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Sample records for rapidly increasing economic

  1. Economic Growth of a Rapidly Developing Economy: Theoretical Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Sergeyevich Sukharev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the article is the description of economic growth. Modern economy is characterized by a high rate of changes. These changes are the limiting parameters of modern development, which requires a modification of the basic models of growth, the substantiation of the expediency and necessity of a rapid development strategy. In a simple mathematical form, the statement of the problem of economic growth in the “green economy” is examined, in which the costs of environmental measures are not considered a priori as hampering economic development (as it is common for a number of modern neoclassical and neo-Keynesian growth models. The methodological basis of the article are the econometric approach and modelling method. The article has a theoretical character. The main hypothesis supposes that the rapid development strategy cannot make an adequate development strategy under certain conditions, but may be acceptable in other its specific conditions. In this sense, the important growth conditions are the availability of resources, the effectiveness of institutions and the current economic structure, the technological effectiveness of economy, as well as the conditions of technological development (“green economy” and the path of such development. In the article, on the theoretical level of analysis, the substantiation of the adequacy of the rapid development strategy for an economic system is given, whose goal is to achieve the standard of living of the countryleader. Based on the assumptions introduced, the period for which the rapid development strategy might be implemented and the economic lag of the country might be reduced from the country-leader is determined. The conditions that ensure the impact of innovations on the rate of economic development are summarized. The introduced range of dependencies and relations can be useful for the elaboration of the theory of innovation development and for the formation of a new

  2. Rapid economic analysis of northern hardwood stand improvement options

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak

    1980-01-01

    Data and methodology are provided for projecting basal area, diameter, volumes, and values by product for northern hardwood stands, and for determining the rate of return on stand improvement investments. The method is rapid, requires a minimum amount of information, and should prove useful for on-the-ground economic analyses.

  3. Rapid estimation of the economic consequences of global earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system, operational since mid 2007, rapidly estimates the most affected locations and the population exposure at different levels of shaking intensities. The PAGER system has significantly improved the way aid agencies determine the scale of response needed in the aftermath of an earthquake. For example, the PAGER exposure estimates provided reasonably accurate assessments of the scale and spatial extent of the damage and losses following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) in China, the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (Mw 6.3) in Italy, the 2010 Haiti earthquake (Mw 7.0), and the 2010 Chile earthquake (Mw 8.8). Nevertheless, some engineering and seismological expertise is often required to digest PAGER's exposure estimate and turn it into estimated fatalities and economic losses. This has been the focus of PAGER's most recent development. With the new loss-estimation component of the PAGER system it is now possible to produce rapid estimation of expected fatalities for global earthquakes (Jaiswal and others, 2009). While an estimate of earthquake fatalities is a fundamental indicator of potential human consequences in developing countries (for example, Iran, Pakistan, Haiti, Peru, and many others), economic consequences often drive the responses in much of the developed world (for example, New Zealand, the United States, and Chile), where the improved structural behavior of seismically resistant buildings significantly reduces earthquake casualties. Rapid availability of estimates of both fatalities and economic losses can be a valuable resource. The total time needed to determine the actual scope of an earthquake disaster and to respond effectively varies from country to country. It can take days or sometimes weeks before the damage and consequences of a disaster can be understood both socially and economically. The objective of the U.S. Geological Survey's PAGER system is

  4. eRME - Rapid Maxillary Expansion in the economic way

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    Sonali Mahadevia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objectives: Rapid Maxillary Expansion constitutes a routine clinical procedure in orthodontics, involving separation of mid-palatine suture which is usually done with help of the Hyrax screw. However, because of its high cost, the use has been limited, especially in institutions. So, the purpose of this study was to construct an economical device which can expand the maxillary arch in growing patients. Materials and Methods: Six patients having constricted maxilla and posterior skeletal crossbite were randomly selected from the Department of Orthodontics. A unique, easy and simple alternative device for expanding the maxillary arch called economic Rapid Maxillary Expander (eRME has been fabricated at about one-tenth the cost of the conventional Hyrax. Pre- and post-treatment effects were statistically tested by using paired t-test at 0.05 level of significance. Results and Conclusion: The study results showed an average expansion in canine, premolar and molar regions of 4.4 mm, 6.8 mm and 9.4 mm, respectively, having significant difference pre-and post-treatment. Thus, it shows that maxillary expansion is efficiently possible with the application of this newly constructed device named eRME. This appliance also acts as a fixed retainer to avoid relapse, hence negating the need for a separate retainer.

  5. Regional Economic Accounting (REAcct). A software tool for rapidly approximating economic impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Vargas, Vanessa N.; Loose, Verne William; Starks, Shirley J.; Ellebracht, Lory A.

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes the Regional Economic Accounting (REAcct) analysis tool that has been in use for the last 5 years to rapidly estimate approximate economic impacts for disruptions due to natural or manmade events. It is based on and derived from the well-known and extensively documented input-output modeling technique initially presented by Leontief and more recently further developed by numerous contributors. REAcct provides county-level economic impact estimates in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) and employment for any area in the United States. The process for using REAcct incorporates geospatial computational tools and site-specific economic data, permitting the identification of geographic impact zones that allow differential magnitude and duration estimates to be specified for regions affected by a simulated or actual event. Using these data as input to REAcct, the number of employees for 39 directly affected economic sectors (including 37 industry production sectors and 2 government sectors) are calculated and aggregated to provide direct impact estimates. Indirect estimates are then calculated using Regional Input-Output Modeling System (RIMS II) multipliers. The interdependent relationships between critical infrastructures, industries, and markets are captured by the relationships embedded in the inputoutput modeling structure.

  6. Increase in healthcare facilities and rapid environmental degradation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Increase in healthcare facilities and rapid environmental degradation: A technological paradox in. Nigeria's urban centres. Akinwale Coker1* and Mynepalli K. C. Sridhar2. 1Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. 2Division of Environmental Health, Department of ...

  7. The impact of rapid economic growth and globalization on zinc nutrition in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwun, In-Sook; Do, Mi-Sook; Chung, Hae-Rang; Kim, Yang Ha; Beattie, John H

    2009-08-01

    Zn deficiency may be widespread in Asian countries such as South Korea. However, dietary habits have changed in response to rapid economic growth and globalization. Zn nutrition in South Koreans has therefore been assessed during a period (1969-1998) of unprecedented economic growth. Cross-sectional food consumption data from the Korean National Nutrition Survey Reports (KNNSR) of South Korea at four separate time points (1969, 1978, 1988 and 1998) were used to calculate Zn, Ca and phytate intakes using various food composition tables, databases and literature values. Nutrient values in local foods were cited from their analysed values. Average Zn intake was 5.8, 4.8 and 5.3 mg/d for 1969, 1978 and 1988 respectively, increasing to 7.3 mg/d in 1998 (73 % of the Korean Dietary Reference Intake). The phytate:Zn molar ratio decreased from 21 to 8 during the study period. Dietary Zn depletion due to marked decreases in cereal consumption, particularly barley which has a low Zn bioavailability, was counterbalanced by marked increases in the consumption of meat and fish, which are also Zn-rich foods. Reduced phytate consumption coincident with increased Zn intake suggests that Zn bioavailability also improved, particularly by 1998. Although total Zn intake was not greatly affected over the initial period of economic growth in South Korea (1969-1988), Zn contributions from different food sources changed markedly and both Zn intake and potential bioavailability were improved by 1998. The study may have implications for Zn nutrition in other Asian countries currently experiencing rapid economic growth.

  8. Energy price increases and economic development in Malaysia.

    OpenAIRE

    Fong CO

    1984-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on the impact of higher energy costs (particularly petroleum price increases) on economic development in Malaysia, 1973 to 1983 - outlines trends in gross domestic product, balance of payments, trade and economic growth; considers household income and fuel expenditure of low income rural communitys; deals with choice of technology and employment in certain high power consumption industries; discusses energy policy implications. Graphs, maps, questionnaires, refe...

  9. Rapid increase in contact allergy to Kathon CG in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannuksela, M

    1986-10-01

    In unselected eczema patients subjected to routine patch testing, the number with positive reactions to Kathon CG 100 ppm increased from none in 1983 to 0.7% in January-August 1985, and to 4.6% in September 1985 to March 1986. Repeated open application tests (ROAT) with creams containing 7-15 ppm of the isothiazolinones were positive in 12 of 24 patients tested. 2 of the ROAT-positive cases had negative patch tests to 100 ppm Kathon CG, but 1 was positive with 200 ppm. Atopic dermatitis, chronic hand dermatitis and lower leg dermatitis were the most common disorders in the positive patients. The cause of the rapid increase of Kathon CG allergy in Finland during the winter of 1985-1986 was the use of a popular moisturizing cream containing first 19 ppm, then 7 ppm of a mixture of 2 isothiazolinones (Euxyl K 100).

  10. Rapid increases in tropospheric ozone production and export from China

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    Verstraeten, Willem W.; Neu, Jessica L.; Williams, Jason E.; Bowman, Kevin W.; Worden, John R.; Boersma, K. Folkert

    2015-09-01

    Rapid population growth and industrialization have driven substantial increases in Asian ozone precursor emissions over the past decade, with highly uncertain impacts on regional and global tropospheric ozone levels. According to ozonesonde measurements, tropospheric ozone concentrations at two Asian sites have increased by 1 to 3% per year since 2000, an increase thought to contribute to positive trends in the ozone levels observed at North America’s West Coast. However, model estimates of the Asian contribution to North American ozone levels are not well-constrained by observations. Here we interpret Aura satellite measurements of tropospheric concentrations of ozone and its precursor NO2, along with its largest natural source, stratospheric ozone, using the TM5 global chemistry-transport model. We show that tropospheric ozone concentrations over China have increased by about 7% between 2005 and 2010 in response to two factors: a rise in Chinese emissions by about 21% and increased downward transport of stratospheric ozone. Furthermore, we find that transport from China of ozone and its precursors has offset about 43% of the 0.42 DU reduction in free-tropospheric ozone over the western United States that was expected between 2005 and 2010 as a result of emissions reductions associated with federal, state and local air quality policies. We conclude that global efforts may be required to address regional air quality and climate change.

  11. CONTINUING THE REFORMS IN MAJOR SIGNIFICANCE FIELDS FOR ECONOMIC INCREASE

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    CECILIA ELENA VĂDUVA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The macroeconomic framework has to focus on structural reforms, tax and budgetary policy, agriculture and rural development, and the macroeconomic framework has to follow IMMs preservation. Form the convergence view the macroeconomic framework supports the durability of the economic increase including by financing the development of physical infrastructures of the human capital.

  12. Economic Effects of Increased Control Zone Sizes in Conflict Resolution

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    Datta, Koushik

    1998-01-01

    A methodology for estimating the economic effects of different control zone sizes used in conflict resolutions between aircraft is presented in this paper. The methodology is based on estimating the difference in flight times of aircraft with and without the control zone, and converting the difference into a direct operating cost. Using this methodology the effects of increased lateral and vertical control zone sizes are evaluated.

  13. Skills Management: A Base for Increasing Economic Competitiveness in Romania

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    Viorica CHIŞU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study incorporates an analysis of the performance of higher education system (the Bologna Model from the perspective of evaluations made by companies. The main objective is to identify the competence areas required from fresh graduates for sustaining the contention of business enterprises and to analyse investments made by companies for developing talents within the framework of pressure generated by the economic crisis. The study take into consideration the partnership between the economic environment and higher education institutions as well as an anticipation of occupation trends for young graduates based on employee forecasts. Research results demonstrate the fact that the education system relies mainly on a transfer of knowledge and not on developing the competencies necessary for enhancing the employment chances of graduates or on their job performance. Only two out of ten employers are satisfied by the competencies demonstrated by graduates, the statistics being similar to the number of employers who collaborate with higher education institutions for providing adequate study programmes. From amongst the companies declaring that they provide continual development programmes, most invest in courses related to communication, team work and client orientation, although they are not satisfied with the graduates’ abilities in solving problems, making decisions or in leadership. A weak collaboration between companies and educational institutions generates a lack of rapid response from the educational system to the requirements of the market economy, amplifying the deficiency of competences, especially in fields with continual technological development or in those where new occupations are constantly appearing.

  14. Humans copy rapidly increasing choices in a multiarmed bandit problem

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    Toelch, U.; Bruce, M.J.; Meeus, M.T.H.; Reader, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Conformist social learning, the tendency to acquire the most common trait in a group, allows individuals to rapidly acquire established beneficial traits from a multitude of options. However, conformist strategies hinder acquisition of novel advantageous behavior patterns, because such innovations

  15. Prosocial Behavior Increases with Age across Five Economic Games.

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    Yoshie Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Ontogenic studies of human prosociality generally agree on that human prosociality increases from early childhood through early adulthood; however, it has not been established if prosociality increases beyond early adulthood. We examined a sample of 408 non-student residents from Tokyo, Japan, who were evenly distributed across age (20-59 and sex. Participants played five economic games each separated by a few months. We demonstrated that prosocial behavior increased with age beyond early adulthood and this effect was shown across all five economic games. A similar, but weaker, age-related trend was found in one of three social value orientation measures of prosocial preferences. We measured participants' belief that manipulating others is a wise strategy for social success, and found that this belief declined with age. Participants' satisfaction with the unilateral exploitation outcome of the prisoner's dilemma games also declined with age. These two factors-satisfaction with the DC outcome in the prisoner's dilemma games and belief in manipulation-mediated the age effect on both attitudinal and behavioral prosociality. Participants' age-related socio-demographic traits such as marriage, having children, and owning a house weakly mediated the age effect on prosociality through their relationships with satisfaction with the DC outcome and belief in manipulation.

  16. Prosocial Behavior Increases with Age across Five Economic Games.

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    Matsumoto, Yoshie; Yamagishi, Toshio; Li, Yang; Kiyonari, Toko

    2016-01-01

    Ontogenic studies of human prosociality generally agree on that human prosociality increases from early childhood through early adulthood; however, it has not been established if prosociality increases beyond early adulthood. We examined a sample of 408 non-student residents from Tokyo, Japan, who were evenly distributed across age (20-59) and sex. Participants played five economic games each separated by a few months. We demonstrated that prosocial behavior increased with age beyond early adulthood and this effect was shown across all five economic games. A similar, but weaker, age-related trend was found in one of three social value orientation measures of prosocial preferences. We measured participants' belief that manipulating others is a wise strategy for social success, and found that this belief declined with age. Participants' satisfaction with the unilateral exploitation outcome of the prisoner's dilemma games also declined with age. These two factors-satisfaction with the DC outcome in the prisoner's dilemma games and belief in manipulation-mediated the age effect on both attitudinal and behavioral prosociality. Participants' age-related socio-demographic traits such as marriage, having children, and owning a house weakly mediated the age effect on prosociality through their relationships with satisfaction with the DC outcome and belief in manipulation.

  17. rapid increase in precaution The global financial crisis: origin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-05-01

    May 1, 2010 ... The financial crisis that erupted in September 2008—following more than two years of financial turmoil .... The study begins with a brief historical description of financial crises from the Great Depression of ... financial crisis of 1997/98 and the current global economic crisis (2008/09). [. The Great Depression.

  18. Chicken farming in grassland increases environmental sustainability and economic efficiency.

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    Liu, Meizhen; Wang, Bingxue; Osborne, Colin P; Jiang, Gaoming

    2013-01-01

    Grassland degradation caused by overgrazing poses a threat to both animal husbandry and environmental sustainability in most semi-arid areas especially north China. Although the Chinese Government has made huge efforts to restore degraded grasslands, a considerable attempt has unfortunately failed due to an inadequate consideration of economic benefits to local communities. A controlled field experiment was conducted to test our hypothesis that utilizing natural grasslands as both habitat and feed resources for chickens and replacing the traditional husbandry system with chicken farming would increase environmental sustainability and raise income. Aboveground plant biomass elevated from 25 g m(-2) for grazing sheep to 84 g m(-2) for chicken farming. In contrast to the fenced (unstocked) grassland, chicken farming did not significantly decrease aboveground plant biomass, but did increase the root biomass by 60% (ptraditional sheep grazing, chicken farming significantly improved soil surface water content (0-10 cm), from 5% to 15%. Chicken farming did not affect the soil bulk density, while the traditional sheep grazing increased the soil bulk density in the 0-10 cm soil layer by 35% of the control (ptraditional practice of raising sheep. Ecologically, such an innovative solution allowed large degraded grasslands to naturally regenerate. Grasslands also provided a high quality organic poultry product which could be marketed in big cities. Chicken farming is an innovative alternative strategy for increasing environmental sustainability and economic income, rather than a challenge to the traditional nomadic pastoral system. Our approach might be technically applicable to other large degraded grasslands of the world, especially in China.

  19. Increase Economic Valuation of Marine Ecotourism Spots In Small Islands

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    Rahakbauw, Siska D.; Teniwut, Wellem A.; Renjaan, Meiskyana R.; Hungan, Marselus

    2017-10-01

    Ecotourism is one of the fast-growing sectors especially in the developing country as a source of revenue. To get a sustainable development of ecotourism, it needs broad and comprehensive effort from central government and local government, perfect example in that regards in Indonesia is Bali and Lombok. For another area in Indonesia like Kei Islands which located in two administrative governments have a major problem to build a sustainable nature-based tourism because of the location of this area to the major cities in the country makes the travel cost is high. This situation makes the role of local community as the backbone of the growth and development of nature-based tourism is critical. By using structural equation modeling (SEM), we constructed a model to enhance local community perception on economic valuation of ecotourism spots in the area. Results showed that perceived quality as the mediation driven by the intensity of appearance on national television and the internet could increase community attachment to increase willingness to pay from the local community on ecotourism in Kei islands. Also, the result also indicated that WTP value for the local community on ecotourism in Kei Islands was 10.81 per trip, with average trip per month was 1 to 4 times.

  20. Rapid determination of the hypoxanthine increase in ischemic exercise tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, P. A.; Zwart, R.; Bär, P. R.; de Visser, M.; van der Helm, H. J.

    1988-01-01

    After ischemic exercise tests, performed to detect glycogenoses or myoadenylate deaminase (EC 3.5.4.6) deficiency, the increases in serum lactate and ammonia usually are measured. Determination of hypoxanthine instead of ammonia can also be used to show myoadenylate deaminase deficiency, but HPLC of

  1. The rapidly increasing usefulness of social media in urogynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alas, Alexandriah; Sajadi, Kamran P; Goldman, Howard B; Anger, Jennifer T

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the availability and quality of urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse information in social medias and the growth of such information in the past 13 months. We focused on the most popular social medias (Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube) to evaluate the key words "urogynecology," "pelvic organ prolapse," "stress incontinence," "urge incontinence," and "incontinence." Initial evaluation included top 30 search results for key word "incontinence" to compare with our study in 2010, followed by a secondary search using the top 100 items. Results were classified as useful or not useful and then further categorized by health care providers, others, commercial, or humorous in intent. Results with the intent of providing information were presumed to be informative. Comparative search over a 13-month period showed a stable amount of useful information, 40% to 39%, but an increase in the number of health professionals (22% vs 13%). However, of the 817 search results, 406 (50%) were medically useful. Only 28% were written by health professionals, but of the informative results, 56% were written by health professionals. Finally, specific search terms provided the highest relevant and useful information, but also limited the number of search items found. Over 13 months, there was an increase in useful information presented from health professionals. These changes may reflect the medical community's growing awareness of the usefulness of social media. If these trends continue, we predict the use of these medias for medical purposes will continue to increase among medical professionals.

  2. The rapidly increasing trend of cannabis use in burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehle, Charles Christopher; Nazir, Niaman; Bhavsar, Dhaval

    2015-01-01

    The use of cannabis is currently increasing according to U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Surprisingly, cannabis use among burn patients is poorly reported in literature. In this study, rates of cannabis use in burn patients are compared with general population. Data from the National Burn Repository (NBR) were used to investigate incidence, demographics, and outcomes in relation to use of cannabis as evidenced by urine drug screen (UDS). Thousands of patients from the NBR from 2002 to 2011 were included in this retrospective study. Inclusion criteria were patients older than 12 years of age who received a drug screen. Data points analyzed were patients' age, sex, UDS status, mechanism of burn injury, total body surface area, length of stay, ICU days, and insurance characteristics. Incidence of cannabis use in burn patients from the NBR was compared against national general population rates (gathered by Health and Human Services) using chi-square tests. Additionally, the burn patient population was analyzed using bivariate analysis and t-tests to find differences in the characteristics of these patients as well as differences in outcomes. Seventeen thousand eighty out of over 112,000 patients from NBR had information available for UDS. The incidence of cannabis use is increasing among the general population, but the rate is increasing more quickly among patients in the burn patient population (P = .0022). In 2002, 6.0% of patients in burn units had cannabis+ UDS, which was comparable with national incidence of 6.2%. By 2011, 27.0% of burn patients tested cannabis+ while national incidence of cannabis use was 7.0%. Patients who test cannabis+ are generally men (80.1%, P 60% of injuries, followed by scalds that are >15%. In comparing cannabis+/- patients, cannabis+ patients are more likely to be uninsured (25.2% vs 17.26%, P burns (TBSA% of 12.94 vs 10.98, P burn units is growing quickly. These patients are younger and are less likely to be insured

  3. Birth weight and delivery practice in a Vietnamese rural district during 12 year of rapid economic development.

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    Nguyen, Huong Thu; Eriksson, Bo; Tran, Toan Khanh; Nguyen, Chuc Thi Kim; Ascher, Henry

    2013-02-19

    Since the Doi Moi reform 1986 economic conditions in Vietnam have changed significantly and positive health and health care developments have been observed. International experience shows that improved economic conditions in a country can reduce the risk of perinatal mortality, decrease the risk of low birth weight and increase the mean birth weight in newborns. The Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS) FilaBavi in Bavi district outside Hanoi city has been operational since 1999. An open cohort of more than 12,000 households (52,000 persons) has been followed primarily with respect to demography, economy and education. The aim of this research is to study trends in birth weight as well as birth and delivery practices over the time period 1999-2010 in FilaBavi in relation to the social and economic development. Information about birth weight, sex, place and method of delivery, mother's age and education as well as household economy of 10,114 children, born from 1999 to 2010, was obtained from the routine data collection in the HDSS. Over the study period the mean birth weight remained at the same level, about 3,100 g, in spite of increased economic resources and technology development. At the individual child level we found associations between birth weight and household economy as well as the education of the mother. Hospital delivery increased from about 35% to 65% and the use of Caesarian section increased from 2.6% to 10.1%. During the twelve years studied, household income as well as the use of modern technology increased rapidly. In spite of that, the mean and variation of birth weight did not change systematically. It is suggested that increasing gaps in economic conditions and misallocation of resources, possibly to overuse of technology, are partly responsible.

  4. Rapid population increase in an introduced muskox population, West Greenland

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    Carsten Riis Olesen

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1962 and 1965, 27 (13 and 14 muskox yearlings were translocated from East Greenland (71°N to the Angujaartorfiup Nunaa range in West Greenland (67°N. Angujaartorfiup Nunaa is a 6600 km2 icefree, continental area where caribou are indigenous. The climate is strictly continental with a minimum of precipitation but with abundant vegetation. Aerial surveys in 1990 documented that the muskox population has increased to 2600 heads despite quota-based harvesting since 1988. The annual quota was 200, 300 and 400 for 1988, 1989 and 1990, respectively. Distribution of muskoxen shows a significant preference for low altitude habitats southeast of Kangerlussuaq Airport and around Arnangarnup Qoorua (Paradise valley. Annual population increment averages 30% and the calf crop is around 24% of the population. Yearling recruitment in the population reveals that calf mortality during winter is very limited. About half of the 1-year-old females are served and they eventually give birth to their first calf when they turn 2 years old. With half of the 2-year-old females reproducing, the calf/cow ration ranges between 0.9 and 1.0.

  5. Economic analysis of rapid multiplex polymerase chain reaction testing for meningitis/encephalitis in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Steve; Hasbun, Rodrigo; Ginocchio, Christine C; Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Zimmer, Louise; Bozzette, Samuel A

    2018-01-10

    We assessed the possible economic impact of a rapid test in pediatric patients with suspected community-acquired meningitis/encephalitis. Modeling simulated diagnosis, clinical decisions, resource use/costs of standard of care (SOC) and two cerebrospinal fluid testing strategies using FilmArray ® (FA), a US FDA-cleared system that provides results in approximately 1 h. Pathogens detected by FA caused approximately 75% of cases, 97% of which would be accurately diagnosed with FA.  Mean cost/case ranged from $17,599 to $22,025.  Syndromic testing is less expensive than SOC. Testing all suspected cases yielded greater savings ($3481/case) than testing only those with abnormal cerebrospinal fluid ($2157/case). Greater economic benefits are achievable with syndromic testing of all cases, rather than SOC or targeted syndromic testing.

  6. An economical and combined method for rapid and efficient isolation of fungal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, T; Syguła-Cholewinska, J; Szostak-Kot, J

    2014-12-18

    DNA isolation is a crucial step of conducting genetic studies in any organism. However, this process is quite difficult when studying fungi because of the need to damage the fungal cell walls of specific structures. In this study, we developed a method for the rapid and efficient isolation of fungal DNA based on simultaneous mechanical and enzymatic cell wall degradation. There are several typical modifications of the standard phenol-chloroform DNA extraction method. This method can be modified to degrade the fungal cell wall. The first step of the presented DNA extraction included manual homogenization in modified lysis buffer. Next, enzymatic digestion using 2 enzymes was conducted, including lyticase and proteinase K. To carefully select the most favorable conditions, we developed an economical, rapid, and reliable method for fungal DNA extraction that ensures both high efficiency and proper purity, which are essential for further analyses.

  7. Rapid and economical data acquisition in ultrafast frequency-resolved spectroscopy using choppers and a microcontroller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Monahan, Daniele M; Fleming, Graham

    2016-08-08

    Spectrometers and cameras are used in ultrafast spectroscopy to achieve high resolution in both time and frequency domains. Frequency-resolved signals from the camera pixels cannot be processed by common lock-in amplifiers, which have only a limited number of input channels. Here we demonstrate a rapid and economical method that achieves the function of a lock-in amplifier using mechanical choppers and a programmable microcontroller. We demonstrate the method's effectiveness by performing a frequency-resolved pump-probe measurement on the dye Nile Blue in solution.

  8. THE NEED TO INCREASE THE COMPETITIVENESS OF ROMANIAN EXPORTS IN THE CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION

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    PAUL-BOGDAN ZAMFIR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has played an important role in international economic relations among nations across the world. In the era of globalization, countries have realized that economic cooperation with other nations is strategically important for the growth of the economy. The international context of trade has changed dramatically in recent years, and this trend will continue to occur. Thus, liberalization and globalization have induced a greater mobility of production factors, rapid relocation, fragmentation and a higher specialization of value chains activities of products and services. At the same time the area of trade in services was expand. The maintaining of national value becomes is increasingly difficult to realize because the proliferation of global value chains in an attempt to minimize costs and maximize profits. The International competitiveness is therefore dynamic and competitive advantages are more volatile and less sustainable. Even so, the competitiveness is fundamental to sustainable development and successful economies create and recreate continuously competitive advantages. In these circumstances, there is no doubt that the future performance of Romania's export should be based on competitive advantages, on development of the capacity and competence export sector and the creation of an economy able to develop in conditions of free trade into increasingly globalized market. Therefore, only acting in this way, Romania should be able to successfully integrate the EU internal market.

  9. Tricalcium phosphate nanoparticles enable rapid purification, increase transduction kinetics, and modify the tropism of mammalian viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreesen, Imke A J; Lüchinger, Norman A; Stark, Wendelin J; Fussenegger, Martin

    2009-03-01

    Adenoviral, adeno-associated viral, and retroviral particles are chosen as gene delivery shuttles in more than 50% of all gene therapy clinical trials. Bulk availability of clinical-grade viral particles and their efficiency to transduce the therapeutic cargo into specific target cells remain the most critical bottlenecks in gene therapy applications to date. Capitalizing on the flame-spray technology for the reproducible economic large-scale production of amorphous tricalcium phosphate nanoparticulate powders (ATCP), we designed a scalable ready-to-use gravity-flow column set-up for the straightforward concentration and purification of transgenic adenoviral, adeno-associated viral, and lentiviral particles. Specific elution buffers enabled rapid release of viral particles from the ATCP matrix of the column and provided high-titer virus preparations in an unsurpassed period of time. The interaction of ATCP with adenoviral, adeno-associated viral, and lentiviral particles in solution increased the transduction kinetics of several mammalian cell lines in culture. The nanoparticles were also able to modify the tropism of murine leukemia virus (MLV) towards transduction of human cells. Based on these findings, we believe that the use of flame-spray tricalcium phosphate nanoparticles will lead to important progress in the development of future gene therapy initiatives.

  10. A rapid and economic in-house DNA purification method using glass syringe filters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Cheol Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Purity, yield, speed and cost are important considerations in plasmid purification, but it is difficult to achieve all of these at the same time. Currently, there are many protocols and kits for DNA purification, however none maximize all four considerations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We now describe a fast, efficient and economic in-house protocol for plasmid preparation using glass syringe filters. Plasmid yield and quality as determined by enzyme digestion and transfection efficiency were equivalent to the expensive commercial kits. Importantly, the time required for purification was much less than that required using a commercial kit. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This method provides DNA yield and quality similar to that obtained with commercial kits, but is more rapid and less costly.

  11. Rapid detection of economic adulterants in fresh milk by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, Grant; Higgs, Kerianne

    2013-05-03

    A method to aid in the detection of the economically driven adulteration of fresh milk with a range of small, nitrogen containing compounds, including melamine, ammeline, ammelide, cyanuric acid, allantoin, thiourea, urea, biuret, triuret, semicarbazide, aminotriazine, 3- and 4-aminotriazole, cyanamide, dicyandiamide, guanidine, choline, hydroxyproline, nitrate, and a range of amino acids, has been developed. (15)N2-Urea is used as an internal standard. The adulteration of milk with exogenous urea has previously been difficult to detect because of the variation in the naturally occurring levels of urea in milk. However, by monitoring the contaminants biuret and triuret, which comprise up to 1% of synthetic urea, the adulteration of milk with urea-based fertilizer can be detected. We estimate that to be economically viable, adulteration of the order of 90-4000ppm of the above adulterants would need to be added to fresh milk. For most of the compounds, an arbitrary detection threshold of 2ppm is therefore more than sufficient. For biuret, a lower detection threshold, better than 0.5ppm, is desirable and the sensitivity for biuret and triuret can be improved by the post-column addition of lithium to create lithium adducts under electrospray ionisation. Sample handling involves a two-step solvent precipitation method that is deployed in a 96-well plate format, and the hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography uses a rapid gradient (1.2min). Three separate injections, to detect the positively charged compounds, the negatively charged compounds and amino acids and finally the lithium adducts, are used. This rapid and qualitative survey method may be deployed as a second tier screening method to quickly reduce sample numbers indicated as irregular by an FTIR based screening system, and to direct analysis to appropriate quantification methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A Rapid and Economical Method for Efficient DNA Extraction from Diverse Soils Suitable for Metagenomic Applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraju Gayathri Devi

    Full Text Available A rapid, cost effective method of metagenomic DNA extraction from soil is a useful tool for environmental microbiology. The present work describes an improved method of DNA extraction namely "powdered glass method" from diverse soils. The method involves the use of sterile glass powder for cell lysis followed by addition of 1% powdered activated charcoal (PAC as purifying agent to remove humic substances. The method yielded substantial DNA (5.87 ± 0.04 μg/g of soil with high purity (A260/280: 1.76 ± 0.05 and reduced humic substances (A340: 0.047 ± 0.03. The quality of the extracted DNA was compared against five different methods based on 16S rDNA PCR amplification, BamHI digestion and validated using quantitative PCR. The digested DNA was used for a metagenomic library construction with the transformation efficiency of 4 X 106 CFU mL-1. Besides providing rapid, efficient and economical extraction of metgenomic DNA from diverse soils, this method's applicability is also demonstrated for cultivated organisms (Gram positive B. subtilis NRRL-B-201, Gram negative E. coli MTCC40, and a microalgae C. sorokiniana UTEX#1666.

  13. A Rapid and Economical Method for Efficient DNA Extraction from Diverse Soils Suitable for Metagenomic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Selvaraju Gayathri; Fathima, Anwar Aliya; Radha, Sudhakar; Arunraj, Rex; Curtis, Wayne R; Ramya, Mohandass

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, cost effective method of metagenomic DNA extraction from soil is a useful tool for environmental microbiology. The present work describes an improved method of DNA extraction namely "powdered glass method" from diverse soils. The method involves the use of sterile glass powder for cell lysis followed by addition of 1% powdered activated charcoal (PAC) as purifying agent to remove humic substances. The method yielded substantial DNA (5.87 ± 0.04 μg/g of soil) with high purity (A260/280: 1.76 ± 0.05) and reduced humic substances (A340: 0.047 ± 0.03). The quality of the extracted DNA was compared against five different methods based on 16S rDNA PCR amplification, BamHI digestion and validated using quantitative PCR. The digested DNA was used for a metagenomic library construction with the transformation efficiency of 4 X 106 CFU mL-1. Besides providing rapid, efficient and economical extraction of metgenomic DNA from diverse soils, this method's applicability is also demonstrated for cultivated organisms (Gram positive B. subtilis NRRL-B-201, Gram negative E. coli MTCC40, and a microalgae C. sorokiniana UTEX#1666).

  14. A Rapid and Economical Method for Efficient DNA Extraction from Diverse Soils Suitable for Metagenomic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Selvaraju Gayathri; Fathima, Anwar Aliya; Radha, Sudhakar; Arunraj, Rex; Curtis, Wayne R.; Ramya, Mohandass

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, cost effective method of metagenomic DNA extraction from soil is a useful tool for environmental microbiology. The present work describes an improved method of DNA extraction namely “powdered glass method” from diverse soils. The method involves the use of sterile glass powder for cell lysis followed by addition of 1% powdered activated charcoal (PAC) as purifying agent to remove humic substances. The method yielded substantial DNA (5.87 ± 0.04 μg/g of soil) with high purity (A260/280: 1.76 ± 0.05) and reduced humic substances (A340: 0.047 ± 0.03). The quality of the extracted DNA was compared against five different methods based on 16S rDNA PCR amplification, BamHI digestion and validated using quantitative PCR. The digested DNA was used for a metagenomic library construction with the transformation efficiency of 4 X 106 CFU mL-1. Besides providing rapid, efficient and economical extraction of metgenomic DNA from diverse soils, this method’s applicability is also demonstrated for cultivated organisms (Gram positive B. subtilis NRRL-B-201, Gram negative E. coli MTCC40, and a microalgae C. sorokiniana UTEX#1666). PMID:26167854

  15. Fertility in Alberta in a Context of Rapid Economic Growth, 1997-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Trovato

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Historically, birth rates in Alberta have followed closely the trajectory of change experienced by the other Canadian provinces. Its total fertility rate fell during the low point of the 1930s; it increased during the post-War baby boom in the 1950s and sixties, and thereafter fell to subreplacement levels beginning in the mid 1970s. In recent years, especially since the early 2000s, the birth rate in Alberta has unexpectedly increased, such that by 2007, it had reached 1.90 children per woman - not far from the 2.1 level needed for generational replacement in the long term. During this same period both national and provincial fertility rates fluctuated at levels below those of Alberta (except Saskatchewan and Manitoba, whose rates have been higher. In this study, I examine the historical pattern of fertility change in Alberta, noting similarities and differences with the other provinces. I then look at the association of selected macro level factors (marriage, unemployment, wages, female labour force participation with change in total and parity-specific birth rates between 1997 and 2007, a period of unprecedented economic growth in Alberta. The statistical results show that although marriage is not significantly correlated with change in fertility rates, male and female wages and female labour force participation all show associations consistent with a procyclical interpretation of fertility change - that is, periods of economic growth are conducive to fertility increase whereas bad economic times are associated with reduced fertility.

  16. Fertility in Alberta in a Context of Rapid Economic Growth, 1997-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Trovato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, birth rates in Alberta have followed closely the trajectory of change experienced by the other Canadian provinces. Its total fertility rate fell during the low point of the 1930s; it increased during the post-War baby boom in the 1950s and sixties, and thereafter fell to sub-replacement levels beginning in the mid 1970s. In recent years, especially since the early 2000s, the birth rate in Alberta has unexpectedly increased, such that by 2007, it had reached 1.90 children per woman---not far from the 2.1 level needed for generational replacement in the long term. During this same period both national and provincial fertility rates fluctuated at levels below those of Alberta (except Saskatchewan and Manitoba, whose rates have been higher. In this study, I examine the historical pattern of fertility change in Alberta, noting similarities and differences with the other provinces. I then look at the association of selected macro level factors (marriage, unemployment, wages, female labour force participation with change in total and parity-specific birth rates between 1997 and 2007, a period of unprecedented economic growth in Alberta. The statistical results show that although marriage is not significantly correlated with change in fertility rates, male and female wages and female labour force participation all show associations consistent with a procyclical interpretation of fertility change --- that is, periods of economic growth are conducive to fertility increase whereas bad economic times lead to reduced fertility.

  17. Trade Protectionism: An Increasing Threat to Global Economic Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes Ghibutiu

    2013-01-01

    Unlike the Great Depression of the 1930, the Great Recession of 2008-2009 did not trigger a massive wave of protectionism as expected. Nevertheless, numerous countries have adjusted their trade policies during the financial crisis to mitigate its negative effects. Despite the widely shared view that crisis-related protectionism has been limited and kept under control by the WTO’s multilateral rules, available date provide clear evidence on the quite notable increase in the number and incidenc...

  18. Insight into the Physical and Dynamical Processes that Control Rapid Increases in Total Flash Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Elise V.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid increases in total lightning (also termed "lightning jumps") have been observed for many decades. Lightning jumps have been well correlated to severe and hazardous weather occurrence. The main focus of lightning jump work has been on the development of lightning algorithms to be used in real-time assessment of storm intensity. However, in these studies it is typically assumed that the updraft "increases" without direct measurements of the vertical motion, or specification of which updraft characteristic actually increases (e.g., average speed, maximum speed, or convective updraft volume). Therefore, an end-to-end physical and dynamical basis for coupling rapid increases in total flash rate to increases in updraft speed and volume must be understood in order to ultimately relate lightning occurrence to severe storm metrics. Herein, we use polarimetric, multi-Doppler, and lightning mapping array measurements to provide physical context as to why rapid increases in total lightning are closely tied to severe and hazardous weather.

  19. Pilot testing a methodology to measure the marginal increase in economic impact of rural tourism sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    April Evans; Hans Vogelsong

    2008-01-01

    Rural tourism is a rapidly expanding industry which holds some promise of improving the economy in small towns and farming regions. However, rural communities have limited funding available for promotional efforts. To understand if limited funds are effective in producing the desired economic impacts, it is important that rural communities evaluate their promotional...

  20. INCREASING THE LEVEL OF INFORMATION MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES OF ECONOMIC ENTITIES, OF THE SERVICE SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Krolivetskii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the chosen topic of the article is to increase the information level of innovation activity of economic entities of services and on this basis to provide the growth of their competitiveness, the effectiveness of the economic development management. Regulation of the information security level management system competitiveness of business entities and service industries increases the quality of the management decisions that promote sustainable economic development. The article gives a detailed analysis of the factors determining the possibilities and limitations that have a direct impact on the level of innovation activity of economic entities of services, such as: the level of skills, methods for collecting and recording information, the order of its systematization, etc. Contribution of the author in the development of the theme of the article is the definition of methodological campaigns creating organizational and economic conditions for information security management activities of economic entities of services, aimed at increasing competitiveness and quality of services.

  1. Water Quality Changes during Rapid Urbanization in the Shenzhen River Catchment: An Integrated View of Socio-Economic and Infrastructure Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-peng Qin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface water quality deterioration is a serious problem in many rapidly urbanizing catchments in developing countries. There is currently a lack of studies that quantify water quality variation (deterioration or otherwise due to both socio-economic and infrastructure development in a catchment. This paper investigates the causes of water quality changes over the rapid urbanization period of 1985–2009 in the Shenzhen River catchment, China and examines the changes in relation to infrastructure development and socio-economic policies. The results indicate that the water quality deteriorated rapidly during the earlier urbanization stages before gradually improving over recent years, and that rapid increases in domestic discharge were the major causes of water quality deterioration. Although construction of additional wastewater infrastructure can significantly improve water quality, it was unable to dispose all of the wastewater in the catchment. However, it was found that socio-economic measures can significantly improve water quality by decreasing pollutant load per gross regional production (GRP or increasing labor productivity. Our findings suggest that sustainable development during urbanization is possible, provided that: (1 the wastewater infrastructure should be constructed timely and revitalized regularly in line with urbanization, and wastewater treatment facilities should be upgraded to improve their nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies; (2 administrative regulation policies, economic incentives and financial policies should be implemented to encourage industries to prevent or reduce the pollution at the source; (3 the environmental awareness and education level of local population should be increased; (4 planners from various sectors should consult each other and adapt an integrated planning approach for socio-economic and wastewater infrastructure development.

  2. Spatiotemporal changes in both asset value and GDP associated with seismic exposure in China in the context of rapid economic growth from 1990 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jidong; Wang, Cailin; He, Xin; Wang, Xu; Li, Ning

    2017-03-01

    Accurate exposure estimation is essential for seismic risk assessment. Recent rapid urbanization and economic growth in China have led to massive spatiotemporal changes in both the asset value and GDP exposed to seismic hazards. Using available GDP data, the asset value dataset produced by Wu et al (2014a) and spatial disaggregation technology, gridded maps of GDP and asset value are overlaid with the latest seismic map to investigate spatiotemporal changes in economic exposure in the most seismically hazardous areas (MSHAs) in China in 1990, 2000 and 2010. We found that 15.4% of China’s asset value and 14.1% of China’s GDP were located in MSHAs in 2010, and the asset value and GDP exposed to MSHAs reached 15.9 trillion CNY and 6.2 trillion CNY, respectively, with average annual rates of increase of 14.4% and 11.3% over the two decades. The evidence of increased exposure provides valuable information regarding whom or what risk managers should give the most attention based on the economic exposure changes in earthquake-prone areas of China. Notably, the North China seismic belt, which is associated with the largest economic exposure to earthquakes and a rapidly increasing rate of economic exposure compared to those in other seismic belts, and the Qinghai-Tibet seismic belt, which has the highest earthquake occurrence, are two seismic belts of interest. A more detailed study is required to determine the relationship between increased economic exposure and earthquake disaster losses combined with hazard level and vulnerability.

  3. SOCIAL INEQUALITY IN CHINA AS A RESULT OF THE RAPID ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вероника Игоревна Шехурдина

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the period of openness in China, laid the foundation for more than 30 years ago, he has made remarkable progress in increasing incomes and reducing absolute poverty. However, they are caused by rising inequality. It should be noted that the rise in inequality was seen almost everywhere in the world over the past two decades. Growing dissatisfaction with the quality of economic growth is often seen in favor of certain groups more than the general population. This is clearly reflected in the growth of inequality between different groups - the rich are getting richer faster than the poor. The economic literature attributes this mainly to globalization, technological change, skills-based, and reduce the "power" of the workers. Growth model, which accompanies the last three decades to China, included a trade-off between high growth (and subsequent reduction of absolute poverty and worsening inequality. The government of China has recognized this problem and taken active steps to reduce the gap incomes and standards of living in the city and rural areas, which have already brought the first results.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-10-16

  4. Increased corrosion resistance of the AZ80 magnesium alloy by rapid solidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghion, E; Jan, L; Meshi, L; Goldman, J

    2015-11-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and Mg-alloys are being considered as implantable biometals. Despite their excellent biocompatibility and good mechanical properties, their rapid corrosion is a major impediment precluding their widespread acceptance as implantable biomaterials. Here, we investigate the potential for rapid solidification to increase the corrosion resistance of Mg alloys. To this end, the effect of rapid solidification on the environmental and stress corrosion behavior of the AZ80 Mg alloy vs. its conventionally cast counterpart was evaluated in simulated physiological electrolytes. The microstructural characteristics were examined by optical microscopy, SEM, TEM, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The corrosion behavior was evaluated by immersion, salt spraying, and potentiodynamic polarization. Stress corrosion resistance was assessed by Slow Strain Rate Testing. The results indicate that the corrosion resistance of rapidly solidified ribbons is significantly improved relative to the conventional cast alloy due to the increased Al content dissolved in the α-Mg matrix and the correspondingly reduced presence of the β-phase (Mg17 Al12 ). Unfortunately, extrusion consolidated solidified ribbons exhibited a substantial reduction in the environmental performance and stress corrosion resistance. This was mainly attributed to the detrimental effect of the extrusion process, which enriched the iron impurities and increased the internal stresses by imposing a higher dislocation density. In terms of immersion tests, the average corrosion rate of the rapidly solidified ribbons was <0.4 mm/year compared with ∼2 mm/year for the conventionally cast alloy and 26 mm/year for the rapidly solidified extruded ribbons. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Increasing the Economical Efficiency and Sustainability of Indoor Fish Farming by Means of Aquaponics - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavius Blidariu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on increasing economical efficiency and sustainability of indoor fish farming. Aspects like sustainability and economical efficiency were reviewed. In order to improve man`s health we must reconsider the agricultural sciences, by this we understand that we must develop technologies friendly for the environment. Sustainable indoor fish farming is the farming of the new millennium. Combining aquaculture with hydroponics we obtain a new innovation named aquaponics which respects principles of sustainable agriculture (wastewater biofiltration by plants and gives us the possibility to increase economical efficiency with an additional production (organic vegetables.

  6. Income Inequality Explains Why Economic Growth Does Not Always Translate to an Increase in Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Kesebir, Selin

    2015-10-01

    One of the most puzzling social science findings in the past half century is the Easterlin paradox: Economic growth within a country does not always translate into an increase in happiness. We provide evidence that this paradox can be partly explained by income inequality. In two different data sets covering 34 countries, economic growth was not associated with increases in happiness when it was accompanied by growing income inequality. Earlier instances of the Easterlin paradox (i.e., economic growth not being associated with increasing happiness) can thus be explained by the frequent concurrence of economic growth and growing income inequality. These findings suggest that a more even distribution of growth in national wealth may be a precondition for raising nationwide happiness. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Accessible surfaces of beta proteins increase with increasing protein molecular mass more rapidly than those of other proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V Glyakina

    Full Text Available Here we present a systematic analysis of accessible surface areas and hydrogen bonds of 2554 globular proteins from four structural classes (all-α, all-β, α/β and α+β proteins that is aimed to learn in which structural class the accessible surface area increases with increasing protein molecular mass more rapidly than in other classes, and what structural peculiarities are responsible for this effect. The beta structural class of proteins was found to be the leader, with the following possible explanations of this fact. First, in beta structural proteins, the fraction of residues not included in the regular secondary structure is the largest, and second, the accessible surface area of packaged elements of the beta-structure increases more rapidly with increasing molecular mass in comparison with the alpha-structure. Moreover, in the beta structure, the probability of formation of backbone hydrogen bonds is higher than that in the alpha helix for all residues of α+β proteins (the average probability is 0.73±0.01 for the beta-structure and 0.60±0.01 for the alpha-structure without proline and α/β proteins, except for asparagine, aspartic acid, glycine, threonine, and serine (0.70±0.01 for the beta-structure and 0.60±0.01 for the alpha-structure without the proline residue. There is a linear relationship between the number of hydrogen bonds and the number of amino acid residues in the protein (Number of hydrogen bonds=0.678·number of residues-3.350.

  8. Rapid economic growth leads to boost in NO2 pollution over India, as seen from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilboll, Andreas; Richter, Andreas; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decades, the Indian economy has been growing at an exceptional pace. This growth was induced and accompanied by a strong increase of the Indian population. Consequently, traffic, electricity consumption, and industrial production have soared over the past decades, leading to a strong increase in fuel consumption and thus pollutant emissions. Nitrogen oxides (NO+NO2) are a major component of anthropogenic air pollution, playing key part in reaction cycles leading to the formation of tropospheric ozone. They are mainly emitted by the combustion of fossil fuels; other sources include production by lightning, biomass burning, and microbial activity in soils. Since the mid-1990s, space-borne measurements of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have been conducted by the GOME, SCIAMACHY, GOME-2, and OMI instruments. These instruments perform hyperspectral measurements of scattered and reflected sunlight. Their measurements are then analyzed using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) to yield vertically integrated columnar trace gas abundances. Here, we will present the results of 20 years of NO2 measurements over the Indian subcontinent. After showing the spatial distribution of NO2 pollution over India, we will present time series for individual states and urban agglomerations. These time series will then be related to various indicators of economic development. Finally, we will highlight several instances where single industrial pollution sources and their development can clearly be identified from the NO2 maps and estimate their NO2 emissions.

  9. Estimation of increased regional income that emanates from economically justified road construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Pienaar

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies the possible development benefits than can emanate from economically justified road construction projects. It shows how the once-off increase in regional income resulting from investment in road construction projects, and the recurring additional regional income resulting from the use of new or improved roads can be estimated. The difference is shown that exists between a cost-benefit analysis (to determine how economically justified a project is and a regional economic income analysis (to estimate the general economic benefits that will be developed by investment in and usage of a road. Procedures are proposed through which the once-off and recurring increases in regional income can be estimated by using multiplier and accelerator analyses respectively. Finally guidelines are supplied on the appropriate usage of input variables in the calculation of the regional income multiplier.

  10. Explaining the Rapid Increase in Nigeria's Sex Ratio at Birth: Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    This paper examines the rapid increase in Nigeria's sex ratio at birth from 1.03 boys born for every 1 girl born in each year from. 1996-2008 to 1.06 in each year from 2009-2014, second only to Tunisia in Africa at 1.07. The average sex ratio at birth in the world in 2014 was 1.07. In most Black African nations or Black majority ...

  11. Increase of Exports as a Potential Factor for Sustainable Economic Development of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Myrvete Badivuku - Pantina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Kosovo as the newest state in the region, in the economic aspect represents an economic complex with considerable potential of human, economic and demographic resources, having an open economy and entirely Euro integrated, with the central position in Balkan Peninsula. As a new state Kosovo is going through a transition phase and is found in an unsatisfactory position, therefore a serious professional intervention by the competent mechanisms is necessary towards finding an adequate solution which enables a speedier economic, social and cultural development, thus accessing into economic and political integrations in the region and in Europe. Kosovo economy during 2012 was characterised by a positive norm of growth. The real norm of economic growth in the country reached the figure of 2.9 per cent. The slowest developments in the regional and European markets during this year appeared as a challenge for the general economic activity in the country. In 2012, a decrease was marked from several important sources of financing in the country, especially the foreign direct investments. A reduction was also characterised in export of goods, but, growth of export of the services neutralised the effect of decrease of goods export. Kosovo suffers from the negative trade balance, implying that Kosovo depends on imports, whereas its opportunities to export local products into foreign market are very low. With intention of improving the competitive position of Kosovar enterprises, and for increasing export into world market, the existing economic policies need to be amended and supplemented and the institutional functioning needs to be improved as well. The aim of this study is to provide a realistic overview of the economic situation of Kosovo through an overall analysis and to also give recommendations with intention of improving the trade balance in favour of increase of Kosovar export in the future.

  12. Rapid Adjustments Cause Weak Surface Temperature Response to Increased Black Carbon Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stjern, Camilla Weum; Samset, Bjørn Hallvard; Myhre, Gunnar; Forster, Piers M.; Hodnebrog, Øivind; Andrews, Timothy; Boucher, Olivier; Faluvegi, Gregory; Iversen, Trond; Kasoar, Matthew; Kharin, Viatcheslav; Kirkevâg, Alf; Lamarque, Jean-François; Olivié, Dirk; Richardson, Thomas; Shawki, Dilshad; Shindell, Drew; Smith, Christopher J.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Voulgarakis, Apostolos

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the climate response to increased concentrations of black carbon (BC), as part of the Precipitation Driver Response Model Intercomparison Project (PDRMIP). A tenfold increase in BC is simulated by nine global coupled-climate models, producing a model median effective radiative forcing of 0.82 (ranging from 0.41 to 2.91) W m-2, and a warming of 0.67 (0.16 to 1.66) K globally and 1.24 (0.26 to 4.31) K in the Arctic. A strong positive instantaneous radiative forcing (median of 2.10 W m-2 based on five of the models) is countered by negative rapid adjustments (-0.64 W m-2 for the same five models), which dampen the total surface temperature signal. Unlike other drivers of climate change, the response of temperature and cloud profiles to the BC forcing is dominated by rapid adjustments. Low-level cloud amounts increase for all models, while higher-level clouds are diminished. The rapid temperature response is particularly strong above 400 hPa, where increased atmospheric stabilization and reduced cloud cover contrast the response pattern of the other drivers. In conclusion, we find that this substantial increase in BC concentrations does have considerable impacts on important aspects of the climate system. However, some of these effects tend to offset one another, leaving a relatively small median global warming of 0.47 K per W m-2—about 20% lower than the response to a doubling of CO2. Translating the tenfold increase in BC to the present-day impact of anthropogenic BC (given the emissions used in this work) would leave a warming of merely 0.07 K.

  13. THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL INNOVATION CLUSTERS ON INCREASING ECONOMIC AGENTS SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ustymenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of enterprises integration into international innovation clusters on the increasing of enterprises, countries and regions economic sustainability under the global instability are explored. Potential sources of instability and threats of the integration into international cluster structures are defined. Author outlines the main benefits of international innovation cluster for enhancement of economic agents sustainability, such as: possibility for joint exploitation of market opportunities and efforts consolidation for overcoming market threats, cluster self-sufficiency, effective cluster internal reorganization and adaptation in response to external changes. Three clusters (engineering for agriculture production cluster (Hersonska oblast and German enterprises, IT cluster (Lvivska oblast and Poland enterprises, cluster for R&D commercialization (Slobodzanschina euroregion are examined to uncover the role of international innovation cluster formation on enhancement of economic agents' economic sustainability.

  14. Scopolamine rapidly increases mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling, synaptogenesis, and antidepressant behavioral responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voleti, Bhavya; Navarria, Andrea; Liu, Rong-Jian; Banasr, Mounira; Li, Nanxin; Terwilliger, Rose; Sanacora, Gerard; Eid, Tore; Aghajanian, George; Duman, Ronald S

    2013-11-15

    Clinical studies report that scopolamine, an acetylcholine muscarinic receptor antagonist, produces rapid antidepressant effects in depressed patients, but the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic response have not been determined. The present study examines the role of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and synaptogenesis, which have been implicated in the rapid actions of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists. The influence of scopolamine on mTORC1 signaling was determined by analysis of the phosphorylated and activated forms of mTORC1 signaling proteins in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The numbers and function of spine synapses were analyzed by whole cell patch clamp recording and two-photon image analysis of PFC neurons. The actions of scopolamine were examined in the forced swim test in the absence or presence of selective mTORC1 and glutamate receptor inhibitors. The results demonstrate that a single, low dose of scopolamine rapidly increases mTORC1 signaling and the number and function of spine synapses in layer V pyramidal neurons in the PFC. Scopolamine administration also produces an antidepressant response in the forced swim test that is blocked by pretreatment with the mTORC1 inhibitor or by a glutamate alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor antagonist. Taken together, the results demonstrate that the antidepressant actions of scopolamine require mTORC1 signaling and are associated with increased glutamate transmission, and synaptogenesis, similar to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists. These findings provide novel targets for safer and more efficacious rapid-acting antidepressant agents. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry.

  15. Rapid increases in training load affects markers of skeletal muscle damage and mechanical performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Snieckus, Audrius; Venckunas, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    a program involving a rapid stepwise increase in the number of jumps, drop height, and squat depth, and the addition of weight. Concentric, isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and stimulated knee extension torque were measured before and 10 min after each session. Muscle soreness and plasma...... creatine kinase activity were assessed after each session. Steep increments in stretch-shortening exercise load in sessions 4 and 7 amplified the postexercise decrease in stimulated muscle torque and slightly increased muscle soreness but had a minimal effect on the recovery of MVC and stimulated torque......The aim of the present study was to monitor the changes in indirect markers of muscle damage during 3 weeks (nine training sessions) of stretch-shortening (drop jump) exercise with constant load alternated with steep increases in load. Physically active men (n = 9, mean age 19.1 years) performed...

  16. Increased stress among women following an economic collapse--a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauksdóttir, Arna; McClure, Christopher; Jonsson, Stefan Hrafn; Olafsson, Orn; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur A

    2013-05-01

    There is a scarcity of data on mental health effects of the global economic recession. In this study, we investigated potential change in self-reported levels of psychological stress in the Icelandic population as a result of the major national economic collapse that occurred in 2008. We used a national cohort of 3,755 persons who responded to a survey administered in 2007 and 2009, including demographic questions and a stress measure (the 4-item Perceived Stress Scale). We used repeated-measures analysis of variance and logistic regression models to assess change in mean stress levels and risk of high stress levels (>90th percentile) in 2009 as compared with 2007. Age-adjusted mean stress levels increased between 2007 and 2009 (P = 0.004), though the increase was observed only for women (P = 0.003), not for men (P = 0.34). Similarly, the odds ratios for experiencing high stress levels were increased only among women (odds ratio (OR) = 1.37), especially among women who were unemployed (OR = 3.38), students (OR = 2.01), had middle levels of education (OR = 1.65), or were in the middle income bracket (OR = 1.59). The findings indicate that psychological stress may have increased following the economic collapse in Iceland, particularly among females in economically vulnerable groups.

  17. The impact of the 2008 economic crisis on the increasing number of young psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medel-Herrero, Alvaro; Gomez-Beneyto, Manuel

    2017-11-21

    Little is published about the impact of the 2008 economic crisis on mental health services in Spain. An interrupted time series analysis was conducted to investigate a potential short-term association between the 2008 economic crisis and the number of psychiatric hospital admissions. The timing of the intervention (April 2008) was based on observed changes in Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Data on 1,152,880 psychiatric inpatients from the national Hospital Morbidity Survey, 69 months before and after the onset of the economic crisis (April 2008), were analyzed. Age-adjusted psychiatric (ICD9 290-319) hospital discharge rates significantly increased from April 2008, matching the onset of the crisis, especially for inpatients aged 15-24 years old and to a less extend for inpatients aged 25-34 years old. Other age groups were not affected. There was a significant increase in diagnoses for disturbance of conduct and emotions, depression, neurotic and personality disorders and alcohol and drug disorders; however, diagnoses for mental retardation and organic psychosis for 15-34 years old inpatients were unaffected. Psychiatric hospital admissions abruptly increased in April 2008, coinciding with the onset of the economic crisis. We identified age groups and diagnoses affected. Increased hospitalizations were found only at the age-ranges most affected by the rise in unemployment. The diagnoses affected were those most sensitive to environmental changes. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Economic expansion and increase in labout market formality: a poaching approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique L. Corseuil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between economic expansion and the degree of formalization for the Brazilian labour market in the recent period. We present a theoretical framework that attempts to explain this relationship through the dynamics of firms hiring strategies. The main predictions are: the share of formal employment rises as the unemployment rate falls, and that the formal-informal wage gap increases, at least at the beginning of the economic expansion. In the empirical part, we use longitudinal microdata from a Brazilian household survey to check whether these two predictions are confirmed. To a large extent our results corroborate both predictions.

  19. Changing arctic ecosystems—What is causing the rapid increase of snow geese in northern Alaska?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Ward, David H.; Whalen, Mary E.; Pearce, John M.

    2015-09-10

    Through the Changing Arctic Ecosystems (CAE) initiative, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) informs key resource management decisions for Arctic Alaska by providing scientific information on current and future ecosystem response to a warming climate. The Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of northern Alaska is a key study area within the USGS CAE initiative. This region has experienced a warming trend over the past decades, leading to decreased sea ice, permafrost thaw, and an advancement of spring phenology. The number of birds on the ACP also is changing, marked by increased populations of the four species of geese that nest in the region. The Snow Goose (Chen caerulescens) is the most rapidly increasing of these species. USGS CAE research is quantifying these changes and their implications for management agencies.

  20. Rapid Environmental Change Drives Increased Land Use by an Arctic Marine Predator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd C Atwood

    Full Text Available In the Arctic Ocean's southern Beaufort Sea (SB, the length of the sea ice melt season (i.e., period between the onset of sea ice break-up in summer and freeze-up in fall has increased substantially since the late 1990s. Historically, polar bears (Ursus maritimus of the SB have mostly remained on the sea ice year-round (except for those that came ashore to den, but recent changes in the extent and phenology of sea ice habitat have coincided with evidence that use of terrestrial habitat is increasing. We characterized the spatial behavior of polar bears spending summer and fall on land along Alaska's north coast to better understand the nexus between rapid environmental change and increased use of terrestrial habitat. We found that the percentage of radiocollared adult females from the SB subpopulation coming ashore has tripled over 15 years. Moreover, we detected trends of earlier arrival on shore, increased length of stay, and later departure back to sea ice, all of which were related to declines in the availability of sea ice habitat over the continental shelf and changes to sea ice phenology. Since the late 1990s, the mean duration of the open-water season in the SB increased by 36 days, and the mean length of stay on shore increased by 31 days. While on shore, the distribution of polar bears was influenced by the availability of scavenge subsidies in the form of subsistence-harvested bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus remains aggregated at sites along the coast. The declining spatio-temporal availability of sea ice habitat and increased availability of human-provisioned resources are likely to result in increased use of land. Increased residency on land is cause for concern given that, while there, bears may be exposed to a greater array of risk factors including those associated with increased human activities.

  1. Methamphetamine induces a rapid increase of intracellular Ca(++) levels in neurons overexpressing GCaMP5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Seong-Jin; Wu, Kou-Jen; Bae, Eun K; Hsu, Man-Jung; Richie, Christopher T; Harvey, Brandon K; Wang, Yun

    2016-03-01

    In this study, methamphetamine (Meth)- and glutamate (Glu)-mediated intracellular Ca(++) (Ca(++) i) signals were examined in real time in primary cortical neurons overexpressing an intracellular Ca(++) probe, GCaMP5, by adeno-associated viral (AAV) serotype 1. Binding of Ca(++) to GCaMP increased green fluorescence intensity in cells. Both Meth and Glu induced a rapid increase in Ca(++) i, which was blocked by MK801, suggesting that Meth enhanced Ca(++) i through Glu receptor in neurons. The Meth-mediated Ca(++) signal was also blocked by Mg(++) , low Ca(++) or the L-type Ca(++) channel inhibitor nifedipine. The ryanodine receptor inhibitor dantrolene did not alter the initial Ca(++) influx but partially reduced the peak of Ca(++) i. These data suggest that Meth enhanced Ca(++) influx through membrane Ca(++) channels, which then triggered the release of Ca(++) from the endoplasmic reticulum in the cytosol. AAV-GCaMP5 was also injected to the parietal cortex of adult rats. Administration of Meth enhanced fluorescence in the ipsilateral cortex. Using immunohistochemistry, Meth-induced green fluorescence was found in the NeuN-containing cells in the cortex, suggesting that Meth increased Ca(++) in neurons in vivo. In conclusion, we have used in vitro and in vivo techniques to demonstrate a rapid increase of Ca(++) i by Meth in cortical neurons through overexpression of GCaMP5. As Meth induces behavioral responses and neurotoxicity through Ca(++) i, modulation of Ca(++) i may be useful to reduce Meth-related reactions. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Increasing socio-economic inequalities in life expectancy and QALYs in Sweden 1980-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burström, Kristina; Johannesson, Magnus; Diderichsen, Finn

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the change in socio-economic differences in life expectancy and in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), for men and women at different ages, in Sweden 1980 to 1997. We used data from the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions (the ULF survey), which is linked to mortality data, to estimate the life expectancy in different socio-economic groups in 1980 and 1997 (n=100 868). Health state scores were obtained by mapping responses to selected ULF survey interview questions into the generic health-related quality of life measure EQ-5D, using the UK EQ-5D index tariff (n=34 447). For 20-year-old men the difference in life expectancy between the highest (higher non-manual) and the lowest socio-economic group (unskilled manual) was 2.11 years in 1980 and 3.79 years in 1997. The corresponding figures for 20-year-old women were 1.56 in 1980 and 2.15 in 1997. The difference in QALYs between the highest and the lowest socio-economic group increased from 5.76 QALYs in 1980 to 7.06 QALYs in 1997 for 20-year-old men, and from 4.14 QALYs in 1980 to 5.66 QALYs in 1997 for 20-year-old women. The widening socio-economic inequalities over time were more stable for men than for women. We conclude that our results suggest that the socio-economic inequality in health has increased between 1980 and 1997 in Sweden. (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Total daily activity declines more rapidly with increasing age in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, Aron S; Wilson, Robert S; Yu, Lei; James, Bryan D; Boyle, Patricia A; Bennett, David A

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal studies of objectively measured physical activity are lacking in older adults. We tested whether objective measures of total daily activity decline more rapidly in older adults. This prospective, observational cohort study included 519 community-dwelling older persons from across metropolitan Chicago participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Repeated total daily activity measures (leisure and non-leisure physical activity) were derived from actigraphic recordings for up to 10 days. Generalized estimating equation models which controlled for demographics measures were employed. At baseline, age was inversely related with the level of total daily activity (estimate, -0.014, S.E. 0.002, pdaily activity declined by about 0.070 × 10(5) activity counts/day/yr (estimate -0.065, S.E. 0.005, pdaily activity declined 3% more rapidly for each additional year of age at baseline (estimate -0.002, S.E. 0.001, p=0.027). Thus, total daily activity declined almost twice as fast in an individual 91 years old at baseline versus an individual 71 years old. A higher level of education was associated with a slower rate of decline (estimate 0.004, S.E. 0.002, pdaily activity were unchanged when controlling for baseline level of motor and cognitive function, other late-life activities and chronic health conditions. These data suggest that total daily activity in very old adults declines more rapidly with increasing age. Thus, physical inactivity is likely to become a larger problem in our aging population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Economical Feedback of Increasing Fuel Enrichment on Electricity Cost for VVER-1000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Saad Dwiddar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A methodology of evaluating the economics of the front-end nuclear fuel cycle with a price change sensitivity analysis for a VVER-1000 reactor core as a case study is presented. The effect of increasing the fuel enrichment and its corresponding reactor cycle length on the energy cost is investigated. The enrichment component was found to represent the highly expenses dynamic component affecting the economics of the front-end fuel cycle. Nevertheless, the increase of the fuel enrichment will increase the reactor cycle length, which will have a positive feedback on the electricity generation cost (cent/KWh. A long reactor operation time with a cheaper energy cost set the nuclear energy as a competitive alternative when compared with other energy sources.

  5. Small Projects Rapid Integration and Test Environment (SPRITE): Application for Increasing Robutness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ashley; Rakoczy, John; Heather, Daniel; Sanders, Devon

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few years interest in the development and use of small satellites has rapidly gained momentum with universities, commercial, and government organizations. In a few years we may see networked clusters of dozens or even hundreds of small, cheap, easily replaceable satellites working together in place of the large, expensive and difficult-to-replace satellites now in orbit. Standards based satellite buses and deployment mechanisms, such as the CubeSat and Poly Pico-satellite Orbital Deployer (P-POD), have stimulated growth in this area. The use of small satellites is also proving to be a cost effective capability in many areas traditionally dominated by large satellites, though many challenges remain. Currently many of these small satellites undergo very little testing prior to flight. As these small satellites move from technology demonstration and student projects toward more complex operational assets, it is expected that the standards for verification and validation will increase.

  6. Impact of the economic crisis and increase in food prices on child mortality: exploring nutritional pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Parul

    2010-01-01

    The current economic crisis and food price increase may have a widespread impact on the nutritional and health status of populations, especially in the developing world. Gains in child survival over the past few decades are likely to be threatened and millennium development goals will be harder to achieve. Beyond starvation, which is one of the causes of death in famine situations, there are numerous nutritional pathways by which childhood mortality can increase. These include increases in childhood wasting and stunting, intrauterine growth restriction, and micronutrient deficiencies such as that of vitamin A, iron, and zinc when faced with a food crisis and decreased food availability. These pathways are elucidated and described. Although estimates of the impact of the current crisis on child mortality are yet to be made, data from previous economic crises provide evidence of an increase in childhood mortality that we review. The current situation also emphasizes that there are vast segments of the world's population living in a situation of chronic food insecurity that are likely to be disproportionately affected by an economic crisis. Nutritional and health surveillance data are urgently needed in such populations to monitor both the impacts of a crisis and of interventions. Addressing the nutritional needs of children and women in response to the present crisis is urgent. But, ensuring that vulnerable populations are also targeted with known nutritional interventions at all times is likely to have a substantial impact on child mortality.

  7. Integrated omics approaches provide strategies for rapid erythromycin yield increase in Saccharopolyspora erythraea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karničar, Katarina; Drobnak, Igor; Petek, Marko; Magdevska, Vasilka; Horvat, Jaka; Vidmar, Robert; Baebler, Špela; Rotter, Ana; Jamnik, Polona; Fujs, Štefan; Turk, Boris; Fonovič, Marko; Gruden, Kristina; Kosec, Gregor; Petković, Hrvoje

    2016-06-03

    Omics approaches have significantly increased our understanding of biological systems. However, they have had limited success in explaining the dramatically increased productivity of commercially important natural products by industrial high-producing strains, such as the erythromycin-producing actinomycete Saccharopolyspora erythraea. Further yield increase is of great importance but requires a better understanding of the underlying physiological processes. To reveal the mechanisms related to erythromycin yield increase, we have undertaken an integrated study of the genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic differences between the wild type strain NRRL2338 (WT) and the industrial high-producing strain ABE1441 (HP) of S. erythraea at multiple time points of a simulated industrial bioprocess. 165 observed mutations lead to differences in gene expression profiles and protein abundance between the two strains, which were most prominent in the initial stages of erythromycin production. Enzymes involved in erythromycin biosynthesis, metabolism of branched chain amino acids and proteolysis were most strongly upregulated in the HP strain. Interestingly, genes related to TCA cycle and DNA-repair were downregulated. Additionally, comprehensive data analysis uncovered significant correlations in expression profiles of the erythromycin-biosynthetic genes, other biosynthetic gene clusters and previously unidentified putative regulatory genes. Based on this information, we demonstrated that overexpression of several genes involved in amino acid metabolism can contribute to increased yield of erythromycin, confirming the validity of our systems biology approach. Our comprehensive omics approach, carried out in industrially relevant conditions, enabled the identification of key pathways affecting erythromycin yield and suggests strategies for rapid increase in the production of secondary metabolites in industrial environment.

  8. Rapid Maxillary Expansion Increases Internal Nasal Dimensions of Children With Bilateral Cleft Lip and Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade-Suedam, Ivy Kiemle; Castilho, Ricardo Leão; Sampaio-Teixeira, Ana Claudia Martins; Araújo, Bruna Mara Adorno Marmotel; Fukushiro, Ana Paula; Campos, Letícia Dominguez; Trindade, Inge Elly Kiemle

    2016-05-01

    The transverse maxillary deficiency frequently observed in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) is usually treated by rapid maxillary expansion (RME). Considering that RME causes a significant increase of the internal nasal dimensions in children with unilateral CLP (UCLP), this study aimed to characterize the internal nasal geometry of children with bilateral CLP (BCLP) and transverse maxillary deficiency using acoustic rhinometry. The study also aimed to analyze changes caused by RME. Cross-sectional prospective study. Laboratory of Physiology, Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies, University of São Paulo, Bauru, SP, Brazil. Fifteen children with repaired BCLP of both genders, aged 8 to 15 years, referred for RME, were prospectively analyzed. Subjects underwent acoustic rhinometry before the expander installation and after the active phase of expansion. Cross-sectional areas (CSA) and volumes (V) of the nasal valve regions (CSA1 and V1) and turbinates (CSA2, CSA3, and V2), were measured after nasal decongestion. In the majority of the subjects, an increase of internal nasal dimensions was observed. Percent changes of CSA1, CSA2, CSA3, V1, and V2 were: +25%, +11%, +9%, 20%, and +12%, respectively. Differences were significant for all variables studied, except CSA3 (P < .05). RME promotes an increase in the internal nasal dimensions of children with BCLP, suggesting that RME is capable of substantially improving nasal patency in this population.

  9. Transiently increased glutamate cycling in rat PFC is associated with rapid onset of antidepressant-like effects

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Golam M.I.; Zhang, Jie; Thomas, Monique; Banasr, Mounira; Ma, Xiaoxian; Pittman, Brian; Bristow, Linda; Schaeffer, Eric; Duman, Ronald; Rothman, Douglas; Behar, Kevin; Sanacora, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Several drugs have recently been reported to induce rapid antidepressant effects in clinical trials and rodent models. Although the cellular mechanisms involved remain unclear, reports suggest that increased glutamate transmission contributes to these effects. Here, we demonstrate that the antidepressant-like efficacy of three unique drugs, with reported rapid onset antidepressant properties, is coupled with a rapid transient rise in glutamate cycling in medial prefronal cortex (mPFC) of awak...

  10. Economic impact of rapid diagnostic methods in Clinical Microbiology: Price of the test or overall clinical impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón, Rafael; Gómez G de la Pedrosa, Elia

    2017-12-01

    The need to reduce the time it takes to establish a microbiological diagnosis and the emergence of new molecular microbiology and proteomic technologies has fuelled the development of rapid and point-of-care techniques, as well as the so-called point-of-care laboratories. These laboratories are responsible for conducting both techniques partially to response to the outsourcing of the conventional hospital laboratories. Their introduction has not always been accompanied with economic studies that address their cost-effectiveness, cost-benefit and cost-utility, but rather tend to be limited to the unit price of the test. The latter, influenced by the purchase procedure, does not usually have a regulated reference value in the same way that medicines do. The cost-effectiveness studies that have recently been conducted on mass spectrometry in the diagnosis of bacteraemia and the use of antimicrobials have had the greatest clinical impact and may act as a model for future economic studies on rapid and point-of-care tests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  11. A rapid, efficient, and economic device and method for the isolation and purification of mouse islet cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zongyi

    Full Text Available Rapid, efficient, and economic method for the isolation and purification of islets has been pursued by numerous islet-related researchers. In this study, we compared the advantages and disadvantages of our developed patented method with those of commonly used conventional methods (Ficoll-400, 1077, and handpicking methods. Cell viability was assayed using Trypan blue, cell purity and yield were assayed using diphenylthiocarbazone, and islet function was assayed using acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-glucose stimulation testing 4 days after cultivation. The results showed that our islet isolation and purification method required 12 ± 3 min, which was significantly shorter than the time required in Ficoll-400, 1077, and HPU groups (34 ± 3, 41 ± 4, and 30 ± 4 min, respectively; P 1000 islets. In summary, the MCT method is a rapid, efficient, and economic method for isolating and purifying murine islet cell clumps. This method overcomes some of the shortcomings of conventional methods, showing a relatively higher quality and yield of islets within a shorter duration at a lower cost. Therefore, the current method provides researchers with an alternative option for islet isolation and should be widely generalized.

  12. A rapid, efficient, and economic device and method for the isolation and purification of mouse islet cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongyi, Yin; Funian, Zou; Hao, Li; Ying, Cheng; Jialin, Zhang; Baifeng, Li

    2017-01-01

    Rapid, efficient, and economic method for the isolation and purification of islets has been pursued by numerous islet-related researchers. In this study, we compared the advantages and disadvantages of our developed patented method with those of commonly used conventional methods (Ficoll-400, 1077, and handpicking methods). Cell viability was assayed using Trypan blue, cell purity and yield were assayed using diphenylthiocarbazone, and islet function was assayed using acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-glucose stimulation testing 4 days after cultivation. The results showed that our islet isolation and purification method required 12 ± 3 min, which was significantly shorter than the time required in Ficoll-400, 1077, and HPU groups (34 ± 3, 41 ± 4, and 30 ± 4 min, respectively; P 1000 islets). In summary, the MCT method is a rapid, efficient, and economic method for isolating and purifying murine islet cell clumps. This method overcomes some of the shortcomings of conventional methods, showing a relatively higher quality and yield of islets within a shorter duration at a lower cost. Therefore, the current method provides researchers with an alternative option for islet isolation and should be widely generalized.

  13. The impact of increased loading rate on granular media, rapid depth filtration of wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gordon J; Sheikh, Bahman; Holden, Robert B; Kouretas, Tom J; Nelson, Kara L

    2007-11-01

    The impact of loading rate on tertiary filtration of wastewater was studied using a pilot-scale, dual-media, rapid depth filtration system. Loading rates of 12.2, 15.3, 18.3, 21.4, and 24.4m/h were tested on parallel filter columns treating the same coagulated secondary wastewater to determine the impact on removal of turbidity, particles (2-15 microm), total coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, and MS2 bacteriophage, as well as on the particle deposition profile in the filter bed. Increasing the loading rate from 12.2 to 24.4m/h decreased the removal efficiencies for all metrics. The observed impact of loading rate on particle removal was similar to that predicted by a clean-bed filtration model, although the model significantly underestimated the removal efficiencies of the smaller particles. For two loading rates, 12.2 and 18.3m/h, the effect of coagulant dose was also studied; the negative impact of loading rate on removal efficiency was eliminated by increasing the coagulant dose for the higher loading rate, which also resulted in removal of particles deeper in the filter bed. For all conditions studied, loading rate had no observable impact on the ability to disinfect filter effluents with chloramines. The results of this research indicate that loading rates higher than those typically used in tertiary filtration can produce acceptable effluent quality, and support a regulatory approach based on filter effluent turbidity.

  14. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of economics, and presents educational resources for teaching basics to children. Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources, as well as activities which focus on economics are described. Includes short features on related topics, and the subtopics of trade, money and banking, and…

  15. Rapid and Economic Access to Some NSAIDS-Based Bioactive Heterocycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Chavan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of microwave energy for the synthesis is considered as one of the alternate strategies. The present work includes the synthesis of some newer 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazole analogues using both conventional and alternate rapid methods.The conventional method involves the synthesis of the target molecules by using cyclodehydrating agent like POCl3, while the other method consists of using some catalytic reagents like PbO2. Also, the short reaction time provided by microwave synthesis makes it ideal for the reaction. Hence, this project describes an efficient and operationally simple method for the microwave-assisted synthesis of some bioactive heterocycles based on NSAIDs.

  16. Social and economic factors of the natural risk increasing: estimation of the Russian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Petrova

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to assess quantitatively social and economic factors that determine vulnerability of Russian regions to natural risk, to trace the space differences of the considered factors, and to group the regions by their similarity. In order to indicate the regional differences in social and economic development, equipment condition, dangerous substances accumulation, and social trouble four the most suitable parameters were estimated, including the per capita production of Gross Regional Product (GRP, capital consumption, volume of total toxic waste, and crime rate. Increase of the first parameter causes vulnerability reducing, the increase of the last three causes its increasing. Using multidimensional cluster analysis five types of regions were found for Russia according to similarity of the considered parameters. These types are characterized with higher value of a single (rarely two chosen parameter, which seems to be sufficient enough to affect natural risks increasing in these regions in near future. Only few regions belonging to the fifth type proved to have rather high value of GRP and relatively low values of the other parameters. The negative correlation was found between a number of natural disasters (ND and the per capita GRP in case when some parameters reached anomalously high value. The distinctions between regions by prevailing different parameters, which result in natural risk increasing, help risk management to find directions where to focus on.

  17. Rapid increase of near atomic resolution virus capsid structures determined by cryo-electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Phuong T; Reddy, Vijay S

    2017-10-27

    The recent technological advances in electron microscopes, detectors, as well as image processing and reconstruction software have brought single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) into prominence for determining structures of bio-molecules at near atomic resolution. This has been particularly true for virus capsids, ribosomes, and other large assemblies, which have been the ideal specimens for structural studies by cryo-EM approaches. An analysis of time series metadata of virus structures on the methods of structure determination, resolution of the structures, and size of the virus particles revealed a rapid increase in the virus structures determined by cryo-EM at near atomic resolution since 2010. In addition, the data highlight the median resolution (∼3.0 Å) and size (∼310.0 Å in diameter) of the virus particles determined by X-ray crystallography while no such limits exist for cryo-EM structures, which have a median diameter of 508 Å. Notably, cryo-EM virus structures in the last four years have a median resolution of 3.9 Å. Taken together with minimal sample requirements, not needing diffraction quality crystals, and being able to achieve similar resolutions of the crystal structures makes cryo-EM the method of choice for current and future virus capsid structure determinations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Settling into an increasingly hostile world: the rapidly closing "recruitment window" for corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Suzanne N; Steneck, Robert S

    2011-01-01

    Free space is necessary for larval recruitment in all marine benthic communities. Settling corals, with limited energy to invest in competitive interactions, are particularly vulnerable during settlement into well-developed coral reef communities. This situation may be exacerbated for corals settling into coral-depauperate reefs where succession in nursery microhabitats moves rapidly toward heterotrophic organisms inhospitable to settling corals. To study effects of benthic organisms (at millimeter to centimeter scales) on newly settled corals and their survivorship we deployed terra-cotta coral settlement plates at 10 m depth on the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef in Belize and monitored them for 38 mo. During the second and third years, annual recruitment rates declined by over 50% from the previous year. Invertebrate crusts (primarily sponges) were absent at the start of the experiment but increased in abundance annually from 39, 60, to 73% of the plate undersides by year three. Subsequently, substrates hospitable to coral recruitment, including crustose coralline algae, biofilmed terra-cotta and polychaete tubes, declined. With succession, substrates upon which spat settled shifted toward organisms inimical to survivorship. Over 50% of spat mortality was due to overgrowth by sponges alone. This result suggests that when a disturbance creates primary substrate a "recruitment window" for settling corals exists from approximately 9 to 14 mo following the disturbance. During the window, early-succession, facilitating species are most abundant. The window closes as organisms hostile to coral settlement and survivorship overgrow nursery microhabitats.

  19. Settling into an increasingly hostile world: the rapidly closing "recruitment window" for corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne N Arnold

    Full Text Available Free space is necessary for larval recruitment in all marine benthic communities. Settling corals, with limited energy to invest in competitive interactions, are particularly vulnerable during settlement into well-developed coral reef communities. This situation may be exacerbated for corals settling into coral-depauperate reefs where succession in nursery microhabitats moves rapidly toward heterotrophic organisms inhospitable to settling corals. To study effects of benthic organisms (at millimeter to centimeter scales on newly settled corals and their survivorship we deployed terra-cotta coral settlement plates at 10 m depth on the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef in Belize and monitored them for 38 mo. During the second and third years, annual recruitment rates declined by over 50% from the previous year. Invertebrate crusts (primarily sponges were absent at the start of the experiment but increased in abundance annually from 39, 60, to 73% of the plate undersides by year three. Subsequently, substrates hospitable to coral recruitment, including crustose coralline algae, biofilmed terra-cotta and polychaete tubes, declined. With succession, substrates upon which spat settled shifted toward organisms inimical to survivorship. Over 50% of spat mortality was due to overgrowth by sponges alone. This result suggests that when a disturbance creates primary substrate a "recruitment window" for settling corals exists from approximately 9 to 14 mo following the disturbance. During the window, early-succession, facilitating species are most abundant. The window closes as organisms hostile to coral settlement and survivorship overgrow nursery microhabitats.

  20. Learning new color names produces rapid increase in gray matter in the intact adult human cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Veronica; Niu, Zhendong; Kay, Paul; Zhou, Ke; Mo, Lei; Jin, Zhen; So, Kwok-Fai; Tan, Li Hai

    2011-04-19

    The human brain has been shown to exhibit changes in the volume and density of gray matter as a result of training over periods of several weeks or longer. We show that these changes can be induced much faster by using a training method that is claimed to simulate the rapid learning of word meanings by children. Using whole-brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) we show that learning newly defined and named subcategories of the universal categories green and blue in a period of 2 h increases the volume of gray matter in V2/3 of the left visual cortex, a region known to mediate color vision. This pattern of findings demonstrates that the anatomical structure of the adult human brain can change very quickly, specifically during the acquisition of new, named categories. Also, prior behavioral and neuroimaging research has shown that differences between languages in the boundaries of named color categories influence the categorical perception of color, as assessed by judgments of relative similarity, by response time in alternative forced-choice tasks, and by visual search. Moreover, further behavioral studies (visual search) and brain imaging studies have suggested strongly that the categorical effect of language on color processing is left-lateralized, i.e., mediated by activity in the left cerebral hemisphere in adults (hence "lateralized Whorfian" effects). The present results appear to provide a structural basis in the brain for the behavioral and neurophysiologically observed indices of these Whorfian effects on color processing.

  1. Social and environmental determinants of child health in Mongolia across years of rapid economic growth: 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Nehal; Bolorhon, Bolormaa; Narula, Indermohan; Zhu, Shihua; Manaseki-Hollan, Semira

    2017-10-30

    To understand the effect of economic growth on health, we investigated the trend in socio-economic and regional determinants of child health in Mongolia. This Central Asian country had the fastest economic growth amongst low and middle-income countries (LMICs) from 2000 to 2010 and a healthcare system in transition. Data was from Mongolian multiple indicator cluster surveys (MICS) in 2000, 2005 and 2010. Child nutrition/growth was measured by height-for-age z-score (HAZ), weight-for-age z-score (WAZ), prevalence of stunted (HAZ < -2) and underweight (WAZ < -2) children. Access to health care was measured by prevalence of fully immunised children <5 years. Multivariate multi-level logistic mixed modelling was used to estimate the effect of socio-economic and environmental health determinants on each outcome in each year; 2000, 2005 and 2010. T-tests were used to measure significant change in HAZ and WAZ over the decade. Overall, from 2000 to 2010, there was a significant improvement (p < 0.001) in all three outcomes, but the effect of socio-economic factors increased on both stunting and weight. In 2000, region was a significant determinant: children living in three provinces were significantly more likely to be stunted and less likely to be immunised than Ulaanbaatar, but this was not significant by 2010. By 2010, none of the factors were significant determinants of immunisation in children. In 2000, economic status had no effect on stunting (OR = 0.91; 95%CI:0.49,1.66), however by 2010, children in the poorest economic quintile were 4 times more likely to be stunted than the richest (OR = 0.24; 95% CI:0.13,0.45; p < 0.001). The effect of maternal education on stunting prevalence continued over the 10 years, in both 2000 and 2010 children were twice as likely to be stunted if their mother had no education compared to university education (2000 OR = 0.45; 95% CI:0.28,0.73, p < 0.01,2010 OR =0.55; 95% CI:0.35,0.87, p < 0.05). Economic growth in

  2. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  3. Problems of Development and Increase of Economic Efficiency of Sugar Beet Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomashevska Olga A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is the studying of the trends of development and economic efficiency of sugar beet production (using the example of agricultural enterprises of Rokytne district of Kyiv region and an attempt to outline the directions for improvement of the situation in the sugar beet industry. As a result of the research, the dynamics of development and economic efficiency of sugar beet production at farms of Rokytne district of Kyiv region is analyzed, and the break-even volume of sugar beet production by agrarian enterprises of Kiev region and an individual enterprise of Rokytne district is determined. Particular attention is paid to the dynamics of profitability of sugar beet production in the period from 2011 to 2015. The main problems hindering the development of sugar beet production are identified, namely, the lack of sales channels and high production costs. Prospects for further research in this area are to increase the economic efficiency of sugar beet production and find ways to develop this sector, provided that the production is properly organized, the manufacturing process is followed, the fertilizers are properly used, the seeds are chosen correctly, advanced technologies and high-performance equipment are applied, etc.

  4. Increasing Access and Adherence to the PMTCT Cascade: Is There a Role for Economic Strengthening Interventions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Yacobson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interventions aimed at prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV are extremely effective but remain underutilized in many countries. Common economic barriers to PMTCT experienced by pregnant women with HIV are well documented. Addressing these economic barriers has a potential to improve PMTCT utilization and further reduce mother-to-child HIV transmission. This review examines the evidence of the effects economic strengthening (ES interventions have on use of and adherence to PMTCT and other health services relevant to PMTCT cascade. While very few studies on ES interventions were conducted in PMTCT settings, the results of a recent randomised trial demonstrate that conditional cash transfers offered to women in PMTCT programme can significantly improve retention in care and adherence to treatment. This review also considers evidence on ES interventions conducted within other health care settings relevant to PMTCT cascade. While the evidence from other settings is promising, it may not be fully applicable to PMTCT and more quality research on ES interventions among population of pregnant women with HIV is needed. Answering some of the research questions formulated by this review can provide more evidence for programme implementers and guide decisions about how to increase women’s use of and adherence to PMTCT services.

  5. An economic and rapid diagnostic procedure for the detection of salmonella/shigella using the polyvalent salmonella phage O-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, H; Bürgi, E; Margadant, A; Boller, E

    1978-01-01

    An easy, rapid and economic two-step procedure is described for the detection of Salmonella/Shigella. In the first step the susceptibility of suspected colonies for the phage O-1 of FELIX and CALLOW is tested. Positive cultures are serologically confirmed. The test is performed on Triple Sugar Iron Agar and lasts 4-6 hrs. Phage negative cultures which are lactose- and sucrose negative are tested for lysine decarboxylase and, if Shigella is possible (i.e. in human material on primary plates), for indol production and motility in a semisolid tryptophane agar. Of 22880 Salmonella straine 21977, i.e. 96.1% were phage-sensitive. Strains belonging to certain O-groups (OE) or species are lysed at a lower percentage. However, since they are lysine decarboxylase positive they are not lost and can be submitted to a serological examination.

  6. Increased Sensitivity of a New Coagglutination Test for Rapid Identification of Haemophilus influenzae Type b

    OpenAIRE

    Grasso, Robert J.; West, Loyd A.; Holbrook, Nikki J.; Halkias, Demetrios G.; Paradise, Lois J.; Friedman, Herman

    1981-01-01

    A newly developed rapid coagglutination test for identifying Haemophilus influenzae type b organisms isolated from clinical specimens correlated 100% with the slide agglutination test but was 100- to 200-fold more sensitive.

  7. Small Projects Rapid Integration and Test Environment (SPRITE): Application for Increasing Robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, John; Heater, Daniel; Lee, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Small Projects Rapid Integration and Test Environment (SPRITE) is a Hardware-In-The-Loop (HWIL) facility that provides rapid development, integration, and testing capabilities for small projects (CubeSats, payloads, spacecraft, and launch vehicles). This facility environment focuses on efficient processes and modular design to support rapid prototyping, integration, testing and verification of small projects at an affordable cost, especially compared to larger type HWIL facilities. SPRITE (Figure 1) consists of a "core" capability or "plant" simulation platform utilizing a graphical programming environment capable of being rapidly re-configured for any potential test article's space environments, as well as a standard set of interfaces (i.e. Mil-Std 1553, Serial, Analog, Digital, etc.). SPRITE also allows this level of interface testing of components and subsystems very early in a program, thereby reducing program risk.

  8. The nutrition transition in amazonia: rapid economic change and its impact on growth and development in Ribeirinhos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperata, Barbara A; Spence, Jennifer E; Da-Gloria, Pedro; Hubbe, Mark

    2011-09-01

    The goal of this longitudinal study was to assess the impact of economic change and increased market integration on subsistence strategies, living conditions, growth, and nutritional status of Ribeirinhos living in the rural Amazon, Brazil. Data on weight, height, skinfolds, and circumferences, as well as data on economic strategies and living conditions were collected from 469 individuals in 2002 and 429 in 2009. Of these, 204 individuals were measured on both occasions. Independent and paired t-tests were used to identify changes in nutritional status over time in the larger sample and smaller, longitudinal subsample, respectively. Multiple linear regressions were used to examine the relationship between changes in economic/living conditions and nutritional status in the longitudinal subsample. Results indicate modest improvements in linear growth (HAZ) and among male children the observed increase was related to enrollment in the Brazilian conditional cash transfer program, Bolsa Família (P = 0.03). In terms of short-term measures of nutritional status, we found a significant increase in ZTSF and a reduction in ZUMA in most age/sex groups. Among subadults, there was a negative relationship between ZUMA and access to electricity (P = 0.01) and positive relationship between ZUMA and the sale of the açaí fruit (P = 0.04). Significant changes in weight and BMI (P economic strategies and lifestyle, changes in nutritional status were modest which may be explained by increased food insecurity documented during this early stage of transition. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Does Rapid and Sustained Economic Growth Lead to Convergence in Health Resources: The Case of China From 1980 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Di; Zhang, Donglan; Huang, Jiayan; Schweitzer, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    China's rapid and sustained economic growth offers an opportunity to ask whether the advantages of growth diffuse throughout an economy, or remain localized in areas where the growth has been the greatest. A critical policy area in China has been the health system, and health inequality has become an issue that has led the government to broaden national health insurance programs. This study investigates whether health system resources and performance have converged over the past 30 years across China's 31 provinces. To examine geographic variation of health system resources and performance at the provincial level, we measure the degree of sigma convergence and beta convergence in indicators of health system resources (structure), health services utilization (process), and outcome. All data are from officially published sources: the China Health Statistics Year Book and the China Statistics Year Book. Sigma convergence is found for resource indicators, whereas it is not observed for either process or outcome indicators, indicating that disparities only narrowed in health system resources. Beta convergence is found in most indicators, except for 2 procedure indicators, reflecting that provinces with poorer resources were catching up. Convergence found in this study probably reflects the mixed outcome of government input, and market forces. Thus, left alone, the equitable distribution of health care resources may not occur naturally during a period of economic growth. Governmental and societal efforts are needed to reduce geographic health variation and promote health equity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Incremental increases in economic burden parallels cardiometabolic risk factors in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McQueen RB

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available R Brett McQueen,1 Vahram Ghushchyan,1,2 Temitope Olufade,3 John J Sheehan,4 Kavita V Nair,1 Joseph J Saseen1,5 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA; 2College of Business and Economics, American University of Armenia, Yerevan, Armenia; 3AstraZeneca, Wilmington, DE, 4AstraZeneca, Fort Washington, PA, 5Department of Family Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA Objective: Estimate the economic burden associated with incremental increases in the number of cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs in the US. Methods: We used the nationally representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey from 2010 to 2012 to create a retrospective cohort of people based on the number of CMRFs (one, two, and three or four, and a comparison cohort of people with zero CMRFs. CMRFs included abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated triglycerides, and elevated glucose and were defined using diagnostic codes, prescribed medications, and survey responses. Adjusted regression analysis was developed to compare health expenditures, utilization, and lost-productivity differences between the cohorts. Generalized linear regression was used for health care expenditures, and negative binomial regression was used for utilization and productivity, controlling for individual characteristics. Results: The number of CMRFs was associated with significantly more annual utilization, health care expenditures, and reduced productivity. As compared with people with zero CMRFs, people with one, two, and three or four CMRFs had 1.15 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06, 1.24, 1.37 (95% CI: 1.25, 1.51, and 1.39 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.57 times higher expected rate of emergency room visits, respectively. Compared with people with zero CMRFs, people with one, two, and three or four CMRFs had increased incremental health care expenditures of US$417 (95

  11. Techno-economical study of ethanol and biogas from spruce wood by NMMO-pretreatment and rapid fermentation and digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, Marzieh; Karimi, Keikhosro; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2011-09-01

    Given that N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) is a promising alternative for the pretreatment of lignocelluloses, a novel process for ethanol and biogas production from wood was developed. The solvent, NMMO, is concentrated by multistage evaporation, and the wood is pretreated with the concentrated NMMO. Thereafter, ethanol is produced by the non-isothermal simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (NSSF) method, which is a rapid and efficient process. The wastewater is treated by upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) digester for rapid production of biogas. The process was simulated by Aspen plus®. Using mechanical vapor recompression for evaporators in the pretreatment and multi-pressure distillation columns, the energy requirements for the process were minimized. The economical feasibility of the developed biorefinery for five different plant capacities was studied by Aspen Icarus Process Evaluator. The base case was designed to utilize 200,000 tons of spruce wood per year and required M€ 58.3 as the total capital investment, while the production cost of ethanol is calculated to be €/l 0.44. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of increasing slaughter age of chickens on meat quality, welfare, and technical and economic results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baéza, E; Arnould, C; Jlali, M; Chartrin, P; Gigaud, V; Mercerand, F; Durand, C; Méteau, K; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Berri, C

    2012-06-01

    Because of the increasing demand for raw cuts and processed products, there is a trend to producing very heavy broilers. Breeds that are used for such kinds of production have been intensively selected for growth rate and breast meat yield, and birds are reared for a longer period than standard broilers. This study was to evaluate the effects of increasing slaughter age on technical and economic factors, including production efficiency and environmental costs, bird welfare, and breast meat quality in a modern heavy broiler line. Five groups of 300 male Ross 708 chickens were reared until slaughter ages of 35, 42, 49, 56, or 63 d. Increasing age at slaughter from 35 to 63 d resulted in a 7.4-fold increase (P content of litter increased (P meat traits were observed between 35 and 49 d of age, with an increase in muscle pH at 15 min (P protein and lipid content of raw breast meat also increased (P chickens of heavy line at 42 d of age.

  13. Economic Analysis of Cikaso Mini Hydro Power Plant as a CDM Project for Increasing IRR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irhan Febijanto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy fueled power generations are few developed by private sector in Indonesia. High-cost investment and low electricity selling price to PT PLN as a single buyer is main barriers for private sector to involve in the development of renewable energy fueled power generations. In this project, the economic feasibility of Mini Hydro Power Plant of Cikaso with capacity of 5.3 MW, located at Sukabumi Regency, West Java province was assessed. This project utilized revenue generated from carbon market to increase the economic feasibility. Procedure to register the project to United Nation for Climate Change Convention (UNFCCC as a Clean Development Mechanism project was explained in detail. Approved Consolidation Methodology (ACM 0002 Version 12.3.0 was used to calculate grid emission factor in Jawa-Bali-Madura the grid electricity system. It was calculated that the grid emission factor is 0.833 (t-CO2/MWh, and the carbon emission reduction generated for this project is 21,982 ton/year. From the analysis result, it can be proven that the additional revenue from carbon credit could increase the project IRR from 10.28% to 13.52%.

  14. Food consumption patterns and economic growth. Increasing affluence and the use of natural resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P W; Nonhebel, S; Krol, M S

    2010-12-01

    This study analyzes relationships between food supply, consumption and income, taking supply, meat and dairy, and consumption composition (in macronutrients) as indicators, with annual per capita GDP as indicator for income. It compares food consumption patterns for 57 countries (2001) and gives time trends for western and southern Europe. Cross-sectional and time series relationships show similar patterns of change. For low income countries, GDP increase is accompanied by changes towards food consumption patterns with large gaps between supply and actual consumption. Total supply differs by a factor of two between low and high income countries. People in low income countries derive nutritional energy mainly from carbohydrates; the contribution of fats is small, that of protein the same as for high income countries and that of meat and dairy negligible. People in high income countries derive nutritional energy mainly from carbohydrates and fat, with substantial contribution of meat and dairy. Whenever and wherever economic growth occurs, food consumption shows similar change in direction. The European nutrition transition happened gradually, enabling agriculture and trade to keep pace with demand growth. Continuation of present economic trends might cause significant pressure on natural resources, because changes in food demand occur much faster than in the past, especially in Asia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nicotine reduction as an increase in the unit price of cigarettes: a behavioral economics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tracy T; Sved, Alan F; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Donny, Eric C

    2014-11-01

    Urgent action is needed to reduce the harm caused by smoking. Product standards that reduce the addictiveness of cigarettes are now possible both in the U.S. and in countries party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Specifically, standards that required substantially reduced nicotine content in cigarettes could enable cessation in smokers and prevent future smoking among current non-smokers. Behavioral economics uses principles from the field of microeconomics to characterize how consumption of a reinforcer changes as a function of the unit price of that reinforcer (unit price=cost/reinforcer magnitude). A nicotine reduction policy might be considered an increase in the unit price of nicotine because smokers are paying more per unit of nicotine. This perspective allows principles from behavioral economics to be applied to nicotine reduction research questions, including how nicotine consumption, smoking behavior, use of other tobacco products, and use of other drugs of abuse are likely to be affected. This paper reviews the utility of this approach and evaluates the notion that a reduction in nicotine content is equivalent to a reduction in the reinforcement value of smoking-an assumption made by the unit price approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Population increase, economic growth, educational inequality, and income distribution: some recent evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, R

    1984-04-01

    The relationship between population increase, economic growth, education and income inequality was examined in a cross-section study based on data from 26 developing and 2 developed countries. As other studies have noted, high population growth is associated with a less equal income distribution. A 1 percentage point reduction in the rate of population growth tends to raise the income share of the poorest 80% in the less developed world by almost 5 percentage points and is associated with a 1.7 percentage point increase in the income share of the poorest 40%. The relationship between short-run income growth and equality, on the other hand, is strong and positive. Estimates suggest that a 1 percentage point increase in the short-run rate of growth of the gross domestic product (GDP) increases the income share of the bottom 80% by about 2 percentage points and that of the poorest 40% by almost 1 percentage point. Although higher mean schooling appears to be a mild equalizer, educational inequality does not appear to have an adverse effect on income distribution. Overall, these results challenge the widely held belief that there must be a growth-equity trade-off. Moreover, they suggest that the impact of educational inequality on income distribution may be different from that observed in earlier studies, implying a need for caution in using these earlier results as a basis for educational policy development.

  17. Collateral damage: rapid exposure-induced evolution of pesticide resistance leads to increased susceptibility to parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Mieke; Stoks, Robby; Coors, Anja; van Doorslaer, Wendy; de Meester, Luc

    2011-09-01

    Although natural populations may evolve resistance to anthropogenic stressors such as pollutants, this evolved resistance may carry costs. Using an experimental evolution approach, we exposed different Daphnia magna populations in outdoor containers to the carbamate pesticide carbaryl and control conditions, and assessed the resulting populations for both their resistance to carbaryl as well as their susceptibility to infection by the widespread bacterial microparasite Pasteuria ramosa. Our results show that carbaryl selection led to rapid evolution of carbaryl resistance with seemingly no cost when assessed in a benign environment. However, carbaryl-resistant populations were more susceptible to parasite infection than control populations. Exposure to both stressors reveals a synergistic effect on sterilization rate by P. ramosa, but this synergism did not evolve under pesticide selection. Assessing costs of rapid adaptive evolution to anthropogenic stress in a semi-natural context may be crucial to avoid too optimistic predictions for the fitness of the evolving populations. © 2011 The Author(s).

  18. Economic Impact of a New Rapid PCR Assay for Detecting Influenza Virus in an Emergency Department and Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Marcelo; Sampietro-Colom, Laura; Vilella, Anna; Pantoja, Efraín; Asenjo, María; Arjona, Ruth; Hurtado, Juan Carlos; Trilla, Antoni; Alvarez-Martínez, Míriam José; Mira, Aurea; Vila, Jordi; Marcos, María Angeles

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality and has a substantial economic impact on the healthcare system. The main objective of this study was to compare the cost per patient for a rapid commercial PCR assay (Xpert® Flu) with an in-house real-time PCR test for detecting influenza virus. Community patients with influenza like-illness attending the Emergency Department (ED) as well as hospitalized patients in the Hospital Clínic of Barcelona were included. Costs were evaluated from the perspective of the hospital considering the use of resources directly related to influenza testing and treatment. For the purpose of this study, 366 and 691 patients were tested in 2013 and 2014, respectively. The Xpert® Flu test reduced the mean waiting time for patients in the ED by 9.1 hours and decreased the mean isolation time of hospitalized patients by 23.7 hours. This was associated with a 103€ (or about $113) reduction in the cost per patient tested in the ED and 64€ ($70) per hospitalized patient. Sensitivity analyses showed that Xpert® Flu is likely to be cost-saving in hospitals with different contexts and prices.

  19. Facilities of determination of socio-economic efficiency of aircrafts and ways of their increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahir Halid Naif Hilyal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of efficiency of facilities of labour, including aircrafts that have wide distribution, is an important task. Level of appropriate methodological base largely influences on the creation of optimal product design and saving all kinds of resources. In this regard, the analysis of domestic and foreign sources to assess the effectiveness of innovations is conducted. It is shown that mainly four well-known indexes of calculation of effect of innovations are examined such, as a net present value, internal rate of return, internal rate of return, pay-back period. For today the index of profitability, which is very important for the estimation of both development and introduction of separate innovations and estimation of activity of business entities, absents in vast majority of official methodical materials. The impossibility of identifying of indexes of profit and net present value is shown. It is exposed, that in existent methodical materials is given insufficient attention to the calculation of effect in the field of consumption of innovations, where their actual final effect is defined. Methods of an assessment of social and economic efficiency of application of innovations in different types of productions, determination of efficiency from decrease in size of risk at realization of means of labor are demanded further development. The analysis of theoretical and methodological bases of determination of effect of aircrafts is executed also. The necessity of further development of socio-economic estimation of increase of major consumer properties of airplanes is set such, as their reliability and longevity. Paid attention to requirement of improvement of methods of calculation of expenses in exploitation of aircrafts, of establishment their numeral, including normative values. Similar recommendations are also belonged to the estimation of efficiency of small aircrafts.

  20. The rapid climate change-caused dichotomy on subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Yunnan: Reduction in habitat diversity and increase in species diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Ren

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Yunnan's biodiversity is under considerable pressure and subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests in this area have become increasingly fragmented through agriculture, logging, planting of economic plants, mining activities and changing environment. The aims of the study are to investigate climate change-induced changes of subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests in Yunnan and identify areas of current species richness centers for conservation preparation. Stacked species distribution models were created to generate ensemble forecasting of species distributions, alpha diversity and beta diversity for Yunnan's subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests in both current and future climate scenarios. Under stacked species distribution models in rapid climate changes scenarios, changes of water-energy dynamics may possibly reduce beta diversity and increase alpha diversity. This point provides insight for future conservation of evergreen broad-leaved forest in Yunnan, highlighting the need to fully consider the problem of vegetation homogenization caused by transformation of water-energy dynamics.

  1. Pan-European Sarcoma Trials: Moving Forward in a Climate of Increasing Economic and Regulatory Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothe Carrle

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Advances in sarcoma treatment are largely based on investigator-initiated, multicentric and interdisciplinary clinical trials. The EU's Good Clinical Practice Directive 2001/20/EC, effective since 2004, was meant to harmonize the conditions for clinical trials across Europe, but, instead, the challenge of initiating and running multinational, noncommercial clinical trials has become greater than ever. Institutions participating in existing noncommercial Pan-European studies are struggling to cope with increased administrative and financial burdens, and few new studies are initiated any more. The aim of a conference entitled “Pan-European Sarcoma Trials: Moving Forward in a Climate of Increasing Economic and Regulatory Pressure,” held in Stuttgart, Germany, 30 November–2 December 2006 as part of the European Science Foundation's ECT-program, was not only to provide an overview of currently active and planned multinational studies on osteo-, Ewing's, and soft tissue sarcoma, but also to draw on areas of synergy between various established sarcoma groups in Europe to define plausible survival strategies for collaborative, interdisciplinary, patient-oriented research.

  2. Environmental and economic impacts of livestock productivity increase in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Luis Alfaro

    2012-12-01

    Livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is not matching the annual 2.5 % growth of its population. Regional per capita meat and milk production corresponds, respectively, to about 13 and 8 % of developed countries indicators. Livestock performances in this region have decreased within the last 30 years. In fact, SSA, with a 12 % bovine extraction rate against a world average of 21 %, includes about 16 % of world cattle, only producing 6 and 2.6 % of global meat and milk, respectively. These low performances have economic and environmental consequences reflecting the necessity for upgrading livestock managing skills in the region. This effort includes various components such as sanitary prophylaxis, reproduction, nutrition, and in particular, substantial increase in livestock yield for human consumption. This will allow for an improved animal and pasture management and soil preservation, enhancing meat production and decreasing methane and nitrogen emissions from enteric fermentation and manure processing. These environmental gains due to increased livestock off-take rates can represent relevant credits in the global Environmental Carbon Market under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Kyoto protocol. These credits can be used for investments in livestock essential services and marketing facilities leading to improved productivity.

  3. How can schools help youth increase physical activity? An economic analysis comparing school-based programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babey, Susan H; Wu, Shinyi; Cohen, Deborah

    2014-12-01

    For optimal health, physical activity should be an integral and routine part of daily life. Youth spend a significant amount of time at school yet rarely achieve the recommended 60 min of moderate and vigorous physical activity in physical education (PE) classes or recess. This study assessed the following types of school-based opportunities to improve physical activity for youth: after-school programs, before-school programs, PE classes, extended-day PE, and short physical activity breaks during the school day. An economic analysis conducted in 2013 compared school-based approaches to increasing physical activity. Analysis factors included costs, reach, effects on physical activity gains, cost-effectiveness, and other potentially augmenting benefits. Two programs were significantly superior in terms of reach and cost per student: (1) extending the school day with mandatory PE participation and (2) offering short (10-minute) physical activity breaks during regular classroom hours. After-school program costs per student are high and the programs have a smaller reach, but they offer benefits (such as childcare) that may justify their higher costs. Before-school programs did not appear feasible. Incorporating short physical activity breaks into the existing school day would be a cost-effective way to increase school-based activity. This type of program is inexpensive and has broad reach. Inserting activity breaks throughout the day is appropriate, especially when youth are otherwise largely sedentary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Economic cost of increased somatic cell count in South African dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cuthbert

    2014-06-24

    Jun 24, 2014 ... Somatic cell count (SCC) is of economic importance in dairy production as it directly influences the revenue from the ... dairy products of inferior quality, which translates to economic losses. .... allow benefits related to reduced mastitis incidence to be quantified using the approach of Winkelman et al. 0.00.

  5. Increased insight in microbial processes in rapid sandfilters in drinking water treatment (DW BIOFILTERS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Gülay, Arda; Lee, Carson

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research project is to improve our knowledge on biological rapid sand filters as they are present in thousands groundwater based water works. This includes molecular investigations of the microorganisms responsible for the individual processes (e.g. nitrification); and detailed...... monitoring and experiments in the filters and laboratory to provide insight in the process mechanisms, kinetics and effect of environmental factors. Management of the filters (e.g. backwashing, flow rate, carrier type) will be investigated at pilot and full scale, supported by mathematical models...... investigated by deep sequencing. This will also contribute to a verification of whether the selected qPCR probes include all important groups. Filters from three water works have been sampled and are currently being processed to investigate depth profiles and horizontal variation in filters. Assays...

  6. Rapid intervention and treatment zone: redesigning nursing services to meet increasing emergency department demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considine, Julie; Lucas, Elspeth; Martin, Roslyn; Stergiou, Helen E; Kropman, Matthew; Chiu, Herman

    2012-02-01

    The impact of emergency nursing roles in demand management systems is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate emergency nurses' role in a specific emergency department (ED) demand management system: rapid intervention and treatment zone (RITZ). A descriptive exploratory approach was used. Data were collected from audit of 193 randomly selected patient records and 12 h of clinical practice observation. The median age of participants was 31 years, 51.8% were males and 99.5% were discharged home. Nurse qualifications or seniority had no significant effect on waiting time or length of stay (LOS). There were disparities between documented and observed nursing practice. The designation and qualifications of RITZ nurses made little difference to waiting times and ED LOS. Specific documentation and communication systems for areas of the ED that manage large numbers of low complexity patients warrant further research. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Manipulating the antioxidant capacity of halophytes to increase their cultural and economic value through saline cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boestfleisch, Christian; Wagenseil, Niko B; Buhmann, Anne K; Seal, Charlotte E; Wade, Ellie Merrett; Muscolo, Adele; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2014-08-13

    Halophytes, salt-tolerant plants, are a source of valuable secondary metabolites with potential economic value. The steady-state pools of many stress-related metabolites are already enhanced in halophytes when compared with glycophytes, but growth under conditions away from the optimum can induce stress and consequently result in changes to secondary metabolites such as antioxidants. However, direct evidence for increasing the concentration of valuable secondary metabolites as a consequence of altering the salinity of the growing environment still remains equivocal. To address this, we analysed a range of metabolites with antioxidant capacity (including total phenols, flavonoids, ascorbate, reduced/oxidized glutathione and reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes) in seedlings and plants from different families (Amaranthaceae, Brassicaceae, Plantaginaceae and Rhizophoraceae) and habitats grown under different salt concentrations. We show that it is possible to manipulate the antioxidant capacity of plants and seedlings by altering the saline growing environment, the length of time under saline cultivation and the developmental stage. Among the species studied, the halophytes Tripolium pannonicum, Plantago coronopus, Lepidium latifolium and Salicornia europaea demonstrated the most potential as functional foods or nutraceuticals. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  8. Stochasticity in economic losses increases the value of reputation in indirect reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Miguel; Placì, Sarah; Wedekind, Claus

    2015-12-14

    Recent theory predicts harsh and stochastic conditions to generally promote the evolution of cooperation. Here, we test experimentally whether stochasticity in economic losses also affects the value of reputation in indirect reciprocity, a type of cooperation that is very typical for humans. We used a repeated helping game with observers. One subject (the "Unlucky") lost some money, another one (the "Passer-by") could reduce this loss by accepting a cost to herself, thereby building up a reputation that could be used by others in later interactions. The losses were either stable or stochastic, but the average loss over time and the average efficiency gains of helping were kept constant in both treatments. We found that players with a reputation of being generous were generally more likely to receive help by others, such that investing into a good reputation generated long-term benefits that compensated for the immediate costs of helping. Helping frequencies were similar in both treatments, but players with a reputation to be selfish lost more resources under stochastic conditions. Hence, returns on investment were steeper when losses varied than when they did not. We conclude that this type of stochasticity increases the value of reputation in indirect reciprocity.

  9. Protocol: a rapid and economical procedure for purification of plasmid or plant DNA with diverse applications in plant biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Research in plant molecular biology involves DNA purification on a daily basis. Although different commercial kits enable convenient extraction of high-quality DNA from E. coli cells, PCR and agarose gel samples as well as plant tissues, each kit is designed for a particular type of DNA extraction work, and the cost of purchasing these kits over a long run can be considerable. Furthermore, a simple method for the isolation of binary plasmid from Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells with satisfactory yield is lacking. Here we describe an easy protocol using homemade silicon dioxide matrix and seven simple solutions for DNA extraction from E. coli and A. tumefaciens cells, PCR and restriction digests, agarose gel slices, and plant tissues. Compared with the commercial kits, this protocol allows rapid DNA purification from diverse sources with comparable yield and purity at negligible cost. Following this protocol, we have demonstrated: (1 DNA fragments as small as a MYC-epitope tag coding sequence can be successfully recovered from an agarose gel slice; (2 Miniprep DNA from E. coli can be eluted with as little as 5 μl water, leading to high DNA concentrations (>1 μg/μl for efficient biolistic bombardment of Arabidopsis seedlings, polyethylene glycol (PEG-mediated Arabidopsis protoplast transfection and maize protoplast electroporation; (3 Binary plasmid DNA prepared from A. tumefaciens is suitable for verification by restriction analysis without the need for large scale propagation; (4 High-quality genomic DNA is readily isolated from several plant species including Arabidopsis, tobacco and maize. Thus, the silicon dioxide matrix-based DNA purification protocol offers an easy, efficient and economical way to extract DNA for various purposes in plant research.

  10. Mechanical stimulation evokes rapid increases in extracellular adenosine concentration in the prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Ashley E.; Nguyen, Michael D.; Privman, Eve; Venton, B. Jill

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical perturbations can release ATP, which is broken down to adenosine. In this work, we used carbon-fiber microelectrodes and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to measure mechanically-stimulated adenosine in the brain by lowering the electrode 50 μm. Mechanical stimulation evoked adenosine in vivo (average: 3.3 ± 0.6 μM) and in brain slices (average: 0.8 ± 0.1 μM) in the prefrontal cortex. The release was transient, lasting 18 ± 2 s. Lowering a 15 μm diameter glass pipette near the carbon-fiber microelectrode produced similar results as lowering the actual microelectrode. However, applying a small puff of artificial cerebral spinal fluid was not sufficient to evoke adenosine. Multiple stimulations within a 50 μm region of a slice did not significantly change over time or damage cells. Chelating calcium with EDTA or blocking sodium channels with tetrodotoxin (TTX) significantly decreased mechanically evoked adenosine, signifying that the release is activity-dependent. An alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptor antagonist, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), did not affect mechanically-stimulated adenosine; however, the nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1,2 and 3 (NTDPase) inhibitor POM-1 significantly reduced adenosine so a portion of adenosine is dependent on extracellular ATP metabolism. Thus, mechanical perturbations from inserting a probe in the brain cause rapid, transient adenosine signaling which might be neuroprotective. PMID:24606335

  11. False positive rate of rapid oral fluid HIV tests increases as kits near expiration date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facente, Shelley N; Dowling, Teri; Vittinghoff, Eric; Sykes, Deanna L; Colfax, Grant N

    2009-12-14

    Because a recent cluster of false positive results on the OraQuick ADVANCE Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test occurred in San Francisco on test kits close to their expiration date, we decided to assess the relationship between time to expiration and rate of false positive results from tests used with oral fluid. We analyzed results of 20,904 tests with either an initial HIV-negative result (n = 20,828) or a preliminary positive result that was then negative on confirmatory tests (n = 76). We computed specificity for kits with time to expiration from or = 6 months, with exact binomial confidence intervals, then used logistic regression to estimate the independent association of time to expiration with false positive results, adjusting for site and technician effects. For 1,108 kits used in the last month before expiration, specificity was 98.83% (95% exact binomial confidence interval (CI) 98.00%-99.37%); the upper bound is below the claimed specificity of 99.60%. After adjustment using regression standardization for the effects of site, test lot, and technician factors, adjusted specificity in the last month before expiration was 99.18% (95% bootstrap confidence interval 98.60-99.57%). We found that specificity of the OraQuick ADVANCE with oral fluid declined significantly with < or = 1 month remaining to expiration, leaving little margin for error from other sources.

  12. Rapidly increasing prescribing of proton pump inhibitors in primary care despite interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Peter; Paulsen, Maja Skov; Zwisler, Jon Eik

    2014-01-01

    2001-2011 and to assess the impacts of interventions on prescribing of antisecretory medication. Methods: Register-based cohort study covering the entire Danish population of currently 5.5 million inhabitants. Developments in the prescribing of antisecretory medication over time in Denmark between 2001...... increased substantially during the past decade. Both number of users and the average individual use have increased. The prescribing of ulcerogenic drugs to the elderly has stagnated in the same time range. Reimbursement modifications and scientific guidelines do not seem to have had a substantial influence...... on the steadily increasing prescribing of PPIs. Conclusion: Use of PPIs has increased substantially during the past decade, without a change in indications for use of PPIs in the same time range. Interventions to enhance adherence to guidelines and promote rational use of PPIs do not seem to have had...

  13. Rapid Growth and Apparent Total Nitrogen Increases in Rice and Corn Plants following Applications of Triacontanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, N R; Ries, S K

    1981-12-01

    Triacontanol (TRIA) increased fresh and dry weight and total reducible nitrogen (total N) of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings within 40 minutes. Increases in total N in the supernatants from homogenates of corn (Zea mays L.) and rice leaves treated with TRIA for one minute before grinding occurred within 30 and 80 minutes, respectively. The source for the increase was investigated utilizing atmospheric substitution and enrichment and depletion studies with (15)N. The increase in total N in seedlings was shown to be independent of method of N analysis and the presence of nitrate in the plants. Automated Kjeldahl determinations showing apparent increases in N composition due to TRIA were shown to be correlated with hand Kjeldahl, elemental analysis, and chemiluminescent analysis in three independent laboratories. TRIA did not alter the nitrate uptake or endogenous levels of nitrate in corn and rice seedlings. Enrichment experiments revealed that the total N increases in rice seedlings, in vivo, and in supernatants of corn leaf homogenates, in vitro, are not due to atmospheric N(2). TRIA increased the soluble N pools of the plants, specifically the free amino acid and soluble protein fractions. No differences in depletion or enrichment of (15)N incorporated into soluble and insoluble N fractions of rice seedlings could be detected on an atom per cent (15)N basis. The apparent short-term total N increases cannot be explained by current knowledge of major N assimilation pathways. TRIA may stimulate a change in the chemical composition of the seedlings, resulting in interference with standard methods of N analysis.

  14. Economic benefits of productivity increases through truck-to-rail mode shift in freight transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-29

    Although the study of economic benefits of improving (or not improving) the efficiency of freight movement has been recognized as one of the critical research topic by the decision makers and researchers alike, there remains a dearth of transparent a...

  15. Rapid product analysis and increased sensitivity for quantitative determinations of botulinum neurotoxin proteolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Benjamin; Schmidt, James J; Smith, Leonard A; Ahmed, S Ashraf

    2010-01-15

    The ultimate molecular action of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a Zn-dependent endoproteolytic activity on one of the three SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) proteins. There are seven serotypes (A-G) of BoNT having distinct cleavage sites on the SNARE substrates. The proteolytic activity is located on the N-terminal light chain (Lc) domain and is used extensively as the primary target toward therapeutic development against botulism. Here we describe an improved method using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) whereby quantitative data were obtained in 1/10th the time using 1/20th the sample and solvent volumes compared with a widely used high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. We also synthesized a VAMP (vesicle-associated membrane protein)-based peptide containing an intact V1 motif that was efficiently used as a substrate by BoNT/D Lc. Although serotype C1 cleaves the serotype A substrate at a bond separated by only one residue, we were able to distinguish the two reactions by UPLC. The new method can accurately quantify as low as 7 pmol of the peptide substrates for BoNT serotypes A, B, C1, and D. We also report here that the catalytic efficiency of serotype A can be stimulated 35-fold by the addition of Triton X-100 to the reaction mixture. Combining the use of Triton X-100 with the newly introduced UPLC method, we were able to accurately detect very low levels of proteolytic activity in a very short time. Sensitivity of the assay and accuracy and rapidity of product analysis should greatly augment efforts in therapeutic development.

  16. A behavioral economics intervention to increase pertussis vaccination among infant caregivers: A randomized feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttenheim, Alison M; Fiks, Alexander G; Burson, Randall C; Wang, Eileen; Coffin, Susan E; Metlay, Joshua P; Feemster, Kristen A

    2016-02-03

    The incidence of pertussis has tripled in the past five years. Infants can be protected by "cocooning," or vaccinating household contacts with the Tdap vaccine. However, Tdap coverage for adult caregivers of infants is low. This study evaluated the feasibility and impact of interventions informed by behavioral economics (retail pharmacy vouchers for Tdap vaccines and a celebrity public service announcement) to increase Tdap vaccination among caregivers of young infants. We conducted a randomized controlled feasibility trial among adults attending newborn well-child visits at an urban Philadelphia pediatric primary care clinic who were not previously vaccinated with Tdap. Participants were randomized to one of four conditions: ($5-off Tdap voucher vs. free voucher)×(watching a 1min video public service announcement (PSA) about Tdap vaccination vs. no PSA). Tdap vaccination was assessed by tracking voucher redemption and following up with participants by phone. Ninety-five adult caregivers of 74 infants were enrolled in the study (mean age 29.3 years; 61% male; relationship to newborn: 54% father, 33% mother, 13% grandparent or other; caregiver insurance status: 35% Medicaid, 34% private insurance, 32% uninsured). Only 1 subject redeemed the retail pharmacy Tdap voucher. Follow-up interviews suggest that, even with the voucher, significant barriers to vaccination remained including: delaying planned vaccination, perceived inconvenient pharmacy locations, and beliefs about pertussis risk and severity. Despite leveraging existing infrastructure for adult vaccination, results suggest that retail pharmacy vouchers delivered during a newborn visit are not an effective strategy for promoting Tdap. Alternate approaches are needed that prioritize convenience and provide an immediate opportunity to vaccinate when motivation is high. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impulsivity and socio-economic status interact to increase the risk of gambling onset among youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Lo, Ernest; Cantinotti, Michael; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2010-12-01

    To determine if impulsivity and socio-economic status (SES) interact to influence gambling onset in youth. Longitudinal study of grade 7 students followed for 8 years. Montréal, Canada. A total of 628 adult students aged 12.6 years on average at cohort inception. Impulsivity and SES (parent education, area deprivation) were collected during secondary school. Age of gambling onset was collected retrospectively when participants were aged 20.3 years. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model the association between time to first report of gambling and interaction terms for each of impulsivity and parent education, and impulsivity and area deprivation accounting for sex and ethnicity. Median (interquartile range) age of gambling onset was 17.0 (4.0) years. Impulsivity independently increased the risk of gambling onset among participants with no university-educated parent [hazard ratio (HR) 1.3; 95% confidence interval 1.1-1.5] and those living in highly deprived areas (HR 1.7; 1.5-2.0). Impulsivity was not associated with gambling onset among high SES youth. Among participants with high impulsivity, risks were elevated for those with no university-educated parent relative to one or more university-educated parent (HR 1.7; 1.1-2.7), and for participants living in deprived relative to advantaged areas (HR 5.0; 2.6-9.6). SES was not associated with gambling onset among participants with low impulsivity. Impulsivity is a risk factor for gambling onset among low but not high SES youth, and low SES influences gambling onset primarily among impulsive youth. Gambling prevention programmes may need to consider potential interaction between impulsivity and SES. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. RAPID KNEE-EXTENSIONS TO INCREASE QUADRICEPS MUSCLE ACTIVITY IN PATIENTS WITH TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Rasmus Skov; Wilquin, Lousia; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inhibition of the quadriceps muscle and reduced knee-extension strength is common shortly following total knee arthroplasty (weeks to months), due to reduced voluntary activation of the quadriceps muscle. In healthy subjects, strength training with heavy loads is known to increase ago...

  19. Rapid knee-extensions to increase quadriceps muscle activity in patients with total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Rasmus Skov; Wilquin, Lousia; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inhibition of the quadriceps muscle and reduced knee-extension strength is common shortly following total knee arthroplasty (weeks to months), due to reduced voluntary activation of the quadriceps muscle. In healthy subjects, strength training with heavy loads is known to increase ago...

  20. Safe communities in China as a strategy for injury prevention and safety promotion programmes in the era of rapid economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Mei; Dalal, Koustuv

    2013-02-01

    Due to its rapid economic development, China is facing a huge health, social, and economic burden resulting from injuries. The study's objective was to examine Safe Communities in China as a strategy for injury prevention and safety promotion programmes in the era of rapid economic growth. Literature searches in English and Chinese, which included grey literature, were performed on the Chinese Journal Full-text Search System and Medline, using the words "Safe Community", "injury", "economics", and "prevention". The results showed that the existing 35 recognized members of the International Safe Community Network have not placed due emphasis on suicide prevention, which is one of the leading problems in both rural and urban China. A few groups, such as children, the elderly, cyclists, and pedestrians, have received due emphasis, while other vulnerable groups, such as migrant workers, motorcyclists, students, players, and farmers have not received the necessary attention from the Safe Community perspective. As the evidence describes, Safe Communities in China can be a very effective strategy for injury prevention, but four aspects need to be strengthened in the future: (1) establish and strengthen the policy and regulations in terms of injury prevention at the national level; (2) create a system to involve professional organizations and personnel in projects; (3) consider the economic development status of different parts of China; and (4) intentional injury prevention should receive greater attention.

  1. Long-Term Urban Market Dynamics Reveal Increased Bushmeat Carcass Volume despite Economic Growth and Proactive Environmental Legislation on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Drew T; Woloszynek, Stephen; Morra, Wayne A; Honarvar, Shaya; Linder, Joshua M; Gonder, Mary Katherine; O'Connor, Michael P; Hearn, Gail W

    2015-01-01

    Bushmeat hunting is extensive in west and central Africa as both a means for subsistence and for commercial gain. Commercial hunting represents one of the primary threats to wildlife in the region, and confounding factors have made it challenging to examine how external factors influence the commercial bushmeat trade. Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea is a small island with large tracts of intact forest that support sizeable populations of commercially valuable vertebrates, especially endemic primates. The island also has a low human population and has experienced dramatic economic growth and rapid development since the mid-1990's. From October 1997 - September 2010, we monitored the largest bushmeat market on Bioko in Malabo, recording over 197,000 carcasses for sale. We used these data to analyze the dynamics of the market in relation to political events, environmental legislation, and rapid economic growth. Our findings suggest that bushmeat hunting and availability increased in parallel with the growth of Equatorial Guinea's GDP and disposable income of its citizens. During this 13-year study, the predominant mode of capture shifted from trapping to shotguns. Consequently, carcass volume and rates of taxa typically captured with shotguns increased significantly, most notably including intensified hunting of Bioko's unique and endangered monkey fauna. Attempts to limit bushmeat sales, including a 2007 ban on primate hunting and trade, were only transiently effective. The hunting ban was not enforced, and was quickly followed by a marked increase in bushmeat hunting compared to hunting rates prior to the ban. Our results emphasize the negative impact that rapid development and unenforced legislation have had on Bioko's wildlife, and demonstrate the need for strong governmental support if conservation strategies are to be successful at preventing extinctions of tropical wildlife.

  2. Long-Term Urban Market Dynamics Reveal Increased Bushmeat Carcass Volume despite Economic Growth and Proactive Environmental Legislation on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Drew T.; Woloszynek, Stephen; Morra, Wayne A.; Honarvar, Shaya; Linder, Joshua M.; Gonder, Mary Katherine; O’Connor, Michael P.; Hearn, Gail W.

    2015-01-01

    Bushmeat hunting is extensive in west and central Africa as both a means for subsistence and for commercial gain. Commercial hunting represents one of the primary threats to wildlife in the region, and confounding factors have made it challenging to examine how external factors influence the commercial bushmeat trade. Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea is a small island with large tracts of intact forest that support sizeable populations of commercially valuable vertebrates, especially endemic primates. The island also has a low human population and has experienced dramatic economic growth and rapid development since the mid-1990’s. From October 1997 – September 2010, we monitored the largest bushmeat market on Bioko in Malabo, recording over 197,000 carcasses for sale. We used these data to analyze the dynamics of the market in relation to political events, environmental legislation, and rapid economic growth. Our findings suggest that bushmeat hunting and availability increased in parallel with the growth of Equatorial Guinea’s GDP and disposable income of its citizens. During this 13-year study, the predominant mode of capture shifted from trapping to shotguns. Consequently, carcass volume and rates of taxa typically captured with shotguns increased significantly, most notably including intensified hunting of Bioko's unique and endangered monkey fauna. Attempts to limit bushmeat sales, including a 2007 ban on primate hunting and trade, were only transiently effective. The hunting ban was not enforced, and was quickly followed by a marked increase in bushmeat hunting compared to hunting rates prior to the ban. Our results emphasize the negative impact that rapid development and unenforced legislation have had on Bioko’s wildlife, and demonstrate the need for strong governmental support if conservation strategies are to be successful at preventing extinctions of tropical wildlife. PMID:26230504

  3. Economical, Plain, and Rapid Authentication of Actaea racemosa L. (syn. Cimicifuga racemosa, Black Cohosh) Herbal Raw Material by Resilient RP-PDA-HPLC and Chemometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Marian; Schenk, Regina; Springer, Andreas; Melzig, Matthias F

    2016-11-01

    The medicinal plant Actaea racemosa L. (Ranunculaceae, aka black cohosh) is widely used to treat climacteric complaints as an alternative to hormone substitution. Recent trials prove efficacy and safety of the approved herbal medicinal products from extracts of pharmaceutical quality. This led to worldwide increasing sales. A higher demand for the plant material results in problems with economically motivated adulteration. Thus, reliable tools for herbal drug authentication are necessary. To develop an economical, plain, and rapid method to distinguish between closely related American and Asian Actaea species, using securely established and resilient analytical methods coupled to a chemometric evaluation of the resulting data. We developed and validated a RP-PDA-HPLC method including an extraction by ultra-sonication to determine the genuine contents of partly hydrolysis-sensitive polyphenols in Actaea racemosa roots and rhizomes, and applied it to a large number of 203 Actaea samples consisting of seven species. We were able to generate reliable data with regards to the polyphenolic esters in the samples. The evaluation of this data by principle component analysis (PCA) made a discrimination between Asian Actaea species (sheng ma), one American Actaea species (Appalachian bugbane), and A. racemosa possible. The developed RP-PDA-HPLC method coupled to PCA is an excellent tool for authentication of the Actaea racemosa herbal drug, and can be a powerful addition to the TLC methods used in the dedicated pharmacopoeias, and is a promising alternative to expensive and lots of expertise requiring methods. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Identification and manipulation of the pleuromutilin gene cluster from Clitopilus passeckerianus for increased rapid antibiotic production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Andy M.; Alberti, Fabrizio; Kilaru, Sreedhar; Collins, Catherine M.; de Mattos-Shipley, Kate; Hartley, Amanda J.; Hayes, Patrick; Griffin, Alison; Lazarus, Colin M.; Cox, Russell J.; Willis, Christine L.; O'Dwyer, Karen; Spence, David W.; Foster, Gary D.

    2016-05-01

    Semi-synthetic derivatives of the tricyclic diterpene antibiotic pleuromutilin from the basidiomycete Clitopilus passeckerianus are important in combatting bacterial infections in human and veterinary medicine. These compounds belong to the only new class of antibiotics for human applications, with novel mode of action and lack of cross-resistance, representing a class with great potential. Basidiomycete fungi, being dikaryotic, are not generally amenable to strain improvement. We report identification of the seven-gene pleuromutilin gene cluster and verify that using various targeted approaches aimed at increasing antibiotic production in C. passeckerianus, no improvement in yield was achieved. The seven-gene pleuromutilin cluster was reconstructed within Aspergillus oryzae giving production of pleuromutilin in an ascomycete, with a significant increase (2106%) in production. This is the first gene cluster from a basidiomycete to be successfully expressed in an ascomycete, and paves the way for the exploitation of a metabolically rich but traditionally overlooked group of fungi.

  5. Rapidly increasing use of proton pump inhibitors prescribed in primary care: a nationwide observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Peter; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg; Hansen, Jane Møller

    a change in indications for use of PPIs in the same time range. Use of ulcerogenic drugs among the elderly has stagnated. Reimbursement modifications do not seem to have had a substantial influence on the steadily increasing use of PPIs. Conclusions: Use of PPIs has increased substantially the past decade......Background: Antisecretory drugs (ADs) are often prescribed in primary care for upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Reimbursement modifications have been made in Denmark to minimize costs related to use of ADs. However knowledge about development in use of ADs over the past decade and the impacts...... of the reimbursement modifications is sparse. Research questions: How has use of ADs developed in Denmark 2001-2011? Which impacts have the reimbursement modifications had on the use of ADs? Methods: The Register of Medicinal Product Statistics includes all sales and redeemed prescriptions nationwide covering...

  6. Increases in myocardial workload induced by rapid atrial pacing trigger alterations in global metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslan T Turer

    Full Text Available To determine whether increases in cardiac work lead to alterations in the plasma metabolome and whether such changes arise from the heart or peripheral organs.There is growing evidence that the heart influences systemic metabolism through endocrine effects and affecting pathways involved in energy homeostasis.Nineteen patients referred for cardiac catheterization were enrolled. Peripheral and selective coronary sinus (CS blood sampling was performed at serial timepoints following the initiation of pacing, and metabolite profiling was performed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS.Pacing-stress resulted in a 225% increase in the median rate·pressure product from baseline. Increased myocardial work induced significant changes in the peripheral concentration of 43 of 125 metabolites assayed, including large changes in purine [adenosine (+99%, p = 0.006, ADP (+42%, p = 0.01, AMP (+79%, p = 0.004, GDP (+69%, p = 0.003, GMP (+58%, p = 0.01, IMP (+50%, p = 0.03, xanthine (+61%, p = 0.0006], and several bile acid metabolites. The CS changes in metabolites qualitatively mirrored those in the peripheral blood in both timing and magnitude, suggesting the heart was not the major source of the metabolite release.Isolated increases in myocardial work can induce changes in the plasma metabolome, but these changes do not appear to be directly cardiac in origin. A number of these dynamic metabolites have known signaling functions. Our study provides additional evidence to a growing body of literature on metabolic 'cross-talk' between the heart and other organs.

  7. Rapidly increasing macroalgal cover not related to herbivorous fishes on Mesoamerican reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Suchley

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Long-term phase shifts from coral to macroalgal dominated reef systems are well documented in the Caribbean. Although the impact of coral diseases, climate change and other factors is acknowledged, major herbivore loss through disease and overfishing is often assigned a primary role. However, direct evidence for the link between herbivore abundance, macroalgal and coral cover is sparse, particularly over broad spatial scales. In this study we use a database of coral reef surveys performed at 85 sites along the Mesoamerican Reef of Mexico, Belize, Guatemala and Honduras, to examine potential ecological links by tracking site trajectories over the period 2005–2014. Despite the long-term reduction of herbivory capacity reported across the Caribbean, the Mesoamerican Reef region displayed relatively low macroalgal cover at the onset of the study. Subsequently, increasing fleshy macroalgal cover was pervasive. Herbivorous fish populations were not responsible for this trend as fleshy macroalgal cover change was not correlated with initial herbivorous fish biomass or change, and the majority of sites experienced increases in macroalgae browser biomass. This contrasts the coral reef top-down herbivore control paradigm and suggests the role of external factors in making environmental conditions more favourable for algae. Increasing macroalgal cover typically suppresses ecosystem services and leads to degraded reef systems. Consequently, policy makers and local coral reef managers should reassess the focus on herbivorous fish protection and consider complementary measures such as watershed management in order to arrest this trend.

  8. Proton Pump Inhibition Increases Rapid Eye Movement Sleep in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munazah Fazal Qureshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased bodily CO2 concentration alters cellular pH as well as sleep. The proton pump, which plays an important role in the homeostatic regulation of cellular pH, therefore, may modulate sleep. We investigated the effects of the proton pump inhibitor “lansoprazole” on sleep-wakefulness. Male Wistar rats were surgically prepared for chronic polysomnographic recordings. Two different doses of lansoprazole (low: 1 mg/kg; high: 10 mg/kg were injected intraperitoneally in the same animal (n=7 and sleep-wakefulness was recorded for 6 hrs. The changes in sleep-wakefulness were compared statistically. Percent REM sleep amount in the vehicle and lansoprazole low dose groups was 9.26±1.03 and 9.09±0.54, respectively, which increased significantly in the lansoprazole high dose group by 31.75% (from vehicle and 34.21% (from low dose. Also, REM sleep episode numbers significantly increased in lansoprazole high dose group. Further, the sodium-hydrogen exchanger blocker “amiloride” (10 mg/kg; i.p. (n=5 did not alter sleep-wake architecture. Our results suggest that the proton pump plays an important role in REM sleep modulation and supports our view that REM sleep might act as a sentinel to help maintain normal CO2 level for unperturbed sleep.

  9. National policies for technical change: where are the increasing returns to economic research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavitt, K

    1996-11-12

    Improvements over the past 30 years in statistical data, analysis, and related theory have strengthened the basis for science and technology policy by confirming the importance of technical change in national economic performance. But two important features of scientific and technological activities in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries are still not addressed adequately in mainstream economics: (i) the justification of public funding for basic research and (ii) persistent international differences in investment in research and development and related activities. In addition, one major gap is now emerging in our systems of empirical measurement-the development of software technology, especially in the service sector. There are therefore dangers of diminishing returns to the usefulness of economic research, which continues to rely completely on established theory and established statistical sources. Alternative propositions that deserve serious consideration are: (i) the economic usefulness of basic research is in the provision of (mainly tacit) skills rather than codified and applicable information; (ii) in developing and exploiting technological opportunities, institutional competencies are just as important as the incentive structures that they face; and (iii) software technology developed in traditional service sectors may now be a more important locus of technical change than software technology developed in "high-tech" manufacturing.

  10. Rapid increases and time-lagged declines in amphibian occupancy after wildfire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, Blake R; Lowe, Winsor H; Corn, Paul Stephen

    2013-02-01

    Climate change is expected to increase the frequency and severity of drought and wildfire. Aquatic and moisture-sensitive species, such as amphibians, may be particularly vulnerable to these modified disturbance regimes because large wildfires often occur during extended droughts and thus may compound environmental threats. However, understanding of the effects of wildfires on amphibians in forests with long fire-return intervals is limited. Numerous stand-replacing wildfires have occurred since 1988 in Glacier National Park (Montana, U.S.A.), where we have conducted long-term monitoring of amphibians. We measured responses of 3 amphibian species to fires of different sizes, severity, and age in a small geographic area with uniform management. We used data from wetlands associated with 6 wildfires that burned between 1988 and 2003 to evaluate whether burn extent and severity and interactions between wildfire and wetland isolation affected the distribution of breeding populations. We measured responses with models that accounted for imperfect detection to estimate occupancy during prefire (0-4 years) and different postfire recovery periods. For the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) and Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris), occupancy was not affected for 6 years after wildfire. But 7-21 years after wildfire, occupancy for both species decreased ≥ 25% in areas where >50% of the forest within 500 m of wetlands burned. In contrast, occupancy of the boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas) tripled in the 3 years after low-elevation forests burned. This increase in occupancy was followed by a gradual decline. Our results show that accounting for magnitude of change and time lags is critical to understanding population dynamics of amphibians after large disturbances. Our results also inform understanding of the potential threat of increases in wildfire frequency or severity to amphibians in the region. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Rapid increases and time-lagged declines in amphibian occupancy after wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, Blake R.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Corn, Paul Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to increase the frequency and severity of drought and wildfire. Aquatic and moisture-sensitive species, such as amphibians, may be particularly vulnerable to these modified disturbance regimes because large wildfires often occur during extended droughts and thus may compound environmental threats. However, understanding of the effects of wildfires on amphibians in forests with long fire-return intervals is limited. Numerous stand-replacing wildfires have occurred since 1988 in Glacier National Park (Montana, U.S.A.), where we have conducted long-term monitoring of amphibians. We measured responses of 3 amphibian species to fires of different sizes, severity, and age in a small geographic area with uniform management. We used data from wetlands associated with 6 wildfires that burned between 1988 and 2003 to evaluate whether burn extent and severity and interactions between wildfire and wetland isolation affected the distribution of breeding populations. We measured responses with models that accounted for imperfect detection to estimate occupancy during prefire (0-4 years) and different postfire recovery periods. For the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) and Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris), occupancy was not affected for 6 years after wildfire. But 7-21 years after wildfire, occupancy for both species decreased ≥ 25% in areas where >50% of the forest within 500 m of wetlands burned. In contrast, occupancy of the boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas) tripled in the 3 years after low-elevation forests burned. This increase in occupancy was followed by a gradual decline. Our results show that accounting for magnitude of change and time lags is critical to understanding population dynamics of amphibians after large disturbances. Our results also inform understanding of the potential threat of increases in wildfire frequency or severity to amphibians in the region.

  12. A rapid increase in lipoprotein (a) levels after ethanol withdrawal in alcoholic men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kervinen, K.; Savolainen, J.J.; Kesaeniemi, Y.A. (Univ. of Oulu (Finland))

    1991-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) were studied in 11 male alcoholics at the end of a drinking period and monitored during subsequent abstinence. Lp(a) levels showed a daily increase for four consecutive days after the beginning of abstinence, the values for the third and the fourth day being significantly higher than those of the first day. The changes in Lp(a) showed no association with the changes in low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. In one alcoholic subject with a heterozygous form of familial hypercholesterolemia who was monitored for 11 days, the Lp(a) levels rose up to the fourth day and remained at a high level thereafter. These results suggest that ethanol ingestion may be associated with a lower of Lp(a) levels, which may contribute to the delayed progression of atherosclerosis observed in alcohol drinkers.

  13. Increased heterozygosity at the Mdh-B locus in fish inhabiting a rapidly fluctuating thermal environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, E.G.; Richmond, M.C.

    1981-05-01

    Populations of a common forage fish, red shiner Notropis lutrensis, were sampled from four localities on the Brazos River, Texas, affected by cold-water discharge from a hydroelectric dam and from unaltered sites in the same region. Polymorphism at the Mdh-B locus, encoding supernatant malate dehydrogenase, indicates that populations within 57 km of the dam are distinctive from other regional populations and possess a unique Mdh-B allele, have significantly higher levels of heterozygosity at the Mdh-B locus, represent a homogeneous set that have significantly different Mdh-B zygotic frequencies from other regional populations, and have significantly different Mdh-B zygotic proportions than would be expected under a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Increased levels of heterozygosity in fish within 57 km of the dam were correlated with discharge-associated fluctuations in water temperature at sampling stations.

  14. Rapidly increasing body mass index among children, adolescents and young adults in a transitioning population, South Africa, 2008-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, B; Sartorius, K; Taylor, M; Aagaard-Hansen, J; Dukhi, N; Day, C; Ndlovu, N; Slotow, R; Hofman, K

    2017-12-14

    There is a global epidemic of overweight and obesity; however, this rate of increase is even greater in some low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). South Africa (SA) is undergoing rapid socioeconomic and demographic changes that have triggered a rapid nutrition transition. The paper focuses on the recent rate of change of body mass index (BMI) among children, adolescents and young adults, further stratified by key sociodemographic factors. We analysed mean BMI of 28 247 individuals (including children) from 7301 households by age and year, from anthropometric data from four national cross-sectional (repeated panel) surveys using non-linear fitted curves and associated 95% confidence intervals. From 2008 to 2015, there was rapid rise in mean BMI in the 6-25 age band, with the highest risk (3-4+ BMI unit increase) among children aged 8-10 years. The increase was largely among females in urban areas and of middle-high socioeconomic standing. Prominent gains were also observed in certain rural areas, with extensive geographical heterogeneity across the country. We have demonstrated a major deviation from the current understanding of patterns of BMI increase, with a rate of increase substantially greater in the developing world context compared with the global pattern. This population-wide effect will have major consequences for national development as the epidemic of related non-communicable disease unfolds, and will overtax the national health care budget. Our refined understanding highlights that risks are further compounded for certain groups/places, and emphasizes that urgent geographical and population-targeted interventions are necessary. These interventions could include a sugar tax, clearer food labelling, revised school feeding programmes and mandatory bans on unhealthy food marketing to children.The scenario unfolding in South Africa will likely be followed in other LMICs.

  15. Synthetic polymers in the marine environment: a rapidly increasing, long-term threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Charles James

    2008-10-01

    Synthetic polymers, commonly known as plastics, have been entering the marine environment in quantities paralleling their level of production over the last half century. However, in the last two decades of the 20th Century, the deposition rate accelerated past the rate of production, and plastics are now one of the most common and persistent pollutants in ocean waters and beaches worldwide. Thirty years ago the prevailing attitude of the plastic industry was that "plastic litter is a very small proportion of all litter and causes no harm to the environment except as an eyesore" [Derraik, J.G.B., 2002. The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 44(9), 842-852]. Between 1960 and 2000, the world production of plastic resins increased 25-fold, while recovery of the material remained below 5%. Between 1970 and 2003, plastics became the fastest growing segment of the US municipal waste stream, increasing nine-fold, and marine litter is now 60-80% plastic, reaching 90-95% in some areas. While undoubtedly still an eyesore, plastic debris today is having significant harmful effects on marine biota. Albatross, fulmars, shearwaters and petrels mistake floating plastics for food, and many individuals of these species are affected; in fact, 44% of all seabird species are known to ingest plastic. Sea turtles ingest plastic bags, fishing line and other plastics, as do 26 species of cetaceans. In all, 267 species of marine organisms worldwide are known to have been affected by plastic debris, a number that will increase as smaller organisms are assessed. The number of fish, birds, and mammals that succumb each year to derelict fishing nets and lines in which they become entangled cannot be reliably known; but estimates are in the millions. We divide marine plastic debris into two categories: macro, >5 mm and micro, plastic micro-debris by filter feeders at the base of the food web is known to occur, but has not been quantified

  16. Rapid Economic Growth and Natural Gas Consumption Nexus: Looking forward from Perspective of 11th Malaysian Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhet, H. A.; Yasmin, T.

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption by incorporating CO2 emissions, natural gas consumption and population in Malaysia. Annual data and F-bound test and granger causality have applied to test the existence of long run relationship between the series. The results show that variables are cointegrated for long run relationship. The results also indicate that natural gas consumption is an important contributing factor to energy demand and hence economic growth in case of Malaysia. The causality analysis highlights that the feedback hypothesis exists between economic growth and energy consumption. While, conservative hypothesis is validated between natural gas consumption and economic growth which implies that economic growth will push natural gas consumption policies in future. This study opens up new direction for policy makers to formulate a comprehensive natural gas policy to sustain environment for long span of time in case to achieve 11th MP targets.

  17. Does increase in the depreciation expensing allowance spur economic growth? Evidence from USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial evidence that economic growth is influenced by taxation, the impact of Section 179 on GDP is unclear. Section 179 of the Internal Revenue Code enacted in 1958 has operated for several decades in the United States. In addition, in late 2010, two congressional acts affecting Section 179 have been passed, i.e. The Tax Relief Act of 2010 and The Small Business Jobs Act of 2010. The essence of these adoptions is to provide incentives for corporate as well as individual taxpayers. However, there are concerns as to the degree of economic growth these adoptions will provide. This research is therefore focused on showing the correlation between these Section 179 deductions, depreciation and economic growth as the Section 179 figures are debated and changed annually. The study suggests that annual increments of capital depreciation deductions will aid corporate growth as well as other variables that affect economic growth in the United States. However, the benefits for small business are lower than for corporations.

  18. Urban School Finance: Increased Standards and Accountability in Uncertain Economic Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Jennifer King; Roellke, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to the funding of urban schools during uncertain economic periods. Includes the complexity of urban school reform, teacher supply and quality in urban schools, nontraditional support for urban schools, and markets and accountability in urban schools. (Contains 36 references.) (PKP)

  19. METHODS OF INCREASING THE ROLE OF THE CORPORATE TAX IN THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrudan Leonard Calin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will discuss about the implications of the corporate tax in the field of economical and social development. In the beginning we will present the results of the introduction of the new quota (16% as budgetary receipts and after that we wi

  20. Getting Risks Right:Thoughts about Increasing the Resilience of the Global Social & Economic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Liedtke

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The extraordinary extent of the financial crisis has inspired deep systemic reforms world-wide, rethinking financial stability, the resilience of our economic systems, and the role that national and international institutions play. While most of the ongoing activities are understandably centred on banks and the banking sector – the origin and centre of the crisis – other important elements have been relegated into secondary roles and fundamental democratic processes have been sidelined. Financial issues have crowded out real economic issues as policy-makers and politicians spend more time on the financial than the substantial (i.e. the real economy and the democratic. Two fundamental concerns need to be addressed proactively: 1. A comprehensive approach to deal with both financial and real world risks on this planet, and 2. The global governance system based on democratic principles to follow globalisation of the business (and particularly the financial sector.

  1. Increasing Feedstock Production for Biofuels: Economic Drivers, Environmental Implications, and the Role of Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    The Biomass Research and Development Board (Board) commissioned an economic analysis of feedstocks to produce biofuels. The Board seeks to inform investments in research and development needed to expand biofuel production. This analysis focuses on feedstocks; other interagency teams have projects underway for other parts of the biofuel sector (e.g., logistics). The analysis encompasses feedstocks for both conventional and advanced biofuels from agriculture and forestry sources.

  2. Monitoring of current assets of enterprises in increasing level of economic security

    OpenAIRE

    Andrii Ruzhytskyi

    2013-01-01

    In the article it is reasonably argued that complex of theoretical and methodological principles for approaches to management of current assets with regard to their influence on the current and future state of the economic security of enterprises and monitoring scheme is proposed as a way of organizing management activities. As part of this goal, solved the following research objectives: monitoring scheme is proposed as a way of organizing management activities; methodical approaches to forma...

  3. Economic cost of increased somatic cell count in South African dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cuthbert

    2014-06-24

    Jun 24, 2014 ... ISSN 0375-1589 (print), ISSN 2221-4062 (online). Publisher: South African Society for Animal Science http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sajas.v44i2.10. Short communication. The economic value of somatic cell count in South African Holstein and Jersey cattle. C.B. Banga1,2#, F.W.C. Neser2 & D.J. Garrick3.

  4. Increasing socio-economic inequalities in life expectancy and QALYs in Sweden 1980-1997

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burström, Kristina; Johannesson, Magnus; Diderichsen, Finn

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the change in socio-economic differences in life expectancy and in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), for men and women at different ages, in Sweden 1980 to 1997. We used data from the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions (the ULF survey), which is linked...... to mortality data, to estimate the life expectancy in different socio-economic groups in 1980 and 1997 (n=100 868). Health state scores were obtained by mapping responses to selected ULF survey interview questions into the generic health-related quality of life measure EQ-5D, using the UK EQ-5D index tariff (n......=34 447). For 20-year-old men the difference in life expectancy between the highest (higher non-manual) and the lowest socio-economic group (unskilled manual) was 2.11 years in 1980 and 3.79 years in 1997. The corresponding figures for 20-year-old women were 1.56 in 1980 and 2.15 in 1997...

  5. Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostert, Patrick; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Sieber, Anika [Geography Department, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany); Prishchepov, Alexander [Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe (IAMO), Department of Structural Development of Farms and Rural Areas, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 2, 06120 Halle (Germany); Lambin, Eric F [Earth and Life Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, place L. Pasteur 3, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Radeloff, Volker C, E-mail: patrick.hostert@geo.hu-berlin.de [Department of Forest and Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1630 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1598 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Land use change is a principal force and inherent element of global environmental change, threatening biodiversity, natural ecosystems, and their services. However, our ability to anticipate future land use change is severely limited by a lack of understanding of how major socio-economic disturbances (e.g., wars, revolutions, policy changes, and economic crises) affect land use. Here we explored to what extent socio-economic disturbances can shift land use systems onto a different trajectory, and whether this can result in less intensive land use. Our results show that the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio-economic disturbances. The socio-economic disturbance that we studied caused major hardship for local populations, yet also presents opportunities for conservation, as natural ecosystems are recovering on large areas of former farmland. Our results illustrate the potential of socio-economic disturbances to revert land use intensification and the important role institutions and policies play in determining land use systems' resilience against such socio-economic disturbances.

  6. Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostert, Patrick; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Prishchepov, Alexander; Sieber, Anika; Lambin, Eric F.; Radeloff, Volker C.

    2011-10-01

    Land use change is a principal force and inherent element of global environmental change, threatening biodiversity, natural ecosystems, and their services. However, our ability to anticipate future land use change is severely limited by a lack of understanding of how major socio-economic disturbances (e.g., wars, revolutions, policy changes, and economic crises) affect land use. Here we explored to what extent socio-economic disturbances can shift land use systems onto a different trajectory, and whether this can result in less intensive land use. Our results show that the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio-economic disturbances. The socio-economic disturbance that we studied caused major hardship for local populations, yet also presents opportunities for conservation, as natural ecosystems are recovering on large areas of former farmland. Our results illustrate the potential of socio-economic disturbances to revert land use intensification and the important role institutions and policies play in determining land use systems' resilience against such socio-economic disturbances.

  7. Internet search query analysis can be used to demonstrate the rapidly increasing public awareness of palliative care in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Sarah; Lennon, Paul; Glare, Paul

    2017-01-27

    A lack of public awareness of palliative care (PC) has been identified as one of the main barriers to appropriate PC access. Internet search query analysis is a novel methodology, which has been effectively used in surveillance of infectious diseases, and can be used to monitor public awareness of health-related topics. We aimed to demonstrate the utility of internet search query analysis to evaluate changes in public awareness of PC in the USA between 2005 and 2015. Google Trends provides a referenced score for the popularity of a search term, for defined regions over defined time periods. The popularity of the search term 'palliative care' was measured monthly between 1/1/2005 and 31/12/2015 in the USA and in the UK. Results were analysed using independent t-tests and joinpoint analysis. The mean monthly popularity of the search term increased between 2008-2009 (pquery surveillance is a novel methodology, it is freely accessible and has significant potential to monitor health-seeking behaviour among the public. PC is rapidly growing in the USA, and the rapidly increasing public awareness of PC as demonstrated in this study, in comparison with the UK, where PC is relatively well established is encouraging in increasingly ensuring appropriate PC access for all. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Carboxylesterase 1A2 encoding gene with increased transcription and potential rapid drug metabolism in Asian populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Berg; Madsen, Majbritt Busk; Lyauk, Yassine Kamal

    2017-01-01

    The carboxylesterase 1 gene (CES1) encodes a hydrolase implicated in the metabolism of commonly used drugs. CES1A2, a hybrid of CES1 and a CES1-like pseudogene, has a promoter that is weak in most individuals. However, some individuals harbor a promoter haplotype of this gene with two overlapping...... Sp1 sites that confer significantly increased transcription potentially leading to rapid drug metabolism. This CES1A2 haplotype has previously been reported to be common among Asians. Using polymerase chain reaction followed by sequencing, the present study examined variation in the promoter and 5...

  9. Renewal of Collaborative Research: Economically Viable Forest Harvesting Practices That Increase Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, E.A.; Dail, D.B., Hollinger, D.; Scott, N.; Richardson, A.

    2012-08-02

    Forests provide wildlife habitat, water and air purification, climate moderation, and timber and nontimber products. Concern about climate change has put forests in the limelight as sinks of atmospheric carbon. The C stored in the global vegetation, mostly in forests, is nearly equivalent to the amount present in atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Both voluntary and government-mandated carbon trading markets are being developed and debated, some of which include C sequestration resulting from forest management as a possible tradeable commodity. However, uncertainties regarding sources of variation in sequestration rates, validation, and leakage remain significant challenges for devising strategies to include forest management in C markets. Hence, the need for scientifically-based information on C sequestration by forest management has never been greater. The consequences of forest management on the US carbon budget are large, because about two-thirds of the {approx}300 million hectare US forest resource is classified as 'commercial forest.' In most C accounting budgets, forest harvesting is usually considered to cause a net release of C from the terrestrial biosphere to the atmosphere. However, forest management practices could be designed to meet the multiple goals of providing wood and paper products, creating economic returns from natural resources, while sequestering C from the atmosphere. The shelterwood harvest strategy, which removes about 30% of the basal area of the overstory trees in each of three successive harvests spread out over thirty years as part of a stand rotation of 60-100 years, may improve net C sequestration compared to clear-cutting because: (1) the average C stored on the land surface over a rotation increases, (2) harvesting only overstory trees means that a larger fraction of the harvested logs can be used for long-lived sawtimber products, compared to more pulp resulting from clearcutting, (3) the shelterwood cut encourages growth of

  10. Application of stepwise gradients in counter-current chromatography: a rapid and economical strategy for the one-step separation of eight coumarins from Seseli resinosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehzad, Omer; Khan, Salman; Ha, In Jin; Park, Youmie; Tosun, Alev; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2013-10-04

    The targeted purification of compounds with a broad polarity range from traditional medicinal plants is a big challenge for counter-current chromatography (CCC). Gradient elution was introduced in CCC to address this problem. However, once a suitable solvent system is selected, the separation process requires optimization of operational parameters. The present study was conducted to optimize various operational parameters to integrate the flow rate and solvent gradients for the rapid isolation of eight coumarins from Seseli resinosum in a single run. An increase in the system temperature from 15°C to 35°C increased the stationary phase retention and solubility of the sample, whereas the operation time and viscosity of the system were decreased. The high purity of each compound was ensured by collecting the fractions from the main peaks while all the shoulder peaks were mixed and separated under the same conditions with semi-preparative CCC. GC-FID was used to analyze the components of each phase, which was prepared without presaturation to save the time and solvent consumption. Finally, eight coumarins were purified, including (1) d-laserpitin, (2) (3'S,4'S)-3'-angeloyloxy-4'-hydroxy-3',4'-dihydroseselin, (3) (+)-samidin, (4) (3'S,4'S)-3'-acetoxy-4'-angeloyloxy-3',4'-dihydroseselin, (5) deltoin (6), calipteryxin, (7) (3'S,4'S)-3',4'-disenecioyloxy-3',4'-dihydroseselin, and (8) (-)-anomalin. The present technique has successfully accomplished the goal of one-step separation of these compounds with high purity and recovery in an economic and time efficient manner. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Economic Impact of Increasing Public Support to ICT R&D: A Modelling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    CHRISTENSEN MARTIN

    2015-01-01

    The report provides a quantitative analysis of the economic impacts of national public support to ICT R&D in the European Union, considering a number of policy scenarios covering different amounts of public spending, policy instruments and sources of financing. For this purpose we use a macroeconomic model with ICT and R&D-driven endogenous growth. The model accommodates a range of policy instruments that may be used to stimulate R&D activity (ICT or non-ICT) in the economy, and it captures m...

  12. German enterprises and the changes in energy economics due to increased concerns regarding environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Gregor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of a first year doctoral research regarding the current state of knowledge in environmental sustainability, energy economics and their impact on European enterprises. As the current changes and modifications of the German energy economics system are observed by people all around the globe, the current paper analyzes what has been said until now in the scientific literature on character of the new strategy for energy consumption and production in Germany and its impact on environmental and social sustainability. With the help of two questionnaire-based surveys conducted in 2013 and 2014 through the German DIHK1, German enterprises were surveyed in order to: identify potential differences and similarities between the two periods, identify the effects of the energy transition on companies’ profitability, and analyze these effects and compare the results in terms of potential trend developments. The research findings confirmed that changes in the energy system affect not only the environmental sustainability only, but also the economy, in some cases even independent of the stage in which the changing system of the economy presently is.

  13. Repeated Administration of Korea Red Ginseng Extract Increases Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep via GABAAergic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Il; Kim, Chung-Soo; Han, Jin-Yi; Oh, Eun-Hye; Oh, Ki-Wan; Eun, Jae Soon

    2012-10-01

    The current inquiry was conducted to assess the change in sleep architecture after long periods of administration to determine whether ginseng can be used in the therapy of sleeplessness. Following post-surgical recovery, red ginseng extract (RGE, 200 mg/ kg) was orally administrated to rats for 9 d. Data were gathered on the 1st, 5th, and 9th day, and an electroencephalogram was recorded 24 h after RGE administration. Polygraphic signs of unobstructed sleep-wake activities were simultaneously recorded with sleep-wake recording electrodes from 11:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. for 6 h. Rodents were generally tamed to freely moving polygraphic recording conditions. Although the 1st and 5th day of RGE treatment showed no effect on power densities in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, the 9th day of RGE administration showed augmented α-wave (8.0 to 13.0 Hz) power densities in NREM and REM sleep. RGE increased total sleep and NREM sleep. The total percentage of wakefulness was only decreased on the 9th day, and the number of sleep-wake cycles was reduced after the repeated administration of RGE. Thus, the repeated administration of RGE increased NREM sleep in rats. The α-wave activities in the cortical electroencephalograms were increased in sleep architecture by RGE. Moreover, the levels of both α- and β-subunits of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor were reduced in the hypothalamus of the RGE-treated groups. The level of glutamic acid decarboxylase was over-expressed in the hypothalamus. These results demonstrate that RGE increases NREM sleep via GABAAergic systems.

  14. A predictive modeling approach to increasing the economic effectiveness of disease management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayerstadler, Andreas; Benstetter, Franz; Heumann, Christian; Winter, Fabian

    2014-09-01

    Predictive Modeling (PM) techniques are gaining importance in the worldwide health insurance business. Modern PM methods are used for customer relationship management, risk evaluation or medical management. This article illustrates a PM approach that enables the economic potential of (cost-) effective disease management programs (DMPs) to be fully exploited by optimized candidate selection as an example of successful data-driven business management. The approach is based on a Generalized Linear Model (GLM) that is easy to apply for health insurance companies. By means of a small portfolio from an emerging country, we show that our GLM approach is stable compared to more sophisticated regression techniques in spite of the difficult data environment. Additionally, we demonstrate for this example of a setting that our model can compete with the expensive solutions offered by professional PM vendors and outperforms non-predictive standard approaches for DMP selection commonly used in the market.

  15. Rapid Industrial Development, Competition, and Relative Economic Status: A Study in Human Ecology. Working Paper RID 73.10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Gene F.; Clemente, Frank

    The document has 3 goals (1) to examine the distribution of economic benefits of industrial development as reflected by the concept of competition in human ecology; (2) to provide an empirical test of the ecological model, and (3) to relate the findings to public policy. Two Illinois study areas were identified. First, as an experimental region,…

  16. Evaluation of capillary and myofiber density in the pectoralis major muscles of rapidly growing, high-yield broiler chickens during increased heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, K S; Hamlin, G A; Lien, A R J; Bilgili, S F

    2014-09-01

    Skeletal muscle development proceeds from early embryogenesis through marketing age in broiler chickens. While myofiber formation is essentially complete at hatching, myofiber hypertrophy can increase after hatch by assimilation of satellite cell nuclei into myofibers. As the diameter of the myofibers increases, capillary density peripheral to the myofiber is marginalized, limiting oxygen supply and subsequent diffusion into the myofiber, inducing microischemia. The superficial and deep pectoralis muscles constitute 25% of the total body weight in a market-age bird; thus compromise of those muscle groups can have profound economic impact on broiler production. We hypothesized that marginal capillary support relative to the hypertrophic myofibers increases the incidence of microischemia, especially in contemporary high-yield broilers under stressing conditions such as high environmental temperatures. We evaluated the following parameters in four different broiler strains at 39 and 53 days of age when reared under thermoneutral (20 to 25 C) versus hot (30 to 35 C) environmental conditions: capillary density, myofiber density and diameter, and degree of myodegeneration. Our data demonstrate that myofiber diameter significantly increased with age (P > or = 0.0001), while the absolute numbers of capillaries, blood vessels, and myofibers visible in five 400 x microscopic fields decreased (P > or = 0.0001). This is concomitant with marginalization of vascular support in rapidly growing myofibers. The myofiber diameter was significantly lower with hot environmental temperatures (P > or = 0.001); therefore, the absolute number of myofibers visible in five 400X microscopic fields was significantly higher. The incidence and subjective degree of myodegeneration characterized by loss of cross-striations, myocyte hyperrefractility, sarcoplasmic vacuolation, and nuclear pyknosis or loss also increased in hot conditions. Differences among strains were not observed.

  17. Increasing Access for Economically Disadvantaged Students: The NSF/CSEM & S-STEM Programs at Louisiana State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Zakiya S.; Iyengar, Sitharama S.; Pang, Su-Seng; Warner, Isiah M.; Luces, Candace A.

    2012-10-01

    Increasing college degree attainment for students from disadvantaged backgrounds is a prominent component of numerous state and federal legislation focused on higher education. In 1999, the National Science Foundation (NSF) instituted the "Computer Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Scholarships" (CSEMS) program; this initiative was designed to provide greater access and support to academically talented students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Originally intended to provide financial support to lower income students, this NSF program also advocated that additional professional development and advising would be strategies to increase undergraduate persistence to graduation. This innovative program for economically disadvantaged students was extended in 2004 to include students from other disciplines including the physical and life sciences as well as the technology fields, and the new name of the program was Scholarships for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (S-STEM). The implementation of these two programs in Louisiana State University (LSU) has shown significant and measurable success since 2000, making LSU a Model University in providing support to economically disadvantaged students within the STEM disciplines. The achievement of these programs is evidenced by the graduation rates of its participants. This report provides details on the educational model employed through the CSEMS/S-STEM projects at LSU and provides a path to success for increasing student retention rates in STEM disciplines. While the LSU's experience is presented as a case study, the potential relevance of this innovative mentoring program in conjunction with the financial support system is discussed in detail.

  18. Economic incentives to capture ecosystem services through increased temporal intensification of crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land resources are becoming progressively more constrained with increasing demands for food, feed, fiber, and now fuel production. Developing strategies to intensify crop production without increasing the negative impacts on water, soil, and air resources are critical. Much of the best agricultural ...

  19. Past, Present, and Future of Antibacterial Economics: Increasing Bacterial Resistance, Limited Antibiotic Pipeline, and Societal Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luepke, Katherine H; Suda, Katie J; Boucher, Helen; Russo, Rene L; Bonney, Michael W; Hunt, Timothy D; Mohr, John F

    2017-01-01

    Growing antimicrobial resistance and a dwindling antibiotic pipeline have resulted in an emerging postantibiotic era, as patients are now dying from bacterial infections that were once treatable. The fast-paced "Golden Age" of antibiotic development that started in the 1940s has lost momentum; from the 1980s to the early 2000s, there was a 90% decline in the approval of new antibiotics as well as the discovery of few new novel classes. Many companies have shifted away from development due to scientific, regulatory, and economic hurdles that proved antibiotic development to be less attractive compared with more lucrative therapeutic areas. National and global efforts are focusing attention toward potential solutions for reinvigorating the antibiotic pipeline and include "push" incentives such as public-private partnerships and "pull" incentives such as reimbursement reform and market exclusivity. Hybrid models of incentives, global coordination among stakeholders, and the appropriate balance of antibiotic pricing, volume of drug used, and proper antimicrobial stewardship are key to maximizing efforts toward drug development to ensure access to patients in need of these therapies. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  20. Blocking blue light during mania - markedly increased regularity of sleep and rapid improvement of symptoms: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Tone E G; Skrede, Silje; Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Hamre, Børge; Grønli, Janne; Lund, Anders

    2014-12-01

    Available pharmacological treatment of mania is insufficient. Virtual darkness therapy (blue light-blocking treatment by means of orange-tinted glasses) is a promising new treatment option for mania. The basis for this might be the recently identified blue light-sensitive retinal photoreceptor, which is solely responsible for light stimulus to the circadian master clock. This is the first case report describing the clinical course of a closely monitored, hospitalized patient in a manic episode first receiving clear-lensed, and then blue light-blocking glasses. A 58-year-old Caucasian man, with bipolar I disorder and three previous manic episodes, was hospitalized during a manic episode. In addition to pharmacological treatment, he was treated with clear-lensed glasses for seven days, then one day without glasses, followed by six days of blue light-blocking glasses. During the entire observational period, he wore an actigraph with internal light sensors. Manic symptoms were unaltered during the first seven days. The transition to the blue-blocking regime was followed by a rapid and sustained decline in manic symptoms accompanied by a reduction in total sleep, a reduction in motor activity during sleep intervals, and markedly increased regularity of sleep intervals. The patient's total length of hospital stay was 20 days shorter than the average time during his previous manic episodes. The unusually rapid decline in symptoms, accompanied by uniform sleep parameter changes toward markedly increased regularity, suggest that blue-blockers might be targeting a central mechanism in the pathophysiology of mania that needs to be explored both in clinical research and in basic science. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Rapid Increase in Serum Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Concentration during Hepatitis C Interferon-Free Treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Hashimoto

    Full Text Available We performed lipid analyses at the early period of therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C who underwent interferon (IFN-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA treatment, and we attempted to identify the factors that contributed to a rapid increase in the patients' serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C concentration.We retrospectively analyzed the cases of 100 consecutive patients with HCV infection treated at the National Hospital Organization Nagasaki Medical Center: 24 patients underwent daclatasvir (DCV and asunaprevir (ASV combination therapy (DCV/ASV for 24 weeks, and the other 76 patients underwent ledipasvir and sofosbuvir combination therapy (LDV/SOF for 12 weeks. ΔLDL-C was defined as the changed in LDL-C level at 28 days from the start of therapy. To determine whether ΔLDL-C was associated with several kinds of factors including viral kinetics, we performed a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis.The LDL-C levels in patients treated with LDV/SOF were markedly and significantly elevated (87.45 to 122.5 mg/dl; p<10-10 compared to those in the DCV/ASV-treated patients (80.15 to 87.8 mg/dl; p = 0.0056. The median levels of ΔLDL-C in the LDV/SOF and DCV/ASV groups were 33.2 and 13.1, respectively. LDV/SOF combination therapy as an IFN-free regimen (p<0.001 and ΔHCV core antigen (0-1 day drop (p<0.044 were identified as independent factors that were closely related to the ΔLDL-C.A rapid increase in the serum LDL-C concentration during the IFN-free treatment of hepatitis C was associated with the type of HCV therapy and a decline of HCV core protein.

  2. Health and Economic Effects of Two Proposals to Increase the California State Cigarette Excise Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Michael MD, Ph.D.; Alamar, Benjamin Ph.D.; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

    2003-01-01

    • Governor Gray Davis has proposed a $1.10 increase in the cigarette tax and Assembly Speaker Herb Wesson has proposed a $2.13 increase in the cigarette tax. • The state's Tobacco Education and Research Oversight Committee has noted that the California Tobacco Control Program has ceased to be competitive with the tobacco industry and recommended that $200 million from any tobacco tax increase be used to reinvigorate the Program; doing so would require 20 cents per pack to be allocate...

  3. Strategies for Mitigating the Reduction in Economic Value of Variable Generation with Increasing Penetration Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan

    2014-03-03

    In this report, we evaluate individual options that have the potential to stem the decline in the marginal value of variable generation (VG) with increasing penetration levels. We focus only on the effectiveness of mitigation measures for wind and PV.

  4. Children treated for severe acute malnutrition experience a rapid increase in physical activity a few days after admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Hansen, Kristina Beck; van Hees, Vincent T; Christensen, Line Brinch; Girma, Tsinuel; Friis, Henrik; Brage, Søren

    2014-06-01

    To assess physical activity at admission and during recovery from severe acute malnutrition. Ethiopian children who were admitted with severe acute malnutrition received a clinical examination each week to monitor their recovery during rehabilitation. Using accelerometry (24 h/d for 5 consecutive days) at admission and again after 10 days of rehabilitation, we assessed the level and changes of physical activity. Among 13 children included, the mean (SD) age was 31.1 months (15.5). At baseline, the day-night activity difference was relatively small, whereas the level of activity had substantially increased at follow-up. The diurnal mean acceleration level was significantly greater at follow-up for wrist (1158.8 vs 541.4 counts per minute, P = .003) but not hip movements (204.1 vs 141.5, P = .261). During daytime (6 a.m. to 10 p.m.), hip activity increased by 38% from baseline to follow-up (e(B) 1.38, 95% CI 1.17-1.62), and wrist activity more than doubled (e(B) 2.50, 95% CI 2.17-2.87). The level of physical activity among children with severe acute malnutrition is very low but increases rapidly during recovery. Accelerometry may be a useful approach in the recovery phase as an indicator of early improvement. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased baseline proinflammatory cytokine production in chronic hepatitis C patients with rapid virological response to peginterferon plus ribavirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Par, Gabriella; Szereday, Laszlo; Berki, Timea; Palinkas, Laszlo; Halasz, Melinda; Miseta, Attila; Hegedus, Geza; Szekeres-Bartho, Julia; Vincze, Aron; Hunyady, Bela; Par, Alajos

    2013-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients achieving rapid virological response (RVR) on PEG-IFN/ribavirin (P/R) therapy have high chance of sustained virological response (SVR). To analyze host immunological factors associated with RVR, viral kinetics, phenotype distribution and Th1/Th2 cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were studied prior to and during P/R therapy. TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-10 production by PBMC were measured after Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) or phorbol myristate acetate/Ionomycin stimulation in 20 healthy controls and in 50 CHC patients before receiving and during P/R therapy. RVR was achieved by 14, complete early virological response (cEVR) by 19 patients and 17 patients were null-responders (NR). Patients with RVR showed an increased baseline TNF-α and IL-6 production by TLR-4 activated monocytes and increased IFN-γ, decreased IL-4 and IL-10 production by lymphocytes compared to non-RVR patients. SVR was also associated with increased baseline TNF-α production and decreased IL-10 levels compared to patients who did not achieve SVR. Baseline IL-2 production was higher in cEVR compared to NR patients. Antiviral treatment increased TNF-α, IL-6 production by monocytes and IFN-γ secretion by lymphocytes and decreased IL-4 and IL-10 production by lymphocytes in cEVR compared to NR patients. RVR was associated with increased baseline proinflammatory cytokine production by TLR-4 stimulated monocytes and by activated lymphocytes. In null-responders and in patients who did not achieve SVR both TLR-4 sensing function and proinflammatory cytokine production were impaired, suggesting that modulation of TLR activity and controlled induction of inflammatory cytokine production may provide further therapeutic strategy for CHC patients non-responding to P/R treatment.

  6. Increased baseline proinflammatory cytokine production in chronic hepatitis C patients with rapid virological response to peginterferon plus ribavirin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Par

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C (CHC patients achieving rapid virological response (RVR on PEG-IFN/ribavirin (P/R therapy have high chance of sustained virological response (SVR. To analyze host immunological factors associated with RVR, viral kinetics, phenotype distribution and Th1/Th2 cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were studied prior to and during P/R therapy. METHODS: TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-10 production by PBMC were measured after Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4 or phorbol myristate acetate/Ionomycin stimulation in 20 healthy controls and in 50 CHC patients before receiving and during P/R therapy. RVR was achieved by 14, complete early virological response (cEVR by 19 patients and 17 patients were null-responders (NR. RESULTS: Patients with RVR showed an increased baseline TNF-α and IL-6 production by TLR-4 activated monocytes and increased IFN-γ, decreased IL-4 and IL-10 production by lymphocytes compared to non-RVR patients. SVR was also associated with increased baseline TNF-α production and decreased IL-10 levels compared to patients who did not achieve SVR. Baseline IL-2 production was higher in cEVR compared to NR patients. Antiviral treatment increased TNF-α, IL-6 production by monocytes and IFN-γ secretion by lymphocytes and decreased IL-4 and IL-10 production by lymphocytes in cEVR compared to NR patients. CONCLUSION: RVR was associated with increased baseline proinflammatory cytokine production by TLR-4 stimulated monocytes and by activated lymphocytes. In null-responders and in patients who did not achieve SVR both TLR-4 sensing function and proinflammatory cytokine production were impaired, suggesting that modulation of TLR activity and controlled induction of inflammatory cytokine production may provide further therapeutic strategy for CHC patients non-responding to P/R treatment.

  7. Yersinia pestis endowed with increased cytotoxicity is avirulent in a bubonic plague model and induces rapid protection against pneumonic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauberman, Ayelet; Tidhar, Avital; Levy, Yinon; Bar-Haim, Erez; Halperin, Gideon; Flashner, Yehuda; Cohen, Sara; Shafferman, Avigdor; Mamroud, Emanuelle

    2009-06-16

    An important virulence strategy evolved by bacterial pathogens to overcome host defenses is the modulation of host cell death. Previous observations have indicated that Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague disease, exhibits restricted capacity to induce cell death in macrophages due to ineffective translocation of the type III secretion effector YopJ, as opposed to the readily translocated YopP, the YopJ homologue of the enteropathogen Yersinia enterocolitica Oratio8. This led us to suggest that reduced cytotoxic potency may allow pathogen propagation within a shielded niche, leading to increased virulence. To test the relationship between cytotoxic potential and virulence, we replaced Y. pestis YopJ with YopP. The YopP-expressing Y. pestis strain exhibited high cytotoxic activity against macrophages in vitro. Following subcutaneous infection, this strain had reduced ability to colonize internal organs, was unable to induce septicemia and exhibited at least a 10(7)-fold reduction in virulence. Yet, upon intravenous or intranasal infection, it was still as virulent as the wild-type strain. The subcutaneous administration of the cytotoxic Y. pestis strain appears to activate a rapid and potent systemic, CTL-independent, immunoprotective response, allowing the organism to overcome simultaneous coinfection with 10,000 LD(50) of virulent Y. pestis. Moreover, three days after subcutaneous administration of this strain, animals were also protected against septicemic or primary pneumonic plague. Our findings indicate that an inverse relationship exists between the cytotoxic potential of Y. pestis and its virulence following subcutaneous infection. This appears to be associated with the ability of the engineered cytotoxic Y. pestis strain to induce very rapid, effective and long-lasting protection against bubonic and pneumonic plague. These observations have novel implications for the development of vaccines/therapies against Y. pestis and shed new light on the

  8. Yersinia pestis endowed with increased cytotoxicity is avirulent in a bubonic plague model and induces rapid protection against pneumonic plague.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayelet Zauberman

    Full Text Available An important virulence strategy evolved by bacterial pathogens to overcome host defenses is the modulation of host cell death. Previous observations have indicated that Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague disease, exhibits restricted capacity to induce cell death in macrophages due to ineffective translocation of the type III secretion effector YopJ, as opposed to the readily translocated YopP, the YopJ homologue of the enteropathogen Yersinia enterocolitica Oratio8. This led us to suggest that reduced cytotoxic potency may allow pathogen propagation within a shielded niche, leading to increased virulence. To test the relationship between cytotoxic potential and virulence, we replaced Y. pestis YopJ with YopP. The YopP-expressing Y. pestis strain exhibited high cytotoxic activity against macrophages in vitro. Following subcutaneous infection, this strain had reduced ability to colonize internal organs, was unable to induce septicemia and exhibited at least a 10(7-fold reduction in virulence. Yet, upon intravenous or intranasal infection, it was still as virulent as the wild-type strain. The subcutaneous administration of the cytotoxic Y. pestis strain appears to activate a rapid and potent systemic, CTL-independent, immunoprotective response, allowing the organism to overcome simultaneous coinfection with 10,000 LD(50 of virulent Y. pestis. Moreover, three days after subcutaneous administration of this strain, animals were also protected against septicemic or primary pneumonic plague. Our findings indicate that an inverse relationship exists between the cytotoxic potential of Y. pestis and its virulence following subcutaneous infection. This appears to be associated with the ability of the engineered cytotoxic Y. pestis strain to induce very rapid, effective and long-lasting protection against bubonic and pneumonic plague. These observations have novel implications for the development of vaccines/therapies against Y. pestis and shed

  9. Economic and public health impact of 2007-2010 tobacco tax increases in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Hana; Stoklosa, Michal; Krasovsky, Konstantin

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the impact of the dynamic 2007-2010 tobacco tax policy in Ukraine on cigarette prices, cigarette consumption, tobacco tax revenue and the tobacco industry's price strategy. Using data on cigarette sales, cigarette prices, income and tobacco control policies, price elasticities of cigarette demand in Ukraine were estimated using two methods. Annual data were used to generate point price elasticity estimates, while monthly data were used in a two-step Engle-Granger procedure. The point price elasticity estimate is data sensitive and ranges from -0.11 to -0.62, centring around -0.32. The regression model estimates a long-run price elasticity of -0.28. Cigarette consumption fell by 13% in 2009 and 15% in 2010 while the tax revenue increased by US$700 million and by US$500 million in 2009 and 2010, respectively, compared to the previous year. Tax increases have changed the tobacco industry's price strategy from one of shielding consumers from the impact of smaller tax hikes in 2007-2008, to one of increasing industry net-of-tax prices, after recent, larger tax increases. The higher real tobacco excise taxes of 2009 and 2010 have significantly reduced tobacco consumption in Ukraine, resulting in encouraging public health and fiscal gains. It will be important for cigarette prices/taxes to keep pace with inflation and income growth for this impact to be sustained.

  10. Increasing the technical and economic performance of wind diesel systems by including fresh water production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.; Lundsager, P.

    1996-01-01

    In many remote regions of the world there is a lack of both electricity and potable water. In order to increase the standard of living and thus maintain the population both power and water have to be supplied at reasonable prices. A good option at many of these places are wind diesel systems...

  11. Marked increase in the prevalence of obesity in children of the Seychelles, a rapidly developing country, between 1998 and 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovet, Pascal; Chiolero, Arnaud; Madeleine, George; Gabriel, Anne; Stettler, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    There are few data on overweight in children in developing countries. Such data are important to guide public health policy. We assessed trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children from the Seychelles, a middle-income island state in the Indian Ocean. Multiple cross-sectional surveys were conducted each year between 1998 and 2004 on all students of all schools in four selected school grades (creche, 4th, 7th and 10th years of mandatory school). Weight and height were measured and children were asked about walking time and frequency of physical exercise at leisure time. Excess weight categories were defined according to the criteria of the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Data were available for 33 340 observations in 1998-2004, corresponding to 23,459 individual children measured once or several times. Based on IOTF criteria, the prevalence of 'overweight' or 'obesity' increased from 8.7% to 13.5% in boys, and from 11.8% to 18.6% in girls from 1998 to 2004 (P risk of overweight' and 'overweight' increased by similar proportions. The shift towards higher values over time was larger in the upper than the lower tail of the BMI distribution. Physical activity decreased over calendar years and was inversely associated with excess weight. The prevalence of excess weight increased markedly over a seven-year period in children in the Seychelles. This is likely to reflect a rapid nutrition transition with increasingly positive energy balance. These findings stress the need for programs and policies aimed at promoting physical activity and healthy nutrition in countries in epidemiological transition.

  12.  Economic growth leads to increase of obesity and associated hepatocellular carcinoma in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyda Seydel, G; Kucukoglu, Ozlem; Altinbasv, Akif; Demir, O Oguz; Yilmaz, Sezai; Akkiz, Hikmet; Otan, Emrah; Sowa, Jan-Peter; Canbay, Ali

    2016-01-01

     Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer and the third leading cause of cancer related death worldwide. In recent years, the prevalence of HCC has increased in both developing and developed countries. Most HCC cases develop in the presence of advanced chronic liver disease related to viral hepatitis. In particular hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections are considered as major HCC risk factors worldwide. However, current studies provide strong evidence for increasing numbers of HCC in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD represents the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome which is based on obesity and insulin resistance. Epidemiologic data clearly demonstrates that NAFLD and obesity-related disorders are significant risk factors for tumor development in general and HCC in particular. As a consequence of life style changes towards higher calorie intake and less exercise, obesity and metabolic syndrome are spreading all over the world. Due to this increase in obesity and metabolic syndrome NAFLD-related HCC will become a major health care problem in the future. In conclusion, better understanding of the impact of NAFLD and obesity in the development of HCC will improve our treatment strategies of HCC and allow preventive measures.

  13. Development of measures on increase of economic security of merger and acquisition transactions in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khmelenko Galyna G.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the essence of merger and acquisition processes, characterises their types, analyses positive and negative consequences of these processes. It generalises main methods of assessment of effectiveness of merger and acquisition processes. It analyses dynamics, structure and effectiveness of activity of the banks with foreign capital in Ukraine. It offers measures on increase of effectiveness of regulation of merger and acquisition processes and develops an algorithm of assessment and analysis of the portfolio of bank products under conditions of consolidation of banking institutions.

  14. Economic and clinical effects of evaluating rapid viral response to peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin for the initial treatment of chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, John B; Davis, Gary L; McHutchison, John G; Manns, Michael P; Albrecht, Janice K

    2003-11-01

    Evaluation of 12-wk viral response to initial antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C has been recommended to minimize antiviral-associated morbidity and costs. The aim of this study was to examine the economic and clinical effects of evaluating rapid viral response during antiviral therapy for treatment naive chronic hepatitis C patients. We applied viral response and drug dosage from an international randomized clinical trial of ribavirin plus peginterferon alfa-2b or ribavirin plus interferon alfa-2b to a previously published computer cohort simulation to project lifelong clinical and economic outcomes. Natural history and economic estimates were based on published literature, expert panel estimates, and actual variable and reimbursement cost data. The assessment of 12-wk rapid viral response reduced antiviral treatment duration by 40-44% and antiviral costs by 44-45% (savings of $15,116-16,268 for peginterferon plus ribavirin and $8300 for interferon plus ribavirin) compared to full 48-wk dosing. With the 12-wk evaluation, the marginal cost-effectiveness of peginterferon plus ribavirin versus interferon plus ribavirin was $13,600-22,800 compared with $14,600-25,000 per discounted quality adjusted life-year gained with the 24-wk evaluation. For genotype 1, hepatitis C infected patients, 12-wk testing for peginterferon plus ribavirin remaining preferred and cost-effective compared with interferon plus ribavirin. For genotype 2 or 3, hepatitis C infected patients, 12-wk testing yielded similar results to those of 24-wk treatment. Assessment of 12-wk viral response in genotype 1, hepatitis C infected patients should reduce peginterferon plus ribavirin morbidity and costs and improve its cost-effectiveness; however, for genotype 2 and 3, hepatitis C infected patients, 12-wk testing and 24-wk treatment have similar outcomes. Decisions regarding continuation of antiviral treatment should also consider the variability in the accuracy of quantitative viral assays as

  15. Modelling the correlations of e-waste quantity with economic increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Cucchiella, Federica; D'Adamo, Idiano; Li, Jinhui; Rosa, Paolo; Terzi, Sergio; Wei, Guoyin; Zeng, Xianlai

    2018-02-01

    Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE or e-waste) is regarded as one of the fastest growing waste streams in the world and is becoming an emerging issue owing to adverse consequences on the natural environment and the human health. This research article reveals the presence of a strong linear correlation among global e-waste generation and Gross Domestic Product. The obtained results indicate that the best fit for data can be reached by comparing e-waste collected volumes and GDP PPS. More in detail, an increase of 1000 GDP PPS means an additional 0.27kg of e-waste collected and 0.22kg of e-waste reused/recycled. Furthermore, for each additional citizen, there will be an increase of 7.7kg of e-waste collected and 6.2kg of e-waste reused/recycled. The better collection of e-waste acts an important role concerning the circular economy, and it can be an advantageous approach. Therefore, e-waste could be considered as an opportunity for recycling or recovery of valuable metals (e.g., copper, gold, silver, and palladium), given their significant content in precious metals than in mineral ores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid, Transient Fluconazole Resistance in Candida albicans Is Associated with Increased mRNA Levels of CDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Kieren A.; Lyons, Christopher N.; Rustad, Tiger; Bowden, Raleigh A.; White, Theodore C.

    1998-01-01

    Fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans, a cause of recurrent oropharyngeal candidiasis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection, has recently emerged as a cause of candidiasis in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy and marrow transplantation (MT). In this study, we performed detailed molecular analyses of a series of C. albicans isolates from an MT patient who developed disseminated candidiasis caused by an azole-resistant strain 2 weeks after initiation of fluconazole prophylaxis (K. A. Marr, T. C. White, J. A. H. vanBurik, and R. A. Bowden, Clin. Infect. Dis. 25:908–910, 1997). DNA sequence analysis of the gene (ERG11) for the azole target enzyme, lanosterol demethylase, revealed no difference between sensitive and resistant isolates. A sterol biosynthesis assay revealed no difference in sterol intermediates between the sensitive and resistant isolates. Northern blotting, performed to quantify mRNA levels of genes encoding enzymes in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway (ERG7, ERG9, and ERG11) and genes encoding efflux pumps (MDR1, ABC1, YCF, and CDR), revealed that azole resistance in this series is associated with increased mRNA levels for members of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily, CDR genes. Serial growth of resistant isolates in azole-free media resulted in an increased susceptibility to azole drugs and corresponding decreased mRNA levels for the CDR genes. These results suggest that C. albicans can become transiently resistant to azole drugs rapidly after exposure to fluconazole, in association with increased expression of ABC transporter efflux pumps. PMID:9756759

  17. Rapid, easy and economical dot EIA for detection of antibodies to HIV-1 using recombinant env- and gag-proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, R; Glathe, H; Lang, H; Simon, H; Clausnitzer, R; Petzold, G; Dittmann, S

    1991-01-01

    A rapid and simple screening test for antibodies to HIV-1 was designed on the principle of dot-EIA. Recombinant HIV-1 env and gag polypeptides are fixed on nitrocellulose sheets. Peroxidase conjugated protein A is used for detection of bound antibodies. After addition of hydrogen peroxide and 2-bromo-1-naphtol antigen-antibody complexes are visualized as discrete blue coloured spots. The test is completed within 15 min. Out of 111 sera positive by commercial EIA and Western blot analysis 110 were recognized by dot-EIA (sensitivity: 99.1%). False positive results compared with commercial EIA were found in 2 of 423 healthy blood donors (specificity: 99.5%).

  18. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND POVERTY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The problems of poverty in the United States, and their resolution, are inextricably connected with the nature of the economic growth process and its...economic deprivation, but the adjustments required by growth have left in their wake new pockets of poverty . In the future, one of the key variables...that will determine how rapidly we can eliminate poverty in the United States will be the rate of increase in average incomes. And one of the key

  19. Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P.; Felippe, Leandro J. C.; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D.; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg−1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (−3.9% ± 1.6% and −4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate. PMID:25054553

  20. Economic Impacts of Increased U.S. Exports of Natural Gas: An Energy System Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Sarıca

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the recent shale gas boom, the U.S. is expected to have very large natural gas resources. In this respect, the key question is would it be better to rely completely on free market resource allocations which would lead to large exports of natural gas or to limit natural gas exports so that more could be used in the U.S.. After accounting for the cost of liquefying the natural gas and shipping it to foreign markets, the current price difference leaves room for considerable profit to producers from exports. In addition, there is a large domestic demand for natural gas from various sectors such as electricity generation, industrial applications, and the transportation sector etc. A hybrid modeling approach has been carried out using our version of the well-known MARket ALlocation (MARKAL-Macro model to keep bottom-up model richness with macro effects to incorporate price and gross domestic product (GDP feedbacks. One of the conclusion of this study is that permitting higher natural gas export levels leads to a small reduction in GDP (0.04%–0.17%. Higher exports also increases U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and electricity prices (1.1%–7.2%. We also evaluate the impacts of natural gas exports in the presence of a Clean Energy Standard (CES for electricity. In this case, the GDP impacts are similar, but the electricity and transport sector impacts are different.

  1. Alcohol additives to gasoline: an economic way for extending supplies of fuels and for increasing octane ratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawetz, P.

    1979-08-01

    Methods for increasing the octane rating of unleaded gasoline, including the use of fermentation alcohols, are discussed. It is postulated that the public has been misinformed by DOE and the oil companies about the benefits and commercialization of ethanol for fuel use. Ethanol increases the octane rating by 2 points. It takes 5% more crude oil to produce the same octane rating as regular gas plus alcohol. There is also evidence that performance as measured in miles/gallon also increases with gasohol. The total utility factor using ethanol as an octane booster additive is 3.75 or 1 Btu ethanol replaces 3.75 Btu gasoline. This value multiplied by 0.5 factor (suggested by gasohol opponents as the value for energy balance in ethanol production worst-case analysis) there is still a utility factor of 1.87. The author makes recommendations concerning the economics of the situation.

  2. Testing the economic independence hypothesis: the effect of an exogenous increase in child support on subsequent marriage and cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R

    2014-06-01

    We examine the effects of an increase in income on the cohabitation and marriage of single mothers. Using data from an experiment that resulted in randomly assigned differences in child support receipt for welfare-receiving single mothers, we find that exogenous income increases (as a result of receiving all child support that was paid) are associated with significantly lower cohabitation rates between mothers and men who are not the fathers of their child(ren). Overall, these results support the hypothesis that additional income increases disadvantaged women's economic independence by reducing the need to be in the least stable type of partnerships. Our results also show the potential importance of distinguishing between biological and social fathers.

  3. A rapid, highly efficient and economical method of Agrobacterium-mediated in planta transient transformation in living onion epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kedong; Huang, Xiaohui; Wu, Manman; Wang, Yan; Chang, Yunxia; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Ju; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Fuli; Yi, Liming; Li, Tingting; Wang, Ruiyue; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei

    2014-01-01

    Transient transformation is simpler, more efficient and economical in analyzing protein subcellular localization than stable transformation. Fluorescent fusion proteins were often used in transient transformation to follow the in vivo behavior of proteins. Onion epidermis, which has large, living and transparent cells in a monolayer, is suitable to visualize fluorescent fusion proteins. The often used transient transformation methods included particle bombardment, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Particle bombardment in onion epidermis was successfully established, however, it was expensive, biolistic equipment dependent and with low transformation efficiency. We developed a highly efficient in planta transient transformation method in onion epidermis by using a special agroinfiltration method, which could be fulfilled within 5 days from the pretreatment of onion bulb to the best time-point for analyzing gene expression. The transformation conditions were optimized to achieve 43.87% transformation efficiency in living onion epidermis. The developed method has advantages in cost, time-consuming, equipment dependency and transformation efficiency in contrast with those methods of particle bombardment in onion epidermal cells, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in leaf epidermal cells of other plants. It will facilitate the analysis of protein subcellular localization on a large scale.

  4. A Rapid, Highly Efficient and Economical Method of Agrobacterium-Mediated In planta Transient Transformation in Living Onion Epidermis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kedong; Huang, Xiaohui; Wu, Manman; Wang, Yan; Chang, Yunxia; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Ju; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Fuli; Yi, Liming; Li, Tingting; Wang, Ruiyue; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei

    2014-01-01

    Transient transformation is simpler, more efficient and economical in analyzing protein subcellular localization than stable transformation. Fluorescent fusion proteins were often used in transient transformation to follow the in vivo behavior of proteins. Onion epidermis, which has large, living and transparent cells in a monolayer, is suitable to visualize fluorescent fusion proteins. The often used transient transformation methods included particle bombardment, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Particle bombardment in onion epidermis was successfully established, however, it was expensive, biolistic equipment dependent and with low transformation efficiency. We developed a highly efficient in planta transient transformation method in onion epidermis by using a special agroinfiltration method, which could be fulfilled within 5 days from the pretreatment of onion bulb to the best time-point for analyzing gene expression. The transformation conditions were optimized to achieve 43.87% transformation efficiency in living onion epidermis. The developed method has advantages in cost, time-consuming, equipment dependency and transformation efficiency in contrast with those methods of particle bombardment in onion epidermal cells, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in leaf epidermal cells of other plants. It will facilitate the analysis of protein subcellular localization on a large scale. PMID:24416168

  5. A rapid, highly efficient and economical method of Agrobacterium-mediated in planta transient transformation in living onion epidermis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedong Xu

    Full Text Available Transient transformation is simpler, more efficient and economical in analyzing protein subcellular localization than stable transformation. Fluorescent fusion proteins were often used in transient transformation to follow the in vivo behavior of proteins. Onion epidermis, which has large, living and transparent cells in a monolayer, is suitable to visualize fluorescent fusion proteins. The often used transient transformation methods included particle bombardment, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Particle bombardment in onion epidermis was successfully established, however, it was expensive, biolistic equipment dependent and with low transformation efficiency. We developed a highly efficient in planta transient transformation method in onion epidermis by using a special agroinfiltration method, which could be fulfilled within 5 days from the pretreatment of onion bulb to the best time-point for analyzing gene expression. The transformation conditions were optimized to achieve 43.87% transformation efficiency in living onion epidermis. The developed method has advantages in cost, time-consuming, equipment dependency and transformation efficiency in contrast with those methods of particle bombardment in onion epidermal cells, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in leaf epidermal cells of other plants. It will facilitate the analysis of protein subcellular localization on a large scale.

  6. Effect of Increased Intensity of Physiotherapy on Patient Outcomes After Stroke: An Economic Literature Review and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, B

    2015-01-01

    Functional improvements have been seen in stroke patients who have received an increased intensity of physiotherapy. This requires additional costs in the form of increased physiotherapist time. The objective of this economic analysis is to determine the cost-effectiveness of increasing the intensity of physiotherapy (duration and/or frequency) during inpatient rehabilitation after stroke, from the perspective of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-term Care. The inputs for our economic evaluation were extracted from articles published in peer-reviewed journals and from reports from government sources or the Canadian Stroke Network. Where published data were not available, we sought expert opinion and used inputs based on the experts' estimates. The primary outcome we considered was cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). We also evaluated functional strength training because of its similarities to physiotherapy. We used a 2-state Markov model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of functional strength training and increased physiotherapy intensity for stroke inpatient rehabilitation. The model had a lifetime timeframe with a 5% annual discount rate. We then used sensitivity analyses to evaluate uncertainty in the model inputs. We found that functional strength training and higher-intensity physiotherapy resulted in lower costs and improved outcomes over a lifetime. However, our sensitivity analyses revealed high levels of uncertainty in the model inputs, and therefore in the results. There is a high level of uncertainty in this analysis due to the uncertainty in model inputs, with some of the major inputs based on expert panel consensus or expert opinion. In addition, the utility outcomes were based on a clinical study conducted in the United Kingdom (i.e., 1 study only, and not in an Ontario or Canadian setting). Functional strength training and higher-intensity physiotherapy may result in lower costs and improved health outcomes. However, these results

  7. Photochemical roles of rapid economic growth and potential abatement strategies on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia in 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatani, S.; Amann, M.; Goel, A.; Hao, J.; Klimont, Z.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, A.; Sharma, S.; Wang, S. X.; Wang, Y. X.; Zhao, B.

    2014-09-01

    A regional air quality simulation framework including the Weather Research and Forecasting modeling system (WRF), the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ), and precursor emissions to simulate tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia is introduced. Concentrations of tropospheric ozone and related species simulated by the framework are validated by comparing with observation data of surface monitoring, ozonesondes, and satellites obtained in 2010. The simulation demonstrates acceptable performance on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia at regional scale. Future energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in 2030 under three future scenarios are estimated. One of the scenarios assumes a business-as-usual (BAU) pathway, and other two scenarios consider implementation of additional energy and environmental strategies to reduce energy consumption, CO2, NOx, and VOC emissions in China and India. Future surface ozone under these three scenarios is predicted by the simulation. The simulation indicates future surface ozone significantly increases around India for a whole year and around northeastern China in summer. NOx is a main driver on significant seasonal increase of surface ozone, whereas VOC as well as increasing background ozone and methane is also an important factor on annual average of surface ozone in East Asia. Warmer weather around India is also preferable for significant increase of surface ozone. Additional energy and environmental strategies assumed in future scenarios are expected to be effective to reduce future surface ozone over South and East Asia.

  8. Meat Feeding Restricts Rapid Cold Hardening Response and Increases Thermal Activity Thresholds of Adult Blow Flies, Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Coleman

    Full Text Available Virtually all temperate insects survive the winter by entering a physiological state of reduced metabolic activity termed diapause. However, there is increasing evidence that climate change is disrupting the diapause response resulting in non-diapause life stages encountering periods of winter cold. This is a significant problem for adult life stages in particular, as they must remain mobile, periodically feed, and potentially initiate reproductive development at a time when resources should be diverted to enhance stress tolerance. Here we present the first evidence of protein/meat feeding restricting rapid cold hardening (RCH ability and increasing low temperature activity thresholds. No RCH response was noted in adult female blow flies (Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy fed a sugar, water and liver (SWL diet, while a strong RCH response was seen in females fed a diet of sugar and water (SW only. The RCH response in SW flies was induced at temperatures as high as 10°C, but was strongest following 3h at 0°C. The CTmin (loss of coordinated movement and chill coma (final appendage twitch temperature of SWL females (-0.3 ± 0.5°C and -4.9 ± 0.5°C, respectively was significantly higher than for SW females (-3.2 ± 0.8°C and -8.5 ± 0.6°C. We confirmed this was not directly the result of altered extracellular K+, as activity thresholds of alanine-fed adults were not significantly different from SW flies. Instead we suggest the loss of cold tolerance is more likely the result of diverting resource allocation to egg development. Between 2009 and 2013 winter air temperatures in Birmingham, UK, fell below the CTmin of SW and SWL flies on 63 and 195 days, respectively, suggesting differential exposure to chill injury depending on whether adults had access to meat or not. We conclude that disruption of diapause could significantly impact on winter survival through loss of synchrony in the timing of active feeding and reproductive development with

  9. ECONOMY, ECONOMICS, ECONOMIC, ECONOMICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sim Monica Ariana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To speak and understand a language means - among many other things - knowing the words of that language. The average speaker knows, hears, understands and uses thousands of words daily. But does he use them appropriately? That is why this paper is about words and meanings. More specifically, it deals with the internal structure of complex words, i.e. derivatives. The purpose of the paper is to enable students and potentially other individuals dealing with English language on business basis to engage in their own analyses of some aspects of the language, namely the family tree of the word economy. After having read the paper, the reader should be familiar with the necessary knowledge regarding differences between meanings, misuse and actual sense of words deriving from economy, be able to systematically analyze data and relate his own findings on theoretical language problems. English is used by hundreds of millions speakers and still there is always need for improving our knowledge continuously. Knowing and speaking approximate English may not be enough at an advanced level as in the case of students who prepare themselves for careers that involve proficient communication in a foreign language on specific business issues. This is where the idea of such a paper appeared: students of the Faculty of Economic Sciences talk about economy and all the other terms deriving from it, with approximate knowledge of their meaning, without even being aware that some ‘minor' suffixes like –ic, -ical, -ics etc. really matter and do make a difference. Consequently, we started our teaching of Business English lecture in September 2012 with a working sheet based on the terms economic/ economical/ economics/ economy to assess students' awareness of these terms. The result was not a surprise as more than 90% misused economical instead of economic. That seemed a perfect introduction for students in economics. From that moment on, the building of their specific

  10. Clickenomics: Using a Classroom Response System to Increase Student Engagement in a Large-Enrollment Principles of Economics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemi, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important challenges facing college instructors of economics is helping students engage. Engagement is particularly important in a large-enrollment Principles of Economics course, where it can help students achieve a long-lived understanding of how economists use basic economic ideas to look at the world. The author reports how…

  11. Increased biomass burning due to the economic crisis in Greece and its adverse impact on wintertime air quality in Thessaloniki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffari, Arian; Daher, Nancy; Samara, Constantini; Voutsa, Dimitra; Kouras, Athanasios; Manoli, Evangelia; Karagkiozidou, Olga; Vlachokostas, Christos; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Shafer, Martin M; Schauer, James J; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2013-01-01

    The recent economic crisis in Greece resulted in a serious wintertime air pollution episode in Thessaloniki. This air quality deterioration was mostly due to the increased price of fuel oil, conventionally used as a source of energy for domestic heating, which encouraged the residents to burn the less expensive wood/biomass during the cold season. A wintertime sampling campaign for fine particles (PM2.5) was conducted in Thessaloniki during the winters of 2012 and 2013 in an effort to quantify the extent to which the ambient air was impacted by the increased wood smoke emissions. The results indicated a 30% increase in the PM2.5 mass concentration as well as a 2-5-fold increase in the concentration of wood smoke tracers, including potassium, levoglucosan, mannosan, and galactosan. The concentrations of fuel oil tracers (e.g., Ni and V), on the other hand, declined by 20-30% during 2013 compared with 2012. Moreover, a distinct diurnal variation was observed for wood smoke tracers, with significantly higher concentrations in the evening period compared with the morning. Correlation analysis indicated a strong association between reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity and the concentrations of levoglucosan, galactosan, and potassium, underscoring the potential impact of wood smoke on PM-induced toxicity during the winter months in Thessaloniki.

  12. Did the Establishment of Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone Increase Agricultural Labor Productivity in Jiangxi Province, China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we take the establishment of Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone in 2009 as a quasi-natural experiment, to evaluate its influence on the agricultural labor productivity in Jiangxi Province, China. The estimation results of the DID method show that the establishment of the zone reduced agricultural labor productivity by 3.1%, lowering farmers’ net income by 2.5% and reducing the agricultural GDP by 3.6%. Furthermore, this negative effect has increased year after year since 2009. However, the heterogeneity analysis implies that the agricultural labor productivities of all cities in Jiangxi Province will ultimately converge. We find that the lack of agricultural R&D activities and the abuse of chemical fertilizers may be the main reasons behind the negative influence of the policy, by examining two possible transmission channels—the R&D investment and technological substitution. Corresponding policy implications are also provided.

  13. Identifying solutions to increase participation in physical activity interventions within a socio-economically disadvantaged community: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Claire L; Hunter, Ruth F; Tully, Mark A; Scott, David; Kee, Frank; Donnelly, Michael; Prior, Lindsay; Cupples, Margaret E

    2014-05-23

    There is an urgent need to increase population levels of physical activity, particularly amongst those who are socio-economically disadvantaged. Multiple factors influence physical activity behaviour but the generalisability of current evidence to such 'hard-to-reach' population subgroups is limited by difficulties in recruiting them into studies. Also, rigorous qualitative studies of lay perceptions and perceptions of community leaders about public health efforts to increase physical activity are sparse. We sought to explore, within a socio-economically disadvantaged community, residents' and community leaders' perceptions of physical activity (PA) interventions and issues regarding their implementation, in order to improve understanding of needs, expectations, and social/environmental factors relevant to future interventions. Within an ongoing regeneration project (Connswater Community Greenway), in a socio-economically disadvantaged community in Belfast, we collaborated with a Community Development Agency to purposively sample leaders from public- and voluntary-sector community groups and residents. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 leaders. Residents (n = 113), of both genders and a range of ages (14 to 86 years) participated in focus groups (n = 14) in local facilities. Interviews and focus groups were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic framework. Three main themes were identified: awareness of PA interventions; factors contributing to intervention effectiveness; and barriers to participation in PA interventions. Participants reported awareness only of interventions in which they were involved directly, highlighting a need for better communications, both inter- and intra-sectoral, and with residents. Meaningful engagement of residents in planning/organisation, tailoring to local context, supporting volunteers, providing relevant resources and an 'exit strategy' were perceived as important factors

  14. Genetic and economic effects of the increase in female paternal filiations by parentage assignment in sheep and goat breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoul, J; Palhière, I; Astruc, J M; Elsen, J M

    2016-09-01

    In sheep and goat breeding programs, the proportion of females for which the sire is known (known paternity rate [KPR]) can be very low. In this context, paternity assignment using SNP is an attractive tool. The annual genetic gain (AGG) is impacted by the accuracy of the EBV. In populations with a low KPR, the number of known relatives for a given individual is low, and the EBV that are based on this information are imprecise. However, the impact of partially known paternal filiations, in terms of potential genetic and economic losses, has never been quantitatively evaluated in situations where natural mating is the main reproductive mode. A deterministic model was developed to assess, for a panel of real breeding programs, the influence of the female KPR on the AGG and economic benefit. First, males were divided into categories according to their status (natural mating or AI sire) and breeding cycle and females according to parity, sire status (including unknown sire), and breeding cycle of the sire. Second, a demographic model described, for each category, the accumulation of known records for individuals and their close relatives. The output from this model was used to compute the average accuracy of the EBV per category. Then, a genetic model based on the gene flow between categories over time was described. Using the average accuracy of EBV per category, it provided the asymptotic AGG of the nucleus given its KPR. In the economic studies, changes to the mean genetic values in the nucleus and the commercial population after an increase in KPR and various gain:cost ratios (monetary gain due to an extra genetic SD of the selected trait divided by the cost of 1 assignment) were considered. Relative profit and payback periods were computed. We showed that SNP-based parentage assignment aimed at increasing the female KPR was not always profitable and that the type of breeding program and the size of the commercial population should be taken into consideration

  15. Energy system, electricity market and economic studies on increasing nuclear power capacity; Ydinvoimahankkeiden periaatepaeaetoekseen liittyvaet energia- ja kansantaloudelliset selvitykset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsstrom, J.; Pursiheimo, E.; Kekkonen, V.; Honkatukia, J.

    2010-04-15

    Objective of this research project is to examine effects of addition of nuclear capacity from three different angles by using energy system, electricity market and economic analysis. In each area the analysis is based on computational methods. Finland is a member of Nordic electricity market which is further connected to networks of Continental Europe and Russia. Due to the foreign connections Finland has been able to import inexpensive electricity from its neighboring countries and this state is expected to continue. Addition of nuclear capacity lowers electricity import demand, affects level of electricity price decreasingly and decreases shortfall of installed production capacity. Substantial additions of nuclear power capacity and generous import supply have disadvantageous effect on profitability of combined heat and power production. The development of import possibilities depends on progression of difficult-to-estimate balance between electricity consumption and production in the neighboring countries. Investments on nuclear power increase national product during the construction phase. Growth of employment is also rather significant, especially during the construction phase. In the long term permanent jobs will be created too. Increase of employment is held back by increasing real wages, but it is though evident that consumer purchasing power is improved due to these nuclear power developments. (orig.)

  16. Increased extracellular collagen matrix in myocardial sleeves of pulmonary veins: an additional mechanism facilitating repetitive rapid activities in chronic pacing-induced sustained atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yung-Tsung; Wu, Tsu-Juey; Wei, Hao-Ji; Cheng, Ching-Chang; Lin, Nai-Nu; Chen, Ying-Tsung; Ting, Chih-Tai

    2005-07-01

    Increased ECM in canine PVs. Cell uncoupling due to fibrosis or increased extracellular collagen matrix (ECM) affects the formation of ectopic focal activity. Whether or not the increase of ECM also exists in the pulmonary veins (PVs) with rapid atrial pacing is unknown. We sought to test the hypothesis that in chronic atrial pacing dogs with sustained atrial fibrillation (AF), the amount of ECM was increased in both atria and the PVs. We induced sustained AF in dogs by rapid atrial pacing. Computerized mapping techniques were used to map both atria and the PVs. We also used histological assessment to quantify the amount of ECM. After 118+/-24 days of rapid atrial pacing, sustained AF was induced in 7 dogs. Repetitive rapid activities (RRAs) either continuously or intermittently arose from the PVs during sustained AF. Histological study shows that there was no fibrosis in both atrial free walls and the PVs. However, the amount of ECM was increased in these regions. The mean ECM surface area fraction at each region in the dogs with sustained AF was all significantly higher compared to the corresponding region in normal dogs. Similarly, the heterogeneity of the ECM surface area fraction at each region in the dogs with sustained AF was also all significantly higher compared to normal dogs. In chronic atrial pacing-induced sustained AF, structural remodeling (i.e., inhomogeneous increase of ECM) also involves the PVs. Reduced coupling of the myocytes in the PV due to histological changes may provide an additional mechanism facilitating RRAs.

  17. Sewage sludge and wastewater fertilisation of Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) for increased bioenergy production - Biological and economic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitriou, I. [Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7043, SE 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Rosenqvist, H. [Department of Agriculture-Farming Systems, Technology and Product Quality, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 17, SE-261 21 Billeberga (Sweden)

    2011-02-15

    Application of municipal residues, e.g. wastewater or sewage sludge, to Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) is among the most attractive methods for attaining environmental and energy goals set for Europe. At current woodchip prices in Sweden, the gross margin for SRC cultivation is positive only if biomass production is >9 t DM/ha yr. The gross profit margin increases (by 39 and 199 EUR/GJ, respectively) if sewage sludge and wastewater are applied to SRC. Application of residues to SRC has proved to be an acceptable alternative treatment method, and the farmer's profit can be markedly increased if compensation is paid for waste treatment. If all available sludge and wastewater were applied to SRC plantations, they could be grown on large agricultural areas in Europe, and c. 6000 PJ of renewable energy could be produced annually. However, a more economical landuse strategy, e.g. the use of more P-rich residues, appears more rational, and is biologically justifiable. (author)

  18. Increased Baseline Proinflammatory Cytokine Production in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients with Rapid Virological Response to Peginterferon Plus Ribavirin

    OpenAIRE

    Par, Gabriella; Szereday, Laszlo; Berki, Timea; et al.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients achieving rapid virological response (RVR) on PEG-IFN/ribavirin (P/R) therapy have high chance of sustained virological response (SVR). To analyze host immunological factors associated with RVR, viral kinetics, phenotype distribution and Th1/Th2 cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were studied prior to and during P/R therapy. METHODS: TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-10 production by PBMC were measured after Toll...

  19. Fast mouse PK (Fast PK): a rapid screening method to increase pharmacokinetic throughput in pre-clinical drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Jitendar; Madishetti, Sreedhar; Vachaspati, Prakash R

    2012-09-29

    We describe a rapid screening methodology for performing pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in mice called Fast PK. In this Fast PK method, two mice were used per compound and four blood samples were collected from each mouse. The sampling times were staggered (sparse sampling) between the two mice, thus yielding complete PK profile in singlicate across eight time points. The plasma PK parameters from Fast PK were comparable to that obtained from conventional PK methods. This method has been used to rapidly screen compounds in the early stages of drug discovery and about 600 compounds have been profiled in the last 3 years, which has resulted in reduction in the usage of mice by 800 per year in compliance with the 3R principles of animal ethics. In addition, this Fast PK method can also help in evaluating the PK parameters from the same set of animals used in safety/toxicology/efficacy studies without the need for satellite groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Same day postoperative examination after cataract surgery under local anesthesia--huge economic impact without increased risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftali, Modi; Movshovitz, Ina; Jabaly, Haneen

    2014-07-01

    Cataract surgery is one of the most common surgeries in medicine. Re-evaluating the regimen for followup might save thousands of visits to the clinic and many working days every year. To check the safety of same day postoperative follow-up as a substitute for the common practice in Israel of examination on the next day. Retrospective examination of the digital files of patients after cataract surgery, who had their first postoperative examination on the same day of the surgery and the second examination after 1 week, during 2 years in a private clinic. Six hundred and sixty two files of patients were included in the study. Twenty nine had intraocular pressure (IOP) above 22 mmHg during the same day examination; 2 of those also had high pressure after 1 week. Two patients with residual lens material were re-operated one week later. Two had small corneal erosion, and one had anterior synechia; all were immediately treated in the clinic. Four patients were admitted, 3 for endophthalmitis, with no bacterial growth, and one for TASS [Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome). Two patients had vitrectomy, and 2 had conservative treatment; all ended up with good visual acuity. All 4 patients were examined after calling the surgeon complaining of visual acuity deterioration, and arrived at the hospital early with no delay in the diagnosis. A change in the follow-up regimen after cataract surgery did not increase the risk for complications. It is safe and economical and should be considered nationally.

  1. Socio-economic factors associated with an increase in fruit and vegetable consumption: a 12-year study in women from the E3N-EPIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affret, Aurélie; Severi, Gianluca; Dow, Courtney; Mancini, Francesca Romana; Rey, Grégoire; Delpierre, Cyrille; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy

    2017-11-29

    To identify individual and contextual socio-economic factors associated with an increase in fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption over a 12-year period and evaluate if some socio-economic factors were differentially associated with the change in consumption of some types of F&V. Associations between increased F&V consumption and socio-economic factors were studied with multivariate logistic regression. E3N, a French prospective cohort study of 98 995 women. E3N participants (n 58 193) with information on diet in 1993 and 2005, and numerous individual and contextual socio-economic factors available. Associations between some individual socio-economic factors and changes in F&V consumption were observed. For instance, women who lived in a large household (>3 children v. no child) had higher probability of increasing their vegetable consumption (OR=1·33; 95 % CI 1·24, 1·42). This association was driven by higher consumption of courgette and raw cucumber. Living with a partner was associated with higher odds of increasing consumption of fruits (OR=1·07; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·13) such as pear, peach and grape. Certain individual socio-economic factors, but none of the contextual socio-economic factors examined, were associated with an increase in F&V consumption. Factors associated with an increase in total F&V consumption were not necessarily associated with an increase in fruit or vegetable consumption separately, or with an increase in each subtype of fruit or vegetable. Magnitudes of the different associations observed also differed when F&V were considered together, separately or by subtype. Increases in F&V consumption were mostly observed in women with high socio-economic position. To develop effective nutritional interventions and policies that take the socio-economic environment of individuals into account, we recommend future research to further focus on (i) pathways through which population characteristics might influence changes in F&V consumption and (ii

  2. Rapid antidepressants stimulate the decoupling of GABAB receptors from GIRK/Kir3 channels through increased protein stability of 14-3-3η

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, E R; Haddick, P C G; Bush, K; Dilly, G A; Niere, F; Zemelman, B V; Raab-Graham, K F

    2015-01-01

    A single injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists produces a rapid antidepressant response. Lasting changes in the synapse structure and composition underlie the effectiveness of these drugs. We recently discovered that rapid antidepressants cause a shift in the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABABR) signaling pathway, such that GABABR activation shifts from opening inwardly rectifiying potassium channels (Kir/GIRK) to increasing resting dendritic calcium signal and mammalian Target of Rapamycin activity. However, little is known about the molecular and biochemical mechanisms that initiate this shift. Herein, we show that GABABR signaling to Kir3 (GIRK) channels decreases with NMDAR blockade. Blocking NMDAR signaling stabilizes the adaptor protein 14-3-3η, which decouples GABABR signaling from Kir3 and is required for the rapid antidepressant efficacy. Consistent with these results, we find that key proteins involved in GABABR signaling bidirectionally change in a depression model and with rapid antidepressants. In socially defeated rodents, a model for depression, GABABR and 14-3-3η levels decrease in the hippocampus. The NMDAR antagonists AP5 and Ro-25-6981, acting as rapid antidepressants, increase GABABR and 14-3-3η expression and decrease Kir3.2. Taken together, these data suggest that the shift in GABABR function requires a loss of GABABR-Kir3 channel activity mediated by 14-3-3η. Our findings support a central role for 14-3-3η in the efficacy of rapid antidepressants and define a critical molecular mechanism for activity-dependent alterations in GABABR signaling. PMID:25560757

  3. Rapid antidepressants stimulate the decoupling of GABA(B) receptors from GIRK/Kir3 channels through increased protein stability of 14-3-3η.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, E R; Haddick, P C G; Bush, K; Dilly, G A; Niere, F; Zemelman, B V; Raab-Graham, K F

    2015-03-01

    A single injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists produces a rapid antidepressant response. Lasting changes in the synapse structure and composition underlie the effectiveness of these drugs. We recently discovered that rapid antidepressants cause a shift in the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABABR) signaling pathway, such that GABABR activation shifts from opening inwardly rectifiying potassium channels (Kir/GIRK) to increasing resting dendritic calcium signal and mammalian Target of Rapamycin activity. However, little is known about the molecular and biochemical mechanisms that initiate this shift. Herein, we show that GABABR signaling to Kir3 (GIRK) channels decreases with NMDAR blockade. Blocking NMDAR signaling stabilizes the adaptor protein 14-3-3η, which decouples GABABR signaling from Kir3 and is required for the rapid antidepressant efficacy. Consistent with these results, we find that key proteins involved in GABABR signaling bidirectionally change in a depression model and with rapid antidepressants. In socially defeated rodents, a model for depression, GABABR and 14-3-3η levels decrease in the hippocampus. The NMDAR antagonists AP5 and Ro-25-6981, acting as rapid antidepressants, increase GABABR and 14-3-3η expression and decrease Kir3.2. Taken together, these data suggest that the shift in GABABR function requires a loss of GABABR-Kir3 channel activity mediated by 14-3-3η. Our findings support a central role for 14-3-3η in the efficacy of rapid antidepressants and define a critical molecular mechanism for activity-dependent alterations in GABABR signaling.

  4. Increased health risks of children with single mothers: the impact of socio-economic and environmental factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scharte, Marion; Bolte, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    .... As child health also depends on environmental conditions, we investigated the impact of environmental exposures and socio-economic factors on differences in health outcomes of children with single mothers vs. couple families...

  5. The problem of economic stability and the independence of Latin America in the context of the increase of military equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korchun V. S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the issue of economic stability in Latin America. Indicated that the economic potential of the countries of the region is not in plentitude. Emphasized the immediate leaders of the region, concerning the accumulation of weapons, and also shows the amount of the cost of the purchase. Also ascertained the dependence of less developed countries from the United States.

  6. Analysis of complete mitochondrial genome sequences increases phylogenetic resolution of bears (Ursidae, a mammalian family that experienced rapid speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryder Oliver A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the small number of ursid species, bear phylogeny has long been a focus of study due to their conservation value, as all bear genera have been classified as endangered at either the species or subspecies level. The Ursidae family represents a typical example of rapid evolutionary radiation. Previous analyses with a single mitochondrial (mt gene or a small number of mt genes either provide weak support or a large unresolved polytomy for ursids. We revisit the contentious relationships within Ursidae by analyzing complete mt genome sequences and evaluating the performance of both entire mt genomes and constituent mtDNA genes in recovering a phylogeny of extremely recent speciation events. Results This mitochondrial genome-based phylogeny provides strong evidence that the spectacled bear diverged first, while within the genus Ursus, the sloth bear is the sister taxon of all the other five ursines. The latter group is divided into the brown bear/polar bear and the two black bears/sun bear assemblages. These findings resolve the previous conflicts between trees using partial mt genes. The ability of different categories of mt protein coding genes to recover the correct phylogeny is concordant with previous analyses for taxa with deep divergence times. This study provides a robust Ursidae phylogenetic framework for future validation by additional independent evidence, and also has significant implications for assisting in the resolution of other similarly difficult phylogenetic investigations. Conclusion Identification of base composition bias and utilization of the combined data of whole mitochondrial genome sequences has allowed recovery of a strongly supported phylogeny that is upheld when using multiple alternative outgroups for the Ursidae, a mammalian family that underwent a rapid radiation since the mid- to late Pliocene. It remains to be seen if the reliability of mt genome analysis will hold up in studies of other

  7. Rapid Growth and Apparent Total Nitrogen Increases in Rice and Corn Plants following Applications of Triacontanol 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, N. Richard; Ries, Stanley K.

    1981-01-01

    Triacontanol (TRIA) increased fresh and dry weight and total reducible nitrogen (total N) of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings within 40 minutes. Increases in total N in the supernatants from homogenates of corn (Zea mays L.) and rice leaves treated with TRIA for one minute before grinding occurred within 30 and 80 minutes, respectively. The source for the increase was investigated utilizing atmospheric substitution and enrichment and depletion studies with 15N. The increase in total N in seedlings was shown to be independent of method of N analysis and the presence of nitrate in the plants. Automated Kjeldahl determinations showing apparent increases in N composition due to TRIA were shown to be correlated with hand Kjeldahl, elemental analysis, and chemiluminescent analysis in three independent laboratories. TRIA did not alter the nitrate uptake or endogenous levels of nitrate in corn and rice seedlings. Enrichment experiments revealed that the total N increases in rice seedlings, in vivo, and in supernatants of corn leaf homogenates, in vitro, are not due to atmospheric N2. TRIA increased the soluble N pools of the plants, specifically the free amino acid and soluble protein fractions. No differences in depletion or enrichment of 15N incorporated into soluble and insoluble N fractions of rice seedlings could be detected on an atom per cent 15N basis. The apparent short-term total N increases cannot be explained by current knowledge of major N assimilation pathways. TRIA may stimulate a change in the chemical composition of the seedlings, resulting in interference with standard methods of N analysis. PMID:16662092

  8. Rapid Increases in forest understory diversity and productivity following a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae outbreak in pine forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J Pec

    Full Text Available The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks are well documented, information on immediate responses of forest understory plant communities is limited. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of D. ponderosae-induced tree mortality on initial changes in diversity and productivity of understory plant communities. We established a total of 110 1-m2 plots across eleven mature lodgepole pine forests to measure changes in understory diversity and productivity as a function of tree mortality and below ground resource availability across multiple years. Overall, understory community diversity and productivity increased across the gradient of increased tree mortality. Richness of herbaceous perennials increased with tree mortality as well as soil moisture and nutrient levels. In contrast, the diversity of woody perennials did not change across the gradient of tree mortality. Understory vegetation, namely herbaceous perennials, showed an immediate response to improved growing conditions caused by increases in tree mortality. How this increased pulse in understory richness and productivity affects future forest trajectories in a novel system is unknown.

  9. Rapid Increases in forest understory diversity and productivity following a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pec, Gregory J; Karst, Justine; Sywenky, Alexandra N; Cigan, Paul W; Erbilgin, Nadir; Simard, Suzanne W; Cahill, James F

    2015-01-01

    The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks are well documented, information on immediate responses of forest understory plant communities is limited. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of D. ponderosae-induced tree mortality on initial changes in diversity and productivity of understory plant communities. We established a total of 110 1-m2 plots across eleven mature lodgepole pine forests to measure changes in understory diversity and productivity as a function of tree mortality and below ground resource availability across multiple years. Overall, understory community diversity and productivity increased across the gradient of increased tree mortality. Richness of herbaceous perennials increased with tree mortality as well as soil moisture and nutrient levels. In contrast, the diversity of woody perennials did not change across the gradient of tree mortality. Understory vegetation, namely herbaceous perennials, showed an immediate response to improved growing conditions caused by increases in tree mortality. How this increased pulse in understory richness and productivity affects future forest trajectories in a novel system is unknown.

  10. THE PROBLEMS OF THE INCREASE OF EFFICIENCY OF ACTIVITY OF POLICE ORGANS OF ECONOMICAL SAFETY PROVISION IN THE REGIONS OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.J. Panteleyev

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available At the article the problems of provision economical safety of the consumer market sphere are discussed. The author defines of legal relations of consumer market sphere as legal regulation of sphere of production and trade goods (works, services, provision of protection rights, interests, life, health, safety of material and spiritual consumption of population and also economic, ecological, product, other kinds of national safety of Russian Federations. He analyses the condition of economical crimes of Sverdlovsk region and the Ural Federal District and its influence on shadow economy. He offers the measures increasing interaction between government bodies of Russian Federation and subjects RF, the measures altering legislation and application the innovation technologies for counteraction economical crimes. In the author’s opinion these measures have to foresee the development of state programmes of support of small business in consumer market sphere.

  11. Trends in the incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer in Denmark 1978-2007: Rapid incidence increase among young Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch-Johansen, Fatima; Jensen, Allan; Mortensen, Lone

    2010-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer among Caucasian populations worldwide, and incidence rates are increasing. However, NMSC data are not routinely collected by cancer registries, but Denmark has extensive registration of NMSC in two nationwide population-based registries. We...

  12. Rapid increase in fibroblast growth factor 21 in protein malnutrition and its impact on growth and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Yori; Saito, Kenji; Nakazawa, Kyoko; Konishi, Morichika; Itoh, Nobuyuki; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro; Kato, Hisanori; Takenaka, Asako

    2015-11-14

    Protein malnutrition promotes hepatic steatosis, decreases insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I production and retards growth. To identify new molecules involved in such changes, we conducted DNA microarray analysis on liver samples from rats fed an isoenergetic low-protein diet for 8 h. We identified the fibroblast growth factor 21 gene (Fgf21) as one of the most strongly up-regulated genes under conditions of acute protein malnutrition (P<0·05, false-discovery rate<0·001). In addition, amino acid deprivation increased Fgf21 mRNA levels in rat liver-derived RL-34 cells (P<0·01). These results suggested that amino acid limitation directly increases Fgf21 expression. FGF21 is a polypeptide hormone that regulates glucose and lipid metabolism. FGF21 also promotes a growth hormone-resistance state and suppresses IGF-I in transgenic mice. Therefore, to determine further whether Fgf21 up-regulation causes hepatic steatosis and growth retardation after IGF-I decrease in protein malnutrition, we fed an isoenergetic low-protein diet to Fgf21-knockout (KO) mice. Fgf21-KO did not rescue growth retardation and reduced plasma IGF-I concentration in these mice. Fgf21-KO mice showed greater epididymal white adipose tissue weight and increased hepatic TAG and cholesterol levels under protein malnutrition conditions (P<0·05). Overall, the results showed that protein deprivation directly increased Fgf21 expression. However, growth retardation and decreased IGF-I were not mediated by increased FGF21 expression in protein malnutrition. Furthermore, FGF21 up-regulation rather appears to have a protective effect against obesity and hepatic steatosis in protein-malnourished animals.

  13. Impact of Oil Price Increases on U.S. Economic Growth: Causality Analysis and Study of the Weakening Effects on the Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahbi FARHANI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The two oil shocks of the 1970s reduced the GDP growth rate, and since that period, sudden oil price increases have been considered as a major source of economic slowdown in the world. We thus estimate simple linear regression model (SLRM, dynamic regression model (DRM and VAR model to evaluate the impact of oil price increases on the U.S economic growth. Our results indicate strong weaknesses on the relation between these two factors in what way that the relation has had a low significant effect caused by the existence of breakpoints and the asymmetric effects of the oil price variations.

  14. Impact of Oil Price Increases on U.S. Economic Growth:Causality Analysis and Study of the Weakening Effects in Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Farhani, Sahbi

    2012-01-01

    The two oil shocks of the 1970s reduced the GDP growth rate, and since that period, sudden oil price increases have been considered as a major source of economic slowdown in the world. We thus estimate simple linear regression model (SLRM), dynamic regression model (DRM) and VAR model to evaluate the impact of oil price increases on the U.S economic growth. Our results indicate strong weaknesses on the relation between these two factors in what way that the relation has had a low significant ...

  15. Impact of Oil Price Increases on U.S. Economic Growth: Causality Analysis and Study of the Weakening Effects on the Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Farhani, Sahbi

    2012-01-01

    The two oil shocks of the 1970s reduced the GDP growth rate, and since that period, sudden oil price increases have been considered as a major source of economic slowdown in the world. We thus estimate simple linear regression model (SLRM), dynamic regression model (DRM) and VAR model to evaluate the impact of oil price increases on the U.S economic growth. Our results indicate strong weaknesses on the relation between these two factors in what way that the relation has had a low significant ...

  16. The updated Swedish family-cancer database used to assess familial risks of prostate cancer during rapidly increasing incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemminki Kari

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Swedish Family-Cancer Database has been used for some 10 years in the study of familial risks at all common sites. In the present paper we describe some of the main features of version VII of this Database, assembled in year 2006. This update included all residents in Sweden born or immigrated in 1932 and later (offspring with their biological parents, a total of 11.5 million individuals. Cancer cases were retrieved from the Swedish Cancer Registry from years 1958 to 2004, including over 1.2 million first and multiple primary cancers and in situ tumours. We show one application of the Database in the study of familial risks in prostate cancer, with special reference to the modification of familial risk at the time of about 50% increase in incidence due to prostate specific antigen (PSA screening. The familial risks for prostate cancer were 1.92 for sons of affected fathers, 3.03 for brothers and 5.44 for men with an affected father and an affected brother. Familial risk for prostate cancer according to the time since the first family member was diagnosed showed significant increases for two family members being diagnosed in the same year compared to 5+ years apart. Increased surveillance and the availability of PSA screening are the likely reasons for the overestimated familial relative risk shortly after the first diagnosis. This lead time bias should be considered in clinical counselling.

  17. Shooting a Moving Target: The Sisyphus Boulder of Increasing Participation in Adult Education during the Period of Economic Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalis, Thanassis

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a study conducted after the onset of the economic crisis in Greece. The study lasted for more than five years and was organized by the Research Institutes of Trade Union Confederation of Greece and the Hellenic Small Enterprises Institute of the Confederation of Professionals, Craftsmen and Merchants. Using a mixed…

  18. Rapid insulin-mediated increase in microvascular glycocalyx accessibility in skeletal muscle may contribute to insulin-mediated glucose disposal in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskens, Bart J M; Mooij, Hans L; Cleutjens, Jack P M; Roos, Jozef M A; Cobelens, Johanna E; Vink, Hans; Vanteeffelen, Jurgen W G E

    2013-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that insulin-mediated recruitment of microvascular blood volume is associated with insulin sensitivity. We hypothesize that insulin rapidly stimulates penetration of red blood cells (RBC) and plasma into the glycocalyx and thereby promotes insulin-mediated glucose uptake by increasing intracapillary blood volume. Experiments were performed in rats; the role of the glycocalyx was assessed by enzymatic degradation using a bolus of hyaluronidase. First, the effect of insulin on glycocalyx accessibility was assessed by measuring the depth of penetration of RBCs into the glycocalyx in microvessels of the gastrocnemius muscle with Sidestream Dark-field imaging. Secondly, peripheral insulin sensitivity was determined using intravenous insulin tolerance tests (IVITT). In addition, in a smaller set of experiments, intravital microscopy of capillary hemodynamics in cremaster muscle and histological analysis of the distribution of fluorescently labeled 40 kDa dextrans (D40) in hindlimb muscle was used to evaluate insulin-mediated increases in capillary blood volume. Insulin increased glycocalyx penetration of RBCs by 0.34±0.44 µm (Pglucose disposal compared to control rats. Insulin-mediated increases in capillary blood volume were reflected by a rapid increase in capillary tube hematocrit from 21.1±10.1% to 29.0±9.8% (Pblood in muscle, and this is associated with an increased blood volume in individual capillaries. Hyaluronidase treatment of the glycocalyx abolishes the effects of insulin on capillary blood volume and impairs insulin-mediated glucose disposal.

  19. Impaired gait function in adults with cerebral palsy is associated with reduced rapid force generation and increased passive stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Kirk, Henrik; Lorentzen, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    (mean age 34.3, range 18-57years) and fifteen healthy age-matched controls were biomechanically measured for passive and reflex-mediated stiffness of the ankle plantarflexors at rest, maximal voluntary plantarflexion and dorsiflexion effort (MVCpf,df) and rate of force development (RFDpf,df). Kinematic......, range of movement in the ankle joint and gait speed. Reflex-mediated stiffness was not correlated to any parameters of impaired gait. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired gait function in adults with CP is associated with reduced RFD and increased passive stiffness of ankle muscles. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings...

  20. Alcohol consumption in Polish middle and high school pupils – has this rapidly increased during 2009–11?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Wojtyła-Buciora

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction.[/b] The dynamic rise of alcohol consumption in adolescents is a matter of serious concern, requiring frequently updated monitoring. By such means, it is possible to optimise preventative measures for dealing with this problem. [b]Objective[/b]. To estimate the magnitude/amount and frequency of alcohol consumed by middle and high school pupils in Poland, including the circumstances when alcohol was first drunk. [b]Materials and Methods[/b]. A randomised survey was performed throughout Poland on middle school (junior high school pupils, (n=9360 in 2009, followed by both middle and high school pupils in 2011 (n=7971. The questionnaire was devised by the Polish Chief Sanitary Inspectorate (GIS. [b]Results[/b]. A strikingly sharp increase in alcohol consumption (29% was observed in subjects between 2009 – 2011. In the latter year, 1 month prior to survey, respectively, 50% and 71% of middle school and high school pupils drank alcohol, and correspondingly, 36% and 63% of these pupils ever became intoxicated/drunk. [b]Conclusions[/b]. 1 Adolescent alcohol consumption increases with age and is highest in girls. Monitoring as well as in-depth analysis thus becomes necessary. 2 Systematic monitoring and analysis of changing healthy lifestyle behaviour should be used for taking the necessary corrective action. This should happen concurrently and consist of planned health education programmes, including health promotion.

  1. A Boom for Whom? Exploring the Impacts of a Rapid Increase in the Male Population Upon Women's Services in Darwin, Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Gretchen; Tofa, Matalena; Finlayson, Mary; U'Ren, Julie

    2016-05-03

    A rapidly expanding natural-resource extraction industry and a growing military presence mean an increasingly male-skewed population for the city of Darwin, Australia. This has sparked concerns about the potential for increased violence against women. In this article, we present qualitative research detailing the views of 13 participants from 10 women's support services in the Darwin area. We argue that women's support services bear witness to and are tasked with responding to the impacts of population change on women, yet their work is undermined by uncertainties that stem from neoliberal funding rationales and limited demands on companies to address social issues. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Restriction of rapid eye movement sleep during adolescence increases energy gain and metabolic efficiency in young adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Silva, Neila; Nejm, Mariana Bocca; da Silva, Sylvia Maria Affonso; Suchecki, Deborah; Luz, Jacqueline

    2016-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? Sleep curtailment in infancy and adolescence may lead to long-term risk for obesity, but the mechanisms involved have not yet been determined. This study examined the immediate and long-term metabolic effects produced by sleep restriction in young rats. What is the main finding and its importance? Prolonged sleep restriction reduced weight gain (body fat stores) in young animals. After prolonged recovery, sleep-restricted rats tended to save more energy and to store more fat, possibly owing to increased gross food efficiency. This could be the first step to understand this association. Sleep curtailment is associated with obesity and metabolic changes in adults and children. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immediate and long-term metabolic alterations produced by sleep restriction in pubertal male rats. Male Wistar rats (28 days old) were allocated to a control (CTL) group or a sleep-restricted (SR) group. This was accomplished by the single platform technique for 18 h per day for 21 days. These groups were subdivided into the following four time points for assessment: sleep restriction and 1, 2 and 4 months of recovery. Body weight and food intake were monitored throughout the experiment. At the end of each time period, blood was collected for metabolic profiling, and the carcasses were processed for measurement of body composition and energy balance. During the period of sleep restriction, SR animals consumed less food in the home cages. This group also displayed lower body weight, body fat, triglycerides and glucose levels than CTL rats. At the end of the first month of recovery, despite eating as much as CTL rats, SR animals showed greater energy and body weight gain, increased gross food efficiency and decreased energy expenditure. At the end of the second and fourth months of recovery, the groups were no longer different, except for energy gain and gross food efficiency, which remained higher in SR

  3. The economic benefits of increasing kangaroo skin-to-skin care and breastfeeding in neonatal units: analysis of a pragmatic intervention in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowson, Karin; Offer, Clare; Watson, Julie; McGuire, Bill; Renfrew, Mary J

    2015-01-01

    A number of significant recent research studies have used techniques of economic modelling to demonstrate the potential benefits of increasing breastfeeding rates in the UK overall, and specifically in neonatal care. This paper complements this growing body of evidence by presenting an economic analysis of data from an actual intervention, the 'Getting It Right From the Start' programme, which took place in the north of the UK during 2011-12, with the aim of increasing breastfeeding and kangaroo skin-to-skin care rates in neonatal units. 'Getting It Right from the Start' was a pragmatic, multifaceted programme of change delivered under the auspices of the regional Health Innovation and Education Cluster, of which 17 were established in the UK in 2010. It engaged with 18 neonatal units in two Neonatal Networks with the aim of increasing kangaroo skin-to-skin care and breastfeeding rates. As part of the evaluation of the programme, we conducted an economic study comparing the overall costs and benefits of the intervention. Overall, the economic analysis demonstrated that for every £1 invested in the intervention to increase kangaroo skin-to-skin care and breastfeeding rates, between £4.00 and £13.82 of benefit was generated. This was spread across different healthcare settings and the timescale for the realisation of benefits will vary. The increases in kangaroo skin-to-skin care generated the greatest cost savings, with potential cost savings ranging between £668,000 (minimum cost assumptions) to more than £2 m (maximum cost assumptions). Increases in breastfeeding associated with the project generated between £68,486 and £582,432. The majority of the cost savings generated were associated with reductions in cases of gastroenteritis and necrotising enterocolitis. This was one of the first economic evaluations of an actual intervention to increase breastfeeding and kangaroo skin-to-skin care in neonatal units. It complements the existing economic models by

  4. Mobile zinc increases rapidly in the retina after optic nerve injury and regulates ganglion cell survival and optic nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiqing; Andereggen, Lukas; Yuki, Kenya; Omura, Kumiko; Yin, Yuqin; Gilbert, Hui-Ya; Erdogan, Burcu; Asdourian, Maria S; Shrock, Christine; de Lima, Silmara; Apfel, Ulf-Peter; Zhuo, Yehong; Hershfinkel, Michal; Lippard, Stephen J; Rosenberg, Paul A; Benowitz, Larry

    2017-01-10

    Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the projection neurons of the eye, cannot regenerate their axons once the optic nerve has been injured and soon begin to die. Whereas RGC death and regenerative failure are widely viewed as being cell-autonomous or influenced by various types of glia, we report here that the dysregulation of mobile zinc (Zn(2+)) in retinal interneurons is a primary factor. Within an hour after the optic nerve is injured, Zn(2+) increases several-fold in retinal amacrine cell processes and continues to rise over the first day, then transfers slowly to RGCs via vesicular release. Zn(2+) accumulation in amacrine cell processes involves the Zn(2+) transporter protein ZnT-3, and deletion of slc30a3, the gene encoding ZnT-3, promotes RGC survival and axon regeneration. Intravitreal injection of Zn(2+) chelators enables many RGCs to survive for months after nerve injury and regenerate axons, and enhances the prosurvival and regenerative effects of deleting the gene for phosphatase and tensin homolog (pten). Importantly, the therapeutic window for Zn(2+) chelation extends for several days after nerve injury. These results show that retinal Zn(2+) dysregulation is a major factor limiting the survival and regenerative capacity of injured RGCs, and point to Zn(2+) chelation as a strategy to promote long-term RGC protection and enhance axon regeneration.

  5. Rapid and Slow Progressors Show Increased IL-6 and IL-10 Levels in the Pre-AIDS Stage of HIV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia M de Medeiros

    Full Text Available Cytokines are intrinsically related to disease progression in HIV infection. We evaluated the plasma levels of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in extreme progressors, including slow (SPs and rapid (RPs progressors, who were thus classified based on clinical and laboratory follow-up covering a period of time before the initiation of HAART, ranging from 93-136.5 months for SPs and 7.5-16.5 months for RPs. Analyses were also performed based on the different stages of HIV infection (chronic, pre-HAART individuals-subjects sampled before initiating HAART but who initiated therapy from 12 to 24 months-and those receiving HAART. The plasma cytokine levels of 16 HIV-infected rapid progressors and 25 slow progressors were measured using a Human Th1/Th2/Th17 CBA kit. The IL-6 and IL-10 plasma levels differed significantly between the stages of HIV infection. The IL-6 levels were higher in slow progressors pre-HAART than in chronically infected SPs and HIV-seronegative individuals. The IL-10 levels were higher in slow progressors pre-HAART than in slow progressors receiving HAART and HIV-seronegative controls, and in rapid progressors, the IL-10 levels were higher in pre-HAART subjects than in HIV-seronegative controls. The results reflect the changes in the cytokine profile occurring during different clinical stages in HIV+ subjects. Our results suggest an association between increased IL-6 and IL-10 levels and pre-HAART stages independent of the slow or rapid progression status of the subjects. Thus, increased IL-6 and IL-10 levels could indicate a global inflammatory status and could be used as markers of the disease course in HIV-infected individuals.

  6. Rapid increase in prevalence of male circumcision in rural Tanzania in the absence of a promotional campaign.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet J Forbes

    Full Text Available To estimate the prevalence of circumcision among young men in rural Mwanza, North-Western Tanzania, and document trends in circumcision prevalence over time. To investigate associations of circumcision with socio-demographic characteristics, reported sexual behaviours and sexually transmitted infections (STIs.A cross-sectional survey in communities which had previously participated in a cluster-randomized trial of an adolescent sexual health intervention that did not include male circumcision in 20 rural communities.In 2007/08, 7300 young men (age 16-23 years were interviewed and examined by a clinician. The prevalence of circumcision by age was compared with data collected during the trial in 1998-2002. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for the association of circumcision with socio-demographic characteristics, reported sexual behaviours and with HIV and other STIs were estimated using multivariable conditional logistic regression.The prevalence of male circumcision was 40.6%, and age-specific prevalence had more than doubled since 2001/2002. Circumcised men reported less risky sexual behaviours, being more likely to report having ever used a condom (adjusted OR = 2.62, 95%CI:2.32-2.95. Men circumcised before sexual debut were at reduced risk of being HIV seropositive compared with non-circumcised men (adjusted OR = 0.50, 95%CI:0.25-0.97, and also had reduced risks of HSV-2 infection and genital ulcer syndrome in the past 12 months compared with non-circumcised men.There was a steep increase in circumcision prevalence between 2001/02 and 2007/08 in the absence of a promotional campaign. Circumcised men reported safer sexual practices than non-circumcised men and had lower prevalence of HIV and HSV-2 infection.

  7. Electicism in Law and Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Arcuri (Alessandra)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAs the popularity of ‘law and economics’ is rapidly increasing, this essay is an invitation to pause and reflect on its methodology. Mainstream law and economics is generally associated with a paradigm that embraces rational choice theory as the theoretical grid that best understands

  8. Validation of a rapid type 1 diabetes autoantibody screening assay for community-based screening of organ donors to identify subjects at increased risk for the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserfall, C; Montgomery, E; Yu, L; Michels, A; Gianani, R; Pugliese, A; Nierras, C; Kaddis, J S; Schatz, D A; Bonifacio, E; Atkinson, M A

    2016-07-01

    The Network for Pancreatic Organ donors with Diabetes (nPOD) programme was developed in response to an unmet research need for human pancreatic tissue obtained from individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus and people at increased risk [i.e. autoantibody (AAb)-positive] for the disease. This necessitated the establishment of a type 1 diabetes-specific AAb screening platform for organ procurement organizations (OPOs). Assay protocols for commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) determining AAb against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), insulinoma-associated protein-2 (IA-2A) and zinc transporter-8 (ZnT8A) were modified to identify AAb-positive donors within strict time requirements associated with organ donation programmes. These rapid elisas were evaluated by the international islet AAb standardization programme (IASP) and used by OPO laboratories as an adjunct to routine serological tests evaluating donors for organ transplantation. The rapid elisas performed well in three IASPs (2011, 2013, 2015) with 98-100% specificity for all three assays, including sensitivities of 64-82% (GADA), 60-64% (IA-2A) and 62-68% (ZnT8A). Since 2009, nPOD has screened 4442 organ donors by rapid elisa; 250 (5·6%) were identified as positive for one AAb and 14 (0.3%) for multiple AAb with 20 of these cases received by nPOD for follow-up studies (14 GADA+, two IA-2A(+) , four multiple AAb-positive). Rapid screening for type 1 diabetes-associated AAb in organ donors is feasible, allowing for identification of non-diabetic, high-risk individuals and procurement of valuable tissues for natural history studies of this disease. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  9. Using Increases in Criminal Deportees from the US to Estimate the Effect of Crime on Economic Growth and Development in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garfield O. Blake

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous empirical studies have uncovered little evidence that crime hinders development, possibly due to simultaneity problems. This paper uses the increase in criminal deportees from the US as an instrumental variable to identify the causal effect of crime on economic growth and development. An increase in the number of criminal deportees received by a country is shown to substantially increase that country’s homicide rate. Using panel data for a sample of 30 Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC countries, I show that the increase in crime is becoming a major obstacle to growth and development in the region.

  10. Selective increase of intention-based economic decisions by noninvasive brain stimulation to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihonsugi, Tsuyoshi; Ihara, Aya; Haruno, Masahiko

    2015-02-25

    The intention behind another's action and the impact of the outcome are major determinants of human economic behavior. It is poorly understood, however, whether the two systems share a core neural computation. Here, we investigated whether the two systems are causally dissociable in the brain by integrating computational modeling, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and transcranial direct current stimulation experiments in a newly developed trust game task. We show not only that right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity is correlated with intention-based economic decisions and that ventral striatum and amygdala activity are correlated with outcome-based decisions, but also that stimulation to the DLPFC selectively enhances intention-based decisions. These findings suggest that the right DLPFC is involved in the implementation of intention-based decisions in the processing of cooperative decisions. This causal dissociation of cortical and subcortical backgrounds may indicate evolutionary and developmental differences in the two decision systems. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/53412-08$15.00/0.

  11. Outcome analysis of aromatase inhibitor therapy to increase adult height in males with predicted short adult stature and/or rapid pubertal progress: a retrospective chart review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Kim; Cameo, Tamara; Fennoy, Ilene; Hassoun, Abeer A; Lerner, Shulamit E; Aranoff, Gaya S; Sopher, Aviva B; Yang, Christine; McMahon, Donald J; Oberfield, Sharon E

    2014-07-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have been used off-label to increase adult height in short adolescent males. Studies have shown that AIs increase the predicted adult height (PAH) while delaying bone age (BA) maturation. We sought to determine whether AI therapy increases PAH in boys with short stature or rapid pubertal progression, and to evaluate any untoward effects. The charts of 27 boys with BA ≥ 13 and short stature [height ≥ 2 standard deviation (SD) below the mean or ≥ 2 SD below mid-parental target height (MPTH)] or rapid pubertal progress, treated with anastrozole were reviewed. Outcome measures included anthropomorphic, hormonal, and metabolic data. The AI therapy averaged 21 months (range 14-30 months) for all, with Rx group 1 receiving height SDS, or BA/chronological age (CA). In Rx group 2, there was a small, nonsignificant increase in PAH, no change in height SDS, and a small decrease in BA/CA. Post-therapy PAH was different from MPTH in all and in both Rx groups 1 and 2, pheight, averaging 6.73 ± 1.40 cm less than MPTH and 1.91 ± 0.86 cm less than the pre-therapy PAH. Post-therapy, the initially decreased estradiol did not persist but mildly increased testosterone and decreased high-density lipoprotein were noted, as was an increase in hematocrit, and decrease in growth velocity. We suggest that although bone age progression may be slightly delayed with longer duration of therapy, an overall short-term AI therapy does not lead to a final height that is greater than the predicted pre-therapy height.

  12. Increasing efficiency in ethanol production: Water footprint and economic productivity of sugarcane ethanol under nine different water regimes in north-eastern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chico, D.; Santiago, A. D.; Garrido, A.

    2015-07-01

    Ethanol production in Brazil has grown by 219% between 2001 and 2012, increasing the use of land and water resources. In the semi-arid north-eastern Brazil, irrigation is the main way for improving sugarcane production. This study aimed at quantifying water consumed in ethanol production from sugarcane in this region using the water footprint (WF) indicator and complementing it with an evaluation of the water apparent productivity (WAP). This way we were able to provide a measure of the crop´s physical and economic water productivity using, respectively, the WF and WAP concepts. We studied sugarcane cultivation under nine different water regimes, including rainfed and full irrigation. Data from a mill of the state of Alagoas for three production seasons were used. Irrigation influenced sugarcane yield increasing total profit per hectare and economic water productivity. Full irrigation showed the lowest WF, 1229 litres of water per litre of ethanol (L/L), whereas rainfed production showed the highest WF, 1646 L/L. However, the lower WF in full irrigation as compared to the rest of the water regimes implied the use of higher volumes of blue water per cultivated hectare. Lower water regimes yielded the lowest economic productivity, 0.72 US$/m3 for rainfed production as compared to 1.11 US$/m3 for full irrigation. Since economic revenues are increased with higher water regimes, there are incentives for the development of these higher water regimes. This will lead to higher general crop water and economic productivity at field level, as green water is replaced by blue water consumption. (Author)

  13. Increasing efficiency in ethanol production: Water footprint and economic productivity of sugarcane ethanol under nine different water regimes in north-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Chico

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol production in Brazil has grown by 219% between 2001 and 2012, increasing the use of land and water resources. In the semi-arid north-eastern Brazil, irrigation is the main way for improving sugarcane production. This study aimed at quantifying water consumed in ethanol production from sugarcane in this region using the water footprint (WF indicator and complementing it with an evaluation of the water apparent productivity (WAP. This way we were able to provide a measure of the crop´s physical and economic water productivity using, respectively, the WF and WAP concepts. We studied sugarcane cultivation under nine different water regimes, including rainfed and full irrigation. Data from a mill of the state of Alagoas for three production seasons were used. Irrigation influenced sugarcane yield increasing total profit per hectare and economic water productivity. Full irrigation showed the lowest WF, 1229 litres of water per litre of ethanol (L/L, whereas rainfed production showed the highest WF, 1646 L/L. However, the lower WF in full irrigation as compared to the rest of the water regimes implied the use of higher volumes of blue water per cultivated hectare. Lower water regimes yielded the lowest economic productivity, 0.72 US$/m3 for rainfed production as compared to 1.11 US$/m3 for full irrigation. Since economic revenues are increased with higher water regimes, there are incentives for the development of these higher water regimes. This will lead to higher general crop water and economic productivity at field level, as green water is replaced by blue water consumption.

  14. Socio-economic significance of mangroves in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Wafar, S.

    Mangrove ecosystem is considered ecologically and economically important perhaps due to its high productivity. However, due to the lack of proper scientific knowledge as well as the rapid increase in various developmental pressures along the coastal...

  15. Households across all income quintiles, especially the poorest, increased animal source food expenditures substantially during recent Peruvian economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Debbie L; Behrman, Jere R; Crookston, Benjamin T; Dearden, Kirk A; Schott, Whitney; Penny, Mary E

    2014-01-01

    Relative to plant-based foods, animal source foods (ASFs) are richer in accessible protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B-12 and other nutrients. Because of their nutritional value, particularly for childhood growth and nutrition, it is important to identify factors influencing ASF consumption, especially for poorer households that generally consume less ASFs. To estimate differential responsiveness of ASF consumption to changes in total household expenditures for households with different expenditures in a middle-income country with substantial recent income increases. The Peruvian Young Lives household panel (n = 1750) from 2002, 2006 and 2009 was used to characterize patterns of ASF expenditures. Multivariate models with controls for unobserved household fixed effects and common secular trends were used to examine nonlinear relationships between changes in household expenditures and in ASF expenditures. Households with lower total expenditures dedicated greater percentages of expenditures to food (58.4% vs.17.9% in 2002 and 24.2% vs. 21.5% in 2009 for lowest and highest quintiles respectively) and lower percentages of food expenditures to ASF (22.8% vs. 33.9% in 2002 and 30.3% vs. 37.6% in 2009 for lowest and highest quintiles respectively). Average percentages of overall expenditures spent on food dropped from 47% to 23.2% between 2002 and 2009. Households in the lowest quintiles of expenditures showed greater increases in ASF expenditures relative to total consumption than households in the highest quintiles. Among ASF components, meat and poultry expenditures increased more than proportionately for households in the lowest quintiles, and eggs and fish expenditures increased less than proportionately for all households. Increases in household expenditures were associated with substantial increases in consumption of ASFs for households, particularly households with lower total expenditures. Increases in ASF expenditures for all but the top quintile of

  16. Effect of increasing the price of sugar-sweetened beverages on alcoholic beverage purchases: an economic analysis of sales data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirmbach, Diana; Cornelsen, Laura; Jebb, Susan A; Marteau, Theresa; Smith, Richard

    2018-01-23

    Taxing soft-drinks may reduce their purchase, but assessing the impact on health demands wider consideration on alternative beverage choices. Effects on alcoholic drinks are of particular concern, as many contain similar or greater amounts of sugar than soft-drinks and have additional health harms. Changes in consumption of alcoholic drinks may reinforce or negate the intended effect of price changes for soft-drinks. A partial demand model, adapted from the Almost Ideal Demand System, was applied to Kantar Worldpanel data from 31 919 households from January 2012 to December 2013, covering drink purchases for home consumption, providing ~6 million purchases aggregated into 11 groups, including three levels of soft-drink, three of other non-alcoholic drinks and five of alcoholic drinks. An increase in the price of high-sugar drinks leads to an increase in the purchase of lager, an increase in the price of medium-sugar drinks reduces purchases of alcoholic drinks, while an increase in the price of diet/low-sugar drinks increases purchases of beer, cider and wines. Overall, the effects of price rises are greatest in the low-income group. Increasing the price of soft-drinks may change purchase patterns for alcohol. Increasing the price of medium-sugar drinks has the potential to have a multiplier-effect beneficial to health through reducing alcohol purchases, with the converse for increases in the price of diet-drinks. Although the reasons for such associations cannot be explained from this analysis, requiring further study, the design of fiscal interventions should now consider these wider potential outcomes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Households across all income quintiles, especially the poorest, increased animal source food expenditures substantially during recent Peruvian economic growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie L Humphries

    Full Text Available Relative to plant-based foods, animal source foods (ASFs are richer in accessible protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B-12 and other nutrients. Because of their nutritional value, particularly for childhood growth and nutrition, it is important to identify factors influencing ASF consumption, especially for poorer households that generally consume less ASFs.To estimate differential responsiveness of ASF consumption to changes in total household expenditures for households with different expenditures in a middle-income country with substantial recent income increases.The Peruvian Young Lives household panel (n = 1750 from 2002, 2006 and 2009 was used to characterize patterns of ASF expenditures. Multivariate models with controls for unobserved household fixed effects and common secular trends were used to examine nonlinear relationships between changes in household expenditures and in ASF expenditures.Households with lower total expenditures dedicated greater percentages of expenditures to food (58.4% vs.17.9% in 2002 and 24.2% vs. 21.5% in 2009 for lowest and highest quintiles respectively and lower percentages of food expenditures to ASF (22.8% vs. 33.9% in 2002 and 30.3% vs. 37.6% in 2009 for lowest and highest quintiles respectively. Average percentages of overall expenditures spent on food dropped from 47% to 23.2% between 2002 and 2009. Households in the lowest quintiles of expenditures showed greater increases in ASF expenditures relative to total consumption than households in the highest quintiles. Among ASF components, meat and poultry expenditures increased more than proportionately for households in the lowest quintiles, and eggs and fish expenditures increased less than proportionately for all households.Increases in household expenditures were associated with substantial increases in consumption of ASFs for households, particularly households with lower total expenditures. Increases in ASF expenditures for all but the top quintile

  18. Increasing the economic efficacy of peripheral blood progenitor cell collections by monitoring peripheral blood CD34+ concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutensohn, Kai; Magens, Mirko M; Kuehnl, Peter; Zeller, Wolfgang

    2010-03-01

    After mobilization, the collection of peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) can either be started a fixed number of days after having passed the white blood cell nadir (fixed-day scheme) or be based on monitoring of CD34+ cells. This study was conducted to compare both approaches and to assess possible financial consequences. For 29 patients daily enumeration of CD34+ cells was used to guide leukapheresis timing. In a retrospective analysis for the same group of patients, application of a fixed-day scheme was assumed. For scenarios of beginning apheresis 2, 3, 4, or 5 days after WBC nadir, the number of apheresis days and granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) application days that could be saved was calculated. A total of 44 apheresis procedures were performed resulting in a mean CD34+ cell content per apheresis product of 10.4 x 10(6) (range, 0.1 x 10(6)-49.5 x 10(6))/kg of body weight. The smallest number of deviation days compared to a fixed-day scheme was found for beginning an apheresis on Day 3. In comparison to this, CD34+ monitoring reduced the number of G-CSF days by 9 and the number of apheresis procedures by 11 overall, resulting in savings of euro;19,965 (US$28,788) in comparison to expenses of euro826 (US$1191) for CD34+ monitoring. Measurement of CD34+ cells has reached a precision enabling a prediction of the harvest success. In comparison to a fixed-day scheme, daily CD34+ monitoring reduces the donor's exposition to G-CSF, enables collection of a sufficient number of PBPCs in the least possible number of apheresis sessions, and improves the economic efficacy of the institution.

  19. Ecological economics and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    Boulding's 1966 paper on the economics of spaceship Earth established the framework for ecological economics and an understanding of economic growth. In ecological economics, economies are conceptualized as open subsystems of the closed biosphere and are subject to biophysical laws and constraints. Economic growth measured as an increase in real gross domestic product (GDP) has generally been associated with increases in the use of energy and materials and the generation of wastes. Scale, composition, and technology are the proximate determinants of environmental impacts. They are often reduced to two: scale (GDP) and intensity (impact per unit GDP). New work described in this paper defines "green" growth as intensity that declines faster than scale increases. Similarly, "brown" growth occurs when intensity declines more slowly than increases in scale, and "black" growth happens when both scale and intensity increase. These concepts are then related to the environmental Kuznets curve, which can be understood as a transition from brown to green growth. Ecological economics provides a macroperspective on economic growth. It offers broad policy principles, and it challenges the primacy of economic growth as a policy objective, but many important questions remain.

  20. The inventions in nanotechnological area increase the efficiency of construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The review gives brief description of inventions in nanotechnological area: the production method for silver nanoparticles with modified ligand shell in highviscosity matrix (RU 2526967; structures containing molecular structures with high aspect ratio and the production methods for them (RU 2526969; preconcentrator of the samples (RU 2526972; antifrictional composition (RU 2526989; conglutination composition for metal articles (RU 2526991; thin dispersed organic suspension of metal/carbon nanocomposite and the production method for it (RU 2527218; composite ion-exchange membrane (RU 2527236; pigment based on modified titanium dioxide powder (RU 2527262; the method of production of microballs and microspheres (RU 2527427; the method for strengthening metal products with nanostructured surface layers (RU 2527511; the method of production of sensitive element of gas detector with carbon nanotubes (RU 2528032; cutting plate (RU 2528288 etc. The inventions in the nanotechnological area can cause significant effects on construction, housing and communal services and adjacent fields of economy: reduced hardening time and increased durability of adhesive joints, increased wear-resistance of cutting plates, increased strength of materials under compressive forces, descreased detail tearing, etc. For example, composition for glueing metal products (RU 2526991 contains anaerobic mastic AH-111 and the filler – carbon nanotubes «Taunit-M». The invention shortens hardening time and increases the durability of adhesive joints. Cutting plate (RU 2528288 contains the base made of hard alloy and sprayed on it wear-resistant layer of nanostructured tungsten carbide and nanostructured niobium carbide which grain size is 20–50 nm, and their ratio, mass.%: nanostructured tungsten carbide 90, nanostructured niobium carbide – the rest. That increases wear-resistance of cutting plates, especially in hard cutting modes.

  1. Microscale methods to rapidly evaluate bioprocess options for increasing bioconversion yields: application to the ω-transaminase synthesis of chiral amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Murni; Rios-Solis, Leonardo; Micheletti, Martina; Ward, John M; Lye, Gary J

    2014-05-01

    This work aims to establish microscale methods to rapidly explore bioprocess options that might be used to enhance bioconversion reaction yields: either by shifting unfavourable reaction equilibria or by overcoming substrate and/or product inhibition. As a typical and industrially relevant example of the problems faced we have examined the asymmetric synthesis of (2S,3R)-2-amino-1,3,4-butanetriol from l-erythrulose using the ω-transaminase from Chromobacterium violaceum DSM30191 (CV2025 ω-TAm) and methylbenzylamine as the amino donor. The first process option involves the use of alternative amino donors. The second couples the CV2025 ω-TAm with alcohol dehydrogenase and glucose dehydrogenase for removal of the acetophenone (AP) by-product by in situ conversion to (R)-1-phenylethanol. The final approaches involve physical in-situ product removal methods. Reduced pressure conditions, attained using a 96-well vacuum manifold were used to selectively increase evaporation of the volatile AP while polymeric resins were also utilised for selective adsorption of AP from the bioconversion medium. For the particular reaction studied here the most promising bioprocess options were use of an alternative amino donor, such as isopropylamine, which enabled a 2.8-fold increase in reaction yield, or use of a second enzyme system which achieved a 3.3-fold increase in yield.

  2. Extremely rapid increase in fatty acid transport and intramyocellular lipid accumulation but markedly delayed insulin resistance after high fat feeding in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonen, Arend; Jain, Swati S; Snook, Laelie A; Han, Xiao-Xia; Yoshida, Yuko; Buddo, Kathryn H; Lally, James S; Pask, Elizabeth D; Paglialunga, Sabina; Beaudoin, Marie-Soleil; Glatz, Jan F C; Luiken, Joost J F P; Harasim, Ewa; Wright, David C; Chabowski, Adrian; Holloway, Graham P

    2015-10-01

    The mechanisms for diet-induced intramyocellular lipid accumulation and its association with insulin resistance remain contentious. In a detailed time-course study in rats, we examined whether a high-fat diet increased intramyocellular lipid accumulation via alterations in fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36)-mediated fatty acid transport, selected enzymes and/or fatty acid oxidation, and whether intramyocellular lipid accretion coincided with the onset of insulin resistance. We measured, daily (on days 1-7) and/or weekly (for 6 weeks), the diet-induced changes in circulating substrates, insulin, sarcolemmal substrate transporters and transport, selected enzymes, intramyocellular lipids, mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and basal and insulin-stimulated sarcolemmal GLUT4 and glucose transport. We also examined whether upregulating fatty acid oxidation improved glucose transport in insulin-resistant muscles. Finally, in Cd36-knockout mice, we examined the role of FAT/CD36 in intramyocellular lipid accumulation, insulin sensitivity and diet-induced glucose intolerance. Within 2-3 days, diet-induced increases occurred in insulin, sarcolemmal FAT/CD36 (but not fatty acid binding protein [FABPpm] or fatty acid transporter [FATP]1 or 4), fatty acid transport and intramyocellular triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol and ceramide, independent of enzymatic changes or muscle fatty acid oxidation. Diet-induced increases in mitochondria and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and impairments in insulin-stimulated glucose transport and GLUT4 translocation occurred much later (≥21 days). FAT/CD36 ablation impaired insulin-stimulated fatty acid transport and lipid accumulation, improved insulin sensitivity and prevented diet-induced glucose intolerance. Increasing fatty acid oxidation in insulin-resistant muscles improved glucose transport. High-fat feeding rapidly increases intramyocellular lipids (in 2-3 days) via insulin-mediated upregulation of sarcolemmal FAT/CD36 and fatty acid

  3. Osmotic Edema Rapidly Increases Neuronal Excitability Through Activation of NMDA Receptor-Dependent Slow Inward Currents in Juvenile and Adult Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelli Lauderdale

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellular edema (cell swelling is a principal component of numerous brain disorders including ischemia, cortical spreading depression, hyponatremia, and epilepsy. Cellular edema increases seizure-like activity in vitro and in vivo, largely through nonsynaptic mechanisms attributable to reduction of the extracellular space. However, the types of excitability changes occurring in individual neurons during the acute phase of cell volume increase remain unclear. Using whole-cell patch clamp techniques, we report that one of the first effects of osmotic edema on excitability of CA1 pyramidal cells is the generation of slow inward currents (SICs, which initiate after approximately 1 min. Frequency of SICs increased as osmolarity decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Imaging of real-time volume changes in astrocytes revealed that neuronal SICs occurred while astrocytes were still in the process of swelling. SICs evoked by cell swelling were mainly nonsynaptic in origin and NMDA receptor-dependent. To better understand the relationship between SICs and changes in neuronal excitability, recordings were performed in increasingly physiological conditions. In the absence of any added pharmacological reagents or imposed voltage clamp, osmotic edema induced excitatory postsynaptic potentials and burst firing over the same timecourse as SICs. Like SICs, action potentials were blocked by NMDAR antagonists. Effects were more pronounced in adult (8–20 weeks old compared with juvenile (P15–P21 mice. Together, our results indicate that cell swelling triggered by reduced osmolarity rapidly increases neuronal excitability through activation of NMDA receptors. Our findings have important implications for understanding nonsynaptic mechanisms of epilepsy in relation to cell swelling and reduction of the extracellular space.

  4. Assessing the economic impact of public investment in Malaysia: a case study on MyRapid Transit project using a dynamic computable general equilibrium model

    OpenAIRE

    Muniandy, Meenachi

    2017-01-01

    The central focus of this thesis is the question of whether public investment in transport infrastructure contributes positively to Malaysia’s economic growth and welfare. Although there are strong analytical reasons to believe that public investment spending is one of the important variables that influence growth, there remains significant uncertainty about its actual degree of influence. In Malaysia, whenever there is a collapse in domestic demand, government spending becomes an important m...

  5. Improved real-life adherence of 6-monthly denosumab injections due to positive feedback based on rapid 6-month BMD increase and good safety profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringe, J D; Farahmand, P

    2014-05-01

    Almost 50 % of osteoporosis (OP) patients discontinue bisphosphonate (BP) therapy within 1-2 years after the start of their treatment. Denosumab's longer dosing interval with its administration every 6 months (Q6M) as a subcutaneous (sc) injection might result in a better real-life treatment adherence and persistence than weekly or monthly oral BP treatment regimen. The objectives of this open, investigator-initiated, prospective, observational, single-center study were to evaluate adherence with denosumab 60 mg sc every 6 months (Q6M) (Prolia(®)) injections in osteoporotic patients in a routine clinical care setting and to describe whether positive feedback to OP patients based on measured bone mineral density (BMD) increases and good safety profile have an impact on patients' real-life adherence. Results indicate that the rarity of adverse events and reduced dosage frequency together with the consistency of rapid and highly significant increases in BMD already after 6 months of denosumab therapy used as a positive reinforcement during doctor-patient interactions had a significant, positive impact on osteoporotic patient's adherence to continue with the 6-monthly sc denosumab injections.

  6. The economic situation of large hydropower in Bavaria. Increasing burdens but dwindling revenues; Zur wirtschaftlichen Situation der grossen Wasserkraft in Bayern. Steigende Lasten - schwindende Erloese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, Klaus; Gollum, Carsten [Uniper Kraftwerke GmbH, Landshut (Germany). Sparte Wasserkraft; Gruber, Karl Heinz [VERBUND Wasserkraft, Wien/Simbach/Toeging (Austria); Poehler, Frank [Bayerische Elektrizitaetswerke GmbH, Augsburg (Germany); Schleich, Albrecht [Rhein-Main-Donau AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    The current price development in the German electricity market results in significant economic challenges also for larger hydropower assets. Although an ideal partner for the transformation of the German energy system (''Energiewende''), the decline of electricity prices increasingly endangers adequate operations and sustainable investments, too. Hence, not only the renewable, emission-free, flexible and decentralised generation is questions but also multiple additional services for the society which are not remunerated by an ''energy only'' market. Price determination mechanisms as well as remunerations system in general need to be reviewed - an improvement of these structures is essential for larger hydropower assets.

  7. The Potential of Economic Diplomacy for Kosovo’s Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Arben Salihu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Historically, the wise use of country’s economic potential brought conducive political gains. In contemporary times, where the business competition has reached its peak, the creative diplomacy that caters economic concerns, generally called the economic diplomacy is gaining pace. The term of Economic Diplomacy is fairly new, but apparently the research and evaluation of this concept is rapidly increasing, primarily to assess its impact on economic growth. Despite gaining popularity and acknowledgment, many countries are not taking full advantage of economic diplomacy, the Republic of Kosovo is case in point. The aim of this work is to explore the importance of economic diplomacy for Kosovo, a developing country, but with vast potential for growth. The study begins with a brief analysis on Kosovo economic history and the first signs of economic diplomacy. In addition, it discusses the role, importance and the future of economic diplomacy for Kosovo, vis a vis challenges and opportunities. It analysis the level of the use of economic diplomacy in the region, as well as presents data concerning Kosovo trade with world during the period 2004-2014. Finally it offers a number of recommendations for economic development in relations to economic diplomacy and concludes that success of the economic diplomacy largely depends on active, creative and proactive leadership as well as shrewd decison making.

  8. Relative Economic Merits of Storage and Combustion Turbines for Meeting Peak Capacity Requirements under Increased Penetration of Solar Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Diakov, Victor [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Batteries with several hours of capacity provide an alternative to combustion turbines for meeting peak capacity requirements. Even when compared to state-of-the-art highly flexible combustion turbines, batteries can provide a greater operational value, which is reflected in a lower system-wide production cost. By shifting load and providing operating reserves, batteries can reduce the cost of operating the power system to a traditional electric utility. This added value means that, depending on battery life, batteries can have a higher cost than a combustion turbine of equal capacity and still produce a system with equal or lower overall life-cycle cost. For a utility considering investing in new capacity, the cost premium for batteries is highly sensitive to a variety of factors, including lifetime, natural gas costs, PV penetration, and grid generation mix. In addition, as PV penetration increases, the net electricity demand profile changes, which may reduce the amount of battery energy capacity needed to reliably meet peak demand.

  9. Increased Industrial District Heating use in a CHP System-Economic Consequences and Impacts on Global CO2 Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Difs, Kristina; Trygg, Louise [Linkoping University - Division of Energy Systems (Sweden)

    2009-07-01

    The use of district heating (DH) in industrial processes is relatively limited compared to other fuels and electricity. Hence, the industrial sector has great potential to convert from electricity and fossil fuels to DH. In addition, DH is mainly used for space heating and hot tap water, which makes the DH demand strongly seasonally dependent. By converting industrial processes like cooling, drying and industrial heating to DH, the heat load curve will be more evenly distributed throughout the year, thus utilizing the DH production resources better. This paper analyses how conversions from electricity or other fuels to district heating (DH) in industrial processes will affect an energy system. The effect of a more evenly distributed heat load profile is analysed with different policy instruments, fuel prices and electricity prices. In this study, three CHP plants acting as base load plants, which utilize different fuels (biofuel, waste and natural gas), are analysed. The result shows that when the use of district heating in industrial processes is increased it will lead to reduced system cost in both the biofueled and waste-incinerated combined heat and power system. Furthermore, when considering European electricity production in coal condensing and natural gas power plants, conversion to DH will also lead to possible reduced global CO2 emissions. Keywords: Combined heat and power, district heating, industrial heat load, heat load duration, energy efficiency audits.

  10. Does demolition or refurbishment of old and inefficient homes help to increase our environmental, social and economic viability?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, Anne [London School of Economics, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE (United Kingdom); Sustainable Development Commission, Room 101, 55 Whitehall, c/o 3-8 Whitehall Place, London SW1A 2HH (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    The issue of whether to demolish or refurbish older housing has been debated for over a century. It has been an active policy area since the late 1880s, when the Government first authorised the statutory demolition of insanitary slums. In the 1960s, revulsion at the scale of 'demolition blight' and new building caused a rethink, leading to a major reinvestment in inner city neighbourhoods of older housing. In the past 5 years, debate on demolition and new building has been intensified by the Government's Sustainable Communities Plan of 2003, with its proposals for large-scale clearance and building. Environmental arguments about renovating the existing stock have gained increasing prominence as people have sought to defend their communities from demolition. The evidence on whether demolition would reduce the amount of greenhouse gases we emit into the atmosphere is unclear and disputed. This paper summarises the evidence and arguments, and attempts to clarify the most realistic, achievable route to major reductions in energy use in homes. The arguments that apply to housing also apply to most other buildings and therefore to the overall built environment, which accounts for half of all carbon emissions. Three main sources of evidence have helped in the development of this paper, but there are many other studies we draw on in the discussion.

  11. A rapid and systematic review and economic evaluation of the clinical and cost-effectiveness of newer drugs for treatment of mania associated with bipolar affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridle, C; Palmer, S; Bagnall, A-M; Darba, J; Duffy, S; Sculpher, M; Riemsma, R

    2004-05-01

    To evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of quetiapine, olanzapine and valproate semisodium in the treatment of mania associated with bipolar disorder. Electronic databases; industry submissions made to the National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Randomised trials and economic evaluations that evaluated the effectiveness of quetiapine, olanzapine or valproate semisodium in the treatment of mania associated with bipolar disorder were selected for inclusion. Data were extracted by one reviewer into a Microsoft Access database and checked for quality and accuracy by a second. The quality of the cost-effectiveness studies was assessed using a checklist updated from that developed by Drummond and colleagues. Relative risk and mean difference data were presented as Forest plots but only pooled where this made sense clinically and statistically. Studies were grouped by drug and, within each drug, by comparator used. Chi-squared tests of heterogeneity were performed for the outcomes if pooling was indicated. A probabilistic model was developed to estimate costs from the perspective of the NHS, and health outcomes in terms of response rate, based on an improvement of at least 50% in a patient's baseline manic symptoms derived from an interview-based mania assessment scale. The model evaluated the cost-effectiveness of the alternative drugs when used as part of treatment for the acute manic episode only. Eighteen randomised trials met the inclusion criteria. Aspects of three of the quetiapine studies were commercial-in-confidence. The quality of the included trials was limited and overall, key methodological criteria were not met in most trials. Quetiapine, olanzapine and valproate semisodium appear superior to placebo in reducing manic symptoms, but may cause side-effects. There appears to be little difference between these treatments and lithium in terms of effectiveness, but quetiapine is associated with somnolence and weight gain, whereas lithium is associated

  12. Age-period-cohort projections of ischaemic heart disease mortality by socio-economic position in a rapidly transitioning Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene O L Wong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With economic development and population aging, ischaemic heart disease (IHD is becoming a leading cause of mortality with widening inequalities in China. To forewarn the trends in China we projected IHD trends in the most economically developed part of China, i.e., Hong Kong. METHODS: Based on sex-specific IHD mortality rates from 1976 to 2005, we projected mortality rates by neighborhood-level socio-economic position (i.e., low- or high-income groups to 2020 in Hong Kong using Poisson age-period-cohort models with autoregressive priors. RESULTS: In the low-income group, age-standardized IHD mortality rates among women declined from 33.3 deaths in 1976-1980 to 19.7 per 100,000 in 2016-2020 (from 55.5 deaths to 34.2 per 100,000 among men. The rates in the high-income group were initially higher in both sexes, particularly among men, but this had reversed by the end of the study periods. The rates declined faster for the high-income group than for the low-income group in both sexes. The rates were projected to decline faster in the high-income group, such that by the end of the projection period the high-income group would have lower IHD mortality rates, particularly for women. Birth cohort effects varied with sex, with a marked upturn in IHD mortality around 1945, i.e., for the first generation of men to grow up in a more economically developed environment. There was no such upturn in women. Birth cohort effects were the main drivers of change in IHD mortality rates. CONCLUSION: IHD mortality rates are declining in Hong Kong and are projected to continue to do so, even taking into account greater vulnerability for the first generation of men born into a more developed environment. At the same time social disparities in IHD have reversed and are widening, partly as a result of a cohort effect, with corresponding implications for prevention.

  13. Eating ‘Junk-Food' Produces Rapid and Long-Lasting Increases in NAc CP-AMPA Receptors: Implications for Enhanced Cue-Induced Motivation and Food Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginsky, Max F; Goforth, Paulette B; Nobile, Cameron W; Lopez-Santiago, Luis F; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2016-01-01

    Urges to eat are influenced by stimuli in the environment that are associated with food (food cues). Obese people are more sensitive to food cues, reporting stronger craving and consuming larger portions after food cue exposure. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) mediates cue-triggered motivational responses, and activations in the NAc triggered by food cues are stronger in people who are susceptible to obesity. This has led to the idea that alterations in NAc function similar to those underlying drug addiction may contribute to obesity, particularly in obesity-susceptible individuals. Motivational responses are mediated in part by NAc AMPA receptor (AMPAR) transmission, and recent work shows that cue-triggered motivation is enhanced in obesity-susceptible rats after ‘junk-food' diet consumption. Therefore, here we determined whether NAc AMPAR expression and function is increased by ‘junk-food' diet consumption in obesity-susceptible vs -resistant populations using both outbred and selectively bred models of susceptibility. In addition, cocaine-induced locomotor activity was used as a general ‘read out' of mesolimbic function after ‘junk-food' consumption. We found a sensitized locomotor response to cocaine in rats that gained weight on a ‘junk-food' diet, consistent with greater responsivity of mesolimbic circuits in obesity-susceptible groups. In addition, eating ‘junk-food' increased NAc calcium-permeable-AMPAR (CP-AMPAR) function only in obesity-susceptible rats. This increase occurred rapidly, persisted for weeks after ‘junk-food' consumption ceased, and preceded the development of obesity. These data are considered in light of enhanced cue-triggered motivation and striatal function in obesity-susceptible rats and the role of NAc CP-AMPARs in enhanced motivation and addiction. PMID:27383008

  14. Eating 'Junk-Food' Produces Rapid and Long-Lasting Increases in NAc CP-AMPA Receptors: Implications for Enhanced Cue-Induced Motivation and Food Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginsky, Max F; Goforth, Paulette B; Nobile, Cameron W; Lopez-Santiago, Luis F; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2016-12-01

    Urges to eat are influenced by stimuli in the environment that are associated with food (food cues). Obese people are more sensitive to food cues, reporting stronger craving and consuming larger portions after food cue exposure. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) mediates cue-triggered motivational responses, and activations in the NAc triggered by food cues are stronger in people who are susceptible to obesity. This has led to the idea that alterations in NAc function similar to those underlying drug addiction may contribute to obesity, particularly in obesity-susceptible individuals. Motivational responses are mediated in part by NAc AMPA receptor (AMPAR) transmission, and recent work shows that cue-triggered motivation is enhanced in obesity-susceptible rats after 'junk-food' diet consumption. Therefore, here we determined whether NAc AMPAR expression and function is increased by 'junk-food' diet consumption in obesity-susceptible vs -resistant populations using both outbred and selectively bred models of susceptibility. In addition, cocaine-induced locomotor activity was used as a general 'read out' of mesolimbic function after 'junk-food' consumption. We found a sensitized locomotor response to cocaine in rats that gained weight on a 'junk-food' diet, consistent with greater responsivity of mesolimbic circuits in obesity-susceptible groups. In addition, eating 'junk-food' increased NAc calcium-permeable-AMPAR (CP-AMPAR) function only in obesity-susceptible rats. This increase occurred rapidly, persisted for weeks after 'junk-food' consumption ceased, and preceded the development of obesity. These data are considered in light of enhanced cue-triggered motivation and striatal function in obesity-susceptible rats and the role of NAc CP-AMPARs in enhanced motivation and addiction.

  15. Socio-economic status, lifestyle and childhood obesity in Gombe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Childhood obesity is a complex condition resulting from an interplay of genetic predisposition, environmental factors and socio-economic status. The prevalence has been increasing all over the world, probably due to economic transition and rapid urbanization as well as globalisation. This relationship should ...

  16. Essential roles of GABA transporter-1 in controlling rapid eye movement sleep and in increased slow wave activity after sleep deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Hong Xu

    Full Text Available GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system that has been strongly implicated in the regulation of sleep. GABA transporter subtype 1 (GAT1 constructs high affinity reuptake sites for GABA and regulates GABAergic transmission in the brain. However, the role of GAT1 in sleep-wake regulation remains elusive. In the current study, we characterized the spontaneous sleep-wake cycle and responses to sleep deprivation in GAT1 knock-out (KO mice. GAT1 KO mice exhibited dominant theta-activity and a remarkable reduction of EEG power in low frequencies across all vigilance stages. Under baseline conditions, spontaneous rapid eye movement (REM sleep of KO mice was elevated both during the light and dark periods, and non-REM (NREM sleep was reduced during the light period only. KO mice also showed more state transitions from NREM to REM sleep and from REM sleep to wakefulness, as well as more number of REM and NREM sleep bouts than WT mice. During the dark period, KO mice exhibited more REM sleep bouts only. Six hours of sleep deprivation induced rebound increases in NREM and REM sleep in both genotypes. However, slow wave activity, the intensity component of NREM sleep was briefly elevated in WT mice but remained completely unchanged in KO mice, compared with their respective baselines. These results indicate that GAT1 plays a critical role in the regulation of REM sleep and homeostasis of NREM sleep.

  17. DNA barcoding and morphological analysis for rapid identification of most economically important crop-infesting Sunn pests belonging to Eurygaster Laporte, 1833 (Hemiptera, Scutelleridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Y. Syromyatnikov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The genus Eurygaster Laporte, 1833 includes ten species five of which inhabit the European part of Russia. The harmful species of the genus is E. integriceps. Eurygaster species identification based on the morphological traits is very difficult, while that of the species at the egg or larval stages is extremely difficult or impossible. Eurygaster integriceps, E. maura, and E. testudinaria differ only slightly between each other morphologically, E. maura and E. testudinaria being almost indiscernible. DNA barcoding based on COI sequences have shown that E. integriceps differs significantly from these closely related species, which enables its rapid and accurate identification. Based on COI nucleotide sequences, three species of Sunn pests, E. maura, E. testudinarius, E. dilaticollis, could not be differentiated from each other through DNA barcoding. The difference in the DNA sequences between the COI gene of E. integriceps and COI genes of E. maura and E. testudinarius was more than 4%. In the present study DNA barcoding of two Eurygaster species was performed for the first time on E. integriceps, the most dangerous pest in the genus, and E. dilaticollis that only inhabits natural ecosystems. The PCR-RFLP method was developed in this work for the rapid identification of E. integriceps.

  18. DNA barcoding and morphological analysis for rapid identification of most economically important crop-infesting Sunn pests belonging to Eurygaster Laporte, 1833 (Hemiptera, Scutelleridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syromyatnikov, Mikhail Y; Golub, Victor B; Kokina, Anastasia V; Victoria A Soboleva; Popov, Vasily N

    2017-01-01

    The genus Eurygaster Laporte, 1833 includes ten species five of which inhabit the European part of Russia. The harmful species of the genus is E. integriceps. Eurygaster species identification based on the morphological traits is very difficult, while that of the species at the egg or larval stages is extremely difficult or impossible. Eurygaster integriceps, E. maura, and E. testudinaria differ only slightly between each other morphologically, E. maura and E. testudinaria being almost indiscernible. DNA barcoding based on COI sequences have shown that E. integriceps differs significantly from these closely related species, which enables its rapid and accurate identification. Based on COI nucleotide sequences, three species of Sunn pests, E. maura, E. testudinarius, E. dilaticollis, could not be differentiated from each other through DNA barcoding. The difference in the DNA sequences between the COI gene of E. integriceps and COI genes of E. maura and E. testudinarius was more than 4%. In the present study DNA barcoding of two Eurygaster species was performed for the first time on E. integriceps, the most dangerous pest in the genus, and E. dilaticollis that only inhabits natural ecosystems. The PCR-RFLP method was developed in this work for the rapid identification of E. integriceps.

  19. Advertising representation, treatment menu and economic circulation of substance misuse treatment centers in Iran: a rapid survey based on newspaper advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Sobhan; Ekhtiari, Hamed

    2014-05-01

    Daily newspapers are the main platform by which substance misuse treatment (SMT) centers in Iran advertise their services. However, these advertisements provide little information on treatment options or costs. The current research aimed to use advertisements to compile a schema of treatment services and to map the extent and nature of drug treatments offered. During a four-week period (April to May) in 2009, the four most popular Persian newspapers printed in Tehran were reviewed. Across these publications 1704 advertisements were posted by 66 SMT centers. Each center was then contacted by telephone to complete a structured interview about services offered and related costs. The advertisements were also decoded through a quantitative contextual analysis method. On average, each SMT center published 26 advertisements during the review period, costing 421 US$. In addition, advertisements included word signifiers in six main categories including centers' introduction (100%), treatment types (91%), treatment duration (68%), medicines (70%), treatment features (60%) and psychological facilities (52%). The three detoxification programs advertised were the rapid method (57% of clinics, 443.23 US$), buprenorphine (68%, 265 US$) and methadone (71%, 137 US$). More than 90% of the centers in Tehran were offering methadone maintenance (99 US$, per month). SMT services in the Iranian market ranged from abstinence to maintenance programs, with opiates as the main focus. This review of centers' advertisements provides an indirect but rapidly obtained picture of the drug misuse treatment network. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Increasing Returns and Economic Geography.

    OpenAIRE

    Krugman, Paul

    1991-01-01

    This paper develops a two-region, two-sector general equilibriun model of location. The location of agricultural production is fixed, but ionopolistcally competitive manufacturing finns choose their location to maximize profits. If transportation costs are high, returns to scale weak, and the share of spending on manufactured goods low, the incentive to produce close to the market leads to an equal division of manufacturing between the regions. With lower transport costs, stronger scale econo...

  1. The Impact of the Economic Transition on the Development of Economic Freedom – Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stepniak-Kucharska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the Polish socio-economic system, initiated at the turn of 1989 and 1990, led to a systematic increase in the liberalization of economy and thereby the rise of the level of economic freedom. The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of the economic transition on the development of economic freedom in Poland. The analysis, carried out in the period 1995-2015, was conducted on the basis of the chain-linked Economic Freedom Index by the Fraser Institute and the Index of Economic Freedom of the Heritage Foundation and the Wall Street Journal. The analysis indicates that: (1 Poland cannot be considered as a country that is fully free economically, but the transition of its economic system has resulted in a rapid growth of economic freedom. (2 The impact of transition varies for different areas (sub-indices of the economy. (3 The European economic integration stimulated the increase of EFI, but the economic crisis did not decrease the level of economic freedom.

  2. The impact of the financial crisis under the effects of increasing global economic interdependence. The case of Eastern and Central Europe Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bușega Ionuț

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The technological progress that arose in areas such as transportation, communication and information exchange has led to a series of consequences that forced national economies to converge into a global, market based economy. In addition to the aforementioned causes, increased liberalisation amidst financial markets has supplemented the initiation of this metamorphosis that had several benefits in terms of general commercial exchange (trade, capital flows, and investment opportunities for business organisations. Simultaneously with the financial leverage resulted from the expansion of these interconnections, a series of channels that are detrimental to the financial welfare of entities has emerged, which, in consequence elevated the vulnerability and susceptibility to external economic shocks. The major debate elicited by this trade-off mainly concerns the costs and benefits of the international liberalisation of capital flows and trade. The purpose of this article is to examine the methods through which globalisation has affected the expansion of the international financial crisis back in 2008, by identifying and assessing the subsequent transfer routes, to and from the United States, where it was initially triggered. This article also aims to evaluate the repercussions experienced by Central and Eastern Europe and how they re-established economic growth following the financial crisis.

  3. Testing the effectiveness of in-home behavioral economics strategies to increase vegetable intake, liking, and variety among children residing in households that receive food assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leak, Tashara M; Swenson, Alison; Vickers, Zata; Mann, Traci; Mykerezi, Elton; Redden, Joseph P; Rendahl, Aaron; Reicks, Marla

    2015-01-01

    To test the effectiveness of behavioral economics strategies for increasing vegetable intake, variety, and liking among children residing in homes receiving food assistance. A randomized controlled trial with data collected at baseline, once weekly for 6 weeks, and at study conclusion. Family homes. Families with a child (9-12 years) will be recruited through community organizations and randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 36) or control (n = 10) group. The intervention group will incorporate a new behavioral economics strategy during home dinner meal occasions each week for 6 weeks. Strategies are simple and low-cost. The primary dependent variable will be child's dinner meal vegetable consumption based on weekly reports by caregivers. Fixed independent variables will include the strategy and week of strategy implementation. Secondary dependent variables will include vegetable liking and variety of vegetables consumed based on data collected at baseline and study conclusion. Mean vegetable intake for each strategy across families will be compared using a mixed-model analysis of variance with a random effect for child. In additionally, overall mean changes in vegetable consumption, variety, and liking will be compared between intervention and control groups. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. CBCT of skeletal changes following rapid maxillary expansion to increase arch-length with a development-dependent bonded or banded appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanomi, Ryuzo; Deguchi, Toru; Kakuno, Eriko; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Roberts, W Eugene

    2013-09-01

    To assess the three-dimensional (3D) skeletal response to a standardized 5 mm of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in growing children (6-15 years) with maxillary width deficiency and crowding. A bonded appliance was used prior to the eruption of the maxillary first premolars (Mx4s), and a banded appliance was used thereafter. A consecutive sample of 89 patients (29 boys and 60 girls) from a large pediatric dentistry and orthodontics practice was divided into four groups: 1) 6-8 years old (n = 26), 2) 9-11 years old with unerupted Mx4s (n = 21), 3) 9-11 years with erupted Mx4s (n = 23), and 4) 12-15 years (n = 19). For all patients, the 3D evaluation of dental and skeletal effects was performed with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). For both appliances in all patients, CBCT confirmed a triangular pattern of expansion in both the frontal and sagittal planes. Overall, both appliances produced significant maxillary expansion (>80% of the 5-mm activation), but older children showed a progressively more dental (less skeletal) response. Comparison of the two types of expanders in the crossover sample, children aged 9-11 years, showed that the bonded RME produced the most efficient skeletal expansion in the preadolescent sample. Increased maxillary width at the level of the zygomaticomaxillary suture was the best indicator for development of maxillary arch circumference. Development-dependent appliances (bonded RPE before Mx4s erupt, and a banded device thereafter) provided optimal RME treatment for all children from age 6-15 years.

  5. Dexamethasone rapidly increases GABA release in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus via retrograde messenger-mediated enhancement of TRPV1 activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei V Derbenev

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids influence vagal parasympathetic output to the viscera via mechanisms that include modulation of neural circuitry in the dorsal vagal complex, a principal autonomic regulatory center. Glucocorticoids can modulate synaptic neurotransmitter release elsewhere in the brain by inducing release of retrograde signalling molecules. We tested the hypothesis that the glucocorticoid agonist dexamethasone (DEX modulates GABA release in the rat dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed that DEX (1-10 µM rapidly (i.e. within three minutes increased the frequency of tetrodotoxin-resistant, miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs in 67% of DMV neurons recorded in acutely prepared slices. Glutamate-mediated mEPSCs were also enhanced by DEX (10 µM, and blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors reduced the DEX effect on mIPSC frequency. Antagonists of type I or II corticosteroid receptors blocked the effect of DEX on mIPSCs. The effect was mimicked by application of the membrane-impermeant BSA-conjugated DEX, and intracellular blockade of G protein function with GDP βS in the recorded cell prevented the effect of DEX. The enhancement of GABA release was blocked by the TRPV1 antagonists, 5'-iodoresiniferatoxin or capsazepine, but was not altered by the cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonist AM251. The DEX effect was prevented by blocking fatty acid amide hydrolysis or by inhibiting anandamide transport, implicating involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the response. These findings indicate that DEX induces an enhancement of GABA release in the DMV, which is mediated by activation of TRPV1 receptors on afferent terminals. The effect is likely induced by anandamide or other 'endovanilloid', suggesting activation of a local retrograde signal originating from DMV neurons to enhance synaptic inhibition locally in response to glucocorticoids.

  6. Computer-assisted glucose regulation during rapid step-wise increases of parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients: a proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Miriam; Schoorl, Michiel A; van der Horst, Iwan C C; Vogelzang, Mathijs; Wietasch, J K Götz; Zijlstra, Felix; Nijsten, Maarten W N

    2010-01-01

    Early delivery of calories is important in critically ill patients, and the administration of parenteral nutrition (PN) is sometimes required to achieve this goal. However, PN can induce acute hyperglycemia, which is associated with adverse outcome. We hypothesized that initiation of PN using a rapid "step-up" approach, coupled with a computerized insulin-dosing protocol, would result in a desirable caloric intake within 24 hours without causing hyperglycemia. In our surgical intensive care unit (ICU), glucose is regulated by a nurse-centered computerized glucose regulation program. When adequate enteral feeding was not possible, PN was initiated according to a simple step-up rule at an infusion rate of 10 mL/h (approximately 10 kcal/h) and subsequently increased by steps of 10 mL/h every 4 hours, provided glucose was up period and for 24 hours after achieving target feeding. In all 23 consecutive patients requiring PN, mean intake was 1 kcal/kg/h within 24 hours. Of the 280 glucose samples during the 48-hour study period, mean ± standard deviation glucose level was 7.4 ± 1.4 mmol/L. Only 4.5% of glucose measurements during the step-up period were transiently ≥10 mmol/L. After initiating PN, the insulin requirement rose from 1.1 ± 1.5 units/h to 2.9 ± 2.5 units/h (P initiation of PN using a step-up approach coupled with computerized glucose control resulted in adequate caloric intake within 24 hours while maintaining adequate glycemic control.

  7. Feeding Strategies Derived from Behavioral Economics and Psychology Can Increase Vegetable Intake in Children as Part of a Home-Based Intervention: Results of a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravener, Terri L; Schlechter, Haley; Loeb, Katharine L; Radnitz, Cynthia; Schwartz, Marlene; Zucker, Nancy; Finkelstein, Stacey; Wang, Y Claire; Rolls, Barbara J; Keller, Kathleen L

    2015-11-01

    Behavioral economics and psychology have been applied to altering food choice, but most studies have not measured food intake under free-living conditions. To test the effects of a strategy that pairs positive stimuli (ie, stickers and cartoon packaging) with vegetables and presents them as the default snack. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with children who reported consumption of fewer than two servings of vegetables daily. Children (aged 3 to 5 years) in both control (n=12) and treatment (n=12) groups received a week's supply of plainly packaged (ie, generic) vegetables, presented by parents as a free choice with an alternative snack (granola bar), during baseline (Week 1) and follow-up (Week 4). During Weeks 2 and 3, the control group continued to receive generic packages of vegetables presented as a free choice, but the treatment group received vegetables packaged in containers with favorite cartoon characters and stickers inside, presented by parents as the default choice. Children in the treatment group were allowed to opt out of the vegetables and request the granola bar after an imposed 5-minute wait. General Linear Model repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted to compare vegetable and granola bar intake between control and treatment groups across the 4-week study. Both within- and between-subjects models were tested. A time×treatment interaction on vegetable intake was significant. The treatment group increased vegetable intake from baseline to Week 2 relative to control (Pbehavioral economics and psychology in the home to increase children's vegetable intake and decrease intake of a high-energy-density snack. Additional studies are needed to test the long-term sustainability of these practices. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of a motivational intervention to reduce rapid repeated childbearing in high-risk adolescent mothers: a rebirth of economic and policy considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnet, Beth; Rapp, Thomas; DeVoe, Margo; Mullins, C Daniel

    2010-04-01

    To determine the cost-effectiveness of an intervention that successfully reduced rapid repeated births within 2 years of an index birth to adolescent mothers. Randomized, controlled trial conducted from February 2003 to October 2007. Home-based intervention with participants recruited from 5 urban clinics that provide care to low-income African American communities. Two hundred thirty-five pregnant teenagers (n = 235) aged 18 years or younger who were at 24 or more weeks of gestation at recruitment were followed up for 27 months. Participants were randomly assigned to usual care (n = 68) or 1 of 2 home-based interventions conducted by community outreach workers: (1) computer-assisted motivational intervention (CAMI) conducted quarterly with additional visits (CAMI+ [n = 80]) or (2) CAMI only (n = 87), a single-component motivational intervention conducted quarterly. Additional births by 24 months post partum determined from birth certificates, total and weighted mean intervention costs, cost per participant, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, defined as cost per prevented repeated birth. Relative to usual care, CAMI significantly reduced repeated births (adjusted odds ratio, 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.22-0.97). Mean intervention costs per adolescent were $2064, with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios per prevented repeated birth of $21 895 (unadjusted), $17 388 (adjusted), and $13 687 for a high-risk subgroup termed newly insured (eligible for but not enrolled in public insurance). The CAMI costs and cost-effectiveness compare favorably with other effective programs aimed at preventing repeated teenage births. Replication of these results in broader samples of adolescents would provide policy guidance for what works, for whom, and at what cost.

  9. Rapid diagnosis of the economically important fruit fly, Bactrocera correcta (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on a species-specific barcoding cytochrome oxidase I marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, F; Li, Z H; Deng, Y L; Wu, J J; Liu, R S; Buahom, N

    2013-06-01

    The guava fruit fly, Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an invasive pest of fruit and vegetable crops that primarily inhabits Southeast Asia and which has the potential to become a major threat within both the Oriental and Australian oceanic regions as well as California and Florida. In light of the threat posed, it is important to develop a rapid, accurate and reliable method to identify B. correcta in quarantine work in order to provide an early warning to prevent its widespread invasion. In the present study, we describe a species-specific polymerase chain reaction assay for the diagnosis of B. correcta using mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I (mtDNA COI) barcoding genes. A B. correcta-specific primer pair was designed according to variations in the mtDNA COI barcode sequences among 14 fruit fly species. The specificity and sensitivity of the B. correcta-specific primer pair was tested based on the presence or absence of a band in the gel profile. A pair of species-specific B. correcta primers was successfully designed and named BCOR-F/BCOR-R. An ∼280 bp fragment was amplified from specimens belonging to 17 geographical populations and four life stages of B. correcta, while no such diagnostic bands were present in any of the 14 other related fruit fly species examined. Sensitivity test results demonstrated that successful amplification can be obtained with as little as 1 ng μl⁻¹ of template DNA. The species-specific PCR analysis was able to successfully diagnose B. correcta, even in immature life stages, and from adult body parts. This method proved to be a robust single-step molecular technique for the diagnosis of B. correcta with respect to potential plant quarantine.

  10. Modelling the implications of reducing smoking prevalence: the benefits of increasing the UK tobacco duty escalator to public health and economic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuchel-Takano, Andre; Hunt, Daniel; Jaccard, Abbygail; Bhimjiyani, Arti; Brown, Martin; Retat, Lise; Brown, Katrina; Hinde, Sebastian; Selvarajah, Chit; Bauld, Linda; Webber, Laura

    2017-12-06

    Taxing tobacco is one of the most effective ways to reduce smoking prevalence, mitigate its devastating consequential health harms and progress towards a tobacco-free society. This study modelled the health and economic impacts of increasing the existing cigarette tobacco duty escalator (TDE) in the UK from the current 2% above consumer price inflation to 5%. A two-stage modelling process was used. First, a non-linear multivariate regression model was fitted to cross-sectional smoking data, creating longitudinal projections from 2015 to 2035. Second, these projections were used to predict the future incidence, prevalence and cost of 17 smoking-related diseases using a Monte Carlo microsimulation approach. A sustained increase in the duty escalator was evaluated against a baseline of continuing historical smoking trends and the existing duty escalator. A sustained increase in the TDE is projected to reduce adult smoking prevalence to 6% in 2035, from 10% in a baseline scenario. After increasing the TDE, only 65% of female and 60% of male would-be smokers would actually be smoking in 2035. The intervention is projected to avoid around 75 200 new cases of smoking-related diseases between 2015 and 2035. In 2035 alone, £49 m in National Health Service and social care costs and £192 m in societal premature mortality and morbidity costs are projected to be avoided. Increasing the UK TDE to 5% above inflation could effectively reduce smoking prevalence, prevent diseases and avoid healthcare costs. It would deliver substantial progress towards a tobacco-free society and should be implemented by the UK Government with urgency. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. How will Vietnam’s economic relationship and dependency on china affect its response to China’s increasing threat to its sovereignty?

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Kevin K.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Vietnam’s economic liberalization since the adoption of the Doi Moi has helped Vietnam’s economy blossom. As a result of its economic liberalization, Vietnam has become more dependent on China for its economic growth and stability. This dependency has made it difficult for Vietnam to challenge China when its sovereignty is threatened. According to the World Bank, China is Vietnam’s number one trading partner, with $50 billion in trade ...

  12. Impacts of uncertainty in AVOC emissions on the summer RO x budget and ozone production rate in the three most rapidly-developing economic growth regions of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; An, Junling; Li, Ying; Tang, Yujia; Lin, Jian; Qu, Yu; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Bing; Zhai, Jing

    2014-11-01

    High levels of uncertainty in non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emissions in China could lead to significant variation in the budget of the sum of hydroxyl (OH) and peroxy (HO2, RO2) radicals (RO x = OH + HO2 + RO2) and the ozone production rate [P(O3)], but few studies have investigated this possibility, particularly with three-dimensional air quality models. We added diagnostic variables into the WRF-Chem model to assess the impact of the uncertainty in anthropogenic NMVOC (AVOC) emissions on the RO x budget and P(O3) in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta of China. The WRF-Chem simulations were compared with satellite and ground observations, and previous observation-based model studies. Results indicated that 68% increases (decreases) in AVOC emissions produced 4%-280% increases (2%-80% decreases) in the concentrations of OH, HO2, and RO2 in the three regions, and resulted in 35%-48% enhancements (26%-39% reductions) in the primary RO x production and ˜ 65% decreases (68%-73% increases) of the P(O3) in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. For the three cities, the two largest contributors to the RO x production rate were the reaction of O1D + H2O and photolysis of HCHO, ALD2, and others; the reaction of OH + NO2 (71%-85%) was the major RO x sink; and the major contributor to P(O3) was the reaction of HO2 + NO (˜ 65%). Our results showed that AVOC emissions in 2006 from Zhang et al. (2009) have been underestimated by ˜ 68% in suburban areas and by > 68% in urban areas, implying that daily and hourly concentrations of secondary organic aerosols and inorganic aerosols could be substantially underestimated, and cloud condensation nuclei could be underestimated, whereas local and regional radiation was overestimated.

  13. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen M. Ivic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Under Economic Growth mean constantly increasing volume of production in a country, or an increase in gross domestic product as the main quantitative indicators of production for a period of one year. Economic development is not only quantitative changes when it comes to the economic position of the country, but also qualitative changes (changing the economic structure, the emergence of new sectors and industries, new jobs, etc... They lead to a better and more complete satisfaction of all human needs. Production per capita is a measure of the ability of a society to achieve their goals of social and economic development, all in order to meet the constantly growing social needs. The increase in output per capita in economic theory is expressed as economic growth, without which no economic development, but does not have any economic growth to be a function of economic development.

  14. Estancamiento económico en México, manufacturas y rendimientos crecientes: un enfoque kaldoriano/(Economic stagnation in Mexico, manufactures and increasing returns: A kaldorian approach)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Isaac Leobardo Sánchez Juárez

    2011-01-01

      The main goal of this paper is to investigate, from a macroeconomic and regional perspective, the nature and conditions of existing economic stagnation in Mexico since 1982, with special emphasis...

  15. The mass spectrometry technology MALDI-TOF (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time- Of-Flight for a more rapid and economic workflow in the clinical microbiology laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Barnini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to improve the outcome of patients, reduce length of stay, costs and resources engaged in diagnostics, more rapid reports are requested to the clinical microbiologists.The purpose of this study is to assess the impact on workflow of MALDI-TOF technology, recently made available for use in routine diagnostics. Methods:The work list by the management information system is sent to the instrument MALDI-TOF, where are held at least three successive analytic sessions: the first includes bacteria isolated from CSF, blood cultures, and cases already reported as serious/urgent, the second includes all other germs isolated, the third, microorganisms that require extraction with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA or formic acid (FA for identification.The results of each session direct to the execution of different types of susceptibility testing. Results:The times of microbial identifications are reduced by 24 or 48 hours and made available to the clinician for the rational empirical therapy.The reagent costs are reduced by 40%.The subcultures were reduced by 80%, and microscopic examinations by 50%.The antibiotic susceptibility tests were immediately performed with the most appropriate method, based on the knowledge of local epidemiology and microbial species. Conclusion:The bacteriology is the less automated discipline among the clinical laboratory activities and results of diagnostic tests are poorly well-timed. The new interpretative algorithms of MALDI-TOF spectra, now available, allow the correct identification of bacteria in near real time, completely eliminating the wait is necessary for biochemical identification and guiding the operator in selecting the most appropriate antibiotic susceptibility tests. This technology makes work more rapid, economic and efficient, eliminating errors and, together with effective computerization of data, transforms the information content of the microbiological report, making it much more effective

  16. Profitability of a Smallholder Late Season Rapid Multiplication of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effects of increasing poultry manure rates on the soil physicochemical properties, crop productivity and economic returns to investment of late season rapid multiplication of cassava stem enterprise at the Teaching and Research Farm, Federal University of Technology, Owerri in the humid ...

  17. Fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms in urinary tract pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated during rapidly increasing fluoroquinolone consumption in a low-use country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Nina; Nielsen, Lene; Jakobsen, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    Resistance to ciprofloxacin in Escherichia coli from urinary tract infections (UTI) in Denmark is increasing parallel to increased use of fluoroquinolones both in Denmark and in other European countries. The objective was to investigate the occurrence of ciprofloxacin resistance mechanisms...

  18. Increased Economic Relations Between China and Zambia in the Last Decade: Implications on Zambia’s Existing Bilateral Relations with the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    good governance, economic diversification , and help with opportunities that promote prosperity.26 The United States Strategy Toward Sub-Saharan...development; economic growth and diversification ; promote rural investment and accelerate poverty reduction and enhance human development.”32 The...reduction and improved livelihoods of the majority of Zambians.37 In all these areas, the GRZ will promote private sector investment and public private

  19. Economics and business economics.

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Silva

    1993-01-01

    The comparison between Economics and Business Management allows the clarification of some of their characteristics and limits as regards method, language, and objectives. Secondly, it allows the verification of the reciprocal contribution relating to research. For such a comparison, the object of study, the method, and the objectives of Economics and Business Management are taken into consideration distinguishing; so far as Business Management is concerned, between the Italian and American tr...

  20. Neoclassical economic orthodoxy and the need for a new post-crisis economic paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei JOSAN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Capitalism is a social adaptive system that evolve, change and grow in response to the challenges of a rapidly changing economic environment. When capitalism is seriously threatened by a systemic crisis, a new version much better adapted to existing conditions appears. Critical analysis of the fundamental ideas underlying neoclassical economic theory shows that the capitalist system is fundamentally a dynamic and therefore static neoclassical models proved to be unsuitable for studying it. Contrary to neoclassical economic vision, the capitalist economy is not governed by immutable economic laws. Global systemic crisis of capitalism that began in 2007 has highlighted the need for a new economic paradigm on which to be built and to be performed a new version of capitalism, in line with the increasingly complex realities of a globalized and quick changing world.

  1. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  2. Changes in Underlying Determinants Explain Rapid Increases in Child Linear Growth in Alive & Thrive Study Areas between 2010 and 2014 in Bangladesh and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Headey, Derek; Frongillo, Edward A; Tran, Lan Mai; Rawat, Rahul; Ruel, Marie T; Menon, Purnima

    2017-03-01

    nutritional change in intervention and comparison areas. Improvements in underlying determinants explained rapid improvements in HAZs between 2010 and 2014 in Bangladesh and Vietnam.

  3. Rapid burst of H2O2 by plant growth regulators increases intracellular Ca2+ amounts and modulates CD4+ T cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Asma; Mukherjee, Sambuddho; Deobagkar, Mukta; Naik, Tanushree; Nandi, Dipankar

    2010-11-01

    The identification of small molecules that affect T cell activation is an important area of research. Three molecules that regulate plant growth and differentiation, but not their structurally similar analogs, were identified to enhance primary mouse CD4(+) T cell activation in conjunction with soluble anti-CD3 stimulation: Indoleacetic acid (natural plant auxin), 1-Napthaleneacetic acid (synthetic plant auxin) and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (synthetic plant auxin and herbicide). These effects are distinct in comparison to Curcumin, the well known phenolic immunomodulator, which lowers T cell activation. An investigation into the mechanisms of action of the three plant growth regulators revealed a rapid induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mainly comprising H(2)O(2). In addition, these three molecules synergize with soluble anti-CD3 signaling to enhance intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations [Ca(2+)](i), leading to greater T cell activation, e.g. induction of CD25 and IL-2. Enhanced production of TNFα and IFNγ by CD4(+) T cells is also observed upon plant growth regulator treatment with soluble anti-CD3. Interestingly, maximal IL-2 production and CD4(+) T cell cycle progression are observed upon activation with soluble anti-CD3 and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a phorbol ester. Additionally, stimulation with PMA and Ionomcyin (a Ca(2+) ionophore), which activates T cells by circumventing the TCR, and plant growth regulators also demonstrated the role of the strength of signal (SOS): T cell cycle progression is enhanced with gentle activation conditions but decreased with strong activation conditions. This study demonstrates the direct effects of three plant growth regulators on CD4(+) T cell activation and cycling. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid Increase in Ownership and Use of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets and Decrease in Prevalence of Malaria in Three Regional States of Ethiopia (2006-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estifanos Biru Shargie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Following recent large scale-up of malaria control interventions in Ethiopia, this study aimed to compare ownership and use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN, and the change in malaria prevalence using two population-based household surveys in three regions of the country. Each survey used multistage cluster random sampling with 25 households per cluster. Household net ownership tripled from 19.6% in 2006 to 68.4% in 2007, with mean LLIN per household increasing from 0.3 to 1.2. Net use overall more than doubled from 15.3% to 34.5%, but in households owning LLIN, use declined from 71.7% to 48.3%. Parasitemia declined from 4.1% to 0.4%. Large scale-up of net ownership over a short period of time was possible. However, a large increase in net ownership was not necessarily mirrored directly by increased net use. Better targeting of nets to malaria-risk areas and sustained behavioural change communication are needed to increase and maintain net use.

  5. Block chain Technology:Concept of Digital Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Ovais

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to explain about blockchain technology and how to use of blockchain technology for modern economics practices. We focused on this paper to put the light on blockchain usage in some other areas of economy such as, governance and political decision making, public finance, financial institution & stock market trading, global trading and other economic activities. The literature showed that blockchain is rapidly growing at globally and increasing digital money for tran...

  6. A surge of p-values between 0.041 and 0.049 in recent decades (but negative results are increasing rapidly too)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodou, Dimitra

    2015-01-01

    It is known that statistically significant (positive) results are more likely to be published than non-significant (negative) results. However, it has been unclear whether any increasing prevalence of positive results is stronger in the “softer” disciplines (social sciences) than in the “harder” disciplines (physical sciences), and whether the prevalence of negative results is decreasing over time. Using Scopus, we searched the abstracts of papers published between 1990 and 2013, and measured longitudinal trends of multiple expressions of positive versus negative results, including p-values between 0.041 and 0.049 versus p-values between 0.051 and 0.059, textual reporting of “significant difference” versus “no significant difference,” and the reporting of p 0.05. We found no support for a “hierarchy of sciences” with physical sciences at the top and social sciences at the bottom. However, we found large differences in reporting practices between disciplines, with p-values between 0.041 and 0.049 over 1990–2013 being 65.7 times more prevalent in the biological sciences than in the physical sciences. The p-values near the significance threshold of 0.05 on either side have both increased but with those p-values between 0.041 and 0.049 having increased to a greater extent (2013-to-1990 ratio of the percentage of papers = 10.3) than those between 0.051 and 0.059 (ratio = 3.6). Contradictorily, p 0.05 (ratios = 1.4 and 4.8, respectively), while the use of “significant difference” has shown only a modest increase compared to “no significant difference” (ratios = 1.5 and 1.1, respectively). We also compared reporting of significance in the United States, Asia, and Europe and found that the results are too inconsistent to draw conclusions on cross-cultural differences in significance reporting. We argue that the observed longitudinal trends are caused by negative factors, such as an increase of questionable research practices, but also by

  7. Increase of fuel economical efficiency of multi-sectional diesel locomotives by perfection of the algorithms of control by diesel-generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgen SHAPRAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article one of the ways of reducing of fuel consumption at railways is explored. It is shown, that now there is possibility of substantial (5-10% improvement of traction-economical characteristics of multi-sectional diesel locomotives due to the use of the microprocessor systems of control, which correlate diesel-locomotive characteristic and provide the asynchronous condition of operations of Diesel-generators in dependence on the conditions of traffic of train.

  8. Evaluation of the Implementation of a Rapid Response Treatment Protocol for Patients with Acute Onset Stroke: Can We Increase the Number of Patients Treated and Shorten the Time Needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Advani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study aims to evaluate the implementation of a rapid response treatment protocol for patients presenting with acute onset ischemic stroke. Improvements of routines surrounding the admission and treatment of patients with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT, such as door-to-needle (DTN times, and increasing the numbers of patients treated are discussed. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of all patients (n = 320 treated with IVT for acute onset ischemic stroke at the Stavanger University Hospital, Norway, between 2003 and 2012. In 2009, a succession of changes to pre- and intra-hospital routines were made as well as an improvement in the education of primary health care physicians, nurses and paramedics involved in the treatment of acute onset stroke patients (rapid response treatment protocol. Analyses of DTN times, onset-to-needle times and the number of patients treated per year were carried out to ascertain the effect of the changes made. The primary aim was to analyze DTN times to look for any changes, and the secondary aim was to analyze changes in the number of patients treated per year. Results: In the years after the implementation of the rapid treatment protocol, we saw an improvement in the median DTN time with a decrease from 73 to 50 min in the first year (p = 0.03, a decrease of 45 min in the second year (p = 0.01 and a decrease of 31 min in the third year (p Conclusions: The implementation of the rapid treatment protocol for acute onset ischemic stroke patients led to a significant decrease in the DTN time at our center. These improvements also produced an increase in the number of patients treated per year. The extension of the therapeutic window from 3 to 4.5 h for the use of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator also played a role in the increased treatment numbers.

  9. The Economics of Nationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohuan Lan; Ben Li

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an economic framework for examining how economic openness affects nationalism. Within a country, a region's level of nationalism varies according to its economic interests in its domestic market relative to its foreign market. A region's nationalism is strongest if the optimal size of its domestic market equals the size of its country. All else being equal, increasing a region's foreign trade reduces its economic interests in its domestic market and thus weakens its nation...

  10. Localized infusions of the partial alpha 7 nicotinic receptor agonist SSR180711 evoke rapid and transient increases in prefrontal glutamate release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortz, D M; Mikkelsen, J D; Bruno, J P

    2013-01-01

    that inhibited (threo-beta-benzyl-oxy-aspartate (TβOA), 100.0μM) or facilitated (ceftriaxalone, 200mg/kg, i.p.) excitatory amino acid transporters. TβOA slowed both the clearance (s) and rate of clearance (μM/s) by 10-fold, particularly at the mid-late stages of the return to baseline. Ceftriaxone reduced......The ability of local infusions of the alpha 7 nicotinic acetycholine receptor (α7 nAChR) partial agonist SSR180711 to evoke glutamate release in prefrontal cortex was determined in awake rats using a microelectrode array. Infusions of SSR180711 produced dose-dependent increases in glutamate levels...

  11. Antagonism of miR-328 increases the antimicrobial function of macrophages and neutrophils and rapid clearance of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi from infected lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hock L Tay

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic bacterial infections of the lung are life threatening and underpin chronic lung diseases. Current treatments are often ineffective potentially due to increasing antibiotic resistance and impairment of innate immunity by disease processes and steroid therapy. Manipulation miRNA directly regulating anti-microbial machinery of the innate immune system may boost host defence responses. Here we demonstrate that miR-328 is a key element of the host response to pulmonary infection with non-typeable haemophilus influenzae and pharmacological inhibition in mouse and human macrophages augments phagocytosis, the production of reactive oxygen species, and microbicidal activity. Moreover, inhibition of miR-328 in respiratory models of infection, steroid-induced immunosuppression, and smoke-induced emphysema enhances bacterial clearance. Thus, miRNA pathways can be targeted in the lung to enhance host defence against a clinically relevant microbial infection and offer a potential new anti-microbial approach for the treatment of respiratory diseases.

  12. Antagonism of miR-328 increases the antimicrobial function of macrophages and neutrophils and rapid clearance of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) from infected lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Hock L; Kaiko, Gerard E; Plank, Maximilian; Li, JingJing; Maltby, Steven; Essilfie, Ama-Tawiah; Jarnicki, Andrew; Yang, Ming; Mattes, Joerg; Hansbro, Philip M; Foster, Paul S

    2015-04-01

    Pathogenic bacterial infections of the lung are life threatening and underpin chronic lung diseases. Current treatments are often ineffective potentially due to increasing antibiotic resistance and impairment of innate immunity by disease processes and steroid therapy. Manipulation miRNA directly regulating anti-microbial machinery of the innate immune system may boost host defence responses. Here we demonstrate that miR-328 is a key element of the host response to pulmonary infection with non-typeable haemophilus influenzae and pharmacological inhibition in mouse and human macrophages augments phagocytosis, the production of reactive oxygen species, and microbicidal activity. Moreover, inhibition of miR-328 in respiratory models of infection, steroid-induced immunosuppression, and smoke-induced emphysema enhances bacterial clearance. Thus, miRNA pathways can be targeted in the lung to enhance host defence against a clinically relevant microbial infection and offer a potential new anti-microbial approach for the treatment of respiratory diseases.

  13. Analysis of a rapid increase of stratospheric ozone during late austral summer 2008 over Kerguelen (49.4° S, 70.3° E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bencherif

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an increase of ozone event observed over Kerguelen (49.4° S, 70.3° E in relationship with large-scale isentropic transport. This is evidenced by ground-based observations (co-localised radiosonde and SAOZ experiments together with satellite global observations (Aura/MLS assimilated into MOCAGE, a Méteo-France model.

    The study is based on the analyses of the first ozonesonde experiment never recorded at the Kerguelen site within the framework of a French campaign called ROCK that took place from April to August 2008.

    Comparisons and interpretations of the observed event are supported by co-localised SAOZ observations, by global mapping of tracers (O3, N2O and columns of O3 from Aura/MLS and Aura/OMI experiments, and by model simulations of Ertel Potential Vorticity initialised by the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts data reanalyses.

    Satellite and ground-based observational data revealed a consistent increase of ozone in the local stratosphere by mid-April 2008. Additionally, Ozone (O3 and nitrous oxide (N2O profiles obtained during January–May 2008 using the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS aboard the Aura satellite are assimilated into MOCAGE (MOdèle de Chimie Atmosphérique à Grande Echelle, a global three-dimensional chemistry transport model of Météo-France. The assimilated total O3 values are consistent with SAOZ ground observations (within ±5%, and isentropic distributions of O3 match well with maps of advected potential vorticity (APV derived from the MIMOSA model, a high-resolution advection transport model, and from the ECMWF reanalysis.

    The event studied seems to be related to the isentropic transport of air masses that took place simultaneously in the lower- and middle-stratosphere, respectively from the polar region and from the tropics to the mid-latitudes.

    In

  14. Rapid increase of Plasmodium falciparum dhfr/dhps resistant haplotypes, after the adoption of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine as first line treatment in 2002, in southern Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enosse, Sonia; Magnussen, Pascal; Abacassamo, Fatima; Gómez-Olivé, Xavier; Rønn, Anita M; Thompson, Ricardo; Alifrangis, Michael

    2008-07-01

    In late 2002, the health authorities of Mozambique implemented sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP)/amodiaquine (AQ) as first-line treatment against uncomplicated falciparum malaria. In 2004, this has been altered to SP/artesunate in line with WHO recommendations of using Artemisinin Combination Therapies (ACTs), despite the fact that all the neighbouring countries have abandoned SP-drug combinations due to high levels of SP drug resistance. In the study area, one year prior to the change to SP/AQ, SP alone was used to treat uncomplicated malaria cases. The study described here investigated the immediate impact of the change to SP on the frequency of SP and CQ resistance-related haplotypes in the Plasmodium falciparum genes Pfdhfr, Pfdhps and Pfcrt before and a year after the introduction of SP. Samples were collected during two cross sectional surveys in early 2002 and 2003 involving 796 and 692 children one year or older and adults randomly selected living in Maciana, an area located in Manhiça district, Southern Mozambique. Out of these, 171 and 173 P. falciparum positive samples were randomly selected to measure the frequency of resistance- related haplotypes in Pfdhfr, Pfdhps and Pfcrt based on results obtained by nested PCR followed by sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe (SSOP)-ELISA. The frequency of the SP-resistance associated Pfdhps double mutant (SGEAA) haplotype increased significantly from 14% to 35% (P drug, Coartem.

  15. Are Koreans Prepared for the Rapid Increase of the Single-Household Elderly? Life Satisfaction and Depression of the Single-Household Elderly in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Ra Won

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In Korea, it has been estimated that the number of the single-household elderly increased 45% from 2005 to 2010. This research was conducted to provide empirical resources for development of a community mental health program by an explorative investigation on depression, coping mechanism, and life satisfaction of a single-household elderly population. Design and Methods. This research applied a descriptive survey research design. Participants were 225 single-household elderlies residing in Seoul, Korea. The geriatric depression scale and the satisfaction with life scale were used to check the level of depression and life satisfaction of the participants. Results. Results showed that 46.3 percent of the participants were categorized as having light-to-severe level of depression, and 80.5 percent of the participants responded that they were dissatisfied with their lives. This research demonstrated that the level of depression and life satisfaction of the Korean single-household elderly is statistically significantly related to age and gender as well as coping resources and human resources. Implications. Current public health services in Korea for the single-household elderly are still lacking and require active support, intervention, and research to provide effective programs and services. Case management, counseling, and various programs based on Korean culture including support from family members and community-based assistance are recommended to help the vulnerable population.

  16. Predictors of diabetic foot and leg ulcers in a developing country with a rapid increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriyani, Kumarasinghe A; Wasalathanthri, Sudharshani; Hettiarachchi, Priyadharshika; Prathapan, Shamini

    2013-01-01

    To identify the socio demographic, life style and foot examination related predictors of diabetic foot and leg ulcers with a view to develop a screening tool appropriate for the use in an outpatient setting. This cross sectional study included type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients; 88 subjects with leg and foot ulcers and 80 non ulcer controls. Socio demographic data and life style factors were documented. Foot was examined for skin changes and structural abnormalities. Distal peripheral neuropathy was assessed by pressure sense, vibration sense and joint position sense. Multivariate analysis by logistic regression was used to determine the significant predictors in screening for foot ulcers. Education of grade 6 and below (OR--1.41, 95% CI; 1.03-4.68), low income (OR--23.3, 95% CI; 1.5-34.0), impaired vibration sense (OR--24.79, 95% CI; 9.3-66.2), abnormal monofilament test on first (OR--1.69, 95% CI; 1.36-16.6), third (OR--3.4, 95% CI; 1.1-10.6) and fifth (OR--1.8, 95% CI; 1.61-12.6) toes are found to be predictors of increased risk whereas incidental diagnosis of DM (OR--0.03, 95% CI; 0.003-0.28), wearing covered shoes (OR--0.003, 95% CI; 0.00-0.28), presence of normal skin color (OR--0.01, 95% CI; 0.001-0.14) and normal monofilament test on first metatarsal head (OR--0.10, 95% CI; 0.00-0.67) are protective factors for ulcers. Ten independent risk and protective factors identified in this study are proposed as a simple screening tool to predict the risk of developing leg and foot ulcers in patients with DM.

  17. Predictors of diabetic foot and leg ulcers in a developing country with a rapid increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarasinghe A Sriyani

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the socio demographic, life style and foot examination related predictors of diabetic foot and leg ulcers with a view to develop a screening tool appropriate for the use in an outpatient setting. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This cross sectional study included type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM patients; 88 subjects with leg and foot ulcers and 80 non ulcer controls. Socio demographic data and life style factors were documented. Foot was examined for skin changes and structural abnormalities. Distal peripheral neuropathy was assessed by pressure sense, vibration sense and joint position sense. Multivariate analysis by logistic regression was used to determine the significant predictors in screening for foot ulcers. RESULTS: Education of grade 6 and below (OR--1.41, 95% CI; 1.03-4.68, low income (OR--23.3, 95% CI; 1.5-34.0, impaired vibration sense (OR--24.79, 95% CI; 9.3-66.2, abnormal monofilament test on first (OR--1.69, 95% CI; 1.36-16.6, third (OR--3.4, 95% CI; 1.1-10.6 and fifth (OR--1.8, 95% CI; 1.61-12.6 toes are found to be predictors of increased risk whereas incidental diagnosis of DM (OR--0.03, 95% CI; 0.003-0.28, wearing covered shoes (OR--0.003, 95% CI; 0.00-0.28, presence of normal skin color (OR--0.01, 95% CI; 0.001-0.14 and normal monofilament test on first metatarsal head (OR--0.10, 95% CI; 0.00-0.67 are protective factors for ulcers. CONCLUSIONS: Ten independent risk and protective factors identified in this study are proposed as a simple screening tool to predict the risk of developing leg and foot ulcers in patients with DM.

  18. Did economic inequality cause the economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuković Danilo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sudden and large increase of interest in questions of distribution of wealth and economic inequality, arising in recent years, resulted primarily from the enormous increase in inequality that occurred during the last three decades. The global economic crisis that emerged in 2008 gave a new impetus to this research because numerous scientific studies appeared in which inequalities were given as one of the key causes of the crisis from which the world is slowly recovering. This is especially true in Europe, whose recovery is barely discernible. This paper analyzes the trends of economic inequality and points to the impact of inequality on economic growth. The central question in this paper, however, is whether the economic inequalities caused the economic crisis. Although opinions differ as to inequality’s impact on the occurrence of the crisis, the fact is that enormous economic inequalities, and especially their permanent growth, could have many negative effects, such as increasing poverty, increasing social stratification and causing global economic crises. As many authors have pointed out, escalating inequality is not an inevitable price of progress. On the contrary, it is a political decision that often has expensive ramifications.

  19. Trends in Undergraduate Economics Degrees, 1991-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, John J.

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate degrees awarded in economics by U.S. colleges and universities were stagnant from 2009-10 through 2012-13, increased rapidly (almost 15 percent) over the two years from 2012-13 through 2014-15, but have again leveled off in 2015-16.

  20. Economic impact of GM crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A key part of any assessment of the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture is an examination of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2012. This annual updated analysis shows that there have been very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $18.8 billion in 2012 and $116.6 billion for the 17-year period (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. GM technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops, having added 122 million tonnes and 230 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s. PMID:24637520

  1. Food economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    Food and food markets still enjoy a pivotal role in the world economy and the international food industry is moving towards greater consolidation and globalization, with increased vertical integration and changes to market structure. Companies grow bigger in order to obtain economies of scale...... and issues and such as food security, quality, obesity and health are ever important factors. This book describes the link between food markets and food companies from a theoretical and a business economics perspective. The relationships, trends and impacts on the international food market are presented...

  2. Increase in healthcare facilities and rapid environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The scenario of waste management in many Nigerian cities has been complicated by the non segregation of healthcare wastes from domestic wastes in many healthcare facilities (HCFs). Incidentally, the healthcare facilities have soared in numbers over a 50 - year period in all the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria.

  3. Rapid increase of observed DIC and

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clargo, N.M.; Salt, L.; Thomas, H.; de Baar, H.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    The CO2 system in the North Sea over the 2001-2011 decade was investigated using four comprehensive basin-wide datasets covering the late summer periods of 2001, 2005, 2008 and 2011. We find that rises in surface water DIC and pCO2 exceeded concurrent rises in atmospheric pCO2, which we attribute

  4. Community Colleges and Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Augustine

    This document argues that regions that sustain economic growth or recover rapidly from economic slumps are often the same communities that have aggressively developed and continue to strengthen collaborations with business and industry, universities, community colleges, high schools, and other key public and private sector entities. In San Diego…

  5. Malaysia Economic Monitor, December 2017

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the Malaysia Economic Monitor (MEM) is to foster better-informed policy analysis and debate regarding the key challenges that Malaysia faces in its endeavor to achieve rapid, inclusive and sustainable economic growth. The MEM consists of two parts: Part 1 presents a review of recent economic developments and a macroeconomic outlook. Part 2 focuses on a selected special topic that is key to Malaysia’s development prospects, particularly as the country move...

  6. Urban Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Quigley, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Urban economics emphasizes: the spatial arrangements of households, firms, and capital in metropolitan areas; the externalities which arise from the proximity of households and land uses; and the public policy issues which arise from the interplay of these economic forces.

  7. Internet economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik; Øst, Alexander Gorm

    1997-01-01

    A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect.......A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect....

  8. Structural Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Raa, T.

    2015-01-01

    This book aims to make the nature of input-output analysis in economics clearly accessible and, contrary to the opinion of many commentators, shows that this type of analysis can be compatible with the doctrines of neoclassical economics.

  9. The Slugs of Britain and Ireland: Undetected and Undescribed Species Increase a Well-Studied, Economically Important Fauna by More Than 20%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowson, Ben; Anderson, Roy; Turner, James A.; Symondson, William O. C.

    2014-01-01

    The slugs of Britain and Ireland form a well-studied fauna of economic importance. They include many widespread European species that are introduced elsewhere (at least half of the 36 currently recorded British species are established in North America, for example). To test the contention that the British and Irish fauna consists of 36 species, and to verify the identity of each, a species delimitation study was conducted based on a geographically wide survey. Comparisons between mitochondrial DNA (COI, 16S), nuclear DNA (ITS-1) and morphology were investigated with reference to interspecific hybridisation. Species delimitation of the fauna produced a primary species hypothesis of 47 putative species. This was refined to a secondary species hypothesis of 44 species by integration with morphological and other data. Thirty six of these correspond to the known fauna (two species in Arion subgenus Carinarion were scarcely distinct and Arion (Mesarion) subfuscus consisted of two near-cryptic species). However, by the same criteria a further eight previously undetected species (22% of the fauna) are established in Britain and/or Ireland. Although overlooked, none are strictly morphologically cryptic, and some appear previously undescribed. Most of the additional species are probably accidentally introduced, and several are already widespread in Britain and Ireland (and thus perhaps elsewhere). At least three may be plant pests. Some evidence was found for interspecific hybridisation among the large Arion species (although not involving A. flagellus) and more unexpectedly in species pairs in Deroceras (Agriolimacidae) and Limacus (Limacidae). In the latter groups, introgression appears to have occurred in one direction only, with recently-invading lineages becoming common at the expense of long-established or native ones. The results show how even a well-studied, macroscopic fauna can be vulnerable to cryptic and undetected invasions and changes. PMID:24740519

  10. The slugs of Britain and Ireland: undetected and undescribed species increase a well-studied, economically important fauna by more than 20%.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowson, Ben; Anderson, Roy; Turner, James A; Symondson, William O C

    2014-01-01

    The slugs of Britain and Ireland form a well-studied fauna of economic importance. They include many widespread European species that are introduced elsewhere (at least half of the 36 currently recorded British species are established in North America, for example). To test the contention that the British and Irish fauna consists of 36 species, and to verify the identity of each, a species delimitation study was conducted based on a geographically wide survey. Comparisons between mitochondrial DNA (COI, 16S), nuclear DNA (ITS-1) and morphology were investigated with reference to interspecific hybridisation. Species delimitation of the fauna produced a primary species hypothesis of 47 putative species. This was refined to a secondary species hypothesis of 44 species by integration with morphological and other data. Thirty six of these correspond to the known fauna (two species in Arion subgenus Carinarion were scarcely distinct and Arion (Mesarion) subfuscus consisted of two near-cryptic species). However, by the same criteria a further eight previously undetected species (22% of the fauna) are established in Britain and/or Ireland. Although overlooked, none are strictly morphologically cryptic, and some appear previously undescribed. Most of the additional species are probably accidentally introduced, and several are already widespread in Britain and Ireland (and thus perhaps elsewhere). At least three may be plant pests. Some evidence was found for interspecific hybridisation among the large Arion species (although not involving A. flagellus) and more unexpectedly in species pairs in Deroceras (Agriolimacidae) and Limacus (Limacidae). In the latter groups, introgression appears to have occurred in one direction only, with recently-invading lineages becoming common at the expense of long-established or native ones. The results show how even a well-studied, macroscopic fauna can be vulnerable to cryptic and undetected invasions and changes.

  11. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  12. Prospects for Economics.

    OpenAIRE

    Pencavel, John

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the curent state of economics and ruminates about its future course. Conjectures are offered about developments in economics research and also about the evolution of the profession. The discipline will become increasingly diverse both in its subject matter and in its analytical approaches. Much of the advance in economics science will come from those fusing theory with data, yet there are powerful forces attracting economists away from this central ground and toward the w...

  13. Practice and Economic Geography

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, A.; Murphy, J. T.

    2010-01-01

    Economic geography has over the last decade become increasingly interested in the role of practice, conceptualised as the regularised or stabilised social actions through which economic agents organize or coordinate production, marketing, service provision, exchange and/or innovation activities. Interest in practice is most clearly manifest in a growing body of research concerned to conceptualise how the regularized social relations and interactions linking economic actors (e.g. entrepreneurs...

  14. Economic development and road traffic fatalities in two neighbouring African nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas J. Wiebe

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Road crash fatalities increased in recent decades in both Zambia and Botswana. But the rapid economic development in Botswana over this time period appears to have driven proportionate road traffic fatality increases. There are opportunities for newly emerging economies such as Zambia, Angola, and others to learn from the Botswana experience. Evidence-based investments in road safety interventions should be concomitant with economic development.

  15. The Global Economic Prospect: New Sources of Economic Stress. Worldwatch Paper 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lester R.

    American economic analysts will better understand current economic trends if they investigate economic problems in light of the expanding global economy. Reasons for the failure of economists to explain the simultaneous existence of rapid inflation and high unemployment include preoccupation with economic indicators, short-term forecasts, and…

  16. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark, Woodrow

    2012-01-01

    Focus in this paper is on building a science of economics, grounded in understanding of organizations and what is beneath the surface of economic structures and activities. As a science Economics should be concerned with its assumptions, logic and lines of arguments, and how to develop theories...... and formulate ideas of reality. There is a disconnection between a science of economics focuses on structures and universal laws from what is experienced in everyday of life of business activity. The everyday of life of business is processual, dynamic and contradictional. This discussion of how to understand...... the everyday economic life is the central issue and is discussed from the perspective of interactionism. It is a perspective developed from the Lifeworld philosophical traditions, such as symbolic interactionism and phenomenology, seeking to develop the thinking of economics. The argument is that economics...

  17. Perspectives of economics – behavioural economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula-Elena DIACON

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present turning point, accentuated by the crisis, has revitalized the interdisciplinary study of economics and determined the reconsideration of its fundamental bases as a social science. The economists have abandoned the traditional neoclassical sphere and have directed towards understanding the behaviour resorting to psychology and developing in this manner a new field - behavioural economics. This article examines whether this economic sub-discipline is a viable research direction and the extent to which it may increase the explanatory power of science by providing a realistic database for analysis, taking into account the complexity of the human factor.

  18. Participate or observe? Effects of economic classroom experiments on students’ economic literacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grol, R.F.; Sent, E.-M.; Vries, B. de

    2017-01-01

    Economic classroom experiments are controlled interactive learning exercises targeting the comprehension of economic concepts in an inductive way. Aiming at increasing students’ knowledge of economic concepts, two types of economic classroom experiments are examined in a sample of 134 secondary

  19. Essays in Labor Economics and Development Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Yakovlev, Evgeny

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation contains three essays on labor economics and development economics.In the first and second chapters, I examine determinants and consequences of alcohol consumption in Russia and quantify the effects of various public policies on mortality rates and on consumer welfare. For the past twenty years, Russia has confronted the Mortality Crisis - the life expectancy of Russian males has fallen by more than five years, and the mortality rate has increased by 50%. Alcohol abuse is wi...

  20. State Economic Development Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sheila A. Martin; Richard McHugh; Stanley R. Johnson

    1991-01-01

    The expanded role of state governments in economic development has increased their need for a wide variety of economic, demographic, and marketing information. Many state governments have responded to these needs by developing systems to deliver economic and related information to state and local economic development offices, businesses, and the general public. This paper reports the results of a survey of economic development officials designed to disclose information about how extensive aut...

  1. Economics-driven software architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Mistrik, Ivan; Kazman, Rick; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Economics-driven Software Architecture presents a guide for engineers and architects who need to understand the economic impact of architecture design decisions: the long term and strategic viability, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability of applications and systems. Economics-driven software development can increase quality, productivity, and profitability, but comprehensive knowledge is needed to understand the architectural challenges involved in dealing with the development of large, architecturally challenging systems in an economic way. This book covers how to apply economic consider

  2. Economic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kholopov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the School of Economic Science at MGIMO was due to the necessity of the world economy research, and the need to prepare highly skilled specialists in international economics. The school is developing a number of areas, which reflect the Faculty structure. - Economic theory is one of the most important research areas, a kind of foundation of the School of Economic Science at MGIMO. Economic theory studies are carried out at the chair of Economic theory. "The course of economic theory" textbook was published in 1991, and later it was reprinted seven times. Over the past few years other textbooks and manuals have been published, including "Economics for Managers" by Professor S.N. Ivashkovskaya, which survived through five editions; "International Economics" - four editions and "History of Economic Thought" - three editions. - International Economic Relations are carried out by the Department of International Economic Relations and Foreign Economic Activity. Its establishment is associated with the prominent economist N.N. Lyubimov. In 1957 he with his colleagues published the first textbook on the subject which went through multiple republications. The editorial team of the textbook subsequently formed the pride of Soviet economic science - S.M. Menshikov, E.P. Pletnev, V.D. Schetinin. Since 2007, the chair of Foreign Economic Activities led by Doctor of Economics, Professor I. Platonova has been investigating the problems of improving the architecture of foreign economic network and the international competitiveness of Russia; - The history of the study of problems of the world economy at MGIMO begins in 1958 at the chair baring the same name. Since 1998, the department has been headed by Professor A. Bulatov; - The study of international monetary relations is based on the chair of International Finance, and is focused on addressing the fundamental scientific and practical problems; - The chair "Banks, monetary circulation

  3. Mitigation of nitrite toxicity by increased salinity is associated with multiple physiological responses: A case study using an economically important model species, the juvenile obscure puffer (Takifugu obscurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Tang, Hengxing; Zhang, Xingxing; Xue, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Xuexia; Chen, Yafen; Yang, Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Nitrite is a common pollutant in water and is highly toxic to aquatic animals. To reveal the mechanism of salinity in attenuating nitrite toxicity to fish, we measured the physiological responses of juvenile Takifugu obscurus exposed to nitrite concentrations (0, 10, 20, 50, and 100 mg/L) under different salinity levels (0, 10, and 20 ppt) for 96 h. Salinity increased the survival rates of juvenile T. obscurus exposed to nitrite. Changes in key hematological parameters, antioxidant system, malondialdehyde, Na + /K + -ATPase, and HSP70 indicated that nitrite induced considerable damage to juveniles; salinity mitigated the harmful effects. This finding reflects similar changing trends in both antioxidants and their gene expressions among different tissues. We applied an overall index, an integrated biomarker response (IBR), that increased under high-nitrite condition but recovered to the normal levels under salinity treatment. Analysis of the selected detection indices and IBR values showed that the overall mitigating effect of salinity on nitrite toxicity seems to be at sub-cellular level and associated with complicated physiological responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Potterian Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Daniel; Snir, Avichai

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies in psychology and neuroscience find that fictional works exert strong influence on readers and shape their opinions and worldviews. We study the Potterian economy, which we compare to economic models, to assess how Harry Potter books affect economic literacy. We find that some principles of Potterian economics are consistent with economists’ models. Many others, however, are distorted and contain numerous inaccuracies, which contradict professional economists’ views and insight...

  5. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We define an evolutionary process of “economic Darwinism” for playing-the-field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is “economic selection”: if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-) activity than does Nash equilibrium...

  6. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    We define an evolutionary process of "economic Darwinism" for playing the field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is "economic selection": if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-)activity than does Nash equilibrium....

  7. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark II, Woodrow W

                         This book is about science -- specifically, the science of economics. Or lack thereof is more accurate. The building of any science, let alone economics, is grounded in the understanding of what is beneath the "surface" of economics. Science, and hence economics, should...... be concerned with formulating ideas that express theories which produce descriptions of how to understand phenomenon and real world experiences.                       Economics must become a science, because the essence of economics in terms of human actions, group interactions and communities are in need...... of scientific inquiry. Academics and scholars need a scientific perspective that can hypothesize, theorize document, understand and analyze human dynamics from the individual to more societal interactions. And that is what qualitative economics does; it can make economics into becoming a science. The economic...

  8. The ethics and economics of pharmaceutical pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker-Lue, Sara; Santoro, Michael; Koski, Greg

    2015-01-01

    The cost of drugs is a major and rapidly rising component of health-care expenditures. We survey recent literature on the ethics and economics of skyrocketing pharmaceutical prices and find that advances in economic research have increased the sharpness and focus of the ethically based calls to increase access by modifying patent protection and reducing prices. In some cases, research supports ethical arguments for broader access. Other research suggests that efforts to broaden access result in unintended consequences for innovation and the medical needs of patients. Both ethicists and economists need to be more cognizant of the real clinical settings in which physicians practice medicine with real patients. Greater cross-disciplinary interaction among economists, ethicists, and physicians can help reduce the disjunction between innovation and access and improve access and patient care. This dialogue will impact private industry and may spur new multistakeholder paradigms for drug discovery, development, and pricing.

  9. The way to improve the quality of domestic shipbuilding and ship repair for increasing economic presence of Russia in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenov V. P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main problems and ways to improve the efficiency and quality of military shipbuilding and ship repair in modern conditions have been presented. The necessity for state support of shipbuilding and ship repair and development of entrepreneurship in the industry has been pointed out; a number of modern ways of increasing the efficiency and quality of management has been defined. Представлены основные проблемы и направления повышения эффективности и качества военного судостроения и судоремонта в современных условиях. В контексте решения проблем выделена необходимость обеспечения государственной поддержки судостроения и судоремонта, развития предпринимательства в отрасли, определен ряд современных направлений повышения эффективности и развития менеджмента качества

  10. From Economic to Socio-economic Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1971-01-01

    textabstractThere is no doubt that human life in the more prosperous countries has changed very rapidly during the last few centuries. The availability of many forms of comfort has increased at a high rate. To a considerable extent, the forces behind this change are increased scientific and

  11. Economic impacts study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsen, W.; Worley, W.; Frost, E.

    1988-09-30

    This is a progress report on the first phase of a project to measure the economic impacts of a rapidly changing U.S. target base. The purpose of the first phase is to designate and test the macroeconomic impact analysis model. Criteria were established for a decision-support model. Additional criteria were defined for an interactive macroeconomic impact analysis model. After a review of several models, the Economic Impact Forecast System model of the U.S. Army Construction Research Laboratory was selected as the appropriate input-output tool that can address local and regional economic analysis. The model was applied to five test cases to demonstrate its utility and define possible revisions to meet project criteria. A plan for EIFS access was defined at three levels. Objectives and tasks for scenario refinement are proposed.

  12. Impact of Flexibility Options on Grid Economic Carrying Capacity of Solar and Wind: Three Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Novacheck, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we attempt to quantify the benefits of various options of grid flexibility by measuring their impact on two measures: economic carrying capacity and system costs. Flexibility can increase economic carrying capacity and reduce overall system costs. In some cases, options that provide a limited increase in economic carrying capacity can provide significant operational savings, thus demonstrating the need to evaluate flexibility options using multiple metrics. The value of flexibility options varies regionally due to different generation mixes and types of renewables. The more rapid decline in PV value compared to wind makes PV more dependent on adding flexibility options, including transmission and energy storage.

  13. Space and economics : An introduction to regional economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.; Schipper, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    The subject area Regional Economics is becoming more and more topical. This means that in economic analyses the production factor 'space' is of increasing importance. This study book aims to integrate space in the area of General Economics in an analytical way. Models and their applications play a

  14. Economics Aspects of Increasing the Oil Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grendel Peter

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available In paper I describe mainly high price of oil, which has influence on many circumstances. The important effect on growing up the price of oil has situation in Mid-east, and everyday rising consumption of oil in China. Meaningful position have USA, which using 45% of word energy. The problem is particularly in daily mining of lode. In next part i describing aspect of this situation on stock-exchange, mainly behaviour of speculators, and OPEC, and also presure on inflation in Euro-zone. In the last chapter I discuss about reaction of the big world oil concern like CONOCO, SHELL, BP, OMV and MOL.

  15. Economic consequences of increased bioenergy demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnston, C.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2014-01-01

    Although wind, hydro and solar are the most discussed sources of renewable energy, countries will need to rely much more on biomass if they are to meet renewable energy targets. In this study, a global forest trade model is used to examine the global effects of expanded demand for wood pellets fired

  16. Cognitive Economics – a Challenge for Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Gh. Rosca

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive economics is the main pillar of the knowledge society. The concepts of cognition, evolution, interaction and institution should be considered in the comprehensive vision. In this paper, I promote the cognitive economics like consensual science. The compatibility between the Romanian society and the knowledge society model is also discussed in this article. I conclude that cognitive economics is the only mechanism for rapid economic development in Romania.

  17. BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS AND THE NEED OF PSYCHOLOGY IN ECONOMIC RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea GRADINARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The turning point in economic science has now come, marked especially by triggering the biggest crisis since the Great Depression of '29-'33, has called into question the need to reconsider the status of economic science and finding ways in which it can increase its practical foundations. In the elaboration of this study I’ve took into account the fact that beyond any abstract, formal and mathematical model, economics is a science, having the man in its center. Furthermore, every economic process is based on the human being. But the way individuals behave does not follow precisely the pattern predicted by classical and neoclassical models, but most of the time they are making decisions under the influence of psychological factors. Starting from these assumptions I considered important to highlight a real need for psychology in economic research. Therefore, the aim of this work is exclusively theoretical meant to show that the study of psychological factors is necessary in economic research, because it allows a better explanation of the economic problems and lead to obtaining results closer to reality than those who only take into consideration economic factors. In this way I appealed to behavioral economics. This represents a new trend of economic thinking that reunites psychology with economy. The thing that I observed after finishing the study is that behavioral economics can increase the explanatory power of economics by providing more realistic psychological bases, because human behavior is not only the subject matter of economics but psychology too.

  18. "New Economics"?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    1999-01-01

    The United States, the United Kingdom and Denmark have all enjoyed a long period of high stable growth and low inflation in the 1990s. Attempts to determine the implications of this have led to the so-called "New Economics", whose advocates claim that the relationship between economic growth and ...... and inflation has fundamentally changes. The following article tests this thesis against current data for the USA.......The United States, the United Kingdom and Denmark have all enjoyed a long period of high stable growth and low inflation in the 1990s. Attempts to determine the implications of this have led to the so-called "New Economics", whose advocates claim that the relationship between economic growth...

  19. Circulation economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Stig; Jakobsen, Ove

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - This paper is an attempt to advance the critical discussion regarding environmental and societal responsibility in economics and business. Design/methodology/approach - The paper presents and discusses as a holistic, organic perspective enabling innovative solutions to challenges...... concerning the responsible and efficient use of natural resources and the constructive interplay with culture. To reach the goal of sustainable development, the paper argues that it is necessary to make changes in several dimensions in mainstream economics. This change of perspective is called a turn towards...... presupposes a perspective integrating economic, natural and cultural values. Third, to organize the interplay between all stakeholders we introduce an arena for communicative cooperation. Originality/value - The paper concludes that circulation economics presupposes a change in paradigm, from a mechanistic...

  20. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  1. External Knowledge Sourcing and Innovation Processes in Modern Economic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roszkowska Dorota

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In an open and digital economy where ICTs, global networks and innovation systems play a key economic role, knowledge used by companies is increasingly gathered using different external sources. Rapidly changing technology enables companies to use new ways to innovate. New innovation processes permit companies to reduce risk and the costs of innovation. New paradigms, called open innovation and co-innovation, allow organizations to remain innovative in a rapidly changing environment. The objectives of this paper are: to provide a better understanding of open innovation and co-innovation paradigms and to suggest instruments for organizations to benefit from co-innovation ecosystem.

  2. Financial history and financial economics

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, John D.

    2014-01-01

    This essay looks at the bidirectional relationship between financial history and financial economics. It begins by giving a brief history of financial economics by outlining the main topics of interest to financial economists. It then documents and explains the increasing influence of financial economics upon financial history, and warns of the dangers of applying financial economics unthinkingly to the study of financial history. The essay proceeds to highlight the many insights that financi...

  3. PUBLIC EDUCATION AND ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel-Andrei Donici

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a certain connection between education and economic competitiveness. The relation between these two concepts is easy to intuit. On the medium and long term investments in education generate astrong increase in a country’s level of economic competitiveness. Through education the human capital is formed, and it affects all economic fields. Therefore we can observe that human capital has a decisive influence on the economic competitiveness of a country.

  4. Individualism in Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carré, David

    2015-01-01

    Proposing models built upon unrealistic assumptions poses a serious issue for social sciences in general –but not for economics. Since Friedman’s methodological insights (1953) assumptions about the agent of the model are irrelevant as long as it has enough predictive power. The latter becomes...... particularly problematic when econometric models have been introduced in areas like education or healthcare instead of commodities markets. Despite recent efforts from behavioral economics proposing more realistic assumptions (see Camerer, 1999), one idea remains untouched: agents are always individuals......). This revision aims to dialogue with the ever-increasing participation of economics in the social discussion, supplementing rather than excluding its ideas....

  5. Adiabatic Betatron deceleration of ionospheric charged particles: a new explanation for (i) the rapid outflow of ionospheric O ions, and for (ii) the increase of plasma mass density observed in magnetospheric flux tubes during main phases of geomagnetic s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Joseph; Pierrard, Viviane; Darrouzet, Fabien

    2013-04-01

    Using European arrays of magnetometers and the cross-phase analysis to determine magnetic field line resonance frequencies, it has been found by Kale et al. (2009) that the plasma mass density within plasmaspheric flux tubes increased rapidly after the SSC of the Hallowe'en 2003 geomagnetic storms. These observations tend to confirm other independent experimental results, suggesting that heavy ion up-flow from the ionosphere is responsible for the observed plasma density increases during main phases of geomagnetic storms. The aim of our contribution is to point out that, during main phases, reversible Betatron effect induced by the increase of the southward Dst-magnetic field component (|Δ Bz|), diminishes slightly the perpendicular kinetic energy (W?) of charged particles spiraling along field lines. Furthermore, due to the conservation of the first adiabatic invariant (μ = Wm/ Bm) the mirror points of all ionospheric ions and electrons are lifted up to higher altitudes i.e. where the mirror point magnetic field (Bm) is slightly smaller. Note that the change of the mirror point altitude is given by: Δ hm = -1/3 (RE + hm) Δ Bm / Bm. It is independent of the ion species and it does not depend of their kinetic energy. The change of kinetic energy is determined by: Δ Wm = Wm Δ Bm / Bm. Both of these equations have been verified numerically by Lemaire et al. (2005; doi: 10.1016/S0273-1177(03)00099-1) using trajectory calculations in a simple time-dependant B-field model: i.e. the Earth's magnetic dipole, plus an increasing southward B-field component: i.e. the Dst magnetic field whose intensity becomes more and more negative during the main phase of magnetic storms. They showed that a variation of Bz (or Dst) by more than - 50 nT significantly increases the mirror point altitudes by more than 100 km which is about equal to scale height of the plasma density in the topside ionosphere where particles are almost collisionless (see Fig. 2 in Lemaire et al., 2005

  6. Economic development and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, D M

    1966-06-01

    Two schools of theorists have been concerned with the effect of economic development on fertility. One school has contended that economic development has an inhibiting effect on fertility. The demographic transition which has occurred among the non-developed countries confirms their viewpoint. Another school of thought, including in its members Thomas Malthus, has believed that economic development promoted fertility. Much empirical evidence may also be brought to bear to support this viewpoint.The present paper attempts to reconcile these viewpoints. It is hypothesized that the direct effect of economic development is to increase fertility. However, various factors which usually accompany the process of economic development serve to reduce fertility. These include an increase in the level of education and a reduction in infant and childhood mortality. Making use of data for 41 nations pertaining to the decade of the 1950's, it is found that fertility is directly associated with per capita net national product when controls for other relevant variables are in8tituted. On the other hand, per capita newspaper circulation is inversely related to fertility, and infant mortality is directly related.If the hypothesis advanced in this paper is correct, relatively large governmental expenditures on health and education will enhance the reduction in fertility obtainable from an increase in national economic level alone.

  7. "Economics Imperialism", Education Policy and Educational Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines how economics imperialism (the increasing colonization of other disciplines by neoclassical economics) has affected contemporary education policies. I suggest that an increasing preoccupation with education meeting the needs of the economy, together with the prevalence of economic concepts outside of economics, have contributed…

  8. What are the socio-economic impacts of genetically modified crops worldwide? A systematic map protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Yi, J.; Lapikanonth, T.; Vionita, H.; Vu, H.; Yang, S.; Zhong, Y.; Li, Y.; Nagelschneider, V.; Schlindwein, B.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have generated a great deal of controversy. Since commercially introduced to farmers in 1996, the global area cultivated with GM crops has increased 94-fold. The rapid adoption of GM technology has had substantial socio-economic impacts which a vast amount of

  9. Socio-economic factors affecting productivity small scale cat-fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish is an important component of the population's diet in many parts of the world and production has increased rapidly over the past hundred years due to improved technology, which showcases powerful engines and solar equipment. This study was conducted to evaluate the socio-economic factors affecting small scale ...

  10. ASPECTS OF CHINA’S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avtandil SILAGADZE

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 25 year period of transition in newly independent post-USSR states did not bring either of them to a desired target – mid-European level of economy. Against this sad background China represents a unique example of successful economic reforms, which lead to rapid economic development and accelerated increase of leaving standards. In spite of structural and legislative changes, the success of China’s economic reforms was determined by extensive industrialization based on downstream processing of national and imported primary commodities. Privatization in this sector and support of private businesses was expressed by creation of corresponding financial instruments and, first of all, by foundation of commodity exchanges of the global importance. The phase of extensive economic development has not been finished in China yet, however, such extensive development cannot be sustainable for more than 8-10 years, and the greatest challenge for China will be a step-by-step construction of a post-industrial economy and society in coming years. Example of China may show a guideline for the newly independent states: only synergetic amalgamation of, on one hand, a civil society and, on the other hand, sustainable exploitation of national natural resources and downstream processing of national primary commodities may ensure irreversible merging of newly independent states into the civilized world. 

  11. China`s macro economic trends and power industry structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binsheng Li; Johnson, C.J.; Hagen, R.

    1994-09-01

    Since China adopted an open door policy in 1978, its economy has grown rapidly. Between 1980 and 1993, China`s real GNP growth averaged 9.4 percent per year. Economists at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences forecast that GNP will increase by 11.5 percent in 1994. During the rest of the decade, the Chinese government plans to reduce its annual GNP growth rate to 8-9 percent. During the 2001-2010 period, the economic growth rate is projected to decline to 6.5 percent per year. Table 1 compares China`s economic growth to other Asia-Pacific Economies, and includes projections to 2010. During the 1980s, China`s GDP growth rate was only second to that of South Korea. In the 1990`s, China is projected to have the highest economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region. China`s rapid economic growth is due to dramatic increases in the effective labor supply and effective capital stock. For the remainder of the 1990s, the effective labor supply should continue to increase rapidly because: (1) Chinese state enterprises are over-staffed and labor system reforms will move millions of these workers into more productive activities; (2) reforms in the wage system will provide increased incentives to work harder; (3) relaxation of migration controls from rural to urban areas will cause nominal labor in the industrial sector to accelerate; (4) differentials in personal income will increase and develop peer pressure on workers to work harder and earn more money; and (5) at China`s low personal income level, Chinese people are willing to trade leisure for more income as wages increase.

  12. Estimating the economic consequences of an increased medication adherence due to a potential improvement in the inhaler technique with Spiromax® compared with Turbuhaler® in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darbà J

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Josep Darbà,1 Gabriela Ramírez,2 Juan L García-Rivero,3 Sagrario Mayoralas,4 José Francisco Pascual,5 Diego Vargas,6 Adi Bijedic7 1Department of Economics, Universitat de Barcelona, 2BCN Health Economics & Outcomes Research S.L., Barcelona, 3Hospital Laredo, Cantabria, 4Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, 5Hospital General Universitario de Alicante, Alicante, 6Hospital de Alta Resolución el Toyo, Andalusia, 7Market Access and HEOR Department, TEVA Pharmaceutical, Madrid, Spain Objective: The objective of this study was to estimate the economic impact of the introduction of DuoResp® Spiromax®, budesonide/formoterol fixed-dose combination (FDC, focusing on an increase in medication adherence due to an enhancement of the inhalation technique for the treatment of COPD patients in Spain and 5 regions including Andalusia, Catalonia, Galicia, Madrid, and Valencia.Methods: A 4-year budget impact model was developed for the time period of 2015–2018. This study aimed at evaluating the budget impact associated with the introduction of DuoResp Spiromax in comparison with Symbicort® Turbuhaler® and Rilast® Turbuhaler. National and regional data on COPD prevalence were obtained from the literature. Input data on health care resource utilization were obtained by clinical consultation. Resource included primary care visits, specialist visits, hospitalization, and emergency room visits as well as the length of hospital stay. Based on both pharmacological and health care resource costs, overall annual treatment cost per patient was estimated in EUR 2015. Results: It was calculated that 130,777 adults were treated with budesonide/formoterol FDC delivered by a dry powder inhaler, Turbuhaler, in Spain in 2015. However, the target population decreases over the next 4 years. This pattern was observed in 4 regions, but for Andalusia, the treated population increased slightly. The overall budget savings in Spain with the market share of DuoResp Spiromax were

  13. Urban area disadvantage and under-5 mortality in Nigeria: the effect of rapid urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antai, Diddy; Moradi, Tahereh

    2010-06-01

    Living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas is associated with increased -childhood mortality risks. As city living becomes the predominant social context in low- and middle-income countries, the resulting rapid urbanization together with the poor economic circumstances of these countries greatly increases the risks of mortality for children stress the need for further studies on community-level determinants of under-5 mortality in disadvantaged urban areas.

  14. Urban Area Disadvantage and Under-5 Mortality in Nigeria: The Effect of Rapid Urbanization

    OpenAIRE

    Antai, D.; Moradi, T.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas is associated with increased -childhood mortality risks. As city living becomes the predominant social context in low- and middle-income countries, the resulting rapid urbanization together with the poor economic circumstances of these countries greatly increases the risks of mortality for children < 5 years of age (under-5 mortality). Objective: In this study we examined the trends in urban population growth and urban under-5 mortal...

  15. Economic impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Technology Transfer Department

    2001-06-01

    In federal fiscal year 2000 (FY00), Berkeley Lab had 4,347 full- and part-time employees. In addition, at any given time of the year, there were more than 1,000 Laboratory guests. These guests, who also reside locally, have an important economic impact on the nine-county Bay Area. However, Berkeley Lab's total economic impact transcends the direct effects of payroll and purchasing. The direct dollars paid to the Lab's employees in the form of wages, salaries, and benefits, and payments made to contractors for goods and services, are respent by employees and contractors again and again in the local and greater economy. Further, while Berkeley Lab has a strong reputation for basic scientific research, many of the Lab's scientific discoveries and inventions have had direct application in industry, spawning new businesses and creating new opportunities for existing firms. This analysis updates the Economic Impact Analysis done in 1996, and its purpose is to describe the economic and geographic impact of Laboratory expenditures and to provide a qualitative understanding of how Berkeley Lab impacts and supports the local community. It is intended as a guide for state, local, and national policy makers as well as local community members. Unless otherwise noted, this analysis uses data from FY00, the most recent year for which full data are available.

  16. Environmental Economics

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Glover, Bhim Adhikari and Isabelle Proulx

    ICS. Press, Ithaca, NY, USA. Teitenberg, T.; Lewis, L. 2009. Environmental and natural resource economics. Pearson/Addison-Wesley: Reading, Mass., USA. Yusuf, A.A. 2008. The distributional impact of environmental policy: the case of carbon tax and energy pricing reform in Indonesia. EEPSEA, Singapore. Research ...

  17. Mystical Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The world envisioned by Economics resembles the Garden of Eden, where everything came from God, the pre-primordial sin people having nothing else to do but wait for the natural rhythms, set by the invisible hand, which is moved by the will and the power of the Creator.

  18. Development of Rapid and Economical Colorimetric Screening Method for p-Phenylenediamine in Variety of Biological Matrices and its Application to Eleven Fatal Cases of p-Phenylenediamine Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Usman, Hafiz Faisal; Shafi, Humera; Sarwar, Muhammad; Tahir, Muhammad Ashraf

    2017-03-01

    A rapid colorimetric method for detection of p-phenylenediamine (PPD) in various biological samples is developed. The o-cresol test for acetaminophen detection has been modified to detect PPD in blood, urine, gastric contents, and liver. After precipitating protein with trichloroacetic acid solution (2 mL, 10% w/v), biological specimens were required to convert PPD metabolites to PPD by acid hydrolysis. Finally, o-cresol solution (1 mL, 1% w/v), hydrogen peroxide (200 μL, 3%v/v), and concentrated ammonium hydroxide (0.5 mL) were added in the biological samples. The presence of PPD was indicated by formation of violet color which was turned to bluish green color within 10-15 min. The limit of detection was found to be 2 mg/L in blood, urine, and gastric contents and 2 mg/Kg in liver. This method is also free from any potential interference by p-aminophenol, acetaminophen, and other amine drugs under test conditions. This method was successfully employed to thirteen fatal cases of PPD poisoning. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. [Dynamic changes of the relationships between economic growth and environmental pressure in Gansu Province: a structural decomposition analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi-Long; Chen, Xing-Peng; Yang, Jing; Xue, Bing; Li, Yong-Jin

    2010-02-01

    Based on the ideology of macro environmental economics, a function of environmental pressure represented by pollutant emission was built, and the relative importance of the driving factors in the dynamic changes of the relationships between economic growth and environmental pressure in Gansu Province in 1990 - 2005 was analyzed by using structural decomposition analysis (SDA) model combining with 'refined Laspeyres' method. In the study period, the environmental pressure in the Province was mainly caused by the emission of waste gases and solids in the process of economic growth, and showed a rapid increasing trend at the late stage of the period. Population factor had less impact on the increase of this environmental pressure, while economic growth factor had obvious impact on it. Technological progress did mitigate, but could not offset the impact of economic growth factor, and the impacts of economic growth and technological factors on the environmental pressure differed with the kinds of pollutants.

  20. Fast economic development accelerates biological invasions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen; Zhou, Guofa; Cheng, Xinyue; Xu, Rumei

    2007-11-21

    Increasing levels of global trade and intercontinental travel have been cited as the major causes of biological invasion. However, indirect factors such as economic development that affect the intensity of invasion have not been quantitatively explored. Herein, using principal factor analysis, we investigated the relationship between biological invasion and economic development together with climatic information for China from the 1970s to present. We demonstrate that the increase in biological invasion is coincident with the rapid economic development that has occurred in China over the past three decades. The results indicate that the geographic prevalence of invasive species varies substantially on the provincial scale, but can be surprisingly well predicted using the combination of economic development (R(2) = 0.378) and climatic factors (R(2) = 0.347). Economic factors are proven to be at least equal to if not more determinant of the occurrence of invasive species than climatic factors. International travel and trade are shown to have played a less significant role in accounting for the intensity of biological invasion in China. Our results demonstrate that more attention should be paid to economic factors to improve the understanding, prediction and management of biological invasions.

  1. Fast economic development accelerates biological invasions in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Lin

    Full Text Available Increasing levels of global trade and intercontinental travel have been cited as the major causes of biological invasion. However, indirect factors such as economic development that affect the intensity of invasion have not been quantitatively explored. Herein, using principal factor analysis, we investigated the relationship between biological invasion and economic development together with climatic information for China from the 1970s to present. We demonstrate that the increase in biological invasion is coincident with the rapid economic development that has occurred in China over the past three decades. The results indicate that the geographic prevalence of invasive species varies substantially on the provincial scale, but can be surprisingly well predicted using the combination of economic development (R(2 = 0.378 and climatic factors (R(2 = 0.347. Economic factors are proven to be at least equal to if not more determinant of the occurrence of invasive species than climatic factors. International travel and trade are shown to have played a less significant role in accounting for the intensity of biological invasion in China. Our results demonstrate that more attention should be paid to economic factors to improve the understanding, prediction and management of biological invasions.

  2. Quality of Life in the Economic and Urban Economic Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambiri, Dionysia; Biagi, Bianca; Royuela, Vicente

    2007-01-01

    Quality of life (QoL) is increasingly becoming a concept researched empirically and theoretically in the field of economics. In urban economics in particular, this increasing interest stems mainly from the fact that QoL affects urban competitiveness and urban growth: research shows that when households and businesses decide where to locate, QoL…

  3. Importance of Economic Evaluation in Health Care: An Indian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Amit; Likhar, Nishkarsh; Alok, Utkarsh

    2016-05-01

    Health economic studies provide information to decision makers for efficient use of available resources for maximizing health benefits. Economic evaluation is one part of health economics, and it is a tool for comparing costs and consequences of different interventions. Health technology assessment is a technique for economic evaluation that is well adapted by developed countries. The traditional classification of economic evaluation includes cost-minimization, cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility analysis, and cost-benefit analysis. There has been uncertainty in the conduct of such economic evaluations in India, due to some hesitancy with respect to the adoption of their guidelines. The biggest challenge in this evolutionary method is lack of understanding of methods in current use by all those involved in the provision and purchasing of health care. In some countries, different methods of economic evaluation have been adopted for decision making, most commonly to address the question of public subsidies for the purchase of medicines. There is limited evidence on the impact of health insurance on the health and economic well-being of beneficiaries in developing countries. India is currently pursuing several strategies to improve health services for its population, including investing in government-provided services as well as purchasing services from public and private providers through various schemes. Prospects for future growth and development in this field are required in India because rapid health care inflation, increasing rates of chronic conditions, aging population, and increasing technology diffusion will require greater economic efficiency into health care systems. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sector Economic Outlook. Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The energy sector is a key driver of the economic pillar of Vision 2030. As the economy grows, urbanization intensifies and incomes increase, corporate and household demand for energy also rises. To meet this growth in demand for energy, the sector needs to increase investments and diversify into more sources of energy such as geothermal and wind power. It is therefore critical that focus is directed towards development and sustainability of the energy sector to ensure delivery of least cost power that will improve Kenya's competitiveness and achieve the Vision 2030 objective of 10% average annual economic growth.

  5. Penerapan Pembelajaran Berbasis Masalah untuk Meningkatkan Ketrampilan Berpikir Kritis Siswa Kelas IX dalam Pelajaran Ekonomi [Problem-Based Learning Implementation to Increase Grade IX Students' Critical Thinking Skill in Learning Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asih Enggar Susanti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine grade IX students’ response to the application of problem-based learning in economics and to determine the increase in students' critical thinking skills using the problem-based learning method. The design of this research is Class-Action Research (CAR, with the subjects being 31 grade IX students at a Christian junior high school in the city of Tangerang. The research instruments used in the application of problem-based learning are the students’ daily test scores, surveys, feedback from supervising teachers and fellow students, interviews with mentor teachers, and journal reflections. Analysis of the data used is descriptive analysis of the value of students' daily tests, observations of feedback from fellow students and their teachers, interviews, and students’ questionnaires. The results show that students' response to problem-based learning can improve critical thinking skills of students in learning economics. It could be seen from the increase in students' critical thinking skills in both students’ ability to ask questions, answer questions, and analyze and solve problems presented by the author. BAHASA INDONESIA ABSTRAK: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui respon siswa kelas IX terhadap penerapan pembelajaran berbasis masalah dalam pelajaran ekonomi, dan untuk mengetahui peningkatan ketrampilan berpikir kritis siswa melalui pembelajaran berbasis masalah. Desain penelitian yang digunakan adalah Penelitian Tindakan Kelas (PTK, dengan subjek penelitian adalah siswa kelas IX yang terdiri dari 31 siswa pada salah satu SMP Kristen di kota Tanggerang. Instrumen penelitian yang digunakan pada penerapan pembelajaran berbasis masalah adalah nilai ulangan harian siswa, angket, hasil observasi berupa umpan balik dari guru pembimbing dan rekan mahasiswa, hasil wawancara bersama dengan guru mentor, dan jurnal refleksi. Analisis data yang digunakan adalah analisis deskriptif, yaitu pada nilai ulangan harian

  6. Clusters and the new economics of competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, M E

    1998-01-01

    Economic geography in an era of global competition poses a paradox. In theory, location should no longer be a source of competitive advantage. Open global markets, rapid transportation, and high-speed communications should allow any company to source any thing from any place at any time. But in practice, Michael Porter demonstrates, location remains central to competition. Today's economic map of the world is characterized by what Porter calls clusters: critical masses in one place of linked industries and institutions--from suppliers to universities to government agencies--that enjoy unusual competitive success in a particular field. The most famous example are found in Silicon Valley and Hollywood, but clusters dot the world's landscape. Porter explains how clusters affect competition in three broad ways: first, by increasing the productivity of companies based in the area; second, by driving the direction and pace of innovation; and third, by stimulating the formation of new businesses within the cluster. Geographic, cultural, and institutional proximity provides companies with special access, closer relationships, better information, powerful incentives, and other advantages that are difficult to tap from a distance. The more complex, knowledge-based, and dynamic the world economy becomes, the more this is true. Competitive advantage lies increasingly in local things--knowledge, relationships, and motivation--that distant rivals cannot replicate. Porter challenges the conventional wisdom about how companies should be configured, how institutions such as universities can contribute to competitive success, and how governments can promote economic development and prosperity.

  7. Economic Modelling in Institutional Economic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadim Strielkowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Our paper is centered around the formation of theory of institutional modelling that includes principles and ideas reflecting the laws of societal development within the framework of institutional economic theory. We scrutinize and discuss the scientific principles of this institutional modelling that are increasingly postulated by the classics of institutional theory and find their way into the basics of the institutional economics. We propose scientific ideas concerning the new innovative approaches to institutional modelling. These ideas have been devised and developed on the basis of the results of our own original design, as well as on the formalisation and measurements of economic institutions, their functioning and evolution. Moreover, we consider the applied aspects of the institutional theory of modelling and employ them in our research for formalizing our results and maximising the practical outcome of our paper. Our results and findings might be useful for the researchers and stakeholders searching for the systematic and comprehensive description of institutional level modelling, the principles involved in this process and the main provisions of the institutional theory of economic modelling.

  8. Economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) mandated that minimum energy efficiency standards be established for classes of refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners, and furnaces. EPCA requires that standards be designed to achieve the maximum improvement in energy efficiency that is technologically feasible and economically justified. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter Two describes the methodology used in the economic analysis and its relationship to legislative criteria for consumer product efficiency assessment; details how the CPES Value Model systematically compared and evaluated the economic impacts of regulation on the consumer, manufacturer and Nation. Chapter Three briefly displays the results of the analysis and lists the proposed performance standards by product class. Chapter Four describes the reasons for developing a baseline forecast, characterizes the baseline scenario from which regulatory impacts were calculated and summarizes the primary models, data sources and assumptions used in the baseline formulations. Chapter Five summarizes the methodology used to calculate regulatory impacts; describes the impacts of energy performance standards relative to the baseline discussed in Chapter Four. Also discussed are regional standards and other program alternatives to performance standards. Chapter Six describes the procedure for balancing consumer, manufacturer, and national impacts to select standard levels. Details of models and data bases used in the analysis are included in Appendices A through K.

  9. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  10. Economic development does not improve public mental health spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Susham; Methuen, Caroline; Kent, Priscilla; Chatain, Gregoire; Christie, Daisy; Torales, Julio; Ventriglio, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    As a result of rapid globalization the Gross Domestic product of countries may have changed, but the gap between the very rich countries and poor countries has changed too, along with a change in social and economic strata within each society; although the rates of psychiatric disorders are affected by industrialization and urbanization, the financial pressures add yet another layer of burden. Global burden of disease due to mental illness is tremendously high and yet, in spite of pressures, there is no equity and increased discrimination related to mental illness. This paper presents some of the issues related to the economic state of the countries. In order to ensure that citizens receive the best treatments available it is important that socio-economic causes and gaps in treatment are identified and dealt with at national levels.

  11. Behavioral Law and Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Jolls

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral economics has been a growing force in many fields of applied economics, including public economics, labor economics, health economics, and law and economics. This paper describes and assesses the current state of behavioral law and economics. Law and economics had a critical (though underrecognized) early point of contact with behavioral economics through the foundational debate in both fields over the Coase theorem and the endowment effect. In law and economics today, both the end...

  12. Mental health, employment status and parenthood: the impact of the economic downturn on portuguese youth mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Frasquilho, Diana

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Background: Economic recessions pose significant risks to individuals’ mental health and well-being. Common mental disorders are already highly prevalent in Europe, and more so in Portugal. Thus, changes in macroeconomic conditions are likely to aggravate this scenario. The exponential and rapid increase of unemployment is a particular consequence of the economic recession that has been proven to have a detrimental effect on mental health and well-being at both individual and popula...

  13. Guatemala : Country Economic Memorandum, Challenges to Higher Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) is to contribute to the ongoing discussion in Guatemala about means of accelerating economic growth to help achieve targets set in the 1996 Peace Accords as a key ingredient in the fight to reduce national poverty rates. Chapter I examines historical and recent developments and uses a benchmarking growth methodology to identify the measures and policies most conducive to increasing long-term economic growth. Those areas that are identified...

  14. Conservation through the economics lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Although conservation is an inherently transdisciplinary issue, there is much to be gained from examining the problem through an economics lens. Three benefits of such an approach are laid out in this paper. First, many of the drivers of environmental degradation are economic in origin, and the better we understand them, the better we can conserve ecosystems by reducing degradation. Second, economics offers us a when-to-stop rule, which is equivalent to a when-to-conserve rule. All economic production is based on the transformation of raw materials provided by nature. As the economic system grows in physical size, it necessarily displaces and degrades ecosystems. The marginal benefits of economic growth are diminishing, and the marginal costs of ecological degradation are increasing. Conceptually, we should stop economic growth and focus on conservation when the two are equal. Third, economics can help us understand how to efficiently and justly allocate resources toward conservation, and this paper lays out some basic principles for doing so. Unfortunately, the field of economics is dominated by neoclassical economics, which builds an analytical framework based on questionable assumptions and takes an excessively disciplinary and formalistic approach. Conservation is a complex problem, and analysis from individual disciplinary lenses can make important contributions to conservation only when the resulting insights are synthesized into a coherent vision of the whole. Fortunately, there are a number of emerging transdisciplines, such as ecological economics and environmental management, that are dedicated to this task.

  15. States and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Kohli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Today the Washington Consensus on development lies in tatters. The recent history of the developing world has been unkind to the core claim that a nation that opens its economy and keeps government's role to a minimum invariably experiences rapid economic growth. The evidence against this claim is strong: the developing world as a whole grew faster during the era of state intervention and import substitution (1950-1980 than in the more recent era of structural adjustment (1990-2005; and the recent economic performance of both Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africaregions that truly embraced neoliberalismhas lagged well behind that of many Asian economies, which have instead pursued judicial and unorthodox combinations of state intervention and economic openness. As scholars and policy makers reconstruct alternatives to the Washington Consensus on development, it is important to underline that prudent and effective state intervention and selective integration with the global economy have been responsible for development success in the past; they are also likely to remain the recipes for upward mobility in the global economy in the future."

  16. Structural Change and Economic Development in China and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Valli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The comparison of the periods of rapid economic growth in China since 1978 and India since 1992 markedly show different patterns of development and structural change. However, both countries experienced some advantages of "relative economic backwardness" and some aspects of the "fordist model of growth". China had an anticipated and deeper structural change, spurred mainly by economic reforms and the growth of the internal market in the 1980s, and, since the mid-1990s, by a very rapid penetration of its industrial products in the world market. However, a substantial part of China's exports in medium and high tech sectors are due to joint-ventures with foreign multinationals. India had a more balanced structural change and a slower insertion in the world market, although some sectors, such as software, steel, automotive and pharmaceuticals are recently increasing their share in the world markets. Owing to the huge number of micro-enterprises and the great size of the informal sector, India benefited much less than China from the economies of scale and from the third wave of the "fordist model of growth". Both countries, but in particular China, experienced negative externalities of this recent phase of rapid growth, such as higher inequalities, pollution and urban congestion.

  17. Increased Dependence of Humans on Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhongwei; Zhang, Lin; Li, Yiming

    2010-01-01

    Humans have altered ecosystems more rapidly and extensively than ever, largely to meet rapidly growing demands for resources along with economic development. These demands have been considered important drivers of ecosystem degradation and biodiversity loss. Are humans becoming less dependent on ecosystem services and biodiversity following economic development? Here, we used roundwood production, hydroelectricity generation and tourism investment in 92 biodiversity hotspot and 60 non-hotspot countries as cases to seek the answer. In 1980–2005, annual growth rates of roundwood production, hydroelectricity generation and tourism investment were higher in hotspot countries (5.2, 9.1 and 7.5%) than in non-hotspot countries (3.4, 5.9 and 5.6%), when GDP grew more rapidly in hotspot countries than non-hotspot countries. Annual growth rates of per capita hydropower and per capita tourism investment were higher in hotspot countries (5.3% and 6.1%) than in non-hotspot countries (3.5% and 4.3%); however, the annual growth rate of per capita roundwood production in hotspot countries (1%) was lower than in non-hotspot countries (1.4%). The dependence of humans on cultural services has increased more rapidly than on regulating services, while the dependence on provisioning services has reduced. This pattern is projected to continue during 2005–2020. Our preliminary results show that economic growth has actually made humans more dependent upon ecosystem services and biodiversity. As a consequence, the policies and implementations of both economic development and ecosystems/biodiversity conservation should be formulated and carried out in the context of the increased dependence of humans on ecosystem services along with economic development. PMID:20957042

  18. Behavioral economics: Reunifying psychology and economics

    OpenAIRE

    Camerer, Colin

    1999-01-01

    “Behavioral economics” improves the realism of the psychological assumptions underlying economic theory, promising to reunify psychology and economics in the process. Reunification should lead to better predictions about economic behavior and better policy prescriptions.

  19. Skill-based immigration, economic integration, and economic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Abdurrahman Aydemir

    2014-01-01

    Studies for major immigrant-receiving countries provide evidence on the comparative economic performance of immigrant classes (skill-, kinship-, and humanitarian-based). Developed countries are increasingly competing for high-skilled immigrants, who perform better in the labor market. However, there are serious challenges to their economic integration, which highlights a need for complementary immigration and integration policies.

  20. Keeping Faith with Economic Reform | Usman | Economic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to him, the direction of the current administration is to sustain macroeconomic stability and deepen structural economic reforms, via appropriate sectoral policy measures that would enhance increased participation of the private sector in economic management, especially in the areas of infrastructure provision.

  1. The Chinese experience of rapid modernization: sociocultural changes, psychological consequences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahong eSun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mainland China has undergone profound changes dating back to the nineteenth century, including a contemporary period of rapid modernization that began in the 1980s. The result has been dramatic social, cultural, and economic shifts impacting the daily lives of Chinese people. In this paper, we explore the psychological implications of sociocultural transformation in China, emphasizing two central themes. First, rising individualism: findings from social and developmental psychology suggest that China’s rapid development has been accompanied by ever-increasing adherence to individualistic values. Second, rising rates of depression: findings from psychiatric epidemiology point to increasing prevalence of depression over this same time period, particularly in rural settings. We argue that links between sociocultural and psychological shifts in China can be usefully studied through a cultural psychology lens, emphasizing the mutual constitution of culture, mind, and brain. In particular, we note that the link between social change, individualism, and rising mental illness deserves careful attention. Our review suggests that shifting values and socialization practices shape emotion norms of concealment and display, with implications for depressive symptom presentation. The challenge comes with interpretation. Increasing prevalence rates of depression may indeed be a general response to the rapidity of sociocultural change, or a specific consequence of rising individualism—but may also result from increasingly ‘Western’ patterns of symptom presentation, or improvements in diagnostic practice. We conclude by considering the challenges posed to standard universal models of psychological phenomena.

  2. The Chinese Experience of Rapid Modernization: Sociocultural Changes, Psychological Consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiahong; Ryder, Andrew G.

    2016-01-01

    Mainland China has undergone profound changes dating back to the nineteenth century, including a contemporary period of rapid modernization that began in the 1980s. The result has been dramatic social, cultural, and economic shifts impacting the daily lives of Chinese people. In this paper, we explore the psychological implications of sociocultural transformation in China, emphasizing two central themes. First, rising individualism: findings from social and developmental psychology suggest that China’s rapid development has been accompanied by ever-increasing adherence to individualistic values. Second, rising rates of depression: findings from psychiatric epidemiology point to increasing prevalence of depression over this same time period, particularly in rural settings. We argue that links between sociocultural and psychological shifts in China can be usefully studied through a cultural psychology lens, emphasizing the mutual constitution of culture, mind, and brain. In particular, we note that the link between social change, individualism, and rising mental illness deserves careful attention. Our review suggests that shifting values and socialization practices shape emotion norms of concealment and display, with implications for depressive symptom presentation. The challenge comes with interpretation. Increasing prevalence rates of depression may indeed be a general response to the rapidity of sociocultural change, or a specific consequence of rising individualism—but may also result from increasingly ‘Western’ patterns of symptom presentation, or improvements in diagnostic practice. We conclude by considering the challenges posed to standard universal models of psychological phenomena. PMID:27092093

  3. Big Social Network Data and Sustainable Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Can

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available New information technologies have led to the rapid and effective growth of social networks. The amount of data produced by social networks has increased the value of the big data concept, which is one of the popular current phenomena. The immediate or unpredictable effects of a wide array of economic activities on large masses and the reactions to them can be measured by using social media platforms and big data methods. Thus, it would be extremely beneficial to analyze the harmful environmental and social impacts that are caused by unsustainable business applications. As social networks and big data are popular realms currently, their efficient use would be an important factor in sustainable economic development. Accurate analysis of people’s consumption habits and economic tendencies would provide significant advantages to companies. Moreover, unknown consumption factors that affect the economic preferences of individuals can be discovered and economic efficiency can be increased. This study shows that the numerous solution opportunities that are provided by social networks and big data have become significant tools in dynamic policy creation by companies and states, in solving problems related to women’s rights, the environment, and health.

  4. Methodology for the economic assessment of PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlotz, Curtis P.; Even-Shoshan, Orit; Seshadri, Sridhar B.; Brikman, Inna; Kishore, Sheel; Kundel, Harold L.; Schwartz, J. Sanford

    1994-05-01

    Most economic studies of Picture Archiving and Communications Systems (PACS) to date, including our own, have focused on the perspective of the radiology department and its direct costs. However, many researchers have suggested additional cost savings that may accrue to the medical center as a whole through increased operational capacity, fewer lost images, rapid simultaneous access to images, and other decreases in resource utilization. We describe here a new economic analysis framework we have developed to estimate these potential additional savings. Our framework is comprised of two parallel measurement methods. The first method estimates the cost of care actually delivered through online capture of charge entries from the hospital's billing computer and from the clinical practices' billing database. Multiple regression analyses will be used to model cost of care, length of stay, and other estimates of resource utilization. The second method is the measurement of actual resource utilization, such as technologist time, frequency and duration of film searches, and equipment utilization rates. The costs associated with changes in resource use will be estimated using wage rates and other standard economic methods. Our working hypothesis is that, after controlling for the underlying clinical and demographic differences among patients, patients imaged using a PACS will have shorter lengths of stay, shorter exam performance times, and decreased costs of care. We expect our analysis framework to explain and resolve some of the conflicting views of the cost-effectiveness of PACS.

  5. Economics of resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiter, R.D.; Friedlander, S.L. (eds.)

    1976-01-01

    Eight papers and conference discussion are presented by the Economics Department of the City College of New York's City University. The conference, held on May 15, 1975, focused on dwindling natural resources and the economics of managing those resources which remain. Although a global perspective is taken, discussion of the role and needs of the United States predominates. Two authors support reliance on free market prices as a conservation mechanism, while a third argues for central planning of energy output. Other papers address the infringement of energy development on property rights, the possibility of modifying plants and animals to increase food production, reallocation of food supplies from the reserves of developed areas to undeveloped areas, the economics of population growth, and a proposal for developing Resource X, described as the basis of an individualistic society. The self-discipline requirements of Resource X allows society to accept and plan for change and diversity and respond to empirical evidence. (DCK)

  6. Blue Growth and Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phoebe eKoundouri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Oceans and seas represent over 70% of the earth's surface. Furthermore, living aquatic resources can provide a significant contribution to food, energy and bio-based products. However, marine ecosystems are subject to increasing pressures and competing usages, resulting from resources over-exploitation and pollution. In order to produce efficient marine management plans, it is essential to consider the total economic value provided by the marine ecosystems. In this review, we are focusing on the Marine Framework Strategy Directive and the European Marine Spatial Planning that are established for the protection and efficient use of the marine area. We present the ecosystem services approach with regards to the marine ecosystem and propose economic methods that capture the marine ecosystem’s total economic value in relation to the opportunity cost of marine space. Values should be used to guide policy makers following the European directives and initiatives.

  7. Economic inequality and economic crisis: a challenge for social workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Gertrude Schaffner

    2012-07-01

    To social workers, extreme economic inequality is primarily a violation of social justice, but this article shows how growing economic inequality since the mid-1970s was not only unjust, but also dysfunctional to the U.S. economy and linked to the recent economic crisis with its devastating effects, particularly on the social work clientele. The article identifies interrelated changes in ideology, the market economy, and government policies since the mid-1970s; contrasts the political economy of this period with the preceding post-World War II decades when the trend was toward a "shared prosperity"; and shows how increased economic inequality and political consequences that undermined democracy itself contributed to the economic meltdown. The analysis has implications for the direction of social reform and for broadening the constituency of social movements in pursuit of the social work mission of social justice. How social workers can contribute to such movements and to a reduction of economic and political inequality is explored.

  8. ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel MARIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to highlight the quality of life that depends on necessary, harmonious and simultaneous satisfying of all human needs, instead of „one at a time”, health and economic insecurity being at the very foundation of it. A society that is focused on quality of life will be a society centered on the individual, their needs and aspirations. It needs to offer alternatives and choices of the individual and not to impose models. Coercion of society over the individual is an objective and necessary phenomenon. Its deepening is not, however, as required. Social environment based on quality of life must be characterized by the maximum possible degree of permissiveness in which the individual is educated in its contribution to social awareness.

  9. International Brands in a New Economic Concept in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Haxhi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Foreign Investment by International Brands is a new economic concept, and had a rapid increasing development during time. Driven by technological change, global competition and market liberalization, foreign investment by international brands can play a key role in the process of global economic integration. They create effects in the host countries as well as in the investing economies. Effects on host countries are important for the diversity and for the economic, political and social importance that they generate. The benefit of these effects does not come automatically but is affected by the implementation of some specific conditions. Those brands bring the necessary capital, increase the productivity of the economy through the transfer of knowledge and technology, affect the opening of new markets for trade, increase the competitiveness of the economy by reducing the impact on the current account deficit, increase employment and above all affect the welfare of the population. Collecting these investments requires well defined policies and strategies in the legal and institutional framework, economic stability and sustainable growth, improvement and modernization of infrastructure and improvement in the climate for business and investment environment.

  10. Integrated Ocean Management as a Strategy to Meet Rapid Climate Change: The Norwegian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Hoel, Alf Håkon; Olsen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The prospects of rapid climate change and the potential existence of tipping points in marine ecosystems where nonlinear change may result from them being overstepped, raises the question of strategies for coping with ecosystem change. There is broad agreement that the combined forces of climate change, pollution and increasing economic activities necessitates more comprehensive approaches to oceans management, centering on the concept of ecosystem-based oceans management. This article addres...

  11. Can combining economizers with improved filtration save energy and protect equipment in data centers?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shehabi, Arman; Ganguly, Srirupa; Gundel, Lara A.; Horvath, Arpad; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Tschudi, William; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Nazaroff, William W

    2009-06-05

    Economizer use in data centers is an energy efficiency strategy that could significantly limit electricity demand in this rapidly growing economic sector. Widespread economizer implementation, however, has been hindered by potential equipment reliability concerns associated with exposing information technology equipment to particulate matter of outdoor origin. This study explores the feasibility of using economizers in data centers to save energy while controlling particle concentrations with high-quality air filtration. Physical and chemical properties of indoor and outdoor particles were analyzed at an operating northern California data center equipped with an economizer under varying levels of air filtration efficiency. Results show that when improved filtration is used in combination with an economizer, the indoor/outdoor concentration ratios for most measured particle types were similar to levels when using conventional filtration without economizers. An energy analysis of the data center reveals that, even during the summer months, chiller savings from economizer use greatly outweigh any increase in fan power associated with improved filtration. These findings indicate that economizer use combined with improved filtration could reduce data center energy demand while providing a level of protection from particles of outdoor origin similar to that observed with conventional design.

  12. Estimating the economic consequences of an increased medication adherence due to a potential improvement in the inhaler technique with Spiromax®compared with Turbuhaler®in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbà, Josep; Ramírez, Gabriela; García-Rivero, Juan L; Mayoralas, Sagrario; Pascual, José Francisco; Vargas, Diego; Bijedic, Adi

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the economic impact of the introduction of DuoResp ® Spiromax ® , budesonide/formoterol fixed-dose combination (FDC), focusing on an increase in medication adherence due to an enhancement of the inhalation technique for the treatment of COPD patients in Spain and 5 regions including Andalusia, Catalonia, Galicia, Madrid, and Valencia. A 4-year budget impact model was developed for the time period of 2015-2018. This study aimed at evaluating the budget impact associated with the introduction of DuoResp Spiromax in comparison with Symbicort ® Turbuhaler ® and Rilast ® Turbuhaler. National and regional data on COPD prevalence were obtained from the literature. Input data on health care resource utilization were obtained by clinical consultation. Resource included primary care visits, specialist visits, hospitalization, and emergency room visits as well as the length of hospital stay. Based on both pharmacological and health care resource costs, overall annual treatment cost per patient was estimated in EUR 2015. It was calculated that 130,777 adults were treated with budesonide/formoterol FDC delivered by a dry powder inhaler, Turbuhaler, in Spain in 2015. However, the target population decreases over the next 4 years. This pattern was observed in 4 regions, but for Andalusia, the treated population increased slightly. The overall budget savings in Spain with the market share of DuoResp Spiromax were estimated to be €6.01 million for the time period of 2015-2018. Region-specific data resulted in savings of €902,133 in Andalusia, €740,520 in Catalonia, €464,281 in Galicia, €748,996 in Madrid, and €495,812 in Valencia for the time period of 2015-2018. The introduction of budesonide/formoterol FDC delivered by Spiromax for COPD treatment is likely to contribute in a reduction of health care costs for Spain and in 5 Spanish regions. This model forecasts that Spain and these 5 Spanish regions were likely to have

  13. Can cognitive dissonance methods developed in the West for combatting the ‘thin ideal’ help slow the rapidly increasing prevalence of eating disorders in non-Western cultures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcomb, Gemma L.; Arcelus, Jon; Chen, Jue

    2013-01-01

    Summary Eating disorders are common, life-threatening conditions in Western countries, but until relatively recently they were regarded as uncommon in non-Western cultures. However, the prevalence of eating disorders in many of the more affluent non-Western countries is rising rapidly as community members, particularly young women, internalize the ‘thin ideal’ that has been widely promoted by the international media. This review discusses the factors involved in the development of eating disorders in non-Western settings with a particular emphasis on the influences of urbanization, modernization, Westernization, and the resulting changes in women's roles. The cognitive dissonance programs developed in Western countries that have proven successful in countering the negative effects of the thin idea are described and their potential application to East Asia and other non-Western countries are discussed. PMID:24991176

  14. Economic evaluation of medical technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifan, Alon; Shemer, Joshua

    2005-02-01

    Innovation in medical science is progressing at a rapid pace. As a result, new medical technologies that offer to improve upon or completely replace existing alternatives are continually appearing. These technologies--which include pharmaceuticals, devices, equipment, supplies, medical and surgical procedures, and administrative and support systems--are changing the way medicine can be practiced and delivered, forcing healthcare providers and policymakers to consistently evaluate and adapt to new treatment options. Meanwhile, society is becoming more demanding of new medical technologies. Emerging medical technology, however, has been viewed as a significant factor in increasing the cost of healthcare. The abundance of new medical alternatives, combined with scarcity of resources, has led to priority setting, rationing and the need for more technology management and assessment. Economic evaluation of medical technologies is a system of analysis used to formally compare the costs and consequences of alternative healthcare interventions. EEMT can be used by many healthcare entities, including national policymakers, manufacturers, payers and providers, as a tool to aid in resource allocation decisions. This paper discusses the four current popular methodologies for EEMT (cost-minimization, cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility), and describes the industry environment that has shaped their development.

  15. A Random Walk to Economic Freedom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witte, Mark David

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the wide use of economic freedom in economic literature it is imperative to understand how economic freedom evolves. Results suggest that levels of economic freedom are dominated by random shocks. Using a test for stationarity devised by Westerlund and Larsson (2012 we are unable to reject the null hypothesis of a random walk. The changes to economic freedom also are mostly driven by random shocks with only a minor role played by country specific characteristics. Additionally, changes to economic freedom are partially reversed as increases (decreases in one year are partially offset by decreases (increases in the next year.

  16. Economic growth, ecological economics, and wilderness preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Czech

    2000-01-01

    Economic growth is a perennial national goal. Perpetual economic growth and wilderness preservation are mutually exclusive. Wilderness scholarship has not addressed this conflict. The economics profession is unlikely to contribute to resolution, because the neoclassical paradigm holds that there is no limit to economic growth. A corollary of the paradigm is that...

  17. Economic Empowerment and Reproductive Behaviour of Young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic Empowerment and Reproductive Behaviour of Young Women in Osun ... to increase access to reproductive health information/services and economic ... micro-credit facilities to enable beneficiaries to establish private businesses.

  18. How Taxes and Spending on Education Influence Economic Growth in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Konopczyński

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between economic growth in Poland and four types of taxes and human capital investment. We primarily rely on an exogenous growth model that merges the Mankiw-Romer-Weil model, augmented with learning-by-doing and spillover-effects, with selected elements from the literature on optimal taxation. We demonstrate that in the period 2000-2011, economic growth in Poland was primarily due to a rapid increase in the human capital stock (at a rate of 5% per annum and only secondarily due to the accumulation of productive capital (2.7% annually. Simulations of tax cuts suggest that income taxes and consumption taxes restrict economic growth equally heavily. Simultaneously reducing all tax rates by 5 percentage points (pp in Poland should increase annual GDP growth by approximately 0.4 pp. Increasing spending on education by 1 pp of GDP would increase the growth rate by approximately 0.3 pp.

  19. How Can Economic Policy Strike a Balance between Economic Efficiency and Income Equality?

    OpenAIRE

    Lindbeck, Assar

    1998-01-01

    Can income equality be combined with high economic efficiency and rapid economic growth? Fortunately, we need not to answer such a general question. Indeed, the question is poorly phrased. The relationship between income and wealth distribution, on one hand, and efficiency/growth, on the other, depends on how a certain distribution of income and wealth has come about.

  20. French Economics of Convention and Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    The French Economics of convention tradition has developed to be an influential research tradition situated in the area between economics and sociology. The aim of the paper is to explore some of the themes that may be common to economics of conventions and economic sociology by looking more...... closely into three recent texts from the economics of convention tradition discussing, in slightly different ways, differences and similarities between economics of convention and economic sociology. It is argued that André Orléan’s point that a common aim could be to ‘denaturalise’ the institutional...... foundation of markets and of money may be an occasion for economic sociology to focus even more on elaborating on the institutional void created by traditional economic theory. A second point is that economic sociology could benefit from the perspective of a plurality of forms of coordination involved...

  1. Economics of Convention and New Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the article is to explore potential common themes in economic sociology and economics of conventions. The article explores two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be of particular importance to economic sociology. First, the explicit exploration of the consequences...... of a plurality of forms of justification, as elaborated in économie de la grandeur. This perspective was recently taken up in economic sociology by David Stark's introduction of the notion ‘sociology of worth'. The second issue, recently suggested by André Orléan, is the need to denaturalize economic theory...... and economic action to demonstrate the social constructed nature of economic action. It is argued that these two issues demonstrate that a fruitful dialogue is indeed possible between economic sociology and economics of convention and should be encouraged....

  2. Behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2009-01-01

    It is human nature to overestimate how rational we are, both in general and even when we are trying to be. Such irrationality is not random, and the search for and explanation of patterns of fuzzy thinking is the basis for a new academic discipline known as behavioral economics. Examples are given of some of the best understood of our foibles, including prospect theory, framing, anchoring, salience, confirmation bias, superstition, and ownership. Humans have two cognitive systems: one conscious, deliberate, slow, and rational; the other fast, pattern-based, emotionally tinged, and intuitive. Each is subject to its own kind of error. In the case of rational thought, we tend to exaggerate our capacity; for intuition, we fail to train it or recognize contexts where it is inappropriate. Humans are especially poor at estimating probabilities, or even understanding what they are. It is a common human failing to reason backwards from random outcomes that are favorable to beliefs about our power to predict the future. Five suggestions are offered for thinking within our means.

  3. The Health and Sport Engagement (HASE) Intervention and Evaluation Project: protocol for the design, outcome, process and economic evaluation of a complex community sport intervention to increase levels of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Louise; Anokye, Nana; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Kay, Tess

    2015-10-26

    Sport is being promoted to raise population levels of physical activity for health. National sport participation policy focuses on complex community provision tailored to diverse local users. Few quality research studies exist that examine the role of community sport interventions in raising physical activity levels and no research to date has examined the costs and cost-effectiveness of such provision. This study is a protocol for the design, outcome, process and economic evaluation of a complex community sport intervention to increase levels of physical activity, the Health and Sport Engagement (HASE) project part of the national Get Healthy Get Active programme led by Sport England. The HASE study is a collaborative partnership between local community sport deliverers and sport and public health researchers. It involves designing, delivering and evaluating community sport interventions. The aim is to engage previously inactive people in sustained sporting activity for 1×30 min a week and to examine associated health and well-being outcomes. The study uses mixed methods. Outcomes (physical activity, health, well-being costs to individuals) will be measured by a series of self-report questionnaires and attendance data and evaluated using interrupted time series analysis controlling for a range of sociodemographic factors. Resource use will be identified and measured using diaries, interviews and records and presented alongside effectiveness data as incremental cost-effectiveness ratios and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. A longitudinal process evaluation (focus groups, structured observations, in-depth interview methods) will examine the efficacy of the project for achieving its aim using the principles of thematic analysis. The results of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications, academic conference presentations, Sport England and national public health organisation policy conferences, and practice-based case studies

  4. AN ENERGY RESOURCE ITS GEO-ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE HAS GRADUALLY BEEN INCREASING: NATURAL GAS JEOEKONOMİK ÖNEMİ GİDEREK ARTAN BİR ENERJİ KAYNAĞI: DOĞALGAZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal AKPINAR

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the geo-economic importance of natural gas. The study is descriptive and findings have been obtained through literature review methods. According to the findings all over the world, particularly in the Northern Hemisphere consumption of natural gas has fast grown up. The consumption increased by 65% between 1989 and 2009, and new countries have been included in the list of importer countries. Due to the existence of important natural gas resources and production places particularly in Russian Federation, Caspian Basin, and Middle East and intensive demand for obtaining natural gas has made this energy source as a worldwide commercial product. In 2009 such that 30% of the world natural gas production was considered in international trade. Again in the same year, more than half of the total exportation of natural gas (57% was carried out by five countries, in particular the Russian Federation. In recent years, countries without sufficient energy resources such as European Union and Japan as well as China and Turkey as emerging economies have become dependent to natural gas energy rich countries. In the near future, it is expected that this dependence would be increased, such as natural gas importation of the EU will be 95% in 2030. Therefore, this situation requires conducting comprehensive plans, projects, investments and international agreements. On the other hand, there has been a big geo-economic struggle among the worldwide and regional powers, thus, strategic importance of resource rich places such as Caspian Basin, Middle East and North Africa and other countries which are on the energy route have been increasing. Bu araştırmada doğalgazın jeoekonomik önemi belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Araştırma betimsel olup, bulgular tarama yöntemiyle elde edilmiştir. Tespitlerimize göre doğalgaz tüketimi tüm dünyada, özellikle de Kuzey Yarım Küre’de hızla yaygınlaşmaktadır. Dünya genelinde t

  5. Participate or Observe? Effects of Economic Classroom Experiments on Students' Economic Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grol, Roel; Sent, Esther-Mirjam; de Vries, Bregje

    2017-01-01

    Economic classroom experiments are controlled interactive learning exercises targeting the comprehension of economic concepts in an inductive way. Aiming at increasing students' knowledge of economic concepts, two types of economic classroom experiments are examined in a sample of 134 secondary school students. In the interactive research…

  6. How robust is the relationship between economic freedom and economic growth?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, JE; De Haan, J

    Using various indicators for economic freedom, it is shown that increases in economic freedom are robustly related to economic growth. This conclusion holds even if the impact of outlying observations is taken into account. The level of economic freedom is not related to growth.

  7. Economic Developments on Perceived Safety, Violence, and Economic Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Emerging research highlights the promise of community- and policy-level strategies in preventing youth violence. Large-scale economic developments, such as sports and entertainment arenas and casinos, may improve the living conditions, economics, public health, and overall wellbeing of area residents and may influence rates of violence within communities. Objective. To assess the effect of community economic development efforts on neighborhood residents’ perceptions on violence, safety, and economic benefits. Methods. Telephone survey in 2011 using a listed sample of randomly selected numbers in six Pittsburgh neighborhoods. Descriptive analyses examined measures of perceived violence and safety and economic benefit. Responses were compared across neighborhoods using chi-square tests for multiple comparisons. Survey results were compared to census and police data. Results. Residents in neighborhoods with the large-scale economic developments reported more casino-specific and arena-specific economic benefits. However, 42% of participants in the neighborhood with the entertainment arena felt there was an increase in crime, and 29% of respondents from the neighborhood with the casino felt there was an increase. In contrast, crime decreased in both neighborhoods. Conclusions. Large-scale economic developments have a direct influence on the perception of violence, despite actual violence rates.

  8. Military Authoritarian Regimes and Economic Development: The ROK’s Economic Take-Off Under Park Chung Hee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    75 14. SUBJECT TERMS Authoritarian regimes, Developmental state, South Korea, Park Chung Hee, Chile, Pinochet , economic development, Vietnam war...PRESIDENTS PARK AND PINOCHET ................................................................................................................37 A...hee pursued economic development by powerful state intervention, Pinochet implemented economic reform by means of a free market. The rapid free

  9. Economic conversion: The US experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    At the end of the Second World War, our country experienced what economists have called {open_quotes}The Great Conversion{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}The Great Disarmament.{close_quotes} Following that period and until the beginning of the Viet-Nam War was a time marked by economic expansion and boom. Since those years, there have been several periods during which bases were closed and defense spending was slowed. For the communities going through these transitions, again there was economic expansion. A recent survey reports that, within the last 25 years, over 100 communities redeveloped their economic base and experienced, not catastrophy as they expected, but a period of economic growth. Jobs were not lost but nearly doubled. Small businesses and educational institutions multiplied. Building starts accelerated. The survey attributed this economic growth to proper planning, increased awareness of the need for job training and education, diversification of economic activity, and an ownership on the part of the citizens in their collective economic future. The lesson for us should be that realigning our community economic priorities away from such a strong emphasis on military spending and toward a diverse and productive civilian economy brings economic health. We are relearning this lesson in the redevelopment of Lowry Air Force Base and the transition of Rocky Flats Nuclear Plant from a weapons manufacturing mission to one of cleanup.

  10. Temporal trends in BMI in Argentina by socio-economic position and province-level economic development, 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine, Paul J; Diez Roux, Ana V; Wing, Jeffrey J; Alazraqui, Marcio; Spinelli, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    We investigated temporal trends in BMI, and assessed hypothesized predictors of trends including socio-economic position (SEP) and province-level economic development, in Argentina. Using multivariable linear regression, we evaluated cross-sectional patterning and temporal trends in BMI and examined heterogeneity in these associations by SEP and province-level economic development with nationally representative samples from Argentina in 2005 and 2009. We calculated mean annual changes in BMI for men and women to assess secular trends. Women, but not men, exhibited a strong cross-sectional inverse association between SEP and BMI, with the lowest-SEP women having an average BMI 2.55 kg/m(2) greater than the highest-SEP women. Analysis of trends revealed a mean annual increase in BMI of 0.19 kg/m(2) and 0.15 kg/m(2) for women and men, respectively, with slightly greater increases occurring in provinces with greater economic growth. No significant heterogeneity in trends existed by individual SEP. BMI is increasing rapidly over time in Argentina irrespective of various sociodemographic characteristics. Higher BMI remains more common in women of lower SEP compared with those of higher SEP.

  11. Conceptual Approaches to the Development of Economic Systems in the Context of Globalization and Regionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Interactions of the national and the global in economic transformations occurring in open economic systems are substantiated. Conceptual approaches to the development of economic systems in the globalization and regionalization context are summed up. It is shown that globalization is a logical consequence of mutual influences and interactions of multiple local transformations in socio-economic systems of various levels, which planetary self-organization generates the new quality of the global economic development. It is concluded that globalization has controversial impact on the transformation capacities of national economic systems that have to operate in the unfavorable condition of the growing instability of the global economic system and rapid integration in the structures with already established economic relations. The heuristic and experimental nature of economic and institutional transformations in these countries is added by splits of national economic systems and disruptions of established production links; the outstripping liberalization of foreign economic relations, creating rather external than internal pressures on national manufacturers and making them less capable to adapt to the competitive environment; the accelerated liberalization of monetary and financial systems, opening up ways to reallocation of capital from the sluggish real sector to the more flexible sector of transactions with currencies and securities; the shrinking regulatory authorities of national governments with respect of trade, competition, tax policies or social welfare; the growing domination of TNC and outflow of productive resources from national economies, important for their self-development, thus making their economic systems structurally primitive; the sharp property differentiation within societies and the increasing shares of population with low incomes.

  12. Economic sanctions: an ethical primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J.G. Zandman

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The world has developed into a globe with increasingly inter- twined economic interests, with greater economic interdepen- dence than ever before. This has caused a new weapon to step onto the world scene in the 20th and 21st centuries, applied to bring nations to heel. It is aimed at those nations which do not conform to particular, usually ethically perceived standards. “Economic sanctions” is the name of this new weapon.  This article aims to evaluate the wielding of economic sanctions from the perspective of principles based on a Biblical worldview in order to assist Christians in making an informed decision as to what their stance ought to be regarding this phenomenon.   Data show that there is an incremental increase of the use of economic sanctions in world politics. At present, sanctions have uncertain grounding in ethics and little or no standing in inter- national law. Their effectiveness is seriously questioned, their economic cost, especially to the implementer(!, is considerable. The question as to whether economic sanctions should be deplored or embraced at times would be helped with further investigation beyond the scope of this article, notably with re- gard to what has been surmised in the context of the sanctions deployed regarding the apartheid regime in South Africa.   The results of economic sanctions appear to bear out the Biblical principles in that both, actual results plus Biblical prin- ciples, generally send a discouraging message regarding this approach to political conflict.

  13. Americans misperceive racial economic equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Rucker, Julian M; Richeson, Jennifer A

    2017-09-26

    The present research documents the widespread misperception of race-based economic equality in the United States. Across four studies (n = 1,377) sampling White and Black Americans from the top and bottom of the national income distribution, participants overestimated progress toward Black-White economic equality, largely driven by estimates of greater current equality than actually exists according to national statistics. Overestimates of current levels of racial economic equality, on average, outstripped reality by roughly 25% and were predicted by greater belief in a just world and social network racial diversity (among Black participants). Whereas high-income White respondents tended to overestimate racial economic equality in the past, Black respondents, on average, underestimated the degree of past racial economic equality. Two follow-up experiments further revealed that making societal racial discrimination salient increased the accuracy of Whites' estimates of Black-White economic equality, whereas encouraging Whites to anchor their estimates on their own circumstances increased their tendency to overestimate current racial economic equality. Overall, these findings suggest a profound misperception of and unfounded optimism regarding societal race-based economic equality-a misperception that is likely to have any number of important policy implications.

  14. OIL MARKET, NUCLEAR ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: EVIDENCE FROM EMERGING ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Naser

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the relationship between oil consumption, nuclear energy consumption, oil price and economic growth in four emerging economies (Russia, China, South Korea, and India over the period from 1965 to 2010. Applying a modified version of the granger causality test developed by Toda and Yamamoto, we find that the level of world crude oil prices (WTI plays a crucial role in determining the economic growth in the investigated countries. The results suggest that there is a unidirectional causality running from real GDP to oil consumption in China and South Korea, while bidirectional relationship between oil consumption and real GDP growth appears in India. Furthermore, the results propose that while nuclear energy stimulates economic growth in both South Korea and India, the rapid increase in China economic growth requires additional usage of nuclear energy.

  15. Externalities, Learning and Governance: New Perspectives on Local Economic Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H.J. Helmsing (Bert)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIn spite of growing mobility of production and production factors, economic development is increasingly localized in economic agglomerations. This article reviews three partially overlapping perspectives on local economic development, which derive from three factors intensifying the

  16. District heating for increased biogas production. Technical and economical evaluation of district heating as heating source in biogas processes; Fjaerrvaerme foer utoekad biogasproduktion. Teknisk och ekonomisk utvaerdering av fjaerrvaerme foer uppvaermning av biogasprocesser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, Per (AaF-Consult AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-11-15

    This report presents a technical evaluation, the potential and an economical evaluation of the increased net biogas production by using district heating as energy supply for different types of biogas production units. The study presents generalized results for different plant sizes. The district heating is considered as replacement of the heat produced by burning biogas in a hot-water boiler. Hence more biogas could be available for upgrading to fuel-gas quality to be used in vehicles as a renewable fuel. The study is aimed at biogas producers, district heating and combined heat and power (CHP) companies. Biogas has a composition of mostly methane (about 65 %) and carbon dioxide (about 35 %) and small amounts of other gases e.g. sulphur dioxide (H{sub 2}S). Biogas up-grading is a process where the methane content is increased to about 97 % by removing most of the other gases in e.g. an absorption unit. The Swedish biogas is mainly produced in several sewage treatment plants and some co-digestion units but is also collected from dumps. Biogas is produced by anaerobic microorganisms at temperatures of about 36 and 55 deg C which correspond to the thermal optimum for mesophile and thermophile bacteria respectively. Co-digestion of animal material which e.g. is contained in collected organic household waste has to be pasteurized at 70 deg C for 1h according to EU-regulations. Such regulations may also be introduced to the sludge from municipal sewage treatment plants. Due to the fact that the process temperature is higher than the temperature of the substrate (sludge or organic waste material) as well as the outdoor temperature, both heating of the incoming substrate and compensation of heat losses are required. Traditionally most of the biogas has been burnt to generate the necessary heat for the process and premises at the plant. The excess gas has been burnt in a torch. In recent years the biogas produced in Sweden has found increased use as a renewable vehicle fuel

  17. An operational procedure for rapid flood risk assessment in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dottori, Francesco; Kalas, Milan; Salamon, Peter; Bianchi, Alessandra; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Feyen, Luc

    2017-07-01

    The development of methods for rapid flood mapping and risk assessment is a key step to increase the usefulness of flood early warning systems and is crucial for effective emergency response and flood impact mitigation. Currently, flood early warning systems rarely include real-time components to assess potential impacts generated by forecasted flood events. To overcome this limitation, this study describes the benchmarking of an operational procedure for rapid flood risk assessment based on predictions issued by the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS). Daily streamflow forecasts produced for major European river networks are translated into event-based flood hazard maps using a large map catalogue derived from high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations. Flood hazard maps are then combined with exposure and vulnerability information, and the impacts of the forecasted flood events are evaluated in terms of flood-prone areas, economic damage and affected population, infrastructures and cities.An extensive testing of the operational procedure has been carried out by analysing the catastrophic floods of May 2014 in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia. The reliability of the flood mapping methodology is tested against satellite-based and report-based flood extent data, while modelled estimates of economic damage and affected population are compared against ground-based estimations. Finally, we evaluate the skill of risk estimates derived from EFAS flood forecasts with different lead times and combinations of probabilistic forecasts. Results highlight the potential of the real-time operational procedure in helping emergency response and management.

  18. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Kazungu

    11 Former MA student, Department of Economics, University of Botswana. 12 Senior Lecturer .... expenditure has to be associated with an increase in gross private saving or taxes and thus, the net effect of a ... will result in a rise in private savings and lastly, an increase in government expenditure leads to an increase in ...

  19. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  20. Analysis of neuroeconomics as a new paradigm in economic science

    OpenAIRE

    Arias, Denise Elisabet

    2017-01-01

    Neuroeconomics is a recent discipline which studies what happens inthe human brain during decision making, and the relationship betweenemotions and the behavior of economic agents.As its name indicates it arises from the conjunction between neuroscienceand economics. During the last years, the rapid advance of theneurosciences allowed the realization of numerous investigations in thisarea, making possible new approaches in the economic analysis.In 2002 the Nobel Prize in Economics was given t...

  1. Rapid increase in resistance to third generation cephalosporins, imipenem and co-resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae from isolated from 7,140 blood-cultures (2010-2014) using EARS-Net data in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aracil-García, Belén; Oteo-Iglesias, Jesús; Cuevas-Lobato, Óscar; Lara-Fuella, Noelia; Pérez-Grajera, Isabel; Fernández-Romero, Sara; Pérez-Vázquez, María; Campos, José

    2017-10-01

    An analysis was made about the evolution of resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins, imipenem, and other antibiotics in invasive isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) according to the Spanish EARS-Net database (2010-2014). Forty-two hospitals from 16 Autonomous Communities with an approximate population coverage of 33% participated. A total 7,140 pneumoniae corresponding to the same number of patients were studied. Overall resistance percentages (I+R) were: cefotaxime 15.8%, ceftazidime 13.7%, imipenem 1.7%, ciprofloxacin 20.1%, tobramycin 14.1%, gentamicin 10.4%, and amikacin 1.9%. Resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins increased from 9.8% (2010) to 19% (2014); to ciprofloxacin from 15.4% (2010) to 19.6% (2014); to gentamicin from 6.2% (2010) to 10.3% (2014) and to tobramycin from 7.1% (2010) to 14.2% (2014) (presistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins, ciprofloxacin, and aminoglycosides increased from 3.3% (2010) to 9.7% (2014) (pResistance to imipenem also increased from 0.27% (2010) to 3.46% (2014) (presistant to imipenem, of which 104 (86%) produced carbapenemases: 74 OXA-48, 14 VIM, 9 KPC (6 KPC-2 and 3 KPC-3), 6 IMP, and 1 GES. Over the 5 year period (2010-2014), resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins in invasive K. pneumoniae in Spain has doubled. The combined resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins, ciprofloxacin, and aminoglycosides has tripled, and imipenem resistance has increased almost 13 times, mostly due to the spread of carbapenemase-producing isolates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  2. Economic Sociology and Economics of Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    This paper is part of a larger exploration of the French Economics of Convention tradition. The aim of the paper is to explore potential themes of common interest to economic sociology and Economics of Conventions. The paper is in two parts. First, I summarise the main theoretical features of EC...... the institutional framework of social action. Second, I explore two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be particularly important to consider for economic sociology. The first issue is the explicit exploration of the consequences of a plurality of forms of justification suggested by Luc Boltanski...... and Laurent Thévenot in ‘économie de la grandeur’. This perspective has already been taken up in economic sociology in David Stark’s notion of a ‘Sociology of Worth’. The second issue, recently suggested by André Orléan, is the need to denaturalise economic theory and economic action to demonstrate the social...

  3. Ethiopian Journal of Economics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ethiopian Economic Journal of Economics is a publication of the Ethiopian Economic Association. It is a bi annual publication devoted to the advancement of economics as a scientific discipline in Ethiopia. However, contributions of articles by non-Ethiopian and on economic experience of other countries are ...

  4. Syllabus and Economics: Reasoning with Generation "Why"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdina, Mariya; Sasser, Sue Lynn

    2018-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose to enhance the syllabus for economic courses with economic explanations. They argue that providing economic rationale for course policies can increase student interest in the course and at the same time positively affect student attitude toward course policies. The authors describe practical strategies for…

  5. Finding the economics in economic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstad, David W; Knolhoff, Lisa M

    2009-02-01

    To recommend new pest management tactics and strategies to farmers and policy makers, economic entomologists must evaluate the economics of biologically reasonable approaches. We collected data to determine how frequently these economic evaluations occur. We discovered from our survey of entomological journals representing the discipline of economic entomology that entomology is to ultimately determine the value of different kinds of tactics, the discipline may need to take steps to enhance the research that supports these evaluations.

  6. Nuclear power economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emsley, Ian; Cobb, Jonathan [World Nuclear Association, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    Many countries recognize the substantial role which nuclear power has played in providing energy security of supply, reducing import dependence and reducing greenhouse gas and polluting emissions. Nevertheless, as such considerations are far from being fully accounted for in liberalized or deregulated power markets, nuclear plants must demonstrate their viability in these markets on commercial criteria as well as their lifecycle advantages. Nuclear plants are operating more efficiently than in the past and unit operating costs are low relative to those of alternative generating technologies. The political risk facing the economic functioning of nuclear in a number of countries has increased with the imposition of nuclear-specific taxes that in some cases have deprived operators of the economic incentive to continue to operate existing plants.

  7. [Science and economic development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor Zaragoza, Federico

    2004-01-01

    In times of great turbulences at a planetary scale, as a result of economic and social disparities, of environmental erosion, cultural uniformization and progressive weakness of international ethical and legal international institutions, the reinforcement of scientific research appears as one of the crucial keys to correct the present trends. Increase of knowledge and its adequate application are not only the fundamental pillars of the urgent general enhancement of the quality of life, but also economic competitiveness is based on knowledge. In this communication recent data on the ERA (European Research Area) are presented and commented as well as the proposal of a European Fund (of 2000 million of euros initially) which, administered by a European Research Council, would improve the EU trade and productive perspectives and, above all, will avoid or reduce the present brain-drain of those who, lacking opportunities in Europe, emigrate to other countries, particularly the United States.

  8. The Economics OF NEOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalkwyk, James D.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Ames Research Center, in its role as partnerships lead for NASA asteroid redirect robotic missions and as a supporting Center for the Asteroid Grand Challenge, responded to increasing interest in near-Earth objects (NEOs) by holding a workshop entitled 'The Economics of NEOs' on the 6th and 7th of September 2014. The workshop was intended to serve as a catalyst for discussions and to foster collaborations between industry, academia and government. This document serves as a summary of the discussions which took place within three sessions and their respective table discussions; Session One: Background and Motivation; Session Two: Economics of NEOs; and Session Three: Policy and Legal Frameworks. This document is a collection of observations by individuals and does not express the consensus view of all participants; it does not express US Government or NASA policy.

  9. Does India's Economic Transformation Promote Women's Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Growth and Economic Opportunities for Women: Strengthening Research Capacity. The Growth and Economic Opportunities for Women (GrOW) research program is a collaborative initiative involving IDRC, the United Kingdom's Department for International Development, and The... View moreGrowth and Economic ...

  10. Microwave heating causes rapid degradation of antioxidants in polypropylene packaging, leading to greatly increased specific migration to food simulants as shown by ESI-MS and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alin, Jonas; Hakkarainen, Minna

    2011-05-25

    Microwave heating of commercial microwavable polypropylene packaging in contact with fatty food simulants caused significant antioxidant degradation and increased specific migration as shown by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Degradation of the antioxidants Irgafos 168 and Irganox 1010 was not detected during conventional heating of polypropylene packaging at the same temperature. The migration into aqueous food simulants was primarily restricted by the water solubility of the migrants. Using isooctane as fatty food simulant caused significant swelling and greatly enhanced overall migration values compared to the other fatty food simulant, 99.9% ethanol, or the aqueous food simulants 10% ethanol, 3% acetic acid, or water. ESI-MS spectra clearly reflected the overall migration values, and the number and amount of compounds detected decreased as the hydrophilicity of the food simulant increased. ESI-MS was shown to be an excellent tool for the analysis of semivolatile migrants and a good complement to GC-MS analysis of volatile migrants.

  11. Making sense of China's Economic Slowdown

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to review the factors inducing China's successful economic transformation, so as to find the causes of the subsequent economic slowdown, from the New Institutional Economics (NIE) viewpoint and the Marxian viewpoint, respectively. The former school is primarily concerned about the "supply-side" driver (changing rules of game for producers) of increasing economic output and efficiency, while the latter is basically sharing with the Marxian concern of the "demand-side" driver (a...

  12. Economic theories of dictatorship

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Debs

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews recent advances in economic theories of dictatorships and their lessons for the political stability and economic performance of dictatorships. It reflects on the general usefulness of economic theories of dictatorship, with an application to foreign relations.

  13. Developmental evolution facilitates rapid adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Kazlauskas, Romas J; Travisano, Michael

    2017-11-21

    Developmental evolution has frequently been identified as a mode for rapid adaptation, but direct observations of the selective benefits and associated mechanisms of developmental evolution are necessarily challenging to obtain. Here we show rapid evolution of greatly increased rates of dispersal by developmental changes when populations experience stringent selection. Replicate populations of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma citrinoviride underwent 85 serial transfers, under conditions initially favoring growth but not dispersal. T. citrinoviride populations shifted away from multicellular growth toward increased dispersal by producing one thousand times more single-celled asexual conidial spores, three times sooner than the ancestral genotype. Conidia of selected lines also germinated fifty percent faster. Gene expression changed substantially between the ancestral and selected fungi, especially for spore production and growth, demonstrating rapid evolution of tight regulatory control for down-regulation of growth and up-regulation of conidia production between 18 and 24 hours of growth. These changes involved both developmentally fixed and plastic changes in gene expression, showing that complex developmental changes can serve as a mechanism for rapid adaptation.

  14. Portable Diagnostics and Rapid Germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Zachary Spencer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In the Bioenergy and Defense Department of Sandia National Laboratories, characterization of the BaDx (Bacillus anthracis diagnostic cartridge) was performed and rapid germination chemistry was investigated. BaDx was tested with complex sample matrixes inoculated with Bacillus anthracis, and the trials proved that BaDx will detect Bacillus anthracis in a variety of the medium, such as dirt, serum, blood, milk, and horse fluids. The dimensions of the device were altered to accommodate an E. coli or Listeria lateral flow immunoassay, and using a laser printer, BaDx devices were manufactured to identify E. coli and Listeria. Initial testing with E. coli versions of BaDx indicate that the device will be viable as a portable diagnostic cartridge. The device would be more effective with faster bacteria germination; hence studies were performed the use of rapid germination chemistry. Trials with calcium dipicolinic acid displayed increased cell germination, as shown by control studies using a microplate reader. Upon lyophilization the rapid germination chemistry failed to change growth patterns, indicating that the calcium dipicolinic acid was not solubilized under the conditions tested. Although incompatible with the portable diagnostic device, the experiments proved that the rapid germination chemistry was effective in increasing cell germination.

  15. Increasing the complexity of a refinery: a analysis of the economic impacts of the introduction of new process in refineries; O aumento da complexidade de uma refinaria: uma analise dos impactos economicos da introducao de novos processos em refinarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontes, Cristiane M.; Seidl, Peter R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The importance of the refining segment in the oil productive chain turns decision making on production and investment to be made at refineries dependent upon general context of the oil industry. Several technical and economic factors limit the possibilities to be foreseen by the managers. The ultimate goal of a refinery is to meet market demand in a region. Moreover, the type of processed oil and refining techniques will shape the profile of the production of derivatives. In a segment dynamic and full of uncertainties, such as refining, where the type of oil supplied to processing, specifications of products, and their demands, changes in the course of time, how to keep refining margins acceptable? This paper presents the relationship between the characteristics and the use of different kinds of oil, the characteristics of the national market of derivatives, and some characteristics of the refining processes considered in the study. The possible economic impacts that the introduction of different processes can bring to a refinery are analysed and alternatives for expansion are evaluated. To achieve these goals, a methodology for analysis considering the yield of Marlin oil refining for different schemes has been developed. (author)

  16. Essays in applied economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arano, Kathleen

    Three independent studies in applied economics are presented. The first essay looks at the US natural gas industrial sector and estimates welfare effects associated with the changes in natural gas regulatory policy over the past three decades. Using a disequilibrium model suited to the natural gas industry, welfare transfers and deadweight losses are calculated. Results indicate that deregulation policies, beginning with the NGPA of 1978, have caused the industry to become more responsive to market conditions. Over time, regulated prices converge toward the estimated equilibrium prices. As a result of this convergence, deadweight losses associated with regulation are also diminished. The second essay examines the discounted utility model (DU), the standard model used for intertemporal decision-making. Prior empirical studies challenge the descriptive validity of the model. This essay addresses the four main inconsistencies that have been raised: domain dependence, magnitude effects, time effects, and gain/loss asymmetries. These inconsistencies, however, may be the result of the implicit assumption of linear utility and not a failure of the DU model itself. In order to test this hypothesis, data was collected from in-class surveys of economics classes at Mississippi State University. A random effects model for panel data estimation which accounts for individual specific effects was then used to impute discount rates measured in terms of dollars and utility. All four inconsistencies were found to be present when the dollar measures were used. Using utility measures of the discount rate resolved the inconsistencies in some cases. The third essay brings together two perspectives in the study of religion and economics: modeling religious behavior using economic tools and variables, and modeling economic behavior using religious variables. A system of ordered probit equations is developed to simultaneously model religious activities and economic outcomes. Using data

  17. Rapid development of fungicide resistance by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa on turfgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Young-Ki; Chang, Seog Won; Boehm, Michael; Jung, Geunhwa

    2008-12-01

    Dollar spot, caused by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, is the most prevalent and economically important turfgrass disease in North America. Increasing levels of fungicide resistance, coupled with tightening environmental scrutiny of existing fungicides, has left fewer options for managing dollar spot. More knowledge about S. homoeocarpa populations is needed to improve dollar spot management strategies, especially with respect to minimizing the development of fungicide resistance. Population diversity of S. homoeocarpa was examined using inter-simple sequence repeat markers and vegetative compatibility assays. Two subgroups were found in S. homoeocarpa field populations on both fairway and putting green turfgrass at a research field in Wisconsin. These subgroups were genetically different, vegetatively incompatible, and had different fungicide sensitivities. The frequency of the two genetic subgroups differed significantly between the fairway and putting green, but was uniform within the fairway or within the green. Population dynamics of S. homoeocarpa in response to two systemic fungicides (thiophanate-methyl and propiconazole) were assessed based on in vitro fungicide sensitivity. Dynamics of S. homoeocarpa populations depended on the presence of fungicide-resistant isolates in the initial populations before fungicide applications and changed rapidly after fungicide applications. Shifting of the population toward propiconazole resistance was gradual, whereas thiophanate-methyl resistance developed rapidly in the population. In conclusion, field populations of S. homoeocarpa containing genetically distinct, vegetatively incompatible groups were different on turfgrass that was managed differently, and they were changed rapidly after exposure to fungicides.

  18. Economic value of walkability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litman, T.

    2004-10-12

    Traditional transportation planning and evaluation practices treat walking as a minor transport mode. However, it is evident that walking is a critical component of the transport system. This paper presents a series of methods to evaluate the value of walking and walkability, which is defined as the quality of walking conditions, including safety, comfort and convenience. The socio-economic benefits of walking and walkability were discussed, including basic mobility, consumer cost savings and reduced external costs. Efficient land use, community livability, improved public health, economic development and support for equity objectives were also presented as potential benefits. It was concluded that walking receives less than its appropriate share of transportation resources, and that improvements in walkability can provide a high economic return on investment. Increased government funding to walking facilities and programs was recommended. Other recommendations included: shifting road space from traffic and parking lanes to sidewalks and paths; and policies to create more walkable safety and comfort. These recommendations comply with other transport and land use management reforms to reduce automobile dependency and create greater accessibility. refs., tabs., figs.

  19. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  20. Essays on labor economics.

    OpenAIRE

    Centeno, Mário José Gomes de Freitas

    2000-01-01

    Doctor of Philosophy in subject of Economics This thesis studies three different aspects of the labor market functioning. In the first chapter I investigate how the unemployment insurance (UI) system affects match quality. The argument is that UI enables workers to sort themselves into bet­ ter jobs. I present a model of job-search that predicts procyclical match quality and that higher UI reduces mismatch over the cycle. Using data from the NLSY I find that a higher level of UI increases ...

  1. Neuroeconomics and Health Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    ://www.integratedhomecare.eu/ . III. In-depth-relaxation is evidenced as the result of regular practice of medical meditation comprising various practical meditation settings by NGOs whereof some are rooted in the religious tradition while other aim to be post-religious. Medical meditation combines savings on health care costs...... with de-stressing benefits as reduced anxiety, less use of stimulants and a reduction of blood pressure which in all increase life-expectancy. Conclusion: Neuroeconomics helps economists to identify dominant health economic interventions that may be overlooked by traditional discipålines   [i] This part...

  2. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the smallest air passages of the lungs in children ( bronchiolitis ) Pneumonia or other lung infection Transient tachypnea of the newborn Anxiety and panic Other serious lung disease Home Care Rapid, shallow breathing should not be treated at home. It is ...

  3. Rapid Strep Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worse than normal. Your first thoughts turn to strep throat. A rapid strep test in your doctor’s office ... your suspicions.Viruses cause most sore throats. However, strep throat is an infection caused by the Group A ...

  4. Engaging Undergraduates in Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajwani, Kiran; Miron, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Siegfried and Stock (2007) explore the undergraduate training of PhD economists. Their findings show that among U.S. undergraduate economics programs, the Harvard University Economics Department produces many eventual economics PhD recipients. In this article, the authors discuss Harvard's undergraduate economics program and highlight some key…

  5. RAPID3? Aptly named!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, J-M

    2014-01-01

    The RAPID3 score is the sum of three 0-10 patient self-report scores: pain, functional impairment on MDHAQ, and patient global estimate. It requires 5 seconds for scoring and can be used in all rheumatologic conditions, although it has mostly been used in rheumatoid arthritis where cutoffs for low disease activity (12/30) have been set. A RAPID3 score of ≤ 3/30 with 1 or 0 swollen joints (RAPID3 ≤ 3 + ≤ SJ1) provides remission criteria comparable to Boolean, SDAI, CDAI, and DAS28 remission criteria, in far less time than a formal joint count. RAPID3 performs as well as the DAS28 in separating active drugs from placebos in clinical trials. RAPID3 also predicts subsequent structural disease progression. RAPID3 can be determined at short intervals at home, allowing the determination of the area under the curve of disease activity between two visits and flare detection. However, RAPID3 should not be seen as a substitute for DAS28 and face to face visits in routine care. Monitoring patient status with only self-report information without a rheumatologist's advice (including joints and physical examination, and consideration of imaging and laboratory tests) may indeed be as undesirable for most patients than joint examination without a patient questionnaire. Conversely, combining the RAPID3 and the DAS28 may consist in faster or more sensitive confirmation that a medication is effective. Similarly, better enquiring of most important concerns of patients (pain, functional status and overall opinion on their disorder) should reinforces patients' confidence in their rheumatologist and treatments.

  6. [Economic theory and the environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yachir, F

    1992-01-01

    The environment, on the eve of a new century, has become a major theme for reflection and action in both developed and developing countries. Economists and economic theory have until recently neglected the environment and have implicitly assumed that nature offers unlimited space for expansion and an inexhaustible supply of resources. Among natural resources, economists have always distinguished between those whose supply is in no way related to human labor and which are therefore common property, such as air and water, and those whose effective supply depends on labor and for which the appropriation can be private, such as the products of the soil and subsoil. The founders of the discipline of economics defined economic goods as those resulting from the application of labor to nature and which formally belong to a specific individual or group. It has become increasingly clear, however, that economic activity can reduce the effective availability of resources not considered "economic." The growing scarcity of these common goods may then induce their privatization. The inability of economic science to conceive of the exhaustibility of natural resources or the possibility of their permanent reduction in quality through human activity reflects the specific historic and philosophic context of the development of economics as a science. England in the late 18th and 19th centuries, where economics largely originated, was a colonial power able to expand outward in its quest for resources. Industrial requirements for nonrenewable resources remained relatively limited in the early years of industrialization. Most significantly, the growing technological capability was accompanied by a new belief that human beings could be in control of nature. A critique of economic theory from an environmental perspective must therefore begin with a critique of its philosophical assumptions. A new vision of interaction between the economy and nature must be developed which acknowledges the

  7. Ranking economic history journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2010-01-01

    This study ranks-for the first time-12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We also...... compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential for economic...

  8. Economic Values and Resource Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Mikael Malmaeus

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Absolute decoupling of GDP growth from resource use implies that economic output can be increased without simultaneously increasing input. The essential meaning of this proposition is that the economic values that represent the GDP can be realized by increasing resource efficiency. Given that the GDP is first and foremost a measure of economic activity rather than welfare the possibility of absolute decoupling is theoretically limited. This paper demonstrates theoretically and empirically that economic values at the macroeconomic level are fundamentally determined by the use of production factors, primarily labor and physical capital. Technical innovations or efficiency gains increasing utility without raising the costs of production do not add to the GDP unless they stimulate investments in physical capital. Hence the neoclassical notion of productivity is only found to be relevant as a microeconomic concept. In practice, GDP growth is mostly explained by capital accumulation and a key question is whether or not capital accumulation can be decoupled from the use of materials and energy. This will determine the possibility of decoupling of GDP growth from resource use and environmental impact. Alternative measures of progress focusing on welfare rather than economic activity are more likely to achieve absolute decoupling.

  9. Monetary economics from econophysics perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovenko, Victor M.

    2016-12-01

    This is an invited article for the Discussion and Debate special issue of The European Physical Journal Special Topics on the subject "Can Economics be a Physical Science?" The first part of the paper traces the personal path of the author from theoretical physics to economics. It briefly summarizes applications of statistical physics to monetary transactions in an ensemble of economic agents. It shows how a highly unequal probability distribution of money emerges due to irreversible increase of entropy in the system. The second part examines deep conceptual and controversial issues and fallacies in monetary economics from econophysics perspective. These issues include the nature of money, conservation (or not) of money, distinctions between money vs. wealth and money vs. debt, creation of money by the state and debt by the banks, the origins of monetary crises and capitalist profit. Presentation uses plain language understandable to laypeople and may be of interest to both specialists and general public.

  10. THE RELEVANCE OF ECONOMIC INFORMATION IN ANALYZING THE ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRUTA MIRCEA IOAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The performance analysis is based on an informational system, which provides financial information in various formatsand with various applicabilities.We intend to formulate a set of important caracteristics of financial information along with identifying a set of relevant financial rates and indicatorsused to appreciate the performance level of a company. Economic performance can be interpreted in different ways at each level of analysis. Generally, it refers to economic growth, increased productivity and profitability. The growth of labor productivity or increased production per worker is a measure of efficient use of resources in value creation.

  11. Contextual background to the rapid increase in migration from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Brigade which was a North Korea-trained military outfit. The CCJP (1997) estimated that a total of 20 000 civilians were massacred in Matabeleland and the Midlands Provinces. Those targeted were accused of harbouring dissidents. Peace was only restored after the signing of the. Unity Accord between ZANU PF and ...

  12. Contextual background to the rapid increase in migration from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... documented and undocumented migrants dispersed in countries in the region, predominantly South Africa and Botswana, and far-flung countries like the United Kingdom, the United States of America, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Whereas in the past male migration was dominant, by 2000 women have migrated ...

  13. rapid increase in precaution The global financial crisis: origin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-05-01

    May 1, 2010 ... Abstract. The financial crisis that erupted in September 2008—following more than two years of financial turmoil has become global crisis for the world economy. An attempt is made in this study to assess the possible causes of the origin, contagion and impact of the current global financial crisis with ...

  14. Innovative rapid construction/reconstruction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Innovative construction and reconstruction methods provide the opportunity to significantly reduce the time of roadway projects while maintaining the necessary quality of workmanship. The need for these rapid methods stems from the increase in ...

  15. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; economic uses fact sheet 03: economic impacts of fuel treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    With increased interest in reducing hazardous fuels in dry inland forests of the American West, agencies and the public will want to know the economic impacts of fuel reduction treatments. This fact sheet discusses the economic impact tool, a component of My Fuel Treatment Planner, for evaluating economic impacts.

  16. Economic impact of refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J Edward; Filipski, Mateusz J; Alloush, Mohamad; Gupta, Anubhab; Rojas Valdes, Ruben Irvin; Gonzalez-Estrada, Ernesto

    2016-07-05

    In 2015, the United Nations High Commission for Refugees accommodated over 15 million refugees, mostly in refugee camps in developing countries. The World Food Program provided these refugees with food aid, in cash or in kind. Refugees' impacts on host countries are controversial and little understood. This unique study analyzes the economic impacts of refugees on host-country economies within a 10-km radius of three Congolese refugee camps in Rwanda. Simulations using Monte Carlo methods reveal that cash aid to refugees creates significant positive income spillovers to host-country businesses and households. An additional adult refugee receiving cash aid increases annual real income in the local economy by $205 to $253, significantly more than the $120-$126 in aid each refugee receives. Trade between the local economy and the rest of Rwanda increases by $49 to $55. The impacts are lower for in-kind food aid, a finding relevant to development aid generally.

  17. Economics of Privacy: Users'€™ Attitudes and Economic Impact of Information Privacy Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Frik, Alisa

    2017-01-01

    This doctoral thesis consists of three essays within the field of economics of information privacy examined through the lens of behavioral and experimental economics. Rapid development and expansion of Internet, mobile and network technologies in the last decades has provided multitudinous opportunities and benefits to both business and society proposing the customized services and personalized offers at a relatively low price and high speed. However, such innovations and progress have al...

  18. Information security: where computer science, economics and psychology meet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ross; Moore, Tyler

    2009-07-13

    Until ca. 2000, information security was seen as a technological discipline, based on computer science but with mathematics helping in the design of ciphers and protocols. That perspective started to change as researchers and practitioners realized the importance of economics. As distributed systems are increasingly composed of machines that belong to principals with divergent interests, incentives are becoming as important to dependability as technical design. A thriving new field of information security economics provides valuable insights not just into 'security' topics such as privacy, bugs, spam and phishing, but into more general areas of system dependability and policy. This research programme has recently started to interact with psychology. One thread is in response to phishing, the most rapidly growing form of online crime, in which fraudsters trick people into giving their credentials to bogus websites; a second is through the increasing importance of security usability; and a third comes through the psychology-and-economics tradition. The promise of this multidisciplinary research programme is a novel framework for analysing information security problems-one that is both principled and effective.

  19. Ranking Economic History Journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    This study ranks - for the first time - 12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We...... also compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential...

  20. Determinants of economic (inequality and its implications for sustainable economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimir Lekovic

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Research focusing on specific key aspects of economic inequality, as well as economic equality, by analyzing numerous theoretical, methodological and empirical views concerning the mentioned socio-economic phenomena aims to identify the following related and relevant aspects that affect the efficiency of the functioning of a modern economy: a economic inequality that has a stimulating effect on the creative, productive and innovative use of all production factors positively affects the functioning of the economy and is socially justifiable; b high level of economic inequality which shows a tendency to further increase has a negative effect on the economic system indicators, as well as the stability of the society and the political environment, therefore resulting in weaker economic performance and lower economic growth rate; c economic equality (certainly, not egalitarianism by contributing to greater social and political stability, which in turn reflects positively on the economic stability and efficiency, is the basis for greater success of the modern economy and dynamic economic growth rates. The main result of this study is assessing the basic factors of high and rising economic inequality and its implications for the functioning of modern economies, and accordingly, pointing to the need to implement economic policies that would lower economic inequality and mitigate its adverse consequences for the economy and the society.

  1. New policy challenges on a changing economic landscape | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-27

    Jan 27, 2011 ... Profile of IDRC's Social and Economic Policy (SEP) program area. The current era of economic globalization has brought high expectations — but also some profound disappointments — to people in the developing world. Rapid growth, particularly on the part of the robust Asian economies of India and ...

  2. The role of library in Nigeria's economic development process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the function of library as an organ of information dissemination and utilisation in Nigeria's economic development process. It emphasised the fact that adequate information that can facilitate rapid economic development in Nigeria can only be provided through the establishment and adequate funding of ...

  3. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Rapid Cycling and its Treatment What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar ... to Depression and Manic Depression . What is rapid cycling? Rapid cycling is defined as four or more ...

  4. The Economic Crisis and Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede

    of sustainable energy solutions involves the replacement of imported fossil fuels by substantial investments in energy conservation and renewable energy. In such situation, it becomes increasingly essential to develop economic thinking and economic models that can analyse the concrete institutions in which...... the market is embedded. This paper presents such tools and methodologies and applies them to the case of the Danish heating sector. The case shows how investments in decreasing fossil fuels and CO2 emissions can be made in a way in which they have a positive influence on job creation and economic development......This paper presents Concrete Institutional Economics as an economic paradigm to understand how the wish for sustainable energy in times of economic crisis can be used to generate jobs as well as economic growth. In most countries, including European countries, the USA and China, the implementation...

  5. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND EQUALITY IN REDUCING POVERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Muttaqin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In some developing countries, the instrument to alleviate the poverty is by using the economic growth. So, the increasing in investment, infrastructure development, and macroeconomics stability always be priority from developing countries. In this article explain that economic growth is not the important factor to alleviate the poverty, because equality sometimes is more important rather than the economic growth. In this context, its measure by inequality growth trade off index (IGTI. This method is to measure the influence of economic growth to reducing the inequality, with this method every country can measure which one is better to reducing the poverty whether the economic growth or equality. With this method, Laos in 2000 show that economic growth is more important than equality, but in the same year in Thailand show that equality is more important than economic growth.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v1i1.2592

  6. The Economics Degree in Australia: Down but Not out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, David K.; Shanahan, Martin P.

    2010-01-01

    Before 1980, strong demand existed in Australia for the economics degree. Since then, competition from programs in business and management has increased. Student preferences have shifted from university and secondary economics. Economics enrollments have declined in both sectors. The authors analyze these trends and assess economic education…

  7. Health economic evaluation in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovithis, Dimitrios

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing volume of literature on health economic evaluation, with this form of analysis becoming increasingly influential at the decision-making level worldwide. The purpose of this study was to review the current state of health economic evaluation in Greece, with a view to uncovering reasons why its use in this country is limited. A search of the NHS Economic Evaluation Database was undertaken. The search included cost, cost-of-illness, cost-minimization, cost-effectiveness, cost-consequences, cost-utility, and cost-benefit analyses and was narrowed only to Greek authors undertaking solo or joint health economic evaluation in Greece. The search revealed that, in Greece, very little health economic evaluation has been undertaken. The main reason for the lack of interest is that the current chaotic healthcare system structure and financing does not provide the appropriate incentives to stimulate a powerful interest in this type of research. This condition is a result of the lack of a long-term national health policy and the hesitation of the present and past Greek governments to date to proceed to large-scale reforms because of political considerations. The Greek governments have also been content with the good health indicators being achieved. Even if it is accepted that good health prevails in Greece, slower economic growth rates, an ageing population, and the continuous immigration will place increasing pressure on healthcare resources and will necessitate a more rational use of these resources. Health economic evaluation, by weighing benefits against costs, therefore, has an important role to play.

  8. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available . Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  9. Rapid Prototyping in PVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Butler, Ricky (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    PVSio is a conservative extension to the PVS prelude library that provides basic input/output capabilities to the PVS ground evaluator. It supports rapid prototyping in PVS by enhancing the specification language with built-in constructs for string manipulation, floating point arithmetic, and input/output operations.

  10. Rapid Prototyping Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosier, James

    2011-01-01

    Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…

  11. Economics of pediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Michael J; Phillips, Linda G

    2008-07-01

    Sustaining a burn injury sets in motion a cycle of pain, disfigurement, and a search for survival. In pediatric burns, the injury extends to the parents where fear, ignorance, and helplessness forever change their lives. Pediatric burn injuries are caused by fire, hot liquids, clothing irons, hair curlers, caustic substances like drain cleaner, the grounding of an electrical source, and exposure to radiation. Efficiency in the delivery of pediatric burn care is critical. Maximizing resource utilization means continual self-evaluation and economic analysis of therapeutic modalities. Griffiths et al found that most childhood burns are due to scalds, which can be treated for $1061 per percent burn. Paddock et al reduced the cost of treating superficial pediatric burns and reduced the length of stay in hospital using silver-impregnated gauze over traditional methods. Barrett et al found improved cosmesis of skin grafts using cultured epithelial autografts but at a substantially increased cost. Corpron et al showed that pediatric burn units that treat burns >10% total body surface area and operative treatment of pediatric burns regardless of size generate positive revenue. There is a paucity of evidentiary pediatric burn economic data. More research is needed to address areas of pediatric burn care inefficiency. Improving knowledge of cost in all health care endeavors will create competition and drive down expenditures.

  12. Partners in Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Regina M. J.

    1981-01-01

    A key element for economic revitalization, the local labor market development, can be supported by colleges and universities in coordination with business and government. The Human Resources Management Center, a strategic model for managing economic dislocations, is described. (MLW)

  13. Economics and Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Alan K.

    Economic matters are often entangled with interventions. Aid agencies need to understand where they can have the highest leverage, and where aid may cause harmful economic distortions. Humanitarian interventions in crises will be more effective if the economic and social root causes of the crisis are addressed as well. The root causes of insurgencies often include economic issues, particularly economic discrimination. Planners for military operations in a country need to know the economic side effects of military activities, including the effects of withdrawal. Government agencies trying to bring developed-nation investors into a developing country must understand, along with the potential investors, what the economic prospects of the economy are, and how safe an investment is (or is not). Economic modeling and analysis can assist in each of these cases.

  14. Globalization and economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Divar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization is nothing, really, that the universality of capitalism. Not globalized culture, and economic participation, and human rights, ... has only globalized market. We must react by substituting those materialistic values with cooperative economy.

  15. Botswana Journal of Economics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Botswana Journal of Economics is a professional journal established for the dissemination of contemporary economic issues–theoretical, methodological, and policy relevant–in the context of both the immediate environment and the wider international community.

  16. STRUCTURE OF ECONOMIC MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Podderegina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers and analyzes scientific approaches of economists to the essence and contents of the economic mechanism. Proposals for methodological formation of economic mechanism structure are substantiated in the paper.

  17. ECONOMIC CRISIS SUSTAINS BLACK MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicoi Daniel -Ioan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to bring out the fact that during the periods of economic crisis, the black market finds a warm place to develop and even to diversify the ways of expressing. Based on some data of the National Institute of Statistics and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD1 , I’m trying to prove the fact that during the last two years while the world economic crisis has occurred, the black market has been increasing and there have been new forms of expressing this phenomenon. Although there are some positive ways of this phenomenon, on the whole, the increasing of the black market percent of GDP represents a wound within a healthy economy, which if it cannot be stopped at least to be reduced. This work intends to make radiography of the present economic society, a period of economic crisis, during which the black market has found a warm place to express and extend, in most of the countries, including the developed ones, this phenomenon has reached alarming limits.

  18. Advances in mathematical economics

    CERN Document Server

    Maruyama, Toru

    2017-01-01

    The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who are seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking effective mathematical tools for their research. A lot of economic problems can be formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories.

  19. Advances in mathematical economics

    CERN Document Server

    Maruyama, Toru

    2016-01-01

    The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who are seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking effective mathematical tools for their research. A lot of economic problems can be formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories.

  20. Advances in mathematical economics

    CERN Document Server

    Yamazaki, Akira

    2006-01-01

    A lot of economic problems can formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories. The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who were seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking for effective mathematical tools for their researchers.

  1. Economics of Blockchain

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Sinclair; De Filippi, Primavera; Potts, Jason

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Claims blockchain is more than just ICT innovation, but facilitates new types of economic organization and governance. Suggests two approaches to economics of blockchain: innovation-centred and governance-centred. Argues that the governance approach — based in new institutional economics and public choice economics — is most promising, because it models blockchain as a new technology for creating spontaneous organizations, i.e. new types of economies. Illustrates this ...

  2. Advances in mathematical economics

    CERN Document Server

    Yamazaki, Akira

    2006-01-01

    A lot of economic problems can formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions.Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories. The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who were seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking for effective mathematical tools for their researchers.

  3. The Economics of Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    The literature on business networks is often oversocialized. The economic side of business is implicitly assumed. This paper analyses the economics of network behavior by loking at each of the key concepts in the Network Theory.......The literature on business networks is often oversocialized. The economic side of business is implicitly assumed. This paper analyses the economics of network behavior by loking at each of the key concepts in the Network Theory....

  4. Advances in mathematical economics

    CERN Document Server

    Maruyama, Toru

    2014-01-01

    A lot of economic problems can be formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories. The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who are seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking effective mathematical tools for their research.

  5. Population growth and economic development: the case of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coale, A J

    1978-01-01

    A review of events in Mexico since the publication in 1958 of Coale and Hoover's "Population Growth and Economic Development in Low Income Countries," in which they concluded that a low income country with high fertility would achieve better progress if it could reduce its fertility than if it did not do so. India and Mexico were the cases considered. Over the 20 years from 1955-75 the population of Mexico more than doubled, slightly exceeding Coale and Hoover's high projections. During that time Mexico saw substantial economic progress: a 72% increase in the proportion of primary school age children actually attending school; a 26% increase in literacy; an 89% increase in per capita income at constant prices; a 38% increase in the urban population; and a 27% rise in the average duration of life. These figures reveal the error of assuming that rapid population increase in a poor country leads inevitably to malnutrition, impoverishment, and social collapse, but also show that economic development does not automatically lead to a slowing of population growth. If Mexican fertility had fallen beginning in 1955, the population under 15 would have been most effected. The income per equivalent adult consumer might have been higher, the gains in school attendance and literacy might have covered a larger percentage of the population, and declining rather than increasing absolute numbers of persons might have been unaffected by the gains. Creation of employment opportunities for fewer persons entering the labor force would have been easier than for the large number of new entrants who will need work over the next 20 years.

  6. Economic Recovery vs. Defense Spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grasse, Robert; Murphy, Paul

    1981-01-01

    Evaluates President Reagan's proposed military buildup in light of the cuts such expenditures would necessitate in approximately 300 domestic programs. Suggests that the dramatic proposed increase in military spending risks higher inflation and slower economic growth. Concludes with a plea for rethinking of Reagan's dramatic shift in national…

  7. Economic drivers of mineral supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lorie A.; Sullivan, Daniel E.; Sznopek, John L.

    2003-01-01

    The debate over the adequacy of future supplies of mineral resources continues in light of the growing use of mineral-based materials in the United States. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the quantity of new materials utilized each year has dramatically increased from 161 million tons2 in 1900 to 3.2 billion tons in 2000. Of all the materials used during the 20th century in the United States, more than half were used in the last 25 years. With the Earth?s endowment of natural resources remaining constant, and increased demand for resources, economic theory states that as depletion approaches, prices rise. This study shows that many economic drivers (conditions that create an economic incentive for producers to act in a particular way) such as the impact of globalization, technological improvements, productivity increases, and efficient materials usage are at work simultaneously to impact minerals markets and supply. As a result of these economic drivers, the historical price trend of mineral prices3 in constant dollars has declined as demand has risen. When price is measured by the cost in human effort, the price trend also has been almost steadily downward. Although the United States economy continues its increasing mineral consumption trend, the supply of minerals has been able to keep pace. This study shows that in general supply has grown faster than demand, causing a declining trend in mineral prices.

  8. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Kazungu

    Debates on the importance of domestic resource mobilization (DRM) for economic growth ... DRM in developing countries include rampant corruption in the tax system, low compliance attitude among taxpayers, low .... and electronic payment systems which significantly lowered compliance cost and increased convenience.

  9. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Kazungu

    required to manage and finance natural monopolies. 2.2 The Keynesian School of Thought ... This is because the costs of financing loans will be high for the private firms. Thus, an increase ..... in the economic growth function. Therefore, these findings confirm the conservation hypothesis and imply that government.

  10. Resources, environment and economic development in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpala, A O

    1995-06-01

    It is argued that Nigeria must focus on effective environmentally protective intensive farming, resource management methods, and strong family planning programs. Other contributory factors are recognized as the lack of democracy and the "ill-advised" internal policies of the government. The emphasis is on man-made decisions about migration, natality, and land use practices that have ecological consequences that significantly affect the economy. Land degradation in Nigeria is attributed to improper agricultural and husbandry practices. Land degradation has severe ecological, economic, and human costs. Awareness of environmental problems in Nigeria is growing. Natural disasters such as the droughts of 1984-85, continued soil depletion, accumulations of soil wastes, increased flooding in urban areas, and land erosion in Anambra state are evidence of the growing environmental problems. Agricultural development should involve changing rural land use practices, using technology that is "appropriate" to the climate, crops, and culture of the people, and introducing agroforestry. Population growth in Nigeria puts pressure on the fragile ecosystem. Actual carrying capacity is a rough calculation. Nigeria's population growth patterns follow a pattern that suggests population pressure on carrying capacity. The acceleration of population growth has strained the traditional system of agriculture. Land is overused, and cultivation continues on unsuitable land. Domestic policies during the oil boom encouraged rapid industrialization at the expense of the environment. Migration increased to urban centers, but cities did not provide suitable housing, waste disposal, safe water supplies, and other basic facilities.

  11. ECONOMICS OF COPYRIGHT:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MLR

    The Emergence of Economic Analysis of Law. 1.1. Law and Economics: A Lasting Love Affair. Until recently, the overlapping academic interests of law and economics mostly comprised of the following areas: antitrust law, regulated industries, tax and determination of monetary damages. However, since the early 1960s, the.

  12. Shea Stadium: Economic Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norflus, David

    1978-01-01

    The author describes a course which links sports and economics. The course encompassed 28 lessons, which are listed, and which gave students the opportunity to work with charts, graphs, the Consumer Price Index, lifetime wages, and other economic data. A noticeable change in attitudes toward economics was demonstrated. (KC)

  13. Essays on economic cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de E.A. (Bert)

    2006-01-01

    Schumpeter’s line of thought of multiple economic cycles is further investigated. The existence of multiple cycles in economic variables is demonstrated. In basic innovations five different cycles are found. Multiple cycle structures are shown in various macro-economic variables from the United

  14. Behavioral Economics and Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Sunstein, Cass R.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral economics explores why people sometimes fail to make rational decisions, and how their behavior departs from the predictions of standard economic models. Insights gained from studies in behavioral economics are used in consumer research and consumer policy to understand and improve ind...... individuals' decisions about health, wealth, and happiness....

  15. Foundations of economic change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantner, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    This paper employs the Schumpeterian approach to the development of economies in order to identify the core building blocks of a theory of endogenous economic change. Borders and insights are widened by combining concepts and findings from behavioral economics, from evolutionary economics, and from...

  16. Energy and Economic Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonenblum, Sidney

    This report reviews the economic impacts of the energy dilemma. Presented are viewpoints that have emerged relating to: (1) the desirability of economic growth; (2) the relationship between economic growth and energy usage; (3) the effects of energy wage in limiting or expanding the opportunities for growth; and (4) whether there is some sense in…

  17. Economics: It's Your Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Henry

    This document is a text for teaching economics. The book is divided into seven units. Unit 1 is called "What is Economics?" Its seven chapters discuss economics and scarcity, money, the role of the consumer, the role of the producer, capitalism and the free enterprise system, and the circular flow of the economy. The second unit is "How the United…

  18. Did Economic Inequality Cause the Economic Crisis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Danilo Sukovic

    2014-01-01

    ... that occurred during the last three decades. The global economic crisis that emerged in 2008 gave a new impetus to this research because numerous scientific studies appeared in which inequalities were given as one of the key causes...

  19. Economic Modelling in Institutional Economic Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wadim Strielkowski; Evgeny Popov

    2017-01-01

    Our paper is centered around the formation of theory of institutional modelling that includes principles and ideas reflecting the laws of societal development within the framework of institutional economic theory...

  20. Methods of Economic Valuation of The Health Risks Associated with Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalhevet, S.; Haruvy, N.

    The worldwide market for nanomaterials is growing rapidly, but relatively little is still known about the potential risks associated with these materials. The potential health hazards associated with exposure to nanomaterials may lead in the future to increased health costs as well as increased economic costs to the companies involved, as has happened in the past in the case of asbestos. Therefore, it is important to make an initial estimate of the potential costs associated with these health hazards, and to prepare ahead with appropriate health insurance for individuals and financial insurance for companies. While several studies have examined the environmental and health hazards of different nanomaterials by performing life cycle impact assessments, so far these studies have concentrated on the cost of production, and did not estimate the economic impact of the health hazards. This paper discusses methods of evaluating the economic impact of potential health hazards on the public. The proposed method is based on using life cycle impact assessment studies of nanomaterials to estimate the DALYs (Disability Adjusted Life Years) associated with the increased probability of these health hazards. The economic valuation of DALY's can be carried out based on the income lost and the costs of medical treatment. The total expected increase in cost depends on the increase in the statistical probability of each disease.