WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapidly increasing rate

  1. Insight into the Physical and Dynamical Processes that Control Rapid Increases in Total Flash Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Elise V.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid increases in total lightning (also termed "lightning jumps") have been observed for many decades. Lightning jumps have been well correlated to severe and hazardous weather occurrence. The main focus of lightning jump work has been on the development of lightning algorithms to be used in real-time assessment of storm intensity. However, in these studies it is typically assumed that the updraft "increases" without direct measurements of the vertical motion, or specification of which updraft characteristic actually increases (e.g., average speed, maximum speed, or convective updraft volume). Therefore, an end-to-end physical and dynamical basis for coupling rapid increases in total flash rate to increases in updraft speed and volume must be understood in order to ultimately relate lightning occurrence to severe storm metrics. Herein, we use polarimetric, multi-Doppler, and lightning mapping array measurements to provide physical context as to why rapid increases in total lightning are closely tied to severe and hazardous weather.

  2. The impact of increased loading rate on granular media, rapid depth filtration of wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gordon J; Sheikh, Bahman; Holden, Robert B; Kouretas, Tom J; Nelson, Kara L

    2007-11-01

    The impact of loading rate on tertiary filtration of wastewater was studied using a pilot-scale, dual-media, rapid depth filtration system. Loading rates of 12.2, 15.3, 18.3, 21.4, and 24.4m/h were tested on parallel filter columns treating the same coagulated secondary wastewater to determine the impact on removal of turbidity, particles (2-15 microm), total coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, and MS2 bacteriophage, as well as on the particle deposition profile in the filter bed. Increasing the loading rate from 12.2 to 24.4m/h decreased the removal efficiencies for all metrics. The observed impact of loading rate on particle removal was similar to that predicted by a clean-bed filtration model, although the model significantly underestimated the removal efficiencies of the smaller particles. For two loading rates, 12.2 and 18.3m/h, the effect of coagulant dose was also studied; the negative impact of loading rate on removal efficiency was eliminated by increasing the coagulant dose for the higher loading rate, which also resulted in removal of particles deeper in the filter bed. For all conditions studied, loading rate had no observable impact on the ability to disinfect filter effluents with chloramines. The results of this research indicate that loading rates higher than those typically used in tertiary filtration can produce acceptable effluent quality, and support a regulatory approach based on filter effluent turbidity.

  3. False positive rate of rapid oral fluid HIV tests increases as kits near expiration date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facente, Shelley N; Dowling, Teri; Vittinghoff, Eric; Sykes, Deanna L; Colfax, Grant N

    2009-12-14

    Because a recent cluster of false positive results on the OraQuick ADVANCE Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test occurred in San Francisco on test kits close to their expiration date, we decided to assess the relationship between time to expiration and rate of false positive results from tests used with oral fluid. We analyzed results of 20,904 tests with either an initial HIV-negative result (n = 20,828) or a preliminary positive result that was then negative on confirmatory tests (n = 76). We computed specificity for kits with time to expiration from or = 6 months, with exact binomial confidence intervals, then used logistic regression to estimate the independent association of time to expiration with false positive results, adjusting for site and technician effects. For 1,108 kits used in the last month before expiration, specificity was 98.83% (95% exact binomial confidence interval (CI) 98.00%-99.37%); the upper bound is below the claimed specificity of 99.60%. After adjustment using regression standardization for the effects of site, test lot, and technician factors, adjusted specificity in the last month before expiration was 99.18% (95% bootstrap confidence interval 98.60-99.57%). We found that specificity of the OraQuick ADVANCE with oral fluid declined significantly with < or = 1 month remaining to expiration, leaving little margin for error from other sources.

  4. Reduced Dietary Sodium Intake Increases Heart Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels A; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction) increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side......-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the period 1973-2014. Sixty-three of the RCTs including 72 study...... populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p heart rate. This effect was independent of baseline blood pressure. In conclusion sodium reduction...

  5. The mitochondrial uniporter controls fight or flight heart rate increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuejin; Rasmussen, Tyler P; Koval, Olha M; Joiner, Mei-Ling A; Hall, Duane D; Chen, Biyi; Luczak, Elizabeth D; Wang, Qiongling; Rokita, Adam G; Wehrens, Xander H T; Song, Long-Sheng; Anderson, Mark E

    2015-01-20

    Heart rate increases are a fundamental adaptation to physiological stress, while inappropriate heart rate increases are resistant to current therapies. However, the metabolic mechanisms driving heart rate acceleration in cardiac pacemaker cells remain incompletely understood. The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) facilitates calcium entry into the mitochondrial matrix to stimulate metabolism. We developed mice with myocardial MCU inhibition by transgenic expression of a dominant-negative (DN) MCU. Here, we show that DN-MCU mice had normal resting heart rates but were incapable of physiological fight or flight heart rate acceleration. We found that MCU function was essential for rapidly increasing mitochondrial calcium in pacemaker cells and that MCU-enhanced oxidative phoshorylation was required to accelerate reloading of an intracellular calcium compartment before each heartbeat. Our findings show that MCU is necessary for complete physiological heart rate acceleration and suggest that MCU inhibition could reduce inappropriate heart rate increases without affecting resting heart rate.

  6. Are rates of pediatric bipolar disorder increasing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    for pediatric mania/bipolar disorder changed during the calendar period (1995 to 2003 versus 2004 to 2012), and (3) whether the diagnosis is more often made at first psychiatric contact in recent time compared to earlier according to gender. Totally, 346 patients got a main diagnosis of a manic episode (F30......Studies from the USA suggest that rates of pediatric bipolar disorder have increased since the mid-90s, but no study outside the USA has been published on the rates of pediatric bipolar disorder. Further, it is unclear whether an increase in rates reflects a true increase in the illness or more...... diagnostic attention. Using nationwide registers of all inpatients and outpatients contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark, we investigated (1) gender-specific rates of incident pediatric mania/bipolar disorder during a period from 1995 to 2012, (2) whether age and other characteristics...

  7. Influence of quench rates on the properties of rapidly solidified ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    FeNbCuSiB based materials were produced in the form of ribbons by rapid solidification techniques. The crystallization, magnetic, mechanical and corrosion behaviour were studied for the prepared materials as a function of quenching rate from liquid to the solid state. Higher quench rates produced a more amorphous ...

  8. Improved sulphate removal rates at increased sulphide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improved sulphate removal rates at increased sulphide concentration in the sulphidogenic bioreactor. ... The results of three investigations operating a continuous reactor, a column reactor and batch-test reactors have shown that increased sulphide concentrations have resulted in improved biological sulphate reduction.

  9. Increase in healthcare facilities and rapid environmental degradation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Increase in healthcare facilities and rapid environmental degradation: A technological paradox in. Nigeria's urban centres. Akinwale Coker1* and Mynepalli K. C. Sridhar2. 1Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. 2Division of Environmental Health, Department of ...

  10. MARKETING STRATEGY TO INCREASE BED OCCUPANCY RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwaningsih Purwaningsih

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A hospital is an institution for health care providing treatment by specialized staff and equipment, more often but not always providing for longer-term patient stays. Today, hospitals are very complex institution, not only survive in dynamic environment but also make a profit based on their services. The aimed of this research was to know marketing mix concept (product, price, place, promotion, people, process and provision of customer service in formulating marketing strategy to increased Bed Occupancy Rate of Obstetric Gynecology Ward 2. Method: The population are health care personnel including midwife, midwife associate, administrator and also client or consumer. The variable were product, price, place, promotion, people, process and provision of customer service. Data were collected by using structured questionnaire. Result: The result showed that product (type of services, infrastructure and facility, relative price, comfortable and safe place, targeted promotion, trained human resources, standard process and provision of customer service are an important aspect to implement strategy marketing to increase Bed Occupancy Rate. Analysis: The result of this study has enlightened the importance of strategy marketing in health care services based on seven principle of marketing mix. Discussion: Implementation of marketing mix in obstetric gynecology ward 2 need to be considered.

  11. Are Melt Migration Rates Through the Mantle Universally Rapid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, M. K.; Sims, K. W.

    2001-12-01

    Significant enrichments in 226Ra over 230Th have been observed in basalts erupted in nearly all tectonic settings. These enrichments generally are greatest in lavas with low concentrations of U, Th and other incompatible elements, including those from mid-ocean ridges and "depleted" volcanic arcs. Excesses of 226Ra over 230Th in mid-ocean ridge settings are commonly attributed to smaller bulk partition coefficients for Ra with respect to Th during mantle melting, and extraction of ingrown Ra into melts slowly migrating through interconnected pore space. In contrast, 226Ra excesses in basalts from volcanic arcs have been attributed to fluid additions from subducting slabs to the sources of the basalt and rapid (102 - 103y) melt migration to the surface (e.g. Turner et al., 2001). Such rapid melt velocities imply channeled flow rather than diffuse porous flow, and suggest that basalts from other tectonic settings migrate similarly rapidly. Here, we show that the compositions of basalts from both arc and mid-ocean ridge settings indeed can be explained by melting models involving rapid transit times to the surface. Simple fluxed melting models and rapid transfer of melt to the surface explain the U-Th-Ra systematics and incompatible trace element compositions of arc basalts. The U-Th-Ra and trace element data for young MORB from the East Pacific Rise (Sims et al. 2001) and the Siqueiros transform (Lundstrom et al. 1999) are modeled using simple 2-d polybaric melting based on Braun et al. (2000) and rapid melt migration rates. Successful models mix small-degree fractional melts derived from a broad cross-sectional area of mantle at depth with high-degree melts derived from a small cross-sectional area of shallow mantle that is the aged residue of the small degree melt.

  12. Acute hypoxia increases the cerebral metabolic rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mark Bitsch; Lindberg, Ulrich; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine changes in cerebral metabolism by magnetic resonance imaging of healthy subjects during inhalation of 10% O2 hypoxic air. Hypoxic exposure elevates cerebral perfusion, but its effect on energy metabolism has been less investigated. Magnetic resonance...... imaging techniques were used to measure global cerebral blood flow and the venous oxygen saturation in the sagittal sinus. Global cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen was quantified from cerebral blood flow and arteriovenous oxygen saturation difference. Concentrations of lactate, glutamate, N......-acetylaspartate, creatine and phosphocreatine were measured in the visual cortex by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Twenty-three young healthy males were scanned for 60 min during normoxia, followed by 40 min of breathing hypoxic air. Inhalation of hypoxic air resulted in an increase in cerebral blood flow of 15.5% (p = 0...

  13. Rapid increase in contact allergy to Kathon CG in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannuksela, M

    1986-10-01

    In unselected eczema patients subjected to routine patch testing, the number with positive reactions to Kathon CG 100 ppm increased from none in 1983 to 0.7% in January-August 1985, and to 4.6% in September 1985 to March 1986. Repeated open application tests (ROAT) with creams containing 7-15 ppm of the isothiazolinones were positive in 12 of 24 patients tested. 2 of the ROAT-positive cases had negative patch tests to 100 ppm Kathon CG, but 1 was positive with 200 ppm. Atopic dermatitis, chronic hand dermatitis and lower leg dermatitis were the most common disorders in the positive patients. The cause of the rapid increase of Kathon CG allergy in Finland during the winter of 1985-1986 was the use of a popular moisturizing cream containing first 19 ppm, then 7 ppm of a mixture of 2 isothiazolinones (Euxyl K 100).

  14. Rapid increases in tropospheric ozone production and export from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Willem W.; Neu, Jessica L.; Williams, Jason E.; Bowman, Kevin W.; Worden, John R.; Boersma, K. Folkert

    2015-09-01

    Rapid population growth and industrialization have driven substantial increases in Asian ozone precursor emissions over the past decade, with highly uncertain impacts on regional and global tropospheric ozone levels. According to ozonesonde measurements, tropospheric ozone concentrations at two Asian sites have increased by 1 to 3% per year since 2000, an increase thought to contribute to positive trends in the ozone levels observed at North America’s West Coast. However, model estimates of the Asian contribution to North American ozone levels are not well-constrained by observations. Here we interpret Aura satellite measurements of tropospheric concentrations of ozone and its precursor NO2, along with its largest natural source, stratospheric ozone, using the TM5 global chemistry-transport model. We show that tropospheric ozone concentrations over China have increased by about 7% between 2005 and 2010 in response to two factors: a rise in Chinese emissions by about 21% and increased downward transport of stratospheric ozone. Furthermore, we find that transport from China of ozone and its precursors has offset about 43% of the 0.42 DU reduction in free-tropospheric ozone over the western United States that was expected between 2005 and 2010 as a result of emissions reductions associated with federal, state and local air quality policies. We conclude that global efforts may be required to address regional air quality and climate change.

  15. A rapid method to estimate Westergren sedimentation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexy, Tamas; Pais, Eszter; Meiselman, Herbert J.

    2009-01-01

    The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a nonspecific but simple and inexpensive test that was introduced into medical practice in 1897. Although it is commonly utilized in the diagnosis and follow-up of various clinical conditions, ESR has several limitations including the required 60 min settling time for the test. Herein we introduce a novel use for a commercially available computerized tube viscometer that allows the accurate prediction of human Westergren ESR rates in as little as 4 min. Owing to an initial pressure gradient, blood moves between two vertical tubes through a horizontal small-bore tube and the top of the red blood cell (RBC) column in each vertical tube is monitored continuously with an accuracy of 0.083 mm. Using data from the final minute of a blood viscosity measurement, a sedimentation index (SI) was calculated and correlated with results from the conventional Westergren ESR test. To date, samples from 119 human subjects have been studied and our results indicate a strong correlation between SI and ESR values (R2=0.92). In addition, we found a close association between SI and RBC aggregation indices as determined by an automated RBC aggregometer (R2=0.71). Determining SI on human blood is rapid, requires no special training and has minimal biohazard risk, thus allowing physicians to rapidly screen for individuals with elevated ESR and to monitor therapeutic responses. PMID:19791973

  16. The increasing predictive validity of self-rated health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Schnittker

    Full Text Available Using the 1980 to 2002 General Social Survey, a repeated cross-sectional study that has been linked to the National Death Index through 2008, this study examines the changing relationship between self-rated health and mortality. Research has established that self-rated health has exceptional predictive validity with respect to mortality, but this validity may be deteriorating in light of the rapid medicalization of seemingly superficial conditions and increasingly high expectations for good health. Yet the current study shows the validity of self-rated health is increasing over time. Individuals are apparently better at assessing their health in 2002 than they were in 1980 and, for this reason, the relationship between self-rated health and mortality is considerably stronger across all levels of self-rated health. Several potential mechanisms for this increase are explored. More schooling and more cognitive ability increase the predictive validity of self-rated health, but neither of these influences explains the growing association between self-rated health and mortality. The association is also invariant to changing causes of death, including a decline in accidental deaths, which are, by definition, unanticipated by the individual. Using data from the final two waves of data, we find suggestive evidence that exposure to more health information is the driving force, but we also show that the source of information is very important. For example, the relationship between self-rated health and mortality is smaller among those who use the internet to find health information than among those who do not.

  17. Crop yield response to increasing biochar rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benefit or detriment to crop yield from biochar application varies with biochar type/rate, soil, crop, or climate. The objective of this research was to identify yield response of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), corn (Zea mayes L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to hardwood biochar applied at...

  18. The rapidly increasing trend of cannabis use in burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehle, Charles Christopher; Nazir, Niaman; Bhavsar, Dhaval

    2015-01-01

    The use of cannabis is currently increasing according to U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Surprisingly, cannabis use among burn patients is poorly reported in literature. In this study, rates of cannabis use in burn patients are compared with general population. Data from the National Burn Repository (NBR) were used to investigate incidence, demographics, and outcomes in relation to use of cannabis as evidenced by urine drug screen (UDS). Thousands of patients from the NBR from 2002 to 2011 were included in this retrospective study. Inclusion criteria were patients older than 12 years of age who received a drug screen. Data points analyzed were patients' age, sex, UDS status, mechanism of burn injury, total body surface area, length of stay, ICU days, and insurance characteristics. Incidence of cannabis use in burn patients from the NBR was compared against national general population rates (gathered by Health and Human Services) using chi-square tests. Additionally, the burn patient population was analyzed using bivariate analysis and t-tests to find differences in the characteristics of these patients as well as differences in outcomes. Seventeen thousand eighty out of over 112,000 patients from NBR had information available for UDS. The incidence of cannabis use is increasing among the general population, but the rate is increasing more quickly among patients in the burn patient population (P = .0022). In 2002, 6.0% of patients in burn units had cannabis+ UDS, which was comparable with national incidence of 6.2%. By 2011, 27.0% of burn patients tested cannabis+ while national incidence of cannabis use was 7.0%. Patients who test cannabis+ are generally men (80.1%, P 60% of injuries, followed by scalds that are >15%. In comparing cannabis+/- patients, cannabis+ patients are more likely to be uninsured (25.2% vs 17.26%, P burns (TBSA% of 12.94 vs 10.98, P burn units is growing quickly. These patients are younger and are less likely to be insured

  19. Humans copy rapidly increasing choices in a multiarmed bandit problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toelch, U.; Bruce, M.J.; Meeus, M.T.H.; Reader, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Conformist social learning, the tendency to acquire the most common trait in a group, allows individuals to rapidly acquire established beneficial traits from a multitude of options. However, conformist strategies hinder acquisition of novel advantageous behavior patterns, because such innovations

  20. Increased corrosion resistance of the AZ80 magnesium alloy by rapid solidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghion, E; Jan, L; Meshi, L; Goldman, J

    2015-11-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and Mg-alloys are being considered as implantable biometals. Despite their excellent biocompatibility and good mechanical properties, their rapid corrosion is a major impediment precluding their widespread acceptance as implantable biomaterials. Here, we investigate the potential for rapid solidification to increase the corrosion resistance of Mg alloys. To this end, the effect of rapid solidification on the environmental and stress corrosion behavior of the AZ80 Mg alloy vs. its conventionally cast counterpart was evaluated in simulated physiological electrolytes. The microstructural characteristics were examined by optical microscopy, SEM, TEM, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The corrosion behavior was evaluated by immersion, salt spraying, and potentiodynamic polarization. Stress corrosion resistance was assessed by Slow Strain Rate Testing. The results indicate that the corrosion resistance of rapidly solidified ribbons is significantly improved relative to the conventional cast alloy due to the increased Al content dissolved in the α-Mg matrix and the correspondingly reduced presence of the β-phase (Mg17 Al12 ). Unfortunately, extrusion consolidated solidified ribbons exhibited a substantial reduction in the environmental performance and stress corrosion resistance. This was mainly attributed to the detrimental effect of the extrusion process, which enriched the iron impurities and increased the internal stresses by imposing a higher dislocation density. In terms of immersion tests, the average corrosion rate of the rapidly solidified ribbons was <0.4 mm/year compared with ∼2 mm/year for the conventionally cast alloy and 26 mm/year for the rapidly solidified extruded ribbons. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Cross-sectional study of possible association between rapid eating and high body fat rates among female Japanese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaguchi-Tanaka, Yuri; Kawagoshi, Yumiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Fukao, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of excessive body fat among young Japanese females with a normal BMI, which is referred to as normal weight obesity (NWO), has recently increased. Some studies have associated eating rates with BMI. However, an association between body fat rate and dietary habits has not been proven. We compared differences in dietary habits between 72 female Japanese junior college students with normal (Eating rapidly was significantly associated with body fat ratios. Our findings suggest that eating rapidly increases body fat ratios.

  2. Influence of cooling rate on microstructure formation during rapid solidification of binary TiAl alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenel, C., E-mail: Christoph.Kenel@empa.ch; Leinenbach, C.

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Rapid solidification studies with varying cooling rates were realized for Ti–Al. • Experiments were combined with finite element simulations of heat transfer. • The resulting microstructure of Ti–Al alloys is strongly dependent on the Al content. • The microstructure and phase transformation behavior can be predicted. • The method allows alloy development for processes involving rapid solidification. - Abstract: Titanium aluminides as structural intermetallics are possible candidates for a potential weight reduction and increased performance of high temperature components. A method for the characterization of the microstructure formation in rapidly solidified alloys was developed and applied for binary Ti–(44–48)Al (at.%). The results show a strong dependency of the microstructure on the Al content at cooling rates between 6 ⋅ 10{sup 2} and 1.5 ⋅ 10{sup 4} K s{sup −1}. The formation of α → α{sub 2} ordering, lamellar α{sub 2} + γ colonies and interdendritic TiAl γ-phase were observed, depending on the Al amount. Based on thermodynamic calculations the observed microstructure can be explained using the CALPHAD approach taking into account the non-equilibrium conditions. The presented method provides a useful tool for alloy development for processing techniques involving rapid solidification with varying cooling rates.

  3. Influence of quench rates on the properties of rapidly solidified ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    A K PANDA, I CHATTORAJ, S BASU* and A MITRA. National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831 007, India. *Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302, India. Abstract. FeNbCuSiB based materials were produced in the form of ribbons by rapid solidification techniques.

  4. Rapid determination of the hypoxanthine increase in ischemic exercise tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, P. A.; Zwart, R.; Bär, P. R.; de Visser, M.; van der Helm, H. J.

    1988-01-01

    After ischemic exercise tests, performed to detect glycogenoses or myoadenylate deaminase (EC 3.5.4.6) deficiency, the increases in serum lactate and ammonia usually are measured. Determination of hypoxanthine instead of ammonia can also be used to show myoadenylate deaminase deficiency, but HPLC of

  5. The rapidly increasing usefulness of social media in urogynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alas, Alexandriah; Sajadi, Kamran P; Goldman, Howard B; Anger, Jennifer T

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the availability and quality of urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse information in social medias and the growth of such information in the past 13 months. We focused on the most popular social medias (Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube) to evaluate the key words "urogynecology," "pelvic organ prolapse," "stress incontinence," "urge incontinence," and "incontinence." Initial evaluation included top 30 search results for key word "incontinence" to compare with our study in 2010, followed by a secondary search using the top 100 items. Results were classified as useful or not useful and then further categorized by health care providers, others, commercial, or humorous in intent. Results with the intent of providing information were presumed to be informative. Comparative search over a 13-month period showed a stable amount of useful information, 40% to 39%, but an increase in the number of health professionals (22% vs 13%). However, of the 817 search results, 406 (50%) were medically useful. Only 28% were written by health professionals, but of the informative results, 56% were written by health professionals. Finally, specific search terms provided the highest relevant and useful information, but also limited the number of search items found. Over 13 months, there was an increase in useful information presented from health professionals. These changes may reflect the medical community's growing awareness of the usefulness of social media. If these trends continue, we predict the use of these medias for medical purposes will continue to increase among medical professionals.

  6. Differentiating Telephone Surveys from Telemarketing to Increase Response Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Joey; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Finds that including the statement "I'm not selling anything" in a telephone survey introduction does not significantly affect response rates. Shows that only an introduction with a university reference significantly increased response rates. (SR)

  7. Rapid population increase in an introduced muskox population, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Riis Olesen

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1962 and 1965, 27 (13 and 14 muskox yearlings were translocated from East Greenland (71°N to the Angujaartorfiup Nunaa range in West Greenland (67°N. Angujaartorfiup Nunaa is a 6600 km2 icefree, continental area where caribou are indigenous. The climate is strictly continental with a minimum of precipitation but with abundant vegetation. Aerial surveys in 1990 documented that the muskox population has increased to 2600 heads despite quota-based harvesting since 1988. The annual quota was 200, 300 and 400 for 1988, 1989 and 1990, respectively. Distribution of muskoxen shows a significant preference for low altitude habitats southeast of Kangerlussuaq Airport and around Arnangarnup Qoorua (Paradise valley. Annual population increment averages 30% and the calf crop is around 24% of the population. Yearling recruitment in the population reveals that calf mortality during winter is very limited. About half of the 1-year-old females are served and they eventually give birth to their first calf when they turn 2 years old. With half of the 2-year-old females reproducing, the calf/cow ration ranges between 0.9 and 1.0.

  8. Rapid rates of soil production in the western Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, I. J.; Almond, P. C.; Eger, A.; Stone, J. O.; Malcolm, B.; Montgomery, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    Quantifying rates of soil production is necessary for determining the relative magnitude of the processes that drive the evolution of mountain topography and for assessing proposed links among tectonic uplift, erosion, weathering, and global biogeochemical cycles. However, little is known about the role soil production plays in the denudation of rapidly uplifting mountains. We addressed this problem by sampling soil and river sediment from five catchments in the rapidly uplifting and high rainfall portion of the western Southern Alps, New Zealand. Soils were sampled from ridgetops with subalpine forest and dense alpine shrubland vegetation. Results from 11 measurements of in situ-produced 10Be in soils from three catchments show that rock is rapidly converted to soil, with the highest measured rate approaching 2 mm yr-1. Soil production rates at two of the ridgetops decline exponentially as soil depth increases, consistent with previously proposed soil production functions. The third site exhibits an ambiguous soil production rate-depth relationship. The y-intercepts, or maximum predicted soil production rate where the soil depth is equal to zero, at the sites with well-defined soil production functions are 7-9 times greater than those in other tectonically-active mountains and 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than values from drier and more tectonically-quiescent landscapes, indicating that rock can be converted to soil at substantially higher rates than previously recognized. The maximum predicted soil production rate values are 1.5 to 2.5 times lower than watershed-scale denudation rates inferred from in situ 10Be concentrations in stream sediment, indicating that soil production rates approach, but do not reach catchment-averaged values, which also reflect denudation by bedrock landslides. Ongoing work on additional samples will lead to a refinement of the soil production functions and provide rates for two additional sites. In-progress measurement of zirconium

  9. A rare large right atrial myxoma with rapid growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Shawn C; Steffen, Kelly; Stys, Adam T

    2014-10-01

    Atrial myxomas are the most common benign intracavitary cardiac neoplasms. They most frequently occur in the left atrium. Right atrial tumors are rare, comprising 20 percent of myxomas achieving an incidence of 0.02 percent. Due to their rarity, right atrial tumor development and associated clinical symptoms has not been well described. The classical clinical triad for the presentation of left atrial myxomas--heart failure, embolic events, and constitutional symptoms--may not be applicable to right sided tumors. Also, natural development of myxoma is not well described, as surgical resection is the common practice. Previously ascribed growth rates of myxomas refer mostly to left atrial ones, as right atrial tumors are rare. We present a case of right atrial myxoma with growth rates exceeding those previously described.

  10. 75 FR 22211 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    .... Smutny, Marketing Specialist, or Kurt J. Kimmel, Regional Manager, California Marketing Field Office... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment rate...

  11. 76 FR 67320 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... CONTACT: Jeff Smutny, Marketing Specialist, or Kurt J. Kimmel, Regional Manager, California Marketing... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment rate...

  12. 78 FR 77327 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... 2011-12 marketing year and would therefore be considered small handlers according to the SBA definition... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment rate...

  13. 76 FR 50703 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... Manager, California Marketing Field Office, Marketing Order Administration Branch, Fruit and Vegetable...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This...

  14. Increasing seatbelt usage rate among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    While seatbelt use has increased considerably during the last two decades, non-use and inconsistent use is still a significant problem, especially among youths. In addition, population-wide seatbelt rates may appear acceptable, but the rate is low in...

  15. Rapid startup and high rate nitrogen removal from anaerobic sludge digester liquor using a SNAP process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Sen; Nishiyama, Takashi; Fujii, Tatsuo; Bhatti, Zafar; Furukawa, Kenji

    2012-02-01

    In this study, a single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removal reactor, packed with a novel acrylic fiber biomass carrier material (Biofix), was applied for nitrogen removal from sludge digester liquor. For rapid start-up, conventional activated sludge was added to the reactor soon after the attachment of anammox biomass on the Biofix carriers, which allowed conventional activated sludge to form a protective layer of biofilm around the anammox biomass. The Nitrogen removal efficiency reached 75% within 1 week at a nitrogen loading rate of 0.46 kg-N/m(3)/day for synthetic wastewater treatment. By the end of the synthetic wastewater treatment period, the maximum nitrogen removal rate had increased to 0.92 kg-N/m(3)/day at a nitrogen loading rate of 1.0 kg-N/m(3)/day. High nitrogen removal rate was also achieved during the actual raw digester liquor treatment with the highest nitrogen removal rate being 0.83 kg-N/m(3)/day at a nitrogen loading rate of 0.93 kg-N/m(3)/day. The thick biofilm on Biofix carriers allowed anammox bacteria to survive under high DO concentration of 5-6 mg/l resulting in stable and high nitrogen removal performance. FISH and CLSM analysis demonstrated that anammox bacteria coexisted and surrounded by ammonium oxidizing bacteria.

  16. Three dimensional evaluation of alveolar bone changes in response to different rapid palatal expansion activation rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian LaBlonde

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The aim of this multi-center retrospective study was to quantify the changes in alveolar bone height and thickness after using two different rapid palatal expansion (RPE activation protocols, and to determine whether a more rapid rate of expansion is likely to cause more adverse effects, such as alveolar tipping, dental tipping, fenestration and dehiscence of anchorage teeth. Methods: The sample consisted of pre- and post-expansion records from 40 subjects (age 8-15 years who underwent RPE using a 4-banded Hyrax appliance as part of their orthodontic treatment to correct posterior buccal crossbites. Subjects were divided into two groups according to their RPE activation rates (0.5 mm/day and 0.8 mm/day; n = 20 each group. Three-dimensional images for all included subjects were evaluated using Dolphin Imaging Software 11.7 Premium. Maxillary base width, buccal and palatal cortical bone thickness, alveolar bone height, and root angulation and length were measured. Significance of the changes in the measurements was evaluated using Wilcoxon signed-rank test and comparisons between groups were done using ANOVA. Significance was defined at p ≤ 0.05. Results: RPE activation rates of 0.5 mm per day (Group 1 and 0.8 mm per day (Group 2 caused significant increase in arch width following treatment; however, Group 2 showed greater increases compared to Group 1 (p < 0.01. Buccal alveolar height and width decreased significantly in both groups. Both treatment protocols resulted in significant increases in buccal-lingual angulation of teeth; however, Group 2 showed greater increases compared to Group 1 (p < 0.01. Conclusion: Both activation rates are associated with significant increase in intra-arch widths. However, 0.8 mm/day resulted in greater increases. The 0.8 mm/day activation rate also resulted in more increased dental tipping and decreased buccal alveolar bone thickness over 0.5 mm/day.

  17. Rowing Crew Coordination Dynamics at Increasing Stroke Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuijpers, Laura S; Zaal, Frank T J M; de Poel, Harjo J

    2015-01-01

    In rowing, perfect synchronisation is important for optimal performance of a crew. Remarkably, a recent study on ergometers demonstrated that antiphase crew coordination might be mechanically more efficient by reducing the power lost to within-cycle velocity fluctuations of the boat. However, coupled oscillator dynamics predict the stability of the coordination to decrease with increasing stroke rate, which in case of antiphase may eventually yield breakdowns to in-phase. Therefore, this study examined the effects of increasing stroke rate on in- and antiphase crew coordination in rowing dyads. Eleven experienced dyads rowed on two mechanically coupled ergometers on slides, which allowed the ergometer system to move back and forth as one 'boat'. The dyads performed a ramp trial in both in- and antiphase pattern, in which stroke rates gradually increased from 30 strokes per minute (spm) to as fast as possible in steps of 2 spm. Kinematics of rowers, handles and ergometers were captured. Two dyads showed a breakdown of antiphase into in-phase coordination at the first stroke rate of the ramp trial. The other nine dyads reached between 34-42 spm in antiphase but achieved higher rates in in-phase. As expected, the coordinative accuracy in antiphase was worse than in in-phase crew coordination, while, somewhat surprisingly, the coordinative variability did not differ between the patterns. Whereas crew coordination did not substantially deteriorate with increasing stroke rate, stroke rate did affect the velocity fluctuations of the ergometers: fluctuations were clearly larger in the in-phase pattern than in the antiphase pattern, and this difference significantly increased with stroke rate. Together, these results suggest that although antiphase rowing is less stable (i.e., less resistant to perturbation), potential on-water benefits of antiphase over in-phase rowing may actually increase with stroke rate.

  18. When do correlations increase with firing rates in recurrent networks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea K Barreiro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A central question in neuroscience is to understand how noisy firing patterns are used to transmit information. Because neural spiking is noisy, spiking patterns are often quantified via pairwise correlations, or the probability that two cells will spike coincidentally, above and beyond their baseline firing rate. One observation frequently made in experiments, is that correlations can increase systematically with firing rate. Theoretical studies have determined that stimulus-dependent correlations that increase with firing rate can have beneficial effects on information coding; however, we still have an incomplete understanding of what circuit mechanisms do, or do not, produce this correlation-firing rate relationship. Here, we studied the relationship between pairwise correlations and firing rates in recurrently coupled excitatory-inhibitory spiking networks with conductance-based synapses. We found that with stronger excitatory coupling, a positive relationship emerged between pairwise correlations and firing rates. To explain these findings, we used linear response theory to predict the full correlation matrix and to decompose correlations in terms of graph motifs. We then used this decomposition to explain why covariation of correlations with firing rate-a relationship previously explained in feedforward networks driven by correlated input-emerges in some recurrent networks but not in others. Furthermore, when correlations covary with firing rate, this relationship is reflected in low-rank structure in the correlation matrix.

  19. Impact of Rate Design Alternatives on Residential Solar Customer Bills. Increased Fixed Charges, Minimum Bills and Demand-based Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    With rapid growth in energy efficiency and distributed generation, electric utilities are anticipating stagnant or decreasing electricity sales, particularly in the residential sector. Utilities are increasingly considering alternative rates structures that are designed to recover fixed costs from residential solar photovoltaic (PV) customers with low net electricity consumption. Proposed structures have included fixed charge increases, minimum bills, and increasingly, demand rates - for net metered customers and all customers. This study examines the electricity bill implications of various residential rate alternatives for multiple locations within the United States. For the locations analyzed, the results suggest that residential PV customers offset, on average, between 60% and 99% of their annual load. However, roughly 65% of a typical customer's electricity demand is non-coincidental with PV generation, so the typical PV customer is generally highly reliant on the grid for pooling services.

  20. Clinical investigation into the observation that silicon carbide coating on cobalt chromium stents leads to early differentiating functional endothelial layer, increased safety and DES-like recurrent stenosis rates: results of the PRO-Heal Registry (PRO-Kinetic enhancing rapid in-stent endothelialisation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Johannes B; Willems, Tine; Wolpers, Hans Georg; Nordbeck, Hans; Becker, Jürgen; Ruppert, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    Recurrent stenosis and stent thrombosis are still major concerns after drug eluting stent placement which inhibits not only the restenostic process but endothelialisation as well. In contrast, through accelerating rapid endothelialisation and development of an earlier functional endothelial layer, passive coatings have shown encouraging results. The objective of the present study was to investigate the clinical outcome and rate of recurrent stenosis of silicon carbide passive coated cobalt chromium stents (PROKinetic Coronary Stent with PROBIO coating, Biotronik AG, Switzerland) on restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. Percutaneous coronary stent deployment was carried out in 161 lesions in 145 consecutive patients. The primary combined endpoint was the rate of target-lesion revascularisation (TLR) and late lumen loss; the secondary endpoints were the procedural success and the major adverse cardiac events at 6-months follow-up. Out of 145 patients, 141 were successfully amenable to a silicon carbide coated stent (PRO-Kinetic, Biotronik AG, Switzerland) implantation (97.2% procedural success). At follow-up, the late loss was 0.75 +/- 0.71 mm. (in-stent) respectively 0.79 +/- 0.72 mm (in-segment), TLR was 4.9% and MACE was 5.6%. By augmenting rapid endothelialisation and development of an earlier functional endothelial layer, silicon carbide (PROBIO) as a passive coating on cobalt chromium stents has shown encouraging results relative to success rates, clinical outcome, TLR and late-loss in a cohort of patients with extended coronary artery disease.

  1. Total daily activity declines more rapidly with increasing age in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, Aron S; Wilson, Robert S; Yu, Lei; James, Bryan D; Boyle, Patricia A; Bennett, David A

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal studies of objectively measured physical activity are lacking in older adults. We tested whether objective measures of total daily activity decline more rapidly in older adults. This prospective, observational cohort study included 519 community-dwelling older persons from across metropolitan Chicago participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Repeated total daily activity measures (leisure and non-leisure physical activity) were derived from actigraphic recordings for up to 10 days. Generalized estimating equation models which controlled for demographics measures were employed. At baseline, age was inversely related with the level of total daily activity (estimate, -0.014, S.E. 0.002, pdaily activity declined by about 0.070 × 10(5) activity counts/day/yr (estimate -0.065, S.E. 0.005, pdaily activity declined 3% more rapidly for each additional year of age at baseline (estimate -0.002, S.E. 0.001, p=0.027). Thus, total daily activity declined almost twice as fast in an individual 91 years old at baseline versus an individual 71 years old. A higher level of education was associated with a slower rate of decline (estimate 0.004, S.E. 0.002, pdaily activity were unchanged when controlling for baseline level of motor and cognitive function, other late-life activities and chronic health conditions. These data suggest that total daily activity in very old adults declines more rapidly with increasing age. Thus, physical inactivity is likely to become a larger problem in our aging population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased collagen synthesis rate during wound healing in muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobo Zhou

    Full Text Available Wound healing in muscle involves the deposition of collagen, but it is not known whether this is achieved by changes in the synthesis or the degradation of collagen. We have used a reliable flooding dose method to measure collagen synthesis rate in vivo in rat abdominal muscle following a surgical incision. Collagen synthesis rate was increased by 480% and 860% on days 2 and 7 respectively after surgery in the wounded muscle compared with an undamaged area of the same muscle. Collagen content was increased by approximately 100% at both day 2 and day 7. These results demonstrate that collagen deposition during wound healing in muscle is achieved entirely by an increase in the rate of collagen synthesis.

  3. Lateralized effect of rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation of the prefrontal cortex on mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Leone, A; Catalá, M D; Pascual-Leone Pascual, A

    1996-02-01

    We studied the effects of rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of different scalp positions on mood. Ten normal volunteers rated themselves before and after rTMS on five analog scales labeled "Tristeza" (Sadness), "Ansiedad" (Anxiety), "Alegria" (Happiness), "Cansancio" (Tiredness), and "Dolor/Malestar" (Pain/Discomfort). rTMS was applied to the right lateral prefrontal, left prefrontal, or midline frontal cortex in trains of 5 seconds' duration at 10 Hz and 110% of the subject's motor threshold intensity. Each stimulation position received 10 trains separated by a 25-second pause. No clinically apparent mood changes were evoked by rTMS to any of the scalp positions in any subject. However, left prefrontal rTMS resulted in a significant increase in the Sadness ratings (Tristeza) and a significant decrease in the Happiness ratings ("Alegria") as compared with right prefrontal and midfrontal cortex stimulation. These results show differential effects of rTMS of left and right prefrontal cortex stimulation on mood and illustrate the lateralized control of mood in normal volunteers.

  4. 77 FR 33104 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ...: Jerry L. Simmons, Marketing Specialist or Kurt J. Kimmel, Regional Manager, California Marketing Field...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This rule would...

  5. 75 FR 9536 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ..., Marketing Specialist, or Kurt J. Kimmel, Regional Manager, California Marketing Field Office, Marketing...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This rule would...

  6. 78 FR 77604 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... been reviewed under Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 966 Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This proposed...

  7. 77 FR 51684 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... has been reviewed under Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in..., such as the Committee's Executive, Marketing, Inspection, and Research Subcommittees. Alternate... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY...

  8. Increases in cognitive and linguistic processing primarily account for increases in speaking rate with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nip, Ignatius S B; Green, Jordan R

    2013-01-01

    Age-related increases of speaking rate are not fully understood, but have been attributed to gains in biologic factors and learned skills that support speech production. This study investigated developmental changes in speaking rate and articulatory kinematics of participants aged 4 (N = 7), 7 (N = 10), 10 (N = 9), 13 (N = 7), 16 (N = 9) years, and young adults (N = 11) in speaking tasks varying in task demands. Speaking rate increased with age, with decreases in pauses and articulator displacements but not increases in articulator movement speed. Movement speed did not appear to constrain the speaking. Rather, age-related increases in speaking rate are due to gains in cognitive and linguistic processing and speech motor control. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  9. Increases in Cognitive and Linguistic Processing Primarily Account for Increases in Speaking Rate with Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.

    2013-01-01

    Age-related increases of speaking rate are not fully understood, but have been attributed to gains in biologic factors and learned skills that support speech production. This study investigated developmental changes in speaking rate and articulatory kinematics of participants aged 4 ("N" = 7), 7 ("N" = 10), 10…

  10. Catecholamine-Independent Heart Rate Increases Require CaMKII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhan; Singh, Madhu V; Hall, Duane D; Koval, Olha M.; Luczak, Elizabeth D.; Joiner, Mei-ling A.; Chen, Biyi; Wu, Yuejin; Chaudhary, Ashok K; Martins, James B; Hund, Thomas J; Mohler, Peter J; Song, Long-Sheng; Anderson, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Catecholamines increase heart rate by augmenting the cAMP responsive HCN4 ‘pacemaker current’ (If) and/or by promoting inward Na+/Ca2+ exchanger current (INCX), by a ‘Ca2+ clock’ mechanism in sinoatrial nodal cells (SANCs). The importance, identity and function of signals that connect If and Ca2+ clock mechanisms are uncertain and controversial, but the multifunctional Ca2+ and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is required for physiological heart rate responses to β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) stimulation. The aim of this stuy is to measure the contribution of the Ca2+ clock and CaMKII to cardiac pacing independent of β-AR agonist stimulation. Methods and Results We used the L-type Ca2+ channel agonist BayK 8644 (BayK) to activate the SANC Ca2+ clock. BayK and isoproterenol were similarly effective in increasing rates in SANCs and Langendorff-perfused hearts from WT control mice. In contrast, SANCs and isolated hearts from mice with CaMKII inhibition by transgenic expression of an inhibitory peptide (AC3-I) were resistant to rate increases by BayK. BayK only activated CaMKII in control SANCs, but increased ICa equally in all SANCs, indicating that increasing ICa was insufficient and suggesting CaMKII activation was required for heart rate increases by BayK. BayK did not increase If or protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation of phospholamban (at Ser16), indicating that increased SANC Ca2+ by BayK did not augment cAMP/PKA signaling at these targets. Late diastolic intracellular Ca2+ release and INCX were significantly reduced in AC3-I SANCs and the response to BayK was eliminated by ryanodine in all groups. Conclusions The Ca2+ clock is capable of supporting physiological fight or flight responses, independent of β-AR stimulation or If increases. Complete Ca2+ clock and β-AR stimulation responses require CaMKII. PMID:21406683

  11. Effect of increased vacuum and aspiration rates on phacoemulsification efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Isha; Cahoon, Judd M; Gardiner, Gareth; Garff, Kevin; Henriksen, Bradley S; Pettey, Jeff H; Barlow, William R; Olson, Randall J

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of vacuum and aspiration rates on phacoemulsification efficiency. John A. Moran Eye Center Laboratories, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Experimental study. Formalin-soaked porcine lenses were divided into 2.0 mm cubes, and 0.9 mm 30-degree beveled 20-degree bent tips were used with micropulse ultrasound (US) (6 milliseconds on and 6 milliseconds off) and a peristaltic flow system. Vacuum levels were tested at 200, 300, 400, and 500 mm Hg, and aspiration rates were tested at 20, 35, and 50 mL/min. Efficiency (time to lens removal) and chatter (number of lens fragment repulsions from the tip) were determined. Increasing vacuum increased efficiency only when going from 200 mm Hg to higher vacuum levels. Increasing aspiration increased efficiency at all points measured (25 mL/min versus 35 mL/min, P vacuum was increased from 200 mm Hg to 300 mm Hg and up. Chatter decreased with increasing flow. Vacuum improved efficiency only up to 300 mm Hg and was more dependent on increasing flow. Similarly, chatter correlated with 200 mm Hg vacuum only and was more correlated with flow. Limitations of this study include use of only 1 US power modulation and hard nuclear material. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Reducing video frame rate increases remote optimal focus time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1993-01-01

    Twelve observers made best optical focus adjustments to a microscope whose high-resolution pattern was video monitored and displayed first on a National Television System Committee (NTSC) analog color monitor and second on a digitally compressed computer monitor screen at frame rates ranging (in six steps) from 1.5 to 30 frames per second (fps). This was done to determine whether reducing the frame rate affects the image focus. Reducing frame rate has been shown to be an effective and acceptable means of reducing transmission bandwidth of dynamic video imagery sent from Space Station Freedom (SSF) to ground scientists. Three responses were recorded per trial: time to complete the focus adjustment, number of changes of focus direction, and subjective rating of final image quality. It was found that: the average time to complete the focus setting increases from 4.5 sec at 30 fps to 7.9 sec at 1.5 fps (statistical probability = 1.2 x 10(exp -7)); there is no significant difference in the number of changes in the direction of focus adjustment across these frame rates; and there is no significant change in subjectively determined final image quality across these frame rates. These data can be used to help pre-plan future remote optical-focus operations on SSF.

  13. Pepperweed invasion increases nitrogen cycling rates in irrigated grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portier, E. F.; Yang, W. H.; Silver, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    Pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium) is a perennial exotic species that has spread throughout the western United States, invading natural and agricultural systems. Pepperweed has been documented to increase soil microbial enzyme activity associated with nitrogen (N) mineralization, but the effect of pepperweed on soil N cycling has not been determined. The objectives of this study were to determine if (1) pepperweed elevates gross mineralization rates in bulk soil, (2) pepperweed impacts rates of other gross N cycling processes, and (3) N cycling patterns change with soil depth. We used 15N pool dilution and tracer techniques to measure rates of gross N mineralization, gross nitrification, dissimilatory nitrate (NO3-) reduction to ammonium (NH4+) (DNRA), and net N2O fluxes from replicate plots (n = 6 per cover type) dominated by pepperweed versus dominated by an invasive annual grass (Hordenum murinem) with no pepperweed present. Because pepperweed has extensive root systems, we measured gross N cycling rates at three depths (0-20, 20-40, 40-60 cm) to determine pepperweed effects through the soil profile. Soil NH4+ and NO3- concentrations, microbial biomass N (MBN), and gravimetric soil moisture content were also measured at each soil depth. Soil oxygen (O2) concentrations were measured from soil equilibration chambers buried at 10, 30, and 50 cm depth. Pepperweed plots exhibited significantly higher soil NH4+ concentrations, gross mineralization rates, and soil O2 concentrations across all depths (p < 0.05, ANOVAs). Gross nitrification rates, MBN, soil NO3- concentrations, and soil moisture did not differ significantly between pepperweed-dominated and grass-dominated plots. Between the cover types, soil concentrations of NH4+ and O2 as well as rates of mineralization and DNRA were higher in surface soils (0-20 cm) than deeper soils (20-40 and 40-60 cm) (p < 0.05, ANOVAs). Gross mineralization rates in surface soils (0-20 cm) averaged 30.1 ± 4.3 μg g-1 d-1 in grass

  14. An examination of black/white differences in the rate of age-related mortality increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Fenelon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The rate of mortality increase with age among adults is typically used as a measure of the rate of functional decline associated with aging or senescence. While black and white populations differ in the level of mortality, mortality also rises less rapidly with age for blacks than for whites, leading to the well-known black/white mortality "crossover". OBJECTIVE This paper investigates black/white differences in the rate of mortality increase with age for major causes of death in order to examine the factors responsible for the black/white crossover. METHODS The analysis considers two explanations for the crossover: selective survival and age misreporting. Mortality is modeled using a Gompertz model for 11 causes of death from ages 50-84 among blacks and whites by sex. RESULTS Mortality increases more rapidly with age for whites than for blacks for nearly all causes of death considered. The all-cause mortality rate of mortality increase is nearly two percentage points higher for whites. The analysis finds evidence for both selective survival and age misreporting, although age misreporting is a more prominent explanation among women. CONCLUSIONS The black/white mortality crossover reflects large differences in the rate of age-related mortality increase. Instead of reflecting the impact of specific causes of death, this pattern exists across many disparate disease conditions, indicating the need for a broad explanation.

  15. Early case-fatality rates in elderly stroke patients do not increase when age increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehlendorff, Christian; Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2014-10-01

    We studied the association between age and survival after stroke. We particularly focused on deaths that could be attributed to the stroke lesion itself; that is, early death in severe stroke. A registry of all hospitalized stroke patients in Denmark included 93897 patients with information on stroke severity (Scandinavian Stroke Scale [SSS] 0-58), computed tomography, cardiovascular risk, age, sex and fatality within 1 month. Using regression models, we constructed age trajectories of 3-days, 1-week, and 1-month case-fatality rates unadjusted and adjusted for stroke severity, sex, and cardiovascular risk factors for patients with SSS Age-trajectories (SSS age of 75 years. Case-fatality rates then declined (unadjusted model) or leveled off (adjusted model) as age increased. One-week case-fatality increased to the age of 85 years. Case-fatality then leveled off (unadjusted model) or continued to rise (adjusted model) as age increased. One-month case-fatality rates increased throughout the entire lifespan. Age-trajectories (SSS ≥ 25): the leveling off phenomenon was still present for 3-days case-fatality; however, it was less pronounced. Very early stroke case-fatality rates increasing to the age of 75-85 years subsequently leveled off or even declined with increasing age. Advanced age per se should not be seen as a disadvantage in terms of surviving stroke in the very acute phase. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, N.L.; Das, A.J.; Condit, R.; Russo, S.E.; Baker, P.J.; Beckman, N.G.; Coomes, D.A.; Lines, E.R.; Morris, W.K.; Rüger, N.; Álvarez, E.; Blundo, C.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Chuyong, G.; Davies, S.J.; Duque, Á.; Ewango, C.N.; Flores, O.; Franklin, J.F.; Grau, H.R.; Hao, Z.; Harmon, M.E.; Hubbell, S.P.; Kenfack, D.; Lin, Y.; Makana, J.-R.; Malizia, A.; Malizia, L.R.; Pabst, R.J.; Pongpattananurak, N.; Su, S.-H.; Sun, I-F.; Tan, S.; Thomas, D.; van Mantgem, P.J.; Wang, X.; Wiser, S.K.; Zavala, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle—particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage - increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree’s total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to understand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  17. Does Prescription Opioid Shopping Increase Overdose Rates in Medicaid Beneficiaries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Benjamin C; Lupulescu-Mann, Nicoleta; Charlesworth, Christina J; Kim, Hyunjee; Hartung, Daniel M; Deyo, Richard A; McConnell, K John

    2017-11-23

    The link between prescription opioid shopping and overdose events is poorly understood. We test the hypothesis that a history of prescription opioid shopping is associated with increased risk of overdose events. This is a secondary analysis of a linked claims and controlled substance dispense database. We studied adult Medicaid beneficiaries in 2014 with prescription opioid use in the 6 months before an ambulatory care or emergency department visit with a pain-related diagnosis. The primary outcome was a nonfatal overdose event within 6 months of the cohort entry date. The exposure of interest (opioid shopping) was defined as having opioid prescriptions by different prescribers with greater than or equal to 1-day overlap and filled at 3 or more pharmacies in the 6 months before cohort entry. We used a propensity score to match shoppers with nonshoppers in a 1:1 ratio. We calculated the absolute difference in outcome rates between shoppers and nonshoppers. We studied 66,328 patients, including 2,571 opioid shoppers (3.9%). There were 290 patients (0.4%) in the overall cohort who experienced a nonfatal overdose. In unadjusted analyses, shoppers had higher event rates than nonshoppers (rate difference of 4.4 events per 1,000; 95% confidence interval 0.8 to 7.9). After propensity score matching, there were no outcome differences between shoppers and nonshoppers (rate difference of 0.4 events per 1,000; 95% confidence interval -4.7 to 5.5). These findings were robust to various definitions of opioid shoppers and look-back periods. Prescription opioid shopping is not independently associated with increased risk of overdose events. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Settling into an increasingly hostile world: the rapidly closing "recruitment window" for corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Suzanne N; Steneck, Robert S

    2011-01-01

    Free space is necessary for larval recruitment in all marine benthic communities. Settling corals, with limited energy to invest in competitive interactions, are particularly vulnerable during settlement into well-developed coral reef communities. This situation may be exacerbated for corals settling into coral-depauperate reefs where succession in nursery microhabitats moves rapidly toward heterotrophic organisms inhospitable to settling corals. To study effects of benthic organisms (at millimeter to centimeter scales) on newly settled corals and their survivorship we deployed terra-cotta coral settlement plates at 10 m depth on the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef in Belize and monitored them for 38 mo. During the second and third years, annual recruitment rates declined by over 50% from the previous year. Invertebrate crusts (primarily sponges) were absent at the start of the experiment but increased in abundance annually from 39, 60, to 73% of the plate undersides by year three. Subsequently, substrates hospitable to coral recruitment, including crustose coralline algae, biofilmed terra-cotta and polychaete tubes, declined. With succession, substrates upon which spat settled shifted toward organisms inimical to survivorship. Over 50% of spat mortality was due to overgrowth by sponges alone. This result suggests that when a disturbance creates primary substrate a "recruitment window" for settling corals exists from approximately 9 to 14 mo following the disturbance. During the window, early-succession, facilitating species are most abundant. The window closes as organisms hostile to coral settlement and survivorship overgrow nursery microhabitats.

  19. Settling into an increasingly hostile world: the rapidly closing "recruitment window" for corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne N Arnold

    Full Text Available Free space is necessary for larval recruitment in all marine benthic communities. Settling corals, with limited energy to invest in competitive interactions, are particularly vulnerable during settlement into well-developed coral reef communities. This situation may be exacerbated for corals settling into coral-depauperate reefs where succession in nursery microhabitats moves rapidly toward heterotrophic organisms inhospitable to settling corals. To study effects of benthic organisms (at millimeter to centimeter scales on newly settled corals and their survivorship we deployed terra-cotta coral settlement plates at 10 m depth on the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef in Belize and monitored them for 38 mo. During the second and third years, annual recruitment rates declined by over 50% from the previous year. Invertebrate crusts (primarily sponges were absent at the start of the experiment but increased in abundance annually from 39, 60, to 73% of the plate undersides by year three. Subsequently, substrates hospitable to coral recruitment, including crustose coralline algae, biofilmed terra-cotta and polychaete tubes, declined. With succession, substrates upon which spat settled shifted toward organisms inimical to survivorship. Over 50% of spat mortality was due to overgrowth by sponges alone. This result suggests that when a disturbance creates primary substrate a "recruitment window" for settling corals exists from approximately 9 to 14 mo following the disturbance. During the window, early-succession, facilitating species are most abundant. The window closes as organisms hostile to coral settlement and survivorship overgrow nursery microhabitats.

  20. Rapid and stable measurement of respiratory rate from Doppler radar signals using time domain autocorrelation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guanghao; Matsui, Takemi

    2015-01-01

    Noncontact measurement of respiratory rate using Doppler radar will play a vital role in future clinical practice. Doppler radar remotely monitors the tiny chest wall movements induced by respiration activity. The most competitive advantage of this technique is to allow users fully unconstrained with no biological electrode attachments. However, the Doppler radar, unlike other contact-type sensors, is easily affected by the random body movements. In this paper, we proposed a time domain autocorrelation model to process the radar signals for rapid and stable estimation of the respiratory rate. We tested the autocorrelation model on 8 subjects in laboratory, and compared the respiratory rates detected by noncontact radar with reference contact-type respiratory effort belt. Autocorrelation model showed the effects of reducing the random body movement noise added to Doppler radar's respiration signals. Moreover, the respiratory rate can be rapidly calculated from the first main peak in the autocorrelation waveform within 10 s.

  1. Music increases alcohol consumption rate in young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Lorenzo D; Dodd, Hannah

    2013-10-01

    Previous field research has shown that individuals consumed more alcohol and at a faster rate in environments paired with loud music. Theoretically, this effect has been linked to approach/avoidance accounts of how music influences arousal and mood, but no work has tested this experimentally. In the present study, female participants (n = 45) consumed an alcoholic (4% alcohol-by-volume) beverage in one of three contexts: slow tempo music, fast tempo music, or a no-music control. Results revealed that, compared with the control, the beverage was consumed fastest in the two music conditions. Interestingly, whereas arousal and negative mood declined in the control condition, this was not the case for either of the music conditions, suggesting a downregulation of alcohol effects. We additionally found evidence for music to disrupt sensory systems in that, counterintuitively, faster consumption was driven by increases in perceived alcohol strength, which, in turn, predicted lower breath alcohol level (BrAL). These findings suggest a unique interaction of music environment and psychoactive effects of alcohol itself on consumption rate. Because alcohol consumed at a faster rate induces greater intoxication, these findings have implications for applied and theoretical work. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Rapid estimation of glucosinolate thermal degradation rate constants in leaves of Chinese kale and broccoli (Brassica oleracea) in two seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Kristin; Verkerk, Ruud; Bonnema, Guusje; Dekker, Matthijs

    2012-08-15

    Kinetic modeling was used as a tool to quantitatively estimate glucosinolate thermal degradation rate constants. Literature shows that thermal degradation rates differ in different vegetables. Well-characterized plant material, leaves of broccoli and Chinese kale plants grown in two seasons, was used in the study. It was shown that a first-order reaction is appropriate to model glucosinolate degradation independent from the season. No difference in degradation rate constants of structurally identical glucosinolates was found between broccoli and Chinese kale leaves when grown in the same season. However, glucosinolate degradation rate constants were highly affected by the season (20-80% increase in spring compared to autumn). These results suggest that differences in glucosinolate degradation rate constants can be due to variation in environmental as well as genetic factors. Furthermore, a methodology to estimate rate constants rapidly is provided to enable the analysis of high sample numbers for future studies.

  3. Salamander growth rates increase along an experimental stream phosphorus gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumpers, Phillip M; Maerz, John C; Rosemond, Amy D; Benstead, Jonathan P

    2015-11-01

    Nutrient-driven perturbations to the resource base of food webs are predicted to attenuate with trophic distance, so it is unclear whether higher-level consumers will generally respond to anthropogenic nutrient loading. Few studies have tested whether nutrient (specifically, nitrogen [N] and phosphorus [P]) enrichment of aquatic ecosystems propagates through multiple trophic levels to affect predators, or whether N vs. P is relatively more important in driving effects on food webs. We conducted two-year whole-stream N and P additions to five streams to generate gradients in N and P concentration and N:P ratio (target N:P = 2, 8, 16, 32, 128). Larval salamanders are vertebrate predators of primary and secondary macroinvertebrate consumers in many heterotrophic headwater streams in which the basal resources are detritus and associated microorganisms. We determined the effects of N and P on the growth rates of caged and free-roaming larval Desmognathus quadramaculatus and the average body size of larval Eurycea wilderae. Growth rates and average body size increased by up to 40% and 60%, respectively, with P concentration and were negatively related to N:P ratio. These findings were consistent across both species of salamanders using different methodologies (cage vs. free-roaming) and at different temporal scales (3 months vs. 2 yr). Nitrogen concentration was not significantly related to increased growth rate or body size of the salamander species tested. Our findings suggest that salamander growth responds to the relaxation of ecosystem-level P limitation and that moderate P enrichment can have relatively large effects on vertebrate predators in detritus-based food webs.

  4. [Improvement strategy to increase vaccination rates in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggendorf, H; Freynik, P; Hofmann, F

    2011-08-01

    Vaccination rates in adolescents in Germany are not sufficient. An intervention programme, which has been launched by the community health centre in Essen, should significantly increase vaccination coverage. In 2001 the Children and Youth Health Service at the Community Health Centre in Essen implemented a specific strategy to improve vaccination rates in adolescents. Vaccination rates were determined by control of vaccination certificates of all 6 (th) graders in Essen (n=5 589). After control of vaccination records the parents got a written, individual vaccination counselling for their child as well as a referral to the paediatrician to get the missing vaccinations. After 6 months the vaccination certificates were looked at again and vaccination coverage was determined. At the initial vaccination record control of 6 (th) graders in 2001 only 15% of the students, who presented their vaccination certificate, had an appropriate age related immunisation status. 84% of the students had had the tetanus/diphtheria and polio booster. But only 43% had been given a second measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) immunisation and only 24% had a complete hepatitis B coverage. The intervention programme (e. g., individual vaccination counselling) improved vaccination rates for hepatitis B and MMR by 16%. From 2001 to 2008 vaccination coverage in this age group could be improved from 43% to 87% for the second MMR vaccination and from 24% to 85% for hepatitis B. A remarkable improvement in vaccination coverage in children and adolescents could be achieved by a single, individual, written vaccination reminder. As a prerequisite a good cooperation between schools/paediatricians and the health authorities is needed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Determination of rapid chlorination rate constants by a stopped-flow spectrophotometric competition kinetics method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dean; Liu, Huijuan; Qiang, Zhimin; Qu, Jiuhui

    2014-05-15

    Free chlorine is extensively used for water and wastewater disinfection nowadays. However, it still remains a big challenge to determine the rate constants of rapid chlorination reactions although competition kinetics and stopped-flow spectrophotometric (SFS) methods have been employed individually to investigate fast reaction kinetics. In this work, we proposed an SFS competition kinetics method to determine the rapid chlorination rate constants by using a common colorimetric reagent, N,N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPD), as a reference probe. A kinetic equation was first derived to estimate the reaction rate constant of DPD towards chlorine under a given pH and temperature condition. Then, on that basis, an SFS competition kinetics method was proposed to determine directly the chlorination rate constants of several representative compounds including tetracycline, ammonia, and four α-amino acids. Although Cl2O is more reactive than HOCl, its contribution to the overall chlorination kinetics of the test compounds could be neglected in this study. Finally, the developed method was validated through comparing the experimentally measured chlorination rate constants of the selected compounds with those obtained or calculated from literature and analyzing with Taft's correlation as well. This study demonstrates that the SFS competition kinetics method can measure the chlorination rate constants of a test compound rapidly and accurately. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapid Enhancement in General Relativistic Precession Rates due to Kozai Mechanism in Solar System Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, Aswin; Asher, David; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Werner, Stephanie; Vaubaillon, Jeremie; Li, Gongjie

    2017-06-01

    Two well known phenomena in orbital dynamics associated with low perihelion distance bodies are general relativistic (GR) precession and Lidov-Kozai (LK) oscillations.In this work, we are interested to identify bodies evolving in the near future (i.e. thousands of years in this case) into rapid sungrazing and sun colliding phases and undergoing inclination flips, due to LK like oscillations and being GR active at the same time. We find that LK mechanism leads to secular lowering of perihelion distance which in turn leads to a huge increase in GR precession of the argument of pericentre depending on the initial orbital elements. This in turn gives feedback to the LK mechanism as the eccentricity, inclination and argument of pericentre in Kozai cycles are closely correlated. In this work, we find real examples of solar system bodies which show rapid enhancement in GR precession rates due to LK like oscillations and there are cases where GR precession rate peaks to about 60 times that of the GR precession of Mercury thus showing the strength and complementary nature between these two dynamical phenomena.An analytical treatment is done on few bodies to understand the difference in their orbital evolution in the context of LK mechanism with and without GR precession term by incorporating suitable Hamiltonian dynamics. This result is subsequently matched using numerical integrations to find direct correlations. Real solar system bodies showing both GR precession and LK like oscillations are identified using compiled observational records from IAU-Minor Planet Center, Cometary Catalogue, IAU-Meteor Data Center and performing analytical plus numerical tests on them. This intermediate state (where GR and LK effects are comparable and co-exist) brings up the interesting possibility of drastic changes in GR precession rates during orbital evolution due to sungrazing and sun colliding phases induced by the LK like mechanism, thus combining both these important effects in a

  7. Effect of increasing mining rate on longwall coal mining – Western donbass case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sdvyzhkova Olena

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the problems associated with the rapid change of the rock stress-strain state in terms of increasing the rate of coal mining. Parameters of the roof collapse are determined depending on the rate of a longwall advancing under conditions of poor rocks. Statistical data are processed to obtain a general trend concerning the mining rate impact on the roof collapse. The statistical strength theory is applied to explain the increase in mined-out space and the size of hanging roof behind a coal face. Numerical simulation is carried out to determine a critical size of mined-out space that provokes a roof collapse. The area of yielded rocks is outlined using the criterion developed taking into account the rate of longwall advancing. A general regularity is obtained to determine the roof collapse parameters. The developed technics gives a possibility to predict the moment of general roof collapse at the initial stage of longwalling to prevent the negative effect of the rapid stress redistribution provoking joints propagation and intensive gas release. The estimation of the rock stress-strain state considering the rate of mining operations can be useful for tasks related to a new technology implementation. The statistical strength theory and failure criterion applied together provides adequate planning of mining activities and the assessment of natural hazards.

  8. Baicalin prevents Candida albicans infections via increasing its apoptosis rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shulong; Fu, Yingyuan, E-mail: yingyuanfu@126.com; Wu, Xiuzhen; Zhou, Zhixing; Xu, Jing; Zeng, Xiaoping; Kuang, Nanzhen; Zeng, Yurong

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Baicalin increases the ratio of the G0/G1 stages and C. albicans apoptosis. • Baicalin decreases the proliferation index of C. albicans. • Baicalin inhibits the biosynthesis of DNA, RNA and protein in C. albicans. • Baicalin depresses Succinate Dehydrogenase and Ca{sup 2+}–Mg{sup 2+} ATPase in C. albicans. • Baicalin increases the endocytic free Ca{sup 2+} concentration in C. albicans. - Abstract: Background: These experiments were employed to explore the mechanisms underlying baicalin action on Candida albicans. Methodology and principal findings: We detected the baicalin inhibition effects on three isotope-labeled precursors of {sup 3}H-UdR, {sup 3}H-TdR and {sup 3}H-leucine incorporation into C. albicans using the isotope incorporation technology. The activities of Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH), cytochrome oxidase (CCO) and Ca{sup 2+}–Mg{sup 2+} ATPase, cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} concentration, the cell cycle and apoptosis, as well as the ultrastructure of C.albicans were also tested. We found that baicalin inhibited {sup 3}H-UdR, {sup 3}H-TdR and {sup 3}H-leucine incorporation into C.albicans (P < 0.005). The activities of the SDH and Ca{sup 2+}–Mg{sup 2+} ATPase of C.albicans in baicalin groups were lower than those in control group (P < 0.05). Ca{sup 2+} concentrations of C. albicans in baicalin groups were much higher than those in control group (P < 0.05). The ratio of C.albicans at the G0/G1 stage increased in baicalin groups in dose dependent manner (P < 0.01). There were a significant differences in the apoptosis rate of C.albicans between baicalin and control groups (P < 0.01). After 12–48 h incubation with baicalin (1 mg/ml), C. albicans shown to be markedly damaged under transmission electron micrographs. Innovation and significance: Baicalin can increase the apoptosis rate of C. albicans. These effects of Baicalin may involved in its inhibiting the activities of the SDH and Ca{sup 2+}–Mg{sup 2+} ATPase, increasing

  9. Increasing the rate of recycled asphalt: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan TUŠAR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Asphalt is material that can be recycled. In particular reclaimed asphalt (RA contains aged binder, which limits the reuse of RA. In this study the rate of recycled asphalt was increased by adding a rejuvenator containing paraffin. The authors investigated the effect of the rejuvenator in laboratory and in plant prepared samples of asphalt mixture. In laboratory samples with different percentage of RA (0%, 10%, 30%, 50% and rejuvenator were prepared. In asphalt plant only asphalt mixture with highest amount of RA and rejuvenator and control mixture without RA were prepared. On samples were conducted different tests, e.g. determining softening point, Fraass breaking point, penetration, indirect tensile strength. Results on extracted bitumen showed increase in softening point and decrease in Fraass breaking point with increasing percentage of RA and rejuvenator, meaning that service temperature of binders increased. Asphalt samples prepared in asphalt plant were laid on test field. Asphalt with RA and rejuvenator was built in at lower temperature (round 100 °C. Mixtures with RA and rejuvenator have better low temperature properties confirmed with Thermal Stress Restrained Specimen Test (TSRST method, but are less resistant to compaction and less sensitive to water than control mixture. For comparison of long term behaviour wheel tracking test was performed on mixtures built in test field. A week after paving, the control mixture showed better properties, but one year later the results were opposite, asphalt containing RA and rejuvenator was more resistant to rutting. From the results of this experimental study the following was concluded: the amount of RA can be increased by using rejuvenator and the quality of such asphalt mixture is in most cases equal or even better than asphalt mixture made of virgin materials. By using RA we preserve nature, reduce usage of virgin raw materials, but it is cost effective only if recycling degree is high

  10. [Do antidepressants really increase suicide rates in childhood and adolescence?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Hernán; Martínez, Juan Carlos

    2007-09-01

    The use of antidepressant in depressive illness results in a reduction of suicidal attempts and deaths due to suicide, conditions that are generally present in this disorder. Recently, the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) prohibited the use of antidepressants during childhood and adolescence. This decision was based on a supposed increase in suicidal thinking in these age groups. However, the evidence came from flawed clinical studies, some of them not even published, in which no significant differences were observed when compared to placebo. It is not possible to ascribe a direct responsibility to antidepressants, because depression, by definition, has suicidal ideation. On the contrary, the reduction of suicidal rates supports the effectiveness of these medications.

  11. Rapidly increasing body mass index among children, adolescents and young adults in a transitioning population, South Africa, 2008-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, B; Sartorius, K; Taylor, M; Aagaard-Hansen, J; Dukhi, N; Day, C; Ndlovu, N; Slotow, R; Hofman, K

    2017-12-14

    There is a global epidemic of overweight and obesity; however, this rate of increase is even greater in some low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). South Africa (SA) is undergoing rapid socioeconomic and demographic changes that have triggered a rapid nutrition transition. The paper focuses on the recent rate of change of body mass index (BMI) among children, adolescents and young adults, further stratified by key sociodemographic factors. We analysed mean BMI of 28 247 individuals (including children) from 7301 households by age and year, from anthropometric data from four national cross-sectional (repeated panel) surveys using non-linear fitted curves and associated 95% confidence intervals. From 2008 to 2015, there was rapid rise in mean BMI in the 6-25 age band, with the highest risk (3-4+ BMI unit increase) among children aged 8-10 years. The increase was largely among females in urban areas and of middle-high socioeconomic standing. Prominent gains were also observed in certain rural areas, with extensive geographical heterogeneity across the country. We have demonstrated a major deviation from the current understanding of patterns of BMI increase, with a rate of increase substantially greater in the developing world context compared with the global pattern. This population-wide effect will have major consequences for national development as the epidemic of related non-communicable disease unfolds, and will overtax the national health care budget. Our refined understanding highlights that risks are further compounded for certain groups/places, and emphasizes that urgent geographical and population-targeted interventions are necessary. These interventions could include a sugar tax, clearer food labelling, revised school feeding programmes and mandatory bans on unhealthy food marketing to children.The scenario unfolding in South Africa will likely be followed in other LMICs.

  12. Social marketing as a strategy to increase immunization rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opel, Douglas J; Diekema, Douglas S; Lee, Nancy R; Marcuse, Edgar K

    2009-05-01

    Today in the United States, outbreaks of vaccine-preventable disease are often traced to susceptible children whose parents have claimed an exemption from school or child care immunization regulations. The origins of this immunization hesitancy and resistance have roots in the decline of the threat of vaccine-preventable disease coupled with an increase in concerns about the adverse effects of vaccines, the emergence of mass media and the Internet, and the intrinsic limitations of modern medicine. Appeals to emotion have drowned out thoughtful discussion in public forums, and overall, public trust in immunizations has declined. We present an often overlooked behavior change strategy-social marketing-as a way to improve immunization rates by addressing the important roots of immunization hesitancy and effectively engaging emotions. As an example, we provide a synopsis of a social marketing campaign that is currently in development in Washington state and that is aimed at increasing timely immunizations in children from birth to age 24 months.

  13. Increasing fMRI sampling rate improves Granger causality estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fa-Hsuan Lin

    Full Text Available Estimation of causal interactions between brain areas is necessary for elucidating large-scale functional brain networks underlying behavior and cognition. Granger causality analysis of time series data can quantitatively estimate directional information flow between brain regions. Here, we show that such estimates are significantly improved when the temporal sampling rate of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is increased 20-fold. Specifically, healthy volunteers performed a simple visuomotor task during blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD contrast based whole-head inverse imaging (InI. Granger causality analysis based on raw InI BOLD data sampled at 100-ms resolution detected the expected causal relations, whereas when the data were downsampled to the temporal resolution of 2 s typically used in echo-planar fMRI, the causality could not be detected. An additional control analysis, in which we SINC interpolated additional data points to the downsampled time series at 0.1-s intervals, confirmed that the improvements achieved with the real InI data were not explainable by the increased time-series length alone. We therefore conclude that the high-temporal resolution of InI improves the Granger causality connectivity analysis of the human brain.

  14. Accessible surfaces of beta proteins increase with increasing protein molecular mass more rapidly than those of other proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V Glyakina

    Full Text Available Here we present a systematic analysis of accessible surface areas and hydrogen bonds of 2554 globular proteins from four structural classes (all-α, all-β, α/β and α+β proteins that is aimed to learn in which structural class the accessible surface area increases with increasing protein molecular mass more rapidly than in other classes, and what structural peculiarities are responsible for this effect. The beta structural class of proteins was found to be the leader, with the following possible explanations of this fact. First, in beta structural proteins, the fraction of residues not included in the regular secondary structure is the largest, and second, the accessible surface area of packaged elements of the beta-structure increases more rapidly with increasing molecular mass in comparison with the alpha-structure. Moreover, in the beta structure, the probability of formation of backbone hydrogen bonds is higher than that in the alpha helix for all residues of α+β proteins (the average probability is 0.73±0.01 for the beta-structure and 0.60±0.01 for the alpha-structure without proline and α/β proteins, except for asparagine, aspartic acid, glycine, threonine, and serine (0.70±0.01 for the beta-structure and 0.60±0.01 for the alpha-structure without the proline residue. There is a linear relationship between the number of hydrogen bonds and the number of amino acid residues in the protein (Number of hydrogen bonds=0.678·number of residues-3.350.

  15. Collateral damage: rapid exposure-induced evolution of pesticide resistance leads to increased susceptibility to parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Mieke; Stoks, Robby; Coors, Anja; van Doorslaer, Wendy; de Meester, Luc

    2011-09-01

    Although natural populations may evolve resistance to anthropogenic stressors such as pollutants, this evolved resistance may carry costs. Using an experimental evolution approach, we exposed different Daphnia magna populations in outdoor containers to the carbamate pesticide carbaryl and control conditions, and assessed the resulting populations for both their resistance to carbaryl as well as their susceptibility to infection by the widespread bacterial microparasite Pasteuria ramosa. Our results show that carbaryl selection led to rapid evolution of carbaryl resistance with seemingly no cost when assessed in a benign environment. However, carbaryl-resistant populations were more susceptible to parasite infection than control populations. Exposure to both stressors reveals a synergistic effect on sterilization rate by P. ramosa, but this synergism did not evolve under pesticide selection. Assessing costs of rapid adaptive evolution to anthropogenic stress in a semi-natural context may be crucial to avoid too optimistic predictions for the fitness of the evolving populations. © 2011 The Author(s).

  16. Rapid prediction of long-term rates of contaminant desorption from soils and sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M D; Weber, W J

    2001-01-15

    A method using heated and superheated (subcritical) water is described for rapid prediction of long-term desorption rates from contaminated geosorbents. Rates of contaminant release are measured at temperatures between 75 and 150 degrees C using a dynamic water desorption technique. The subcritical desorption rate data are then modeled to calculate apparent activation energies, and these activation energies are used to predict desorption behaviors at any desired ambient temperature. Predictions of long-term release rates based on this methodology were found to correlate well with experimental 25 degrees C desorption data measured over periods of up to 640 days, even though the 25 degrees C desorption rates were observed to vary by up to 2 orders of magnitude for different geosorbent types and initial solid phase contaminant loading levels. Desorption profiles measured under elevated temperature and pressure conditions closely matched those at 25 degrees C and ambient pressure, but the time scales associated with the high-temperature measurements were up to 3 orders of magnitude lower. The subcritical water technique rapidly estimates rates of desorption-resistant contaminant release as well as those for more labile substances. The practical implications of the methodology are significant because desorption observed under field conditions and ambient temperatures typically proceeds over periods of months or years, while the high temperature experiments used for prediction of such field desorption phenomena can be completed within periods of only hours or days.

  17. What implementation interventions increase cancer screening rates? a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lent Barbara

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate screening may reduce the mortality and morbidity of colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers. However, effective implementation strategies are warranted if the full benefits of screening are to be realized. As part of a larger agenda to create an implementation guideline, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate interventions designed to increase the rate of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer (CRC screening. The interventions considered were: client reminders, client incentives, mass media, small media, group education, one-on-one education, reduction in structural barriers, reduction in out-of-pocket costs, provider assessment and feedback interventions, and provider incentives. Our primary outcome, screening completion, was calculated as the overall median post-intervention absolute percentage point (PP change in completed screening tests. Methods Our first step was to conduct an iterative scoping review in the research area. This yielded three relevant high-quality systematic reviews. Serving as our evidentiary foundation, we conducted a formal update. Randomized controlled trials and cluster randomized controlled trials, published between 2004 and 2010, were searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE and PSYCHinfo. Results The update yielded 66 studies new eligible studies with 74 comparisons. The new studies ranged considerably in quality. Client reminders, small media, and provider audit and feedback appear to be effective interventions to increase the uptake of screening for three cancers. One-on-one education and reduction of structural barriers also appears effective, but their roles with CRC and cervical screening, respectively, are less established. More study is required to assess client incentives, mass media, group education, reduction of out-of-pocket costs, and provider incentive interventions. Conclusion The new evidence generally aligns with the evidence and conclusions from the original systematic

  18. What implementation interventions increase cancer screening rates? a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, Melissa C; De Vito, Carol; Bahirathan, Lavannya; Carol, Angela; Carroll, June C; Cotterchio, Michelle; Dobbins, Maureen; Lent, Barbara; Levitt, Cheryl; Lewis, Nancy; McGregor, S Elizabeth; Paszat, Lawrence; Rand, Carol; Wathen, Nadine

    2011-09-29

    Appropriate screening may reduce the mortality and morbidity of colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers. However, effective implementation strategies are warranted if the full benefits of screening are to be realized. As part of a larger agenda to create an implementation guideline, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate interventions designed to increase the rate of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. The interventions considered were: client reminders, client incentives, mass media, small media, group education, one-on-one education, reduction in structural barriers, reduction in out-of-pocket costs, provider assessment and feedback interventions, and provider incentives. Our primary outcome, screening completion, was calculated as the overall median post-intervention absolute percentage point (PP) change in completed screening tests. Our first step was to conduct an iterative scoping review in the research area. This yielded three relevant high-quality systematic reviews. Serving as our evidentiary foundation, we conducted a formal update. Randomized controlled trials and cluster randomized controlled trials, published between 2004 and 2010, were searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE and PSYCHinfo. The update yielded 66 studies new eligible studies with 74 comparisons. The new studies ranged considerably in quality. Client reminders, small media, and provider audit and feedback appear to be effective interventions to increase the uptake of screening for three cancers. One-on-one education and reduction of structural barriers also appears effective, but their roles with CRC and cervical screening, respectively, are less established. More study is required to assess client incentives, mass media, group education, reduction of out-of-pocket costs, and provider incentive interventions. The new evidence generally aligns with the evidence and conclusions from the original systematic reviews. This review served as the evidentiary foundation for an

  19. Explaining the Rapid Increase in Nigeria's Sex Ratio at Birth: Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    This paper examines the rapid increase in Nigeria's sex ratio at birth from 1.03 boys born for every 1 girl born in each year from. 1996-2008 to 1.06 in each year from 2009-2014, second only to Tunisia in Africa at 1.07. The average sex ratio at birth in the world in 2014 was 1.07. In most Black African nations or Black majority ...

  20. Tolerance to the rate-increasing and not rate-decreasing effects of pregnanolone in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppolito, Amy K; Gerak, Lisa R

    2010-12-01

    Chronic treatment with benzodiazepines, which positively modulate γ-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptors, can lead to the development of tolerance. Similar effects might also occur during chronic treatment with positive modulators acting at other sites on GABAA receptors (e.g. neuroactive steroids). In this study, tolerance and cross tolerance were examined in seven rats treated daily with the neuroactive steroid pregnanolone (25.6 mg/kg/day) and responding under a fixed ratio 10 schedule of food presentation. Dose-effect curves were determined for positive GABAA modulators (pregnanolone, flunitrazepam, midazolam, and pentobarbital), and other drugs (ketamine and morphine) before, during, and after chronic treatment. Initially, daily pregnanolone administration increased responding; although tolerance developed to the rate-increasing effects after 14 weeks, tolerance did not develop to the rate-decreasing effects. The potencies of pregnanolone, midazolam, and morphine to decrease responding did not change during treatment, whereas flunitrazepam was more potent and pentobarbital and ketamine were less potent during treatment as compared to before treatment. Pregnanolone and midazolam were more potent after treatment than before treatment. The development of tolerance to the rate-increasing effects of pregnanolone indicates that neuroadaptations occur during chronic treatment; the fact that tolerance develops to only some effects suggests that the behavioral consequences of these neuroadaptations are limited.

  1. Novel ultra-rapid freezing particle engineering process for enhancement of dissolution rates of poorly water-soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overhoff, Kirk A; Engstrom, Josh D; Chen, Bo; Scherzer, Brian D; Milner, Thomas E; Johnston, Keith P; Williams, Robert O

    2007-01-01

    An ultra-rapid freezing (URF) technology has been developed to produce high surface area powders composed of solid solutions of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and a polymer stabilizer. A solution of API and polymer excipient(s) is spread on a cold solid surface to form a thin film that freezes in 50 ms to 1s. This study provides an understanding of how the solvent's physical properties and the thin film geometry influence the freezing rate and consequently the final physico-chemical properties of URF-processed powders. Theoretical calculations of heat transfer rates are shown to be in agreement with infrared images with 10ms resolution. Danazol (DAN)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) powders, produced from both acetonitrile (ACN) and tert-butanol (T-BUT) as the solvent, were amorphous with high surface areas (approximately 28-30 m2/g) and enhanced dissolution rates. However, differences in surface morphology were observed and attributed to the cooling rate (film thickness) as predicted by the model. Relative to spray-freezing processes that use liquid nitrogen, URF also offers fast heat transfer rates as a result of the intimate contact between the solution and cold solid surface, but without the complexity of cryogen evaporation (Leidenfrost effect). The ability to produce amorphous high surface area powders with submicron primary particles with a simple ultra-rapid freezing process is of practical interest in particle engineering to increase dissolution rates, and ultimately bioavailability.

  2. Effect of the rate of temperature increase on water quality during heating in electromagnetic- and gas-heated pans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Ken

    2004-04-01

    More rapid increases in the pH value and hardness during electromagnetic heating of a pan of water were observed than when the pan was heated by LNG or LPG. The water quality changed universally in several tap water samples across Japan. This quality change was closely correlated with the rate of temperature increase, irrespective of heating by electromagnetic induction, LNG or LPG.

  3. Rapid Adjustments Cause Weak Surface Temperature Response to Increased Black Carbon Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stjern, Camilla Weum; Samset, Bjørn Hallvard; Myhre, Gunnar; Forster, Piers M.; Hodnebrog, Øivind; Andrews, Timothy; Boucher, Olivier; Faluvegi, Gregory; Iversen, Trond; Kasoar, Matthew; Kharin, Viatcheslav; Kirkevâg, Alf; Lamarque, Jean-François; Olivié, Dirk; Richardson, Thomas; Shawki, Dilshad; Shindell, Drew; Smith, Christopher J.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Voulgarakis, Apostolos

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the climate response to increased concentrations of black carbon (BC), as part of the Precipitation Driver Response Model Intercomparison Project (PDRMIP). A tenfold increase in BC is simulated by nine global coupled-climate models, producing a model median effective radiative forcing of 0.82 (ranging from 0.41 to 2.91) W m-2, and a warming of 0.67 (0.16 to 1.66) K globally and 1.24 (0.26 to 4.31) K in the Arctic. A strong positive instantaneous radiative forcing (median of 2.10 W m-2 based on five of the models) is countered by negative rapid adjustments (-0.64 W m-2 for the same five models), which dampen the total surface temperature signal. Unlike other drivers of climate change, the response of temperature and cloud profiles to the BC forcing is dominated by rapid adjustments. Low-level cloud amounts increase for all models, while higher-level clouds are diminished. The rapid temperature response is particularly strong above 400 hPa, where increased atmospheric stabilization and reduced cloud cover contrast the response pattern of the other drivers. In conclusion, we find that this substantial increase in BC concentrations does have considerable impacts on important aspects of the climate system. However, some of these effects tend to offset one another, leaving a relatively small median global warming of 0.47 K per W m-2—about 20% lower than the response to a doubling of CO2. Translating the tenfold increase in BC to the present-day impact of anthropogenic BC (given the emissions used in this work) would leave a warming of merely 0.07 K.

  4. Increased use of antidepressants and decreasing suicide rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Canudas-Romo, V; Conwell, Y

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to examine if the change in the suicide rate is associated with individuals' use of antidepressants as has been suggested by ecological studies. DESIGN: Decomposition of suicide rates by antidepressant treatment group. SETTING: Population......-based record linkage. PARTICIPANTS: All individuals aged 50 years and older living in Denmark between 1 January 1996 and 31 December 2000 (N = 2,100,808). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Suicide rates are calculated according to current antidepressant treatment status (no treatment, tricyclic antidepressants (TCA......), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), other antidepressants). The change in the suicide rate during 1996-2000 was decomposed by treatment group. RESULTS: Only one in five older adults dying by suicide was in treatment at the time of death. Whereas the male suicide rate declined by 9.7 suicides per...

  5. Scopolamine rapidly increases mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling, synaptogenesis, and antidepressant behavioral responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voleti, Bhavya; Navarria, Andrea; Liu, Rong-Jian; Banasr, Mounira; Li, Nanxin; Terwilliger, Rose; Sanacora, Gerard; Eid, Tore; Aghajanian, George; Duman, Ronald S

    2013-11-15

    Clinical studies report that scopolamine, an acetylcholine muscarinic receptor antagonist, produces rapid antidepressant effects in depressed patients, but the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic response have not been determined. The present study examines the role of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and synaptogenesis, which have been implicated in the rapid actions of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists. The influence of scopolamine on mTORC1 signaling was determined by analysis of the phosphorylated and activated forms of mTORC1 signaling proteins in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The numbers and function of spine synapses were analyzed by whole cell patch clamp recording and two-photon image analysis of PFC neurons. The actions of scopolamine were examined in the forced swim test in the absence or presence of selective mTORC1 and glutamate receptor inhibitors. The results demonstrate that a single, low dose of scopolamine rapidly increases mTORC1 signaling and the number and function of spine synapses in layer V pyramidal neurons in the PFC. Scopolamine administration also produces an antidepressant response in the forced swim test that is blocked by pretreatment with the mTORC1 inhibitor or by a glutamate alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor antagonist. Taken together, the results demonstrate that the antidepressant actions of scopolamine require mTORC1 signaling and are associated with increased glutamate transmission, and synaptogenesis, similar to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists. These findings provide novel targets for safer and more efficacious rapid-acting antidepressant agents. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry.

  6. Performance based regulation: a strategy to increase breastfeeding rates

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Cobo-Armijo; Sofía Charvel; Mauricio Hernández-Ávila

    2017-01-01

    The decreasing breastfeeding rate in México is of public health concern. In this paper we discus an innovative regulatory ap­proach -Performance Based Regulation- and its application to improve breastfeeding rates. This approach, forces industry to take responsibility for the lack of breastfeeding and its consequences. Failure to comply with this targets results in financial penalties. Applying performance based regulation as a strategy to improve breastfeeding is feasible because: the breast...

  7. Peak heart rate decreases with increasing severity of acute hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Araoz, M; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the degree to which peak heart rate is reduced during exhaustive exercise in acute hypoxia. Five sea-level lowlanders performed maximal exercise at normobaric normoxia and at three different levels of hypobaric hypoxia (barometric pressures of 518......, 459, and 404 mmHg) in a hypobaric chamber and while breathing 9% O(2) in N(2). These conditions were equivalent to altitudes of 3300, 4300, 5300, and 6300 m above sea level, respectively. At 4300 m, maximal exercise was also repeated after 4 and 8 h. Peak heart rate (HR) decreased from 191 (182...

  8. Rapid increases in training load affects markers of skeletal muscle damage and mechanical performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Snieckus, Audrius; Venckunas, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    a program involving a rapid stepwise increase in the number of jumps, drop height, and squat depth, and the addition of weight. Concentric, isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and stimulated knee extension torque were measured before and 10 min after each session. Muscle soreness and plasma...... creatine kinase activity were assessed after each session. Steep increments in stretch-shortening exercise load in sessions 4 and 7 amplified the postexercise decrease in stimulated muscle torque and slightly increased muscle soreness but had a minimal effect on the recovery of MVC and stimulated torque......The aim of the present study was to monitor the changes in indirect markers of muscle damage during 3 weeks (nine training sessions) of stretch-shortening (drop jump) exercise with constant load alternated with steep increases in load. Physically active men (n = 9, mean age 19.1 years) performed...

  9. Controlled precipitation for enhanced dissolution rate of flurbiprofen: development of rapidly disintegrating tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, Ebtessam A; Elmarakby, Amira O; Donia, Ahmed M A; El Maghraby, Gamal M

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of controlled precipitation of flurbiprofen on solid surface, in the presence or absence of hydrophilic polymers, as a tool for enhanced dissolution rate of the drug. The work was extended to develop rapidly disintegrated tablets. This strategy provides simple technique for dissolution enhancement of slowly dissolving drugs with high scaling up potential. Aerosil was dispersed in ethanolic solution of flurbiprofen in the presence and absence of hydrophilic polymers. Acidified water was added as antisolvent to produce controlled precipitation. The resultant particles were centrifuged and dried at ambient temperature before monitoring the dissolution pattern. The particles were also subjected to FTIR spectroscopic, X-ray diffraction and thermal analyses. The FTIR spectroscopy excluded any interaction between flurbiprofen and excipients. The thermal analysis reflected possible change in the crystalline structure and or crystal size of the drug after controlled precipitation in the presence of hydrophilic polymers. This was further confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The modulation in the crystalline structure and size was associated with a significant enhancement in the dissolution rate of flurbiprofen. Optimum formulations were successfully formulated as rapidly disintegrating tablet with subsequent fast dissolution. Precipitation on a large solid surface area is a promising strategy for enhanced dissolution rate with the presence of hydrophilic polymers during precipitation process improving the efficiency.

  10. 76 FR 29963 - Rate Increase Disclosure and Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... significantly due to lack of ] regulation and noted the importance of such coverage to children. Response: We... below 10 percent could be problematic from an actuarial perspective; and (3) a threshold designed to be... different products. Response: Our understanding is that some States review rate filings at a product level...

  11. Assessing Metabolic Syndrome Through Increased Heart Rate During Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Gharipour, Mojgan; Nezafati, Pouya; Shafie, Davood; Aghababaei, Esmaeil; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to assess changes in resting and maximum heart rates as primary indicators of cardiac autonomic function in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients and to determine their value for discriminating MetS from non-MetS. 468 participants were enrolled in this cross-sectional study and assessed according to the updated adult treatment panel III (ATP-III) definition of MetS. Resting and maximum heart rates were recorded following the Bruce protocol during an exercise. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to identify the best cutoff point for discriminating MetS from the non-MetS state. 194 participants (41.5%) were diagnosed as MetS. The mean resting heart rate (RHR) was not statistically different between the two groups (P=0.078). However, the mean maximum heart (MHR) rate was considerably higher in participants with MetS (142.37±14.84 beats per min) compared to the non-MetS group (134.62±21.63 beats per min) (Pgroup, the MHR was positively correlated with the serum triglyceride level (β=0.185, P=0.033) and was inversely associated with age (β=-0.469, Page. Moreover, MHR can be used as a suspicious indicator for identifying MetS.

  12. Increased heart rate variability but normal resting metabolic rate in hypocretin/orexin-deficient human narcolepsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fronczek, R.; Overeem, S.; Reijntjes, R.; Lammers, G.J.; Dijk, J.G.M.; Pijl, H.

    2008-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: We investigated autonomic balance and resting metabolic rate to explore their possible involvement in obesity in hypocretin/orexin-deficient narcoleptic subjects. METHODS: Resting metabolic rate (using indirect calorimetry) and variability in heart rate and blood pressure were

  13. Maximal rate of increase in heart rate during the rest-exercise transition tracks reductions in exercise performance when training load is increased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Maximillian J; Thomson, Rebecca L; Rogers, Daniel K; Howe, Peter R C; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate kinetics are faster in well-trained athletes at exercise onset, indicating sensitivity to training status, but whether they track performance changes due to changes in training load is unknown. Randomised, counterbalanced, cross-over. 17 cyclists completed two weeks of light and two weeks of heavy training. The day after each training period heart rate was recorded during 5 min cycling at 100 W to determine the maximal rate of heart rate increase. Participants then performed a 5 min cycle time-trial after which heart rate recovery was determined. Work during 5 min cycle time-trial decreased 3.5% (Ptraining load (completed light training then heavy training) and, although maximal rate of heart rate increase did not change (P=0.27), within-individual changes in work were correlated with changes in maximal rate of heart rate increase (r=0.87, P=0.005). Work during 5 min cycle time-trial increased 6.5% (Ptraining load (completed heavy training then light training) and maximal rate of heart rate increase increased 28% (P=0.002) but the changes in maximal work were not related to changes in rate of heart rate increase (r=0.32, P=0.40). Heart rate recovery tended to track changes in 5 min cycle time-trial work following increases and decreases in training load (r=0.65-0.75, P=0.03-0.08). Maximal rate of heart rate increases during cycling at 100 W tracks reductions in exercise performance when training load is increased, but not performance improvements when training loads are reduced. Maximal rate of heart rate increase may be a useful adjunct to heart rate recovery for tracking changes in exercise performance. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Performance based regulation: a strategy to increase breastfeeding rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cobo-Armijo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The decreasing breastfeeding rate in México is of public health concern. In this paper we discus an innovative regulatory ap­proach -Performance Based Regulation- and its application to improve breastfeeding rates. This approach, forces industry to take responsibility for the lack of breastfeeding and its consequences. Failure to comply with this targets results in financial penalties. Applying performance based regulation as a strategy to improve breastfeeding is feasible because: the breastmilk substitutes market is an oligopoly, hence it is easy to identify the contribution of each market participant; the regulation’s target population is clearly defined; it has a clear regulatory standard which can be easily evaluated, and sanctions to infringement can be defined under objective parameters. Recommendations: modify public policy, celebrate concertation agreements with the industry, create persuasive sanctions, strengthen enforcement activities and coordinate every action with the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes.

  15. Leftward lighting in advertisements increases advertisement ratings and purchase intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Jennifer; Thomas, Nicole A; Elias, Lorin

    2011-07-01

    It has been reliably shown that light is assumed to come from above. There is also some suggestion that light from the left might be preferred. Leftward lighting biases have been observed across various mediums such as paintings, portraits, photographs, and advertisements. As advertisements are used to persuade the public to purchase products, it was of interest to better understand whether leftward lighting would influence future intention to purchase. Participants gave preference ratings for pairs of advertisements with opposing lighting directions. Attitude towards the advertisement and the brand as well as future purchase intention was then rated. Overall, participants indicated that they preferred advertisements with leftward lighting and were more likely to purchase these products in the future than when the same products were lit from the right. Findings are consistent with previously observed leftward lighting biases and suggest that advertisements with a leftward lighting bias might be more effective.

  16. Assessing Metabolic Syndrome Through Increased Heart Rate During Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess changes in resting and maximum heart rates as primary indicators of cardiac autonomic function in metabolic syndrome (MetS patients and to determine their value for discriminating MetS from non-MetS. 468 participants were enrolled in this cross-sectional study and assessed according to the updated adult treatment panel III (ATP-III definition of MetS. Resting and maximum heart rates were recorded following the Bruce protocol during an exercise. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to identify the best cutoff point for discriminating MetS from the non-MetS state. 194 participants (41.5% were diagnosed as MetS. The mean resting heart rate (RHR was not statistically different between the two groups (P=0.078. However, the mean maximum heart (MHR rate was considerably higher in participants with MetS (142.37±14.84 beats per min compared to the non-MetS group (134.62±21.63 beats per min (P<0.001. In the MetS group, the MHR was positively correlated with the serum triglyceride level (β=0.185, P=0.033 and was inversely associated with age (β=-0.469, P<0.001. The MHR had a moderate value for discriminating MetS from the non-MetS state (c=0.580, P=0.004 with the optimal cutoff point of 140 beats per min. In MetS patients, the MHR was significantly greater compared to non-MetS subjects and was directly correlated with serum triglyceride levels and inversely with advanced age. Moreover, MHR can be used as a suspicious indicator for identifying MetS.

  17. Increased insight in microbial processes in rapid sandfilters in drinking water treatment (DW BIOFILTERS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Gülay, Arda; Lee, Carson

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research project is to improve our knowledge on biological rapid sand filters as they are present in thousands groundwater based water works. This includes molecular investigations of the microorganisms responsible for the individual processes (e.g. nitrification); and detailed...... monitoring and experiments in the filters and laboratory to provide insight in the process mechanisms, kinetics and effect of environmental factors. Management of the filters (e.g. backwashing, flow rate, carrier type) will be investigated at pilot and full scale, supported by mathematical models...... investigated by deep sequencing. This will also contribute to a verification of whether the selected qPCR probes include all important groups. Filters from three water works have been sampled and are currently being processed to investigate depth profiles and horizontal variation in filters. Assays...

  18. Perceptual processing of natural scenes at rapid rates: effects of complexity, content, and emotional arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löw, Andreas; Bradley, Margaret M; Lang, Peter J

    2013-12-01

    During rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), the perceptual system is confronted with a rapidly changing array of sensory information demanding resolution. At rapid rates of presentation, previous studies have found an early (e.g., 150-280 ms) negativity over occipital sensors that is enhanced when emotional, as compared with neutral, pictures are viewed, suggesting facilitated perception. In the present study, we explored how picture composition and the presence of people in the image affect perceptual processing of pictures of natural scenes. Using RSVP, pictures that differed in perceptual composition (figure-ground or scenes), content (presence of people or not), and emotional content (emotionally arousing or neutral) were presented in a continuous stream for 330 ms each with no intertrial interval. In both subject and picture analyses, all three variables affected the amplitude of occipital negativity, with the greatest enhancement for figure-ground compositions (as compared with scenes), irrespective of content and emotional arousal, supporting an interpretation that ease of perceptual processing is associated with enhanced occipital negativity. Viewing emotional pictures prompted enhanced negativity only for pictures that depicted people, suggesting that specific features of emotionally arousing images are associated with facilitated perceptual processing, rather than all emotional content.

  19. Changing arctic ecosystems—What is causing the rapid increase of snow geese in northern Alaska?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Ward, David H.; Whalen, Mary E.; Pearce, John M.

    2015-09-10

    Through the Changing Arctic Ecosystems (CAE) initiative, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) informs key resource management decisions for Arctic Alaska by providing scientific information on current and future ecosystem response to a warming climate. The Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of northern Alaska is a key study area within the USGS CAE initiative. This region has experienced a warming trend over the past decades, leading to decreased sea ice, permafrost thaw, and an advancement of spring phenology. The number of birds on the ACP also is changing, marked by increased populations of the four species of geese that nest in the region. The Snow Goose (Chen caerulescens) is the most rapidly increasing of these species. USGS CAE research is quantifying these changes and their implications for management agencies.

  20. Rapid Environmental Change Drives Increased Land Use by an Arctic Marine Predator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd C Atwood

    Full Text Available In the Arctic Ocean's southern Beaufort Sea (SB, the length of the sea ice melt season (i.e., period between the onset of sea ice break-up in summer and freeze-up in fall has increased substantially since the late 1990s. Historically, polar bears (Ursus maritimus of the SB have mostly remained on the sea ice year-round (except for those that came ashore to den, but recent changes in the extent and phenology of sea ice habitat have coincided with evidence that use of terrestrial habitat is increasing. We characterized the spatial behavior of polar bears spending summer and fall on land along Alaska's north coast to better understand the nexus between rapid environmental change and increased use of terrestrial habitat. We found that the percentage of radiocollared adult females from the SB subpopulation coming ashore has tripled over 15 years. Moreover, we detected trends of earlier arrival on shore, increased length of stay, and later departure back to sea ice, all of which were related to declines in the availability of sea ice habitat over the continental shelf and changes to sea ice phenology. Since the late 1990s, the mean duration of the open-water season in the SB increased by 36 days, and the mean length of stay on shore increased by 31 days. While on shore, the distribution of polar bears was influenced by the availability of scavenge subsidies in the form of subsistence-harvested bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus remains aggregated at sites along the coast. The declining spatio-temporal availability of sea ice habitat and increased availability of human-provisioned resources are likely to result in increased use of land. Increased residency on land is cause for concern given that, while there, bears may be exposed to a greater array of risk factors including those associated with increased human activities.

  1. Methamphetamine induces a rapid increase of intracellular Ca(++) levels in neurons overexpressing GCaMP5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Seong-Jin; Wu, Kou-Jen; Bae, Eun K; Hsu, Man-Jung; Richie, Christopher T; Harvey, Brandon K; Wang, Yun

    2016-03-01

    In this study, methamphetamine (Meth)- and glutamate (Glu)-mediated intracellular Ca(++) (Ca(++) i) signals were examined in real time in primary cortical neurons overexpressing an intracellular Ca(++) probe, GCaMP5, by adeno-associated viral (AAV) serotype 1. Binding of Ca(++) to GCaMP increased green fluorescence intensity in cells. Both Meth and Glu induced a rapid increase in Ca(++) i, which was blocked by MK801, suggesting that Meth enhanced Ca(++) i through Glu receptor in neurons. The Meth-mediated Ca(++) signal was also blocked by Mg(++) , low Ca(++) or the L-type Ca(++) channel inhibitor nifedipine. The ryanodine receptor inhibitor dantrolene did not alter the initial Ca(++) influx but partially reduced the peak of Ca(++) i. These data suggest that Meth enhanced Ca(++) influx through membrane Ca(++) channels, which then triggered the release of Ca(++) from the endoplasmic reticulum in the cytosol. AAV-GCaMP5 was also injected to the parietal cortex of adult rats. Administration of Meth enhanced fluorescence in the ipsilateral cortex. Using immunohistochemistry, Meth-induced green fluorescence was found in the NeuN-containing cells in the cortex, suggesting that Meth increased Ca(++) in neurons in vivo. In conclusion, we have used in vitro and in vivo techniques to demonstrate a rapid increase of Ca(++) i by Meth in cortical neurons through overexpression of GCaMP5. As Meth induces behavioral responses and neurotoxicity through Ca(++) i, modulation of Ca(++) i may be useful to reduce Meth-related reactions. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Particle In-Flight Velocity and Dispersion Measurements at Increasing Particle Feed Rates in Cold Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M.; Yin, S.; Lupoi, R.

    2017-01-01

    Cold spray (CS) is attracting interest of research and industry due to its rapid, solid-state particle deposition process and respective advantages over conventional deposition technologies. The acceleration of the particles is critical to the efficiency of CS, and previous investigations rarely consider the particle feed rate. However, because higher particle loadings are typically used in the process, the effect of this cannot be assumed negligible. This study therefore investigates the particle velocities in the supersonic jet of an advanced CS system at low- and high pressure levels and varying particle feed rates using particle image velocimetry. The particle dispersion and velocity evolution along the jet axis were investigated for several feedstock materials. It was found that the average particle velocity noticeably decreases with increasing particulate loading in all cases. The velocity distribution and particle dispersion were also observed to be influenced by the feed rate. Effects are driven by both mass loading and volume fraction, depending on the feedstock's particle velocity parameter. Increased particle feed rates hence affect the magnitude and distribution of impact velocity and consequently the efficiency of CS. In particular, numerical models neglecting this interconnection are required to be further improved, based on these experimental studies.

  3. Plastid Phylogenomics Resolve Deep Relationships among Eupolypod II Ferns with Rapid Radiation and Rate Heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ran; Yan, Yue-Hong; Harris, A J; Kang, Jong-Soo; Shen, Hui; Xiang, Qiao-Ping; Zhang, Xian-Chun

    2017-06-01

    The eupolypods II ferns represent a classic case of evolutionary radiation and, simultaneously, exhibit high substitution rate heterogeneity. These factors have been proposed to contribute to the contentious resolutions among clades within this fern group in multilocus phylogenetic studies. We investigated the deep phylogenetic relationships of eupolypod II ferns by sampling all major families and using 40 plastid genomes, or plastomes, of which 33 were newly sequenced with next-generation sequencing technology. We performed model-based analyses to evaluate the diversity of molecular evolutionary rates for these ferns. Our plastome data, with more than 26,000 informative characters, yielded good resolution for deep relationships within eupolypods II and unambiguously clarified the position of Rhachidosoraceae and the monophyly of Athyriaceae. Results of rate heterogeneity analysis revealed approximately 33 significant rate shifts in eupolypod II ferns, with the most heterogeneous rates (both accelerations and decelerations) occurring in two phylogenetically difficult lineages, that is, the Rhachidosoraceae-Aspleniaceae and Athyriaceae clades. These observations support the hypothesis that rate heterogeneity has previously constrained the deep phylogenetic resolution in eupolypods II. According to the plastome data, we propose that 14 chloroplast markers are particularly phylogenetically informative for eupolypods II both at the familial and generic levels. Our study demonstrates the power of a character-rich plastome data set and high-throughput sequencing for resolving the recalcitrant lineages, which have undergone rapid evolutionary radiation and dramatic changes in substitution rates. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  4. Eurythmy therapy increases specific oscillations of heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelhäuser, Friedrich; Minnerop, Antje; Trapp, Barbara; Büssing, Arndt; Cysarz, Dirk

    2015-06-06

    Mind-body therapies are beneficial for several diseases (e.g. chronic pain, arterial hypertension, mood disorders). Eurythmy therapy (EYT) is a mind-body therapy from Anthroposophic Medicine. In each EYT exercise a short sequence of body movements and simultaneous guided imagery is repeated several times. In this study, the simultaneous effects of two different EYT exercises on cardiac autonomic regulation as assessed by spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) were investigated. Twenty healthy subjects (age: 29.1 ± 9.3 years, 13 female) performed two different EYT exercises (EYT-A and EYT-B) for 8 min. Each EYT exercise was compared against two matched control exercises: control exercise 1 (CE1-A and CE1-B) consisted of a repetition of the body movements of the EYT exercise but without guided imagery, control exercise 2 consisted of walking on the spot (CE2-A and CE2-B). Spectral power of HRV during each exercise was quantified on the basis of Holter ECG recordings. During EYT-A the frequency of the peak oscillation in the very low frequency (VLF) band matched the repetition rate of the sequence of body movements (0.02 Hz). Low frequency (LF) oscillations were augmented when compared to the control exercises (EYT-A: 7.31 ± 0.84, CE1-A: 6.98 ± 0.90, CE2-A: 6.52 ± 0.87 ln ms(2), p exercises (EYT-B: 9.32 ± 0.82, CE1-B: 6.31 ± 0.75, CE2-B: 6.04 ± 0.80 ln ms(2), p exercises clearly affected cardiac autonomic regulation in a rhythmic manner according to the stimulus of the specific body movements of each EYT exercise. These results offer a physiological basis to develop a rationale for specific clinical indications of these EYT exercises such as stress reduction or prevention of hypertension. DRKS00006760 (registered on 10/10/2014, i.e. retrospective registration); view details at http://www.drks.de/DRKS00006760.

  5. Use of ultrasonication to increase germination rates of Arabidopsis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ribera, Ignacio; Vicient, Carlos M

    2017-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana is widely used as model organism in plant biology. Although not of agronomic significance, it offers important advantages for basic research in genetics and molecular biology including the availability of a large number of mutants and genetically modified lines. However, Arabidopsis seed longevity is limited and seeds stored for more than 10 years usually show a very low capacity for germination. The influence of ultrasonic stimulation was investigated on the germination of A. thaliana L. seeds. All experiments have been performed using a frequency of 45 kHz at constant temperature (24 °C). No germination rate differences were observed when using freshly collected seeds. However, using artificially deteriorated seeds, our results show that short ultrasonic stimulation (mature fertile plants. Ultrasound technology can be used to enhance the germination process of old Arabidopsis seeds without negatively affecting seedling development. This effect seems to be, at least in part, due to the opening of pores in the seed coat. The use of ultrasonic stimulation in Arabidopsis seeds may contribute to the recovering of long time stored lines.

  6. Technical interventions to increase adenoma detection rate in colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondonotti, Emanuele; Andrealli, Alida; Amato, Arnaldo; Paggi, Silvia; Conti, Clara Benedetta; Spinzi, Giancarlo; Radaelli, Franco

    2016-12-01

    Adenoma detection rate (ADR) is the most robust colonoscopy quality metric and clinical studies have adopted it as the ideal method to assess the impact of technical interventions. Areas covered: We reviewed papers focusing on the impact of colonoscopy technical issues on ADR, including withdrawal time and technique, second evaluation of the right colon, patient positional changes, gastrointestinal assistant participation during colonoscopy, water-aided technique, optimization of bowel preparation and antispasmodic administration. Expert commentary: Overall, technical interventions are inexpensive, available worldwide and easy to implement. Some of them, such as the adoption of split dose regimen and slow scope withdrawal to allow a careful inspection, have been demonstrated to significantly improve ADR. Emerging data support the use of water-exchange colonoscopy. According to published studies, other technical interventions seem to provide only marginal benefit to ADR. Unfortunately, the available evidence has methodological limitations, such as small sample sizes, the inclusion of expert endoscopists only and the evaluation of single technical interventions. Additionally, larger studies are needed to clarify whether these interventions might have a higher benefit on low adenoma detectors and whether the implementation of a bundle of them, instead of a single technical maneuver, might have a greater impact on ADR.

  7. Increased diversification rates follow shifts to bisexuality in liverworts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laenen, Benjamin; Machac, Antonin; Gradstein, S. Robbert

    2016-01-01

    Shifts in sexual systems are one of the key drivers of species diversification. In contrast to angiosperms, unisexuality prevails in bryophytes. Here, we test the hypotheses that bisexuality evolved from an ancestral unisexual condition and is a key innovation in liverworts. We investigate whether...... are significantly biased toward unisexuality, even though bisexuality is coupled with increased diversification. Sexual systems are strongly conserved deep within the liverwort tree but become much more labile toward the present. Bisexuality appears to be a key innovation in liverworts. Its effects...

  8. Increasing the admission rate to upper secondary school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoest, A.; Jensen, V.M.; Nielsen, L.P.

    2013-01-01

    the effects of a school intervention that introduces structured student career guidance in lower secondary school on upper secondary school admission. Disregarding the sunk-cost of implementation, the reform was cost-neutral. In a difference-in-difference framework, we find that the reform increases admission......Although several studies investigate the effects of school resources on student performance, these studies tend to focus more on intervention effect sizes than on their cost-effectiveness. Exploiting policy-induced variation in Denmark and using high-quality administrative data, we investigate...

  9. Obesity and increasing rate of infantile Blount disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güven, Ayla; Hancılı, Suna; Kuru, L İhsan

    2014-06-01

    The incidence of infantile Blount disease is rising in parallel to the increasing obesity in children. Seven children (3 female) between the ages of 17 and 30 months (21.8 ± 4.3 months) were included in the study. All patients had complaints of inward bowing of the legs and excess weight gain. The biochemical and hormonal assessments of all patients yielded normal results. Patients were diagnosed with infantile Blount disease based on clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings. This disease should be differentiated from physiological genu varum, and the potential psychosocial and physical complications are prevented with early diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Increased fracture rates in Turner's syndrome: a nationwide questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg; Vestergaard, Peter; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Mosekilde, Leif; Brixen, Kim; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl

    2003-07-01

    Reduced bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) have previously been reported in Turner's syndrome, although appropriate GH treatment and early induction of puberty seem to permit normal bone mass accumulation. Furthermore, an increased risk of fractures and osteoporosis have been reported in a registry study. The aim of the present study was to further characterize the risk of fractures in TS and to explore risk factors, in a historical follow-up survey based on a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was issued to all females with TS (n = 632) in Denmark and to 1888 randomly selected controls (C) matched for age and geographical region. A total of 322 patients (51%) and 1169 controls (62%) returned the questionnaire. TS women were younger than C (30 years, range: 1-73 years vs. 34 years, range 2-82 years, P protective in females above 13 years of age (HR: 0.70, CI 0.54-0.93, P = 0.012). A history of parental fractures increased the risk (HR 1.92, CI 1.62-2.27, P early fractures in TS, especially in those without ovarian function and with a positive family history of fracture and osteoporosis. It thereby emphasizes the need for being vigilant with respect to BMD measurements in these patients.

  11. Small Projects Rapid Integration and Test Environment (SPRITE): Application for Increasing Robutness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ashley; Rakoczy, John; Heather, Daniel; Sanders, Devon

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few years interest in the development and use of small satellites has rapidly gained momentum with universities, commercial, and government organizations. In a few years we may see networked clusters of dozens or even hundreds of small, cheap, easily replaceable satellites working together in place of the large, expensive and difficult-to-replace satellites now in orbit. Standards based satellite buses and deployment mechanisms, such as the CubeSat and Poly Pico-satellite Orbital Deployer (P-POD), have stimulated growth in this area. The use of small satellites is also proving to be a cost effective capability in many areas traditionally dominated by large satellites, though many challenges remain. Currently many of these small satellites undergo very little testing prior to flight. As these small satellites move from technology demonstration and student projects toward more complex operational assets, it is expected that the standards for verification and validation will increase.

  12. Proteome reallocation in Escherichia coli with increasing specific growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebo, Karl; Valgepea, Kaspar; Maser, Andres; Nahku, Ranno; Adamberg, Kaarel; Vilu, Raivo

    2015-04-01

    Cells usually respond to changing growth conditions with a change in the specific growth rate (μ) and adjustment of their proteome to adapt and maintain metabolic efficiency. Description of the principles behind proteome resource allocation is important for understanding metabolic regulation in response to changing μ. Thus, we analysed the proteome resource allocation dynamics of Escherichia coli into different metabolic processes in response to changing μ. E. coli was grown on minimal and defined rich media in steady state continuous cultures at different μ and characterised combining two LC-MS/MS-based proteomics methods: stable isotope labelling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and intensity based label-free absolute quantification. We detected slowly growing cells investing more proteome resources in energy generation and carbohydrate transport and metabolism whereas for achieving faster growth cells needed to devote most resources to translation and processes closely related to the protein synthesis pipeline. Furthermore, down-regulation of energy generation and carbohydrate metabolism proteins with faster growth displayed very similar expression dynamics with the global transcriptional regulator CRP (cyclic AMP receptor protein), pointing to a dominant protein resource allocating role of this protein. Our data also suggest that acetate overflow may be the result of global proteome resource optimisation as cells saved proteome resources by switching from fully respiratory to respiro-fermentative growth. The presented results give a quantitative overview of how E. coli adjusts its proteome to achieve faster growth and in future could contribute to the design of more efficient cell factories through proteome optimisation.

  13. Rapid assessment of malaria transmission using age-specific sero-conversion rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laveta Stewart

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria transmission intensity is a crucial determinant of malarial disease burden and its measurement can help to define health priorities. Rapid, local estimates of transmission are required to focus resources better but current entomological and parasitological methods for estimating transmission intensity are limited in this respect. An alternative is determination of antimalarial antibody age-specific sero-prevalence to estimate sero-conversion rates (SCR, which have been shown to correlate with transmission intensity. This study evaluated SCR generated from samples collected from health facility attendees as a tool for a rapid assessment of malaria transmission intensity.The study was conducted in north east Tanzania. Antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens MSP-1(19 and AMA-1 were measured by indirect ELISA. Age-specific antibody prevalence was analysed using a catalytic conversion model based on maximum likelihood to generate SCR. A pilot study, conducted near Moshi, found SCRs for AMA-1 were highly comparable between samples collected from individuals in a conventional cross-sectional survey and those collected from attendees at a local health facility. For the main study, 3885 individuals attending village health facilities in Korogwe and Same districts were recruited. Both malaria parasite prevalence and sero-positivity were higher in Korogwe than in Same. MSP-1(19 and AMA-1 SCR rates for Korogwe villages ranged from 0.03 to 0.06 and 0.07 to 0.21 respectively. In Same district there was evidence of a recent reduction in transmission, with SCR among those born since 1998 [MSP-1(19 0.002 to 0.008 and AMA-1 0.005 to 0.014 ] being 5 to 10 fold lower than among individuals born prior to 1998 [MSP-1(19 0.02 to 0.04 and AMA-1 0.04 to 0.13]. Current health facility specific estimates of SCR showed good correlations with malaria incidence rates in infants in a contemporaneous clinical trial (MSP-1(19 r(2 = 0.78, p<0.01 & AMA-1 r

  14. Integrated omics approaches provide strategies for rapid erythromycin yield increase in Saccharopolyspora erythraea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karničar, Katarina; Drobnak, Igor; Petek, Marko; Magdevska, Vasilka; Horvat, Jaka; Vidmar, Robert; Baebler, Špela; Rotter, Ana; Jamnik, Polona; Fujs, Štefan; Turk, Boris; Fonovič, Marko; Gruden, Kristina; Kosec, Gregor; Petković, Hrvoje

    2016-06-03

    Omics approaches have significantly increased our understanding of biological systems. However, they have had limited success in explaining the dramatically increased productivity of commercially important natural products by industrial high-producing strains, such as the erythromycin-producing actinomycete Saccharopolyspora erythraea. Further yield increase is of great importance but requires a better understanding of the underlying physiological processes. To reveal the mechanisms related to erythromycin yield increase, we have undertaken an integrated study of the genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic differences between the wild type strain NRRL2338 (WT) and the industrial high-producing strain ABE1441 (HP) of S. erythraea at multiple time points of a simulated industrial bioprocess. 165 observed mutations lead to differences in gene expression profiles and protein abundance between the two strains, which were most prominent in the initial stages of erythromycin production. Enzymes involved in erythromycin biosynthesis, metabolism of branched chain amino acids and proteolysis were most strongly upregulated in the HP strain. Interestingly, genes related to TCA cycle and DNA-repair were downregulated. Additionally, comprehensive data analysis uncovered significant correlations in expression profiles of the erythromycin-biosynthetic genes, other biosynthetic gene clusters and previously unidentified putative regulatory genes. Based on this information, we demonstrated that overexpression of several genes involved in amino acid metabolism can contribute to increased yield of erythromycin, confirming the validity of our systems biology approach. Our comprehensive omics approach, carried out in industrially relevant conditions, enabled the identification of key pathways affecting erythromycin yield and suggests strategies for rapid increase in the production of secondary metabolites in industrial environment.

  15. Rapid Maxillary Expansion Increases Internal Nasal Dimensions of Children With Bilateral Cleft Lip and Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade-Suedam, Ivy Kiemle; Castilho, Ricardo Leão; Sampaio-Teixeira, Ana Claudia Martins; Araújo, Bruna Mara Adorno Marmotel; Fukushiro, Ana Paula; Campos, Letícia Dominguez; Trindade, Inge Elly Kiemle

    2016-05-01

    The transverse maxillary deficiency frequently observed in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) is usually treated by rapid maxillary expansion (RME). Considering that RME causes a significant increase of the internal nasal dimensions in children with unilateral CLP (UCLP), this study aimed to characterize the internal nasal geometry of children with bilateral CLP (BCLP) and transverse maxillary deficiency using acoustic rhinometry. The study also aimed to analyze changes caused by RME. Cross-sectional prospective study. Laboratory of Physiology, Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies, University of São Paulo, Bauru, SP, Brazil. Fifteen children with repaired BCLP of both genders, aged 8 to 15 years, referred for RME, were prospectively analyzed. Subjects underwent acoustic rhinometry before the expander installation and after the active phase of expansion. Cross-sectional areas (CSA) and volumes (V) of the nasal valve regions (CSA1 and V1) and turbinates (CSA2, CSA3, and V2), were measured after nasal decongestion. In the majority of the subjects, an increase of internal nasal dimensions was observed. Percent changes of CSA1, CSA2, CSA3, V1, and V2 were: +25%, +11%, +9%, 20%, and +12%, respectively. Differences were significant for all variables studied, except CSA3 (P < .05). RME promotes an increase in the internal nasal dimensions of children with BCLP, suggesting that RME is capable of substantially improving nasal patency in this population.

  16. Transiently increased glutamate cycling in rat PFC is associated with rapid onset of antidepressant-like effects

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Golam M.I.; Zhang, Jie; Thomas, Monique; Banasr, Mounira; Ma, Xiaoxian; Pittman, Brian; Bristow, Linda; Schaeffer, Eric; Duman, Ronald; Rothman, Douglas; Behar, Kevin; Sanacora, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Several drugs have recently been reported to induce rapid antidepressant effects in clinical trials and rodent models. Although the cellular mechanisms involved remain unclear, reports suggest that increased glutamate transmission contributes to these effects. Here, we demonstrate that the antidepressant-like efficacy of three unique drugs, with reported rapid onset antidepressant properties, is coupled with a rapid transient rise in glutamate cycling in medial prefronal cortex (mPFC) of awak...

  17. Autism Linked to Increased Oncogene Mutations but Decreased Cancer Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbro, Benjamin W; Singh, Rohini; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Mahajan, Vinit B; Bassuk, Alexander G

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is one phenotypic aspect of many monogenic, hereditary cancer syndromes. Pleiotropic effects of cancer genes on the autism phenotype could lead to repurposing of oncology medications to treat this increasingly prevalent neurodevelopmental condition for which there is currently no treatment. To explore this hypothesis we sought to discover whether autistic patients more often have rare coding, single-nucleotide variants within tumor suppressor and oncogenes and whether autistic patients are more often diagnosed with neoplasms. Exome-sequencing data from the ARRA Autism Sequencing Collaboration was compared to that of a control cohort from the Exome Variant Server database revealing that rare, coding variants within oncogenes were enriched for in the ARRA ASD cohort (p<1.0 x 10(-8)). In contrast, variants were not significantly enriched in tumor suppressor genes. Phenotypically, children and adults with ASD exhibited a protective effect against cancer, with a frequency of 1.3% vs. 3.9% (p<0.001), but the protective effect decreased with age. The odds ratio of neoplasm for those with ASD relative to controls was 0.06 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.19; p<0.0001) in the 0 to 14 age group; 0.35 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.87; p = 0.024) in the 15 to 29 age group; 0.41 (95% CI: 0.15, 1.17; p = 0.095) in the 30 to 54 age group; and 0.49 (95% CI: 0.14, 1.74; p = 0.267) in those 55 and older. Both males and females demonstrated the protective effect. These findings suggest that defects in cellular proliferation, and potentially senescence, might influence both autism and neoplasm, and already approved drugs targeting oncogenic pathways might also have therapeutic value for treating autism.

  18. Autism Linked to Increased Oncogene Mutations but Decreased Cancer Rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W Darbro

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is one phenotypic aspect of many monogenic, hereditary cancer syndromes. Pleiotropic effects of cancer genes on the autism phenotype could lead to repurposing of oncology medications to treat this increasingly prevalent neurodevelopmental condition for which there is currently no treatment. To explore this hypothesis we sought to discover whether autistic patients more often have rare coding, single-nucleotide variants within tumor suppressor and oncogenes and whether autistic patients are more often diagnosed with neoplasms. Exome-sequencing data from the ARRA Autism Sequencing Collaboration was compared to that of a control cohort from the Exome Variant Server database revealing that rare, coding variants within oncogenes were enriched for in the ARRA ASD cohort (p<1.0 x 10(-8. In contrast, variants were not significantly enriched in tumor suppressor genes. Phenotypically, children and adults with ASD exhibited a protective effect against cancer, with a frequency of 1.3% vs. 3.9% (p<0.001, but the protective effect decreased with age. The odds ratio of neoplasm for those with ASD relative to controls was 0.06 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.19; p<0.0001 in the 0 to 14 age group; 0.35 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.87; p = 0.024 in the 15 to 29 age group; 0.41 (95% CI: 0.15, 1.17; p = 0.095 in the 30 to 54 age group; and 0.49 (95% CI: 0.14, 1.74; p = 0.267 in those 55 and older. Both males and females demonstrated the protective effect. These findings suggest that defects in cellular proliferation, and potentially senescence, might influence both autism and neoplasm, and already approved drugs targeting oncogenic pathways might also have therapeutic value for treating autism.

  19. Increased rates of pregnancy complications in women with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moleski, Stephanie M; Lindenmeyer, Christina C; Veloski, J Jon; Miller, Robin S; Miller, Cynthia L; Kastenberg, David; DiMarino, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease is an immune-mediated small bowel disorder that develops in genetically susceptible individuals upon exposure to dietary gluten. Celiac disease could have extra-intestinal manifestations that affect women's reproductive health. The aim of this study was to investigate fertility and outcomes of pregnancy among women with celiac disease. In a retrospective cohort study, we analyzed information collected from patients at a tertiary care celiac center and from members of 2 national celiac disease awareness organizations. Women without celiac disease were used as controls. Women completed an anonymous online survey, answering 43 questions about menstrual history, fertility, and outcomes of pregnancy (329 with small bowel biopsy-confirmed celiac disease and 641 controls). Of the 970 women included in the study, 733 (75.6%) reported that they had been pregnant at some point; there was no significant difference between women with celiac disease (n=245/329, 74.5%) and controls (488/641, 76.1%; P=0.57). However, fewer women with celiac disease than controls (79.6% vs. 84.8%) gave birth following 1 or more pregnancies (P=0.03). Women with celiac disease had higher percentages of spontaneous abortion than controls (50.6% vs. 40.6%; P=0.01), and of premature delivery (23.6% vs. 15.9% among controls; P=0.02). The mean age at menarche was higher in the celiac disease group (12.7 years) than controls (12.4 years; P=0.01). In a retrospective cohort analysis examining reproductive features of women with celiac disease, we associated celiac disease with significant increases in spontaneous abortion, premature delivery, and later age of menarche.

  20. Rapid wetland expansion during European settlement and its implication for marsh survival under modern sediment delivery rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, Matthew L.; Murray, A. Brad; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Corbett, D. Reide

    2011-01-01

    Fluctuations in sea-level rise rates are thought to dominate the formation and evolution of coastal wetlands. Here we demonstrate a contrasting scenario in which land-use-related changes in sediment delivery rates drive the formation of expansive marshland, and vegetation feedbacks maintain their morphology despite recent sediment supply reduction. Stratigraphic analysis and radiocarbon dating in the Plum Island Estuary (Massachusetts, United States) suggest that salt marshes expanded rapidly during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries due to increased rates of sediment delivery following deforestation associated with European settlement. Numerical modeling coupled with the stratigraphic observations suggests that existing marshland could survive, but not form under the low suspended sediment concentrations observed in the estuary today. These results suggest that many of the expansive marshes that characterize the modern North American coast are metastable relicts of high nineteenth century sediment delivery rates, and that recent observations of degradation may represent a slow return to pre-settlement marsh extent. In contrast to ecosystem management practices in which restoring pre-anthropogenic conditions is seen as a way to increase ecosystem services, our results suggest that widespread efforts to restore valuable coastal wetlands actually prevent some systems from returning to a natural state.

  1. Increasing vaginal progesterone gel supplementation after frozen-thawed embryo transfer significantly increases the delivery rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsbjerg, Birgit; Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Elbaek, Helle Olesen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive outcome in patients receiving frozen-thawed embryo transfer before and after doubling of the vaginal progesterone gel supplementation. The study was a retrospective study performed in The Fertility Clinic, Skive Regional Hospital, Denmark....... A total of 346 infertility patients with oligoamenorrhoea undergoing frozen-thawed embryo transfer after priming with oestradiol and vaginal progesterone gel were included. The vaginal progesterone dose was changed from 90mg (Crinone) once a day to twice a day and the reproductive outcome during the two...... rate (8.7% versus 20.5%, respectively; P=0.002). Doubling of the vaginal progesterone gel supplementation during frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles decreased the early pregnancy loss rate, resulting in a significantly higher delivery rate. This study evaluated the reproductive outcome of 346 women...

  2. Increased rate of survival in Streptococcus pneumoniae-infected rats treated with the new immunomodulator Pidotimod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Marco, R; Condorelli, F; Girardello, R; Uslenghi, C; Chisari, G; di Mauro, M; Speciale, A M; Meroni, P L; Nicoletti, F

    1992-01-01

    Wistar rats infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae (type III ATCC) rapidly develop an acute form of experimental lobar pneumonia (ELP) with death of 80-90% of the animals by 6 days after the infection. Prophylactic treatment of these animals with the novel immunomodulator Pidotimod, at the dose of 25 mg/kg bw, significantly increased their rate of survival as compared to the control group (50 vs. 90% respectively). Recovery from the infection appeared definitive since all the Pidotimod-treated survivors were alive and in good condition at the end of the observation period (45 days post infection). Prophylactic treatment with higher or lower doses of the drug was ineffective. Therapy with Pidotimod was not effective. This preliminary study suggests that Pidotimod may have contributed to activation of specific and non-specific immune effectors involved in the host response to S. pneumoniae infection.

  3. Increased fracture rate in women with breast cancer: a review of the hidden risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Body Jean-Jacques

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women with breast cancer, particularly individuals diagnosed at a relatively early age, have an increased incidence of fractures. Fractures can have serious clinical consequences including the need for major surgery, increased morbidity and mortality, increased cost of disease management, and reduced quality of life for patients. The primary cause of the increased fracture risk appears to be an accelerated decrease in bone mineral density (BMD resulting from the loss of estrogenic signaling that occurs with most treatments for breast cancer, including aromatase inhibitors. However, factors other than BMD levels alone may influence treatment decisions to reduce fracture risk in this setting. Our purpose is to review current evidence for BMD loss and fracture risk during treatment for breast cancer and discuss pharmacologic means to reduce this risk. Results Fracture risk during treatment for breast cancer may be influenced by the rate of BMD loss and the consequent rapid alterations in bone microarchitecture, in addition to the established fracture risk factors in postmenopausal osteoporosis. The rapid decrease in BMD during adjuvant chemoendocrine therapy for breast cancer may necessitate more aggressive pharmacotherapy than is indicated for healthy postmenopausal women who develop osteoporosis. Over the last few years, clinical trials have established the effectiveness of bisphosphonates and other antiresorptive agents to preserve BMD during adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer. In addition, some bisphosphonates (eg, zoledronic acid may also delay disease recurrence in women with hormone-responsive tumors, thereby providing an adjuvant benefit in addition to preserving BMD and potentially preventing fractures. Conclusions It is likely that a combined fracture risk assessment (eg, as in the WHO FRAX algorithm will more accurately identify both women with postmenopausal osteoporosis and women with breast cancer who require

  4. Recurrent selection with reduced herbicide rates results in the rapid evolution of herbicide resistance in Lolium rigidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neve, Paul; Powles, Stephen

    2005-04-01

    There has been much debate regarding the potential for reduced rates of herbicide application to accelerate evolution of herbicide resistance. We report a series of experiments that demonstrate the potential for reduced rates of the acetyl-co enzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting herbicide diclofop-methyl to rapidly select for resistance in a susceptible biotype of Lolium rigidum. Thirty-six percent of individuals from the original VLR1 population survived application of 37.5 g diclofop-methyl ha(-1) (10% of the recommended field application rate). These individuals were grown to maturity and bulk-crossed to produce the VLR1 low dose-selected line VLR1 (0.1). Subsequent comparisons of the dose-response characteristics of the original and low dose-selected VLR1 lines demonstrated increased tolerance of diclofop-methyl in the selected line. Two further rounds of selection produced VLR1 lines that were resistant to field-applied rates of diclofop-methyl. The LD50 (diclofop-methyl dose required to cause 50% mortality) of the most resistant line was 56-fold greater than that of the original unselected VLR1 population, indicating very large increases in mean population survival after three cycles of selection. In vitro ACCase inhibition by diclofop acid confirmed that resistance was not due to an insensitive herbicide target-site. Cross-resistance studies showed increases in resistance to four herbicides: fluazifop-P-butyl, haloxyfop-R-methyl, clethodim and imazethapyr. The potential genetic basis of the observed response and implications of reduced herbicide application rates for management of herbicide resistance are discussed.

  5. Increased rate of acceleration on Pine Island Glacier strongly coupled to changes in gravitational driving stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. T. Scott

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica, has been undergoing several related changes for at least two decades; these include acceleration, thinning and grounding line retreat. During the first major ground-based study between 2006 and 2008, GPS receivers were used to monitor ice flow from 55 km to 171 km inland, along the central flowline. At four sites both acceleration and thinning rates over the last two years exceeded rates observed at any other time over the last two decades. At the downstream site acceleration was 6.4% over 2007 and thinning was 3.5±0.5 ma−1. Acceleration and thinning have spread rapidly inland with the acceleration 171 km inland at 4.1% over 2007, greater than any measured annual flow increase along the whole glacier prior to 2006. Increases in surface slope, and hence gravitational driving stress, correlate well with the acceleration and no sustained change in longitudinal stress gradient is needed to explain the force balance. There is no indication that the glacier is approaching a new steady state.

  6. ANALYSIS OF MEASURES FOR INCREASING THE RATING OF UNIVERSITY IN INTERNATIONAL RATING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.П. Харченко

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The principles of forming the world's most popular international Internet-ranking of universities are considered. The principles of forming the international rating of electronic resources known as Webometrics, which results are defined by summing four values based on quantity of unique external links to the site page and by the quantity of “valuable” files placed on website are represented.  Мost Internet ratings make slope on the  Web activity of the university and its researchers, therefore the participation of entire staff at university is required

  7. Rapid increase of near atomic resolution virus capsid structures determined by cryo-electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Phuong T; Reddy, Vijay S

    2017-10-27

    The recent technological advances in electron microscopes, detectors, as well as image processing and reconstruction software have brought single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) into prominence for determining structures of bio-molecules at near atomic resolution. This has been particularly true for virus capsids, ribosomes, and other large assemblies, which have been the ideal specimens for structural studies by cryo-EM approaches. An analysis of time series metadata of virus structures on the methods of structure determination, resolution of the structures, and size of the virus particles revealed a rapid increase in the virus structures determined by cryo-EM at near atomic resolution since 2010. In addition, the data highlight the median resolution (∼3.0 Å) and size (∼310.0 Å in diameter) of the virus particles determined by X-ray crystallography while no such limits exist for cryo-EM structures, which have a median diameter of 508 Å. Notably, cryo-EM virus structures in the last four years have a median resolution of 3.9 Å. Taken together with minimal sample requirements, not needing diffraction quality crystals, and being able to achieve similar resolutions of the crystal structures makes cryo-EM the method of choice for current and future virus capsid structure determinations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Tricalcium phosphate nanoparticles enable rapid purification, increase transduction kinetics, and modify the tropism of mammalian viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreesen, Imke A J; Lüchinger, Norman A; Stark, Wendelin J; Fussenegger, Martin

    2009-03-01

    Adenoviral, adeno-associated viral, and retroviral particles are chosen as gene delivery shuttles in more than 50% of all gene therapy clinical trials. Bulk availability of clinical-grade viral particles and their efficiency to transduce the therapeutic cargo into specific target cells remain the most critical bottlenecks in gene therapy applications to date. Capitalizing on the flame-spray technology for the reproducible economic large-scale production of amorphous tricalcium phosphate nanoparticulate powders (ATCP), we designed a scalable ready-to-use gravity-flow column set-up for the straightforward concentration and purification of transgenic adenoviral, adeno-associated viral, and lentiviral particles. Specific elution buffers enabled rapid release of viral particles from the ATCP matrix of the column and provided high-titer virus preparations in an unsurpassed period of time. The interaction of ATCP with adenoviral, adeno-associated viral, and lentiviral particles in solution increased the transduction kinetics of several mammalian cell lines in culture. The nanoparticles were also able to modify the tropism of murine leukemia virus (MLV) towards transduction of human cells. Based on these findings, we believe that the use of flame-spray tricalcium phosphate nanoparticles will lead to important progress in the development of future gene therapy initiatives.

  9. Learning new color names produces rapid increase in gray matter in the intact adult human cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Veronica; Niu, Zhendong; Kay, Paul; Zhou, Ke; Mo, Lei; Jin, Zhen; So, Kwok-Fai; Tan, Li Hai

    2011-04-19

    The human brain has been shown to exhibit changes in the volume and density of gray matter as a result of training over periods of several weeks or longer. We show that these changes can be induced much faster by using a training method that is claimed to simulate the rapid learning of word meanings by children. Using whole-brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) we show that learning newly defined and named subcategories of the universal categories green and blue in a period of 2 h increases the volume of gray matter in V2/3 of the left visual cortex, a region known to mediate color vision. This pattern of findings demonstrates that the anatomical structure of the adult human brain can change very quickly, specifically during the acquisition of new, named categories. Also, prior behavioral and neuroimaging research has shown that differences between languages in the boundaries of named color categories influence the categorical perception of color, as assessed by judgments of relative similarity, by response time in alternative forced-choice tasks, and by visual search. Moreover, further behavioral studies (visual search) and brain imaging studies have suggested strongly that the categorical effect of language on color processing is left-lateralized, i.e., mediated by activity in the left cerebral hemisphere in adults (hence "lateralized Whorfian" effects). The present results appear to provide a structural basis in the brain for the behavioral and neurophysiologically observed indices of these Whorfian effects on color processing.

  10. A method for rapid measurement of laser ablation rate of hard dental tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perhavec, T.; Gorkič, A.; Bračun, D.; Diaci, J.

    2009-06-01

    The aim of the study reported here is the development of a new method which allows rapid and accurate in-vitro measurements of three-dimensional (3D) shape of laser ablated craters in hard dental tissues and the determination of crater volume, ablation rate and speed. The method is based on the optical triangulation principle. A laser sheet projector illuminates the surface of a tooth, mounted on a linear translation stage. As the tooth is moved by the translation stage a fast digital video camera captures series of images of the illuminated surface. The images are analyzed to determine a 3D model of the surface. Custom software is employed to analyze the 3D model and to determine the volume of the ablated craters. Key characteristics of the method are discussed as well as some practical aspects pertinent to its use. The method has been employed in an in-vitro study to examine the ablation rates and speeds of the two main laser types currently employed in dentistry, Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG. Ten samples of extracted human molar teeth were irradiated with laser pulse energies from 80 mJ to the maximum available energy (970 mJ with the Er:YAG, and 260 mJ with the Er,Cr:YSGG). About 2000 images of each ablated tooth surface have been acquired along a translation range of 10 mm, taking about 10 s and providing close to 1 million surface measurement points. Volumes of 170 ablated craters (half of them in dentine and the other half in enamel) were determined from this data and used to examine the ablated volume per pulse energy and ablation speed. The results show that, under the same conditions, the ablated volume per pulse energy achieved by the Er:YAG laser exceeds that of the Er,Cr:YSGG laser in almost all regimes for dentine and enamel. The maximum Er:YAG laser ablation speeds (1.2 mm 3/s in dentine and 0.7 mm 3/s in enamel) exceed those obtained by the Er,Cr:YSGG laser (0.39 mm 3/s in dentine and 0.12 mm 3/s in enamel). Since the presented method proves to be easy to

  11. Increasing Nucleosome Occupancy Is Correlated with an Increasing Mutation Rate so Long as DNA Repair Machinery Is Intact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puya G Yazdi

    Full Text Available Deciphering the multitude of epigenomic and genomic factors that influence the mutation rate is an area of great interest in modern biology. Recently, chromatin has been shown to play a part in this process. To elucidate this relationship further, we integrated our own ultra-deep sequenced human nucleosomal DNA data set with a host of published human genomic and cancer genomic data sets. Our results revealed, that differences in nucleosome occupancy are associated with changes in base-specific mutation rates. Increasing nucleosome occupancy is associated with an increasing transition to transversion ratio and an increased germline mutation rate within the human genome. Additionally, cancer single nucleotide variants and microindels are enriched within nucleosomes and both the coding and non-coding cancer mutation rate increases with increasing nucleosome occupancy. There is an enrichment of cancer indels at the theoretical start (74 bp and end (115 bp of linker DNA between two nucleosomes. We then hypothesized that increasing nucleosome occupancy decreases access to DNA by DNA repair machinery and could account for the increasing mutation rate. Such a relationship should not exist in DNA repair knockouts, and we thus repeated our analysis in DNA repair machinery knockouts to test our hypothesis. Indeed, our results revealed no correlation between increasing nucleosome occupancy and increasing mutation rate in DNA repair knockouts. Our findings emphasize the linkage of the genome and epigenome through the nucleosome whose properties can affect genome evolution and genetic aberrations such as cancer.

  12. Increased Sensitivity of a New Coagglutination Test for Rapid Identification of Haemophilus influenzae Type b

    OpenAIRE

    Grasso, Robert J.; West, Loyd A.; Holbrook, Nikki J.; Halkias, Demetrios G.; Paradise, Lois J.; Friedman, Herman

    1981-01-01

    A newly developed rapid coagglutination test for identifying Haemophilus influenzae type b organisms isolated from clinical specimens correlated 100% with the slide agglutination test but was 100- to 200-fold more sensitive.

  13. Small Projects Rapid Integration and Test Environment (SPRITE): Application for Increasing Robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, John; Heater, Daniel; Lee, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Small Projects Rapid Integration and Test Environment (SPRITE) is a Hardware-In-The-Loop (HWIL) facility that provides rapid development, integration, and testing capabilities for small projects (CubeSats, payloads, spacecraft, and launch vehicles). This facility environment focuses on efficient processes and modular design to support rapid prototyping, integration, testing and verification of small projects at an affordable cost, especially compared to larger type HWIL facilities. SPRITE (Figure 1) consists of a "core" capability or "plant" simulation platform utilizing a graphical programming environment capable of being rapidly re-configured for any potential test article's space environments, as well as a standard set of interfaces (i.e. Mil-Std 1553, Serial, Analog, Digital, etc.). SPRITE also allows this level of interface testing of components and subsystems very early in a program, thereby reducing program risk.

  14. Training of Tonal Similarity Ratings in Non-Musicians: A “Rapid Learning” Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oechslin, Mathias S.; Läge, Damian; Vitouch, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Although cognitive music psychology has a long tradition of expert–novice comparisons, experimental training studies are rare. Studies on the learning progress of trained novices in hearing harmonic relationships are still largely lacking. This paper presents a simple training concept using the example of tone/triad similarity ratings, demonstrating the gradual progress of non-musicians compared to musical experts: In a feedback-based “rapid learning” paradigm, participants had to decide for single tones and chords whether paired sounds matched each other well. Before and after the training sessions, they provided similarity judgments for a complete set of sound pairs. From these similarity matrices, individual relational sound maps, intended to display mental representations, were calculated by means of non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), and were compared to an expert model through procrustean transformation. Approximately half of the novices showed substantial learning success, with some participants even reaching the level of professional musicians. Results speak for a fundamental ability to quickly train an understanding of harmony, show inter-individual differences in learning success, and demonstrate the suitability of the scaling method used for learning research in music and other domains. Results are discussed in the context of the “giftedness” debate. PMID:22629252

  15. Training of tonal similarity ratings in non-musicians: a rapid learning approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias S Oechslin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Although music psychology has a long tradition of expert-novice comparisons, experimental training studies are rare. Studies on the learning progress of trained novices in hearing harmonic relationships are still largely lacking. This paper presents a simple training concept using the example of tone/triad similarity ratings, demonstrating the gradual progress of non-musicians compared to musical experts: In a feedback-based rapid learning paradigm, participants had to decide for single tones and chords whether paired sounds matched each other well. Before and after the training sessions, they provided similarity judgments for a complete set of sound pairs. From these similarity matrices, individual relational sound maps, aiming to map the mental representations, were calculated by means of non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS, which were compared to an expert model through procrustean transformation. Approximately half of the novices showed substantial learning success, with some participants even reaching the level of professional musicians. Results speak for a fundamental ability to quickly train an understanding of harmony, show inter-individual differences in learning success, and demonstrate the suitability of the scaling method used for music psychological research. Results are discussed in the context of the giftedness debate.

  16. Training of tonal similarity ratings in non-musicians: a "rapid learning" approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oechslin, Mathias S; Läge, Damian; Vitouch, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Although cognitive music psychology has a long tradition of expert-novice comparisons, experimental training studies are rare. Studies on the learning progress of trained novices in hearing harmonic relationships are still largely lacking. This paper presents a simple training concept using the example of tone/triad similarity ratings, demonstrating the gradual progress of non-musicians compared to musical experts: In a feedback-based "rapid learning" paradigm, participants had to decide for single tones and chords whether paired sounds matched each other well. Before and after the training sessions, they provided similarity judgments for a complete set of sound pairs. From these similarity matrices, individual relational sound maps, intended to display mental representations, were calculated by means of non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), and were compared to an expert model through procrustean transformation. Approximately half of the novices showed substantial learning success, with some participants even reaching the level of professional musicians. Results speak for a fundamental ability to quickly train an understanding of harmony, show inter-individual differences in learning success, and demonstrate the suitability of the scaling method used for learning research in music and other domains. Results are discussed in the context of the "giftedness" debate.

  17. 12 CFR 227.24 - Unfair acts or practices regarding increases in annual percentage rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... increase the annual percentage rate for a category of transactions on any consumer credit card account... exception. An annual percentage rate for a category of transactions may be increased to a rate disclosed at... exception. An annual percentage rate for a category of transactions that varies according to an index that...

  18. Evolution of movement rate increases the effectiveness of marine reserves for the conservation of pelagic fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Jonathan A; Otto, Sarah P; Pauly, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Current debates about the efficacy of no-take marine reserves (MR) in protecting large pelagic fish such as tuna and sharks have usually not considered the evolutionary dimension of this issue, which emerges because the propensity to swim away from a given place, like any other biological trait, will probably vary in a heritable fashion among individuals. Here, based on spatially explicit simulations, we investigated whether selection to remain in MRs to avoid higher fishing mortality can lead to the evolution of more philopatric fish. Our simulations, which covered a range of life histories among tuna species (skipjack tuna vs. Atlantic bluefin tuna) and shark species (great white sharks vs. spiny dogfish), suggested that MRs were most effective at maintaining viable population sizes when movement distances were lowest. Decreased movement rate evolved following the establishment of marine reserves, and this evolution occurred more rapidly with higher fishing pressure. Evolutionary reductions in movement rate led to increases in within-reserve population sizes over the course of the 50 years following MR establishment, although this varied among life histories, with skipjack responding fastest and great white sharks slowest. Our results suggest the evolution of decreased movement can augment the efficacy of marine reserves, especially for species, such as skipjack tuna, with relatively short generation times. Even when movement rates did not evolve substantially over 50 years (e.g., given long generation times or little heritable variation), marine reserves were an effective tool for the conservation of fish populations when mean movement rates were low or MRs were large.

  19. Increased Denitrification Rates Associated with Shifts in Prokaryotic Community Composition Caused by Varying Hydrologic Connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Tomasek

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available While modern developments in agriculture have allowed for increases in crop yields and rapid human population growth, they have also drastically altered biogeochemical cycles, including the biotransformation of nitrogen. Denitrification is a critical process performed by bacteria and fungi that removes nitrate in surface waters, thereby serving as a potential natural remediation strategy. We previously reported that constant inundation resulted in a coupling of denitrification gene abundances with denitrification rates in sediments, but these relationships were not maintained in periodically-inundated or non-inundated environments. In this study, we utilized Illumina next-generation sequencing to further evaluate how the microbial community responds to these hydrologic regimes and how this community is related to denitrification rates at three sites along a creek in an agricultural watershed over 2 years. The hydrologic connectivity of the sampling location had a significantly greater influence on the denitrification rate (P = 0.010, denitrification gene abundances (P < 0.001, and the prokaryotic community (P < 0.001, than did other spatiotemporal factors (e.g., creek sample site or sample month within the same year. However, annual variability among denitrification rates was also observed (P < 0.001. Furthermore, the denitrification rate was significantly positively correlated with water nitrate concentration (Spearman's ρ = 0.56, P < 0.0001, denitrification gene abundances (ρ = 0.23–0.47, P ≤ 0.006, and the abundances of members of the families Burkholderiaceae, Anaerolinaceae, Microbacteriaceae, Acidimicrobineae incertae sedis, Cytophagaceae, and Hyphomicrobiaceae (ρ = 0.17–0.25, P ≤ 0.041. Prokaryotic community composition accounted for the least amount of variation in denitrification rates (22%, while the collective influence of spatiotemporal factors and gene abundances accounted for 37%, with 40% of the variation related to

  20. Increases in myocardial workload induced by rapid atrial pacing trigger alterations in global metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslan T Turer

    Full Text Available To determine whether increases in cardiac work lead to alterations in the plasma metabolome and whether such changes arise from the heart or peripheral organs.There is growing evidence that the heart influences systemic metabolism through endocrine effects and affecting pathways involved in energy homeostasis.Nineteen patients referred for cardiac catheterization were enrolled. Peripheral and selective coronary sinus (CS blood sampling was performed at serial timepoints following the initiation of pacing, and metabolite profiling was performed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS.Pacing-stress resulted in a 225% increase in the median rate·pressure product from baseline. Increased myocardial work induced significant changes in the peripheral concentration of 43 of 125 metabolites assayed, including large changes in purine [adenosine (+99%, p = 0.006, ADP (+42%, p = 0.01, AMP (+79%, p = 0.004, GDP (+69%, p = 0.003, GMP (+58%, p = 0.01, IMP (+50%, p = 0.03, xanthine (+61%, p = 0.0006], and several bile acid metabolites. The CS changes in metabolites qualitatively mirrored those in the peripheral blood in both timing and magnitude, suggesting the heart was not the major source of the metabolite release.Isolated increases in myocardial work can induce changes in the plasma metabolome, but these changes do not appear to be directly cardiac in origin. A number of these dynamic metabolites have known signaling functions. Our study provides additional evidence to a growing body of literature on metabolic 'cross-talk' between the heart and other organs.

  1. Evaluation of the use of conductimetry for the rapid and precise measurement of Salmonella spp. growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, A E; Patterson, M F; Kilpatrick, D; Madden, R H

    2006-10-01

    The growth rates of 14 Salmonella serovars in tryptone soy broth plus yeast extract (TSBYE) were estimated using conventional plating techniques and indirect conductimetry using a Don Whitley RABIT system. Both methods gave identical results for the maximum specific growth rate (mumax) P>0.05. However, using the conductimetric method, mumax for a single serovar was determined in less than 7 h, whereas the conventional method required an additional 24 h. In addition, the conductimetric method was considerably more precise, much less labour-intensive and required the use of considerably less consumables. Using conductimetry, a trained operator could accurately determine mumax for 24 serovars in 3 working days, but only one serovar using the conventional plate counting technique. Hence, the use of conductimetry can markedly increase the precision and accuracy of mumax determinations by allowing a very significant increase in the number of results obtained and in their precision. The data generated will allow the development of better mathematical growth models. The method can also be used to compare growth media and conditions and hence rapidly optimise detection protocols for this pathogen.

  2. Rapid Mantle Ascent Rates Beneath Brazil: Diamond Bullets from a Smoking Plume?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, M. J.; Frost, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    inclusions in diamonds from Juina also provide evidence for mantle ascent of this magnitude [2, 3]. The questions are (1) over what timeframe do the diamonds ascend? (2) what causes mantle ascent beneath the craton? Bulanova et al [2] were able to obtain a U/Pb age for the J1 perovskite inclusion, giving an astonishingly young model age of 101 ±7 Ma, close to the eruption age of the host kimberlite (93 ±1.5 Ma). From the time and depth differences we calculate ascent rates of about 1 to 50 cm/yr. We suggest that such rapid rates of mantle ascent beneath a craton may be ascribed to buoyant upwelling of mantle material. Diamond speedometry may provide direct evidence for a Cretaceous plume beneath Brazil, which was ultimately responsible for alkaline and kimberlite magmatism, and probably the Trindade magmatic track [6]. 1. Harte et al., Geochem. Soc. Spec. Pub, 1999, 125-153. 2. Bulanova et al., CMP, 2010, DOI:10.1007/s00410-010-0490-6. 3. Harte and Cayzer, Phys. Chem. Min., 2007. 4. Shirey et al., Science, 2002. 297, 1683- 1686. 5. Walter et al., Nature, 2008. 454, 622-625. [6] Gibson et al., J Petrol, 1995, 36, 89-229.

  3. Rapid Heartbeat, But Dry Palms: Reactions of Heart Rate and Skin Conductance Levels to Social Rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eIffland

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social rejection elicits negative mood, emotional distress and neural activity in networks that are associated with physical pain. However, studies assessing physiological reactions to social rejection are rare and results of these studies were found to be ambiguous. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine and specify physiological effects of social rejection.Methods: Participants (N = 50 were assigned to either a social exclusion or inclusion condition of a virtual ball-tossing game (Cyberball. Immediate and delayed physiological (skin conductance level and heart rate reactions were recorded. In addition, subjects reported levels of affect, emotional states and fundamental needs.Results: Subjects who were socially rejected showed increased heart rates. However, social rejection had no effect on subjects’ skin conductance levels. Both conditions showed heightened arousal on this measurement. Furthermore, psychological consequences of social rejection indicated the validity of the paradigm.Conclusions: Our results reveal that social rejection evokes an immediate physiological reaction. Accelerated heart rates indicate that behavior activation rather than inhibition is associated with socially threatening events. In addition, results revealed gender-specific response patterns suggesting that sample characteristics such as differences in gender may account for ambiguous findings of physiological reactions to social rejection.

  4. Rapid heartbeat, but dry palms: reactions of heart rate and skin conductance levels to social rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iffland, Benjamin; Sansen, Lisa M; Catani, Claudia; Neuner, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Social rejection elicits negative mood, emotional distress, and neural activity in networks that are associated with physical pain. However, studies assessing physiological reactions to social rejection are rare and results of these studies were found to be ambiguous. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine and specify physiological effects of social rejection. Participants (n = 50) were assigned to either a social exclusion or inclusion condition of a virtual ball-tossing game (Cyberball). Immediate and delayed physiological [skin conductance level (SCL) and heart rate] reactions were recorded. In addition, subjects reported levels of affect, emotional states, and fundamental needs. Subjects who were socially rejected showed increased heart rates. However, social rejection had no effect on subjects' SCLs. Both conditions showed heightened arousal on this measurement. Furthermore, psychological consequences of social rejection indicated the validity of the paradigm. Our results reveal that social rejection evokes an immediate physiological reaction. Accelerated heart rates indicate that behavior activation rather than inhibition is associated with socially threatening events. In addition, results revealed gender-specific response patterns suggesting that sample characteristics such as differences in gender may account for ambiguous findings of physiological reactions to social rejection.

  5. Seismicity and Deformation of Krafla Volcano, Iceland. Intervals of Low Seismicity Rate during Rapid Inflation Explained By the Kaiser Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimisson, E. R.; Einarsson, P.; Sigmundsson, F.; Brandsdottir, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Krafla central volcano in NE-Iceland produced about 20 dike intrusions during a rifting episode 1975-1984. These intrusions were always preceded by inflation of the caldera. Once a dike started propagating rapid deflation was observed. The first deflation event began in December 1975 with a dike traveling laterally from the magma chamber. Leveling measurements revealed subsidence of 2 m close to the deflation center. In February 1976 a stage of inflation began and at the same time the seismicity rate in the caldera rose in good correlation with the inflation. A small intrusion started propagating in late September 1976 which was accompanied by maximum subsidence of about 14 cm. However in the next 3 inflation and deflation cycles the inflation periods were almost aseismic until the inflation level of previous cycle was exceeded. At that point a sharp increase in the caldera earthquake count was observed. This phenomenon was observed until late April 1977 when a fissure eruption occurred inside the caldera. By inverting leveling data from 87 stations for a Mogi source and regarding the volume change of the source as a measure of stress we suggest that this phenomenon can be explained by the Kaiser effect. The Kaiser effect is well known from rock mechanics where under cyclic loading and unloading rocks, and other materials, induce dramatic increase in acoustic emissions when the load exceeds that of previous cycles. Krafla demonstrated the same effect while the external stress field was not significantly changed during the aforementioned 3 inflation/deflation cycles. This condition was disturbed when eruption occurred inside the caldera. The state of stress in the vicinity of the magma chamber was changed and subsequent inflation periods were not accompanied by significant seismicity. These results indicate that the Kaiser effect is an important part of understanding the relationship between deformation and seismicity in active volcanoes. The importance of

  6. Mutation Rates and Discriminating Power for 13 Rapidly-Mutating Y-STRs between Related and Unrelated Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Boattini

    Full Text Available Rapidly Mutating Y-STRs (RM Y-STRs were recently introduced in forensics in order to increase the differentiation of Y-chromosomal profiles even in case of close relatives. We estimate RM Y-STRs mutation rates and their power to discriminate between related individuals by using samples extracted from a wide set of paternal pedigrees and by comparing RM Y-STRs results with those obtained from the Y-filer set. In addition, we tested the ability of RM Y-STRs to discriminate between unrelated individuals carrying the same Y-filer haplotype, using the haplogroup R-M269 (reportedly characterised by a strong resemblance in Y-STR profiles as a case study. Our results, despite confirming the high mutability of RM Y-STRs, show significantly lower mutation rates than reference germline ones. Consequently, their power to discriminate between related individuals, despite being higher than the one of Y-filer, does not seem to improve significantly the performance of the latter. On the contrary, when considering R-M269 unrelated individuals, RM Y-STRs reveal significant discriminatory power and retain some phylogenetic signal, allowing the correct classification of individuals for some R-M269-derived sub-lineages. These results have important implications not only for forensics, but also for molecular anthropology, suggesting that RM Y-STRs are useful tools for exploring subtle genetic variability within Y-chromosomal haplogroups.

  7. Synthetic polymers in the marine environment: a rapidly increasing, long-term threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Charles James

    2008-10-01

    Synthetic polymers, commonly known as plastics, have been entering the marine environment in quantities paralleling their level of production over the last half century. However, in the last two decades of the 20th Century, the deposition rate accelerated past the rate of production, and plastics are now one of the most common and persistent pollutants in ocean waters and beaches worldwide. Thirty years ago the prevailing attitude of the plastic industry was that "plastic litter is a very small proportion of all litter and causes no harm to the environment except as an eyesore" [Derraik, J.G.B., 2002. The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 44(9), 842-852]. Between 1960 and 2000, the world production of plastic resins increased 25-fold, while recovery of the material remained below 5%. Between 1970 and 2003, plastics became the fastest growing segment of the US municipal waste stream, increasing nine-fold, and marine litter is now 60-80% plastic, reaching 90-95% in some areas. While undoubtedly still an eyesore, plastic debris today is having significant harmful effects on marine biota. Albatross, fulmars, shearwaters and petrels mistake floating plastics for food, and many individuals of these species are affected; in fact, 44% of all seabird species are known to ingest plastic. Sea turtles ingest plastic bags, fishing line and other plastics, as do 26 species of cetaceans. In all, 267 species of marine organisms worldwide are known to have been affected by plastic debris, a number that will increase as smaller organisms are assessed. The number of fish, birds, and mammals that succumb each year to derelict fishing nets and lines in which they become entangled cannot be reliably known; but estimates are in the millions. We divide marine plastic debris into two categories: macro, >5 mm and micro, plastic micro-debris by filter feeders at the base of the food web is known to occur, but has not been quantified

  8. Increased drying rate lowers the critical water content for survival in embryonic axes of English oak (Quercus robur L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntuli, Tobias M; Finch-Savage, William E; Berjak, Patricia; Pammenter, Norman W

    2011-04-01

    The potential to cryopreserve embryonic axes of desiccation-sensitive (recalcitrant) seeds is limited by damage during the desiccation necessary for low temperature survival, but the basis of this injury and how to reduce it is not well understood. The effects of drying rate on the viability, respiratory metabolism and free radical-mediated processes were therefore investigated during dehydration of Quercus robur L. embryonic axes. Viability, assessed by evidence of germination and tetrazolium staining, showed a sharp decline at 0.27 and 0.8 g/g during rapid (<12 h) or slow (3 d) dehydration, respectively. Rapid dehydration therefore lowered the critical water content for survival. At any given water content rapid dehydration was associated with higher activities of the free radical processing enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase and lower levels of hydroperoxide and membrane damage. Rapid dehydration was also associated with lower malate dehydrogenase activity, and a reduced decline in phosphofructokinase activity and in levels of the oxidized form of nicotinamide dinucleotide. Ageing may have contributed to increased damage during slow dehydration, since viability declined even in hydrated storage after 3 d. The results presented are consistent with rapid dehydration reducing the accumulation of damage resulting from desiccation induced aqueous-based deleterious reactions. © 2011 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. The Increasing Trend in Caesarean Section Rates: Global, Regional and National Estimates: 1990-2014

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Betrán, Ana Pilar; Ye, Jianfeng; Moller, Anne-Beth; Zhang, Jun; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Torloni, Maria Regina

    2016-01-01

    Caesarean section (CS) rates continue to evoke worldwide concern because of their steady increase, lack of consensus on the appropriate CS rate and the associated additional short- and long-term risks and costs...

  10. Rapid protein disappearance rates along the small intestine advantage poultry performance and influence the post-enteral availability of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Ha H; Chrystal, Peter V; Moss, Amy F; Selle, Peter H; Liu, Sonia Yun

    2017-12-01

    A foundation diet, an intermediate blend and a summit diet were formulated with different levels of soyabean meal, casein and crystalline amino acids to compare 'slow' and 'rapid' protein diets. The diets were offered to male Ross 308 chicks from 7 to 28 d post-hatch and assessed parameters included growth performance, nutrient utilisation, apparent digestibility coefficients and disappearance rates of starch and protein (N) in four small intestinal segments. Digestibility coefficients and disappearance rates of sixteen amino acids in three small intestinal segments and amino acid concentrations in plasma from portal and systemic circulations from the foundation and summit diets were determined. The dietary transition significantly accelerated protein (N) disappearance rates in the distal jejunum and ileum. The transition from foundation to summit diets significantly increased starch digestibility coefficients in the ileum and disappearance rates in all four small intestinal segments. These starch responses were associated with significant enhancements in nutrient utilisation. The dietary transition linearly increased digestibility coefficients and disappearance rates of amino acids in the majority of cases. The summit diet increased plasma concentrations of five amino acids but decreased those of four amino acids relative to the foundation diet to significant extents. Plasma concentrations of free amino acids were higher in the portal than systemic circulations. Rapid protein disappearance rates advantaged poultry performance and influenced post-enteral availability of amino acids. If the underlying mechanisms are to be identified, further research into the impact of protein digestive dynamics on broiler performance is required but appears justified.

  11. Rapid detoxification from opioid dependence under general anaesthesia versus standard methadone tapering: abstinence rates and withdrawal distress experiences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, P.F.M.; Koning, J.P.; Heinen, N.; Laheij, R.J.F.; Cauter, R.M.V. van; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study abstinence rates and withdrawal effects of rapid detoxification of opioid-dependents under general anaesthesia (RD-GA) compared to standard methadone tapering (SMT) using a prospective clinical trial with a follow-up of 3 months, as a preliminary study at the

  12. Rapid detoxification from opioid dependence under general anaesthesia versus standard methadone tapering : abstinence rates and withdrawal distress experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, Paul F M; Koning, Jeroen P F; Heinen, Nadia; Laheij, Robert J F; van Cauter, R M Victory; De Jong, Cor A J

    The aim of this work was to study abstinence rates and withdrawal effects of rapid detoxification of opioid-dependents under general anaesthesia (RD-GA) compared to standard methadone tapering (SMT) using a prospective clinical trial with a follow-up of 3 months, as a preliminary study at the

  13. The Hidden Epidemic of Firearm Injury: Increasing Firearm Injury Rates During 2001-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalesan, Bindu; Adhikarla, Chandana; Pressley, Joyce C; Fagan, Jeffrey A; Xuan, Ziming; Siegel, Michael B; Galea, Sandro

    2017-04-01

    Investigating firearm injury trends over the past decade, we examined temporal trends overall and according to race/ethnicity and intent in fatal and nonfatal firearm injuries (FFIs and NFIs) in United States during 2001-2013. Counts of FFIs and estimated counts of NFIs were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System. Poisson regression was used to analyze overall and subgroup temporal trends and to estimate annual change per 100,000 persons (change). Total firearm injuries (n = 1,328,109) increased annually by 0.36 (Ptrend < 0.0001). FFIs remained constant (change = 0.02; Ptrend = 0.22) while NFIs increased (change = 0.35; Ptrend < 0.0001). Homicide FFIs declined (change = -0.05; Ptrend < 0.0001) while homicide NFIs increased (change = 0.43; Ptrend < 0.0001). Suicide FFIs increased (change = 0.07; Ptrend < 0.0001) while unintentional FFIs and NFIs declined (changes = -0.01 and -0.09, respectively; Ptrend < 0.0001 and 0.005). Among whites, FFIs (change = 0.15; Ptrend < 0.0001) and NFIs (change = 0.13; Ptrend < 0.0001) increased; among blacks, FFIs declined (change = -0.20; Ptrend < 0.0001). Among Hispanics, FFIs declined (change = -0.28; Ptrend < 0.0001) while NFIs increased (change = 0.55; Ptrend = 0.014). The endemic firearm-related injury rates during the first decade of the 21st century mask a shift from firearm deaths towards a rapid rise in nonfatal injuries. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Rapid intervention and treatment zone: redesigning nursing services to meet increasing emergency department demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considine, Julie; Lucas, Elspeth; Martin, Roslyn; Stergiou, Helen E; Kropman, Matthew; Chiu, Herman

    2012-02-01

    The impact of emergency nursing roles in demand management systems is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate emergency nurses' role in a specific emergency department (ED) demand management system: rapid intervention and treatment zone (RITZ). A descriptive exploratory approach was used. Data were collected from audit of 193 randomly selected patient records and 12 h of clinical practice observation. The median age of participants was 31 years, 51.8% were males and 99.5% were discharged home. Nurse qualifications or seniority had no significant effect on waiting time or length of stay (LOS). There were disparities between documented and observed nursing practice. The designation and qualifications of RITZ nurses made little difference to waiting times and ED LOS. Specific documentation and communication systems for areas of the ED that manage large numbers of low complexity patients warrant further research. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Review of Research Shows, Overall, Acupuncture Did Not Increase Pregnancy Rates with IVF

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overall, Acupuncture Did Not Increase Pregnancy Rates With IVF Share: An analysis of research conducted on acupuncture ... an adjuvant (booster) treatment to in vitro fertilization (IVF) found that, overall, acupuncture did not increase pregnancy ...

  16. Rapid ice unloading in the Fleming Glacier region, southern Antarctic Peninsula, and its effect on bedrock uplift rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chen; King, Matt A.; Watson, Christopher S.; Barletta, Valentina R.; Bordoni, Andrea; Dell, Matthew; Whitehouse, Pippa L.

    2017-09-01

    Rapid regional warming in the Antarctic Peninsula has led to the significant retreat and eventual collapse of several major ice shelves since the 1970s, triggering the subsequent acceleration and thinning of their feeding glaciers. The Wordie Ice Shelf, lying off the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula, has undergone long-term disintegration since the 1960s with a substantial calving event occurring around 1989, followed by continuous steady retreat and its almost-complete disappearance. The dynamic response of the upstream glaciers to the ice shelf collapse and the response of the solid Earth to the associated mass loss are not fully understood. To quantify the mass loss from the system, we generated a digital elevation model (DEM) using airborne vertical and oblique imagery from 1966 and compared it to a DEM derived from 2008 SPOT data. This analysis reveals lowering over that time of approximately 60 m at the front of Fleming Glacier. Using IceBridge and ICESat-2/GLAS data spanning 2002-2014, we show an increased rate of mean ice-surface lowering, with rates post-2008 more than twice those of 2002-2008. We use these load change data as a basis for the simulation of viscoelastic solid Earth deformation. We subtract modeled elastic deformation rates, and a suite of modeled viscous rates, from GPS-derived three-dimensional bedrock velocities at sites to the south of Fleming Glacier to infer properties of Earth rheology. Assuming the pre-breakup bedrock uplift was positive due to post-Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) ice retreat, our viscoelastic-corrected GPS uplift rates suggest upper mantle viscosities are > 2 ×1019 Pas and likely > 1 ×1020 Pas in this region, 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than previously found for the northern Antarctic Peninsula. Horizontal velocities at the GPS site nearest the Fleming Glacier, after the application of elastic and plate tectonic corrections, point away from Marguerite Bay rather than the present glacier front. This suggests

  17. Rising Tide II: Do Black Students Benefit as Grad Rates Increase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Andrew Howard; Eberle-Sudré, Kimberlee; Welch, Meredith

    2016-01-01

    "Rising Tide II: Do Black Students Benefit as Grad Rates Increase?" looks at a decade of graduation rates for African American students at four-year, public institutions that improved student success during the past decade. It shows that while a majority (almost 70 percent) of institutions we examined improved graduation rates for black…

  18. Rapid increases in obesity in Jamaica, compared to Nigeria and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazo-Arvizu, Ramón A; Luke, Amy; Cooper, Richard S; Cao, Guichan; Dugas, Lara; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Boyne, Michael; Forrester, Terrence

    2008-01-01

    Background Weight gain in adulthood is now common in many populations, ranging from modest gains in developing countries to a substantial percentage of body weight in some Western societies. To examine the rate of change across the spectrum of low to high-income countries we compared rates of weight change in samples drawn from three countries, Nigeria, Jamaica and the United States. Methods Population samples from Nigeria (n = 1,242), Jamaica (n = 1,409), and the US (n = 809) were selected during the period 1995–1999 in adults over the age of 19; participation rates in the original survey were 96%, 60%, and 60%, respectively. Weight in (kg) was measured on 3 different occasions, ending in 2005. Multi-level regression models were used to estimate weight change over time and pattern-mixture models were applied to assess the potential effect of missing data on estimates of the model parameters. Results The unadjusted weight gain rate (standard error) was 0.34(0.06), 1.26(0.12), 0.34(0.19) kg/year among men and 0.43(0.06), 1.28(0.10), 0.40(0.15) kg/year among women in Nigeria, Jamaica, US, respectively. Regression-adjusted weight change rates were significantly different across country, sex, and baseline BMI. Adjusted weight gain in Nigeria, Jamaica and US was 0.31(0.05), 1.37(.04), and 0.52(0.05) kg/year respectively. Women in Nigeria and the US had higher weight gains than men, with the converse observed among Jamaicans. The obese experienced weight loss across all three samples, whereas the normal weight (BMI Jamaica, relative to Nigeria and the US, is most likely attributable to the accelerating effects of the cultural and behavioral shifts which have come to bear on transitional societies. PMID:18433493

  19. 78 FR 59775 - Blueberry Promotion, Research and Information Order; Assessment Rate Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1218 Blueberry Promotion, Research and Information Order; Assessment Rate... Blueberry Promotion, Research and Information Order (Order) to increase the assessment rate from $12 to $18 per ton (an increase of $0.003 per pound). The Order is administered by the U.S. Highbush Blueberry...

  20. 75 FR 55942 - Avocados Grown in South Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 915 Avocados Grown in South Florida; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY... increases the assessment rate established for the Avocado Administrative Committee (Committee) for the 2010...

  1. 76 FR 61074 - USDA Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar AGENCY... increase in the fiscal year (FY) 2011 refined sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) of 136,078 metric tons raw... MTRV for sugars, syrups, and molasses (collectively referred to as refined sugar) described in...

  2. Does global warning increase establishment rates of invasive alien species? A centurial time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingcheng Huang; Robert A. Haack; Runzhi. Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The establishment rate of invasive alien insect species has been increasing worldwide during the past century. This trend has been widely attributed to increased rates of international trade and associated species introductions, but rarely linked to environmental change. To better understand and manage the bioinvasion process, it is crucial to understand the...

  3. Severe Sepsis Manifesting as A-Fib with Rapid Ventricular Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Nicholson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This simulation is designed to educate emergency medicine residents and medical students on the diagnosis and management of an adult patient with sepsis due to a decubitus ulcer manifesting as acute-onset atrial fibrillation (A-fib with rapid ventricular response (RVR. Introduction: Adult patients frequently present critically ill from sepsis. Proper diagnosis and management require a focused but thorough history and physical exam, as well as an appropriate diagnostic workup. Management includes aggressive care with antibiotics and intravenous fluids, and may require vasoactive agents. Objectives: Learners will be able to identify and manage atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response. Additionally, learners will be able to identify the concurrent infection and determine the appropriate management in the setting of A-fib with RVR. The case also provides learners with the opportunity to review principles of leadership, teamwork, and effective communication. Method: This session was conducted using high-fidelity simulation, followed by a debriefing session.

  4. Does global warming increase establishment rates of invasive alien species? A centurial time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dingcheng; Haack, Robert A; Zhang, Runzhi

    2011-01-01

    The establishment rate of invasive alien insect species has been increasing worldwide during the past century. This trend has been widely attributed to increased rates of international trade and associated species introductions, but rarely linked to environmental change. To better understand and manage the bioinvasion process, it is crucial to understand the relationship between global warming and establishment rate of invasive alien species, especially for poikilothermic invaders such as insects. We present data that demonstrate a significant positive relationship between the change in average annual surface air temperature and the establishment rate of invasive alien insects in mainland China during 1900-2005. This relationship was modeled by regression analysis, and indicated that a 1 °C increase in average annual surface temperature in mainland China was associated with an increase in the establishment rate of invasive alien insects of about 0.5 species year⁻¹. The relationship between rising surface air temperature and increasing establishment rate remained significant even after accounting for increases in international trade during the period 1950-2005. Moreover, similar relationships were detected using additional data from the United Kingdom and the contiguous United States. These findings suggest that the perceived increase in establishments of invasive alien insects can be explained only in part by an increase in introduction rate or propagule pressure. Besides increasing propagule pressure, global warming is another driver that could favor worldwide bioinvasions. Our study highlights the need to consider global warming when designing strategies and policies to deal with bioinvasions.

  5. Mechanical stimulation evokes rapid increases in extracellular adenosine concentration in the prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Ashley E.; Nguyen, Michael D.; Privman, Eve; Venton, B. Jill

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical perturbations can release ATP, which is broken down to adenosine. In this work, we used carbon-fiber microelectrodes and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to measure mechanically-stimulated adenosine in the brain by lowering the electrode 50 μm. Mechanical stimulation evoked adenosine in vivo (average: 3.3 ± 0.6 μM) and in brain slices (average: 0.8 ± 0.1 μM) in the prefrontal cortex. The release was transient, lasting 18 ± 2 s. Lowering a 15 μm diameter glass pipette near the carbon-fiber microelectrode produced similar results as lowering the actual microelectrode. However, applying a small puff of artificial cerebral spinal fluid was not sufficient to evoke adenosine. Multiple stimulations within a 50 μm region of a slice did not significantly change over time or damage cells. Chelating calcium with EDTA or blocking sodium channels with tetrodotoxin (TTX) significantly decreased mechanically evoked adenosine, signifying that the release is activity-dependent. An alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptor antagonist, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), did not affect mechanically-stimulated adenosine; however, the nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1,2 and 3 (NTDPase) inhibitor POM-1 significantly reduced adenosine so a portion of adenosine is dependent on extracellular ATP metabolism. Thus, mechanical perturbations from inserting a probe in the brain cause rapid, transient adenosine signaling which might be neuroprotective. PMID:24606335

  6. Rapidly increasing prescribing of proton pump inhibitors in primary care despite interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Peter; Paulsen, Maja Skov; Zwisler, Jon Eik

    2014-01-01

    2001-2011 and to assess the impacts of interventions on prescribing of antisecretory medication. Methods: Register-based cohort study covering the entire Danish population of currently 5.5 million inhabitants. Developments in the prescribing of antisecretory medication over time in Denmark between 2001...... increased substantially during the past decade. Both number of users and the average individual use have increased. The prescribing of ulcerogenic drugs to the elderly has stagnated in the same time range. Reimbursement modifications and scientific guidelines do not seem to have had a substantial influence...... on the steadily increasing prescribing of PPIs. Conclusion: Use of PPIs has increased substantially during the past decade, without a change in indications for use of PPIs in the same time range. Interventions to enhance adherence to guidelines and promote rational use of PPIs do not seem to have had...

  7. Rapid Growth and Apparent Total Nitrogen Increases in Rice and Corn Plants following Applications of Triacontanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, N R; Ries, S K

    1981-12-01

    Triacontanol (TRIA) increased fresh and dry weight and total reducible nitrogen (total N) of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings within 40 minutes. Increases in total N in the supernatants from homogenates of corn (Zea mays L.) and rice leaves treated with TRIA for one minute before grinding occurred within 30 and 80 minutes, respectively. The source for the increase was investigated utilizing atmospheric substitution and enrichment and depletion studies with (15)N. The increase in total N in seedlings was shown to be independent of method of N analysis and the presence of nitrate in the plants. Automated Kjeldahl determinations showing apparent increases in N composition due to TRIA were shown to be correlated with hand Kjeldahl, elemental analysis, and chemiluminescent analysis in three independent laboratories. TRIA did not alter the nitrate uptake or endogenous levels of nitrate in corn and rice seedlings. Enrichment experiments revealed that the total N increases in rice seedlings, in vivo, and in supernatants of corn leaf homogenates, in vitro, are not due to atmospheric N(2). TRIA increased the soluble N pools of the plants, specifically the free amino acid and soluble protein fractions. No differences in depletion or enrichment of (15)N incorporated into soluble and insoluble N fractions of rice seedlings could be detected on an atom per cent (15)N basis. The apparent short-term total N increases cannot be explained by current knowledge of major N assimilation pathways. TRIA may stimulate a change in the chemical composition of the seedlings, resulting in interference with standard methods of N analysis.

  8. Polymyalgia rheumatica without significantly increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate. A more benign syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gay, M A; Rodríguez-Valverde, V; Blanco, R; Fernández-Sueiro, J L; Armona, J; Figueroa, M; Martínez-Taboada, V M

    1997-02-10

    An erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) of at least 40 mm/h is considered an important requisite for the diagnosis of polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). However, the relative frequency and clinical features of PMR in patients without a significantly increased ESR are unclear. We performed a retrospective study of patients diagnosed as having PMR at the rheumatology divisions of 3 teaching hospitals. The diagnosis of PMR was established, regardless of the ESR, in 201 consecutive patients fulfilling the following criteria: (1) age 50 years or older, (2) severe proximal pain for more than 1 month in at least 2 of 3 areas: neck, shoulder, and/or pelvic girdles, and (3) rapid resolution of the syndrome while taking low-dose prednisone. Patients with giant cell arteritis were previously excluded from the study. The frequency and clinical features of patients with PMR and an ESR lower than 40 mm/h were analyzed. A comparative study between these patients and those with high ESRs was performed. An ESR lower than 40 mm/h was found in 41 patients (20.4%). These patients were younger (P = .02), were more frequently men (P = .006), and experienced a lower frequency of fever (P = .003) and weight loss (P = .07). Furthermore, these patients were characterized by an absence of anemia (P = .002) and a lower frequency of abnormal protein electrophoresis results (P fever, weight loss, and laboratory test result abnormalities, but it was unrelated to the duration of the illness prior to diagnosis. It is not uncommon to find a patient with PMR with an ESR lower than 40 mm/h. This syndrome is more frequent in men and it is clinically less severe than the classic form of PMR. Its recognition will allow these patients to benefit from an effective treatment with low-dose corticosteroids.

  9. Rapid product analysis and increased sensitivity for quantitative determinations of botulinum neurotoxin proteolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Benjamin; Schmidt, James J; Smith, Leonard A; Ahmed, S Ashraf

    2010-01-15

    The ultimate molecular action of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a Zn-dependent endoproteolytic activity on one of the three SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) proteins. There are seven serotypes (A-G) of BoNT having distinct cleavage sites on the SNARE substrates. The proteolytic activity is located on the N-terminal light chain (Lc) domain and is used extensively as the primary target toward therapeutic development against botulism. Here we describe an improved method using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) whereby quantitative data were obtained in 1/10th the time using 1/20th the sample and solvent volumes compared with a widely used high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. We also synthesized a VAMP (vesicle-associated membrane protein)-based peptide containing an intact V1 motif that was efficiently used as a substrate by BoNT/D Lc. Although serotype C1 cleaves the serotype A substrate at a bond separated by only one residue, we were able to distinguish the two reactions by UPLC. The new method can accurately quantify as low as 7 pmol of the peptide substrates for BoNT serotypes A, B, C1, and D. We also report here that the catalytic efficiency of serotype A can be stimulated 35-fold by the addition of Triton X-100 to the reaction mixture. Combining the use of Triton X-100 with the newly introduced UPLC method, we were able to accurately detect very low levels of proteolytic activity in a very short time. Sensitivity of the assay and accuracy and rapidity of product analysis should greatly augment efforts in therapeutic development.

  10. Rapid activated sludge respiration inhibition test performed by CO2 producing rate using a carbon dioxide sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Noboru; Takahashi, Mitsuo; Shoji, Ryo

    2005-01-01

    The rapid activated sludge inhibition test (rapid ASRI) is one of the promising bioassays to evaluate environmental risk to the ecosystem caused by various pollutants. To improve the sensitivity and stability of ASRI, the CO2 producing rate (CPR) using a carbon dioxide gas sensor was employed to examine the respiration activity of activated sludge and to compare it to that by the conventional activated sludge respiration inhibition test using oxygen uptake rate (OUR) by EC50 values derived from dose response curve. Detection of respiratory activity based on CPR has higher reliability and sensitivity than that of OUR. It should be noted that the sensitivity of CPR for evaluating toxicity is sufficiently high in terms of derived dose response curve of some model environmental pollutants and the resultant EC50 values.

  11. RAPID KNEE-EXTENSIONS TO INCREASE QUADRICEPS MUSCLE ACTIVITY IN PATIENTS WITH TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Rasmus Skov; Wilquin, Lousia; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inhibition of the quadriceps muscle and reduced knee-extension strength is common shortly following total knee arthroplasty (weeks to months), due to reduced voluntary activation of the quadriceps muscle. In healthy subjects, strength training with heavy loads is known to increase ago...

  12. Rapid knee-extensions to increase quadriceps muscle activity in patients with total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Rasmus Skov; Wilquin, Lousia; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inhibition of the quadriceps muscle and reduced knee-extension strength is common shortly following total knee arthroplasty (weeks to months), due to reduced voluntary activation of the quadriceps muscle. In healthy subjects, strength training with heavy loads is known to increase ago...

  13. Rapid growth reduces cold resistance: evidence from latitudinal variation in growth rate, cold resistance and stress proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoks, Robby; De Block, Marjan

    2011-02-24

    Physiological costs of rapid growth may contribute to the observation that organisms typically grow at submaximal rates. Although, it has been hypothesized that faster growing individuals would do worse in dealing with suboptimal temperatures, this type of cost has never been explored empirically. Furthermore, the mechanistic basis of the physiological costs of rapid growth is largely unexplored. Larvae of the damselfly Ischnura elegans from two univoltine northern and two multivoltine southern populations were reared at three temperatures and after emergence given a cold shock. Cold resistance, measured by chill coma recovery times in the adult stage, was lower in the southern populations. The faster larval growth rates in the southern populations contributed to this latitudinal pattern in cold resistance. In accordance with their assumed role in cold resistance, Hsp70 levels were lower in the southern populations, and faster growing larvae had lower Hsp70 levels. Yet, individual variation in Hsp70 levels did not explain variation in cold resistance. WE PROVIDE EVIDENCE FOR A NOVEL COST OF RAPID GROWTH: reduced cold resistance. Our results indicate that the reduced cold resistance in southern populations of animals that change voltinism along the latitudinal gradient may not entirely be explained by thermal selection per se but also by the costs of time constraint-induced higher growth rates. This also illustrates that stressors imposed in the larval stage may carry over and shape fitness in the adult stage and highlights the importance of physiological costs in the evolution of life-histories at macro-scales.

  14. 3,5-Diiodo-L-thyronine administration to hypothyroid rats rapidly enhances fatty acid oxidation rate and bioenergetic parameters in liver cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Cavallo

    Full Text Available Growing evidence shows that, among triiodothyronine derivatives, 3,5 diiodo-L-thyronine (T(2 plays an important role in energy metabolism and fat storage. In the present study, short-term effects of T(2 administration to hypothyroid rats on fatty acid oxidation rate and bioenergetic parameters were investigated. Within 1 h following T(2 injection, state 3 and state 4 respiration rates, which were reduced in hypothyroid mitochondria, were noticeably increased particularly in succinate- with respect to glutamate/malate-energized mitochondria. Maximal respiratory activity, observed when glutamate/malate/succinate were simultaneously present in the respiratory medium, was significantly stimulated by T(2 treatment. A T(2-induced increase in respiratory rates was also observed when palmitoyl-CoA or L-palmitoylcarnitine were used as substrates. No significant change in respiratory control index and ADP/O ratio was observed. The activities of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, especially Complex II, were increased in T(2-treated rats. In the latter, Complex V activities, assayed in both ATP synthesis and hydrolysis direction, were enhanced. The rate of fatty acid oxidation, followed by conversion of [(14C]palmitate to CO(2 and ketone bodies, was higher in hepatocytes isolated from T(2-treated rats. This increase occurs in parallel with the raise in the activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I, the rate limiting enzyme of fatty acid β-oxidation, assayed in situ in digitonin-permeabilized hepatocytes. Overall, these results indicate that T(2 rapidly increases the ability of mitochondria to import and oxidize fatty acids. An emerging idea in the literature is the ability of T(2 to reduce adiposity and dyslipidemia and to prevent the development in liver steatosis. The results of the present study, showing a rapid T(2-induced increase in the ability of mitochondria to import and oxidize fatty acids, may contribute to understand the

  15. Al2O3:C as a sensitive OSL dosemeter for rapid assessment of environmental photon dose rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Agersnap Larsen, N.; Markey, B.G.

    1997-01-01

    The use of Al2O3:C single crystals as optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosemeters for rapid assessment of the environmental photon dose rate is proposed. It is shown that Al2O3:C possesses higher OSL sensitivity than TL sensitivity. In TL measurements thermal quenching is a major problem...... and the energy response (equal to that of quartz) make Al2O3:C ideal for measuring the environmental dose rates in connection with luminescence dating and retrospective dosimetry using natural materials and ceramics. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  16. Increasing The Number of Embryos Transferred from Two to Three, Does not Increase Pregnancy Rates in Good Prognosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Ashrafi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: To compare the pregnancy outcomes after two embryos versus three embryos transfers (ETs in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed on three hundred eighty seven women with primary infertility and with at least one fresh embryo in good quality in order to transfer at each IVF/ICSI cycle, from September 2006 to June 2010. Patients were categorized into two groups according to the number of ET as follows: ET2 and ET3 groups, indicating two and three embryos were respectively transferred. Pregnancy outcomes were compared between ET2 and ET3 groups. Chi square and student t tests were used for data analysis. Results: Clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were similar between two groups. The rates of multiple pregnancies were 27 and 45.2% in ET2 and ET3 groups, respectively. The rate of multiple pregnancies in young women was significantly increased when triple instead of double embryos were transferred. Logistic regression analysis indicated two significant prognostic variables for live birth that included number and quality of transferred embryos; it means that the chance of live birth following ICSI treatment increased 3.2-fold when the embryo with top quality (grade A was transferred, but the number of ET had an inverse relationship with live birth rate; it means that probability of live birth in women with transfer of two embryos was three times greater than those who had three ET. Conclusion: Due to the difficulty of implementation of the elective single-ET technique in some infertility centers in the world, we suggest transfer of double instead of triple embryos when at least one good quality embryo is available for transfer in women aged 39 years or younger. However, to reduce the rate of multiple pregnancies, it is recommended to consider the elective single ET strategy.

  17. Identification and manipulation of the pleuromutilin gene cluster from Clitopilus passeckerianus for increased rapid antibiotic production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Andy M.; Alberti, Fabrizio; Kilaru, Sreedhar; Collins, Catherine M.; de Mattos-Shipley, Kate; Hartley, Amanda J.; Hayes, Patrick; Griffin, Alison; Lazarus, Colin M.; Cox, Russell J.; Willis, Christine L.; O'Dwyer, Karen; Spence, David W.; Foster, Gary D.

    2016-05-01

    Semi-synthetic derivatives of the tricyclic diterpene antibiotic pleuromutilin from the basidiomycete Clitopilus passeckerianus are important in combatting bacterial infections in human and veterinary medicine. These compounds belong to the only new class of antibiotics for human applications, with novel mode of action and lack of cross-resistance, representing a class with great potential. Basidiomycete fungi, being dikaryotic, are not generally amenable to strain improvement. We report identification of the seven-gene pleuromutilin gene cluster and verify that using various targeted approaches aimed at increasing antibiotic production in C. passeckerianus, no improvement in yield was achieved. The seven-gene pleuromutilin cluster was reconstructed within Aspergillus oryzae giving production of pleuromutilin in an ascomycete, with a significant increase (2106%) in production. This is the first gene cluster from a basidiomycete to be successfully expressed in an ascomycete, and paves the way for the exploitation of a metabolically rich but traditionally overlooked group of fungi.

  18. Rapidly increasing use of proton pump inhibitors prescribed in primary care: a nationwide observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Peter; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg; Hansen, Jane Møller

    a change in indications for use of PPIs in the same time range. Use of ulcerogenic drugs among the elderly has stagnated. Reimbursement modifications do not seem to have had a substantial influence on the steadily increasing use of PPIs. Conclusions: Use of PPIs has increased substantially the past decade......Background: Antisecretory drugs (ADs) are often prescribed in primary care for upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Reimbursement modifications have been made in Denmark to minimize costs related to use of ADs. However knowledge about development in use of ADs over the past decade and the impacts...... of the reimbursement modifications is sparse. Research questions: How has use of ADs developed in Denmark 2001-2011? Which impacts have the reimbursement modifications had on the use of ADs? Methods: The Register of Medicinal Product Statistics includes all sales and redeemed prescriptions nationwide covering...

  19. Rapidly increasing macroalgal cover not related to herbivorous fishes on Mesoamerican reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Suchley

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Long-term phase shifts from coral to macroalgal dominated reef systems are well documented in the Caribbean. Although the impact of coral diseases, climate change and other factors is acknowledged, major herbivore loss through disease and overfishing is often assigned a primary role. However, direct evidence for the link between herbivore abundance, macroalgal and coral cover is sparse, particularly over broad spatial scales. In this study we use a database of coral reef surveys performed at 85 sites along the Mesoamerican Reef of Mexico, Belize, Guatemala and Honduras, to examine potential ecological links by tracking site trajectories over the period 2005–2014. Despite the long-term reduction of herbivory capacity reported across the Caribbean, the Mesoamerican Reef region displayed relatively low macroalgal cover at the onset of the study. Subsequently, increasing fleshy macroalgal cover was pervasive. Herbivorous fish populations were not responsible for this trend as fleshy macroalgal cover change was not correlated with initial herbivorous fish biomass or change, and the majority of sites experienced increases in macroalgae browser biomass. This contrasts the coral reef top-down herbivore control paradigm and suggests the role of external factors in making environmental conditions more favourable for algae. Increasing macroalgal cover typically suppresses ecosystem services and leads to degraded reef systems. Consequently, policy makers and local coral reef managers should reassess the focus on herbivorous fish protection and consider complementary measures such as watershed management in order to arrest this trend.

  20. Proton Pump Inhibition Increases Rapid Eye Movement Sleep in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munazah Fazal Qureshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased bodily CO2 concentration alters cellular pH as well as sleep. The proton pump, which plays an important role in the homeostatic regulation of cellular pH, therefore, may modulate sleep. We investigated the effects of the proton pump inhibitor “lansoprazole” on sleep-wakefulness. Male Wistar rats were surgically prepared for chronic polysomnographic recordings. Two different doses of lansoprazole (low: 1 mg/kg; high: 10 mg/kg were injected intraperitoneally in the same animal (n=7 and sleep-wakefulness was recorded for 6 hrs. The changes in sleep-wakefulness were compared statistically. Percent REM sleep amount in the vehicle and lansoprazole low dose groups was 9.26±1.03 and 9.09±0.54, respectively, which increased significantly in the lansoprazole high dose group by 31.75% (from vehicle and 34.21% (from low dose. Also, REM sleep episode numbers significantly increased in lansoprazole high dose group. Further, the sodium-hydrogen exchanger blocker “amiloride” (10 mg/kg; i.p. (n=5 did not alter sleep-wake architecture. Our results suggest that the proton pump plays an important role in REM sleep modulation and supports our view that REM sleep might act as a sentinel to help maintain normal CO2 level for unperturbed sleep.

  1. Low Mate Encounter Rate Increases Male Risk Taking in a Sexually Cannibalistic Praying Mantis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William D.; Muntz, Gregory A.; Ladowski, Alexander J.

    2012-01-01

    Male praying mantises are forced into the ultimate trade-off of mating versus complete loss of future reproduction if they fall prey to a female. The balance of this trade-off will depend both on (1) the level of predatory risk imposed by females and (2) the frequency of mating opportunities for males. We report the results of a set of experiments that examine the effects of these two variables on male risk-taking behavior and the frequency of sexual cannibalism in the praying mantis Tenodera sinensis. We experimentally altered the rate at which males encountered females and measured male approach and courtship behavior under conditions of high and low risk of being attacked by females. We show that male risk taking depends on prior access to females. Males with restricted access to females showed greater risk-taking behavior. When males were given daily female encounters, they responded to greater female-imposed risk by slowing their rate of approach and remained a greater distance from a potential mate. In contrast, males without recent access to mates were greater risk-takers; they approached females more rapidly and to closer proximity, regardless of risk. In a second experiment, we altered male encounter rate with females and measured rates of sexual cannibalism when paired with hungry or well-fed females. Greater risk-taking behavior by males with low mate encounter rates resulted in high rates of sexual cannibalism when these males were paired with hungry females. PMID:22558146

  2. Rapid increases and time-lagged declines in amphibian occupancy after wildfire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, Blake R; Lowe, Winsor H; Corn, Paul Stephen

    2013-02-01

    Climate change is expected to increase the frequency and severity of drought and wildfire. Aquatic and moisture-sensitive species, such as amphibians, may be particularly vulnerable to these modified disturbance regimes because large wildfires often occur during extended droughts and thus may compound environmental threats. However, understanding of the effects of wildfires on amphibians in forests with long fire-return intervals is limited. Numerous stand-replacing wildfires have occurred since 1988 in Glacier National Park (Montana, U.S.A.), where we have conducted long-term monitoring of amphibians. We measured responses of 3 amphibian species to fires of different sizes, severity, and age in a small geographic area with uniform management. We used data from wetlands associated with 6 wildfires that burned between 1988 and 2003 to evaluate whether burn extent and severity and interactions between wildfire and wetland isolation affected the distribution of breeding populations. We measured responses with models that accounted for imperfect detection to estimate occupancy during prefire (0-4 years) and different postfire recovery periods. For the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) and Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris), occupancy was not affected for 6 years after wildfire. But 7-21 years after wildfire, occupancy for both species decreased ≥ 25% in areas where >50% of the forest within 500 m of wetlands burned. In contrast, occupancy of the boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas) tripled in the 3 years after low-elevation forests burned. This increase in occupancy was followed by a gradual decline. Our results show that accounting for magnitude of change and time lags is critical to understanding population dynamics of amphibians after large disturbances. Our results also inform understanding of the potential threat of increases in wildfire frequency or severity to amphibians in the region. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Rapid increases and time-lagged declines in amphibian occupancy after wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, Blake R.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Corn, Paul Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to increase the frequency and severity of drought and wildfire. Aquatic and moisture-sensitive species, such as amphibians, may be particularly vulnerable to these modified disturbance regimes because large wildfires often occur during extended droughts and thus may compound environmental threats. However, understanding of the effects of wildfires on amphibians in forests with long fire-return intervals is limited. Numerous stand-replacing wildfires have occurred since 1988 in Glacier National Park (Montana, U.S.A.), where we have conducted long-term monitoring of amphibians. We measured responses of 3 amphibian species to fires of different sizes, severity, and age in a small geographic area with uniform management. We used data from wetlands associated with 6 wildfires that burned between 1988 and 2003 to evaluate whether burn extent and severity and interactions between wildfire and wetland isolation affected the distribution of breeding populations. We measured responses with models that accounted for imperfect detection to estimate occupancy during prefire (0-4 years) and different postfire recovery periods. For the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) and Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris), occupancy was not affected for 6 years after wildfire. But 7-21 years after wildfire, occupancy for both species decreased ≥ 25% in areas where >50% of the forest within 500 m of wetlands burned. In contrast, occupancy of the boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas) tripled in the 3 years after low-elevation forests burned. This increase in occupancy was followed by a gradual decline. Our results show that accounting for magnitude of change and time lags is critical to understanding population dynamics of amphibians after large disturbances. Our results also inform understanding of the potential threat of increases in wildfire frequency or severity to amphibians in the region.

  4. Slow vs rapid delivery rate shock wave lithotripsy for pediatric renal urolithiasis: a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Hosni Khairy; Fathy, Hesham; Elfayoumy, Hanny; Aly, Hussein; Ghonium, Ahmed; Mohsen, Mostafa A; Hegazy, Abd El Rahim

    2014-05-01

    We compared slow vs fast shock wave frequency rates in disintegration of pediatric renal stones less than 20 mm. Our study included 60 children with solitary 10 to 20 mm radiopaque renal stones treated with shock wave lithotripsy. Patients were prospectively randomized into 2 groups, ie those undergoing lithotripsy at a rate of 80 shock waves per minute (group 1, 30 patients) and those undergoing lithotripsy at a rate of 120 shock waves per minute (group 2, 30 patients). The 2 groups were compared in terms of treatment success, anesthesia time, secondary procedures and efficiency quotient. Stone clearance rate was significantly higher in group 1 (90%) than in group 2 (73.3%, p = 0.025). A total of 18 patients in group 1 (60%) were rendered stone-free after 1 session, 8 required 2 sessions and 1 needed 3 sessions, while shock wave lithotripsy failed in 3 patients. By comparison, 8 patients (26.6%) in group 2 were rendered stone-free after 1 session, 10 (33.3%) required 2 sessions and 4 (13.3%) needed 3 sessions to become stone-free. Mean general anesthesia time was significantly longer in group 1 (p = 0.041). Postoperatively 2 patients in group 1 and 4 in group 2 suffered low grade fever (Clavien grade II). Significantly more secondary procedures (percutaneous nephrolithotomy, repeat shock wave lithotripsy) were required in group 2 (p = 0.005). The predominant stone analysis was calcium oxalate dihydrate in both groups. Efficiency quotient was 0.5869 and 0.3437 for group 1 and group 2, respectively (p = 0.0247). In children with renal stones slow delivery rates of shock wave lithotripsy have better results regarding stone clearance than fast delivery rates. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Gonadotropin‐Releasing Hormone Agonist Cotreatment During Chemotherapy May Increase Pregnancy Rate in Survivors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blumenfeld, Zeev; Zur, Hilli; Dann, Eldad J

    2015-01-01

    Patients who received gonadotropin‐releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) with chemotherapy were compared with patients who were treated with chemotherapy alone to determine whether GnRHa can increase the pregnancy rate in survivors...

  6. Constant growth rate can be supported by decreasing energy flux and increasing aerobic glycolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slavov, Nikolai; Budnik, Bogdan A; Schwab, David; Airoldi, Edoardo M; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Fermenting glucose in the presence of enough oxygen to support respiration, known as aerobic glycolysis, is believed to maximize growth rate. We observed increasing aerobic glycolysis during exponential growth, suggesting additional physiological roles for aerobic glycolysis. We investigated such

  7. Increased heart rate is associated with a prothrombotic state: The Framingham Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofler, Geoffrey H; Massaro, Joseph; Levy, Daniel A; Sutherland, Patrice A; Buckley, Thomas; D'Agostino, Ralph B

    2017-03-01

    Background Although a higher heart rate is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, the mechanism is not well understood. As thrombosis has an important role in plaque development and acute coronary syndromes, the increase related to heart rate may result from a prothrombotic imbalance. Methods We investigated the relation between heart rate and thrombotic potential in 3451 participants from the Offspring Cohort of the Framingham Heart Study (mean age 54 years, 55% women). Participants were divided into quintiles based on heart rate derived from a resting electrocardiogram. Results Higher heart rates were associated with significant age-adjusted increases in fibrinogen, viscosity, factor VII antigen, and impaired fibrinolytic potential (plasminogen activator inhibitor and tissue plasminogen activator antigen) among men and women, and von Willebrand factor antigen among men. Fibrinogen levels were 9% higher among men with a heart rate of 80.9 ± 8.1 beats/min (quintile 5) vs. 50.0 ± 3.9 beats/min (quintile 1) (314 vs. 287 mg/dl, p heart rates are associated with a prothrombotic state. Because these factors are also associated with endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, these findings are consistent with an injurious effect of higher heart rates on the endothelium. Measures to reduce thrombotic potential may be of particular value in people with higher heart rates.

  8. A rapid increase in lipoprotein (a) levels after ethanol withdrawal in alcoholic men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kervinen, K.; Savolainen, J.J.; Kesaeniemi, Y.A. (Univ. of Oulu (Finland))

    1991-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) were studied in 11 male alcoholics at the end of a drinking period and monitored during subsequent abstinence. Lp(a) levels showed a daily increase for four consecutive days after the beginning of abstinence, the values for the third and the fourth day being significantly higher than those of the first day. The changes in Lp(a) showed no association with the changes in low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. In one alcoholic subject with a heterozygous form of familial hypercholesterolemia who was monitored for 11 days, the Lp(a) levels rose up to the fourth day and remained at a high level thereafter. These results suggest that ethanol ingestion may be associated with a lower of Lp(a) levels, which may contribute to the delayed progression of atherosclerosis observed in alcohol drinkers.

  9. Increased heterozygosity at the Mdh-B locus in fish inhabiting a rapidly fluctuating thermal environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, E.G.; Richmond, M.C.

    1981-05-01

    Populations of a common forage fish, red shiner Notropis lutrensis, were sampled from four localities on the Brazos River, Texas, affected by cold-water discharge from a hydroelectric dam and from unaltered sites in the same region. Polymorphism at the Mdh-B locus, encoding supernatant malate dehydrogenase, indicates that populations within 57 km of the dam are distinctive from other regional populations and possess a unique Mdh-B allele, have significantly higher levels of heterozygosity at the Mdh-B locus, represent a homogeneous set that have significantly different Mdh-B zygotic frequencies from other regional populations, and have significantly different Mdh-B zygotic proportions than would be expected under a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Increased levels of heterozygosity in fish within 57 km of the dam were correlated with discharge-associated fluctuations in water temperature at sampling stations.

  10. Response of fish to different simulated rates of water temperature increase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.; Tuckfield, R.C.

    1992-08-01

    We initiated this study to define the limits of effluent-temperature rate increases during reactor restart, which will help minimize fish kills. We constructed an apparatus for exposing fish to various temperature-increase regimens and conducted two experiments based on information from system tests and scoping runs. In the rate experiment, we acclimated the fish to 20{degree}C, and then raised the temperature to 40{degree}C at varying rates. Because scoping runs and literature suggested that acclimation temperature may affect temperature-related mortality, we conducted an acclimation experiment. We acclimated the fish to various temperatures, then raised the temperatures to 39--40{degree}C at a rate of 2{degree}C every 12 hours. Based on the analysis of the data, we recommend temperature-increase rates during reactor restart of 2.5{degree}C every nine hours if ambient water temperatures are over 20{degree}C. If water temperatures are at or below 20{degree}C, we recommend temperature-increase rates of 2.5{degree}C every 12 hours. No regulation of temperature is required after effluent temperatures reach 40{degree}C. We recommend further studies, including expanded testing with the simulation system and behavioral and bioenergetic investigations that may further refine acceptable rates of effluent-temperature increases.

  11. Obesity is associated with an increased rate of incidental durotomy in lumbar spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Christopher A; Werner, Brian C; Yang, Scott; Shimer, Adam L

    2015-04-01

    Retrospective database analysis. To determine the impact of obesity on the rate of incidental durotomy in lumbar spine surgery. There is a paucity of data on the overall impact of obesity on the rate of incidental durotomy in lumbar spine surgery, specifically with regard to the type of procedure performed. A large administrative database was queried for all patients who underwent lumbar spine surgery for decompression and/or fusion. They were then stratified into separate cohorts on the basis of body mass index and by procedural codes. Documentation of incidental durotomy was noted. Patient demographics and associated comorbidities were assessed. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and χ test was used to assess for statistical significance. The incidental durotomy ranged from 0.5% to 2.6%, with the highest rates observed in multilevel laminectomies and revision decompressions in the obese and morbidly obese groups. For patients who underwent decompression only procedures, nonobese patients had a significantly lower rate of durotomy than the obese and morbidly obese cohorts. For patients who underwent fusion with or without decompression, there was a significantly increased rate of durotomy in obese patients compared with nonobese patients. The morbidly obese cohort also had significantly higher rates of incidental durotomy than the nonobese cohort in both revision decompression and revision fusion procedures. This analysis of a large administrative database demonstrates that obesity is associated with increased rates of incidental durotomy in lumbar spine surgery. Furthermore, obesity, in association with increasing complexity of the procedure, increases the rate of incidental durotomy in lumbar spine surgery. Surgeons must be aware of these increased risks as the rate of obesity increases in the population. 3.

  12. Increasing Suicide Rates Among Middle-age Persons and Interventions to Manage Patients with Psychiatric Complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharath Chakravarthy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC has published significant data and trends related to suicide rates in the United States (U.S.. Suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in U.S. adults, and rates are increasing across all geographic regions. There is a significant increase in the suicide rate among adults in the 35-64 age range. We present findings from the CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR with commentary on current resources and barriers to psychiatric care. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(1:11–13.

  13. Warming, soil moisture, and loss of snow increase Bromus tectorum’s population growth rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Compagnoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Climate change threatens to exacerbate the impacts of invasive species. In temperate ecosystems, direct effects of warming may be compounded by dramatic reductions in winter snow cover. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum is arguably the most destructive biological invader in basins of the North American Intermountain West, and warming could increase its performance through direct effects on demographic rates or through indirect effects mediated by loss of snow. We conducted a two-year experimental manipulation of temperature and snow pack to test whether 1 warming increases cheatgrass population growth rate and 2 reduced snow cover contributes to cheatgrass’ positive response to warming. We used infrared heaters operating continuously to create the warming treatment, but turned heaters on only during snowfalls for the snowmelt treatment. We monitored cheatgrass population growth rate and the vital rates that determine it: emergence, survival and fecundity. Growth rate increased in both warming and snowmelt treatments. The largest increases occurred in warming plots during the wettest year, indicating that the magnitude of response to warming depends on moisture availability. Warming increased both fecundity and survival, especially in the wet year, while snowmelt contributed to the positive effects of warming by increasing survival. Our results indicate that increasing temperature will exacerbate cheatgrass impacts, especially where warming causes large reductions in the depth and duration of snow cover.

  14. Cage Culture Turbidostat: a Device for Rapid Determination of Algal Growth Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Skipnes, Olav; Eide, Ingvar; Jensen, Arne

    1980-01-01

    The present cage culture turbidostat consists of a growth chamber and a control unit. The microorganisms (photoautotrophic algae) are kept in the growth chamber by porous membranes (pore size 1 to 3 μm) which retain the algae but allow efficient exchange of the growth medium. Flow rate and composition of the medium can therefore be varied independently of algal population density. A reciprocating pumping mode of the medium is introduced to obtain more gentle clearance of membranes than that p...

  15. Colorimetry provides a rapid objective measurement of de novo hair growth rate in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzung, Tien-Yi; Yang, Chia-Yi; Huang, Yung-Chang; Kao, Fu-Jen

    2009-11-01

    Depilated mice have been used as a test platform for hair growth-regulating agents. However, currently available assessment tools for hair growth in mice are less than ideal. Tristimulus colorimetry of the fur color of depilated agouti, albino, and black mice with L*, a*, and b* values were performed daily until the full growth of pelage. Using light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation (650 and 890 nm) with a daily dose of 3.5 J/cm(2) as hair growth regulators, the hair growth rates observed by the global assessment were compared with those derived from colorimetry. In contrast to a* and b* values, L* values changed more drastically over time in the anagen phase regardless of fur color. Unlike the inhibitory effect of 650 nm irradiation, LED of 890 nm promoted de novo hair regrowth in mice. The difference in hair growth rates detected by colorimetry paralleled the observation made by the global assessment. The L* value of fur color obtained by tristimulus colorimetry was a sensitive yet quantitative indicator of de novo hair growth, and could be used to project the hair growth rate in mice.

  16. Effect of acute exercise-induced fatigue on maximal rate of heart rate increase during submaximal cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Rebecca L; Rogers, Daniel K; Howe, Peter R C; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    Different mathematical models were used to evaluate if the maximal rate of heart rate (HR) increase (rHRI) was related to reductions in exercise performance resulting from acute fatigue. Fourteen triathletes completed testing before and after a 2-h run. rHRI was assessed during 5 min of 100-W cycling and a sigmoidal (rHRIsig) and exponential (rHRIexp) model were applied. Exercise performance was assessed using a 5-min cycling time-trial. The run elicited reductions in time-trial performance (1.34 ± 0.19 to 1.25 ± 0.18 kJ · kg(-1), P exercise HR (73.0 ± 8.4 to 90.5 ± 11.4 beats · min(-1), P exercise and steady-state HR. rHRIsig was reduced following acute exercise-induced fatigue, and correlated with difference in performance.

  17. Clinical follow-up data and the rate of development of precocious and rapidly progressive puberty in patients with premature thelarche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiçek, Dilek; Savas-Erdeve, Senay; Cetinkaya, Semra; Aycan, Zehra

    2018-01-26

    We aimed to evaluate the clinical follow-up data of patients with premature thelarche and determine the rate of development of precocious and early puberty in these patients. The charts of 158 girls with premature thelarche who were followed-up in our pediatric endocrinology polyclinic were reviewed. The patients were divided into three groups according to the age at onset: group 1 (0-1 month) (n=12), group 2 (1-24 months) (n=40) and group 3 (2-8 years) (n=106). At admission, the mean height standard deviation score (SDS), body weight (BW)-SDS, body mass index (BMI) and BMI-SDS were significantly higher in group 3 than in group 1 and group 2. At admission, 8.8% of the patients were obese and 24% of the patients were overweight. The majority of patients who were obese and overweight were in group 3. At the end of the follow-up, thelarche regressed in 24.7%, persisted in 32.9%, progressed in 25.9% and had a cyclic pattern in 16.5% of the patients. Precocious or rapidly progressive puberty developed in 47 of the 158 patients (29.7%). The mean age at progression to early or rapidly progressive puberty was 98.1±17.6 months. A total of 89.3% of the patients who progressed to early or rapidly progressive puberty were in group 3. Precocious or rapidly progressive puberty developed in 29.7% of subjects with premature thelarche. As patients who developed rapidly progressive puberty had a higher BW-SDS and BMI-SDS than those who did not, it is suggested that the increase in weight could stimulate rapidly progressive puberty in cases with premature thelarche.

  18. The rate of value increase for black cherry, red maple,and white ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ted J. Grisez; Joseph J. Mendel; Joseph J. Mendel

    1972-01-01

    In this paper we present the dollar values and value increases, as well as the rates of value increase, for three of the most important tree species of the Allegheny Plateau of New York and Pennsylvania: black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and white ash (Fraxinus americana L.).

  19. A portable microfluidic system for rapid measurement of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isiksacan, Ziya; Erel, Ozcan; Elbuken, Caglar

    2016-11-29

    The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a frequently used 30 min or 60 min clinical test for screening of several inflammatory conditions, infections, trauma, and malignant diseases, as well as non-inflammatory conditions including prostate cancer and stroke. Erythrocyte aggregation (EA) is a physiological process where erythrocytes form face-to-face linear structures, called rouleaux, at stasis or low shear rates. In this work, we proposed a method for ESR measurement from EA. We developed a microfluidic opto-electro-mechanical system, using which we experimentally showed a significant correlation (R(2) = 0.86) between ESR and EA. The microfluidic system was shown to measure ESR from EA using fingerprick blood in 2 min. 40 μl of whole blood is filled in a disposable polycarbonate cartridge which is illuminated with a near infrared emitting diode. Erythrocytes were disaggregated under the effect of a mechanical shear force using a solenoid pinch valve. Following complete disaggregation, transmitted light through the cartridge was measured using a photodetector for 1.5 min. The intensity level is at its lowest at complete disaggregation and highest at complete aggregation. We calculated ESR from the transmitted signal profile. We also developed another microfluidic cartridge specifically for monitoring the EA process in real-time during ESR measurement. The presented system is suitable for ultrafast, low-cost, and low-sample volume measurement of ESR at the point-of-care.

  20. Experimental evidence that ooid size reflects a dynamic equilibrium between rapid precipitation and abrasion rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trower, Elizabeth J.; Lamb, Michael P.; Fischer, Woodward W.

    2017-06-01

    Ooids are enigmatic concentrically coated carbonate sand grains that reflect a fundamental mode of carbonate sedimentation and inorganic product of the carbon cycle-trends in their composition and size are thought to record changes in seawater chemistry over Earth history. Substantial debate persists concerning the roles of physical, chemical, and microbial processes in their growth, including whether carbonate precipitation on ooid surfaces is driven by seawater chemistry or microbial activity, and what role-if any-sediment transport and abrasion play. To test these ideas, we developed an approach to study ooids in the laboratory employing sediment transport stages and seawater chemistry similar to natural environments. Ooid abrasion and precipitation rates in the experiments were four orders of magnitude faster than radiocarbon net growth rates of natural ooids, implying that ooids approach a stable size representing a dynamic equilibrium between precipitation and abrasion. Results demonstrate that the physical environment is as important as seawater chemistry in controlling ooid growth and, more generally, that sediment transport plays a significant role in chemical sedimentary systems.

  1. Food supplementation does not increase demographic rates in a passerine species of conservation concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innes M.W. Sim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have examined the effects of the provision of supplementary food on aspects of avian reproductive success, but far fewer have gone on to examine the potential positive effects of food supplementation on the demographic rates which are key for population growth rate. Testing for potential effects of food shortage on vital rates is likely to be particularly important in species of high conservation concern, where populations are particularly small, isolated or decreasing rapidly. Here we test the effects of the provision of supplementary food on reproductive success, body condition at fledging and post-fledging survival of ring ouzels (Turdus torquatus, a species of high conservation concern in the UK. However, food supplementation had no detectable effect on any of these parameters. There was no significant difference in return rates of fed and unfed fledglings in the year following hatching, and most post-fledging mortality was apparently caused by predation by raptors and mustelids. We conclude that the supply of invertebrate food sources for nestlings was not a major limiting factor in our study area, at least during this two-year study. Further studies are required to quantify the precise mix of habitats used by ring ouzels, at the appropriate scale, which provide concealment from predators and access to food supplies throughout the spring and summer months.

  2. Recruitment of faster motor units is associated with greater rates of fascicle strain and rapid changes in muscle force during locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sabrina S M; de Boef Miara, Maria; Arnold, Allison S; Biewener, Andrew A; Wakeling, James M

    2013-01-15

    Animals modulate the power output needed for different locomotor tasks by changing muscle forces and fascicle strain rates. To generate the necessary forces, appropriate motor units must be recruited. Faster motor units have faster activation-deactivation rates than slower motor units, and they contract at higher strain rates; therefore, recruitment of faster motor units may be advantageous for tasks that involve rapid movements or high rates of work. This study identified motor unit recruitment patterns in the gastrocnemii muscles of goats and examined whether faster motor units are recruited when locomotor speed is increased. The study also examined whether locomotor tasks that elicit faster (or slower) motor units are associated with increased (or decreased) in vivo tendon forces, force rise and relaxation rates, fascicle strains and/or strain rates. Electromyography (EMG), sonomicrometry and muscle-tendon force data were collected from the lateral and medial gastrocnemius muscles of goats during level walking, trotting and galloping and during inclined walking and trotting. EMG signals were analyzed using wavelet and principal component analyses to quantify changes in the EMG frequency spectra across the different locomotor conditions. Fascicle strain and strain rate were calculated from the sonomicrometric data, and force rise and relaxation rates were determined from the tendon force data. The results of this study showed that faster motor units were recruited as goats increased their locomotor speeds from level walking to galloping. Slow inclined walking elicited EMG intensities similar to those of fast level galloping but different EMG frequency spectra, indicating that recruitment of the different motor unit types depended, in part, on characteristics of the task. For the locomotor tasks and muscles analyzed here, recruitment patterns were generally associated with in vivo fascicle strain rates, EMG intensity and tendon force. Together, these data provide

  3. Rapid growth reduces cold resistance: evidence from latitudinal variation in growth rate, cold resistance and stress proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robby Stoks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physiological costs of rapid growth may contribute to the observation that organisms typically grow at submaximal rates. Although, it has been hypothesized that faster growing individuals would do worse in dealing with suboptimal temperatures, this type of cost has never been explored empirically. Furthermore, the mechanistic basis of the physiological costs of rapid growth is largely unexplored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Larvae of the damselfly Ischnura elegans from two univoltine northern and two multivoltine southern populations were reared at three temperatures and after emergence given a cold shock. Cold resistance, measured by chill coma recovery times in the adult stage, was lower in the southern populations. The faster larval growth rates in the southern populations contributed to this latitudinal pattern in cold resistance. In accordance with their assumed role in cold resistance, Hsp70 levels were lower in the southern populations, and faster growing larvae had lower Hsp70 levels. Yet, individual variation in Hsp70 levels did not explain variation in cold resistance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: WE PROVIDE EVIDENCE FOR A NOVEL COST OF RAPID GROWTH: reduced cold resistance. Our results indicate that the reduced cold resistance in southern populations of animals that change voltinism along the latitudinal gradient may not entirely be explained by thermal selection per se but also by the costs of time constraint-induced higher growth rates. This also illustrates that stressors imposed in the larval stage may carry over and shape fitness in the adult stage and highlights the importance of physiological costs in the evolution of life-histories at macro-scales.

  4. Internet search query analysis can be used to demonstrate the rapidly increasing public awareness of palliative care in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Sarah; Lennon, Paul; Glare, Paul

    2017-01-27

    A lack of public awareness of palliative care (PC) has been identified as one of the main barriers to appropriate PC access. Internet search query analysis is a novel methodology, which has been effectively used in surveillance of infectious diseases, and can be used to monitor public awareness of health-related topics. We aimed to demonstrate the utility of internet search query analysis to evaluate changes in public awareness of PC in the USA between 2005 and 2015. Google Trends provides a referenced score for the popularity of a search term, for defined regions over defined time periods. The popularity of the search term 'palliative care' was measured monthly between 1/1/2005 and 31/12/2015 in the USA and in the UK. Results were analysed using independent t-tests and joinpoint analysis. The mean monthly popularity of the search term increased between 2008-2009 (pquery surveillance is a novel methodology, it is freely accessible and has significant potential to monitor health-seeking behaviour among the public. PC is rapidly growing in the USA, and the rapidly increasing public awareness of PC as demonstrated in this study, in comparison with the UK, where PC is relatively well established is encouraging in increasingly ensuring appropriate PC access for all. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Carboxylesterase 1A2 encoding gene with increased transcription and potential rapid drug metabolism in Asian populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Berg; Madsen, Majbritt Busk; Lyauk, Yassine Kamal

    2017-01-01

    The carboxylesterase 1 gene (CES1) encodes a hydrolase implicated in the metabolism of commonly used drugs. CES1A2, a hybrid of CES1 and a CES1-like pseudogene, has a promoter that is weak in most individuals. However, some individuals harbor a promoter haplotype of this gene with two overlapping...... Sp1 sites that confer significantly increased transcription potentially leading to rapid drug metabolism. This CES1A2 haplotype has previously been reported to be common among Asians. Using polymerase chain reaction followed by sequencing, the present study examined variation in the promoter and 5...

  6. POSSIBLE RAPID STRAIN ACCUMULATION RATES NEAR CALI, COLOMBIA, DETERMINED FROM GPS MEASUREMENTS (1996-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trenkamp Robert

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Global Positioning System (GPS data from southern Central America and northwestern South America collected between 1991 and 1998 reveal wide plate margin deformation along a 1400 km length of the North Andes. Also associated with the oblique subduction of the Nazca plate at the Colombia-Ecuador trench is the 'escape' of the North Andes block (NAB. The NAB is delineated by the Bocono-East Andean fault systems and the Dolores Guayaquil Megasheare to the east, the South Caribbean deformed belt on the north and the Colombia-Ecuador trench and Panama on the west. Within the NAB many damaging crustal earthquakes have occurred which is most recently exemplified on January 25, 1999 (Mw = 6.1 Armenia earthquake. Preliminary analysis of recent occupations (2003 GEORED GPS of several previously observed (1996-2001 GPS sites suggest shear strain accumulation rates in the Cauca valley near Cali of approximately 2.1 x 10-7 yr-1 and 1.6 x 10-7 yr-1. These strain rates are measured within 2 Delaunay triangles with common vertices at Cali and Restrepo, which encompass areas, located north and west of Cali.Seismicity has been monitored in the Cauca Valley for the last 17 years by the "Observatorio Sismológico del Suroccidente" (OSSO since 1987 and by the Red Sismológica Nacional del INGEOMINAS since 1993. Their catalogs list numerous shallow earthquakes near Cali but nothing larger than magnitude 5. Historically, however, several large earthquakes are associated with the "Falla Cauca Almaguer" in locations both to the south and north of Cali in the Cauca valley. Preliminary calculations using the strain rates determined for these Delaunay triangles and a simplified Kostrov formula suggest possible decadal (30 - 90 years recurrence intervals for Mw = 6.0 - 6.3 earthquakes, centenary (90 - 900 years recurrence intervals for Mw = 6.4 - 6.9 earthquakes and millennial (900+ years recurrence intervals for Mw ≥ 7 earthquakes.

  7. Rapid slowing of the atrial fibrillatory rate after administration of AZD7009 predicts conversion of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunes, Maria; Egstrup, Kenneth; Frison, Lars

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effects on the atrial fibrillatory rate (AFR) were studied during infusion with the combined potassium and sodium channel blocker AZD7009. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) were randomized to AZD7009 or placebo. Thirty-five patients converted to si...... fpm (p=0.02), and at 10 min, -133 vs. -111 fpm (p=0.048). The AFR-SD and the exponential decay decreased. A small left atrial area was the only baseline predictor of conversion to SR. CONCLUSIONS: AZD7009 produced a significantly more rapid decrease of the AFR in converters than in non...

  8. Effect of increased ovulation rate on embryo and foetal survival as a model for selection by ovulation rate in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. Badawy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Selection for ovulation rate in prolific species has not improved litter size, due to an increase in prenatal mortality, with most mortality observed in the foetal period. The aim of this study was to investigate the magnitude and timing of embryo and early foetal survival in females with high ovulation rate using hormonal treatment as a model for selection by ovulation rate. Two groups of females (treated and untreated were used. Treated females were injected with 50 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin 48 h before mating. Females were slaughtered at 18 d of gestation. Ovulation rate (OR, number of implanted embryos (IE, number of live foetuses at 12 and 18 d (LF12 and LF18, respectively were recorded. In addition, embryo survival (ES=IE/OR, foetal survival at 18 d of gestation (FSLF18=LF18/IE, foetal survival between 12 and 18 d of gestation (FSLF18/LF12=LF18/LF12 and prenatal survival (PSLF18=LF18/OR were estimated. For each female, the mean and variability of the weight for live foetuses (LFWm and LFWv, respectively and their placentas (LFPWm and LFPWv, respectively were calculated. Treated females had a higher ovulation rate (+3.02 ova than untreated females, with a probability of 0.99. An increase in the differences (D between treated and untreated females was observed from implantation to 18 d of gestation (D=–0.33, –0.70 and –1.28 for IE, LF12 and LF18, respectively. These differences had a low accuracy and the probability that treated females would have a lower number of foetuses also increased throughout gestation (0.60, 0.70 and 0.86 for IE, LF12 and LF18, respectively. According to the previous results for OR and LF18, treated females showed a lower survival rate from ovulation to 18 d of gestation (D=–0.12, P=0.98 for PSLF18. Treated females also had lower embryo and foetal survival (D=–0.10 and P=0.94 for ES and D=–0.08 and P=0.93 for FSLF18. Main differences in foetal survival appeared from 12 to 18 d of gestation (D=–0

  9. Increasing Calcium Oxide (Cao) to Accelerate Moulting and Survival Rate Vannamei Shrimp (Litopenaeus Vannamei))

    OpenAIRE

    Erlando, Gito; ', Rusliadi; Mulyadi,

    2016-01-01

    The research about the increasing Calcium Oxide (CaO) to accelerate moulting and survival rate vannamei shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was conducted from Agustus until September 2015 at Balai Perikanan Budidaya Air Payau, Instalasi Pembenihan Udang (IPU) Gelung, Situbondo Provinsi Jawa Timur. The purpose of this research was to investigate optimum doses calcium oxide to accelerate moulting and the survival rate vannamei shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Vannamei shrimp with size PL25 were used in...

  10. A Minimalistic Resource Allocation Model to Explain Ubiquitous Increase in Protein Expression with Growth Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenholz, Uri; Keren, Leeat; Segal, Eran; Milo, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Most proteins show changes in level across growth conditions. Many of these changes seem to be coordinated with the specific growth rate rather than the growth environment or the protein function. Although cellular growth rates, gene expression levels and gene regulation have been at the center of biological research for decades, there are only a few models giving a base line prediction of the dependence of the proteome fraction occupied by a gene with the specific growth rate. We present a simple model that predicts a widely coordinated increase in the fraction of many proteins out of the proteome, proportionally with the growth rate. The model reveals how passive redistribution of resources, due to active regulation of only a few proteins, can have proteome wide effects that are quantitatively predictable. Our model provides a potential explanation for why and how such a coordinated response of a large fraction of the proteome to the specific growth rate arises under different environmental conditions. The simplicity of our model can also be useful by serving as a baseline null hypothesis in the search for active regulation. We exemplify the usage of the model by analyzing the relationship between growth rate and proteome composition for the model microorganism E.coli as reflected in recent proteomics data sets spanning various growth conditions. We find that the fraction out of the proteome of a large number of proteins, and from different cellular processes, increases proportionally with the growth rate. Notably, ribosomal proteins, which have been previously reported to increase in fraction with growth rate, are only a small part of this group of proteins. We suggest that, although the fractions of many proteins change with the growth rate, such changes may be partially driven by a global effect, not necessarily requiring specific cellular control mechanisms.

  11. A Minimalistic Resource Allocation Model to Explain Ubiquitous Increase in Protein Expression with Growth Rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uri Barenholz

    Full Text Available Most proteins show changes in level across growth conditions. Many of these changes seem to be coordinated with the specific growth rate rather than the growth environment or the protein function. Although cellular growth rates, gene expression levels and gene regulation have been at the center of biological research for decades, there are only a few models giving a base line prediction of the dependence of the proteome fraction occupied by a gene with the specific growth rate. We present a simple model that predicts a widely coordinated increase in the fraction of many proteins out of the proteome, proportionally with the growth rate. The model reveals how passive redistribution of resources, due to active regulation of only a few proteins, can have proteome wide effects that are quantitatively predictable. Our model provides a potential explanation for why and how such a coordinated response of a large fraction of the proteome to the specific growth rate arises under different environmental conditions. The simplicity of our model can also be useful by serving as a baseline null hypothesis in the search for active regulation. We exemplify the usage of the model by analyzing the relationship between growth rate and proteome composition for the model microorganism E.coli as reflected in recent proteomics data sets spanning various growth conditions. We find that the fraction out of the proteome of a large number of proteins, and from different cellular processes, increases proportionally with the growth rate. Notably, ribosomal proteins, which have been previously reported to increase in fraction with growth rate, are only a small part of this group of proteins. We suggest that, although the fractions of many proteins change with the growth rate, such changes may be partially driven by a global effect, not necessarily requiring specific cellular control mechanisms.

  12. A Method for Determining Autoignition Temperatures Resulting from Varying Rapid Rise Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, Michael; McCardle, Kenneth; McDougle, Stephen; Saulsberry, Regor; Sipes, William

    2007-01-01

    Pyrotechnic and explosive devices are widely used in the aerospace industry to provide reliable, lightweight initiation components in ignition systems, cartridge actuated devices, escape and ejection systems, and many other applications. There are two major mechanisms for initiation of the pyrotechnic powders: heat and shock. Of powders initiated by heat, we have little information on the temperature required for ignition in the normal functioning time (milliseconds) of the device. The known autoignition temperatures obtained from standard tests provide data from days down to minutes with temperatures increasing as heating time decreases. In order to better understand this relationship, and to make computer models, improved data are needed.

  13. Greater soil carbon stocks and faster turnover rates with increasing agricultural productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderman, Jonathan; Creamer, Courtney; Baisden, W. Troy; Farrell, Mark; Fallon, Stewart

    2017-01-01

    Devising agricultural management schemes that enhance food security and soil carbon levels is a high priority for many nations. However, the coupling between agricultural productivity, soil carbon stocks and organic matter turnover rates is still unclear. Archived soil samples from four decades of a long-term crop rotation trial were analyzed for soil organic matter (SOM) cycling-relevant properties: C and N content, bulk composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, amino sugar content, short-term C bioavailability assays, and long-term C turnover rates by modeling the incorporation of the bomb spike in atmospheric 14C into the soil. After > 40 years under consistent management, topsoil carbon stocks ranged from 14 to 33 Mg C ha-1 and were linearly related to the mean productivity of each treatment. Measurements of SOM composition demonstrated increasing amounts of plant- and microbially derived SOM along the productivity gradient. Under two modeling scenarios, radiocarbon data indicated overall SOM turnover time decreased from 40 to 13 years with increasing productivity - twice the rate of decline predicted from simple steady-state models or static three-pool decay rates of measured C pool distributions. Similarly, the half-life of synthetic root exudates decreased from 30.4 to 21.5 h with increasing productivity, indicating accelerated microbial activity. These findings suggest that there is a direct feedback between accelerated biological activity, carbon cycling rates and rates of carbon stabilization with important implications for how SOM dynamics are represented in models.

  14. EFFECTIVE FRACTURE ENERGY OF ULTRA-HIGH-PERFORMANCE FIBRE-REINFORCED CONCRETE UNDER INCREASED STRAIN RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslav Sovják

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to contribute to the development of ultra-high performance fibre reinforced concrete (UHPFRC with respect to its effective fracture energy. Effective fracture energy was investigated in this paper considering different fibre volume fractions and different strain rates. It was concluded that the effective fracture energy is dependent on the strain rate. In addition, it was found that higher fibre volume fractions tend to decrease the sensitivity of the UHPFRC to increased strain rates.

  15. Association of apneic oxygenation with decreased desaturation rates during rapid sequence intubation by a Chinese emergency medicine service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yong; Qin, Zong-He

    2015-01-01

    Rapid and safe airway management has always been of paramount importance in successful management of critically ill and injured patients in the emergency department. The achievement rate of emergency medicine inhabitants in airway management improved enhanced essentially subsequent to finishing anaesthesiology turn. There was a slightly higher rate of quick sequence intubation in the postapneic oxygenation groups (preapneic oxygenation 6.4%; postapneic oxygenation 9.1%). The majority of patients intubated in both groups were men (preapneic oxygenation 72.3%; postapneic oxygenation 63.5%). A higher percentage of patients in the preapneic oxygenation group had a Cormack-Lehane grade III or worse view (23.2% versus 11.8%). Anaesthesiology turns should be considered as an essential component of emergency medicine training programs. A collateral curriculum of this nature should also focus on the acquisition of skills in airway management. PMID:26379959

  16. Determination of crystal growth rates during rapid solidification of polycrystalline aluminum by nano-scale spatio-temporal resolution in situ transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweiacker, K., E-mail: Kai@zweiacker.org; Liu, C.; Wiezorek, J. M. K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, 648 Benedum Hall, 3700 OHara Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States); McKeown, J. T.; LaGrange, T.; Reed, B. W.; Campbell, G. H. [Materials Science Division, Physical and Life Science Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2016-08-07

    In situ investigations of rapid solidification in polycrystalline Al thin films were conducted using nano-scale spatio-temporal resolution dynamic transmission electron microscopy. Differences in crystal growth rates and asymmetries in melt pool development were observed as the heat extraction geometry was varied by controlling the proximity of the laser-pulse irradiation and the associated induced melt pools to the edge of the transmission electron microscopy support grid, which acts as a large heat sink. Experimental parameters have been established to maximize the reproducibility of the material response to the laser-pulse-related heating and to ensure that observations of the dynamical behavior of the metal are free from artifacts, leading to accurate interpretations and quantifiable measurements with improved precision. Interface migration rate measurements revealed solidification velocities that increased consistently from ∼1.3 m s{sup −1} to ∼2.5 m s{sup −1} during the rapid solidification process of the Al thin films. Under the influence of an additional large heat sink, increased crystal growth rates as high as 3.3 m s{sup −1} have been measured. The in situ experiments also provided evidence for development of a partially melted, two-phase region prior to the onset of rapid solidification facilitated crystal growth. Using the experimental observations and associated measurements as benchmarks, finite-element modeling based calculations of the melt pool evolution after pulsed laser irradiation have been performed to obtain estimates of the temperature evolution in the thin films.

  17. An energy-saving development initiative increases birth rate and childhood malnutrition in rural Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhairi A Gibson

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary life history theory predicts that, in the absence of contraception, any enhancement of maternal condition can increase human fertility. Energetic trade-offs are likely to be resolved in favour of maximizing reproductive success rather than health or longevity. Here we find support for the hypothesis that development initiatives designed to improve maternal and child welfare may also incur costs associated with increased family sizes if they do not include a family planning component.Demographic and anthropometric data were collected in a rural Ethiopian community benefiting from a recent labour-saving development technology that reduces women's energetic expenditure (n = 1,976 households. Using logistic hazards models and general linear modelling techniques, we found that whilst infant mortality has declined, the birth rate has increased, causing greater scarcity of resources within households.This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate a link between a technological development intervention and an increase in both birth rate and childhood malnutrition. Women's nutritional status was not improved by the energy-saving technology, because energy was diverted into higher birth rates. We argue that the contribution of biological processes to increased birth rates in areas of the developing world without access to modern contraception has been overlooked. This highlights the continued need for development programmes to be multisectoral, including access to and promotion of contraception.

  18. Surgical Space Suits Increase Particle and Microbiological Emission Rates in a Simulated Surgical Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaysegaran, Praveen; Knibbs, Luke D; Morawska, Lidia; Crawford, Ross W

    2017-12-14

    The role of space suits in the prevention of orthopedic prosthetic joint infection remains unclear. Recent evidence suggests that space suits may in fact contribute to increased infection rates, with bioaerosol emissions from space suits identified as a potential cause. This study aimed to compare the particle and microbiological emission rates (PER and MER) of space suits and standard surgical clothing. A comparison of emission rates between space suits and standard surgical clothing was performed in a simulated surgical environment during 5 separate experiments. Particle counts were analyzed with 2 separate particle counters capable of detecting particles between 0.1 and 20 μm. An Andersen impactor was used to sample bacteria, with culture counts performed at 24 and 48 hours. Four experiments consistently showed statistically significant increases in both PER and MER when space suits are used compared with standard surgical clothing. One experiment showed inconsistent results, with a trend toward increases in both PER and MER when space suits are used compared with standard surgical clothing. Space suits cause increased PER and MER compared with standard surgical clothing. This finding provides mechanistic evidence to support the increased prosthetic joint infection rates observed in clinical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Poor self-rated health associated with an increased risk of subsequent development of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riise, Hilde Kristin Refvik; Riise, Trond; Natvig, Gerd Karin; Daltveit, Anne Kjersti

    2014-02-01

    Self-rated health has shown to be a strong predictor of mortality and some major chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether poor self-rated health also was related to an increased risk of subsequent development of cancer. Information on self-rated health, life-style factors, and other health-related risk factors was ascertained in a cohort of 25,532 persons participating in the Hordaland Health Study in 1997-1999. Information on development of cancer during 10 years of follow-up was obtained from the Norwegian Cancer Registry. The relationship between self-rated health and development of cancer was examined using Cox regression analysis adjusting for smoking and other life-style factors. Respondents reporting a poor health showed a non-significant increased risk of overall cancer. Sub-analysis of the four most common types of cancer showed a statistically significant association between self-rated health and lung cancer. The adjusted hazard ratio was 3.88 (95% CI; 0.99, 15.8) for those rating their health as poor compared to very good (p for trend = 0.038). For the other types of cancer, we found a non-significant elevated risk associated with poor self-rated health. Respondents who perceive their health as poor had an increased risk of developing lung cancer also after adjusting for smoking. This suggests that self-rated health reflects a broad range of factors important for development of this cancer type. Nevertheless, due to the explorative analysis of the specific cancer types, these findings need to be repeated before elaborate interpretations can be made.

  20. Increasing health examination survey participation rates by SMS reminders and flexible examination times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Aistrich, Anna; Borodulin, Katja

    2014-11-01

    Declining participation rates are an increasing problem in population surveys. Different kinds of methods have been used to ensure participation rates as high as possible. Monetary incentives and reminders have been found to be effective ways to increase participation rates, but these are rather expensive to implement in large population surveys. There is a need for cheaper ways to motivate survey invitees to participate. The Kuusamo Health Examination Survey was conducted in May-June 2011. A random sample of 250 people was selected for the survey. Mobile phone numbers, when available, were obtained for people within the sample. For a random sample of 50% of survey invitees with a mobile phone number, a short message service (SMS) reminder was sent prior to their appointment. All survey participants were asked to fill in a feedback questionnaire. Participation rate was 58% for men and 74% for women. Mobile phone numbers were available for 66% of the sample. Among those receiving an SMS reminder about their appointment, participation rates were up to 25 percentage points higher than among the group not receiving a reminder. In the feedback questionnaire, 9% of the survey participants reported that they would not have participated without the SMS reminder they received. Participants preferred morning hours and Monday-Tuesday as time and day options for the examinations. SMS reminder about the appointment time was an effective way to increase participation rate, especially among the youngest age groups also, providing flexible office hours for the examination clinic may increase participation rate. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  1. Repeated Administration of Korea Red Ginseng Extract Increases Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep via GABAAergic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Il; Kim, Chung-Soo; Han, Jin-Yi; Oh, Eun-Hye; Oh, Ki-Wan; Eun, Jae Soon

    2012-10-01

    The current inquiry was conducted to assess the change in sleep architecture after long periods of administration to determine whether ginseng can be used in the therapy of sleeplessness. Following post-surgical recovery, red ginseng extract (RGE, 200 mg/ kg) was orally administrated to rats for 9 d. Data were gathered on the 1st, 5th, and 9th day, and an electroencephalogram was recorded 24 h after RGE administration. Polygraphic signs of unobstructed sleep-wake activities were simultaneously recorded with sleep-wake recording electrodes from 11:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. for 6 h. Rodents were generally tamed to freely moving polygraphic recording conditions. Although the 1st and 5th day of RGE treatment showed no effect on power densities in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, the 9th day of RGE administration showed augmented α-wave (8.0 to 13.0 Hz) power densities in NREM and REM sleep. RGE increased total sleep and NREM sleep. The total percentage of wakefulness was only decreased on the 9th day, and the number of sleep-wake cycles was reduced after the repeated administration of RGE. Thus, the repeated administration of RGE increased NREM sleep in rats. The α-wave activities in the cortical electroencephalograms were increased in sleep architecture by RGE. Moreover, the levels of both α- and β-subunits of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor were reduced in the hypothalamus of the RGE-treated groups. The level of glutamic acid decarboxylase was over-expressed in the hypothalamus. These results demonstrate that RGE increases NREM sleep via GABAAergic systems.

  2. Changes in transcriptional orientation are associated with increases in evolutionary rates of enterobacterial genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiung Chao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in transcriptional orientation (“CTOs” occur frequently in prokaryotic genomes. Such changes usually result from genomic inversions, which may cause a conflict between the directions of replication and transcription and an increase in mutation rate. However, CTOs do not always lead to the replication-transcription confrontation. Furthermore, CTOs may cause deleterious disruptions of operon structure and/or gene regulations. The currently existing CTOs may indicate relaxation of selection pressure. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate whether CTOs have an independent effect on the evolutionary rates of the affected genes, and whether these genes are subject to any type of selection pressure in prokaryotes. Methods Three closely related enterbacteria, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, were selected for comparisons of synonymous (dS and nonsynonymous (dN substitution rate between the genes that have experienced changes in transcriptional orientation (changed-orientation genes, “COGs” and those that do not (same-orientation genes, “SOGs”. The dN/dS ratio was also derived to evaluate the selection pressure on the analyzed genes. Confounding factors in the estimation of evolutionary rates, such as gene essentiality, gene expression level, replication-transcription confrontation, and decreased dS at gene terminals were controlled in the COG-SOG comparisons. Results We demonstrate that COGs have significantly higher dN and dS than SOGs when a series of confounding factors are controlled. However, the dN/dS ratios are similar between the two gene groups, suggesting that the increase in dS can sufficiently explain the increase in dN in COGs. Therefore, the increases in evolutionary rates in COGs may be mainly mutation-driven. Conclusions Here we show that CTOs can increase the evolutionary rates of the affected genes. This effect is independent of the

  3. Trends in the incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer in Denmark 1978-2007: Rapid incidence increase among young Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch-Johansen, Fatima; Jensen, Allan; Mortensen, Lone

    2010-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer among Caucasian populations worldwide, and incidence rates are increasing. However, NMSC data are not routinely collected by cancer registries, but Denmark has extensive registration of NMSC in two nationwide population-based registries. We...

  4. Increased traffic accident rates associated with shale gas drilling in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jove; Irving, Jennifer; Tang, Xiaoqin; Sellers, Stephen; Crisp, Joshua; Horwitz, Daniel; Muehlenbachs, Lucija; Krupnick, Alan; Carey, David

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association between shale gas drilling and motor vehicle accident rates in Pennsylvania. Using publicly available data on all reported vehicle crashes in Pennsylvania, we compared accident rates in counties with and without shale gas drilling, in periods with and without intermittent drilling (using data from 2005 to 2012). Counties with drilling were matched to non-drilling counties with similar population and traffic in the pre-drilling period. Heavily drilled counties in the north experienced 15-23% higher vehicle crash rates in 2010-2012 and 61-65% higher heavy truck crash rates in 2011-2012 than control counties. We estimated 5-23% increases in crash rates when comparing months with drilling and months without, but did not find significant effects on fatalities and major injury crashes. Heavily drilled counties in the southwest showed 45-47% higher rates of fatal and major injury crashes in 2012 than control counties, but monthly comparisons of drilling activity showed no significant differences associated with drilling. Vehicle accidents have measurably increased in conjunction with shale gas drilling. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Solar radiation increases suicide rate after adjusting for other climate factors in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Hee-Jung; Cho, Chul-Hyun; Lee, Yu Jin; Choi, Nari; An, Hyonggin; Lee, Heon-Jeong

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies have indicated that suicide rates have significant seasonal variations. There is seasonal discordance between temperature and solar radiation due to the monsoon season in South Korea. We investigated the seasonality of suicide and assessed its association with climate variables in South Korea. Suicide rates were obtained from the National Statistical Office of South Korea, and climatic data were obtained from the Korea Meteorological Administration for the period of 1992-2010. We conducted analyses using a generalized additive model (GAM). First, we explored the seasonality of suicide and climate variables such as mean temperature, daily temperature range, solar radiation, and relative humidity. Next, we identified confounding climate variables associated with suicide rate. To estimate the adjusted effect of solar radiation on the suicide rate, we investigated the confounding variables using a multivariable GAM. Suicide rate showed seasonality with a pattern similar to that of solar radiation. We found that the suicide rate increased 1.008 times when solar radiation increased by 1 MJ/m 2 after adjusting for other confounding climate factors (P Solar radiation has a significant linear relationship with suicide after adjusting for region, other climate variables, and time trends. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The role of hermaphrodites in the experimental evolution of increased outcrossing rates in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sara; Chelo, Ivo M; Goy, Christine; Teotónio, Henrique

    2014-06-02

    Why most organisms reproduce via outcrossing rather than selfing is a central question in evolutionary biology. It has long ago been suggested that outcrossing is favoured when it facilitates adaptation to novel environments. We have previously shown that the experimental evolution of increased outcrossing rates in populations of the male-hermaphrodite nematode Caenorhabditis elegans were correlated with the experimental evolution of increased male fitness. However, it is unknown whether outcrossing led to adaptation, and if so, which fitness components can explain the observed increase in outcrossing rates. Using experimental evolution in six populations with initially low standing levels of genetic diversity, we show with head-to-head competition assays that population-wide fitness improved during 100 generations. Since outcrossing rates increased during the same period, this result demonstrates that outcrossing is adaptive. We also show that there was little evolution of hermaphrodite fitness under conditions of selfing or under conditions of outcrossing with unrelated tester males. We nonetheless find a positive genetic correlation between hermaphrodite self-fitness and population-wide fitness, and a negative genetic correlation between hermaphrodite mating success and population-wide fitness. These results suggest that the several hermaphrodite traits measured are fitness components. Tradeoffs expressed in hermaphrodites, particularly noticed between self-fitness and mating success, may in turn explain their lack of change during experimental evolution. Our findings indicate that outcrossing facilitates adaptation to novel environments. They further indicate that the experimental evolution of increased outcrossing rates depended little on hermaphrodites because of fitness tradeoffs between selfing and outcrossing. Instead, the evolution of increased outcrossing rates appears to have resulted from unhindered selection on males.

  7. Pregnancy promotes pituitary tumors by increasing the rate of the cell cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Changjiang; Qi, Xiaoxia

    2017-01-01

    Pituitary tumors may secrete hormones that affect pregnancy. Pregnancy also induces pituitary tumor growth; however, how pregnancy increases the growth of pituitary tumors remains unclear. The present study investigated pregnant female mice with subcutaneous pituitary tumors. The time of tumor occurrence and tumor weight were detected in pregnant and control mice. Tumor weights were measured at the end of the experiment. Blood was collected from pregnant and control mice. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the blood were detected using an ELISA kit. The in vitro effects of BDNF on pituitary tumor AtT-20 cell proliferation and cell cycle were investigated. It was revealed that pregnancy promoted the growth of pituitary tumors. In comparison to non-pregnant mice, the pregnant mice exhibited increased BDNF levels in the blood. In vitro BDNF treatment was able to increase the rate of proliferation of pituitary tumor cells. Additional cell cycle analysis revealed that BDNF was able to alter the cell cycle distribution of pituitary tumor cells. These results indicated that pregnancy was able to increase the BDNF level and promote the growth of pituitary tumor cells by increasing the rate of the cell cycle, leading to increased tumor growth rate in vivo. The present study provides insights into how pregnancy affects the growth of pituitary tumors. Therefore, it may be beneficial to perform pituitary tumor diagnosis or therapy on pregnant patients. PMID:29085495

  8. The effects of differential unemployment rate increases of occupation groups on changes in mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martikainen, P T; Valkonen, T

    1998-12-01

    This study estimated the effects of changes in unemployment rates of occupation groups on changes in mortality in a period of increasing unemployment. Census records for all 20- to 64-year-old economically active Finnish men in 1985 were linked to information on unemployment and deaths in 1987 through 1993. Change in mortality was similar in occupation groups in which unemployment rates increased at a different pace. These relationships were similar for all age groups and for mortality from diseases as well as accidents and violence. Unemployment does not seem to cause mortality in the short term. Excess mortality rates among unemployed individuals observed in previous studies may have been due in part to selection.

  9. Recommendation for use of immunization information systems to increase vaccination rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Based on findings of a systematic review, the Community Preventive Services Task Force recommends immunization information systems on the basis of strong evidence of effectiveness in increasing vaccination rates. Evidence is considered strong, based on the findings from 108 published articles and 132 conference abstracts showing that immunization information systems are effective in increasing vaccination rates and reducing vaccine-preventable disease through their capabilities to (1) create or support effective interventions such as client reminder and recall systems, provider assessment and feedback, and provider reminders; (2) generate and evaluate public health responses to outbreaks of vaccine-preventable disease; (3) facilitate vaccine management and accountability; (4) determine client vaccination status for decisions made by clinicians, health departments, and schools; and (5) aid surveillance and investigations on vaccination rates, missed vaccination opportunities, invalid dose administration, and disparities in vaccination coverage.

  10. Increase in perceived stress is correlated to lower heart rate variability in healthy young subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabriela Câmara Batista da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Emotional stress is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Decreased heart rate variability (HRV is associated to increased mortality rates in certain heart diseases. Current study assessed the co-relation between perceived stress and HRV parameters. The correlation between psychological stress, measured by the perceived stress scale (PSS-14, and HRV parameters obtained during 5 min. at rest was evaluated. Data from 35 healthy young volunteers demonstrated a significant correlation between PSS-14 scores and Low Frequency-LF (ms2 by frequency domain HRV analysis. Other variables such as High Frequency and Standard Deviation of R-R intervals had also negative coefficients but did not have any significant correlation with PSS-14. No correlation between PSS-14 and sympathovagal balance parameters was found. Data interpretation demonstrated that increase in perceived stress was correlated to decrease in heart rate variability, which may point out an important mechanism in cardiovascular pathophysiology that should be further investigated.

  11. Dietary supplement increases plasma norepinephrine, lipolysis, and metabolic rate in resistance trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schilling Brian K

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Correction to Richard J Bloomer, Kelsey H Fisher-Wellman, Kelley G Hammond, Brian K Schilling, Adrianna A Weber and Bradford J Cole: Dietary supplement increases plasma norepinephrine, lipolysis, and metabolic rate in resistance trained men. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2009, 6: 4

  12. 75 FR 56019 - Domestic Dates Produced or Packed in Riverside County, CA; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... marketing and media consulting. The Committee also hopes to add $16,500 to its operating reserve. Prior to...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 987 Domestic Dates Produced or Packed in Riverside County, CA; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION...

  13. 76 FR 21620 - Grapes Grown in Designated Area of Southeastern California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ..., Marketing Specialist, or Kurt J. Kimmel, Regional Manager, California Marketing Field Office, Marketing... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 925 Grapes Grown in Designated Area of Southeastern California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  14. Hypoxia increases exercise heart rate despite combined inhibition of β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebenmann, Christoph; Rasmussen, Peter; Sørensen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia increases the heart rate (HR) response to exercise but the mechanism(s) remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the tachycardic effect of hypoxia persists during separate but not combined inhibition of β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors. Nine subjects performed incremental exercise...... combined β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptor inhibition....

  15. 78 FR 57099 - Avocados Grown in South Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 915 Avocados Grown in South Florida... proposed rule would increase the assessment rate established for the Avocado Administrative Committee... of Florida avocados handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order, which regulates...

  16. 78 FR 23671 - Onions Grown in South Texas; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, South Texas onion... / Monday, April 22, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing... Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment rate established...

  17. 75 FR 70571 - Domestic Dates Produced or Packed in Riverside County, CA; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, Riverside County... Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 987 Domestic Dates Produced or Packed in Riverside County, CA; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule...

  18. 78 FR 1715 - Grapes Grown in Designated Area of Southeastern California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... under Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, grape... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 925 Grapes Grown in Designated Area of Southeastern California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  19. 5 CFR 9701.323 - Eligibility for pay increase associated with a rate range adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... individual pay increase. An employee who meets or exceeds performance expectations (i.e., has a rating of record above the unacceptable performance level for the most recently completed appraisal period) must... completed appraisal period, he or she must be treated in the same manner as an employee who meets or exceeds...

  20. 78 FR 63128 - Dried Prunes Produced in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 993 Dried Prunes Produced in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This... the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (7 U.S.C. 601-674), hereinafter referred...

  1. North Atlantic humpback whale abundance and rate of increase four decades after protection from whaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevick, PT; Allen, J; Clapham, PJ; Friday, N; Katona, SK; Larsen, F; Lien, J; Mattila, DK; Palsboll, PJ; Sigurjonsson, J; Smith, TD; Oien, N; Hammond, PS

    2003-01-01

    Humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae in the North Atlantic Ocean were severely depleted by exploitation. With legal protection since 1955, substantial recovery is likely to have occurred, but information on abundance and rates of increase has been limited. We present an assessment of humpback

  2. Increased growth rate of a WHO grade I ganglioglioma during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafo, Steven; Goutagny, Stéphane; Pallud, Johan

    2013-02-01

    We report the case of a 32-year-old woman with a left frontal ganglioglioma (WHO grade I). Quantitative analysis based on three dimensional magnetic resonance images revealed a threefold increase of growth rate during pregnancy as compared to pre-pregnancy, causing neurological deterioration and leading to prompt surgical treatment 3 months after delivery.

  3. Increasing rate of middle ear ventilation tube insertion in children in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurhuus, Bjarki Ditlev; Skytthe, Axel; Christensen, Kaare; Faber, Christian Emil

    2014-09-01

    To study the incidence rates of middle ear ventilation tube insertion in children aged 0 to 15 years in Denmark from 1997 to 2010. Using two national registers, the Danish National Health Service Register and the Danish National Patient Register, practically all cases of middle ear ventilation tube insertion performed in Denmark in the period were identified. A possible change in incidence rate over time was examined using Poisson regression analysis, while the cumulative incidence proportion was estimated using life-tables. A total of 502,569 uni- or bilateral ventilation tube insertions distributed among 269,459 different children were identified. From 1997 to 2010 the age standardized incidence rate in 0-15-year-olds increased from 26 to 40 per 1000 person years with an estimated annual increase of 2.0% (95% confidence interval 1.9-2.1%). The largest increase in incidence rate was found in 1-year-olds with an annual increase of 4.5% (95% confidence interval 4.4-4.6%). Age-specific incidence rates remained at maximum around the age of 14 months throughout the period. The cumulative incidence proportion for the 2010 birth cohort by the time they reach the age of 5 years was estimated to 29% (95% confidence interval 28-29%). The rate for middle ear ventilation tube insertion in Denmark was high compared to other developed countries, and an estimated 3 in 10 children born in 2010 will undergo at least one ventilation tube insertion before their fifth birthday. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Parasitic plants have increased rates of molecular evolution across all three genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromham, Lindell; Cowman, Peter F; Lanfear, Robert

    2013-06-19

    Theoretical models and experimental evidence suggest that rates of molecular evolution could be raised in parasitic organisms compared to non-parasitic taxa. Parasitic plants provide an ideal test for these predictions, as there are at least a dozen independent origins of the parasitic lifestyle in angiosperms. Studies of a number of parasitic plant lineages have suggested faster rates of molecular evolution, but the results of some studies have been mixed. Comparative analysis of all parasitic plant lineages, including sequences from all three genomes, is needed to examine the generality of the relationship between rates of molecular evolution and parasitism in plants. We analysed DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial, nuclear and chloroplast genomes for 12 independent evolutionary origins of parasitism in angiosperms. We demonstrated that parasitic lineages have a faster rate of molecular evolution than their non-parasitic relatives in sequences for all three genomes, for both synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions. Our results prove that raised rates of molecular evolution are a general feature of parasitic plants, not confined to a few taxa or specific genes. We discuss possible causes for this relationship, including increased positive selection associated with host-parasite arms races, relaxed selection, reduced population size or repeated bottlenecks, increased mutation rates, and indirect causal links with generation time and body size. We find no evidence that faster rates are due to smaller effective populations sizes or changes in selection pressure. Instead, our results suggest that parasitic plants have a higher mutation rate than their close non-parasitic relatives. This may be due to a direct connection, where some aspect of the parasitic lifestyle drives the evolution of raised mutation rates. Alternatively, this pattern may be driven by an indirect connection between rates and parasitism: for example, parasitic plants tend to be smaller than

  5. Restrictive use of perioperative blood transfusion does not increase complication rates in microvascular breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Anne C; Barandun, Marina; Cha, Jieun; Zhong, Toni; Hofer, Stefan O P

    2016-08-01

    With increasing appreciation of the possible adverse effects of peri-operative blood transfusion, restrictive policies regarding use of blood products have been adopted in many surgical specialties. Although microvascular breast reconstruction has become a routine procedure, high peri-operative transfusion rates continue to be reported in the literature. In this study we examine the impact of our restrictive approach on blood transfusion rates and postoperative complications in patients undergoing microvascular blood transfusion. A retrospective review of patients undergoing microvascular breast reconstruction with abdominal flaps at a single institution was performed. Patient age and body mass index as well as type, timing and laterality of reconstruction was recorded. Pre-operative and post-operative hemoglobin and hematocrit were recorded. Peri-operative blood transfusion rates were calculated. Post-operative complication rates were compared between patients with higher and lower post-operative hemoglobin levels. Five hundred and twelve patients were included in this study. The peri-operative transfusion rate was 0.98% in this series. There was no significant difference between transfusion rates in unilateral and bilateral reconstructions (0.68 vs 1.36% p = 0.08) or immediate and delayed reconstructions (1.02 vs 0.51% p = 0.72 and 1.01 vs 1.60% p = 0.09 for unilateral and bilateral respectively). Lower post-operative hemoglobin levels were not associated with increased flap related, surgical or medical complications rates. A restrictive approach to peri-operative blood transfusion can be safely adopted in microvascular breast reconstruction without compromising flap viability or overall complication rates. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Root Tip Shape Governs Root Elongation Rate under Increased Soil Strength1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchgessner, Norbert; Walter, Achim

    2017-01-01

    Increased soil strength due to soil compaction or soil drying is a major limitation to root growth and crop productivity. Roots need to exert higher penetration force, resulting in increased penetration stress when elongating in soils of greater strength. This study aimed to quantify how the genotypic diversity of root tip geometry and root diameter influences root elongation under different levels of soil strength and to determine the extent to which roots adjust to increased soil strength. Fourteen wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties were grown in soil columns packed to three bulk densities representing low, moderate, and high soil strength. Under moderate and high soil strength, smaller root tip radius-to-length ratio was correlated with higher genotypic root elongation rate, whereas root diameter was not related to genotypic root elongation. Based on cavity expansion theory, it was found that smaller root tip radius-to-length ratio reduced penetration stress, thus enabling higher root elongation rates in soils with greater strength. Furthermore, it was observed that roots could only partially adjust to increased soil strength. Root thickening was bounded by a maximum diameter, and root tips did not become more acute in response to increased soil strength. The obtained results demonstrated that root tip geometry is a pivotal trait governing root penetration stress and root elongation rate in soils of greater strength. Hence, root tip shape needs to be taken into account when selecting for crop varieties that may tolerate high soil strength. PMID:28600344

  7. Root Tip Shape Governs Root Elongation Rate under Increased Soil Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombi, Tino; Kirchgessner, Norbert; Walter, Achim; Keller, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Increased soil strength due to soil compaction or soil drying is a major limitation to root growth and crop productivity. Roots need to exert higher penetration force, resulting in increased penetration stress when elongating in soils of greater strength. This study aimed to quantify how the genotypic diversity of root tip geometry and root diameter influences root elongation under different levels of soil strength and to determine the extent to which roots adjust to increased soil strength. Fourteen wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) varieties were grown in soil columns packed to three bulk densities representing low, moderate, and high soil strength. Under moderate and high soil strength, smaller root tip radius-to-length ratio was correlated with higher genotypic root elongation rate, whereas root diameter was not related to genotypic root elongation. Based on cavity expansion theory, it was found that smaller root tip radius-to-length ratio reduced penetration stress, thus enabling higher root elongation rates in soils with greater strength. Furthermore, it was observed that roots could only partially adjust to increased soil strength. Root thickening was bounded by a maximum diameter, and root tips did not become more acute in response to increased soil strength. The obtained results demonstrated that root tip geometry is a pivotal trait governing root penetration stress and root elongation rate in soils of greater strength. Hence, root tip shape needs to be taken into account when selecting for crop varieties that may tolerate high soil strength. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Assessment of increasing loading rate on two-stage digestion of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelklein, M A; Jacob, A; O' Shea, R; Murphy, J D

    2016-02-01

    A two-stage food waste digestion system involved a first stage hydrolysis reactor followed by a second stage methanogenic reactor. Organic loading rates (OLR) were increased from 6 to 15 g VS L(-1) d(-1) in the hydrolysis reactor and from 2 to 5 g VS L(-1) d(-1) in the methanogenic reactor. The retention time was fixed at 4 days (hydrolysis reactor) and 12 days (methane reactor). A single-stage digester was subjected to similar loading rates as the methanogenic reactor at 16 days retention. Increased OLR resulted in higher quantities of liquid fermentation products from the first stage hydrolysis reactor. Solubilisation of chemical oxygen demand peaked at 47% at the maximum loading. However, enhanced hydrolysis yields had no significant impact on the specific methane yields. The two-stage system increased methane yields up to 23% and enriched methane content by an average of 14% to levels of 71%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reduced knee flexion is a possible cause of increased loading rates in individuals with patellofemoral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Danilo de Oliveira; Briani, Ronaldo Valdir; Pazzinatto, Marcella Ferraz; Ferrari, Deisi; Aragão, Fernando Amâncio; Azevedo, Fábio Mícolis de

    2015-11-01

    Stair ascent is an activity that exacerbates symptoms of individuals with patellofemoral pain. The discomfort associated with this activity usually results in gait modification such as reduced knee flexion in an attempt to reduce pain. Although such compensatory strategy is a logical approach to decrease pain, it also reduces the normal active shock absorption increasing loading rates and may lead to deleterious and degenerative changes of the knee joint. Thus, the aims of this study were (i) to investigate whether there is reduced knee flexion in adults with PFP compared to healthy controls; and (ii) to analyze loading rates in these subjects, during stair climbing. Twenty-nine individuals with patellofemoral pain and twenty-five control individuals (18-30 years) participated in this study. Each subject underwent three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic analyses during stair climbing on two separate days. Between-groups analyses of variance were performed to identify differences in peak knee flexion and loading rates. Intraclass correlation coefficient was performed to verify the reliability of the variables. On both days, the patellofemoral pain group demonstrated significantly reduced peak knee flexion and increased loading rates. In addition, the two variables obtained high to very high reliability. Reduced knee flexion during stair climbing as a strategy to avoid anterior knee pain does not seem to be healthy for lower limb mechanical distributions. Repeated loading at higher loading rates may be damaging to lower limb joints. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nested radiations and the pulse of angiosperm diversification: increased diversification rates often follow whole genome duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, David C; Eastman, Jonathan M; Pennell, Matthew W; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E; Hinchliff, Cody E; Brown, Joseph W; Sessa, Emily B; Harmon, Luke J

    2015-07-01

    Our growing understanding of the plant tree of life provides a novel opportunity to uncover the major drivers of angiosperm diversity. Using a time-calibrated phylogeny, we characterized hot and cold spots of lineage diversification across the angiosperm tree of life by modeling evolutionary diversification using stepwise AIC (MEDUSA). We also tested the whole-genome duplication (WGD) radiation lag-time model, which postulates that increases in diversification tend to lag behind established WGD events. Diversification rates have been incredibly heterogeneous throughout the evolutionary history of angiosperms and reveal a pattern of 'nested radiations' - increases in net diversification nested within other radiations. This pattern in turn generates a negative relationship between clade age and diversity across both families and orders. We suggest that stochastically changing diversification rates across the phylogeny explain these patterns. Finally, we demonstrate significant statistical support for the WGD radiation lag-time model. Across angiosperms, nested shifts in diversification led to an overall increasing rate of net diversification and declining relative extinction rates through time. These diversification shifts are only rarely perfectly associated with WGD events, but commonly follow them after a lag period. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. The Impact of Rate Reduction and Increased Loudness on Fundamental Frequency Characteristics in Dysarthria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study examined the extent to which articulatory rate reduction and increased loudness were associated with adjustments in utterance-level measures of fundamental frequency (F0) variability for speakers with dysarthria and healthy controls that have been shown to impact on intelligibility in previously published studies. More generally, the current study sought to compare and contrast how a slower-than-normal rate and increased vocal loudness impact on a variety of utterance-level F0 characteristics for speakers with dysarthria and healthy controls. Patients and Methods Eleven speakers with Parkinson's disease, 15 speakers with multiple sclerosis, and 14 healthy control speakers were audio recorded while reading a passage in habitual, loud, and slow conditions. Magnitude production was used to elicit variations in rate and loudness. Acoustic measures of duration, intensity and F0 were obtained. Results and Conclusions For all speaker groups, a slower-than-normal articulatory rate and increased vocal loudness had distinct effects on F0 relative to the habitual condition, including a tendency for measures of F0 variation to be greater in the loud condition and reduced in the slow condition. These results suggest implications for the treatment of dysarthria. PMID:20938199

  12. Apparent late Quaternary fault slip rate increase in the southwestern Lower Rhine Graben, central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Ryan D.; Friedrich, Anke M.; Kubler, Simon; Salamon, Martin

    2017-01-01

    In regions of low strain, long earthquake recurrence intervals (104–106  yrs) and erosive processes limit preservation of Quaternary markers suitable for distinguishing whether faults slip at uniform or secularly varying rates. The Lower Rhine graben in the border region of Germany, The Netherlands, and Belgium provides a unique opportunity to explore Quaternary slip‐rate variations in a region of low strain using the basal (2.29±0.29  Ma) and surface (700±80  ka) contacts of the regionally extensive main terrace (“Hauptterrasse”), deposited by the Rhine and Maas Rivers. These surfaces are vertically offset 3–140 m and 0–68 m, respectively, across individual fault strands within a distributed network of northwest‐trending, slow‐slipping (light detection and ranging (lidar)‐derived bare‐earth digital terrain models, which we synthesize with existing constraints on the offset basal contact of this fluvial deposit (n=91 collocated sites with displacement constraints). We find that >80% of the sites record an apparent increase in slip rate for the more recent interval from 700 ka to present, which corresponds to a period of increased uplift of the nearby Rhenish Massif and regional volcanism. However, the apparent increase in slip rate could result, in part, from erosion of the footwall surface below the main terrace, leading to an apparent displacement that is smaller than the total vertical offset since the start of the Quaternary. Prior work focused on characterization of these faults as seismic sources in the Lower Rhine graben has preferentially relied on the average fault‐slip rate constrained using the base of the main terrace. We suggest that average fault‐slip rates calculated using the ∼700  ka main terrace surface are subjected to fewer uncertainties and sample a time interval that is more relevant for seismic‐hazard analysis.

  13. Unconventional Gas and Oil Drilling Is Associated with Increased Hospital Utilization Rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jemielita

    Full Text Available Over the past ten years, unconventional gas and oil drilling (UGOD has markedly expanded in the United States. Despite substantial increases in well drilling, the health consequences of UGOD toxicant exposure remain unclear. This study examines an association between wells and healthcare use by zip code from 2007 to 2011 in Pennsylvania. Inpatient discharge databases from the Pennsylvania Healthcare Cost Containment Council were correlated with active wells by zip code in three counties in Pennsylvania. For overall inpatient prevalence rates and 25 specific medical categories, the association of inpatient prevalence rates with number of wells per zip code and, separately, with wells per km2 (separated into quantiles and defined as well density were estimated using fixed-effects Poisson models. To account for multiple comparisons, a Bonferroni correction with associations of p<0.00096 was considered statistically significant. Cardiology inpatient prevalence rates were significantly associated with number of wells per zip code (p<0.00096 and wells per km2 (p<0.00096 while neurology inpatient prevalence rates were significantly associated with wells per km2 (p<0.00096. Furthermore, evidence also supported an association between well density and inpatient prevalence rates for the medical categories of dermatology, neurology, oncology, and urology. These data suggest that UGOD wells, which dramatically increased in the past decade, were associated with increased inpatient prevalence rates within specific medical categories in Pennsylvania. Further studies are necessary to address healthcare costs of UGOD and determine whether specific toxicants or combinations are associated with organ-specific responses.

  14. Blocking blue light during mania - markedly increased regularity of sleep and rapid improvement of symptoms: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Tone E G; Skrede, Silje; Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Hamre, Børge; Grønli, Janne; Lund, Anders

    2014-12-01

    Available pharmacological treatment of mania is insufficient. Virtual darkness therapy (blue light-blocking treatment by means of orange-tinted glasses) is a promising new treatment option for mania. The basis for this might be the recently identified blue light-sensitive retinal photoreceptor, which is solely responsible for light stimulus to the circadian master clock. This is the first case report describing the clinical course of a closely monitored, hospitalized patient in a manic episode first receiving clear-lensed, and then blue light-blocking glasses. A 58-year-old Caucasian man, with bipolar I disorder and three previous manic episodes, was hospitalized during a manic episode. In addition to pharmacological treatment, he was treated with clear-lensed glasses for seven days, then one day without glasses, followed by six days of blue light-blocking glasses. During the entire observational period, he wore an actigraph with internal light sensors. Manic symptoms were unaltered during the first seven days. The transition to the blue-blocking regime was followed by a rapid and sustained decline in manic symptoms accompanied by a reduction in total sleep, a reduction in motor activity during sleep intervals, and markedly increased regularity of sleep intervals. The patient's total length of hospital stay was 20 days shorter than the average time during his previous manic episodes. The unusually rapid decline in symptoms, accompanied by uniform sleep parameter changes toward markedly increased regularity, suggest that blue-blockers might be targeting a central mechanism in the pathophysiology of mania that needs to be explored both in clinical research and in basic science. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Rapid Increase in Serum Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Concentration during Hepatitis C Interferon-Free Treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Hashimoto

    Full Text Available We performed lipid analyses at the early period of therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C who underwent interferon (IFN-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA treatment, and we attempted to identify the factors that contributed to a rapid increase in the patients' serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C concentration.We retrospectively analyzed the cases of 100 consecutive patients with HCV infection treated at the National Hospital Organization Nagasaki Medical Center: 24 patients underwent daclatasvir (DCV and asunaprevir (ASV combination therapy (DCV/ASV for 24 weeks, and the other 76 patients underwent ledipasvir and sofosbuvir combination therapy (LDV/SOF for 12 weeks. ΔLDL-C was defined as the changed in LDL-C level at 28 days from the start of therapy. To determine whether ΔLDL-C was associated with several kinds of factors including viral kinetics, we performed a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis.The LDL-C levels in patients treated with LDV/SOF were markedly and significantly elevated (87.45 to 122.5 mg/dl; p<10-10 compared to those in the DCV/ASV-treated patients (80.15 to 87.8 mg/dl; p = 0.0056. The median levels of ΔLDL-C in the LDV/SOF and DCV/ASV groups were 33.2 and 13.1, respectively. LDV/SOF combination therapy as an IFN-free regimen (p<0.001 and ΔHCV core antigen (0-1 day drop (p<0.044 were identified as independent factors that were closely related to the ΔLDL-C.A rapid increase in the serum LDL-C concentration during the IFN-free treatment of hepatitis C was associated with the type of HCV therapy and a decline of HCV core protein.

  16. Increased transcapillary escape rate of albumin and IgG in essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Jensen, H A; Westrup, M

    1977-01-01

    Transcapillary escape rates of albumin and IgG (fractions of intravascular mass of albumin and IgG that pass to the extravascular space per unit time) were determined simultaneously from the initial disappearance of intravenously injected 131I human albumin and 125I human IgG in seven untreated...... subjects suffering from essential hypertension. The average mean arterial blood pressure of these subjects 193/119 mmHg; four subjects had grade I-III funduscopic changes. Transcapillary escape rates of albumin (TERalb) and IgG (TERIgG) were found significantly increased in the hypertensive subjects...

  17. Increasing national mastectomy rates for the treatment of early stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Usama; Hanlon, Alexandra L; Koshy, Matthew; Buras, Robert; Chumsri, Saranya; Tkaczuk, Katherine H; Cheston, Sally B; Regine, William F; Feigenberg, Steven J

    2013-05-01

    To study national trends in the mastectomy rate for treatment of early stage breast cancer. We analyzed data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, including 256,081 women diagnosed with T1-2 N0-3 M0 breast cancer from 2000 to 2008. We evaluated therapeutic mastectomy rates by the year of diagnosis and performed a multivariable logistic regression analyses to determine predictors of mastectomy as the treatment choice. The proportion of women treated with mastectomy decreased from 40.1 to 35.6 % between 2000 and 2005. Subsequently, the mastectomy rate increased to 38.4 % in 2008 (p mastectomy rates between 2005 and 2008 were moderated by age (p mastectomy. Additionally, multivariate analysis confirmed that women diagnosed in 2008 were more likely to undergo mastectomy than women diagnosed in 2005 (odds ratio 1.17, 95 % confidence interval 1.13 to 1.21, p mastectomy rates, with the mastectomy rate reaching a nadir in 2005 and subsequently rising. Further follow-up to confirm this trend and investigation to determine the underlying cause of this trend and its effect on outcomes may be warranted.

  18. Constant Growth Rate Can Be Supported by Decreasing Energy Flux and Increasing Aerobic Glycolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Slavov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fermenting glucose in the presence of enough oxygen to support respiration, known as aerobic glycolysis, is believed to maximize growth rate. We observed increasing aerobic glycolysis during exponential growth, suggesting additional physiological roles for aerobic glycolysis. We investigated such roles in yeast batch cultures by quantifying O2 consumption, CO2 production, amino acids, mRNAs, proteins, posttranslational modifications, and stress sensitivity in the course of nine doublings at constant rate. During this course, the cells support a constant biomass-production rate with decreasing rates of respiration and ATP production but also decrease their stress resistance. As the respiration rate decreases, so do the levels of enzymes catalyzing rate-determining reactions of the tricarboxylic-acid cycle (providing NADH for respiration and of mitochondrial folate-mediated NADPH production (required for oxidative defense. The findings demonstrate that exponential growth can represent not a single metabolic/physiological state but a continuum of changing states and that aerobic glycolysis can reduce the energy demands associated with respiratory metabolism and stress survival.

  19. Analysis of readmission rates to the intensive care unit after implementation of a rapid response team in a University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamasco E Paula, R; Tanita, M T; Festti, J; Queiroz Cardoso, L T; Carvalho Grion, C M

    2017-10-01

    To compare readmission rates to the intensive care unit (ICU) before and after the implementation of a rapid response team (RRT), and to identify risk factors for readmission. A quasi-experimental before-after study was carried out. A University Hospital. All patients discharged from the ICU from January to December 2008 (control group) and from January 2010 to December 2012 (intervention group). Implementation of an RRT. The data included demographic parameters, diagnoses upon admission, ICU readmission, APACHE II, SOFA, and TISS 28 scores, and routine daily assessment by an RRT of patients discharged from the ICU. During the study interval, 380 patients were analyzed in the period prior to the implementation of the RRT and 1361 after implementation. There was a tendency toward decreased readmission rates one year after RRT implementation. The APACHE II score and SOFA score at ICU discharge were independent factors associated to readmission, as well as clinical referral to the ICU. The RRT intervention resulted in a sustained decrease in readmission rates one year after implementation of this service. The use of a specialized team in health institutions can be recommended for ICU survivors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigating why recycling gravity harvested algae increases harvestability and productivity in high rate algal ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J; Shilton, A N

    2013-09-15

    It has previously been shown that recycling gravity harvested algae promotes Pediastrum boryanum dominance and improves harvestability and biomass production in pilot-scale High Rate Algal Ponds (HRAPs) treating domestic wastewater. In order to confirm the reproducibility of these findings and investigate the mechanisms responsible, this study utilized twelve 20 L outdoor HRAP mesocosms operated with and without algal recycling. It then compared the recycling of separated solid and liquid components of the harvested biomass against un-separated biomass. The work confirmed that algal recycling promoted P. boryanum dominance, improved 1 h-settleability by >20% and increased biomass productivity by >25% compared with controls that had no recycling. With regard to the improved harvestability, of particular interest was that recycling the liquid fraction alone caused a similar improvement in settleability as recycling the solid fraction. This may be due to the presence of extracellular polymeric substances in the liquid fraction. While there are many possible mechanisms that could account for the increased productivity with algal recycling, all but two were systematically eliminated: (i) the mean cell residence time was extended thereby increasing the algal concentration and more fully utilizing the incident sunlight and, (ii) the relative proportions of algal growth stages (which have different specific growth rates) was changed, resulting in a net increase in the overall growth rate of the culture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The dramatic increase in the rate of methylisothiazolinone contact allergy in Belgium: a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Olivier; Baeck, Marie; Constandt, Lieve; Dezfoulian, Bita; Jacobs, Marie-Claude; Kerre, Stefan; Lapeere, Hilde; Pierret, Lauranne; Wouters, Kristien; Goossens, An

    2014-07-01

    The rate of contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis caused by methylisothiazolinone (MI) is dramatically increasing throughout Europe. To report on methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI)/MI and MI allergy in Belgium. Between January 2010 and December 2012, the medical charts of 6599 patients of the Belgian Contact and Environmental Dermatitis Group were retrospectively reviewed for MCI/MI and MI sensitization by use of a standardized questionnaire. Available data on sensitization in 2081 patients tested in 2013 were also included. In 2012, the sensitization rate for MCI/MI had increased to 4.5% and that for MI to 6.0%; the latter showed a further increase to 7.2% in 2013. The people mainly affected were women with a median age of 49 years with hand and/or facial dermatitis, most often resulting from the use of cosmetics. Simultaneous reactions to octylisothiazolinone were observed. A dramatic increase in the rate of contact allergy caused by MI in cosmetics is occurring in Belgium. Notwithstanding the recent recommendation to discontinue the use of MI in leave-on cosmetics, safer use concentrations should also be determined for rinse-off products. Close monitoring of MI sensitization in the near future will be necessary, and the highest test concentrations reported for MI and MCI/MI should be included in the baseline series. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Treatment of human muscle cells with popular dietary supplements increase mitochondrial function and metabolic rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan Roger A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a common pathology with increasing incidence, and is associated with increased mortality and healthcare costs. Several treatment options for obesity are currently available ranging from behavioral modifications to pharmaceutical agents. Many popular dietary supplements claim to enhance weight loss by acting as metabolic stimulators, however direct tests of their effect on metabolism have not been performed. Purpose This work identified the effects popular dietary supplements on metabolic rate and mitochondrial biosynthesis in human skeletal muscle cells. Methods Human rhabdomyosarcoma cells were treated with popular dietary supplements at varied doses for 24 hours. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α, an important stimulator of mitochondrial biosynthesis, was quantified using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Mitochondrial content was measured using flow cytometry confirmed with confocal microscopy. Glycolytic metabolism was quantified by measuring extracellular acidification rate (ECAR and oxidative metabolism was quantified by measuring oxygen consumption rate (OCR. Total relative metabolism was quantified using WST-1 end point assay. Results Treatment of human rhabdomyosarcoma cells with dietary supplements OxyElite Pro (OEP or Cellucore HD (CHD induced PGC-1α leading to significantly increased mitochondrial content. Glycolytic and oxidative capacities were also significantly increased following treatment with OEP or CHD. Conclusion This is the first work to identify metabolic adaptations in muscle cells following treatment with popular dietary supplements including enhanced mitochondrial biosynthesis, and glycolytic, oxidative and total metabolism.

  3. Effect of increasing biochar application rate on soil hydraulic properties of an artificial sandy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, V.; Ghezzehei, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    Biochar, a product of the pyrolysis of biomass, has become an increasingly studied subject of interest as an agricultural soil amendment to address issues of carbon emission, population density, and food scarcity. Biochar has been reported to increase content and retention of nutrients, pH, cation-exchange capacity, vegetative growth, microbial community, and carbon sequestration. A number of studies addressing the usefulness of biochar as a soil amendment have focused on chemical and biological properties, disregarding the effects on soil physical properties of amended soil. Aside from biochar, lime (calcium carbonate) addition to soils has also been utilized in agricultural practices, typically to raise the pH value of acidic soils, increase microbial activity, and enhance soil stability and productivity as a result. Both biochar and lime amendments may be beneficial in increasing the soil physical properties, particularly through the formation of aggregates. In previous studies an increase in soil particle aggregates resulted in higher rates of biological activity, infiltration rates, pore space, and aeration, all of which are a measure of soil quality. While the effectiveness of biochar and lime as soil amendments has been independently documented, their combined effectiveness on soil physical properties is less understood. This study aims to provide a further understanding on the effect of increasing biochar application rate on soil particle aggregation and hydraulic properties of a low reactive pre-limed artificial sandy soil with and without microbial communities. Microbial communities are known to increase soil aggregates by acting as cementing agents. Understanding the impact of biochar addition on soil physical properties will have implications in the development of sustainable agricultural practices, especially in systems undergoing climate stress and intensive agriculture.

  4. Children treated for severe acute malnutrition experience a rapid increase in physical activity a few days after admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Hansen, Kristina Beck; van Hees, Vincent T; Christensen, Line Brinch; Girma, Tsinuel; Friis, Henrik; Brage, Søren

    2014-06-01

    To assess physical activity at admission and during recovery from severe acute malnutrition. Ethiopian children who were admitted with severe acute malnutrition received a clinical examination each week to monitor their recovery during rehabilitation. Using accelerometry (24 h/d for 5 consecutive days) at admission and again after 10 days of rehabilitation, we assessed the level and changes of physical activity. Among 13 children included, the mean (SD) age was 31.1 months (15.5). At baseline, the day-night activity difference was relatively small, whereas the level of activity had substantially increased at follow-up. The diurnal mean acceleration level was significantly greater at follow-up for wrist (1158.8 vs 541.4 counts per minute, P = .003) but not hip movements (204.1 vs 141.5, P = .261). During daytime (6 a.m. to 10 p.m.), hip activity increased by 38% from baseline to follow-up (e(B) 1.38, 95% CI 1.17-1.62), and wrist activity more than doubled (e(B) 2.50, 95% CI 2.17-2.87). The level of physical activity among children with severe acute malnutrition is very low but increases rapidly during recovery. Accelerometry may be a useful approach in the recovery phase as an indicator of early improvement. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased baseline proinflammatory cytokine production in chronic hepatitis C patients with rapid virological response to peginterferon plus ribavirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Par, Gabriella; Szereday, Laszlo; Berki, Timea; Palinkas, Laszlo; Halasz, Melinda; Miseta, Attila; Hegedus, Geza; Szekeres-Bartho, Julia; Vincze, Aron; Hunyady, Bela; Par, Alajos

    2013-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients achieving rapid virological response (RVR) on PEG-IFN/ribavirin (P/R) therapy have high chance of sustained virological response (SVR). To analyze host immunological factors associated with RVR, viral kinetics, phenotype distribution and Th1/Th2 cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were studied prior to and during P/R therapy. TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-10 production by PBMC were measured after Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) or phorbol myristate acetate/Ionomycin stimulation in 20 healthy controls and in 50 CHC patients before receiving and during P/R therapy. RVR was achieved by 14, complete early virological response (cEVR) by 19 patients and 17 patients were null-responders (NR). Patients with RVR showed an increased baseline TNF-α and IL-6 production by TLR-4 activated monocytes and increased IFN-γ, decreased IL-4 and IL-10 production by lymphocytes compared to non-RVR patients. SVR was also associated with increased baseline TNF-α production and decreased IL-10 levels compared to patients who did not achieve SVR. Baseline IL-2 production was higher in cEVR compared to NR patients. Antiviral treatment increased TNF-α, IL-6 production by monocytes and IFN-γ secretion by lymphocytes and decreased IL-4 and IL-10 production by lymphocytes in cEVR compared to NR patients. RVR was associated with increased baseline proinflammatory cytokine production by TLR-4 stimulated monocytes and by activated lymphocytes. In null-responders and in patients who did not achieve SVR both TLR-4 sensing function and proinflammatory cytokine production were impaired, suggesting that modulation of TLR activity and controlled induction of inflammatory cytokine production may provide further therapeutic strategy for CHC patients non-responding to P/R treatment.

  6. Increased baseline proinflammatory cytokine production in chronic hepatitis C patients with rapid virological response to peginterferon plus ribavirin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Par

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C (CHC patients achieving rapid virological response (RVR on PEG-IFN/ribavirin (P/R therapy have high chance of sustained virological response (SVR. To analyze host immunological factors associated with RVR, viral kinetics, phenotype distribution and Th1/Th2 cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were studied prior to and during P/R therapy. METHODS: TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-10 production by PBMC were measured after Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4 or phorbol myristate acetate/Ionomycin stimulation in 20 healthy controls and in 50 CHC patients before receiving and during P/R therapy. RVR was achieved by 14, complete early virological response (cEVR by 19 patients and 17 patients were null-responders (NR. RESULTS: Patients with RVR showed an increased baseline TNF-α and IL-6 production by TLR-4 activated monocytes and increased IFN-γ, decreased IL-4 and IL-10 production by lymphocytes compared to non-RVR patients. SVR was also associated with increased baseline TNF-α production and decreased IL-10 levels compared to patients who did not achieve SVR. Baseline IL-2 production was higher in cEVR compared to NR patients. Antiviral treatment increased TNF-α, IL-6 production by monocytes and IFN-γ secretion by lymphocytes and decreased IL-4 and IL-10 production by lymphocytes in cEVR compared to NR patients. CONCLUSION: RVR was associated with increased baseline proinflammatory cytokine production by TLR-4 stimulated monocytes and by activated lymphocytes. In null-responders and in patients who did not achieve SVR both TLR-4 sensing function and proinflammatory cytokine production were impaired, suggesting that modulation of TLR activity and controlled induction of inflammatory cytokine production may provide further therapeutic strategy for CHC patients non-responding to P/R treatment.

  7. Unlabelled iododeoxyuridine increases the rate of uptake of [{sup 125}I]iododeoxyuridine in human xenografted glioblastomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupertuis, Yves M. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Geneva (Switzerland); Clinical Nutrition, University Hospital of Geneva (Switzerland); Xiao, Wei-Hong; Slosman, Daniel O. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Geneva (Switzerland); Tribolet, N. de [Division of Neurosurgery, University Hospital of Geneva (Switzerland); Pichard, Claude [Clinical Nutrition, University Hospital of Geneva (Switzerland); Bischof Delaloye, Angelika [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Lausanne (Switzerland); Buchegger, Franz [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Geneva (Switzerland); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2002-04-01

    5-Iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IdUrd), a thymidine (TdR) analogue, can be radiolabelled with iodine-125, an Auger radiation emitter, to provoke double-strand breaks once incorporated into DNA of cancer cells. We have previously shown that co-incubation of [{sup 125}I]IdUrd with unlabelled IdUrd provided an additive cytotoxicity in two human glioblastoma cell lines. This observation was unexpectedly correlated with an increase in the rate of DNA incorporation of [{sup 125}I]IdUrd. Here, we further evaluated the effects of unlabelled IdUrd on the uptake of [{sup 125}I]IdUrd in vitro and in vivo in mice xenografted with three human glioblastoma lines. The results showed that, in these three glioblastoma lines, unlabelled IdUrd increased the rate of uptake of [{sup 125}I]IdUrd in vitro by 2- to 4.4-fold and in vivo by 1.5- to 2.8-fold. The rate of uptake of [{sup 125}I]IdUrd in normal rapidly dividing tissues was also increased by 1.3- to 2.8-fold. TdR completely blocked [{sup 125}I]IdUrd uptake in tumours and tissues. Analogues of IdUrd, such as deoxyuridine and 5-iodo-1,3-dimethyuracil, did not reproduce the effect of IdUrd on the uptake of [{sup 125}I]IdUrd, suggesting that it is not related to protection against [{sup 125}I]IdUrd degradation. It is concluded that combined administration of unlabelled IdUrd may improve the use of radiolabelled IdUrd for cancer diagnosis or therapy. (orig.)

  8. Increased Frame Rate for Plane Wave Imaging Without Loss of Image Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2015-01-01

    in the near field for λ-pitch transducers. Artefacts can only partly be suppressed by increasing the number of emissions, and this paper demonstrates how the frame rate can be increased without loss of image quality by using λ/2-pitch transducers. The number of emissions and steering angles are optimized...... in a simulation study to get the best images with as high a frame rate as possible. The optimal setup for a simulated 4.1 MHz λ-pitch transducer is 73 emissions and a maximum steering of 22◦ . The achieved FWHM is 1.3λ and the cystic resolution is -25 dB for a scatter at 9 mm. Only 37 emissions are necessary...... are scanned and show the performance using the optimized sequences for the transducers. Measurements confirm results from simulations, and the λ-pitch transducer show artefacts at undesirable strengths of -25 dB for a low number of emissions....

  9. Immunization against recombinant bovine inhibin alpha subunit causes increased ovulation rates in gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R W; Hungerford, J W; Greenwood, P E; Bloor, R J; Evans, D F; Tsonis, C G; Forage, R G

    1990-09-01

    Immunization of gilts in a commercial piggery against a fusion protein of the alpha subunit of bovine inhibin, produced by recombinant DNA methods, resulted in mean ovulation rate increases of 35% at the oestrus at which, under the piggery's management practices, they would have been mated. Sera from two immunized groups showed mean binding of 6.6% and 4.9% when assayed, at 1:800 final dilution, against iodinated bovine inhibin (Mr 31,000). Ovulation rates of immunized gilts were highly correlated with the ability of serum to bind iodinated native inhibin (r = 0.62; P less than 0.001), particularly when weight and age were included in the correlation (r = 0.72; P = 0.001), and inhibin binding accounted for 38% of the total variation in ovulation rate. Immunization caused no deleterious effects on growth rate or onset of oestrus. These results demonstrate the potential for use of such immunization to increase prolificacy in gilts and young sows.

  10. An advance letter did not increase the response rates in a telephone survey: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Renee N; Reid, Alison; Driscoll, Timothy R; Glass, Deborah C; Benke, Geza; Fritschi, Lin

    2013-12-01

    To test the impact of an advance letter on response and cooperation rates in a nationwide telephone survey, given previous inconsistent results. Within the context of a larger telephone survey, 1,000 Australian households were randomly selected to take part in this trial. Half were randomly allocated to receive an advance letter, whereas the remainder did not receive any advance communication. Response and cooperation rates were compared between the two groups. A total of 244 interviews were completed, 134 of which were with households that had been sent an advance letter. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no significant difference in response between those who had received a letter and those who had not (26.8% vs. 22.0%, respectively). In addition, there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of either cooperation (78.4% vs. 79.7%) or response rate (56.3% vs. 57.9%), and no clear differences emerged in terms of the demographic characteristics of the two groups. An advance letter was not seen to be effective in increasing response or cooperation rates in a nationwide telephone survey. Researchers should consider alternative methods of increasing participation in telephone surveys. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Kinematic and Microphysical Significance of Lightning Jumps versus Non-Jump Increases in Total Flash Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Christopher J; Carey, Lawrence D; Schultz, Elise V; Blakeslee, Richard J

    2017-02-01

    Thirty-nine thunderstorms are examined using multiple-Doppler, polarimetric and total lightning observations to understand the role of mixed phase kinematics and microphysics in the development of lightning jumps. This sample size is larger than those of previous studies on this topic. The principal result of this study is that lightning jumps are a result of mixed phase updraft intensification. Larger increases in intense updraft volume (≥ 10 m s-1) and larger changes in peak updraft speed are observed prior to lightning jump occurrence when compared to other non-jump increases in total flash rate. Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Rank Sum testing yields p-values ≤0.05, indicating statistical independence between lightning jump and non-jump distributions for these two parameters. Similar changes in mixed phase graupel mass magnitude are observed prior to lightning jumps and non-jump increases in total flash rate. The p-value for graupel mass change is p=0.096, so jump and non-jump distributions for graupel mass change are not found statistically independent using the p=0.05 significance level. Timing of updraft volume, speed and graupel mass increases are found to be 4 to 13 minutes in advance of lightning jump occurrence. Also, severe storms without lightning jumps lack robust mixed phase updrafts, demonstrating that mixed phase updrafts are not always a requirement for severe weather occurrence. Therefore, the results of this study show that lightning jump occurrences are coincident with larger increases in intense mixed phase updraft volume and peak updraft speed than smaller non-jump increases in total flash rate.

  12. Increasing rates of psychiatric publication from low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large, Matthew; Nielssen, Olav; Farooq, Saeed; Glozier, Nick

    2010-09-01

    The low level of psychiatric research in low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries has been identified as a cause for concern, particularly because the extent of the unmet need for psychiatric treatment in many LAMI countries is not known. The aim of this study was to establish if the worldwide increase in research publication during the last decade included an increase in publication about mental disorders from LAMI countries. We searched PubMed for articles about mental disorder, depression and schizophrenia using the names of LAMI and high-income (HI) countries in the institutional affi liation address (AD) field published during two five-year periods: 1998-2002 and 2003-2007. We then examined the relationship between per capita publications about mental disorder and the independent variables of per capita gross domestic product purchasing power parity (GDP ppp), per capita psychiatric beds, per capita psychiatrists, total population and whether the country had a designated mental health budget. The number of medical research publications per capita, and the number of publications about mental disorder from LAMI countries is low when compared to the rate from HI countries. However, the absolute number of publications from LAMI regions and the proportion of research publications about mental disorder, schizophrenia and depression increased significantly during the decade of the study. There were independent associations between GDP ppp and population size and the rate of publications about mental disorder in LAMI countries. The overall increase in the number of publications about mental disorder in the last decade probably reflects an increase in psychiatric research in LAMI countries. The increase in rates of publication was greatest in middle-income countries with the largest populations.

  13. On the stream-accretion disk interaction - Response to increased mass transfer rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dgani, Ruth; Livio, Mario; Soker, Noam

    1989-01-01

    The time-dependent interaction between the stream of mass from the inner Lagrangian point and the accretion disk, resulting from an increasing mass transfer rate is calculated. The calculation is fully three-dimensional, using a pseudoparticle description of the hydrodynamics. It is demonstrated that the results of such calculations, when combined with specific observations, have the potential of both determining essential parameters, such as the viscosity parameter alpha, and can distinguish between different models of dwarf nova eruptions.

  14. Homicide mortality rates in Canada, 2000-2009: Youth at increased risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basham, C Andrew; Snider, Carolyn

    2016-10-20

    To estimate and compare Canadian homicide mortality rates (HMRs) and trends in HMRs across age groups, with a focus on trends for youth. Data for the period of 2000 to 2009 were collected from Statistics Canada's CANSIM (Canadian Statistical Information Management) Table 102-0540 with the following ICD-10-CA coded external causes of death: X85 to Y09 (assault) and Y87.1 (sequelae of assault). Annual population counts from 2000 to 2009 were obtained from Statistics Canada's CANSIM Table 051-0001. Both death and population counts were organized into five-year age groups. A random effects negative binomial regression analysis was conducted to estimate age group-specific rates, rate ratios, and trends in homicide mortality. There were 9,878 homicide deaths in Canada during the study period. The increase in the overall homicide mortality rate (HMR) of 0.3% per year was not statistically significant (95% CI: -1.1% to +1.8%). Canadians aged 15-19 years and 20-24 years had the highest HMRs during the study period, and experienced statistically significant annual increases in their HMRs of 3% and 4% respectively (p < 0.05). A general, though not statistically significant, decrease in the HMR was observed for all age groups 50+ years. A fixed effects negative binomial regression model showed that the HMR for males was higher than for females over the study period [RRfemale/male = 0.473 (95% CI: 0.361, 0.621)], but no significant difference in sex-specific trends in the HMR was found. An increasing risk of homicide mortality was identified among Canadian youth, ages 15-24, over the 10-year study period. Research that seeks to understand the reasons for the increased homicide risk facing Canada's youth, and public policy responses to reduce this risk, are warranted.

  15. Exposure to wood smoke increases arterial stiffness and decreases heart rate variability in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unosson, Jon; Blomberg, Anders; Sandström, Thomas; Muala, Ala; Boman, Christoffer; Nyström, Robin; Westerholm, Roger; Mills, Nicholas L; Newby, David E; Langrish, Jeremy P; Bosson, Jenny A

    2013-06-06

    Emissions from biomass combustion are a major source of indoor and outdoor air pollution, and are estimated to cause millions of premature deaths worldwide annually. Whilst adverse respiratory health effects of biomass exposure are well established, less is known about its effects on the cardiovascular system. In this study we assessed the effect of exposure to wood smoke on heart rate, blood pressure, central arterial stiffness and heart rate variability in otherwise healthy persons. Fourteen healthy non-smoking subjects participated in a randomized, double-blind crossover study. Subjects were exposed to dilute wood smoke (mean particle concentration of 314±38 μg/m3) or filtered air for three hours during intermittent exercise. Heart rate, blood pressure, central arterial stiffness and heart rate variability were measured at baseline and for one hour post-exposure. Central arterial stiffness, measured as augmentation index, augmentation pressure and pulse wave velocity, was higher after wood smoke exposure as compared to filtered air (p smoke compared to filtered air. Acute exposure to wood smoke as a model of exposure to biomass combustion is associated with an immediate increase in central arterial stiffness and a simultaneous reduction in heart rate variability. As biomass is used for cooking and heating by a large fraction of the global population and is currently advocated as a sustainable alternative energy source, further studies are required to establish its likely impact on cardiovascular disease. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01488500.

  16. Exam anxiety induces significant blood pressure and heart rate increase in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihong; Su, Hai; Peng, Qiang; Yang, Qing; Cheng, Xiaoshu

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the anxiety and blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) increase in peri-exam period. Sixty-four college students(20.0 ± 0.1 year old) were included in this study. The BP and HR were measured in the morning and in the evening for 3 days during the prereview (ba), review, and exam periods. The BP and HR increase amplitudes (HRIA) of review and exam periods were from the difference of corresponding values and basic values, and the BPIA/baBP and HRIA/baHR were calculated. All of the students completed the Self-Rating Anxiety score (SAS) questionnaire the first day of the exam period. Scores over 50 points were used as the standard for anxiety. From the prereview to exam periods, the BP and HR increased gradually. The exam SBPIA (4.3 ± 1.3 vs. 0.3 ± 0.5 mmHg, P anxiety group than in the no-anxiety group. The SBPIA/DBPIA and HRIA showed a similar profile also(9.7 ± 2.1 vs. 1.9 ± 0.9 bpm, P anxiety score; meanwhile, their exam BPIAs and HRIAs were significantly higher than their corresponding group. The BP and HR increase in the review and exam period, anxiety is an important factor of BP and HR increase.

  17. Increased mortality rate and suicide in Swedish former elite male athletes in power sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, A-S; Moberg, T; Ehrnborg, C; Eriksson, B O; Fahlke, C; Rosén, T

    2014-12-01

    Physical training has been shown to reduce mortality in normal subjects, and athletes have a healthier lifestyle after their active career as compared with normal subjects. Since the 1950s, the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been frequent, especially in power sports. The aim of the present study was to investigate mortality, including causes of death, in former Swedish male elite athletes, active 1960-1979, in wrestling, powerlifting, Olympic lifting, and the throwing events in track and field when the suspicion of former AAS use was high. Results indicate that, during the age period of 20-50 years, there was an excess mortality of around 45%. However, when analyzing the total study period, the mortality was not increased. Mortality from suicide was increased 2-4 times among the former athletes during the period of 30-50 years of age compared with the general population of men. Mortality rate from malignancy was lower among the athletes. As the use of AAS was marked between 1960 and 1979 and was not doping-listed until 1975, it seems probable that the effect of AAS use might play a part in the observed increased mortality and suicide rate. The otherwise healthy lifestyle among the athletes might explain the low malignancy rates. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Increased white matter metabolic rates in autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitelman, Serge A; Buchsbaum, Monte S; Young, Derek S; Haznedar, M Mehmet; Hollander, Eric; Shihabuddin, Lina; Hazlett, Erin A; Bralet, Marie-Cecile

    2017-11-22

    Both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia are often characterized as disorders of white matter integrity. Multimodal investigations have reported elevated metabolic rates, cerebral perfusion and basal activity in various white matter regions in schizophrenia, but none of these functions has previously been studied in ASD. We used 18fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography to compare white matter metabolic rates in subjects with ASD (n = 25) to those with schizophrenia (n = 41) and healthy controls (n = 55) across a wide range of stereotaxically placed regions-of-interest. Both subjects with ASD and schizophrenia showed increased metabolic rates across the white matter regions assessed, including internal capsule, corpus callosum, and white matter in the frontal and temporal lobes. These increases were more pronounced, more widespread and more asymmetrical in subjects with ASD than in those with schizophrenia. The highest metabolic increases in both disorders were seen in the prefrontal white matter and anterior limb of the internal capsule. Compared to normal controls, differences in gray matter metabolism were less prominent and differences in adjacent white matter metabolism were more prominent in subjects with ASD than in those with schizophrenia. Autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia are associated with heightened metabolic activity throughout the white matter. Unlike in the gray matter, the vector of white matter metabolic abnormalities appears to be similar in ASD and schizophrenia, may reflect inefficient functional connectivity with compensatory hypermetabolism, and may be a common feature of neurodevelopmental disorders.

  19. Yersinia pestis endowed with increased cytotoxicity is avirulent in a bubonic plague model and induces rapid protection against pneumonic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauberman, Ayelet; Tidhar, Avital; Levy, Yinon; Bar-Haim, Erez; Halperin, Gideon; Flashner, Yehuda; Cohen, Sara; Shafferman, Avigdor; Mamroud, Emanuelle

    2009-06-16

    An important virulence strategy evolved by bacterial pathogens to overcome host defenses is the modulation of host cell death. Previous observations have indicated that Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague disease, exhibits restricted capacity to induce cell death in macrophages due to ineffective translocation of the type III secretion effector YopJ, as opposed to the readily translocated YopP, the YopJ homologue of the enteropathogen Yersinia enterocolitica Oratio8. This led us to suggest that reduced cytotoxic potency may allow pathogen propagation within a shielded niche, leading to increased virulence. To test the relationship between cytotoxic potential and virulence, we replaced Y. pestis YopJ with YopP. The YopP-expressing Y. pestis strain exhibited high cytotoxic activity against macrophages in vitro. Following subcutaneous infection, this strain had reduced ability to colonize internal organs, was unable to induce septicemia and exhibited at least a 10(7)-fold reduction in virulence. Yet, upon intravenous or intranasal infection, it was still as virulent as the wild-type strain. The subcutaneous administration of the cytotoxic Y. pestis strain appears to activate a rapid and potent systemic, CTL-independent, immunoprotective response, allowing the organism to overcome simultaneous coinfection with 10,000 LD(50) of virulent Y. pestis. Moreover, three days after subcutaneous administration of this strain, animals were also protected against septicemic or primary pneumonic plague. Our findings indicate that an inverse relationship exists between the cytotoxic potential of Y. pestis and its virulence following subcutaneous infection. This appears to be associated with the ability of the engineered cytotoxic Y. pestis strain to induce very rapid, effective and long-lasting protection against bubonic and pneumonic plague. These observations have novel implications for the development of vaccines/therapies against Y. pestis and shed new light on the

  20. Yersinia pestis endowed with increased cytotoxicity is avirulent in a bubonic plague model and induces rapid protection against pneumonic plague.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayelet Zauberman

    Full Text Available An important virulence strategy evolved by bacterial pathogens to overcome host defenses is the modulation of host cell death. Previous observations have indicated that Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague disease, exhibits restricted capacity to induce cell death in macrophages due to ineffective translocation of the type III secretion effector YopJ, as opposed to the readily translocated YopP, the YopJ homologue of the enteropathogen Yersinia enterocolitica Oratio8. This led us to suggest that reduced cytotoxic potency may allow pathogen propagation within a shielded niche, leading to increased virulence. To test the relationship between cytotoxic potential and virulence, we replaced Y. pestis YopJ with YopP. The YopP-expressing Y. pestis strain exhibited high cytotoxic activity against macrophages in vitro. Following subcutaneous infection, this strain had reduced ability to colonize internal organs, was unable to induce septicemia and exhibited at least a 10(7-fold reduction in virulence. Yet, upon intravenous or intranasal infection, it was still as virulent as the wild-type strain. The subcutaneous administration of the cytotoxic Y. pestis strain appears to activate a rapid and potent systemic, CTL-independent, immunoprotective response, allowing the organism to overcome simultaneous coinfection with 10,000 LD(50 of virulent Y. pestis. Moreover, three days after subcutaneous administration of this strain, animals were also protected against septicemic or primary pneumonic plague. Our findings indicate that an inverse relationship exists between the cytotoxic potential of Y. pestis and its virulence following subcutaneous infection. This appears to be associated with the ability of the engineered cytotoxic Y. pestis strain to induce very rapid, effective and long-lasting protection against bubonic and pneumonic plague. These observations have novel implications for the development of vaccines/therapies against Y. pestis and shed

  1. Rapid ice unloading in the Fleming Glacier region, southern Antarctic Peninsula, and its effect on bedrock uplift rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chen; King, Matt A.; Watson, Christopher S.

    2017-01-01

    m at the front of Fleming Glacier. Using IceBridge and ICESat-2/GLAS data spanning 2002–2014, we show an increased rate of mean ice-surface lowering, with rates post-2008 more than twice those of 2002–2008. We use these load change data as a basis for the simulation of viscoelastic solid Earth...... deformation. We subtract modeled elastic deformation rates, and a suite of modeled viscous rates, from GPS-derived three-dimensional bedrock velocities at sites to the south of Fleming Glacier to infer properties of Earth rheology. Assuming the pre-breakup bedrock uplift was positive due to post-Last Glacial...... the Fleming Glacier, after the application of elastic and plate tectonic corrections, point away from Marguerite Bay rather than the present glacier front. This suggests that horizontal motion in the region reflects the earlier retreat of the glacier system following the LGM, compatible with a relatively...

  2. Marked increase in the prevalence of obesity in children of the Seychelles, a rapidly developing country, between 1998 and 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovet, Pascal; Chiolero, Arnaud; Madeleine, George; Gabriel, Anne; Stettler, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    There are few data on overweight in children in developing countries. Such data are important to guide public health policy. We assessed trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children from the Seychelles, a middle-income island state in the Indian Ocean. Multiple cross-sectional surveys were conducted each year between 1998 and 2004 on all students of all schools in four selected school grades (creche, 4th, 7th and 10th years of mandatory school). Weight and height were measured and children were asked about walking time and frequency of physical exercise at leisure time. Excess weight categories were defined according to the criteria of the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Data were available for 33 340 observations in 1998-2004, corresponding to 23,459 individual children measured once or several times. Based on IOTF criteria, the prevalence of 'overweight' or 'obesity' increased from 8.7% to 13.5% in boys, and from 11.8% to 18.6% in girls from 1998 to 2004 (P risk of overweight' and 'overweight' increased by similar proportions. The shift towards higher values over time was larger in the upper than the lower tail of the BMI distribution. Physical activity decreased over calendar years and was inversely associated with excess weight. The prevalence of excess weight increased markedly over a seven-year period in children in the Seychelles. This is likely to reflect a rapid nutrition transition with increasingly positive energy balance. These findings stress the need for programs and policies aimed at promoting physical activity and healthy nutrition in countries in epidemiological transition.

  3. Increased liver regeneration rate and decreased liver function after synchronous liver and colon resection in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasanuma, Hideki; Mortensen, Frank Viborg; Knudsen, Anders Riegels; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Okada, Masaki; Nagai, Hideo; Yasuda, Yoshikazu

    2009-12-24

    The surgical strategy for the treatment of colorectal cancer and synchronous liver metastases remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of colonic resection on liver function and regeneration in a rat model. Ninety-six Sprague-Dawley rats were block-randomized into six groups: Group I had a laparotomy performed. Group II had 1 cm colon resected and anastomosed. Group III and V had 40% or 70% of the liver resected, respectively. Additionally Group IV and VI had 1 cm colon resected and anastomosed, respectively. Body weight was recorded on postoperative day 0, 3, 5 and 7. Rats were sacrificed on postoperative day 7 by rapid collection of blood from the inferior vena cava, and endotoxin levels were measured. Remnant liver function was evaluated by means of branched amino acids to tyrosine ratio. Liver regeneration was calculated by (liver weight per 100 g of the body weight at sacrifice/preoperative projected liver weight per 100 g of the body weight) x 100. The total number of complications was significantly higher in Group VI than Group I, III, IV, and V. Body weight and branched amino acids to tyrosine ratio were both significantly lower in rats that had simultaneous colonic and liver resection performed. Hepatic regeneration rate was significantly higher in the simultaneous colectomy group. Systemic endotoxin levels were unaffected by simultaneous colectomy on postoperative day 7. In our model morbidity seems to be related to the extent of hepatic resection. In rats undergoing liver resection, simultaneous colectomy induced a higher degree of hepatic regeneration rate. Body weight changes and branched amino acids to tyrosine ratio were negatively affected by simultaneous colectomy.

  4. Luteal phase of the menstrual cycle increases sweating rate during exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia A.M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated whether the luteal phase elevation of body temperature would be offset during exercise by increased sweating, when women are normally hydrated. Eleven women performed 60 min of cycling exercise at 60% of their maximal work load at 32ºC and 80% relative air humidity. Each subject participated in two identical experimental sessions: one during the follicular phase (between days 5 and 8 and the other during the luteal phase (between days 22 and 25. Women with serum progesterone >3 ng/mL, in the luteal phase were classified as group 1 (N = 4, whereas the others were classified as group 2 (N = 7. Post-exercise urine volume (213 ± 80 vs 309 ± 113 mL and specific urine gravity (1.008 ± 0.003 vs 1.006 ± 0.002 changed (P < 0.05 during the luteal phase compared to the follicular phase in group 1. No menstrual cycle dependence was observed for these parameters in group 2. Sweat rate was higher (P < 0.05 in the luteal (3.10 ± 0.81 g m-2 min-1 than in the follicular phase (2.80 ± 0.64 g m-2 min-1 only in group 1. During exercise, no differences related to menstrual cycle phases were seen in rectal temperature, heart rate, rate of perceived exertion, mean skin temperature, and pre- and post-exercise body weight. Women exercising in a warm and humid environment with water intake seem to be able to adapt to the luteal phase increase of basal body temperature through reduced urinary volume and increased sweating rate.

  5. Acute p-synephrine ingestion increases fat oxidation rate during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Hellín, Jorge; Del Coso, Juan

    2016-08-01

    p-Synephrine is a protoalkaloid widely used in dietary supplements for weight management because of its purported thermogenic effects. However, there is a lack of scientific information about its effectiveness to increase fat metabolism during exercise. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of an acute ingestion of p-synephrine on fat oxidation at rest and during exercise. In a double-blind, randomized and counterbalanced experimental design, 18 healthy subjects performed two acute experimental trials after the ingestion of p-synephrine (3 mg kg(-1) ) or after the ingestion of a placebo (cellulose). Energy expenditure and fat oxidation rates were measured by indirect calorimetry at rest and during a cycle ergometer ramp exercise test (increases of 25 W every 3 min) until volitional fatigue. In comparison with the placebo, the ingestion of p-synephrine did not change energy consumption (1.6 ± 0.3 vs. 1.6 ± 0.3 kcal min(-1) ; P = 0.69) or fat oxidation rate at rest (0.08 ± 0.02 vs. 0.10 ± 0.04 g min(-1) ; P = 0.15). However, the intake of p-synephrine moved the fat oxidation-exercise intensity curve upwards during the incremental exercise (P exercise although it did not affect the intensity at which maximal fat oxidation was achieved (55.8 ± 7.7 vs. 56.7 ± 8.2% VO2peak ; P = 0.51). The acute ingestion of p-synephrine increased the fat oxidation rate while it reduced the carbohydrate oxidation rate when exercising at low-to-moderate exercise intensities. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Luteal phase of the menstrual cycle increases sweating rate during exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.C. Garcia

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated whether the luteal phase elevation of body temperature would be offset during exercise by increased sweating, when women are normally hydrated. Eleven women performed 60 min of cycling exercise at 60% of their maximal work load at 32ºC and 80% relative air humidity. Each subject participated in two identical experimental sessions: one during the follicular phase (between days 5 and 8 and the other during the luteal phase (between days 22 and 25. Women with serum progesterone >3 ng/mL, in the luteal phase were classified as group 1 (N = 4, whereas the others were classified as group 2 (N = 7. Post-exercise urine volume (213 ± 80 vs 309 ± 113 mL and specific urine gravity (1.008 ± 0.003 vs 1.006 ± 0.002 changed (P < 0.05 during the luteal phase compared to the follicular phase in group 1. No menstrual cycle dependence was observed for these parameters in group 2. Sweat rate was higher (P < 0.05 in the luteal (3.10 ± 0.81 g m-2 min-1 than in the follicular phase (2.80 ± 0.64 g m-2 min-1 only in group 1. During exercise, no differences related to menstrual cycle phases were seen in rectal temperature, heart rate, rate of perceived exertion, mean skin temperature, and pre- and post-exercise body weight. Women exercising in a warm and humid environment with water intake seem to be able to adapt to the luteal phase increase of basal body temperature through reduced urinary volume and increased sweating rate.

  7. Gradual assembly of avian body plan culminated in rapid rates of evolution across the dinosaur-bird transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusatte, Stephen L; Lloyd, Graeme T; Wang, Steve C; Norell, Mark A

    2014-10-20

    The evolution of birds from theropod dinosaurs was one of the great evolutionary transitions in the history of life. The macroevolutionary tempo and mode of this transition is poorly studied, which is surprising because it may offer key insight into major questions in evolutionary biology, particularly whether the origins of evolutionary novelties or new ecological opportunities are associated with unusually elevated "bursts" of evolution. We present a comprehensive phylogeny placing birds within the context of theropod evolution and quantify rates of morphological evolution and changes in overall morphological disparity across the dinosaur-bird transition. Birds evolved significantly faster than other theropods, but they are indistinguishable from their closest relatives in morphospace. Our results demonstrate that the rise of birds was a complex process: birds are a continuum of millions of years of theropod evolution, and there was no great jump between nonbirds and birds in morphospace, but once the avian body plan was gradually assembled, birds experienced an early burst of rapid anatomical evolution. This suggests that high rates of morphological evolution after the development of a novel body plan may be a common feature of macroevolution, as first hypothesized by G.G. Simpson more than 60 years ago. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Metabolic modeling of energy balances in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae shows that pyruvate addition increases growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamminga, Tjerko; Slagman, Simen-Jan; Bijlsma, Jetta J E; Martins Dos Santos, Vitor A P; Suarez-Diez, Maria; Schaap, Peter J

    2017-10-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is cultured on large-scale to produce antigen for inactivated whole-cell vaccines against respiratory disease in pigs. However, the fastidious nutrient requirements of this minimal bacterium and the low growth rate make it challenging to reach sufficient biomass yield for antigen production. In this study, we sequenced the genome of M. hyopneumoniae strain 11 and constructed a high quality constraint-based genome-scale metabolic model of 284 chemical reactions and 298 metabolites. We validated the model with time-series data of duplicate fermentation cultures to aim for an integrated model describing the dynamic profiles measured in fermentations. The model predicted that 84% of cellular energy in a standard M. hyopneumoniae cultivation was used for non-growth associated maintenance and only 16% of cellular energy was used for growth and growth associated maintenance. Following a cycle of model-driven experimentation in dedicated fermentation experiments, we were able to increase the fraction of cellular energy used for growth through pyruvate addition to the medium. This increase in turn led to an increase in growth rate and a 2.3 times increase in the total biomass concentration reached after 3-4 days of fermentation, enhancing the productivity of the overall process. The model presented provides a solid basis to understand and further improve M. hyopneumoniae fermentation processes. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2339-2347. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Increased non-Gaussianity of heart rate variability predicts cardiac mortality after an acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichiro eHayano

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-Gaussianity index (λ is a new index of heart rate variability (HRV that characterizes increased probability of the large heart rate deviations from its trend. A previous study has reported that increased λ is an independent mortality predictor among patients with chronic heart failure. The present study examined predictive value of λ in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Among 670 post-AMI patients, we performed 24-hr Holter monitoring to assess λ and other HRV predictors, including standard deviation of normal-to-normal interval, very-low frequency power, scaling exponent α1 of detrended fluctuation analysis, deceleration capacity, and heart rate turbulence (HRT. At baseline, λ was not correlated substantially with other HRV indices (|r| <0.4 with either indices and was decreased in patients taking β-blockers (P = 0.04. During a median follow up period of 25 months, 45 (6.7% patients died (32 cardiac and 13 non-cardiac and 39 recurrent nonfatal AMI occurred among survivors. While all of these HRV indices but λ were significant predictors of both cardiac and non-cardiac deaths, increased λ predicted exclusively cardiac death (RR [95% CI], 1.6 [1.3-2.0] per 1 SD increment, P <0.0001. The predictive power of increased λ was significant even after adjustments for clinical risk factors, such as age, diabetes, left ventricular function, renal function, prior AMI, heart failure, and stroke, Killip class, and treatment ([95% CI], 1.4 [1.1-2.0] per 1 SD increment, P = 0.01. The prognostic power of increased λ for cardiac death was also independent of all other HRV indices and the combination of increased λ and abnormal HRT provided the best predictive model for cardiac death. Neither λ nor other HRV indices was an independent predictor of AMI recurrence. Among post-AMI patients, increased λ is associated exclusively with increased cardiac mortality risk and its predictive power is independent of clinical risk factors and

  10. Reduced Dietary Sodium Intake Increases Heart Rate. A Meta-Analysis of 63 Randomized Controlled Trials Including 72 Study Populations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graudal, Niels A; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche

    2016-01-01

    .... As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side-effect of sodium reduction...

  11. Increasing infection rate in multiple implanted pulse generator changes in movement disorder patients treated with deep brain stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Jens F; Sunde, Niels A; Bergholt, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Increasing infection rate in multiple implanted pulse generator changes in movement disorder patients treated with deep brain stimulation......Increasing infection rate in multiple implanted pulse generator changes in movement disorder patients treated with deep brain stimulation...

  12. Rapid needle-out patient-rollover approach after cone beam CT-guided lung biopsy: effect on pneumothorax rate in 1,191 consecutive patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Im [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chang Min; Goo, Jin Mo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    To investigate the effect of rapid needle-out patient-rollover approach on the incidence of pneumothorax and drainage catheter placement due to pneumothorax in C-arm Cone-beam CT (CBCT)-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy (PTNB) of lung lesions. From May 2011 to December 2012, 1227 PTNBs were performed in 1191 patients with a 17-gauge coaxial needle. 617 biopsies were performed without (conventional-group) and 610 with rapid-rollover approach (rapid-rollover-group). Overall pneumothorax rates and incidences of pneumothorax requiring drainage catheter placement were compared between two groups. There were no significant differences in overall pneumothorax rates between conventional and rapid-rollover groups (19.8 % vs. 23.1 %, p = 0.164). However, pneumothorax rate requiring drainage catheter placement was significantly lower in rapid-rollover-group (1.6 %) than conventional-group (4.2 %) (p = 0.010). Multivariate analysis revealed male, age > 60, bulla crossed, fissure crossed, pleura to target distance > 1.3 cm, emphysema along needle tract, and pleural punctures ≥ 2 were significant risk factors of pneumothorax (p < 0.05). Regarding pneumothorax requiring drainage catheter placement, fissure crossed, bulla crossed, and emphysema along needle tract were significant risk factors (p < 0.05), whereas rapid-rollover approach was an independent protective factor (p = 0.002). The rapid needle-out patient-rollover approach significantly reduced the rate of pneumothorax requiring drainage catheter placement after CBCT-guided PTNB. (orig.)

  13. EGF increases expression and activity of PAs in preimplantation rat embryos and their implantation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Har-Vardi Iris

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Embryo implantation plays a major role in embryogenesis and the outcome of pregnancy. Plasminogen activators (PAs have been implicated in mammalian fertilization, early stages of development and embryo implantation. As in-vitro developing embryos resulted in lower implantation rate than those developed in-vivo we assume that a reduced PAs activity may be involved. In the present work we studied the effect of EGF on PAs activity, quantity and embryo implantation. Methods Zygotes were flushed from rat oviducts on day one of pregnancy and grown in-vitro in R1ECM supplemented with EGF (10 ng/ml and were grown up to the blastocyst stage. The control groups were grown in the same medium without EGF. The distribution and quantity of the PAs were examined using fluorescence immunohistochemistry followed by measurement of PAs activity using the chromogenic assay. Implantation rate was studied using the embryo donation model. Results PAs distribution in the embryos was the same in EGF treated and untreated embryos. Both PAs were localized in the blastocysts' trophectoderm, supporting the assumption that PAs play a role in the implantation process in rats. EGF increased the quantity of uPA at all stages studied but the 8-cell stage as compared with controls. The tissue type PA (tPA content was unaffected except the 8-cell stage, which was increased. The activity of uPA increased gradually towards the blastocyst stage and more so due to the presence of EGF. The activity of tPA did not vary with the advancing developmental stages although it was also increased by EGF. The presence of EGF during the preimplantation development doubled the rate of implantation of the treated group as compared with controls.

  14. Increasing the relative weight of noncognitive admission criteria improves underrepresented minority admission rates to medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballejos, Marlene P; Rhyne, Robert L; Parkes, Jay

    2015-01-01

    CONSTRUCT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of varying the relative weights of cognitive versus noncognitive admission criteria on the proportion of underrepresented minorities admitted to medical school. It answers the question, "Can medical schools increase the admission rates of underrepresented minority (URM) students by balancing cognitive criteria with the experiences, attributes, and metrics of noncognitive data in the admission process?" U.S. demographics are shifting, and by 2042 ethnic minority groups will make up approximately 50% of the population. Increasing diversity of the U.S. population foreshadows the need to increase the number of physicians from underrepresented minorities to help address healthcare disparities that are on the rise. A cohort of three medical school applicant classes (2007-2009) was used to model the impact on URM admission rates as the relative weights of cognitive and noncognitive admission criteria were varied. This study used the minimum admission standards established for the actual incoming classes. The URM rate of admission to medical school was the outcome. Cognitive criteria included Medical College Admission Test scores and grade point averages. Noncognitive criteria included four categories: background and diversity, interest and suitability for a career in medicine, problem-solving and communication skills, and letters of recommendation. A cohort of 480 applicants from the three applicant classes were enrolled in the study. As the weighting scheme was varied from 50% cognitive/50% noncognitive weights to 35%/65%, the proportion of URM students accepted to medical school increased from 24% (42/177) to 30% (57/193; p noncognitive higher relative to cognitive criteria without compromising admission standards. Challenging conventional practice in the admissions process may improve health disparities and diversify the physician workforce.

  15. Influence of recycling rate increase of aseptic carton for long-life milk on GWP reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Anna Lucia; Garcia, Eloisa E.C.; Vilela, Gustavo Braz [CETEA-Packaging Technology Center, ITAL-Institute of Food Technology, P.O. Box 139, ZIP 13070-178, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Von Zuben, Fernando [TETRA PAK LTDA-Rod. Campinas-Capivari, km 23.5, ZIP 13190-000, Monte Mor, SP (Brazil)

    2008-02-15

    Tetra Pak, through intensive cooperation with its supply chain, increased the post-consumer recycling rate of the aseptic packaging for long-life milk in the last 10 years. In continuation of a previous study that presented a superior overall performance in terms of reduction of the consumption of natural resources, air emissions and most of the water emissions, the objective of the present work was to apply life cycle assessment (LCA) to measure the global warming potential (GWP). The system was assessed using as functional unit 1000 liters of milk packaged in Tetra Pak Aseptic containers. The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions was calculated for recycling rates of 2%, 22%, 30%, 40% and 70% of the post-consumer residues in Scenarios I (only cardboard recycling) and II (total aseptic laminate recycling). Scenario I showed a 14% reduction in GWP, representing 26 kg of avoided CO{sub 2} equiv. emitted due to the efforts of Tetra Pak to increase the recycling rate from 2% (2000) to 22% (2004). If it will be possible to increase the recycling rate to 70% of post-consumer packages in the future, a 48% reduction of GWP could be attained. Methane exhibited the greatest mass reduction among the greenhouse emissions, since it is emitted during the production of cardboard and also as a result of anaerobic degradation in landfills. The total reduction of the energy requirements of the system due to the increase of the recycling rate (from 2% to 22%) is 154 MJ/1000 liters, a saving of 7%. Scenario II (which considers additional polyethylene and aluminum recycling) has a smaller effect on GWP reduction than Scenario I, since PE/AL represent only 25% of the total mass of the container. The major benefit of the recycling of aseptic cartons is the reduction of the amounts of virgin materials required and the consequent reduction of air emissions. The results of this study can be used to encourage the collection of post-consumer milk cartons as part of environmental education

  16. Performing red reflex eye examinations increases the rate of neonatal conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulanovsky, Irena; Shnaider, Morya; Geffen, Yuval; Smolkin, Tatiana; Mashiach, Tatyana; Blazer, Shraga; Makhoul, Imad R

    2015-12-01

    Red reflex eye examinations often require opening the eyelids, risking infection. We evaluated links between this procedure and neonatal conjunctivitis. We divided 18 872 neonates of more than 35 weeks of gestation into two birth periods, 2008-2009 and 2010-2011, before and after red reflex examinations were carried out by our facility. The rates of clinical conjunctivitis, bacterial conjunctivitis and bacterial growth percentage were compared between the two periods. The 2010-2011 period included more Caesarean deliveries and longer lengths of stay (LOS) than the 2008-2009 period. The clinical conjunctivitis rate increased significantly during 2010-2011 (p = 0.029), but the bacterial conjunctivitis and bacterial growth percentages did not differ between the two periods. Variables that were independently and significantly associated with clinical conjunctivitis included being born in 2010-2011, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.22, male gender (OR 1.31) and LOS (OR 1.19). Bacterial conjunctivitis was associated with vaginal delivery (OR 3.65), males delivered by Caesarean (OR 2.68) and LOS (OR 1.37). Clinical conjunctivitis was significantly associated with the later study period, male gender and LOS. Conjunctival swab sampling increased significantly following the implementation of red reflex examinations, but without changes in the bacterial conjunctivitis rate and the bacterial growth percentage. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. An EPQ Model with Increasing Demand and Demand Dependent Production Rate under Trade Credit Financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan QIN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates an EPQ model with the increasing demand and demand dependent production rate involving the trade credit financing policy, which is seldom reported in the literatures. The model considers the manufacturer was offered by the supplier a delayed payment time. It is assumed that the demand is a linear increasing function of the time and the production rate is proportional to the demand. That is, the production rate is also a linear function of time. This study attempts to offer a best policy for the replenishment cycle and the order quantity for the manufacturer to maximum its profit per cycle. First, the inventory model is developed under the above situation. Second, some useful theoretical results have been derived to characterize the optimal solutions for the inventory system. The Algorithm is proposed to obtain the optimal solutions of the manufacturer. Finally, the numerical examples are carried out to illustrate the theorems, and the sensitivity analysis of the optimal solutions with respect to the parameters of the inventory system is performed. Some important management insights are obtained based on the analysis.

  18. PROGRESSIVE MUSCLE RELAXATION INCREASE PEAK EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE ON CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tintin Sukartini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Limited progressive air flow in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD can caused by small airway disease (bronchiolitis obstructive and loss of elasticity of the lung (emphysema. Further it can be decreasing the quality of life in COPD patients because dyspnea and uncomfortable in activity. Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR is one of the relaxation technique that can repair pulmonary ventilation by decreasing chronic constriction of the respiratory muscles. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of progressive muscle relaxation on raised peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR. Method: A pre-experimental one group pre-post test design was used in this study. Population was all of the COPD patients at Pulmonary Specialist Polyclinic Dr Mohamad Soewandhie Surabaya. There were 8 respondents taken by using purposive sampling. PEFR was counted by using peak flow meter every six day. Data were analyzed by using Paired t-Test with significance level  p≤0.05. Result: The result showed that PMR had significance level on increasing of PEFR (p=0.012. Discussion: It can be concluded that PMR has an effect on raise PEFR. Further studies are recommended to measure the effect of PMR on respiratory rate (RR, heart rate (HR subjective dyspnoe symptoms, forced expiration volume on the first minute (FEV1 and mid maximum flow rate (MMFR in COPD patients.

  19. Rapid, Transient Fluconazole Resistance in Candida albicans Is Associated with Increased mRNA Levels of CDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Kieren A.; Lyons, Christopher N.; Rustad, Tiger; Bowden, Raleigh A.; White, Theodore C.

    1998-01-01

    Fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans, a cause of recurrent oropharyngeal candidiasis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection, has recently emerged as a cause of candidiasis in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy and marrow transplantation (MT). In this study, we performed detailed molecular analyses of a series of C. albicans isolates from an MT patient who developed disseminated candidiasis caused by an azole-resistant strain 2 weeks after initiation of fluconazole prophylaxis (K. A. Marr, T. C. White, J. A. H. vanBurik, and R. A. Bowden, Clin. Infect. Dis. 25:908–910, 1997). DNA sequence analysis of the gene (ERG11) for the azole target enzyme, lanosterol demethylase, revealed no difference between sensitive and resistant isolates. A sterol biosynthesis assay revealed no difference in sterol intermediates between the sensitive and resistant isolates. Northern blotting, performed to quantify mRNA levels of genes encoding enzymes in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway (ERG7, ERG9, and ERG11) and genes encoding efflux pumps (MDR1, ABC1, YCF, and CDR), revealed that azole resistance in this series is associated with increased mRNA levels for members of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily, CDR genes. Serial growth of resistant isolates in azole-free media resulted in an increased susceptibility to azole drugs and corresponding decreased mRNA levels for the CDR genes. These results suggest that C. albicans can become transiently resistant to azole drugs rapidly after exposure to fluconazole, in association with increased expression of ABC transporter efflux pumps. PMID:9756759

  20. Effects of rapid versus standard HIV voluntary counselling and testing on receipt rate of HIV test results: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Guo, Jian; Lu, Wenli

    2015-03-01

    Rapid HIV voluntary counselling and testing (RVCT) is an alternative method of standard HIV voluntary counselling and testing (SVCT). Less is known about whether RVCT improves the receipt rate of HIV test results among clients who seek HIV counselling and testing. We aimed to evaluate effectiveness of RVCT on result receipt rate. We conducted a comprehensive search of databases containing Medline, EBSCO, Web of science, and Cochrane library to identify studies published up to August 2012. Reviewers extracted information independently. Risk of bias was evaluated with Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing study quality. Five randomised controlled trials were included and analysed for the result receipt rate using a random-effects model. The pooled receipt rate of HIV test results in the RVCT was significantly higher than in the SVCT (RR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.47-2.07). Our results suggest RVCT as a favourable method to increase the receipt of HIV test results. Only two included studies assessed the modification of risk behaviour after HIV-CT in a different manner; also, the sample size was small in the current meta-analysis. In future research, it is necessary to confirm the effect of RVCT on disinhibition of post-test risk behaviour. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. Increased flow resistance and decreased flow rate in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: The role of autonomic nervous modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chen Chen

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The flow rate is decreased and the flow resistance increased in patients with ARDS. PEEP is one of the causes of increased flow resistance and decreased flow rate in patients with ARDS. Another cause of decreased flow rate and increased flow resistance in ARDS patients is the increased vagal activity and decreased sympathetic activity. The monitoring of flow rate and flow resistance during mechanical ventilation might be useful for the proper management of ARDS patients.

  2. Brain cancer mortality rates increase with Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittecoq, Marion; Elguero, Eric; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Roche, Benjamin; Brodeur, Jacques; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Missé, Dorothée; Thomas, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of adult brain cancer was previously shown to be higher in countries where the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is common, suggesting that this brain protozoan could potentially increase the risk of tumor formation. Using countries as replicates has, however, several potential confounding factors, particularly because detection rates vary with country wealth. Using an independent dataset entirely within France, we further establish the significance of the association between T. gondii and brain cancer and find additional demographic resolution. In adult age classes 55 years and older, regional mortality rates due to brain cancer correlated positively with the local seroprevalence of T. gondii. This effect was particularly strong for men. While this novel evidence of a significant statistical association between T. gondii infection and brain cancer does not demonstrate causation, these results suggest that investigations at the scale of the individual are merited.

  3. Maintaining Distinctiveness at Increased Speaking Rates: A Comparison between Congenitally Blind and Sighted Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Lucie; Côté, Dominique; Trudeau-Fisette, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The effects of increased speaking rates on vowels have been well documented in sighted adults. It has been reported that in fast speech, vowels are less widely spaced acoustically than in their citation form. Vowel space compression has also been reported in congenitally blind speakers. The objective of the study was to investigate the interaction of vision and speaking rate in adult speakers. Contrast distances between vowels were examined in conversational and fast speech produced by 10 congenitally blind and 10 sighted French-Canadian adults. Acoustic analyses were carried out. Compared with the sighted speakers, in the fast speaking condition, the blind speakers produced more vowels with contrast along the height, place of articulation, and rounding features located within the auditory target regions typical of French vowels. Blind speakers relied more heavily than sighted speakers on auditory properties of vowels to maintain perceptual distinctiveness. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Increased rate of treatment with antidepressants in patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Harhoff, Mette; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2008-01-01

    in patients with multiple sclerosis compared with patients with other chronic illnesses and compared with the general population. By linkage of nationwide case registers, all patients were identified, who had received a main diagnosis of multiple sclerosis or osteoarthritis at first admission or during...... outpatient contact in the period 1995-2000 in Denmark. Rates of subsequent purchase of antidepressants for these patients were calculated. In total, 417 patients with a main diagnosis of multiple sclerosis and 12 127 patients with a main diagnosis of osteoarthritis, at first discharge from hospital...... or outpatient contact, were included. Patients with a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis had a 3.21 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 2.56-4.03] times increased rate of subsequently purchasing antidepressants compared with patients with a first diagnosis of osteoarthritis, and a 4.75 times (95% CI: 3...

  5. Unconventional Gas and Oil Drilling Is Associated with Increased Hospital Utilization Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemielita, Thomas; Gerton, George L; Neidell, Matthew; Chillrud, Steven; Yan, Beizhan; Stute, Martin; Howarth, Marilyn; Saberi, Pouné; Fausti, Nicholas; Penning, Trevor M; Roy, Jason; Propert, Kathleen J; Panettieri, Reynold A

    2015-01-01

    Over the past ten years, unconventional gas and oil drilling (UGOD) has markedly expanded in the United States. Despite substantial increases in well drilling, the health consequences of UGOD toxicant exposure remain unclear. This study examines an association between wells and healthcare use by zip code from 2007 to 2011 in Pennsylvania. Inpatient discharge databases from the Pennsylvania Healthcare Cost Containment Council were correlated with active wells by zip code in three counties in Pennsylvania. For overall inpatient prevalence rates and 25 specific medical categories, the association of inpatient prevalence rates with number of wells per zip code and, separately, with wells per km2 (separated into quantiles and defined as well density) were estimated using fixed-effects Poisson models. To account for multiple comparisons, a Bonferroni correction with associations of pcosts of UGOD and determine whether specific toxicants or combinations are associated with organ-specific responses.

  6. The legality of unilateral increase of interest rate in banking loan contracts under Serbian law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudaš Atila I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis spread in 2008 through the world and reached Serbia, rendered the repayment of banking loans indexed in foreign currencies, mostly in CHF at the time, even more difficult. The growing number of non-performing loans inevitably led to an increase in number of the court proceedings in which the debtors made attempts to have the loan contracts declared null and void. In these proceedings, the courts needed to take a stand on some typical clauses in loan contracts and on some banking practices that the debtors considered to be contrary to the principle of good faith, which, before the crisis, was hardly ever given judicial epilogue. In the majority of cases, two types of clauses proved to be unlawful: a clause establishing a right of the bank to subsequently, i.e. after the formation of the contract, and unilaterally, i.e. without a specific consent of the debtor, change (regularly increase the interest rate for the remainder of the credit period; and a clause establishing the right of the bank to apply different exchange rates, i.e. the buying rate to the disbursement of the loan, and the selling rate to the value of credit installments. These clauses certainly existed even before the crisis, but the difficulties in performing the loans caused by the crisis was the social propelling force that brought these cases within the sight of the judiciary. In this paper the author analyzes the reaction of courts, and subsequently that of the legislator, to the clause in loan contracts entitling the bank to unilaterally increase the variable interest rate after the formation of contract. The application of this clause was usually conditioned on significant changes in international financial markets or changes in the costs of the sources of financing, while in some cases the conditions of the application of the clause were simply changes in the business policy of the bank or the need to operate with profit. In any case, these are

  7. Impaired gait function in adults with cerebral palsy is associated with reduced rapid force generation and increased passive stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Kirk, Henrik; Lorentzen, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    (mean age 34.3, range 18-57years) and fifteen healthy age-matched controls were biomechanically measured for passive and reflex-mediated stiffness of the ankle plantarflexors at rest, maximal voluntary plantarflexion and dorsiflexion effort (MVCpf,df) and rate of force development (RFDpf,df). Kinematic......, range of movement in the ankle joint and gait speed. Reflex-mediated stiffness was not correlated to any parameters of impaired gait. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired gait function in adults with CP is associated with reduced RFD and increased passive stiffness of ankle muscles. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings...

  8. Increase in the rate and uniformity of coastline erosion in Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Arp, C.D.; Jorgenson, M.T.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Schmutz, J.A.; Flint, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of a 60 km segment of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea coast using a time-series of aerial photography revealed that mean annual erosion rates increased from 6.8 m a-1 (1955 to 1979), to 8.7 m a-1 (1979 to 2002), to 13.6 m a-1 (2002 to 2007). We also observed that spatial patterns of erosion have become more uniform across shoreline types with different degrees of ice-richness. Further, during the remainder of the 2007 ice-free season 25 m of erosion occurred locally, in the absence of a westerly storm event. Concurrent arctic changes potentially responsible for this shift in the rate and pattern of land loss include declining sea ice extent, increasing summertime sea surface temperature, rising sea-level, and increases in storm power and corresponding wave action. Taken together, these factors may be leading to a new regime of ocean-land interactions that are repositioning and reshaping the Arctic coastline. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Improvement of Smoking Abstinence Rates With Increased Varenicline Dosage: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam-Hage, Maher; Kypriotakis, George; Robinson, Jason D; Green, Charles E; Mann, Gurtej; Rabius, Vance; Wippold, Rosario; Blalock, Janice A; Mouhayar, Elie; Tayar, Jean; Chaftari, Patrick; Cinciripini, Paul M

    2018-02-01

    It is unclear whether increasing the dose of varenicline beyond the standard dose of 2 mg/d would improve smoking abstinence. We examined the effect of 3 mg/d of varenicline on smoking abstinence among smokers who had reduced their smoking by 50% or more in response to 2 mg/d for at least 6 weeks but had not quit smoking. Of 2833 patients treated with varenicline, dosage of a subset of 73 smokers was increased to 3 mg/d after 6 weeks. We used a propensity score analysis involving multiple baseline covariates to create a comparative sample of 356 smokers who remained on 2 mg/d. All smokers received concurrent and similar smoking-cessation counseling. At 3 months, we found higher 7-day point prevalence smoking-abstinence rate in the 3-mg group (26%) than in the 2-mg group (11.5%, χ = 10.60, P < 0.001; risk ratio [RR], 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.6). The difference in abstinence rates remained significant at the 6-month (P < 0.001; RR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.6-3.9) and 9-month follow-up (P < 0.001; RR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4-3.3). A relatively small increase in the daily dose of varenicline seems to offer a benefit for those who are not able to achieve total abstinence after approximately 6 weeks of 2 mg/d.

  10. Increasing rates in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) among hospitalised patients, Spain 1999-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, A; Vaque-Rafart, J; Calbo-Torrecillas, F; Gestal-Otero, J J; López-Fernández, F; Trilla-Garcia, A; Canton, R

    2008-07-31

    Limited information is available on the burden and epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Spain. The present report communicates the secular trends in prevalence of CDI among hospitalised patients in Spain from 1999 through 2007. Data were obtained through the EPINE study (Estudio de prevalencia de las infecciones nosocomiales en los hospitales españoles), a point prevalence study series of nosocomial infections among patients admitted to hospital in Spain. A total of 378 cases with CDI were identified. Median age was 74 years. Prevalence rates of CDI increased from 3.9 to 12.2 cases per 10,000 hospitalised patients and showed a significantly increasing secular trend from 1999 through 2007 (prevalence rate ratio per each year increment 1.09; 95% CI 1.05 - 1.14). Percentage of hospitalised patients receiving antimicrobials increased linearly from 36.0% in 1999 to 40.7% in 2007 (p <0.001) and was strongly correlated to CDI prevalence (R square = 0.73; regression coefficient =1.194, 95% CI= 1.192 - 1.196).

  11. Investigation into the dissolution rate increase on storage of Wellbutrin SR 100 mg tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Mickey L; Williams, Sandra O; Sanftleben, Ronald A; Balik, Samuel B; Evans, Barry A

    2010-03-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the New Drug Application for Wellbutrin sustained release (SR) 100 mg tablets on October 4, 1996. However, by 1998, the FDA expressed concern about the stability of this drug product based on an increase in the dissolution profile on storage. Data submitted in the annual report showed that this drug product could not meet the expiry of 18 months at the International Committee on Harmonization storage condition of 25 degrees C/60% relative humidity. The FDA mandated a 12-month expiry and GlaxoWellcome tightened this further by instituting an expiry of 9 months. The FDA also requested a long-term solution to the stability of Wellbutrin SR 100 mg tablets. Investigations via colloidal solutions revealed that the dissolution rate increase on storage occurred due to acid hydrolysis of the release controlling polymer. This drug product was successfully reformulated by slowing the initial dissolution rate and having an increased ratio of release controlling polymer to acid stabilizer. The reformulation used the same ingredients and manufacturing unit processes as the original formulation. The reformulated drug product was approved by the FDA on October 11, 2000 with an 18-month shelf-life. The shelf-life was extended to 36 months in an annual update to the FDA on December 1, 2005.

  12. Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P.; Felippe, Leandro J. C.; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D.; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg−1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (−3.9% ± 1.6% and −4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate. PMID:25054553

  13. Increasing rates of diabetes amongst status Aboriginal youth in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard T. Oster

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To track and compare trends in diabetes rates from 1995 to 2007 for Status Aboriginal and general population youth. Study design. Longitudinal observational research study (quantitative using provincial administrative data. Methods. De-identified data was obtained from Alberta Health and Wellness administrative databases for Status Aboriginal (First Nations and Inuit people with Treaty status and general population youth (<20 years. Diabetes cases were identified using the National Diabetes Surveillance System algorithm. Crude annual diabetes prevalence and incidence rates were calculated. The likelihood of being a prevalent case and incident case of diabetes for the 2 populations was compared for the year 2007. Average Annual Percent Changes (AAPC in prevalence and incidence from 1995 to 2007 were determined and compared between the 2 groups to examine trends over time. Results. While the prevalence of diabetes was higher in the general population in 1995, by 2007 there were no between group differences, reflected in the significantly higher AAPC of 6.98 for Status Aboriginal youth. Status Aboriginal males had a lower diabetes risk in 1995 compared with females, and experienced a greater increase in prevalence over the 13 years (AAPC 9.18 so that by 2007 their rates were equivalent to those of the females. Differences in diabetes incidence trends were only observed among male youth, where increases in incidence were greater for Status Aboriginal (AAPC 11.65 compared to general population males (AAPC 4.62 (p = 0.03. Conclusion. Youth-onset diabetes is an increasing problem in Alberta, especially among young Status Aboriginal males.

  14. Change to FIT increased CRC screening rates: evaluation of a US screening outreach program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Elizabeth G; Perrin, Nancy; Rosales, Ana Gabriela; Feldstein, Adrianne C; Smith, David H; Mosen, David M; Schneider, Jennifer L

    2012-10-01

    To compare completion rates of colorectal cancer screening tests within a health maintenance organization before and after widespread adoption of the fecal immunochemical test (FIT). Retrospective cohort study. Using electronic medical records of 113,901 patients eligible for colorectal cancer screening, we examined test completion during 2 successive time periods among those who received an automated screening outreach call. The time periods were: 1) the "guaiac fecal occult blood test (gFOBT) era," a 15-month period during which only gFOBT was routinely offered, and 2) a 9-month "FIT era," when only a new FIT was routinely offered. In addition to analyzing completion rates, we analyzed the impact of practice-level variables and patient-level variables on overall screening completion during the 2 different observation periods. The change from gFOBT to FIT in an integrated care delivery system increased the likelihood of screening completion by 7.7% overall, and the likelihood of screening with a fecal test by 8.9%. The greatest gains in screening completion using FIT were among women and elderly patients. Completion of FIT was not as strongly associated with medical office visits or with having a primary care provider as was screening with gFOBT. Adoption of FIT within an integrated care system increased completion of colon cancer screening tests within a 9-month assessment period, compared with a previous 15-month gFOBT era. Higher completion rates of the FIT may allow for more effective dissemination of programs to increase colorectal cancer screening through centralized outreach programs.

  15. Elevated atmospheric CO2 increases microbial growth rates and enzymes activity in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Dorodnikov, Maxim; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2010-05-01

    Increasing the belowground translocation of assimilated carbon by plants grown under elevated CO2 can cause a shift in the structure and activity of the microbial community responsible for the turnover of organic matter in soil. We investigated the long-term effect of elevated CO2 in the atmosphere on microbial biomass and specific growth rates in root-free and rhizosphere soil. The experiments were conducted under two free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) systems: in Hohenheim and Braunschweig, as well as in the intensively managed forest mesocosm of the Biosphere 2 Laboratory (B2L) in Oracle, AZ. Specific microbial growth rates (μ) were determined using the substrate-induced respiration response after glucose and/or yeast extract addition to the soil. We evaluated the effect of elevated CO2 on b-glucosidase, chitinase, phosphatase, and sulfatase to estimate the potential enzyme activity after soil amendment with glucose and nutrients. For B2L and both FACE systems, up to 58% higher μ were observed under elevated vs. ambient CO2, depending on site, plant species and N fertilization. The μ-values increased linearly with atmospheric CO2 concentration at all three sites. The effect of elevated CO2 on rhizosphere microorganisms was plant dependent and increased for: Brassica napus=Triticum aestivumplant species. The μ-value increase was lower for microorganisms growing on yeast extract then for those growing on glucose, i.e. the effect of elevated CO2 was smoothed on rich vs. simple substrate. So, the r/K strategies ratio can be better revealed by studying growth on simple (glucose) than on rich substrate mixtures (yeast extract). After adding glucose, enzyme activities under elevated CO2 were 1.2-1.9-fold higher than under ambient CO2. This indicates the increased activity of microorganisms, which leads to accelerated C turnover in soil under elevated CO2. Our results clearly showed that the functional characteristics of the soil microbial community (i

  16. Adaptation of Lactococcus lactis to high growth temperature leads to a dramatic increase in acidification rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jun; Shen, Jing; Hellgren, Lars

    2015-01-01

    to affect thermal tolerance. Of the mutations with more pronounced effects, two affected expression of single proteins (chaperone; riboflavin transporter), two had pleiotropic effects (RNA polymerase) which changed the gene expression profile, and one resulted in a change in the coding sequence of CDP......-diglyceride synthase. A large deletion containing 10 genes was also found to affect thermal tolerance significantly. With this study we demonstrate a simple approach to obtain non-GMO derivatives of the important L. lactis that possess properties desirable by the industry, e.g. thermal robustness and increased rate...

  17. Giant increase in cross-magnetic-field transport rate as an electron-positron plasma cools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, F. F.; Ordonez, C. A.

    2017-10-01

    An electron-positron plasma in thermal equilibrium within a uniform magnetic field is studied using a classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulation. The cross-magnetic-field single-particle diffusion coefficient is evaluated as a function of the magnetic field strength and plasma temperature. The transport rate is found to increase by many orders of magnitude as the plasma temperature is lowered, for a magnetic field strength of 1 T. The sharp dependence on temperature is due to electrons and positrons becoming temporarily correlated and drifting across the magnetic field before dissociating.

  18. Efficacy of trap modifications for increasing capture rates of aquatic snakes in floating aquatic funnel traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing detection and capture probabilities of rare or elusive herpetofauna of conservation concern is important to inform the scientific basis for their management and recovery. The Giant Gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas) is an example of a secretive, wary, and generally difficult-to-sample species about which little is known regarding its patterns of occurrence and demography. We therefore evaluated modifications to existing traps to increase the detection and capture probabilities of the Giant Gartersnake to improve the precision with which occurrence, abundance, survival, and other demographic parameters are estimated. We found that adding a one-way valve constructed of cable ties to the small funnel opening of traps and adding hardware cloth extensions to the wide end of funnels increased capture rates of the Giant Gartersnake by 5.55 times (95% credible interval = 2.45–10.51) relative to unmodified traps. The effectiveness of these modifications was insensitive to the aquatic habitat type in which they were deployed. The snout-vent length of the smallest and largest captured snakes did not vary among trap modifications. These trap modifications are expected to increase detection and capture probabilities of the Giant Gartersnake, and show promise for increasing the precision with which demographic parameters can be estimated for this species. We anticipate that the trap modifications found effective in this study will be applicable to a variety of aquatic and semi-aquatic reptiles and amphibians and improve conservation efforts for these species.

  19. Pressure (< or=4 ATA) increases membrane conductance and firing rate in the rat solitary complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulkey, Daniel K; Henderson, Richard A; Putnam, Robert W; Dean, Jay B

    2003-09-01

    Neuronal sensitivity to pressure, barosensitivity, is illustrated by high-pressure nervous syndrome, which manifests as increased central nervous system excitability when heliox or trimix is breathed at >15 atmospheres absolute (ATA). We have tested the hypothesis that smaller levels of pressure (increase neuronal excitability. The effect of hyperbaric helium, which mimics increased hydrostatic pressure, was determined on putative CO2/H+-chemoreceptor neurons in the solitary complex in rat brain stem slices by intracellular recording. Pressure stimulated firing rate in 31% of neurons (barosensitivity) and decreased input resistance. Barosensitivity was retained during synaptic blockade and was unaffected by antioxidants. Barosensitivity was distributed among CO2/H+-chemosensitive and -insensitive neurons; in CO2/H+-chemosensitive neurons, pressure did not significantly reduce neuronal chemosensitivity. We conclude that moderate pressure stimulates certain solitary complex neurons by a mechanism that possibly involves an increased cation conductance, but that does not involve free radicals. Neuronal barosensitivity to increased pressure or a pathophysiological response that is the early manifestation of high-pressure nervous syndrome.

  20. The Effect of a Rapid Heating Rate, Mechanical Vibration and Surfactant Chemistry on the Structure–Property Relationships of Epoxy/Clay Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Magniez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of processing conditions and intercalant chemistry in montmorillonite clays on the dispersion, morphology and mechanical properties of two epoxy/clay nanocomposite systems was investigated in this paper. This work highlights the importance of employing complementary techniques (X-ray diffraction, small angle X-ray scattering, optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy to correlate nanomorphology to macroscale properties. Materials were prepared using an out of autoclave manufacturing process equipped to generate rapid heating rates and mechanical vibration. The results suggested that the quaternary ammonium surfactant on C30B clay reacted with the epoxy during cure, while the primary ammonium surfactant (I.30E catalysed the polymerisation reaction. These effects led to important differences in nanocomposite clay morphologies. The use of mechanical vibration at 4 Hz prior to matrix gelation was found to facilitate clay dispersion and to reduce the area fraction of I.30E clay agglomerates in addition to increasing flexural strength by over 40%.

  1. Nonconserved Residues Ala287 and Ser290 of the Cryptosporidium hominis Thymidylate Synthase Domain Facilitate Its Rapid Rate of Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doan,L.; Martucci, W.; Vargo, M.; Atreya, C.; Anderson, K.

    2007-01-01

    Cryptosporidium hominis TS-DHFR exhibits an unusually high rate of catalysis at the TS domain, at least 10-fold greater than those of other TS enzymes. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we have mutated residues Ala287 and Ser290 in the folate-binding helix to phenylalanine and glycine, respectively, the corresponding residues in human and most other TS enzymes. Our results show that the mutant A287F, the mutant S290G, and the double mutant all have reduced affinities for methylene tetrahydrofolate and reduced rates of reaction at the TS domain. Interestingly, the S290G mutant enzyme had the lowest TS activity, with a catalytic efficiency {approx}200-fold lower than that of the wild type (WT). The rate of conformational change of the S290G mutant is {approx}80 times slower than that of WT, resulting in a change in the rate-limiting step from hydride transfer to covalent ternary complex formation. We have determined the crystal structure of ligand-bound S290G mutant enzyme, which shows that the primary effect of the mutation is an increase in the distance between the TS ligands. The kinetic and crystal structure data presented here provide the first evidence explaining the unusually fast TS rate in C. hominis.

  2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae FLO1 Gene Demonstrates Genetic Linkage to Increased Fermentation Rate at Low Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C. Deed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Low fermentation temperatures are of importance to food and beverage industries working with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, the identification of genes demonstrating a positive impact on fermentation kinetics is of significant interest. A set of 121 mapped F1 progeny, derived from a cross between haploid strains BY4716 (a derivative of the laboratory yeast S288C and wine yeast RM11-1a, were fermented in New Zealand Sauvignon Blanc grape juice at 12.5°. Analyses of five key fermentation kinetic parameters among the F1 progeny identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL on chromosome I with a significant degree of linkage to maximal fermentation rate (Vmax at low temperature. Independent deletions of two candidate genes within the region, FLO1 and SWH1, were constructed in the parental strains (with S288C representing BY4716. Fermentation of wild-type and deletion strains at 12.5 and 25° confirmed that the genetic linkage to Vmax corresponds to the S288C version of the FLO1 allele, as the absence of this allele reduced Vmax by ∼50% at 12.5°, but not at 25°. Reciprocal hemizygosity analysis (RHA between S288C and RM11-1a FLO1 alleles did not confirm the prediction that the S288C version of FLO1 was promoting more rapid fermentation in the opposing strain background, suggesting that the positive effect on Vmax derived from S288C FLO1 may only provide an advantage in haploids, or is dependent on strain-specific cis or trans effects. This research adds to the growing body of evidence demonstrating the role of FLO1 in providing stress tolerance to S. cerevisiae during fermentation.

  3. Rate of increase of collaboration in chemical physics and related fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memory, Jasper D.; Lane, Heather M.

    2002-10-01

    As an extension of earlier work on this subject, the rate of increase of collaboration in chemical physics and related fields is estimated by determining the mean number of authors per article in leading journals as a function of time. Those means for the first one hundred articles of the year were determined for the period 1960-2000 in five-year intervals for the Journal of Chemical Physics, the Journal of the American Chemical Society, and the Journal of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. The results were analyzed by linear regression, and gave increases, in authors per decade, of 0.3, 0.5, and 0.2, with r values of 0.96, 0.97, and 0.94, respectively (p < 0.0001 in each case). Implications for the hypothesis of "critical mass" of research groups are noted.

  4. [Light pollution increases morbidity and mortality rate from different causes in male rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukalev, A V; Vinogradova, I A; Zabezhinskiĭ, M A; Semenchenko, A V; Anisimov, V N

    2012-01-01

    The influence of different light regimes (constant light--LL; constant darkness--DD; standard light regime--LD, 12 hours light 12 hours darkness; natural lightening of the North-West of Russia--NL) on the dynamics of life's morbidity rate, spontaneous tumorigenesis and frequency of some kinds of non-tumor pathology revealed at the post-mortem examination of male rats was studied. It was found out that the maintenance of animals at LL and NL conditions led to the increase of the number of infectious diseases, substantially faster development of spontaneous tumors and the increase of non-tumor diseases in comparison with the animals kept at LD (standard light) regime. Light deprivation (DD) led to substantial reduction of development of new growth, of non-tumor and infectious diseases in comparison with the similar parameters in standard light regime.

  5. Increasing Biogas Production Rate from Cattle Manure Using Rumen Fluid as Inoculums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiyono Budiyono

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 In this study, rumen fluid of animal ruminant was used as inoculums to increase biogas production rate from cattle manure at mesophilic condition. A series of laboratory experiments using 400 ml biodigester were performed in batch operation mode. Given 100 grams of fresh cattle manure (M was fed to each biodigester and mixed with rumen fluid (R and tap water (W in several ratio resulting six different M:W:R ratio contents i.e. 1:1:0; 1:0.75:0.25; 1:0.5:0.5; 1:0.25:0.75; and 1:0:1 (correspond to 0; 12.5; 25, 37.5; 50, and 100 % rumen, respectively and six different total solid (TS contents i.e. 2.6, 4.6, 6.2, 7.4, 9.2, 12.3, and 18.4 %. The operating temperatures were at room temperature. The results showed that the rumen fluid inoculated to biodigester significantly effected the biogas production. Rumen fluid inoculums caused biogas production rate and efficiency increase more than two times in compare to manure substrate without rumen fluid inoculums. The best performance for biogas production was the digester with rumen fluid and TS content in the range of 25-50 % and 7.4 and 9.2 %, respectively. These results suggest that, based on TS content effects to biogas yield, rumen fluid inoculums exhibit the similar effect with other inoculums. Increasing rumen content will also increase biogas production. Due to the optimum total solid (TS content for biogas production between 7-9 % (or correspond to more and less manure and total liquid 1:1, the rumen fluid content of 50 % will give the best performance for biogas production. The future work will be carried out to study the dynamics of biogas production if both the rumen fluid inoculums and manure are fed in the continuous system Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Doi: 10.12777/ijse.6.1.31-38 [How to cite this article: Budiyono, Widiasa, I.N., Johari, S. and Sunarso. (2014. Increasing Biogas

  6. Impact of Increased Football Field Width on Player High-Speed Collision Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jacob R; Khalsa, Siri S; Smith, Brandon W; Park, Paul

    2017-07-01

    High-acceleration head impact is a known risk for mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) based on studies using helmet accelerometry. In football, offensive and defensive players are at higher risk of mTBI due to increased speed of play. Other collision sport studies suggest that increased playing surface size may contribute to reductions in high-speed collisions. We hypothesized that wider football fields lead to a decreased rate of high-speed collisions. Computer football game simulation was developed using MATLAB. Four wide receivers were matched against 7 defensive players. Each offensive player was randomized to one of 5 typical routes on each play. The ball was thrown 3 seconds into play; ball flight time was 2 seconds. Defensive players were delayed 0.5 second before reacting to ball release. A high-speed collision was defined as the receiver converging with a defensive player within 0.5 second of catching the ball. The simulation counted high-speed collisions for 1 team/season (65 plays/game for 16 games/season = 1040 plays/season) averaged during 10 seasons, and was validated against existing data using standard field width (53.3 yards). Field width was increased in 1-yard intervals up to 58.3 yards. Using standard field width, 188 ± 4 high-speed collisions were seen per team per season (18% of plays). When field width increased by 3 yards, high-speed collision rate decreased to 135 ± 3 per team per season (28% decrease; P football field width can lead to substantial decline in high-speed collisions, with potential for reducing instances of mTBI in football players. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Field measurement of erosion rates: time-lapse monitoring of rapid stone flaking at Howden Minster, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehne, E.; Pinchin, S.

    2012-04-01

    The use of a solar-powered, field time-lapse camera and environmental monitoring system enabled measurements of the pattern and rate of loss of stone from the surface of Howden Minster, an abandoned monastery in Yorkshire dating to 1380 AD. Acquiring a photograph every 1-3 hours allowed the stone damage to be correlated with local environmental conditions. Image comparison techniques borrowed from observational astronomy, such as blink comparison, were used to determine what elements had changed from image to image. Results indicate that loss is episodic rather than continuous and in several cases is related to specific environmental conditions, such as condensation/dew formation or high winds. Damage was found also to be synchronous, with surface change (flaking, granular disintegration, and loss of flakes) occurring at the same time on different stone blocks. Crystallization pressure from magnesium sulfate phase transitions appear to be the main cause of the loss of stone surfaces. Significant variation in surface loss rates was observed and appears to be related to variations in salt concentration. An examination of stone texture by ESEM/EDS revealed signification variations and suggests that salt concentrations are controlled in part by stone micromorphology. Quantitative data on rates of surface loss are not available from most monuments. Time-lapse methods permit the relatively inexpensive acquisition of this type of data, which is needed to aid conservation decision-making and the evaluation of interventions. Such tools should also prove useful to geomorphologists studying honeycomb weathering, the moving rocks on Death Valley's Racetrack Playa, and other phenomena that are otherwise difficult to study. Context: The rapid deterioration of magnesian limestone structures in the north of England has been a serious problem for more than one hundred years. While air quality in England has improved during this period, the rate of stone loss in these carved stone

  8. PhoU Allows Rapid Adaptation to High Phosphate Concentrations by Modulating PstSCAB Transport Rate in Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    diCenzo, George C; Sharthiya, Harsh; Nanda, Anish; Zamani, Maryam; Finan, Turlough M

    2017-09-15

    Maintenance of cellular phosphate homeostasis is essential for cellular life. The PhoU protein has emerged as a key regulator of this process in bacteria, and it is suggested to modulate phosphate import by PstSCAB and control activation of the phosphate limitation response by the PhoR-PhoB two-component system. However, a proper understanding of PhoU has remained elusive due to numerous complications of mutating phoU, including loss of viability and the genetic instability of the mutants. Here, we developed two sets of strains of Sinorhizobium meliloti that overcame these limitations and allowed a more detailed and comprehensive analysis of the biological and molecular activities of PhoU. The data showed that phoU cannot be deleted in the presence of phosphate unless PstSCAB is inactivated also. However, phoU deletions were readily recovered in phosphate-free media, and characterization of these mutants revealed that addition of phosphate to the environment resulted in toxic levels of PstSCAB-mediated phosphate accumulation. Phosphate uptake experiments indicated that PhoU significantly decreased the PstSCAB transport rate specifically in phosphate-replete cells but not in phosphate-starved cells and that PhoU could rapidly respond to elevated environmental phosphate concentrations and decrease the PstSCAB transport rate. Site-directed mutagenesis results suggested that the ability of PhoU to respond to phosphate levels was independent of the conformation of the PstSCAB transporter. Additionally, PhoU-PhoU and PhoU-PhoR interactions were detected using a bacterial two-hybrid screen. We propose that PhoU modulates PstSCAB and PhoR-PhoB in response to local, internal fluctuations in phosphate concentrations resulting from PstSCAB-mediated phosphate import.IMPORTANCE Correct maintenance of cellular phosphate homeostasis is critical in all kingdoms of life and in bacteria involves the PhoU protein. This work provides novel insights into the role of the Sinorhizobium

  9. Increasing Incidence Rate of Cervical Cerclage in Pregnancy in Australia: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Corrine; Lim, Boon; Robson, Stephen J

    2016-09-12

    Data published from the United States have demonstrated that the use of cervical cerclage has fallen in the period 1998-2013. This is in contrast to recommendations in Australia. We examined this trend using data from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW). Retrospective population-based study. Data from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare procedural database were used to determine the total number of cervical cerclage sutures inserted during the period 2004 to 2013. Population datasets were used to calculate age-stratified incidence rates of cerclage. There was a significant increase in the rate of cervical cerclage in women aged 25 to 34 years and in the 35 years and older age group. The incidence of preterm birth was stable for gestations of 32 to 36 weeks, but slightly increased in the 20 to 27 week and 28 to 31 week gestational age groups. Further research into cervical cerclage and the use of vaginal progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth would be valuable.

  10. Jaundice increases the rate of complications and one-year mortality in patients with hypoxic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Bernhard; Drolz, Andreas; Michl, Barbara; Schellongowski, Peter; Bojic, Andja; Nikfardjam, Miriam; Zauner, Christian; Heinz, Gottfried; Trauner, Michael; Fuhrmann, Valentin

    2012-12-01

    Hypoxic hepatitis (HH) is the most frequent cause of acute liver injury in critically ill patients. No clinical data exist about new onset of jaundice in patients with HH. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and clinical effect of jaundice in critically ill patients with HH. Two hundred and six consecutive patients with HH were screened for the development of jaundice during the course of HH. Individuals with preexisting jaundice or liver cirrhosis at the time of admission (n = 31) were excluded from analysis. Jaundice was diagnosed in patients with plasma total bilirubin levels >3 mg/dL. One-year-survival, infections, and cardiopulmonary, gastrointestinal (GI), renal, and hepatic complications were prospectively documented. New onset of jaundice occurred in 63 of 175 patients with HH (36%). In patients who survived the acute event of HH, median duration of jaundice was 6 days (interquartile range, 3-8). Patients who developed jaundice (group 1) needed vasopressor treatment (P jaundice (group 2). One-year survival rate was significantly lower in group 1, compared to group 2 (8% versus 25%, respectively; P jaundice was associated with an increased frequency of complications during follow-up (54% in group 1 versus 35% in group 2; P Jaundice is a common finding during the course of HH. It leads to an increased rate of complications and worse outcome in patients with HH. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  11. Error rate of multi-level rapid prototyping trajectories for pedicle screw placement in lumbar and sacral spine

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    Merc Matjaz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Free-hand pedicle screw placement has a high incidence of pedicle perforation which can be reduced with fluoroscopy, navigation or an alternative rapid prototyping drill guide template. In our study the error rate of multi-level templates for pedicle screw placement in lumbar and sacral regions was evaluated. Methods: A case series study was performed on 11 patients. Seventy-two screws were implanted using multilevel drill guide templates manufactured with selective laser sintering. According to the optimal screw direction preoperatively defi ned, an analysis of screw misplacement was performed. Displacement, deviation and screw length difference were measured. The learning curve was also estimated. Results: Twelve screws (17% were placed more than 3.125 mm out of its optimal position in the centre of pedicle. The tip of the 16 screws (22% was misplaced more than 6.25 mm out of the predicted optimal position. According to our predefi ned goal, 19 screws (26% were implanted inaccurately. In 10 cases the screw length was selected incorrectly: 1 (1% screw was too long and 9 (13% were too short. No clinical signs of neurovascular lesion were observed. Learning curve was insignifi cantly noticeable (P=0.129. Conclusion: In our study, the procedure of manufacturing and applying multi-level drill guide templates has a 26% chance of screw misplacement. However, that rate does not coincide with pedicle perforation incidence and neurovascular injury. These facts along with a comparison to compatible studies make it possible to summarize that multi-level templates are satisfactorily accurate and allow precise screw placement with a clinically irrelevant mistake factor. Therefore templates could potentially represent a useful tool for routine pedicle screw placement. Key words: Drill guide; Template; Inaccuracy; Perforation; Radiation exposure

  12. Effect of increasing intraperitoneal infusion rates on bupropion hydrochloride-induced seizures in mice

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    Fleming Rosanna

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is not known if there is a relationship between input rate and incidence of bupropion-induced seizures. This is important, since different controlled release formulations of bupropion release the active drug at different rates. Methods We investigated the effect of varying the intraperitoneal infusion rates of bupropion HCl 120 mg/kg, a known convulsive dose50 (CD50, on the incidence and severity of bupropion-induced convulsions in the Swiss albino mice. A total of 69 mice, approximately 7 weeks of age, and weighing 21.0 to 29.1 g were randomly assigned to bupropion HCl 120 mg/kg treatment by intraperitoneal (IP administration in 7 groups (9 to 10 animals per group. Bupropion HCl was infused through a surgically implanted IP dosing catheter with infusions in each group of 0 min, 15 min, 30 min, 60 min, 90 min, 120 min, and 240 min. The number, time of onset, duration and the intensity of the convulsions or absence of convulsions were recorded. Results The results showed that IP administration of bupropion HCl 120 mg/kg by bolus injection induced convulsions in 6 out of 10 mice (60% of convulsing mice in group 1. Logistic regression analysis revealed that infusion time was significant (p = 0.0004; odds ratio = 0.974 and increasing the IP infusion time of bupropion HCl 120 mg/kg was associated with a 91% reduced odds of convulsions at infusion times of 15 to 90 min compared to bolus injection. Further increase in infusion time resulted in further reduction in the odds of convulsions to 99.8% reduction at 240 min. Conclusion In conclusion, the demonstration of an inverse relationship between infusion time of a fixed and convulsive dose of bupropion and the risk of convulsions in a prospective study is novel.

  13. Fungal Infections Increase the Mortality Rate Three-Fold in Necrotizing Soft-Tissue Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Christopher B; Wesp, Brendan M; Fiore, Nicholas B; Rasane, Rohit K; Torres, Marlon; Turnbull, Isaiah R; Ilahi, Obeid N; Punch, Laurie J; Bochicchio, Grant V

    2017-10-01

    Necrotizing soft-tissue infections (NSTIs) result in significant morbidity and mortality rates, with as many as 76% of patients dying during their index admission. Published data suggest NSTIs rarely involve fungal infections in immunocompetent patients. However, because of the recent recognition of fungal infections in our population, we hypothesized that such infections frequently complicate NSTIs and are associated with higher morbidity and mortality rates. A prospectively maintained Acute and Critical Care Surgery (ACCS) database spanning 2008-2015 and including more than 7,000 patients was queried for patients with NSTIs. Microbiologic data, demographics, and clinical outcomes were abstracted. Risk factors and outcomes associated with NSTI with positive intra-operative fungal cultures were determined. Frequencies were compared by χ2 and continuous variables by the Student t-test using SPSS. Because the study included only archived data, no patient permission was needed. A total of 230 patients were found to have NSTIs; 197 had intra-operative cultures, and 21 (10.7%) of these were positive for fungi. Fungal infection was more common in women, patients with higher body mass index (BMI), and patients who had had prior abdominal procedures. There were no significant differences in demographics, co-morbidities, or site of infection. The majority of patients (85.7%) had mixed bacterial and fungal infections; in the remaining patients, fungi were the only species isolated. Most fungal cultures were collected within 48 h of hospital admission, suggesting that the infections were not hospital acquired. Patients with positive fungal cultures required two more surgical interventions and had a three-fold greater mortality rate than patients without fungal infections. This is the largest series to date describing the impact of fungal infection in NSTIs. Our data demonstrate a three-fold increase in the mortality rate and the need for two additional operations

  14. Translocation of threatened New Zealand falcons to vineyards increases nest attendance, brooding and feeding rates.

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    Sara M Kross

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic landscapes can be rich in resources, and may in some cases provide potential habitat for species whose natural habitat has declined. We used remote videography to assess whether reintroducing individuals of the threatened New Zealand falcon Falco novaeseelandiae into a highly modified agricultural habitat affected the feeding rates of breeding falcons or related breeding behavior such as nest attendance and brooding rates. Over 2,800 recording hours of footage were used to compare the behavior of falcons living in six natural nests (in unmanaged, hilly terrain between 4 km and 20 km from the nearest vineyard, with that of four breeding falcon pairs that had been transported into vineyards and nested within 500 m of the nearest vineyard. Falcons in vineyard nests had higher feeding rates, higher nest attendance, and higher brooding rates. As chick age increased, parents in vineyard nests fed chicks a greater amount of total prey and larger prey items on average than did parents in hill nests. Parents with larger broods brought in larger prey items and a greater total sum of prey biomass. Nevertheless, chicks in nests containing siblings received less daily biomass per individual than single chicks. Some of these results can be attributed to the supplementary feeding of falcons in vineyards. However, even after removing supplementary food from our analysis, falcons in vineyards still fed larger prey items to chicks than did parents in hill nests, suggesting that the anthropogenic habitat may be a viable source of quality food. Although agricultural regions globally are rarely associated with raptor conservation, these results suggest that translocating New Zealand falcons into vineyards has potential for the conservation of this species.

  15. Groundwater contamination in relation with the increasing urbanization rate in Africa. Case of Cotonou and Porto Novo (Benin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeloui, Diane; Celle-Jeanton, Hélène; Huneau, Frédéric; Boukari, Moussa; Alassane, Abdelkarim; Garel, Emilie; Lavastre, Véronique; Bertrand, Guillaume

    2016-04-01

    More than one billion people in the world still have no access to sufficient resources in drinking water (United Nation, 2014). In particular, large cities in Africa have to face several problems: 1) population growth associated with the strongest urbanization rate increase (5% per year) of the world leading to a dramatic increase in good-quality water needs, 2) low levels of solid waste management and sanitation services, 3) insufficient or disconnected water supply services, 4) low knowledge of water resources availabilities. The situation in Benin is a relevant illustration of the problems that Africa has to face to. As many other coastal urban areas in Africa (Showers, 2002; Re et al., 2011), Cotonou and Porto Novo cities have seen a rapid increase of their population as these towns constitute a corridor of transit for the imports and the exports in the nearby countries. Hence, they are very attractive for job hunters, and constitute the administrative centers for the whole country. This rapid population growth amplifies the problem of water supply and may generate serious impacts on groundwater resources: depletion due to overexploitation, salinization due to seawater intrusion and pollution linked to human activities. In order to insure a safe water supply in the context of increasing urbanization and population in the coastal area of Cotonou and Porto Novo, the identification of the main sources of pollution is essential for the implementation of long-term water management procedures. Based on two field campaigns carried out in January-2012 (dry season) and August-2012 (rainy season), hydrochemical analysis have been realized on groundwater sampled from boreholes drilled in the CTA (Continental Terminal Aquifer) and wells dug in the QCA (Quaternary Coastal Aquifer) in order to investigate the origin of salinization and the present time extension of the nitrate contamination. Historical data have also been collected from previous studies in order to

  16. Rapid increase in fibroblast growth factor 21 in protein malnutrition and its impact on growth and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Yori; Saito, Kenji; Nakazawa, Kyoko; Konishi, Morichika; Itoh, Nobuyuki; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro; Kato, Hisanori; Takenaka, Asako

    2015-11-14

    Protein malnutrition promotes hepatic steatosis, decreases insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I production and retards growth. To identify new molecules involved in such changes, we conducted DNA microarray analysis on liver samples from rats fed an isoenergetic low-protein diet for 8 h. We identified the fibroblast growth factor 21 gene (Fgf21) as one of the most strongly up-regulated genes under conditions of acute protein malnutrition (P<0·05, false-discovery rate<0·001). In addition, amino acid deprivation increased Fgf21 mRNA levels in rat liver-derived RL-34 cells (P<0·01). These results suggested that amino acid limitation directly increases Fgf21 expression. FGF21 is a polypeptide hormone that regulates glucose and lipid metabolism. FGF21 also promotes a growth hormone-resistance state and suppresses IGF-I in transgenic mice. Therefore, to determine further whether Fgf21 up-regulation causes hepatic steatosis and growth retardation after IGF-I decrease in protein malnutrition, we fed an isoenergetic low-protein diet to Fgf21-knockout (KO) mice. Fgf21-KO did not rescue growth retardation and reduced plasma IGF-I concentration in these mice. Fgf21-KO mice showed greater epididymal white adipose tissue weight and increased hepatic TAG and cholesterol levels under protein malnutrition conditions (P<0·05). Overall, the results showed that protein deprivation directly increased Fgf21 expression. However, growth retardation and decreased IGF-I were not mediated by increased FGF21 expression in protein malnutrition. Furthermore, FGF21 up-regulation rather appears to have a protective effect against obesity and hepatic steatosis in protein-malnourished animals.

  17. INCREASED RATES OF SMOKING CESSATION OBSERVED AMONG TRANSGENDER WOMEN RECEIVING HORMONE TREATMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steven C; Safer, Joshua D

    2017-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control, while 68% of adult smokers nationally desire to quit, only 6.2% successfully quit in a given year. Transgender women seen for hormone therapy at Boston Medical Center (BMC) are strongly advised to quit smoking before the start of treatment, not only due to general health benefits, but also because of the concern for increased thromboembolic events with estrogen therapy. Transgender men are given the same recommendation regarding tobacco as any patient. We retrospectively examined 156 patients' charts, 120 transgender women and 36 transgender men, from the Transgender Center at BMC. Thirty-five charts were excluded, as they did not contain smoking data (29 transgender women and 6 transgender men). Twenty-eight transgender women (31%) were current smokers when they began treatment. Of those, 64% quit smoking over the course of initiating treatment. Of the 30 transgender men included in this study, 8 (27%) were current smokers when they began treatment. Of those, 25% quit smoking over the course of initiating treatment. Although others report that discussing tobacco use with a healthcare provider can increase rates of smoking cessation as seen with transgender men at our center, the substantially increased rate of smoking cessation among our transgender women suggests that greater impact can be achieved when a life-changing event is leveraged. Further, while some physicians raise concern over morbidity from hormone therapy, in our experience, good health habits initiated with care in our system more than outweigh the modest risks currently described. Abbreviation: BMC = Boston Medical Center.

  18. Corrosion and runoff rates of Cu and three Cu-alloys in marine environments with increasing chloride deposition rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Zhang, Xian; Goidanich, Sara; Le Bozec, Nathalie; Herting, Gunilla; Leygraf, Christofer

    2014-02-15

    Bare copper sheet and three commercial Cu-based alloys, Cu15Zn, Cu4Sn and Cu5Al5Zn, have been exposed to four test sites in Brest, France, with strongly varying chloride deposition rates. The corrosion rates of all four materials decrease continuously with distance from the coast, i.e. with decreasing chloride load, and in the following order: Cu4Sn>Cu sheet>Cu15Zn>Cu5Al5Zn. The patina on all materials was composed of two main layers, Cu2O as the inner layer and Cu2(OH)3Cl as the outer layer, and with a discontinuous presence of CuCl in between. Additional minor patina constituents are SnO2 (Cu4Sn), Zn5(OH)6(CO3)2 (Cu15Zn and Cu5Al5Zn) and Zn6Al2(OH)16CO3·4H2O/Zn2Al(OH)6Cl·2H2O/Zn5Cl2(OH)8·H2O and Al2O3 (Cu5Al5Zn). The observed Zn- and Zn/Al-containing corrosion products might be important factors for the lower sensitivity of Cu15Zn and Cu5Al5Zn against chloride-induced atmospheric corrosion compared with Cu sheet and Cu4Sn. Decreasing corrosion rates with exposure time were observed for all materials and chloride loads and attributed to an improved adherence with time of the outer patina to the underlying inner oxide. Flaking of the outer patina layer was mainly observed on Cu4Sn and Cu sheet and associated with the gradual transformation of CuCl to Cu2(OH)3Cl of larger volume. After three years only Cu5Al5Zn remains lustrous because of a patina compared with the other materials that appeared brownish-reddish. Significantly lower release rates of metals compared with corresponding corrosion rates were observed for all materials. Very similar release rates of copper from all four materials were observed during the fifth year of marine exposure due to an outer surface patina that with time revealed similar constituents and solubility properties. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase reduces food intake and increases metabolic rate in obese mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Jussara M.; da Silva, Alexandre A.; Morgan, Jarrett; Wang, Yi-Xin (Jim); Munusamy, Shankar; Hall, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims This study evaluated the responses to soluble epoxide hydrolase (s-EH) inhibition, an essential enzyme in the metabolism of arachidonic acid, on food intake, body weight and metabolic parameters in mice fed a high fat-high fructose diet (HFD) for 10 weeks. Methods and Results After 5 weeks of HFD, mice were divided into two groups: 1) s-EH inhibitor (AR9281, 200 mg/kg/day by gavage twice daily), and 2) vehicle (0.3 ml per gavage). Food intake, body weight, oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), respiratory quotient (RQ), and motor activity were measured weekly for more 5 weeks. HFD increased body weight (37±1 vs 26±1 g), and plasma of glucose (316±8 vs 188±27 mg/dl), insulin (62.1±8.1 vs 15.5±5.0 µU/ml), and leptin levels (39.4±3.6 vs 7.5±0.1 ng/ml) while reducing VO2, VCO2 and motor activity. s-EH inhibition for 5 weeks decreased caloric intake by ~32% and increased VO2 by ~17% (42.8±1.4 vs. 50.2±1.5 ml/kg/min) leading to significant weight loss. Inhibition of s-EHi also caused significant reductions in plasma leptin levels and visceral fat content. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) content in brown adipose tissue was also elevated by ~50% during s-EH inhibition compared to vehicle treatment. Conclusion These results suggest that s-EH inhibition with AR9281 promotes weight loss by reducing appetite and increasing metabolic rate, and that increased UCP1 content may contribute to the increase in energy expenditure. PMID:21190818

  20. Brown meagre vocalization rate increases during repetitive boat noise exposures: a possible case of vocal compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciulin, Marta; Sebastianutto, Linda; Codarin, Antonio; Calcagno, Giuliana; Ferrero, Enrico A

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated whether or not boat noise causes variations in brown meagre (Sciaena umbra) vocalizations recorded in a nearshore Mediterranean marine reserve. Six nocturnal experimental sessions were carried out from June to September 2009. In each of them, a recreational boat passed over vocalizing fish 6 times with 1 boat passage every 10 min. For this purpose three different boats were used in random order: an 8.5-m cabin-cruiser (CC), a 5-m fiberglass boat (FB), and a 7-m inflatable boat (INF). In situ continuous acoustic recordings were collected using a self-standing sonobuoy. Because boat noise levels largely exceeded both background noise and S. umbra vocalizations in the species' hearing frequency range, masking of acoustic communication was assumed. Although no immediate effect was observed during a single boat passage, the S. umbra mean pulse rate increased over multiple boat passages in the experimental condition but not in the control condition, excluding that the observed effect was due to a natural rise in fish vocalizations. The observed vocal enhancement may result either from an increased density of callers or from an increased number of pulses/sounds produced by already acoustically active individuals, as a form of vocal compensation. These two explanations are discussed.

  1. An increase in rates of obstetric haemorrhage in a setting of high HIV seroprevalence

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    E Shabalala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obstetric haemorrhage (OH is the leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide, although, indirectly, HIV is also a leading cause of maternal mortality in some settings with a high HIV seroprevalence. Objective. To determine the possible association between increasing rates of OH and HIV or its treatment. Methods. We conducted a retrospective chart review of women with OH at King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban, South Africa, over a 3-year period (2009 - 2011, during which the drug regimen for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission was evolving from single-dose nevirapine to antenatal zidovudine combined with intrapartum nevirapine (also referred to as dual therapy, and finally to a combination or highly active antiretroviral therapy (cART or HAART. Cases of OH (including abruptio placentae, placenta praevia, unspecified antepartum haemorrhage (APH, and postpartum haemorrhage (PPH were identified from maternity delivery records, and the relevant data extracted. Results. We analysed the records of 448 women diagnosed with OH. Even though the incidence of OH was low, the study found an increasing number of cases during the 3-year period. PPH – not APH – was associated with HIV seropositivity (odds ratio 1.84, 95% confi­dence interval 1.14 - 2.95. cART was not associated with an increased risk of haemorrhage. Conclusion. HIV was associated with a high risk of PPH, and its possible association with HIV treatment needs further research.

  2. Magnetostriction of the rapidly quenched Co80Nb8B12 alloy: Dependence on quenching rate, structural relaxation, and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madurga, V.; Barandiarán, J. M.; Vázquez, M.

    1987-01-01

    Ribbons of nominal composition Co80Nb8B12 have been prepared by the single roller quenching method using different wheel velocities ranging from 26 to 42 ms−1. X-ray diffraction patterns for ribbons prepared at low velocities show crystalline peaks but characteristic for the amorphous state...... for samples prepared at velocities above 36 ms−1. Room-temperature values of the magnetostriction constant lambdas depend on the quenching rate and changes from 4×10−7 to −1×10−6 as the wheel speed increases. Zero magnetostriction samples are obtained at about 34 ms−1. Thermal treatments change the values...... of the magnetostriction in the same way as a decrease in the quenching rate does. A dependence of the magnetostriction constant on the applied stress has been found. This dependence, fully reversible, is observed at room temperature. Journal of Applied Physics is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  3. Meat Feeding Restricts Rapid Cold Hardening Response and Increases Thermal Activity Thresholds of Adult Blow Flies, Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae.

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    Paul C Coleman

    Full Text Available Virtually all temperate insects survive the winter by entering a physiological state of reduced metabolic activity termed diapause. However, there is increasing evidence that climate change is disrupting the diapause response resulting in non-diapause life stages encountering periods of winter cold. This is a significant problem for adult life stages in particular, as they must remain mobile, periodically feed, and potentially initiate reproductive development at a time when resources should be diverted to enhance stress tolerance. Here we present the first evidence of protein/meat feeding restricting rapid cold hardening (RCH ability and increasing low temperature activity thresholds. No RCH response was noted in adult female blow flies (Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy fed a sugar, water and liver (SWL diet, while a strong RCH response was seen in females fed a diet of sugar and water (SW only. The RCH response in SW flies was induced at temperatures as high as 10°C, but was strongest following 3h at 0°C. The CTmin (loss of coordinated movement and chill coma (final appendage twitch temperature of SWL females (-0.3 ± 0.5°C and -4.9 ± 0.5°C, respectively was significantly higher than for SW females (-3.2 ± 0.8°C and -8.5 ± 0.6°C. We confirmed this was not directly the result of altered extracellular K+, as activity thresholds of alanine-fed adults were not significantly different from SW flies. Instead we suggest the loss of cold tolerance is more likely the result of diverting resource allocation to egg development. Between 2009 and 2013 winter air temperatures in Birmingham, UK, fell below the CTmin of SW and SWL flies on 63 and 195 days, respectively, suggesting differential exposure to chill injury depending on whether adults had access to meat or not. We conclude that disruption of diapause could significantly impact on winter survival through loss of synchrony in the timing of active feeding and reproductive development with

  4. Increased Efferent Cardiac Sympathetic Nerve Activity and Defective Intrinsic Heart Rate Regulation in Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaung, H P Aye; Baldi, J Chris; Wang, Heng-Yu; Hughes, Gillian; Cook, Rosalind F; Bussey, Carol T; Sheard, Phil W; Bahn, Andrew; Jones, Peter P; Schwenke, Daryl O; Lamberts, Regis R

    2015-08-01

    Elevated sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) coupled with dysregulated β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) signaling is postulated as a major driving force for cardiac dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes; however, cardiac SNA has never been assessed directly in diabetes. Our aim was to measure the sympathetic input to and the β-AR responsiveness of the heart in the type 2 diabetic heart. In vivo recording of SNA of the left efferent cardiac sympathetic branch of the stellate ganglion in Zucker diabetic fatty rats revealed an elevated resting cardiac SNA and doubled firing rate compared with nondiabetic rats. Ex vivo, in isolated denervated hearts, the intrinsic heart rate was markedly reduced. Contractile and relaxation responses to β-AR stimulation with dobutamine were compromised in externally paced diabetic hearts, but not in diabetic hearts allowed to regulate their own heart rate. Protein levels of left ventricular β1-AR and Gs (guanine nucleotide binding protein stimulatory) were reduced, whereas left ventricular and right atrial β2-AR and Gi (guanine nucleotide binding protein inhibitory regulatory) levels were increased. The elevated resting cardiac SNA in type 2 diabetes, combined with the reduced cardiac β-AR responsiveness, suggests that the maintenance of normal cardiovascular function requires elevated cardiac sympathetic input to compensate for changes in the intrinsic properties of the diabetic heart. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  5. Winter Insulation By Snow Accumulation in a Subarctic Treeline Ecosystem Increases Summer Carbon Cycling Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, T.; Subke, J. A.; Wookey, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of snow accumulation on soil carbon and nutrient cycling is attracting substantial attention from researchers. We know that deeper snow accumulation caused by high stature vegetation increases winter microbial activity and therefore carbon and nitrogen flux rates. However, until now the effect of snow accumulation, by buffering winter soil temperature, on subsequent summer soil processes, has scarcely been considered. We carried out an experiment at an alpine treeline in subarctic Sweden in which soil monoliths, contained within PVC collars, were transplanted between forest (deep winter snow) and tundra heath (shallow winter snow). We measured soil CO2efflux over two growing seasons and quantified soil microbial biomass after the second winter. We showed that respiration rates of transplanted forest soil were significantly reduced compared with control collars (remaining in the forest) as a consequence of colder, but more variable, winter temperatures. We hypothesised that microbial biomass would be reduced in transplanted forests soils but found there was no difference compared to control. We therefore further hypothesised that the similarly sized microbial pool in the control is assembled differently to the transplant. We believe that the warmer winters in forests foster more active consortia of decomposer microbes as a result of different abiotic selection pressures. Using an ecosystem scale experimental approach, we have identified a mechanism that influences summer carbon cycling rates based solely on the amount of snow that accumulates the previous winter. We conclude that modification of snow depth as a consequence of changes in vegetation structure is an important mechanism influencing soil C stocks in ecosystems where snow persists for a major fraction of the year.

  6. Estimating Finite Rate of Population Increase for Sharks Based on Vital Parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Ming Liu

    Full Text Available The vital parameter data for 62 stocks, covering 38 species, collected from the literature, including parameters of age, growth, and reproduction, were log-transformed and analyzed using multivariate analyses. Three groups were identified and empirical equations were developed for each to describe the relationships between the predicted finite rates of population increase (λ' and the vital parameters, maximum age (Tmax, age at maturity (Tm, annual fecundity (f/Rc, size at birth (Lb, size at maturity (Lm, and asymptotic length (L∞. Group (1 included species with slow growth rates (0.034 yr(-1 < k < 0.103 yr(-1 and extended longevity (26 yr < Tmax < 81 yr, e.g., shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus, dusky shark Carcharhinus obscurus, etc.; Group (2 included species with fast growth rates (0.103 yr(-1 < k < 0.358 yr(-1 and short longevity (9 yr < Tmax < 26 yr, e.g., starspotted smoothhound Mustelus manazo, gray smoothhound M. californicus, etc.; Group (3 included late maturing species (Lm/L∞ ≧ 0.75 with moderate longevity (Tmax < 29 yr, e.g., pelagic thresher Alopias pelagicus, sevengill shark Notorynchus cepedianus. The empirical equation for all data pooled was also developed. The λ' values estimated by these empirical equations showed good agreement with those calculated using conventional demographic analysis. The predictability was further validated by an independent data set of three species. The empirical equations developed in this study not only reduce the uncertainties in estimation but also account for the difference in life history among groups. This method therefore provides an efficient and effective approach to the implementation of precautionary shark management measures.

  7. Improved bowel preparation increases polyp detection and unmasks significant polyp miss rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Ioannis S; Sioulas, Athanasios D; Magdalinos, Nektarios; Beintaris, Iosif; Lazaridis, Lazaros-Dimitrios; Polymeros, Dimitrios; Malli, Chrysoula; Dimitriadis, George D; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To retrospectively compare previous-day vs split-dose preparation in terms of bowel cleanliness and polyp detection in patients referred for polypectomy. METHODS: Fifty patients underwent two colonoscopies: one diagnostic in a private clinic and a second for polypectomy in a University Hospital. The latter procedures were performed within 12 wk of the index ones. Examinations were accomplished by two experienced endoscopists, different in each facility. Twenty-seven patients underwent screening/surveillance colonoscopy, while the rest were symptomatic. Previous day bowel preparation was utilized initially and split-dose for polypectomy. Colon cleansing was evaluated using the Aronchick scale. We measured the number of detected polyps, and the polyp miss rates per-polyp. RESULTS: Excellent/good preparation was reported in 38 cases with previous-day preparation (76%) vs 46 with split-dose (92%), respectively (P = 0.03). One hundred and twenty-six polyps were detected initially and 169 subsequently (P < 0.0001); 88 vs 126 polyps were diminutive (P < 0.0001), 25 vs 29 small (P = 0.048) and 13 vs 14 equal or larger than 10 mm. The miss rates for total, diminutive, small and large polyps were 25.4%, 30.1%, 13.7% and 6.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that split-dose preparation was significantly associated (OR, P) with increased number of polyps detected overall (0.869, P < 0.001), in the right (0.418, P = 0.008) and in the left colon (0.452, P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Split-dose preparation improved colon cleansing, enhanced polyp detection and unmasked significant polyp miss rates. PMID:26488024

  8. Dietary supplement increases plasma norepinephrine, lipolysis, and metabolic rate in resistance trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schilling Brian K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary supplements targeting fat loss and increased thermogenesis are prevalent within the sport nutrition/weight loss market. While some isolated ingredients have been reported to be efficacious when used at high dosages, in particular in animal models and/or via intravenous delivery, little objective evidence is available pertaining to the efficacy of a finished product taken by human subjects in oral form. Moreover, many ingredients function as stimulants, leading to increased hemodynamic responses. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a finished dietary supplement on plasma catecholamine concentration, markers of lipolysis, metabolic rate, and hemodynamics. Methods Ten resistance trained men (age = 27 ± 4 yrs; BMI = 25 ± 3 kg· m-2; body fat = 9 ± 3%; mean ± SD ingested a dietary supplement (Meltdown®, Vital Pharmaceuticals or a placebo, in a random order, double blind cross-over design, with one week separating conditions. Fasting blood samples were collected before, and at 30, 60, and 90 minutes post ingestion and were assayed for epinephrine (EPI, norepinephrine (NE, glycerol, and free fatty acids (FFA. Area under the curve (AUC was calculated for all variables. Gas samples were collected from 30–60 minutes post ingestion for measurement of metabolic rate. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded at all blood collection times. Results AUC was greater for the dietary supplement compared to the placebo for NE (1332 ± 128 pg·mL-1·90 min-1 vs. 1003 ± 133 pg·mL-1·90 min-1; p = 0.03, glycerol (44 ± 3 μg·mL-1·90 min-1 vs. 26 ± 2 μg·mL-1·90 min-1; p -1·90 min-1 vs. 0.88 ± 0.12 mmol·L-1·90 min-1; p = 0.0003. No difference between conditions was noted for EPI AUC (p > 0.05. For all variables, values were highest at 90 minutes post ingestion. Total kilocalorie expenditure during the 30 minute collection period was 29.6% greater (p = 0.02 for the dietary supplement (35 ± 3

  9. Strategy for increasing detection rates of drug and alcohol abuse in paediatric emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozer, E; Bar-Hamburger, R; Rosenfeld, N; Dalal, I; Landu, O; Fainmesser, P; Ben-Yehuda, Y; Berkovitch, M

    2009-10-01

    To determine whether implementation of criteria for performing a toxicology screen and increasing staff awareness improve detection of substance abuse among adolescents presenting to the emergency department. Patients 12 to 18 years of age presenting to one of three emergency departments in Israel were included in a prospective cohort study. In the 'study' hospital, a set of criteria for urine toxicology screen and measurements of ethanol serum level were implemented. No specific interventions were implemented in the two other hospitals. The main outcome measure was the rate of substance abuse detection. The number of adolescents seen in the participating centres was 3200 at the study hospital, and 3493 and 2792 at the two other hospitals. High blood ethanol concentrations were found in 49 patients at the study hospital compared with 30 and 19 patients at the two other hospitals (p alcohol and drug of abuse among adolescents presenting to paediatric emergency departments.

  10. Dummy/pacifier use in preterm infants increases blood pressure and improves heart rate control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Rosemary S C; Fyfe, Karinna L; Odoi, Alexsandria; Athukoralage, Anjalee; Yiallourou, Stephanie R; Wong, Flora Y

    2016-02-01

    Preterm infants are at increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Use of a dummy/pacifier is thought to be protective against SIDS; accordingly, we assessed the effects of dummy/pacifier use on blood pressure, cerebral oxygenation, and heart rate control over the first 6 mo of life after term corrected age (CA) when SIDS risk is greatest. Thirty-five preterm infants were studied longitudinally at 2-4 wk, 2-3 mo, and 5-6 mo CA. Cardiac control was assessed from spectral indices of heart rate variability (HRV) in the low frequency (LF) and the high frequency (HF) range, and the ratio of HF/LF indicating sympathovagal balance was calculated. Overall, at 2-3 mo, mean arterial pressure was significantly higher in the supine position in dummy/pacifier users in both quiet sleep (70 ± 2 vs. 60 ± 2 mm Hg; P preterm infants.

  11. Increasing the rate of presentation and use of signals in elementary classroom teachers1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnine, Douglas W.; Fink, William T.

    1978-01-01

    Two issues relevant to competency-based teacher training were investigated—the specification of acceptable implementation levels for validated techniques and the necessity and feasibility of providing training on those techniques. First, a descriptive study was conducted to collect data on two direct-instruction teaching techniques—rate of presentation and signalling—that have been demonstrated to be functionally related to child performance in earlier studies. Data collected on 13 teachers, who received intensive preservice and inservice training, were then used as a standard for comparison in a multiple-baseline design across three untrained teachers to evaluate the effects of training on the two techniques. The experimental study served to determine whether training on the two techniques was necessary; and, if training was necessary, whether a training package, including supervised practice, unsupervised practice, and self-critique, would result in adequate implementation levels for the two techniques. Low implementation levels during baseline for three untrained teachers indicated that training was necessary. With training, all teachers increased their levels of appropriately signalling pupil responses and accelerated their rates of presentation well above the levels of the comparison standard. Observations made one week and again four weeks after training ended showed that performance levels achieved during training were maintained. PMID:16795583

  12. A regulated response to impaired respiration slows behavioral rates and increases lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cristina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available When mitochondrial respiration or ubiquinone production is inhibited in Caenorhabditis elegans, behavioral rates are slowed and lifespan is extended. Here, we show that these perturbations increase the expression of cell-protective and metabolic genes and the abundance of mitochondrial DNA. This response is similar to the response triggered by inhibiting respiration in yeast and mammalian cells, termed the "retrograde response". As in yeast, genes switched on in C. elegans mitochondrial mutants extend lifespan, suggesting an underlying evolutionary conservation of mechanism. Inhibition of fstr-1, a potential signaling gene that is up-regulated in clk-1 (ubiquinone-defective mutants, and its close homolog fstr-2 prevents the expression of many retrograde-response genes and accelerates clk-1 behavioral and aging rates. Thus, clk-1 mutants live in "slow motion" because of a fstr-1/2-dependent pathway that responds to ubiquinone. Loss of fstr-1/2 does not suppress the phenotypes of all long-lived mitochondrial mutants. Thus, although different mitochondrial perturbations activate similar transcriptional and physiological responses, they do so in different ways.

  13. Increasing Gas Bubble Escape Rate for Water Splitting with Nonwoven Stainless Steel Fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Huang, Xiaolei; Jiang, Songshan; Li, Meng; Zhang, Kai; Yan, Ying; Zhang, Huiping; Xue, Jun Min

    2017-11-22

    Water electrolysis has been considered as one of the most efficient approaches to produce renewable energy, although efficient removal of gas bubbles during the process is still challenging, which has been proved to be critical and can further promote electrocatalytic water splitting. Herein, a novel strategy is developed to increase gas bubble escape rate for water splitting by using nonwoven stainless steel fabrics (NWSSFs) as the conductive substrate decorated with flakelike iron nickel-layered double hydroxide (FeNi LDH) nanostructures. The as-prepared FeNi LDH@NWSSF electrode shows a much faster escape rate of gas bubbles as compared to that of other commonly used three-dimensional porous catalytic electrodes, and the maximum dragging force for a bubble releasing between NWSSF channels is only one-seventh of the dragging force within nickel foam channels. As a result, it exhibits excellent electrocatalytic performance for both oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), with low overpotentials of 210 and 110 mV at the current density of 10 mA cm -2 in 1 M KOH for OER and HER, respectively. There is almost no current drop after a long-time durability test. In addition, its performance for full water splitting is superior to that of the previously reported catalysts, with a voltage of 1.56 V at current density of 10 mA cm -2 .

  14. Reducing job insecurity and increasing performance ratings: does impression management matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guo-hua; Zhao, Helen Hailin; Niu, Xiong-ying; Ashford, Susan J; Lee, Cynthia

    2013-09-01

    Prior research on job insecurity has demonstrated its detrimental effects on both employees and the organization, yet no research has detailed how people actively deal with it. Drawing from proactivity research, this article argues that job insecurity prompts a proactive use of impression management tactics in the workplace. The effectiveness of these tactics depends on the level of supervisory liking for the employee and the attributions supervisors make regarding the employee's motives for the impression management behaviors (i.e., for the good of the organization or for self-interest). A 3-wave survey study of 271 Chinese employees and their supervisors showed that employees experiencing job insecurity in Time 1 reported using a variety of tactics to impress their supervisors at Time 2 and that these tactics curbed the affect associated with job insecurity and enhanced supervisor rated performance, through supervisor's liking and attributed motives. The relationship between impression management and increased supervisor-rated performance was moderated by supervisor attributions; the relationship between impression management and reduced affective job insecurity depended on supervisor liking. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  15. Decreased Rate of Evolution in Y Chromosome STR Loci of Increased Size of the Repeat Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järve, Mari; Zhivotovsky, Lev A.; Rootsi, Siiri; Help, Hela; Rogaev, Evgeny I.; Khusnutdinova, Elza K.; Kivisild, Toomas; Sanchez, Juan J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Polymorphic Y chromosome short tandem repeats (STRs) have been widely used in population genetic and evolutionary studies. Compared to di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats, STRs with longer repeat units occur more rarely and are far less commonly used. Principal Findings In order to study the evolutionary dynamics of STRs according to repeat unit size, we analysed variation at 24 Y chromosome repeat loci: 1 tri-, 14 tetra-, 7 penta-, and 2 hexanucleotide loci. According to our results, penta- and hexanucleotide repeats have approximately two times lower repeat variance and diversity than tri- and tetranucleotide repeats, indicating that their mutation rate is about half of that of tri- and tetranucleotide repeats. Thus, STR markers with longer repeat units are more robust in distinguishing Y chromosome haplogroups and, in some cases, phylogenetic splits within established haplogroups. Conclusions Our findings suggest that Y chromosome STRs of increased repeat unit size have a lower rate of evolution, which has significant relevance in population genetic and evolutionary studies. PMID:19789645

  16. Estimating Finite Rate of Population Increase for Sharks Based on Vital Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kwang-Ming; Chin, Chien-Pang; Chen, Chun-Hui; Chang, Jui-Han

    2015-01-01

    The vital parameter data for 62 stocks, covering 38 species, collected from the literature, including parameters of age, growth, and reproduction, were log-transformed and analyzed using multivariate analyses. Three groups were identified and empirical equations were developed for each to describe the relationships between the predicted finite rates of population increase (λ’) and the vital parameters, maximum age (Tmax), age at maturity (Tm), annual fecundity (f/Rc)), size at birth (Lb), size at maturity (Lm), and asymptotic length (L∞). Group (1) included species with slow growth rates (0.034 yr-1 thresher Alopias pelagicus, sevengill shark Notorynchus cepedianus. The empirical equation for all data pooled was also developed. The λ’ values estimated by these empirical equations showed good agreement with those calculated using conventional demographic analysis. The predictability was further validated by an independent data set of three species. The empirical equations developed in this study not only reduce the uncertainties in estimation but also account for the difference in life history among groups. This method therefore provides an efficient and effective approach to the implementation of precautionary shark management measures. PMID:26576058

  17. The impact of rate reduction and increased vocal intensity on coarticulation in dysarthria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjaden, Kris

    2003-04-01

    The dysarthrias are a group of speech disorders resulting from impairment to nervous system structures important for the motor execution of speech. Although numerous studies have examined how dysarthria impacts articulatory movements or changes in vocal tract shape, few studies of dysarthria consider that articulatory events and their acoustic consequences overlap or are coarticulated in connected speech. The impact of rate, loudness, and clarity on coarticulatory patterns in dysarthria also are poorly understood, although these prosodic manipulations frequently are employed as therapy strategies to improve intelligibility in dysarthria and also are known to affect coarticulatory patterns for at least some neurologically healthy speakers. The current study examined the effects of slowed rate and increased vocal intensity on anticipatory coarticulation for speakers with dysarthria secondary to Multiple Sclerosis (MS), as inferred from the acoustic signal. Healthy speakers were studied for comparison purposes. Three repetitions of twelve target words embedded in the carrier phrase ``It's a -- again'' were produced in habitual, loud, and slow speaking conditions. F2 frequencies and first moment coefficients were used to infer coarticulation. Both group and individual speaker trends will be examined in the data analyses.

  18. Using Roadside Billboard Posters to Increase Admission Rates to Problem Gambling Services: Reflections on Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderwood, Kimberly A; Wellington, William J

    2015-07-01

    Based on the stimulus-response model of advertising, this study sought to increase admission rates to a local problem gambling service (PGS) in Windsor, Ontario, Canada, by adding a series of locally based 10 foot by 20 foot roadside billboard posters to PGS's existing communications tools for a 24-week period. Using proof of performance reports, a pre-post survey of new callers to PGS, a website visit counter, and a media awareness survey, the findings showed that at least some individuals were influenced by billboard exposure, but admission rates continued to decline during the billboard campaign period. While one possible explanation for the communications failure was that the whole PGS communications campaign was below the minimal threshold for communications perception, another possible explanation is that the stimulus-response model of advertising used may not have been appropriate for such advertising that targets behavior change. Reflections on using an information-processing model instead of a stimulus-response model, and considerations of a two-step flow of communication, are provided. Recommendations are made regarding matching communications messages to stages of behavior change, use of online promotion, and strategies for future research. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  19. [Increased sympathetic activity assessed by spectral analysis of heart rate variability in patients with CRPS I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, J; Troeger, C

    2010-02-01

    The complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I) is a painful neuropathic disorder with an antecedent disproportionate trauma leading to spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia, impaired motor function, swelling, changes in sweating and vascular abnormalities without nerve injury. Whether this syndrome is the result of central or peripheral autonomic dysfunction is still a matter of debate. The purpose of this study was to determine the activity of the sympathetic nervous system in patients with CRPS I by power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. This is a pilot study on 6 patients (mean age 50 years; 4 female, 2 male) diagnosed as suffering from CRPS I and 6 age-matched healthy controls. In the pain-free interval and after taking rest for 5 min, 512 subsequent heart beats were obtained with an ECG standard lead II in the supine and then sitting position. Using an autoregressive model, power spectral densities were calculated for the following frequency bands: CRPS I compared to the healthy controls in the supine position (LF/HF=4.01 vs. LF/HF=1.27; p=0.041). The application of stress by changing to the sitting position even increased that difference (6.72 vs. 1.93). Our results support the hypothesis that the pathogenesis of the early stage CRPS I might be related to an increased sympathetic activity. By assessing the autonomic influence on the heart rate variability in CRPS I patients we could also conclude that this disturbance occurs rather at a central level. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  20. Increasing BCI communication rates with dynamic stopping towards more practical use: an ALS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainsah, B. O.; Collins, L. M.; Colwell, K. A.; Sellers, E. W.; Ryan, D. B.; Caves, K.; Throckmorton, C. S.

    2015-02-01

    Objective. The P300 speller is a brain-computer interface (BCI) that can possibly restore communication abilities to individuals with severe neuromuscular disabilities, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), by exploiting elicited brain signals in electroencephalography (EEG) data. However, accurate spelling with BCIs is slow due to the need to average data over multiple trials to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the elicited brain signals. Probabilistic approaches to dynamically control data collection have shown improved performance in non-disabled populations; however, validation of these approaches in a target BCI user population has not occurred. Approach. We have developed a data-driven algorithm for the P300 speller based on Bayesian inference that improves spelling time by adaptively selecting the number of trials based on the acute SNR of a user’s EEG data. We further enhanced the algorithm by incorporating information about the user’s language. In this current study, we test and validate the algorithms online in a target BCI user population, by comparing the performance of the dynamic stopping (DS) (or early stopping) algorithms against the current state-of-the-art method, static data collection, where the amount of data collected is fixed prior to online operation. Main results. Results from online testing of the DS algorithms in participants with ALS demonstrate a significant increase in communication rate as measured in bits/min (100-300%), and theoretical bit rate (100-550%), while maintaining selection accuracy. Participants also overwhelmingly preferred the DS algorithms. Significance. We have developed a viable BCI algorithm that has been tested in a target BCI population which has the potential for translation to improve BCI speller performance towards more practical use for communication.

  1. Lidocaine Test Increases the Success Rates of Corticosteroid Injection in Impingement Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Jun; Lee, Hyo Sun

    2016-10-01

    To determine whether lidocaine test injections would increase the success rate of corticosteroid injection for treatment of impingement syndrome. Two hundred thirty-nine patients diagnosed with impingement syndrome were allocated to the lidocaine test (LC) group (N = 139) and the subacromial (SA) group (N = 100). The LC group received 1 ml of 1% lidocaine injection into the subacromial bursa under ultrasound guidance and a second injection of the steroid solution into the subacromial bursa or glenohumeral joint according to the response. The SA group received the same amount of steroid injection into the subacromial bursa without a prior lidocaine injection. Categorical outcomes were utilized and subjects were grouped based on percentage pain relief. Clinical improvement was expressed in terms of the patient's global impression of change (PGIC) as 'not improved,' 'slightly improved,' and 'much improved. In the LC group, 76 of the 139 patients (54% [95 CI 46-63%]) showed '50-80% improvement' and 15 (11% [95% CI 6.6-17%]) patients showed 'more than 80% improvement' at 3 weeks after the injection. While in the SA group, 29 of the 100 patient (29% [95% CI 21-39%]) showed '50-80% improvement' and 13 (13% [95% CI 7.7-21%]) showed 'more than 80% 3 weeks after the injection (χ 2  = 15.073, P = 0.001). This difference persisted at 3 months (χ 2  =   8.015, P = 0.018). The chi-square test of PGIC at 3 weeks also showed significant differences (P lidocaine pre-injection increases the success rate of steroid injection in patients suspected of having impingement syndrome. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Dialysate interleukin-6 predicts increasing peritoneal solute transport rate in incident peritoneal dialysis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Repeated exposure to peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions contributes to cumulative intraperitoneal inflammation and peritoneal injury. The present study aimed to explore the capacity of dialysate interleukin-6(IL-6) to a) predict peritoneal membrane function and peritonitis in incident PD patients, and b) to evaluate the influence of neutral pH, low glucose degradation product (GDP) PD solution on dialysate IL-6 levels. Methods The study included 88 incident participants from the balANZ trial who had completed 24-months of follow-up. Change in peritoneal solute transport rate (PSTR) and peritonitis were primary outcome measures, and the utility of IL-6 and IL-6 appearance rate (IL-6 AR) in predicting these outcomes was analyzed using multilevel linear regression and Cox proportional hazards models, respectively. Sensitivity analyses were performed by analyzing outcomes in a peritonitis-free cohort (n = 56). Results Dialysate IL-6 concentration significantly increased from baseline to 24 months (mean difference 19.07 pg/mL; P < 0.001) but was not affected by the type of PD solution received (P = 0.68). An increase in PSTR from baseline was associated with higher levels of IL-6 (P = 0.004), the use of standard solutions (P = 0.005) and longer PD duration (P < 0.001). Baseline IL-6 level was not associated with a shorter time to first peritonitis (adjusted hazard ratio 1.00, 95% CI 0.99-1.00, P = 0.74). Analysis of IL-6 AR as well as sensitivity analyses in a peritonitis-free cohort yielded comparable results. Conclusion Dialysate IL-6 concentration increased with longer PD duration and was a significant, independent predictor of PSTR. The use of biocompatible PD solutions exerted no significant effect on dialysate IL-6 levels but did abrogate the increase in PSTR associated with standard PD solutions. This is the first study to examine the impact of biocompatible solutions on the utility of IL-6 in predicting PSTR and peritonitis. PMID:24410736

  3. Effects of rapid aging and lower participation rate among younger adults on the short-term trend of physical activity in the National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Nobuo; Yoshizawa, Takeshi; Okuda, Nagako

    2017-10-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan, has annually monitored two indicators of physical activity in adults. They are contrasting in the association with age; the prevalence of exercise habit is lower and step counts are higher among younger participants. The present study aimed to examine the effects of rapid aging of the Japanese population and the lower participation rate among younger adults on the short-term trend of two indicators of physical activity using tabulated data. The prevalence of exercise habit and step counts by age groups (≥20 years) from 2003 to 2010 were estimated using tabulated data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey by calculating sex-specific means weighted by age-specific Japanese population data for each year (population-weighted estimates) and for a fixed year (2005; age-standardized estimates). Linear regression analyses were used to test the statistical significance of their trends. Statistically significant increasing trends in the prevalence of exercise habit were observed for the crude means (P = 0.029), the population-weighted estimates (P = 0.007) and the age-standardized estimates (P = 0.016) only in men. Statistically significant decreasing trends in the step counts were observed for the crude means (P = 0.006 in men and P = 0.033 in women) and the population-weighted estimates (P = 0.008 in men and P = 0.049 in women) both in men and women, but for the age-standardized estimates (P = 0.039) only in men. The effects of rapid aging of the Japanese population and the lower participation rate among younger adults on the short-term trend are not small, and age-standardization is necessary to observe even the short-term trend of physical activity data. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1677-1682. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  4. A FIRE-ACE/SHEBA Case Study of Mixed-Phase Arctic Boundary Layer Clouds: Entrainment Rate Limitations on Rapid Primary Ice Nucleation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridlin, Ann; vanDiedenhoven, Bastiaan; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Avramov, Alexander; Mrowiec, Agnieszka; Morrison, Hugh; Zuidema, Paquita; Shupe, Matthew D.

    2012-01-01

    Observations of long-lived mixed-phase Arctic boundary layer clouds on 7 May 1998 during the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Regional Experiment (FIRE)Arctic Cloud Experiment (ACE)Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) campaign provide a unique opportunity to test understanding of cloud ice formation. Under the microphysically simple conditions observed (apparently negligible ice aggregation, sublimation, and multiplication), the only expected source of new ice crystals is activation of heterogeneous ice nuclei (IN) and the only sink is sedimentation. Large-eddy simulations with size-resolved microphysics are initialized with IN number concentration N(sub IN) measured above cloud top, but details of IN activation behavior are unknown. If activated rapidly (in deposition, condensation, or immersion modes), as commonly assumed, IN are depleted from the well-mixed boundary layer within minutes. Quasi-equilibrium ice number concentration N(sub i) is then limited to a small fraction of overlying N(sub IN) that is determined by the cloud-top entrainment rate w(sub e) divided by the number-weighted ice fall speed at the surface v(sub f). Because w(sub c) 10 cm/s, N(sub i)/N(sub IN)<< 1. Such conditions may be common for this cloud type, which has implications for modeling IN diagnostically, interpreting measurements, and quantifying sensitivity to increasing N(sub IN) (when w(sub e)/v(sub f)< 1, entrainment rate limitations serve to buffer cloud system response). To reproduce observed ice crystal size distributions and cloud radar reflectivities with rapidly consumed IN in this case, the measured above-cloud N(sub IN) must be multiplied by approximately 30. However, results are sensitive to assumed ice crystal properties not constrained by measurements. In addition, simulations do not reproduce the pronounced mesoscale heterogeneity in radar reflectivity that is observed.

  5. Mandible-Powered Escape Jumps in Trap-Jaw Ants Increase Survival Rates during Predator-Prey Encounters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrick J Larabee

    Full Text Available Animals use a variety of escape mechanisms to increase the probability of surviving predatory attacks. Antipredator defenses can be elaborate, making their evolutionary origin unclear. Trap-jaw ants are known for their rapid and powerful predatory mandible strikes, and some species have been observed to direct those strikes at the substrate, thereby launching themselves into the air away from a potential threat. This potential escape mechanism has never been examined in a natural context. We studied the use of mandible-powered jumping in Odontomachus brunneus during their interactions with a common ant predator: pit-building antlions. We observed that while trap-jaw ant workers escaped from antlion pits by running in about half of interactions, in 15% of interactions they escaped by mandible-powered jumping. To test whether escape jumps improved individual survival, we experimentally prevented workers from jumping and measured their escape rate. Workers with unrestrained mandibles escaped from antlion pits significantly more frequently than workers with restrained mandibles. Our results indicate that some trap-jaw ant species can use mandible-powered jumps to escape from common predators. These results also provide a charismatic example of evolutionary co-option, where a trait that evolved for one function (predation has been co-opted for another (defense.

  6. Mandible-Powered Escape Jumps in Trap-Jaw Ants Increase Survival Rates during Predator-Prey Encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larabee, Fredrick J; Suarez, Andrew V

    2015-01-01

    Animals use a variety of escape mechanisms to increase the probability of surviving predatory attacks. Antipredator defenses can be elaborate, making their evolutionary origin unclear. Trap-jaw ants are known for their rapid and powerful predatory mandible strikes, and some species have been observed to direct those strikes at the substrate, thereby launching themselves into the air away from a potential threat. This potential escape mechanism has never been examined in a natural context. We studied the use of mandible-powered jumping in Odontomachus brunneus during their interactions with a common ant predator: pit-building antlions. We observed that while trap-jaw ant workers escaped from antlion pits by running in about half of interactions, in 15% of interactions they escaped by mandible-powered jumping. To test whether escape jumps improved individual survival, we experimentally prevented workers from jumping and measured their escape rate. Workers with unrestrained mandibles escaped from antlion pits significantly more frequently than workers with restrained mandibles. Our results indicate that some trap-jaw ant species can use mandible-powered jumps to escape from common predators. These results also provide a charismatic example of evolutionary co-option, where a trait that evolved for one function (predation) has been co-opted for another (defense).

  7. Xenon does not increase heart rate-corrected cardiac QT interval in volunteers and in patients free of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukirchen, Martin; Schaefer, Maximilian S; Kern, Carolin; Brett, Sarah; Werdehausen, Robert; Rellecke, Philipp; Reyle-Hahn, Matthias; Kienbaum, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Impaired cardiac repolarization, indicated by prolonged QT interval, may cause critical ventricular arrhythmias. Many anesthetics increase the QT interval by blockade of rapidly acting potassium rectifier channels. Although xenon does not affect these channels in isolated cardiomyocytes, the authors hypothesized that xenon increases the QT interval by direct and/or indirect sympathomimetic effects. Thus, the authors tested the hypothesis that xenon alters the heart rate-corrected cardiac QT (QTc) interval in anesthetic concentrations. The effect of xenon on the QTc interval was evaluated in eight healthy volunteers and in 35 patients undergoing abdominal or trauma surgery. The QTc interval was recorded on subjects in awake state, after their denitrogenation, and during xenon monoanesthesia (FetXe > 0.65). In patients, the QTc interval was recorded while awake, after anesthesia induction with propofol and remifentanil, and during steady state of xenon/remifentanil anesthesia (FetXe > 0.65). The QTc interval was determined from three consecutive cardiac intervals on electrocardiogram printouts in a blinded manner and corrected with Bazett formula. In healthy volunteers, xenon did not alter the QTc interval (mean difference: +0.11 ms [95% CI, -22.4 to 22.7]). In patients, after anesthesia induction with propofol/remifentanil, no alteration of QTc interval was noted. After propofol was replaced with xenon, the QTc interval remained unaffected (417 ± 32 ms vs. awake: 414 ± 25 ms) with a mean difference of 4.4 ms (95% CI, -4.6 to 13.5). Xenon monoanesthesia in healthy volunteers and xenon/remifentanil anesthesia in patients without clinically relevant cardiovascular disease do not increase QTc interval.

  8. Progesterone increases glomerular filtration rate, urinary kallikrein excretion and uric acid clearance in normal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atallah, A N; Guimarães, J A; Gebara, M; Sustovich, D R; Martinez, T R; Camano, L

    1988-01-01

    In pregnancy there is a rise in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), plasma aldosterone levels, uric acid clearance and urinary kallikrein excretion. In toxemia all the above parameters tend to decrease. Progesterone has a diuretic effect which is usually related to aldosterone antagonism. We administered progesterone to normal women and observed that GFR, uric acid clearance and kallikrein excretion increased significantly, GFR from 103.0 +/- 13.7 ml/min to 118.0 +/- 18.0 ml/min (P less than 0.01), uric acid clearance from 9.0 +/- 3.6 ml/min to 14.3 +/- 4.0 ml/min (P less than 0.01), and urinary kallikrein excretion from 165 +/- 156 mU to 432 +/- 220 mU (P less than 0.01). Natriuresis and potassium excretion also increased from 15.9 +/- 6.4 mEq to 33.4 +/- 10.9 mEq (P less than 0.01) and from 7.6 +/- 2.7 mEq to 14.0 +/- 5.4 mEq, (P less than 0.01), respectively, suggesting that in this situation aldosterone antagonism is not relevant to explain the diuretic effects of progesterone.

  9. Increasing flux rate to shorten leaching period and ramp-up production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngantung, Billy; Agustin, Riska; Ravi'i

    2017-01-01

    J Resources Bolaang Mongondow (JBRM) has operated a dynamic heap leach in its Bakan Gold Mine since late 2013. After successfully surpassing its name plate capacity of 2.6 MT/annum in 2014, the clayey and transition ore become the next operational challenge. The presence of transition and clayey ore requires longer leaching period, hence reducing the leach pad capacity which then caused reduced production. Maintaining or even increasing production with such longer leaching ore types can be done by expanding the leach pad area which means an additional capital investment, and/or shortening the leaching cycle which compromise a portion of gold extraction. JBRM has been successfully increasing the leach pad production from 2.6 MT/annum to 3.8 MT/annum, whilst improving the gold extraction from around 70% to around 80%. This was achieved by managing the operation of the leach pad which is shortening the leach cycle by identifying and combining the optimal flux rate application versus the tonne processed in each cell, at no capital investment for expanding the cell capacity.

  10. Reduced baroreflex sensitivity, decreased heart rate variability with increased arterial stiffness in predialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Lal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is observed in predialytic chronic kidney disease (CKD patients. The underlying mechanism of cardiovascular dysfunction often remains unclear. The present study was designed to perform multiparametric assessment of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS, arterial stiffness indices, and cardiovascular variabilities (heart rate variability [HRV] and blood pressure variability [BPV] together in predialytic CKD patients; compare it with normal healthy controls; and determine their relationships in predialytic nondiabetic CKD patients. Thirty CKD Stage 4 and 5 predialytic non-diabetic patients and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. BRS was determined by spontaneous sequence method. Short-term HRV and BPV were assessed using 5 min beat-to-beat data of RR intervals and blood pressure by time domain and frequency domain analysis. Arterial stiffness indices - carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV and augmentation index - were measured using SphygmoCor Vx device (AtCor Medical, Australia. Predialytic CKD patients had significantly low BRS, high PWV, and low HRV as compared to healthy controls. Independent predictors of reduced systolic BRS in predialytic CKD patient group on multiple regression analysis emerged to be increase in calcium-phosphate product, increase in BPV, and decrease in HRV. Predialytic nondiabetic CKD Stage 4 and 5 patients have poor hemodynamic profile (higher PWV, lower HRV, and reduced BRS than healthy controls. Reduced HRV and altered calcium-phosphate homeostasis emerged to be significant independent predictors of reduced BRS.

  11. Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) desensitization increases sea urchin spermatozoa fertilization rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrezan-Nitao, Elis; Boni, Raianna; Marques-Santos, Luis Fernando

    2016-10-01

    Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) is a protein complex whose opening promotes an abrupt increase in mitochondrial inner membrane permeability. Calcium signaling pathways are described in gametes and are involved in the fertilization process. Although mitochondria may act as Ca(2+) store and have a fast calcium-releasing mechanism through MPTP, its contribution to fertilization remains unclear. The work aimed to investigate the MPTP phenomenon in sea urchin spermatozoa and its role on the fertilization. Several pharmacological tools were used to evaluate the MPTP's physiology. Our results demonstrated that MPTP occurs in male gametes in a Ca(2+) - and voltage-dependent manner and it is sensitive to cyclosporine A. Additionally, our data show that MPTP opening does not alter ROS generation in sperm cells. Inhibition of MPTP in spermatozoa strongly improved the fertilization rate, which may involve mechanisms that increase the spermatozoa lifespan. The present work is the first report of the presence of a voltage- and Ca(2+) -dependent MPTP in gametes of invertebrates and indicates MPTP opening as another evolutionary feature shared by sea urchins and mammals. Studies about MPTP in sea urchin male gametes may contribute to the elucidation of several mechanisms involved in sperm infertility. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  12. Increased growth rate of vestibular schwannoma after resection of contralateral tumor in neurofibromatosis type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, Matthieu; Goutagny, Stephane; Imbeaud, Sandrine; Bozorg-Grayeli, Alexis; Felce, Michele; Sterkers, Olivier; Kalamarides, Michel

    2011-10-01

    Surgical management of bilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS) in neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is often difficult, especially when both tumors threaten the brainstem. When the largest tumor has been removed, the management of the contralateral VS may become puzzling. To give new insights into the growth pattern of these tumors and to determine the best time point for treatment (surgery or medical treatment), we studied radiological growth in 11 VS (11 patients with NF2) over a long period (mean duration, 7.6 years), before and after removal of the contralateral tumor while both were threatening the brainstem. We used a quantitative approach of the radiological velocity of diametric expansion (VDE) on consecutive magnetic resonance images. Before first surgery, growth patterns of both tumors were similar in 9 of 11 cases. After the first surgery, VDE of the remaining VS was significantly elevated, compared with the preoperative period (2.5 ± 2.2 vs 4.4 ± 3.4 mm/year; P = .01, by Wilcoxon test). Decrease in hearing function was associated with increased postoperative growth in 3 cases. Growth pattern of coexisting intracranial meningiomas was not modified by VS surgery on the first side. In conclusion, removal of a large VS in a patient with NF2 might induce an increase in the growth rate of the contralateral medium or large VS. This possibility should be integrated in NF2 patient management to adequately treat the second VS.

  13. Testosterone Deficiency Increases Hospital Readmission and Mortality Rates in Male Patients with Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rodrigues dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Testosterone deficiency in patients with heart failure (HF is associated with decreased exercise capacity and mortality; however, its impact on hospital readmission rate is uncertain. Furthermore, the relationship between testosterone deficiency and sympathetic activation is unknown. Objective: We investigated the role of testosterone level on hospital readmission and mortality rates as well as sympathetic nerve activity in patients with HF. Methods: Total testosterone (TT and free testosterone (FT were measured in 110 hospitalized male patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction < 45% and New York Heart Association classification IV. The patients were placed into low testosterone (LT; n = 66 and normal testosterone (NT; n = 44 groups. Hypogonadism was defined as TT < 300 ng/dL and FT < 131 pmol/L. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA was recorded by microneurography in a subpopulation of 27 patients. Results: Length of hospital stay was longer in the LT group compared to in the NT group (37 ± 4 vs. 25 ± 4 days; p = 0.008. Similarly, the cumulative hazard of readmission within 1 year was greater in the LT group compared to in the NT group (44% vs. 22%, p = 0.001. In the single-predictor analysis, TT (hazard ratio [HR], 2.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.58–4.85; p = 0.02 predicted hospital readmission within 90 days. In addition, TT (HR, 4.65; 95% CI, 2.67–8.10; p = 0.009 and readmission within 90 days (HR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.23–8.69; p = 0.02 predicted increased mortality. Neurohumoral activation, as estimated by MSNA, was significantly higher in the LT group compared to in the NT group (65 ± 3 vs. 51 ± 4 bursts/100 heart beats; p < 0.001. Conclusion: These results support the concept that LT is an independent risk factor for hospital readmission within 90 days and increased mortality in patients with HF. Furthermore, increased MSNA was observed in patients with LT.

  14. Testosterone Deficiency Increases Hospital Readmission and Mortality Rates in Male Patients with Heart Failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Marcelo Rodrigues dos; Sayegh, Ana Luiza Carrari; Groehs, Raphaela Vilar Ramalho; Fonseca, Guilherme [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Trombetta, Ivani Credidio [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE) (Brazil); Barretto, Antônio Carlos Pereira [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Arap, Marco Antônio [Faculdade de medicina da Universidade de São Paulo - Urologia (Brazil); Negrão, Carlos Eduardo [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Escola de Educação Física e Esporte da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Middlekauff, Holly R. [Division of Cardiology - David Geffen School of Medicine - University of California (United States); Alves, Maria-Janieire de Nazaré Nunes, E-mail: janieire.alves@incor.usp.br [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    Testosterone deficiency in patients with heart failure (HF) is associated with decreased exercise capacity and mortality; however, its impact on hospital readmission rate is uncertain. Furthermore, the relationship between testosterone deficiency and sympathetic activation is unknown. We investigated the role of testosterone level on hospital readmission and mortality rates as well as sympathetic nerve activity in patients with HF. Total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) were measured in 110 hospitalized male patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction < 45% and New York Heart Association classification IV. The patients were placed into low testosterone (LT; n = 66) and normal testosterone (NT; n = 44) groups. Hypogonadism was defined as TT < 300 ng/dL and FT < 131 pmol/L. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was recorded by microneurography in a subpopulation of 27 patients. Length of hospital stay was longer in the LT group compared to in the NT group (37 ± 4 vs. 25 ± 4 days; p = 0.008). Similarly, the cumulative hazard of readmission within 1 year was greater in the LT group compared to in the NT group (44% vs. 22%, p = 0.001). In the single-predictor analysis, TT (hazard ratio [HR], 2.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.58–4.85; p = 0.02) predicted hospital readmission within 90 days. In addition, TT (HR, 4.65; 95% CI, 2.67–8.10; p = 0.009) and readmission within 90 days (HR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.23–8.69; p = 0.02) predicted increased mortality. Neurohumoral activation, as estimated by MSNA, was significantly higher in the LT group compared to in the NT group (65 ± 3 vs. 51 ± 4 bursts/100 heart beats; p < 0.001). These results support the concept that LT is an independent risk factor for hospital readmission within 90 days and increased mortality in patients with HF. Furthermore, increased MSNA was observed in patients with LT.

  15. Adding ofloxacin to standard triple-drug regimens increased the Helicobacter pylori eradication rate: Data from randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Hadad-Zavareh, Mahmoud; Mohammadi, Seyyedsaeid; Hajiahmadi, Mahmoud; Javanian, Mostafa; Habibian, Masoomeh

    2017-01-01

    The rate of Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) eradication in dyspeptic patients using bismuth- based triple therapy is low due to bacterial that are resistant to antibiotics. The results of recent studies regarding levofloxacin have been encouraging, but the high cost of treatment prevents its routine administration. We, therefore, performed the present double-blind clinical trial to compare the efficiency of quadruple-drug regimen containing ofloxacin, clarithromycin, amoxicillin, and omeprazole and the same standard triple-therapy regimen minus ofloxacin in H. pylori positive dyspepsia. The study patients were recruited among dyspeptic patients requiring gastroscopy. Patients with the history of H.pylori treatment, renal failure and pregnancy were excluded. Diagnosis of H.pylori infection was confirmed by rapid urease test and response to treatment was confirmed via negative urease breath test (UBT) 20 days after completion of treatment. Patients were allocated intermittently to standard triple therapy containing amoxicillin, clarithromycin, omeprazole alone or plus ofloxacin for ten days. Response to treatment was compared between the two groups. A total of 140 patients entered the study (70 patients in each group). At endpoint 30 (42.9%) patients of group 1 and 39 (55.7%) patients of group 2 became asymptomatic. Furthermore, 55 (78.6%) patients of group 1 and 66 (94.3%) patients of group 2 revealed negative urea breath test (P= 0.01). This study indicates adding ofloxacin to standard triple-therapy for H.pylorri infection significantly increases the rate of eradication. These findings highlight ofloxacin as empiric treatment of H. pylori infection.

  16. Blood Outgrowth Endothelial Cells Increase Tumor Growth Rates and Modify Tumor Physiology: Relevance for Therapeutic Targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpna Gupta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial cell precursors from human peripheral blood have been shown to home to areas of neovascularization and may assist tumor growth by increasing or fortifying blood vessel growth. In the present study, the influence of these cells on tumor growth and physiology was investigated and the role of these cells as a therapeutic target or in determining treatment sensitivity was tested. After isolation from human blood and expansion in vitro, actively growing cells with verified endothelial phenotype (Blood Outgrowth Endothelial Cell, BOEC were injected i.v. into tumor bearing mice for three consecutive days. The growth rate was significantly enhanced in relatively small RERF human lung tumors (i.e., less than 150 mm3 grown in immunocompromised mice by an average of 1.5-fold while it had no effect when injections were given to animals bearing larger tumors. There were no signs of toxicity or unwanted systemic effects. We also observed evidence of increased perfusion, vessel number, response to 15 Gy radiation and oxygenation in RERF tumors of animals injected with BOECs compared to control tumors. In addition, FSaII murine fibrosarcoma tumors were found to grow faster upon injection of BOECs. When FSaII tumors were subjected to a partial thermal ablation treatment using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU there was consistently elevated detection of fluorescently labeled and i.v. injected endothelial precursors in the tumor when analyzed with optical imaging and/or histological preparations. Importantly, we also observed that BOECs treated with the novel anti-angiogenic peptide anginex in-vitro, show decreased proliferation and increased sensitivity to radiation. In vivo, the normal increase in FSaII tumor growth induced by injected BOECs was blunted by the addition of anginex treatment. It appears that endothelial precursors may significantly contribute to tumor vessel growth, tumor progression and/or repair of tumor damage and may improve

  17. Blood Outgrowth Endothelial Cells Increase Tumor Growth Rates and Modify Tumor Physiology: Relevance for Therapeutic Targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagan, Jonathan, E-mail: jdpagan@uams.edu; Przybyla, Beata; Jamshidi-Parsian, Azemat [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham Street, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Gupta, Kalpna [Vascular Biology Center and Division of Hematology-Oncology Transplantation, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, MN 72223 (United States); Griffin, Robert J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham Street, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2013-02-18

    Endothelial cell precursors from human peripheral blood have been shown to home to areas of neovascularization and may assist tumor growth by increasing or fortifying blood vessel growth. In the present study, the influence of these cells on tumor growth and physiology was investigated and the role of these cells as a therapeutic target or in determining treatment sensitivity was tested. After isolation from human blood and expansion in vitro, actively growing cells with verified endothelial phenotype (Blood Outgrowth Endothelial Cell, BOEC) were injected i.v. into tumor bearing mice for three consecutive days. The growth rate was significantly enhanced in relatively small RERF human lung tumors (i.e., less than 150 mm{sup 3}) grown in immunocompromised mice by an average of 1.5-fold while it had no effect when injections were given to animals bearing larger tumors. There were no signs of toxicity or unwanted systemic effects. We also observed evidence of increased perfusion, vessel number, response to 15 Gy radiation and oxygenation in RERF tumors of animals injected with BOECs compared to control tumors. In addition, FSaII murine fibrosarcoma tumors were found to grow faster upon injection of BOECs. When FSaII tumors were subjected to a partial thermal ablation treatment using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) there was consistently elevated detection of fluorescently labeled and i.v. injected endothelial precursors in the tumor when analyzed with optical imaging and/or histological preparations. Importantly, we also observed that BOECs treated with the novel anti-angiogenic peptide anginex in-vitro, show decreased proliferation and increased sensitivity to radiation. In vivo, the normal increase in FSaII tumor growth induced by injected BOECs was blunted by the addition of anginex treatment. It appears that endothelial precursors may significantly contribute to tumor vessel growth, tumor progression and/or repair of tumor damage and may improve the

  18. Increased coronary intervention rate among diabetic patients with poor glycaemic control: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Süha; Öztürk, Mehmet Akif; Barındık, Nadir; İmren, Ersin; Peker, Yüksel

    2014-02-01

    The relationship between glycaemic control and coronary artery disease (CAD) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is controversial. In the current cross-sectional study, we addressed the relationship between Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values and the need for revascularization among diabetic patients undergoing coronary angiography. A total of 301 consecutive patients with known T2DM (age 61.8±10.1 years, 46.2 % women) requiring coronary angiography due to CAD symptoms were included. T2DM patients were categorized into two groups based on their HbA1c values: 93 (30.9%) diabetics with good glycaemic control (HbA1c≤7 %), and 208 (69.1%) diabetics with poor glycaemic control (HbA1c>7 %). A total of 123 patients (40.9%) required revascularization. The revascularization rate was 28.0% among T2DM patients with good glycaemic control and 46.6% among T2DM patients with poor glycaemic control, respectively (p=0.002). In a logistic regression analysis, the need for revascularization was predicted by poor glycaemic control (Odds Ratio [OR] 2.26, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.32-3.82; p=0.003) adjusted for age, gender, Body-Mass-Index and diabetes duration. Moreover, there was a linear relationship between HbA1c values and number of affected coronary arteries (r= 0.169; p=0.003). Our data suggest that there is a close association between poor glycaemic control and increased revascularization rate in T2DM, which should be considered in primary and secondary prevention models.

  19. High temperature increases the masculinization rate of the all-female (XX rainbow trout "Mal" population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Valdivia

    Full Text Available Salmonids are generally considered to have a robust genetic sex determination system with a simple male heterogamety (XX/XY. However, spontaneous masculinization of XX females has been found in a rainbow trout population of gynogenetic doubled haploid individuals. The analysis of this masculinization phenotype transmission supported the hypothesis of the involvement of a recessive mutation (termed mal. As temperature effect on sex differentiation has been reported in some salmonid species, in this study we investigated in detail the potential implication of temperature on masculinization in this XX mal-carrying population. Seven families issued from XX mal-carrying parents were exposed from the time of hatching to different rearing water temperatures ((8, 12 and 18°C, and the resulting sex-ratios were confirmed by histological analysis of both gonads. Our results demonstrate that masculinization rates are strongly increased (up to nearly two fold at the highest temperature treatment (18°C. Interestingly, we also found clear differences between temperatures on the masculinization of the left versus the right gonads with the right gonad consistently more often masculinized than the left one at lower temperatures (8 and 12°C. However, the masculinization rate is also strongly dependent on the genetic background of the XX mal-carrying families. Thus, masculinization in XX mal-carrying rainbow trout is potentially triggered by an interaction between the temperature treatment and a complex genetic background potentially involving some part of the genetic sex differentiation regulatory cascade along with some minor sex-influencing loci. These results indicate that despite its rather strict genetic sex determinism system, rainbow trout sex differentiation can be modulated by temperature, as described in many other fish species.

  20. Parathyroidectomy Increases Heart Rate Variability and Leptin Levels in Patients with Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yao; Shen, Zhixiang; Zhang, Jingjing; Xing, Changying; Zha, Xiaoming; Shen, Chong; Zeng, Ming; Yang, Guang; Mao, Huijuan; Zhang, Bo; Yu, Xiangbao; Sun, Bin; Ouyang, Chun; Ge, Yifei; Zhang, Lina; Cheng, Chen; Zhang, Jing; Yin, Caixia; Chen, Huimin; Wang, Ningning

    2016-01-01

    In chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, decreased heart rate variability (HRV) reflects impaired cardiac automatic nervous function and high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Lower HRV in patients with severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), a clinical manifestation of CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD), could be reversed by parathyroidectomy (PTX). It has been proved that leptin interacts with the autonomic nervous function. However, the associations between leptin and HRV in CKD patients and their longitudinal changes in SHPT patients after PTX are still unknown. This was a cross-sectional study including 141 stage 5 CKD patients, and a prospective study in 36 severe SHPT patients with PTX. HRV was measured by Holter and serum leptin was measured by ELISA. Serum leptin levels were adjusted for body mass index (BMI) and transformed using natural logarithm (lnleptin/BMI). With a gradient of lnleptin/BMI across quartiles from Q1 to Q4 in CKD patients, HRV indices showed no differences among quartiles. Patients in Q1 group had higher mean 24 h heart rates, and lower ln(very low frequency) (lnVLF) than other quartiles, although there were no statistically significant difference. In multivariate stepwise regression, serum leptin/BMI was an independent predictor for low frequency/high frequency. HRV indices and lnleptin/BMI levels were increased in severe SHPT patients after PTX. Compared to other quartiles, SHPT patients in Q1 group had larger improvement of lnVLF after PTX. Circulating leptin levels may be a novel treatment target to reduce CVD risk in advanced CKD-MBD patients. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Achieving rapid Li-ion insertion kinetics in TiO2 mesoporous nanotube arrays for bifunctional high-rate energy storage smart windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zhongqiu; Liu, Shikun; Li, Xingang; Mai, Liqiang; Zhao, Jiupeng; Li, Yao

    2018-01-31

    Smart electrochromic windows integrated with electrochemical energy storage capacity are receiving increasing interest for green buildings. However, the fabrication of bifunctional devices that demonstrate high-rate capability with stable and desirable optical modulation still remains a great challenge. Herein, a facile sacrificial template-accelerated hydrolysis approach is presented to prepare a designed lithium-ion insertion-type material layer on a fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate, with TiO2 mesoporous nanotube array (MNTA) film as an example, with rapid Li-ion insertion kinetics and without sacrificing window transparency, to meet requirements. A bifunctional device is assembled to exhibit the optical-electrochemical superiority of MNTA nanostructures. The as-assembled bifunctional smart window exhibits strong electrochromic contrast and high-rate capability in the fast galvanostatic charge/discharge process. For instance, at 1 A g-1, it completes the charge or discharge process within only 232 s and delivers a high, reversible and stable specific capacity of 60 mA h g-1, accompanying obvious transmittance modulation in the visible spectrum, with a typical value of ca. 30.4% at 700 nm, and strong color changes between deep blue and transparency.

  2. River chloride trends in snow-affected urban watersheds: increasing concentrations outpace urban growth rate and are common among all seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Steven R.; De Cicco, Laura A.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Hirsch, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Chloride concentrations in northern U.S. included in this study have increased substantially over time with average concentrations approximately doubling from 1990 to 2011, outpacing the rate of urbanization in the northern U.S. Historical data were examined for 30 monitoring sites on 19 streams that had chloride concentration and flow records of 18 to 49 years. Chloride concentrations in most studied streams increased in all seasons (13 of 19 in all seasons; 16 of 19 during winter); maximum concentrations occurred during winter. Increasing concentrations during non-deicing periods suggest that chloride was stored in hydrologic reservoirs, such as the shallow groundwater system, during the winter and slowly released in baseflow throughout the year. Streamflow dependency was also observed with chloride concentrations increasing as streamflow decreased, a result of dilution during rainfall- and snowmelt-induced high-flow periods. The influence of chloride on aquatic life increased with time; 29% of sites studied exceeded the concentration for the USEPA chronic water quality criteria of 230 mg/L by an average of more than 100 individual days per year during 2006–2011. The rapid rate of chloride concentration increase in these streams is likely due to a combination of possible increased road salt application rates, increased baseline concentrations, and greater snowfall in the Midwestern U.S. during the latter portion of the study period.

  3. Selective Heart Rate Reduction With Ivabradine Increases Central Blood Pressure in Stable Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Stefano F; Messerli, Franz H; Cerny, David; Gloekler, Steffen; Traupe, Tobias; Laurent, Stéphane; Seiler, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Heart rate (HR) lowering by β-blockade was shown to be beneficial after myocardial infarction. In contrast, HR lowering with ivabradine was found to confer no benefits in 2 prospective randomized trials in patients with coronary artery disease. We hypothesized that this inefficacy could be in part related to ivabradine's effect on central (aortic) pressure. Our study included 46 patients with chronic stable coronary artery disease who were randomly allocated to placebo (n=23) or ivabradine (n=23) in a single-blinded fashion for 6 months. Concomitant baseline medication was continued unchanged throughout the study except for β-blockers, which were stopped during the study period. Central blood pressure and stroke volume were measured directly by left heart catheterization at baseline and after 6 months. For the determination of resting HR at baseline and at follow-up, 24-hour ECG monitoring was performed. Patients on ivabradine showed an increase of 11 mm Hg in central systolic pressure from 129±22 mm Hg to 140±26 mm Hg (P=0.02) and in stroke volume by 86±21.8 to 107.2±30.0 mL (P=0.002). In the placebo group, central systolic pressure and stroke volume remained unchanged. Estimates of myocardial oxygen consumption (HR×systolic pressure and time-tension index) remained unchanged with ivabradine.The decrease in HR from baseline to follow-up correlated with the concomitant increase in central systolic pressure (r=-0.41, P=0.009) and in stroke volume (r=-0.61, Pcoronary artery disease patients. CLINICAL TRIALSURL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier NCT01039389. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Botulinum toxin and blink rate in patients with blepharospasm and increased blinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrazzano, Gina; Conte, Antonella; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Bologna, Matteo; Macerollo, Antonella; Defazio, Giovanni; Hallett, Mark; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of botulinum toxin (BoNT) on blink rate (BR) in patients with blepharospasm (BSP) and increased blinking (IB). 37 patients with a clinical diagnosis of primary BSP (19 patients had tonic orbicularis oculi (OO) spasms and 18 patients had clonic OO spasms) and 8 patients with IB were included in this case-control study. All subjects underwent a standardised video protocol and clinical evaluation with a validated questionnaire designed to identify eye symptoms and Blepharospasm Disability Index (BSDI) before and 1 month after BoNT injection. BR was measured from the video recording before and after BoNT. BR in BSP and IB patients was compared with that from a group of healthy subjects and from a group of patients with hemifacial spasm (HFS). BR in HFS was also measured before and after BoNT. BR was increased in patients with IB and in BSP patients with clonic spasms but not in BSP patients with tonic spasms. BoNT reduced BR in patients with IB and in patients with clonic spasms, but not in patients with tonic spasms. BoNT left BR in patients with HFS unchanged. Changes in BR after BoNT were also independent of the presence of ocular symptoms. Despite the differential response of BR, BoNT significantly reduced BSDI in patients with BSP and IB. BoNT differentially modulates BR in patients with BSP and IB depending on the baseline BR. BoNT injection reduces BR only when the blink generator is overactive, possibly influencing tear film retention. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Bone fracture nonunion rate decreases with increasing age: A prospective inception cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zura, Robert; Braid-Forbes, Mary Jo; Jeray, Kyle; Mehta, Samir; Einhorn, Thomas A; Watson, J Tracy; Della Rocca, Gregory J; Forbes, Kevin; Steen, R Grant

    2017-02-01

    Fracture nonunion risk is related to severity of injury and type of treatment, yet fracture healing is not fully explained by these factors alone. We hypothesize that patient demographic factors assessable by the clinician at fracture presentation can predict nonunion. A prospective cohort study design was used to examine ~2.5 million Medicare patients nationwide. Patients making fracture claims in the 5% Medicare Standard Analytic Files in 2011 were analyzed; continuous enrollment for 12months after fracture was required to capture the ICD-9-CM nonunion diagnosis code (733.82) or any procedure codes for nonunion repair. A stepwise regression analysis was used which dropped variables from analysis if they did not contribute sufficient explanatory power. In-sample predictive accuracy was assessed using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve approach, and an out-of-sample comparison was drawn from the 2012 Medicare 5% SAF files. Overall, 47,437 Medicare patients had 56,492 fractures and 2.5% of fractures were nonunion. Patients with healed fracture (age 75.0±12.7SD) were older (pfracture patients had an age- and sex-adjusted death rate of 11.0% (pfracture in 14 of 18 bones were significantly more likely to die within one year of fracture (pFracture was associated with increased risk of death within 1year of fracture (pfracture is a major public health issue. Comorbidities associated with increased risk of nonunion include past or current smoking, alcoholism, obesity or morbid obesity, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, type II diabetes, and/or open fracture (all, multivariate p<0.001). Nonunion prediction requires knowledge of 26 patient variables but predictive accuracy is currently comparable to the Framingham cardiovascular risk prediction. Copyright © 2016 Bioventus LLC. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Predictive spelling with a P300-based brain-computer interface: Increasing the rate of communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, D.B.; Frye, G.E.; Townsend, G.; Berry, D.R.; Mesa-G, S.; Gates, N.A.; Sellers, E.W.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared a conventional P300 speller brain-computer interface (BCI) to one used in conjunction with a predictive spelling program. Performance differences in accuracy, bit rate, selections per minute, and output characters per minute (OCM) were examined. An 8×9 matrix of letters, numbers, and other keyboard commands was used. Participants (n = 24) were required to correctly complete the same 58 character sentence (i.e., correcting for errors) using the predictive speller (PS) and the non-predictive speller (NS), counterbalanced. The PS produced significantly higher OCMs than the NS. Time to complete the task in the PS condition was 12min 43sec as compared to 20min 20sec in the NS condition. Despite the marked improvement in overall output, accuracy was significantly higher in the NS paradigm. P300 amplitudes were significantly larger in the NS than in the PS paradigm; which is attributed to increased workload and task demands. These results demonstrate the potential efficacy of predictive spelling in the context of BCI. PMID:21278858

  7. A second defibrillator chest patch electrode will increase implantation rates for nonthoracotomy defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, A J; Swartz, J F; Rodak, D J; Moore, H J; Hannan, R L; Tracy, C M; Fletcher, R D

    1996-09-01

    Nonthoracotomy defibrillator systems can be implanted with a lower morbidity and mortality, compared to epicardial systems. However, implantation may be unsuccessful in up to 15% of patients, using a monophasic waveform. It was the purpose of this study to prospectively examine the efficacy of a second chest patch electrode in a nonthoracotomy defibrillator system. Fourteen patients (mean age 62 +/- 11 years, ejection fraction = 0.29 +/- 0.12) with elevated defibrillation thresholds, defined as > or = 24 J, were studied. The initial lead system consisted of a right ventricular electrode (cathode), a left innominate vein, and subscapular chest patch electrode (anodes). If the initial defibrillation threshold was > or = 24 J, a second chest patch electrode was added. This was placed subcutaneously in the anterior chest (8 cases), or submuscularly in the subscapular space (6 cases). This resulted in a decrease in the system impedance at the defibrillation threshold, from 72.3 +/- 13.3 omega to 52.2 +/- 8.6 omega. Additionally, the defibrillation threshold decreased from > or = 24 J, with a single patch, to 16.6 +/- 2.8 J with two patches. These changes were associated with successful implantation of a nonthoracotomy defibrillator system in all cases. In conclusion, the addition of a second chest patch electrode (using a subscapular approach) will result in lower defibrillation thresholds in patients with high defibrillation thresholds, and will subsequently increase implantation rates for nonthoracotomy defibrillators.

  8. Lithium reverses increased rates of cerebral protein synthesis in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong-Hua; Huang, Tianjian; Smith, Carolyn Beebe

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS), an inherited form of cognitive disability, have a wide range of symptoms including hyperactivity, autistic behavior, seizures and learning deficits. FXS is caused by silencing of FMR1 and the consequent absence of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP is an RNA-binding protein that associates with polyribosomes and negatively regulates translation. In a previous study of a mouse model of FXS (Fmr1 knockout (KO)) we demonstrated that in vivo rates of cerebral protein synthesis (rCPS) were elevated in selective brain regions suggesting that the absence of FMRP in FXS may result in dysregulation of cerebral protein synthesis. Lithium, a drug used clinically to treat bipolar disorder, has been used to improve mood dysregulation in individuals with FXS. We reported previously that in the Fmr1 KO mouse chronic dietary lithium treatment reversed or ameliorated both behavioral and morphological abnormalities. Herein we report that chronic dietary lithium treatment reversed the increased rCPS in Fmr1 KO mice with little effect on wild type mice. We also report our results of analyses of key signaling molecules involved in regulation of mRNA translation. Our analyses indicate that neither effects on the PI3K/Akt nor the MAPK/ERK 1/2 pathway fully account for the effects of lithium treatment on rCPS. Collectively our findings and those from other laboratories on the efficacy of lithium treatment in animal models support further studies in patients with FXS. PMID:22227453

  9. Assessment of increased sampling pump flow rates in a disposable, inhalable aerosol sampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Justin; Sleeth, Darrah K; Handy, Rod G; Pahler, Leon F; Anthony, T Renee; Volckens, John

    2017-03-01

    A newly designed, low-cost, disposable inhalable aerosol sampler was developed to assess workers personal exposure to inhalable particles. This sampler was originally designed to operate at 10 L/min to increase sample mass and, therefore, improve analytical detection limits for filter-based methods. Computational fluid dynamics modeling revealed that sampler performance (relative to aerosol inhalability criteria) would not differ substantially at sampler flows of 2 and 10 L/min. With this in mind, the newly designed inhalable aerosol sampler was tested in a wind tunnel, simultaneously, at flows of 2 and 10 L/min flow. A mannequin was equipped with 6 sampler/pump assemblies (three pumps operated at 2 L/min and three pumps at 10 L/min) inside a wind tunnel, operated at 0.2 m/s, which has been shown to be a typical indoor workplace wind speed. In separate tests, four different particle sizes were injected to determine if the sampler's performance with the new 10 L/min flow rate significantly differed to that at 2 L/min. A comparison between inhalable mass concentrations using a Wilcoxon signed rank test found no significant difference in the concentration of particles sampled at 10 and 2 L/min for all particle sizes tested. Our results suggest that this new aerosol sampler is a versatile tool that can improve exposure assessment capabilities for the practicing industrial hygienist by improving the limit of detection and allowing for shorting sampling times.

  10. The paradox of declining fertility but increasing twinning rates with advancing maternal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemsterboer, S N; Homburg, R; Gorter, N A; Schats, R; Hompes, P G A; Lambalk, C B

    2006-06-01

    Advancing female age is associated with declining fertility potential due to decreasing numbers and quality of oocytes but also with a distinct increase in dizygotic twinning rates, a phenomenon that has never been explained. An analysis of follicle development was made in 959 spontaneous ovulatory cycles of 507 women. Multiple ovarian follicular development (>1 follicle >14 mm) and, by implication, multiple rather than single ovulations occurred in 105 women whose mean age (36.1 versus 34.6 years) and mean basal FSH concentrations (10.3 versus 7.7 IU/l) were significantly greater than those with monofollicular development (P twinning must be associated with the development of >1 large follicle, which we found to be a significantly more frequent occurrence in older women. It is hypothesized that the response of pituitary release of FSH to the decreased negative feedback induced by impending ovarian failure often 'overshoots', causing multiple follicular development. In the presence of two good-quality oocytes, a twin pregnancy may result.

  11. Increased extracellular collagen matrix in myocardial sleeves of pulmonary veins: an additional mechanism facilitating repetitive rapid activities in chronic pacing-induced sustained atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yung-Tsung; Wu, Tsu-Juey; Wei, Hao-Ji; Cheng, Ching-Chang; Lin, Nai-Nu; Chen, Ying-Tsung; Ting, Chih-Tai

    2005-07-01

    Increased ECM in canine PVs. Cell uncoupling due to fibrosis or increased extracellular collagen matrix (ECM) affects the formation of ectopic focal activity. Whether or not the increase of ECM also exists in the pulmonary veins (PVs) with rapid atrial pacing is unknown. We sought to test the hypothesis that in chronic atrial pacing dogs with sustained atrial fibrillation (AF), the amount of ECM was increased in both atria and the PVs. We induced sustained AF in dogs by rapid atrial pacing. Computerized mapping techniques were used to map both atria and the PVs. We also used histological assessment to quantify the amount of ECM. After 118+/-24 days of rapid atrial pacing, sustained AF was induced in 7 dogs. Repetitive rapid activities (RRAs) either continuously or intermittently arose from the PVs during sustained AF. Histological study shows that there was no fibrosis in both atrial free walls and the PVs. However, the amount of ECM was increased in these regions. The mean ECM surface area fraction at each region in the dogs with sustained AF was all significantly higher compared to the corresponding region in normal dogs. Similarly, the heterogeneity of the ECM surface area fraction at each region in the dogs with sustained AF was also all significantly higher compared to normal dogs. In chronic atrial pacing-induced sustained AF, structural remodeling (i.e., inhomogeneous increase of ECM) also involves the PVs. Reduced coupling of the myocytes in the PV due to histological changes may provide an additional mechanism facilitating RRAs.

  12. Improved meal presentation increases food intake and decreases readmission rate in hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Daniela Abigail; Boaz, Mona; Krause, Ilan; Elis, Avishay; Chernov, Karina; Giabra, Mursi; Levy, Miriam; Giboreau, Agnes; Kosak, Sigrid; Mouhieddine, Mohamed; Singer, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    .5%. Improvement of meal presentation at a hospital setting can increase food intake, reduce waste food substantially and reduce readmission rate to hospital. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid monitoring of iron-chelating therapy in thalassemia major by a new cardiovascular MR measure: the reduced transverse relaxation rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Jensen, Jens H.; Wu, Ed X.; Feng, Li; Au, Wing-Yan; Cheung, Jerry S.; Ha, Shau-Yin; Sheth, Sujit S.; Brittenham, Gary M.

    2011-01-01

    In iron overload, almost all the excess iron is stored intracellularly as rapidly mobilizable ferritin iron and slowly exchangeable hemosiderin iron. Increases in cytosolic iron may produce oxidative damage that ultimately results in cardiomyocyte dysfunction. Because intracellular ferritin iron is evidently in equilibrium with the low-molecular-weight cytosolic iron pool, measurements of ferritin iron potentially provide a clinically useful indicator of changes in cytosolic iron. The cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) index of cardiac iron used clinically, the effective transverse relaxation rate (R2*), is principally influenced by hemosiderin iron and changes only slowly over several months, even with intensive iron-chelating therapy. Another conventional CMR index of cardiac iron, the transverse relaxation rate (R2), is sensitive to both hemosiderin iron and ferritin iron. We have developed a new MRI measure, the ‘reduced transverse relaxation rate’ (RR2), and have proposed in previous studies that this measure is primarily sensitive to ferritin iron and largely independent of hemosiderin iron in phantoms mimicking ferritin iron and human liver explants. We hypothesized that RR2 could detect changes produced by 1 week of iron-chelating therapy in patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia. We imaged 10 patients with thalassemia major at 1.5 T in mid-ventricular short-axis planes of the heart, initially after suspending iron-chelating therapy for 1 week and subsequently after resuming oral deferasirox. After resuming iron-chelating therapy, significant decreases were observed in the mean myocardial RR2 (7.8%, p 0.90). Although the difference between changes in RR2 and R2 was not significant (p > 0.3), RR2 was consistently more sensitive than R2 (and R2*) to the resumption of iron-chelating therapy, as judged by the effect sizes of relaxation rate differences detected. Although further studies are needed, myocardial RR2 may be a promising

  14. Live, video-rate super-resolution microscopy using structured illumination and rapid GPU-based parallel processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefman, Jonathan; Scott, Keana; Stranick, Stephan

    2011-04-01

    Structured illumination fluorescence microscopy is a powerful super-resolution method that is capable of achieving a resolution below 100 nm. Each super-resolution image is computationally constructed from a set of differentially illuminated images. However, real-time application of structured illumination microscopy (SIM) has generally been limited due to the computational overhead needed to generate super-resolution images. Here, we have developed a real-time SIM system that incorporates graphic processing unit (GPU) based in-line parallel processing of raw/differentially illuminated images. By using GPU processing, the system has achieved a 90-fold increase in processing speed compared to performing equivalent operations on a multiprocessor computer--the total throughput of the system is limited by data acquisition speed, but not by image processing. Overall, more than 350 raw images (16-bit depth, 512 × 512 pixels) can be processed per second, resulting in a maximum frame rate of 39 super-resolution images per second. This ultrafast processing capability is used to provide immediate feedback of super-resolution images for real-time display. These developments are increasing the potential for sophisticated super-resolution imaging applications.

  15. A revised mineral nutrient supplement increases biomass and growth rate in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropat, Janette; Hong-Hermesdorf, Anne; Casero, David; Ent, Petr; Castruita, Madeli; Pellegrini, Matteo; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Malasarn, Davin

    2011-06-01

    Interest in exploiting algae as a biofuel source and the role of inorganic nutrient deficiency in inducing triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation in cells necessitates a strategy to efficiently formulate species-specific culture media that can easily be manipulated. Using the reference organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we tested the hypothesis that modeling trace element supplements after the cellular ionome would result in optimized cell growth. We determined the trace metal content of several commonly used Chlamydomonas strains in various culture conditions and developed a revised trace element solution to parallel these measurements. Comparison of cells growing in the revised supplement versus a traditional trace element solution revealed faster growth rates and higher maximum cell densities with the revised recipe. RNA-seq analysis of cultures growing in the traditional versus revised medium suggest that the variation in transcriptomes was smaller than that found between different wild-type strains grown in traditional Hutner's supplement. Visual observation did not reveal defects in cell motility or mating efficiency in the new supplement. Ni²⁺-inducible expression from the CYC6 promoter remained a useful tool, albeit with an increased requirement for Ni²⁺ because of the introduction of an EDTA buffer system in the revised medium. Other advantages include more facile preparation of trace element stock solutions, a reduction in total chemical use, a more consistent batch-to-batch formulation and long-term stability (tested up to 5 years). Under the new growth regime, we analyzed cells growing under different macro- and micronutrient deficiencies. TAG accumulation in N deficiency is comparable in the new medium. Fe and Zn deficiency also induced TAG accumulation, as suggested by Nile Red staining. This approach can be used to efficiently optimize culture conditions for other algal species to improve growth and to assay cell physiology. © 2011 The Authors

  16. Acid suppression increases rates of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal injury in the presence of duodenal reflux.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: The contribution of gastric acid to the toxicity of alkaline duodenal refluxate on the esophageal mucosa is unclear. This study compared the effect of duodenal refluxate when acid was present, decreased by proton pump inhibitors (PPI), or absent. METHODS: We randomized 136 Sprague-Dawley rats into 4 groups: group 1 (n = 33) were controls; group 2 (n = 34) underwent esophagoduodenostomy promoting "combined reflux"; group 3 (n = 34) underwent esophagoduodenostomy and PPI treatment to decrease acid reflux; and group 4, the \\'gastrectomy\\' group (n = 35) underwent esophagoduodenostomy and total gastrectomy to eliminate acid in the refluxate. Esophaguses were examined for inflammatory, Barrett\\'s, and other histologic changes, and expression of proliferative markers Ki-67, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). RESULTS: In all reflux groups, the incidence of Barrett\\'s mucosa was greater when acid was suppressed (group C, 62%; group D, 71%) than when not suppressed (group B, 27%; P = 0.004 and P < .001). Erosions were more frequent in the PPI and gastrectomy groups than in the combined reflux group. Edema (wet weight) and ulceration was more frequent in the gastrectomy than in the combined reflux group. Acute inflammatory changes were infrequent in the PPI group (8%) compared with the combined reflux (94%) or gastrectomy (100%) groups, but chronic inflammation persisted in 100% of the PPI group. EGFR levels were greater in the PPI compared with the combined reflux group (P = .04). Ki-67, PCNA, and combined marker scores were greater in the gastrectomy compared with the combined reflux group (P = .006, P = .14, and P < .001). CONCLUSION: Gastric acid suppression in the presence of duodenal refluxate caused increased rates of inflammatory changes, intestinal metaplasia, and molecular proliferative activity. PPIs suppressed acute inflammatory changes only, whereas chronic inflammatory changes persisted.

  17. Increased Baseline Proinflammatory Cytokine Production in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients with Rapid Virological Response to Peginterferon Plus Ribavirin

    OpenAIRE

    Par, Gabriella; Szereday, Laszlo; Berki, Timea; et al.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients achieving rapid virological response (RVR) on PEG-IFN/ribavirin (P/R) therapy have high chance of sustained virological response (SVR). To analyze host immunological factors associated with RVR, viral kinetics, phenotype distribution and Th1/Th2 cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were studied prior to and during P/R therapy. METHODS: TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-10 production by PBMC were measured after Toll...

  18. 5 CFR 530.306 - Evaluating agency requests for new or increased special rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... degree to which an agency has considered and used other available pay flexibilities to alleviate staffing... and recruitment, relocation, and retention incentives under 5 CFR part 575; (7) The degree to which an...; and (9) The level of non-Federal rates paid for comparable positions. Data on non-Federal salary rates...

  19. Tactics to Increase Course Evaluation Response Rates: A Comparison of Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacek, Laura

    2015-01-01

    When an institution decides to move to online teaching evaluations, they often face concerns that their response rates will fall with the change. This fear need never come to pass, however. There are many interventions that can raise response rates. Good communication strategies, improved student and faculty engagement, and grade hold are just a…

  20. Decreased nighttime heart rate variability is associated with increased stroke risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binici, Zeynep; Mouridsen, Mette Rauhe; Køber, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Prediction of stroke in healthy individuals is challenging and there is a diurnal variation of stroke onset. We hypothesized that heart rate variability with a focus on nighttime heart rate variability will predict the risk of stroke in apparently healthy middle-age and elderly subjects....

  1. Fast mouse PK (Fast PK): a rapid screening method to increase pharmacokinetic throughput in pre-clinical drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Jitendar; Madishetti, Sreedhar; Vachaspati, Prakash R

    2012-09-29

    We describe a rapid screening methodology for performing pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in mice called Fast PK. In this Fast PK method, two mice were used per compound and four blood samples were collected from each mouse. The sampling times were staggered (sparse sampling) between the two mice, thus yielding complete PK profile in singlicate across eight time points. The plasma PK parameters from Fast PK were comparable to that obtained from conventional PK methods. This method has been used to rapidly screen compounds in the early stages of drug discovery and about 600 compounds have been profiled in the last 3 years, which has resulted in reduction in the usage of mice by 800 per year in compliance with the 3R principles of animal ethics. In addition, this Fast PK method can also help in evaluating the PK parameters from the same set of animals used in safety/toxicology/efficacy studies without the need for satellite groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The cataract situation in Suriname: an effective intervention programme to increase the cataract surgical rate in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawiroredjo, Jerrel C; Minderhoud, Janna; Mans, Dennis R A; Themen, Herman C I; Bueno de Mesquita-Voigt, Anne-Marie T; Siban, Michael R; Forster-Pawiroredjo, Cindy M; Moll, Annette C; van Nispen, Ruth M A; Limburg, Hans

    2017-02-01

    To provide an overview of cataract data in Suriname and to describe and evaluate a programme to control cataract blindness in a developing country. Evaluation of hospital data and findings from a population-based cross-sectional survey. The implementation of a new cataract surgical intervention programme was described and retrospectively evaluated by analysing the number of cataract operations and other related indicators at the Suriname Eye Centre (SEC) in the period 2006-2014. Findings of the recent Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (2013-2014) survey were used to evaluate the national cataract situation in Suriname in people aged ≥50 years (n=2998), including prevalence of cataract blindness, outcome and cataract surgical rate (CSR). Since the implementation of a new cataract intervention programme, the number of cataract operations at the SEC has increased from 1150 in 2006 to 4538 in 2014, leading to an estimated national CSR of 9103 per one million inhabitants. The prevalence of bilateral cataract blindness in Suriname was 0.8% (95% CI 0.2% to 1.3%) in individuals aged ≥50 years. The proportion of eyes with a postoperative visual acuity cataract situation in Suriname is well under control since the implementation of the new intervention programme. Important factors contributing to this success were the introduction of phacoemulsification, intensive training, and improvement in the affordability and accessibility of cataract surgery. The proportion of poor outcomes was still >5%. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. High false-positive rate of human immunodeficiency virus rapid serum screening in a predominantly hispanic prenatal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Nikolaos M; Athanassaki, Ioanna D; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Gardner, Michael O

    2004-12-01

    To identify the characteristics of the gravidas delivering at our birthing center that place them at risk for false-positive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The medical records of all rapid HIV-ELISA-positive gravidas that delivered at our hospital between January 2000 and October 2001 were retrieved, and information was gathered regarding maternal demographics. The results of the Western blot tests were also retrieved and correlated to the ELISA results, across varying maternal characteristics. chi(2), Student's t-test and multivariate analysis were performed, as appropriate, using the SAS software; statistical significance was denoted by ppositive rapid HIV-ELISA out of 9,781 deliveries. Of those, 26 were confirmed as HIV infected by Western blot (overall HIV prevalence: 0.27%, ELISA-positive predictive value: 37.7%). The subgroup prevalence of HIV and positive predictive value of ELISA were 1.53 and 75% among Caucasians; 2.43 and 82.6% among African-Americans; and 0.05 and 9.8% among Hispanics, respectively (p or =5 lifetime) sexual partners was elicited in the majority of HIV-infected patients. The positive predictive value of rapid HIV-ELISA during pregnancy varies widely, depending on maternal race/ethnicity and sexual behavior. The routine disclosure of rapid intrapartum HIV serum screening results prior to Western blot confirmation should be avoided in very low-risk populations.

  4. Can hydrographic data provide evidence that the rate of oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is increasing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Carlisle Thacker

    Full Text Available Predictions of the rate of accumulation of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the Pacific Ocean near 32°S and 150°W based on the P16 surveys of 1991 and 2005 and on the P06 surveys of 1992 and 2003 underestimate the amount found in the P06 survey of 2009-2010, suggesting an increasing uptake rate. Assuming the accumulation rate to be constant over the two decades, analyses using all five surveys lead to upward revision of the rates based only on the first four. On the other hand, accumulation rates estimated for 2003-2010 are significantly greater than those for 1991-2003, again suggesting an increasing uptake rate. In addressing this question it is important to acknowledge the limitations of the repeat hydrography and consequent uncertainties of estimated accumulation rates.

  5. Association between Carotid Intima Media Thickness and Heart Rate Variability in Adults at Increased Cardiovascular Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu C. Baltatu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atherosclerotic carotid intima-media thickness (IMT may be associated with alterations in the sensitivity of carotid baroreceptors. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between carotid IMT and the autonomic modulation of heart rate variability (HRV.Methods: A total of 101 subjects were enrolled in this prospective observational study. The carotid IMT was determined by duplex ultrasonography. The cardiac autonomic function was determined through HRV measures during the Deep Breathing Test. Linear regression models, adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, body mass index, waist-hip-ratio, and left ventricular ejection fraction were used to evaluate the association between HRV parameters and carotid IMT.Results: Participants had a mean age of 60.4 ± 13.4 years and an estimated 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD risk score (using the Pooled Cohort Equations of 16.4 ± 17. The mean carotid media thickness was highest (0.90 ± 0.19 mm in the first quartile of the standard deviation of all RR intervals (SDNN (19.7 ± 5.1 ms and progressively declined in each subsequent quartile to 0.82 ± 0.21 mm, 0.81 ± 0.16 mm, and 0.68 ± 0.19 in quartiles 2 (36.5 ± 5.9 ms, 3 (57.7 ± 6.2 ms and 4 (100.9 ± 22.2 ms, respectively. In multivariable adjusted models, there was a statistical significant association between SDNN and carotid IMT (OR −0.002; 95%CI −0.003 to −0.001, p = 0.005. The same significant association was found between carotid IMT and other measures of HRV, including coefficient of variation of RR intervals (CV and dispersion of points along the line of identity (SD2.Conclusions: In a cohort of individuals at increased cardiovascular risk, carotid IMT as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis was associated with alterations of HRV indicating an impaired cardiac autonomic control, independently of other cardiovascular risk factors.

  6. ARE FOREIGN WORKERS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE INCREASING UNEMPLOYMENT RATE IN TAIWAN?

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao-chuan Chang

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the current important issue in Taiwan that the impact of foreign workers on the rising unemployment by a dynamic intertemporal general equilibrium model. The results show that the introduction of foreign workers plays a complementary role and reduces unemployment rate at the early stage, defined as the first period after the shock. However, over time, the importation of foreign workers robs jobs from local unskilled labor and lifts the unemployment rate. In contrast to...

  7. Does Pelvic Embolization Increase Infection Rates in Patients Who Undergo Open Treatment of Acetabular Fractures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoozabadi, Reza; Little, Milton; Alton, Timothy; Scoloro, John; Agel, Julie; Kogut, Mathew

    2017-04-01

    Evaluate the impact of pelvic embolization on postoperative infection rate after acetabular fracture fixation. Retrospective study of 3 separate cohorts. Level I Trauma Center. Identified patients who underwent angiography of the pelvis as well as required an open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) of an acetabular fracture. This group was compared to a control group of patients with an acetabular fracture, which did not undergo angiography, and underwent ORIF. ORIF of an aectabular fracture with angiography ± embolization. Deep infection rate. Seventy-two patients remained for final analysis; 25 patients underwent embolization, 16 patients underwent angiography without embolization, and 31 patients did not undergo angiography. Two out of 25 (8%) patients developed infections in the embolization group, one deep infection and one superficial infection. Five out of 16 (31%) patients developed deep infections in the nonembolization group. Control group of patients who did not undergo angiography had a deep infection rate of 9.6%. Despite previous reports of high infection rates after pelvic embolization, the deep infection rate was only 4% after embolization in our cohort. This suggests that concerns for higher rates of infection are not substantiated, and pelvic embolization should be performed when indicated. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  8. Rapid, bilateral changes in growth rate and curvature during gravitropism of cucumber hypocotyls: implications for mechanism of growth control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    The growth response of etiolated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) hypocotyls to gravitropic stimulation was examined by means of time-lapse photography and high-resolution analysis of surface expansion and curvature. In comparison with video analysis, the technique described here has five- to 20-fold better resolution; moreover, the mathematical fitting method (cubic splines) allows direct estimation of local and integrated curvature. After switching seedlings from a vertical to horizontal position, both upper and lower surfaces of the stem reacted after a lag of about 11 min with a two- to three-fold increase in surface expansion rate on the lower side and a cessation of expansion, or slight compression, on the upper surface. This growth asymmetry was initiated simultaneously along the length of the hypocotyl, on both upper and lower surfaces, and did not migrate basipetally from the apex. Later stages in the gravitropic response involved a complex reversal of the growth asymmetry, with the net result being a basipetal migration of the curved region. This secondary growth reversal may reflect oscillatory and/or self-regulatory behaviour of growing cells. With some qualifications, the kinetics and pattern of growth response are consistent with a mechanism involving hormone redistribution, although they do not prove such a mechanism. The growth kinetics require a growth mechanism which can be stimulated by two- to three-fold or completely inhibited within a few minutes.

  9. Increases in College Tuition Will Exceed Inflation Rate for Seventh Straight Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelauf, Jean

    1987-01-01

    Increases in tuition around the country range from five percent to eight percent this fall, but will probably slow next year. Public and private colleges give different reasons for the increases. (MSE)

  10. Comparison of false negative rates and limits of detection following macrofoam-swab sampling of Bacillus anthracis surrogates via Rapid Viability PCR and plate culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Janine R; Piepel, Greg F; Amidan, Brett G; Hess, Becky M; Sydor, Michael A; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L

    2018-01-21

    We evaluated the effects of Bacillus anthracis surrogates, low surface concentrations, surface materials, and assay methods on false-negative rate (FNR) and limit of detection (LOD 95 ) for recovering Bacillus spores using a macrofoam-swab sampling procedure. Bacillus anthracis Sterne or Bacillus atrophaeus Nakamura spores were deposited over a range of low target concentrations (2 - 500 coupon -1 ) onto glass, stainless steel, vinyl tile, and plastic. Samples were assayed using a modified Rapid Viability-PCR (mRV-PCR) method and the traditional plate culture method to obtain FNR and LOD 95 results. Mean FNRs tended to be lower for mRV-PCR compared to culturing, and increased as spore concentration decreased for all surface materials. Surface material, but not B. anthracis surrogate, influenced FNRs with the mRV-PCR method. The mRV-PCR LOD 95 was lowest for glass and highest for vinyl tile. LOD 95 values overall were lower for mRV-PCR than for the culture method. This study adds to the limited data on FNR and LOD 95 for mRV-PCR and culturing methods with low concentrations of B. anthracis sampled from various surface materials by the CDC macrofoam-swab method. These are key inputs for planning characterization and clearance studies for low contamination levels of B. anthracis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Reduced dietary sodium intake increases heart rate. A meta-analysis of 63 randomized controlled trials including 72 study populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels eGraudal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs published in the period 1973–2014. 63 of the RCTs including 72 study populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p < 0.00001, corresponding to 2.4% of the baseline heart rate. This effect was independent of baseline blood pressure. In conclusion sodium reduction increases heart rate by as much (2.4% as it decreases blood pressure (2.5%. This side-effect, which may cause harmful health effects, contributes to the need for a revision of the present dietary guidelines.

  12. Increased Ratio of Electron Transport to Net Assimilation Rate Supports Elevated Isoprenoid Emission Rate in Eucalypts under Drought1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Kaidala Ganesha Srikanta; Jamie, Ian McLeod; Prentice, Iain Colin; Atwell, Brian James

    2014-01-01

    Plants undergoing heat and low-CO2 stresses emit large amounts of volatile isoprenoids compared with those in stress-free conditions. One hypothesis posits that the balance between reducing power availability and its use in carbon assimilation determines constitutive isoprenoid emission rates in plants and potentially even their maximum emission capacity under brief periods of stress. To test this, we used abiotic stresses to manipulate the availability of reducing power. Specifically, we examined the effects of mild to severe drought on photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR) and net carbon assimilation rate (NAR) and the relationship between estimated energy pools and constitutive volatile isoprenoid emission rates in two species of eucalypts: Eucalyptus occidentalis (drought tolerant) and Eucalyptus camaldulensis (drought sensitive). Isoprenoid emission rates were insensitive to mild drought, and the rates increased when the decline in NAR reached a certain species-specific threshold. ETR was sustained under drought and the ETR-NAR ratio increased, driving constitutive isoprenoid emission until severe drought caused carbon limitation of the methylerythritol phosphate pathway. The estimated residual reducing power unused for carbon assimilation, based on the energetic status model, significantly correlated with constitutive isoprenoid emission rates across gradients of drought (r2 > 0.8) and photorespiratory stress (r2 > 0.9). Carbon availability could critically limit emission rates under severe drought and photorespiratory stresses. Under most instances of moderate abiotic stress levels, increased isoprenoid emission rates compete with photorespiration for the residual reducing power not invested in carbon assimilation. A similar mechanism also explains the individual positive effects of low-CO2, heat, and drought stresses on isoprenoid emission. PMID:25139160

  13. Rapid antidepressants stimulate the decoupling of GABAB receptors from GIRK/Kir3 channels through increased protein stability of 14-3-3η

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, E R; Haddick, P C G; Bush, K; Dilly, G A; Niere, F; Zemelman, B V; Raab-Graham, K F

    2015-01-01

    A single injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists produces a rapid antidepressant response. Lasting changes in the synapse structure and composition underlie the effectiveness of these drugs. We recently discovered that rapid antidepressants cause a shift in the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABABR) signaling pathway, such that GABABR activation shifts from opening inwardly rectifiying potassium channels (Kir/GIRK) to increasing resting dendritic calcium signal and mammalian Target of Rapamycin activity. However, little is known about the molecular and biochemical mechanisms that initiate this shift. Herein, we show that GABABR signaling to Kir3 (GIRK) channels decreases with NMDAR blockade. Blocking NMDAR signaling stabilizes the adaptor protein 14-3-3η, which decouples GABABR signaling from Kir3 and is required for the rapid antidepressant efficacy. Consistent with these results, we find that key proteins involved in GABABR signaling bidirectionally change in a depression model and with rapid antidepressants. In socially defeated rodents, a model for depression, GABABR and 14-3-3η levels decrease in the hippocampus. The NMDAR antagonists AP5 and Ro-25-6981, acting as rapid antidepressants, increase GABABR and 14-3-3η expression and decrease Kir3.2. Taken together, these data suggest that the shift in GABABR function requires a loss of GABABR-Kir3 channel activity mediated by 14-3-3η. Our findings support a central role for 14-3-3η in the efficacy of rapid antidepressants and define a critical molecular mechanism for activity-dependent alterations in GABABR signaling. PMID:25560757

  14. Rapid antidepressants stimulate the decoupling of GABA(B) receptors from GIRK/Kir3 channels through increased protein stability of 14-3-3η.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, E R; Haddick, P C G; Bush, K; Dilly, G A; Niere, F; Zemelman, B V; Raab-Graham, K F

    2015-03-01

    A single injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists produces a rapid antidepressant response. Lasting changes in the synapse structure and composition underlie the effectiveness of these drugs. We recently discovered that rapid antidepressants cause a shift in the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABABR) signaling pathway, such that GABABR activation shifts from opening inwardly rectifiying potassium channels (Kir/GIRK) to increasing resting dendritic calcium signal and mammalian Target of Rapamycin activity. However, little is known about the molecular and biochemical mechanisms that initiate this shift. Herein, we show that GABABR signaling to Kir3 (GIRK) channels decreases with NMDAR blockade. Blocking NMDAR signaling stabilizes the adaptor protein 14-3-3η, which decouples GABABR signaling from Kir3 and is required for the rapid antidepressant efficacy. Consistent with these results, we find that key proteins involved in GABABR signaling bidirectionally change in a depression model and with rapid antidepressants. In socially defeated rodents, a model for depression, GABABR and 14-3-3η levels decrease in the hippocampus. The NMDAR antagonists AP5 and Ro-25-6981, acting as rapid antidepressants, increase GABABR and 14-3-3η expression and decrease Kir3.2. Taken together, these data suggest that the shift in GABABR function requires a loss of GABABR-Kir3 channel activity mediated by 14-3-3η. Our findings support a central role for 14-3-3η in the efficacy of rapid antidepressants and define a critical molecular mechanism for activity-dependent alterations in GABABR signaling.

  15. Increased transcapillary escape rate of albumin in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1986-01-01

    The transcapillary escape rate, intravascular mass and outflux of albumin were measured in 75 Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. The groups were defined as: group 1: normal urinary albumin excretion, less than 30 mg/24 h (n = 21); group 2: microalbuminuria, 30-300 mg/24 h (n = 36); group...... 3: diabetic nephropathy, less than 300 mg/24 h (n = 18). Fifteen sex- and age-matched non-diabetic persons served as control subjects. The diabetes duration was: group 1: 20 +/- 9 years, group 2: 17 +/- 5 years, group 3: 19 +/- 7 years. The transcapillary escape rate of albumin was similar...... vascular leakage of albumin is an early event in the development of diabetic nephropathy, with the leakage of albumin being fully developed in the microalbuminuric patient. In contrast, long-term diabetic patients with normal urinary albumin excretion have a normal transcapillary escape rate of albumin....

  16. Rosetting is associated with increased Plasmodium falciparum in vivo multiplication rate in the Saimiri sciureus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Scanf, Cécile; Vigan-Womas, Inès; Contamin, Hugues; Guillotte, Micheline; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile

    2008-04-01

    Severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in African children is associated with high peripheral parasite densities and high rate of rosette-forming parasites. To explore the relationship between rosette formation and parasite density in vivo, we compared the multiplication rate of a rosette-forming variant (varO) of the Palo Alto line with a sibling non-rosetting variant (varR) in splenectomized Saimiri monkeys. The multiplication rate of varO parasites was 1.5-fold higher than that of the varR variant. This indicates that rosetting is indeed associated with high parasite multiplication efficiency in vivo and, as such, may contribute to the high parasite densities observed in severe malaria.

  17. Efforts to Increase the Success Rate of Artificial Insemination on Small Ruminant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismeth Inounu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The success rate of artificial insemination (AI technology in Indonesia is still low, especially on small ruminants. At experimental station condition, it was reported that the success rate of intrauterine AI was high (78.9% lambing percentage, while intracervix AI technique was still low (47.6% lambing percentage. Various things that could affect the success rate of AI program are discussed in this paper. Efforts to improve the success of artificial insemination in small ruminants (goats and sheep can be done through the selection of productive female with good reproductive cycle, accurate dose of hormonal synchronization, followed by proper estrous detection and semen placement at the right time. Each stage is still open for more detailed study in order to obtain satisfactory results.

  18. Two Challenges for U.S. Irrigation Due to Climate Change: Increasing Irrigated Area in Wet States and Increasing Irrigation Rates in Dry States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Robert I.; Girvetz, Evan H.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural irrigation practices will likely be affected by climate change. In this paper, we use a statistical model relating observed water use by U.S. producers to the moisture deficit, and then use this statistical model to project climate changes impact on both the fraction of agricultural land irrigated and the irrigation rate (m3ha−1). Data on water withdrawals for US states (1985–2005) show that both quantities are highly positively correlated with moisture deficit (precipitation – PET). If current trends hold, climate change would increase agricultural demand for irrigation in 2090 by 4.5–21.9 million ha (B1 scenario demand: 4.5–8.7 million ha, A2 scenario demand: 9.1–21.9 million ha). Much of this new irrigated area would occur in states that currently have a wet climate and a small fraction of their agricultural land currently irrigated, posing a challenge to policymakers in states with less experience with strict regulation of agriculture water use. Moreover, most of this expansion will occur in states where current agricultural production has relatively low market value per hectare, which may make installation of irrigation uneconomical without significant changes in crops or practices by producers. Without significant increases in irrigation efficiency, climate change would also increase the average irrigation rate from 7,963 to 8,400–10,415 m3ha−1 (B1 rate: 8,400–9,145 m3ha−1, A2 rate: 9,380–10,415 m3ha−1). The irrigation rate will increase the most in states that already have dry climates and large irrigation rates, posing a challenge for water supply systems in these states. Accounting for both the increase in irrigated area and irrigation rate, total withdrawals might increase by 47.7–283.4 billion m3 (B1 withdrawal: 47.7–106.0 billion m3, A2 withdrawal: 117.4–283.4 billion m3). Increases in irrigation water-use efficiency, particularly by reducing the prevalence of surface irrigation, could eliminate the increase in

  19. Unravelling the (arte)fact of increased pacemaker rate with the Edwards SAPIEN 3 valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantini, Giuseppe; Mojoli, Marco; Purita, Paola; Napodano, Massimo; D'Onofrio, Augusto; Frigo, Annachiara; Covolo, Elisa; Facchin, Michela; Isabella, Giambattista; Gerosa, Gino; Iliceto, Sabino

    2015-07-01

    Early data on the Edwards SAPIEN 3 valve (S3-THV) have shown low rates of paravalvular leaks and vascular complications but relatively high 30-day permanent pacemaker implantation (PPMI) rates. No direct comparisons on clinical outcomes including PPMI rates are available for the S3-THV and the Edwards SAPIEN XT (XT-THV). We aimed to compare the 30-day PPMI rates in patients treated with the two prostheses and to assess the interplay among valve type, depth of implantation and PPMI rate. Two hundred and nine patients treated by TAVI were considered. The S3-THV was associated with higher PPMI rates compared to the XT-THV, both overall and in subgroups matched for several predictors of PPMI. However, in the S3-THV group, 30-day PPMI was strictly associated with deep valve implantation, and PPMI risk of high-implanted S3-THVs was similar to that of the overall XT-THV matched group. No cases of significant paravalvular leak were observed in the S3-THV group. The S3-THV was associated with a higher incidence of PPMI compared to the XT-THV. In the S3-THV group, pacemaker implantation was strictly associated with deep valve implantation. An implantation technique involving higher initial placement of the central marker (from 0 to 3 mm above the base of the aortic cusps) and, as a consequence, higher final valve depth might help in preventing post-TAVI PPMI with the S3-THV, without affecting the risk of paravalvular leak.

  20. Getting physicians to open the survey: little evidence that an envelope teaser increases response rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziegenfuss Jeanette Y

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physician surveys are an important tool to assess attitudes, beliefs and self-reported behaviors of this policy relevant group. In order for a physician to respond to a mailed survey, they must first open the envelope. While there is some evidence that package elements can impact physician response rates, the impact of an envelope teaser is unknown. Here we assess this by testing the impact of adding a brightly colored "$25 incentive" sticker to the outside of an envelope on response rates and nonresponse bias in a survey of physicians. Methods In the second mailing of a survey assessing physicians' moral beliefs and views on controversial health care topics, initial nonrespondents were randomly assigned to receive a survey in an envelope with a colored "$25 incentive" sticker (teaser group or an envelope without a sticker (control group. Response rates were compared between the teaser and control groups overall and by age, gender, region of the United States, specialty and years in practice. Nonresponse bias was assessed by comparing the demographic composition of the respondents to the nonrespondents in the experimental and control condition. Results No significant differences in response rates were observed between the experimental and control conditions overall (p = 0.38 or after stratifying by age, gender, region, or practice type. Within the teaser condition, there was some variation in response rate by years since graduation. There was no independent effect of the teaser on response when simultaneously controlling for demographic characteristics (OR = 0.875, p = 0.4112. Conclusions Neither response rates nor nonresponse bias were impacted by the use of an envelope teaser in a survey of physicians in the United States.

  1. Minisatellite mutation rates increase with extra-pair paternity among birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuervo José J

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amos 1 suggested recently that a previously reported positive relationship between minisatellite mutation rates and extra-pair paternity among species of birds 2 was confounded by transcription errors and selective inclusion of studies. Here we attempted to replicate the results reported by Amos 1, but also tested for the relationship by expanding the data base by including studies published after our original paper. Results We were able to replicate the positive association between mutation rate and extra-pair paternity in birds, even after controlling statistically for the confounding effecs of mean number of bands scored, using 133 species, compared to 81 species in our first report 2. We suggest that Amos 1 failed to reach a similar conclusion due to four different potential causes of bias. First, Amos 1 missed 15 studies from the literature that we were able to include. Second, he used estimates of mutation rates that were based on both within- and extra-pair offspring, although the latter will cause bias in estimates. Third, he made a number of transcription errors from the original publications for extra-pair paternity, mutation rates, number of novel bands, and mean number of bands scored per individual. Fourth, he included Vireo olivaceus although the mutation rate estimate was based on one single offspring! Conclusion There was a positive association between mutation rates and extra-pair paternity in birds, accounting for an intermediate effect size that explained 5–11% of the variance; estimates that are bound to be conservative due to many different causes of noise in the data. This result was robust to statistical control for potentially confounding variables, highlighting that it is important to base comparative studies on all available evidence, and that it is crucial to critically transcribe data while simultaneously checking published estimates for their correctness.

  2. Analysis of complete mitochondrial genome sequences increases phylogenetic resolution of bears (Ursidae, a mammalian family that experienced rapid speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryder Oliver A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the small number of ursid species, bear phylogeny has long been a focus of study due to their conservation value, as all bear genera have been classified as endangered at either the species or subspecies level. The Ursidae family represents a typical example of rapid evolutionary radiation. Previous analyses with a single mitochondrial (mt gene or a small number of mt genes either provide weak support or a large unresolved polytomy for ursids. We revisit the contentious relationships within Ursidae by analyzing complete mt genome sequences and evaluating the performance of both entire mt genomes and constituent mtDNA genes in recovering a phylogeny of extremely recent speciation events. Results This mitochondrial genome-based phylogeny provides strong evidence that the spectacled bear diverged first, while within the genus Ursus, the sloth bear is the sister taxon of all the other five ursines. The latter group is divided into the brown bear/polar bear and the two black bears/sun bear assemblages. These findings resolve the previous conflicts between trees using partial mt genes. The ability of different categories of mt protein coding genes to recover the correct phylogeny is concordant with previous analyses for taxa with deep divergence times. This study provides a robust Ursidae phylogenetic framework for future validation by additional independent evidence, and also has significant implications for assisting in the resolution of other similarly difficult phylogenetic investigations. Conclusion Identification of base composition bias and utilization of the combined data of whole mitochondrial genome sequences has allowed recovery of a strongly supported phylogeny that is upheld when using multiple alternative outgroups for the Ursidae, a mammalian family that underwent a rapid radiation since the mid- to late Pliocene. It remains to be seen if the reliability of mt genome analysis will hold up in studies of other

  3. Effect of Increased Operational Tempo (Post 9/11) on Retention Rate of Hospital Corpsmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    employers, including the military, are concerned with employee retention for several reasons. One of the most important reasons is that high rates of...64. 11. Gering, J. & Conner, J. (2002). A strategic approach to employee retention . Healthcare Financial Management, 56, 40-44. 12. Glaser, D.N., The

  4. Methods for increasing cooperation rates for surveys of family forest owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett J. Butler; Jaketon H. Hewes; Mary L. Tyrrell; Sarah M. Butler

    2016-01-01

    To maximize the representativeness of results from surveys, coverage, sampling, nonresponse, measurement, and analysis errors must be minimized. Although not a cure-all, one approach for mitigating nonresponse errors is to maximize cooperation rates. In this study, personalizing mailings, token financial incentives, and the use of real stamps were tested for their...

  5. Humid storage conditions increase the dissolution rate of diazepam from solid dispersions prepared by melt agglomeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anna Cecilia; Torstenson, Anette Seo

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of cooling mode and storage conditions on the dissolution rate of a solid dispersion prepared by melt agglomeration. The aim has been to relate this effect to the solid state properties of the agglomerates. The cooling mode had an effect on t...

  6. Increasing the labour epidural rate in a state hospital in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A 2012 audit on labour epidural analgesia rates in Tygerberg Hospital (TBH) revealed that only 2.2% of labouring parturients received epidural analgesia. This unacceptably low number necessitated a dedicated epidural service that was subsequently initiated in June 2014 by the Department of ...

  7. Metabolic modeling of energy balances in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae shows that pyruvate addition increases growth rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Tjerko; Slagman, Simen Jan; Bijlsma, Jetta J.E.; Martins dos Santos, Vitor A.P.; Suarez-Diez, Maria; Schaap, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is cultured on large-scale to produce antigen for inactivated whole-cell vaccines against respiratory disease in pigs. However, the fastidious nutrient requirements of this minimal bacterium and the low growth rate make it challenging to reach sufficient biomass yield for

  8. 42 CFR 413.40 - Ceiling on the rate of increase in hospital inpatient costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... intensive care services (as defined in § 413.53(b)) incurred by a hospital in furnishing covered inpatient...-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING...) Long-term care hospitals, as defined in section 1886(d)(1)(B)(iv) of the Act, that are paid based on...

  9. Beyond reduced-impact logging: silvicultural treatments to increase growth rates of tropical trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peña-Claros, M.; Fredericksen, T.S.; Alarcón, A.; Blate, G.M.; Choque, U.; Leaño, C.; Licona, J.C.; Mostacedo, B.; Pariona, W.; Villegas, Z.; Putz, F.E.

    2008-01-01

    Use of reduced-impact logging (RIL) techniques has repeatedly been shown to reduce damage caused by logging. Unfortunately, these techniques do not necessarily ameliorate the low growth rates of many commercial species or otherwise assure recovery of the initial volume harvested during the next

  10. Acute maternal rehydration increases the urine production rate in the near-term human fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haak, MC; Aarnoudse, JG; Oosterhof, H.

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the effect of a decrease of maternal plasma osmolality produced by hypotonic rehydration on the fetal urine production rate in normal near-term human fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-one healthy pregnant women attending the clinic for antenatal care were studied

  11. 75 FR 31275 - Nectarines and Peaches Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... their 2010-11 fiscal period expenses and carryover necessary reserves to finance operations before 2011... Commodity Committee (Committees) for the 2010-11 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.0175 to $0.0280 per... programs. The fiscal periods run from March 1 through the last day of February. The assessment rates will...

  12. Web-Enhanced General Chemistry Increases Student Completion Rates, Success, and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Katie E.; Shank, John D.; Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.; Shibley, Lisa R.

    2013-01-01

    General Chemistry I historically had one of the highest failure and withdrawal rates at Penn State Berks, a four-year college within the Penn State system. The course was completely redesigned to incorporate more group work, the use of classroom response systems, peer mentors, and a stronger online presence via the learning management system…

  13. Increased resting heart rate following radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Brian; Chen, Xu; Pehrson, Steen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Sinus tachycardia has been observed following radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation for various kinds of supraventricular tachycardia. This study is aimed at determining the occurrence of changes in sinus-rhythm heart rate (HR) after pulmonary vein (PV) isolation in patients with paroxysmal...

  14. 78 FR 24327 - Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... / Thursday, April 25, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing... Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS) manifesting, and $18,250 for a retirement plan... Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule...

  15. The Effect of Incentives and Other Instructor-Driven Strategies to Increase Online Student Evaluation Response Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, James; Anson, Robert; Belcheir, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    Course evaluations (often termed student evaluations of teaching or SETs) are pervasive in higher education. As SETs increasingly shift from pencil-and-paper to online, concerns grow over the lower response rates that typically accompany online SETs. This study of online SET response rates examined data from 678 faculty respondents and student…

  16. Computer-assisted glucose regulation during rapid step-wise increases of parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients: a proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Miriam; Schoorl, Michiel A; van der Horst, Iwan C C; Vogelzang, Mathijs; Wietasch, J K Götz; Zijlstra, Felix; Nijsten, Maarten W N

    2010-01-01

    Early delivery of calories is important in critically ill patients, and the administration of parenteral nutrition (PN) is sometimes required to achieve this goal. However, PN can induce acute hyperglycemia, which is associated with adverse outcome. We hypothesized that initiation of PN using a rapid "step-up" approach, coupled with a computerized insulin-dosing protocol, would result in a desirable caloric intake within 24 hours without causing hyperglycemia. In our surgical intensive care unit (ICU), glucose is regulated by a nurse-centered computerized glucose regulation program. When adequate enteral feeding was not possible, PN was initiated according to a simple step-up rule at an infusion rate of 10 mL/h (approximately 10 kcal/h) and subsequently increased by steps of 10 mL/h every 4 hours, provided glucose was up period and for 24 hours after achieving target feeding. In all 23 consecutive patients requiring PN, mean intake was 1 kcal/kg/h within 24 hours. Of the 280 glucose samples during the 48-hour study period, mean ± standard deviation glucose level was 7.4 ± 1.4 mmol/L. Only 4.5% of glucose measurements during the step-up period were transiently ≥10 mmol/L. After initiating PN, the insulin requirement rose from 1.1 ± 1.5 units/h to 2.9 ± 2.5 units/h (P initiation of PN using a step-up approach coupled with computerized glucose control resulted in adequate caloric intake within 24 hours while maintaining adequate glycemic control.

  17. Increased Incidence of Campylobacter spp. Infection and High Rates among Children, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Larisa; Valinsky, Lea; Moran-Gilad, Jacob; Nissan, Israel; Agmon, Vered; Peretz, Chava

    2013-01-01

    During 1999–2010, the annual incidence of Campylobacter spp. infection in Israel increased from 31.04 to 90.99 cases/100,000 population, a yearly increase of 10.24%. Children 26-fold higher than for the 30–<50 age group. PMID:24188185

  18. Rapid Growth and Apparent Total Nitrogen Increases in Rice and Corn Plants following Applications of Triacontanol 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, N. Richard; Ries, Stanley K.

    1981-01-01

    Triacontanol (TRIA) increased fresh and dry weight and total reducible nitrogen (total N) of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings within 40 minutes. Increases in total N in the supernatants from homogenates of corn (Zea mays L.) and rice leaves treated with TRIA for one minute before grinding occurred within 30 and 80 minutes, respectively. The source for the increase was investigated utilizing atmospheric substitution and enrichment and depletion studies with 15N. The increase in total N in seedlings was shown to be independent of method of N analysis and the presence of nitrate in the plants. Automated Kjeldahl determinations showing apparent increases in N composition due to TRIA were shown to be correlated with hand Kjeldahl, elemental analysis, and chemiluminescent analysis in three independent laboratories. TRIA did not alter the nitrate uptake or endogenous levels of nitrate in corn and rice seedlings. Enrichment experiments revealed that the total N increases in rice seedlings, in vivo, and in supernatants of corn leaf homogenates, in vitro, are not due to atmospheric N2. TRIA increased the soluble N pools of the plants, specifically the free amino acid and soluble protein fractions. No differences in depletion or enrichment of 15N incorporated into soluble and insoluble N fractions of rice seedlings could be detected on an atom per cent 15N basis. The apparent short-term total N increases cannot be explained by current knowledge of major N assimilation pathways. TRIA may stimulate a change in the chemical composition of the seedlings, resulting in interference with standard methods of N analysis. PMID:16662092

  19. Does using tampons or menstrual cups increase early IUD expulsion rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Ellen R; Trouton, Konia J

    2012-08-01

    Many intrauterine device (IUD) users utilize intravaginal menstrual cups or tampons during menses, but no studies have investigated the impact this practice may have on IUD expulsions. Retrospective chart survey. Of the 930 women having IUDs placed and reporting menstrual protection, 10.3% (96) used menstrual cups, 74.2% (690) used tampons, and 43.2% (402) used pads (many women reported using more than one method). In the 743 women with adequate follow-up information, there was a full or partial expulsion (i.e., part of the IUD in the cervical canal) rate of 2.5% (27) during the first 6 weeks after insertion. There was no difference in the women using cups, tampons or pads (confidence intervals overlap). From this study, there is no evidence that women who report using menstrual cups or tampons for menstrual protection had higher rates of early IUD expulsion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Protease increases fermentation rate and ethanol yield in dry-grind ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, David B; McAloon, Andrew J

    2014-02-01

    The effects of acid protease and urea addition during the fermentation step were evaluated. The fermentations were also tested with and without the addition of urea to determine if protease altered the nitrogen requirements of the yeast. Results show that the addition of the protease had a statistically significant effect on the fermentation rate and yield. Fermentation rates and yields were improved with the addition of the protease over the corresponding controls without protease. Protease addition either with or with added urea resulted in a higher final ethanol yield than without the protease addition. Urea addition levels >1200 ppm of supplemental nitrogen inhibited ethanol production. The economic effects of the protease addition were evaluated by using process engineering and economic models developed at the Eastern Regional Research Center. The decrease in overall processing costs from protease addition was as high as $0.01/L (4 ¢/gal) of denatured ethanol produced. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Achilles Tendon Repair in Obese Patients Is Associated With Increased Complication Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrus, M Tyrrell; Werner, Brian C; Park, Joseph S; Perumal, Venkat; Cooper, M Truit

    2016-06-01

    Objective The objective of the present study is to utilize a national database to examine the association between obesity and postoperative complications after primary Achilles tendon repair. Methods The PearlDiver database was queried for patients undergoing primary Achilles repair using CPT 27650. Excision of a Haglund's deformity or tendon transfer were exclusion criteria. Patients were then divided into obese (body mass index [BMI] > 30 kg/m(2)) and nonobese (BMI Achilles tendon repair were identified from 2005 to 2012. Overall, 2962 patients (15.6%) were coded as obese or morbidly obese. Obese patients had significantly higher rates of postoperative wound complications (odds ratio [OR] = 2.1; P Achilles tendon repair. Additionally, obese patients had a significantly lower rate of ankle stiffnesassociated with a significantly higher risk of s (OR = 0.4; P Achilles tendon repair. Prognostic, Level II: Retrospective study. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. Increasing homework completion and accuracy rates with parental participation for young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Lina GILIC

    2016-01-01

    Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder often experience difficulty completing homework assignments independently more than students without disabilities. This study examined the use of a daily report card while adding a parent teacher component on the homework completion and accuracy rates of two second grade boys diagnosed with Autism. Parental participation for graphing and reviewing the student data involved the home environment. Researchers found that the use of the daily report card f...

  3. Exploring how to increase response rates to surveys of older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palonen, Mira; Kaunonen, Marja; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2016-05-01

    To address the special considerations that need to be taken into account when collecting data from older people in healthcare research. An objective of all research studies is to ensure there is an adequate sample size. The final sample size will be influenced by methods of recruitment and data collection, among other factors. There are some special considerations that need to be addressed when collecting data among older people. Quantitative surveys of people aged 60 or over in 2009-2014 were analysed using statistical methods. A quantitative study of patients aged 75 or over in an emergency department was used as an example. A methodological approach to analysing quantitative studies concerned with older people. The best way to ensure high response rates in surveys involving people aged 60 or over is to collect data in the presence of the researcher; response rates are lowest in posted surveys and settings where the researcher is not present when data are collected. Response rates do not seem to vary according to the database from which information about the study participants is obtained or according to who is responsible for recruitment to the survey. Implications for research/practice To conduct coherent studies with older people, the data collection process should be carefully considered.

  4. A controlled trial of envelope colour for increasing response rates in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Natasha; Hewitt, Catherine E; Torgerson, David J

    2011-06-01

    Postal questionnaires are widely used in health research to provide measurable outcomes in areas such as quality of life. Participants who fail to return postal questionnaires can introduce non-response bias. Previous studies within populations over the age of 65 years have shown that response rates amongst older people can be 60% or less. The current study sought to investigate whether envelope colour affected response rates in a study about the effectiveness of screening older women for osteoporosis. A total of 2803 eligible female participants aged between 70 and 85 were sent an invitation pack from their GP practice. The invitation was either in a brown or white envelope and contained a matching pre-paid reply envelope. A study questionnaire was also sent out in brown or white envelopes 1 week after consenting to participate in the trial. The overall response rate was 78%. There was little evidence of an effect of envelope colour on response to the invitation to participate in the trial (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.87-1.24). Similarly, there was no influence of envelope colour on the number of participants returning their questionnaires (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.60-1.63). There was weak evidence of an effect of envelope colour on the response rates of the consent process (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.74-1.00). When we updated a recent meta-analysis with the results of this study, there was a non-statistically- significant trend for greater response rates with brown envelopes compared with white envelopes (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.86-1.64, I2=92%). However, the results where influenced by one study and when this study was excluded the pooled estimate was 0.98 (95% CI 0.89-1.08, I2=0%). This study found no evidence to suggest envelope colour has an effect on response to participate in a trial or questionnaire returns. There is weak evidence to suggest envelope colour may affect consent into a trial.

  5. Rapid Increases in forest understory diversity and productivity following a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae outbreak in pine forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J Pec

    Full Text Available The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks are well documented, information on immediate responses of forest understory plant communities is limited. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of D. ponderosae-induced tree mortality on initial changes in diversity and productivity of understory plant communities. We established a total of 110 1-m2 plots across eleven mature lodgepole pine forests to measure changes in understory diversity and productivity as a function of tree mortality and below ground resource availability across multiple years. Overall, understory community diversity and productivity increased across the gradient of increased tree mortality. Richness of herbaceous perennials increased with tree mortality as well as soil moisture and nutrient levels. In contrast, the diversity of woody perennials did not change across the gradient of tree mortality. Understory vegetation, namely herbaceous perennials, showed an immediate response to improved growing conditions caused by increases in tree mortality. How this increased pulse in understory richness and productivity affects future forest trajectories in a novel system is unknown.

  6. Rapid Increases in forest understory diversity and productivity following a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pec, Gregory J; Karst, Justine; Sywenky, Alexandra N; Cigan, Paul W; Erbilgin, Nadir; Simard, Suzanne W; Cahill, James F

    2015-01-01

    The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks are well documented, information on immediate responses of forest understory plant communities is limited. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of D. ponderosae-induced tree mortality on initial changes in diversity and productivity of understory plant communities. We established a total of 110 1-m2 plots across eleven mature lodgepole pine forests to measure changes in understory diversity and productivity as a function of tree mortality and below ground resource availability across multiple years. Overall, understory community diversity and productivity increased across the gradient of increased tree mortality. Richness of herbaceous perennials increased with tree mortality as well as soil moisture and nutrient levels. In contrast, the diversity of woody perennials did not change across the gradient of tree mortality. Understory vegetation, namely herbaceous perennials, showed an immediate response to improved growing conditions caused by increases in tree mortality. How this increased pulse in understory richness and productivity affects future forest trajectories in a novel system is unknown.

  7. Increased tidal volume variability in children is a better marker of opioid-induced respiratory depression than decreased respiratory rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Sean J; Vandebeek, Christine A; Ansermino, J Mark

    2004-06-01

    During opioid administration, decreasing respiratory rate is typically used as a predictor of respiratory depression. Prior to opioid-induced apnea, progressively irregular breathing patterns have been noticed. We hypothesize that opioid administration to children will increase tidal volume variability (TV(var)) and that this will be a better predictor of respiratory depression than a decrease in respiratory rate. We recruited 32 children aged 2-8 years scheduled to undergo surgery. During spontaneous ventilation, flow rates and respiratory rates were continuously recorded, while remifentanil was infused at stepwise increasing doses each lasting 10 min. The infusion was continued until the patient showed signs of respiratory depression. Flow data from each dose was used to calculate tidal volumes, from which TV(var) was calculated. The respiratory rate and TV(var) during the last (D(last)), second to last (D-2), and third to last (D-3), administered doses were compared to those during baseline (fourth to last dose). We chose a threshold of TV(var) increase and compared it to a decrease in respiratory rate below 10 breaths per min as predictors of respiratory depression. Compared to baseline, the TV(var) increased by 336% and 668% during D(-2) and D(last), respectively, whereas respiratory rate decreased by 14.3%, 31.7%, and 55.5% during D(-3), D(-2), and D(last), respectively. A threshold increase in TV(var) of 150% over baseline correctly predicted respiratory depression in 41% of patients, compared to a drop in respiratory rate correctly predicting 22% of patients. TV(var) increases as children approach opioid-induced respiratory depression. This is a more useful predictor of respiratory depression than a fall in respiratory rate because the TV(var) increase is 10 times the drop in respiratory rate. A TV(var) increase also correctly predicts respiratory depression twice as often as decreased respiratory rate and is independent of age-related alterations in

  8. Increased Miscarriage Rate in Female Farmers Working in Saffron Fields: A Possible Effect of Saffron Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ajam

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Exposure to saffron may increase the risk of miscarriage. Hence, it is suggested that pregnant women avoid contact with considerable amounts of saffron especially for female farmers working in saffron fields.

  9. Temporal variation of accumulation rates on a natural salt marsh in the 20th century determined by 137Cs chronologies – the impact of sea level rise and increased inundation frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Svinth, Steffen; Pejrup, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Salt marshes are potentially threatened by sea level rise if sediment supply is unable to balance the rising sea. A rapid sea level rise is one of the pronounced effects of global warming and global sea level is at present rising at an elevated rate of about 3.4 mm y-1 on average. This increasing...

  10. Use of peak decay analysis and affinity microcolumns containing silica monoliths for rapid determination of drug-protein dissociation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Michelle J; Hage, David S

    2011-04-15

    This report examined the use of silica monoliths in affinity microcolumns containing human serum albumin (HSA) to measure the dissociation rates for various drugs from this protein. Immobilized HSA and control monolith columns with dimensions of 1 mm × 4.6 mm i.d. were prepared for this work and used with a noncompetitive peak decay method. Several drugs known to bind HSA were examined, such as warfarin, diazepam, imipramine, acetohexamide, and tolbutamide. Items that were studied and optimized in this method included the sample volume, sample concentration, and elution flow rate. It was found that flow rates up to 10 mL/min could be used in this approach. Work with HSA silica monoliths at these high flow rates made it possible to provide dissociation rate constants for drugs such as warfarin in less than 40s. The dissociation rate constants that were measured gave good agreement with values reported in the literature or that had been obtained with other solutes that had similar binding affinities for HSA. This approach is a general one that should be useful in examining the dissociation of other drugs from HSA and in providing a high-throughput method for screening drug-protein interactions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in rumen microbiota composition and in situ degradation kinetics during the dry period and early lactation as affected by rate of increase of concentrate allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieho, K; van den Bogert, B; Henderson, G; Bannink, A; Ramiro-Garcia, J; Smidt, H; Dijkstra, J

    2017-04-01

    Changes in rumen microbiota and in situ degradation kinetics were studied in 12 rumen-cannulated Holstein Friesian dairy cows during the dry period and early lactation. The effect of a rapid (RAP) or gradual (GRAD) postpartum (pp) rate of increase of concentrate allowance was also investigated. Cows were fed for ad libitum intake and had free access to a mixed ration consisting of chopped wheat straw (dry period only), grass silage, corn silage, and soybean meal. Treatment consisted of either a rapid (1.0 kg of dry matter/d; n = 6) or gradual (0.25 kg of dry matter/d; n = 6) increase of concentrate allowance (up to 10.9 kg of dry matter/d), starting at 4 d pp. In whole rumen contents, bacterial community composition was assessed using samples from 50, 30, and 10 d antepartum (ap), and 3, 9, 16, 30, 44, 60, and 80 d pp, and protozoal and archaeal community composition using samples from 10 d ap, and 16 and 44 d pp. Intake of fermentable organic matter, starch, and sugar was temporarily greater in RAP than GRAD at 16 d pp. Bacterial community richness was higher during the dry period than during the lactation. A rapid increase in concentrate allowance decreased bacterial community richness at 9 and 16 d pp compared with a gradual increase in concentrate allowance, whereas from 30 d pp onward richness of RAP and GRAD was similar. In general, the relative abundances of Bacteroidales and Aeromonadales were greater, and those of Clostridiales, Fibrobacterales, and Spirochaetales were smaller, during the lactation compared with the dry period. An interaction between treatment and sampling day was observed for some bacterial community members, and most of the protozoal and archaeal community members. Transition to lactation increased the relative abundance of Epidinium and Entodinium, but reduced the relative abundance of Ostracodinium. Archaea from genus Methanobrevibacter dominated during both the dry period and lactation. However, during lactation the abundance of the

  12. Effects of alprazolam and clonidine on carbon dioxide-induced increases in anxiety rating in healthy human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, S.W.; Krystal, J.H.; Heninger, G.R.; Charney, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    In order to investigate possible neurobiologic mechanisms underlying carbon dioxide-induced anxiety, the effects of oral alprazolam 0.75 mg and intravenous clonidine 2 mcg/kg on CO/sub 2/-induced increases in ratings of subjective anxiety, pulse rate, and ventilation were measured in healthy human subjects. Pretreatment with alprazolam but not with clonidine significantly reduced the CO/sub 2/-induced increases in ratings of anxiety. Neither drug altered CO/sub 2/-induced increases in pulse rate or ventilatory responses. Clonidine did produce potent sedative and hypotensive effects. The behavioral data suggest that the mechanisms through which CO/sub 2/ induces anxiety-like effects involve neural systems regulated by benzodiazepine receptors and, secondly, that they appear not to require normal functioning of noradrenergic systems. Carbon dioxide may provide a useful model system for identification of new drugs with anxiolytic properties.

  13. Purging deleterious mutations under self fertilization: paradoxical recovery in fitness with increasing mutation rate in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi T Morran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The accumulation of deleterious mutations can drastically reduce population mean fitness. Self-fertilization is thought to be an effective means of purging deleterious mutations. However, widespread linkage disequilibrium generated and maintained by self-fertilization is predicted to reduce the efficacy of purging when mutations are present at multiple loci. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested the ability of self-fertilizing populations to purge deleterious mutations at multiple loci by exposing obligately self-fertilizing populations of Caenorhabditis elegans to a range of elevated mutation rates and found that mutations accumulated, as evidenced by a reduction in mean fitness, in each population. Therefore, purging in obligate selfing populations is overwhelmed by an increase in mutation rate. Surprisingly, we also found that obligate and predominantly self-fertilizing populations exposed to very high mutation rates exhibited consistently greater fitness than those subject to lesser increases in mutation rate, which contradicts the assumption that increases in mutation rate are negatively correlated with fitness. The high levels of genetic linkage inherent in self-fertilization could drive this fitness increase. CONCLUSIONS: Compensatory mutations can be more frequent under high mutation rates and may alleviate a portion of the fitness lost due to the accumulation of deleterious mutations through epistatic interactions with deleterious mutations. The prolonged maintenance of tightly linked compensatory and deleterious mutations facilitated by self-fertilization may be responsible for the fitness increase as linkage disequilibrium between the compensatory and deleterious mutations preserves their epistatic interaction.

  14. Increase of energy efficiency in proportional adjusting of flow rate in the boiler circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artamonov Pavel A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of theoretical studies in the field of the boiler circuit operating modes for the boiler rooms operating by the independent heat supply scheme. The 3D model of a boiler circuit for a boiler room with 3 MW rated output was developed, based on which there was made an estimation of the boiler pump performance indicators. There is proposed a method for reducing energy costs for the operation of the pumping equipment of the boiler circuit.

  15. Increasing Calcium Carbonate (Caco3) To Growt And Survival Rate Vannamei Shrimp (Litopenaeus Vannamei))

    OpenAIRE

    Heriadi, Unggul Fitrah; ', Mulyadi; Putra, Iskandar

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted in March 2016 - April 2016 for 21 days at the NationalBroodstock Center For Shrimp and Mollusk Karangasem Bali. The purpose of this study todetermine the effect of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) on the growth and survival rate vanameishrimp (Litopeneaus vannamei). Vanamei shrimp size PL25 were used in the research. Thecontainer used fiber tub with capacity 250 liters and the volume of water used is 100 liters.The treatment is giving of calcium carbonate 20 mg, 35mg, 50m...

  16. Active Choice and Financial Incentives to Increase Rates of Screening Colonoscopy-A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Shivan J; Feingold, Jordyn; Vandertuyn, Matthew; Niewood, Tess; Cox, Catherine; Doubeni, Chyke A; Volpp, Kevin G; Asch, David A

    2017-11-01

    Behavioral economic approaches could increase uptake for colorectal cancer screening. We performed a randomized controlled trial of 2245 employees to determine whether an email containing a phone number for scheduling (control), an email with the active choice to opt in or opt out (active choice), or the active choice email plus a $100 incentive (financial incentive) increased colonoscopy completion within 3 months. Higher proportions of participants in the financial incentive group underwent screening (3.7%) than in the control (1.6%) or active choice groups (1.5%) (P = .01 and P < .01). We found no difference in uptake of screening between the active choice and control groups (P = .88). The $100 conditional incentive modestly but significantly increased colonoscopy use. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT02660671. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Choosing Surgery: Identifying Factors Leading to Increased General Surgery Matriculation Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointer, David T; Freeman, Matthew D; Korndorffer, James R; Meade, Peter C; Jaffe, Bernard M; Slakey, Douglas P

    2017-03-01

    Tulane graduates have, over the past six years, chosen general surgical residency at a rate above the national average (mean 9.6% vs 6.6%). With much of the recent career choice research focusing on disincentives and declining general surgery applicants, we sought to identify factors that positively influenced our students' decision to pursue general surgery. A 50-question survey was developed and distributed to graduates who matched into a general surgery between the years 2006 and 2014. The survey evaluated demographics, exposure to surgery, and factors affecting interest in a surgical career. We achieved a 54 per cent (61/112) response rate. Only 43 per cent considered a surgical career before medical school matriculation. Fifty-nine per cent had strongly considered a career other than surgery. Sixty-two per cent chose to pursue surgery during or immediately after their surgery clerkship. The most important factors cited for choosing general surgery were perceived career enjoyment of residents and faculty, resident/faculty relationship, and mentorship. Surgery residents and faculty were viewed as role models by 72 and 77 per cent of responders, respectively. This study demonstrated almost half of those choosing a surgical career did so as a direct result of the core rotation experience. We believe that structuring the medical student education experience to optimize the interaction of students, residents, and faculty produces a positive environment encouraging students to choose a general surgery career.

  18. US infant mortality trends attributable to accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed from 1984 through 2004: are rates increasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Kimball, Melissa; Tomashek, Kay M; Anderson, Robert N; Blanding, Sarah

    2009-02-01

    Accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed, a subgroup of sudden, unexpected infant deaths, is a leading mechanism of injury-related infant deaths. We explored trends and characteristics of these potentially preventable deaths. In this descriptive study, we analyzed US infant mortality data from 1984 through 2004. To explore trends in accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed and other sudden, unexpected infant deaths, we calculated cause-specific infant mortality rates and estimated proportionate mortality. Sudden, unexpected infant death was defined as a combination of all deaths attributed to accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed, sudden infant death syndrome, and unknown causes. Finally, we examined factors that were reported as contributing to these accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed deaths. Between 1984 and 2004, infant mortality rates attributed to accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed increased from 2.8 to 12.5 deaths per 100000 live births. These rates remained relatively stagnant between 1984 and 1992 and increased between 1992 and 2004; the most dramatic increase occurred between 1996 and 2004 (14% average annual increase). In contrast, total sudden, unexpected infant death rates remained stagnant between 1996 and 2004, whereas the proportion of deaths attributed to sudden infant death syndrome declined and to unknown cause increased. Black male infants Infant mortality rates attributable to accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed have quadrupled since 1984. The reason for this increase is unknown. Prevention efforts should target those at highest risk and focus on helping parents and caregivers provide safer sleep environments.

  19. The updated Swedish family-cancer database used to assess familial risks of prostate cancer during rapidly increasing incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemminki Kari

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Swedish Family-Cancer Database has been used for some 10 years in the study of familial risks at all common sites. In the present paper we describe some of the main features of version VII of this Database, assembled in year 2006. This update included all residents in Sweden born or immigrated in 1932 and later (offspring with their biological parents, a total of 11.5 million individuals. Cancer cases were retrieved from the Swedish Cancer Registry from years 1958 to 2004, including over 1.2 million first and multiple primary cancers and in situ tumours. We show one application of the Database in the study of familial risks in prostate cancer, with special reference to the modification of familial risk at the time of about 50% increase in incidence due to prostate specific antigen (PSA screening. The familial risks for prostate cancer were 1.92 for sons of affected fathers, 3.03 for brothers and 5.44 for men with an affected father and an affected brother. Familial risk for prostate cancer according to the time since the first family member was diagnosed showed significant increases for two family members being diagnosed in the same year compared to 5+ years apart. Increased surveillance and the availability of PSA screening are the likely reasons for the overestimated familial relative risk shortly after the first diagnosis. This lead time bias should be considered in clinical counselling.

  20. Increase in Clostridium difficile-related Mortality Rates, United States, 1999-2004

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-01-08

    Deaths related to Clostridium difficile are on the rise in the United States. Matthew Redelings from the Los Angeles County Department of Health discusses the increase and what can be done to prevent this infection.  Created: 1/8/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 1/8/2008.

  1. Major depressive symptoms increase 3-year mortality rate in patients with mild dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jindong Ding; Waldorff, Frans Boch; Siersma, Volkert Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Depression and dementia are commonly concurrent and are both associated with increased mortality among older people. However, little is known about whether home-dwelling patients newly diagnosed with mild dementia coexisting with depressive symptoms have excess mortality. We conducted a post hoc ...

  2. Respirometry increases cortisol levels in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss: implications for measurements of metabolic rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, L.; Rennie, M. D.; Svendsen, Jon Christian

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the extent to which chasing, handling and confining Oncorhynchus mykiss to a small respirometer chamber during respirometric experiments is stressful and affects metabolic measurements. The study observed increased cortisol levels in animals tested using a chase protocol...

  3. 'But it's just a spinal': Combating increasing rates of maternal death ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The number of women dying as a result of spinal anaesthesia during caesarean section in South Africa is steadily increasing in the triennial reports of the National Committee on Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths (NCCEMD). This article postulates some of the reasons behind this phenomenon. The concern is ...

  4. Perceptual and Cognitive Factors Imposing "Speed Limits" on Reading Rate: A Study with the Rapid Serial Visual Presentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Primativo

    Full Text Available Adults read at high speed, but estimates of their reading rate vary greatly, i.e., from 100 to 1500 words per minute (wpm. This discrepancy is likely due to different recording methods and to the different perceptual and cognitive processes involved in specific test conditions. The present study investigated the origins of these notable differences in RSVP reading rate (RR. In six experiments we investigated the role of many different perceptual and cognitive variables. The presence of a mask caused a steep decline in reading rate, with an estimated masking cost of about 200 wpm. When the decoding process was isolated, RR approached values of 1200 wpm. When the number of stimuli exceeded the short-term memory span, RR decreased to 800 wpm. The semantic context contributed to reading speed only by a factor of 1.4. Finally, eye movements imposed an upper limit on RR (around 300 wpm. Overall, data indicate a speed limit of 300 wpm, which corresponds to the time needed for eye movement execution, i.e., the most time consuming mechanism. Results reconcile differences in reading rates reported by different laboratories and thus provide suggestions for targeting different components of reading rate.

  5. Perceptual and Cognitive Factors Imposing "Speed Limits" on Reading Rate: A Study with the Rapid Serial Visual Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primativo, Silvia; Spinelli, Donatella; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi; De Luca, Maria; Martelli, Marialuisa

    2016-01-01

    Adults read at high speed, but estimates of their reading rate vary greatly, i.e., from 100 to 1500 words per minute (wpm). This discrepancy is likely due to different recording methods and to the different perceptual and cognitive processes involved in specific test conditions. The present study investigated the origins of these notable differences in RSVP reading rate (RR). In six experiments we investigated the role of many different perceptual and cognitive variables. The presence of a mask caused a steep decline in reading rate, with an estimated masking cost of about 200 wpm. When the decoding process was isolated, RR approached values of 1200 wpm. When the number of stimuli exceeded the short-term memory span, RR decreased to 800 wpm. The semantic context contributed to reading speed only by a factor of 1.4. Finally, eye movements imposed an upper limit on RR (around 300 wpm). Overall, data indicate a speed limit of 300 wpm, which corresponds to the time needed for eye movement execution, i.e., the most time consuming mechanism. Results reconcile differences in reading rates reported by different laboratories and thus provide suggestions for targeting different components of reading rate.

  6. Rapid progression of gliomatosis cerebri to secondary glioblastoma, factors that affects the progression rate: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Yu, In Kyu; Kim, Seung Min; Kim, Joo Heon; Lee, Seung Hoon; Lee, Seung Yeon [Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Glioblastomas may develop de novo or through progression from low-grade or anaplastic astrocytomas. The term 'primary glioblastoma' refers to a glioblastoma that lacks a precursor lesion and has a clinical history of less than three months. On the other hand, the term 'secondary glioblastoma' indicates that the glioblastoma has progressed from a low-grade tumor after a long latency period and often manifests in younger patients. These subtypes of glioblastoma develop via different genetic pathways, and they differ in prognosis and response to therapy. Thus, differential diagnosis of these subtypes and prediction of the factors that affect the progression from low-grade diffuse astrocytoma to secondary glioblastoma would be clinically very important. We present a rare case of secondary glioblastoma, which developed only three months after the follow up imaging evaluations, with a history of low grade glioma, and present the factors that cause rapid progression.

  7. Rapid insulin-mediated increase in microvascular glycocalyx accessibility in skeletal muscle may contribute to insulin-mediated glucose disposal in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskens, Bart J M; Mooij, Hans L; Cleutjens, Jack P M; Roos, Jozef M A; Cobelens, Johanna E; Vink, Hans; Vanteeffelen, Jurgen W G E

    2013-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that insulin-mediated recruitment of microvascular blood volume is associated with insulin sensitivity. We hypothesize that insulin rapidly stimulates penetration of red blood cells (RBC) and plasma into the glycocalyx and thereby promotes insulin-mediated glucose uptake by increasing intracapillary blood volume. Experiments were performed in rats; the role of the glycocalyx was assessed by enzymatic degradation using a bolus of hyaluronidase. First, the effect of insulin on glycocalyx accessibility was assessed by measuring the depth of penetration of RBCs into the glycocalyx in microvessels of the gastrocnemius muscle with Sidestream Dark-field imaging. Secondly, peripheral insulin sensitivity was determined using intravenous insulin tolerance tests (IVITT). In addition, in a smaller set of experiments, intravital microscopy of capillary hemodynamics in cremaster muscle and histological analysis of the distribution of fluorescently labeled 40 kDa dextrans (D40) in hindlimb muscle was used to evaluate insulin-mediated increases in capillary blood volume. Insulin increased glycocalyx penetration of RBCs by 0.34±0.44 µm (Pglucose disposal compared to control rats. Insulin-mediated increases in capillary blood volume were reflected by a rapid increase in capillary tube hematocrit from 21.1±10.1% to 29.0±9.8% (Pblood in muscle, and this is associated with an increased blood volume in individual capillaries. Hyaluronidase treatment of the glycocalyx abolishes the effects of insulin on capillary blood volume and impairs insulin-mediated glucose disposal.

  8. Respirometry increases cortisol levels in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss: implications for measurements of metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, L; Rennie, M D; Svendsen, J C; Enders, E C

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the extent to which chasing, handling and confining Oncorhynchus mykiss to a small respirometer chamber during respirometric experiments is stressful and affects metabolic measurements. The study observed increased cortisol levels in animals tested using a chase protocol and subsequent intermittent-flow respirometry, suggesting that this procedural treatment may stress animals. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. Dissolved Organic Nitrogen Inputs from Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents Increase Responses of Planktonic Metabolic Rates to Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquer-Sunyer, Raquel; Conley, Daniel J; Muthusamy, Saraladevi; Lindh, Markus V; Pinhassi, Jarone; Kritzberg, Emma S

    2015-10-06

    Increased anthropogenic pressures on coastal marine ecosystems in the last century are threatening their biodiversity and functioning. Global warming and increases in nutrient loadings are two major stressors affecting these systems. Global warming is expected to increase both atmospheric and water temperatures and increase precipitation and terrestrial runoff, further increasing organic matter and nutrient inputs to coastal areas. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentrations frequently exceed those of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in aquatic systems. Many components of the DON pool have been shown to supply nitrogen nutrition to phytoplankton and bacteria. Predictions of how global warming and eutrophication will affect metabolic rates and dissolved oxygen dynamics in the future are needed to elucidate their impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Here, we experimentally determine the effects of simultaneous DON additions and warming on planktonic community metabolism in the Baltic Sea, the largest coastal area suffering from eutrophication-driven hypoxia. Both bacterioplankton community composition and metabolic rates changed in relation to temperature. DON additions from wastewater treatment plant effluents significantly increased the activation energies for community respiration and gross primary production. Activation energies for community respiration were higher than those for gross primary production. Results support the prediction that warming of the Baltic Sea will enhance planktonic respiration rates faster than it will for planktonic primary production. Higher increases in respiration rates than in production may lead to the depletion of the oxygen pool, further aggravating hypoxia in the Baltic Sea.

  10. Naked mole-rat mortality rates defy Gompertzian laws by not increasing with age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, J Graham; Smith, Megan

    2018-01-01

    The longest-lived rodent, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber), has a reported maximum lifespan of >30 years and exhibits delayed and/or attenuated age-associated physiological declines. We questioned whether these mouse-sized, eusocial rodents conform to Gompertzian mortality laws by experiencing an exponentially increasing risk of death as they get older. We compiled and analyzed a large compendium of historical naked mole-rat lifespan data with >3000 data points. Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed a substantial portion of the population to have survived at 30 years of age. Moreover, unlike all other mammals studied to date, and regardless of sex or breeding-status, the age-specific hazard of mortality did not increase with age, even at ages 25-fold past their time to reproductive maturity. This absence of hazard increase with age, in defiance of Gompertz’s law, uniquely identifies the naked mole-rat as a non-aging mammal, confirming its status as an exceptional model for biogerontology. PMID:29364116

  11. High-intensity endurance training increases nocturnal heart rate variability in sedentary participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nummela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of endurance training on endurance performance characteristics and cardiac autonomic modulation during night sleep were investigated during two 4-week training periods. After the first 4-week training period (3 x 40 min per week, at 75% of HRR the subjects were divided into HIGH group (n = 7, who performed three high-intensity endurance training sessions per week; and CONTROL group (n = 8 who did not change their training. An incremental treadmill test was performed before and after the two 4-weektraining periods. Furthermore, nocturnal RR-intervals were recorded after each training day. In the second 4-weektraining period HIGH group increased their V0Zmax (P = 0.005 more than CONTROL group. At the same time, nocturnal HR decreased (P = 0.039 and high-frequency power (HFP increased (P = 0.003 in HIGH group while no changes were observed in CONTROL group. Furthermore, a correlation was observed between the changes in nocturnal HFP and changes in V0Zmax during the second 4-week training period (r = 0.90, P < 0.001. The present study showed that the increased HFP is related to improved VO2max in sedentary subjects suggesting that nocturnal HFP can provide a useful method in monitoring individual responses to endurance training.

  12. Alcohol consumption in Polish middle and high school pupils – has this rapidly increased during 2009–11?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Wojtyła-Buciora

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction.[/b] The dynamic rise of alcohol consumption in adolescents is a matter of serious concern, requiring frequently updated monitoring. By such means, it is possible to optimise preventative measures for dealing with this problem. [b]Objective[/b]. To estimate the magnitude/amount and frequency of alcohol consumed by middle and high school pupils in Poland, including the circumstances when alcohol was first drunk. [b]Materials and Methods[/b]. A randomised survey was performed throughout Poland on middle school (junior high school pupils, (n=9360 in 2009, followed by both middle and high school pupils in 2011 (n=7971. The questionnaire was devised by the Polish Chief Sanitary Inspectorate (GIS. [b]Results[/b]. A strikingly sharp increase in alcohol consumption (29% was observed in subjects between 2009 – 2011. In the latter year, 1 month prior to survey, respectively, 50% and 71% of middle school and high school pupils drank alcohol, and correspondingly, 36% and 63% of these pupils ever became intoxicated/drunk. [b]Conclusions[/b]. 1 Adolescent alcohol consumption increases with age and is highest in girls. Monitoring as well as in-depth analysis thus becomes necessary. 2 Systematic monitoring and analysis of changing healthy lifestyle behaviour should be used for taking the necessary corrective action. This should happen concurrently and consist of planned health education programmes, including health promotion.

  13. First-pass intubation success rate during rapid sequence induction of prehospital anaesthesia by physicians versus paramedics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, J.H.; Wageningen, B. van; Hendriks, I.; Eijk, R.J.R.; Edwards, M.J.; Hoogerwerf, N.; Biert, J.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Endotracheal intubation is a frequently performed procedure for securing the airway in critically injured or ill patients. Performing prehospital intubation may be challenging and intubation skills vary. We reviewed the first-attempt tracheal intubation success rate in a Dutch

  14. From Expressive Reading to Rapid Reading: The Rise in Reading Rate During the Efficiency Movement (1910-1925)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Reading rate, a component of reading not closely attended to by educators and researchers prior to the 20th century, quickly became the subject of considerable research shortly after the turn of the century. This article uses historical content analysis to examine primary source documents from that period (1910-1925) to explore why reading rate…

  15. A Laboratory to Demonstrate the Effect of Thermal History on Semicrystalline Polymers Using Rapid Scanning Rate Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrinarayanan, Prashanth; Kessler, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the effect of thermal history on the thermal properties of semicrystalline polymers is essential for materials scientists and engineers. In this article, we describe a materials science laboratory to demonstrate the effect of parameters such as heating rate and isothermal annealing conditions on the thermal behavior of…

  16. A Boom for Whom? Exploring the Impacts of a Rapid Increase in the Male Population Upon Women's Services in Darwin, Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Gretchen; Tofa, Matalena; Finlayson, Mary; U'Ren, Julie

    2016-05-03

    A rapidly expanding natural-resource extraction industry and a growing military presence mean an increasingly male-skewed population for the city of Darwin, Australia. This has sparked concerns about the potential for increased violence against women. In this article, we present qualitative research detailing the views of 13 participants from 10 women's support services in the Darwin area. We argue that women's support services bear witness to and are tasked with responding to the impacts of population change on women, yet their work is undermined by uncertainties that stem from neoliberal funding rationales and limited demands on companies to address social issues. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Correlation between regular mouthing movements and heart rate patterns during non-rapid eye movement periods in normal human fetuses between 32 and 40 weeks of gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otera, Yuka; Morokuma, Seiichi; Fukushima, Kotaro; Wake, Norio; Kato, Kiyoko

    2013-06-01

    Regular mouthing movements (RMMs) are observed during fetal non-rapid eye movement (NREM) periods. To determine the correlation between RMM and fetal heart rate (FHR) patterns during NREM periods. Fetal eye and mouth movements and FHR patterns were observed and recorded. 50 normal singleton pregnancies between 32 and 40 weeks of gestation. Changes in the power spectrum ratio of 3-minute blocks of RMM clusters, FHR with RMM clusters (HR+), and FHR without RMM clusters (HR-) were calculated at a frequency band of 0.02 Hz among 3 gestational age groups: group 1, 32-34 weeks gestation; group 2, 35-37 weeks gestation; group 3, 38-40 weeks gestation. We calculated the percentage of cases showing dominant peak ratios of RMM and HR+ in the same frequency band, the maximum correlation coefficient, and its lag time. In group 3, the dominant peaks of both RM and HR+ were present at the same frequency band, 0.06-0.08 Hz; this was not seen in the other groups' relative power spectral patterns. The percentage of cases showing dominant peaks of RMM and HR+ in the same frequency band increased with advancing gestational age. The maximum correlation coefficient in groups 1 (0.28 ± 0.11) and 3 (0.45 ± 0.14) differed significantly (p<0.05). The correlation between RMM and FHR patterns became stronger, and their rhythmicity was similar, from 38 to 40 gestational weeks, suggesting that a common center starts to govern both patterns at approximately 38 weeks gestation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Larger ATV engine size correlates with an increased rate of traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, C Caleb; Rostas, Jack W; Lee, Y L; Gonzalez, Richard P; Brevard, Sidney B; Frotan, M Amin; Ahmed, Naveed; Simmons, Jon D

    2015-04-01

    Since the introduction of all-terrain vehicles (ATV) to the United States in 1971, injuries and mortalities related to their use have increased significantly. Furthermore, these vehicles have become larger and more powerful. As there are no helmet requirements or limitations on engine-size in the State of Alabama, we hypothesised that larger engine size would correlate with an increased incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in patients following an ATV crash. Patient and ATV data were prospectively collected on all ATV crashes presenting to a level one trauma centre from September 2010 to May 2013. Collected data included: demographics, age of driver, ATV engine size, presence of helmet, injuries, and outcomes. The data were grouped according to the ATV engine size in cubic centimetres (cc). For the purposes of this study, TBI was defined as any type of intracranial haemorrhage on the initial computed tomography scan. There were 61 patients identified during the study period. Two patients (3%) were wearing a helmet at the time of injury. Patients on an ATV with an engine size of 350 cc or greater had higher Injury Severity Scores (13.9 vs. 7.5, p ≤ 0.05) and an increased incidence of TBI (26% vs. 0%, p ≤ 0.05) when compared to patients on ATV's with an engine size less than 350 cc. Patients on an ATV with an engine size of 350 cc or greater were more likely to have a TBI. The use of a helmet was rarely present in this cohort. Legislative efforts to implement rider protection laws for ATVs are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Increasing urban community empowerment through changing of poverty rate index on the productive zakat impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaenal, M. H.; Astuti, A. D.; Sadariyah, A. S.

    2018-01-01

    We show how changes in poverty measures can be applied into growth of islamic philanthropy distribution via zakat, and we use the methodology to zakat community development (ZCD) program in Bantul during the 2016. The purpose of the present paper is to prove zakat is able to be a solution part for the community empowerment. The result is the number of productive zakat program beneficiaries whose income is below the poverty line (poor category) before the program are 244 people (H = 0.171) and after the program change to 168 (H = 0.118), which means the program has succeeded in reducing the number of poor people by 76 people (5.34 percent). The poverty gap (P1) of beneficiaries of productive zakat program in Bantul also decrease. The gap between poverty line and average income of beneficiaries is Rp 63,763 before the program, while the gap after the program is Rp 56,992. The income gap (I) is also decline from 0.197 to 0.169. Poverty severity of beneficiaries of productive zakat program in Bantul seen by Sen Index (P2) decrease from 0.093 to 0.062, while using Foster-Greer-Thorbecke Index (P3), the poverty severity decrease from 0.010 to 0.004. The analysis revealed the zakat community empowerment was significant economically in suppressing the poverty rate, and possible for reducing inequality and ending poverty in Indonesia.

  20. Stochastic Rating of Storage Systems in Isolated Networks with Increasing Wave Energy Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Tedeschi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The future success of wave energy in the renewable energy mix depends on the technical advancements of the specific components and systems, on the grid access availability and, ultimately, on the economical profitability of the investment. Small and remote islands represent an ideal framework for wave energy exploitation, due both to resource availability and to the current high cost of electricity that mostly relies on diesel generation. Energy storage can be the enabling technology to match the intermittent power generation from waves to the energy needs of the local community. In this paper real data from La Palma, in the Canary Islands, are used as a basis for the considered test case. As a first step the study quantifies the expected power production from Wave Energy Converter (WEC arrays, based on data from the Lifesaver point absorber developed by Fred. Olsen. Then, a stochastic optimization approach is applied to evaluate the convenience of energy storage introduction for reducing the final cost of energy and to define the corresponding optimal rating of the storage devices.