, respectively. We discuss the nature of these structures in the context of the similar spatial inhomogeneities discovered in the LMXBs and GCs populations of NGC 4649 and NGC 4261, respectively. These features suggest streamers from disrupted and accreted dwarf companions.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereyra, Margarita; López, José Alberto; Richer, Michael G., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 106, C.P. 22800 Ensenada, BC, México (Mexico)


    We analyze the internal kinematics of 26 planetary nebulae (PNe) with low metallicity that appear to derive from progenitor stars of the lowest masses, including the halo PN population. Based upon spatially resolved, long-slit, echelle spectroscopy drawn from the San Pedro Mártir Kinematic Catalog of PNe, we characterize the kinematics of these PNe measuring their global expansion velocities based upon the largest sample used to date for this purpose. We find kinematics that follow the trends observed and predicted in other studies, but also find that most of the PNe studied here tend to have expansion velocities less than 20 km s{sup −1} in all of the emission lines considered. The low expansion velocities that we observe in this sample of low metallicity PNe with low mass progenitors are most likely a consequence of a weak central star (CS) wind driving the kinematics of the nebular shell. This study complements previous results that link the expansion velocities of the PN shells with the characteristics of the CS.

  17. Orbital Scattering of Protoplanets Around low-Mass Stars in Stellar Clusters (United States)

    Ip, Wing-Huen; Cao, Yojng-Sin


    A large proportion of stars are formed in star clusters which will disperse as a result of the strong mass loss process driven by massive stars. During the period of planet formation, the star clusters should still be quite compact and close encounters at low relative speed (~ 3-5 km s-1) within a distance of a few hundred AU could still be frequent enough that some protoplanets in outer regions surrounding their host stars could be subject to strong orbital perturbation changing their near-circular orbits to highly elliptical ones, or even being ejected into interstellar space. In this work, we will report on the statistical results of probable destruction and transformation of first-generation planetary systems of low-eccentricity and low-inclination in M- and K-type stars to planetary systems in chaotic orbits via gravitational interaction with passing stars. Such scenario might have interesting implications on the dynamical origin and evolution of exoplanets around low-mass stars.

  18. Identification and characterization of low mass stars and brown dwarfs using Virtual Observatory tools (United States)

    Aberasturi, Miriam


    Context: Two thirds of the stars in our galactic neighborhood (d building a shortlist with the best possible candidates for exoplanet searches. Brown dwarfs (BDs) are self-gravitating objects that do not get enough mass to maintain a sufficiently high temperature in their core for stable hydrogen fusion. They represent the link between low-mass stars and giant planets. Due to their low temperatures, BDs emit significant flux at mid-infrared wavelength which makes this range very adequate to look for this type of objects. The Virtual Observatory (VO) is an international initiative designed to help the astronomical community in the exploitation of the multi-wavelength information that resides in data archives. In the last years the Spanish Virtual Observatory is conducting a number of projects focused on the study of substellar objects taking advantage of Virtual Observatory tools for an easy data access and analysis of large area surveys. This is the framework where this thesis has been carried out. This dissertation addresses three problems in the framework of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs, namely, the search for brown dwarf candidates crossmatching catalogues (Chapter 4), the search for nearby bright M dwarfs and the subsequent spectroscopic characterization (Chapter 5), and a study of binarity in mid to late-T brown dwarfs (Chapter 6); the first two topics use Virtual Observatory tools. Aims and methodology:In the first paper we carried out a search of brown dwarfs in the sky area in common to the WISE, 2MASS Point Source and SDSS catalogues. A VO-workflow with the criteria that must accomplish our candidates was built using STILTS. The workflow returned 138 sources that were visually inspected. For the six new candidates that passed the inspection, proper motions were calculated using the positions and the different observing epochs of the catalogues previously quoted. Effective temperatures were estimated using VOSA and spectral types and distances using

  19. PHENIX results on low-mass dileptons in Au + Au collisions with the Hadron Blind Detector (United States)

    Makek, M.


    We present e+e- continuum measurement in Au+Au collisions at √{sNN} = 200 GeV from the RHIC 2010 run with the Hadron Blind Detector upgrade of PHENIX. The measurement reaches a high purity of the electron sample of ≥ 95% at all centralities and provides an excellent qualitative and quantitative understanding of the background. The e+e- invariant yields show an enhancement in the low-mass region (mee = 0.30 - 0.76 GeV /c2) compared to the expectations from hadronic sources, but not as large as the one previously reported by PHENIX. The observed excess is well reproduced by models incorporating the broadening of the ρ meson due to scattering off baryons in the hot hadronic gas. The measured invariant yields in the intermediate-mass region (mee = 1.2 - 2.8 GeV /c2) leave room for additional sources when compared to the cocktail dominated by the semileptonic decays of heavy flavor mesons.

  20. A High-Eccentricity Low-Mass Companion to HD 89744. (United States)

    Korzennik; Brown; Fischer; Nisenson; Noyes


    HD 89744 is an F7 V star with a mass of 1.4 M middle dot in circle, an effective temperature of 6166 K, an age of 2.0 Gyr, and metallicity &sqbl0;Fe&solm0;H&sqbr0;=0.18. The radial velocity of the star has been monitored with the Advanced Fiber-Optic Echelle spectrograph at the Whipple Observatory since 1996, and evidence has been found for a low-mass companion. The data were complemented by additional data from the Hamilton spectrograph at Lick Observatory during the companion's periastron passage in the fall of 1999. As a result, we have determined the star's orbital wobble to have a period P=256 days, an orbital amplitude K=257 m s-1, and an eccentricity e=0.7. From the stellar mass, we infer that the companion has a minimum mass m2sini=7.2 MJ in an orbit with a semimajor axis a2=0.88 AU. The eccentricity of the orbit, among the highest known for extrasolar planets, continues the trend that extrasolar planets with semimajor axes greater than about 0.15 AU tend to have much higher eccentricities than are found in our solar system. The high metallicity of the parent star reinforces the trend that parent stars of extrasolar planets tend to have high metallicity.

  1. Searches for low mass BSM particles using the 125 GeV Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit


    Searches for low mass beyond the Standard Model (BSM) particles using the discovered Higgs boson at 125 GeV are presented in different possible channels, including invisible decays of the Higgs boson, the Higgs boson decays to new light bosons in which the light bosons decay to SM particles, and Lepton Flavour Violation (LFV) of the Higgs boson. The data is collected with the CMS detector at the LHC which corresponding to integrated luminosities of 19.7 and 2.3 fb$^{-1}$ at central-of-mass energies of 8 and 13 TeV, respectively. No excess of signal is observed. Upper limits are placed on the branching fractions of the Higgs boson decay to different BSM particles, assuming the SM cross sections. As well, the branching fractions of LFV Higgs boson are given. In addition, the combination of potential invisible decay modes of the Higgs boson is done for all channels and the results are interpreted in the context of Higgs-portal dark matter models.

  2. Constraints on low-mass WIMP interactions on {sup 19}F from PICASSO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archambault, S. [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Behnke, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Indiana University South Bend, South Bend, IN 46634 (United States); Bhattacharjee, P.; Bhattacharya, S. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Centre for AstroParticle Physics (CAPP), Kolkata 700064 (India); Dai, X. [Department of Physics, Queen' s University, Kingston, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Das, M. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Centre for AstroParticle Physics (CAPP), Kolkata 700064 (India); Davour, A. [Department of Physics, Queen' s University, Kingston, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Debris, F. [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Dhungana, N.; Farine, J. [Department of Physics, Laurentian University, Sudbury, P3E 2C6 (Canada); Gagnebin, S. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6G 2G7 (Canada); Giroux, G. [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Grace, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Indiana University South Bend, South Bend, IN 46634 (United States); Jackson, C.M. [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Kamaha, A. [Department of Physics, Queen' s University, Kingston, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Krauss, C. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6G 2G7 (Canada); and others


    Recent results from the PICASSO dark matter search experiment at SNOLAB are reported. These results were obtained using a subset of 10 detectors with a total target mass of 0.72 kg of 19F and an exposure of 114 kgd. The low backgrounds in PICASSO allow recoil energy thresholds as low as 1.7 keV to be obtained which results in an increased sensitivity to interactions from Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) with masses below 10 GeV/c{sup 2}. No dark matter signal was found. Best exclusion limits in the spin dependent sector were obtained for WIMP masses of 20 GeV/c{sup 2} with a cross section on protons of {sigma}{sub p}{sup SD}=0.032 pb (90% C.L.). In the spin independent sector close to the low mass region of 7 GeV/c{sup 2} favoured by CoGeNT and DAMA/LIBRA, cross sections larger than {sigma}{sub p}{sup SI}=1.41 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} pb (90% C.L.) are excluded.

  3. Constraints on Low-Mass WIMP Interactions on 19F from PICASSO

    CERN Document Server

    Archambault, S; Bhattacharjee, P; Bhattacharya, S; Dai, X; Das, M; Davour, A; Debris, F; Dhungana, N; Farine, J; Gagnebin, S; Giroux, G; Grace, E; Jackson, C M; Kamaha, A; Krauss, C; Kumaratunga, S; Lafrenière, M; Laurin, M; Lawson, I; Lessard, L; Levine, I; Levy, C; MacDonald, R P; Marlisov, D; Martin, J -P; Mitra, P; Noble, A J; Piro, M -C; Podviyanuk, R; Pospisil, S; Saha, S; Scallon, O; Seth, S; Starinski, N; Stekl, I; Wichoski, U; Xie, T; Zacek, V


    Recent results from the PICASSO dark matter search experiment at SNOLAB are reported. These results were obtained using a subset of 10 detectors with a total target mass of 0.72 kg of 19F and an exposure of 114 kgd. The low backgrounds in PICASSO allow recoil energy thresholds as low as 1.7 keV to be obtained which results in an increased sensitivity to interactions from Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) with masses below 10 GeV/c^2. No dark matter signal was found. Best exclusion limits in the spin dependent sector were obtained for WIMP masses of 20 GeV/c^2 with a cross section on protons of sigma_p^SD = 0.032 pb (90% C.L.). In the spin independent sector close to the low mass region of 7 GeV/c2 favoured by CoGeNT and DAMA/LIBRA, cross sections larger than sigma_p^SI = 1.41x10^-4 pb (90% C.L.) are excluded.

  4. No Evidence for Multiple Stellar Populations in the Low-mass Galactic Globular Cluster E 3 (United States)

    Salinas, Ricardo; Strader, Jay


    Multiple stellar populations are a widespread phenomenon among Galactic globular clusters. Even though the origin of the enriched material from which new generations of stars are produced remains unclear, it is likely that self-enrichment will be feasible only in clusters massive enough to retain this enriched material. We searched for multiple populations in the low mass (M˜ 1.4× {10}4 {M}⊙ ) globular cluster E3, analyzing SOAR/Goodman multi-object spectroscopy centered on the blue cyanogen (CN) absorption features of 23 red giant branch stars. We find that the CN abundance does not present the typical bimodal behavior seen in clusters hosting multistellar populations, but rather a unimodal distribution that indicates the presence of a genuine single stellar population, or a level of enrichment much lower than in clusters that show evidence for two populations from high-resolution spectroscopy. E3 would be the first bona fide Galactic old globular cluster where no sign of self-enrichment is found. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the US National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  5. On the Existence of Low-Mass Dark Matter and its Direct Detection (United States)

    Bateman, James; McHardy, Ian; Merle, Alexander; Morris, Tim R.; Ulbricht, Hendrik


    Dark Matter (DM) is an elusive form of matter which has been postulated to explain astronomical observations through its gravitational effects on stars and galaxies, gravitational lensing of light around these, and through its imprint on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). This indirect evidence implies that DM accounts for as much as 84.5% of all matter in our Universe, yet it has so far evaded all attempts at direct detection, leaving such confirmation and the consequent discovery of its nature as one of the biggest challenges in modern physics. Here we present a novel form of low-mass DM χ that would have been missed by all experiments so far. While its large interaction strength might at first seem unlikely, neither constraints from particle physics nor cosmological/astronomical observations are sufficient to rule out this type of DM, and it motivates our proposal for direct detection by optomechanics technology which should soon be within reach, namely, through the precise position measurement of a levitated mesoscopic particle which will be perturbed by elastic collisions with χ particles. We show that a recently proposed nanoparticle matter-wave interferometer, originally conceived for tests of the quantum superposition principle, is sensitive to these collisions, too. PMID:25622565

  6. Constraining cosmology with the velocity function of low-mass galaxies (United States)

    Schneider, Aurel; Trujillo-Gomez, Sebastian


    The number density of field galaxies per rotation velocity, referred to as the velocity function, is an intriguing statistical measure probing the smallest scales of structure formation. In this paper we point out that the velocity function is sensitive to small shifts in key cosmological parameters such as the amplitude of primordial perturbations (σ8) or the total matter density (Ωm). Using current data and applying conservative assumptions about baryonic effects, we show that the observed velocity function of the Local Volume favours cosmologies in tension with the measurements from Planck but in agreement with the latest findings from weak lensing surveys. While the current systematics regarding the relation between observed and true rotation velocities are potentially important, upcoming data from HI surveys as well as new insights from hydrodynamical simulations will dramatically improve the situation in the near future.

  7. Low-mass lepton-pair production in p-Be collisions at 450 GeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AAkesson, T. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Almehed, S.; Angelis, A.L.S.; Antos, J.; Atherton, H.; Aubry, P.; Bartels, H.W.; Beaudoin, G.; Beaulieu, J.M.; Beker, H.; Benary, O.; Bettoni, D.; Bisi, V.; Blevis, I.; Boeggild, H.; Cleland, W.; Clemen, M.; Collick, B.; Corriveau, F.; Dagan, S.; Dederichs, K.; Depommier, P.; DiGiacomo, N.; DiLiberto, S.; Dodd, J.R.; Dolgoshein, B.; Drees, A.; Eidelman, S.; En`yo, H.; Erlandsson, B.; Esten, M.J.; Fabjan, C.W.; Fischer, P.; Gaidot, A.; Gibrat-Debu, F.; Guibellino, P.; Glaessel, P.; Goerlach, U.; Golubkov, Y.; Haglund, R.; Hamel, L.A.; Van Hecke, H.; Hedberg, V.; Heifetz, R.; Holscher, A.; Jacak, B.; Jarlskog, G.; Johannson, S.; Kraner, H.; Kroh, V.; Lamarche, F.; Leroy, C.; Lissauer, D.; London, G.; Lorstadt, B.; Lounis, A.; Martelli, F.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Masera, M.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Mazzucato, E.; McCubbin, M.L.; McCubbin, N.A.; McGaughey, P.; Meddi, F.; Mjoernmark, U.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Muraviev, S.; Murray, M.; Neubert, M.; Nevski, P.; Nilsson, S.; Olsen, L.; Oren, Y.; Pansart, J.P.; Park, Y.M.; Pfeiffer, A.; Piuz, F.; Polychronakos, V.; Pomianowski, P.; Poulard, G.; Price, M.; Rahm, D.; Ramello, L.; Riccati, L.; Romano, G.; Rosa, G.; Sandor, L.; Schukraft, J.; Sekimoto, M.; Seman, M.; Shikonian, A.; Shmeleva, A.; Sidorov, V.; Simone, S.; Sirois, Y.; Sletten, H.; Smirnov, S.; Sondheim, W.; Specht, H.J.; Stern, E.; Stumer, I.; Sumarokov, A.; Sunier, J.W.; Tcherniatin, V.; Thompson, J.; Tikhomirov, V.; Vanyashin, A.; Vasseur, G.; Veenhof, R.J.; Wigmans, R.; Willis, W.J.; Yepes, P. [Bari Univ. and INFN, Bari (Italy)]|[Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)]|[Heidelberg Univ. (Germany)]|[Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States)]|[Lund Univ. (Sweden)]|[McGill Univ., Montreal, Que. (Canada)]|[Lebedev Inst. of Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[Institute of Physics and Engineering, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    We report on the production of low-mass electron pairs and muon pairs in p-Be collisions at 450 GeV/c at the CERN SPS. For both electron and muon pairs the low-mass spectrum can be explained satisfactorily by lepton pairs from hadronic decays, and there is no need to invoke any ``unconventional`` source. The normalisation of the major hadronic sources is set by the data. The upper limit, at 90% confidence level, on any new source of lepton pairs is {approx} 20% of the hadronic decay contribution for muons, and {approx} 40% for electrons. (orig.)

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HAZMAT. II. Low-mass stars with GALEX UV observations (Miles+, 2017) (United States)

    Miles, B. E.; Shkolnik, E. L.


    In this second paper of the HAbitable Zones and M dwarf Activity across Time (HAZMAT) series, we use archived data from both Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) photometric bands to measure the variability of 376 low-mass stars with spectral types ranging from K7 to M7. Our target list consisted of 1124 low-mass stars with photometric distances out to 25pc of Earth assuming field ages (Reid et al. 2007, Cat. J/AJ/133/2825). (1 data file).

  9. Water deuterium fractionation in the low-mass protostar NGC1333-IRAS2A (United States)

    Liu, F.-C.; Parise, B.; Kristensen, L.; Visser, R.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Güsten, R.


    Context. Although deuterium enrichment of water may provide an essential piece of information in the understanding of the formation of comets and protoplanetary systems, only a few studies up to now have aimed at deriving the HDO/H2O ratio in low-mass star forming regions. Previous studies of the molecular deuteration toward the solar-type class 0 protostar, IRAS 16293-2422, have shown that the D/H ratio of water is significantly lower than other grain-surface-formed molecules. It is not clear if this property is general or particular to this source. Aims: In order to see if the results toward IRAS 16293-2422 are particular, we aimed at studying water deuterium fractionation in a second low-mass solar-type protostar, NGC1333-IRAS2A. Methods: Using the 1-D radiative transfer code RATRAN, we analyzed five HDO transitions observed with the IRAM 30 m, JCMT, and APEX telescopes. We assumed that the abundance profile of HDO in the envelope is a step function, with two different values in the inner warm (T > 100 K) and outer cold (T < 100 K) regions of the protostellar envelope. Results: The inner and outer abundance of HDO is found to be well constrained at the 3σ level. The obtained HDO inner and outer fractional abundances are xHDO_in = 6.6 × 10-8-1.0 × 10-7(3σ) and x^{HDO}out=9×10-11= 9 × 10-11-1.0-1.8 × 10-9(3σ). These values are close to those in IRAS 16293-2422, which suggests that HDO may be formed by the same mechanisms in these two solar-type protostars. Taking into account the (rather poorly onstrained) H2O abundance profile deduced from Herschel observations, the derived HDO/H2O in the inner envelope is ≥1% and in the outer envelope it is 0.9%-18%. These values are more than one order of magnitude higher than what is measured in comets. If the same ratios apply to the protosolar nebula, this would imply that there is some efficient reprocessing of the material between the protostellar and cometary phases. Conclusions: The H2O inner fractional

  10. High-J CO survey of low-mass protostars observed with Herschel-HIFI (United States)

    Yıldız, U. A.; Kristensen, L. E.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; San José-García, I.; Karska, A.; Harsono, D.; Tafalla, M.; Fuente, A.; Visser, R.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Hogerheijde, M. R.


    Context. In the deeply embedded stage of star formation, protostars start to heat and disperse their surrounding cloud cores. The evolution of these sources has traditionally been traced through dust continuum spectral energy distributions (SEDs), but the use of CO excitation as an evolutionary probe has not yet been explored due to the lack of high-J CO observations. Aims: The aim is to constrain the physical characteristics (excitation, kinematics, column density) of the warm gas in low-mass protostellar envelopes using spectrally resolved Herschel data of CO and compare those with the colder gas traced by lower excitation lines. Methods: Herschel-HIFI observations of high-J lines of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O (up to Ju = 10, Eu up to 300 K) are presented toward 26 deeply embedded low-mass Class 0 and Class I young stellar objects, obtained as part of the Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) key program. This is the first large spectrally resolved high-J CO survey conducted for these types of sources. Complementary lower J CO maps were observed using ground-based telescopes, such as the JCMT and APEX and convolved to matching beam sizes. Results: The 12CO 10-9 line is detected for all objects and can generally be decomposed into a narrow and a broad component owing to the quiescent envelope and entrained outflow material, respectively. The 12CO excitation temperature increases with velocity from ~60 K up to ~130 K. The median excitation temperatures for 12CO, 13CO, and C18O derived from single-temperature fits to the Ju = 2-10 integrated intensities are ~70 K, 48 K and 37 K, respectively, with no significant difference between Class 0 and Class I sources and no trend with Menv or Lbol. Thus, in contrast to the continuum SEDs, the spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) do not show any evolution during the embedded stage. In contrast, the integrated line intensities of all CO isotopologs show a clear decrease with evolutionary stage as the envelope is

  11. Very hard states in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (United States)

    Parikh, A. S.; Wijnands, R.; Degenaar, N.; Altamirano, D.; Patruno, A.; Gusinskaia, N. V.; Hessels, J. W. T.


    We report on unusually very hard spectral states in three confirmed neutron-star low-mass X-ray binaries (1RXS J180408.9-342058, EXO 1745-248 and IGR J18245-2452) at a luminosity between ˜1036 and 1037 erg s-1. When fitting the Swift X-ray spectra (0.5-10 keV) in those states with an absorbed power-law model, we found photon indices of Γ ˜ 1, significantly lower than the Γ = 1.5-2.0 typically seen when such systems are in their so called hard state. For individual sources, very hard spectra were already previously identified, but here we show for the first time that likely our sources were in a distinct spectral state (i.e. different from the hard state) when they exhibited such very hard spectra. It is unclear how such very hard spectra can be formed; if the emission mechanism is similar to that operating in their hard states (i.e. up-scattering of soft photons due to hot electrons), then the electrons should have higher temperatures or a higher optical depth in the very hard state compared to those observed in the hard state. By using our obtained Γ as a tracer for the spectral evolution with luminosity, we have compared our results with those obtained by Wijnands et al. Our sample of sources follows the same track as the other neutron star systems in Wijnands et al., confirming their general results. However, we do not find that the accreting millisecond pulsars are systematically harder than the non-pulsating systems.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Steven R.; Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Stilp, Adrienne M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J. [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Ott, Juergen [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Walter, Fabian [Max Planck Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Petersen, Eric A. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Koribalski, Baerbel [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping NSW 1710 (Australia); West, Andrew A., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)


    We analyze line-of-sight atomic hydrogen (H I) line profiles of 31 nearby, low-mass galaxies selected from the Very Large Array-ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (VLA-ANGST) and The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS) to trace regions containing cold (T {approx}< 1400 K) H I from observations with a uniform linear scale of 200 pc beam{sup -1}. Our galaxy sample spans four orders of magnitude in total H I mass and nine magnitudes in M{sub B} . We fit single and multiple component functions to each spectrum to isolate the cold, neutral medium given by a low-dispersion (<6 km s{sup -1}) component of the spectrum. Most H I spectra are adequately fit by a single Gaussian with a dispersion of 8-12 km s{sup -1}. Cold H I is found in 23 of 27 ({approx}85%) galaxies after a reduction of the sample size due to quality-control cuts. The cold H I contributes {approx}20% of the total line-of-sight flux when found with warm H I. Spectra best fit by a single Gaussian, but dominated by cold H I emission (i.e., have velocity dispersions of <6 km s{sup -1}), are found primarily beyond the optical radius of the host galaxy. The cold H I is typically found in localized regions and is generally not coincident with the very highest surface density peaks of the global H I distribution (which are usually areas of recent star formation). We find a lower limit for the mass fraction of cold-to-total H I gas of only a few percent in each galaxy.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monelli, Matteo; Martínez-Vázquez, Clara E.; Gallart, Carme; Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Aparicio, Antonio [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Bernard, Edouard J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Skillman, Evan D.; McQuinn, Kristen B. W. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street, SE Minneapolis, MN, 55455 (United States); Weisz, Daniel R. [Astronomy Department, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States); Cole, Andrew A. [School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart 7005, TAS (Australia); Martin, Nicolas F. [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l’Universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Cassisi, Santi [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, Teramo (Italy); Boylan-Kolchin, Michael [INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Teramo, via M. Maggini, 64100 Teramo (Italy); Mayer, Lucio [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); McConnachie, Alan [Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, National Research Council Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Navarro, Julio F., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 1700, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada)


    Based on data aquired in 13 orbits of Hubble Space Telescope time, we present a detailed evolutionary history of the M31 dSph satellite Andromeda XVI, including its lifetime star formation history (SFH), the spatial distribution of its stellar populations, and the properties of its variable stars. And XVI is characterized by prolonged star formation activity from the oldest epochs until star formation was quenched ∼6 Gyr ago, and, notably, only half of the mass in stars of And XVI was in place 10 Gyr ago. And XVI appears to be a low-mass galaxy for which the early quenching by either reionization or starburst feedback seems highly unlikely, and thus it is most likely due to an environmental effect (e.g., an interaction), possibly connected to a late infall in the densest regions of the Local Group. Studying the SFH as a function of galactocentric radius, we detect a mild gradient in the SFH: the star formation activity between 6 and 8 Gyr ago is significantly stronger in the central regions than in the external regions, although the quenching age appears to be the same, within 1 Gyr. We also report the discovery of nine RR Lyrae (RRL) stars, eight of which belong to And XVI. The RRL stars allow a new estimate of the distance, (m − M){sub 0} = 23.72 ± 0.09 mag, which is marginally larger than previous estimates based on the tip of the red giant branch.

  14. The Effects of Magnetic Fields and Protostellar Feedback on Low-mass Cluster Formation (United States)

    Cunningham, Andrew J.; Krumholz, Mark R.; McKee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.


    We present a large suite of simulations of the formation of low-mass star clusters. Our simulations include an extensive set of physical processes - magnetohydrodynamics, radiative transfer, and protostellar outflows - and span a wide range of virial parameters and magnetic field strengths. Comparing the outcomes of our simulations to observations, we find that simulations remaining close to virial balance throughout their history produce star formation efficiencies and initial mass function (IMF) peaks that are stable in time and in reasonable agreement with observations. Our results indicate that small-scale dissipation effects near the protostellar surface provide a feedback loop for stabilizing the star formation efficiency. This is true regardless of whether the balance is maintained by input of energy from large scale forcing or by strong magnetic fields that inhibit collapse. In contrast, simulations that leave virial balance and undergo runaway collapse form stars too efficiently and produce an IMF that becomes increasingly top-heavy with time. In all cases we find that the competition between magnetic flux advection toward the protostar and outward advection due to magnetic interchange instabilities, and the competition between turbulent amplification and reconnection close to newly-formed protostars renders the local magnetic field structure insensitive to the strength of the large-scale field, ensuring that radiation is always more important than magnetic support in setting the fragmentation scale and thus the IMF peak mass. The statistics of multiple stellar systems are similarly insensitive to variations in the initial conditions and generally agree with observations within the range of statistical uncertainty.

  15. Possible planet formation in the young, low-mass, multiple stellar system GG Tau A. (United States)

    Dutrey, Anne; Di Folco, Emmanuel; Guilloteau, Stéphane; Boehler, Yann; Bary, Jeff; Beck, Tracy; Beust, Hervé; Chapillon, Edwige; Gueth, Fredéric; Huré, Jean-Marc; Pierens, Arnaud; Piétu, Vincent; Simon, Michal; Tang, Ya-Wen


    The formation of planets around binary stars may be more difficult than around single stars. In a close binary star (with a separation of less than a hundred astronomical units), theory predicts the presence of circumstellar disks around each star, and an outer circumbinary disk surrounding a gravitationally cleared inner cavity around the stars. Given that the inner disks are depleted by accretion onto the stars on timescales of a few thousand years, any replenishing material must be transferred from the outer reservoir to fuel planet formation (which occurs on timescales of about one million years). Gas flowing through disk cavities has been detected in single star systems. A circumbinary disk was discovered around the young low-mass binary system GG Tau A (ref. 7), which has recently been shown to be a hierarchical triple system. It has one large inner disk around the single star, GG Tau Aa, and shows small amounts of shocked hydrogen gas residing within the central cavity, but other than a single weak detection, the distribution of cold gas in this cavity or in any other binary or multiple star system has not hitherto been determined. Here we report imaging of gas fragments emitting radiation characteristic of carbon monoxide within the GG Tau A cavity. From the kinematics we conclude that the flow appears capable of sustaining the inner disk (around GG Tau Aa) beyond the accretion lifetime, leaving time for planet formation to occur there. These results show the complexity of planet formation around multiple stars and confirm the general picture predicted by numerical simulations.

  16. On the Horseshoe Drag of a Low-Mass Planet. I. Migration in Isothermal Disks (United States)

    Casoli, J.; Masset, F. S.


    We investigate the unsaturated horseshoe drag exerted on a low-mass planet by an isothermal gaseous disk. In the globally isothermal case, we use a formalism, based on the use of a Bernoulli invariant, that takes into account pressure effects, and that extends the torque estimate to a region wider than the horseshoe region. We find a result that is strictly identical to the standard horseshoe drag. This shows that the horseshoe drag accounts for the torque of the whole corotation region, and not only of the horseshoe region, thereby deserving to be called corotation torque. We find that evanescent waves launched downstream of the horseshoe U-turns by the perturbations of vortensity exert a feedback on the upstream region, that render the horseshoe region asymmetric. This asymmetry scales with the vortensity gradient and with the disk's aspect ratio. It does not depend on the planetary mass, and it does not have any impact on the horseshoe drag. Since the horseshoe drag has a steep dependence on the width of the horseshoe region, we provide an adequate definition of the width that needs to be used in horseshoe drag estimates. We then consider the case of locally isothermal disks, in which the temperature is constant in time but depends on the distance to the star. The horseshoe drag appears to be different from the case of a globally isothermal disk. The difference, which is due to the driving of vortensity in the vicinity of the planet, is intimately linked to the topology of the flow. We provide a descriptive interpretation of these effects, as well as a crude estimate of the dependency of the excess on the temperature gradient.

  17. Pushing down the low-mass halo concentration frontier with the Lomonosov cosmological simulations (United States)

    Pilipenko, Sergey V.; Sánchez-Conde, Miguel A.; Prada, Francisco; Yepes, Gustavo


    We introduce the Lomonosov suite of high-resolution N-body cosmological simulations covering a full box of size 32 h-1 Mpc with low-mass resolution particles (2 × 107 h-1 M⊙) and three zoom-in simulations of overdense, underdense and mean density regions at much higher particle resolution (4 × 104 h-1 M⊙). The main purpose of this simulation suite is to extend the concentration-mass relation of dark matter haloes down to masses below those typically available in large cosmological simulations. The three different density regions available at higher resolution provide a better understanding of the effect of the local environment on halo concentration, known to be potentially important for small simulation boxes and small halo masses. Yet, we find the correction to be small in comparison with the scatter of halo concentrations. We conclude that zoom simulations, despite their limited representativity of the volume of the Universe, can be effectively used for the measurement of halo concentrations at least at the halo masses probed by our simulations. In any case, after a precise characterization of this effect, we develop a robust technique to extrapolate the concentration values found in zoom simulations to larger volumes with greater accuracy. Altogether, Lomonosov provides a measure of the concentration-mass relation in the halo mass range 107-1010 h-1 M⊙ with superb halo statistics. This work represents a first important step to measure halo concentrations at intermediate, yet vastly unexplored halo mass scales, down to the smallest ones. All Lomonosov data and files are public for community's use.

  18. New Low-mass Eclipsing Binary Systems in Praesepe Discovered by K2 (United States)

    Gillen, Edward; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; David, Trevor J.; Aigrain, Suzanne; Rebull, Luisa; Stauffer, John; Cody, Ann Marie; Queloz, Didier


    We present the discovery and characterization of four low-mass (Msystems in the sub-Gyr old Praesepe open cluster using Kepler/K2 time series photometry and Keck/HIRES spectroscopy. We present a new Gaussian process EB model, GP–EBOP, as well as a method of simultaneously determining effective temperatures and distances for EBs. Three of the reported systems (AD 3814, AD 2615 and AD 1508) are detached and double-lined, and precise solutions are presented for the first two. We determine masses and radii to 1%–3% precision for AD 3814 and to 5%–6% for AD 2615. Together with effective temperatures determined to ∼50 K precision, we test the PARSEC v1.2 and BHAC15 stellar evolution models. Our EB parameters are more consistent with the PARSEC models, primarily because the BHAC15 temperature scale is hotter than our data over the mid-M-dwarf mass range probed. Both ADs 3814 and 2615, which have orbital periods of 6.0 and 11.6 days, are circularized but not synchronized. This suggests that either synchronization proceeds more slowly in fully convective stars than the theory of equilibrium tides predicts, or magnetic braking is currently playing a more important role than tidal forces in the spin evolution of these binaries. The fourth system (AD 3116) comprises a brown dwarf transiting a mid-M-dwarf, which is the first such system discovered in a sub-Gyr open cluster. Finally, these new discoveries increase the number of characterized EBs in sub-Gyr open clusters by 20% (40%) below M< 1.5 M ⊙ (M< 0.6 M ⊙).

  19. Low-mass-ion discriminant equation: a new concept for colorectal cancer screening. (United States)

    Lee, Jun Hwa; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Park, Ji-Won; Chang, Hee Jin; Kim, Byung Chang; Kim, Sun Young; Kim, Kwang Gi; Lee, Eun Sook; Kim, Dae Yong; Oh, Jae Hwan; Yoo, Byong Chul; Kim, In-Hoo


    Blood metabolites can be detected as low-mass ions (LMIs) by mass spectrometry (MS). These LMIs may reflect the pathological changes in metabolism that occur as part of a disease state, such as cancer. We constructed a LMI discriminant equation (LOME) to investigate whether systematic LMI profiling might be applied to cancer screening. LMI information including m/z and mass peak intensity was obtained by five independent MALDI-MS analyses, using 1,127 sera collected from healthy individuals and cancer patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), breast cancer (BRC), gastric cancer (GC) and other types of cancer. Using a two-stage principal component analysis to determine weighting factors for individual LMIs and a two-stage LMI selection procedure, we selected a total of 104 and 23 major LMIs by the LOME algorithms for separating CRC from control and rest of cancer samples, respectively. CRC LOME demonstrated excellent discriminating power in a validation set (sensitivity/specificity: 93.21%/96.47%). Furthermore, in a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) of available validation samples, the discriminating power of CRC LOME was much stronger (sensitivity/specificity: 94.79%/97.96%) than that of the FOBT (sensitivity/specificity: 50.00%/100.0%), which is the standard CRC screening tool. The robust discriminating power of the LOME scheme was reconfirmed in screens for BRC (sensitivity/specificity: 92.45%/96.57%) and GC (sensitivity/specificity: 93.18%/98.85%). Our study demonstrates that LOMEs might be powerful noninvasive diagnostic tools with high sensitivity/specificity in cancer screening. The use of LOMEs could potentially enable screening for multiple diseases (including different types of cancer) from a single sampling of LMI information. © 2013 UICC.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, Frédérique; Lafrenière, David; Artigau, Étienne; Doyon, René; Gagné, Jonathan; Robert, Jasmin; Nadeau, Daniel [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, Qc H3C 3J7 (Canada); Davison, Cassy L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Malo, Lison [Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, 65–1238 Mamalahoa Hwy, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Reylé, Céline, E-mail: [Institut Utinam, CNRS UMR6213, Université de Franche-Comté, OSU THETA Franche-Comté-Bourgogne, Observatoire de Besançon, BP 1615, F-25010 Besançon Cedex (France)


    We report the discovery of 14 low-mass binary systems containing mid-M to mid-L dwarf companions with separations larger than 250 AU. We also report the independent discovery of nine other systems with similar characteristics that were recently discovered in other studies. We have identified these systems by searching for common proper motion sources in the vicinity of known high proper motion stars, based on a cross-correlation of wide area near-infrared surveys (2MASS, SDSS, and SIMP). An astrometric follow-up, for common proper motion confirmation, was made with SIMON and/or CPAPIR at the Observatoire du Mont Mégantic 1.6 m and CTIO 1.5 m telescopes for all the candidates identified. A spectroscopic follow-up was also made with GMOS or GNIRS at Gemini to determine the spectral types of 11 of our newly identified companions and 10 of our primaries. Statistical arguments are provided to show that all of the systems we report here are very likely to be physical binaries. One of the new systems reported features a brown dwarf companion: LSPM J1259+1001 (M5) has an L4.5 (2M1259+1001) companion at ∼340 AU. This brown dwarf was previously unknown. Seven other systems have a companion of spectral type L0–L1 at a separation in the 250–7500 AU range. Our sample includes 14 systems with a mass ratio below 0.3.

  1. The Effect of Stellar Contamination on Transmission Spectra of Low-mass Exoplanets (United States)

    Rackham, Benjamin V.; Apai, Daniel; Giampapa, Mark S.


    of small exoplanets, including those of the TRAPPIST-1 system. Constraining stellar contamination will likely be a limiting factor for detecting atmospheric features in transmission spectra of low-mass exoplanets around late-type stars from TESS.

  2. The Relationship between Stellar Mass and Star Formation Rate in Ultra Low-Mass Galaxies (United States)

    Shin, Kaitlyn; Ly, Chun


    Several extragalactic studies have demonstrated that there is a moderately tight (~0.3 dex) relationship between galaxy stellar mass and star formation rate (SFR) that holds for star-forming galaxies at M* ~ 3x108-1011 M⊙. This relationship has often been referred to as the “star formation main sequence.” However, it has yet to be determined whether such a relationship extends to even lower mass galaxies. Here, we present new results on the stellar mass—SFR relation using observations for 1,088 Hα-emitting galaxies from the Subaru Deep Field. These galaxies were selected using optical narrowband imaging that detects redshifted Hα at z ≈ 0.05-0.5. With sensitive measurements, our study is able to identify galaxies with stellar masses between 3x105 to 1010 M⊙ (average: 107.8 M⊙). We derive SFRs using the Hα luminosity, corrected for dust attenuation from spectroscopic Balmer decrement measurements, and we derive stellar masses from modeling the optical-to-infrared spectral energy distribution. Our preliminary results demonstrate that (1) the mass-SFR relation holds for galaxies down to ~107 M⊙ (~1.5 dex below previous studies), and (2) the dispersion in the mass-SFR relation increases toward lower stellar mass. Additionally, we also discuss comparisons between UV- and Hα-derived SFRs, which allow us to examine and test theoretical predictions on how bursty star formation is for low-mass galaxies at lookback times of up to 5 Gyr.

  3. Hints for Small Disks around Very Low Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs (United States)

    Hendler, Nathanial P.; Mulders, Gijs D.; Pascucci, Ilaria; Greenwood, Aaron; Kamp, Inga; Henning, Thomas; Ménard, François; Dent, William R. F.; Evans, Neal J., II


    The properties of disks around brown dwarfs and very low mass stars (hereafter VLMOs) provide important boundary conditions on the process of planet formation and inform us about the numbers and masses of planets than can form in this regime. We use the Herschel Space Observatory PACS spectrometer to measure the continuum and [O I] 63 μm line emission toward 11 VLMOs with known disks in the Taurus and Chamaeleon I star-forming regions. We fit radiative transfer models to the spectral energy distributions of these sources. Additionally, we carry out a grid of radiative transfer models run in a regime that connects the luminosity of our sources with brighter T Tauri stars. We find that VLMO disks with sizes 1.3-78 au, smaller than typical T Tauri disks, fit well the spectral energy distributions assuming that disk geometry and dust properties are stellar mass independent. Reducing the disk size increases the disk temperature, and we show that VLMOs do not follow previously derived disk temperature-stellar luminosity relationships if the disk outer radius scales with stellar mass. Only 2 out of 11 sources are detected in [O I] despite a better sensitivity than was achieved for T Tauri stars, suggesting that VLMO disks are underluminous. Using thermochemical models, we show that smaller disks can lead to the unexpected [O I] 63 μm nondetections in our sample. The disk outer radius is an important factor in determining the gas and dust observables. Hence, spatially resolved observations with ALMA—to establish if and how disk radii scale with stellar mass—should be pursued further. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  4. Gravitational detection of a low-mass dark satellite galaxy at cosmological distance. (United States)

    Vegetti, S; Lagattuta, D J; McKean, J P; Auger, M W; Fassnacht, C D; Koopmans, L V E


    The mass function of dwarf satellite galaxies that are observed around Local Group galaxies differs substantially from simulations based on cold dark matter: the simulations predict many more dwarf galaxies than are seen. The Local Group, however, may be anomalous in this regard. A massive dark satellite in an early-type lens galaxy at a redshift of 0.222 was recently found using a method based on gravitational lensing, suggesting that the mass fraction contained in substructure could be higher than is predicted from simulations. The lack of very low-mass detections, however, prohibited any constraint on their mass function. Here we report the presence of a (1.9 ± 0.1) × 10(8) M dark satellite galaxy in the Einstein ring system JVAS B1938+666 (ref. 11) at a redshift of 0.881, where M denotes the solar mass. This satellite galaxy has a mass similar to that of the Sagittarius galaxy, which is a satellite of the Milky Way. We determine the logarithmic slope of the mass function for substructure beyond the local Universe to be 1.1(+0.6)(-0.4), with an average mass fraction of 3.3(+3.6)(-1.8) per cent, by combining data on both of these recently discovered galaxies. Our results are consistent with the predictions from cold dark matter simulations at the 95 per cent confidence level, and therefore agree with the view that galaxies formed hierarchically in a Universe composed of cold dark matter.

  5. Rotator Cuff Exercises (United States)

    ... Home Prevention and Wellness Exercise and Fitness Injury Rehabilitation Rotator Cuff Exercises Rotator Cuff Exercises Share Print Rotator Cuff ... Best Rotator Cuff ExercisesNational Institutes of Health: MedlinePlus, ... and WellnessTags: Exercise Prescription, prevention, Shoulder Problems, ...

  6. The c2d Spitzer spectroscopic survey of ices around low-mass young stellar objects. III. CH4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberg, Karin I.; Boogert, A. C. Adwin; Pontoppidan, Klaus M.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Evans, Neal J.; Lahuis, Fred; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.


    CH4 is proposed to be the starting point of a rich organic chemistry. Solid CH4 abundances have previously been determined mostly toward high-mass star-forming regions. Spitzer IRS now provides a unique opportunity to probe solid CH4 toward low-mass star-forming regions as well. Infrared spectra


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G., E-mail: [Grupo de Evolución Estelar y Pulsaciones, Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s/n, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)


    The detection of pulsations in white dwarfs with low mass offers the possibility of probing their internal structures through asteroseismology and placing constraints on the binary evolutionary processes involved in their formation. In this Letter, we assess the impact of stable H burning on the pulsational stability properties of low-mass He-core white dwarf models resulting from binary star evolutionary calculations. We found that besides a dense spectrum of unstable radial modes and nonradial g and p modes driven by the κ mechanism due to the partial ionization of H in the stellar envelope, some unstable g modes with short pulsation periods are also powered by H burning via the ε mechanism of mode driving. This is the first time that ε destabilized modes are found in models representative of cool white dwarf stars. The short periods recently detected in the pulsating low-mass white dwarf SDSS J111215.82+111745.0 could constitute the first evidence of the existence of stable H burning in these stars, in particular in the so-called extremely low-mass white dwarfs.

  8. c2d Spitzer IRS spectra of embedded low-mass young stars : gas-phase emission lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahuis, F.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Jorgensen, J. K.; Blake, G. A.; Evans, N. J.

    Context. A survey of mid-infrared gas-phase emission lines of H(2), H(2)O and various atoms toward a sample of 43 embedded low-mass young stars in nearby star-forming regions is presented. The sources are selected from the Spitzer "Cores to Disks" (c2d) legacy program. Aims. The environment of

  9. M dwarfs in the Local Milky Way: The Field Low-Mass Stellar Luminosity and Mass Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochanski, Jr, John J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)


    Modern sky surveys, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Two-Micron All Sky Survey, have revolutionized how Astronomy is done. With millions of photometric and spectroscopic observations, global observational properties can be studied with unprecedented statistical significance. Low-mass stars dominate the local Milky Way, with tens of millions observed by SDSS within a few kpc. Thus, they make ideal tracers of the Galactic potential, and the thin and thick disks. In this thesis dissertation, I present my efforts to characterize the local low-mass stellar population, using a collection of observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). First, low-mass stellar template spectra were constructed from the co-addition of thousands of SDSS spectroscopic observations. These template spectra were used to quantify the observable changes introduced by chromospheric activity and metallicity. Furthermore, the average ugriz colors were measured as a function of spectral type. Next, the local kinematic structure of the Milky Way was quantified, using a special set of SDSS spectroscopic observations. Combining proper motions and radial velocities (measured using the spectral templates), along with distances, the full UVW space motions of over 7000 low-mass stars along one line of sight were computed. These stars were also separated kinematically to investigate other observational differences between the thin and thick disks. Finally, this dissertation details a project designed to measure the luminosity and mass functions of low-mass stars. Using a new technique optimized for large surveys, the field luminosity function (LF) and local stellar density profile are measured simultaneously. The sample size used to estimate the LF is nearly three orders of magnitude larger than any previous study, offering a definitive measurement of this quantity. The observed LF is transformed into a mass function (MF) and compared to previous studies.

  10. Low-Mass Dark Matter Search Results and Radiogenic Backgrounds for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepin, Mark David [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)


    to low-mass WIMPs. This is the CDMS low ionization threshold experiment (CDMSlite), which has pushed the frontier at lower WIMP masses. This dissertation describes the second run of CDMSlite at Soudan: its hardware, operations, analysis, and results. The results include new WIMP mass-cross section upper limits on the spin-independent and spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon interactions. Thanks to the lower background and threshold in this run compared to the first CDMSlite run, these limits are the most sensitive in the world below WIMP masses of ~4 GeV/c2. This demonstrates also the great promise and utility of the high-voltage operating mode in the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment.

  11. 100y DASCH Search for historical outbursts of Black Hole Low Mass X-ray Binaries (United States)

    Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Miller, George; Gomez, Sebastian


    Black Hole Low mass X-ray binaries (BH-LMXBs) are all transients, although several (e.g. GRS1915+109 and GX339-4) are quasi-persistent. All of the now 22 dynamically confirmed BH-LMXBs were discovered by their luminous outbursts, reaching Lx ~10^37 ergs/s, with outburst durations of typically ~1-3 months. These systems then (with few exceptions) return to a deep quiescent state, with Lx reduced by factors ~10^5-6 and hard X-ray spectra. The X-ray outbursts are accompanied by optical outbursts (if not absorbed by Galactic extinction) with ~6-9 magnitude increases and similar lightcurve shapes and durations as the X-ray (discovery) outburst. Prior to this work, only 3 BH-LMXBs have had historical (before the X-ray discovery) outbursts found in the archival data: A0620-00, the first BH-LMXB to be so identified, V404 Cyg (discoverd as "Nova Cyg" in 1938 and regarded as a classical nova), and V4641-Sgr which was given its variable star name when first noted in 1975. We report on the historical outbursts now discovered from the DASCH (Digital Access to a Sky Century @ Harvard) data from scanning and digitizing the now ~210,000 glass plates in the northern Galactic Hemisphere. This was one of the primary motivations for the DASCH project: to use the detection (or lack threof) of historic outbursts to measure or constrain the Duty Cycle of the accreting black holes in these systems. This, in turn, allows the total population of BH-LMXBs to be estimated and compared with that for the very similar systems containing neutron stars as the accretor (NS-LMXBs). Whereas the ratio of BHs/NSs from stellar evolution and IMFs is expected to be <<1, the DASCH results on half the sky point to an excess of BH-LMXBs. This must constrain the formation process for these systems, of importance for understanding both BH formation and compact binary evolution.

  12. Water in low-mass star-forming regions with Herschel . HIFI spectroscopy of NGC 1333 (United States)

    Kristensen, L. E.; Visser, R.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Yıldız, U. A.; Doty, S. D.; Herczeg, G. J.; Liu, F.-C.; Parise, B.; Jørgensen, J. K.; van Kempen, T. A.; Brinch, C.; Wampfler, S. F.; Bruderer, S.; Benz, A. O.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Deul, E.; Bachiller, R.; Baudry, A.; Benedettini, M.; Bergin, E. A.; Bjerkeli, P.; Blake, G. A.; Bontemps, S.; Braine, J.; Caselli, P.; Cernicharo, J.; Codella, C.; Daniel, F.; de Graauw, Th.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Dominik, C.; Encrenaz, P.; Fich, M.; Fuente, A.; Giannini, T.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Helmich, F.; Herpin, F.; Jacq, T.; Johnstone, D.; Kaufman, M. J.; Larsson, B.; Lis, D.; Liseau, R.; Marseille, M.; McCoey, C.; Melnick, G.; Neufeld, D.; Nisini, B.; Olberg, M.; Pearson, J. C.; Plume, R.; Risacher, C.; Santiago-García, J.; Saraceno, P.; Shipman, R.; Tafalla, M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; van der Tak, F.; Wyrowski, F.; Beintema, D.; de Jonge, A.; Dieleman, P.; Ossenkopf, V.; Roelfsema, P.; Stutzki, J.; Whyborn, N.


    “Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel” (WISH) is a key programme dedicated to studying the role of water and related species during the star-formation process and constraining the physical and chemical properties of young stellar objects. The Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) on the Herschel Space Observatory observed three deeply embedded protostars in the low-mass star-forming region NGC 1333 in several H_216O, H_218O, and CO transitions. Line profiles are resolved for five H_216O transitions in each source, revealing them to be surprisingly complex. The line profiles are decomposed into broad (>20 km s-1), medium-broad (~5-10 km s-1), and narrow (20 km s-1), indicating that its physical origin is the same as for the broad H_216O component. In one of the sources, IRAS4A, an inverse P Cygni profile is observed, a clear sign of infall in the envelope. From the line profiles alone, it is clear that the bulk of emission arises from shocks, both on small (⪉1000 AU) and large scales along the outflow cavity walls (~10 000 AU). The H2O line profiles are compared to CO line profiles to constrain the H2O abundance as a function of velocity within these shocked regions. The H2O/CO abundance ratios are measured to be in the range of ~0.1-1, corresponding to H2O abundances of ~10-5-10-4 with respect to H2. Approximately 5-10% of the gas is hot enough for all oxygen to be driven into water in warm post-shock gas, mostly at high velocities. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Tables 2 and 3 (page 6) are only available in electronic form at

  13. Shockingly low water abundances in Herschel/PACS observations of low-mass protostars in Perseus (United States)

    Karska, A.; Kristensen, L. E.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Drozdovskaya, M. N.; Mottram, J. C.; Herczeg, G. J.; Bruderer, S.; Cabrit, S.; Evans, N. J.; Fedele, D.; Gusdorf, A.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Kaufman, M. J.; Melnick, G. J.; Neufeld, D. A.; Nisini, B.; Santangelo, G.; Tafalla, M.; Wampfler, S. F.


    Context. Protostars interact with their surroundings through jets and winds impinging on the envelope and creating shocks, but the nature of these shocks is still poorly understood. Aims: Our aim is to survey far-infrared molecular line emission from a uniform and significant sample of deeply-embedded low-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) in order to characterize shocks and the possible role of ultraviolet radiation in the immediate protostellar environment. Methods: Herschel/PACS spectral maps of 22 objects in the Perseus molecular cloud were obtained as part of the William Herschel Line Legacy (WILL) survey. Line emission from H2O, CO, and OH is tested against shock models from the literature. Results: Observed line ratios are remarkably similar and do not show variations with physical parameters of the sources (luminosity, envelope mass). Most ratios are also comparable to those found at off-source outflow positions. Observations show good agreement with the shock models when line ratios of the same species are compared. Ratios of various H2O lines provide a particularly good diagnostic of pre-shock gas densities, nH ~ 105 cm-3, in agreement with typical densities obtained from observations of the post-shock gas when a compression factor on the order of 10 is applied (for non-dissociative shocks). The corresponding shock velocities, obtained from comparison with CO line ratios, are above 20 km s-1. However, the observations consistently show H2O-to-CO and H2O-to-OH line ratios that are one to two orders of magnitude lower than predicted by the existing shock models. Conclusions: The overestimated model H2O fluxes are most likely caused by an overabundance of H2O in the models since the excitation is well-reproduced. Illumination of the shocked material by ultraviolet photons produced either in the star-disk system or, more locally, in the shock, would decrease the H2O abundances and reconcile the models with observations. Detections of hot H2O and strong OH

  14. Periodic Variability of Low-mass Stars in Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 (United States)

    Becker, A. C.; Bochanski, J. J.; Hawley, S. L.; Ivezić, Ž.; Kowalski, A. F.; Sesar, B.; West, A. A.


    We present a catalog of periodic stellar variability in the "Stripe 82" region of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. After aggregating and re-calibrating catalog-level data from the survey, we ran a period-finding algorithm (Supersmoother) on all point-source light curves. We used color selection to identify systems that are likely to contain low-mass stars, in particular M dwarfs and white dwarfs. In total, we found 207 candidates, the vast majority of which appear to be in eclipsing binary systems. The catalog described in this paper includes 42 candidate M dwarf/white dwarf pairs, four white dwarf pairs, 59 systems whose colors indicate they are composed of two M dwarfs and whose light-curve shapes suggest they are in detached eclipsing binaries, and 28 M dwarf systems whose light-curve shapes suggest they are in contact binaries. We find no detached systems with periods longer than 3 days, thus the majority of our sources are likely to have experienced orbital spin-up and enhanced magnetic activity. Indeed, 26 of 27 M dwarf systems that we have spectra for show signs of chromospheric magnetic activity, far higher than the 24% seen in field stars of the same spectral type. We also find binaries composed of stars that bracket the expected boundary between partially and fully convective interiors, which will allow the measurement of the stellar mass-radius relationship across this transition. The majority of our contact systems have short orbital periods, with small variance (0.02 days) in the sample near the observed cutoff of 0.22 days. The accumulation of these stars at short orbital period suggests that the process of angular momentum loss, leading to period evolution, becomes less efficient at short periods. These short-period systems are in a novel regime for studying the effects of orbital spin-up and enhanced magnetic activity, which are thought to be the source of discrepancies between mass-radius predictions and measurements of these properties in eclipsing

  15. Envelope structure on 700 AU scales and the molecular outflows of low-mass young stellar objects (United States)

    Hogerheijde, M. R.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Blake, G. A.; van Langevelde, H. J.


    Aperture synthesis observations of HCO+ J = 1-0, 13CO 1-0, and C18O 1-0 obtained with the Owens Valley Millimeter Array are used to probe the small-scale (5" approximately 700 AU) structure of the molecular envelopes of a well-defined sample of nine embedded low-mass young stellar objects in Taurus. The interferometer results can be understood in terms of: (1) a core of radius approximately or less than 1000 AU surrounding the central star, possibly flattened and rotating; (2) condensations scattered throughout the envelope that may be left over from the inhomogeneous structure of the original cloud core or that may have grown during collapse; and (3) material within the outflow or along the walls of the outflow cavity. Masses of the central cores are 0.001-0.1 M (solar), and agree well with dust continuum measurements. Averaged over the central 20" (3000 AU) region, an HCO+ abundance of 4 x 10(-8) is inferred, with a spread of a factor of 3 between the different sources. Reanalysis of previously presented single-dish data yields an HCO+ abundance of (5.0 +/- 1.7) x 10(-9), which may indicate an average increase by a factor of a few on the smaller scales sampled by the interferometer. Part of this apparent abundance variation could be explained by contributions from extended cloud emission to the single-dish C18O lines, and uncertainties in the assumed excitation temperatures and opacities. The properties of the molecular envelopes and outflows are further investigated through single-dish observations of 12CO J = 6-5, 4-3, and 3-2, 13CO 6-5 and 3-2, and C18O 3-2 and 2-1, obtained with the James Clerk Maxwell and IRAM 30 m telescopes, along with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. Ratios of the mid-J CO lines are used to estimate the excitation temperature, with values of 25-80 K derived for the gas near line centre. The outflow wings show a similar range, although Tex is enhanced by a factor of 2-3 in at least two sources. In contrast to the well-studied L1551

  16. BEER Analysis of Kepler and CoRoT Light Curves. IV. Discovery of Four New Low-mass White-Dwarf Companions in the Kepler Data (United States)

    Faigler, S.; Kull, I.; Mazeh, T.; Kiefer, F.; Latham, D. W.; Bloemen, S.


    We report the discovery of four short-period eclipsing systems in the Kepler light curves, consisting of an A-star primary and a low-mass white dwarf (WD) secondary (dA+WD)—KIC 4169521, KOI-3818, KIC 2851474, and KIC 9285587. The systems show BEaming, Ellipsoidal and Reflection (BEER) phase modulations together with primary and secondary eclipses. These add to the 6 Kepler and 18 WASP short-period eclipsing dA+WD binaries that were previously known. The light curves, together with follow-up spectroscopic observations, allow us to derive the masses, radii, and effective temperatures of the two components of the four systems. The orbital periods, of 1.17-3.82 days, and WD masses, of 0.19-0.22 M⊙, are similar to those of the previously known systems. The WD radii of KOI-3818, KIC 2851474, and KIC 9285587 are 0.026, 0.035, and 0.026 R⊙, respectively, the smallest WD radii derived so far for short-period eclipsing dA+WD binaries. These three binaries extend the previously known population to older systems with cooler and smaller WD secondaries. KOI-3818 displays evidence for a fast-rotating primary and a minute but significant eccentricity, ˜1.5 × 10-3. These features are probably the outcome of the mass-transfer process.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, Lars E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bergin, Edwin A., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)


    Most low-mass protostars form in clusters, in particular high-mass clusters; however, how low-mass stars form in high-mass clusters and what the mass distribution is are still open questions both in our own Galaxy and elsewhere. To access the population of forming embedded low-mass protostars observationally, we propose using molecular outflows as tracers. Because the outflow emission scales with mass, the effective contrast between low-mass protostars and their high-mass cousins is greatly lowered. In particular, maps of methanol emission at 338.4 GHz (J = 7{sub 0}–6{sub 0} A{sup +}) in low-mass clusters illustrate that this transition is an excellent probe of the low-mass population. We present here a model of a forming cluster where methanol emission is assigned to every embedded low-mass protostar. The resulting model image of methanol emission is compared to recent ALMA observations toward a high-mass cluster and the similarity is striking: the toy model reproduces observations to better than a factor of two and suggests that approximately 50% of the total flux originates in low-mass outflows. Future fine-tuning of the model will eventually make it a tool for interpreting the embedded low-mass population of distant regions within our own Galaxy and ultimately higher-redshift starburst galaxies, not just for methanol emission but also water and high-J CO.

  18. Spectroscopic Redshifts to 1300 Low-Mass Galaxies with 0.3 ≤ z ≤ 0.4 in the COSMOS Field (United States)

    Lorenz, Brian; Kelson, Daniel D.


    Recent theoretical models and hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy evolution give predictions for the star-forming properties and sizes of low-mass galaxies. Due to their faintness, there exist few unbiased samples of low-mass galaxies to test these predictions. However, the Hubble Space Telescope's deep observations of the COSMOS field allow for the creation of an unbiased collection of galaxies with stellar masses 10^9 work provides a population of low-mass galaxies for which we can measure star formation rates, furthering our understanding of low-mass galaxy evolution.

  19. Tracing Embedded Stellar Populations in Clusters and Galaxies Using Molecular Emission: Methanol as a Signature of the Low-mass End of the IMF (United States)

    Kristensen, Lars E.; Bergin, Edwin A.


    Most low-mass protostars form in clusters, in particular high-mass clusters; however, how low-mass stars form in high-mass clusters and what the mass distribution is are still open questions both in our own Galaxy and elsewhere. To access the population of forming embedded low-mass protostars observationally, we propose using molecular outflows as tracers. Because the outflow emission scales with mass, the effective contrast between low-mass protostars and their high-mass cousins is greatly lowered. In particular, maps of methanol emission at 338.4 GHz (J = 70-60 A+) in low-mass clusters illustrate that this transition is an excellent probe of the low-mass population. We present here a model of a forming cluster where methanol emission is assigned to every embedded low-mass protostar. The resulting model image of methanol emission is compared to recent ALMA observations toward a high-mass cluster and the similarity is striking: the toy model reproduces observations to better than a factor of two and suggests that approximately 50% of the total flux originates in low-mass outflows. Future fine-tuning of the model will eventually make it a tool for interpreting the embedded low-mass population of distant regions within our own Galaxy and ultimately higher-redshift starburst galaxies, not just for methanol emission but also water and high-J CO.

  20. The Evolutionary Properties and Peculiar Thermal Pulses of Metal-deficient Low-Mass Stars (United States)

    Cassisi, Santi; Castellani, Vittorio; Tornambe, Amedeo


    We investigate the evolutionary behavior of low-mass star models with very low original metal content (log Z = -10, -6, -5) and Y = 0.23. The computations have been extended from the main sequence up to the double shell burning phase. Theoretical isochrones on the H-R diagram are presented for a range of ages spanning 7-15 x 10 yr. Attention has been paid to understand whether, and to what extent, stellar populations in the quoted metallicity range can produce currently observable RR Lyrae variables, the result being that, apart from an intrinsic scarcity of existing stars with such a composition, evolutionary properties are such that a vanishingly small number of RR Lyrae variables is expected to exist. However, if existing, metal-deficient RR Lyrae stars would present pulsational properties not easily distinguishable from those of standard Population II variables. Double shell burning structures are presented with discussion of the dependence of selected evolutionary features on the original metal content and, in particular, the occurrence of unusually strong He shell flashes following the first reignition of He shell burning. The H shell burning along the He intershell accretion phase and the following He shell burning reignition of the M = 0.8 M0, log Z = -10 model are discussed in detail. It is found that, even at the first episode of He shell reignition, the burning grows in so strong a flash that a convective shell develops at once, becoming large enough to interact with the H shell, so that a large amount of fresh protons is suddenly injected into the high-temperature He-burning region. After the third episode of hydrogen ingestion, it has not been possible to follow in detail the development of the instability since a time-dependent treatment of the convection would be required. It is however estimated that during the flash a maximum luminosity of LHe = 2.5' x 108 Lo would have been attained by He burning alone, in contrast with a maximum of LHe = 7.5 x 10

  1. Very Low-mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs in Upper Scorpius Using Gaia DR1: Mass Function, Disks, and Kinematics (United States)

    Cook, Neil J.; Scholz, Aleks; Jayawardhana, Ray


    Our understanding of the brown dwarf population in star-forming regions is dependent on knowing distances and proper motions and therefore will be improved through the Gaia space mission. In this paper, we select new samples of very low-mass objects (VLMOs) in Upper Scorpius using UKIDSS colors and optimized proper motions calculated using Gaia DR1. The scatter in proper motions from VLMOs in Upper Scorpius is now (for the first time) dominated by the kinematic spread of the region itself, not by the positional uncertainties. With age and mass estimates updated using Gaia parallaxes for early-type stars in the same region, we determine masses for all VLMOs. Our final most complete sample includes 453 VLMOs of which ˜125 are expected to be brown dwarfs. The cleanest sample is comprised of 131 VLMOs, with ˜105 brown dwarfs. We also compile a joint sample from the literature that includes 415 VLMOs, out of which 152 are likely brown dwarfs. The disk fraction among low-mass brown dwarfs (M< 0.05 {M}⊙ ) is substantially higher than in more massive objects, indicating that disks around low-mass brown dwarfs survive longer than in low-mass stars overall. The mass function for 0.01< M< 0.1 {M}⊙ is consistent with the Kroupa Initial Mass Function. We investigate the possibility that some “proper motion outliers” have undergone a dynamical ejection early in their evolution. Our analysis shows that the color-magnitude cuts used when selecting samples introduce strong bias into the population statistics due to varying levels of contamination and completeness.

  2. Search with UVES and X-Shooter for signatures of the low-mass secondary in the post common-envelope binary AA Doradus (United States)

    Hoyer, D.; Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Kruk, J. W.


    Context. AA Dor is a close, totally eclipsing, post common-envelope binary with an sdOB-type primary star and an extremely low-mass secondary star, located close to the mass limit of stable central hydrogen burning. Within error limits, it may either be a brown dwarf or a late M-type dwarf. Aims: We aim to extract the secondary's contribution to the phase-dependent composite spectra. The spectrum and identified lines of the secondary decide on its nature. Methods: In January 2014, we measured the phase-dependent spectrum of AA Dor with X-Shooter over one complete orbital period. Since the secondary's rotation is presumable synchronized with the orbital period, its surface strictly divides into a day and night side. Therefore, we may obtain the spectrum of its cool side during its transit and of its hot, irradiated side close to its occultation. We developed the Virtual Observatory (VO) tool TLISA to search for weak lines of a faint companion in a binary system. We successfully applied it to the observations of AA Dor. Results: We identified 53 spectral lines of the secondary in the ultraviolet-blue, visual, and near-infrared X-Shooter spectra that are strongest close to its occultation. We identified 57 (20 additional) lines in available Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) spectra from 2001. The lines are mostly from C ii-iii and O ii, typical for a low-mass star that is irradiated and heated by the primary. We verified the orbital period of P = 22 597.033201 ± 0.00007 s and determined the orbital velocity K_sec = 232.9+16.6-6.5 km s-1 of the secondary. The mass of the secondary is M_sec = 0.081+0.018-0.010 M_⊙ and, hence, it is not possible to reliably determine a brown dwarf or an M-type dwarf nature. Conclusions: Although we identified many emission lines of the secondary's irradiated surface, the resolution and signal-to-noise ratio of our UVES and X-Shooter spectra are not good enough to extract a good spectrum of the secondary

  3. Enormous Li Enhancement Preceding Red Giant Phases in Low-mass Stars in the Milky Way Halo (United States)

    Li, Haining; Aoki, Wako; Matsuno, Tadafumi; Bharat Kumar, Yerra; Shi, Jianrong; Suda, Takuma; Zhao, Gang


    Li abundances in the bulk of low-mass metal-poor stars are well reproduced by stellar evolution models adopting a constant initial abundance. However, a small number of stars have exceptionally high Li abundances, for which no convincing models have been established. We report on the discovery of 12 very metal-poor stars that have large excesses of Li, including an object having more than 100 times higher Li abundance than the values found in usual objects, which is the largest excess in metal-poor stars known to date. The sample is distributed over a wide range of evolutionary stages, including five unevolved stars, showing no clear abundance anomaly in other elements. The results indicate the existence of an efficient process to enrich Li in a small fraction of low-mass stars at the main-sequence or subgiant phase. The wide distribution of Li-rich stars along the red giant branch could be explained by the dilution of surface Li by mixing that occurs when the stars evolve into red giants. Our study narrows down the problem to be solved in order to understand the origins of Li excess found in low-mass stars, suggesting the presence of an unknown process that affects the surface abundances preceding red giant phases. This work is based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  4. Electron-capture and Low-mass Iron-core-collapse Supernovae: New Neutrino-radiation-hydrodynamics Simulations (United States)

    Radice, David; Burrows, Adam; Vartanyan, David; Skinner, M. Aaron; Dolence, Joshua C.


    We present new 1D (spherical) and 2D (axisymmetric) simulations of electron-capture (EC) and low-mass iron-core-collapse supernovae (SN). We consider six progenitor models: the ECSN progenitor from Nomoto; two ECSN-like low-mass low-metallicity iron-core progenitors from A. Heger (2016, private communication); and the 9, 10, and 11 {M}⊙ (zero-age main-sequence) progenitors from Sukhbold et al. We confirm that the ECSN and ESCN-like progenitors explode easily even in 1D with explosion energies of up to a 0.15 Bethes (1 {{B}}\\equiv {10}51 {erg}), and are a viable mechanism for the production of very-low-mass neutron stars. However, the 9, 10, and 11 {M}⊙ progenitors do not explode in 1D and are not even necessarily easier to explode than higher-mass progenitor stars in 2D. We study the effect of perturbations and of changes to the microphysics and we find that relatively small changes can result in qualitatively different outcomes, even in 1D, for models sufficiently close to the explosion threshold. Finally, we revisit the impact of convection below the protoneutron star (PNS) surface. We analyze 1D and 2D evolutions of PNSs subject to the same boundary conditions. We find that the impact of PNS convection has been underestimated in previous studies and could result in an increase of the neutrino luminosity by up to factors of two.

  5. Pulsating low-mass white dwarfs in the frame of new evolutionary sequences. V. Asteroseismology of ELMV white dwarf stars (United States)

    Calcaferro, Leila M.; Córsico, Alejandro H.; Althaus, Leandro G.


    Context. Many pulsating low-mass white dwarf stars have been detected in the past years in the field of our Galaxy. Some of them exhibit multiperiodic brightness variation, therefore it is possible to probe their interiors through asteroseismology. Aims: We present a detailed asteroseismological study of all the known low-mass variable white dwarf stars based on a complete set of fully evolutionary models that are representative of low-mass He-core white dwarf stars. Methods: We employed adiabatic radial and nonradial pulsation periods for low-mass white dwarf models with stellar masses ranging from 0.1554 to 0.4352 M⊙ that were derived by simulating the nonconservative evolution of a binary system consisting of an initially 1 M⊙ zero-age main-sequence (ZAMS) star and a 1.4 M⊙ neutron star companion. We estimated the mean period spacing for the stars under study (where this was possible), and then we constrained the stellar mass by comparing the observed period spacing with the average of the computed period spacings for our grid of models. We also employed the individual observed periods of every known pulsating low-mass white dwarf star to search for a representative seismological model. Results: We found that even though the stars under analysis exhibit few periods and the period fits show multiplicity of solutions, it is possible to find seismological models whose mass and effective temperature are in agreement with the values given by spectroscopy for most of the cases. Unfortunately, we were not able to constrain the stellar masses by employing the observed period spacing because, in general, only few periods are exhibited by these stars. In the two cases where we were able to extract the period spacing from the set of observed periods, this method led to stellar mass values that were substantially higher than expected for this type of stars. Conclusions: The results presented in this work show the need for further photometric searches, on the one hand

  6. Swings between rotation and accretion power in a binary millisecond pulsar. (United States)

    Papitto, A; Ferrigno, C; Bozzo, E; Rea, N; Pavan, L; Burderi, L; Burgay, M; Campana, S; Di Salvo, T; Falanga, M; Filipović, M D; Freire, P C C; Hessels, J W T; Possenti, A; Ransom, S M; Riggio, A; Romano, P; Sarkissian, J M; Stairs, I H; Stella, L; Torres, D F; Wieringa, M H; Wong, G F


    It is thought that neutron stars in low-mass binary systems can accrete matter and angular momentum from the companion star and be spun-up to millisecond rotational periods. During the accretion stage, the system is called a low-mass X-ray binary, and bright X-ray emission is observed. When the rate of mass transfer decreases in the later evolutionary stages, these binaries host a radio millisecond pulsar whose emission is powered by the neutron star's rotating magnetic field. This evolutionary model is supported by the detection of millisecond X-ray pulsations from several accreting neutron stars and also by the evidence for a past accretion disc in a rotation-powered millisecond pulsar. It has been proposed that a rotation-powered pulsar may temporarily switch on during periods of low mass inflow in some such systems. Only indirect evidence for this transition has hitherto been observed. Here we report observations of accretion-powered, millisecond X-ray pulsations from a neutron star previously seen as a rotation-powered radio pulsar. Within a few days after a month-long X-ray outburst, radio pulses were again detected. This not only shows the evolutionary link between accretion and rotation-powered millisecond pulsars, but also that some systems can swing between the two states on very short timescales.

  7. Swings between rotation and accretion power in a binary millisecond pulsar (United States)

    Papitto, A.; Ferrigno, C.; Bozzo, E.; Rea, N.; Pavan, L.; Burderi, L.; Burgay, M.; Campana, S.; di Salvo, T.; Falanga, M.; Filipović, M. D.; Freire, P. C. C.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Possenti, A.; Ransom, S. M.; Riggio, A.; Romano, P.; Sarkissian, J. M.; Stairs, I. H.; Stella, L.; Torres, D. F.; Wieringa, M. H.; Wong, G. F.


    It is thought that neutron stars in low-mass binary systems can accrete matter and angular momentum from the companion star and be spun-up to millisecond rotational periods. During the accretion stage, the system is called a low-mass X-ray binary, and bright X-ray emission is observed. When the rate of mass transfer decreases in the later evolutionary stages, these binaries host a radio millisecond pulsar whose emission is powered by the neutron star's rotating magnetic field. This evolutionary model is supported by the detection of millisecond X-ray pulsations from several accreting neutron stars and also by the evidence for a past accretion disc in a rotation-powered millisecond pulsar. It has been proposed that a rotation-powered pulsar may temporarily switch on during periods of low mass inflow in some such systems. Only indirect evidence for this transition has hitherto been observed. Here we report observations of accretion-powered, millisecond X-ray pulsations from a neutron star previously seen as a rotation-powered radio pulsar. Within a few days after a month-long X-ray outburst, radio pulses were again detected. This not only shows the evolutionary link between accretion and rotation-powered millisecond pulsars, but also that some systems can swing between the two states on very short timescales.

  8. Rotating Cavitation Supression Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FTT proposes development of a rotating cavitation (RC) suppressor for liquid rocket engine turbopump inducers. Cavitation instabilities, such as rotating cavitation,...

  9. Earth's variable rotation (United States)

    Hide, Raymond; Dickey, Jean O.


    Recent improvements in geodetic data and practical meteorology have advanced research on fluctuations in the earth's rotation. The interpretation of these fluctuations is inextricably linked with studies of the dynamics of the earth-moon system and dynamical processes in the liquid metallic core of the earth (where the geomagnetic field originates), other parts of the earth's interior, and the hydrosphere and atmosphere. Fluctuations in the length of the day occurring on decadal time scales have implications for the topographay of the core-mantle boundary and the electrical, magnetic, ande other properties of the core and lower mantle. Investigations of more rapid fluctuations bear on meteorological studies of interannual, seasonal, and intraseasonal variations in the general circulation of the atmosphere and the response of the oceans to such variations.

  10. HS 2231+2441: an HW Vir system composed of a low-mass white dwarf and a brown dwarf★ (United States)

    Almeida, L. A.; Damineli, A.; Rodrigues, C. V.; Pereira, M. G.; Jablonski, F.


    HW Vir systems are rare evolved eclipsing binaries composed of a hot compact star and a low-mass main sequence star in a close orbit. These systems provide a direct way to measure the fundamental properties, e.g. masses and radii, of their components, hence they are crucial in studying the formation of subdwarf B stars and low-mass white dwarfs, the common-envelope phase and the pre-phase of cataclysmic variables. Here, we present a detailed study of HS 2231+2441, an HW Vir type system, by analysing BVRCIC photometry and phase-resolved optical spectroscopy. The spectra of this system, which are dominated by the primary component features, were fitted using non-local thermodynamic equilibrium models providing an effective temperature Teff = 28 500 ± 500 K, surface gravity log g = 5.40 ± 0.05 cm s-2 and helium abundance log (n(He)/n(H)) = -2.52 ± 0.07. The geometrical orbit and physical parameters were derived by simultaneously modelling the photometric and spectroscopic data using the Wilson-Devinney code. We derive two possible solutions for HS 2231+2441 that provide the component masses: M1 = 0.19 M⊙ and M2 = 0.036 M⊙ or M1 = 0.288 M⊙ and M2 = 0.046 M⊙. Considering the possible evolutionary channels for forming a compact hot star, the primary of HS 2231+2441 probably evolved through the red-giant branch scenario and does not have a helium-burning core, which is consistent with a low-mass white dwarf. Both solutions are consistent with a brown dwarf as the secondary.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Jayanta; Bhattacharyya, Bhaswati; Stappers, Ben [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Ray, Paul S.; Wolff, Michael; Wood, Kent S. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Chengalur, Jayaram N. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Pune 411 007 (India); Deneva, Julia [NRC Research Associate, resident at Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Camilo, Fernando [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Johnson, Tyrel J. [College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA, resident at Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Hessels, Jason W. T.; Bassa, Cees G. [ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Keane, Evan F. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Mail H30, P.O. Box 218, VIC 3122 (Australia); Ferrara, Elizabeth C.; Harding, Alice K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)


    XSS J12270−4859 is an X-ray binary associated with the Fermi Large Area Telescope gamma-ray source 1FGL J1227.9−4852. In 2012 December, this source underwent a transition where the X-ray and optical luminosity dropped and the spectral signatures of an accretion disk disappeared. We report the discovery of a 1.69 millisecond pulsar (MSP), PSR J1227−4853, at a dispersion measure of 43.4 pc cm{sup −3} associated with this source, using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) at 607 MHz. This demonstrates that, post-transition, the system hosts an active radio MSP. This is the third system after PSR J1023+0038 and PSR J1824−2452I showing evidence of state switching between radio MSP and low-mass X-ray binary states. We report timing observations of PSR J1227−4853 with the GMRT and Parkes, which give a precise determination of the rotational and orbital parameters of the system. The companion mass measurement of 0.17–0.46 M{sub ⊙} suggests that this is a redback system. PSR J1227−4853 is eclipsed for about 40% of its orbit at 607 MHz with additional short-duration eclipses at all orbital phases. We also find that the pulsar is very energetic, with a spin-down luminosity of ∼10{sup 35} erg s{sup −1}. We report simultaneous imaging and timing observations with the GMRT, which suggests that eclipses are caused by absorption rather than dispersion smearing or scattering.

  12. Energy dependent delay measurements of quasi-periodic oscillations in low-mass X-ray binaries (United States)

    Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Van Paradijs, J.; Lewin, W. H. G.


    Results of Monte Carlo simulations of the Comptonization of photons in a finite spherical Comptonizing cloud are presented. The energy dependence of the arrival times of the Comptonized photons is very different for different input photon spectra. If the delays observed in the high-frequency QPO of Cyg X-2 and GX5-1 are the result of Comptonization, multichannel time-delay measurements may constrain the energy of the input photons and thus provide important information on the accretion process in low-mass X-ray binaries.

  13. A Search of Low-Mass WIMPs with p-type Point Contact Germanium Detector in the CDEX-1 Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, W; Kang, K J; Cheng, J P; Li, Y J; Wong, H T; Lin, S T; Chang, J P; Chen, J H; Chen, Q H; Chen, Y H; Deng, Z; Du, Q; Gong, H; Hao, X Q; He, H J; He, Q J; Huang, H X; Huang, T R; Jiang, H; Li, H B; Li, J; Li, J M; Li, X; Li, X Y; Li, Y L; Lin, F K; Liu, S K; Lü, L C; Ma, H; Ma, J L; Mao, S J; Qin, J Q; Ren, J; Ruan, X C; Sharma, V; Shen, M B; Singh, L; Singh, M K; Soma, A K; Su, J; Tang, C J; Wang, J M; Wang, L; Wang, Q; Wu, S Y; Wu, Y C; Xianyu, Z Z; Xiao, R Q; Xing, H Y; Xu, F Z; Xu, Y; Xu, X J; Xue, T; Yang, L T; Yang, S W; Yi, N; Yu, C X; Yu, H; Yu, X Z; Zeng, M; Zeng, X H; Zeng, Z; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y H; Zhao, M G; Zhou, Z Y; Zhu, J J; Zhu, W B; Zhu, X Z; Zhu, Z H


    The CDEX-1 experiment conducted a search of low-mass (< 10 GeV/c2) Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) dark matter at the China Jinping Underground Laboratory using a p-type point-contact germanium detector with a fiducial mass of 915 g at a physics analysis threshold of 475 eVee. We report the hardware set-up, detector characterization, data acquisition and analysis procedures of this experiment. No excess of unidentified events are observed after subtraction of known background. Using 335.6 kg-days of data, exclusion constraints on the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent and spin-dependent couplings are derived.

  14. Modeling differential rotations of compact stars in equilibriums (United States)

    Uryū, Kōji; Tsokaros, Antonios; Baiotti, Luca; Galeazzi, Filippo; Taniguchi, Keisuke; Yoshida, Shin'ichirou


    Outcomes of numerical relativity simulations of massive core collapses or binary neutron star mergers with moderate masses suggest formations of rapidly and differentially rotating neutron stars. Subsequent fall back accretion may also amplify the degree of differential rotation. We propose new formulations for modeling the differential rotation of those compact stars, and present selected solutions of differentially rotating, stationary, and axisymmetric compact stars in equilibrium. For the cases when rotating stars reach break-up velocities, the maximum masses of such rotating models are obtained.

  15. The 2014-2017 outburst of the young star ASASSN-13db. A time-resolved picture of a very-low-mass star between EXors and FUors (United States)

    Sicilia-Aguilar, A.; Oprandi, A.; Froebrich, D.; Fang, M.; Prieto, J. L.; Stanek, K.; Scholz, A.; Kochanek, C. S.; Henning, Th.; Gredel, R.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Rabus, M.; Shappee, B. J.; Billington, S. J.; Campbell-White, J.; Zegmott, T. J.


    Context. Accretion outbursts are key elements in star formation. ASASSN-13db is a M5-type star with a protoplanetary disk, the lowest-mass star known to experience accretion outbursts. Since its discovery in 2013, it has experienced two outbursts, the second of which started in November 2014 and lasted until February 2017. Aims: We explore the photometric and spectroscopic behavior of ASASSN-13db during the 2014-2017 outburst. Methods: We use high- and low-resolution spectroscopy and time-resolved photometry from the ASAS-SN survey, the LCOGT and the Beacon Observatory to study the light curve of ASASSN-13db and the dynamical and physical properties of the accretion flow. Results: The 2014-2017 outburst lasted for nearly 800 days. A 4.15 d period in the light curve likely corresponds to rotational modulation of a star with hot spot(s). The spectra show multiple emission lines with variable inverse P-Cygni profiles and a highly variable blue-shifted absorption below the continuum. Line ratios from metallic emission lines (Fe I/Fe II, Ti I/Ti II) suggest temperatures of 5800-6000 K in the accretion flow. Conclusions: Photometrically and spectroscopically, the 2014-2017 event displays an intermediate behavior between EXors and FUors. The accretion rate ([Ṁ]= 1-3 × 10-7 M⊙/yr), about two orders of magnitude higher than the accretion rate in quiescence, is not significantly different from the accretion rate observed in 2013. The absorption features in the spectra suggest that the system is viewed at a high angle and drives a powerful, non-axisymmetric wind, maybe related to magnetic reconnection. The properties of ASASSN-13db suggest that temperatures lower than those for solar-type stars are needed for modeling accretion in very-low-mass systems. Finally, the rotational modulation during the outburst reveals that accretion-related structures settle after the beginning of the outburst and can be relatively stable and long-lived. Our work also demonstrates the power

  16. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Evidence of the importance of AGN feedback in low-mass galaxies (United States)

    Penny, Samantha J.; Masters, Karen L.; Smethurst, Rebecca; Nichol, Robert C.; Krawczyk, Coleman M.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Greene, Olivia; Liu, Charles; Marinelli, Mariarosa; Rembold, Sandro B.; Riffel, Rogemar A.; da Silva Ilha, Gabriele; Wylezalek, Dominika; Andrews, Brett H.; Bundy, Kevin; Drory, Niv; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike


    We present new evidence for AGN feedback in a subset of 69 quenched low-mass galaxies (M⋆ ≲ 5 × 109 M⊙, Mr > -19) selected from the first two years of the SDSS-IV MaNGA survey. The majority (85 per cent) of these quenched galaxies appear to reside in a group environment. We find 6 galaxies in our sample that appear to have an active AGN that is preventing on-going star-formation; this is the first time such a feedback mechanism has been observed in this mass range. Interestingly, five of these six galaxies have an ionised gas component that is kinematically offset from their stellar component, suggesting the gas is either recently accreted or outflowing. We hypothesise these six galaxies are low-mass equivalents to the "red geysers" observed in more massive galaxies. Of the other 62 galaxies in the sample, we find 8 do appear for have some low-level, residual star formation, or emission from hot, evolved stars. The remaining galaxies in our sample have no detectable ionised gas emission throughout their structures, consistent with them being quenched. This work shows the potential for understanding the detailed physical properties of dwarf galaxies through spatially resolved spectroscopy.

  17. A Catalog Sample of Low-mass Galaxies Observed in X-Rays with Central Candidate Black Holes (United States)

    Nucita, A. A.; Manni, L.; De Paolis, F.; Giordano, M.; Ingrosso, G.


    We present a sample of X-ray-selected candidate black holes in 51 low-mass galaxies with z ≤ 0.055 and masses up to 1010 M ⊙ obtained by cross-correlating the NASA-SLOAN Atlas with the 3XMM catalog. We have also searched in the available catalogs for radio counterparts of the black hole candidates and find that 19 of the previously selected sources also have a radio counterpart. Our results show that about 37% of the galaxies of our sample host an X-ray source (associated with a radio counterpart) spatially coincident with the galaxy center, in agreement with other recent works. For these nuclear sources, the X-ray/radio fundamental plane relation allows one to estimate the mass of the (central) candidate black holes, which are in the range of 104-2 × 108 M ⊙ (with a median value of ≃3 × 107 M ⊙ and eight candidates having masses below 107 M ⊙). This result, while suggesting that X-ray emitting black holes in low-mass galaxies may have had a key role in the evolution of such systems, makes it even more urgent to explain how such massive objects formed in galaxies. Of course, dedicated follow-up observations both in the X-ray and radio bands, as well as in the optical, are necessary in order to confirm our results.

  18. The EBLM project. III. A Saturn-size low-mass star at the hydrogen-burning limit (United States)

    von Boetticher, Alexander; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.; Queloz, Didier; Gill, Sam; Lendl, Monika; Delrez, Laetitia; Anderson, David R.; Collier Cameron, Andrew; Faedi, Francesca; Gillon, Michaël; Gómez Maqueo Chew, Yilen; Hebb, Leslie; Hellier, Coel; Jehin, Emmanuël; Maxted, Pierre F. L.; Martin, David V.; Pepe, Francesco; Pollacco, Don; Ségransan, Damien; Smalley, Barry; Udry, Stéphane; West, Richard


    We report the discovery of an eclipsing binary system with mass-ratio q ˜ 0.07. After identifying a periodic photometric signal received by WASP, we obtained CORALIE spectroscopic radial velocities and follow-up light curves with the Euler and TRAPPIST telescopes. From a joint fit of these data we determine that EBLM J0555-57 consists of a sun-like primary star that is eclipsed by a low-mass companion, on a weakly eccentric 7.8-day orbit. Using a mass estimate for the primary star derived from stellar models, we determine a companion mass of 85 ± 4 MJup (0.081 M⊙) and a radius of 0.84+ 0.14-0.04RJup (0.084 R⊙) that is comparable to that of Saturn. EBLM J0555-57Ab has a surface gravity log g2 =5.50+ 0.03-0.13 and is one of the densest non-stellar-remnant objects currently known. These measurements are consistent with models of low-mass stars. The photometry tables and radial velocities are only available at the CDS and on demand via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  19. Extragalactic archeology with the GHOSTS Survey. I. Age-resolved disk structure of nearby low-mass galaxies (United States)

    Streich, David; de Jong, Roelof S.; Bailin, Jeremy; Bell, Eric F.; Holwerda, Benne W.; Minchev, Ivan; Monachesi, Antonela; Radburn-Smith, David J.


    Aims: We study the individual evolution histories of three nearby low-mass edge-on galaxies (IC 5052, NGC 4244, and NGC 5023). Methods: Using resolved stellar populations, we constructed star count density maps for populations of different ages and analyzed the change of structural parameters with stellar age within each galaxy. Results: We do not detect a separate thick disk in any of the three galaxies, even though our observations cover a wider range in equivalent surface brightness than any integrated light study. While scale heights increase with age, each population can be well described by a single disk. Two of the galaxies contain a very weak additional component, which we identify as the faint halo. The mass of these faint halos is lower than 1% of the mass of the disk. The three galaxies show low vertical heating rates, which are much lower than the heating rate of the Milky Way. This indicates that heating agents, such as giant molecular clouds and spiral structure, are weak in low-mass galaxies. All populations in the three galaxies exhibit no or only little flaring. While this finding is consistent with previous integrated light studies, it poses strong constraints on galaxy simulations, where strong flaring is often found as a result of interactions or radial migration.

  20. Vaporizing neutron stars in low-mass x-ray binaries and the statistics of millisecond pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavani, M. (California Univ., Livermore, CA (United States). Inst. of Geophysics and Planetary Physics)


    Recent data on low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) and msec pulsars (MSPs) pose a challenge to evolutionary which neglect the effects of disk and companion irradiation. Here we discuss the main features of a radiation-driven (RD) evolutionary model that may be applicable to several LMXBs. According to this model, irradiation from the accreting compact star LMXBs vaporizes'' the accretion disk and the companion star by driving a self-sustained mass loss until a sudden accretion-turn of occurs. The main characteristics of the RD-evolution are: (1) the lifetime of RD-LMXB's is of order 10{sup 7} years or less: (2) both the orbital period gap and the X-ray luminosity may be consequences of RD-evolution of LMXB's containing lower main sequence and degenerate companion stars; (3) the companion star may transfer mass to the primary even if it underfills its Roche lobe; (4) the recycled msec pulsar can continue to vaporize the low-mass companion star even after the accretion turn-off produced by a strong pulsar wind; (5) the RD-evolutionary model resolves the apparent statistical discrepancy between the number of MSP's and their LMXB progenitors. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Radiation-driven evolution of low-mass x-ray binaries and the formation of millisecond pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavani, M. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States) California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Astronomy)


    Recent data on low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) and millisecond pulsars (MSPs) pose a challenge to evolutionary theories which neglect the effects of disk and comparison irradiation. Here we discuss the main features of a radiation-driven (RD) evolutionary model that may be applicable to several LMXBs. According to this model, radiation from the accreting compact star in LMXBs vaporizes'' the accretion disk and the companion star by driving a self-sustained mass loss until a sudden accretion-turn off occurs. The main characteristics of the RD-evolution are: (1) lifetime of RD-LMXB's is of order 10{sup 7} years or less; (2) both the orbital period gap and the X-ray luminosity may be consequences of RD-evolution of LMXB's containing lower main sequence and degeneration companion stars; (3) the companion star may transfer mass to the primary even if it underfills its Roche lobe; (4) a class of recycled MSPs can continue to vaporize the low-mass companions by a strong pulsar wind even after the accretion turn-off; (5) the RD-evolutionary model resolves the apparent statistical descrepancy between the number of MSPs and their LMXB progenitors in the Galaxy. We discuss the implications of the discovery of single MSPs in low-density globular clusters and the recent measurements of short orbital timescales of four LMXBs. 34 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Predicting the locations of possible long-lived low-mass first stars: importance of satellite dwarf galaxies (United States)

    Magg, Mattis; Hartwig, Tilman; Agarwal, Bhaskar; Frebel, Anna; Glover, Simon C. O.; Griffen, Brendan F.; Klessen, Ralf S.


    The search for metal-free stars has so far been unsuccessful, proving that if there are surviving stars from the first generation, they are rare, they have been polluted or we have been looking in the wrong place. To predict the likely location of Population III (Pop III) survivors, we semi-analytically model early star formation in progenitors of Milky Way-like galaxies and their environments. We base our model on merger trees from the high-resolution dark matter only simulation suite Caterpillar. Radiative and chemical feedback are taken into account self-consistently, based on the spatial distribution of the haloes. Our results are consistent with the non-detection of Pop III survivors in the Milky Way today. We find that possible surviving Pop III stars are more common in Milky Way satellites than in the main Galaxy. In particular, low-mass Milky Way satellites contain a much larger fraction of Pop III stars than the Milky Way. Such nearby, low-mass Milky Way satellites are promising targets for future attempts to find Pop III survivors, especially for high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectroscopic observations. We provide the probabilities of finding a Pop III survivor in the red giant branch phase for all known Milky Way satellites to guide future observations.

  3. Confirmation of bistable stellar differential rotation profiles (United States)

    Käpylä, P. J.; Käpylä, M. J.; Brandenburg, A.


    Context. Solar-like differential rotation is characterized by a rapidly rotating equator and slower poles. However, theoretical models and numerical simulations can also result in a slower equator and faster poles when the overall rotation is slow. Aims: We study the critical rotational influence under which differential rotation flips from solar-like (fast equator, slow poles) to an anti-solar one (slow equator, fast poles). We also estimate the non-diffusive (Λ effect) and diffusive (turbulent viscosity) contributions to the Reynolds stress. Methods: We present the results of three-dimensional numerical simulations of mildly turbulent convection in spherical wedge geometry. Here we apply a fully compressible setup which would suffer from a prohibitive time step constraint if the real solar luminosity was used. To avoid this problem while still representing the same rotational influence on the flow as in the Sun, we increase the luminosity by a factor of roughly 106 and the rotation rate by a factor of 102. We regulate the convective velocities by varying the amount of heat transported by thermal conduction, turbulent diffusion, and resolved convection. Results: Increasing the efficiency of resolved convection leads to a reduction of the rotational influence on the flow and a sharp transition from solar-like to anti-solar differential rotation for Coriolis numbers around 1.3. We confirm the recent finding of a large-scale flow bistability: contrasted with running the models from an initial condition with unprescribed differential rotation, the initialization of the model with certain kind of rotation profile sustains the solution over a wider parameter range. The anti-solar profiles are found to be more stable against perturbations in the level of convective turbulent velocity than the solar-type solutions. Conclusions: Our results may have implications for real stars that start their lives as rapid rotators implying solar-like rotation in the early main

  4. Peculiar rotation of electron vortex beams. (United States)

    Schachinger, T; Löffler, S; Stöger-Pollach, M; Schattschneider, P


    Standard electron optics predicts Larmor image rotation in the magnetic lens field of a TEM. Introducing the possibility to produce electron vortex beams with quantized orbital angular momentum brought up the question of their rotational dynamics in the presence of a magnetic field. Recently, it has been shown that electron vortex beams can be prepared as free electron Landau states showing peculiar rotational dynamics, including no and cyclotron (double-Larmor) rotation. Additionally very fast Gouy rotation of electron vortex beams has been observed. In this work a model is developed which reveals that the rotational dynamics of electron vortices are a combination of slow Larmor and fast Gouy rotations and that the Landau states naturally occur in the transition region in between the two regimes. This more general picture is confirmed by experimental data showing an extended set of peculiar rotations, including no, cyclotron, Larmor and rapid Gouy rotations all present in one single convergent electron vortex beam. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Properties of relativistically rotating quark stars (United States)

    Zhou, Enping


    In this work, quasi-equilibrium models of rapidly rotating triaxially deformed quark stars are computed in general relativistic gravity, assuming a conformally flat spatial geometry (Isenberg-Wilson-Mathews formulation) and a polynomial equation of state. Especially, since we are using a full 3-D numerical relativity initial data code, we are able to consider the triaxially deformed rotating quark stars at very high spins. Such triaxially deformed stars are possible gravitational radiation sources detectable by ground based gravitational wave observatories. Additionally, the bifurcation from axisymmetric rotating sequence to triaxially rotating sequence hints a more realistic spin up limit for rotating compact stars compared with the mass-shedding limit. With future observations such as sub-millisecond pulsars, we could possibly distinguish between equation of states of compact stars, thus better understanding strong interaction in the low energy regime.

  6. Observational evidence for dissociative shocks in the inner 100 AU of low-mass protostars using Herschel-HIFI (United States)

    Kristensen, L. E.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Benz, A. O.; Bruderer, S.; Visser, R.; Wampfler, S. F.


    Aims: Herschel-HIFI spectra of H2O towards low-mass protostars show a distinct velocity component not seen in observations from the ground of CO or other species. The aim is to characterise this component in terms of excitation conditions and physical origin. Methods: A velocity component with an offset of ~10 km s-1 detected in spectra of the H2O 110-101 557 GHz transition towards six low-mass protostars in the "Water in star-forming regions with Herschel" (WISH) programme is also seen in higher-excited H2O lines. The emission from this component is quantified and local excitation conditions are inferred using 1D slab models. Data are compared to observations of hydrides (high-J CO, OH+, CH+, C+, OH) where the same component is uniquely detected. Results: The velocity component is detected in all six targeted H2O transitions (Eup ~ 50-250 K), as well as in CO 16-15 towards one source, Ser SMM1. Inferred excitation conditions imply that the emission arises in dense (n ~ 5 × 106-108 cm-3) and hot (T ~ 750 K) gas. The H2O and CO column densities are ≳1016 and 1018 cm-2, respectively, implying a low H2O abundance of ~10-2 with respect to CO. The high column densities of ions such as OH+ and CH+ (both ≳1013 cm-2) indicate an origin close to the protostar where the UV field is strong enough that these species are abundant. The estimated radius of the emitting region is 100 AU. This component likely arises in dissociative shocks close to the protostar, an interpretation corroborated by a comparison with models of such shocks. Furthermore, one of the sources, IRAS 4A, shows temporal variability in the offset component over a period of two years which is expected from shocks in dense media. High-J CO gas detected with Herschel-PACS with Trot ~ 700 K is identified as arising in the same component and traces the part of the shock where H2 reforms. Thus, H2O reveals new dynamical components, even on small spatial scales in low-mass protostars. Herschel is an ESA space

  7. The Spitzer search for the transits of HARPS low-mass planets. II. Null results for 19 planets (United States)

    Gillon, M.; Demory, B.-O.; Lovis, C.; Deming, D.; Ehrenreich, D.; Lo Curto, G.; Mayor, M.; Pepe, F.; Queloz, D.; Seager, S.; Ségransan, D.; Udry, S.


    Short-period super-Earths and Neptunes are now known to be very frequent around solar-type stars. Improving our understanding of these mysterious planets requires the detection of a significant sample of objects suitable for detailed characterization. Searching for the transits of the low-mass planets detected by Doppler surveys is a straightforward way to achieve this goal. Indeed, Doppler surveys target the most nearby main-sequence stars, they regularly detect close-in low-mass planets with significant transit probability, and their radial velocity data constrain strongly the ephemeris of possible transits. In this context, we initiated in 2010 an ambitious Spitzer multi-Cycle transit search project that targeted 25 low-mass planets detected by radial velocity, focusing mainly on the shortest-period planets detected by the HARPS spectrograph. We report here null results for 19 targets of the project. For 16 planets out of 19, a transiting configuration is strongly disfavored or firmly rejected by our data for most planetary compositions. We derive a posterior probability of 83% that none of the probed 19 planets transits (for a prior probability of 22%), which still leaves a significant probability of 17% that at least one of them does transit. Globally, our Spitzer project revealed or confirmed transits for three of its 25 targeted planets, and discarded or disfavored the transiting nature of 20 of them. Our light curves demonstrate for Warm Spitzer excellent photometric precisions: for 14 targets out of 19, we were able to reach standard deviations that were better than 50 ppm per 30 min intervals. Combined with its Earth-trailing orbit, which makes it capable of pointing any star in the sky and to monitor it continuously for days, this work confirms Spitzer as an optimal instrument to detect sub-mmag-deep transits on the bright nearby stars targeted by Doppler surveys. The photometric and radial velocity time series used in this work are only available at the

  8. The ALFALFA HI mass function: A dichotomy in the low-mass slope and a locally suppressed `knee' mass (United States)

    Jones, Michael G.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Moorman, Crystal


    We present the most precise measurement of the z = 0 HI mass function (HIMF) to date based on the final catalogue of the ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) blind HI survey of the nearby Universe. The Schechter function fit has a `knee' mass log (M_{*} h2_{70}/M_{⊙}) = 9.94 ± 0.01 ± 0.05, a low-mass slope parameter α = -1.25 ± 0.02 ± 0.1, and a normalisation φ _{*} = (4.5 ± 0.2 ± 0.8) × 10^{-3} h3_{70} Mpc^{-3 dex^{-1}}, with both random and systematic uncertainties as quoted. Together these give an estimate of the HI content of the z = 0 Universe as Ω _{HI} = (3.9 ± 0.1 ± 0.6) × 10^{-4} h^{-1}_{70} (corrected for HI self-absorption). Our analysis of the uncertainties indicates that the `knee' mass is a cosmologically fair measurement of the z = 0 value, with its largest uncertainty originating from the absolute flux calibration, but that the low-mass slope is only representative of the local Universe. We also explore large scale trends in α and M* across the ALFALFA volume. Unlike with the 40 per cent sample, there is now sufficient coverage in both of the survey fields to make an independent determination of the HIMF in each. We find a large discrepancy in the low-mass slope (Δα = 0.14 ± 0.03) between the two regions, and argue that this is likely caused by the presence of a deep void in one field and the Virgo cluster in the other. Furthermore, we find that the value of the `knee' mass within the Local Volume appears to be suppressed by 0.18 ± 0.04 dex compared to the global ALFALFA value, which explains the lower value measured by the shallower HIPASS. We discuss possible explanations and interpretations of these results and how they can be expanded on with future surveys.

  9. Rotating saddle trap as Foucault's pendulum (United States)

    Kirillov, Oleg N.; Levi, Mark


    One of the many surprising results found in the mechanics of rotating systems is the stabilization of a particle in a rapidly rotating planar saddle potential. Besides the counterintuitive stabilization, an unexpected precessional motion is observed. In this note, we show that this precession is due to a Coriolis-like force caused by the rotation of the potential. To our knowledge, this is the first example where such a force arises in an inertial reference frame. We also propose a simple mechanical demonstration of this effect.

  10. Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH). III. Far-infrared cooling lines in low-mass young stellar objects (United States)

    Karska, A.; Herczeg, G. J.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Wampfler, S. F.; Kristensen, L. E.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Visser, R.; Nisini, B.; San José-García, I.; Bruderer, S.; Śniady, P.; Doty, S.; Fedele, D.; Yıldız, U. A.; Benz, A. O.; Bergin, E.; Caselli, P.; Herpin, F.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Liseau, R.; Tafalla, M.; van der Tak, F.; Wyrowski, F.


    Context. Understanding the physical phenomena involved in the earlierst stages of protostellar evolution requires knowledge of the heating and cooling processes that occur in the surroundings of a young stellar object. Spatially resolved information from its constituent gas and dust provides the necessary constraints to distinguish between different theories of accretion energy dissipation into the envelope. Aims. Our aims are to quantify the far-infrared line emission from low-mass protostars and the contribution of different atomic and molecular species to the gas cooling budget, to determine the spatial extent of the emission, and to investigate the underlying excitation conditions. Analysis of the line cooling will help us characterize the evolution of the relevant physical processes as the protostar ages. Methods. Far-infrared Herschel-PACS spectra of 18 low-mass protostars of various luminosities and evolutionary stages are studied in the context of the WISH key program. For most targets, the spectra include many wavelength intervals selected to cover specific CO, H2O, OH, and atomic lines. For four targets the spectra span the entire 55-200 μm region. The PACS field-of-view covers ~47" with the resolution of 9.4". Results. Most of the protostars in our sample show strong atomic and molecular far-infrared emission. Water is detected in 17 out of 18 objects (except TMC1A), including 5 Class I sources. The high-excitation H2O 818-707 63.3 μm line (Eu/kB = 1071 K) is detected in 7 sources. CO transitions from J = 14-13 up to J = 49 - 48 are found and show two distinct temperature components on Boltzmann diagrams with rotational temperatures of ~350 K and ~700 K. H2O has typical excitation temperatures of ~150 K. Emission from both Class 0 and I sources is usually spatially extended along the outflow direction but with a pattern that depends on the species and the transition. In the extended sources, emission is stronger off source and extended on &≥10,000 AU

  11. Emission line diagnostics for accretion and outflows in young very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs (United States)

    Stelzer, B.; Alcalá, J. M.; Whelan, E.; Scholz, A.


    We discuss accretion and outflow properties of three very low-mass young stellar objects based on broad-band mid-resolution X-Shooter/VLT spectra. Our targets (FU Tau A, 2M1207-39, and Par-Lup3-4) have spectral types between M5 and M8, ages between 1Myr and ~ 10Myr, and are known to be accreting from previous studies. The final objective of our project is the determination of mass outflow to accretion rate for objects near or within the substellar regime as a probe for the T Tauri phase of brown dwarfs and the investigation of variability in the accretion and outflow processes.

  12. Emission line diagnostics for accretion and outflows in young very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelzer B.


    Full Text Available We discuss accretion and outflow properties of three very low-mass young stellar objects based on broad-band mid-resolution X-Shooter/VLT spectra. Our targets (FU Tau A, 2M1207-39, and Par-Lup3-4 have spectral types between M5 and M8, ages between 1Myr and ~ 10Myr, and are known to be accreting from previous studies. The final objective of our project is the determination of mass outflow to accretion rate for objects near or within the substellar regime as a probe for the T Tauri phase of brown dwarfs and the investigation of variability in the accretion and outflow processes.

  13. Athena's Constraints on the Dense Matter Equation of State from Quiescent Low Mass X-ray Binaries (United States)

    Guillot, S.


    Athena's observatory science goal R-SCIOBJ-331 states that Athena shall constrain the equation of state of neutron stars by obtaining X-ray spectra of 7 quiescent low mass X-ray binaries with a good distance estimate. Indeed, the study of the soft X-ray thermal emission from the neutron star surface in qLMXBs is a crucial tool to understand the interior structure of neutron stars and to place constrains on the dense matter equation of state. I will briefly review this method, its strengths and current weaknesses and limitations, as well as the current constraints on the equation of state from qLMXBs. The superior sensitivity of Athena will permit obtaining unprecedentedly high signal-to-noise spectra from these sources. I will present and discuss the expected constraints on the dense matter equation of state that will be obtained from observations of multiple qLMXBs with the Athena X-ray Observatory.

  14. Low-mass Pre-He White Dwarf Stars in Kepler Eclipsing Binaries with Multi-periodic Pulsations (United States)

    Zhang, X. B.; Fu, J. N.; Liu, N.; Luo, C. Q.; Ren, A. B.


    We report the discovery of two thermally bloated low-mass pre-He white dwarfs (WDs) in two eclipsing binaries, KIC 10989032 and KIC 8087799. Based on the Kepler long-cadence photometry, we determined comprehensive photometric solutions of the two binary systems. The light curve analysis reveals that KIC 10989032 is a partially eclipsed detached binary system containing a probable low-mass WD with the temperature of about 10,300 K. Having a WD with the temperature of about 13,300, KKIC 8087799 is typical of an EL CVn system. By utilizing radial velocity measurements available for the A-type primary star of KIC 10989032, the mass and radius of the WD component are determined to be 0.24+/- 0.02 {M}⊙ and 0.50+/- 0.01 {R}⊙ , respectively. The values of mass and radius of the WD in KIC 8087799 are estimated as 0.16 ± 0.02 M ⊙ and 0.21 ± 0.01 R ⊙, respectively, according to the effective temperature and mean density of the A-type star derived from the photometric solution. We therefore introduce KIC 10989032 and KIC 8087799 as the eleventh and twelfth dA+WD eclipsing binaries in the Kepler field. Moreover, both binaries display marked multi-periodic pulsations superimposed on binary effects. A preliminary frequency analysis is applied to the light residuals when subtracting the synthetic eclipsing light curves from the observations, revealing that the light pulsations of the two systems are both due to the δ Sct-type primaries. We hence classify KIC 10989032 and KIC 8087799 as two WD+δ Sct binaries.

  15. Integral Field Spectroscopy of the Low-mass Companion HD 984 B with the Gemini Planet Imager (United States)

    Johnson-Groh, Mara; Marois, Christian; De Rosa, Robert J.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Rameau, Julien; Blunt, Sarah; Vargas, Jeffrey; Ammons, S. Mark; Bailey, Vanessa P.; Barman, Travis S.; Bulger, Joanna; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; Cotten, Tara; Doyon, René; Duchêne, Gaspard; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Follette, Kate B.; Goodsell, Stephen; Graham, James R.; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Hibon, Pascale; Hung, Li-Wei; Ingraham, Patrick; Kalas, Paul; Konopacky, Quinn M.; Larkin, James E.; Macintosh, Bruce; Maire, Jérôme; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S.; Metchev, Stanimir; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Palmer, David W.; Patience, Jenny; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa A.; Pueyo, Laurent; Rajan, Abhijith; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Savransky, Dmitry; Schneider, Adam C.; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Soummer, Remi; Thomas, Sandrine; Vega, David; Wallace, J. Kent; Wang, Jason J.; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Wolff, Schuyler G.


    We present new observations of the low-mass companion to HD 984 taken with the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) as a part of the GPI Exoplanet Survey campaign. Images of HD 984 B were obtained in the J (1.12-1.3 μm) and H (1.50-1.80 μm) bands. Combined with archival epochs from 2012 and 2014, we fit the first orbit to the companion to find an 18 au (70-year) orbit with a 68% confidence interval between 14 and 28 au, an eccentricity of 0.18 with a 68% confidence interval between 0.05 and 0.47, and an inclination of 119° with a 68% confidence interval between 114° and 125°. To address the considerable spectral covariance in both spectra, we present a method of splitting the spectra into low and high frequencies to analyze the spectral structure at different spatial frequencies with the proper spectral noise correlation. Using the split spectra, we compare them to known spectral types using field brown dwarf and low-mass star spectra and find a best-fit match of a field gravity M6.5 ± 1.5 spectral type with a corresponding temperature of {2730}-180+120 K. Photometry of the companion yields a luminosity of {log}({L}{bol}/{L}⊙ )=-2.88+/- 0.07 dex with DUSTY models. Mass estimates, again from DUSTY models, find an age-dependent mass of 34 ± 1 to 95 ± 4 M Jup. These results are consistent with previous measurements of the object.

  16. Spectral-Timing Analysis of Kilohetrz Quasi-Periodic Osciallations in Neutron Star Low-Mass X-ray Binaries (United States)

    Cackett, Edward; Troyer, Jon; Peille, Philippe; Barret, Didier


    Kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations or kHz QPOs are intensity variations that occur in the X-ray band observed in neutron star low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) systems. In such systems, matter is transferred from a secondary low-mass star to a neutron star via the process of accretion. kHz QPOs occur on the timescale of the inner accretion flow and may carry signatures of the physics of strong gravity (c2 ~ GM/R) and possibly clues to constraining the neutron star equation of state (EOS). Both the timing behavior of kHz QPOs and the time-averaged spectra of these systems have been studied extensively. No model derived from these techniques has been able to illuminate the origin of kHz QPOs. Spectral-timing is an analysis technique that can be used to derive information about the nature of physical processes occurring within the accretion flow on the timescale of the kHz QPO. To date, kHz QPOs of (4) neutron star LMXB systems have been studied with spectral-timing techniques. We present a comprehensive study of spectral-timing products of kHz QPOs from systems where data is available in the RXTE archive to demonstrate the promise of this technique to gain insights regarding the origin of kHz QPOs. Using data averaged over the entire RXTE archive, we show correlated time-lags as a function of QPO frequency and energy, as well as energy-dependent covariance spectra for the various LMXB systems where spectral-timing analysis is possible. We find similar trends in all average spectral-timing products for the objects studied. This suggests a common origin of kHz QPOs.

  17. Rotational Preference in Gymnastics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heinen, Thomas; Jeraj, Damian; Vinken, Pia M; Velentzas, Konstantinos


    In gymnastics, most skills incorporate rotations about one or more body axes. At present, the question remains open if factors such as lateral preference and/or vestibulo-spinal asymmetry are related to gymnast's rotational preference...

  18. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus


    In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherient in the least squares estimation. Keywords: averaging rotations, Riemannian metric, matrix, quaternion...

  19. Rotationally Vibrating Electric-Field Mill (United States)

    Kirkham, Harold


    A proposed instrument for measuring a static electric field would be based partly on a conventional rotating-split-cylinder or rotating-split-sphere electric-field mill. However, the design of the proposed instrument would overcome the difficulty, encountered in conventional rotational field mills, of transferring measurement signals and power via either electrical or fiber-optic rotary couplings that must be aligned and installed in conjunction with rotary bearings. Instead of being made to rotate in one direction at a steady speed as in a conventional rotational field mill, a split-cylinder or split-sphere electrode assembly in the proposed instrument would be set into rotational vibration like that of a metronome. The rotational vibration, synchronized with appropriate rapid electronic switching of electrical connections between electric-current-measuring circuitry and the split-cylinder or split-sphere electrodes, would result in an electrical measurement effect equivalent to that of a conventional rotational field mill. A version of the proposed instrument is described.

  20. Galaxy cluster's rotation (United States)

    Manolopoulou, M.; Plionis, M.


    We study the possible rotation of cluster galaxies, developing, testing, and applying a novel algorithm which identifies rotation, if such does exist, as well as its rotational centre, its axis orientation, rotational velocity amplitude, and, finally, the clockwise or counterclockwise direction of rotation on the plane of the sky. To validate our algorithms we construct realistic Monte Carlo mock rotating clusters and confirm that our method provides robust indications of rotation. We then apply our methodology on a sample of Abell clusters with z ≲ 0.1 with member galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR10 spectroscopic data base. After excluding a number of substructured clusters, which could provide erroneous indications of rotation, and taking into account the expected fraction of misidentified coherent substructure velocities for rotation, provided by our Monte Carlo simulation analysis, we find that ∼23 per cent of our clusters are rotating under a set of strict criteria. Loosening the strictness of the criteria, on the expense of introducing spurious rotation indications, we find this fraction increasing to ∼28 per cent. We correlate our rotation indicators with the cluster dynamical state, provided either by their Bautz-Morgan type or by their X-ray isophotal shape and find for those clusters showing rotation within 1.5 h^{-1}_{70} Mpc that the significance of their rotation is related to the dynamically younger phases of cluster formation but after the initial anisotropic accretion and merging has been completed. Finally, finding rotational modes in galaxy clusters could lead to the necessity of correcting the dynamical cluster mass calculations.

  1. Investigating stellar surface rotation using observations of starspots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Heidi Helena


    information on the rotation of the star. At times even information on the spot rotation at different stellar latitudes can be obtained, similarly to the solar surface differential rotation measurements using magnetic features as tracers. Here, I will review investigations of stellar rotation based....... Also older stars in close binary systems are often rapid rotators. These types of stars can show strong magnetic activity and large starspots. In the case of large starspots which cause observable changes in the brightness of the star, and even in the shapes of the spectral line profiles, one can get...

  2. Rotating Stars in Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stergioulas Nikolaos


    Full Text Available Rotating relativistic stars have been studied extensively in recent years, both theoretically and observationally, because of the information they might yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are considered to be promising sources of gravitational waves. The latest theoretical understanding of rotating stars in relativity is reviewed in this updated article. The sections on the equilibrium properties and on the nonaxisymmetric instabilities in f-modes and r-modes have been updated and several new sections have been added on analytic solutions for the exterior spacetime, rotating stars in LMXBs, rotating strange stars, and on rotating stars in numerical relativity.

  3. The spatial rotator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmusson, Allan; Hahn, Ute; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard


    This paper presents a new local volume estimator, the spatial rotator, which is based on measurements on a virtual 3D probe, using computer assisted microscopy. The basic design of the probe builds upon the rotator principle which requires only a few manual intersection markings, thus making...... the spatial rotator fast to use. Since a 3D probe is involved, it is expected that the spatial rotator will be more efficient than the the nucleator and the planar rotator, which are based on measurements in a single plane. An extensive simulation study shows that the spatial rotator may be more efficient...... than the traditional local volume estimators. Furthermore, the spatial rotator can be seen as a further development of the Cavalieri estimator, which does not require randomization of sectioning or viewing direction. The tissue may thus be sectioned in any arbitrary direction, making it easy...

  4. K2 spots rotation in the helium star HD144941 (United States)

    Jeffery, C. Simon; Ramsay, Gavin


    HD144941 is an evolved early-type metal-poor low-mass star with a hydrogen-poor surface. It is frequently associated with other intermediate helium-rich subdwarfs and extreme helium stars. Previous photometric studies have failed to detect any variability. New observations with the K2 mission show complex but periodic variations with a full amplitude of 4 parts per thousand. It is proposed that these are due to an inhomogeneous surface brightness distribution (spots) superimposed on a rotation period of 13.9 ± 0.2 d. The cause of the surface inhomogeneity is not identified, although an oblique dipolar magnetic field origin is plausible.

  5. Bipolar Molecular Outflows within 1pc of Sgr A*:Evidence for Low-mass Star Formation Activity (United States)

    Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad; Wardle, Mark; Kunneriath, Devaky; Royster, Marc; Wootten, Al; Roberts, Douglas


    The 4 million solar mass black hole, Sgr A*, is expected to suppress star formation because the measured density of the cloud is insufficient for self-gravity to overcome tidal disruption by the black hole's gravitational field. Nevertheless, objects resembling dust-enshrouded young stars and photo-evaporative flows from their disks have been identified within 2pc of Sgr A*. Clear identification of the nature of these objects has been hampered by the Galactic center's distance, 30 magnitudes of foreground extinction, and stellar crowding. Here, we report the discovery of 11 bipolar molecular outflows using ALMA within a projected distance of one pc from Sgr A*. These unambiguous signatures of young protostars manifest as approaching and receding lobes of dense gas swept up by the jets created during the formation and early evolution of low-mass stars. The mean dynamical age of the outflow sources and the rate of star formation are estimated to be ~6500 years and ~5x10^{-4} solar mass per year, respectively. These measurements suggest that star formation could take place in the immediate vicinity of supermassive black holes in the nuclei of external galaxies.

  6. Discovery of the Accretion-Powered Millisecond Pulsar SWIFT 51756.9-2508 with a Low-Mass Companion (United States)

    Krimm, H.A.; Markwardt, C.B.; Deloye, C.J.; Romano, P.; Chakrabarty, S.; Campana. S.; Cummings, J.C.; Galloway, D.K.; Gehrels, N.; Hartman, J.M.; hide


    We report on the discovery by the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer of the eighth known transient accretion-powered millisecond pulsar: SWIFT J1756.9-2508, as part of routine observations with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope hard X-ray transient monitor. The pulsar was subsequently observed by both the X-Ray Telescope on Swift and the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array. It has a spin frequency of 182 Hz (5.5 ms) and an orbital period of 54.7 minutes. The minimum companion mass is between 0.0067 and 0.0086 Solar Mass, depending on the mass of the neutron star, and the upper limit on the mass is 0.030 Solar Mass (95% confidence level). Such a low mass is inconsistent with brown dwarf models. and comparison with white dwarf models suggests that the companion is a He-dominated donor whose thermal cooling has been at least modestly slowed by irradiation from the accretion flux. No X-ray bursts. dips, eclipses or quasi-periodic oscillations were detected. The current outburst lasted approx. 13 days and no earlier outbursts were found in archival data.

  7. Low mass X-ray binaries in the Inner Galaxy: implications for millisecond pulsars and the GeV excess (United States)

    Haggard, Daryl; Heinke, Craig; Hooper, Dan; Linden, Tim


    If millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are responsible for the excess gamma-ray emission observed from the region surrounding the Galactic Center, the same region should also contain a large population of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). In this study, we compile and utilize a sizable catalog of LMXBs observed in the the Milky Way's globular cluster system and in the Inner Galaxy, as well as the gamma-ray emission observed from globular clusters, to estimate the flux of gamma rays predicted from MSPs in the Inner Galaxy. From this comparison, we conclude that only up to ~ 4-23% of the observed gamma-ray excess is likely to originate from MSPs. This result is consistent with, and more robust than, previous estimates which utilized smaller samples of both globular clusters and LMXBs. If MSPs had been responsible for the entirety of the observed excess, INTEGRAL should have detected ~ 103 LMXBs from within a 10o radius around the Galactic Center, whereas only 42 LMXBs (and 46 additional LMXB candidates) have been observed.

  8. Jet quenching in the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary 1RXS J180408.9-342058 (United States)

    Gusinskaia, N. V.; Deller, A. T.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Degenaar, N.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Wijnands, R.; Parikh, A. S.; Russell, T. D.; Altamirano, D.


    We present quasi-simultaneous radio (VLA) and X-ray (Swift) observations of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary (NS-LMXB) 1RXS J180408.9-342058 (J1804) during its 2015 outburst. We found that the radio jet of J1804 was bright (232 ± 4 μJy at 10 GHz) during the initial hard X-ray state, before being quenched by more than an order of magnitude during the soft X-ray state (19 ± 4 μJy). The source then was undetected in radio ( 0.7 (where L_R ∝ L_X^{β }). Few other sources have been studied in this faint regime, but a steep track is inconsistent with the suggested behaviour for the recently identified class of transitional millisecond pulsars. J1804 also shows fainter radio emission at LX millisecond pulsars. This suggests that J1804 is likely not an accreting X-ray or transitional millisecond pulsar.

  9. The X-ray luminosity-temperature relation of a complete sample of low-mass galaxy clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, S.; Maughan, B. J.; Giles, P. A.


    We present Chandra observations of 23 galaxy groups and low-mass galaxy clusters at 0.03

  10. Fluctuating feedback-regulated escape fraction of ionizing radiation in low-mass, high-redshift galaxies (United States)

    Trebitsch, Maxime; Blaizot, Jérémy; Rosdahl, Joakim; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne


    Low-mass galaxies are thought to provide the bulk of the ionizing radiation necessary to reionize the Universe. The amount of photons escaping the galaxies is poorly constrained theoretically, and difficult to measure observationally. Yet it is an essential parameter of reionization models. We study in detail how ionizing radiation can leak from high-redshift galaxies. For this purpose, we use a series of high-resolution radiation hydrodynamics simulations, zooming on three dwarf galaxies in a cosmological context. We find that the energy and momentum input from the supernova explosions has a pivotal role in regulating the escape fraction by disrupting dense star-forming clumps, and clearing sightlines in the halo. In the absence of supernovae, photons are absorbed very locally, within the birth clouds of massive stars. We follow the time evolution of the escape fraction and find that it can vary by more than six orders of magnitude. This explains the large scatter in the value of the escape fraction found by previous studies. This fast variability also impacts the observability of the sources of reionization: a survey even as deep as M1500 = -14 would miss about half of the underlying population of Lyman-continuum emitters.

  11. Low mass neutralino dark matter in minimal supergravity and more general models in the light of LHC data (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Nabanita; Choudhury, Arghya; Datta, Amitava


    The bτjE̸T signal at the ongoing LHC experiments is simulated with Pythia in the minimal supergravity (mSUGRA) and other models of supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking. Special attention is given to the compatibility of this signature with the low mass neutralino dark matter (LMNDM) scenario consistent with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data. In the mSUGRA model the above signal as well as the LMNDM scenario are strongly disfavored due to the constraints from the ongoing SUSY searches at the LHC. This tension, however, originates from the model dependent correlations among the parameters in the strong and electroweak sectors of mSUGRA. That there is no serious conflict between the LMNDM scenario and the LHC data is demonstrated by constructing generic phenomenological models such that the strong sector is unconstrained or mildly constrained by the existing LHC data and parameters in the electroweak sector, unrelated to the strong sector, yield dark matter relic density consistent with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data. The proposed models, fairly insensitive to the conventional SUSY searches in the jets+E̸T and other channels, yield observable signal in the suggested channel for L≳1fb-1 of data. They are also consistent with the LMNDM scenario and can be tested by the direct dark matter search experiments in the near future. Some of these models can be realized by nonuniversal scalar and gaugino masses at the grand unified theory scale.

  12. TREX-DM: a low-background Micromegas-based TPC for low-mass WIMP detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguaz, F.J.; Garza, J.G.; Castel, J.F.; Cebrian, S.; Dafni, T.; Garcia, J.A.; Irastorza, I.G.; Lagraba, A.; Luzon, G.; Peiro, A. [Universidad de Zaragoza, Grupo de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Zaragoza (Spain); Aznar, F. [Universidad de Zaragoza, Grupo de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Zaragoza (Spain); Universidad de Zaragoza, Centro Universitario de la Defensa, Zaragoza (Spain)


    If Dark Matter is made of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) with masses below ∝20 GeV, the corresponding nuclear recoils in mainstream WIMP experiments are of energies too close, or below, the experimental threshold. Gas Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) can be operated with a variety of target elements, offer good tracking capabilities and, on account of the amplification in gas, very low thresholds are achievable. Recent advances in electronics and in novel radiopure TPC readouts, especially micro-mesh gas structure (Micromegas), are improving the scalability and low-background prospects of gaseous TPCs. Here we present TREX-DM, a prototype to test the concept of a Micromegas-based TPC to search for low-mass WIMPs. The detector is designed to host an active mass of ∝0.300 kg of Ar at 10 bar, or alternatively ∝0.160 kg of Ne at 10 bar, with an energy threshold below 0.4 keVee, and is fully built with radiopure materials. We will describe the detector in detail, the results from the commissioning phase on surface, as well as a preliminary background model. The anticipated sensitivity of this technique may go beyond current experimental limits for WIMPs of masses of 2-8 GeV. (orig.)

  13. Critical Heat Flux Phenomena at HighPressure & Low Mass Fluxes: NEUP Final Report Part I: Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, Michael [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Wu, Qiao [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)


    This report is a preliminary document presenting an overview of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) phenomenon, the High Pressure Critical Heat Flux facility (HPCHF), preliminary CHF data acquired, and the future direction of the research. The HPCHF facility has been designed and built to study CHF at high pressure and low mass flux ranges in a rod bundle prototypical of conceptual Small Modular Reactor (SMR) designs. The rod bundle is comprised of four electrically heated rods in a 2x2 square rod bundle with a prototypic chopped-cosine axial power profile and equipped with thermocouples at various axial and circumferential positions embedded in each rod for CHF detection. Experimental test parameters for CHF detection range from pressures of ~80 – 160 bar, mass fluxes of ~400 – 1500 kg/m2s, and inlet water subcooling from ~30 – 70°C. The preliminary data base established will be further extended in the future along with comparisons to existing CHF correlations, models, etc. whose application ranges may be applicable to the conditions of SMRs.

  14. Low mass X-ray binaries in the Inner Galaxy: implications for millisecond pulsars and the GeV excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggard, Daryl; Heinke, Craig; Hooper, Dan; Linden, Tim


    If millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are responsible for the excess gamma-ray emission observed from the region surrounding the Galactic Center, the same region should also contain a large population of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). In this study, we compile and utilize a sizable catalog of LMXBs observed in the the Milky Way's globular cluster system and in the Inner Galaxy, as well as the gamma-ray emission observed from globular clusters, to estimate the flux of gamma rays predicted from MSPs in the Inner Galaxy. From this comparison, we conclude that only up to $\\sim$4-23% of the observed gamma-ray excess is likely to originate from MSPs. This result is consistent with, and more robust than, previous estimates which utilized smaller samples of both globular clusters and LMXBs. If MSPs had been responsible for the entirety of the observed excess, INTEGRAL should have detected $\\sim$$10^3$ LMXBs from within a $10^{\\circ}$ radius around the Galactic Center, whereas only 42 LMXBs (and 46 additional LMXB candidates) have been observed.

  15. High-J CO survey of low-mass protostars observed with Herschel-HIFI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yıldız, U. A.; Kristensen, L. E.; van Dishoeck, E. F.


    with the colder gas traced by lower excitation lines. Methods: Herschel-HIFI observations of high-J lines of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O (up to Ju = 10, Eu up to 300 K) are presented toward 26 deeply embedded low-mass Class 0 and Class I young stellar objects, obtained as part of the Water In Star-forming regions...... for all objects and can generally be decomposed into a narrow and a broad component owing to the quiescent envelope and entrained outflow material, respectively. The 12CO excitation temperature increases with velocity from ~60 K up to ~130 K. The median excitation temperatures for 12CO, 13CO, and C18O...... derived from single-temperature fits to the Ju = 2-10 integrated intensities are ~70 K, 48 K and 37 K, respectively, with no significant difference between Class 0 and Class I sources and no trend with Menv or Lbol. Thus, in contrast to the continuum SEDs, the spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) do...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, Sirio; Ellis, Richard S. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Jones, Tucker [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Richard, Johan [Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, 9 Avenue Charles Andre, F-69561 Saint Genis Laval Cedex (France)


    We present rest-frame optical spectra for a sample of nine low-mass star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 1.5 < z < 3 which are gravitationally lensed by foreground clusters. We used Triplespec, an echelle spectrograph at the Palomar 200 inch telescope that is very effective for this purpose as it samples the entire near-infrared spectrum simultaneously. By measuring the flux of nebular emission lines, we derive gas-phase metallicities and star formation rates, and by fitting the optical to infrared spectral energy distributions we obtain stellar masses. Taking advantage of the high magnification due to strong lensing, we are able to probe the physical properties of galaxies with stellar masses in the range 7.8 < log M/M{sub Sun} < 9.4 whose star formation rates are similar to those of typical star-forming galaxies in the local universe. We compare our results with the locally determined relation between stellar mass, gas metallicity, and star formation rate. Our data are in excellent agreement with this relation, with an average offset ({Delta}log (O/H)) = 0.01 {+-} 0.08, suggesting a universal relationship. Remarkably, the scatter around the fundamental metallicity relation is only 0.24 dex, smaller than that observed locally at the same stellar masses, which may provide an important additional constraint for galaxy evolution models.

  17. On the Role of Dissolved Gases in the Atmosphere Retention of Low-mass Low-density Planets (United States)

    Chachan, Yayaati; Stevenson, David J.


    Low-mass low-density planets discovered by Kepler in the super-Earth mass regime typically have large radii for their inferred masses, implying the presence of H2–He atmospheres. These planets are vulnerable to atmospheric mass loss due to heating by the parent star’s XUV flux. Models coupling atmospheric mass loss with thermal evolution predicted a bimodal distribution of planetary radii, which has gained observational support. However, a key component that has been ignored in previous studies is the dissolution of these gases into the molten core of rock and iron that constitute most of their mass. Such planets have high temperatures (>2000 K) and pressures (∼kbars) at the core-envelope boundary, ensuring a molten surface and a subsurface reservoir of hydrogen that can be 5–10 times larger than the atmosphere. This study bridges this gap by coupling the thermal evolution of the planet and the mass loss of the atmosphere with the thermodynamic equilibrium between the dissolved H2 and the atmospheric H2 (Henry’s law). Dissolution in the interior allows a planet to build a larger hydrogen repository during the planet formation stage. We show that the dissolved hydrogen outgasses to buffer atmospheric mass loss. The slow cooling of the planet also leads to outgassing because solubility decreases with decreasing temperature. Dissolution of hydrogen in the interior therefore increases the atmosphere retention ability of super-Earths. The study highlights the importance of including the temperature- and pressure-dependent solubility of gases in magma oceans and coupling outgassing to planetary evolution models.

  18. Organic Chemistry of Low-Mass Star-Forming Cores. I. 7 mm Spectroscopy of Chamaeleon MMSl (United States)

    Cordiner, Martn A.; Charnley, Steven B.; Wirtstroem, Eva S.; Smith, Robert G.


    Observations are presented of emission lines from organic molecules at frequencies 32-50 GHz in the vicinity of Chamaeleon MMS1. This chemically rich dense cloud core harbors an extremely young, very low luminosity protostellar object and is a candidate first hydrostatic core. Column densities are derived and emission maps are presented for species including polyynes, cyanopolyynes, sulphuretted carbon chains, and methanol. The polyyne emission peak lies about 5000 AU from the protostar, whereas methanol peaks about 15,000 AU away. Averaged over the telescope beam, the molecular hydrogen number density is calculated to be 10(exp 6) / cubic cm and the gas kinetic temperature is in the range 5-7 K. The abundances of long carbon chains are very large and are indicative of a nonequilibrium carbon chemistry; C6H and HC7N column densities are 5.9(sup +2.9) (sub -1.3) x 10(exp 11) /cubic cm and 3.3 (sup +8.0)(sub -1.5) x 10(exp 12)/sq cm, respectively, which are similar to the values found in the most carbon-chain-rich protostars and prestellar cores known, and are unusually large for star-forming gas. Column density upper limits were obtained for the carbon chain anions C4H(-) and C6H(-), with anion-to-neutral ratios [C4H(-)]/[C4H] < 0.02% and [C6H(-l)]/[C6H] < 10%, consistent with previous observations in interstellar clouds and low-mass protostars. Deuterated HC,3 and c-C3H2 were detected. The [DC3N]/[HC,N] ratio of approximately 4% is consistent with the value typically found in cold interstellar gas.

  19. Water and methanol in low-mass protostellar outflows: gas-phase synthesis, ice sputtering and destruction (United States)

    Suutarinen, A. N.; Kristensen, L. E.; Mottram, J. C.; Fraser, H. J.; van Dishoeck, E. F.


    Water in outflows from protostars originates either as a result of gas-phase synthesis from atomic oxygen at T ≳ 200 K, or from sputtered ice mantles containing water ice. We aim to quantify the contribution of the two mechanisms that lead to water in outflows, by comparing observations of gas-phase water to methanol (a grain surface product) towards three low-mass protostars in NGC 1333. In doing so, we also quantify the amount of methanol destroyed in outflows. To do this, we make use of James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and Herschel-Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared data of H2O, CH3OH and CO emission lines and compare them to RADEX non-local thermodynamic equilibrium excitation simulations. We find up to one order of magnitude decrease in the column density ratio of CH3OH over H2O as the velocity increases in the line wings up to ˜15 km s-1. An independent decrease in X(CH3OH) with respect to CO of up to one order of magnitude is also found in these objects. We conclude that gas-phase formation of H2O must be active at high velocities (above 10 km s-1 relative to the source velocity) to re-form the water destroyed during sputtering. In addition, the transition from sputtered water at low velocities to form water at high velocities must be gradual. We place an upper limit of two orders of magnitude on the destruction of methanol by sputtering effects.

  20. Molecular outflows driven by low-mass protostars. I. Correcting for underestimates when measuring outflow masses and dynamical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunham, Michael M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Arce, Héctor G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Mardones, Diego [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Lee, Jeong-Eun [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Matthews, Brenda C. [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 W. Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Stutz, Amelia M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Williams, Jonathan P., E-mail: [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)


    We present a survey of 28 molecular outflows driven by low-mass protostars, all of which are sufficiently isolated spatially and/or kinematically to fully separate into individual outflows. Using a combination of new and archival data from several single-dish telescopes, 17 outflows are mapped in {sup 12}CO (2-1) and 17 are mapped in {sup 12}CO (3-2), with 6 mapped in both transitions. For each outflow, we calculate and tabulate the mass (M {sub flow}), momentum (P {sub flow}), kinetic energy (E {sub flow}), mechanical luminosity (L {sub flow}), and force (F {sub flow}) assuming optically thin emission in LTE at an excitation temperature, T {sub ex}, of 50 K. We show that all of the calculated properties are underestimated when calculated under these assumptions. Taken together, the effects of opacity, outflow emission at low velocities confused with ambient cloud emission, and emission below the sensitivities of the observations increase outflow masses and dynamical properties by an order of magnitude, on average, and factors of 50-90 in the most extreme cases. Different (and non-uniform) excitation temperatures, inclination effects, and dissociation of molecular gas will all work to further increase outflow properties. Molecular outflows are thus almost certainly more massive and energetic than commonly reported. Additionally, outflow properties are lower, on average, by almost an order of magnitude when calculated from the {sup 12}CO (3-2) maps compared to the {sup 12}CO (2-1) maps, even after accounting for different opacities, map sensitivities, and possible excitation temperature variations. It has recently been argued in the literature that the {sup 12}CO (3-2) line is subthermally excited in outflows, and our results support this finding.

  1. ALMA Detection of Bipolar Outflows: Evidence for Low-mass Star Formation within 1 pc of Sgr A* (United States)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Wardle, M.; Kunneriath, D.; Royster, M.; Wootten, A.; Roberts, D. A.


    We report the discovery of 11 bipolar outflows within a projected distance of 1 pc from Sgr A* based on deep ALMA observations of 13CO, H30α, and SiO (5-4) lines with subarcsecond and ˜1.3 km s-1 resolutions. These unambiguous signatures of young protostars manifest as approaching and receding lobes of dense gas swept up by the jets created during the formation and early evolution of stars. The lobe masses and momentum transfer rates are consistent with young protostellar outflows found throughout the disk of the Galaxy. The mean dynamical age of the outflow population is estimated to be {6.5}-3.6+8.1× {10}3 years. The rate of star formation is ˜5 × 10-4 {M}⊙ yr-1 assuming a mean stellar mass of ˜0.3 {M}⊙ . This discovery provides evidence that star formation is taking place within clouds surprisingly close to Sgr A*, perhaps due to events that compress the host cloud, creating condensations with sufficient self-gravity to resist tidal disruption by Sgr A*. Low-mass star formation over the past few billion years at this level would contribute significantly to the stellar mass budget in the central few parsecs of the Galaxy. The presence of many dense clumps of molecular material within 1 pc of Sgr A* suggests that star formation could take place in the immediate vicinity of supermassive black holes in the nuclei of external galaxies.

  2. Upper Bounds on r-Mode Amplitudes from Observations of Low-Mass X-Ray Binary Neutron Stars (United States)

    Mahmoodifar, Simin; Strohmayer, Tod


    We present upper limits on the amplitude of r-mode oscillations and gravitational-radiation-induced spin-down rates in low-mass X-ray binary neutron stars, under the assumption that the quiescent neutron star luminosity is powered by dissipation from a steady-state r-mode. For masses <2M solar mass we find dimensionless r-mode amplitudes in the range from about 1×10(exp-8) to 1.5×10(exp-6). For the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar sources with known quiescent spin-down rates, these limits suggest that approx. less than 1% of the observed rate can be due to an unstable r-mode. Interestingly, the source with the highest amplitude limit, NGC 6440, could have an r-mode spin-down rate comparable to the observed, quiescent rate for SAX J1808-3658. Thus, quiescent spin-down measurements for this source would be particularly interesting. For all sources considered here, our amplitude limits suggest that gravitational wave signals are likely too weak for detection with Advanced LIGO. Our highest mass model (2.21M solar mass) can support enhanced, direct Urca neutrino emission in the core and thus can have higher r-mode amplitudes. Indeed, the inferred r-mode spin-down rates at these higher amplitudes are inconsistent with the observed spin-down rates for some of the sources, such as IGR J00291+5934 and XTE J1751-305. In the absence of other significant sources of internal heat, these results could be used to place an upper limit on the masses of these sources if they were made of hadronic matter, or alternatively it could be used to probe the existence of exotic matter in them if their masses were known.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Wen-Hsin; Hartmann, Lee [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Allen, Lori [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Hernandez, Jesus [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomia, Apdo. Postal 264, Merida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Megeath, S. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Mosby, Gregory [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 N. Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Tobin, John J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Espaillat, Catherine [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)


    We present results from an optical photometric and spectroscopic survey of the young stellar population in L1641, the low-density star-forming region of the Orion A cloud south of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). Our goal is to determine whether L1641 has a large enough low-mass population to make the known lack of high-mass stars a statistically significant demonstration of environmental dependence of the upper mass stellar initial mass function (IMF). Our spectroscopic sample consists of IR-excess objects selected from the Spitzer/IRAC survey and non-excess objects selected from optical photometry. We have spectral confirmation of 864 members, with another 98 probable members; of the confirmed members, 406 have infrared excesses and 458 do not. Assuming the same ratio of stars with and without IR excesses in the highly extincted regions, L1641 may contain as many as {approx}1600 stars down to {approx}0.1 M{sub Sun }, comparable within a factor of two to the ONC. Compared to the standard models of the IMF, L1641 is deficient in O and early B stars to a 3{sigma}-4{sigma} significance level, assuming that we know of all the massive stars in L1641. With a forthcoming survey of the intermediate-mass stars, we will be in a better position to make a direct comparison with the neighboring, dense ONC, which should yield a stronger test of the dependence of the high-mass end of the stellar IMF on environment.

  4. Milky Way globular cluster metallicity and low-mass X-ray binaries: the red giant influence (United States)

    Vulic, N.; Barmby, P.; Gallagher, S. C.


    Galactic and extragalactic studies have shown that metal-rich globular clusters (GCs) are approximately three times more likely to host bright low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) than metal-poor GCs. There is no satisfactory explanation for this metallicity effect. We tested the hypothesis that the number density of red giant branch (RGB) stars is larger in metal-rich GCs, and thus potentially the cause of the metallicity effect. Using Hubble Space Telescope photometry for 109 unique Milky Way GCs, we investigated whether RGB star density was correlated with GC metallicity. Isochrone fitting was used to calculate the number of RGB stars, which were normalized by the GC mass and fraction of observed GC luminosity, and determined density using the volume at the half-light radius (rh). The RGB star number density was weakly correlated with metallicity [Fe/H], giving Spearman and Kendall Rank test p-values of 0.000 16 and 0.000 21 and coefficients rs = 0.35 and τ = 0.24, respectively. This correlation may be biased by a possible dependence of rh on [Fe/H], although studies have shown that rh is correlated with Galactocentric distance and independent of [Fe/H]. The dynamical origin of the rh-metallicity correlation (tidal stripping) suggests that metal-rich GCs may have had more active dynamical histories, which would promote LMXB formation. No correlation between the RGB star number density and metallicity was found when using only the GCs that hosted quiescent LMXBs. A complete census of quiescent LMXBs in our Galaxy is needed to further probe the metallicity effect, which will be possible with the upcoming launch of eROSITA.

  5. Rotational properties of hypermassive neutron stars from binary mergers (United States)

    Hanauske, Matthias; Takami, Kentaro; Bovard, Luke; Rezzolla, Luciano; Font, José A.; Galeazzi, Filippo; Stöcker, Horst


    Determining the differential-rotation law of compact stellar objects produced in binary neutron stars mergers or core-collapse supernovae is an old problem in relativistic astrophysics. Addressing this problem is important because it impacts directly on the maximum mass these objects can attain and, hence, on the threshold to black-hole formation under realistic conditions. Using the results from a large number of numerical simulations in full general relativity of binary neutron star mergers described with various equations of state and masses, we study the rotational properties of the resulting hypermassive neutron stars. We find that the angular-velocity distribution shows only a modest dependence on the equation of state, thus exhibiting the traits of "quasiuniversality" found in other aspects of compact stars, both isolated and in binary systems. The distributions are characterized by an almost uniformly rotating core and a "disk." Such a configuration is significantly different from the j -constant differential-rotation law that is commonly adopted in equilibrium models of differentially rotating stars. Furthermore, the rest-mass contained in such a disk can be quite large, ranging from ≃0.03 M⊙ in the case of high-mass binaries with stiff equations of state, up to ≃0.2 M⊙ for low-mass binaries with soft equations of state. We comment on the astrophysical implications of our findings and on the long-term evolutionary scenarios that can be conjectured on the basis of our simulations.

  6. 2D simulations of the double-detonation model for thermonuclear transients from low-mass carbon-oxygen white dwarfs (United States)

    Sim, S. A.; Fink, M.; Kromer, M.; Röpke, F. K.; Ruiter, A. J.; Hillebrandt, W.


    Thermonuclear explosions may arise in binary star systems in which a carbon-oxygen (CO) white dwarf (WD) accretes helium-rich material from a companion star. If the accretion rate allows a sufficiently large mass of helium to accumulate prior to ignition of nuclear burning, the helium surface layer may detonate, giving rise to an astrophysical transient. Detonation of the accreted helium layer generates shock waves that propagate into the underlying CO WD. This might directly ignite a detonation of the CO WD at its surface (an edge-lit secondary detonation) or compress the core of the WD sufficiently to trigger a CO detonation near the centre. If either of these ignition mechanisms works, the two detonations (helium and CO) can then release sufficient energy to completely unbind the WD. These 'double-detonation' scenarios for thermonuclear explosion of WDs have previously been investigated as a potential channel for the production of Type Ia supernovae from WDs of ˜ 1 M⊙. Here we extend our 2D studies of the double-detonation model to significantly less massive CO WDs, the explosion of which could produce fainter, more rapidly evolving transients. We investigate the feasibility of triggering a secondary core detonation by shock convergence in low-mass CO WDs and the observable consequences of such a detonation. Our results suggest that core detonation is probable, even for the lowest CO core masses that are likely to be realized in nature. To quantify the observable signatures of core detonation, we compute spectra and light curves for models in which either an edge-lit or compression-triggered CO detonation is assumed to occur. We compare these to synthetic observables for models in which no CO detonation was allowed to occur. If significant shock compression of the CO WD occurs prior to detonation, explosion of the CO WD can produce a sufficiently large mass of radioactive iron-group nuclei to significantly affect the light curves. In particular, this can lead

  7. Faraday rotation measure synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brentjens, MA; de Bruyn, AG


    We extend the rotation measure work of Burn ( 1966, MNRAS, 133, 67) to the cases of limited sampling of lambda(2) space and non-constant emission spectra. We introduce the rotation measure transfer function (RMTF), which is an excellent predictor of n pi ambiguity problems with the lambda(2)


    Baumgarten, A.; Karalis, A.J.


    A threaded rotatable shaft is provided which rotates in response to linear movement of a nut, the shaft being surrounded by a pair of bellows members connected to either side of the nut to effectively seal the reactor from leakage and also to store up energy to shut down the reactor in the event of a power failure. (AEC)

  9. Units of rotational information (United States)

    Yang, Yuxiang; Chiribella, Giulio; Hu, Qinheping


    Entanglement in angular momentum degrees of freedom is a precious resource for quantum metrology and control. Here we study the conversions of this resource, focusing on Bell pairs of spin-J particles, where one particle is used to probe unknown rotations and the other particle is used as reference. When a large number of pairs are given, we show that every rotated spin-J Bell state can be reversibly converted into an equivalent number of rotated spin one-half Bell states, at a rate determined by the quantum Fisher information. This result provides the foundation for the definition of an elementary unit of information about rotations in space, which we call the Cartesian refbit. In the finite copy scenario, we design machines that approximately break down Bell states of higher spins into Cartesian refbits, as well as machines that approximately implement the inverse process. In addition, we establish a quantitative link between the conversion of Bell states and the simulation of unitary gates, showing that the fidelity of probabilistic state conversion provides upper and lower bounds on the fidelity of deterministic gate simulation. The result holds not only for rotation gates, but also to all sets of gates that form finite-dimensional representations of compact groups. For rotation gates, we show how rotations on a system of given spin can simulate rotations on a system of different spin.

  10. Deconstructing Mental Rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Axel


    A random walk model of the classical mental rotation task is explored in two experiments. By assuming that a mental rotation is repeated until sufficient evidence for a match/mismatch is obtained, the model accounts for the approximately linearly increasing reaction times (RTs) on positive trials...

  11. SMAP Faraday Rotation (United States)

    Le Vine, David


    Faraday rotation is a change in the polarization as signal propagates through the ionosphere. At L-band it is necessary to correct for this change and measurements are made on the spacecraft of the rotation angle. These figures show that there is good agreement between the SMAP measurements (blue) and predictions based on models (red).

  12. Rotating stars in relativity. (United States)

    Paschalidis, Vasileios; Stergioulas, Nikolaos


    Rotating relativistic stars have been studied extensively in recent years, both theoretically and observationally, because of the information they might yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are considered to be promising sources of gravitational waves. The latest theoretical understanding of rotating stars in relativity is reviewed in this updated article. The sections on equilibrium properties and on nonaxisymmetric oscillations and instabilities in f -modes and r -modes have been updated. Several new sections have been added on equilibria in modified theories of gravity, approximate universal relationships, the one-arm spiral instability, on analytic solutions for the exterior spacetime, rotating stars in LMXBs, rotating strange stars, and on rotating stars in numerical relativity including both hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic studies of these objects.

  13. The Non-universality of the Low-mass End of the IMF is Robust against the Choice of SSP Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiniello, C.; Trager, S. C.; Koopmans, L. V. E.

    We perform a direct comparison of two state-of-the art single stellar population (SSP) models that have been used to demonstrate the non-universality of the low-mass end of the initial mass function (IMF) slope. The two public versions of the SSP models are restricted to either solar abundance

  14. Origin of warm and hot gas emission from low-mass protostars: Herschel-HIFI observations of CO J = 16-15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars Egstrøm; Van Dishoeck, E. F.; Mottram, J. C.


    line J = 16-15 (Eup/kB = 750 K) with the Herschel Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared (HIFI) toward a sample of 24 low-mass protostellar objects. The sources were selected from the Herschel "Water in Star-forming regions with Herschel" (WISH) and "Dust, Ice, and Gas in Time" (DIGIT) key programs...

  15. Effect of accretion on the pre-main-sequence evolution of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs (United States)

    Vorobyov, Eduard I.; Elbakyan, Vardan; Hosokawa, Takashi; Sakurai, Yuya; Guedel, Manuel; Yorke, Harold


    Aims: The pre-main-sequence evolution of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs is studied numerically starting from the formation of a protostellar or proto-brown dwarf seed and taking into account the mass accretion onto the central object during the initial several Myr of evolution. Methods: The stellar evolution was computed using the STELLAR evolution code with recent modifications. The mass accretion rates were taken from numerical hydrodynamics models by computing the circumstellar disk evolution starting from the gravitational collapse of prestellar cloud cores of various mass and angular momentum. The resulting stellar evolution tracks were compared with the isochrones and isomasses calculated using non-accreting models. Results: We find that mass accretion in the initial several Myr of protostellar evolution can have a strong effect on the subsequent evolution of young stars and brown dwarfs. The disagreement between accreting and non-accreting models in terms of the total stellar luminosity L∗, stellar radius R∗, and effective temperature Teff depends on the thermal efficiency of accretion, that is, on the fraction of accretion energy that is absorbed by the central object. The largest mismatch is found for the cold accretion case, in which essentially all accretion energy is radiated away. The relative deviations in L∗ and R∗ in this case can reach 50% for objects 1.0 Myr old, and they remain notable even for objects 10 Myr old. In the hot and hybrid accretion cases, in which a constant fraction of accretion energy is absorbed, the disagreement between accreting and non-accreting models becomes less pronounced, but still remains notable for objects 1.0 Myr old. These disagreements may lead to an incorrect age estimate for objects of (sub-)solar mass when using the isochrones that are based on non-accreting models, as has also been noted previously. We find that objects with strong luminosity bursts exhibit notable excursions in the L∗-Teff diagram

  16. Sgr A* and Its Environment: Low-mass Star Formation, the Origin of X-Ray Gas and Collimated Outflow (United States)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Wardle, M.; Schödel, R.; Roberts, D. A.; Cotton, W.; Bushouse, H.; Arendt, R.; Royster, M.


    We present high-resolution multiwavelength radio continuum images of the region within 150″ of Sgr A*, revealing a number of new extended features and stellar sources in this region. First, we detect a continuous 2″ east-west ridge of radio emission, linking Sgr A* and a cluster of stars associated with IRS 13 N and IRS 13E. The ridge suggests that an outflow of east-west blob-like structures is emerging from Sgr A*. In particular, we find arc-like radio structures within the ridge with morphologies suggestive of photoevaporative protoplanetary disks. We use infrared Ks and L‧ fluxes to show that the emission has similar characteristics to those of a protoplanetary disk irradiated by the intense radiation field at the Galactic center. This suggests that star formation has taken place within the S-cluster 2″ from Sgr A*. We suggest that the diffuse X-ray emission associated with Sgr A* is due to an expanding hot wind produced by the mass loss from B-type main sequence stars, and/or the disks of photoevaporation of low mass young stellar objects (YSOs) at a rate of ˜10-6 {M}⊙ yr-1. The proposed model naturally reduces the inferred accretion rate and is an alternative to the inflow-outflow style models to explain the underluminous nature of Sgr A*. Second, on a scale of 5″ from Sgr A*, we detect new cometary radio and infrared sources at a position angle PA ˜ 50° which is similar to that of two other cometary sources X3 and X7, all of which face Sgr A*. In addition, we detect a striking tower of radio emission at a PA ˜ 50°-60° along the major axis of the Sgr A East supernova remnant shell on a scale of 150″ from Sgr A*. We suggest that the cometary sources and the tower feature are tracing interaction sites of a mildly relativistic jet from Sgr A* with the atmosphere of stars and the nonthermal Sgr A East shell at a PA ˜ 50°-60° with \\dot{M}˜ 1× {10}-7 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1, and opening angle 10°. Lastly, we suggest that the east-west ridge of

  17. Characterizing K2 Candidate Planetary Systems Orbiting Low-mass Stars. II. Planetary Systems Observed During Campaigns 1-7 (United States)

    Dressing, Courtney D.; Vanderburg, Andrew; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Crossfield, Ian J. M.; Knutson, Heather A.; Newton, Elisabeth R.; Ciardi, David R.; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Gonzales, Erica J.; Howard, Andrew W.; Isaacson, Howard; Livingston, John; Petigura, Erik A.; Sinukoff, Evan; Everett, Mark; Horch, Elliott; Howell, Steve B.


    We recently used near-infrared spectroscopy to improve the characterization of 76 low-mass stars around which K2 had detected 79 candidate transiting planets. 29 of these worlds were new discoveries that had not previously been published. We calculate the false positive probabilities that the transit-like signals are actually caused by non-planetary astrophysical phenomena and reject five new transit-like events and three previously reported events as false positives. We also statistically validate 17 planets (7 of which were previously unpublished), confirm the earlier validation of 22 planets, and announce 17 newly discovered planet candidates. Revising the properties of the associated planet candidates based on the updated host star characteristics and refitting the transit photometry, we find that our sample contains 21 planets or planet candidates with radii smaller than 1.25 R ⊕, 18 super-Earths (1.25-2 R ⊕), 21 small Neptunes (2-4 R ⊕), three large Neptunes (4-6 R ⊕), and eight giant planets (>6 R ⊕). Most of these planets are highly irradiated, but EPIC 206209135.04 (K2-72e, {1.29}-0.13+0.14 {R}\\oplus ), EPIC 211988320.01 ({R}p={2.86}-0.15+0.16 {R}\\oplus ), and EPIC 212690867.01 ({2.20}-0.18+0.19 {R}\\oplus ) orbit within optimistic habitable zone boundaries set by the “recent Venus” inner limit and the “early Mars” outer limit. In total, our planet sample includes eight moderately irradiated 1.5-3 R ⊕ planet candidates (F p ≲ 20 F ⊕) orbiting brighter stars (Ks planets orbit relatively bright stars (Kp < 12.5) and are expected to yield radial velocity semi-amplitudes of at least 2 m s-1. Accordingly, they are possible targets for radial velocity mass measurement with current facilities or the upcoming generation of red optical and near-infrared high-precision RV spectrographs.

  18. Defensive abdominal rotation patterns of tenebrionid beetle, Zophobas atratus, pupae. (United States)

    Ichikawa, Toshio; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Yamawaki, Yoshifumi


    Exarate pupae of the beetle Zophobas atratus Fab. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) have free appendages (antenna, palp, leg, and elytron) that are highly sensitive to mechanical stimulation. A weak tactile stimulus applied to any appendage initiated a rapid rotation of abdominal segments. High-speed photography revealed that one cycle of defensive abdominal rotation was induced in an all-or-none fashion by bending single or multiple mechanosensory hairs on a leg or prodding the cuticular surface of appendages containing campaniform sensilla. The direction of the abdominal rotation completely depended on the side of stimulation; stimulation of a right appendage induced a right-handed rotation about the anterior-posterior axis of the pupal body and vice versa. The trajectories of the abdominal rotations had an ellipsoidal or pear-shaped pattern. Among the trajectory patterns of the rotations induced by stimulating different appendages, there were occasional significant differences in the horizontal (right-left) component of abdominal rotational movements. Simultaneous stimulation of right and left appendages often induced variable and complex patterns of abdominal movements, suggesting an interaction between sensory signals from different sides. When an abdominal rotation was induced in a freely lying pupa, the rotation usually made the pupa move away from or turn its dorsum toward the source of stimulation with the aid of the caudal processes (urogomphi), which served as a fulcrum for transmitting the power of the abdominal rotation to the movement or turning of the whole body. Pattern generation mechanisms for the abdominal rotation were discussed.

  19. Rotating Stars in Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Stergioulas


    Full Text Available Because of the information they can yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are one of the more possible sources of detectable gravitational waves, rotating relativistic stars have been receiving significant attention in recentyears. We review the latest theoretical and numerical methods for modeling rotating relativistic stars, including stars with a strong magnetic field and hot proto-neutron stars. We also review nonaxisymmetric oscillations and instabilities in rotating stars and summarize the latest developments regarding the gravitational wave-driven (CFS instability in both polar and axial quasi-normal modes.

  20. A rotating quantum vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenci, V.A. de; Svaiter, N.F. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    It was investigated which mapping has to be used to compare measurements made in a rotating frame to those made in an inertial frame. Using a non-Galilean coordinate transformation, the creation-annihilation operators of a massive scalar field in the rotating frame are not the same as those of an inertial observer. This leads to a new vacuum state(a rotating vacuum) which is a superposition of positive and negative frequency Minkowski particles. Polarization effects in circular accelerators in the proper frame of the electron making a connection with the inertial frame point of view were analysed. 65 refs.

  1. Solar-stellar connection : A solar analogous behaviour by an active ultra fast rotator (United States)

    Sairam, Lalitha; Schmitt, Juergen; Pal Singh, Kulinder


    AB Dor is an ultra-fast rotating (Prot ~ 0.51 d) active young K dwarf with an age of ~40-50 Myr. Located as a foreground star towards large magellanic cloud (LMC), AB Dor has the advantage of being observed at all times by most of the X-ray satellites making it a favourite calibration target. AB Dor has been repeatedly observed for calibration by reflection grating spectrometer (RGS) on board XMM- Newton over last decade. This gives an ideal opportunity to perform a detailed analysis of the coronal emission, and to compare the flare characteristics with the Sun, since the Sun is usually considered as a prototype of low mass stars. Flares are frequent in low mass active stars across the electromagnetic spectrum similar to the Sun. We will for the first time, present an analysis of 30 intense X-ray flares observed from AB Dor. These flares detected in XMM-Newton data show a rapid rise (500-3000 s) and a slow decay (1000-6000 s). The derived X-ray luminosity during the flares ranges between 30.20 ≤ log(Lx) ≤ 30.83 erg/s; the flare peak temperature lies between 30-80 MK and the emission measures for these flares are in the range of 52.3 ≤ log(EM) ≤ 53.5 cm^-3. Our studies suggest that the scaling law between the flare peak emission measure and the flare peak temperature for all the flares observed on AB Dor is very similar to the relationship followed by solar flares, despite the fact that the AB Dor flare emission is ~250 times higher than the solar flare emission. We also carried out a homogenous study of flare frequencies, energetics and its occurrence in AB Dor. The frequency distribution of flare energies is a crucial diagnostic to calculate the overall energy residing in a flare. Our results of this study indicate that the large flare (33 ≤ log(E) ≤ 34 erg) may not contribute to the heating of the corona. We will show the presence of a possible long-term cycle in AB Dor both from a photospheric and coronal point of view, similar to the 11-year

  2. The rotation of planets hosting atmospheric tides: from Venus to habitable super-Earths (United States)

    Auclair-Desrotour, P.; Laskar, J.; Mathis, S.; Correia, A. C. M.


    The competition between the torques induced by solid and thermal tides drives the rotational dynamics of Venus-like planets and super-Earths orbiting in the habitable zone of low-mass stars. The resulting torque determines the possible equilibrium states of the planet's spin. Here we have computed an analytic expression for the total tidal torque exerted on a Venus-like planet. This expression is used to characterize the equilibrium rotation of the body. Close to the star, the solid tide dominates. Far from it, the thermal tide drives the rotational dynamics of the planet. The transition regime corresponds to the habitable zone, where prograde and retrograde equilibrium states appear. We demonstrate the strong impact of the atmospheric properties and of the rheology of the solid part on the rotational dynamics of Venus-like planets, highlighting the key role played by dissipative mechanisms in the stability of equilibrium configurations.

  3. Rotator Cuff Injuries (United States)

    ... cuff are common. They include tendinitis, bursitis, and injuries such as tears. Rotator cuff tendons can become ... cuff depends on age, health, how severe the injury is, and how long you've had the ...

  4. Rotator cuff repair - slideshow (United States)

    ... presentations/100229.htm Rotator cuff repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  5. The Earth's rotation problem (United States)

    Brumberg, V. A.; Ivanova, T. V.


    The aim of the present paper is to find the trigonometric solution of the equations of the Earth's rotation around its centre of mass in the form of polynomial trigonometric series (Poisson series) without secular and mixed therms. For that the techniques of the General Planetary Theory (GPT) ( Brumberg, 1995) and the Poisson Series Processor (PSP) (Ivanova, 1995) are used. The GPT allows to reduce the equations of the translatory motion of the major planets and the Moon and the equations of the Earth's rotation in Euler parameters to the secular system describing the evolution of the planetary and lunar orbits (independent of the Earth's rotation) and the evolution of the Earth's rotation (depending on the planetary and lunar evolution).

  6. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus


    In this paper two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very often the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...... to a non-linear manifold and re-normalization or orthogonalization must be applied to obtain proper rotations. These latter steps have been viewed as ad hoc corrections for the errors introduced by assuming a vector space. The article shows that the two approximative methods can be derived from natural...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherent in the least squares estimation....

  7. Rotating Workforce Scheduling


    Granfeldt, Caroline


    Several industries use what is called rotating workforce scheduling. This often means that employees are needed around the clock seven days a week, and that they have a schedule which repeats itself after some weeks. This thesis gives an introduction to this kind of scheduling and presents a review of previous work done in the field. Two different optimization models for rotating workforce scheduling are formulated and compared, and some examples are created to demonstrate how the addition of...

  8. Ipsilateral Rotational Autokeratoplasty


    Yesim Altay


    Corneal opacity is a leading cause of monocular blindness, and corneal transplantation is the most commonly performed solid organ transplantation in the world. Keratoplasty techniques for corneal opacities include lamellar allokeratoplasty and penetrating allokeratoplasty. Ipsilateral rotational autokeratoplasty can be an effective alternative to penetrating allokeratoplasty for some patients with corneal scars. This procedure involves a rotation of the patient%u2019s own cornea to move opaci...

  9. Electromagnetic rotational actuation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, Alexander Lee


    There are many applications that need a meso-scale rotational actuator. These applications have been left by the wayside because of the lack of actuation at this scale. Sandia National Laboratories has many unique fabrication technologies that could be used to create an electromagnetic actuator at this scale. There are also many designs to be explored. In this internship exploration of the designs and fabrications technologies to find an inexpensive design that can be used for prototyping the electromagnetic rotational actuator.

  10. A Rotative Electrical Impedance Tomography Reconstruction System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, F-M [St. John' s and St. Mary' s Institute of Technology, Department of computer science and information Engineering, 499, Sec. 4, Tam King Road Tamsui, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, C-N [National Central University, Department of Electrical Engineering, No.300, Jungda Rd, Jhongli City, 320 Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chang, F-W [National Central University, Department of Electrical Engineering, No.300, Jungda Rd, Jhongli City, 320 Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chung, H-Y [National Central University, Department of Electrical Engineering, No.300, Jungda Rd, Jhongli City, 320 Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)


    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a powerful tool for mapping the conductivity distribution of estimated objects. The EIT system is entirely implemented by electrical technique, so it is a relatively cheap system and data can be collected very rapidly. But it has few commercially medical EIT systems available. This is because impedance image unable to achieve the essential spatial resolution and this technique has an intrinsically poor signal to noise ratio. In this paper, we have developed a high performance rotative EIT system (REIT) for expanding the independent measurements. By rotate the electrodes successive, REIT could change the position of electrodes and acquire more measurement data. This rotative measurement method not only can increase the resolution of impedance images, but also reduce the complexity of measurement system. We hope the improvement of REIT will bring some help in electrical impedance tomography.

  11. The Herschel HIFI water line survey in the low-mass proto-stellar outflow L1448 (United States)

    Santangelo, G.; Nisini, B.; Giannini, T.; Antoniucci, S.; Vasta, M.; Codella, C.; Lorenzani, A.; Tafalla, M.; Liseau, R.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Kristensen, L. E.


    Aims: As part of the WISH (Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel) key project, systematic observations of H2O transitions in young outflows are being carried out with the aim of understanding the role of water in shock chemistry and its physical and dynamical properties. We report on the observations of several ortho- and para-H2O lines performed with the HIFI instrument toward two bright shock spots (R4 and B2) along the outflow driven by the L1448 low-mass proto-stellar system, located in the Perseus cloud. These data are used to identify the physical conditions giving rise to the H2O emission and to infer any dependence on velocity. Methods: We used a large velocity gradient (LVG) analysis to derive the main physical parameters of the emitting regions, namely n(H2), Tkin, N(H2O) and emitting-region size. We compared these with other main shock tracers, such as CO, SiO and H2 and with shock models available in the literature. Results: These observations provide evidence that the observed water lines probe a warm (Tkin ~ 400-600 K) and very dense (n ~ 106-107 cm-3) gas that is not traced by other molecules, such as low-J CO and SiO, but is traced by mid-IR H2 emission. In particular, H2O shows strong differences with SiO in the excitation conditions and in the line profiles in the two observed shocked positions, pointing to chemical variations across the various velocity regimes and chemical evolution in the different shock spots. Physical and kinematical differences can be seen at the two shocked positions. At the R4 position, two velocity components with different excitation can be distinguished, of which the component at higher velocity (R4-HV) is less extended and less dense than the low velocity component (R4-LV). H2O column densities of about 2 × 1013 and 4 × 1014 cm-2 were derived for the R4-LV and the R4-HV components, respectively. The conditions inferred for the B2 position are similar to those of the R4-HV component, with H2O column density in

  12. Outflows, infall and evolution of a sample of embedded low-mass protostars. The William Herschel Line Legacy (WILL) survey (United States)

    Mottram, J. C.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Kristensen, L. E.; Karska, A.; San José-García, I.; Khanna, S.; Herczeg, G. J.; André, Ph.; Bontemps, S.; Cabrit, S.; Carney, M. T.; Drozdovskaya, M. N.; Dunham, M. M.; Evans, N. J.; Fedele, D.; Green, J. D.; Harsono, D.; Johnstone, D.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Könyves, V.; Nisini, B.; Persson, M. V.; Tafalla, M.; Visser, R.; Yıldız, U. A.


    Context. Herschel observations of water and highly excited CO (J > 9) have allowed the physical and chemical conditions in the more active parts of protostellar outflows to be quantified in detail for the first time. However, to date, the studied samples of Class 0/I protostars in nearby star-forming regions have been selected from bright, well-known sources and have not been large enough for statistically significant trends to be firmly established. Aims: We aim to explore the relationships between the outflow, envelope and physical properties of a flux-limited sample of embedded low-mass Class 0/I protostars. Methods: We present spectroscopic observations in H2O, CO and related species with Herschel HIFI and PACS, as well as ground-based follow-up with the JCMT and APEX in CO, HCO+ and isotopologues, of a sample of 49 nearby (d < 500 pc) candidate protostars selected from Spitzer and Herschel photometric surveys of the Gould Belt. This more than doubles the sample of sources observed by the WISH and DIGIT surveys. These data are used to study the outflow and envelope properties of these sources. We also compile their continuum spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from the near-IR to mm wavelengths in order to constrain their physical properties (e.g. Lbol, Tbol and Menv). Results: Water emission is dominated by shocks associated with the outflow, rather than the cooler, slower entrained outflowing gas probed by ground-based CO observations. These shocks become less energetic as sources evolve from Class 0 to Class I. Outflow force, measured from low-J CO, also decreases with source evolutionary stage, while the fraction of mass in the outflow relative to the total envelope (I.e. Mout/Menv) remains broadly constant between Class 0 and I. The median value of 1% is consistent with a core to star formation efficiency on the order of 50% and an outflow duty cycle on the order of 5%. Entrainment efficiency, as probed by FCO/Ṁacc, is also invariant with source

  13. Rotating superconductor magnet for producing rotating lobed magnetic field lines (United States)

    Hilal, Sadek K.; Sampson, William B.; Leonard, Edward F.


    This invention provides a rotating superconductor magnet for producing a rotating lobed magnetic field, comprising a cryostat; a superconducting magnet in the cryostat having a collar for producing a lobed magnetic field having oppositely directed adjacent field lines; rotatable support means for selectively rotating the superconductor magnet; and means for energizing the superconductor magnet.

  14. A very rare triple-peaked type-I X-ray burst in the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636-53

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Guobao; Mendez, Mariano; Altamirano, Diego; Belloni, Tomaso M.; Homan, Jeroen


    We have discovered a triple-peaked X-ray burst from the low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) 4U 1636-53 with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). This is the first triple-peaked burst reported from any LMXB using RXTE, and it is only the second burst of this kind observed from any source. (The previous

  15. Discovery of type I X-ray bursts from the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1708-40

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migliari, S.; Di Salvo, T.; Belloni, T.; van der Klis, M.; Fender, R. P.; Campana, S.; Kouveliotou, C.; Méndez, M.; Lewin, W. H. G.


    We report the discovery of type I X-ray bursts from the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1708 - 40 during the 100-ks observation performed by BeppoSAX on 1999 August 15-16. Six X-ray bursts have been observed. The unabsorbed 2-10 keV fluxes of the bursts range from ~3 to 9 × 10-10 erg cm-2 s-1. A

  16. Probing the early stages of low-mass star formation in LDN 1689N : Dust and water in IRAS 16293-2422A, B, and E

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, R; Sandell, G; Beck, SC; Hogerheijde, MR; van Dishoeck, EF; van der Wal, P; van der Tak, FFS; Schafer, F; Melnick, GJ; Ashby, MLN; de Lange, G


    We present deep images of dust continuum emission at 450, 800, and 850 mum of the dark cloud LDN 1689N, which harbors the low-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) IRAS 16293-2422 A and B (I16293A and I16293B) and the cold prestellar object I16293E. Toward the positions of I16293A and I16293E we also

  17. Compositional Imprints in Density–Distance–Time: A Rocky Composition for Close-in Low-mass Exoplanets from the Location of the Valley of Evaporation (United States)

    Jin, Sheng; Mordasini, Christoph


    We use an end-to-end model of planet formation, thermodynamic evolution, and atmospheric escape to investigate how the statistical imprints of evaporation depend on the bulk composition of planetary cores (rocky versus icy). We find that the population-wide imprints like the location of the “evaporation valley” in the distance–radius plane and the corresponding bimodal radius distribution clearly differ depending on the bulk composition of the cores. Comparison with the observed position of the valley suggests that close-in low-mass Kepler planets have a predominantly Earth-like rocky composition. Combined with the excess of period ratios outside of MMR, this suggests that low-mass Kepler planets formed inside of the water iceline but were still undergoing orbital migration. The core radius becomes visible for planets losing all primordial H/He. For planets in this “triangle of evaporation” in the distance–radius plane, the degeneracy in composition is reduced. In the observed planetary mass–mean density diagram, we identify a trend to more volatile-rich compositions with an increasing radius (R/R ⊕ ≲ 1.6 rocky; 1.6–3.0 ices, and/or H/He ≳3: H/He). The mass–density diagram contains important information about formation and evolution. Its characteristic broken V-shape reveals the transitions from solid planets to low-mass core-dominated planets with H/He and finally to gas-dominated giants. Evaporation causes the density and orbital distance to be anticorrelated for low-mass planets in contrast to giants, where closer-in planets are less dense, likely due to inflation. The temporal evolution of the statistical properties reported here will be of interest for the PLATO 2.0 mission, which will observe the temporal dimension.

  18. Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH). II. Evolution of 557 GHz 110-101 emission in low-mass protostars (United States)

    Kristensen, L. E.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Bergin, E. A.; Visser, R.; Yıldız, U. A.; San Jose-Garcia, I.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Herczeg, G. J.; Johnstone, D.; Wampfler, S. F.; Benz, A. O.; Bruderer, S.; Cabrit, S.; Caselli, P.; Doty, S. D.; Harsono, D.; Herpin, F.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Karska, A.; van Kempen, T. A.; Liseau, R.; Nisini, B.; Tafalla, M.; van der Tak, F.; Wyrowski, F.


    Context. Water is a key tracer of dynamics and chemistry in low-mass star-forming regions, but spectrally resolved observations have so far been limited in sensitivity and angular resolution, and only data from the brightest low-mass protostars have been published. Aims: The first systematic survey of spectrally resolved water emission in 29 low-mass (L 10 km s-1). The water abundance in the outer cold envelope is low, ≳10-10. The different H2O profile components show a clear evolutionary trend: in the younger Class 0 sources the emission is dominated by outflow components originating inside an infalling envelope. When large-scale infall diminishes during the Class I phase, the outflow weakens and H2O emission all but disappears. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Appendices are available in electronic form at

  19. A Multi-wavelength Study of the Turbulent Central Engine of the Low-mass AGN Hosted by NGC 404 (United States)

    Nyland, Kristina; Davis, Timothy A.; Nguyen, Dieu D.; Seth, Anil; Wrobel, Joan M.; Kamble, Atish; Lacy, Mark; Alatalo, Katherine; Karovska, Margarita; Maksym, W. Peter; Mukherjee, Dipanjan; Young, Lisa M.


    The nearby dwarf galaxy NGC 404 harbors a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus powered by the lowest-mass (seeds” that formed in the early universe. Here, we present new imaging of the nucleus of NGC 404 at 12-18 GHz with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and observations of the CO(2-1) line with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). For the first time, we have successfully resolved the nuclear radio emission, revealing a centrally peaked, extended source spanning 17 pc. Combined with previous VLA observations, our new data place a tight constraint on the radio spectral index and indicate an optically thin synchrotron origin for the emission. The peak of the resolved radio source coincides with the dynamical center of NGC 404, the center of a rotating disk of molecular gas, and the position of a compact, hard X-ray source. We also present evidence for shocks in the NGC 404 nucleus from archival narrowband HST imaging, Chandra X-ray data, and Spitzer mid-infrared spectroscopy, and discuss possible origins for the shock excitation. Given the morphology, location, and steep spectral index of the resolved radio source, as well as constraints on nuclear star formation from the ALMA CO(2-1) data, we find the most likely scenario for the origin of the radio source in the center of NGC 404 to be a radio outflow associated with a confined jet driven by the active nucleus.

  20. Vibrations of rotating machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Osami; Kanki, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masao; Keogh, Patrick


    This book opens with an explanation of the vibrations of a single degree-of-freedom (dof) system for all beginners. Subsequently, vibration analysis of multi-dof systems is explained by modal analysis. Mode synthesis modeling is then introduced for system reduction, which aids understanding in a simplified manner of how complicated rotors behave. Rotor balancing techniques are offered for rigid and flexible rotors through several examples. Consideration of gyroscopic influences on the rotordynamics is then provided and vibration evaluation of a rotor-bearing system is emphasized in terms of forward and backward whirl rotor motions through eigenvalue (natural frequency and damping ratio) analysis. In addition to these rotordynamics concerning rotating shaft vibration measured in a stationary reference frame, blade vibrations are analyzed with Coriolis forces expressed in a rotating reference frame. Other phenomena that may be assessed in stationary and rotating reference frames include stability characteristic...

  1. Ipsilateral Rotational Autokeratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesim Altay


    Full Text Available Corneal opacity is a leading cause of monocular blindness, and corneal transplantation is the most commonly performed solid organ transplantation in the world. Keratoplasty techniques for corneal opacities include lamellar allokeratoplasty and penetrating allokeratoplasty. Ipsilateral rotational autokeratoplasty can be an effective alternative to penetrating allokeratoplasty for some patients with corneal scars. This procedure involves a rotation of the patient%u2019s own cornea to move opacity out of the visual axis. An important consideration when selecting cases for rotational autokeratoplasty is the dimensions of the corneal scar. Although ipsilateral autokeratoplasty may not provide as good a quality of vision as penetrating allokeratoplasty because of higher astigmatism and reduced corneal pupillary clear zone, these disadvantages are often outweighed when the risk of allograft rejection is high, as in pediatric patients and those with vascularised corneas. This technique would at least partially resolve the issue of scarcity of donor corneal tissue in developing countries.

  2. The optical rotator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tandrup, T; Gundersen, Hans Jørgen Gottlieb; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel


    further discuss the methods derived from this principle and present two new local volume estimators. The optical rotator benefits from information obtained in all three dimensions in thick sections but avoids over-/ underprojection problems at the extremes of the cell. Using computer-assisted microscopes......The optical rotator is an unbiased, local stereological principle for estimation of cell volume and cell surface area in thick, transparent slabs, The underlying principle was first described in 1993 by Kieu Jensen (T. Microsc. 170, 45-51) who also derived an estimator of length, In this study we...... the extra measurements demand minimal extra effort and make this estimator even more efficient when it comes to estimation of individual cell size than many of the previous local estimators, We demonstrate the principle of the optical rotator in an example (the cells in the dorsal root ganglion of the rat...

  3. Rotation of Giant Stars (United States)

    Kissin, Yevgeni; Thompson, Christopher


    The internal rotation of post-main sequence stars is investigated, in response to the convective pumping of angular momentum toward the stellar core, combined with a tight magnetic coupling between core and envelope. The spin evolution is calculated using model stars of initial mass 1, 1.5, and 5 {M}⊙ , taking into account mass loss on the giant branches. We also include the deposition of orbital angular momentum from a sub-stellar companion, as influenced by tidal drag along with the excitation of orbital eccentricity by a fluctuating gravitational quadrupole moment. A range of angular velocity profiles {{Ω }}(r) is considered in the envelope, extending from solid rotation to constant specific angular momentum. We focus on the backreaction of the Coriolis force, and the threshold for dynamo action in the inner envelope. Quantitative agreement with measurements of core rotation in subgiants and post-He core flash stars by Kepler is obtained with a two-layer angular velocity profile: uniform specific angular momentum where the Coriolis parameter {Co}\\equiv {{Ω }}{τ }{con}≲ 1 (here {τ }{con} is the convective time), and {{Ω }}(r)\\propto {r}-1 where {Co}≳ 1. The inner profile is interpreted in terms of a balance between the Coriolis force and angular pressure gradients driven by radially extended convective plumes. Inward angular momentum pumping reduces the surface rotation of subgiants, and the need for a rejuvenated magnetic wind torque. The co-evolution of internal magnetic fields and rotation is considered in Kissin & Thompson, along with the breaking of the rotational coupling between core and envelope due to heavy mass loss.

  4. Origin of warm and hot gas emission from low-mass protostars: Herschel-HIFI observations of CO J = 16-15. I. Line profiles, physical conditions, and H2O abundance (United States)

    Kristensen, L. E.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Mottram, J. C.; Karska, A.; Yıldız, U. A.; Bergin, E. A.; Bjerkeli, P.; Cabrit, S.; Doty, S.; Evans, N. J.; Gusdorf, A.; Harsono, D.; Herczeg, G. J.; Johnstone, D.; Jørgensen, J. K.; van Kempen, T. A.; Lee, J.-E.; Maret, S.; Tafalla, M.; Visser, R.; Wampfler, S. F.


    Context. Through spectrally unresolved observations of high-J CO transitions, Herschel Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) has revealed large reservoirs of warm (300 K) and hot (700 K) molecular gas around low-mass protostars. The excitation and physical origin of this gas is still not understood. Aims: We aim to shed light on the excitation and origin of the CO ladder observed toward protostars, and on the water abundance in different physical components within protostellar systems using spectrally resolved Herschel-HIFI data. Methods: Observations are presented of the highly excited CO line J = 16-15 (Eup/kB = 750 K) with the Herschel Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared (HIFI) toward a sample of 24 low-mass protostellar objects. The sources were selected from the Herschel "Water in Star-forming regions with Herschel" (WISH) and "Dust, Ice, and Gas in Time" (DIGIT) key programs. Results: The spectrally resolved line profiles typically show two distinct velocity components: a broad Gaussian component with an average FWHM of 20 km s-1 containing the bulk of the flux, and a narrower Gaussian component with a FWHM of 5 km s-1 that is often offset from the source velocity. Some sources show other velocity components such as extremely-high-velocity features or "bullets". All these velocity components were first detected in H2O line profiles. The average rotational temperature over the entire profile, as measured from comparison between CO J = 16-15 and 10-9 emission, is 300 K. A radiative-transfer analysis shows that the average H2O/CO column-density ratio is 0.02, suggesting a total H2O abundance of 2 × 10-6, independent of velocity. Conclusions: Two distinct velocity profiles observed in the HIFI line profiles suggest that the high-J CO ladder observed with PACS consists of two excitation components. The warm PACS component (300 K) is associated with the broad HIFI component, and the hot PACS component (700 K) is associated with the offset HIFI

  5. Comprehensive photometric study of an extremely low mass ratio deep contact binary in the globular cluster M 4 (United States)

    Li, Kai; Hu, Shaoming; Chen, Xu; Guo, Difu


    A comprehensive photometric study and an investigation of the orbital period variation of V53 in the globular cluster M 4 are presented. The photometric study reveals that the mass ratio and the contact degree of V53 are q ˜ 0.078 and f ˜ 69%, respectively. The observed variation in the light curve can be explained by adjusting the spot parameters. V53 belongs to extreme mass ratio (q ≤ 0.25), deep contact (f ≥ 50%) binaries, and its mass ratio is close to the minimum mass ratio predicted by theoretical studies, making it a potential object for studying the evolution of binaries and the formation of blue stragglers and FK Com-type stars. The orbital period of V53 shows a long-term decrease at a rate of dp/dt = 5.89(±0.02) × 10-8 d yr-1. This secular period decrease may be caused by the combination of mass transfer from the more massive component to the less massive component and an angular momentum loss via magnetic braking. As this mass transfer and angular momentum loss continues, V53 will ultimately evolve into a single fast-rotation star. By studying the statistics of all the contact binaries in globular clusters that have been analyzed, we found a possible correlation between the contact degree and whether or not a contact binary is a blue straggler. A contact binary is likely to become a blue straggler when its fill-out factor is more than 46.25(±2.05)%. More samples should be introduced to confirm this preliminary result in the future.

  6. A Multi-wavelength Study of the Turbulent Central Engine of the Low-mass AGN Hosted by NGC 404

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyland, Kristina; Lacy, Mark [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Davis, Timothy A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Nguyen, Dieu D.; Seth, Anil [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Wrobel, Joan M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kamble, Atish; Karovska, Margarita; Maksym, W. Peter [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA (United States); Alatalo, Katherine [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Mukherjee, Dipanjan [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Young, Lisa M., E-mail: [Physics Department, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)


    The nearby dwarf galaxy NGC 404 harbors a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus powered by the lowest-mass (<150,000 M {sub ⊙}) central massive black hole (MBH), with a dynamical mass constraint, currently known, thus providing a rare low-redshift analog to the MBH “seeds” that formed in the early universe. Here, we present new imaging of the nucleus of NGC 404 at 12–18 GHz with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and observations of the CO(2–1) line with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). For the first time, we have successfully resolved the nuclear radio emission, revealing a centrally peaked, extended source spanning 17 pc. Combined with previous VLA observations, our new data place a tight constraint on the radio spectral index and indicate an optically thin synchrotron origin for the emission. The peak of the resolved radio source coincides with the dynamical center of NGC 404, the center of a rotating disk of molecular gas, and the position of a compact, hard X-ray source. We also present evidence for shocks in the NGC 404 nucleus from archival narrowband HST imaging, Chandra X-ray data, and Spitzer mid-infrared spectroscopy, and discuss possible origins for the shock excitation. Given the morphology, location, and steep spectral index of the resolved radio source, as well as constraints on nuclear star formation from the ALMA CO(2–1) data, we find the most likely scenario for the origin of the radio source in the center of NGC 404 to be a radio outflow associated with a confined jet driven by the active nucleus.

  7. Thermohaline instability and rotation-induced mixing in low and intermediate mass stars: Consequences on global asteroseismic quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekström S.


    Full Text Available Thermohaline mixing has been recently identified as the probable dominating process that governs the photospheric composition of low-mass bright red giant stars. Here, we present the predictions of stellar models computed with the code STAREVOL including this process together with rotational mixing. We compare our theoretical predictions with recent observations, and discuss the effects of both mechanisms on asteroseismic diagnostics.

  8. Rotationally Actuated Prosthetic Hand (United States)

    Norton, William E.; Belcher, Jewell G., Jr.; Carden, James R.; Vest, Thomas W.


    Prosthetic hand attached to end of remaining part of forearm and to upper arm just above elbow. Pincerlike fingers pushed apart to degree depending on rotation of forearm. Simpler in design, simpler to operate, weighs less, and takes up less space.

  9. Rotational waves in geodynamics (United States)

    Gerus, Artyom; Vikulin, Alexander


    The rotation model of a geoblock with intrinsic momentum was constructed by A.V. Vikulin and A.G. Ivanchin [9, 10] to describe seismicity within the Pacific Ocean margin. It is based on the idea of a rotational motion of geoblocks as the parts of the rotating body of the Earth that generates rotary deformation waves. The law of the block motion was derived in the form of the sine-Gordon equation (SG) [5, 9]; the dimensionless form of the equation is: δ2θ δ2θ δξ2 - δη2 = sinθ, (1) where θ = β/2, ξ = k0z and η = v0k0t are dimensionless coordinates, z - length of the chain of masses (blocks), t - time, β - turn angle, ν0 - representative velocity of the process, k0 - wave number. Another case analyzed was a chain of nonuniformly rotating blocks, with deviation of force moments from equilibrium positions μ, considering friction forces α along boundaries, which better matched a real-life seismic process. As a result, the authors obtained the law of motion for a block in a chain in the form of the modified SG equation [8]: δ2θ δ2θ δθ- δξ2 - δ η2 = sin θ+ α δη + μδ(ξ)sin θ (2)

  10. The Spatiale Rotator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmusson, Allan


    The inherent demand for unbiasedness for some stereological estimators imposes a demand of not only positional uniform randomness but also isotropic randomness, i.e. directional uniform randomness. In order to comply with isotropy, one must perform a random rotation of the object of interest before...

  11. Rotator Cuff Injuries. (United States)

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

  12. Synergic effects of 10°/s constant rotation and rotating background on visual cognitive processing (United States)

    He, Siyang; Cao, Yi; Zhao, Qi; Tan, Cheng; Niu, Dongbin

    accelerated the early process of visual cognition. There is a synergic effect between the effects of constant low-speed rotation and rotating speed of the background. Under certain conditions, they both served to facilitate the visual cognitive processing, and it had been started at the stage when extrastriate cortex perceiving the visual signal. Under the condition of constant low-speed rotation in higher cognitive load tasks, the rapid rotation of the background enhanced the magnitude of the signal transmission in the visual path, making signal to noise ratio increased and a higher signal to noise ratio is clearly in favor of target perception and recognition. This gave rise to the hypothesis that higher cognitive load tasks with higher top-down control had more power in counteracting the inhibition effect of higher velocity rotation background. Acknowledgements: This project was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 30670715) and National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (No.2007AA04Z254).

  13. Energy crops in rotation. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zegada-Lizarazu, Walter; Monti, Andrea [Department of Agroenvironmental Science and Technology, University of Bologna, Viale G. Fanin, 44 - 40127, Bologna (Italy)


    The area under energy crops has increased tenfold over the last 10 years, and there is large consensus that the demand for energy crops will further increase rapidly to cover several millions of hectares in the near future. Information about rotational systems and effects of energy crops should be therefore given top priority. Literature is poor and fragmentary on this topic, especially about rotations in which all crops are exclusively dedicated to energy end uses. Well-planned crop rotations, as compared to continuous monoculture systems, can be expected to reduce the dependence on external inputs through promoting nutrient cycling efficiency, effective use of natural resources, especially water, maintenance of the long-term productivity of the land, control of diseases and pests, and consequently increasing crop yields and sustainability of production systems. The result of all these advantages is widely known as crop sequencing effect, which is due to the additional and positive consequences on soil physical-chemical and biological properties arising from specific crops grown in the same field year after year. In this context, the present review discusses the potential of several rotations with energy crops and their possibilities of being included alongside traditional agriculture systems across different agro-climatic zones within the European Union. Possible rotations dedicated exclusively to the production of biomass for bioenergy are also discussed, as rotations including only energy crops could become common around bio-refineries or power plants. Such rotations, however, show some limitations related to the control of diseases and to the narrow range of available species with high production potential that could be included in a rotation of such characteristics. The information on best-known energy crops such as rapeseed (Brassica napus) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) suggests that conventional crops can benefit from the introduction of energy crops in

  14. Search for Low-Mass Dark Matter wtih SuperCDMS Soudan and Study of Shorted Electric Field Configurations in CDMS Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneck, Kristiana [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)


    The area of dark matter is one of the most interesting and exciting topics in physics today. Existing at the intersection of particle physics and astrophysics, the existence of a new dark matter particle can be used to explain many astrophysical and cosmological observations, as well as to reconcile outstanding issues in the standard model of particle physics. Experiments such as SuperCDMS are built to detect dark matter in the lab by looking for low-energy nuclear recoils produced by collisions between dark matter particles and atoms in terrestrial detectors. SuperCDMS Soudan is particularly well-suited to follow up on possible hints of low-mass dark matter seen by other recent experiments because of its low thresholds and excellent background discrimination. Analyzing SuperCDMS Soudan data to look for low-mass dark matter comes with particular challenges because of the low signal-to-noise very near threshold. However, with a detailed background model developed by scaling high-energy events down into the low-energy signal region, SuperCDMS Soudan produced worldleading limits on the existence of low-mass dark matter. In addition, a few SuperCDMS Soudan detectors experienced cold hardware problems that can affect the data collected. Of particular interest is one detector considered for the low-mass WIMP search that has one of its charge electrodes shorted to chassis ground. Three events were observed in this detector upon unblinding the SuperCDMS Soudan low-energy data, even though <1 event was expected based on pre-unblinding calulations. However, the data collected by the shorted detector may have been compromised since an electrode shorted to ground will modify the electric field in the detector. The SuperCDMS Detector Monte Carlo (DMC) provides an excellent way to model the effects of the modified electric field, so a new model of the expected backgrounds in the low-mass WIMP search is developed using the DMC to try to explain how the short may have affected the

  15. Strain effects on rotational property in nanoscale rotation system. (United States)

    Huang, Jianzhang; Han, Qiang


    This paper presents a study of strain effects on nanoscale rotation system consists of double-walls carbon nanotube and graphene. It is found that the strain effects can be a real-time controlling method for nano actuator system. The strain effects on rotational property as well as the effect mechanism is studied systematically through molecular dynamics simulations, and it obtains valuable conclusions for engineering application of rotational property management of nanoscale rotation system. It founds that the strain effects tune the rotational property by influencing the intertube supporting effect and friction effect of double-walls carbon nanotube, which are two critical factors of rotational performance. The mechanism of strain effects on rotational property is investigated in theoretical level based on analytical model established through lattice dynamics theory. This work suggests great potentials of strain effects for nanoscale real-time control, and provides new ideas for design and application of real-time controllable nanoscale rotation system.

  16. Rotating hybrid stars with the Dyson-Schwinger quark model (United States)

    Wei, J.-B.; Chen, H.; Burgio, G. F.; Schulze, H.-J.


    We study rapidly rotating hybrid stars with the Dyson-Schwinger model for quark matter and the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock many-body theory with realistic two-body and three-body forces for nuclear matter. We determine the maximum gravitational mass, equatorial radius, and rotation frequency of stable stellar configurations by considering the constraints of the Keplerian limit and the secular axisymmetric instability, and compare with observational data. We also discuss the rotational evolution for constant baryonic mass and find a spin-up phenomenon for supramassive stars before they collapse to black holes.

  17. LHCb: Production, measurement and simulation of a low mass flex cable for multi gigabit/s readout for the LHCb VELO upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Lemos Cid, E; Buytaert, J; Esperante Pereira, D; Ronning, P A; Visniakov, J; G Sanchez, M; Vazquez Regueiro, P


    The goal of this project is to examine the feasibility of data transmission up to ~5Gbit/s on a short (~60cm) low mass flex cable. These cables will be used for the readout of the upgraded vertex detector (VELO) of the LHCb experiment in high radiation and vacuum environment. We present a study of different transmission line geometries, the effect of using fine pitch (400μm) connectors, the use of grounded guard traces and via holes to suppress crosstalk and the effect of the line parameters in the data transmission. Time and frequency domain measurements and simulation will be presented.

  18. SuperCDMS SNOLAB Low-Mass Detectors: Ultra-Sensitive Phonon Calorimeters for a Sub-GeV Dark Matter Search


    Kurinsky, Noah; Brink, Paul; Partridge, Richard; Cabrera, Blas; Pyle, Matt


    We present the technical design for the SuperCDMS high-voltage, low-mass dark matter detectors, designed to be sensitive to dark matter down to 300 MeV/$c^2$ in mass and resolve individual electron-hole pairs from low-energy scattering events in high-purity Ge and Si crystals. In this paper we discuss some of the studies and technological improvements which have allowed us to design such a sensitive detector, including advances in phonon sensor design and detector simulation. With this design...

  19. Wave-driven Rotation in Supersonically Rotating Mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Fetterman and N.J. Fisch


    Supersonic rotation in mirrors may be produced by radio frequency waves. The waves produce coupled diffusion in ion kinetic and potential energy. A population inversion along the diffusion path then produces rotation. Waves may be designed to exploit a natural kinetic energy source or may provide the rotation energy on their own. Centrifugal traps for fusion and isotope separation may benefit from this wave-driven rotation.

  20. Effects of Successive Rotation Regimes on Carbon Stocks in Eucalyptus Plantations in Subtropical China Measured over a Full Rotation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiong Li

    Full Text Available Plantations play an important role in carbon sequestration and the global carbon cycle. However, there is a dilemma in that most plantations are managed on short rotations, and the carbon sequestration capacities of these short-rotation plantations remain understudied. Eucalyptus has been widely planted in the tropics and subtropics due to its rapid growth, high adaptability, and large economic return. Eucalyptus plantations are primarily planted in successive rotations with a short rotation length of 6~8 years. In order to estimate the carbon-stock potential of eucalyptus plantations over successive rotations, we chose a first rotation (FR and a second rotation (SR stand and monitored the carbon stock dynamics over a full rotation from 1998 to 2005. Our results showed that carbon stock in eucalyptus trees (TC did not significantly differ between rotations, while understory vegetation (UC and soil organic matter (SOC stored less carbon in the SR (1.01 vs. 2.76 Mg.ha(-1 and 70.68 vs. 81.08 Mg. ha(-1, respectively and forest floor carbon (FFC conversely stored more (2.80 vs. 2.34 Mg. ha(-1. The lower UC and SOC stocks in the SR stand resulted in 1.13 times lower overall ecosystem carbon stock. Mineral soils and overstory trees were the two dominant carbon pools in eucalyptus plantations, accounting for 73.77%~75.06% and 20.50%~22.39%, respectively, of the ecosystem carbon pool. However, the relative contribution (to the ecosystem pool of FFC stocks increased 1.38 times and that of UC decreased 2.30 times in the SR versus FR stand. These carbon pool changes over successive rotations were attributed to intensive successive rotation regimes of eucalyptus plantations. Our eight year study suggests that for the sustainable development of short-rotation plantations, a sound silvicultural strategy is required to achieve the best combination of high wood yield and carbon stock potential.

  1. Formation of asteroid pairs by rotational fission. (United States)

    Pravec, P; Vokrouhlický, D; Polishook, D; Scheeres, D J; Harris, A W; Galád, A; Vaduvescu, O; Pozo, F; Barr, A; Longa, P; Vachier, F; Colas, F; Pray, D P; Pollock, J; Reichart, D; Ivarsen, K; Haislip, J; Lacluyze, A; Kusnirák, P; Henych, T; Marchis, F; Macomber, B; Jacobson, S A; Krugly, Yu N; Sergeev, A V; Leroy, A


    Pairs of asteroids sharing similar heliocentric orbits, but not bound together, were found recently. Backward integrations of their orbits indicated that they separated gently with low relative velocities, but did not provide additional insight into their formation mechanism. A previously hypothesized rotational fission process may explain their formation-critical predictions are that the mass ratios are less than about 0.2 and, as the mass ratio approaches this upper limit, the spin period of the larger body becomes long. Here we report photometric observations of a sample of asteroid pairs, revealing that the primaries of pairs with mass ratios much less than 0.2 rotate rapidly, near their critical fission frequency. As the mass ratio approaches 0.2, the primary period grows long. This occurs as the total energy of the system approaches zero, requiring the asteroid pair to extract an increasing fraction of energy from the primary's spin in order to escape. We do not find asteroid pairs with mass ratios larger than 0.2. Rotationally fissioned systems beyond this limit have insufficient energy to disrupt. We conclude that asteroid pairs are formed by the rotational fission of a parent asteroid into a proto-binary system, which subsequently disrupts under its own internal system dynamics soon after formation.

  2. Rotational spectrum of tryptophan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, M. Eugenia, E-mail:; Cabezas, Carlos, E-mail:; Mata, Santiago, E-mail:; Alonso, Josè L., E-mail: [Grupo de Espectroscopia Molecular (GEM), Edificio Quifima, Laboratorios de Espectroscopia y Bioespectroscopia, Unidad Asociada CSIC, Parque Científico Uva, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)


    The rotational spectrum of the natural amino acid tryptophan has been observed for the first time using a combination of laser ablation, molecular beams, and Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Independent analysis of the rotational spectra of individual conformers has conducted to a definitive identification of two different conformers of tryptophan, with one of the observed conformers never reported before. The analysis of the {sup 14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants is of particular significance since it allows discrimination between structures, thus providing structural information on the orientation of the amino group. Both observed conformers are stabilized by an O–H···N hydrogen bond in the side chain and a N–H···π interaction forming a chain that reinforce the strength of hydrogen bonds through cooperative effects.

  3. Rotational Baroclinic Adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtegård Nielsen, Steen Morten

    the reciprocal of the socalled Coriolis parameter, and the length scale, which is known as the Rossby radius. Also, because of their limited width currents influenced by rotation are quite persistent. The flow which results from the introduction of a surface level discontinuity across a wide channel is discussed...... of the numerical model a mechanism for the generation of along-frontal instabilities and eddies is suggested. Also, the effect of an irregular bathymetry is studied.Together with observations of wind and water levels some of the oceanographical observations from the old lightvessels are used to study...... with the horizontal extent of many other parts of the Danish inland waters implies that the dynamics of these should also be discussed in terms of rotational effects....

  4. Marginal deformations & rotating horizons (United States)

    Anninos, Dionysios; Anous, Tarek; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito


    Motivated by the near-horizon geometry of four-dimensional extremal black holes, we study a disordered quantum mechanical system invariant under a global SU(2) symmetry. As in the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model, this system exhibits an approximate SL(2, ℝ) symmetry at low energies, but also allows for a continuous family of SU(2) breaking marginal deformations. Beyond a certain critical value for the marginal coupling, the model exhibits a quantum phase transition from the gapless phase to a gapped one and we calculate the critical exponents of this transition. We also show that charged, rotating extremal black holes exhibit a transition when the angular velocity of the horizon is tuned to a certain critical value. Where possible we draw parallels between the disordered quantum mechanics and charged, rotating black holes.

  5. Isotropic stochastic rotation dynamics (United States)

    Mühlbauer, Sebastian; Strobl, Severin; Pöschel, Thorsten


    Stochastic rotation dynamics (SRD) is a widely used method for the mesoscopic modeling of complex fluids, such as colloidal suspensions or multiphase flows. In this method, however, the underlying Cartesian grid defining the coarse-grained interaction volumes induces anisotropy. We propose an isotropic, lattice-free variant of stochastic rotation dynamics, termed iSRD. Instead of Cartesian grid cells, we employ randomly distributed spherical interaction volumes. This eliminates the requirement of a grid shift, which is essential in standard SRD to maintain Galilean invariance. We derive analytical expressions for the viscosity and the diffusion coefficient in relation to the model parameters, which show excellent agreement with the results obtained in iSRD simulations. The proposed algorithm is particularly suitable to model systems bound by walls of complex shape, where the domain cannot be meshed uniformly. The presented approach is not limited to SRD but is applicable to any other mesoscopic method, where particles interact within certain coarse-grained volumes.

  6. The Rotation of Europa (United States)

    Henrard, Jacques


    We present a semi-analytical theory of the rotation of Europa the Galilean satellite of Jupiter. The theory is semi-analytical in the sense that it is based on a synthetic theory of the orbit of Europa developed by Lainey. The theory is developed in the framework of Hamiltonian mechanics, using Andoyer variables and assumes that Europa is a rigid body. We consider this theory as a first step toward the modelization of a non rigid Europa covered by an ocean.

  7. Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy (United States)

    Pate, Brooks


    The past decade has seen several major technology advances in electronics operating at microwave frequencies making it possible to develop a new generation of spectrometers for molecular rotational spectroscopy. High-speed digital electronics, both arbitrary waveform generators and digitizers, continue on a Moore's Law-like development cycle that started around 1993 with device bandwidth doubling about every 36 months. These enabling technologies were the key to designing chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectrometers which offer significant sensitivity enhancements for broadband spectrum acquisition in molecular rotational spectroscopy. A special feature of the chirped-pulse spectrometer design is that it is easily implemented at low frequency (below 8 GHz) where Balle-Flygare type spectrometers with Fabry-Perot cavity designs become technologically challenging due to the mirror size requirements. The capabilities of CP-FTMW spectrometers for studies of molecular structure will be illustrated by the collaborative research effort we have been a part of to determine the structures of water clusters - a project which has identified clusters up to the pentadecamer. A second technology trend that impacts molecular rotational spectroscopy is the development of high power, solid state sources in the mm-wave/THz regions. Results from the field of mm-wave chirped-pulse Fourier transform spectroscopy will be described with an emphasis on new problems in chemical dynamics and analytical chemistry that these methods can tackle. The third (and potentially most important) technological trend is the reduction of microwave components to chip level using monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) - a technology driven by an enormous mass market in communications. Some recent advances in rotational spectrometer designs that incorporate low-cost components will be highlighted. The challenge to the high-resolution spectroscopy community - as posed by Frank De

  8. Method for Design Rotation (United States)


    central composite design and give the orthogonal matrix that yields the rotation, but they do not discuss how the orthogonal matrix was found. Doehlert ... Doehlert and Klee (1972) was to start with a known orthogonal matrix of simple form and then augment the matrix with additional rows and columns to get a...larger region, a symmetric treatment of the factors, or both. 114. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Orthogonal matrix Response surface design 27

  9. Bioreactor rotating wall vessel (United States)


    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells.

  10. Rapid Prototyping (United States)


    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  11. The Gaia-ESO Survey: lithium depletion in the Gamma Velorum cluster and inflated radii in low-mass pre-main-sequence stars (United States)

    Jeffries, R. D.; Jackson, R. J.; Franciosini, E.; Randich, S.; Barrado, D.; Frasca, A.; Klutsch, A.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Prisinzano, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Gilmore, G.; Vallenari, A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Koposov, S. E.; Pancino, E.; Bayo, A.; Casey, A. R.; Costado, M. T.; Damiani, F.; Hourihane, A.; Lewis, J.; Jofre, P.; Magrini, L.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.; Zwitter, T.


    We show that non-magnetic models for the evolution of pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars cannot simultaneously describe the colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) and the pattern of lithium depletion seen in the cluster of young, low-mass stars surrounding γ2 Velorum. The age of 7.5 ± 1 Myr inferred from the CMD is much younger than that implied by the strong Li depletion seen in the cluster M-dwarfs, and the Li depletion occurs at much redder colours than predicted. The epoch at which a star of a given mass depletes its Li and the surface temperature of that star are both dependent on its radius. We demonstrate that if the low-mass stars have radii ˜10 per cent larger at a given mass and age, then both the CMD and the Li-depletion pattern of the Gamma Velorum cluster are explained at a common age of ≃18-21 Myr. This radius inflation could be produced by some combination of magnetic suppression of convection and extensive cool starspots. Models that incorporate radius inflation suggest that PMS stars, similar to those in the Gamma Velorum cluster, in the range 0.2 30 per cent) than inferred from conventional, non-magnetic models in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. Systematic changes of this size may be of great importance in understanding the evolution of young stars, disc lifetimes and the formation of planetary systems.

  12. Preliminary results from the 2000 run of CERES on low-mass $e^{+}e^{-}}$ pair production in Pb-Au collisions at 158 A GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Cherlin, A


    CERES has measured low-mass e/sup positive /sup negative pairs in Pb- Au collisions at 158 A GeV in the year 2000 Pb run at the SPS with the goal of shedding more light on the origin of the previously observed low-mass pair enhancement. The spectrometer was upgraded with a radial TPC to improve the mass resolution. A very effective rejection of the combinatorial background is achieved using the combined information of the two RICH detectors, the dE/dx signal of the doublet of silicon drift chambers, and the TPC track dE/dx information. Various steps and the current status of the data analysis are presented. Corrigendum. Table 1 and figures 3 and 4, as originally published, represent an earlier version of the data analysis. The corrected table and figures have been published as a Corrigendum (see below). The Corrigendum has also been appended at the end of the PDF file linked to this page.

  13. A UKIDSS-based search for low-mass stars and small stellar clumps in off-cloud parts of young star-forming regions* **

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrado y Navascués D.


    Full Text Available The form and universality of the mass function of young and nearby star-forming regions is still under debate. Its relation to the stellar density, its mass peak and the dependency on most recent models shows significant differencies for the various regions and remains unclear up to date. We aim to get a more complete census of two of such regions. We investigate yet unexplored areas of Orion and Taurus-Auriga, observed by the UKIDSS survey. In the latter, we search for low-mass stars via photometric and proper motion criteria and signs for variability. In Orion, we search for small stellar clumps via nearest-neighbor methods. Highlights in Taurus would be the finding of the missing low-mass stars and the detection of a young cluster T dwarf. In Orion, we discovered small stellar associations of its OB1b and OB1c populations. Combined with what is known in literature, we will provide by this investigations a general picture of the results of the star-forming processes in large areas of Taurus and Orion and probe the most recent models.

  14. Enzyme-coupled nanoparticles-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry for searching for low-mass inhibitors of enzymes in complex mixtures. (United States)

    Salwiński, Aleksander; Da Silva, David; Delépée, Raphaël; Maunit, Benoît


    In this report, enzyme-coupled magnetic nanoparticles (EMPs) were shown to be an effective affinity-based tool for finding specific interactions between enzymatic targets and the low-mass molecules in complex mixtures using classic MALDI-TOF apparatus. EMPs used in this work act as nonorganic matrix enabling ionization of small molecules without any interference in the low-mass range (enzyme-coupled nanoparticles-assisted laser desorption ionization MS, ENALDI MS) and simultaneously carry the superficial specific binding sites to capture inhibitors present in a studied mixture. We evaluated ENALDI approach in two complementary variations: 'ion fading' (IF-ENALDI), based on superficial adsorption of inhibitors and 'ion hunting' (IH-ENALDI), based on selective pre-concentration of inhibitors. IF-ENALDI was applied for two sets of enzyme-inhibitor pairs: tyrosinase-glabridin and trypsin-leupeptin and for the real plant sample: Sparrmannia discolor leaf and stem methanol extract. The efficacy of IH-ENALDI was shown for the pair of trypsin-leupeptin. Both ENALDI approaches pose an alternative for bioassay-guided fractionation, the common method for finding inhibitors in the complex mixtures.

  15. Three-mode orthomax rotation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, Henk A.L.


    Factor analysis and principal components analysis (PCA) are often followed by an orthomax rotation to rotate a loading matrix to simple structure. The simple structure is usually defined in terms of the simplicity of the columns of the loading matrix. In Three-made PCA, rotational freedom of the so

  16. Rotational superradiant scattering in a vortex flow (United States)

    Torres, Theo; Patrick, Sam; Coutant, Antonin; Richartz, Maurício; Tedford, Edmund W.; Weinfurtner, Silke


    When an incident wave scatters off of an obstacle, it is partially reflected and partially transmitted. In theory, if the obstacle is rotating, waves can be amplified in the process, extracting energy from the scatterer. Here we describe in detail the first laboratory detection of this phenomenon, known as superradiance. We observed that waves propagating on the surface of water can be amplified after being scattered by a draining vortex. The maximum amplification measured was 14% +/- 8%, obtained for 3.70 Hz waves, in a 6.25-cm-deep fluid, consistent with the superradiant scattering caused by rapid rotation. We expect our experimental findings to be relevant to black-hole physics, since shallow water waves scattering on a draining fluid constitute an analogue of a black hole, as well as to hydrodynamics, due to the close relation to over-reflection instabilities.

  17. Decoupling of translational and rotational diffusion in quasi-2D colloidal fluids (United States)

    Vivek, Skanda; Weeks, Eric R.


    We observe the translational and rotational diffusion of dimer tracer particles in quasi-2D colloidal samples. The dimers are in dense samples of two different sizes of spherical colloidal particles, with the area fraction ϕ of the particles varying from dilute to nearly glassy. At low ϕ, rotational and translational diffusion have a ratio set by the dimer size, as expected. At higher ϕ, dimers become caged by their neighboring particles, and both rotational and translational diffusion become slow. For short dimers, we observe rapid reorientations so that the rotational diffusion is faster than the translational diffusion: the two modes of diffusion are decoupled and have different ϕ dependence. Longer dimers do not exhibit fast rotations, and we find that their translational and rotational diffusion stay coupled for all ϕ. Our results bridge prior results that used spheres (very fast rotation) and long ellipsoids (very slow rotation).

  18. CISM Course on Rotating Fluids

    CERN Document Server


    The volume presents a comprehensive overview of rotation effects on fluid behavior, emphasizing non-linear processes. The subject is introduced by giving a range of examples of rotating fluids encountered in geophysics and engineering. This is then followed by a discussion of the relevant scales and parameters of rotating flow, and an introduction to geostrophic balance and vorticity concepts. There are few books on rotating fluids and this volume is, therefore, a welcome addition. It is the first volume which contains a unified view of turbulence in rotating fluids, instability and vortex dynamics. Some aspects of wave motions covered here are not found elsewhere.

  19. On general Earth's rotation theory (United States)

    Brumberg, V.; Ivanova, T.


    This paper dealing with the general problem of the rigid-body rotation of the three-axial Earth represents a straightforward extension of (Brumberg and Ivanova, 2007) where the simplified Poisson equations of rotation of the axially symmetrical Earth have been considered. The aim of the present paper is to reduce the equations of the translatory motion of the major planets and the Moon and the equations of the Earth's rotation around its centre of mass to the secular system describing the evolution of the planetary and lunar orbits (independent of the Earth's rotation) and the evolution of the Earth's rotation (depending on the planetary and lunar evolution).

  20. Optical fiber rotation sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, William K; Kelley, Paul


    Optical Fiber Rotation Sensing is the first book devoted to Interferometric Fiber Optic Gyros (IFOG). This book provides a complete overview of IFOGs, beginning with a historical review of IFOG development and including a fundamental exposition of basic principles, a discussion of devices and components, and concluding with industry reports on state-of-the-art activity. With several chapters contributed by principal developers of this solid-state device, the result is an authoritative work which will serve as the resource for researchers, students, and users of IFOGs.* * State-of-t

  1. Rotating electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Le Doeuff, René


    In this book a general matrix-based approach to modeling electrical machines is promulgated. The model uses instantaneous quantities for key variables and enables the user to easily take into account associations between rotating machines and static converters (such as in variable speed drives).   General equations of electromechanical energy conversion are established early in the treatment of the topic and then applied to synchronous, induction and DC machines. The primary characteristics of these machines are established for steady state behavior as well as for variable speed scenarios. I


    Boyer, K.; Hammel, J.E.; Longmire, C.L.; Nagle, D.E.; Ribe, F.L.; Tuck, J.L.


    ABS>A method and device are described for obtaining fusion reactions. The basic concept is that of using crossed electric and magnetic fields to induce a plasma rotation in which the ionized particles follow a circumferential drift orbit on wldch a cyclotron mode of motion is superimposed, the net result being a cycloidal motion about the axis of symmetry. The discharge tube has a radial electric field and a longitudinal magnetic field. Mirror machine geometry is utilized. The device avoids reliance on the pinch effect and its associated instability problems. (AEC)

  3. Detecting scattered light from low-mass molecular cores at 3.6 μm. Impact of global effects on the observation of coreshine (United States)

    Steinacker, J.; Andersen, M.; Thi, W.-F.; Bacmann, A.


    Context. Recently discovered scattered light at 3-5 μm from low-mass cores (so-called "coreshine") reveals the presence of grains around 1 μm, which is larger than the grains found in the low-density interstellar medium. But only about half of the 100+ cores investigated so far show the effect. This prompts further studies on the origin of this detection rate. Aims: We aim to supply criteria for detecting scattered light at 3.6 μm from molecular cloud cores. Methods: From the 3D continuum radiative transfer equation, we derive the expected scattered light intensity from a core placed in an arbitrary direction seen from Earth. We use the approximation of single scattering, consider extinction up to 2nd-order Taylor approximation, and neglect spatial gradients in the dust size distribution. We analyze how scattered light can outshine the absorbing effect of extinction in front of background radiation by the core for given grain properties, anisotropic interstellar radiation field and background field. The impact of the directional characteristics of the scattering on the detection of scattered light from cores is calculated for a given grain size distribution, and local effects like additional radiation field components are discussed. The surface brightness profiles of a core with a 1D density profile are calculated for various Galactic locations, and the results are compared to the approximate detection limits. Results: We find that for optically thin radiation and a constant size distribution, a simple limit for detecting scattered light from a low-mass core can be derived that holds for grains with sizes smaller than 0.5 μm. The extinction by the core prohibits detection in bright parts of the Galactic plane, especially near the Galactic center. For scattered light received from low-mass cores with grain sizes beyond 0.5 μm, the directional characteristics of the scattering favors the detection of scattered light above and below the Galactic center, and to

  4. Rotating Wheel Wake (United States)

    Lombard, Jean-Eloi; Xu, Hui; Moxey, Dave; Sherwin, Spencer


    For open wheel race-cars, such as Formula One, or IndyCar, the wheels are responsible for 40 % of the total drag. For road cars, drag associated to the wheels and under-carriage can represent 20 - 60 % of total drag at highway cruise speeds. Experimental observations have reported two, three or more pairs of counter rotating vortices, the relative strength of which still remains an open question. The near wake of an unsteady rotating wheel. The numerical investigation by means of direct numerical simulation at ReD =400-1000 is presented here to further the understanding of bifurcations the flow undergoes as the Reynolds number is increased. Direct numerical simulation is performed using Nektar++, the results of which are compared to those of Pirozzoli et al. (2012). Both proper orthogonal decomposition and dynamic mode decomposition, as well as spectral analysis are leveraged to gain unprecedented insight into the bifurcations and subsequent topological differences of the wake as the Reynolds number is increased.

  5. Rotational Spectrum of Saccharine (United States)

    Alonso, Elena R.; Mata, Santiago; Alonso, José L.


    A significant step forward in the structure-activity relationships of sweeteners was the assignment of the AH-B moiety in sweeteners by Shallenberger and Acree. They proposed that all sweeteners contain an AH-B moiety, known as glucophore, in which A and B are electronegative atoms separated by a distance between 2.5 to 4 Å. H is a hydrogen atom attached to one of the electronegative atom by a covalent bond. For saccharine, one of the oldest artificial sweeteners widely used in food and drinks, two possible B moieties exist ,the carbonyl oxygen atom and the sulfoxide oxygen atom although there is a consensus of opinion among scientists over the assignment of AH-B moieties to HN-SO. In the present work, the solid of saccharine (m.p. 220°C) has been vaporized by laser ablation (LA) and its rotational spectrum has been analyzed by broadband CP-FTMW and narrowband MB-FTMW Fourier transform microwave techniques. The detailed structural information extracted from the rotational constants and ^{14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants provided enough information to ascribe the glucophore's AH and B sites of saccharine. R. S. Shallenberger, T. E. Acree. Nature 216, 480-482 Nov 1967. R. S. Shallenberger. Taste Chemistry; Blackie Academic & Professional, London, (1993).

  6. Pure Nano-Rotation Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo-Yeon Lee


    Full Text Available We developed and tested a novel rotation scanner for nano resolution and accurate rotary motion about the rotation center. The scanner consists of circular hinges and leaf springs so that the parasitic error at the center of the scanner in the X and Y directions is minimized, and rotation performance is optimized. Each sector of the scanner's system was devised to have nano resolution by minimizing the parasitic errors of the rotation center that arise due to displacements other than rotation. The analytic optimal design results of the proposed scanner were verified using finite element analyses. The piezoelectric actuators were used to attain nano-resolution performances, and a capacitive sensor was used to measure displacement. A feedback controller was used to minimize the rotation errors in the rotation scanner system under practical conditions. Finally, the performance evaluation test results showed that the resonance frequency was 542 Hz, the resolution was 0.09 μrad, and the rotation displacement was 497.2 μrad. Our test results revealed that the rotation scanner exhibited accurate rotation about the center of the scanner and had good nano precision.

  7. A NuSTAR observation of the reflection spectrum of the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1728-34

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sleator, Clio C.; Tomsick, John A.; King, Ashley L.


    We report on a simultaneous NuSTAR and Swift observation of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1728-34. We identified and removed four Type I X-ray bursts during the observation in order to study the persistent emission. The continuum spectrum is hard and described well by a blackbody with k......T = 1.5 keV and a cutoff power law with Γ = 1.5, and a cutoff temperature of 25 keV. Residuals between 6 and 8 keV provide strong evidence of a broad Fe Kα line. By modeling the spectrum with a relativistically blurred reflection model, we find an upper limit for the inner disk radius of Rin≤2RISCO...

  8. The {sup 13}C(α,n){sup 16}O reaction as a neutron source for the s-process in AGB low-mass stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trippella, O.; Busso, M. [INFN and University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); La Cognata, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Guardo, G. L.; Lamia, L.; Puglia, S. M.R.; Romano, S.; Spartà, R. [INFN and University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Kiss, G. G. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Rogachev, G. V.; Avila, M.; Koshchiy, E.; Kuchera, A.; Santiago, D. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida (United States); Mukhamedzhanov, A. M. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas (United States); Maiorca, E. [INAF - Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, Firenze (Italy); Palmerini, S. [Departamento de Fìsica Teòrica y del Cosmsos, Universidad de Granada,Granada (Spain)


    The {sup 13}C(α,n){sup 16}O reaction is considered to be the most important neutron source for producing the main component of the s-process in low mass stars. In this paper we focus our attention on two of the main open problems concerning its operation as a driver for the slow neutron captures. Recently, a new measurement of the {sup 13}C(α,n){sup 16}O reaction rate was performed via the Trojan Horse Method greatly increasing the accuracy. Contemporarily, on the modelling side, magnetic mechanisms were suggested to justify the production of the {sup 13}C pocket, thus putting the s-process in stars on safe physical ground. These inputs allow us to reproduce satisfactorily the solar distribution of elements.

  9. Origin of warm and hot gas emission from low-mass protostars: Herschel-HIFI observations of CO J = 16-15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars Egstrøm; Van Dishoeck, E. F.; Mottram, J. C.


    not understood. Aims. We aim to shed light on the excitation and origin of the CO ladder observed toward protostars, and on the water abundance in different physical components within protostellar systems using spectrally resolved Herschel-HIFI data. Methods. Observations are presented of the highly excited CO...... line J = 16-15 (Eup/kB = 750 K) with the Herschel Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared (HIFI) toward a sample of 24 low-mass protostellar objects. The sources were selected from the Herschel "Water in Star-forming regions with Herschel" (WISH) and "Dust, Ice, and Gas in Time" (DIGIT) key programs...... excitation components. The warm PACS component (300 K) is associated with the broad HIFI component, and the hot PACS component (700 K) is associated with the offset HIFI component. The former originates in either outflow cavity shocks or the disk wind, and the latter in irradiated shocks. The low water...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiniello, C. [Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-8l740 Garching (Germany); Trager, S. C.; Koopmans, L. V. E. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)


    We perform a direct comparison of two state-of-the art single stellar population (SSP) models that have been used to demonstrate the non-universality of the low-mass end of the initial mass function (IMF) slope. The two public versions of the SSP models are restricted to either solar abundance patterns or solar metallicity, too restrictive if one aims to disentangle elemental enhancements, metallicity changes, and IMF variations in massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) with star formation histories different from those in the solar neighborhood. We define response functions (to metallicity and α-abundance) to extend the parameter space for each set of models. We compare these extended models with a sample of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) ETG spectra with varying velocity dispersions. We measure equivalent widths of optical IMF-sensitive stellar features to examine the effect of the underlying model assumptions and ingredients, such as stellar libraries or isochrones, on the inference of the IMF slope down to ∼0.1 M{sub ⊙}. We demonstrate that the steepening of the low-mass end of the IMF based on a non-degenerate set of spectroscopic optical indicators is robust against the choice of the stellar population model. Although the models agree in a relative sense (i.e., both imply more bottom-heavy IMFs for more massive systems), we find non-negligible differences in the absolute values of the IMF slope inferred at each velocity dispersion by using the two different models. In particular, we find large inconsistencies in the quantitative predictions of the IMF slope variations and abundance patterns when sodium lines are used. We investigate the possible reasons for these inconsistencies.

  11. Truncation of the Accretion Disk at One-third of the Eddington Limit in the Neutron Star Low-mass X-Ray Binary Aquila X-1 (United States)

    Ludlam, R. M.; Miller, J. M.; Degenaar, N.; Sanna, A.; Cackett, E. M.; Altamirano, D.; King, A. L.


    We perform a reflection study on a new observation of the neutron star (NS) low-mass X-ray binary Aquila X-1 taken with NuSTAR during the 2016 August outburst and compare with the 2014 July outburst. The source was captured at ˜32% L Edd, which is over four times more luminous than the previous observation during the 2014 outburst. Both observations exhibit a broadened Fe line profile. Through reflection modeling, we determine that the inner disk is truncated {R}{in,2016}={11}-1+2 {R}g (where R g = GM/c 2) and {R}{in,2014}=14+/- 2 {R}g (errors quoted at the 90% confidence level). Fiducial NS parameters (M NS = 1.4 M ⊙, R NS = 10 km) give a stellar radius of R NS = 4.85 R g ; our measurements rule out a disk extending to that radius at more than the 6σ level of confidence. We are able to place an upper limit on the magnetic field strength of B ≤ 3.0-4.5 × 109 G at the magnetic poles, assuming that the disk is truncated at the magnetospheric radius in each case. This is consistent with previous estimates of the magnetic field strength for Aquila X-1. However, if the magnetosphere is not responsible for truncating the disk prior to the NS surface, we estimate a boundary layer with a maximum extent of {R}{BL,2016}˜ 10 {R}g and {R}{BL,2014}˜ 6 {R}g. Additionally, we compare the magnetic field strength inferred from the Fe line profile of Aquila X-1 and other NS low-mass X-ray binaries to known accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyed, Rachid [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Staff, Jan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Dr., Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Jaikumar, Prashanth [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University Long Beach, 1250 Bellflower Blvd., Long Beach, CA 90840 (United States)


    We propose a simple model explaining two outstanding astrophysical problems related to compact objects: (1) that of stars such as G87-7 (alias EG 50) that constitute a class of relatively low-mass white dwarfs (WDs) which nevertheless fall away from the C/O composition and (2) that of GRB 110328A/Swift J164449.3+57345 which showed spectacularly long-lived strong X-ray flaring, posing a challenge to standard gamma-ray burst models. We argue that both these observations may have an explanation within the unified framework of a quark-nova (QN) occurring in a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB; neutron star (NS)-WD). For LMXBs, where the binary separation is sufficiently tight, ejecta from the exploding NS triggers nuclear burning in the WD on impact, possibly leading to Fe-rich composition compact WDs with mass 0.43 M{sub Sun} < M{sub WD} < 0.72 M{sub Sun }, reminiscent of G87-7. Our results rely on the assumption, which ultimately needs to be tested by hydrodynamic and nucleosynthesis simulations, that under certain circumstances the WD can avoid the thermonuclear runaway. For heavier WDs (i.e., M{sub WD} > 0.72 M{sub Sun }) experiencing the QN shock, degeneracy will not be lifted when carbon burning begins, and a sub-Chandrasekhar Type Ia supernova may result in our model. Under slightly different conditions and for pure He WDs (i.e., M{sub WD} < 0.43 M{sub Sun }), the WD is ablated and its ashes raining down on the quark star (QS) leads to accretion-driven X-ray luminosity with energetics and duration reminiscent of GRB 110328A. We predict additional flaring activity toward the end of the accretion phase if the QS turns into a black hole.

  13. Parallel Tracks as Quasi-steady States for the Magnetic Boundary Layers in Neutron-star Low-mass X-Ray Binaries (United States)

    Erkut, M. Hakan; Çatmabacak, Onur


    The neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) are usually thought to be weakly magnetized objects accreting matter from their low-mass companions in the form of a disk. Albeit weak compared to those in young neutron-star systems, the neutron-star magnetospheres in LMXBs can play an important role in determining the correlations between spectral and temporal properties. Parallel tracks appearing in the kilohertz (kHz) quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) frequency versus X-ray flux plane can be used as a tool to study the magnetosphere–disk interaction in neutron-star LMXBs. For dynamically important weak fields, the formation of a non-Keplerian magnetic boundary layer at the innermost disk truncated near the surface of the neutron star is highly likely. Such a boundary region may harbor oscillatory modes of frequencies in the kHz range. We generate parallel tracks using the boundary region model of kHz QPOs. We also present the direct application of our model to the reproduction of the observed parallel tracks of individual sources such as 4U 1608–52, 4U 1636–53, and Aql X-1. We reveal how the radial width of the boundary layer must vary in the long-term flux evolution of each source to regenerate the parallel tracks. The run of the radial width looks similar for different sources and can be fitted by a generic model function describing the average steady behavior of the boundary region over the long term. The parallel tracks then correspond to the possible quasi-steady states the source can occupy around the average trend.

  14. Water in low-mass star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH-LM). High-velocity H2O bullets in L1448-MM observed with HIFI (United States)

    Kristensen, L. E.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Tafalla, M.; Bachiller, R.; Nisini, B.; Liseau, R.; Yıldız, U. A.


    Herschel-HIFI observations of water in the low-mass star-forming object L1448-MM, known for its prominent outflow, are presented, as obtained within the "Water in star-forming regions with Herschel" (WISH) key programme. Six H216O lines are targeted and detected (Eup/kB ~ 50-250 K), as is CO J = 10-9 (Eup/kB ~ 305 K), and tentatively H218O 110-101 at 548 GHz. All lines show strong emission in the "bullets" at |3| > 50 km s-1 from the source velocity, in addition to a broad, central component and narrow absorption. The bullets are seen much more prominently in H2O than in CO with respect to the central component, and show little variation with excitation in H2O profile shape. Excitation conditions in the bullets derived from CO lines imply a temperature >150 K and density >105 cm-3, similar to that of the broad component. The H2O/CO abundance ratio is similar in the "bullets" and the broad component, ~0.05-1.0, in spite of their different origins in the molecular jet and the interaction between the outflow and the envelope. The high H2O abundance indicates that the bullets are H2 rich. The H2O cooling in the "bullets" and the broad component is similar and higher than the CO cooling in the same components. These data illustrate the power of Herschel-HIFI to disentangle different dynamical components in low-mass star-forming objects and determine their excitation and chemical conditions. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Appendices and Tables 2 and 3 are available in electronic form at

  15. When the Jeans Do Not Fit: How Stellar Feedback Drives Stellar Kinematics and Complicates Dynamical Modeling in Low-mass Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Badry, Kareem; Quataert, Eliot [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wetzel, Andrew R.; Hopkins, Philip F. [TAPIR, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Geha, Marla [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Kereš, Dusan; Chan, T. K. [Department of Physics, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla (United States); Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy and CIERA, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States)


    In low-mass galaxies, stellar feedback can drive gas outflows that generate non-equilibrium fluctuations in the gravitational potential. Using cosmological zoom-in baryonic simulations from the Feedback in Realistic Environments project, we investigate how these fluctuations affect stellar kinematics and the reliability of Jeans dynamical modeling in low-mass galaxies. We find that stellar velocity dispersion and anisotropy profiles fluctuate significantly over the course of galaxies’ starburst cycles. We therefore predict an observable correlation between star formation rate and stellar kinematics: dwarf galaxies with higher recent star formation rates should have systemically higher stellar velocity dispersions. This prediction provides an observational test of the role of stellar feedback in regulating both stellar and dark-matter densities in dwarf galaxies. We find that Jeans modeling, which treats galaxies as virialized systems in dynamical equilibrium, overestimates a galaxy’s dynamical mass during periods of post-starburst gas outflow and underestimates it during periods of net inflow. Short-timescale potential fluctuations lead to typical errors of ∼20% in dynamical mass estimates, even if full three-dimensional stellar kinematics—including the orbital anisotropy—are known exactly. When orbital anisotropy is not known a priori, typical mass errors arising from non-equilibrium fluctuations in the potential are larger than those arising from the mass-anisotropy degeneracy. However, Jeans modeling alone cannot reliably constrain the orbital anisotropy, and problematically, it often favors anisotropy models that do not reflect the true profile. If galaxies completely lose their gas and cease forming stars, fluctuations in the potential subside, and Jeans modeling becomes much more reliable.

  16. HST Hα grism spectroscopy of ROLES: a flatter low-mass slope for the z ˜ 1 SSFR-mass relation (United States)

    Ramraj, Riona; Gilbank, David G.; Blyth, Sarah-Louise; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Glazebrook, Karl; Bower, Richard G.; Balogh, Michael L.


    We present measurements of star formation rates (SFRs) for dwarf galaxies (M* ˜ 108.5 M_{⊙}) at z ˜ 1 using near-infrared slitless spectroscopy from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) by targeting and measuring the luminosity of the Hα emission line. Our sample is derived from the Redshift One LDSS3 Emission Line Survey (ROLES), which used [O II]λ3727 as a tracer of star formation to target very low stellar masses down to very low SFRs (˜0.1 M_{⊙} yr-1) at this epoch. Dust corrections are estimated using SED fits and we find, by comparison with other studies using Balmer decrement dust corrections, that we require a smaller ratio between the gas phase and stellar extinction than the nominal Calzetti relation, in agreement with recent findings by other studies. By stacking the Wide-Field Camera (WFC)3 spectra at the redshifts obtained from ground-based [O II] detections, we are able to push the WFC3 spectra to much lower SFRs and obtain the most complete spectroscopic measurement of the low-mass end of the SSFR-mass relation to date. We measure a flatter low-mass power-law slope (-0.47 ± 0.04) than found by other (shallower) H α-selected samples (≈-1), although still somewhat steeper than that predicted by the Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) simulation (-0.14 ± 0.05), hinting at possible missing physics not modelled by EAGLE or remaining incompleteness for our H α data.

  17. A nonlinear model for rotationally constrained convection with Ekman pumping

    CERN Document Server

    Julien, Keith; Calkins, Michael A; Knobloch, Edgar; Marti, Philippe; Stellmach, Stephan; Vasil, Geoffrey M


    It is a well established result of linear theory that the influence of differing mechanical boundary conditions, i.e., stress-free or no-slip, on the primary instability in rotating convection becomes asymptotically small in the limit of rapid rotation. This is accounted for by the diminishing impact of the viscous stresses exerted within Ekman boundary layers and the associated vertical momentum transport by Ekman pumping. By contrast, in the nonlinear regime recent experiments and supporting simulations are now providing evidence that the efficiency of heat transport remains strongly influenced by Ekman pumping in the rapidly rotating limit. In this paper, a reduced model is developed for the case of low Rossby number convection in a plane layer geometry with no-slip upper and lower boundaries held at fixed temperatures. A complete description of the dynamics requires the existence of three distinct regions within the fluid layer: a geostrophically balanced interior where fluid motions are predominately ali...

  18. Additional measurements of pre-main-sequence stellar rotation (United States)

    Hartmann, L.; Stauffer, J. R.


    New rotational-velocity measurements for pre-main-sequence stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud are reported. Rotational velocities or upper limits of 10 km/s are now available for 90 percent of the T Tauri stars with V less than 14.7 in the catalog of Cohen and Kuhi. Measurements of 'continuum emission' stars, thought to be accreting high-angular-momentum material from a circumstellar disk, show that these objects are not especially rapid rotators. The results confirm earlier findings that angular-momentum loss proceeds very efficiently in the earliest stages of star formation, and suggest that stars older than about one million yr contract to the main sequence at nearly constant angular momentum. The slow rotation of T Tauri stars probably requires substantial angular-momentum loss via a magnetically coupled wind.

  19. ROTEM analysis: A significant advance in the field of rotational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the turn of the century, a significant advance in the rapidly expanding field of rotational thrombelastography (ROTEG), known at present as thrombelastometry or ROTEM analysis, was developed at the Ludwig-Maximillian University in Munich. The measuring unit is operated by a laptop computer. There are four ...

  20. Wormholes immersed in rotating matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hoffmann


    Full Text Available We demonstrate that rotating matter sets the throat of an Ellis wormhole into rotation, allowing for wormholes which possess full reflection symmetry with respect to the two asymptotically flat spacetime regions. We analyze the properties of this new type of rotating wormholes and show that the wormhole geometry can change from a single throat to a double throat configuration. We further discuss the ergoregions and the lightring structure of these wormholes.

  1. Isovector rotational model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nojarov, R. (Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik, Univ. Tuebingen (Germany))


    The explicit form of the canonical angle operator is found and the isovector rotor is quantized in canonical relative variables ensuring the exact separation of the spurious mode. The main characteristics of the resulting joint mode, together with the low- and high-frequency parts of the split mode are obtained. It is found that the isovector rotational mode exhausts all the non-spurious M1 strength at low and high energy, providing a strong support for the interpretation of all the orbital 1[sup +] excitations as a scissors mode. Self-consistent residual interactions do not change the non-spurious restoring force of the deformed potential. Simple numerical estimates, derived from a schematic deformed oscillator, are in a good qualitative agreement with microscopic RPA results. Relationships with the results of the two-rotor model and the microscopic realization of the scissors state are established. (orig.)

  2. Asteroid Ida Rotation Sequence (United States)


    This montage of 14 images (the time order is right to left, bottom to top) shows Ida as it appeared in the field of view of Galileo's camera on August 28, 1993. Asteroid Ida rotates once every 4 hours, 39 minutes and clockwise when viewed from above the north pole; these images cover about one Ida 'day.' This sequence has been used to create a 3-D model that shows Ida to be almost croissant shaped. The earliest view (lower right) was taken from a range of 240,000 kilometers (150,000 miles), 5.4 hours before closest approach. The asteroid Ida draws its name from mythology, in which the Greek god Zeus was raised by the nymph Ida.

  3. Rotations, quaternions, and double groups

    CERN Document Server

    Altmann, Simon L


    This self-contained text presents a consistent description of the geometric and quaternionic treatment of rotation operators, employing methods that lead to a rigorous formulation and offering complete solutions to many illustrative problems.Geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, the book begins with chapters covering the fundamentals of symmetries, matrices, and groups, and it presents a primer on rotations and rotation matrices. Subsequent chapters explore rotations and angular momentum, tensor bases, the bilinear transformation, projective representations, and the g

  4. Mathematical geophysics an introduction to rotating fluids and the Navier-Stokes equations

    CERN Document Server

    Chemin, Jean-Yves; Gallagher, Isabelle; Grenier, Emmanuel


    Aimed at graduate students and researchers in mathematics, engineering, oceanography, meteorology and mechanics, this text provides a detailed introduction to the physical theory of rotating fluids, a significant part of geophysical fluid dynamics. The Navier-Stokes equations are examined in both incompressible and rapidly rotating forms.

  5. Detections of Long Carbon Chains CH_{3}CCCCH, C_{6}H, LINEAR-C_{6}H_{2} and C_{7}H in the Low-Mass Star Forming Region L1527 (United States)

    Araki, Mitsunori; Takano, Shuro; Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Oyama, Takahiro; Kuze, Nobuhiko; Tsukiyama, Koichi


    Carbon chains in the warm carbon chain chemistry (WCCC) region has been searched in the 42-44 GHz region by using Green Bank 100 m telescope. Long carbon chains C_{7}H, C_{6}H, CH_{3}CCCCH, and linear-C_{6}H_{2} and cyclic species C_{3}H and C_{3}H_{2}O have been detected in the low-mass star forming region L1527, performing the WCCC. C_{7}H was detected for the first time in molecular clouds. The column density of C_{7}H is derived to be 6.2 × 10^{10} cm^{-2} by using the detected J = 24.5-23.5 and 25.5-24.5 rotational lines. The ^{2}Π_{1/2} electronic state of C_{6}H, locating 21.6 K above the ^{2}Π_{3/2} electronic ground state, and the K_a = 0 line of the para species of linear-C_{6}H_{2} were also detected firstly in molecular clouds. The column densities of the ^{2}Π_{1/2} and ^{2}Π_{3/2} states of C_{6}H in L1527 were derived to be 1.6 × 10^{11} and 1.1 × 10^{12} cm^{-2}, respectively. The total column density of linear-C_{6}H_{2} is obtained to be 1.86 × 10^{11} cm^{-2}. While the abundance ratios of carbon chains in between L1527 and the starless dark cloud Taurus Molecular Cloud-1 Cyanopolyyne Peak (TMC-1 CP) have a trend of decrease by extension of carbon-chain length, column densities of CH_{3}CCCCH and C_{6}H are on the trend. However, the column densities of linear-C_{6}H_{2}, and C_{7}H are as abundant as those of TMC-1 CP in spite of long carbon chain, i.e., they are not on the trend. The abundances of linear-C_{6}H_{2} and C_{7}H show that L1527 is rich for long carbon chains as well as TMC-1 CP.

  6. Surface dimpling on rotating work piece using rotation cutting tool (United States)

    Bhapkar, Rohit Arun; Larsen, Eric Richard


    A combined method of machining and applying a surface texture to a work piece and a tool assembly that is capable of machining and applying a surface texture to a work piece are disclosed. The disclosed method includes machining portions of an outer or inner surface of a work piece. The method also includes rotating the work piece in front of a rotating cutting tool and engaging the outer surface of the work piece with the rotating cutting tool to cut dimples in the outer surface of the work piece. The disclosed tool assembly includes a rotating cutting tool coupled to an end of a rotational machining device, such as a lathe. The same tool assembly can be used to both machine the work piece and apply a surface texture to the work piece without unloading the work piece from the tool assembly.

  7. Rotational energy surfaces of molecules exhibiting internal rotation (United States)

    Ortigoso, Juan; Hougen, Jon T.


    Rotational energy surfaces [W. G. Harter and C. W. Patterson, J. Chem. Phys. 80, 4241 (1984)] for a molecule with internal rotation are constructed. The study is limited to torsional states at or below the top of the barrier to internal rotation, where the extra (torsional) degree of freedom can be eliminated by expanding eigenvalues of the torsion-K-rotation Hamiltonian as a Fourier series in the rotational degree of freedom. For acetaldehyde, considered as an example, this corresponds to considering vt=0, 1, and 2 (below the barrier) and vt=3 (just above the barrier). The rotational energy surfaces are characterized by locating their stationary points (maxima, minima, and saddles) and separatrices. Rather complicated catastrophe histories describing the creation and annihilation of pairs of stationary points as a function of J are found at moderate J for given torsional quantum number (vt) and symmetry species (A,E). Trajectories on the rotational energy surface which quantize the action are examined, and changes from rotational to vibrational trajectories caused by changes in the separatrix structure are found as a function of J for vt=2. The concept of a ``best'' quantization axis for the molecule-fixed component of the total angular momentum is examined from a classical point of view, and it is shown that labeling ambiguities encountered in the literature for torsion-rotation energy levels, calculated numerically in the rho-axis system, can be eliminated by reprojecting basis-set K values onto an axis passing through an appropriate stationary point on the rotational energy surface.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jun; Abbot, Dorian S. [Department of Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Boué, Gwenaël; Fabrycky, Daniel C., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)


    Planetary rotation rate is a key parameter in determining atmospheric circulation and hence the spatial pattern of clouds. Since clouds can exert a dominant control on planetary radiation balance, rotation rate could be critical for determining the mean planetary climate. Here we investigate this idea using a three-dimensional general circulation model with a sophisticated cloud scheme. We find that slowly rotating planets (like Venus) can maintain an Earth-like climate at nearly twice the stellar flux as rapidly rotating planets (like Earth). This suggests that many exoplanets previously believed to be too hot may actually be habitable, depending on their rotation rate. The explanation for this behavior is that slowly rotating planets have a weak Coriolis force and long daytime illumination, which promotes strong convergence and convection in the substellar region. This produces a large area of optically thick clouds, which greatly increases the planetary albedo. In contrast, on rapidly rotating planets a much narrower belt of clouds form in the deep tropics, leading to a relatively low albedo. A particularly striking example of the importance of rotation rate suggested by our simulations is that a planet with modern Earth's atmosphere, in Venus' orbit, and with modern Venus' (slow) rotation rate would be habitable. This would imply that if Venus went through a runaway greenhouse, it had a higher rotation rate at that time.

  9. Magnetic pseudo-fields in a rotating electron-nuclear spin system (United States)

    Wood, A. A.; Lilette, E.; Fein, Y. Y.; Perunicic, V. S.; Hollenberg, L. C. L.; Scholten, R. E.; Martin, A. M.


    Analogous to the precession of a Foucault pendulum observed on the rotating Earth, a precessing spin observed in a rotating frame of reference appears frequency-shifted. This can be understood as arising from a magnetic pseudo-field in the rotating frame that nevertheless has physically significant consequences, such as the Barnett effect. To detect these pseudo-fields, a rotating-frame sensor is required. Here we use quantum sensors, nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres, in a rapidly rotating diamond to detect pseudo-fields in the rotating frame. Whereas conventional magnetic fields induce precession at a rate proportional to the gyromagnetic ratio, rotation shifts the precession of all spins equally, and thus primarily affect 13C nuclear spins in the sample. We are thus able to explore these effects via quantum sensing in a rapidly rotating frame, and define a new approach to quantum control using rotationally induced nuclear spin-selective magnetic fields. This work provides an integral step towards realizing precision rotation sensing and quantum spin gyroscopes.

  10. The silicon tracking system of the CBM experiment at FAIR. Development of microstrip sensors and signal transmission lines for a low-mass, low-noise system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singla, Minni


    In this thesis, different physical and electrical aspects of silicon microstrip sensors and low-mass multi-line readout cables have been investigated. These silicon microstrip sensors and readout cables will be used in the Silicon Tracking System (STS) of the fixed-target heavy-ion Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment which is under development at the upcoming Facility for Antiproton and ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany. The highly segmented low-mass tracking system is a central CBM detector system to resolve the high tracking densities of charged particles originating from beam-target interactions. Considering the low material budget requirement the double-sided silicon microstrip detectors have been used in several planar tracking stations. The readout electronics is planned to be installed at the periphery of the tracking stations along with the cooling system. Low-mass multi-line readout cables shall bridge the distance between the microstrip sensors and the readout electronics. The CBM running operational scenario suggests that some parts of the tracking stations are expected to be exposed to a total integrated particle fluence of the order of 1 x 10{sup 14} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. After 1 x 10{sup 14} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} the damaged modules in the tracking stations will be replaced. Thus radiation hard sensor is an important requirement for the sensors. Moreover, to cope with the high reaction rates, free-streaming (triggerless) readout electronics with online event reconstruction must be used which require high signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio (i.e., high signal efficiency, low noise contributions). Therefore, reduction in noise is a major goal of the sensor and cable development. For better insight into the different aspects of the silicon microstrip sensors and multi-line readout cables, the simulation study has been performed using SYNOPSYS TCAD tools. 3D models of the silicon microstrip sensors and the readout cables were implemented which is

  11. Short-rotation coppices. State of the realizability, organisation and a model for the evaluation of the production and supply of rapidly growing wood from short-rotation coppices als a biofuel for biomass-fuelled heating power stations in Bavaria; Kurzumtriebsplantagen. Stand der Umsetzbarkeit, Organisation und ein Modell zur oekonomischen Bewertung von Produktion und Bereitstellung schnell wachsenden Holzes aus Kurzumtriebsplantagen als biogener Festbrennstoff fuer Biomasse(heiz)kraftwerke in Bayern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschlau, Helmut F.


    The study examines most aspects of Short-rotation Coppice Crops (SRC), mainly from willows (Salix sp.) and poplars (Populus sp.), for energetic use in big biomass powerstations in Bavaria (southern Germany). In addition to the compilation of framework conditions concerning environmental and agrarian politics as well as legal issues, every link in the process chain of SRC will be considered - from planting to harvesting, treatment of the wood chips and Just-in-time delivery to the powerplant - followed by an evaluation of SRC in ecological terms. The basic aim of this study is to evaluate every single link with regard to organisational und economic issues, analysis of relevant markets and to develop a comprehensive calculation model for the amount of annuities of the whole process chain.

  12. High-Current Rotating Contactor (United States)

    Hagan, David W.; Wolff, Edwin D.


    Rotating electrical contactor capable of carrying 1,000 amperes of current built for use in rotating large workpiece in electroplating bath. Electrical contact made by use of 24 automotive starter motor brushes adapted to match inside diameter of shell electrode.

  13. Rotation of the planet mercury. (United States)

    Jefferys, W H


    The equations of motion for the rotation of Mercury are solved for the general case by an asymptotic expansion. The findings of Liu and O'Keefe, obtained by numerical integration of a special case, that it is possible for Mercury's rotation to be locked into a 2:3 resonance with its revolution, are confirmed in detail. The general solution has further applications.

  14. Advances in Rotational Seismic Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, Robert [Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Laughlin, Darren [Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brune, Robert [Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Rotational motion is increasingly understood to be a significant part of seismic wave motion. Rotations can be important in earthquake strong motion and in Induced Seismicity Monitoring. Rotational seismic data can also enable shear selectivity and improve wavefield sampling for vertical geophones in 3D surveys, among other applications. However, sensor technology has been a limiting factor to date. The US Department of Energy (DOE) and Applied Technology Associates (ATA) are funding a multi-year project that is now entering Phase 2 to develop and deploy a new generation of rotational sensors for validation of rotational seismic applications. Initial focus is on induced seismicity monitoring, particularly for Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with fracturing. The sensors employ Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) principles with broadband response, improved noise floors, robustness, and repeatability. This paper presents a summary of Phase 1 results and Phase 2 status.

  15. Bidirectional optical rotation of cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyi Wu


    Full Text Available Precise and controlled rotation manipulation of cells is extremely important in biological applications and biomedical studies. Particularly, bidirectional rotation manipulation of a single or multiple cells is a challenge for cell tomography and analysis. In this paper, we report an optical method that is capable of bidirectional rotation manipulation of a single or multiple cells. By launching a laser beam at 980 nm into dual-beam tapered fibers, a single or multiple cells in solutions can be trapped and rotated bidirectionally under the action of optical forces. Moreover, the rotational behavior can be controlled by altering the relative distance between the two fibers and the input optical power. Experimental results were interpreted by numerical simulations.

  16. Imprints of fast-rotating massive stars in the Galactic Bulge. (United States)

    Chiappini, Cristina; Frischknecht, Urs; Meynet, Georges; Hirschi, Raphael; Barbuy, Beatriz; Pignatari, Marco; Decressin, Thibaut; Maeder, André


    The first stars that formed after the Big Bang were probably massive, and they provided the Universe with the first elements heavier than helium ('metals'), which were incorporated into low-mass stars that have survived to the present. Eight stars in the oldest globular cluster in the Galaxy, NGC 6522, were found to have surface abundances consistent with the gas from which they formed being enriched by massive stars (that is, with higher α-element/Fe and Eu/Fe ratios than those of the Sun). However, the same stars have anomalously high abundances of Ba and La with respect to Fe, which usually arises through nucleosynthesis in low-mass stars (via the slow-neutron-capture process, or s-process). Recent theory suggests that metal-poor fast-rotating massive stars are able to boost the s-process yields by up to four orders of magnitude, which might provide a solution to this contradiction. Here we report a reanalysis of the earlier spectra, which reveals that Y and Sr are also overabundant with respect to Fe, showing a large scatter similar to that observed in extremely metal-poor stars, whereas C abundances are not enhanced. This pattern is best explained as originating in metal-poor fast-rotating massive stars, which might point to a common property of the first stellar generations and even of the 'first stars'.

  17. Rotational Twin Paradox (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin


    Two twins settle on a massive spherical planet at a train station S. Let's consider that each twin has an accompanying clock, and the two clocks are synchronized. One twin T1 remains in the train station, while the other twin T2 travels at a uniform high speed with the train around the planet (on the big circle of the planet) until he gets back to the same train station S. Assume the planet is not rotating. Since the planet is massive, we can consider that on a very small part on its surface the train rail road is linear, so the train is in a linear uniform motion. The larger is the planet's radius the more the rail road approaches a linear trajectory. Because the GPS clocks are alleged to be built on the Theory of Relativity, one can consider the twin T2 train's circular trajectory alike the satellite's orbit. In addition, the gravitation is the same for the reference frames of T1 and T2. Each twin sees the other twin as traveling, therefore each twin finds the other one has aged slower than him. Thus herein we have a relativistic symmetry. When T2 returns to train station S, he finds out that he is younger than T1 (therefore asymmetry). Thus, one gets a contradiction between symmetry and asymmetry.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theissen, Christopher A.; West, Andrew A. [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Dhital, Saurav, E-mail: [Department of Physical Sciences, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, 600 South Clyde Morris Blvd., Daytona Beach, FL 32114 (United States)


    We present a photometric catalog of 8,735,004 proper motion selected low-mass stars (KML-spectral types) within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) footprint, from the combined SDSS Data Release 10 (DR10), Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) point-source catalog (PSC), and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) AllWISE catalog. Stars were selected using r − i, i − z, r − z, z − J, and z − W1 colors, and SDSS, WISE, and 2MASS astrometry was combined to compute proper motions. The resulting 3,518,150 stars were augmented with proper motions for 5,216,854 earlier type stars from the combined SDSS and United States Naval Observatory B1.0 catalog (USNO-B). We used SDSS+USNO-B proper motions to determine the best criteria for selecting a clean sample of stars. Only stars whose proper motions were greater than their 2σ uncertainty were included. Our Motion Verified Red Stars catalog is available through SDSS CasJobs and VizieR.

  19. Production, measurement and simulation of a low mass flex cable for multi gigabit/s readout for the LHCb VELO upgrade (United States)

    Lemos Cid, E.; Buytaert, J.; Gallas Torreira, A. A.; Esperante Pereira, D.; Ronning, P. Arne; Visniakov, J.; Sanchez, M. G.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.


    The goal of this project is to examine the feasibility of data transmission up to ~ 5 Gbit/s on a short ( ~ 60 cm) low mass flex cable, for the readout of the upgraded vertex detector (VELO) of the LHCb experiment. They will be in a vacuum and very high radiation environment and also partly in the particle acceptance. For the full system 1600 readout links will be required. A set of single-ended and differential (edge-coupled) striplines, with a variety of line parameters have been prototyped using a material specifically tailored for this type of application (Dupont Pyralux AP-plus polyimide). To reduce mass, the total thickness of the cable is kept to 0.7 mm. We will present measurements of the characteristic impedance, insertion and return loss, obtained both from time and frequency domain, as well as a comparison with simulations and expectations. Also the effectiveness of grounded guard traces and the use of ground via holes to reduce crosstalk will be reported. From the measurements we were also able to extract the material properties such as the dielectric constant and loss factor up to several GHz. The measurements were done with a Vector Network Analyzer (VNA), TDR/TDT Digital Sampling Oscilloscope, serial PRBS generator and analyzer for eye diagram and CAD tools such as Agilent ADS and ANSYS HFSS simulators.

  20. Low Mass Dimuon Production in p-A Collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 27.5$ GeV with NA60

    CERN Document Server

    Uras, A.; Arnaldi, R; Oppedisano, C; Scomparin, E; Banicz, K; Damjanovic, S; David, A; Forster, A; Guettet, N; Keil, M; Lourenco, C; Martins, P; Radermacher, E; Ramalhete, P; Rosinsky, P; Shahoyan, R; Specht, H J; Castor, J; Devaux, A; Fargeix, J; Seixas, J; Sonderegger, P; Gulkanian, H; Poghosyan, T; Heuser, J M; Guichard, A; Floris, M; Li, Z; Force, P; Ferretti, A; En'yo, H; Ducroux, L; de Falco, A; Colla, A; Cortese, P; Cicalo, C; Pillot, P; Chaurand, B; Ohnishi, H; Parracho, P; Puddu, G; Veenhof, R; Serci, S; Lozano, J; Usai, G; Wohri, H K; Tieulent, R; Masoni, A; Neves, A; Manso, F


    The NA60 experiment has studied low-mass muon pair production in proton-nucleus collisions with a system of Be, Cu, In, W, Pb and U targets using a 400 GeV/$c$ proton beam at the CERN SPS. The mass spectrum is well described by the superposition of the two-body and Dalitz decays of the light neutral mesons $\\eta$, $\\rho$, $\\omega$, $\\eta'$ and $\\phi$. A new high-precision measurement of the electromagnetic transition form factors of the $\\eta$ and $\\omega$ mesons is presented, complemented with a measurement of the temperature parameter of the $\\rho$ meson in cold nuclear matter. The $\\pt$ spectra for the $\\omega$ and $\\phi$ mesons are extracted in the full $\\pt$ range accessible, up to $\\pt = 2$ GeV/$c$. The nuclear dependence of the production cross sections for the $\\eta$, $\\omega$ and $\\phi$ mesons has been investigated in terms of the power law $\\sigma_\\mathrm{pA} \\propto \\mathrm{A}^\\alpha$, and the $\\alpha$ parameter was studied as a function of $\\pt$.

  1. Detection of Enhanced Central Mass-to-light Ratios in Low-mass Early-type Galaxies: Evidence for Black Holes? (United States)

    Pechetti, Renuka; Seth, Anil; Cappellari, Michele; McDermid, Richard; den Brok, Mark; Mieske, Steffen; Strader, Jay


    We present dynamical measurements of the central mass-to-light ratio (M/L) of a sample of 27 low-mass early-type {{ATLAS}}3{{D}} galaxies. We consider all {{ATLAS}}3{{D}} galaxies with 9.7 text{}}M/L{{s}} are higher than dynamical {\\text{}}M/L{{s}} derived at larger radii and stellar population estimates of the galaxy centers in ˜80% of galaxies, with a median enhancement of ˜14% and a statistical significance of 3.3σ. We show that the enhancement in the central M/L is best described either by the presence of black holes in these galaxies or by radial initial mass function variations. Assuming a black hole model, we derive black hole masses for the sample of galaxies. In two galaxies, NGC 4458 and NGC 4660, the data suggest significantly overmassive black holes, while in most others only upper limits are obtained. We also show that the level of M/L enhancements we see in these early-type galaxy nuclei are consistent with the larger enhancements seen in ultracompact dwarf galaxies (UCDs), supporting the scenario where massive UCDs are created by stripping galaxies of these masses.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, J. A. [Aix-Marseille Université, PIIM UMR 7345, F-13397 Marseille (France); Fraser, H. J. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Aikawa, Y. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Pontoppidan, K. M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sakon, I., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0003 (Japan)


    We present near-infrared spectroscopic observations of 19 molecular clouds made using the AKARI satellite, and the data reduction pipeline written to analyze those observations. The 2.5-5 μm spectra of 30 objects—22 field stars behind quiescent molecular clouds and 8 low-mass young stellar objects in cores—were successfully extracted using the pipeline. Those spectra are further analyzed to calculate the column densities of key solid phase molecular species, including H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, CO, and OCN{sup –}. The profile of the H{sub 2}O ice band is seen to vary across the objects observed and we suggest that the extended red wing may be an evolutionary indicator of both dust and ice mantle properties. The observation of 22 spectra with fluxes as low as < 5 mJy toward background stars, including 15 where the column densities of H{sub 2}O, CO, and CO{sub 2} were calculated, provides valuable data that could help to benchmark the initial conditions in star-forming regions prior to the onset of star formation.

  3. Search for a Low-mass Higgs Boson in Y(3S)--> gamma A^0, A^0--> tau^ tau^- at BABAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabareen Mokhtar, Arafat


    We search for a light Higgs boson A{sup 0} in the radiative decay Y(3S) {yields} {gamma}A{sup 0}, A{sup 0} {yields} T{sup +}T{sup -}, T{sup +} {yields} e{sup +}{nu}{sub e}{nu}{sub T}, or T{sup +} {yields} {mu}{sup +} {nu}{sub {mu}T}. The data sample contains 122 x 10{sup 6} Y(3S) events recorded with the BABAR detector. We find no evidence for a narrow structure in the studied T{sup +}T{sup -} invariant mass region of 4.03 < m{sub T{sup +}T{sup -}} < 10.10 GeV/c{sup 2}. We exclude at the 90% confidence level (C.L.) a low-mass Higgs boson decaying to T{sup +}T{sup -} with a product branching fraction B(Y(3S) {yields} {gamma}A{sup 0}) x B(A{sup 0} {yields} T{sup +}T{sup -}) > (1.5-16) x 10{sup -5} across the mT{sup +}T{sup -} range. We also set a 90% C.L. upper limit on the T{sup +}T{sup -} decay of the {eta}{sub b} at B({eta}{sub b} {yields} T{sup +}T{sup -}) < 8%.

  4. Numerical investigation of the vortex-induced vibration of an elastically mounted circular cylinder at high Reynolds number (Re = 104 and low mass ratio using the RANS code.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niaz Bahadur Khan

    Full Text Available This study numerically investigates the vortex-induced vibration (VIV of an elastically mounted rigid cylinder by using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations with computational fluid dynamic (CFD tools. CFD analysis is performed for a fixed-cylinder case with Reynolds number (Re = 104 and for a cylinder that is free to oscillate in the transverse direction and possesses a low mass-damping ratio and Re = 104. Previously, similar studies have been performed with 3-dimensional and comparatively expensive turbulent models. In the current study, the capability and accuracy of the RANS model are validated, and the results of this model are compared with those of detached eddy simulation, direct numerical simulation, and large eddy simulation models. All three response branches and the maximum amplitude are well captured. The 2-dimensional case with the RANS shear-stress transport k-w model, which involves minimal computational cost, is reliable and appropriate for analyzing the characteristics of VIV.

  5. On the Evolution of the Inner Disk Radius with Flux in the Neutron Star Low-mass X-Ray Binary Serpens X-1 (United States)

    Chiang, Chia - Ying; Morgan, Robert A.; Cackett, Edward M.; Miller, Jon M.; Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Strohmayer, Tod E.


    We analyze the latest Suzaku observation of the bright neutron star (NS) low-mass X-ray binary Serpens X-1 taken in 2013 October and 2014 April. The observation was taken using the burst mode and only suffered mild pile-up effects. A broad iron line is clearly detected in the X-ray spectrum. We test different models and find that the iron line is asymmetric and best interpreted by relativistic reflection. The relativistically broadened iron line is generally believed to originate from the innermost regions of the accretion disk, where strong gravity causes a series of special and general relativistic effects. The iron line profile indicates an inner radius of approx. 8 R(sub G), which gives an upper limit on the size of the NS. The asymmetric iron line has been observed in a number of previous observations, which gives several inner radius measurements at different flux states. We find that the inner radius of Serpens X-1 does not evolve significantly over the range of L/L(sub Edd) approx. 0.4-0.6, and the lack of flux dependence of the inner radius implies that the accretion disk may be truncated outside of the innermost stable circular orbit by the boundary layer, rather than the stellar magnetic field.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Long; Li Xiangdong, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)


    IGR J17480-2446 is an accreting X-ray pulsar in a low-mass X-ray binary harbored in the Galactic globular cluster Terzan 5. Compared with other accreting millisecond pulsars, IGR J17480-2446 is peculiar for its low spin frequency (11 Hz), which suggests that it might be a mildly recycled neutron star at the very early phase of mass transfer. However, this model seems to be in contrast with the low field strength deduced from the kilo-Hertz quasi-periodic oscillations observed in IGR J17480-2446. Here, we suggest an alternative interpretation, assuming that the current binary system was formed during an exchange encounter either between a binary (which contains a recycled neutron star) and the current donor, or between a binary and an isolated, recycled neutron star. In the resulting binary, the spin axis of the neutron star could be parallel or anti-parallel with the orbital axis. In the latter case, the abnormally low frequency of IGR J17480-2446 may result from the spin-down to spin-up evolution of the neutron star. We also briefly discuss the possible observational implications of the pulsar in this scenario.

  7. Magnetorotational Instability in a Rotating Liquid Metal Annulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hantao Ji; Jeremy Goodman; Akira Kageyama


    Although the magnetorotational instability (MRI) has been widely accepted as a powerful accretion mechanism in magnetized accretion disks, it has not been realized in the laboratory. The possibility of studying MRI in a rotating liquid-metal annulus (Couette flow) is explored by local and global stability analysis and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. Stability diagrams are drawn in dimensionless parameters, and also in terms of the angular velocities at the inner and outer cylinders. It is shown that MRI can be triggered in a moderately rapidly rotating table-top apparatus, using easy-to-handle metals such as gallium. Practical issues of this proposed experiment are discussed.

  8. Galaxy rotation and supermassive black hole binary evolution (United States)

    Mirza, M. A.; Tahir, A.; Khan, F. M.; Holley-Bockelmann, H.; Baig, A. M.; Berczik, P.; Chishtie, F.


    Supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries residing at the core of merging galaxies are recently found to be strongly affected by the rotation of their host galaxies. The highly eccentric orbits that form when the host is counterrotating emit strong bursts of gravitational waves that propel rapid SMBH binary coalescence. Most prior work, however, focused on planar orbits and a uniform rotation profile, an unlikely interaction configuration. However, the coupling between rotation and SMBH binary evolution appears to be such a strong dynamical process that it warrants further investigation. This study uses direct N-body simulations to isolate the effect of galaxy rotation in more realistic interactions. In particular, we systematically vary the SMBH orbital plane with respect to the galaxy rotation axis, the radial extent of the rotating component, and the initial eccentricity of the SMBH binary orbit. We find that the initial orbital plane orientation and eccentricity alone can change the inspiral time by an order of magnitude. Because SMBH binary inspiral and merger is such a loud gravitational wave source, these studies are critical for the future gravitational wave detector, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, an ESA/NASA mission currently set to launch by 2034.

  9. Rapid Active Sampling Package (United States)

    Peters, Gregory


    A field-deployable, battery-powered Rapid Active Sampling Package (RASP), originally designed for sampling strong materials during lunar and planetary missions, shows strong utility for terrestrial geological use. The technology is proving to be simple and effective for sampling and processing materials of strength. Although this originally was intended for planetary and lunar applications, the RASP is very useful as a powered hand tool for geologists and the mining industry to quickly sample and process rocks in the field on Earth. The RASP allows geologists to surgically acquire samples of rock for later laboratory analysis. This tool, roughly the size of a wrench, allows the user to cut away swaths of weathering rinds, revealing pristine rock surfaces for observation and subsequent sampling with the same tool. RASPing deeper (.3.5 cm) exposes single rock strata in-situ. Where a geologist fs hammer can only expose unweathered layers of rock, the RASP can do the same, and then has the added ability to capture and process samples into powder with particle sizes less than 150 microns, making it easier for XRD/XRF (x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence). The tool uses a rotating rasp bit (or two counter-rotating bits) that resides inside or above the catch container. The container has an open slot to allow the bit to extend outside the container and to allow cuttings to enter and be caught. When the slot and rasp bit are in contact with a substrate, the bit is plunged into it in a matter of seconds to reach pristine rock. A user in the field may sample a rock multiple times at multiple depths in minutes, instead of having to cut out huge, heavy rock samples for transport back to a lab for analysis. Because of the speed and accuracy of the RASP, hundreds of samples can be taken in one day. RASP-acquired samples are small and easily carried. A user can characterize more area in less time than by using conventional methods. The field-deployable RASP used a Ni

  10. NGC 1866: First Spectroscopic Detection of Fast-rotating Stars in a Young LMC Cluster (United States)

    Dupree, A. K.; Dotter, A.; Johnson, C. I.; Marino, A. F.; Milone, A. P.; Bailey, J. I., III; Crane, J. D.; Mateo, M.; Olszewski, E. W.


    High-resolution spectroscopic observations were taken of 29 extended main-sequence turnoff (eMSTO) stars in the young (˜200 Myr) Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) cluster, NGC 1866, using the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System and MSpec spectrograph on the Magellan-Clay 6.5 m telescope. These spectra reveal the first direct detection of rapidly rotating stars whose presence has only been inferred from photometric studies. The eMSTO stars exhibit Hα emission (indicative of Be-star decretion disks), others have shallow broad Hα absorption (consistent with rotation ≳150 km s-1), or deep Hα core absorption signaling lower rotation velocities (≲150 km s-1). The spectra appear consistent with two populations of stars—one rapidly rotating, and the other, younger and slowly rotating.

  11. NGC 1866: First Spectroscopic Detection of Fast-rotating Stars in a Young LMC Cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupree, A. K.; Dotter, A.; Johnson, C. I. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Marino, A. F.; Milone, A. P. [Australian National University, The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bailey, J. I. III [Leiden Observatory, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Crane, J. D. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Mateo, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Olszewski, E. W. [The University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)


    High-resolution spectroscopic observations were taken of 29 extended main-sequence turnoff (eMSTO) stars in the young (∼200 Myr) Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) cluster, NGC 1866, using the Michigan/ Magellan Fiber System and MSpec spectrograph on the Magellan -Clay 6.5 m telescope. These spectra reveal the first direct detection of rapidly rotating stars whose presence has only been inferred from photometric studies. The eMSTO stars exhibit H α emission (indicative of Be-star decretion disks), others have shallow broad H α absorption (consistent with rotation ≳150 km s{sup −1}), or deep H α core absorption signaling lower rotation velocities (≲150 km s{sup −1}). The spectra appear consistent with two populations of stars—one rapidly rotating, and the other, younger and slowly rotating.

  12. Canonical elements of rotational motion (United States)

    Fukushima, T.


    We present a new set of canonical variables to describe general rotation of a triaxial rigid body. Explicit are both the forward and backward transformations from the new variables to the Andoyer canonical variables, which are universal. The rotational kinetic energy is expressed as a quadratic monomial of one new momentum. Consequently, the torque-free rotations are expressed as a linear function of time for the conjugate coordinate and constants of time for the rest two coordinates and three momenta. This means that the new canonical variables are universal elements in a broad sense.

  13. Optical wheel-rotation sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeser, L.; Rodriguez, P.; Forman, P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Deeter, M. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States)


    We describe a fiber-optic rotation sensor based on diffraction of light in a magneto-optic crystal (BIG). Exploitation of this effect permits the construction of a sensor requiring no polarization elements or lenses.

  14. Spontaneous Rotational Inversion in Phycomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, Alain


    The filamentary fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus undergoes a series of remarkable transitions during aerial growth. During what is known as the stagea IV growth phase, the fungus extends while rotating in a counterclockwise manner when viewed from above (stagea IVa) and then, while continuing to grow, spontaneously reverses to a clockwise rotation (stagea IVb). This phase lasts for 24-48Ah and is sometimes followed by yet another reversal (stageAIVc) before the overall growth ends. Here, we propose a continuum mechanical model of this entire process using nonlinear, anisotropic, elasticity and show how helical anisotropy associated with the cell wall structure can induce spontaneous rotation and, under appropriate circumstances, the observed reversal of rotational handedness. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  15. The Concentric Maclaurin Spheroid method with tides and a rotational enhancement of Saturn's tidal response (United States)

    Wahl, Sean M.; Hubbard, William B.; Militzer, Burkhard


    We extend to three dimensions the Concentric Maclaurin Spheroid method for obtaining the self-consistent shape and gravitational field of a rotating liquid planet, to include a tidal potential from a satellite. We exhibit, for the first time, an important effect of the planetary rotation rate on tidal response of gas giants, whose shape is dominated by the centrifugal potential from rapid rotation. Simulations of planets with fast rotation rates like those of Jupiter and Saturn, exhibit significant changes in calculated tidal love numbers knm when compared with non-rotating bodies. A test model of Saturn fitted to observed zonal gravitational multipole harmonics yields k2 = 0.413 , consistent with a recent observational determination from Cassini astrometry data (Lainey et al., 2016.). The calculated love number is robust under reasonable assumptions of interior rotation rate, satellite parameters, and details of Saturn's interior structure. The method is benchmarked against several published test cases.

  16. Magnetic Inflation and Stellar Mass. I. Revised Parameters for the Component Stars of the Kepler Low-mass Eclipsing Binary T-Cyg1-12664

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eunkyu; Muirhead, Philip S. [Department of Astronomy and Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Swift, Jonathan J. [The Thacher School, 5025 Thacher Road Ojai, CA 93023 (United States); Baranec, Christoph; Atkinson, Dani [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaiì at Mānoa, Hilo, HI 96720-2700 (United States); Law, Nicholas M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Riddle, Reed [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mace, Gregory N. [McDonald Observatory and The University of Texas, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); DeFelippis, Daniel, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)


    Several low-mass eclipsing binary stars show larger than expected radii for their measured mass, metallicity, and age. One proposed mechanism for this radius inflation involves inhibited internal convection and starspots caused by strong magnetic fields. One particular eclipsing binary, T-Cyg1-12664, has proven confounding to this scenario. Çakırlı et al. measured a radius for the secondary component that is twice as large as model predictions for stars with the same mass and age, but a primary mass that is consistent with predictions. Iglesias-Marzoa et al. independently measured the radii and masses of the component stars and found that the radius of the secondary is not in fact inflated with respect to models, but that the primary is, which is consistent with the inhibited convection scenario. However, in their mass determinations, Iglesias-Marzoa et al. lacked independent radial velocity measurements for the secondary component due to the star’s faintness at optical wavelengths. The secondary component is especially interesting, as its purported mass is near the transition from partially convective to a fully convective interior. In this article, we independently determined the masses and radii of the component stars of T-Cyg1-12664 using archival Kepler data and radial velocity measurements of both component stars obtained with IGRINS on the Discovery Channel Telescope and NIRSPEC and HIRES on the Keck Telescopes. We show that neither of the component stars is inflated with respect to models. Our results are broadly consistent with modern stellar evolutionary models for main-sequence M dwarf stars and do not require inhibited convection by magnetic fields to account for the stellar radii.

  17. NuSTAR view of the Z-type neutron star low-mass X-ray binary Cygnus X-2 (United States)

    Mondal, Aditya S.; Dewangan, G. C.; Pahari, M.; Raychaudhuri, B.


    We report on the NuSTAR observation of the Z-type neutron star low-mass X-ray binary Cygnus X-2 performed on 2015 January 7. During this observation, the source exhibited a sudden decrease in count rate (dips) and stronger variability in 3-79 keV X-ray light curve. The hardness-intensity diagram shows that the source remained in the so-called normal branch of the Z-track, although an extended `flaring branch' is observed during the dips. The source was in a soft spectral state with the 3-45 keV luminosity of L ≃ (0.5-1.1) × 1038 erg s-1, assuming a distance of 8 kpc. Both the non-dip and dip X-ray spectra are well represented by models in which the soft band is dominated by the emission from the disc, while the hard X-ray band is dominated by the Comptonized emission from the boundary layer/corona and its reflected emission from the disc. The X-ray spectrum also revealed a broad Fe K α emission line which is nearly symmetric at the higher flux and asymmetric when the flux is reduced by a factor of ˜2. The relativistic reflection model predicts the inner radius of the accretion disc as Rin ≃ 2.5-6.0 RISCO (≃30-73 km) for the non-dip state and Rin ≃ 2.0-2.6 RISCO (≃24-32 km) for the dip state. If the inner disc is truncated due to the pressure arising from a magnetic field, this implies an upper limit of the magnetic field strength of ≤7.6 × 109 G at the magnetic poles which is consistent with other estimates.

  18. Spectral-timing Analysis of the Lower kHz QPO in the Low-mass X-Ray Binary Aquila X-1 (United States)

    Troyer, Jon S.; Cackett, Edward M.


    Spectral-timing products of kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations (kHz QPOs) in low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) systems, including energy- and frequency-dependent lags, have been analyzed previously in 4U 1608-52, 4U 1636-53, and 4U 1728-34. Here, we study the spectral-timing properties of the lower kHz QPO of the neutron star LMXB Aquila X-1 for the first time. We compute broadband energy lags as well as energy-dependent lags and the covariance spectrum using data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. We find characteristics similar to those of previously studied systems, including soft lags of ˜30 μs between the 3.0-8.0 keV and 8.0-20.0 keV energy bands at the average QPO frequency. We also find lags that show a nearly monotonic trend with energy, with the highest-energy photons arriving first. The covariance spectrum of the lower kHz QPO is well fit by a thermal Comptonization model, though we find a seed photon temperature higher than that of the mean spectrum, which was also seen in Peille et al. and indicates the possibility of a composite boundary layer emitting region. Lastly, we see in one set of observations an Fe K component in the covariance spectrum at 2.4-σ confidence, which may raise questions about the role of reverberation in the production of lags.

  19. New mechanism for Type-II seesaw dominance in SO(10) with low-mass Z', RH neutrinos, and verifiable LFV, LNV and proton decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, Bidyut Prava; Parida, Mina Ketan [Siksha ' ' O' ' Anusandhan University, Centre of Excellence in Theoretical and Mathematical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Odisha (India)


    The dominance of Type-II seesaw mechanism for the neutrino masses has attracted considerable attention because of a number of advantages. We show a novel approach to achieve Type-II seesaw dominance in nonsupersymmetric SO(10) grand unification where a low-mass Z' boson and specific patterns of right-handed neutrino masses are predicted within the accessible energy range of the Large Hadron Collider. In spite of the high value of the seesaw scale, M{sub Δ{sub L}} ≅ 10{sup 8}-10{sup 9} GeV, the model predicts new dominant contributions to neutrino-less double beta decay in the W{sub L}-W{sub L} channel close to the current experimental limits via exchanges of heavier singlet fermions used as essential ingredients of this model even when the light active neutrino masses are normally hierarchical or invertedly hierarchical. We obtain upper bounds on the lightest sterile neutrino mass m{sub s}

  20. The X-Ray Luminosity Functions of Field Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries in Early-Type Galaxies: Evidence for a Stellar Age Dependence (United States)

    Lehmer, B. D.; Berkeley, M.; Zezas, A.; Alexander, D. M.; Basu-Zych, A.; Bauer, F. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Fragos, T.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Kalogera, V.; hide


    We present direct constraints on how the formation of low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) populations in galactic fields depends on stellar age. In this pilot study, we utilize Chandra and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data to detect and characterize the X-ray point source populations of three nearby early-type galaxies: NGC 3115, 3379, and 3384. The luminosity-weighted stellar ages of our sample span approximately equal to 3-10 Gyr. X-ray binary population synthesis models predict that the field LMXBs associated with younger stellar populations should be more numerous and luminous per unit stellar mass than older populations due to the evolution of LMXB donor star masses. Crucially, the combination of deep Chandra and HST observations allows us to test directly this prediction by identifying and removing counterparts to X-ray point sources that are unrelated to the field LMXB populations, including LMXBs that are formed dynamically in globular clusters, Galactic stars, and background AGN/galaxies. We find that the "young" early-type galaxy NGC 3384 (approximately equals 2-5 Gyr) has an excess of luminous field LMXBs (L(sub x) approximately greater than (5-10) × 10(exp 37) erg s(exp -1)) per unit K-band luminosity (L(sub K); a proxy for stellar mass) than the "old" early-type galaxies NGC 3115 and 3379 (approximately equals 8-10 Gyr), which results in a factor of 2-3 excess of L(sub X)/L(sub K) for NGC 3384. This result is consistent with the X-ray binary population synthesis model predictions; however, our small galaxy sample size does not allow us to draw definitive conclusions on the evolution field LMXBs in general. We discuss how future surveys of larger galaxy samples that combine deep Chandra and HST data could provide a powerful new benchmark for calibrating X-ray binary population synthesis models.