WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapidly increasing cme

  1. Effects of a CME on Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Thea Vilstrup; Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Brain, D.

    We investigate the effects of a Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) on Mars. The magnetic field in the magnetic pileup region on Mars is dominated by the dynamic pressure from the solar as increased dynamic pressure compresses the magnetic pileup region causing a larger magnetic pressure, until...... this balances the solar wind pressure. As the dynamic pressure is severely increased during a CME, so is the magnetic pressure. A CME are also typically connected to a Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) event, causing large amounts of radiation. When the shock front of a CME arrives at Mars strong signals are seen...... in both the magnetic field data and in the radiation data. Based on Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Magnetometer (MAG) and Electron Reflectometer (ER) data we study the radiation and magnetic field variations on Mars during a CME event. We also compare the effects on Mars to the effects on Earth for the same...

  2. CHARACTERISTICS OF KINEMATICS OF A CORONAL MASS EJECTION DURING THE 2010 AUGUST 1 CME-CME INTERACTION EVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temmer, Manuela; Rollett, Tanja; Bein, Bianca; Moestl, Christian; Veronig, Astrid M.; Flor, Olga [Kanzelhoehe Observatory-IGAM, Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitaetsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Vrsnak, Bojan; Zic, Tomislav [Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb, Kaciceva 26, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); De Koning, Curt A. [NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Liu, Ying [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bosman, Eckhard [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-8042 Graz (Austria); Davies, Jackie A.; Bothmer, Volker [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Goettingen University, Friedrich-Hund Platz 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Harrison, Richard [RAL Space, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Nitta, Nariaki [Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Centre, Palo Alto, CA 94304-1191 (United States); Bisi, Mario [Institute of Mathematics and Physics, Aberystwyth University, Ceredigion SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Eastwood, Jonathan; Forsyth, Robert [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Odstrcil, Dusan, E-mail: mat@igam.uni-graz.at [Computational and Data Sciences, George Mason University/NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 674, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-04-10

    We study the interaction of two successive coronal mass ejections (CMEs) during the 2010 August 1 events using STEREO/SECCHI COR and heliospheric imager (HI) data. We obtain the direction of motion for both CMEs by applying several independent reconstruction methods and find that the CMEs head in similar directions. This provides evidence that a full interaction takes place between the two CMEs that can be observed in the HI1 field of view. The full de-projected kinematics of the faster CME from Sun to Earth is derived by combining remote observations with in situ measurements of the CME at 1 AU. The speed profile of the faster CME (CME2; {approx}1200 km s{sup -1}) shows a strong deceleration over the distance range at which it reaches the slower, preceding CME (CME1; {approx}700 km s{sup -1}). By applying a drag-based model we are able to reproduce the kinematical profile of CME2, suggesting that CME1 represents a magnetohydrodynamic obstacle for CME2 and that, after the interaction, the merged entity propagates as a single structure in an ambient flow of speed and density typical for quiet solar wind conditions. Observational facts show that magnetic forces may contribute to the enhanced deceleration of CME2. We speculate that the increase in magnetic tension and pressure, when CME2 bends and compresses the magnetic field lines of CME1, increases the efficiency of drag.

  3. State of Play of CME in Europe in 2013: Proceedings from the Sixth Annual Meeting of the European CME Forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Pozniak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available European CME Forum is a not-for-profit organisation that is dedicated to bringing together all stakeholder groups with an interest in European Continuing Medical Education (CME in order to promote multi-channel discussion in an independent and neutral environment. This report summarises the presentations and discussions that took place at the Sixth Annual Meeting of the European CME Forum, held in London on the 14th and 15th November 2013, which was preceded by a series of ‘Day 0’ meetings as pre-meeting sessions for delegates from specific interest groups. The predominant target audience comprised people with an interest in European CME including the accreditation bodies, scientific societies, education providers, industry and European medical communications agencies. The year prior to the meeting saw the introduction of new accreditation standards from UEMS-EACCME, with other accreditors examining how they should be evolving their own; the introduction of the US Physicians’ Payment Sunshine Act and its rather unexpected ramifications in Europe; pharmaceutical companies also starting to employ the grant process for funding CME, and their own increasing insistence on being hands-off from CME programmes. This in turn has led to education providers needing to be more knowledgeable and accountable and looking for their own guidance to help them navigate these evermore complicated waters. Against this back-drop, session themes for the sixth annual meeting were focused on sharing best practices and identifying what constitutes good CME in practice, discussing the role of industry in CME, summarising the latest trends relating to accreditation in Europe, discussing the current legal and regulatory frameworks impacting on CME, and communicating new innovative CME ideas (e.g. relating to e-learning.

  4. Solar eruptions: The CME-flare relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vršnak, B.

    2016-11-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs), caused by large-scale eruptions of the coronal magnetic field, often are accompanied by a more localized energy release in the form of flares, as a result of dissipative magnetic-field reconfiguration. Morphology and evolution of such flares, also denoted as dynamical flares are often explained as a consequence of reconnection of the arcade magnetic field, taking place below the erupting magnetic flux rope. A close relationship of the CME acceleration and the flare energy release is evidenced by various statistical correlations between parameters describing CMEs and flares, as well as by the synchronization of the CME acceleration phase with the impulsive phase of the associated flare. Such behavior implies that there must be a feedback relation between the dynamics of the CME and the flare-associated reconnection process. From the theoretical standpoint, magnetic reconnection affects the CME dynamics in several ways. First, it reduces the tension of the overlying arcade magnetic field and increases the magnetic pressure below the flux rope, and in this way enhances the CME acceleration. Furthermore, it supplies the poloidal magnetic flux to the flux rope, which helps sustaining the electric current in the rope and prolonging the action of the driving Lorentz force to large distances. The role of these processes, directly relating solar flares and CMEs, is illustrated by employing a simple model, where the erupting structure is represented by a curved flux rope anchored at both sides in the dense/inert photosphere, being subject to the kink and torus instability. It is shown that in most strongly accelerated ejections, where values on the order of 10 km s-2 are attained, the poloidal flux supplied to the erupting rope has to be several times larger than was the initial flux.

  5. Comparative effectiveness of non-print media and live CME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuing Medical Education is an integral ingredient of professional development of health care providers. The educational activity can be delivered by different modes. Here we share our experience of using Digital Video Disc (DVD of a CME on Sleep Medicine as an alternative and cost effective mode.Objective: To assess improvement in knowledge and competencies in terms of comparative effectiveness of a model CME program using validated non-print medium for medical education.Methods: Recorded and validated DVD of talks delivered at NAMS-AIIMS Regional Symposium on Sleep Medicine was played to the participants in presence of one of the content experts. Video scripts of talk were also distributed to the participants. The assessment of participants and program evaluation of this CME was compared to the previously held live CME.Results: Eighty nine participants completed both pre and post test. Mean score increased from 9.91± 3.5 to 14.09 ± 2.85. Pass percentage based on an arbitrary cut off of 50%, increased from 8.3 to 43.8 (p< 0.001. Among the live CME group, mean score improved from 12.1±4.6 to 18.3 ± 3.8. Comparative analysis between live and DVD based CME showed improvement in scores of 6.17 and 4.18 respectively while pass percentage of 84.7 and 43.8 post CME among two modes were significant. The program evaluation showed identical level of satisfaction in all parameters except they were less satisfied vis-a-vis 'organizers made use of any critical comments I made' since all locally available resource persons were not present. Activity could be completed at just half the cost of live CME.Conclusions: The educational background and selection process of UG students between two medical institutes were strikingly different. While students at one institute were selected by highly competitive exam at All India level, the students at other institute were selected through state level competitive examination. In spite of that, results showed

  6. CONNECTION BETWEEN THE CME VELOCITIES AND DECAMETER RADIO BURSTS PARAMETERS FROM URAN-4 OBSERVATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Galanin, V. V.; E. A. Isaeva; Kravetz, R. O.

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports the results of the research of connection between the coronal mass ejections (CME) with the IV type continual decameter bursts parameters. As the parameters characterizing the CME velocity, we used the integrated flux of the radio bursts and background intensity on 20 and 25 MHz frequencies. The analysis demonstrated that the connection between the CME velocity and IV type bursts increases, if we take into account the intensity of the radio bursts and background on two polar...

  7. CME 2872.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    parathyroid hormone. Inhibitors of bone formation/turnover. Calcium. The data from the many ... osteoclast function as well as their ability to inhibit osteoblast apoptosis results in a significant increase in BMD. ... increased parathyroid hormone, skin rash. (with all bisphosphonates); osteonecrosis of the jaw (more common in ...

  8. PROPAGATION OF THE 2014 JANUARY 7 CME AND RESULTING GEOMAGNETIC NON-EVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, M. L.; Collinson, G.; Taktakishvili, A. [Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Thompson, B. J.; Jian, L. K.; Savani, N. P.; MacNeice, P. J.; Zheng, Y. [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Colaninno, R. C. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Odstrcil, D. [IGAM-Kanzelhöhe Observatory, Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Graz (Austria); Möstl, C. [George Mason University, Fairfax, VA (United States); Temmer, M., E-mail: m.leila.mays@nasa.gov [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz (Austria)

    2015-10-20

    On 2014 January 7 an X1.2 flare and coronal mass ejection (CME) with a radial speed ≈2500 km s{sup −1} was observed from near an active region close to disk center. This led many forecasters to estimate a rapid arrival at Earth (≈36 hr) and predict a strong geomagnetic storm. However, only a glancing CME arrival was observed at Earth with a transit time of ≈49 hr and a K{sub P} geomagnetic index of only 3−. We study the interplanetary propagation of this CME using the ensemble Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA)–ENLIL+Cone model, that allows a sampling of CME parameter uncertainties. We explore a series of simulations to isolate the effects of the background solar wind solution, CME shape, tilt, location, size, and speed, and the results are compared with observed in situ arrivals at Venus, Earth, and Mars. Our results show that a tilted ellipsoid CME shape improves the initial real-time prediction to better reflect the observed in situ signatures and the geomagnetic storm strength. CME parameters from the Graduated Cylindrical Shell model used as input to WSA–ENLIL+Cone, along with a tilted ellipsoid cloud shape, improve the arrival-time error by 14.5, 18.7, 23.4 hr for Venus, Earth, and Mars respectively. These results highlight that CME orientation and directionality with respect to observatories play an important role in understanding the propagation of this CME, and for forecasting other glancing CME arrivals. This study also demonstrates the importance of three-dimensional CME fitting made possible by multiple viewpoint imaging.

  9. CME 2872.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Osteoporosis is common globally in both women and men. For decades it was thought that osteoporosis was confined to post- menopausal women. However, it is becoming increasingly recognised in pre-menopausal women and in men. In osteoporosis the bone is reduced in mass as well and has altered.

  10. Expanding CME-flare relations to other stellar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschou, Sofia P.; Drake, Jeremy J.; Cohen, Ofer

    2017-05-01

    Stellar activity is one of the main parameters in exoplanet habitability studies. While the effects of UV to X-ray emission from extreme flares on exoplanets are beginning to be investigated, the impact of coronal mass ejections is currently highly speculative because CMEs and their properties cannot yet be directly observed on other stars. An extreme superflare was observed in X-rays on the Algol binary system on August 30 1997, emitting a total of energy 1.4x 10^{37} erg and making it a great candidate for studying the upper energy limits of stellar superflares in solar-type (GK) stars. A simultaneous increase and subsequent decline in absorption during the flare was also observed and interpretted as being caused by a CME. Here we investigate the dynamic properties of a CME that could explain such time-dependent absorption and appeal to trends revealed from solar flare and CME statistics as a guide. Using the ice-cream cone model that is extensively used in solar physics to describe the three-dimensional CME structure, in combination with the temporal profile of the hydrogen column density evolution, we are able to characterize the CME and estimate its kinetic energy and mass. We examine the mass, kinetic and flare X-ray fluence in the context of solar relations to examine the extent to which such relations can be extrapolated to much more extreme stellar events.

  11. Increase in healthcare facilities and rapid environmental degradation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Increase in healthcare facilities and rapid environmental degradation: A technological paradox in. Nigeria's urban centres. Akinwale Coker1* and Mynepalli K. C. Sridhar2. 1Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. 2Division of Environmental Health, Department of ...

  12. Comparison of the instructional efficacy of Internet-based CME with live interactive CME workshops: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordis, Michael; King, Jason E; Ballantyne, Christie M; Jones, Peter H; Schneider, Katharine H; Spann, Stephen J; Greenberg, Stephen B; Greisinger, Anthony J

    2005-09-07

    Despite evidence that a variety of continuing medical education (CME) techniques can foster physician behavioral change, there have been no randomized trials comparing performance outcomes for physicians participating in Internet-based CME with physicians participating in a live CME intervention using approaches documented to be effective. To determine if Internet-based CME can produce changes comparable to those produced via live, small-group, interactive CME with respect to physician knowledge and behaviors that have an impact on patient care. Randomized controlled trial conducted from August 2001 to July 2002. Participants were 97 primary care physicians drawn from 21 practice sites in Houston, Tex, including 7 community health centers and 14 private group practices. A control group of 18 physicians from these same sites received no intervention. Physicians were randomly assigned to an Internet-based CME intervention that could be completed in multiple sessions over 2 weeks, or to a single live, small-group, interactive CME workshop. Both incorporated similar multifaceted instructional approaches demonstrated to be effective in live settings. Content was based on the National Institutes of Health National Cholesterol Education Program--Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. Knowledge was assessed immediately before the intervention, immediately after the intervention, and 12 weeks later. The percentage of high-risk patients who had appropriate lipid panel screening and pharmacotherapeutic treatment according to guidelines was documented with chart audits conducted over a 5-month period before intervention and a 5-month period after intervention. Both interventions produced similar and significant immediate and 12-week knowledge gains, representing large increases in percentage of items correct (pretest to posttest: 31.0% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 27.0%-35.0%]; pretest to 12 weeks: 36.4% [95% CI, 32.2%-40.6%]; P or =93%) with no significant postintervention

  13. Rapid increase in contact allergy to Kathon CG in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannuksela, M

    1986-10-01

    In unselected eczema patients subjected to routine patch testing, the number with positive reactions to Kathon CG 100 ppm increased from none in 1983 to 0.7% in January-August 1985, and to 4.6% in September 1985 to March 1986. Repeated open application tests (ROAT) with creams containing 7-15 ppm of the isothiazolinones were positive in 12 of 24 patients tested. 2 of the ROAT-positive cases had negative patch tests to 100 ppm Kathon CG, but 1 was positive with 200 ppm. Atopic dermatitis, chronic hand dermatitis and lower leg dermatitis were the most common disorders in the positive patients. The cause of the rapid increase of Kathon CG allergy in Finland during the winter of 1985-1986 was the use of a popular moisturizing cream containing first 19 ppm, then 7 ppm of a mixture of 2 isothiazolinones (Euxyl K 100).

  14. Rapid increases in tropospheric ozone production and export from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Willem W.; Neu, Jessica L.; Williams, Jason E.; Bowman, Kevin W.; Worden, John R.; Boersma, K. Folkert

    2015-09-01

    Rapid population growth and industrialization have driven substantial increases in Asian ozone precursor emissions over the past decade, with highly uncertain impacts on regional and global tropospheric ozone levels. According to ozonesonde measurements, tropospheric ozone concentrations at two Asian sites have increased by 1 to 3% per year since 2000, an increase thought to contribute to positive trends in the ozone levels observed at North America’s West Coast. However, model estimates of the Asian contribution to North American ozone levels are not well-constrained by observations. Here we interpret Aura satellite measurements of tropospheric concentrations of ozone and its precursor NO2, along with its largest natural source, stratospheric ozone, using the TM5 global chemistry-transport model. We show that tropospheric ozone concentrations over China have increased by about 7% between 2005 and 2010 in response to two factors: a rise in Chinese emissions by about 21% and increased downward transport of stratospheric ozone. Furthermore, we find that transport from China of ozone and its precursors has offset about 43% of the 0.42 DU reduction in free-tropospheric ozone over the western United States that was expected between 2005 and 2010 as a result of emissions reductions associated with federal, state and local air quality policies. We conclude that global efforts may be required to address regional air quality and climate change.

  15. ForeCAT: Using CME Deflections to Constrain their Mass and the Drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, C.; dos Santos, L. F. G.; Opher, M.

    2014-12-01

    Observations show that CMEs can deflect from a purely radial trajectory yet no consensus exists as to the cause of these deflections. The majority of the deflection motion occurs in the corona at distances where the magnetic energy dominates. Accordingly, many theories attribute the CME deflection to magnetic forces. In Kay et al. (2013) we presented ForeCAT, a model for CME deflections based on the magnetic forces (magnetic tension and magnetic pressure gradients). Kay et al. (2014) introduced an improved three-dimensional version of ForeCAT. Here we study the 2008 December 12 CME which occurred during solar minimum of Solar Cycle 24 (Byrne et al 2010, Gui et al. 2011, Liu et al 2010a,b). This CME erupted from high latitudes, and, despite the weak background magnetic field, deflected to the ecliptic, impacting Earth. From the observations, we are able to constrain all of the ForeCAT input parameters except for the CME mass and the drag coefficient that affects the CME motion. The reduced chi-square best fit to the observations constrains the CME mass range to 3e14 to 7e14 g and the drag coefficient range to 1.9 to 2.4. We explore the effects of a different magnetic background which decreases less rapidly than our standard Potential Field Source Surface (PFSS) model, as type II radio bursts suggest that the PFSS magnetic field decays too rapidly above active regions. For the case of the filament eruption of 2008 December 12 we find that the quiet sun coronal magnetic field should behave similar to the PFSS model. Finally, we present our current work exploring the case of the 2008 April 9 CME.

  16. Connection Between the CME Velocities and Decameter Radio Bursts Parameters from URAN-4 Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanin, V. V.; Isaeva, E. A.; Kravetz, R. O.

    The paper reports the results of the research of connection between the coronal mass ejections (CME) with the IV type continual decameter bursts parameters. As the parameters characterizing the CME velocity, we used the integrated flux of the radio bursts and background intensity on 20 and 25 MHz frequencies. The analysis demonstrated that the connection between the CME velocity and IV type bursts increases, if we take into account the intensity of the radio bursts and background on two polarizations at a given frequency. In this case, the correlation coefficient is ≍ 0.75.

  17. Responsibility of a Filament Eruption for the Initiation of a Flare, CME, and Blast Wave, and its Possible Transformation into a Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechnev, V. V.; Uralov, A. M.; Kuzmenko, I. V.; Kochanov, A. A.; Chertok, I. M.; Kalashnikov, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-instrument observations of two filament eruptions on 24 February and 11 May 2011 suggest the following updated scenario for eruptive flare, coronal mass ejection (CME), and shock wave evolution. An initial destabilization of a filament results in stretching out of the magnetic threads belonging to its body that are rooted in the photosphere along the inversion line. Their reconnection leads to i) heating of parts of the filament or its environment, ii) an initial development of the flare cusp, arcade, and ribbons, iii) an increasing similarity of the filament to a curved flux rope, and iv) to its acceleration. Then the pre-eruption arcade enveloping the filament becomes involved in reconnection according to the standard model and continues to form the flare arcade and ribbons. The poloidal magnetic flux in the curved rope developing from the filament progressively increases and forces its toroidal expansion. This flux rope impulsively expands and produces a magnetohydrodynamical disturbance, which rapidly steepens into a shock. The shock passes through the arcade that expands above the filament and then freely propagates for some time ahead of the CME like a decelerating blast wave. If the CME is slow, then the shock eventually decays. Otherwise, the frontal part of the shock changes into the bow-shock regime. This was observed for the first time in the 24 February 2011 event. When reconnection ceases, the flux rope relaxes and constitutes the CME core-cavity system. The expanding arcade develops into the CME frontal structure. We also found that reconnection in the current sheet of a remote streamer forced by the shock passage results in a running flare-like process within the streamer responsible for a type II burst. The development of dimming and various associated phenomena are discussed.

  18. CME/CPD in the Indian Subcontinent: Proceedings from the 1st regional meeting of Global Alliance for Medical Education (GAME in Mumbai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Srivastava

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In today's fast paced environment, continuing medical education (CME and continuing professional development (CPD play a pivotal role in enhancement of clinical practice and patient care. Getting updated with the latest trends and practices has gained utmost importance for today's healthcare professional, be he or she a family physician, a specialist or a super specialist. In addition, the increased awareness of different diseases among the masses due to exposure to information from the media and Internet makes it vital for the healthcare provider to be aware of the latest knowledge and trends so that patients may be provided with the highest quality of treatment.India today boasts of having the largest number of medical schools in the world with an annual student intake of over 50,000 prospective medical professionals. CME in India is at a rudimentary stage in development, but definitely evolving at a rapid pace. Despite the best efforts of the major stakeholders, such as the Medical Council of India (MCI, medical societies, educational institutions and key opinion leaders (KOLs in the field, the CME scenario in India fails to have a systematic and integrated approach to match international standards. There is a huge need gap because the legislation to make CME mandatory has made little progress. One of the many reasons is that each state in India has its own individual norms, and without a federal system there exists no national guideline for appropriate specialty learning that practising doctors require as part of CPD. There is an unmet need for the provision of the right CME for the right doctor group at the right time to create appropriate learning levels. Therefore CME providers in India need guidance to navigate through rough waters with a multi-modal unbiased approach to bring together the needs of the Indian doctors and the needs of the patient population on a common platform.This report summarises the presentations and discussions that

  19. Humans copy rapidly increasing choices in a multiarmed bandit problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toelch, U.; Bruce, M.J.; Meeus, M.T.H.; Reader, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Conformist social learning, the tendency to acquire the most common trait in a group, allows individuals to rapidly acquire established beneficial traits from a multitude of options. However, conformist strategies hinder acquisition of novel advantageous behavior patterns, because such innovations

  20. Interdisciplinary CME: is the need evident? Results of the evaluation of CME articles in the Journal of the German Medical Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildegard Christ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Medicine has become more and more specialised over the last decades, which in turn has increased the need for interdisciplinary information exchange. The aim of this study is to describe the extent of the need for interdisciplinary knowledge transfer in a contemporary medical specialist population. Methods. We analysed reading by medical specialty of 53 accredited continuing medical education (CME articles published in Deutsches Ärzteblatt (“Journal of the German Medical Association”, which is available to all German physicians. Results. In all, 86,340 physicians participated 1,007,923 times by reading one or more of the 53 articles. In fewer than 50% of all cases, 89.5% of all participants read content belonging to their specialty (rated by self-assessment. The highest percentage of interdisciplinary use of print CME was found in the group of physicians working neither in ambulatory care nor in hospitals, that is, those physicians working in the public health area, with public authorities, etc. Linear regression analysis in the biggest group of specialists (internal medicine showed a tendency for more interdisciplinary use in the group of younger participants, female physicians, and those working in ambulatory care. Conclusion. This study demonstrates a somewhat unexpectedly high interdisciplinary use of medical information from freely available CME articles. The extent of interdisciplinary use of information most probably reflects an individual need of similar magnitude. These findings should stimulate CME providers more often to plan interdisciplinary CME independent of the mode of presentation.

  1. Current-driven flare and CME models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melrose, D. B.

    2017-08-01

    Roles played by the currents in the impulsive phase of a solar flare and in a coronal mass ejection (CME) are reviewed. Solar flares are magnetic explosions: magnetic energy stored in unneutralized currents in coronal loops is released into energetic electrons in the impulsive phase and into mass motion in a CME. The energy release is due to a change in current configuration effectively reducing the net current path. A flare is driven by the electromotive force (EMF) due to the changing magnetic flux. The EMF drives a flare-associated current whose cross-field closure is achieved by redirection along field lines to the chromosphere and back. The essential roles that currents play are obscured in the "standard" model and are described incorrectly in circuit models. A semiquantitative treatment of the energy and the EMF is provided by a multicurrent model, in which the currents are constant and the change in the current paths is described by time-dependent inductances. There is no self-consistent model that includes the intrinsic time dependence, the EMF, the flare-associated current, and the internal energy transport during a flare. The current, through magnetic helicity, plays an important role in a CME, with twist converted into writhe allowing the kink instability plus reconnection to lead to a new closed loop and with the current-current force accelerating the CME through the torus instability.

  2. Tubes, Mono Jets, Squeeze Out and CME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longacre, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-10-23

    Glasma Flux Tubes, Mono Jets with squeeze out flow around them plus the Chiral Magnetic Effect(CME) are physical phenomenon that generate two particle correlation with respect to the reaction plane in mid-central 20% to 30% Au-Au collision √sNN = 200.0 GeV measured at RHIC.

  3. Rapid determination of the hypoxanthine increase in ischemic exercise tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, P. A.; Zwart, R.; Bär, P. R.; de Visser, M.; van der Helm, H. J.

    1988-01-01

    After ischemic exercise tests, performed to detect glycogenoses or myoadenylate deaminase (EC 3.5.4.6) deficiency, the increases in serum lactate and ammonia usually are measured. Determination of hypoxanthine instead of ammonia can also be used to show myoadenylate deaminase deficiency, but HPLC of

  4. CME1003Pg023ED

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    hepatic glycogen synthesis and increased hepatic glucose production. Insulin resis- tance at the level of the adipocyte causes increased lipolysis, resulting in an increase. FRASER PIRIE. MB ChB, FCP (SA), MD. Department of ... bly a reality for most subjects with long-term type 2 diabetes, if gly- caemic targets are to be ...

  5. The rapidly increasing usefulness of social media in urogynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alas, Alexandriah; Sajadi, Kamran P; Goldman, Howard B; Anger, Jennifer T

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the availability and quality of urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse information in social medias and the growth of such information in the past 13 months. We focused on the most popular social medias (Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube) to evaluate the key words "urogynecology," "pelvic organ prolapse," "stress incontinence," "urge incontinence," and "incontinence." Initial evaluation included top 30 search results for key word "incontinence" to compare with our study in 2010, followed by a secondary search using the top 100 items. Results were classified as useful or not useful and then further categorized by health care providers, others, commercial, or humorous in intent. Results with the intent of providing information were presumed to be informative. Comparative search over a 13-month period showed a stable amount of useful information, 40% to 39%, but an increase in the number of health professionals (22% vs 13%). However, of the 817 search results, 406 (50%) were medically useful. Only 28% were written by health professionals, but of the informative results, 56% were written by health professionals. Finally, specific search terms provided the highest relevant and useful information, but also limited the number of search items found. Over 13 months, there was an increase in useful information presented from health professionals. These changes may reflect the medical community's growing awareness of the usefulness of social media. If these trends continue, we predict the use of these medias for medical purposes will continue to increase among medical professionals.

  6. The rapidly increasing trend of cannabis use in burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehle, Charles Christopher; Nazir, Niaman; Bhavsar, Dhaval

    2015-01-01

    The use of cannabis is currently increasing according to U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Surprisingly, cannabis use among burn patients is poorly reported in literature. In this study, rates of cannabis use in burn patients are compared with general population. Data from the National Burn Repository (NBR) were used to investigate incidence, demographics, and outcomes in relation to use of cannabis as evidenced by urine drug screen (UDS). Thousands of patients from the NBR from 2002 to 2011 were included in this retrospective study. Inclusion criteria were patients older than 12 years of age who received a drug screen. Data points analyzed were patients' age, sex, UDS status, mechanism of burn injury, total body surface area, length of stay, ICU days, and insurance characteristics. Incidence of cannabis use in burn patients from the NBR was compared against national general population rates (gathered by Health and Human Services) using chi-square tests. Additionally, the burn patient population was analyzed using bivariate analysis and t-tests to find differences in the characteristics of these patients as well as differences in outcomes. Seventeen thousand eighty out of over 112,000 patients from NBR had information available for UDS. The incidence of cannabis use is increasing among the general population, but the rate is increasing more quickly among patients in the burn patient population (P = .0022). In 2002, 6.0% of patients in burn units had cannabis+ UDS, which was comparable with national incidence of 6.2%. By 2011, 27.0% of burn patients tested cannabis+ while national incidence of cannabis use was 7.0%. Patients who test cannabis+ are generally men (80.1%, P 60% of injuries, followed by scalds that are >15%. In comparing cannabis+/- patients, cannabis+ patients are more likely to be uninsured (25.2% vs 17.26%, P burns (TBSA% of 12.94 vs 10.98, P burn units is growing quickly. These patients are younger and are less likely to be insured

  7. Rapid population increase in an introduced muskox population, West Greenland

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    Carsten Riis Olesen

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1962 and 1965, 27 (13 and 14 muskox yearlings were translocated from East Greenland (71°N to the Angujaartorfiup Nunaa range in West Greenland (67°N. Angujaartorfiup Nunaa is a 6600 km2 icefree, continental area where caribou are indigenous. The climate is strictly continental with a minimum of precipitation but with abundant vegetation. Aerial surveys in 1990 documented that the muskox population has increased to 2600 heads despite quota-based harvesting since 1988. The annual quota was 200, 300 and 400 for 1988, 1989 and 1990, respectively. Distribution of muskoxen shows a significant preference for low altitude habitats southeast of Kangerlussuaq Airport and around Arnangarnup Qoorua (Paradise valley. Annual population increment averages 30% and the calf crop is around 24% of the population. Yearling recruitment in the population reveals that calf mortality during winter is very limited. About half of the 1-year-old females are served and they eventually give birth to their first calf when they turn 2 years old. With half of the 2-year-old females reproducing, the calf/cow ration ranges between 0.9 and 1.0.

  8. CME prediction: present and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerstorfer, Tanja

    2017-04-01

    In the last decade, the prediction of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at Earth has attracted a lot of attention from scientists all over the world. Several organizations monitor the solar activity and the solar wind embracing many of the diverse phenomena related to space weather. Despite the community wide efforts to enhance prediction models, accurately forecasting a CME's arrival time at Earth is not yet possible and the number of false alarms is still too high. With the currently limited observational possibilities of coronagraphs at L1 it may not be possible to improve the prediction error significantly. With the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) the research field of the interplanetary evolution of CMEs got fresh impetus and CMEs propagating outside the field of view of coronagraphs could have been studied in detail. Exploiting STEREO data, several methods were developed to investigate and predict the propagation of CMEs. The logical next step in the field of CME prediction is to use and refine those methods and to envisage future space weather missions where these tools can be deployed. This talk gives an overview on existing forecasting methods and models and risks a foresight into prospective models and ideas, which may enhance CME prediction.

  9. The Formation and Early Evolution of a CME and the Associated Shock on 2014 January 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Linfeng; Cheng, Xin; Shi, Tong; Su, Wei; Ding, Mingde

    2017-08-01

    We study the formation and early evolution of a limb coronal mass ejection (CME) and its associated shock wave that occurred on 2014 January 8. The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images provided by AIA on board \\textit{Solar Dynamics Observatory} disclose that the CME first appears as a bubble-like structure. Subsequently, its expansion forms the CME and causes a quasi-circular EUV wave. Both the CME and the wave front are clearly visible at all of the AIA EUV passbands. Through a detailed kinematical analysis, it is found that the expansion of the CME undergoes two phases: a first phase with a strong but transient lateral over-expansion followed by a second phase with a self-similar expansion. The temporal evolution of the expansion velocity coincides very well with the variation of the 25--50 keV hard X-ray (HXR) flux of the associated flare, which indicates that magnetic reconnection most likely plays an important role in driving the expansion. Moreover, we find that, when the velocity of the CME reaches $\\sim$600 km s$^{-1}$, the EUV wave starts to evolve into a shock wave, which is evidenced by the appearance of a type II radio burst. Interestingly, we also notice an unusual solar radio signal at $\\sim$4 GHz that is similar to the pattern of a type II radio burst but drifts to higher frequencies at a rate of $\\sim$0.3 MHz per second during about 7 minutes. Its derived density is $\\sim$5$\\times$10$^{10}$ cm$^{-3}$ and increases slowly with time. Joint imaging observations of HXR and EUV help to locate the loop-top region and calculate its thermal proprieties, including slowly increasing densities ($\\sim$5$\\times$10$^{10}$ cm$^{-3}$) and temperatures ($\\sim$14 MK). The similar results obtained from two different ways above imply the possibility of this scenario: plasma blobs that are ejected along the current sheet via magnetic reconnection collide with underlying flare loops that are undergoing chromospheric evaporation. Finally, we also study the thermal

  10. CME 8604 ONLINE.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    capacity of states to meet the expectations of their citizens and impose law and order could further decrease, incentivising unscrupulous leaders to ... Global climate change mitigation is the surest way to preserve health, in Africa and elsewhere. S Afr Med ... decreased rainfall and increased maximum summer temperatures,.

  11. Study of CME Properties Using High Resolution Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, Ya. I.; Fainshtein, V. G.

    The joint use of high-resolution data from SDO and PROBA2 satellites and LASCO/SOHO coronographs enabled us to examine early stages of initiation and propagation of six limb CMEs registered in June 2010 - June 2011. For five events under consideration, the CME initiation is marked by filament (prominence) eruption or by a loop-like structure having another nature. Subsequently, several loop-like structures having higher brightness and following each other at different velocities appear in the region of the CME initiation. The CME frontal structure is formed by these loop-like structures. The CME kinematics and such CME characteristics as angular size and longitudinal to latitudinal size ratio was found for considered all events. We have drawn a conclusion about the possible existence of two CME types dependent on the velocity profile.

  12. Flare-CME characteristics from Sun to Earth combining observations and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmer, Manuela; Thalmann, Julia K.; Dissauer, Karin; Veronig, Astrid M.; Tschernitz, Johannes; Hinterreiter, Jürgen; Rodriguez, Luciano

    2017-04-01

    We analyze the well observed flare-CME event from October 1, 2011 (SOL2011-10-01T09:18) covering the complete chain of action - from Sun to Earth - for a better understanding of the dynamic evolution of the CME and its embedded magnetic field. We study in detail the solar surface and atmosphere from SDO and ground-based instruments associated to the flare-CME and also track the CME signature offlimb from combined EUV and white-light data with STEREO. By applying 3D reconstruction techniques (GCS, total mass) to stereoscopic STEREO-SoHO coronagraph data, we track the temporal and spatial evolution of the CME in interplanetary space and derive its geometry and 3D-mass. We combine the GCS and Lundquist model results to derive the axial flux and helicity of the MC from in situ measurements (Wind). This is compared to nonlinear force-free (NLFF) model results as well as to the reconnected magnetic flux derived from the flare ribbons (flare reconnection flux) and the magnetic flux encompassed by the associated dimming (dimming flux). We find that magnetic reconnection processes were already ongoing before the start of the impulsive flare phase, adding magnetic flux to the flux rope before its final eruption. The dimming flux increases by more than 25% after the end of the flare, indicating that magnetic flux is still added to the flux rope after eruption. Hence, the derived flare reconnection flux is most probably a lower limit for estimating the magnetic flux within the flux rope. We obtain that the magnetic helicity and axial magnetic flux are reduced in interplanetary space by ˜50% and 75%, respectively, possibly indicating to an erosion process. A mass increase of 10% for the CME is observed over the distance range from about 4-20 Rs. The temporal evolution of the CME associated core dimming regions supports the scenario that fast outflows might supply additional mass to the rear part of the CME.

  13. State of play of CME in Europe in 2014: proceedings from the Seventh Annual Meeting of the European CME Forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Pozniak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available European CME Forum is a not-for-profit organisation that was established in 2007 in order to bring together all stakeholder groups with an interest in European CME and promote multi-channel discussion in an independent and neutral environment. This report summarises the presentations and discussions that took place at the 7th Annual Meeting of the European CME Forum in London on 13–14 November 2014. The meeting was held at a time of great uncertainty in European CME and gave attendees opportunity to consider many unanswered questions regarding how CME in Europe will be funded, accredited and regulated in the future. The programme for the forum was developed based on a needs assessment conducted among a variety of CME stakeholders in Europe and beyond. This exercise identified a number of issues that are rarely covered at similar gatherings and which were therefore given prominence during the meeting. Chief among these “hot topics” were how to ensure effective measurement of outcomes in CME programmes and how to encourage and manage the transparency of relationships between industry and healthcare professionals. Other subjects covered in depth during the forum included the future funding of CME, e-learning innovations and potential, and the value, or otherwise, of CME accreditation. The forum made use of a number of interactive meeting formats which ensured the days’ proceedings were characterised by a series of lively discussions and stimulating debates.

  14. Evaluating Conflicts of Interest in Research Presented in CME Venues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nancy L.; Galliher, James M.; Spano, Mindy S.; Main, Deborah S.; Brannigan, Michael; Pace, Wilson D.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: There is much in the literature regarding the potential for commercial bias in clinical research and in continuing medical education (CME), but no studies were found regarding the potential for bias in reporting original research in CME venues. This pilot study investigated the presence of perceived bias in oral and print content of…

  15. Developing an Instrument to Measure Bias in CME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takhar, Jatinder; Dixon, Dave; Donahue, Jill; Marlow, Bernard; Campbell, Craig; Silver, Ivan; Eadie, Jason; Monette, Celine; Rohan, Ivan; Sriharan, Abi; Raymond, Kathryn; Macnab, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The pharmaceutical industry, by funding over 60% of programs in the United States and Canada, plays a major role in continuing medical education (CME), but there are concerns about bias in such CME programs. Bias is difficult to define, and currently no tool is available to measure it. Methods: Representatives from industry and…

  16. Feasibility of a Knowledge Translation CME Program: "Courriels Cochrane"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluye, Pierre; Grad, Roland; Granikov, Vera; Theriault, Guylene; Fremont, Pierre; Burnand, Bernard; Mercer, Jay; Marlow, Bernard; Arroll, Bruce; Luconi, Francesca; Legare, France; Labrecque, Michel; Ladouceur, Roger; Bouthillier, France; Sridhar, Soumya Bindiganavile; Moscovici, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Systematic literature reviews provide best evidence, but are underused by clinicians. Thus, integrating Cochrane reviews into continuing medical education (CME) is challenging. We designed a pilot CME program where summaries of Cochrane reviews ("Courriels Cochrane") were disseminated by e-mail. Program participants…

  17. Insight into the Physical and Dynamical Processes that Control Rapid Increases in Total Flash Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Elise V.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid increases in total lightning (also termed "lightning jumps") have been observed for many decades. Lightning jumps have been well correlated to severe and hazardous weather occurrence. The main focus of lightning jump work has been on the development of lightning algorithms to be used in real-time assessment of storm intensity. However, in these studies it is typically assumed that the updraft "increases" without direct measurements of the vertical motion, or specification of which updraft characteristic actually increases (e.g., average speed, maximum speed, or convective updraft volume). Therefore, an end-to-end physical and dynamical basis for coupling rapid increases in total flash rate to increases in updraft speed and volume must be understood in order to ultimately relate lightning occurrence to severe storm metrics. Herein, we use polarimetric, multi-Doppler, and lightning mapping array measurements to provide physical context as to why rapid increases in total lightning are closely tied to severe and hazardous weather.

  18. Optimizing the Effectiveness of CME Program: NAMS Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available purposeful learning require strong basis of principles of adult learning along with a sound knowledge and requisite skills in both psychology as well as technology of medical education. Assessing effectiveness of a CME program is as important as the organization of learning activities and delivery of academic program as these may provide further directions for enhancing the efficacy of the CME delivery system.Objective: (i The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of well planned and conducted CME program in terms of enhancing knowledge and competence of the participants. (ii To explore if the gain in knowledge and competence, if any, can be attributed to the interactive design of the educational process.Methods: The study was conducted during NAMS-AIIMS Regional Symposium on Sleep Medicine at AIIMS, Jodhpur as part of NAMSCON 2013. After explaining the objectives of the study to the participants and assurance of confidentiality, a validated and pre-tested questionnaire consisting of 30 multiple choice, single response questions, was administered to 103 participants. Following intervention consisting of didactic lectures by experts in different aspects of sleep medicine, interactive sessions and problem triggered sessions consisting of clinical data, participants were re-administered post test questions which were, however, different from pre-test but had similar difficulty level.Result: The response rate of participants was 89%. Pre-intervention scores were 11.76 ± 4.4, with only 26 % of participants achieving an arbitrary pass score of 50 %. Comparison of paired score of participants who attempted both pre and post tests (n=59 showed improvement from 12.1 ±4.6 to 18.3 ± 3.8 which was significant (p <0.05. 84.7 % of participants secured above pre decided 50% score. The mean increase in the score was 6.2 with 95% CIs 4.8; 7.5 (P <0.001. Higher gain in knowledge and competencies is attributed to intense interactive

  19. Impact of a Performance Improvement CME activity on the care and treatment of patients with psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gist, Debra L; Bhushan, Reva; Hamarstrom, Elaine; Sluka, Patrick; Presta, Christine M; Thompson, Jennifer S; Kirsner, Robert S

    2015-03-01

    The Performance Improvement (PI) CME format improves physician performance in other specialties but data are lacking in dermatology. We sought to assess the impact of a PI CME activity on physician practice patterns for patients with psoriasis, which was developed, implemented, and evaluated by the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD), in part to assist dermatologists in fulfilling Part IV of their Maintenance of Certification requirements. In this PI CME activity, participants: (1) self-audited patient charts, which met inclusion criteria in stage A, and reflected on their results, benchmarked against peers; (2) reviewed educational materials in stage B and developed an improvement plan; and (3) self-audited a different set of patient charts following the plan's implementation. Aggregate stage A and C data were analyzed using χ(2) tests. We found a statistically significant improvement in the advisement of patients with psoriasis regarding their increased risk for cardiovascular disease, to contact their primary care provider for cardiovascular risk assessment, and in shared decision making regarding the treatment plan. We also found an overall statistically significant improvement in history taking per the guidelines. Learner chart selection bias, self-reporting of chart data, and lack of a control group are limitations. The AAD psoriasis PI CME activity demonstrated significantly improved dermatologists' documentation of patient's history, counseling of patients for lifestyle behaviors, and shared decision making. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Magnetic reconnection processes induced by a CME expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bemporad

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available On 10–11 December 2005 a slow CME occurred in the Western Hemisphere in between two coronal streamers. SOHO/MDI magnetograms show a multipolar magnetic configuration at the photosphere: a complex of active regions located at the CME source and two bipoles at the base of the lateral coronal streamers. White light observations reveal that the CME expansion affects both of them and induces the release of plasma within or close to the nearby streamers. These transient phenomena are possibly due to magnetic reconnections induced by the CME expansion and occurring inside the streamer current sheet or between the CME flanks and the streamer.

    These events have been observed by the SOHO/UVCS with the spectrometer slit centered at 1.8 R over about a full day. In this work we focus on the interaction between the CME and the streamer: the UVCS spectral interval included UV lines from ions at different temperatures of maximum formation such as O VI, Si XIII and Al Xi. These data gave us the opportunity to infer the evolution of plasma temperature and density at the reconnection site and adjacent regions. These are relevant to characterize secondary reconnection processes occurring during a CME development.

  1. Magnetic reconnection processes induced by a CME expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bemporad

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available On 10–11 December 2005 a slow CME occurred in the Western Hemisphere in between two coronal streamers. SOHO/MDI magnetograms show a multipolar magnetic configuration at the photosphere: a complex of active regions located at the CME source and two bipoles at the base of the lateral coronal streamers. White light observations reveal that the CME expansion affects both of them and induces the release of plasma within or close to the nearby streamers. These transient phenomena are possibly due to magnetic reconnections induced by the CME expansion and occurring inside the streamer current sheet or between the CME flanks and the streamer. These events have been observed by the SOHO/UVCS with the spectrometer slit centered at 1.8 R⊙ over about a full day. In this work we focus on the interaction between the CME and the streamer: the UVCS spectral interval included UV lines from ions at different temperatures of maximum formation such as O VI, Si XIII and Al Xi. These data gave us the opportunity to infer the evolution of plasma temperature and density at the reconnection site and adjacent regions. These are relevant to characterize secondary reconnection processes occurring during a CME development.

  2. Increased corrosion resistance of the AZ80 magnesium alloy by rapid solidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghion, E; Jan, L; Meshi, L; Goldman, J

    2015-11-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and Mg-alloys are being considered as implantable biometals. Despite their excellent biocompatibility and good mechanical properties, their rapid corrosion is a major impediment precluding their widespread acceptance as implantable biomaterials. Here, we investigate the potential for rapid solidification to increase the corrosion resistance of Mg alloys. To this end, the effect of rapid solidification on the environmental and stress corrosion behavior of the AZ80 Mg alloy vs. its conventionally cast counterpart was evaluated in simulated physiological electrolytes. The microstructural characteristics were examined by optical microscopy, SEM, TEM, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The corrosion behavior was evaluated by immersion, salt spraying, and potentiodynamic polarization. Stress corrosion resistance was assessed by Slow Strain Rate Testing. The results indicate that the corrosion resistance of rapidly solidified ribbons is significantly improved relative to the conventional cast alloy due to the increased Al content dissolved in the α-Mg matrix and the correspondingly reduced presence of the β-phase (Mg17 Al12 ). Unfortunately, extrusion consolidated solidified ribbons exhibited a substantial reduction in the environmental performance and stress corrosion resistance. This was mainly attributed to the detrimental effect of the extrusion process, which enriched the iron impurities and increased the internal stresses by imposing a higher dislocation density. In terms of immersion tests, the average corrosion rate of the rapidly solidified ribbons was <0.4 mm/year compared with ∼2 mm/year for the conventionally cast alloy and 26 mm/year for the rapidly solidified extruded ribbons. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Recent VLA Measurements of CME-Induced Faraday Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, Jason; Thomas, Najma; Guy, Michael; Spangler, Steven R.

    2018-01-01

    Observations of Faraday rotation, the change in polarization position angle of linearly polarized radiation as it propagates through a magnetized plasma, have been used for decades to determine the strength and structure of the coronal magnetic field and plasma density. Similarly, observations of Faraday rotation through a coronal mass ejection (CME) have the potential to improve our understanding of the CME’s plasma structure. We report recent results from simultaneous white-light coronagraph and radio observations made of a CME in July 2015. We made radio observations using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) at 1 - 2 GHz frequencies of a set of cosmic radio sources through the solar corona at heliocentric distances that ranged between 8 - 23 solar radii. A unique aspect of these observations is that the CME occulted several of these radio sources and, therefore, our Faraday rotation measurements provide information on the plasma structure in different regions of the CME. We successfully measured CME-induced Faraday rotation along multiple lines of sight because we made special arrangements with the staff at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory to trigger VLA observations when a candidate CME appeared low in the corona in near real-time images from the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) C2 instrument.

  4. Asymmetry in the CME-CME interaction process for the events from 2011 February 14-15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M.; Peinhart, V. [Kanzelhöhe Observatory-IGAM, Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Vršnak, B. [Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb, Kačićeva 26, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2014-04-20

    We present a detailed study of the interaction process of two coronal mass ejections (CMEs) successively launched on 2011 February 14 (CME1) and 2011 February 15 (CME2). Reconstructing the three-dimensional shape and evolution of the flux ropes, we verify that the two CMEs interact. The frontal structure of both CMEs, measured along different position angles (PAs) over the entire latitudinal extent, reveals differences in the kinematics for the interacting flanks and the apexes. The interaction process is strongly PA-dependent in terms of timing as well as kinematical evolution. The central interaction occurs along PA-100°, which shows the strongest changes in kinematics. During interaction, CME1 accelerates from ∼400 km s{sup –1} to ∼700 km s{sup –1} and CME2 decelerates from ∼1300 km s{sup –1} to ∼600 km s{sup –1}. Our results indicate that a simplified scenario such as inelastic collision may not be sufficient to describe the CME-CME interaction. The magnetic field structures of the intertwining flux ropes and the momentum transfer due to shocks each play an important role in the interaction process.

  5. Accessible surfaces of beta proteins increase with increasing protein molecular mass more rapidly than those of other proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V Glyakina

    Full Text Available Here we present a systematic analysis of accessible surface areas and hydrogen bonds of 2554 globular proteins from four structural classes (all-α, all-β, α/β and α+β proteins that is aimed to learn in which structural class the accessible surface area increases with increasing protein molecular mass more rapidly than in other classes, and what structural peculiarities are responsible for this effect. The beta structural class of proteins was found to be the leader, with the following possible explanations of this fact. First, in beta structural proteins, the fraction of residues not included in the regular secondary structure is the largest, and second, the accessible surface area of packaged elements of the beta-structure increases more rapidly with increasing molecular mass in comparison with the alpha-structure. Moreover, in the beta structure, the probability of formation of backbone hydrogen bonds is higher than that in the alpha helix for all residues of α+β proteins (the average probability is 0.73±0.01 for the beta-structure and 0.60±0.01 for the alpha-structure without proline and α/β proteins, except for asparagine, aspartic acid, glycine, threonine, and serine (0.70±0.01 for the beta-structure and 0.60±0.01 for the alpha-structure without the proline residue. There is a linear relationship between the number of hydrogen bonds and the number of amino acid residues in the protein (Number of hydrogen bonds=0.678·number of residues-3.350.

  6. Explaining the Rapid Increase in Nigeria's Sex Ratio at Birth: Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    This paper examines the rapid increase in Nigeria's sex ratio at birth from 1.03 boys born for every 1 girl born in each year from. 1996-2008 to 1.06 in each year from 2009-2014, second only to Tunisia in Africa at 1.07. The average sex ratio at birth in the world in 2014 was 1.07. In most Black African nations or Black majority ...

  7. Rapid Adjustments Cause Weak Surface Temperature Response to Increased Black Carbon Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stjern, Camilla Weum; Samset, Bjørn Hallvard; Myhre, Gunnar; Forster, Piers M.; Hodnebrog, Øivind; Andrews, Timothy; Boucher, Olivier; Faluvegi, Gregory; Iversen, Trond; Kasoar, Matthew; Kharin, Viatcheslav; Kirkevâg, Alf; Lamarque, Jean-François; Olivié, Dirk; Richardson, Thomas; Shawki, Dilshad; Shindell, Drew; Smith, Christopher J.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Voulgarakis, Apostolos

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the climate response to increased concentrations of black carbon (BC), as part of the Precipitation Driver Response Model Intercomparison Project (PDRMIP). A tenfold increase in BC is simulated by nine global coupled-climate models, producing a model median effective radiative forcing of 0.82 (ranging from 0.41 to 2.91) W m-2, and a warming of 0.67 (0.16 to 1.66) K globally and 1.24 (0.26 to 4.31) K in the Arctic. A strong positive instantaneous radiative forcing (median of 2.10 W m-2 based on five of the models) is countered by negative rapid adjustments (-0.64 W m-2 for the same five models), which dampen the total surface temperature signal. Unlike other drivers of climate change, the response of temperature and cloud profiles to the BC forcing is dominated by rapid adjustments. Low-level cloud amounts increase for all models, while higher-level clouds are diminished. The rapid temperature response is particularly strong above 400 hPa, where increased atmospheric stabilization and reduced cloud cover contrast the response pattern of the other drivers. In conclusion, we find that this substantial increase in BC concentrations does have considerable impacts on important aspects of the climate system. However, some of these effects tend to offset one another, leaving a relatively small median global warming of 0.47 K per W m-2—about 20% lower than the response to a doubling of CO2. Translating the tenfold increase in BC to the present-day impact of anthropogenic BC (given the emissions used in this work) would leave a warming of merely 0.07 K.

  8. The Significance of the Influence of the CME Deflection in Interplanetary Space on the CME Arrival at Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Bin; Wang, Yuming; Shen, Chenglong; Liu, Siqing; Wang, Jingjing; Pan, Zonghao; Li, Huimin; Liu, Rui

    2017-08-01

    As one of the most violent astrophysical phenomena, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) have strong potential space weather effects. However, not all Earth-directed CMEs encounter the Earth and produce geo-effects. One reason is the deflected propagation of CMEs in interplanetary space. Although there have been several case studies clearly showing such deflections, it has not yet been statistically assessed how significantly the deflected propagation would influence the CME’s arrival at Earth. We develop an integrated CME-arrival forecasting (iCAF) system, assembling the modules of CME detection, three-dimensional (3D) parameter derivation, and trajectory reconstruction to predict whether or not a CME arrives at Earth, and we assess the deflection influence on the CME-arrival forecasting. The performance of iCAF is tested by comparing the two-dimensional (2D) parameters with those in the Coordinated Data Analysis Workshop (CDAW) Data Center catalog, comparing the 3D parameters with those of the gradual cylindrical shell model, and estimating the success rate of the CME Earth-arrival predictions. It is found that the 2D parameters provided by iCAF and the CDAW catalog are consistent with each other, and the 3D parameters derived by the ice cream cone model based on single-view observations are acceptable. The success rate of the CME-arrival predictions by iCAF with deflection considered is about 82%, which is 19% higher than that without deflection, indicating the importance of the CME deflection for providing a reliable forecasting. Furthermore, iCAF is a worthwhile project since it is a completely automatic system with deflection taken into account.

  9. Organizational change in management of hepatitis C: evaluation of a CME program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrard, Judith; Choudary, Veena; Groom, Holly; Dieperink, Eric; Willenbring, Mark L; Durfee, Janet M; Ho, Samuel B

    2006-01-01

    Effective treatment regimens exist for the hepatitis C virus (HCV); however, clinicians are often resistant to evaluation or treatment of patients with alcohol or substance abuse problems. We describe a continuing medical education (CME) program for clinicians in a nationwide health care system, with emphasis on current treatment practices, multispecialty collaboration, and organizational change. Quantitative measures were used to assess changes in knowledge and treatment confidence, and site-specific organizational changes were qualitatively evaluated. The CME program included a preassessment of current HCV knowledge and care; a 2-day preceptorship; and follow-up with coaching calls at 1, 3, and 6 months. Program attendees included 54 medical and mental health providers from 28 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers. Knowledge following the CME program increased significantly. In 93% of the sites, there were organizational changes such as HCV support group-initiated group education, in-service training, improvement in patient notification or scheduling processes, hiring of new clinical staff, development of a business plans, and discussions about changes with administration. Of all sites, 15 (54%) changed existing antiviral treatment protocols, 18 (64%) established collaborative relationships, and almost half (13/28) established regular use of depression and alcohol use screening tools. Major barriers to change included lack of administrative support or resources (or both) and difficulty collaborating with mental health colleagues. This multifaceted CME program with follow-up coaching calls significantly increased individual knowledge and confidence scores and resulted in improved clinic processes and structures. Organizational change was facilitated by the development of an action plan. The major change agent was a nurse; the primary deterrent was an administrator.

  10. A Monster CME Obscuring a Demon Star Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschou, Sofia-Paraskevi; Drake, Jeremy J.; Cohen, Ofer; Alvarado-Gomez, Julian D.; Garraffo, Cecilia

    2017-12-01

    We explore the scenario of a coronal mass ejection (CME) being the cause of the observed continuous X-ray absorption of the 1997 August 30 superflare on the eclipsing binary Algol (the Demon Star). The temporal decay of the absorption is consistent with absorption by a CME undergoing self-similar evolution with uniform expansion velocity. We investigate the kinematic and energetic properties of the CME using the ice cream cone model for its three-dimensional structure in combination with the observed profile of the hydrogen column density decline with time. Different physically justified length scales were used that allowed us to estimate lower and upper limits of the possible CME characteristics. Further consideration of the maximum available magnetic energy in starspots leads us to quantify its mass as likely lying in the range 2× {10}21 {--} 2× {10}22 g and kinetic energy in the range 7× {10}35 {--} 3× {10}38 erg. The results are in reasonable agreement with extrapolated relations between flare X-ray fluence and CME mass and kinetic energy derived for solar CMEs.

  11. Statistical study of the storm time radiation belt evolution during Van Allen Probes era: CME- versus CIR-driven storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Chen; Hudson, Mary K.; Jaynes, Allison N.; Shi, Quanqi; Tian, Anmin; Claudepierre, Seth G.; Qin, Mu-Rong; Zong, Qiu-Gang; Sun, Wei-Jie

    2017-08-01

    Coronal mass ejection (CME)-driven or corotating interaction region (CIR)-driven storms can change the electron distributions in the radiation belt dramatically, which can in turn affect the spacecraft in this region or induce geomagnetic effects. The Van Allen Probes twin spacecraft, launched on 30 August 2012, orbit near the equatorial plane and across a wide range of L∗ with apogee at 5.8 RE and perigee at 620 km. Electron data from Van Allen Probes MagEIS and REPT instruments have been binned every 6 h at L∗=3 (defined as 2.5 < L∗<3.5), 4 (3.5 < L∗<4.5), 5 (4.5 < L∗<5.5). The superposed epoch analysis shows that (1) CME storms induce more electron flux enhancement at L∗=3 for energy channels below 1 MeV than CIR storms; (2) CME storms induce more electron flux enhancement at L∗=4 and 5 in the energy channels above 1 MeV than CIR storms; (3) CIR storms induce more electron flux enhancement at L∗=4 and 5 in the energy channels below 1 MeV than CME storms; (4) intense CME induce more than 50 times flux enhancement for the energy channel around 400 keV at L∗=3; (5) intense CIR induce more than 50 times flux enhancement for the energy channel around 200 keV at L∗=4. These results are consistent with a general picture of enhanced convection over a longer period for CIR storms which increased flux closer to geosynchronous orbit consistent with earlier studies, while CME storms likely produce deeper penetration of enhanced flux and local heating which is greater at higher energies at lower L∗.

  12. Scopolamine rapidly increases mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling, synaptogenesis, and antidepressant behavioral responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voleti, Bhavya; Navarria, Andrea; Liu, Rong-Jian; Banasr, Mounira; Li, Nanxin; Terwilliger, Rose; Sanacora, Gerard; Eid, Tore; Aghajanian, George; Duman, Ronald S

    2013-11-15

    Clinical studies report that scopolamine, an acetylcholine muscarinic receptor antagonist, produces rapid antidepressant effects in depressed patients, but the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic response have not been determined. The present study examines the role of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and synaptogenesis, which have been implicated in the rapid actions of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists. The influence of scopolamine on mTORC1 signaling was determined by analysis of the phosphorylated and activated forms of mTORC1 signaling proteins in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The numbers and function of spine synapses were analyzed by whole cell patch clamp recording and two-photon image analysis of PFC neurons. The actions of scopolamine were examined in the forced swim test in the absence or presence of selective mTORC1 and glutamate receptor inhibitors. The results demonstrate that a single, low dose of scopolamine rapidly increases mTORC1 signaling and the number and function of spine synapses in layer V pyramidal neurons in the PFC. Scopolamine administration also produces an antidepressant response in the forced swim test that is blocked by pretreatment with the mTORC1 inhibitor or by a glutamate alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor antagonist. Taken together, the results demonstrate that the antidepressant actions of scopolamine require mTORC1 signaling and are associated with increased glutamate transmission, and synaptogenesis, similar to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists. These findings provide novel targets for safer and more efficacious rapid-acting antidepressant agents. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry.

  13. Is There a CME Rate Floor? CME and Magnetic Flux Values for the Last Four Solar Cycle Minima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, D. F.; Howard, R. A.; St. Cyr, O. C.; Vourlidas, A.

    2017-12-01

    The recent prolonged activity minimum has led to the question of whether there is a base level of the solar magnetic field evolution that yields a “floor” in activity levels and also in the solar wind magnetic field strength. Recently, a flux transport model coupled with magneto-frictional simulations has been used to simulate the continuous magnetic field evolution in the global solar corona for over 15 years, from 1996 to 2012. Flux rope eruptions in the simulations are estimated (Yeates), and the results are in remarkable agreement with the shape of the SOlar Heliospheric Observatory/Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment coronal mass ejection (CME) rate distribution. The eruption rates at the two recent minima approximate the observed-corrected CME rates, supporting the idea of a base level of solar magnetic activity. In this paper, we address this issue by comparing annual averages of the CME occurrence rates during the last four solar cycle minima with several tracers of the global solar magnetic field. We conclude that CME activity never ceases during a cycle, but maintains a base level of 1 CME every 1.5 to ∼3 days during minima. We discuss the sources of these CMEs.

  14. Rapid increases in training load affects markers of skeletal muscle damage and mechanical performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Snieckus, Audrius; Venckunas, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    a program involving a rapid stepwise increase in the number of jumps, drop height, and squat depth, and the addition of weight. Concentric, isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and stimulated knee extension torque were measured before and 10 min after each session. Muscle soreness and plasma...... creatine kinase activity were assessed after each session. Steep increments in stretch-shortening exercise load in sessions 4 and 7 amplified the postexercise decrease in stimulated muscle torque and slightly increased muscle soreness but had a minimal effect on the recovery of MVC and stimulated torque......The aim of the present study was to monitor the changes in indirect markers of muscle damage during 3 weeks (nine training sessions) of stretch-shortening (drop jump) exercise with constant load alternated with steep increases in load. Physically active men (n = 9, mean age 19.1 years) performed...

  15. Deriving the radial distances of wide coronal mass ejections from elongation measurements in the heliosphere – application to CME-CME interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Roussev

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We present general considerations regarding the derivation of the radial distances of coronal mass ejections (CMEs from elongation angle measurements such as those provided by SECCHI and SMEI, focusing on measurements in the Heliospheric Imager 2 (HI-2 field of view (i.e. past 0.3 AU. This study is based on a three-dimensional (3-D magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD simulation of two CMEs observed by SECCHI on 24–27 January 2007. Having a 3-D simulation with synthetic HI images, we are able to compare the two basic methods used to derive CME positions from elongation angles, the so-called "Point-P" and "Fixed-φ" approximations. We confirm, following similar works, that both methods, while valid in the most inner heliosphere, yield increasingly large errors in HI-2 field of view for fast and wide CMEs. Using a simple model of a CME as an expanding self-similar sphere, we derive an analytical relationship between elongation angles and radial distances for wide CMEs. This relationship is simply the harmonic mean of the "Point-P" and "Fixed-φ" approximations and it is aimed at complementing 3-D fitting of CMEs by cone models or flux rope shapes. It proves better at getting the kinematics of the simulated CME right when we compare the results of our line-of-sights to the MHD simulation. Based on this approximation, we re-analyze the J-maps (time-elongation maps in 26–27 January 2007 and present the first observational evidence that the merging of CMEs is associated with a momentum exchange from the faster ejection to the slower one due to the propagation of the shock wave associated with the fast eruption through the slow eruption.

  16. Changing arctic ecosystems—What is causing the rapid increase of snow geese in northern Alaska?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Ward, David H.; Whalen, Mary E.; Pearce, John M.

    2015-09-10

    Through the Changing Arctic Ecosystems (CAE) initiative, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) informs key resource management decisions for Arctic Alaska by providing scientific information on current and future ecosystem response to a warming climate. The Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of northern Alaska is a key study area within the USGS CAE initiative. This region has experienced a warming trend over the past decades, leading to decreased sea ice, permafrost thaw, and an advancement of spring phenology. The number of birds on the ACP also is changing, marked by increased populations of the four species of geese that nest in the region. The Snow Goose (Chen caerulescens) is the most rapidly increasing of these species. USGS CAE research is quantifying these changes and their implications for management agencies.

  17. Rapid Environmental Change Drives Increased Land Use by an Arctic Marine Predator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd C Atwood

    Full Text Available In the Arctic Ocean's southern Beaufort Sea (SB, the length of the sea ice melt season (i.e., period between the onset of sea ice break-up in summer and freeze-up in fall has increased substantially since the late 1990s. Historically, polar bears (Ursus maritimus of the SB have mostly remained on the sea ice year-round (except for those that came ashore to den, but recent changes in the extent and phenology of sea ice habitat have coincided with evidence that use of terrestrial habitat is increasing. We characterized the spatial behavior of polar bears spending summer and fall on land along Alaska's north coast to better understand the nexus between rapid environmental change and increased use of terrestrial habitat. We found that the percentage of radiocollared adult females from the SB subpopulation coming ashore has tripled over 15 years. Moreover, we detected trends of earlier arrival on shore, increased length of stay, and later departure back to sea ice, all of which were related to declines in the availability of sea ice habitat over the continental shelf and changes to sea ice phenology. Since the late 1990s, the mean duration of the open-water season in the SB increased by 36 days, and the mean length of stay on shore increased by 31 days. While on shore, the distribution of polar bears was influenced by the availability of scavenge subsidies in the form of subsistence-harvested bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus remains aggregated at sites along the coast. The declining spatio-temporal availability of sea ice habitat and increased availability of human-provisioned resources are likely to result in increased use of land. Increased residency on land is cause for concern given that, while there, bears may be exposed to a greater array of risk factors including those associated with increased human activities.

  18. Methamphetamine induces a rapid increase of intracellular Ca(++) levels in neurons overexpressing GCaMP5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Seong-Jin; Wu, Kou-Jen; Bae, Eun K; Hsu, Man-Jung; Richie, Christopher T; Harvey, Brandon K; Wang, Yun

    2016-03-01

    In this study, methamphetamine (Meth)- and glutamate (Glu)-mediated intracellular Ca(++) (Ca(++) i) signals were examined in real time in primary cortical neurons overexpressing an intracellular Ca(++) probe, GCaMP5, by adeno-associated viral (AAV) serotype 1. Binding of Ca(++) to GCaMP increased green fluorescence intensity in cells. Both Meth and Glu induced a rapid increase in Ca(++) i, which was blocked by MK801, suggesting that Meth enhanced Ca(++) i through Glu receptor in neurons. The Meth-mediated Ca(++) signal was also blocked by Mg(++) , low Ca(++) or the L-type Ca(++) channel inhibitor nifedipine. The ryanodine receptor inhibitor dantrolene did not alter the initial Ca(++) influx but partially reduced the peak of Ca(++) i. These data suggest that Meth enhanced Ca(++) influx through membrane Ca(++) channels, which then triggered the release of Ca(++) from the endoplasmic reticulum in the cytosol. AAV-GCaMP5 was also injected to the parietal cortex of adult rats. Administration of Meth enhanced fluorescence in the ipsilateral cortex. Using immunohistochemistry, Meth-induced green fluorescence was found in the NeuN-containing cells in the cortex, suggesting that Meth increased Ca(++) in neurons in vivo. In conclusion, we have used in vitro and in vivo techniques to demonstrate a rapid increase of Ca(++) i by Meth in cortical neurons through overexpression of GCaMP5. As Meth induces behavioral responses and neurotoxicity through Ca(++) i, modulation of Ca(++) i may be useful to reduce Meth-related reactions. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Total daily activity declines more rapidly with increasing age in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, Aron S; Wilson, Robert S; Yu, Lei; James, Bryan D; Boyle, Patricia A; Bennett, David A

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal studies of objectively measured physical activity are lacking in older adults. We tested whether objective measures of total daily activity decline more rapidly in older adults. This prospective, observational cohort study included 519 community-dwelling older persons from across metropolitan Chicago participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Repeated total daily activity measures (leisure and non-leisure physical activity) were derived from actigraphic recordings for up to 10 days. Generalized estimating equation models which controlled for demographics measures were employed. At baseline, age was inversely related with the level of total daily activity (estimate, -0.014, S.E. 0.002, pdaily activity declined by about 0.070 × 10(5) activity counts/day/yr (estimate -0.065, S.E. 0.005, pdaily activity declined 3% more rapidly for each additional year of age at baseline (estimate -0.002, S.E. 0.001, p=0.027). Thus, total daily activity declined almost twice as fast in an individual 91 years old at baseline versus an individual 71 years old. A higher level of education was associated with a slower rate of decline (estimate 0.004, S.E. 0.002, pdaily activity were unchanged when controlling for baseline level of motor and cognitive function, other late-life activities and chronic health conditions. These data suggest that total daily activity in very old adults declines more rapidly with increasing age. Thus, physical inactivity is likely to become a larger problem in our aging population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Quality framework proposal for Component Material Evaluation (CME) projects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Naomi G.; Arfman, John F.; Limary, Siviengxay

    2008-09-01

    This report proposes the first stage of a Quality Framework approach that can be used to evaluate and document Component Material Evaluation (CME) projects. The first stage of the Quality Framework defines two tools that will be used to evaluate a CME project. The first tool is used to decompose a CME project into its essential elements. These elements can then be evaluated for inherent quality by looking at the subelements that impact their level of quality maturity or rigor. Quality Readiness Levels (QRLs) are used to valuate project elements for inherent quality. The Framework provides guidance for the Principal Investigator (PI) and stakeholders for CME project prerequisites that help to ensure the proper level of confidence in the deliverable given its intended use. The Framework also Provides a roadmap that defined when and how the Framework tools should be applied. Use of these tools allow the Principal Investigator (PI) and stakeholders to understand what elements the project will use to execute the project, the inherent quality of the elements, which of those are critical to the project and why, and the risks associated to the project's elements.

  1. Didactic CME and Practice Change: Don't Throw that Baby out Quite yet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Curtis A.; Tooman, Tricia R.

    2012-01-01

    Skepticism exists regarding the role of continuing medical education (CME) in improving physician performance. The harshest criticism has been reserved for didactic CME. Reviews of the scientific literature on the effectiveness of CME conclude that formal or didactic modes of education have little or no impact on clinical practice. This has led…

  2. Dual repression of the multidrug efflux pump CmeABC by CosR and CmeR in Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Grinnage-Pulley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During transmission and intestinal colonization, Campylobacter jejuni, a major foodborne human pathogen, experiences oxidative stress. CosR, a response regulator in C. jejuni, modulates the oxidative stress response and represses expression of the CmeABC multidrug efflux pump. CmeABC, a key component in resistance to toxic compounds including antimicrobials and bile salts, is also under negative regulation by CmeR, a TetR family transcriptional regulator. How CosR and CmeR interact in binding to the cmeABC promoter and how CosR senses oxidative stress are still unknown. To answer these questions, we conducted various experiments utilizing electrophoretic mobility shift assays and transcriptional fusion assays. CosR and CmeR bound independently to two separate sites of the cmeABC promoter, simultaneously repressing cmeABC expression. This dual binding of CosR and CmeR is optimal with a 17 base pair space between the two binding sites as mutations that shortened the distance between the binding sites decreased binding by CmeR and enhanced cmeABC expression. Additionally, the single cysteine residue (C218 of CosR was sensitive to oxidation, which altered the DNA-binding activity of CosR and dissociated CosR from the cmeABC promoter as determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Replacement of C218 with serine rendered CosR insensitive to oxidation, suggesting a potential role of C218 in sensing oxidative stress and providing a possible mechanism for CosR-mediated response to oxidative stress. These findings reveal a dual regulatory role of CosR and CmeR in modulating cmeABC expression and suggest a potential mechanism that may explain overexpression of cmeABC in response to oxidative stress. Differential expression of cmeABC mediated by CmeR and CosR in response to different signals may facilitate adaptation of Campylobacter to various environmental conditions.

  3. Small Projects Rapid Integration and Test Environment (SPRITE): Application for Increasing Robutness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ashley; Rakoczy, John; Heather, Daniel; Sanders, Devon

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few years interest in the development and use of small satellites has rapidly gained momentum with universities, commercial, and government organizations. In a few years we may see networked clusters of dozens or even hundreds of small, cheap, easily replaceable satellites working together in place of the large, expensive and difficult-to-replace satellites now in orbit. Standards based satellite buses and deployment mechanisms, such as the CubeSat and Poly Pico-satellite Orbital Deployer (P-POD), have stimulated growth in this area. The use of small satellites is also proving to be a cost effective capability in many areas traditionally dominated by large satellites, though many challenges remain. Currently many of these small satellites undergo very little testing prior to flight. As these small satellites move from technology demonstration and student projects toward more complex operational assets, it is expected that the standards for verification and validation will increase.

  4. Integrated omics approaches provide strategies for rapid erythromycin yield increase in Saccharopolyspora erythraea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karničar, Katarina; Drobnak, Igor; Petek, Marko; Magdevska, Vasilka; Horvat, Jaka; Vidmar, Robert; Baebler, Špela; Rotter, Ana; Jamnik, Polona; Fujs, Štefan; Turk, Boris; Fonovič, Marko; Gruden, Kristina; Kosec, Gregor; Petković, Hrvoje

    2016-06-03

    Omics approaches have significantly increased our understanding of biological systems. However, they have had limited success in explaining the dramatically increased productivity of commercially important natural products by industrial high-producing strains, such as the erythromycin-producing actinomycete Saccharopolyspora erythraea. Further yield increase is of great importance but requires a better understanding of the underlying physiological processes. To reveal the mechanisms related to erythromycin yield increase, we have undertaken an integrated study of the genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic differences between the wild type strain NRRL2338 (WT) and the industrial high-producing strain ABE1441 (HP) of S. erythraea at multiple time points of a simulated industrial bioprocess. 165 observed mutations lead to differences in gene expression profiles and protein abundance between the two strains, which were most prominent in the initial stages of erythromycin production. Enzymes involved in erythromycin biosynthesis, metabolism of branched chain amino acids and proteolysis were most strongly upregulated in the HP strain. Interestingly, genes related to TCA cycle and DNA-repair were downregulated. Additionally, comprehensive data analysis uncovered significant correlations in expression profiles of the erythromycin-biosynthetic genes, other biosynthetic gene clusters and previously unidentified putative regulatory genes. Based on this information, we demonstrated that overexpression of several genes involved in amino acid metabolism can contribute to increased yield of erythromycin, confirming the validity of our systems biology approach. Our comprehensive omics approach, carried out in industrially relevant conditions, enabled the identification of key pathways affecting erythromycin yield and suggests strategies for rapid increase in the production of secondary metabolites in industrial environment.

  5. CmeABC Multidrug Efflux Pump Contributes to Antibiotic Resistance and Promotes Campylobacter jejuni Survival and Multiplication in Acanthamoeba polyphaga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Ana; Ramesh, Amritha; Seddon, Alan M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Campylobacter jejuni is a foodborne pathogen that is recognized as the leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis. The widespread use of antibiotics in medicine and in animal husbandry has led to an increased incidence of antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter. In addition to a role in multidrug resistance (MDR), the Campylobacter CmeABC resistance-nodulation-division (RND)-type efflux pump may be involved in virulence. As a vehicle for pathogenic microorganisms, the protozoan Acanthamoeba is a good model for investigations of bacterial survival in the environment and the molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity. The interaction between C. jejuni 81-176 and Acanthamoeba polyphaga was investigated in this study by using a modified gentamicin protection assay. In addition, a possible role for the CmeABC MDR pump in this interaction was explored. Here we report that this MDR pump is beneficial for the intracellular survival and multiplication of C. jejuni in A. polyphaga but is dispensable for biofilm formation and motility. IMPORTANCE The endosymbiotic relationship between amoebae and microbial pathogens may contribute to persistence and spreading of the latter in the environment, which has significant implications for human health. In this study, we found that Campylobacter jejuni was able to survive and to multiply inside Acanthamoeba polyphaga; since these microorganisms can coexist in the same environment (e.g., on poultry farms), the latter may increase the risk of infection with Campylobacter. Our data suggest that, in addition to its role in antibiotic resistance, the CmeABC MDR efflux pump plays a role in bacterial survival within amoebae. Furthermore, we demonstrated synergistic effects of the CmeABC MDR efflux pump and TetO on bacterial resistance to tetracycline. Due to its role in both the antibiotic resistance and the virulence of C. jejuni, the CmeABC MDR efflux pump could be considered a good target for the development of antibacterial

  6. CmeABC multidrug efflux pump contributes to antibiotic resistance and promotes Campylobacter jejuni survival and multiplication in Acanthamoeba polyphaga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Ana; Ramesh, Amritha; Seddon, Alan M; Karlyshev, Andrey V

    2017-09-15

    Campylobacter jejuni is a foodborne pathogen recognized as the leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis. The wide use of antibiotics in medicine and in animal husbandry has led to an increased incidence of antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter In addition to a role in multidrug resistance, the Campylobacter CmeABC RND-type efflux pump, which is associated with multidrug resistance (MDR), may also be involved in virulence. As a vehicle of pathogenic microorganisms, the protozoan Acanthamoeba is a good model for the investigation of bacterial survival in the environment and molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity. The interaction between C. jejuni 81-176 and A. polyphaga was investigated in this study by using a modified gentamicin protection assay. In addition, a possible role for the CmeABC MDR pump in this interaction was explored. Here we report that this MDR pump is beneficial for the intracellular survival and multiplication of C. jejuni in A. polyphaga, but is dispensable for biofilm formation and motility.Importance The endosymbiotic relationship between amoebae and microbial pathogens may contribute to persistence and spreading of the latter in the environment, which has significant implications to human health. In this study we found that Campylobacter jejuni was able to survive and multiply inside Acanthamoeba. polyphaga Since these microorganisms can co-exist in the same environment (e.g. in poultry farms), the latter may increase the risk of infection with Campylobacter Our data suggests that, in addition to its role in antibiotic resistance, the CmeABC MDR efflux pump also plays a role in bacterial survival within amoebae. Furthermore, we demonstrated a synergistic effect of the CmeABC MDR efflux pump and TetO on bacterial resistance to tetracycline. Due to its role both in antibiotic resistance and virulence of C. jejuni, the CmeABC MDR efflux pump could be considered as a good target for the development of antibacterial drugs against this

  7. Rapid Maxillary Expansion Increases Internal Nasal Dimensions of Children With Bilateral Cleft Lip and Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade-Suedam, Ivy Kiemle; Castilho, Ricardo Leão; Sampaio-Teixeira, Ana Claudia Martins; Araújo, Bruna Mara Adorno Marmotel; Fukushiro, Ana Paula; Campos, Letícia Dominguez; Trindade, Inge Elly Kiemle

    2016-05-01

    The transverse maxillary deficiency frequently observed in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) is usually treated by rapid maxillary expansion (RME). Considering that RME causes a significant increase of the internal nasal dimensions in children with unilateral CLP (UCLP), this study aimed to characterize the internal nasal geometry of children with bilateral CLP (BCLP) and transverse maxillary deficiency using acoustic rhinometry. The study also aimed to analyze changes caused by RME. Cross-sectional prospective study. Laboratory of Physiology, Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies, University of São Paulo, Bauru, SP, Brazil. Fifteen children with repaired BCLP of both genders, aged 8 to 15 years, referred for RME, were prospectively analyzed. Subjects underwent acoustic rhinometry before the expander installation and after the active phase of expansion. Cross-sectional areas (CSA) and volumes (V) of the nasal valve regions (CSA1 and V1) and turbinates (CSA2, CSA3, and V2), were measured after nasal decongestion. In the majority of the subjects, an increase of internal nasal dimensions was observed. Percent changes of CSA1, CSA2, CSA3, V1, and V2 were: +25%, +11%, +9%, 20%, and +12%, respectively. Differences were significant for all variables studied, except CSA3 (P < .05). RME promotes an increase in the internal nasal dimensions of children with BCLP, suggesting that RME is capable of substantially improving nasal patency in this population.

  8. Transiently increased glutamate cycling in rat PFC is associated with rapid onset of antidepressant-like effects

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Golam M.I.; Zhang, Jie; Thomas, Monique; Banasr, Mounira; Ma, Xiaoxian; Pittman, Brian; Bristow, Linda; Schaeffer, Eric; Duman, Ronald; Rothman, Douglas; Behar, Kevin; Sanacora, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Several drugs have recently been reported to induce rapid antidepressant effects in clinical trials and rodent models. Although the cellular mechanisms involved remain unclear, reports suggest that increased glutamate transmission contributes to these effects. Here, we demonstrate that the antidepressant-like efficacy of three unique drugs, with reported rapid onset antidepressant properties, is coupled with a rapid transient rise in glutamate cycling in medial prefronal cortex (mPFC) of awak...

  9. The impact of increased loading rate on granular media, rapid depth filtration of wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gordon J; Sheikh, Bahman; Holden, Robert B; Kouretas, Tom J; Nelson, Kara L

    2007-11-01

    The impact of loading rate on tertiary filtration of wastewater was studied using a pilot-scale, dual-media, rapid depth filtration system. Loading rates of 12.2, 15.3, 18.3, 21.4, and 24.4m/h were tested on parallel filter columns treating the same coagulated secondary wastewater to determine the impact on removal of turbidity, particles (2-15 microm), total coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, and MS2 bacteriophage, as well as on the particle deposition profile in the filter bed. Increasing the loading rate from 12.2 to 24.4m/h decreased the removal efficiencies for all metrics. The observed impact of loading rate on particle removal was similar to that predicted by a clean-bed filtration model, although the model significantly underestimated the removal efficiencies of the smaller particles. For two loading rates, 12.2 and 18.3m/h, the effect of coagulant dose was also studied; the negative impact of loading rate on removal efficiency was eliminated by increasing the coagulant dose for the higher loading rate, which also resulted in removal of particles deeper in the filter bed. For all conditions studied, loading rate had no observable impact on the ability to disinfect filter effluents with chloramines. The results of this research indicate that loading rates higher than those typically used in tertiary filtration can produce acceptable effluent quality, and support a regulatory approach based on filter effluent turbidity.

  10. CME properties and solar source region characteristics - HELCATS results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothmer, Volker; Mrotzek, Niclas; Murray, Sophie; Gallagher, Peter; Barnes, David; Davies, Jackie; Harrison, Richard

    2017-04-01

    One objective of the EU FP7 project HELCATS is to derive and catalogue the characteristics of CMEs observed with the STEREO/COR2 & HI imagers based on geometrical and forward modelling. Here we present the results of the analysis of a subset of the 122 CME events that have been dynamically modelled with the GCS-method in the COR2 field of view and which are compiled in the KINCAT database at http://www.affects-fp7.eu/helcats-database/database.php. The CME properties, such as speeds, masses, angular widths, as derived from modelling, are compared with magnetic field properties of the corresponding solar source active region, such as magnetic flux, area, and polarity line characteristics. The results show which solar parameters define the structure of CMEs at distances around 12 solar radii and how they can be used for space weather forecast services.

  11. Rapid increase of near atomic resolution virus capsid structures determined by cryo-electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Phuong T; Reddy, Vijay S

    2017-10-27

    The recent technological advances in electron microscopes, detectors, as well as image processing and reconstruction software have brought single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) into prominence for determining structures of bio-molecules at near atomic resolution. This has been particularly true for virus capsids, ribosomes, and other large assemblies, which have been the ideal specimens for structural studies by cryo-EM approaches. An analysis of time series metadata of virus structures on the methods of structure determination, resolution of the structures, and size of the virus particles revealed a rapid increase in the virus structures determined by cryo-EM at near atomic resolution since 2010. In addition, the data highlight the median resolution (∼3.0 Å) and size (∼310.0 Å in diameter) of the virus particles determined by X-ray crystallography while no such limits exist for cryo-EM structures, which have a median diameter of 508 Å. Notably, cryo-EM virus structures in the last four years have a median resolution of 3.9 Å. Taken together with minimal sample requirements, not needing diffraction quality crystals, and being able to achieve similar resolutions of the crystal structures makes cryo-EM the method of choice for current and future virus capsid structure determinations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Settling into an increasingly hostile world: the rapidly closing "recruitment window" for corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Suzanne N; Steneck, Robert S

    2011-01-01

    Free space is necessary for larval recruitment in all marine benthic communities. Settling corals, with limited energy to invest in competitive interactions, are particularly vulnerable during settlement into well-developed coral reef communities. This situation may be exacerbated for corals settling into coral-depauperate reefs where succession in nursery microhabitats moves rapidly toward heterotrophic organisms inhospitable to settling corals. To study effects of benthic organisms (at millimeter to centimeter scales) on newly settled corals and their survivorship we deployed terra-cotta coral settlement plates at 10 m depth on the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef in Belize and monitored them for 38 mo. During the second and third years, annual recruitment rates declined by over 50% from the previous year. Invertebrate crusts (primarily sponges) were absent at the start of the experiment but increased in abundance annually from 39, 60, to 73% of the plate undersides by year three. Subsequently, substrates hospitable to coral recruitment, including crustose coralline algae, biofilmed terra-cotta and polychaete tubes, declined. With succession, substrates upon which spat settled shifted toward organisms inimical to survivorship. Over 50% of spat mortality was due to overgrowth by sponges alone. This result suggests that when a disturbance creates primary substrate a "recruitment window" for settling corals exists from approximately 9 to 14 mo following the disturbance. During the window, early-succession, facilitating species are most abundant. The window closes as organisms hostile to coral settlement and survivorship overgrow nursery microhabitats.

  13. Settling into an increasingly hostile world: the rapidly closing "recruitment window" for corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne N Arnold

    Full Text Available Free space is necessary for larval recruitment in all marine benthic communities. Settling corals, with limited energy to invest in competitive interactions, are particularly vulnerable during settlement into well-developed coral reef communities. This situation may be exacerbated for corals settling into coral-depauperate reefs where succession in nursery microhabitats moves rapidly toward heterotrophic organisms inhospitable to settling corals. To study effects of benthic organisms (at millimeter to centimeter scales on newly settled corals and their survivorship we deployed terra-cotta coral settlement plates at 10 m depth on the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef in Belize and monitored them for 38 mo. During the second and third years, annual recruitment rates declined by over 50% from the previous year. Invertebrate crusts (primarily sponges were absent at the start of the experiment but increased in abundance annually from 39, 60, to 73% of the plate undersides by year three. Subsequently, substrates hospitable to coral recruitment, including crustose coralline algae, biofilmed terra-cotta and polychaete tubes, declined. With succession, substrates upon which spat settled shifted toward organisms inimical to survivorship. Over 50% of spat mortality was due to overgrowth by sponges alone. This result suggests that when a disturbance creates primary substrate a "recruitment window" for settling corals exists from approximately 9 to 14 mo following the disturbance. During the window, early-succession, facilitating species are most abundant. The window closes as organisms hostile to coral settlement and survivorship overgrow nursery microhabitats.

  14. Tricalcium phosphate nanoparticles enable rapid purification, increase transduction kinetics, and modify the tropism of mammalian viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreesen, Imke A J; Lüchinger, Norman A; Stark, Wendelin J; Fussenegger, Martin

    2009-03-01

    Adenoviral, adeno-associated viral, and retroviral particles are chosen as gene delivery shuttles in more than 50% of all gene therapy clinical trials. Bulk availability of clinical-grade viral particles and their efficiency to transduce the therapeutic cargo into specific target cells remain the most critical bottlenecks in gene therapy applications to date. Capitalizing on the flame-spray technology for the reproducible economic large-scale production of amorphous tricalcium phosphate nanoparticulate powders (ATCP), we designed a scalable ready-to-use gravity-flow column set-up for the straightforward concentration and purification of transgenic adenoviral, adeno-associated viral, and lentiviral particles. Specific elution buffers enabled rapid release of viral particles from the ATCP matrix of the column and provided high-titer virus preparations in an unsurpassed period of time. The interaction of ATCP with adenoviral, adeno-associated viral, and lentiviral particles in solution increased the transduction kinetics of several mammalian cell lines in culture. The nanoparticles were also able to modify the tropism of murine leukemia virus (MLV) towards transduction of human cells. Based on these findings, we believe that the use of flame-spray tricalcium phosphate nanoparticles will lead to important progress in the development of future gene therapy initiatives.

  15. Learning new color names produces rapid increase in gray matter in the intact adult human cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Veronica; Niu, Zhendong; Kay, Paul; Zhou, Ke; Mo, Lei; Jin, Zhen; So, Kwok-Fai; Tan, Li Hai

    2011-04-19

    The human brain has been shown to exhibit changes in the volume and density of gray matter as a result of training over periods of several weeks or longer. We show that these changes can be induced much faster by using a training method that is claimed to simulate the rapid learning of word meanings by children. Using whole-brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) we show that learning newly defined and named subcategories of the universal categories green and blue in a period of 2 h increases the volume of gray matter in V2/3 of the left visual cortex, a region known to mediate color vision. This pattern of findings demonstrates that the anatomical structure of the adult human brain can change very quickly, specifically during the acquisition of new, named categories. Also, prior behavioral and neuroimaging research has shown that differences between languages in the boundaries of named color categories influence the categorical perception of color, as assessed by judgments of relative similarity, by response time in alternative forced-choice tasks, and by visual search. Moreover, further behavioral studies (visual search) and brain imaging studies have suggested strongly that the categorical effect of language on color processing is left-lateralized, i.e., mediated by activity in the left cerebral hemisphere in adults (hence "lateralized Whorfian" effects). The present results appear to provide a structural basis in the brain for the behavioral and neurophysiologically observed indices of these Whorfian effects on color processing.

  16. Increased Sensitivity of a New Coagglutination Test for Rapid Identification of Haemophilus influenzae Type b

    OpenAIRE

    Grasso, Robert J.; West, Loyd A.; Holbrook, Nikki J.; Halkias, Demetrios G.; Paradise, Lois J.; Friedman, Herman

    1981-01-01

    A newly developed rapid coagglutination test for identifying Haemophilus influenzae type b organisms isolated from clinical specimens correlated 100% with the slide agglutination test but was 100- to 200-fold more sensitive.

  17. Small Projects Rapid Integration and Test Environment (SPRITE): Application for Increasing Robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, John; Heater, Daniel; Lee, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Small Projects Rapid Integration and Test Environment (SPRITE) is a Hardware-In-The-Loop (HWIL) facility that provides rapid development, integration, and testing capabilities for small projects (CubeSats, payloads, spacecraft, and launch vehicles). This facility environment focuses on efficient processes and modular design to support rapid prototyping, integration, testing and verification of small projects at an affordable cost, especially compared to larger type HWIL facilities. SPRITE (Figure 1) consists of a "core" capability or "plant" simulation platform utilizing a graphical programming environment capable of being rapidly re-configured for any potential test article's space environments, as well as a standard set of interfaces (i.e. Mil-Std 1553, Serial, Analog, Digital, etc.). SPRITE also allows this level of interface testing of components and subsystems very early in a program, thereby reducing program risk.

  18. 4-D modeling of CME expansion and EUV dimming observed with STEREO/EUVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Aschwanden

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This is the first attempt to model the kinematics of a CME launch and the resulting EUV dimming quantitatively with a self-consistent model. Our 4-D-model assumes self-similar expansion of a spherical CME geometry that consists of a CME front with density compression and a cavity with density rarefaction, satisfying mass conservation of the total CME and swept-up corona. The model contains 14 free parameters and is fitted to the 25 March 2008 CME event observed with STEREO/A and B. Our model is able to reproduce the observed CME expansion and related EUV dimming during the initial phase from 18:30 UT to 19:00 UT. The CME kinematics can be characterized by a constant acceleration (i.e., a constant magnetic driving force. While the observations of EUVI/A are consistent with a spherical bubble geometry, we detect significant asymmetries and density inhomogeneities with EUVI/B. This new forward-modeling method demonstrates how the observed EUV dimming can be used to model physical parameters of the CME source region, the CME geometry, and CME kinematics.

  19. Crystal Structure of the Transcriptional Regulator CmeR From Campylobacter Jejuni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, R.; Su, C.-C.; Shi, F.; McDermott, G.; Zhang, Q.; Yu, E.W.

    2009-06-01

    The CmeABC multidrug efflux pump, which belongs to the resistance-nodulation-division (RND) family, recognizes and extrudes a broad range of antimicrobial agents and is essential for Campylobacter jejuni colonization of the animal intestinal tract by mediating the efflux of bile acids. The expression of CmeABC is controlled by the transcriptional regulator CmeR, whose open reading frame is located immediately upstream of the cmeABC operon. To understand the structural basis of CmeR regulation, we have determined the crystal structure of CmeR to 2.2 {angstrom} resolution, revealing a dimeric two-domain molecule with an entirely helical architecture similar to members of the TetR family of transcriptional regulators. Unlike the rest of the TetR regulators, CmeR has a large center-to-center distance (54 {angstrom}) between two N termini of the dimer, and a large flexible ligand-binding pocket in the C-terminal domain. Each monomer forms a 20 {angstrom} long tunnel-like cavity in the ligand-binding domain of CmeR and is occupied by a fortuitous ligand that is identified as glycerol. The binding of glycerol to CmeR induces a conformational state that is incompatible with target DNA. As glycerol has a chemical structure similar to that of potential ligands of CmeR, the structure obtained mimics the induced form of CmeR. These findings reveal novel structural features of a TetR family regulator, and provide new insight into the mechanisms of ligand binding and CmeR regulation.

  20. Collateral damage: rapid exposure-induced evolution of pesticide resistance leads to increased susceptibility to parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Mieke; Stoks, Robby; Coors, Anja; van Doorslaer, Wendy; de Meester, Luc

    2011-09-01

    Although natural populations may evolve resistance to anthropogenic stressors such as pollutants, this evolved resistance may carry costs. Using an experimental evolution approach, we exposed different Daphnia magna populations in outdoor containers to the carbamate pesticide carbaryl and control conditions, and assessed the resulting populations for both their resistance to carbaryl as well as their susceptibility to infection by the widespread bacterial microparasite Pasteuria ramosa. Our results show that carbaryl selection led to rapid evolution of carbaryl resistance with seemingly no cost when assessed in a benign environment. However, carbaryl-resistant populations were more susceptible to parasite infection than control populations. Exposure to both stressors reveals a synergistic effect on sterilization rate by P. ramosa, but this synergism did not evolve under pesticide selection. Assessing costs of rapid adaptive evolution to anthropogenic stress in a semi-natural context may be crucial to avoid too optimistic predictions for the fitness of the evolving populations. © 2011 The Author(s).

  1. Men's sexual health: evaluating the effectiveness of print- and PDA-based CME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Gregory A; Abdolrasulnia, Maziar

    2009-09-01

    Personal digital assistant (PDA)-based continuing medical education (CME) activities have become widely available. To evaluate the effectiveness of print- and PDA-based CME materials in erectile dysfunction (ED). CME materials describing links between ED and comorbid medical conditions, effects of certain lifestyle modifications on ED, and treatment of ED with phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors were distributed as a print supplement and as electronic modules, viewed with PDAs. We evaluated how effectively these materials improved evidence-based clinical choices, using survey questions about case vignettes and comparing responses of CME participants (N = 85) and matched nonparticipants (N = 94). Effect size, measuring the difference in evidence-based clinical scores between participants and nonparticipants. CME certificates were awarded to 3,557 participants (459 print, 3,098 PDA). Among survey respondents, significantly more CME participants recognized that ED was associated with greater risk for myocardial infarction (61% participants; 34% nonparticipants; P sexual concerns was perceived as the most significant barrier to optimal ED management. Given patient reluctance to discuss sexual concerns, future CME activities should focus on educating health-care providers and patients that ED is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Both print- and PDA-based CME on ED were effective; the large number of lesson completers suggests a trend toward on-demand, self-selected CME is positive.

  2. On Flare-CME Characteristics from Sun to Earth Combining Remote-Sensing Image Data with In Situ Measurements Supported by Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmer, Manuela; Thalmann, Julia K.; Dissauer, Karin; Veronig, Astrid M.; Tschernitz, Johannes; Hinterreiter, Jürgen; Rodriguez, Luciano

    2017-07-01

    We analyze the well-observed flare and coronal mass ejection (CME) from 1 October 2011 (SOL2011-10-01T09:18) covering the complete chain of effects - from Sun to Earth - to better understand the dynamic evolution of the CME and its embedded magnetic field. We study in detail the solar surface and atmosphere associated with the flare and CME using the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and ground-based instruments. We also track the CME signature off-limb with combined extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and white-light data from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO). By applying the graduated cylindrical shell (GCS) reconstruction method and total mass to stereoscopic STEREO-SOHO ( Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) coronagraph data, we track the temporal and spatial evolution of the CME in the interplanetary space and derive its geometry and 3D mass. We combine the GCS and Lundquist model results to derive the axial flux and helicity of the magnetic cloud (MC) from in situ measurements from Wind. This is compared to nonlinear force-free (NLFF) model results, as well as to the reconnected magnetic flux derived from the flare ribbons (flare reconnection flux) and the magnetic flux encompassed by the associated dimming (dimming flux). We find that magnetic reconnection processes were already ongoing before the start of the impulsive flare phase, adding magnetic flux to the flux rope before its final eruption. The dimming flux increases by more than 25% after the end of the flare, indicating that magnetic flux is still added to the flux rope after eruption. Hence, the derived flare reconnection flux is most probably a lower limit for estimating the magnetic flux within the flux rope. We find that the magnetic helicity and axial magnetic flux are lower in the interplanetary space by ˜ 50% and 75%, respectively, possibly indicating an erosion process. A CME mass increase of 10% is observed over a range of {˜} 4 - 20 R_{⊙}. The temporal evolution of the CME

  3. Morphology and Density Structure of Post-CME Current Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrsnak, B.; Poletto, G.; Vujic, E.; Vourlidas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Eruption of a coronal mass ejection (CME) is believed to drag and open the coronal magnetic field, presumably leading to the formation of a large-scale current sheet and field relaxation by magnetic reconnection. This paper analyzes the physical characteristics of ray-like coronal features formed in the aftermath of CMEs, to confirm whether interpreting such phenomena in terms of a reconnecting current sheet is consistent with observations. Methods: The study focuses on UVCS/SOHO and LASCO/SOHO measurements of the ray width, density excess, and coronal velocity field as a function of the radial distance. The morphology of the rays implies that they are produced by Petschek-like reconnection in the large-scale current sheet formed in the wake of CME. The hypothesis is supported by the flow pattern, often showing outflows along the ray, and sometimes also inflows into the ray. The inferred inflow velocities range from 3 to 30 km/s, and are consistent with the narrow opening-angle of rays, which add up to a few degrees. The density of rays is an order of magnitude higher than in the ambient corona. The model results are consistent with the observations, revealing that the main cause of the density excess in rays is a transport of the dense plasma from lower to higher heights by the reconnection outflow.

  4. Coronal Magnetic Field Profiles from Shock-CME Standoff Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J. M.; Cairns, Iver H.; Gopalswamy, N.; Yashiro, S.

    2016-01-01

    Coronagraphs observe coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and driven shocks in white light images.From these observations the shocks speed and the shocks standoff distance from the CMEs leading edge can be derived. Using these quantities, theoretical relationships between the shocks Alfvenic Mach number MA and standoff distance, and empirical radial profiles for the solar wind velocity and number density, the radial magnetic field profile upstream of the shock can be calculated. These profiles cannot be measured directly. We test the accuracy of this method for estimating the radial magnetic field profile upstream of the shock by simulating a sample CME that occurred on 29 November 2013 using the three-dimensional (3-D) magnetohydrodynamic Block-Adaptive-Tree-Solar wind-Roe-Upwind-Scheme code, retrieving shock-CME standoff distances from the simulation, and comparing the estimated and simulated radial magnetic field profiles. We find good agreement between the two profiles (within +/-30%) between 1.8 and 10R.Our simulations confirm that a linear relationship exists between the standoff distance and the inverse compression ratio at the shock. We also find very good agreement between the empirical and simulated radial profiles of the number density and speed of the solar wind and inner corona.

  5. Increased insight in microbial processes in rapid sandfilters in drinking water treatment (DW BIOFILTERS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Gülay, Arda; Lee, Carson

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research project is to improve our knowledge on biological rapid sand filters as they are present in thousands groundwater based water works. This includes molecular investigations of the microorganisms responsible for the individual processes (e.g. nitrification); and detailed...... monitoring and experiments in the filters and laboratory to provide insight in the process mechanisms, kinetics and effect of environmental factors. Management of the filters (e.g. backwashing, flow rate, carrier type) will be investigated at pilot and full scale, supported by mathematical models...... investigated by deep sequencing. This will also contribute to a verification of whether the selected qPCR probes include all important groups. Filters from three water works have been sampled and are currently being processed to investigate depth profiles and horizontal variation in filters. Assays...

  6. Rapid intervention and treatment zone: redesigning nursing services to meet increasing emergency department demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considine, Julie; Lucas, Elspeth; Martin, Roslyn; Stergiou, Helen E; Kropman, Matthew; Chiu, Herman

    2012-02-01

    The impact of emergency nursing roles in demand management systems is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate emergency nurses' role in a specific emergency department (ED) demand management system: rapid intervention and treatment zone (RITZ). A descriptive exploratory approach was used. Data were collected from audit of 193 randomly selected patient records and 12 h of clinical practice observation. The median age of participants was 31 years, 51.8% were males and 99.5% were discharged home. Nurse qualifications or seniority had no significant effect on waiting time or length of stay (LOS). There were disparities between documented and observed nursing practice. The designation and qualifications of RITZ nurses made little difference to waiting times and ED LOS. Specific documentation and communication systems for areas of the ED that manage large numbers of low complexity patients warrant further research. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. KELVIN-HELMHOLTZ INSTABILITY OF THE CME RECONNECTION OUTFLOW LAYER IN THE LOW CORONA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foullon, Claire; Verwichte, Erwin [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Nykyri, Katariina [Department of Physical Sciences, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL 32114 (United States); Aschwanden, Markus J. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Hannah, Iain G., E-mail: claire.foullon@warwick.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-20

    New capabilities for studying the Sun allow us to image for the first time the magnetic Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability developing at the surface of a fast coronal mass ejecta (CME) less than 150 Mm above the solar surface. We conduct a detailed observational investigation of this phenomenon, observed off the east solar limb on 2010 November 3, in the EUV with SDO/AIA. In conjunction with STEREO-B/EUVI, we derive the CME source surface position. We ascertain the timing and early evolution of the CME outflow leading to the instability onset. We perform image and spectral analysis, exploring the CME plasma structuring and its parabolic flow pattern. As we evaluate and validate the consistency of the observations with theoretical considerations and predictions, we take the view that the ejecta layer corresponds to a reconnection outflow layer surrounding the erupting flux rope, accounting for the timing, high temperature ({approx}11.6 MK), and high flow shear ({approx}680 km s{sup -1}) on the unstable CME northern flank and for the observed asymmetry between the CME flanks. From the irregular evolution of the CME flow pattern, we infer a shear gradient consistent with expected spatial flow variations across the KH-unstable flank. The KH phenomenon observed is tied to the first stage of a linked flare-CME event.

  8. Determination of CME 3D parameters based on a new full ice-cream cone model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Yong-Jae

    2017-08-01

    In space weather forecast, it is important to determine three-dimensional properties of CMEs. Using 29 limb CMEs, we examine which cone type is close to a CME three-dimensional structure. We find that most CMEs have near full ice-cream cone structure which is a symmetrical circular cone combined with a hemisphere. We develop a full ice-cream cone model based on a new methodology that the full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths. By applying this model to 12 SOHO/LASCO halo CMEs, we find that 3D parameters from our method are similar to those from other stereoscopic methods (i.e., a triangulation method and a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model). In addition, we derive CME mean density (ρmean=Mtotal/Vcone) based on the full ice-cream cone structure. For several limb events, we determine CME mass by applying the Solarsoft procedure (e.g., cme_mass.pro) to SOHO/LASCO C3 images. CME volumes are estimated from the full ice-cream cone structure. From the power-law relationship between CME mean density and its height, we estimate CME mean densities at 20 solar radii (Rs). We will compare the CME densities at 20 Rs with their corresponding ICME densities.

  9. Preliminary structural studies of the transcriptional regulator CmeR from Campylobacter jejuni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Chih-Chia [Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Shi, Feng [Department of Veterinary Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Gu, Ruoyu; Li, Ming [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); McDermott, Gerry [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States); Yu, Edward W., E-mail: ewyu@iastate.edu [Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Zhang, Qijing [Department of Veterinary Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The transcriptional regulator CmeR from C. jejuni has been purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data have been collected to a resolution of 2.2 Å. In Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen causing gastroenteritis in humans, the CmeR regulatory protein controls transcription of the multidrug transporter gene operon cmeABC. CmeR belongs to the TetR family of transcriptional regulators. The 210-residue CmeR consists of two functional motifs: an N-terminal DNA-binding domain and a C-terminal ligand-binding domain. It is predicted that the DNA-binding domain interacts directly with target promoters, while the C-terminal motif interacts with inducing ligands (such as bile salts). As an initial step towards confirming this structural model, recombinant CmeR protein containing a 6×His tag at the N-terminus was crystallized. Crystals of ligand-free CmeR belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 37.4, b = 57.6, c = 93.3 Å. Diffraction was observed to at least 2.2 Å at 100 K. Analysis of the detailed CmeR structure is currently in progress.

  10. Mechanical stimulation evokes rapid increases in extracellular adenosine concentration in the prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Ashley E.; Nguyen, Michael D.; Privman, Eve; Venton, B. Jill

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical perturbations can release ATP, which is broken down to adenosine. In this work, we used carbon-fiber microelectrodes and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to measure mechanically-stimulated adenosine in the brain by lowering the electrode 50 μm. Mechanical stimulation evoked adenosine in vivo (average: 3.3 ± 0.6 μM) and in brain slices (average: 0.8 ± 0.1 μM) in the prefrontal cortex. The release was transient, lasting 18 ± 2 s. Lowering a 15 μm diameter glass pipette near the carbon-fiber microelectrode produced similar results as lowering the actual microelectrode. However, applying a small puff of artificial cerebral spinal fluid was not sufficient to evoke adenosine. Multiple stimulations within a 50 μm region of a slice did not significantly change over time or damage cells. Chelating calcium with EDTA or blocking sodium channels with tetrodotoxin (TTX) significantly decreased mechanically evoked adenosine, signifying that the release is activity-dependent. An alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptor antagonist, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), did not affect mechanically-stimulated adenosine; however, the nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1,2 and 3 (NTDPase) inhibitor POM-1 significantly reduced adenosine so a portion of adenosine is dependent on extracellular ATP metabolism. Thus, mechanical perturbations from inserting a probe in the brain cause rapid, transient adenosine signaling which might be neuroprotective. PMID:24606335

  11. False positive rate of rapid oral fluid HIV tests increases as kits near expiration date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facente, Shelley N; Dowling, Teri; Vittinghoff, Eric; Sykes, Deanna L; Colfax, Grant N

    2009-12-14

    Because a recent cluster of false positive results on the OraQuick ADVANCE Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test occurred in San Francisco on test kits close to their expiration date, we decided to assess the relationship between time to expiration and rate of false positive results from tests used with oral fluid. We analyzed results of 20,904 tests with either an initial HIV-negative result (n = 20,828) or a preliminary positive result that was then negative on confirmatory tests (n = 76). We computed specificity for kits with time to expiration from or = 6 months, with exact binomial confidence intervals, then used logistic regression to estimate the independent association of time to expiration with false positive results, adjusting for site and technician effects. For 1,108 kits used in the last month before expiration, specificity was 98.83% (95% exact binomial confidence interval (CI) 98.00%-99.37%); the upper bound is below the claimed specificity of 99.60%. After adjustment using regression standardization for the effects of site, test lot, and technician factors, adjusted specificity in the last month before expiration was 99.18% (95% bootstrap confidence interval 98.60-99.57%). We found that specificity of the OraQuick ADVANCE with oral fluid declined significantly with < or = 1 month remaining to expiration, leaving little margin for error from other sources.

  12. Rapidly increasing prescribing of proton pump inhibitors in primary care despite interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Peter; Paulsen, Maja Skov; Zwisler, Jon Eik

    2014-01-01

    2001-2011 and to assess the impacts of interventions on prescribing of antisecretory medication. Methods: Register-based cohort study covering the entire Danish population of currently 5.5 million inhabitants. Developments in the prescribing of antisecretory medication over time in Denmark between 2001...... increased substantially during the past decade. Both number of users and the average individual use have increased. The prescribing of ulcerogenic drugs to the elderly has stagnated in the same time range. Reimbursement modifications and scientific guidelines do not seem to have had a substantial influence...... on the steadily increasing prescribing of PPIs. Conclusion: Use of PPIs has increased substantially during the past decade, without a change in indications for use of PPIs in the same time range. Interventions to enhance adherence to guidelines and promote rational use of PPIs do not seem to have had...

  13. Rapid Growth and Apparent Total Nitrogen Increases in Rice and Corn Plants following Applications of Triacontanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, N R; Ries, S K

    1981-12-01

    Triacontanol (TRIA) increased fresh and dry weight and total reducible nitrogen (total N) of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings within 40 minutes. Increases in total N in the supernatants from homogenates of corn (Zea mays L.) and rice leaves treated with TRIA for one minute before grinding occurred within 30 and 80 minutes, respectively. The source for the increase was investigated utilizing atmospheric substitution and enrichment and depletion studies with (15)N. The increase in total N in seedlings was shown to be independent of method of N analysis and the presence of nitrate in the plants. Automated Kjeldahl determinations showing apparent increases in N composition due to TRIA were shown to be correlated with hand Kjeldahl, elemental analysis, and chemiluminescent analysis in three independent laboratories. TRIA did not alter the nitrate uptake or endogenous levels of nitrate in corn and rice seedlings. Enrichment experiments revealed that the total N increases in rice seedlings, in vivo, and in supernatants of corn leaf homogenates, in vitro, are not due to atmospheric N(2). TRIA increased the soluble N pools of the plants, specifically the free amino acid and soluble protein fractions. No differences in depletion or enrichment of (15)N incorporated into soluble and insoluble N fractions of rice seedlings could be detected on an atom per cent (15)N basis. The apparent short-term total N increases cannot be explained by current knowledge of major N assimilation pathways. TRIA may stimulate a change in the chemical composition of the seedlings, resulting in interference with standard methods of N analysis.

  14. Increasing the satisfaction of general practitioners with continuing medical education programs: A method for quality improvement through increasing teacher-learner interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogelman Yacov

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuing medical education (CME for general practitioners relies on specialist-based teaching methods in many settings. Formal lectures by specialists may not meet the learning needs of practitioners and may cause dissatisfaction with traditional CME. Increasing learner involvement in teaching programs may improve learner satisfaction. Methods A quality improvement program for CME for 18 general practitioners in the Tel Aviv region was designed as a result of dissatisfaction with traditional CME activities. A two-step strategy for change was developed. The CME participants first selected the study topics relevant to them from a needs assessment and prepared background material on the topics. In the second step, specialist teachers were invited to answer questions arising from the preparation of selected topics. Satisfaction with the traditional lecture program and the new participatory program were assessed by a questionnaire. The quality criteria included the relevance, importance and applicability of the CME topic chosen to the participant's practice, the clarity of the presentation and the effective use of teaching aids by the lecturer and the potential of the lecturer to serve as a consultant to the participant. Results The participatory model of CME significantly increased satisfaction with relevance, applicability and interest in CME topics compared to the traditional lecture format. Conclusions Increased learner participation in the selection and preparation of CME topics, and increased interaction between CME teachers and learners results in increased satisfaction with teaching programs. Future study of the effect of this model on physician performance is required.

  15. Rapid product analysis and increased sensitivity for quantitative determinations of botulinum neurotoxin proteolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Benjamin; Schmidt, James J; Smith, Leonard A; Ahmed, S Ashraf

    2010-01-15

    The ultimate molecular action of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a Zn-dependent endoproteolytic activity on one of the three SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) proteins. There are seven serotypes (A-G) of BoNT having distinct cleavage sites on the SNARE substrates. The proteolytic activity is located on the N-terminal light chain (Lc) domain and is used extensively as the primary target toward therapeutic development against botulism. Here we describe an improved method using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) whereby quantitative data were obtained in 1/10th the time using 1/20th the sample and solvent volumes compared with a widely used high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. We also synthesized a VAMP (vesicle-associated membrane protein)-based peptide containing an intact V1 motif that was efficiently used as a substrate by BoNT/D Lc. Although serotype C1 cleaves the serotype A substrate at a bond separated by only one residue, we were able to distinguish the two reactions by UPLC. The new method can accurately quantify as low as 7 pmol of the peptide substrates for BoNT serotypes A, B, C1, and D. We also report here that the catalytic efficiency of serotype A can be stimulated 35-fold by the addition of Triton X-100 to the reaction mixture. Combining the use of Triton X-100 with the newly introduced UPLC method, we were able to accurately detect very low levels of proteolytic activity in a very short time. Sensitivity of the assay and accuracy and rapidity of product analysis should greatly augment efforts in therapeutic development.

  16. The mCME Project: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an SMS-Based Continuing Medical Education Intervention for Improving Medical Knowledge among Vietnamese Community Based Physicians' Assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Christopher J; Le Ngoc, Bao; Halim, Nafisa; Nguyen Viet, Ha; Larson Williams, Anna; Nguyen Van, Tan; McNabb, Marion; Tran Thi Ngoc, Lien; Falconer, Ariel; An Phan Ha, Hai; Rohr, Julia; Hoang, Hai; Michiel, James; Nguyen Thi Thanh, Tam; Bird, Liat; Pham Vu, Hoang; Yeshitla, Mahlet; Ha Van, Nhu; Sabin, Lora

    2016-01-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) provide critical services to underserved populations in low and middle-income countries, but maintaining CHW's clinical knowledge through formal continuing medical education (CME) activities is challenging and rarely occurs. We tested whether a Short Message Service (SMS)-based mobile CME (mCME) intervention could improve medical knowledge among a cadre of Vietnamese CHWs (Community Based Physician's Assistants-CBPAs) who are the leading providers of primary medical care for rural underserved populations. The mCME Project was a three arm randomized controlled trial. Group 1 served as controls while Groups 2 and 3 experienced two models of the mCME intervention. Group 2 (passive model) participants received a daily SMS bullet point, and were required to reply to the text to acknowledge receipt; Group 3 (interactive model) participants received an SMS in multiple choice question format addressing the same thematic area as Group 2, entering an answer (A, B, C or D) in their response. The server provided feedback immediately informing the participant whether the answer was correct. Effectiveness was based on standardized examination scores measured at baseline and endline (six months later). Secondary outcomes included job satisfaction and self-efficacy. 638 CBPAs were enrolled, randomized, and tested at baseline, with 592 returning at endline (93.7%). Baseline scores were similar across all three groups. Over the next six months, participation of Groups 2 and 3 remained high; they responded to >75% of messages. Group 3 participants answered 43% of the daily SMS questions correctly, but their performance did not improve over time. At endline, the CBPAs reported high satisfaction with the mCME intervention, and deemed the SMS messages highly relevant. However, endline exam scores did not increase over baseline, and did not differ between the three groups. Job satisfaction and self-efficacy scores also did not improve. Average times spent

  17. The mCME Project: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an SMS-Based Continuing Medical Education Intervention for Improving Medical Knowledge among Vietnamese Community Based Physicians' Assistants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Gill

    Full Text Available Community health workers (CHWs provide critical services to underserved populations in low and middle-income countries, but maintaining CHW's clinical knowledge through formal continuing medical education (CME activities is challenging and rarely occurs. We tested whether a Short Message Service (SMS-based mobile CME (mCME intervention could improve medical knowledge among a cadre of Vietnamese CHWs (Community Based Physician's Assistants-CBPAs who are the leading providers of primary medical care for rural underserved populations.The mCME Project was a three arm randomized controlled trial. Group 1 served as controls while Groups 2 and 3 experienced two models of the mCME intervention. Group 2 (passive model participants received a daily SMS bullet point, and were required to reply to the text to acknowledge receipt; Group 3 (interactive model participants received an SMS in multiple choice question format addressing the same thematic area as Group 2, entering an answer (A, B, C or D in their response. The server provided feedback immediately informing the participant whether the answer was correct. Effectiveness was based on standardized examination scores measured at baseline and endline (six months later. Secondary outcomes included job satisfaction and self-efficacy.638 CBPAs were enrolled, randomized, and tested at baseline, with 592 returning at endline (93.7%. Baseline scores were similar across all three groups. Over the next six months, participation of Groups 2 and 3 remained high; they responded to >75% of messages. Group 3 participants answered 43% of the daily SMS questions correctly, but their performance did not improve over time. At endline, the CBPAs reported high satisfaction with the mCME intervention, and deemed the SMS messages highly relevant. However, endline exam scores did not increase over baseline, and did not differ between the three groups. Job satisfaction and self-efficacy scores also did not improve. Average

  18. E-learning for occupational physicians' CME: a study case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, M Cristina; Rognoni, Carla; Finozzi, Enrico; Gri, Tommaso; Pagani, Marco; Imbriani, Marcello

    2011-01-01

    The present study reports the results of the evaluation of an e-learning CME course in the field of Occupational Medicine. In particular the following aspects have been investigated: If and how the course contents have met the educational users' needs; The effectiveness of the course in terms of knowledge improvement; Users' behaviour. Attendance data and results of a sample of 1128 attendees have been analyzed via ad hoc developed tools for direct inspection of Moodle CMS database. The results document the effectiveness of the e-learning course, as regards meeting the educational needs of physicians and also the improvement in terms of knowledge and problem solving skill acquisition. Users' behaviour has revealed a certain tendency for passing the tests, more than for pursuing the best possible result. Interaction with the tutor is low.

  19. Succes med e-læring - CME-modellen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Johannsen Duus

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Første gang publiceret i UNEV nr. 4: Undervisere og e-læring - problemer og perspektiver, september - december 2004, red. Poul Gøtke og Annette Lorentsen. ISSN 1603-5518. HD-studiet i afsætningsøkonomi og udenrigshandel (HD (A/U lokaliseret ved Center of Market Economics (CME på Handelshøjskolen i København er et eksempel på en virtuel uddannelse, der anvender helt nye læringsprincipper, som man ikke finder andre steder. Denne artikel giver en kort introduktion til studiet og dets særlige karakteristika. Der fokuseres derefter på studiets idégrundlag, faktorerne bag studiets udvikling til virtuel uddannelse og på de særlige krav, som må stilles til lærerkorpset. Afslutningsvis ses der på rekrutteringen og uddannelsen af virtuelle lærere.

  20. Blended learning in CME: the perception of GP trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Pas, E; Meinema, J G; Visser, M R M; van Dijk, N

    2016-05-01

    Blended learning (the combination of electronic methods with traditional teaching methods) has the potential to combine the best of traditional education with the best of computer-mediated training. We chose to develop such an intervention for GP trainers who were undertaking a Continuing Medical Education (CME) course in evidence-based medicine (EBM). This study reports on our experience and investigated the factors influencing the perception on usefulness and logistics of blended learning for learners in CME. In total, 170 GP trainers participated in the intervention. We used questionnaires, observations during the four face-to-face meetings and evaluations in the e-course over one year. Additionally we organised focus groups to gain insight in some of the outcomes of the questionnaires and interpretations of the observations. The GP trainers found the design and the educational method (e-course in combination with meetings) attractive, instructive and complementary. Factors influencing their learning were (1) educational design, (2) educational method, (3) topic of the intervention, (4) time (planning), (5) time (intervention), (6) learning style, (7) technical issues, (8) preconditions and (9) level of difficulty. A close link between daily practice and the educational intervention was considered an important precondition for the success of the intervention in this group of learners. GP trainers were positive about blended learning: they found e-learning a useful way to gain knowledge and the meetings a pleasant way of transferring the knowledge into practice. Although some preconditions should be taken into consideration during its development and implementation, they would participate in similarly designed learning in the future.

  1. RAPID KNEE-EXTENSIONS TO INCREASE QUADRICEPS MUSCLE ACTIVITY IN PATIENTS WITH TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Rasmus Skov; Wilquin, Lousia; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inhibition of the quadriceps muscle and reduced knee-extension strength is common shortly following total knee arthroplasty (weeks to months), due to reduced voluntary activation of the quadriceps muscle. In healthy subjects, strength training with heavy loads is known to increase ago...

  2. Rapid knee-extensions to increase quadriceps muscle activity in patients with total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Rasmus Skov; Wilquin, Lousia; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inhibition of the quadriceps muscle and reduced knee-extension strength is common shortly following total knee arthroplasty (weeks to months), due to reduced voluntary activation of the quadriceps muscle. In healthy subjects, strength training with heavy loads is known to increase ago...

  3. Identification and manipulation of the pleuromutilin gene cluster from Clitopilus passeckerianus for increased rapid antibiotic production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Andy M.; Alberti, Fabrizio; Kilaru, Sreedhar; Collins, Catherine M.; de Mattos-Shipley, Kate; Hartley, Amanda J.; Hayes, Patrick; Griffin, Alison; Lazarus, Colin M.; Cox, Russell J.; Willis, Christine L.; O'Dwyer, Karen; Spence, David W.; Foster, Gary D.

    2016-05-01

    Semi-synthetic derivatives of the tricyclic diterpene antibiotic pleuromutilin from the basidiomycete Clitopilus passeckerianus are important in combatting bacterial infections in human and veterinary medicine. These compounds belong to the only new class of antibiotics for human applications, with novel mode of action and lack of cross-resistance, representing a class with great potential. Basidiomycete fungi, being dikaryotic, are not generally amenable to strain improvement. We report identification of the seven-gene pleuromutilin gene cluster and verify that using various targeted approaches aimed at increasing antibiotic production in C. passeckerianus, no improvement in yield was achieved. The seven-gene pleuromutilin cluster was reconstructed within Aspergillus oryzae giving production of pleuromutilin in an ascomycete, with a significant increase (2106%) in production. This is the first gene cluster from a basidiomycete to be successfully expressed in an ascomycete, and paves the way for the exploitation of a metabolically rich but traditionally overlooked group of fungi.

  4. Rapidly increasing use of proton pump inhibitors prescribed in primary care: a nationwide observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Peter; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg; Hansen, Jane Møller

    a change in indications for use of PPIs in the same time range. Use of ulcerogenic drugs among the elderly has stagnated. Reimbursement modifications do not seem to have had a substantial influence on the steadily increasing use of PPIs. Conclusions: Use of PPIs has increased substantially the past decade......Background: Antisecretory drugs (ADs) are often prescribed in primary care for upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Reimbursement modifications have been made in Denmark to minimize costs related to use of ADs. However knowledge about development in use of ADs over the past decade and the impacts...... of the reimbursement modifications is sparse. Research questions: How has use of ADs developed in Denmark 2001-2011? Which impacts have the reimbursement modifications had on the use of ADs? Methods: The Register of Medicinal Product Statistics includes all sales and redeemed prescriptions nationwide covering...

  5. Increases in myocardial workload induced by rapid atrial pacing trigger alterations in global metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslan T Turer

    Full Text Available To determine whether increases in cardiac work lead to alterations in the plasma metabolome and whether such changes arise from the heart or peripheral organs.There is growing evidence that the heart influences systemic metabolism through endocrine effects and affecting pathways involved in energy homeostasis.Nineteen patients referred for cardiac catheterization were enrolled. Peripheral and selective coronary sinus (CS blood sampling was performed at serial timepoints following the initiation of pacing, and metabolite profiling was performed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS.Pacing-stress resulted in a 225% increase in the median rate·pressure product from baseline. Increased myocardial work induced significant changes in the peripheral concentration of 43 of 125 metabolites assayed, including large changes in purine [adenosine (+99%, p = 0.006, ADP (+42%, p = 0.01, AMP (+79%, p = 0.004, GDP (+69%, p = 0.003, GMP (+58%, p = 0.01, IMP (+50%, p = 0.03, xanthine (+61%, p = 0.0006], and several bile acid metabolites. The CS changes in metabolites qualitatively mirrored those in the peripheral blood in both timing and magnitude, suggesting the heart was not the major source of the metabolite release.Isolated increases in myocardial work can induce changes in the plasma metabolome, but these changes do not appear to be directly cardiac in origin. A number of these dynamic metabolites have known signaling functions. Our study provides additional evidence to a growing body of literature on metabolic 'cross-talk' between the heart and other organs.

  6. Rapidly increasing macroalgal cover not related to herbivorous fishes on Mesoamerican reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Suchley

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Long-term phase shifts from coral to macroalgal dominated reef systems are well documented in the Caribbean. Although the impact of coral diseases, climate change and other factors is acknowledged, major herbivore loss through disease and overfishing is often assigned a primary role. However, direct evidence for the link between herbivore abundance, macroalgal and coral cover is sparse, particularly over broad spatial scales. In this study we use a database of coral reef surveys performed at 85 sites along the Mesoamerican Reef of Mexico, Belize, Guatemala and Honduras, to examine potential ecological links by tracking site trajectories over the period 2005–2014. Despite the long-term reduction of herbivory capacity reported across the Caribbean, the Mesoamerican Reef region displayed relatively low macroalgal cover at the onset of the study. Subsequently, increasing fleshy macroalgal cover was pervasive. Herbivorous fish populations were not responsible for this trend as fleshy macroalgal cover change was not correlated with initial herbivorous fish biomass or change, and the majority of sites experienced increases in macroalgae browser biomass. This contrasts the coral reef top-down herbivore control paradigm and suggests the role of external factors in making environmental conditions more favourable for algae. Increasing macroalgal cover typically suppresses ecosystem services and leads to degraded reef systems. Consequently, policy makers and local coral reef managers should reassess the focus on herbivorous fish protection and consider complementary measures such as watershed management in order to arrest this trend.

  7. Proton Pump Inhibition Increases Rapid Eye Movement Sleep in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munazah Fazal Qureshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased bodily CO2 concentration alters cellular pH as well as sleep. The proton pump, which plays an important role in the homeostatic regulation of cellular pH, therefore, may modulate sleep. We investigated the effects of the proton pump inhibitor “lansoprazole” on sleep-wakefulness. Male Wistar rats were surgically prepared for chronic polysomnographic recordings. Two different doses of lansoprazole (low: 1 mg/kg; high: 10 mg/kg were injected intraperitoneally in the same animal (n=7 and sleep-wakefulness was recorded for 6 hrs. The changes in sleep-wakefulness were compared statistically. Percent REM sleep amount in the vehicle and lansoprazole low dose groups was 9.26±1.03 and 9.09±0.54, respectively, which increased significantly in the lansoprazole high dose group by 31.75% (from vehicle and 34.21% (from low dose. Also, REM sleep episode numbers significantly increased in lansoprazole high dose group. Further, the sodium-hydrogen exchanger blocker “amiloride” (10 mg/kg; i.p. (n=5 did not alter sleep-wake architecture. Our results suggest that the proton pump plays an important role in REM sleep modulation and supports our view that REM sleep might act as a sentinel to help maintain normal CO2 level for unperturbed sleep.

  8. Combining STEREO SECCHI COR2 and HI1 images for automatic CME front edge tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirnosov Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available COR2 coronagraph images are the most commonly used data for coronal mass ejection (CME analysis among the various types of data provided by the STEREO (Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory SECCHI (Sun-Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation suite of instruments. The field of view (FOV in COR2 images covers 2–15 solar radii (Rs that allow for tracking the front edge of a CME in its initial stage to forecast the lead-time of a CME and its chances of reaching the Earth. However, estimating the lead-time of a CME using COR2 images gives a larger lead-time, which may be associated with greater uncertainty. To reduce this uncertainty, CME front edge tracking should be continued beyond the FOV of COR2 images. Therefore, heliospheric imager (HI1 data that covers 15–90 Rs FOV must be included. In this paper, we propose a novel automatic method that takes both COR2 and HI1 images into account and combine the results to track the front edges of a CME continuously. The method consists of two modules: pre-processing and tracking. The pre-processing module produces a set of segmented images, which contain the signature of a CME, for both COR2 and HI1 separately. In addition, the HI1 images are resized and padded, so that the center of the Sun is the central coordinate of the resized HI1 images. The resulting COR2 and HI1 image set is then fed into the tracking module to estimate the position angle (PA and track the front edge of a CME. The detected front edge is then used to produce a height-time profile that is used to estimate the speed of a CME. The method was validated using 15 CME events observed in the period from January 1, 2008 to August 31, 2009. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective for CME front edge tracking in both COR2 and HI1 images. Using this method, the CME front edge can now be tracked automatically and continuously in a much larger range, i.e., from 2 to 90 Rs, for the first time. These

  9. Rapid increases and time-lagged declines in amphibian occupancy after wildfire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, Blake R; Lowe, Winsor H; Corn, Paul Stephen

    2013-02-01

    Climate change is expected to increase the frequency and severity of drought and wildfire. Aquatic and moisture-sensitive species, such as amphibians, may be particularly vulnerable to these modified disturbance regimes because large wildfires often occur during extended droughts and thus may compound environmental threats. However, understanding of the effects of wildfires on amphibians in forests with long fire-return intervals is limited. Numerous stand-replacing wildfires have occurred since 1988 in Glacier National Park (Montana, U.S.A.), where we have conducted long-term monitoring of amphibians. We measured responses of 3 amphibian species to fires of different sizes, severity, and age in a small geographic area with uniform management. We used data from wetlands associated with 6 wildfires that burned between 1988 and 2003 to evaluate whether burn extent and severity and interactions between wildfire and wetland isolation affected the distribution of breeding populations. We measured responses with models that accounted for imperfect detection to estimate occupancy during prefire (0-4 years) and different postfire recovery periods. For the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) and Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris), occupancy was not affected for 6 years after wildfire. But 7-21 years after wildfire, occupancy for both species decreased ≥ 25% in areas where >50% of the forest within 500 m of wetlands burned. In contrast, occupancy of the boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas) tripled in the 3 years after low-elevation forests burned. This increase in occupancy was followed by a gradual decline. Our results show that accounting for magnitude of change and time lags is critical to understanding population dynamics of amphibians after large disturbances. Our results also inform understanding of the potential threat of increases in wildfire frequency or severity to amphibians in the region. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Rapid increases and time-lagged declines in amphibian occupancy after wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, Blake R.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Corn, Paul Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to increase the frequency and severity of drought and wildfire. Aquatic and moisture-sensitive species, such as amphibians, may be particularly vulnerable to these modified disturbance regimes because large wildfires often occur during extended droughts and thus may compound environmental threats. However, understanding of the effects of wildfires on amphibians in forests with long fire-return intervals is limited. Numerous stand-replacing wildfires have occurred since 1988 in Glacier National Park (Montana, U.S.A.), where we have conducted long-term monitoring of amphibians. We measured responses of 3 amphibian species to fires of different sizes, severity, and age in a small geographic area with uniform management. We used data from wetlands associated with 6 wildfires that burned between 1988 and 2003 to evaluate whether burn extent and severity and interactions between wildfire and wetland isolation affected the distribution of breeding populations. We measured responses with models that accounted for imperfect detection to estimate occupancy during prefire (0-4 years) and different postfire recovery periods. For the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) and Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris), occupancy was not affected for 6 years after wildfire. But 7-21 years after wildfire, occupancy for both species decreased ≥ 25% in areas where >50% of the forest within 500 m of wetlands burned. In contrast, occupancy of the boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas) tripled in the 3 years after low-elevation forests burned. This increase in occupancy was followed by a gradual decline. Our results show that accounting for magnitude of change and time lags is critical to understanding population dynamics of amphibians after large disturbances. Our results also inform understanding of the potential threat of increases in wildfire frequency or severity to amphibians in the region.

  11. A rapid increase in lipoprotein (a) levels after ethanol withdrawal in alcoholic men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kervinen, K.; Savolainen, J.J.; Kesaeniemi, Y.A. (Univ. of Oulu (Finland))

    1991-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) were studied in 11 male alcoholics at the end of a drinking period and monitored during subsequent abstinence. Lp(a) levels showed a daily increase for four consecutive days after the beginning of abstinence, the values for the third and the fourth day being significantly higher than those of the first day. The changes in Lp(a) showed no association with the changes in low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. In one alcoholic subject with a heterozygous form of familial hypercholesterolemia who was monitored for 11 days, the Lp(a) levels rose up to the fourth day and remained at a high level thereafter. These results suggest that ethanol ingestion may be associated with a lower of Lp(a) levels, which may contribute to the delayed progression of atherosclerosis observed in alcohol drinkers.

  12. Increased heterozygosity at the Mdh-B locus in fish inhabiting a rapidly fluctuating thermal environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, E.G.; Richmond, M.C.

    1981-05-01

    Populations of a common forage fish, red shiner Notropis lutrensis, were sampled from four localities on the Brazos River, Texas, affected by cold-water discharge from a hydroelectric dam and from unaltered sites in the same region. Polymorphism at the Mdh-B locus, encoding supernatant malate dehydrogenase, indicates that populations within 57 km of the dam are distinctive from other regional populations and possess a unique Mdh-B allele, have significantly higher levels of heterozygosity at the Mdh-B locus, represent a homogeneous set that have significantly different Mdh-B zygotic frequencies from other regional populations, and have significantly different Mdh-B zygotic proportions than would be expected under a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Increased levels of heterozygosity in fish within 57 km of the dam were correlated with discharge-associated fluctuations in water temperature at sampling stations.

  13. Rapidly increasing body mass index among children, adolescents and young adults in a transitioning population, South Africa, 2008-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, B; Sartorius, K; Taylor, M; Aagaard-Hansen, J; Dukhi, N; Day, C; Ndlovu, N; Slotow, R; Hofman, K

    2017-12-14

    There is a global epidemic of overweight and obesity; however, this rate of increase is even greater in some low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). South Africa (SA) is undergoing rapid socioeconomic and demographic changes that have triggered a rapid nutrition transition. The paper focuses on the recent rate of change of body mass index (BMI) among children, adolescents and young adults, further stratified by key sociodemographic factors. We analysed mean BMI of 28 247 individuals (including children) from 7301 households by age and year, from anthropometric data from four national cross-sectional (repeated panel) surveys using non-linear fitted curves and associated 95% confidence intervals. From 2008 to 2015, there was rapid rise in mean BMI in the 6-25 age band, with the highest risk (3-4+ BMI unit increase) among children aged 8-10 years. The increase was largely among females in urban areas and of middle-high socioeconomic standing. Prominent gains were also observed in certain rural areas, with extensive geographical heterogeneity across the country. We have demonstrated a major deviation from the current understanding of patterns of BMI increase, with a rate of increase substantially greater in the developing world context compared with the global pattern. This population-wide effect will have major consequences for national development as the epidemic of related non-communicable disease unfolds, and will overtax the national health care budget. Our refined understanding highlights that risks are further compounded for certain groups/places, and emphasizes that urgent geographical and population-targeted interventions are necessary. These interventions could include a sugar tax, clearer food labelling, revised school feeding programmes and mandatory bans on unhealthy food marketing to children.The scenario unfolding in South Africa will likely be followed in other LMICs.

  14. Synthetic polymers in the marine environment: a rapidly increasing, long-term threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Charles James

    2008-10-01

    Synthetic polymers, commonly known as plastics, have been entering the marine environment in quantities paralleling their level of production over the last half century. However, in the last two decades of the 20th Century, the deposition rate accelerated past the rate of production, and plastics are now one of the most common and persistent pollutants in ocean waters and beaches worldwide. Thirty years ago the prevailing attitude of the plastic industry was that "plastic litter is a very small proportion of all litter and causes no harm to the environment except as an eyesore" [Derraik, J.G.B., 2002. The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 44(9), 842-852]. Between 1960 and 2000, the world production of plastic resins increased 25-fold, while recovery of the material remained below 5%. Between 1970 and 2003, plastics became the fastest growing segment of the US municipal waste stream, increasing nine-fold, and marine litter is now 60-80% plastic, reaching 90-95% in some areas. While undoubtedly still an eyesore, plastic debris today is having significant harmful effects on marine biota. Albatross, fulmars, shearwaters and petrels mistake floating plastics for food, and many individuals of these species are affected; in fact, 44% of all seabird species are known to ingest plastic. Sea turtles ingest plastic bags, fishing line and other plastics, as do 26 species of cetaceans. In all, 267 species of marine organisms worldwide are known to have been affected by plastic debris, a number that will increase as smaller organisms are assessed. The number of fish, birds, and mammals that succumb each year to derelict fishing nets and lines in which they become entangled cannot be reliably known; but estimates are in the millions. We divide marine plastic debris into two categories: macro, >5 mm and micro, plastic micro-debris by filter feeders at the base of the food web is known to occur, but has not been quantified

  15. Comparison of CME and ICME Structures Derived from Remote-Sensing and In Situ Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothmer, V.; Mrotzek, N.

    2017-11-01

    We present results from the comparison of the near-Sun and in situ analysis of two Earth-directed coronal mass ejections (CMEs) with different 3D orientations and solar source region characteristics. The CME on 14 July 2000, the so-called Bastille Day storm, a well-studied event, was observed from a single-point perspective by the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). It caused a major geomagnetic storm with a peak Kp of 9. The CME originated from a magnetic bipolar photospheric source region with the polarity inversion line being oriented rather parallel to the heliographic equator. In contrast, the CME on 29 September 2013, which caused a geomagnetic storm with a peak Kp intensity of 8-, originated from a magnetic quadrupolar photospheric source region with the polarity inversion line between the two bipoles almost vertically oriented with respect to the heliographic equator. The results of a graduated cylindrical shell (GCS) analysis of the CMEs near the Sun are compared with the minimum variance analysis (MVA) of the magnetic field structure of the interplanetary CME (ICME) measured in situ near Earth's orbit. The results are in good agreement for the September 2013 CME and ICME, whereas the July 2000 ICME appears substantially inclined near Earth's orbit. The discrepancy can likely be explained taking into account kinks in the CME's near-Sun structure of the CME that expands into the interplanetary medium.

  16. CME credit systems in three developing countries: China, India and Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis A. Miller

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Two of the largest countries in the world, still developing nations, China and Indonesia, have now created national credit systems for continuing medical education (CME. A third, India, has tried but succeeded only on a state-by-state basis. This study tracks the development of CME/continuing professional development (CPD credit systems in these three major Asian countries, analyses the related administrative backgrounds and points to strengths and weaknesses of each system in terms of serving the goals of CME/CPD in impacting medical care systems. Methods. The authors researched national- and state-level government records to identify legal and regulatory data affecting CME in China, India and Indonesia. Information on current and future activities was gained from media reports. Results. In all three countries, CME/CPD systems evaluate physician continuing competence by counting credits or credit hours. Central health authorities in China and Indonesia have established national systems applying to all health professionals. In Indonesia, CME/CPD is mandatory for re-licensure; in China, it is necessary for career advancement and re-registration. An effort to develop mandatory CME requirements in India, for physicians only, failed because the central agency underwent a major overhaul. Nevertheless, 9 of 28 states in India have developed systems, all tied to re-registration. Discussion. A comparison of systems in the three countries shows that little attention has been paid to physician performance improvement or improved patient health outcomes. Needs assessments and outcomes measures are not regularly carried out. We did not find any evidence of programmes to train administrators or faculty in CME/CPD principles, with the possible exception of Indonesia. Suggestions are offered to CME system leaders and providers to help their counterparts in developing nations.

  17. The X-ray Light-Curves and CME onset of a M2.5 flare of July 6, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Torres, J. E.; Pérez-León, J. E.

    2017-10-01

    A M2.5 solar flare observed by RHESSI in the 6-100 keV range on July 6, 2006 led to a Coronal Mass Ejection (CME). Two compact sources at 12-100 keV are seen at the beginning of the flare, whose further evolution fits well in a loop. Also, time-profiles of the flare at radio wavelengths are compared. The X-ray light-curves at different bands in the 6-100 keV range and radio time profiles show some peaks superimposed on smooth variations. The aim of this work is to compare the X-ray light-curves, of fluxes integrated over the whole source, with the physical parameters of the sources of the flare. Yashiro and Gopalswamy (2009) have found that the fraction of flares that produce CME increases with the flare energy. Here, we look for the characteristics of an M2.5 flare that could make it a generator of a CME. The idea is, in future works, to look in the light-curves of similar flares at other stars for these features. It is found that the CME onset takes place around the time when an X-ray source at 12-25 keV of Chromospheric evaporation stagnates at the loop apex, before the main peak at the light-curve at 25-50 keV and at the radio emission curves. Probably, the amount of evaporated plasma could play some role in triggering the CME.

  18. Internet search query analysis can be used to demonstrate the rapidly increasing public awareness of palliative care in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Sarah; Lennon, Paul; Glare, Paul

    2017-01-27

    A lack of public awareness of palliative care (PC) has been identified as one of the main barriers to appropriate PC access. Internet search query analysis is a novel methodology, which has been effectively used in surveillance of infectious diseases, and can be used to monitor public awareness of health-related topics. We aimed to demonstrate the utility of internet search query analysis to evaluate changes in public awareness of PC in the USA between 2005 and 2015. Google Trends provides a referenced score for the popularity of a search term, for defined regions over defined time periods. The popularity of the search term 'palliative care' was measured monthly between 1/1/2005 and 31/12/2015 in the USA and in the UK. Results were analysed using independent t-tests and joinpoint analysis. The mean monthly popularity of the search term increased between 2008-2009 (pquery surveillance is a novel methodology, it is freely accessible and has significant potential to monitor health-seeking behaviour among the public. PC is rapidly growing in the USA, and the rapidly increasing public awareness of PC as demonstrated in this study, in comparison with the UK, where PC is relatively well established is encouraging in increasingly ensuring appropriate PC access for all. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Carboxylesterase 1A2 encoding gene with increased transcription and potential rapid drug metabolism in Asian populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Berg; Madsen, Majbritt Busk; Lyauk, Yassine Kamal

    2017-01-01

    The carboxylesterase 1 gene (CES1) encodes a hydrolase implicated in the metabolism of commonly used drugs. CES1A2, a hybrid of CES1 and a CES1-like pseudogene, has a promoter that is weak in most individuals. However, some individuals harbor a promoter haplotype of this gene with two overlapping...... Sp1 sites that confer significantly increased transcription potentially leading to rapid drug metabolism. This CES1A2 haplotype has previously been reported to be common among Asians. Using polymerase chain reaction followed by sequencing, the present study examined variation in the promoter and 5...

  20. Treatment of Viscosity in the Shock Waves Observed After Two Consecutive Coronal Mass Ejection Activities CME08/03/2012 and CME15/03/2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavus, Huseyin

    2016-11-01

    A coronal mass ejection (CME) is one of the most the powerful activities of the Sun. There is a possibility to produce shocks in the interplanetary medium after CMEs. Shock waves can be observed when the solar wind changes its velocity from being supersonic nature to being subsonic nature. The investigations of such activities have a central place in space weather purposes, since; the interaction of shocks with viscosity is one of the most important problems in the supersonic and compressible gas flow regime (Blazek in Computational fluid dynamics: principles and applications. Elsevier, Amsterdam 2001). The main aim of present work is to achieve a search for the viscosity effects in the shocks occurred after two consecutive coronal mass ejection activities in 2012 (i.e. CME08/03/2012 and CME15/03/2012).

  1. CME-Associated Radio Bursts from Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Nat

    2012-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are closely associated with various types of radio bursts from the Sun. All radio bursts are due to nonthermal electrons, which are accelerated during the eruption of CMEs. Radio bursts at frequencies below about 15 MHz are of particular interest because they are associated with energetic CMEs that contribute to severe space weather. The low-frequency bursts need to be observed primarily from space because of the ionospheric cutoff. The main CME-related radio bursts are associated are: type III bursts due to accelerated electrons propagating along open magnetic field lines, type II bursts due to electrons accelerated in shocks, and type IV bursts due to electrons trapped in post-eruption arcades behind CMEs. This paper presents a summary of results obtained during solar cycle 23 primarily using the white-light coronagraphic observations from the Solar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the WAVES experiment on board Wind. Particular emphasis will be placed on what we can learn about particle acceleration in the coronal and interplanetary medium by analyzing the CMEs and the associated radio bursts.

  2. Application of the continuing education systems project. CME as organization development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzilotti, S S; Finestone, A J

    1985-04-01

    Temple University's Office of Continuing Medical Education and 18 affiliated institutions implemented the Continuing Education Systems Project (CESP), in order to improve the quality of CME. As a result of the findings, it is proposed that the CME unit be accepted and supported not merely as an adjunct educational service for physicians but as an agent of the hospital's organizational development. Accordingly, the role of the CME unit is one of facilitator of change, functioning as a system feedback mechanism and coordinator of planned change. It is suggested that community hospitals need to develop a CME unit capable of integrating the resources of the institution in order to meet organizational, as well as individual and social needs. This is of particular importance in the face of new federal interventions in the health care field, which create the potential for conflicts between the physician and the hospital.

  3. Online continuing medical education (CME) for GPs: does it work? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepwongsa, Isaraporn; Kirby, Catherine N; Schattner, Peter; Piterman, Leon

    2014-10-01

    Numerous studies have assessed the effectiveness of online continuing medical education (CME) designed to improve healthcare professionals' care of patients. The effects of online educational interventions targeted at general practitioners (GP), however, have not been systematically reviewed. A computer search was conducted through seven databases for studies assessing changes in GPs' knowledge and practice, or patient outcomes following an online educational intervention. Eleven studies met the eligibility criteria. Most studies (8/11, 72.7%) found a significant improvement in at least one of the following outcomes: satisfaction, knowledge or practice change. There was little evidence for the impact of online CME on patient outcomes. Variability in study design, characteristics of online and outcome measures limited conclusions on the effects of online CME. Online CME could improve GP satisfaction, knowledge and practices but there are very few well-designed studies that focus on this delivery method of GP education.

  4. Repeated Administration of Korea Red Ginseng Extract Increases Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep via GABAAergic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Il; Kim, Chung-Soo; Han, Jin-Yi; Oh, Eun-Hye; Oh, Ki-Wan; Eun, Jae Soon

    2012-10-01

    The current inquiry was conducted to assess the change in sleep architecture after long periods of administration to determine whether ginseng can be used in the therapy of sleeplessness. Following post-surgical recovery, red ginseng extract (RGE, 200 mg/ kg) was orally administrated to rats for 9 d. Data were gathered on the 1st, 5th, and 9th day, and an electroencephalogram was recorded 24 h after RGE administration. Polygraphic signs of unobstructed sleep-wake activities were simultaneously recorded with sleep-wake recording electrodes from 11:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. for 6 h. Rodents were generally tamed to freely moving polygraphic recording conditions. Although the 1st and 5th day of RGE treatment showed no effect on power densities in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, the 9th day of RGE administration showed augmented α-wave (8.0 to 13.0 Hz) power densities in NREM and REM sleep. RGE increased total sleep and NREM sleep. The total percentage of wakefulness was only decreased on the 9th day, and the number of sleep-wake cycles was reduced after the repeated administration of RGE. Thus, the repeated administration of RGE increased NREM sleep in rats. The α-wave activities in the cortical electroencephalograms were increased in sleep architecture by RGE. Moreover, the levels of both α- and β-subunits of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor were reduced in the hypothalamus of the RGE-treated groups. The level of glutamic acid decarboxylase was over-expressed in the hypothalamus. These results demonstrate that RGE increases NREM sleep via GABAAergic systems.

  5. Measuring classroom management expertise (CME of teachers: A video-based assessment approach and statistical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes König

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at developing and exploring a novel video-based assessment that captures classroom management expertise (CME of teachers and for which statistical results are provided. CME measurement is conceptualized by using four video clips that refer to typical classroom management situations in which teachers are heavily challenged (involving the challenges to manage transitions, instructional time, student behavior, and instructional feedback and by applying three cognitive demands posed on respondents when responding to test items related to the video clips (accuracy of perception, holistic perception, and justification of action. Research questions are raised regarding reliability, testlet effects (related to the four video clips applied for measurement, intercorrelations of cognitive demands, and criterion-related validity of the instrument. Evidence is provided that (1 using a video-based assessment CME can be measured in a reliable way, (2 the CME total score represents a general ability that is only slightly influenced by testlet effects related to the four video clips, (3 the three cognitive demands conceptualized for the measurement of CME are highly intercorrelated, and (4 the CME measure is positively correlated with declarative-conceptual general pedagogical knowledge (medium effect size, whereas it shows only small size correlations with non-cognitive teacher variables.

  6. Blocking blue light during mania - markedly increased regularity of sleep and rapid improvement of symptoms: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Tone E G; Skrede, Silje; Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Hamre, Børge; Grønli, Janne; Lund, Anders

    2014-12-01

    Available pharmacological treatment of mania is insufficient. Virtual darkness therapy (blue light-blocking treatment by means of orange-tinted glasses) is a promising new treatment option for mania. The basis for this might be the recently identified blue light-sensitive retinal photoreceptor, which is solely responsible for light stimulus to the circadian master clock. This is the first case report describing the clinical course of a closely monitored, hospitalized patient in a manic episode first receiving clear-lensed, and then blue light-blocking glasses. A 58-year-old Caucasian man, with bipolar I disorder and three previous manic episodes, was hospitalized during a manic episode. In addition to pharmacological treatment, he was treated with clear-lensed glasses for seven days, then one day without glasses, followed by six days of blue light-blocking glasses. During the entire observational period, he wore an actigraph with internal light sensors. Manic symptoms were unaltered during the first seven days. The transition to the blue-blocking regime was followed by a rapid and sustained decline in manic symptoms accompanied by a reduction in total sleep, a reduction in motor activity during sleep intervals, and markedly increased regularity of sleep intervals. The patient's total length of hospital stay was 20 days shorter than the average time during his previous manic episodes. The unusually rapid decline in symptoms, accompanied by uniform sleep parameter changes toward markedly increased regularity, suggest that blue-blockers might be targeting a central mechanism in the pathophysiology of mania that needs to be explored both in clinical research and in basic science. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Rapid Increase in Serum Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Concentration during Hepatitis C Interferon-Free Treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Hashimoto

    Full Text Available We performed lipid analyses at the early period of therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C who underwent interferon (IFN-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA treatment, and we attempted to identify the factors that contributed to a rapid increase in the patients' serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C concentration.We retrospectively analyzed the cases of 100 consecutive patients with HCV infection treated at the National Hospital Organization Nagasaki Medical Center: 24 patients underwent daclatasvir (DCV and asunaprevir (ASV combination therapy (DCV/ASV for 24 weeks, and the other 76 patients underwent ledipasvir and sofosbuvir combination therapy (LDV/SOF for 12 weeks. ΔLDL-C was defined as the changed in LDL-C level at 28 days from the start of therapy. To determine whether ΔLDL-C was associated with several kinds of factors including viral kinetics, we performed a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis.The LDL-C levels in patients treated with LDV/SOF were markedly and significantly elevated (87.45 to 122.5 mg/dl; p<10-10 compared to those in the DCV/ASV-treated patients (80.15 to 87.8 mg/dl; p = 0.0056. The median levels of ΔLDL-C in the LDV/SOF and DCV/ASV groups were 33.2 and 13.1, respectively. LDV/SOF combination therapy as an IFN-free regimen (p<0.001 and ΔHCV core antigen (0-1 day drop (p<0.044 were identified as independent factors that were closely related to the ΔLDL-C.A rapid increase in the serum LDL-C concentration during the IFN-free treatment of hepatitis C was associated with the type of HCV therapy and a decline of HCV core protein.

  8. Children treated for severe acute malnutrition experience a rapid increase in physical activity a few days after admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Hansen, Kristina Beck; van Hees, Vincent T; Christensen, Line Brinch; Girma, Tsinuel; Friis, Henrik; Brage, Søren

    2014-06-01

    To assess physical activity at admission and during recovery from severe acute malnutrition. Ethiopian children who were admitted with severe acute malnutrition received a clinical examination each week to monitor their recovery during rehabilitation. Using accelerometry (24 h/d for 5 consecutive days) at admission and again after 10 days of rehabilitation, we assessed the level and changes of physical activity. Among 13 children included, the mean (SD) age was 31.1 months (15.5). At baseline, the day-night activity difference was relatively small, whereas the level of activity had substantially increased at follow-up. The diurnal mean acceleration level was significantly greater at follow-up for wrist (1158.8 vs 541.4 counts per minute, P = .003) but not hip movements (204.1 vs 141.5, P = .261). During daytime (6 a.m. to 10 p.m.), hip activity increased by 38% from baseline to follow-up (e(B) 1.38, 95% CI 1.17-1.62), and wrist activity more than doubled (e(B) 2.50, 95% CI 2.17-2.87). The level of physical activity among children with severe acute malnutrition is very low but increases rapidly during recovery. Accelerometry may be a useful approach in the recovery phase as an indicator of early improvement. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 3D Polarized Imaging of Coronal Mass Ejections: Chirality of a CME

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForest, C. E.; de Koning, C. A.; Elliott, H. A.

    2017-12-01

    We report on a direct polarimetric determination of the chirality of a coronal mass ejection (CME), using the physics of Thomson scattering applied to synoptic polarized images from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatories/COR2 coronagraph. We confirmed the determination using in situ magnetic field measurements of the same CME with the ACE spacecraft. CME chirality is related to the helicity ejected from the solar corona along with the mass and field entrained in the CME. It is also important to prediction of the space-weather-relevant Z component of the CME magnetic field. Hence, remote measurement of CME chirality is an important step toward both understanding CME physics and predicting geoeffectiveness of individual CMEs. The polarimetric properties of Thomson scattering are well known and can, in principle, be used to measure the 3D structure of imaged objects in the solar corona and inner heliosphere. However, reduction of that principle to practice has been limited by the twin difficulties of background subtraction and the signal-to-noise ratio in coronagraph data. Useful measurements of the 3D structure require relative photometry at a few percent precision level in each linear polarization component of the K corona. This corresponds to a relative photometric precision of order 10-4 in direct images of the sky before subtraction of the F corona and related signal. Our measurement was enabled by recent developments in signal processing, which enable a better separation of the photometric signal from noise in the synoptic COR2 data. We discuss the relevance of this demonstration measurement to future instrument requirements, and to the future measurements of 3D structures in CMEs and other solar wind features.

  10. Effect of a performance improvement CME activity on management of patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Gary C; Marian, Kathy; Bagley, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Primary care in the United States faces unprecedented challenges from an aging population and the accompanying prevalence of chronic disease. In response, continuing medical education (CME) initiatives have begun to adopt the principles of performance improvement (PI) into their design, although currently there is a dearth of evidence from national initiatives supporting the effectiveness of this methodology. The specific aim of this study was to demonstrate the value of a national PI-CME activity to improve the performance of physicians treating patients with diabetes. We analyzed data from the American Academy of Family Physicians' METRIC® PI-CME activity in a cohort of family physician learners. The study utilized the 3-stage design standard approved for PI-CME. Baseline and follow-up performance data across a range of clinical and systems-based measures were compared in aggregate. Data were assessed for 509 learners who completed the activity. Statistically significant changes occurred both for self-assessment of a range of practice aspects and for diabetes care measures. Learners recognized that the organization of their practices had improved, and mechanisms were in place for better staff feedback, as well as aspects of patient self-management. Based on the clinical data obtained from 11 538 patient charts, 6 out of 8 diabetes measures were significantly improved. The activity appears to have had a positive, measurable impact on the medical practice of learners and suggests that, when appropriately designed and executed, PI-CME on a national scale can be a useful vehicle to influence performance change in physicians and to inform future CME activities. Copyright © 2013 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on CME, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  11. Increased baseline proinflammatory cytokine production in chronic hepatitis C patients with rapid virological response to peginterferon plus ribavirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Par, Gabriella; Szereday, Laszlo; Berki, Timea; Palinkas, Laszlo; Halasz, Melinda; Miseta, Attila; Hegedus, Geza; Szekeres-Bartho, Julia; Vincze, Aron; Hunyady, Bela; Par, Alajos

    2013-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients achieving rapid virological response (RVR) on PEG-IFN/ribavirin (P/R) therapy have high chance of sustained virological response (SVR). To analyze host immunological factors associated with RVR, viral kinetics, phenotype distribution and Th1/Th2 cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were studied prior to and during P/R therapy. TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-10 production by PBMC were measured after Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) or phorbol myristate acetate/Ionomycin stimulation in 20 healthy controls and in 50 CHC patients before receiving and during P/R therapy. RVR was achieved by 14, complete early virological response (cEVR) by 19 patients and 17 patients were null-responders (NR). Patients with RVR showed an increased baseline TNF-α and IL-6 production by TLR-4 activated monocytes and increased IFN-γ, decreased IL-4 and IL-10 production by lymphocytes compared to non-RVR patients. SVR was also associated with increased baseline TNF-α production and decreased IL-10 levels compared to patients who did not achieve SVR. Baseline IL-2 production was higher in cEVR compared to NR patients. Antiviral treatment increased TNF-α, IL-6 production by monocytes and IFN-γ secretion by lymphocytes and decreased IL-4 and IL-10 production by lymphocytes in cEVR compared to NR patients. RVR was associated with increased baseline proinflammatory cytokine production by TLR-4 stimulated monocytes and by activated lymphocytes. In null-responders and in patients who did not achieve SVR both TLR-4 sensing function and proinflammatory cytokine production were impaired, suggesting that modulation of TLR activity and controlled induction of inflammatory cytokine production may provide further therapeutic strategy for CHC patients non-responding to P/R treatment.

  12. Increased baseline proinflammatory cytokine production in chronic hepatitis C patients with rapid virological response to peginterferon plus ribavirin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Par

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C (CHC patients achieving rapid virological response (RVR on PEG-IFN/ribavirin (P/R therapy have high chance of sustained virological response (SVR. To analyze host immunological factors associated with RVR, viral kinetics, phenotype distribution and Th1/Th2 cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were studied prior to and during P/R therapy. METHODS: TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-10 production by PBMC were measured after Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4 or phorbol myristate acetate/Ionomycin stimulation in 20 healthy controls and in 50 CHC patients before receiving and during P/R therapy. RVR was achieved by 14, complete early virological response (cEVR by 19 patients and 17 patients were null-responders (NR. RESULTS: Patients with RVR showed an increased baseline TNF-α and IL-6 production by TLR-4 activated monocytes and increased IFN-γ, decreased IL-4 and IL-10 production by lymphocytes compared to non-RVR patients. SVR was also associated with increased baseline TNF-α production and decreased IL-10 levels compared to patients who did not achieve SVR. Baseline IL-2 production was higher in cEVR compared to NR patients. Antiviral treatment increased TNF-α, IL-6 production by monocytes and IFN-γ secretion by lymphocytes and decreased IL-4 and IL-10 production by lymphocytes in cEVR compared to NR patients. CONCLUSION: RVR was associated with increased baseline proinflammatory cytokine production by TLR-4 stimulated monocytes and by activated lymphocytes. In null-responders and in patients who did not achieve SVR both TLR-4 sensing function and proinflammatory cytokine production were impaired, suggesting that modulation of TLR activity and controlled induction of inflammatory cytokine production may provide further therapeutic strategy for CHC patients non-responding to P/R treatment.

  13. Yersinia pestis endowed with increased cytotoxicity is avirulent in a bubonic plague model and induces rapid protection against pneumonic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauberman, Ayelet; Tidhar, Avital; Levy, Yinon; Bar-Haim, Erez; Halperin, Gideon; Flashner, Yehuda; Cohen, Sara; Shafferman, Avigdor; Mamroud, Emanuelle

    2009-06-16

    An important virulence strategy evolved by bacterial pathogens to overcome host defenses is the modulation of host cell death. Previous observations have indicated that Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague disease, exhibits restricted capacity to induce cell death in macrophages due to ineffective translocation of the type III secretion effector YopJ, as opposed to the readily translocated YopP, the YopJ homologue of the enteropathogen Yersinia enterocolitica Oratio8. This led us to suggest that reduced cytotoxic potency may allow pathogen propagation within a shielded niche, leading to increased virulence. To test the relationship between cytotoxic potential and virulence, we replaced Y. pestis YopJ with YopP. The YopP-expressing Y. pestis strain exhibited high cytotoxic activity against macrophages in vitro. Following subcutaneous infection, this strain had reduced ability to colonize internal organs, was unable to induce septicemia and exhibited at least a 10(7)-fold reduction in virulence. Yet, upon intravenous or intranasal infection, it was still as virulent as the wild-type strain. The subcutaneous administration of the cytotoxic Y. pestis strain appears to activate a rapid and potent systemic, CTL-independent, immunoprotective response, allowing the organism to overcome simultaneous coinfection with 10,000 LD(50) of virulent Y. pestis. Moreover, three days after subcutaneous administration of this strain, animals were also protected against septicemic or primary pneumonic plague. Our findings indicate that an inverse relationship exists between the cytotoxic potential of Y. pestis and its virulence following subcutaneous infection. This appears to be associated with the ability of the engineered cytotoxic Y. pestis strain to induce very rapid, effective and long-lasting protection against bubonic and pneumonic plague. These observations have novel implications for the development of vaccines/therapies against Y. pestis and shed new light on the

  14. Yersinia pestis endowed with increased cytotoxicity is avirulent in a bubonic plague model and induces rapid protection against pneumonic plague.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayelet Zauberman

    Full Text Available An important virulence strategy evolved by bacterial pathogens to overcome host defenses is the modulation of host cell death. Previous observations have indicated that Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague disease, exhibits restricted capacity to induce cell death in macrophages due to ineffective translocation of the type III secretion effector YopJ, as opposed to the readily translocated YopP, the YopJ homologue of the enteropathogen Yersinia enterocolitica Oratio8. This led us to suggest that reduced cytotoxic potency may allow pathogen propagation within a shielded niche, leading to increased virulence. To test the relationship between cytotoxic potential and virulence, we replaced Y. pestis YopJ with YopP. The YopP-expressing Y. pestis strain exhibited high cytotoxic activity against macrophages in vitro. Following subcutaneous infection, this strain had reduced ability to colonize internal organs, was unable to induce septicemia and exhibited at least a 10(7-fold reduction in virulence. Yet, upon intravenous or intranasal infection, it was still as virulent as the wild-type strain. The subcutaneous administration of the cytotoxic Y. pestis strain appears to activate a rapid and potent systemic, CTL-independent, immunoprotective response, allowing the organism to overcome simultaneous coinfection with 10,000 LD(50 of virulent Y. pestis. Moreover, three days after subcutaneous administration of this strain, animals were also protected against septicemic or primary pneumonic plague. Our findings indicate that an inverse relationship exists between the cytotoxic potential of Y. pestis and its virulence following subcutaneous infection. This appears to be associated with the ability of the engineered cytotoxic Y. pestis strain to induce very rapid, effective and long-lasting protection against bubonic and pneumonic plague. These observations have novel implications for the development of vaccines/therapies against Y. pestis and shed

  15. Marked increase in the prevalence of obesity in children of the Seychelles, a rapidly developing country, between 1998 and 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovet, Pascal; Chiolero, Arnaud; Madeleine, George; Gabriel, Anne; Stettler, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    There are few data on overweight in children in developing countries. Such data are important to guide public health policy. We assessed trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children from the Seychelles, a middle-income island state in the Indian Ocean. Multiple cross-sectional surveys were conducted each year between 1998 and 2004 on all students of all schools in four selected school grades (creche, 4th, 7th and 10th years of mandatory school). Weight and height were measured and children were asked about walking time and frequency of physical exercise at leisure time. Excess weight categories were defined according to the criteria of the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Data were available for 33 340 observations in 1998-2004, corresponding to 23,459 individual children measured once or several times. Based on IOTF criteria, the prevalence of 'overweight' or 'obesity' increased from 8.7% to 13.5% in boys, and from 11.8% to 18.6% in girls from 1998 to 2004 (P risk of overweight' and 'overweight' increased by similar proportions. The shift towards higher values over time was larger in the upper than the lower tail of the BMI distribution. Physical activity decreased over calendar years and was inversely associated with excess weight. The prevalence of excess weight increased markedly over a seven-year period in children in the Seychelles. This is likely to reflect a rapid nutrition transition with increasingly positive energy balance. These findings stress the need for programs and policies aimed at promoting physical activity and healthy nutrition in countries in epidemiological transition.

  16. Detailed Radio Imaging of a CME with the Murchison Widefield Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozarev, Kamen; Oberoi, Divya; Morgan, John; Crowley, Meagan; Benkevitch, Leonid; Lonsdale, Colin; McCauley, Patrick; Winter, Henry; Cairns, Iver

    2017-04-01

    Solar radio observations allow us to constrain the dynamics of high energy electron beams accelerated in both flares and coronal mass ejections (CME). In particular, the synchrotron emission from erupting flux ropes should give important information about the distributions of energetic electrons trapped in the cores of CMEs. The Murchison Widefield Array is one of several new radio interferometric instruments, and is particularly well-suited to imaging the Sun and solar transients at multiple frequency channels between 80 and 300 MHz. This instrument holds great promise for improving the status of direct CME imaging in the radio. Here we present imaging observations with high frequency and time resolution of a CME, which occurred on November 4, 2015. The observations allow us to obtain detailed frequency spectra of the plasma and synchrotron emission. In addition, such observations may provide independent information about the thermal electron density, as well as the magnetic field strength in the CME flux rope. Finally, these observations provide information about the detailed evolution and kinematics of the CME and its flux rope in its early stages. The new observations demonstrate the capability of the MWA to contribute to the monitoring and detailed analysis of solar eruptions through its high sensitivity, high dynamic range radio imaging.

  17. Rapid, Transient Fluconazole Resistance in Candida albicans Is Associated with Increased mRNA Levels of CDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Kieren A.; Lyons, Christopher N.; Rustad, Tiger; Bowden, Raleigh A.; White, Theodore C.

    1998-01-01

    Fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans, a cause of recurrent oropharyngeal candidiasis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection, has recently emerged as a cause of candidiasis in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy and marrow transplantation (MT). In this study, we performed detailed molecular analyses of a series of C. albicans isolates from an MT patient who developed disseminated candidiasis caused by an azole-resistant strain 2 weeks after initiation of fluconazole prophylaxis (K. A. Marr, T. C. White, J. A. H. vanBurik, and R. A. Bowden, Clin. Infect. Dis. 25:908–910, 1997). DNA sequence analysis of the gene (ERG11) for the azole target enzyme, lanosterol demethylase, revealed no difference between sensitive and resistant isolates. A sterol biosynthesis assay revealed no difference in sterol intermediates between the sensitive and resistant isolates. Northern blotting, performed to quantify mRNA levels of genes encoding enzymes in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway (ERG7, ERG9, and ERG11) and genes encoding efflux pumps (MDR1, ABC1, YCF, and CDR), revealed that azole resistance in this series is associated with increased mRNA levels for members of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily, CDR genes. Serial growth of resistant isolates in azole-free media resulted in an increased susceptibility to azole drugs and corresponding decreased mRNA levels for the CDR genes. These results suggest that C. albicans can become transiently resistant to azole drugs rapidly after exposure to fluconazole, in association with increased expression of ABC transporter efflux pumps. PMID:9756759

  18. Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P.; Felippe, Leandro J. C.; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D.; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg−1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (−3.9% ± 1.6% and −4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate. PMID:25054553

  19. Crystal structure of the Campylobacter jejuni CmeC outer membrane channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chih-Chia; Radhakrishnan, Abhijith; Kumar, Nitin; Long, Feng; Bolla, Jani Reddy; Lei, Hsiang-Ting; Delmar, Jared A; Do, Sylvia V; Chou, Tsung-Han; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R; Zhang, Qijing; Yu, Edward W

    2014-07-01

    As one of the world's most prevalent enteric pathogens, Campylobacter jejuni is a major causative agent of human enterocolitis and is responsible for more than 400 million cases of diarrhea each year. The impact of this pathogen on children is of particular significance. Campylobacter has developed resistance to many antimicrobial agents via multidrug efflux machinery. The CmeABC tripartite multidrug efflux pump, belonging to the resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) superfamily, plays a major role in drug resistant phenotypes of C. jejuni. This efflux complex spans the entire cell envelop of C. jejuni and mediates resistance to various antibiotics and toxic compounds. We here report the crystal structure of C. jejuni CmeC, the outer membrane component of the CmeABC tripartite multidrug efflux system. The structure reveals a possible mechanism for substrate export. © 2014 The Protein Society.

  20. Validation of the CME Geomagnetic Forecast Alerts Under the COMESEP Alert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbović, Mateja; Srivastava, Nandita; Rao, Yamini K.; Vršnak, Bojan; Devos, Andy; Rodriguez, Luciano

    2017-08-01

    Under the European Union 7th Framework Programme (EU FP7) project Coronal Mass Ejections and Solar Energetic Particles (COMESEP, http://comesep.aeronomy.be), an automated space weather alert system has been developed to forecast solar energetic particles (SEP) and coronal mass ejection (CME) risk levels at Earth. The COMESEP alert system uses the automated detection tool called Computer Aided CME Tracking (CACTus) to detect potentially threatening CMEs, a drag-based model (DBM) to predict their arrival, and a CME geoeffectiveness tool (CGFT) to predict their geomagnetic impact. Whenever CACTus detects a halo or partial halo CME and issues an alert, the DBM calculates its arrival time at Earth and the CGFT calculates its geomagnetic risk level. The geomagnetic risk level is calculated based on an estimation of the CME arrival probability and its likely geoeffectiveness, as well as an estimate of the geomagnetic storm duration. We present the evaluation of the CME risk level forecast with the COMESEP alert system based on a study of geoeffective CMEs observed during 2014. The validation of the forecast tool is made by comparing the forecasts with observations. In addition, we test the success rate of the automatic forecasts (without human intervention) against the forecasts with human intervention using advanced versions of the DBM and CGFT (independent tools available at the Hvar Observatory website, http://oh.geof.unizg.hr). The results indicate that the success rate of the forecast in its current form is unacceptably low for a realistic operation system. Human intervention improves the forecast, but the false-alarm rate remains unacceptably high. We discuss these results and their implications for possible improvement of the COMESEP alert system.

  1. Beam-energy and system-size dependence of the CME

    OpenAIRE

    Toneev, V. D.; Voronyuk, V.

    2010-01-01

    The energy dependence of the local ${\\cal P}$ and ${\\cal CP}$ violation in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions in a large energy range is estimated within a simple phenomenological model. It is expected that at LHC the Chiral Magnetic effect (CME) will be about 20 times weaker than at RHIC. In the lower energy range this effect should vanish sharply at energy somewhere above the top SPS one. To elucidate CME background effects a transport model including magnetic field evolution is put forward.

  2. Meat Feeding Restricts Rapid Cold Hardening Response and Increases Thermal Activity Thresholds of Adult Blow Flies, Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Coleman

    Full Text Available Virtually all temperate insects survive the winter by entering a physiological state of reduced metabolic activity termed diapause. However, there is increasing evidence that climate change is disrupting the diapause response resulting in non-diapause life stages encountering periods of winter cold. This is a significant problem for adult life stages in particular, as they must remain mobile, periodically feed, and potentially initiate reproductive development at a time when resources should be diverted to enhance stress tolerance. Here we present the first evidence of protein/meat feeding restricting rapid cold hardening (RCH ability and increasing low temperature activity thresholds. No RCH response was noted in adult female blow flies (Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy fed a sugar, water and liver (SWL diet, while a strong RCH response was seen in females fed a diet of sugar and water (SW only. The RCH response in SW flies was induced at temperatures as high as 10°C, but was strongest following 3h at 0°C. The CTmin (loss of coordinated movement and chill coma (final appendage twitch temperature of SWL females (-0.3 ± 0.5°C and -4.9 ± 0.5°C, respectively was significantly higher than for SW females (-3.2 ± 0.8°C and -8.5 ± 0.6°C. We confirmed this was not directly the result of altered extracellular K+, as activity thresholds of alanine-fed adults were not significantly different from SW flies. Instead we suggest the loss of cold tolerance is more likely the result of diverting resource allocation to egg development. Between 2009 and 2013 winter air temperatures in Birmingham, UK, fell below the CTmin of SW and SWL flies on 63 and 195 days, respectively, suggesting differential exposure to chill injury depending on whether adults had access to meat or not. We conclude that disruption of diapause could significantly impact on winter survival through loss of synchrony in the timing of active feeding and reproductive development with

  3. Organizational Change in Management of Hepatitis C: Evaluation of a CME Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrard, Judith; Choudary, Veena; Groom, Holly; Dieperink, Eric; Willenbring, Mark L.; Durfee, Janet M.; Ho, Samuel B.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Effective treatment regimens exist for the hepatitis C virus (HCV); however, clinicians are often resistant to evaluation or treatment of patients with alcohol or substance abuse problems. We describe a continuing medical education (CME) program for clinicians in a nationwide health care system, with emphasis on current treatment…

  4. The Integrated Joslin Performance Improvement/CME Program: A New Paradigm for Better Diabetes Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie A.; Beaser, Richard S.; Neighbours, James; Shuman, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing continuing medical education is an essential component of life-long learning and can have a positive influence on patient outcomes. However, some evidence suggests that continuing medical education has not fulfilled its potential as a performance improvement (PI) tool, in part due to a paradigm of CME that has focused on the quantity of…

  5. Medical Education and Communication Companies Involved in CME: An Updated Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Eric D.; Overstreet, Karen M.; Parochka, Jacqueline N.; Lemon, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Medical Education and Communication Companies (MECCs) represent approximately 21% of the providers accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), yet relatively little is known about these organizations in the greater continuing medical education (CME) community. Two prior studies described them,…

  6. [Conflict of interest in continuing medical education - Studies on certified CME courses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzen, Laura Marianne; Weidringer, Johann Wilhelm; Ollenschläger, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Although the problem of conflict of interest in medical education is discussed intensively, few valid data have been published on how to deal with the form, content, funding, sponsorship, and the influence of economic interests in continuing medical education (CME). Against this background, we carried out an analysis of data which had been documented for the purpose of certification by a German Medical Association. A central aim of the study was to obtain evidence of possible influences of economic interests on continuing medical education. Furthermore, strategies for quality assurance of CME contents and their implementation were to be examined. We analyzed all registration data for courses certified in the category D ("structured interactive CME via print media, online media and audiovisual media") by the Bavarian Chamber of Physicians in 2012. To measure the effects of conflict of interest, relationships between topics of training and variables relating to the alleged self-interest of the organizer/sponsor (for example, drug sales in a group of physicians) were statistically verified. These data were taken from the Bavarian Medical Statistics 2012 and the GKV-Arzneimittelschnellinformation. In 2012, a total of 734 CME course offerings have been submitted for 51 medical specialties by 30 course suppliers in the Bavarian Medical Association. To ensure the neutrality of interests of the CME courses the course suppliers signed a cooperation treaty ensuring their compliance with defined behavior towards the Bavarian Medical Association concerning sponsorship. The correlation between course topics and drug data suggests that course suppliers tend to submit topics that are economically attractive to them. There was a significant correlation between the number of CME courses in a specific field and the sales from drug prescriptions issued by physicians in the respective field. The results show that neutrality of interests regarding continuing medical education is

  7. Continuing Professional Development Evaluation: Two Rapid Review Courses inNephrology and Rheumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Shehab

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Continuing professional development (CPD is anovel approach to increase professional knowledge and skills. The aim of this study is to explore participants’ characteristics and to understand participants’ views on two rapid review courses (RRCs as part of CPD program, and to assess healthcare providers’ views about the use of internet for accessing medical information.Methods: Data were collected from 150 participants who attended an RRC in Nephrology and Rheumatology as part of an ongoing CME program.Results: Participants’ response rate was 92% and 84.4% in Nephrology and Rheumatology RRCs, respectively. Participants’ Mean Age±SD were 39±2.1 and 41±2.1 years in the Nephrology and Rheumatology courses, respectively. Demographic variables, i.e., age, gender, and specialization showed a significant (p<0.01 impact on the learning objectives of the program. Further, participants reported that the course material had a significant (p<0.02 impacton their knowledge. Finding new medical information was the primary motive to search the internet among all participants. About half of the subjects reported knowledge of their preferred medical education sites and had access at their clinical setup. Barriers to internet use included lack of specific information, difficulty to download contents, and excessive material. Professional association websites, online journals, and CME programs were the most frequently searched sources of information. Most of the subjects reported significant (p<0.02 barriers to find medical resources on the internet and to adequately utilize the currently available medical search engines available in the healthcare system.Conclusion: A discipline specific and integrated CPD programmay have provided dual benefit such as accredited CME hours and a significant change in the participants’ knowledge. There is a need to increase Internet accessibility and capacity in the current healthcare facilities. Future CPD

  8. Increased extracellular collagen matrix in myocardial sleeves of pulmonary veins: an additional mechanism facilitating repetitive rapid activities in chronic pacing-induced sustained atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yung-Tsung; Wu, Tsu-Juey; Wei, Hao-Ji; Cheng, Ching-Chang; Lin, Nai-Nu; Chen, Ying-Tsung; Ting, Chih-Tai

    2005-07-01

    Increased ECM in canine PVs. Cell uncoupling due to fibrosis or increased extracellular collagen matrix (ECM) affects the formation of ectopic focal activity. Whether or not the increase of ECM also exists in the pulmonary veins (PVs) with rapid atrial pacing is unknown. We sought to test the hypothesis that in chronic atrial pacing dogs with sustained atrial fibrillation (AF), the amount of ECM was increased in both atria and the PVs. We induced sustained AF in dogs by rapid atrial pacing. Computerized mapping techniques were used to map both atria and the PVs. We also used histological assessment to quantify the amount of ECM. After 118+/-24 days of rapid atrial pacing, sustained AF was induced in 7 dogs. Repetitive rapid activities (RRAs) either continuously or intermittently arose from the PVs during sustained AF. Histological study shows that there was no fibrosis in both atrial free walls and the PVs. However, the amount of ECM was increased in these regions. The mean ECM surface area fraction at each region in the dogs with sustained AF was all significantly higher compared to the corresponding region in normal dogs. Similarly, the heterogeneity of the ECM surface area fraction at each region in the dogs with sustained AF was also all significantly higher compared to normal dogs. In chronic atrial pacing-induced sustained AF, structural remodeling (i.e., inhomogeneous increase of ECM) also involves the PVs. Reduced coupling of the myocytes in the PV due to histological changes may provide an additional mechanism facilitating RRAs.

  9. Undergraduate medical education: tendencies and requirements in a rapidly developing Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breipohl, W; Johansson, C; Hansis, M; Steiger, J; Naguro, T; Müller, K; Mestres, P

    2000-01-01

    This study pinpoints the necessity to constantly monitor local approaches in undergraduate medical education on an inter-European scale. Traditional undergraduate medical curricula need restructuring to account for the increasing amount of medical knowledge and rapid changes and developments in societies, nosology, therapy and IT. European undergraduate medical curricula should be harmonized not egalized, with a focus on inter-European sharing of resources, mobility, credit (allocation, accumulation and transfer), definition of European and trans-European mission statements, identification of quality metrics, advice on dealing with conflicting aims such as specialization and generalization, on communicating core knowledge instead of providing overabundance of information, and on introducing multifaceted teaching and learning methods, as well as providing strategies for life long learning. Sound medical education can no longer and nowhere be considered under the autonomous auspices of individual Medical Schools or national philosophies. It has to be perceived and structured as a competitive and flexible approach which promotes life long learning of teachers, students, physicians and other related staff with international awareness. It is stressed that student and staff mobility, as well as virtual mobility in the form of worldwide available teaching modules and expertise have to be incorporated into national medical curricula. This is to guarantee up-to-date education in support of patient demands, future professionality and competitiveness of students, physicians and Public Health System institutions. The formal approaches of traditional subject related curricula as well as problem based learning must be linked with quality approved state of the art ODL, evaluated international CME strategies and training in the utilization of IT in preparation of lifelong learning. Strategies for the use of IT need updating on a regular basis to diminish the gap between

  10. A model on CME/Flare initiation: Loss of Equilibrium caused by mass loss of quiescent prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, George; Chon Nam, Sok; Kim, Mun Song; Kim, Jik Su

    2015-08-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) model should give an answer to enough energy storage for giant bulk plasma into interplanetary space to escape against the sun’s gravitation and its explosive eruption. Advocates of ‘Mass Loading’ model (e.g. Low, B. 1996, SP, 167, 217) suggested a simple mechanism of CME initiation, the loss of mass from a prominence anchoring magnetic flux rope, but they did not associate the mass loss with the loss of equilibrium. The catastrophic loss of equilibrium model is considered as to be a prospective CME/Flare model to explain sudden eruption of magnetic flux systems. Isenberg, P. A., et al (1993, ApJ, 417, 368)developed ideal magnetohydrodynamic theory of the magnetic flux rope to show occurrence of catastrophic loss of equilibrium according to increasing magnetic flux transported into corona.We begin with extending their study including gravity on prominence’s material to obtain equilibrium curves in case of given mass parameters, which are the strengths of the gravitational force compared with the characteristic magnetic force. Furthermore, we study quasi-static evolution of the system including massive prominence flux rope and current sheet below it to obtain equilibrium curves of prominence’s height according to decreasing mass parameter in a properly fixed magnetic environment. The curves show equilibrium loss behaviors to imply that mass loss result in equilibrium loss. Released fractions of magnetic energy are greater than corresponding zero-mass case. This eruption mechanism is expected to be able to apply to the eruptions of quiescent prominences, which is located in relatively weak magnetic environment with 105 km of scale length and 10G of photospheric magnetic field.

  11. USING ONLINE MARKETING TO INCREASE PARTICIPATION IN A WEB-BASED CONTINUING MEDICAL EDUCATION CULTURAL COMPETENCE CURRICULUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Carlos A.; Krishnamoorthy, Periyakaruppan; Smith, Ann; Staton, Lisa; Korf, Michele J.; Allison, Jeroan J.; Houston, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction CME providers may be interested in identifying effective marketing strategies to direct users to specific content. The use of online advertisements to recruit participants for clinical trials, public health programs, and Continuing Medical Education (CME) has been shown to be effective in some but not all studies. The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of two marketing strategies in the context of an online CME cultural competence curriculum (www.c-comp.org). Methods In an interrupted time-series quasi-experimental design, two marketing strategies were tested: a) wide dissemination to relevant organizations over a period of approximately four months, and b) Internet paid search using Google Ads (five consecutive eight-week periods--control 1, cultural/ CME advertisement, control 2, hypertension/ content advertisement, control 3). Outcome measures were CME credit requests, Web traffic (visits per day, page views, pages viewed per visit), and cost. Results Overall, the site was visited 19,156 times and 78,160 pages were viewed. During the wide dissemination phase, the proportion of visits requesting CME credit decreased between the first (5.3%) and second halves (3.3%) of this phase (p= .04). During the Internet paid search phase, the proportion of visits requesting CME credit was highest during the cultural/ CME advertisement period (control 1, 1.4%; cultural/CME ad, 4.3%; control 2, 1.5%; hypertension/content ad, 0.6%; control 3, 0.8%; pcultural advertisement per CME credit requested was $0.64US. Discussion Internet advertisement focusing on cultural competence and CME was associated with about a three-fold increase in requests for CME credit at an incremental cost of under $1; however, Web traffic changes were independent of the advertisement strategy. PMID:21425356

  12. The SCEC Community Modeling Environment(SCEC/CME): A Collaboratory for Seismic Hazard Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Minster, J. B.; Moore, R.; Kesselman, C.

    2005-12-01

    The SCEC Community Modeling Environment (SCEC/CME) Project is an NSF-supported Geosciences/IT partnership that is actively developing an advanced information infrastructure for system-level earthquake science in Southern California. This partnership includes SCEC, USC's Information Sciences Institute (ISI), the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC), the Incorporated Institutions for Research in Seismology (IRIS), and the U.S. Geological Survey. The goal of the SCEC/CME is to develop seismological applications and information technology (IT) infrastructure to support the development of Seismic Hazard Analysis (SHA) programs and other geophysical simulations. The SHA application programs developed on the Project include a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis system called OpenSHA. OpenSHA computational elements that are currently available include a collection of attenuation relationships, and several Earthquake Rupture Forecasts (ERFs). Geophysicists in the collaboration have also developed Anelastic Wave Models (AWMs) using both finite-difference and finite-element approaches. Earthquake simulations using these codes have been run for a variety of earthquake sources. Rupture Dynamic Model (RDM) codes have also been developed that simulate friction-based fault slip. The SCEC/CME collaboration has also developed IT software and hardware infrastructure to support the development, execution, and analysis of these SHA programs. To support computationally expensive simulations, we have constructed a grid-based scientific workflow system. Using the SCEC grid, project collaborators can submit computations from the SCEC/CME servers to High Performance Computers at USC and TeraGrid High Performance Computing Centers. Data generated and archived by the SCEC/CME is stored in a digital library system, the Storage Resource Broker (SRB). This system provides a robust and secure system for maintaining the association between the data seta and their metadata. To provide an easy

  13. CME Flux Rope and Shock Identifications and Locations: Comparison of White Light Data, Graduated Cylindrical Shell Model, and MHD Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J. M.; Cairns, Iver H.; Xie, Hong; St. Cyr, O. C.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2016-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are major transient phenomena in the solar corona that are observed with ground-based and spacecraft-based coronagraphs in white light or with in situ measurements by spacecraft. CMEs transport mass and momentum and often drive shocks. In order to derive the CME and shock trajectories with high precision, we apply the graduated cylindrical shell (GCS) model to fit a flux rope to the CME directed toward STEREO A after about 19:00 UT on 29 November 2013 and check the quality of the heliocentric distance-time evaluations by carrying out a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of the same CME with the Block Adaptive Tree Solar-Wind Roe Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US) code. Heliocentric distances of the CME and shock leading edges are determined from the simulated white light images and magnetic field strength data. We find very good agreement between the predicted and observed heliocentric distances, showing that the GCS model and the BATS-R-US simulation approach work very well and are consistent. In order to assess the validity of CME and shock identification criteria in coronagraph images, we also compute synthetic white light images of the CME and shock. We find that the outer edge of a cloud-like illuminated area in the observed and predicted images in fact coincides with the leading edge of the CME flux rope and that the outer edge of a faint illuminated band in front of the CME leading edge coincides with the CME-driven shock front.

  14. Increased Baseline Proinflammatory Cytokine Production in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients with Rapid Virological Response to Peginterferon Plus Ribavirin

    OpenAIRE

    Par, Gabriella; Szereday, Laszlo; Berki, Timea; et al.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients achieving rapid virological response (RVR) on PEG-IFN/ribavirin (P/R) therapy have high chance of sustained virological response (SVR). To analyze host immunological factors associated with RVR, viral kinetics, phenotype distribution and Th1/Th2 cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were studied prior to and during P/R therapy. METHODS: TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-10 production by PBMC were measured after Toll...

  15. Fast mouse PK (Fast PK): a rapid screening method to increase pharmacokinetic throughput in pre-clinical drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Jitendar; Madishetti, Sreedhar; Vachaspati, Prakash R

    2012-09-29

    We describe a rapid screening methodology for performing pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in mice called Fast PK. In this Fast PK method, two mice were used per compound and four blood samples were collected from each mouse. The sampling times were staggered (sparse sampling) between the two mice, thus yielding complete PK profile in singlicate across eight time points. The plasma PK parameters from Fast PK were comparable to that obtained from conventional PK methods. This method has been used to rapidly screen compounds in the early stages of drug discovery and about 600 compounds have been profiled in the last 3 years, which has resulted in reduction in the usage of mice by 800 per year in compliance with the 3R principles of animal ethics. In addition, this Fast PK method can also help in evaluating the PK parameters from the same set of animals used in safety/toxicology/efficacy studies without the need for satellite groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Magnetic Field Modeling of Hot Channels in four Flare/CME Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tie; Su, Yingna

    2017-08-01

    We study the magnetic structure and 3D geometrical morphology of four active regions with sigmoidal hot channels which produced flare/CME events. Observational study has been done by Cheng & Ding (2016). Using the flux rope insertion method developed by van Ballegooijen (2004), we construct a series of magnetic field models of the four flare/CME events. Through comparing with non-potential coronal loops observed by SDO/AIA , we find that the critical stable model (i.e.,a magnetic field configuration at the boundary between stable and unstable states in parameter space) and the best-fit preflare model (unstable model) which best matches observations for every case, and we think that the real preflare magnetic field configuration may lie between the two models. Finally we calculate the magnetic energy free energy and magnetic helicity of the two selected models,and study the eruption mechanism.

  17. Detailed Analysis of a GE Oeffective ICME Triggered by the March 15, 2013 CME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beşliu-Ionescu, Diana; Mariş Muntean, Georgeta; Lǎcǎtuş, Daniela A.; Paraschiv, Alin R.; Mierla, Marilena

    2014-03-01

    We present in this paper a detailed analysis of a coronal mass ejection (CME) that was registered on March 15, 2013 in LASCO-C2 images. It propagated into the interplanetary space towards the Earth and it was followed by a geomagnetic storm defined by a minimum Dst = -132 nT on March 17, 2013. We apply the forward model (Thernisien et al., 2006) to compute the real speed and direction of propagation. We apply a modified version of the regression model (Srivastava, 2005) to compute the probability that this CME will trigger a super-intense geomagnetic storm and we found a 100% probability to have an intense storm with a minimum Dst value between -150 nT and -200 nT. This probability is not in accordance with the observations and we believe that to be a direct consequence of the small data-base our model was trained on.

  18. Rapid antidepressants stimulate the decoupling of GABAB receptors from GIRK/Kir3 channels through increased protein stability of 14-3-3η

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, E R; Haddick, P C G; Bush, K; Dilly, G A; Niere, F; Zemelman, B V; Raab-Graham, K F

    2015-01-01

    A single injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists produces a rapid antidepressant response. Lasting changes in the synapse structure and composition underlie the effectiveness of these drugs. We recently discovered that rapid antidepressants cause a shift in the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABABR) signaling pathway, such that GABABR activation shifts from opening inwardly rectifiying potassium channels (Kir/GIRK) to increasing resting dendritic calcium signal and mammalian Target of Rapamycin activity. However, little is known about the molecular and biochemical mechanisms that initiate this shift. Herein, we show that GABABR signaling to Kir3 (GIRK) channels decreases with NMDAR blockade. Blocking NMDAR signaling stabilizes the adaptor protein 14-3-3η, which decouples GABABR signaling from Kir3 and is required for the rapid antidepressant efficacy. Consistent with these results, we find that key proteins involved in GABABR signaling bidirectionally change in a depression model and with rapid antidepressants. In socially defeated rodents, a model for depression, GABABR and 14-3-3η levels decrease in the hippocampus. The NMDAR antagonists AP5 and Ro-25-6981, acting as rapid antidepressants, increase GABABR and 14-3-3η expression and decrease Kir3.2. Taken together, these data suggest that the shift in GABABR function requires a loss of GABABR-Kir3 channel activity mediated by 14-3-3η. Our findings support a central role for 14-3-3η in the efficacy of rapid antidepressants and define a critical molecular mechanism for activity-dependent alterations in GABABR signaling. PMID:25560757

  19. Rapid antidepressants stimulate the decoupling of GABA(B) receptors from GIRK/Kir3 channels through increased protein stability of 14-3-3η.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, E R; Haddick, P C G; Bush, K; Dilly, G A; Niere, F; Zemelman, B V; Raab-Graham, K F

    2015-03-01

    A single injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists produces a rapid antidepressant response. Lasting changes in the synapse structure and composition underlie the effectiveness of these drugs. We recently discovered that rapid antidepressants cause a shift in the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABABR) signaling pathway, such that GABABR activation shifts from opening inwardly rectifiying potassium channels (Kir/GIRK) to increasing resting dendritic calcium signal and mammalian Target of Rapamycin activity. However, little is known about the molecular and biochemical mechanisms that initiate this shift. Herein, we show that GABABR signaling to Kir3 (GIRK) channels decreases with NMDAR blockade. Blocking NMDAR signaling stabilizes the adaptor protein 14-3-3η, which decouples GABABR signaling from Kir3 and is required for the rapid antidepressant efficacy. Consistent with these results, we find that key proteins involved in GABABR signaling bidirectionally change in a depression model and with rapid antidepressants. In socially defeated rodents, a model for depression, GABABR and 14-3-3η levels decrease in the hippocampus. The NMDAR antagonists AP5 and Ro-25-6981, acting as rapid antidepressants, increase GABABR and 14-3-3η expression and decrease Kir3.2. Taken together, these data suggest that the shift in GABABR function requires a loss of GABABR-Kir3 channel activity mediated by 14-3-3η. Our findings support a central role for 14-3-3η in the efficacy of rapid antidepressants and define a critical molecular mechanism for activity-dependent alterations in GABABR signaling.

  20. Hinode/XRT and Stereo Observations of the May 2007 Coronal Wave-cme-dimming Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attrill, Gemma; Engell, A. J.; Wills-Davey, M. J.; Grigis, P.; Testa, P.

    2009-05-01

    We report observations of the first diffuse coronal wave detected by Hinode/XRT. The event occurred near the West solar limb on 23 May 2007, originating from active region (AR) 10956. The bright emission expanded both to the East and South of the AR. We combine the XRT results with data from STEREO (B) and a potential magnetic field extrapolation to understand the global magnetic field connectivity. We consider that the brightenings seen to the East and South of the source AR are generated by different physical processes, due to the distinct magnetic environments in these regions. We attribute the brightening to the East of the AR to compression and channelling of the plasma along large-scale loops. The brightening to the South of the AR expands across the quiet Sun, making the southern component a likely candidate for a classical diffuse coronal wave. We analyse the bright front in STEREO/EUVI 171, 195 and 284 A images, as well as in XRT data, finding it to be largely co-spatial in all bandpasses. The expansion velocity of the diffuse bright front is 250 (± 85) km/s. We also exploit the near-limb properties of this event by combining STEREO/COR1 and EUVI data to derive a full picture of the low-coronal development of the eruption. The COR1 data show that the southern-most outer edge of the CME is progressively displaced southward. The core coronal dimmings map to the bright core of the CME; the secondary coronal dimmings map to the CME cavity; and the diffuse coronal "wave” maps to the outermost edge of the expanding CME shell. The analysis of this near-limb event has implications for understanding earlier eruptions originating from the same AR. In particular, we present a new analysis of the 19 May 2007 event. NASA grants NNX09AB11G and NNH07AB97C supported this work.

  1. Relationship among knowledge acquisition, motivation to change, and self-efficacy in CME participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Betsy W; Kessler, Harold A; Williams, Michael V

    2015-01-01

    The relationship among an individual's sense of self-efficacy, motivation to change, barriers to change, and the implementation of improvement programs has been reported. This research reports the relationship among self-efficacy, motivation to change, and the acquisition of knowledge in a continuing medical education (CME) activity. The measure of individual sense of self-efficacy was a 4-item scale. The measure of motivation was a 6-item scale following on the work of Prochaska and colleagues. The knowledge acquisition was measured in a simple post measure. The participants were enrolled in a CME activity focused on HIV.  The CME activities had a significant effect on knowledge. Preliminary analysis demonstrates a relationship among the self-efficacy measure, the motivation to change measure, and global intent to change. Specifically, as reported earlier, the sense of efficacy in effecting change in the practice environment is predictive of a high level of motivation to change that, in turn, is predictive of formation of intent to change practice patterns. Interestingly, there were also relationships among the self-efficacy measure, the motivation to change measure, and knowledge acquisition. Finally, as expected, there was a significant relationship between knowledge and intent to change practice.  Further inspection of the motivation to change construct suggests that it mediates the self-efficacy constructs' effect on intent as well as its effect on knowledge acquisition. This new finding suggests that the proximal construct motivation completely masks an important underlying causal relationship that appears to contribute to practice change as well as learning following CME-self-efficacy. © 2015 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  2. Analysis of complete mitochondrial genome sequences increases phylogenetic resolution of bears (Ursidae, a mammalian family that experienced rapid speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryder Oliver A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the small number of ursid species, bear phylogeny has long been a focus of study due to their conservation value, as all bear genera have been classified as endangered at either the species or subspecies level. The Ursidae family represents a typical example of rapid evolutionary radiation. Previous analyses with a single mitochondrial (mt gene or a small number of mt genes either provide weak support or a large unresolved polytomy for ursids. We revisit the contentious relationships within Ursidae by analyzing complete mt genome sequences and evaluating the performance of both entire mt genomes and constituent mtDNA genes in recovering a phylogeny of extremely recent speciation events. Results This mitochondrial genome-based phylogeny provides strong evidence that the spectacled bear diverged first, while within the genus Ursus, the sloth bear is the sister taxon of all the other five ursines. The latter group is divided into the brown bear/polar bear and the two black bears/sun bear assemblages. These findings resolve the previous conflicts between trees using partial mt genes. The ability of different categories of mt protein coding genes to recover the correct phylogeny is concordant with previous analyses for taxa with deep divergence times. This study provides a robust Ursidae phylogenetic framework for future validation by additional independent evidence, and also has significant implications for assisting in the resolution of other similarly difficult phylogenetic investigations. Conclusion Identification of base composition bias and utilization of the combined data of whole mitochondrial genome sequences has allowed recovery of a strongly supported phylogeny that is upheld when using multiple alternative outgroups for the Ursidae, a mammalian family that underwent a rapid radiation since the mid- to late Pliocene. It remains to be seen if the reliability of mt genome analysis will hold up in studies of other

  3. Radial Diffusion study of the 1 June 2013 CME event using MHD simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, M.; Hudson, M.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Li, Z.; Boyd, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    The June 1, 2013 storm was a CME-shock driven geomagnetic storm (Dst = -119 nT) that caused a dropout affecting all radiation belt electron energies measured by the Energetic Particle, Composition and Thermal Plasma Suite (ECT) instrument on Van Allen Probes at higher L-shells following dynamic pressure enhancement in the solar wind. Lower energies (up to about 700 keV) were enhanced by the storm while MeV electrons were depleted throughout the belt. We focus on depletion through radial diffusion caused by the enhanced ULF wave activity due to the CME-shock. This study utilities the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) model, a 3D global magnetospheric simulation code based on the ideal MHD equations, coupled with the Magnetosphere Ionosphere Coupler (MIX) and Rice Convection Model (RCM). The MHD electric and magnetic fields with equations described by Fei et al. [JGR, 2006] are used to calculate radial diffusion coefficients (DLL). These DLL values are input into a radial diffusion code to recreate the dropouts observed by the Van Allen Probes. The importance of understanding the complex role that ULF waves play in radial transport and the effects of CME-driven storms on the relativistic energy electrons in the radiation belts can be accomplished using MHD simulations to obtain diffusion coefficients, initial phase space density and the outer boundary condition from the ECT instrument suite and a radial diffusion model to reproduce observed fluxes which compare favorably with Van Allen Probes ECT measurements.

  4. Why Is the Great Solar Active Region 12192 CME-Poor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xudong; Bobra, Monica G.; Hoeksema, Todd; Liu, Yang; Li, Yan; Shen, Chenglong; Couvidat, Sebastien; Norton, Aimee A.; Fisher, George H.

    2015-04-01

    Solar active region (AR) 12192 of October 2014 hosts the largest sunspot group in 24 years. It is the most prolific flaring site of Cycle 24, but surprisingly produced no coronal mass ejection (CME) from the core region during its disk passage. Here, we study the magnetic conditions that prevented eruption and the consequences that ensued. We find AR 12192 to be "big but mild"; its core region exhibits weaker non-potentiality, stronger overlying field, and smaller flare-related field changes compared to two other major flare-CME-productive ARs (11429 and 11158). These differences are present in the intensive-type indices (e.g., means) but generally not the extensive ones (e.g., totals). AR 12192's large amount of magnetic free energy does not translate into CME productivity. The unexpected behavior suggests that AR eruptiveness is limited by some relative measure of magnetic non-potentiality over the restriction of background field, and that confined flares may leave weaker photospheric and coronal imprints compared to their eruptive counterparts.

  5. Why Is the Great Solar Active Region 12192 Flare-rich but CME-poor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xudong; Bobra, Monica G.; Hoeksema, J. Todd; Liu, Yang; Li, Yan; Shen, Chenglong; Couvidat, Sebastien; Norton, Aimee A.; Fisher, George H.

    2015-05-01

    Solar active region (AR) 12192 of 2014 October hosts the largest sunspot group in 24 years. It is the most prolific flaring site of Cycle 24 so far, but surprisingly produced no coronal mass ejection (CME) from the core region during its disk passage. Here, we study the magnetic conditions that prevented eruption and the consequences that ensued. We find AR 12192 to be “big but mild” its core region exhibits weaker non-potentiality, stronger overlying field, and smaller flare-related field changes compared to two other major flare-CME-productive ARs (11429 and 11158). These differences are present in the intensive-type indices (e.g., means) but generally not the extensive ones (e.g., totals). AR 12192's large amount of magnetic free energy does not translate into CME productivity. The unexpected behavior suggests that AR eruptiveness is limited by some relative measure of magnetic non-potentiality over the restriction of background field, and that confined flares may leave weaker photospheric and coronal imprints compared to their eruptive counterparts.

  6. Development and Parameters of a Non-Self-Similar CME Caused by the Eruption of a Quiescent Prominence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmenko, I. V.; Grechnev, V. V.

    2017-10-01

    The eruption of a large quiescent prominence on 17 August 2013 and an associated coronal mass ejection (CME) were observed from different vantage points by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO), and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Screening of the quiet Sun by the prominence produced an isolated negative microwave burst. We estimated the parameters of the erupting prominence from a radio absorption model and measured them from 304 Å images. The variations of the parameters as obtained by these two methods are similar and agree within a factor of two. The CME development was studied from the kinematics of the front and different components of the core and their structural changes. The results were verified using movies in which the CME expansion was compensated for according to the measured kinematics. We found that the CME mass (3.6 × 10^{15} g) was mainly supplied by the prominence (≈ 6 × 10^{15} g), while a considerable part drained back. The mass of the coronal-temperature component did not exceed 10^{15} g. The CME was initiated by the erupting prominence, which constituted its core and remained active. The structural and kinematical changes started in the core and propagated outward. The CME structures continued to form during expansion, which did not become self-similar up to 25 R_{⊙}. The aerodynamic drag was insignificant. The core formed during the CME rise to 4 R_{⊙} and possibly beyond. Some of its components were observed to straighten and stretch outward, indicating the transformation of tangled structures of the core into a simpler flux rope, which grew and filled the cavity as the CME expanded.

  7. Rapid Growth and Apparent Total Nitrogen Increases in Rice and Corn Plants following Applications of Triacontanol 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, N. Richard; Ries, Stanley K.

    1981-01-01

    Triacontanol (TRIA) increased fresh and dry weight and total reducible nitrogen (total N) of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings within 40 minutes. Increases in total N in the supernatants from homogenates of corn (Zea mays L.) and rice leaves treated with TRIA for one minute before grinding occurred within 30 and 80 minutes, respectively. The source for the increase was investigated utilizing atmospheric substitution and enrichment and depletion studies with 15N. The increase in total N in seedlings was shown to be independent of method of N analysis and the presence of nitrate in the plants. Automated Kjeldahl determinations showing apparent increases in N composition due to TRIA were shown to be correlated with hand Kjeldahl, elemental analysis, and chemiluminescent analysis in three independent laboratories. TRIA did not alter the nitrate uptake or endogenous levels of nitrate in corn and rice seedlings. Enrichment experiments revealed that the total N increases in rice seedlings, in vivo, and in supernatants of corn leaf homogenates, in vitro, are not due to atmospheric N2. TRIA increased the soluble N pools of the plants, specifically the free amino acid and soluble protein fractions. No differences in depletion or enrichment of 15N incorporated into soluble and insoluble N fractions of rice seedlings could be detected on an atom per cent 15N basis. The apparent short-term total N increases cannot be explained by current knowledge of major N assimilation pathways. TRIA may stimulate a change in the chemical composition of the seedlings, resulting in interference with standard methods of N analysis. PMID:16662092

  8. Measure the Propagation of a Halo CME and Its Driven Shock with the Observations from a Single Perspective at Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lei; Inhester, Bernd; Feng, Li; Liu, Siming; Zhao, Xinhua

    2017-02-01

    We present a detailed study of an Earth-directed coronal mass ejection (full-halo CME) event that happened on 2011 February 15, making use of white-light observations by three coronagraphs and radio observations by Wind/WAVES. We applied three different methods to reconstruct the propagation direction and traveling distance of the CME and its driven shock. We measured the kinematics of the CME leading edge from white-light images observed by Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) Aand B, tracked the CME-driven shock using the frequency drift observed by Wind/WAVES together with an interplanetary density model, and obtained the equivalent scattering centers of the CME by the polarization ratio (PR) method. For the first time, we applied the PR method to different features distinguished from LASCO/C2 polarimetric observations and calculated their projections onto white-light images observed by STEREO-A and STEREO-B. By combining the graduated cylindrical shell (GCS) forward modeling with the PR method, we proposed a new GCS-PR method to derive 3D parameters of a CME observed from a single perspective at Earth. Comparisons between different methods show a good degree of consistence in the derived 3D results.

  9. Rapid Increases in forest understory diversity and productivity following a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae outbreak in pine forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J Pec

    Full Text Available The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks are well documented, information on immediate responses of forest understory plant communities is limited. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of D. ponderosae-induced tree mortality on initial changes in diversity and productivity of understory plant communities. We established a total of 110 1-m2 plots across eleven mature lodgepole pine forests to measure changes in understory diversity and productivity as a function of tree mortality and below ground resource availability across multiple years. Overall, understory community diversity and productivity increased across the gradient of increased tree mortality. Richness of herbaceous perennials increased with tree mortality as well as soil moisture and nutrient levels. In contrast, the diversity of woody perennials did not change across the gradient of tree mortality. Understory vegetation, namely herbaceous perennials, showed an immediate response to improved growing conditions caused by increases in tree mortality. How this increased pulse in understory richness and productivity affects future forest trajectories in a novel system is unknown.

  10. Rapid Increases in forest understory diversity and productivity following a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pec, Gregory J; Karst, Justine; Sywenky, Alexandra N; Cigan, Paul W; Erbilgin, Nadir; Simard, Suzanne W; Cahill, James F

    2015-01-01

    The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks are well documented, information on immediate responses of forest understory plant communities is limited. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of D. ponderosae-induced tree mortality on initial changes in diversity and productivity of understory plant communities. We established a total of 110 1-m2 plots across eleven mature lodgepole pine forests to measure changes in understory diversity and productivity as a function of tree mortality and below ground resource availability across multiple years. Overall, understory community diversity and productivity increased across the gradient of increased tree mortality. Richness of herbaceous perennials increased with tree mortality as well as soil moisture and nutrient levels. In contrast, the diversity of woody perennials did not change across the gradient of tree mortality. Understory vegetation, namely herbaceous perennials, showed an immediate response to improved growing conditions caused by increases in tree mortality. How this increased pulse in understory richness and productivity affects future forest trajectories in a novel system is unknown.

  11. Trends in the incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer in Denmark 1978-2007: Rapid incidence increase among young Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch-Johansen, Fatima; Jensen, Allan; Mortensen, Lone

    2010-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer among Caucasian populations worldwide, and incidence rates are increasing. However, NMSC data are not routinely collected by cancer registries, but Denmark has extensive registration of NMSC in two nationwide population-based registries. We...

  12. Rapid increase in fibroblast growth factor 21 in protein malnutrition and its impact on growth and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Yori; Saito, Kenji; Nakazawa, Kyoko; Konishi, Morichika; Itoh, Nobuyuki; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro; Kato, Hisanori; Takenaka, Asako

    2015-11-14

    Protein malnutrition promotes hepatic steatosis, decreases insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I production and retards growth. To identify new molecules involved in such changes, we conducted DNA microarray analysis on liver samples from rats fed an isoenergetic low-protein diet for 8 h. We identified the fibroblast growth factor 21 gene (Fgf21) as one of the most strongly up-regulated genes under conditions of acute protein malnutrition (P<0·05, false-discovery rate<0·001). In addition, amino acid deprivation increased Fgf21 mRNA levels in rat liver-derived RL-34 cells (P<0·01). These results suggested that amino acid limitation directly increases Fgf21 expression. FGF21 is a polypeptide hormone that regulates glucose and lipid metabolism. FGF21 also promotes a growth hormone-resistance state and suppresses IGF-I in transgenic mice. Therefore, to determine further whether Fgf21 up-regulation causes hepatic steatosis and growth retardation after IGF-I decrease in protein malnutrition, we fed an isoenergetic low-protein diet to Fgf21-knockout (KO) mice. Fgf21-KO did not rescue growth retardation and reduced plasma IGF-I concentration in these mice. Fgf21-KO mice showed greater epididymal white adipose tissue weight and increased hepatic TAG and cholesterol levels under protein malnutrition conditions (P<0·05). Overall, the results showed that protein deprivation directly increased Fgf21 expression. However, growth retardation and decreased IGF-I were not mediated by increased FGF21 expression in protein malnutrition. Furthermore, FGF21 up-regulation rather appears to have a protective effect against obesity and hepatic steatosis in protein-malnourished animals.

  13. Substorms and polar cap convection: the 10 January 2004 interplanetary CME case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Andalsvik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansion-contraction model of Dungey cell plasma convection has two different convection sources, i.e. reconnections at the magnetopause and in the magnetotail. The spatial-temporal structure of the nightside source is not yet well understood. In this study we shall identify temporal variations in the winter polar cap convection structure during substorm activity under steady interplanetary conditions. Substorm activity (electrojets and particle precipitations is monitored by excellent ground-satellite DMSP F15 conjunctions in the dusk-premidnight sector. We take advantage of the wide latitudinal coverage of the IMAGE chain of ground magnetometers in Svalbard – Scandinavia – Russia for the purpose of monitoring magnetic deflections associated with polar cap convection and substorm electrojets. These are augmented by direct observations of polar cap convection derived from SuperDARN radars and cross-track ion drift observations during traversals of polar cap along the dusk-dawn meridian by spacecraft DMSP F13. The interval we study is characterized by moderate, stable forcing of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system (EKL = 4.0–4.5 mV m−1; cross polar cap potential (CPCP, Φ (Boyle = 115 kV during Earth passage of an interplanetary CME (ICME, choosing an 4-h interval where the magnetic field pointed continuously south-west (Bz < 0; By < 0. The combination of continuous monitoring of ground magnetic deflections and the F13 cross-track ion drift observations in the polar cap allows us to infer the temporal CPCP structure on time scales less than the ~10 min duration of F13 polar cap transits. We arrived at the following estimates of the dayside and nightside contributions to the CPCP (CPCP = CPCP/day + CPCP/night under two intervals of substorm activity: CPCP/day ~110 kV; CPCP/night ~50 kV (45% CPCP increase during substorms. The temporal CPCP structure during one of the

  14. The updated Swedish family-cancer database used to assess familial risks of prostate cancer during rapidly increasing incidence

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    Hemminki Kari

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Swedish Family-Cancer Database has been used for some 10 years in the study of familial risks at all common sites. In the present paper we describe some of the main features of version VII of this Database, assembled in year 2006. This update included all residents in Sweden born or immigrated in 1932 and later (offspring with their biological parents, a total of 11.5 million individuals. Cancer cases were retrieved from the Swedish Cancer Registry from years 1958 to 2004, including over 1.2 million first and multiple primary cancers and in situ tumours. We show one application of the Database in the study of familial risks in prostate cancer, with special reference to the modification of familial risk at the time of about 50% increase in incidence due to prostate specific antigen (PSA screening. The familial risks for prostate cancer were 1.92 for sons of affected fathers, 3.03 for brothers and 5.44 for men with an affected father and an affected brother. Familial risk for prostate cancer according to the time since the first family member was diagnosed showed significant increases for two family members being diagnosed in the same year compared to 5+ years apart. Increased surveillance and the availability of PSA screening are the likely reasons for the overestimated familial relative risk shortly after the first diagnosis. This lead time bias should be considered in clinical counselling.

  15. Rapid insulin-mediated increase in microvascular glycocalyx accessibility in skeletal muscle may contribute to insulin-mediated glucose disposal in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskens, Bart J M; Mooij, Hans L; Cleutjens, Jack P M; Roos, Jozef M A; Cobelens, Johanna E; Vink, Hans; Vanteeffelen, Jurgen W G E

    2013-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that insulin-mediated recruitment of microvascular blood volume is associated with insulin sensitivity. We hypothesize that insulin rapidly stimulates penetration of red blood cells (RBC) and plasma into the glycocalyx and thereby promotes insulin-mediated glucose uptake by increasing intracapillary blood volume. Experiments were performed in rats; the role of the glycocalyx was assessed by enzymatic degradation using a bolus of hyaluronidase. First, the effect of insulin on glycocalyx accessibility was assessed by measuring the depth of penetration of RBCs into the glycocalyx in microvessels of the gastrocnemius muscle with Sidestream Dark-field imaging. Secondly, peripheral insulin sensitivity was determined using intravenous insulin tolerance tests (IVITT). In addition, in a smaller set of experiments, intravital microscopy of capillary hemodynamics in cremaster muscle and histological analysis of the distribution of fluorescently labeled 40 kDa dextrans (D40) in hindlimb muscle was used to evaluate insulin-mediated increases in capillary blood volume. Insulin increased glycocalyx penetration of RBCs by 0.34±0.44 µm (Pglucose disposal compared to control rats. Insulin-mediated increases in capillary blood volume were reflected by a rapid increase in capillary tube hematocrit from 21.1±10.1% to 29.0±9.8% (Pblood in muscle, and this is associated with an increased blood volume in individual capillaries. Hyaluronidase treatment of the glycocalyx abolishes the effects of insulin on capillary blood volume and impairs insulin-mediated glucose disposal.

  16. Impaired gait function in adults with cerebral palsy is associated with reduced rapid force generation and increased passive stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Kirk, Henrik; Lorentzen, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    (mean age 34.3, range 18-57years) and fifteen healthy age-matched controls were biomechanically measured for passive and reflex-mediated stiffness of the ankle plantarflexors at rest, maximal voluntary plantarflexion and dorsiflexion effort (MVCpf,df) and rate of force development (RFDpf,df). Kinematic......, range of movement in the ankle joint and gait speed. Reflex-mediated stiffness was not correlated to any parameters of impaired gait. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired gait function in adults with CP is associated with reduced RFD and increased passive stiffness of ankle muscles. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings...

  17. Alcohol consumption in Polish middle and high school pupils – has this rapidly increased during 2009–11?

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    Paulina Wojtyła-Buciora

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction.[/b] The dynamic rise of alcohol consumption in adolescents is a matter of serious concern, requiring frequently updated monitoring. By such means, it is possible to optimise preventative measures for dealing with this problem. [b]Objective[/b]. To estimate the magnitude/amount and frequency of alcohol consumed by middle and high school pupils in Poland, including the circumstances when alcohol was first drunk. [b]Materials and Methods[/b]. A randomised survey was performed throughout Poland on middle school (junior high school pupils, (n=9360 in 2009, followed by both middle and high school pupils in 2011 (n=7971. The questionnaire was devised by the Polish Chief Sanitary Inspectorate (GIS. [b]Results[/b]. A strikingly sharp increase in alcohol consumption (29% was observed in subjects between 2009 – 2011. In the latter year, 1 month prior to survey, respectively, 50% and 71% of middle school and high school pupils drank alcohol, and correspondingly, 36% and 63% of these pupils ever became intoxicated/drunk. [b]Conclusions[/b]. 1 Adolescent alcohol consumption increases with age and is highest in girls. Monitoring as well as in-depth analysis thus becomes necessary. 2 Systematic monitoring and analysis of changing healthy lifestyle behaviour should be used for taking the necessary corrective action. This should happen concurrently and consist of planned health education programmes, including health promotion.

  18. A Boom for Whom? Exploring the Impacts of a Rapid Increase in the Male Population Upon Women's Services in Darwin, Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Gretchen; Tofa, Matalena; Finlayson, Mary; U'Ren, Julie

    2016-05-03

    A rapidly expanding natural-resource extraction industry and a growing military presence mean an increasingly male-skewed population for the city of Darwin, Australia. This has sparked concerns about the potential for increased violence against women. In this article, we present qualitative research detailing the views of 13 participants from 10 women's support services in the Darwin area. We argue that women's support services bear witness to and are tasked with responding to the impacts of population change on women, yet their work is undermined by uncertainties that stem from neoliberal funding rationales and limited demands on companies to address social issues. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Restriction of rapid eye movement sleep during adolescence increases energy gain and metabolic efficiency in young adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Silva, Neila; Nejm, Mariana Bocca; da Silva, Sylvia Maria Affonso; Suchecki, Deborah; Luz, Jacqueline

    2016-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? Sleep curtailment in infancy and adolescence may lead to long-term risk for obesity, but the mechanisms involved have not yet been determined. This study examined the immediate and long-term metabolic effects produced by sleep restriction in young rats. What is the main finding and its importance? Prolonged sleep restriction reduced weight gain (body fat stores) in young animals. After prolonged recovery, sleep-restricted rats tended to save more energy and to store more fat, possibly owing to increased gross food efficiency. This could be the first step to understand this association. Sleep curtailment is associated with obesity and metabolic changes in adults and children. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immediate and long-term metabolic alterations produced by sleep restriction in pubertal male rats. Male Wistar rats (28 days old) were allocated to a control (CTL) group or a sleep-restricted (SR) group. This was accomplished by the single platform technique for 18 h per day for 21 days. These groups were subdivided into the following four time points for assessment: sleep restriction and 1, 2 and 4 months of recovery. Body weight and food intake were monitored throughout the experiment. At the end of each time period, blood was collected for metabolic profiling, and the carcasses were processed for measurement of body composition and energy balance. During the period of sleep restriction, SR animals consumed less food in the home cages. This group also displayed lower body weight, body fat, triglycerides and glucose levels than CTL rats. At the end of the first month of recovery, despite eating as much as CTL rats, SR animals showed greater energy and body weight gain, increased gross food efficiency and decreased energy expenditure. At the end of the second and fourth months of recovery, the groups were no longer different, except for energy gain and gross food efficiency, which remained higher in SR

  20. Mobile zinc increases rapidly in the retina after optic nerve injury and regulates ganglion cell survival and optic nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiqing; Andereggen, Lukas; Yuki, Kenya; Omura, Kumiko; Yin, Yuqin; Gilbert, Hui-Ya; Erdogan, Burcu; Asdourian, Maria S; Shrock, Christine; de Lima, Silmara; Apfel, Ulf-Peter; Zhuo, Yehong; Hershfinkel, Michal; Lippard, Stephen J; Rosenberg, Paul A; Benowitz, Larry

    2017-01-10

    Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the projection neurons of the eye, cannot regenerate their axons once the optic nerve has been injured and soon begin to die. Whereas RGC death and regenerative failure are widely viewed as being cell-autonomous or influenced by various types of glia, we report here that the dysregulation of mobile zinc (Zn(2+)) in retinal interneurons is a primary factor. Within an hour after the optic nerve is injured, Zn(2+) increases several-fold in retinal amacrine cell processes and continues to rise over the first day, then transfers slowly to RGCs via vesicular release. Zn(2+) accumulation in amacrine cell processes involves the Zn(2+) transporter protein ZnT-3, and deletion of slc30a3, the gene encoding ZnT-3, promotes RGC survival and axon regeneration. Intravitreal injection of Zn(2+) chelators enables many RGCs to survive for months after nerve injury and regenerate axons, and enhances the prosurvival and regenerative effects of deleting the gene for phosphatase and tensin homolog (pten). Importantly, the therapeutic window for Zn(2+) chelation extends for several days after nerve injury. These results show that retinal Zn(2+) dysregulation is a major factor limiting the survival and regenerative capacity of injured RGCs, and point to Zn(2+) chelation as a strategy to promote long-term RGC protection and enhance axon regeneration.

  1. Rapid and Slow Progressors Show Increased IL-6 and IL-10 Levels in the Pre-AIDS Stage of HIV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia M de Medeiros

    Full Text Available Cytokines are intrinsically related to disease progression in HIV infection. We evaluated the plasma levels of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in extreme progressors, including slow (SPs and rapid (RPs progressors, who were thus classified based on clinical and laboratory follow-up covering a period of time before the initiation of HAART, ranging from 93-136.5 months for SPs and 7.5-16.5 months for RPs. Analyses were also performed based on the different stages of HIV infection (chronic, pre-HAART individuals-subjects sampled before initiating HAART but who initiated therapy from 12 to 24 months-and those receiving HAART. The plasma cytokine levels of 16 HIV-infected rapid progressors and 25 slow progressors were measured using a Human Th1/Th2/Th17 CBA kit. The IL-6 and IL-10 plasma levels differed significantly between the stages of HIV infection. The IL-6 levels were higher in slow progressors pre-HAART than in chronically infected SPs and HIV-seronegative individuals. The IL-10 levels were higher in slow progressors pre-HAART than in slow progressors receiving HAART and HIV-seronegative controls, and in rapid progressors, the IL-10 levels were higher in pre-HAART subjects than in HIV-seronegative controls. The results reflect the changes in the cytokine profile occurring during different clinical stages in HIV+ subjects. Our results suggest an association between increased IL-6 and IL-10 levels and pre-HAART stages independent of the slow or rapid progression status of the subjects. Thus, increased IL-6 and IL-10 levels could indicate a global inflammatory status and could be used as markers of the disease course in HIV-infected individuals.

  2. Rapid increase in prevalence of male circumcision in rural Tanzania in the absence of a promotional campaign.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet J Forbes

    Full Text Available To estimate the prevalence of circumcision among young men in rural Mwanza, North-Western Tanzania, and document trends in circumcision prevalence over time. To investigate associations of circumcision with socio-demographic characteristics, reported sexual behaviours and sexually transmitted infections (STIs.A cross-sectional survey in communities which had previously participated in a cluster-randomized trial of an adolescent sexual health intervention that did not include male circumcision in 20 rural communities.In 2007/08, 7300 young men (age 16-23 years were interviewed and examined by a clinician. The prevalence of circumcision by age was compared with data collected during the trial in 1998-2002. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for the association of circumcision with socio-demographic characteristics, reported sexual behaviours and with HIV and other STIs were estimated using multivariable conditional logistic regression.The prevalence of male circumcision was 40.6%, and age-specific prevalence had more than doubled since 2001/2002. Circumcised men reported less risky sexual behaviours, being more likely to report having ever used a condom (adjusted OR = 2.62, 95%CI:2.32-2.95. Men circumcised before sexual debut were at reduced risk of being HIV seropositive compared with non-circumcised men (adjusted OR = 0.50, 95%CI:0.25-0.97, and also had reduced risks of HSV-2 infection and genital ulcer syndrome in the past 12 months compared with non-circumcised men.There was a steep increase in circumcision prevalence between 2001/02 and 2007/08 in the absence of a promotional campaign. Circumcised men reported safer sexual practices than non-circumcised men and had lower prevalence of HIV and HSV-2 infection.

  3. [CME MMC: Evaluation of a continuous medical education tool by e-learning from the morbi-mortality conferences of the Burgundy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrand, M; Lefèbvre, A; Desplanches, T; Yacoub, A; Semama, D; Sagot, P

    2016-10-19

    The objective of this study was to validate a continuing medical education e-learning tool. The CME MMC was for all health professionals maternity Burgundy and concerned regional morbidity and mortality conferences. It was divided into steps: a pre-test for an assessment of initial knowledge, an access to the recommendations of each RMM and a post-test to assess the progress of participants. A satisfaction questionnaire was proposed after the test. The primary endpoint was the comparison of the post-test scores than the pre-test. CME MMC was opened 3 months and recorded 156 participants among 598 health professionals in Burgundy, a rate 2.4 times higher than the average participation rate at MMC the past two years. A statistically significant increase was demonstrated individually by comparing the post-test scores than the pre-test (PMMC is accessible, without geographic or time restrictions, not expensive, and efficient because it proves that it can update our knowledge in obstetrics and perinatology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. The Blob Connection: Searching for Low Coronal Signatures of Solar Post-CME Blobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanche, Nicole E.; Reeves, Katharine K.; Webb, David F.

    2016-11-01

    Bright linear structures, thought to be indicators of a current sheet (CS), are often seen in Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) white-light data in the wake of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In a subset of these post-CME structures, relatively bright blobs are seen moving outward along the rays. These blobs have been interpreted as consequences of the plasmoid instability in the CS, and can help us to understand the dynamics of the reconnection. We examine several instances, taken largely from the SOHO/LASCO CME-rays Catalog, where these blobs are clearly visible in white-light data. Using radially filtered, difference, wavelet enhanced, and multiscale Gaussian normalized images to visually inspect Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) data in multiple wavelengths, we look for signatures of material that correspond both temporally and spatially to the later appearance of the blobs in LASCO/C2. Constraints from measurements of the blobs allow us to predict the expected count rates in DN pixel-1 s-1 for each AIA channel. The resulting values would make the blobs bright enough to be detectable at 1.2 R ⊙. However, we do not see conclusive evidence for corresponding blobs in the AIA data in any of the events. We do the same calculation for the “cartwheel CME,” an event in which blobs were seen in X-rays, and find that our estimated count rates are close to those observed. We suggest several possibilities for the absence of the EUV blobs including the formation of the blob higher than the AIA field of view, blob coalescence, and overestimation of blob densities.

  5. Use of CME to impact self-reported changes in the evaluation and management of anaemia in geriatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Farmer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The Third US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III prompted the recognition of geriatric anaemia as a public health concern since ~10% of people aged 65 years or older were anaemic. The objective of this study was to design and implement a continuing medical education (CME event that motivates and guides Primary Care Health Practitioners (PCHPs to adopt medical practices that improve outcomes among geriatric patients with anaemia by employing effective diagnostic workup. Research design and methods. A total of 4196 PCHPs participated in 11 highly interactive 75-minute live conferences conducted throughout the US from 2011 through 2013 that featured case-based interactive discussions on the workup of microcytic, normocytic, and macrocytic anaemia by a PCHP and local haematologist expert. A standardised diagnostic algorithm for geriatric anaemia was used and distributed as a handout at the live activity. A reinforcing mobile application based on this algorithm was introduced in 2012. Main outcome measures. Data from participants were gathered immediately after the event, 10–12 weeks post-event, and 1–3 years post-event. Outcomes were evaluated according to Moore's levels. Chi-squared analyses compared the proportion of respondents who committed to one or more of the five major behavioural changes over time. Results. The Chi-squared test analysed data from each of the three timelines for five medical behavioural changes. A comparison of participants’ responses showed that there was a significant increase in the proportion of responders committing to behavioural change #1, “Avoid indiscriminant use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents” and #5, “Refer patients with unexplained mild anaemia to a haematologist” from post-event to 1–3 years (p<0.001 (see Table 2. The proportion of respondents who committed to the other three behavioural changes remained consistent over time, suggesting that actual change

  6. Evaluation of Speakers at a National Continuing Medical Education (CME Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannette Collins, MD, MEd, FCCP

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Evaluations of a national radiology continuing medical education (CME course in thoracic imaging were analyzed to determine what constitutes effective and ineffective lecturing. Methods and Materials: Evaluations of sessions and individual speakers participating in a five-day course jointly sponsored by the Society of Thoracic Radiology (STR and the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA were tallied by the RSNA Department of Data Management and three members of the STR Training Committee. Comments were collated and analyzed to determine the number of positive and negative comments and common themes related to ineffective lecturing. Results: Twenty-two sessions were evaluated by 234 (75.7% of 309 professional registrants. Eighty-one speakers were evaluated by an average of 153 registrants (range, 2 – 313. Mean ratings for 10 items evaluating sessions ranged from 1.28 – 2.05 (1=most positive, 4=least positive; SD .451 - .902. The average speaker rating was 5.7 (1=very poor, 7=outstanding; SD 0.94; range 4.3 – 6.4. Total number of comments analyzed was 862, with 505 (58.6% considered positive and 404 (46.9% considered negative (the total number exceeds 862 as a “comment” could consist of both positive and negative statements. Poor content was mentioned most frequently, making up 107 (26.5% of 404 negative comments, and applied to 51 (63% of 81 speakers. Other negative comments, in order of decreasing frequency, were related to delivery, image slides, command of the English language, text slides, and handouts. Conclusions: Individual evaluations of speakers at a national CME course provided information regarding the quality of lectures that was not provided by evaluations of grouped presentations. Systematic review of speaker evaluations provided specific information related to the types and frequency of features related to ineffective lecturing. This information can be used to design CME course evaluations, design future CME

  7. [Long-life learning for medical specialists doctors in Europe: CME, DPC and qualification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillet, Bernard; Maisonneuve, Hervé

    2011-04-01

    The Union européenne des médecins spécialistes (UEMS) has a mandate to lead the quality of care in Europe and harmonise the qualifications of specialists doctors. In 2000, UEMS has set the European Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (EACCME), with the objective to accredit educational events and facilitate the reciprocity of CME credits obtained by attending international medical conferences. In 2010, UEMS has set the European Accreditation Council for Medical Specialist Qualification (EACMSQ). This 2-year pilot project concerns three specialties with the goal to harmonise the competencies' assessment. In 2010, 35 countries are UEMS members, corresponding to 1,5 millions specialists doctors. Each of the 38 medical specialties has a 'section' and a four-members' board. Since 2000, the Europe developed the CPD concepts, and definitions were customised per country and health systems. The Rome group defined the CPD: "Continuing professional development is the educative means of updating, developing and enhancing how doctors apply the knowledge, skills and attitudes required in their working lives. This includes CME, professional and managerial (non-clinical) competencies, and all elements of Good Medical Practice". The learning concepts must be better developed in the health care systems as it has been done in other sectors of activity. Learning is the concept considering that it's no more possible to characterise the learner as a sponge absorbing information. The virtuous cycle of CME is well-known: assess his professional needs; set the needs and objectives; implement an educational plan with the right methods; conduct the actions and get the data; assess the events according to levels (participation, satisfaction, learning, performance, patient's health, population's health). Financing of events usually is shared between payers: state, insurers, industries, doctors but in fine, the public is the major payer. Education must be independent from

  8. Validation of a rapid type 1 diabetes autoantibody screening assay for community-based screening of organ donors to identify subjects at increased risk for the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserfall, C; Montgomery, E; Yu, L; Michels, A; Gianani, R; Pugliese, A; Nierras, C; Kaddis, J S; Schatz, D A; Bonifacio, E; Atkinson, M A

    2016-07-01

    The Network for Pancreatic Organ donors with Diabetes (nPOD) programme was developed in response to an unmet research need for human pancreatic tissue obtained from individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus and people at increased risk [i.e. autoantibody (AAb)-positive] for the disease. This necessitated the establishment of a type 1 diabetes-specific AAb screening platform for organ procurement organizations (OPOs). Assay protocols for commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) determining AAb against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), insulinoma-associated protein-2 (IA-2A) and zinc transporter-8 (ZnT8A) were modified to identify AAb-positive donors within strict time requirements associated with organ donation programmes. These rapid elisas were evaluated by the international islet AAb standardization programme (IASP) and used by OPO laboratories as an adjunct to routine serological tests evaluating donors for organ transplantation. The rapid elisas performed well in three IASPs (2011, 2013, 2015) with 98-100% specificity for all three assays, including sensitivities of 64-82% (GADA), 60-64% (IA-2A) and 62-68% (ZnT8A). Since 2009, nPOD has screened 4442 organ donors by rapid elisa; 250 (5·6%) were identified as positive for one AAb and 14 (0.3%) for multiple AAb with 20 of these cases received by nPOD for follow-up studies (14 GADA+, two IA-2A(+) , four multiple AAb-positive). Rapid screening for type 1 diabetes-associated AAb in organ donors is feasible, allowing for identification of non-diabetic, high-risk individuals and procurement of valuable tissues for natural history studies of this disease. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  9. Addressing life long learning needs of neurologist in the emerging world: a case study of an innovative CME program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriharan, Abi

    2008-03-15

    What leadership roles can transnational medical professional societies play in addressing the life long learning needs of health professionals in emerging world? The World Federation of Neurology (WFN) provides neurological education programme in countries with unmet neurological training needs, in an effort to improve the knowledge and skills of neurologists. The WFN's experience provides a unique study to exemplify how global stakeholders collaborate with each other to deliver CME and to improve the quality of health care services. A multi-stage programme evaluation was undertaken to explore the WFN CME, in an effort to: a) understand how global CME programmes are organized, and b) understand the success factors and the challenges of delivering global CME. The programme evaluation was conducted between June 2005 and March 2006. The preliminary results were shared with the WFN education committee and national coordinators and international experts to check and confirm the findings from the study. The study results reveal that global CME programmes could be designed effectively with minimum costs. These programmes contribute to meeting the continued learning needs of neurologists in resource poor settings. Further, the WFN initiative provides, some initial evidence that these programs can contribute to systems level improvements.

  10. Outcome analysis of aromatase inhibitor therapy to increase adult height in males with predicted short adult stature and/or rapid pubertal progress: a retrospective chart review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Kim; Cameo, Tamara; Fennoy, Ilene; Hassoun, Abeer A; Lerner, Shulamit E; Aranoff, Gaya S; Sopher, Aviva B; Yang, Christine; McMahon, Donald J; Oberfield, Sharon E

    2014-07-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have been used off-label to increase adult height in short adolescent males. Studies have shown that AIs increase the predicted adult height (PAH) while delaying bone age (BA) maturation. We sought to determine whether AI therapy increases PAH in boys with short stature or rapid pubertal progression, and to evaluate any untoward effects. The charts of 27 boys with BA ≥ 13 and short stature [height ≥ 2 standard deviation (SD) below the mean or ≥ 2 SD below mid-parental target height (MPTH)] or rapid pubertal progress, treated with anastrozole were reviewed. Outcome measures included anthropomorphic, hormonal, and metabolic data. The AI therapy averaged 21 months (range 14-30 months) for all, with Rx group 1 receiving height SDS, or BA/chronological age (CA). In Rx group 2, there was a small, nonsignificant increase in PAH, no change in height SDS, and a small decrease in BA/CA. Post-therapy PAH was different from MPTH in all and in both Rx groups 1 and 2, pheight, averaging 6.73 ± 1.40 cm less than MPTH and 1.91 ± 0.86 cm less than the pre-therapy PAH. Post-therapy, the initially decreased estradiol did not persist but mildly increased testosterone and decreased high-density lipoprotein were noted, as was an increase in hematocrit, and decrease in growth velocity. We suggest that although bone age progression may be slightly delayed with longer duration of therapy, an overall short-term AI therapy does not lead to a final height that is greater than the predicted pre-therapy height.

  11. Proposal for a graded approach to disclosure of interests in accredited CME/CPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Griebenow

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Disclosing conflicts of interest (COIs is an important step in the management of COIs and is considered to be crucial to the trustworthiness of presenters. There are significant variations in disclosure procedures regarding the following:a. How COI is assessed in declaration forms (e.g. type of question, respondent awarenessb. Type of relationshipsc. Detailing of information to program committee membersThese variations in procedures have in effect led toa. Underreporting of COIb. Reducing the informational value of declared COI to participantsThus, it has been the aim of the authors to propose a basic formula for a minimum standard declaration of financial COI, with the potential to be applicable to all types of accredited continuing medical education (CME as well as to all individuals (e.g. speakers, authors involved in planning and conduct of CME activities. This approach should also serve as basis for more elaborate disclosures as well as strategies for management of conflict of interests adapted to the risk of bias.Furthermore, we also propose a basic set of items to be declared as nonfinancial interests.

  12. [CME-certified online education in Germany - status in ophthalmology 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handzel, D M

    2012-06-01

    The use of the internet is becoming more and more important in every aspect of daily life, also in professional education. Online education and face-to-face learning have proven to be equally efficient. The aim of this study is to evaluate the amount of online education in the German-speaking internet 2011. The terms "ophthalmology", "online-education", "continuing medical education" and "CME" (partly in German language) were searched by an internet-search engine. The first 100 pages were visited. Pages were evaluated in respect of quality and quantity, authorship and possible influence of sponsors. Only 9 of the first 100 hits had an actual offer for ophthalmology. Nearly all of these were websites of ophthalmological scientific journals. The content represented the same educational format (pictures and text) as in the print issue. CME-certified online education can be found in Germany as offspring of print issues only. The content is identical with educational texts in the print issues. An enlargement of the offer, which uses the possibilities of modern internet technology is highly probable. This estimation is supported by the growing use of the internet and developments on English-speaking websites for online-education. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. The rapid climate change-caused dichotomy on subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Yunnan: Reduction in habitat diversity and increase in species diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Ren

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Yunnan's biodiversity is under considerable pressure and subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests in this area have become increasingly fragmented through agriculture, logging, planting of economic plants, mining activities and changing environment. The aims of the study are to investigate climate change-induced changes of subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests in Yunnan and identify areas of current species richness centers for conservation preparation. Stacked species distribution models were created to generate ensemble forecasting of species distributions, alpha diversity and beta diversity for Yunnan's subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests in both current and future climate scenarios. Under stacked species distribution models in rapid climate changes scenarios, changes of water-energy dynamics may possibly reduce beta diversity and increase alpha diversity. This point provides insight for future conservation of evergreen broad-leaved forest in Yunnan, highlighting the need to fully consider the problem of vegetation homogenization caused by transformation of water-energy dynamics.

  14. SCEC Community Modeling Environment (SCEC/CME) - Seismic Hazard Analysis Applications and Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Kesselman, C.; Moore, R.; Minster, B.; SCEC ITR Collaboration

    2003-12-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has formed a Geoscience/IT partnership to develop an advanced information infrastructure for system-level earthquake science in Southern California. This SCEC/ITR partnership comprises SCEC, USC's Information Sciences Institute (ISI), the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC), the Incorporated Institutions for Research in Seismology (IRIS), and the U.S. Geological Survey. This collaboration recently completed the second year in a five-year National Science Foundation (NSF) funded ITR project called the SCEC Community Modeling Environment (SCEC/CME). The goal of the SCEC/CME is to develop seismological applications and information technology (IT) infrastructure to support the development of Seismic Hazard Analysis (SHA) programs and other geophysical simulations. The SHA application programs developed by project collaborators include a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis system called OpenSHA [Field et al., this meeting]. OpenSHA computational elements that are currently available include a collection of attenuation relationships, and several Earthquake Rupture Forecasts (ERF's). Geophysicists in the collaboration have also developed Anelastic Wave Models (AWMs) using both finite-difference and finite-element approaches. Earthquake simulations using these codes have been run for a variety of earthquake sources. A Rupture Dynamic Model (RDM) has also been developed that couples a rupture dynamics simulation into an anelastic wave model. The collaboration has also developed IT software and hardware infrastructure to support the development, execution, and analysis of SHA programs. To support computationally expensive simulations, we have constructed a grid-based system utilizing Globus software [Kesselman et al., this meeting]. Using the SCEC grid, project collaborators can submit computations from the SCEC/CME servers to High Performance Computers at USC, NPACI and Teragrid High Performance Computing Centers. We have

  15. Microscale methods to rapidly evaluate bioprocess options for increasing bioconversion yields: application to the ω-transaminase synthesis of chiral amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Murni; Rios-Solis, Leonardo; Micheletti, Martina; Ward, John M; Lye, Gary J

    2014-05-01

    This work aims to establish microscale methods to rapidly explore bioprocess options that might be used to enhance bioconversion reaction yields: either by shifting unfavourable reaction equilibria or by overcoming substrate and/or product inhibition. As a typical and industrially relevant example of the problems faced we have examined the asymmetric synthesis of (2S,3R)-2-amino-1,3,4-butanetriol from l-erythrulose using the ω-transaminase from Chromobacterium violaceum DSM30191 (CV2025 ω-TAm) and methylbenzylamine as the amino donor. The first process option involves the use of alternative amino donors. The second couples the CV2025 ω-TAm with alcohol dehydrogenase and glucose dehydrogenase for removal of the acetophenone (AP) by-product by in situ conversion to (R)-1-phenylethanol. The final approaches involve physical in-situ product removal methods. Reduced pressure conditions, attained using a 96-well vacuum manifold were used to selectively increase evaporation of the volatile AP while polymeric resins were also utilised for selective adsorption of AP from the bioconversion medium. For the particular reaction studied here the most promising bioprocess options were use of an alternative amino donor, such as isopropylamine, which enabled a 2.8-fold increase in reaction yield, or use of a second enzyme system which achieved a 3.3-fold increase in yield.

  16. Comparison of CME radial velocities from a flux rope model and an ice cream cone model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T.; Moon, Y.; Na, H.

    2011-12-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) on the Sun are the largest energy release process in the solar system and act as the primary driver of geomagnetic storms and other space weather phenomena on the Earth. So it is very important to infer their directions, velocities and three-dimensional structures. In this study, we choose two different models to infer radial velocities of halo CMEs since 2008 : (1) an ice cream cone model by Xue et al (2005) using SOHO/LASCO data, (2) a flux rope model by Thernisien et al. (2009) using the STEREO/SECCHI data. In addition, we use another flux rope model in which the separation angle of flux rope is zero, which is morphologically similar to the ice cream cone model. The comparison shows that the CME radial velocities from among each model have very good correlations (R>0.9). We will extending this comparison to other partial CMEs observed by STEREO and SOHO.

  17. A study of a long duration B9 flare-CME event and associated shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, R.; Chen, P. F.; Fulara, A.; Srivastava, A. K.; Uddin, W.

    2018-01-01

    We present and discuss here the observations of a small long duration GOES B-class flare associated with a quiescent filament eruption, a global EUV wave and a CME on 2011 May 11. The event was well observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), GONG H α , STEREO and Culgoora spectrograph. As the filament erupted, ahead of the filament we observed the propagation of EIT wave fronts, as well as two flare ribbons on both sides of the polarity inversion line (PIL) on the solar surface. The observations show the co-existence of two types of EUV waves, i.e., a fast and a slow one. A type II radio burst with up to the third harmonic component was also associated with this event. The evolution of photospheric magnetic field showed flux emergence and cancellation at the filament site before its eruption.

  18. Simulation of the 23 July 2012 Extreme Space Weather Event: What if This Extremely Rare CME Was Earth Directed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwira, Chigomezyo M.; Pulkkinen, Antti; Mays, M. Leila; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Galvin, A. B.; Simunac, Kristin; Baker, Daniel N.; Li, Xinlin; Zheng, Yihua; Glocer, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Extreme space weather events are known to cause adverse impacts on critical modern day technological infrastructure such as high-voltage electric power transmission grids. On 23 July 2012, NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory-Ahead (STEREO-A) spacecraft observed in situ an extremely fast coronal mass ejection (CME) that traveled 0.96 astronomical units (approx. 1 AU) in about 19 h. Here we use the SpaceWeather Modeling Framework (SWMF) to perform a simulation of this rare CME.We consider STEREO-A in situ observations to represent the upstream L1 solar wind boundary conditions. The goal of this study is to examine what would have happened if this Rare-type CME was Earth-bound. Global SWMF-generated ground geomagnetic field perturbations are used to compute the simulated induced geoelectric field at specific ground-based active INTERMAGNET magnetometer sites. Simulation results show that while modeled global SYM-H index, a high-resolution equivalent of the Dst index, was comparable to previously observed severe geomagnetic storms such as the Halloween 2003 storm, the 23 July CME would have produced some of the largest geomagnetically induced electric fields, making it very geoeffective. These results have important practical applications for risk management of electrical power grids.

  19. In Situ Heating of the 2007 May 19 CME Ejecta Detected by STEREO/PLASTIC and ACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    conditions in the corona during the CME eruption. Rakowski, Laming & Lepri (2007) modeled the charge states of 8 ICMEs from the event list of Lynch et al...first type Let us assume that Bφ scale with time as an arbitrary function of the expansion param- eter , Bφ ∝ f(α/α0). The first type of solutions has Ar

  20. Relation Between the 3D-Geometry of the Coronal Wave and Associated CME During the 26 April 2008 Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M.; Gopalswamy, N.; Yashiro, S.

    2011-01-01

    We study the kinematical characteristics and 3D geometry of a large-scale coronal wave that occurred in association with the 26 April 2008 flare-CME event. The wave was observed with the EUVI instruments aboard both STEREO spacecraft (STEREO-A and STEREO-B) with a mean speed of approx 240 km/s. The wave is more pronounced in the eastern propagation direction, and is thus, better observable in STEREO-B images. From STEREO-B observations we derive two separate initiation centers for the wave, and their locations fit with the coronal dimming regions. Assuming a simple geometry of the wave we reconstruct its 3D nature from combined STEREO-A and STEREO-B observations. We find that the wave structure is asymmetric with an inclination toward East. The associated CME has a deprojected speed of approx 750 +/- 50 km/s, and it shows a non-radial outward motion toward the East with respect to the underlying source region location. Applying the forward fitting model developed by Thernisien, Howard, and Vourlidas we derive the CME flux rope position on the solar surface to be close to the dimming regions. We conclude that the expanding flanks of the CME most likely drive and shape the coronal wave.

  1. Extremely rapid increase in fatty acid transport and intramyocellular lipid accumulation but markedly delayed insulin resistance after high fat feeding in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonen, Arend; Jain, Swati S; Snook, Laelie A; Han, Xiao-Xia; Yoshida, Yuko; Buddo, Kathryn H; Lally, James S; Pask, Elizabeth D; Paglialunga, Sabina; Beaudoin, Marie-Soleil; Glatz, Jan F C; Luiken, Joost J F P; Harasim, Ewa; Wright, David C; Chabowski, Adrian; Holloway, Graham P

    2015-10-01

    The mechanisms for diet-induced intramyocellular lipid accumulation and its association with insulin resistance remain contentious. In a detailed time-course study in rats, we examined whether a high-fat diet increased intramyocellular lipid accumulation via alterations in fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36)-mediated fatty acid transport, selected enzymes and/or fatty acid oxidation, and whether intramyocellular lipid accretion coincided with the onset of insulin resistance. We measured, daily (on days 1-7) and/or weekly (for 6 weeks), the diet-induced changes in circulating substrates, insulin, sarcolemmal substrate transporters and transport, selected enzymes, intramyocellular lipids, mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and basal and insulin-stimulated sarcolemmal GLUT4 and glucose transport. We also examined whether upregulating fatty acid oxidation improved glucose transport in insulin-resistant muscles. Finally, in Cd36-knockout mice, we examined the role of FAT/CD36 in intramyocellular lipid accumulation, insulin sensitivity and diet-induced glucose intolerance. Within 2-3 days, diet-induced increases occurred in insulin, sarcolemmal FAT/CD36 (but not fatty acid binding protein [FABPpm] or fatty acid transporter [FATP]1 or 4), fatty acid transport and intramyocellular triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol and ceramide, independent of enzymatic changes or muscle fatty acid oxidation. Diet-induced increases in mitochondria and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and impairments in insulin-stimulated glucose transport and GLUT4 translocation occurred much later (≥21 days). FAT/CD36 ablation impaired insulin-stimulated fatty acid transport and lipid accumulation, improved insulin sensitivity and prevented diet-induced glucose intolerance. Increasing fatty acid oxidation in insulin-resistant muscles improved glucose transport. High-fat feeding rapidly increases intramyocellular lipids (in 2-3 days) via insulin-mediated upregulation of sarcolemmal FAT/CD36 and fatty acid

  2. Evaluation of capillary and myofiber density in the pectoralis major muscles of rapidly growing, high-yield broiler chickens during increased heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, K S; Hamlin, G A; Lien, A R J; Bilgili, S F

    2014-09-01

    Skeletal muscle development proceeds from early embryogenesis through marketing age in broiler chickens. While myofiber formation is essentially complete at hatching, myofiber hypertrophy can increase after hatch by assimilation of satellite cell nuclei into myofibers. As the diameter of the myofibers increases, capillary density peripheral to the myofiber is marginalized, limiting oxygen supply and subsequent diffusion into the myofiber, inducing microischemia. The superficial and deep pectoralis muscles constitute 25% of the total body weight in a market-age bird; thus compromise of those muscle groups can have profound economic impact on broiler production. We hypothesized that marginal capillary support relative to the hypertrophic myofibers increases the incidence of microischemia, especially in contemporary high-yield broilers under stressing conditions such as high environmental temperatures. We evaluated the following parameters in four different broiler strains at 39 and 53 days of age when reared under thermoneutral (20 to 25 C) versus hot (30 to 35 C) environmental conditions: capillary density, myofiber density and diameter, and degree of myodegeneration. Our data demonstrate that myofiber diameter significantly increased with age (P > or = 0.0001), while the absolute numbers of capillaries, blood vessels, and myofibers visible in five 400 x microscopic fields decreased (P > or = 0.0001). This is concomitant with marginalization of vascular support in rapidly growing myofibers. The myofiber diameter was significantly lower with hot environmental temperatures (P > or = 0.001); therefore, the absolute number of myofibers visible in five 400X microscopic fields was significantly higher. The incidence and subjective degree of myodegeneration characterized by loss of cross-striations, myocyte hyperrefractility, sarcoplasmic vacuolation, and nuclear pyknosis or loss also increased in hot conditions. Differences among strains were not observed.

  3. Osmotic Edema Rapidly Increases Neuronal Excitability Through Activation of NMDA Receptor-Dependent Slow Inward Currents in Juvenile and Adult Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelli Lauderdale

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellular edema (cell swelling is a principal component of numerous brain disorders including ischemia, cortical spreading depression, hyponatremia, and epilepsy. Cellular edema increases seizure-like activity in vitro and in vivo, largely through nonsynaptic mechanisms attributable to reduction of the extracellular space. However, the types of excitability changes occurring in individual neurons during the acute phase of cell volume increase remain unclear. Using whole-cell patch clamp techniques, we report that one of the first effects of osmotic edema on excitability of CA1 pyramidal cells is the generation of slow inward currents (SICs, which initiate after approximately 1 min. Frequency of SICs increased as osmolarity decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Imaging of real-time volume changes in astrocytes revealed that neuronal SICs occurred while astrocytes were still in the process of swelling. SICs evoked by cell swelling were mainly nonsynaptic in origin and NMDA receptor-dependent. To better understand the relationship between SICs and changes in neuronal excitability, recordings were performed in increasingly physiological conditions. In the absence of any added pharmacological reagents or imposed voltage clamp, osmotic edema induced excitatory postsynaptic potentials and burst firing over the same timecourse as SICs. Like SICs, action potentials were blocked by NMDAR antagonists. Effects were more pronounced in adult (8–20 weeks old compared with juvenile (P15–P21 mice. Together, our results indicate that cell swelling triggered by reduced osmolarity rapidly increases neuronal excitability through activation of NMDA receptors. Our findings have important implications for understanding nonsynaptic mechanisms of epilepsy in relation to cell swelling and reduction of the extracellular space.

  4. Characteristics of Polar Cap Patches and Shear Flows Inferred from GPS Scintillation Spectra following the CME Impact on 22 January 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrano, C. S.; Basu, S.; MacKenzie, E.; Groves, K. M.; Pedersen, T. R.; Holmes, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Polar cap patches are localized enhancements in ionospheric density which originate from solar EUV ionization on the dayside, enter the polar cap at the dayside cusp, convect anti-sunward at km/s velocities, and then exit the polar cap near midnight to merge with sunward returning flow patterns. Plasma irregularities associated with patches are the leading cause of high-latitude scintillations at L-band, and fast shear flows near the dayside cusp are thought to be integral to patch formation. In this paper, we report on the characteristics of polar cap patches and fast flows inferred from the spectra of GPS scintillations recorded at Longyearbyen, Svalbard, following the CME impact on 22 January 2012. Following the CME impact, elevated GPS TEC values indicate the passage of patches through the cusp between 11-15 MLT, accompanied by significant GPS phase scintillations (σφ ~ 0.5 radians) but minimal amplitude scintillations (S4 theory. We apply this technique to investigate the noontime entrance of patches into the dayside cusp and the midnight exit of patches from the polar cap. The scan velocity increased from about 500-1000 m/s following the initial CME impact at ~6:00 UT, to sustained velocities between 1500-3000 m/s measured by GPS satellites whose ray paths intersected fast plasma flows near the cusp. In this sector, the phase spectral index (p) generally ranged between 2.4-2.8, with a tendency for somewhat larger values when the flow was faster. Weaker irregularities were detected in the outflow sector between 20-24 MLT, when p generally ranged from 2.6-3.0. The scan velocities measured in the outflow sector were slower, generally between 400-600 m/s. These velocity estimates compare favorably with ion drift measurements made by the DMSP satellites. Our analysis technique is automated and could potentially enable continuous monitoring of flow patterns in the polar cap using a relatively inexpensive GPS scintillation monitor. These measurements could then

  5. Assessing the gap between current and desirable needs in TUMS* CME Unit: participants' viewpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirazi M

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Given the limited resources for medical education it seems reasonable to specify the exact educational needs and make sure that these needs are met. In this respect determining priorities and appropriate educational strategies and teaching methods allows for optimum use of limited available resources. Purpose: To determine the perceived educational priorities and effective educational methods for five groups of medical care providers with respect to their views. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the perceived knowledge, and preferences of the participants. Five valid and reliable questionnaires were developed, verified by 4 CME experts, filled out during the planned programs and on receiving their temporary of final certificates by each participant in the relevant subgroup. SPSS 9.0 was used for the analysis of collected data. Results: Of the 3300 medical care providers who received the questionnaires, 2687 filled them out. The overall response rate was 81%. Educational needs based on the priorities in the questionnaires included required educational methods and techniques for the five subgroups and specific priorities for each subgroup. Among the most requested methods were: lectures accompanied by video (54.1%, lectures followed by questions and answers (49.3%, case presentations (37.5%, educational workshops (37.4%, education through the internet (26.4%, conventional lectures (23.9%, morning reports (16.4%, and education in the field (15.1%. Conclusion: Demographic characteristics were relevant to determine educational priorities and learning methods. For the most-preferred learning needs, the five subgroups suggested different topics. The observation suggests that the participants assess their learning needs closely related to their perceived job requirements. However, these perceived needs may not be well related to the participants, actual level of knowledge or skill Key words: NEEDS ASSESSMENT

  6. Laboratory Simulations of CME-Solar Wind Interactions Using a Coaxial Gun and Background Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, B. H.; Zhang, Y.; Fisher, D.; Gilmore, M.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding and predicting solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is of critical importance for mitigating their disruptive behavior on ground- and space-based technologies. While predictive models of CME propagation and evolution have relied primarily on sparse in-situ data along with ground and satellite images for validation purposes, emerging laboratory efforts have shown that CME-like events can be created with parameters applicable to the solar regime that may likewise aid in predictive modeling. A modified version of the coaxial plasma gun from the Plasma Bubble Expansion Experiment (PBEX) [A. G. Lynn, Y. Zhang, S. C. Hsu, H. Li, W. Liu, M. Gilmore, and C. Watts, Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc. 52, 53 (2007)] will be used in conjunction with the Helicon-Cathode (HelCat) basic plasma science device in order to observe the magnetic characteristics of CMEs as they propagate through the solar wind. The evolution of these interactions will be analyzed using a multi-tip Langmuir probe array, a 33-position B-dot probe array, and a high speed camera. The results of this investigation will be used alongside the University of Michigan's BATS-R-US 3-D MHD numerical code, which will be used to perform simulations of the coaxial plasma gun experiment. The results of these two approaches will be compared in order to validate the capabilities of the BATS-R-US code as well as to further our understanding of magnetic reconnection and other processes that take place as CMEs propagate through the solar wind. The details of the experimental setup as well as the analytical approach are discussed.

  7. A Tiny Eruptive Filament as a Flux-Rope Progenitor and Driver of a Large-Scale CME and Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechnev, V. V.; Uralov, A. M.; Kochanov, A. A.; Kuzmenko, I. V.; Prosovetsky, D. V.; Egorov, Y. I.; Fainshtein, V. G.; Kashapova, L. K.

    2016-04-01

    A solar eruptive event SOL2010-06-13 observed with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) has been extensively discussed in the contexts of the CME development and an associated extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wave-like transient in terms of a shock driven by the apparent CME rim. Continuing the analysis of this event, we have revealed an erupting flux rope, studied its properties, and detected wave signatures inside the developing CME. These findings have allowed us to establish new features in the genesis of the CME and associated EUV wave and to reconcile all of the episodes into a single causally related sequence. i) A hot 11 MK flux rope developed from the structures initially associated with a compact filament system. The flux rope expanded with an acceleration of up to 3 km s-2 one minute before a hard X-ray burst and earlier than any other structures, reached a velocity of 420 km s-1, and then decelerated to about 50 km s-1. ii) The CME development was driven by the expanding flux rope. Closed coronal structures above the rope got sequentially involved in the expansion from below upwards, came closer together, and apparently disappeared to reveal their common envelope, the visible rim, which became the outer boundary of the cavity. The rim was probably associated with the separatrix surface of a magnetic domain, which contained the pre-eruptive filament. iii) The rim formation was associated with a successive compression of the upper active-region structures into the CME frontal structure (FS). When the rim was formed, it resembled a piston. iv) The disturbance responsible for the consecutive CME formation episodes was excited by the flux rope inside the rim, and then propagated outward. EUV structures arranged at different heights started to accelerate, when their trajectories in the distance-time diagram were crossed by that of the fast front of this disturbance. v) Outside the rim and FS, the disturbance propagated like

  8. Improved real-life adherence of 6-monthly denosumab injections due to positive feedback based on rapid 6-month BMD increase and good safety profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringe, J D; Farahmand, P

    2014-05-01

    Almost 50 % of osteoporosis (OP) patients discontinue bisphosphonate (BP) therapy within 1-2 years after the start of their treatment. Denosumab's longer dosing interval with its administration every 6 months (Q6M) as a subcutaneous (sc) injection might result in a better real-life treatment adherence and persistence than weekly or monthly oral BP treatment regimen. The objectives of this open, investigator-initiated, prospective, observational, single-center study were to evaluate adherence with denosumab 60 mg sc every 6 months (Q6M) (Prolia(®)) injections in osteoporotic patients in a routine clinical care setting and to describe whether positive feedback to OP patients based on measured bone mineral density (BMD) increases and good safety profile have an impact on patients' real-life adherence. Results indicate that the rarity of adverse events and reduced dosage frequency together with the consistency of rapid and highly significant increases in BMD already after 6 months of denosumab therapy used as a positive reinforcement during doctor-patient interactions had a significant, positive impact on osteoporotic patient's adherence to continue with the 6-monthly sc denosumab injections.

  9. Eating ‘Junk-Food' Produces Rapid and Long-Lasting Increases in NAc CP-AMPA Receptors: Implications for Enhanced Cue-Induced Motivation and Food Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginsky, Max F; Goforth, Paulette B; Nobile, Cameron W; Lopez-Santiago, Luis F; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2016-01-01

    Urges to eat are influenced by stimuli in the environment that are associated with food (food cues). Obese people are more sensitive to food cues, reporting stronger craving and consuming larger portions after food cue exposure. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) mediates cue-triggered motivational responses, and activations in the NAc triggered by food cues are stronger in people who are susceptible to obesity. This has led to the idea that alterations in NAc function similar to those underlying drug addiction may contribute to obesity, particularly in obesity-susceptible individuals. Motivational responses are mediated in part by NAc AMPA receptor (AMPAR) transmission, and recent work shows that cue-triggered motivation is enhanced in obesity-susceptible rats after ‘junk-food' diet consumption. Therefore, here we determined whether NAc AMPAR expression and function is increased by ‘junk-food' diet consumption in obesity-susceptible vs -resistant populations using both outbred and selectively bred models of susceptibility. In addition, cocaine-induced locomotor activity was used as a general ‘read out' of mesolimbic function after ‘junk-food' consumption. We found a sensitized locomotor response to cocaine in rats that gained weight on a ‘junk-food' diet, consistent with greater responsivity of mesolimbic circuits in obesity-susceptible groups. In addition, eating ‘junk-food' increased NAc calcium-permeable-AMPAR (CP-AMPAR) function only in obesity-susceptible rats. This increase occurred rapidly, persisted for weeks after ‘junk-food' consumption ceased, and preceded the development of obesity. These data are considered in light of enhanced cue-triggered motivation and striatal function in obesity-susceptible rats and the role of NAc CP-AMPARs in enhanced motivation and addiction. PMID:27383008

  10. Eating 'Junk-Food' Produces Rapid and Long-Lasting Increases in NAc CP-AMPA Receptors: Implications for Enhanced Cue-Induced Motivation and Food Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginsky, Max F; Goforth, Paulette B; Nobile, Cameron W; Lopez-Santiago, Luis F; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2016-12-01

    Urges to eat are influenced by stimuli in the environment that are associated with food (food cues). Obese people are more sensitive to food cues, reporting stronger craving and consuming larger portions after food cue exposure. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) mediates cue-triggered motivational responses, and activations in the NAc triggered by food cues are stronger in people who are susceptible to obesity. This has led to the idea that alterations in NAc function similar to those underlying drug addiction may contribute to obesity, particularly in obesity-susceptible individuals. Motivational responses are mediated in part by NAc AMPA receptor (AMPAR) transmission, and recent work shows that cue-triggered motivation is enhanced in obesity-susceptible rats after 'junk-food' diet consumption. Therefore, here we determined whether NAc AMPAR expression and function is increased by 'junk-food' diet consumption in obesity-susceptible vs -resistant populations using both outbred and selectively bred models of susceptibility. In addition, cocaine-induced locomotor activity was used as a general 'read out' of mesolimbic function after 'junk-food' consumption. We found a sensitized locomotor response to cocaine in rats that gained weight on a 'junk-food' diet, consistent with greater responsivity of mesolimbic circuits in obesity-susceptible groups. In addition, eating 'junk-food' increased NAc calcium-permeable-AMPAR (CP-AMPAR) function only in obesity-susceptible rats. This increase occurred rapidly, persisted for weeks after 'junk-food' consumption ceased, and preceded the development of obesity. These data are considered in light of enhanced cue-triggered motivation and striatal function in obesity-susceptible rats and the role of NAc CP-AMPARs in enhanced motivation and addiction.

  11. Essential roles of GABA transporter-1 in controlling rapid eye movement sleep and in increased slow wave activity after sleep deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Hong Xu

    Full Text Available GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system that has been strongly implicated in the regulation of sleep. GABA transporter subtype 1 (GAT1 constructs high affinity reuptake sites for GABA and regulates GABAergic transmission in the brain. However, the role of GAT1 in sleep-wake regulation remains elusive. In the current study, we characterized the spontaneous sleep-wake cycle and responses to sleep deprivation in GAT1 knock-out (KO mice. GAT1 KO mice exhibited dominant theta-activity and a remarkable reduction of EEG power in low frequencies across all vigilance stages. Under baseline conditions, spontaneous rapid eye movement (REM sleep of KO mice was elevated both during the light and dark periods, and non-REM (NREM sleep was reduced during the light period only. KO mice also showed more state transitions from NREM to REM sleep and from REM sleep to wakefulness, as well as more number of REM and NREM sleep bouts than WT mice. During the dark period, KO mice exhibited more REM sleep bouts only. Six hours of sleep deprivation induced rebound increases in NREM and REM sleep in both genotypes. However, slow wave activity, the intensity component of NREM sleep was briefly elevated in WT mice but remained completely unchanged in KO mice, compared with their respective baselines. These results indicate that GAT1 plays a critical role in the regulation of REM sleep and homeostasis of NREM sleep.

  12. Thermal Chemistry of Cp*W(NO)(CH2CMe3)(H)(L) Complexes (L = Lewis Base).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabulyak, Diana; Handford, Rex C; Holmes, Aaron S; Levesque, Taleah M; Wakeham, Russell J; Patrick, Brian O; Legzdins, Peter; Rosenfeld, Devon C

    2017-01-03

    The complexes trans-Cp*W(NO)(CH2CMe3)(H)(L) (Cp* = η(5)-C5Me5) result from the treatment of Cp*W(NO)(CH2CMe3)2 in n-pentane with H2 (∼1 atm) in the presence of a Lewis base, L. The designation of a particular geometrical isomer as cis or trans indicates the relative positions of the alkyl and hydrido ligands in the base of a four-legged piano-stool molecular structure. The thermal behavior of these complexes is markedly dependent on the nature of L. Some of them can be isolated at ambient temperatures [e.g., L = P(OMe)3, P(OPh)3, or P(OCH2)3CMe]. Others undergo reductive elimination of CMe4 via trans to cis isomerization to generate the 16e reactive intermediates Cp*W(NO)(L). These intermediates can intramolecularly activate a C-H bond of L to form 18e cis complexes that may convert to the thermodynamically more stable trans isomers [e.g., Cp*W(NO)(PPh3) initially forms cis-Cp*W(NO)(H)(κ(2)-PPh2C6H4) that upon being warmed in n-pentane at 80 °C isomerizes to trans-Cp*W(NO)(H)(κ(2)-PPh2C6H4)]. Alternatively, the Cp*W(NO)(L) intermediates can effect the intermolecular activation of a substrate R-H to form trans-Cp*W(NO)(R)(H)(L) complexes [e.g., L = P(OMe)3 or P(OCH2)3CMe; R-H = C6H6 or Me4Si] probably via their cis isomers. These latter activations are also accompanied by the formation of some Cp*W(NO)(L)2 disproportionation products. An added complication in the L = P(OMe)3 system is that thermolysis of trans-Cp*W(NO)(CH2CMe3)(H)(P(OMe)3) results in it undergoing an Arbuzov-like rearrangement and being converted mainly into [Cp*W(NO)(Me)(PO(OMe)2)]2, which exists as a mixture of two isomers. All new complexes have been characterized by conventional and spectroscopic methods, and the solid-state molecular structures of most of them have been established by single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analyses.

  13. CME/CNE Article: A Framework of Care in Multiple Sclerosis, Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliotta, Philip J.; Bainbridge, Jacquelyn; Bennett, Susan E.; Cutter, Gary; Fenton, Kaylan; Lublin, Fred; Northrop, Dorothy; Rintell, David; Walker, Bryan D.; Weigel, Megan; Zackowski, Kathleen; Jones, David E.

    2016-01-01

    CME/CNE Information Activity Available Online: To access the article, post-test, and evaluation online, go to http://www.cmscscholar.org. Target Audience: The target audience for this activity is physicians, physician assistants, nursing professionals, and other health-care providers involved in the management of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Learning Objectives: Apply new information about MS to a comprehensive individualized treatment plan for patients with MS Integrate the team approach into long-term planning in order to optimize rehabilitation care of patients with MS Accreditation Statement: This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the accreditation requirements and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint providership of the Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centers (CMSC), Nurse Practitioner Alternatives (NPA), and Delaware Media Group. The CMSC is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The CMSC designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Nurse Practitioner Alternatives (NPA) is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. NPA designates this enduring material for 1.0 Continuing Nursing Education credit. Laurie Scudder, DNP, NP, has served as Nurse Planner for this activity. She has disclosed no relevant financial relationships. Disclosures: Francois Bethoux, MD, Editor in Chief of the International Journal of MS Care (IJMSC), has served as Physician Planner for this activity. He has received royalties from Springer Publishing and has received intellectual property rights from Biogen. Laurie Scudder, DNP, NP, has served as Nurse Planner for this activity. She has disclosed no relevant

  14. Coronal mass ejection (CME) activity of low mass M stars as an important factor for the habitability of terrestrial exoplanets. II. CME-induced ion pick up of Earth-like exoplanets in close-in habitable zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammer, Helmut; Lichtenegger, Herbert I M; Kulikov, Yuri N; Griessmeier, Jean-Mathias; Terada, N; Erkaev, Nikolai V; Biernat, Helfried K; Khodachenko, Maxim L; Ribas, Ignasi; Penz, Thomas; Selsis, Franck

    2007-02-01

    Atmospheric erosion of CO2-rich Earth-size exoplanets due to coronal mass ejection (CME)-induced ion pick up within close-in habitable zones of active M-type dwarf stars is investigated. Since M stars are active at the X-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) wave-lengths over long periods of time, we have applied a thermal balance model at various XUV flux input values for simulating the thermospheric heating by photodissociation and ionization processes due to exothermic chemical reactions and cooling by the CO2 infrared radiation in the 15 microm band. Our study shows that intense XUV radiation of active M stars results in atmospheric expansion and extended exospheres. Using thermospheric neutral and ion densities calculated for various XUV fluxes, we applied a numerical test particle model for simulation of atmospheric ion pick up loss from an extended exosphere arising from its interaction with expected minimum and maximum CME plasma flows. Our results indicate that the Earth-like exoplanets that have no, or weak, magnetic moments may lose tens to hundreds of bars of atmospheric pressure, or even their whole atmospheres due to the CME-induced O ion pick up at orbital distances exoplanet is protected by a "magnetic shield" with its boundary located at 1 Earth radius above the surface. Furthermore, our study indicates that magnetic moments of tidally locked Earth-like exoplanets are essential for protecting their expanded upper atmospheres because of intense XUV radiation against CME plasma erosion. Therefore, we suggest that larger and more massive terrestrial-type exoplanets may better protect their atmospheres against CMEs, because the larger cores of such exoplanets would generate stronger magnetic moments and their higher gravitational acceleration would constrain the expansion of their thermosphere-exosphere regions and reduce atmospheric escape.

  15. CBCT of skeletal changes following rapid maxillary expansion to increase arch-length with a development-dependent bonded or banded appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanomi, Ryuzo; Deguchi, Toru; Kakuno, Eriko; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Roberts, W Eugene

    2013-09-01

    To assess the three-dimensional (3D) skeletal response to a standardized 5 mm of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in growing children (6-15 years) with maxillary width deficiency and crowding. A bonded appliance was used prior to the eruption of the maxillary first premolars (Mx4s), and a banded appliance was used thereafter. A consecutive sample of 89 patients (29 boys and 60 girls) from a large pediatric dentistry and orthodontics practice was divided into four groups: 1) 6-8 years old (n = 26), 2) 9-11 years old with unerupted Mx4s (n = 21), 3) 9-11 years with erupted Mx4s (n = 23), and 4) 12-15 years (n = 19). For all patients, the 3D evaluation of dental and skeletal effects was performed with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). For both appliances in all patients, CBCT confirmed a triangular pattern of expansion in both the frontal and sagittal planes. Overall, both appliances produced significant maxillary expansion (>80% of the 5-mm activation), but older children showed a progressively more dental (less skeletal) response. Comparison of the two types of expanders in the crossover sample, children aged 9-11 years, showed that the bonded RME produced the most efficient skeletal expansion in the preadolescent sample. Increased maxillary width at the level of the zygomaticomaxillary suture was the best indicator for development of maxillary arch circumference. Development-dependent appliances (bonded RPE before Mx4s erupt, and a banded device thereafter) provided optimal RME treatment for all children from age 6-15 years.

  16. Dexamethasone rapidly increases GABA release in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus via retrograde messenger-mediated enhancement of TRPV1 activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei V Derbenev

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids influence vagal parasympathetic output to the viscera via mechanisms that include modulation of neural circuitry in the dorsal vagal complex, a principal autonomic regulatory center. Glucocorticoids can modulate synaptic neurotransmitter release elsewhere in the brain by inducing release of retrograde signalling molecules. We tested the hypothesis that the glucocorticoid agonist dexamethasone (DEX modulates GABA release in the rat dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed that DEX (1-10 µM rapidly (i.e. within three minutes increased the frequency of tetrodotoxin-resistant, miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs in 67% of DMV neurons recorded in acutely prepared slices. Glutamate-mediated mEPSCs were also enhanced by DEX (10 µM, and blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors reduced the DEX effect on mIPSC frequency. Antagonists of type I or II corticosteroid receptors blocked the effect of DEX on mIPSCs. The effect was mimicked by application of the membrane-impermeant BSA-conjugated DEX, and intracellular blockade of G protein function with GDP βS in the recorded cell prevented the effect of DEX. The enhancement of GABA release was blocked by the TRPV1 antagonists, 5'-iodoresiniferatoxin or capsazepine, but was not altered by the cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonist AM251. The DEX effect was prevented by blocking fatty acid amide hydrolysis or by inhibiting anandamide transport, implicating involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the response. These findings indicate that DEX induces an enhancement of GABA release in the DMV, which is mediated by activation of TRPV1 receptors on afferent terminals. The effect is likely induced by anandamide or other 'endovanilloid', suggesting activation of a local retrograde signal originating from DMV neurons to enhance synaptic inhibition locally in response to glucocorticoids.

  17. Computer-assisted glucose regulation during rapid step-wise increases of parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients: a proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Miriam; Schoorl, Michiel A; van der Horst, Iwan C C; Vogelzang, Mathijs; Wietasch, J K Götz; Zijlstra, Felix; Nijsten, Maarten W N

    2010-01-01

    Early delivery of calories is important in critically ill patients, and the administration of parenteral nutrition (PN) is sometimes required to achieve this goal. However, PN can induce acute hyperglycemia, which is associated with adverse outcome. We hypothesized that initiation of PN using a rapid "step-up" approach, coupled with a computerized insulin-dosing protocol, would result in a desirable caloric intake within 24 hours without causing hyperglycemia. In our surgical intensive care unit (ICU), glucose is regulated by a nurse-centered computerized glucose regulation program. When adequate enteral feeding was not possible, PN was initiated according to a simple step-up rule at an infusion rate of 10 mL/h (approximately 10 kcal/h) and subsequently increased by steps of 10 mL/h every 4 hours, provided glucose was up period and for 24 hours after achieving target feeding. In all 23 consecutive patients requiring PN, mean intake was 1 kcal/kg/h within 24 hours. Of the 280 glucose samples during the 48-hour study period, mean ± standard deviation glucose level was 7.4 ± 1.4 mmol/L. Only 4.5% of glucose measurements during the step-up period were transiently ≥10 mmol/L. After initiating PN, the insulin requirement rose from 1.1 ± 1.5 units/h to 2.9 ± 2.5 units/h (P initiation of PN using a step-up approach coupled with computerized glucose control resulted in adequate caloric intake within 24 hours while maintaining adequate glycemic control.

  18. A solar type II radio burst from CME-coronal ray interaction: simultaneous radio and EUV imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yao; Feng, Li; Feng, Shiwei; Kong, Xiangliang; Guo, Fan; Wang, Bing; Li, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous radio and extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/white-light imaging data are examined for a solar type II radio burst occurring on 2010 March 18 to deduce its source location. Using a bow-shock model, we reconstruct the 3-dimensional EUV wave front (presumably the type-II emitting shock) based on the imaging data of the two STEREO spacecraft. It is then combined with the Nan\\c{c}ay radio imaging data to infer the 3-dimensional position of the type II source. It is found that the type II source coincides with the interface between the CME EUV wave front and a nearby coronal ray structure, providing evidence that the type II emission is physically related to the CME-ray interaction. This result, consistent with those of previous studies, is based on simultaneous radio and EUV imaging data for the first time.

  19. Modeling magnetohydrodynamics and non-equilibrium SoHO/UVCS line emission of CME shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, P.; Raymond, J. C.; Reale, F.

    The Coronal Mass Ejections are plasma clouds expelled from the Sun into the interplanetary medium. We study the propagation of shock waves in the solar corona generated during Coronal Mass Ejections by means of a numerical multi-dimensional MHD model. The model describes the MHD evolution of a compressible plasma in an ambient magnetic field including tensor thermal conduction, radiative losses as main physical effects. We use the MHD version of the FLASH parallel hydrodynamic code with adaptive mesh refinement, originally developed at the University of Chicago USA). The code is highly modular and made efficiently parallel with the Message Passing Interface library. We analyze the diagnostic signatures of shock fronts generated by supersonic CME fragments detectable with the UltraViolet Coronagraphic Spectrometer on board the SoHO mission. To this aim we perform 3D MHD simulations of the shock propagation for the time it takes to cross the UVCS slit positioned at a distance of a few solar radii from the solar surface. In the presence of highly effective thermal conduction the simulation takes 200000 time steps to cover 1000 s of evolution. Considering a 3-D domain of 256x256x512 grid cells this kind of simulations requires thousands of hours of computer time and therefore high performance computing (HPC) systems. The simulations were run on the CINECA IBM/SP5 HPC cluster within the INAF/CINECA agreement. We show simulation results and some implications for UVCS observations.

  20. Development of a full ice-cream cone model for halo CME structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Yong-Jae

    2015-04-01

    The determination of three dimensional parameters (e.g., radial speed, angular width, source location) of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) is very important for space weather forecast. To estimate these parameters, several cone models based on a flat cone or a shallow ice-cream cone with spherical front have been suggested. In this study, we investigate which cone model is proper for halo CME morphology using 33 CMEs which are identified as halo CMEs by one spacecraft (SOHO or STEREO-A or B) and as limb CMEs by the other ones. From geometrical parameters of these CMEs such as their front curvature, we find that near full ice-cream cone CMEs (28 events) are dominant over shallow ice-cream cone CMEs (5 events). So we develop a new full ice-cream cone model by assuming that a full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths. This model is carried out by the following steps: (1) construct a cone for given height and angular width, (2) project the cone onto the sky plane, (3) select points comprising the outer boundary, (4) minimize the difference between the estimated projection points with the observed ones. We apply this model to several halo CMEs and compare the results with those from other methods such as a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model and a geometrical triangulation method.

  1. Structure and Dynamics of the Erupting Magnetic Flux in the May 12 1997 CME Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V. S.; Mikic, Z.; Linker, J. A.; Lionello, R.

    2010-12-01

    The identification of erupting magnetic fluxes in solar CMEs is a big challenge from both computational and theoretical points of view. We have attacked this problem by studying the May 12 1997 CME event with the help of two powerful tools: (1) Our numerical MHD model of erupting magnetic configurations; and (2) Our generalized field line mapping technique for analyzing their magnetic structure. This approach allows us to identify the building blocks of such configurations by computing all their separatrix and quasi-separatrix surfaces that serve as interfaces between such blocks. The latter include, in particular, a flare arcade and erupting magnetic flux rope, which we relate to the observed flare ribbons and EUV dimmings of the event. On the basis of this analysis, we have also estimated the magnetic fluxes associated with these blocks at several moments in time. This provides a solid basis for a very detailed comparison of our MHD model with observational data of this eruption. Such a comparison helps us to verify our model and understand the physical processes and observed peculiarities of this event in conjunction with the dynamics of the underlying magnetic structure.

  2. Improving the diagnostic workup of hyponatremia in the setting of kidney disease: a continuing medical education (CME) initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golestaneh, Ladan; Neugarten, Joel; Southern, William; Kargoli, Faraj; Raff, Amanda

    2017-03-01

    Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte disorder and is associated with mortality. We examined the frequency of appropriate testing in response to an episode of inpatient hyponatremia in a large urban hospital to better inform our educational intervention. We then evaluated the impact of a live CME activity with a focus on CKD- and ESRD-associated hyponatremia physiology, on diagnostic practices of audience hospitalist attendings. We performed a retrospective database analysis of all patients admitted to Montefiore Medical Center in 2014 to examine the performance of hospital staff in response to hyponatremia across all CKD stages. We then did a comparative analysis of diagnostic workup orders for hyponatremic patients admitted to audience members of a live CME activity in the 4 months prior as compared to the 4 months after the activity. The prevalence of hyponatremia was 27% in a cohort of hospitalized patients: 41% of these hyponatremia inpatients had CKD, and 11.4% had ESRD. Overall less than 10% of patients had orders written for serum and urine osmolality without a differential pattern based on CKD or ESRD diagnosis. Among the patients admitted to the CME audience hospitalists, urine/serum osmolality and urine sodium orders occurred infrequently overall and did not differ after vs. before the lecture. The frequency of appropriate diagnostic orders written in response to an episode of hyponatremia was very low and did not vary based on degree of CKD. A CME activity with an emphasis on the role of CKD/ESRD in diagnostic accuracy did not improve the order quality in a group of audience hospitalists. Efforts to improve the diagnostic workup of hyponatremia with concomitant kidney disease are crucial to proper management of these patients.

  3. The 26 December 2001 Solar Eruptive Event Responsible for GLE63: III. CME, Shock Waves, and Energetic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechnev, V. V.; Kiselev, V. I.; Uralov, A. M.; Klein, K.-L.; Kochanov, A. A.

    2017-08-01

    The SOL2001-12-26 moderate solar eruptive event (GOES importance M7.1, microwaves up to 4000 sfu at 9.4 GHz, coronal mass ejection (CME) speed 1446 km s-1) produced strong fluxes of solar energetic particles and ground-level enhancement (GLE) of cosmic-ray intensity (GLE63). To find a possible reason for the atypically high proton outcome of this event, we study multi-wavelength images and dynamic radio spectra and quantitatively reconcile the findings with each other. An additional eruption probably occurred in the same active region about half an hour before the main eruption. The latter produced two blast-wave-like shocks during the impulsive phase. The two shock waves eventually merged around the radial direction into a single shock traced up to 25 R_{⊙} as a halo ahead of the expanding CME body, in agreement with an interplanetary Type II event recorded by the Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation (WAVES) experiment on the Wind spacecraft. The shape and kinematics of the halo indicate an intermediate regime of the shock between the blast wave and bow shock at these distances. The results show that i) the shock wave appeared during the flare rise and could accelerate particles earlier than usually assumed; ii) the particle event could be amplified by the preceding eruption, which stretched closed structures above the developing CME, facilitated its lift-off and escape of flare-accelerated particles, enabled a higher CME speed and stronger shock ahead; iii) escape of flare-accelerated particles could be additionally facilitated by reconnection of the flux rope, where they were trapped, with a large coronal hole; and iv) the first eruption supplied a rich seed population accelerated by a trailing shock wave.

  4. A Comparative Study of Shock Structures for the Halloween 2003 and the 23 July 2012 CME Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C. C.; Liou, K.

    2015-12-01

    Interplanetary (IP) shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) play an important role in space weather. For example, solar energetic particles are accelerated at the shock and storm sudden commencements are produced by the impingement of the Earth by the shocks. Here, we study shocks associated with two major CME events - the Halloween 2003 and the 23 July 2012 CME events, using a three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamics model (H3DMHD). The H3DMHD (Wu et al. 2007, JGR) combines the kinematic solar wind model (HAF) for regions near the solar surface (2.5-18 Rs) and a 3D magnetohydrodynamics model (Han et al. 1988), which takes output from HAF at 18 Rs and propagates outward up to 1.7 AU. The H3DMHD code has been fully tested and is capable of simulating disturbances propagating in the solar wind. We will focus on the temporal and spatial structure of the CME-driven shocks, including the shock type and strength.

  5. A Hierarchical Relationship between the Fluence Spectra and CME Kinematics in Large Solar Energetic Particle Events: A Radio Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Mäkelä, P.; Yashiro, S.; Thakur, N.; Akiyama, S.; Xie, H.

    2017-09-01

    We report on further evidence that solar energetic particles are organized by the kinematic properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs)[1]. In particular, we focus on the starting frequency of type II bursts, which is related to the distance from the Sun where the radio emission starts. We find that the three groups of solar energetic particle (SEP) events known to have distinct values of CME initial acceleration, also have distinct average starting frequencies of the associated type II bursts. SEP events with ground level enhancement (GLE) have the highest starting frequency (107 MHz), while those associated with filament eruption (FE) in quiescent regions have the lowest starting frequency (22 MHz); regular SEP events have intermediate starting frequency (81 MHz). Taking the onset time of type II bursts as the time of shock formation, we determine the shock formation heights measured from the Sun center. We find that the shocks form on average closest to the Sun (1.51 Rs) in GLE events, farthest from the Sun in FE SEP events (5.38 Rs), and at intermediate distances in regular SEP events (1.72 Rs). Finally, we present the results of a case study of a CME with high initial acceleration (∼3 km s-2) and a type II radio burst with high starting frequency (∼200 MHz) but associated with a minor SEP event. We find that the relation between the fluence spectral index and CME initial acceleration continues to hold even for this minor SEP event.

  6. Coronal mass ejection (CME) activity of low mass M stars as an important factor for the habitability of terrestrial exoplanets. I. CME impact on expected magnetospheres of Earth-like exoplanets in close-in habitable zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodachenko, Maxim L; Ribas, Ignasi; Lammer, Helmut; Griessmeier, Jean-Mathias; Leitner, Martin; Selsis, Franck; Eiroa, Carlos; Hanslmeier, Arnold; Biernat, Helfried K; Farrugia, Charles J; Rucker, Helmut O

    2007-02-01

    Low mass M- and K-type stars are much more numerous in the solar neighborhood than solar-like G-type stars. Therefore, some of them may appear as interesting candidates for the target star lists of terrestrial exoplanet (i.e., planets with mass, radius, and internal parameters identical to Earth) search programs like Darwin (ESA) or the Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph/Inferometer (NASA). The higher level of stellar activity of low mass M stars, as compared to solar-like G stars, as well as the closer orbital distances of their habitable zones (HZs), means that terrestrial-type exoplanets within HZs of these stars are more influenced by stellar activity than one would expect for a planet in an HZ of a solar-like star. Here we examine the influences of stellar coronal mass ejection (CME) activity on planetary environments and the role CMEs may play in the definition of habitability criterion for the terrestrial type exoplanets near M stars. We pay attention to the fact that exoplanets within HZs that are in close proximity to low mass M stars may become tidally locked, which, in turn, can result in relatively weak intrinsic planetary magnetic moments. Taking into account existing observational data and models that involve the Sun and related hypothetical parameters of extrasolar CMEs (density, velocity, size, and occurrence rate), we show that Earth-like exoplanets within close-in HZs should experience a continuous CME exposure over long periods of time. This fact, together with small magnetic moments of tidally locked exoplanets, may result in little or no magnetospheric protection of planetary atmospheres from a dense flow of CME plasma. Magnetospheric standoff distances of weakly magnetized Earth-like exoplanets at orbital distances

  7. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Interactive Didactic Lecture Versus Online Simulation-Based CME Programs Directed at Improving the Diagnostic Capabilities of Primary Care Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Pam; Crim, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic errors in primary care contribute to increased morbidity and mortality, and billions in costs each year. Improvements in the way practicing physicians are taught so as to optimally perform differential diagnosis can increase patient safety and lower the costs of care. This study represents a comparison of the effectiveness of two approaches to CME training directed at improving the primary care practitioner's diagnostic capabilities against seven common and important causes of joint pain. Using a convenience sampling methodology, one group of primary care practitioners was trained by a traditional live, expert-led, multimedia-based training activity supplemented with interactive practice opportunities and feedback (control group). The second group was trained online with a multimedia-based training activity supplemented with interactive practice opportunities and feedback delivered by an artificial intelligence-driven simulation/tutor (treatment group). Before their respective instructional intervention, there were no significant differences in the diagnostic performance of the two groups against a battery of case vignettes presenting with joint pain. Using the same battery of case vignettes to assess postintervention diagnostic performance, there was a slight but not statistically significant improvement in the control group's diagnostic accuracy (P = .13). The treatment group, however, demonstrated a significant improvement in accuracy (P tutor.

  8. Tethered Prominence-CME Systems Captured during the 2012 November 13 and 2013 November 3 Total Solar Eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckmüller, Miloslav; Habbal, Shadia R.; Alzate, Nathalia; Emmanouilidis, Constantinos

    2017-12-01

    We report on white light observations of high latitude tethered prominences acquired during the total solar eclipses of 2012 November 13 and 2013 November 3, at solar maximum, with a field of view spanning several solar radii. Distinguished by their pinkish hue, characteristic of emission from neutral hydrogen and helium, the four tethered prominences were akin to twisted flux ropes, stretching out to the limit of the field of view, while remaining anchored at the Sun. Cotemporal observations in the extreme ultraviolet from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO/AIA) clearly showed that the pinkish emission from the cool (≈ {10}4-{10}5 K) filamentary prominences was cospatial with the 30.4 nm He II emission, and was directly linked to filamentary structures emitting at coronal temperatures ≥slant {10}6 K in 17.1 and 19.3 nm. The tethered prominences evolved from typical tornado types. Each one formed the core of different types of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), as inferred from coordinated LASCO C2, C3, and STEREO A and B coronagraph observations. Two of them evolved into a series of faint, unstructured puffs. One was a normal CME. The most striking one was a “light-bulb” type CME, whose three-dimensional structure was confirmed from all four coronagraphs. These first uninterrupted detections of prominence-CME systems anchored at the Sun, and stretching out to at least the edge of the field of view of LASCO C3, provide the first observational confirmation for the source of counter-streaming electron fluxes measured in interplanetary CMEs, or ICMEs.

  9. A Parametric Study of Erupting Flux Rope Rotation: Modeling the 'Cartwheel CME' on 9 April 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliem, B.; Toeroek, T.; Thompson, W. T.

    2012-01-01

    The rotation of erupting filaments in the solar corona is addressed through a parametric simulation study of unstable, rotating flux ropes in bipolar force-free initial equilibrium. The Lorentz force due to the external shear-field component and the relaxation of tension in the twisted field are the major contributors to the rotation in this model, while reconnection with the ambient field is of minor importance, due to the field's simple structure. In the low-beta corona, the rotation is not guided by the changing orientation of the vertical field component's polarity inversion line with height. The model yields strong initial rotations which saturate in the corona and differ qualitatively from the profile of rotation vs. height obtained in a recent simulation of an eruption without preexisting flux rope. Both major mechanisms writhe the flux rope axis, converting part of the initial twist helicity, and produce rotation profiles which, to a large part, are very similar within a range of shear-twist combinations. A difference lies in the tendency of twist-driven rotation to saturate at lower heights than shear-driven rotation. For parameters characteristic of the source regions of erupting filaments and coronal mass ejections, the shear field is found to be the dominant origin of rotations in the corona and to be required if the rotation reaches angles of order 90 degrees and higher; it dominates even if the twist exceeds the threshold of the helical kink instability. The contributions by shear and twist to the total rotation can be disentangled in the analysis of observations if the rotation and rise profiles are simultaneously compared with model calculations. The resulting twist estimate allows one to judge whether the helical kink instability occurred. This is demonstrated for the erupting prominence in the "Cartwheel CME" on 9 April 2008, which has shown a rotation of approximately 115 deg. up to a height of 1.5 Solar R above the photosphere. Out of a range of

  10. Fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms in urinary tract pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated during rapidly increasing fluoroquinolone consumption in a low-use country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Nina; Nielsen, Lene; Jakobsen, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    Resistance to ciprofloxacin in Escherichia coli from urinary tract infections (UTI) in Denmark is increasing parallel to increased use of fluoroquinolones both in Denmark and in other European countries. The objective was to investigate the occurrence of ciprofloxacin resistance mechanisms...

  11. CME and the role of the Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London. Results of a survey of consultant and trainee physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, D; Toghill, P; Klär, B

    1996-01-01

    To assess (a) the views of Members and Fellows of the College on the role of reading general medical journals in continuing medical education (CME); (b) the place of the Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London (JRCPL) in relation to seven other general medical journals; (c) the possible need for change in the content of the JRCPL and the demand for a systematic series of articles designed specifically for CME; (d) the extent of home ownership and use of computers and of readers' readiness for interactive teaching and electronic books and journals. Distribution of a questionnaire to all Fellows and Collegiate members of the College, mailed with the JRCPL in May 1995. Responses were received from 2,600 (26.4% home recipients and 8.4% overseas recipients). Journal reading was rated the most important form of CME. All eight journals listed play a part in CME, the three weekly journals playing the most prominent role. There was strong support for the introduction of a series of articles covering topics systematically as part of CME. Seventy-six per cent of respondents own a home computer and 40% of these have either a CD-ROM drive or full multimedia facilities. Most use their computers mainly as word-processors and few have access to the Internet or E-mail.

  12. Speed evolution of fast CME/shocks with SOHO/LASCO, WIND/WAVES, IPS and in-situ WIND data: analysis of kilometric type-II emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gonzalez-Esparza

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Fast CME/shocks propagating in the interplanetary medium can generate kilometric Type II (km-TII radio emissions at the local plasma frequency and/or its harmonic, so these radio emissions provide a means of remotely tracking CME/shocks. We apply a new analysis technique, using the frequency drift of km-TII spectrum obtained by the Thermal Noise Receiver (TNR of the WIND/WAVES experiment, to infer, at some adequate intervals, the propagation speed of six CME/shocks. We combine these results with previously reported speeds from coronagraph white light and interplanetary scintillation observations, and in-situ measurements, to study the temporal speed evolution of the six events. The speed values obtained by the km-TII analysis are in a reasonable agreement with the speed measurements obtained by other techniques at different heliocentric distance ranges. The combination of all the speed measurements show a gradual deceleration of the CME/shocks as they propagate to 1 AU. This new technique can be useful in studying the evolution of fast CME/shocks when adequate intervals of km-TII emissions are available.

  13. [Web-based collection of educational needs in a medicine department. An intranet survey for planning CME corse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbidoni, Laura; Correani, Massimiliano; Candela, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Few evidences about methods to harvest educational needs by health care professionals in internal medicine have been published. In this project the following objectives have been pursued: to express preferences by each health care worker; to evaluate the efficacy of an intranet-based survey in order to structure continuing medical education (CME) planning. We created a form based on 7 questions, exploring the following areas: knowledge, know-how, communication, transversal competencies. This survey, implemented on a google drive platform, was accessible through the Azienda Sanitaria Unica Regione (ASUR) Marche intranet. Each questionnaire was analyzed with Google drive and the results were discussed within Medicine Department Committee. 103/228 health care workers responded to the survey. On the basis of health care workers preferences, financial resources, relevance, untreated topics in the previous 5 years and congruence with ASUR targets, heart failure, malnutrition and non-invasive mechanical ventilation were chosen as main topics for the year 2017 and practical training, internal courses and focus groups were planned. A relevant percentage of health care workers (45%) responded to our online survey and the analysis of the results has been used for planning users-centered educational courses; this approach represents a sure novelty in failure of published experiences about the relationship between collection of needs and CME planning.

  14. Changes in Underlying Determinants Explain Rapid Increases in Child Linear Growth in Alive & Thrive Study Areas between 2010 and 2014 in Bangladesh and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Headey, Derek; Frongillo, Edward A; Tran, Lan Mai; Rawat, Rahul; Ruel, Marie T; Menon, Purnima

    2017-03-01

    nutritional change in intervention and comparison areas. Improvements in underlying determinants explained rapid improvements in HAZs between 2010 and 2014 in Bangladesh and Vietnam.

  15. Rapid burst of H2O2 by plant growth regulators increases intracellular Ca2+ amounts and modulates CD4+ T cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Asma; Mukherjee, Sambuddho; Deobagkar, Mukta; Naik, Tanushree; Nandi, Dipankar

    2010-11-01

    The identification of small molecules that affect T cell activation is an important area of research. Three molecules that regulate plant growth and differentiation, but not their structurally similar analogs, were identified to enhance primary mouse CD4(+) T cell activation in conjunction with soluble anti-CD3 stimulation: Indoleacetic acid (natural plant auxin), 1-Napthaleneacetic acid (synthetic plant auxin) and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (synthetic plant auxin and herbicide). These effects are distinct in comparison to Curcumin, the well known phenolic immunomodulator, which lowers T cell activation. An investigation into the mechanisms of action of the three plant growth regulators revealed a rapid induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mainly comprising H(2)O(2). In addition, these three molecules synergize with soluble anti-CD3 signaling to enhance intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations [Ca(2+)](i), leading to greater T cell activation, e.g. induction of CD25 and IL-2. Enhanced production of TNFα and IFNγ by CD4(+) T cells is also observed upon plant growth regulator treatment with soluble anti-CD3. Interestingly, maximal IL-2 production and CD4(+) T cell cycle progression are observed upon activation with soluble anti-CD3 and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a phorbol ester. Additionally, stimulation with PMA and Ionomcyin (a Ca(2+) ionophore), which activates T cells by circumventing the TCR, and plant growth regulators also demonstrated the role of the strength of signal (SOS): T cell cycle progression is enhanced with gentle activation conditions but decreased with strong activation conditions. This study demonstrates the direct effects of three plant growth regulators on CD4(+) T cell activation and cycling. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [From the health plan to teaching and learning plan: pathways for the planning of CME in the Provincia Autonoma of Bolzano (Italy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presutti, Michele; Hofer, Brigitte

    2010-06-01

    Evidence based medicine (EBM) proposes a step by step pathway, that represents today an useful methodological reference to make clinical decisions. The authors propose that this methodological approach (define the problem; searche the best evidence; evaluation of the results in conjunction with the skills and experience that the health worker has already acquired; evaluation of the whole process), can be used to guide the questions in the use of CME. CME experience in the Provincia Autonoma of Bolzano (Italy) is shortly reported, emphasizing the involvement of the different stakeholders in planning and verification of teaching and learning.

  17. Rapid Increase in Ownership and Use of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets and Decrease in Prevalence of Malaria in Three Regional States of Ethiopia (2006-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estifanos Biru Shargie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Following recent large scale-up of malaria control interventions in Ethiopia, this study aimed to compare ownership and use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN, and the change in malaria prevalence using two population-based household surveys in three regions of the country. Each survey used multistage cluster random sampling with 25 households per cluster. Household net ownership tripled from 19.6% in 2006 to 68.4% in 2007, with mean LLIN per household increasing from 0.3 to 1.2. Net use overall more than doubled from 15.3% to 34.5%, but in households owning LLIN, use declined from 71.7% to 48.3%. Parasitemia declined from 4.1% to 0.4%. Large scale-up of net ownership over a short period of time was possible. However, a large increase in net ownership was not necessarily mirrored directly by increased net use. Better targeting of nets to malaria-risk areas and sustained behavioural change communication are needed to increase and maintain net use.

  18. A surge of p-values between 0.041 and 0.049 in recent decades (but negative results are increasing rapidly too)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodou, Dimitra

    2015-01-01

    It is known that statistically significant (positive) results are more likely to be published than non-significant (negative) results. However, it has been unclear whether any increasing prevalence of positive results is stronger in the “softer” disciplines (social sciences) than in the “harder” disciplines (physical sciences), and whether the prevalence of negative results is decreasing over time. Using Scopus, we searched the abstracts of papers published between 1990 and 2013, and measured longitudinal trends of multiple expressions of positive versus negative results, including p-values between 0.041 and 0.049 versus p-values between 0.051 and 0.059, textual reporting of “significant difference” versus “no significant difference,” and the reporting of p 0.05. We found no support for a “hierarchy of sciences” with physical sciences at the top and social sciences at the bottom. However, we found large differences in reporting practices between disciplines, with p-values between 0.041 and 0.049 over 1990–2013 being 65.7 times more prevalent in the biological sciences than in the physical sciences. The p-values near the significance threshold of 0.05 on either side have both increased but with those p-values between 0.041 and 0.049 having increased to a greater extent (2013-to-1990 ratio of the percentage of papers = 10.3) than those between 0.051 and 0.059 (ratio = 3.6). Contradictorily, p 0.05 (ratios = 1.4 and 4.8, respectively), while the use of “significant difference” has shown only a modest increase compared to “no significant difference” (ratios = 1.5 and 1.1, respectively). We also compared reporting of significance in the United States, Asia, and Europe and found that the results are too inconsistent to draw conclusions on cross-cultural differences in significance reporting. We argue that the observed longitudinal trends are caused by negative factors, such as an increase of questionable research practices, but also by

  19. Evaluation of the Implementation of a Rapid Response Treatment Protocol for Patients with Acute Onset Stroke: Can We Increase the Number of Patients Treated and Shorten the Time Needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Advani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study aims to evaluate the implementation of a rapid response treatment protocol for patients presenting with acute onset ischemic stroke. Improvements of routines surrounding the admission and treatment of patients with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT, such as door-to-needle (DTN times, and increasing the numbers of patients treated are discussed. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of all patients (n = 320 treated with IVT for acute onset ischemic stroke at the Stavanger University Hospital, Norway, between 2003 and 2012. In 2009, a succession of changes to pre- and intra-hospital routines were made as well as an improvement in the education of primary health care physicians, nurses and paramedics involved in the treatment of acute onset stroke patients (rapid response treatment protocol. Analyses of DTN times, onset-to-needle times and the number of patients treated per year were carried out to ascertain the effect of the changes made. The primary aim was to analyze DTN times to look for any changes, and the secondary aim was to analyze changes in the number of patients treated per year. Results: In the years after the implementation of the rapid treatment protocol, we saw an improvement in the median DTN time with a decrease from 73 to 50 min in the first year (p = 0.03, a decrease of 45 min in the second year (p = 0.01 and a decrease of 31 min in the third year (p Conclusions: The implementation of the rapid treatment protocol for acute onset ischemic stroke patients led to a significant decrease in the DTN time at our center. These improvements also produced an increase in the number of patients treated per year. The extension of the therapeutic window from 3 to 4.5 h for the use of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator also played a role in the increased treatment numbers.

  20. Localized infusions of the partial alpha 7 nicotinic receptor agonist SSR180711 evoke rapid and transient increases in prefrontal glutamate release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortz, D M; Mikkelsen, J D; Bruno, J P

    2013-01-01

    that inhibited (threo-beta-benzyl-oxy-aspartate (TβOA), 100.0μM) or facilitated (ceftriaxalone, 200mg/kg, i.p.) excitatory amino acid transporters. TβOA slowed both the clearance (s) and rate of clearance (μM/s) by 10-fold, particularly at the mid-late stages of the return to baseline. Ceftriaxone reduced......The ability of local infusions of the alpha 7 nicotinic acetycholine receptor (α7 nAChR) partial agonist SSR180711 to evoke glutamate release in prefrontal cortex was determined in awake rats using a microelectrode array. Infusions of SSR180711 produced dose-dependent increases in glutamate levels...

  1. Antagonism of miR-328 increases the antimicrobial function of macrophages and neutrophils and rapid clearance of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi from infected lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hock L Tay

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic bacterial infections of the lung are life threatening and underpin chronic lung diseases. Current treatments are often ineffective potentially due to increasing antibiotic resistance and impairment of innate immunity by disease processes and steroid therapy. Manipulation miRNA directly regulating anti-microbial machinery of the innate immune system may boost host defence responses. Here we demonstrate that miR-328 is a key element of the host response to pulmonary infection with non-typeable haemophilus influenzae and pharmacological inhibition in mouse and human macrophages augments phagocytosis, the production of reactive oxygen species, and microbicidal activity. Moreover, inhibition of miR-328 in respiratory models of infection, steroid-induced immunosuppression, and smoke-induced emphysema enhances bacterial clearance. Thus, miRNA pathways can be targeted in the lung to enhance host defence against a clinically relevant microbial infection and offer a potential new anti-microbial approach for the treatment of respiratory diseases.

  2. Antagonism of miR-328 increases the antimicrobial function of macrophages and neutrophils and rapid clearance of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) from infected lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Hock L; Kaiko, Gerard E; Plank, Maximilian; Li, JingJing; Maltby, Steven; Essilfie, Ama-Tawiah; Jarnicki, Andrew; Yang, Ming; Mattes, Joerg; Hansbro, Philip M; Foster, Paul S

    2015-04-01

    Pathogenic bacterial infections of the lung are life threatening and underpin chronic lung diseases. Current treatments are often ineffective potentially due to increasing antibiotic resistance and impairment of innate immunity by disease processes and steroid therapy. Manipulation miRNA directly regulating anti-microbial machinery of the innate immune system may boost host defence responses. Here we demonstrate that miR-328 is a key element of the host response to pulmonary infection with non-typeable haemophilus influenzae and pharmacological inhibition in mouse and human macrophages augments phagocytosis, the production of reactive oxygen species, and microbicidal activity. Moreover, inhibition of miR-328 in respiratory models of infection, steroid-induced immunosuppression, and smoke-induced emphysema enhances bacterial clearance. Thus, miRNA pathways can be targeted in the lung to enhance host defence against a clinically relevant microbial infection and offer a potential new anti-microbial approach for the treatment of respiratory diseases.

  3. Analysis of a rapid increase of stratospheric ozone during late austral summer 2008 over Kerguelen (49.4° S, 70.3° E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bencherif

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an increase of ozone event observed over Kerguelen (49.4° S, 70.3° E in relationship with large-scale isentropic transport. This is evidenced by ground-based observations (co-localised radiosonde and SAOZ experiments together with satellite global observations (Aura/MLS assimilated into MOCAGE, a Méteo-France model.

    The study is based on the analyses of the first ozonesonde experiment never recorded at the Kerguelen site within the framework of a French campaign called ROCK that took place from April to August 2008.

    Comparisons and interpretations of the observed event are supported by co-localised SAOZ observations, by global mapping of tracers (O3, N2O and columns of O3 from Aura/MLS and Aura/OMI experiments, and by model simulations of Ertel Potential Vorticity initialised by the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts data reanalyses.

    Satellite and ground-based observational data revealed a consistent increase of ozone in the local stratosphere by mid-April 2008. Additionally, Ozone (O3 and nitrous oxide (N2O profiles obtained during January–May 2008 using the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS aboard the Aura satellite are assimilated into MOCAGE (MOdèle de Chimie Atmosphérique à Grande Echelle, a global three-dimensional chemistry transport model of Météo-France. The assimilated total O3 values are consistent with SAOZ ground observations (within ±5%, and isentropic distributions of O3 match well with maps of advected potential vorticity (APV derived from the MIMOSA model, a high-resolution advection transport model, and from the ECMWF reanalysis.

    The event studied seems to be related to the isentropic transport of air masses that took place simultaneously in the lower- and middle-stratosphere, respectively from the polar region and from the tropics to the mid-latitudes.

    In

  4. Rapid increase of Plasmodium falciparum dhfr/dhps resistant haplotypes, after the adoption of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine as first line treatment in 2002, in southern Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enosse, Sonia; Magnussen, Pascal; Abacassamo, Fatima; Gómez-Olivé, Xavier; Rønn, Anita M; Thompson, Ricardo; Alifrangis, Michael

    2008-07-01

    In late 2002, the health authorities of Mozambique implemented sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP)/amodiaquine (AQ) as first-line treatment against uncomplicated falciparum malaria. In 2004, this has been altered to SP/artesunate in line with WHO recommendations of using Artemisinin Combination Therapies (ACTs), despite the fact that all the neighbouring countries have abandoned SP-drug combinations due to high levels of SP drug resistance. In the study area, one year prior to the change to SP/AQ, SP alone was used to treat uncomplicated malaria cases. The study described here investigated the immediate impact of the change to SP on the frequency of SP and CQ resistance-related haplotypes in the Plasmodium falciparum genes Pfdhfr, Pfdhps and Pfcrt before and a year after the introduction of SP. Samples were collected during two cross sectional surveys in early 2002 and 2003 involving 796 and 692 children one year or older and adults randomly selected living in Maciana, an area located in Manhiça district, Southern Mozambique. Out of these, 171 and 173 P. falciparum positive samples were randomly selected to measure the frequency of resistance- related haplotypes in Pfdhfr, Pfdhps and Pfcrt based on results obtained by nested PCR followed by sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe (SSOP)-ELISA. The frequency of the SP-resistance associated Pfdhps double mutant (SGEAA) haplotype increased significantly from 14% to 35% (P drug, Coartem.

  5. Are Koreans Prepared for the Rapid Increase of the Single-Household Elderly? Life Satisfaction and Depression of the Single-Household Elderly in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Ra Won

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In Korea, it has been estimated that the number of the single-household elderly increased 45% from 2005 to 2010. This research was conducted to provide empirical resources for development of a community mental health program by an explorative investigation on depression, coping mechanism, and life satisfaction of a single-household elderly population. Design and Methods. This research applied a descriptive survey research design. Participants were 225 single-household elderlies residing in Seoul, Korea. The geriatric depression scale and the satisfaction with life scale were used to check the level of depression and life satisfaction of the participants. Results. Results showed that 46.3 percent of the participants were categorized as having light-to-severe level of depression, and 80.5 percent of the participants responded that they were dissatisfied with their lives. This research demonstrated that the level of depression and life satisfaction of the Korean single-household elderly is statistically significantly related to age and gender as well as coping resources and human resources. Implications. Current public health services in Korea for the single-household elderly are still lacking and require active support, intervention, and research to provide effective programs and services. Case management, counseling, and various programs based on Korean culture including support from family members and community-based assistance are recommended to help the vulnerable population.

  6. Predictors of diabetic foot and leg ulcers in a developing country with a rapid increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriyani, Kumarasinghe A; Wasalathanthri, Sudharshani; Hettiarachchi, Priyadharshika; Prathapan, Shamini

    2013-01-01

    To identify the socio demographic, life style and foot examination related predictors of diabetic foot and leg ulcers with a view to develop a screening tool appropriate for the use in an outpatient setting. This cross sectional study included type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients; 88 subjects with leg and foot ulcers and 80 non ulcer controls. Socio demographic data and life style factors were documented. Foot was examined for skin changes and structural abnormalities. Distal peripheral neuropathy was assessed by pressure sense, vibration sense and joint position sense. Multivariate analysis by logistic regression was used to determine the significant predictors in screening for foot ulcers. Education of grade 6 and below (OR--1.41, 95% CI; 1.03-4.68), low income (OR--23.3, 95% CI; 1.5-34.0), impaired vibration sense (OR--24.79, 95% CI; 9.3-66.2), abnormal monofilament test on first (OR--1.69, 95% CI; 1.36-16.6), third (OR--3.4, 95% CI; 1.1-10.6) and fifth (OR--1.8, 95% CI; 1.61-12.6) toes are found to be predictors of increased risk whereas incidental diagnosis of DM (OR--0.03, 95% CI; 0.003-0.28), wearing covered shoes (OR--0.003, 95% CI; 0.00-0.28), presence of normal skin color (OR--0.01, 95% CI; 0.001-0.14) and normal monofilament test on first metatarsal head (OR--0.10, 95% CI; 0.00-0.67) are protective factors for ulcers. Ten independent risk and protective factors identified in this study are proposed as a simple screening tool to predict the risk of developing leg and foot ulcers in patients with DM.

  7. Predictors of diabetic foot and leg ulcers in a developing country with a rapid increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarasinghe A Sriyani

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the socio demographic, life style and foot examination related predictors of diabetic foot and leg ulcers with a view to develop a screening tool appropriate for the use in an outpatient setting. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This cross sectional study included type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM patients; 88 subjects with leg and foot ulcers and 80 non ulcer controls. Socio demographic data and life style factors were documented. Foot was examined for skin changes and structural abnormalities. Distal peripheral neuropathy was assessed by pressure sense, vibration sense and joint position sense. Multivariate analysis by logistic regression was used to determine the significant predictors in screening for foot ulcers. RESULTS: Education of grade 6 and below (OR--1.41, 95% CI; 1.03-4.68, low income (OR--23.3, 95% CI; 1.5-34.0, impaired vibration sense (OR--24.79, 95% CI; 9.3-66.2, abnormal monofilament test on first (OR--1.69, 95% CI; 1.36-16.6, third (OR--3.4, 95% CI; 1.1-10.6 and fifth (OR--1.8, 95% CI; 1.61-12.6 toes are found to be predictors of increased risk whereas incidental diagnosis of DM (OR--0.03, 95% CI; 0.003-0.28, wearing covered shoes (OR--0.003, 95% CI; 0.00-0.28, presence of normal skin color (OR--0.01, 95% CI; 0.001-0.14 and normal monofilament test on first metatarsal head (OR--0.10, 95% CI; 0.00-0.67 are protective factors for ulcers. CONCLUSIONS: Ten independent risk and protective factors identified in this study are proposed as a simple screening tool to predict the risk of developing leg and foot ulcers in patients with DM.

  8. Increase in healthcare facilities and rapid environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The scenario of waste management in many Nigerian cities has been complicated by the non segregation of healthcare wastes from domestic wastes in many healthcare facilities (HCFs). Incidentally, the healthcare facilities have soared in numbers over a 50 - year period in all the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria.

  9. Rapid increase of observed DIC and

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clargo, N.M.; Salt, L.; Thomas, H.; de Baar, H.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    The CO2 system in the North Sea over the 2001-2011 decade was investigated using four comprehensive basin-wide datasets covering the late summer periods of 2001, 2005, 2008 and 2011. We find that rises in surface water DIC and pCO2 exceeded concurrent rises in atmospheric pCO2, which we attribute

  10. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  11. Analysis of High-Latitude lonospheric Processes During HSS and CME-Induced Geomagnetic Storms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durgonics, Tibor; Komjathy, Attila; Verkhoglyadova, Olga

    -breaking-down into patches and a decrease in patch formation in general throughout the Greenland sector. The negative phase developed as the PCN-index started to increase indicated energy input into the polarcap. (2) The rate of PCN increase was clearly different for the two types of storms. (3) The impact of the physical...

  12. Improving depression care for ethnic and racial minorities: a concept for an intervention that integrates CME planning with improvement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Donald E; Overstreet, Karen M; Like, Robert C; Kristofco, Robert E

    2007-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common reasons that individuals seek treatment in the primary care setting. Research in the past 15 years has shown that dramatic improvement in the management of patients with depression is possible. Advances in pharmacotherapy and delivery of depression care have been reported, but few currently benefit members of ethnic and racial minorities. Educating physicians and other health professionals has been suggested as one approach to address the issues related to disparities in depression care. There is little evidence, however, that education alone is effective. The authors of this article believe that incorporating physician learning activities that are planned using approaches that have been shown to be effective in interventions currently demonstrating some success in improving depression care provided to ethnic and racial minorities will enhance the impact and sustainability of these interventions. This article--the conclusion of this supplement--will describe an intervention concept that integrates a quality improvement model (the Institute for Health Improvement's Breakthrough Series Collaborative model) with an evidence-based approach to planning CME and supports the integration by using action inquiry technologies and community-based participatory research methods. Relevant approaches from implementation research are discussed, and suggestions for testing the intervention concept are provided.

  13. A Comparison of Ground Level Event e/p and Fe/O Ratios with Associated Solar Flare and CME Characteristics (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    the solar corona . When this picture was challenged by a survey of large SEP events through 2005 showing a broad range of event Fe/O values at E > 25...which requires the higher seed particle threshold energies of remnant flare particles in the corona (Tylka and Lee 2006). If the concept of extending...analytic approach is to compare the particle abundance parameters statistically with various flare, active region (AR), and CME param- eters given in Table

  14. Synopsis of Diet in Dermatology: A one day CME conducted by the Department of Dermatology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, March 3, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smitha S Prabhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Food is intricately related to mind and body and is one of the elements sustaining life, in disease as well as in health. There are many myths and misgivings regarding partake of food and its medicinal properties. The Department of Dermatology, Kasturba Medical College (KMC, Manipal organized a continuing medical education (CME on Diet in Dermatology on 3rd March 2013 focusing on pertinent issues regarding diet and medicinal use of food.

  15. Duration of red blood cell storage and survival of transfused patients (CME)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Eloranta, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Disquieting reports of increased complication and death rates after transfusions of red blood cells (RBCs) stored for more than 14 days prompted us to perform an observational retrospective cohort study of mortality in relation to storage time.......Disquieting reports of increased complication and death rates after transfusions of red blood cells (RBCs) stored for more than 14 days prompted us to perform an observational retrospective cohort study of mortality in relation to storage time....

  16. Recurrent CME-like Eruptions in Emerging Flux Regions. I. On the Mechanism of Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syntelis, P.; Archontis, V.; Tsinganos, K.

    2017-11-01

    We report on three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of recurrent eruptions in emerging flux regions. We find that reconnection of sheared field lines, along the polarity inversion line of an emerging bipolar region, leads to the formation of a new magnetic structure, which adopts the shape of a magnetic flux rope (FR) during its rising motion. Initially, the FR undergoes a slow-rise phase and, eventually, it experiences a fast-rise phase and ejective eruption toward the outer solar atmosphere. In total, four eruptions occur during the evolution of the system. For the first eruption, our analysis indicates that the torus instability initiates the eruption and that tether-cutting reconnection of the field lines, which envelop the FR, triggers the rapid acceleration of the eruptive field. For the following eruptions, we conjecture that it is the interplay between tether-cutting reconnection and torus instability that causes the onset of the various phases. We show the 3D shape of the erupting fields, focusing more on how magnetic field lines reconnect during the eruptions. We find that when the envelope field lines reconnect mainly with themselves, hot and dense plasma is transferred closer to the core of the erupting FR. The same area appears to be cooler and less dense when the envelope field lines reconnect with neighboring sheared field lines. The plasma density and temperature distribution, together with the rising speeds, energies, and size of the erupting fields, indicate that they may account for small-scale (mini) coronal mass ejections.

  17. Comparison of continuing medical education (CME priorities of midwives employed at health facilities and treatment centers of Kashan and Aran & Bidgol - 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Behrouzifar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Continuing Medical Education (CME, paying attention to professional empowerment on the basis of community needs and learners’ institutional requirements is necessary. This study was conducted to determine continuing CME priorities of midwifery graduates employed in health and treatment centers of Kashan and Aran & Bidgol cities located in central Iran (2010. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 71 midwives. A questionnaire including 87 educational items in 6 subjects was designed. Every item was scored on a Likert scale ranging from zero to ten. Data were extracted, classified and analyzed by SPSS software using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Of the six subjects raised, gynecology (7.89±1.54 had the highest score and fundamentals of nursing (6.05±2.35 had the lowest score. Among different disease the topics of abnormal genital tract bleeding (9.32±1.3, diabetes mellitus during pregnancy (9.26±1.27, breast cancer (9±1.97, anemia (8.87±1.71, preventing the birth of premature infants (8.44±2.34 and infection control in special units (7.36±3.06, had the highest means, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between two groups of midwives employed in health centers and treatment centers regarding the need for learning some subjects. Conclusion: The need for CME priorities varied according to functional domains. This is essential to be considered by decision makers.

  18. Online CME Series Can Nutrition Simultaneously Affect Cancer and Aging? | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aging is considered by some scientists to be a normal physiological process, while others believe it is a disease. Increased cancer risk in the elderly raises the question regarding the common pathways for cancer and aging. Undeniably, nutrition plays an important role in both cases and this webinar will explore whether nutrition can simultaneously affect cancer and aging. |

  19. Analysis of EIT/LASCO Observations Using Available MHD Models: Investigation of CME Initiation Propagation and Geoeffectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.

    2001-01-01

    The Sun's activity drives the variability of geospace (i.e., near-earth environment). Observations show that the ejection of plasma from the sun, called coronal mass ejections (CMEs), are the major cause of geomagnetic storms. This global-scale solar dynamical feature of coronal mass ejection was discovered almost three decades ago by the use of space-borne coronagraphs (OSO-7, Skylab/ATM and P78-1). Significant progress has been made in understanding the physical nature of the CMEs. Observations show that these global-scale CMEs have size in the order of a solar radius (approximately 6.7 x 10(exp 5) km) near the sun, and each event involves a mass of about 10(exp 15) g and an energy comparable to that of a large flare on the order of 10(exp 32) ergs. The radial propagation speeds of CMEs have a wide range from tens to thousands of kilometers per second. Thus, the transit time to near earth's environment [i.e., 1 AU (astronomical unit)] can be as fast as 40 hours to 100 hours. The typical transit time for geoeffective events is approximately 60-80 h. This paper consists of two parts: 1) A summary of the observed CMEs from Skylab to the present SOHO will be presented. Special attention will be made to SOHO/ LASCO/ EIT observations and their characteristics leading to a geoeffectiv a CME 2) The chronological development of theory and models to interpret the physical nature of this fascinating phenomenon will be reviewed. Finally, an example will be presented to illustrate the geoeffectiveness of the CMEs by using both observation and model.

  20. The transformation of continuing medical education (CME in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balmer JT

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Jann Torrance Balmer Continuing Medical Education, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, USA Abstract: This article describes five major themes that inform and highlight the transformation of continuing medical education in the USA. Over the past decade, the Institute of Medicine (IOM and other national entities have voiced concern over the cost of health care, prevalence of medical errors, fragmentation of care, commercial influence, and competence of health professionals. The recommendations from these entities, as well as the work of other regulatory, professional, academic, and government organizations, have fostered discussion and development of strategies to address these challenges. The five themes in this paper reflect the changing expectations of multiple stakeholders engaged in health care. Each theme is grounded in educational, politico-economic priorities for health care in the USA. The themes include (1 a shift in expectation from simple attendance or a time-based metric (credit to a measurement that infers competence in performance for successful continuing professional development (CPD; (2 an increased focus on interprofessional education to augment profession-specific continuing education; (3 the integration of CPD with quality improvement; (4 the expansion of CPD to address population and public health issues; and (5 identification and standardization of continuing education (CE professional competencies. The CE profession plays an essential role in the transformation of the US CPD system for health professionals. Coordination of the five themes described in this paper will foster an improved, effective, and efficient health system that truly meets the needs of patients. Keywords: continuing medical education, continued professional development, independence, competencies, CE professional

  1. CME 2850.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I S Kalla, MB BCh, FCP (SA), FCCP (USA), Cert Pulm (SA), Cert Crit Care (SA). Division of Pulmonology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. Corresponding author: I S Kalla (isk786@telkomsa.net). Exciting times lie ahead for pulmonologists. While the last decade belonged to the endocrinologists ...

  2. CME 2870.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    alone (e.g. Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia) does not imply any particular level of intellectual function or automatically determine the presence or absence of any type of competency, it none-the-less sets the tone against which the findings can be valued and judged. In this context, a mini mental status examination ...

  3. CME 2859.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    negative organisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa,. K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. A recent history of an influenza-like illness is relevant because of its association with. Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia. Patients in nursing homes or ...

  4. CME 8947.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    C-reactive protein and fatigue) are likely to have a good response to. Table 1. ... protein inhibiting. T-cell co-stimulation. IV monthly or SC weekly. RA, JIA. SLE. Rituximab. (Mabthera). Mouse/human chimeric mab against CD 20+ B cells ..... year prospective French Research Axed on Tolerance of Biotherapies registry.

  5. CME 2622.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    or cardiovascular system. Symptoms occur within minutes to two hours after contact with the allergy-causing substance. Mechanisms of anaphylaxis. Because anaphylaxis is defined clinically, many mechanisms and pathways may result in these manifestations. They include allergic or non-allergic mechanisms. The allergic ...

  6. Denmark. [CME Country Reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    According to an agreement between the parties of the labour market and the Ministry of Labour, the immigration of foreign workers into Denmark takes place on a quota basis and conforms to a series of regulations, including a rule that the foreign worker, prior to departing from his country, must have made contract arrangements for his job. This…

  7. CME 2838.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drug toxicities. Drug toxicities. Occupational exposures (e.g. asbestos). HIV infection. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Familial idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Idiopathic NSIP. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. UIP = usual interstitial pneumonia; NSIP = nonspecific interstitial pneumonia.

  8. CME 2793.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sensory deprivation. Withholding assistive devices. Nutritional. Dehydration. Malnutrition. Electrolyte abnormalities. Low serum albumin. No assistance with feeding. Unpalatable food. Unable to swallow or not given dentures. Restraints. Prolonged nil per os for procedures. Drugs. Multiple psychoactive drugs. Polypharmacy.

  9. CME 2859.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    are useful in the diagnosis.[1,2,4,5] Symptoms such as cough, fever, pleuritic chest pain ... Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia. Patients in nursing homes or frail-care facilities tend to be infected with ... the clinical evaluation must also focus on.

  10. CME 2870.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical and mental illness and also the frailty accompanying normal ageing results in many elderly being to some extent dependent on others. • Many illnesses, especially dementia, are incurable and thus decisions are made in the context of an expectation of progressive decline. • Old people have long lives behind them,.

  11. Adiabatic Betatron deceleration of ionospheric charged particles: a new explanation for (i) the rapid outflow of ionospheric O ions, and for (ii) the increase of plasma mass density observed in magnetospheric flux tubes during main phases of geomagnetic s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Joseph; Pierrard, Viviane; Darrouzet, Fabien

    2013-04-01

    Using European arrays of magnetometers and the cross-phase analysis to determine magnetic field line resonance frequencies, it has been found by Kale et al. (2009) that the plasma mass density within plasmaspheric flux tubes increased rapidly after the SSC of the Hallowe'en 2003 geomagnetic storms. These observations tend to confirm other independent experimental results, suggesting that heavy ion up-flow from the ionosphere is responsible for the observed plasma density increases during main phases of geomagnetic storms. The aim of our contribution is to point out that, during main phases, reversible Betatron effect induced by the increase of the southward Dst-magnetic field component (|Δ Bz|), diminishes slightly the perpendicular kinetic energy (W?) of charged particles spiraling along field lines. Furthermore, due to the conservation of the first adiabatic invariant (μ = Wm/ Bm) the mirror points of all ionospheric ions and electrons are lifted up to higher altitudes i.e. where the mirror point magnetic field (Bm) is slightly smaller. Note that the change of the mirror point altitude is given by: Δ hm = -1/3 (RE + hm) Δ Bm / Bm. It is independent of the ion species and it does not depend of their kinetic energy. The change of kinetic energy is determined by: Δ Wm = Wm Δ Bm / Bm. Both of these equations have been verified numerically by Lemaire et al. (2005; doi: 10.1016/S0273-1177(03)00099-1) using trajectory calculations in a simple time-dependant B-field model: i.e. the Earth's magnetic dipole, plus an increasing southward B-field component: i.e. the Dst magnetic field whose intensity becomes more and more negative during the main phase of magnetic storms. They showed that a variation of Bz (or Dst) by more than - 50 nT significantly increases the mirror point altitudes by more than 100 km which is about equal to scale height of the plasma density in the topside ionosphere where particles are almost collisionless (see Fig. 2 in Lemaire et al., 2005

  12. White spot syndrome virus entry is dependent on multiple endocytic routes and strongly facilitated by Cq-GABARAP in a CME-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong-yuan; Shen, Kai-li; Chen, Zhen; Fan, Wei-wei; Xie, Xiao-lu; Meng, Chuang; Chang, Xue-jiao; Zheng, Li-bing; Jeswin, Joseph; Li, Cheng-hua; Wang, Ke-jian; Liu, Hai-peng

    2016-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a lethal pathogen of shrimp and many other crustaceans, including crayfish. However, the molecular mechanism underlying its cellular entry remains elusive due to the lack of shrimp cell lines for viral propagation. Crayfish hematopoietic tissue (Hpt) cell culture was recently established as a good model for WSSV infection study. Here, we showed that multiple endocytic routes, including clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), macropinocytosis and caveolae-mediated endocytosis, were indispensably employed for the viral entry into Hpt cell of the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus. Intriguingly, cellular autophagic activity was positively correlated with efficient viral entry, in which a key autophagy-related protein, γ-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein (Cq-GABARAP), that not only localized but also co-localized with WSSV on the Hpt cell membrane, strongly facilitated WSSV entry by binding to the viral envelope VP28 in a CME-dependent manner that was negatively regulated by Cq-Rac1. Furthermore, cytoskeletal components, including Cq-β-tubulin and Cq-β-actin, bound to both recombinant rCq-GABARAP and WSSV envelope proteins, which likely led to viral entry promotion via cooperation with rCq-GABARAP. Even under conditions that promoted viral entry, rCq-GABARAP significantly reduced viral replication at an early stage of infection, which was probably caused by the formation of WSSV aggregates in the cytoplasm. PMID:27385304

  13. A new day for CME/CPD in Canada: proceedings from the 1st Canada Regional Conference of the Global Alliance for Medical Education in Montreal, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Murray

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Global Alliance for Medical Education (GAME is a not-for-profit organization founded in 1995, with the aim of advancing innovation in medical education. The 1st GAME Canada regional conference was held in Montreal on May 22, 2015, under the leadership of Suzanne Murray, who acted as programme chair, and GAME president Lisa Sullivan. The conference brought together a broad array of speakers and panellists, including experts from academic centres, health systems, accreditors, private organizations, and industry. Thirty-one key stakeholders participated in the event, demonstrating a strong commitment towards the improvement of best practice in continuing medical education (CME/continuing professional development (CPD. The conference included diverse presentations providing opportunities for reflection and discussion throughout the day. The participants actively took part in stimulating discussions that covered a large range of topics, including the need for enhanced networking and opportunities to learn from others, the challenges of assessment and the potential solutions, interprofessional education and competencies, and, finally, the future of a Canadian CME/CPD organization.

  14. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  15. Applying a modified Prochaska's model of readiness to change for general practitioners on depressive disorders in CME programmes: validation of tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Mandana; Assadi, Seyed Mohammad; Sadeghi, Majid; Zeinaloo, Ali A; Kashani, Ahmad S; Arbabi, Mohammad; Alaedini, Farshid; Lonka, Kirsti; Wahlstrom, Rolf

    2007-04-01

    To assess the validity and reliability of an 11-item questionnaire for stages of readiness to change according to a modified Prochaska model (including attitude, intention and action stage) in the context of continuing medical education (CME) on depressive disorders for general practitioners (GPs) in Tehran, Iran. Three hundred and fifty GPs were recruited for filling in a questionnaire in order to assess content validity and modifying the questionnaire. Fifty-nine GPs were involved for testing reliability and 39 GPs for testing concurrent validity. Content validity of the questionnaire was assessed by expert consensus. Concurrent validity was assessed by correlating the results of a semi-structured interview with those of the self-assessment questionnaire. For testing reliability there was a test-retest approach with an interval of 3-7 days. A panel of experts was held at four times and the final version of modified Prochaska questionnaire (MPQ) was compiled by the panel. Total kappa coefficient for concurrent validity of the whole questionnaire was 0.80. Only two of the questions had a kappa coefficient lower than 0.70. In the test-retest, 96% of participants reassigned to the same stage and the total kappa coefficient of reliability was 0.89 for the whole questionnaire. The validity and reliability of the MPQ for assessing GPs' readiness to change in the field of depressive disorders were found to be high in the Iranian context. These findings support its application in tailoring and evaluating CME programmes for GPs in Iran.

  16. Can cognitive dissonance methods developed in the West for combatting the ‘thin ideal’ help slow the rapidly increasing prevalence of eating disorders in non-Western cultures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcomb, Gemma L.; Arcelus, Jon; Chen, Jue

    2013-01-01

    Summary Eating disorders are common, life-threatening conditions in Western countries, but until relatively recently they were regarded as uncommon in non-Western cultures. However, the prevalence of eating disorders in many of the more affluent non-Western countries is rising rapidly as community members, particularly young women, internalize the ‘thin ideal’ that has been widely promoted by the international media. This review discusses the factors involved in the development of eating disorders in non-Western settings with a particular emphasis on the influences of urbanization, modernization, Westernization, and the resulting changes in women's roles. The cognitive dissonance programs developed in Western countries that have proven successful in countering the negative effects of the thin idea are described and their potential application to East Asia and other non-Western countries are discussed. PMID:24991176

  17. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  18. Rapid increase in resistance to third generation cephalosporins, imipenem and co-resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae from isolated from 7,140 blood-cultures (2010-2014) using EARS-Net data in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aracil-García, Belén; Oteo-Iglesias, Jesús; Cuevas-Lobato, Óscar; Lara-Fuella, Noelia; Pérez-Grajera, Isabel; Fernández-Romero, Sara; Pérez-Vázquez, María; Campos, José

    2017-10-01

    An analysis was made about the evolution of resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins, imipenem, and other antibiotics in invasive isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) according to the Spanish EARS-Net database (2010-2014). Forty-two hospitals from 16 Autonomous Communities with an approximate population coverage of 33% participated. A total 7,140 pneumoniae corresponding to the same number of patients were studied. Overall resistance percentages (I+R) were: cefotaxime 15.8%, ceftazidime 13.7%, imipenem 1.7%, ciprofloxacin 20.1%, tobramycin 14.1%, gentamicin 10.4%, and amikacin 1.9%. Resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins increased from 9.8% (2010) to 19% (2014); to ciprofloxacin from 15.4% (2010) to 19.6% (2014); to gentamicin from 6.2% (2010) to 10.3% (2014) and to tobramycin from 7.1% (2010) to 14.2% (2014) (presistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins, ciprofloxacin, and aminoglycosides increased from 3.3% (2010) to 9.7% (2014) (pResistance to imipenem also increased from 0.27% (2010) to 3.46% (2014) (presistant to imipenem, of which 104 (86%) produced carbapenemases: 74 OXA-48, 14 VIM, 9 KPC (6 KPC-2 and 3 KPC-3), 6 IMP, and 1 GES. Over the 5 year period (2010-2014), resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins in invasive K. pneumoniae in Spain has doubled. The combined resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins, ciprofloxacin, and aminoglycosides has tripled, and imipenem resistance has increased almost 13 times, mostly due to the spread of carbapenemase-producing isolates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  19. [Medical journals as implicit role models for good multiple choice questions: to which degree have CME tests so far fulfilled formal quality criteria?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsner, Wolfgang; Böckers, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Many clinicians, particularly those from university hospitals and associated teaching hospitals, use multiple-choice questions in different professional roles: as examiners for student assessment and as life-long learners in respect to the CME programmes of medical journals. For this group of physicians it might thus be desirable that medical journals serve as implicit role models for formulating high-quality multiple-choice questions. 370 multiple-choice questions taken from the 2011 volumes of three different medical journals were reviewed. A checklist consisting of 11 formal quality criteria, 5 quality categories and one global criterion, taken from the literature and from the German Item Management System, was used. High-quality questions were found in the categories "language", "structure", and "signposting the question type." However, "application to cases or problems" and "analysis, interpretation, problem solving" were realised in less than 20 %, and "cues" were detected in almost half of the questions. A subgroup analysis showed different quality levels between the journals. To serve as role models for high-quality multiple-choice questions (MCQ) German medical journals should deliver formal quality criteria and good writing examples to their MCQ authors and ensure strict adherence to these criteria. The development of journal-independent formal standards might prove worthwhile. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  20. Microwave heating causes rapid degradation of antioxidants in polypropylene packaging, leading to greatly increased specific migration to food simulants as shown by ESI-MS and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alin, Jonas; Hakkarainen, Minna

    2011-05-25

    Microwave heating of commercial microwavable polypropylene packaging in contact with fatty food simulants caused significant antioxidant degradation and increased specific migration as shown by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Degradation of the antioxidants Irgafos 168 and Irganox 1010 was not detected during conventional heating of polypropylene packaging at the same temperature. The migration into aqueous food simulants was primarily restricted by the water solubility of the migrants. Using isooctane as fatty food simulant caused significant swelling and greatly enhanced overall migration values compared to the other fatty food simulant, 99.9% ethanol, or the aqueous food simulants 10% ethanol, 3% acetic acid, or water. ESI-MS spectra clearly reflected the overall migration values, and the number and amount of compounds detected decreased as the hydrophilicity of the food simulant increased. ESI-MS was shown to be an excellent tool for the analysis of semivolatile migrants and a good complement to GC-MS analysis of volatile migrants.

  1. Developmental evolution facilitates rapid adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Kazlauskas, Romas J; Travisano, Michael

    2017-11-21

    Developmental evolution has frequently been identified as a mode for rapid adaptation, but direct observations of the selective benefits and associated mechanisms of developmental evolution are necessarily challenging to obtain. Here we show rapid evolution of greatly increased rates of dispersal by developmental changes when populations experience stringent selection. Replicate populations of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma citrinoviride underwent 85 serial transfers, under conditions initially favoring growth but not dispersal. T. citrinoviride populations shifted away from multicellular growth toward increased dispersal by producing one thousand times more single-celled asexual conidial spores, three times sooner than the ancestral genotype. Conidia of selected lines also germinated fifty percent faster. Gene expression changed substantially between the ancestral and selected fungi, especially for spore production and growth, demonstrating rapid evolution of tight regulatory control for down-regulation of growth and up-regulation of conidia production between 18 and 24 hours of growth. These changes involved both developmentally fixed and plastic changes in gene expression, showing that complex developmental changes can serve as a mechanism for rapid adaptation.

  2. Portable Diagnostics and Rapid Germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Zachary Spencer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In the Bioenergy and Defense Department of Sandia National Laboratories, characterization of the BaDx (Bacillus anthracis diagnostic cartridge) was performed and rapid germination chemistry was investigated. BaDx was tested with complex sample matrixes inoculated with Bacillus anthracis, and the trials proved that BaDx will detect Bacillus anthracis in a variety of the medium, such as dirt, serum, blood, milk, and horse fluids. The dimensions of the device were altered to accommodate an E. coli or Listeria lateral flow immunoassay, and using a laser printer, BaDx devices were manufactured to identify E. coli and Listeria. Initial testing with E. coli versions of BaDx indicate that the device will be viable as a portable diagnostic cartridge. The device would be more effective with faster bacteria germination; hence studies were performed the use of rapid germination chemistry. Trials with calcium dipicolinic acid displayed increased cell germination, as shown by control studies using a microplate reader. Upon lyophilization the rapid germination chemistry failed to change growth patterns, indicating that the calcium dipicolinic acid was not solubilized under the conditions tested. Although incompatible with the portable diagnostic device, the experiments proved that the rapid germination chemistry was effective in increasing cell germination.

  3. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  4. CME/CNE Article: A Framework of Care in Multiple Sclerosis, Part 1: Updated Disease Classification and Disease-Modifying Therapy Use in Specific Circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Scott D; Aliotta, Philip J; Bainbridge, Jacquelyn; Bennett, Susan E; Cutter, Gary; Fenton, Kaylan; Lublin, Fred; Northrop, Dorothy; Rintell, David; Walker, Bryan D; Weigel, Megan; Zackowski, Kathleen; Jones, David E

    2016-01-01

    Activity Available Online: To access the article, post-test, and evaluation online, go to http://www.cmscscholar.org. The target audience for this activity is physicians, physician assistants, nursing professionals, and other health-care providers involved in the management of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Apply new information about MS to a comprehensive individualized treatment plan for patients with MSIntegrate the team approach into long-term planning in order to optimize rehabilitation care of patients with MSAccreditation Statement: This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the accreditation requirements and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint providership of the Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centers (CMSC), Nurse Practitioner Alternatives (NPA), and Delaware Media Group. The CMSC is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The CMSC designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s) ™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Nurse Practitioner Alternatives (NPA) is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. NPA designates this enduring material for 1.0 Continuing Nursing Education credit. Laurie Scudder, DNP, NP, has served as Nurse Planner for this activity. She has disclosed no relevant financial relationships. Disclosures: Francois Bethoux, MD , Editor in Chief of the International Journal of MS Care (IJMSC), has served as Physician Planner for this activity. He has received royalties from Springer Publishing and has received intellectual property rights from Biogen. Laurie Scudder, DNP, NP , has served as Nurse Planner for this activity. She has disclosed no relevant financial relationships. Scott D. Newsome, DO, MSCS

  5. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the smallest air passages of the lungs in children ( bronchiolitis ) Pneumonia or other lung infection Transient tachypnea of the newborn Anxiety and panic Other serious lung disease Home Care Rapid, shallow breathing should not be treated at home. It is ...

  6. Rapid Strep Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worse than normal. Your first thoughts turn to strep throat. A rapid strep test in your doctor’s office ... your suspicions.Viruses cause most sore throats. However, strep throat is an infection caused by the Group A ...

  7. Observations and Analyses of Heliospheric Faraday Rotation of a Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) Using the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) and Space-Based Imaging Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi, Mario Mark; Jensen, Elizabeth; Sobey, Charlotte; Fallows, Richard; Jackson, Bernard; Barnes, David; Giunta, Alessandra; Hick, Paul; Eftekhari, Tarraneh; Yu, Hsiu-Shan; Odstrcil, Dusan; Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Wood, Brian

    2017-04-01

    Geomagnetic storms of the highest intensity are general driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) impacting the Earth's space environment. Their intensity is driven by the speed, density, and, most-importantly, their magnetic-field orientation and magnitude of the incoming solar plasma. The most-significant magnetic-field factor is the North-South component (Bz in Geocentric Solar Magnetic - GSM - coordinates). At present, there are no reliable prediction methods available for this magnetic-field component ahead of the in-situ monitors around the Sun-Earth L1 point. Observations of Faraday rotation (FR) can be used to attempt to determine average magnetic-field orientations in the inner heliosphere. Such a technique has already been well demonstrated through the corona, ionosphere, and also the interstellar medium. Measurements of the polarisation of astronomical (or spacecraft in superior conjunction) radio sources (beacons/radio frequency carriers) through the inner corona of the Sun to obtain the FR have been demonstrated but mostly at relatively-high radio frequencies. Here we show some initial results of true heliospheric FR using the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) below 200 MHz to investigate the passage of a coronal mass ejection (CME) across the line of sight. LOFAR is a next-generation low-frequency radio interferometer, and a pathfinder to the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) - LOW telescope. We demonstrate preliminary heliospheric FR results through the analysis of observations of pulsar J1022+1001, which commenced on 13 August 2014 at 13:00UT and spanned over 150 minutes in duration. We also show initial comparisons to the FR results via various modelling techniques and additional context information to understand the structure of the inner heliosphere being detected. This observation could indeed pave the way to an experiment which might be implemented for space-weather purposes that will eventually lead to a near-global method for determining the magnetic

  8. RAPID3? Aptly named!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, J-M

    2014-01-01

    The RAPID3 score is the sum of three 0-10 patient self-report scores: pain, functional impairment on MDHAQ, and patient global estimate. It requires 5 seconds for scoring and can be used in all rheumatologic conditions, although it has mostly been used in rheumatoid arthritis where cutoffs for low disease activity (12/30) have been set. A RAPID3 score of ≤ 3/30 with 1 or 0 swollen joints (RAPID3 ≤ 3 + ≤ SJ1) provides remission criteria comparable to Boolean, SDAI, CDAI, and DAS28 remission criteria, in far less time than a formal joint count. RAPID3 performs as well as the DAS28 in separating active drugs from placebos in clinical trials. RAPID3 also predicts subsequent structural disease progression. RAPID3 can be determined at short intervals at home, allowing the determination of the area under the curve of disease activity between two visits and flare detection. However, RAPID3 should not be seen as a substitute for DAS28 and face to face visits in routine care. Monitoring patient status with only self-report information without a rheumatologist's advice (including joints and physical examination, and consideration of imaging and laboratory tests) may indeed be as undesirable for most patients than joint examination without a patient questionnaire. Conversely, combining the RAPID3 and the DAS28 may consist in faster or more sensitive confirmation that a medication is effective. Similarly, better enquiring of most important concerns of patients (pain, functional status and overall opinion on their disorder) should reinforces patients' confidence in their rheumatologist and treatments.

  9. The effect of a preoperative erythropoietin protocol as part of a multifaceted blood management program in daily clinical practice (CME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doodeman, Hieronymus J; van Haelst, Ingrid M M; Egberts, Toine C G; Bennis, Martin; Traast, Han S; van Solinge, Wouter W; Kalkman, Cor J; van Klei, Wilton A

    2013-09-01

    The effectiveness of a preoperative erythropoietin (EPO) protocol to reduce allogeneic blood transfusions (ABTs) in daily clinical practice has been insufficiently studied. This study evaluated the effect of such a protocol, as part of a multifaceted blood management program, in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA). This retrospective observational study was designed as an interrupted time series (1999-2010). The intervention was the introduction of an EPO protocol in THA patients in 2003. Patients were classified according to preoperative hemoglobin (Hb) level: 10 to 13 g/dL (eligible patients for EPO) and more than 13 g/dL. The primary outcome was the percentage of patients receiving an ABT. Segmented regression analysis was used to estimate changes in outcome after the intervention. A total of 4568 THA patients were included. The absolute reductions in ABTs after the intervention were 17% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6%-29%) for the total study population and 25% (95% CI, 11%-39%) and 8% (95% CI, -5% to 21%) for the Hb groups 10 to 13 and more than 13 g/dL, respectively. In the postintervention period, 46% of the eligible patients (Hb level, 10-13 g/dL) actually received EPO. The transfusion rate in the EPO group was lower compared to the non-EPO group: 14 and 50%, respectively (p < 0.01). Introduction of a preoperative EPO protocol reduced the transfusion rate in THA patients in daily clinical practice. The reduction must be seen as part of a multifaceted blood management program, in which increased awareness of blood transfusion contributes simultaneously and substantially to the reduction in transfusion rate. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  10. Contextual background to the rapid increase in migration from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Brigade which was a North Korea-trained military outfit. The CCJP (1997) estimated that a total of 20 000 civilians were massacred in Matabeleland and the Midlands Provinces. Those targeted were accused of harbouring dissidents. Peace was only restored after the signing of the. Unity Accord between ZANU PF and ...

  11. Contextual background to the rapid increase in migration from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... documented and undocumented migrants dispersed in countries in the region, predominantly South Africa and Botswana, and far-flung countries like the United Kingdom, the United States of America, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Whereas in the past male migration was dominant, by 2000 women have migrated ...

  12. rapid increase in precaution The global financial crisis: origin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-05-01

    May 1, 2010 ... Abstract. The financial crisis that erupted in September 2008—following more than two years of financial turmoil has become global crisis for the world economy. An attempt is made in this study to assess the possible causes of the origin, contagion and impact of the current global financial crisis with ...

  13. rapid increase in precaution The global financial crisis: origin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-05-01

    May 1, 2010 ... The financial crisis that erupted in September 2008—following more than two years of financial turmoil .... The study begins with a brief historical description of financial crises from the Great Depression of ... financial crisis of 1997/98 and the current global economic crisis (2008/09). [. The Great Depression.

  14. Innovative rapid construction/reconstruction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Innovative construction and reconstruction methods provide the opportunity to significantly reduce the time of roadway projects while maintaining the necessary quality of workmanship. The need for these rapid methods stems from the increase in ...

  15. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  16. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Rapid Cycling and its Treatment What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar ... to Depression and Manic Depression . What is rapid cycling? Rapid cycling is defined as four or more ...

  17. CME1003Pg023ED

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    since drug therapy is more effective in subjects on continued diet and exercise programmes.10,11. Pharmacological therapy includes the oral agents and insulin. Insulin therapy is not discussed further, other than saying that it is proba- bly a reality for most subjects with long-term type 2 diabetes, if gly- caemic targets are to ...

  18. CME1003Pg035ED

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    with type 2 dia- betes not on insulin therapy it is 39%. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy varies with the duration of diabetes. Newly diagnosed patients with type 1 diabetes are very unlikely to have diabetic retinopathy, but. 10 years later almost 70% will have evi- dence of retinopathy. Twenty years later this figure rises ...

  19. CME 8948 (ONLINE).indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated, while fibromyalgia-like symptoms and autoimmunity also occur. Patients shown to have antigen-specific defects can benefit from immunoglobulin replacement. Patients with hyper-IgM usually present in childhood with PID – with elevated serum. ARTICLE. Investigation of adult immunodeficiency and indications.

  20. CME 8965 (ONLINE).indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, acute idiopathic thrombocytopenia, Kawasaki disease and ... RCT = randomised controlled trial; ITP = immune thrombocytopenia; CLL = chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. .... be indicated to reduce relapses during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

  1. CME 8959 (ONLINE).indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pork), epithelia (cat and dog) and cow's milk. Egg allergy. Egg white is the most important source ... chicken as chicken serum albumin and may cause 'bird-egg syndrome', where patients. Table 2. ... neck, around the eyes) or involvement of cheeks and/or extensor surfaces in children ≥18 months of age. Visible flexural ...

  2. CME 8860 (ONLINE).indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    symptoms, and after swimming or bathing. The best results are obtained if emollients and medications are applied within three minutes of bathing to retain hydration.[2] Sufficient quantities must be prescribed, e.g. 250 g/wk for children and 500 g/wk for adults for whole-body coverage. Generally, emollients are safe to use, ...

  3. CME 9097 (ONLINE).indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MTB) with demonstrated resistance to first-line and/or second- line TB drugs on laboratory drug-susceptibility testing. (DST). The revised classification and definitions of. DR-TB, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), are given in ...

  4. CME 8843 (ONLINE).indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [12]. The concept of the 'atopic march', where children with AD develop mucosal forms of atopic disease,[13] has been challenged by some cohort studies.[14] An early wheeze and a specific sensitisation pattern (wheat, cat, mite, soy and birch) were predictors of wheezing at school age in a German-birth cohort study, ...

  5. CME 9060 (ONLINE).indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA) and has a dismal prognosis.[1] In a study from a Cape Town hospital,. TBM accounted for more than half of adult meningitis cases over a 6-month period; at 6-month follow-up mortality was 48%.[1] HIV co-infection, particularly in patients ...

  6. CME 9060 (ONLINE).indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corresponding author: S Marais (marais.suzaan@gmail.com). Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a medical emergency for which tuberculosis (TB) treatment should be initiated as soon as possible after diagnosis. Owing to the low diagnostic yields of confirmatory tests, TBM is often diagnosed based on suggestive clinical and ...

  7. CME 8948 (ONLINE).indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, myeloma. • Immune suppression due to radiation, cytotoxic and/or steroid therapy. • Malnutrition, vitamin and mineral deficiency (e.g. zinc deficiency). • Autoimmune disorders, e.g systemic lupus erythematosus. • Intestinal lymphangiectasia resulting in immunoglobulin and lymphocyte loss.

  8. CME 8965 (ONLINE).indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    benefit over other forms of immunosuppression, particularly corticosteroids, must be assessed carefully on a case-by-case basis. In most cases ..... [28] showed equal viral reactivation rates compared with the .... Check baseline renal and liver function, full blood count, and infection screen for hepatitis B/C* and HIV*. 2.

  9. CME 8605 ONLINE.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    water-borne diseases, heat stress and diseases related to air pollution ... In this Plan, nine health and environmental risks are highlighted as ... has taken several steps in response to climate change and its associated threats to human health.

  10. CME 8946 (ONLINE).indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten warning signs of primary immunodeficiency developed by the Jeffrey Modell Foundation Medical Advisory. Board[16]. • Four or more new ear infections within one year. • Two or more serious sinus infections within one year. • Two or more months of antibiotics, with little effect. • Two or more pneumonias within one year.

  11. CME 9097 (ONLINE).indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Table 1. Categories of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) – modified from the World Health Organization classification[1]. Category .... Adapted from the Companion Handbook to the WHO Guidelines for the Programmatic Management of Drug-resistant Tuberculosis.[3]. *Terizidone ... testing methods, but genotyping studies.

  12. CME 8148 ONLINE.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was not a given that I would go to school. It was not a given that I would make it to Matric. It was not a ... schools are reluctant to accept these children as they may be academically challenged and have problems (e.g. .... tennis, athletics, swimming and basketball. He drives his own specially converted car, and works for a ...

  13. CME 8857 (ONLINE).indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disease involves young children, education of parents is mandatory. Without ... Educating patients with atopic dermatitis is an essential and necessary part of therapy and particularly important when young children are involved. ... The child, parent or carer might benefit from specialist advice regarding treatment. • AD has not ...

  14. CME 8148 ONLINE.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    young people less severely affected by spina bifida do marry and live a normal life, as their individual stories illustrate. Marriage for the disabled person, whether with an able-bodied or disabled partner, has a very different dynamic, particularly pertaining to intimacy. Sex therapists give excellent advice regarding this area of.

  15. CME 9091 (ONLINE).indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These changes were the result of a better understanding of the rate of disease progression and the high early morbidity and mortality. There is now a better appreciation of the .... may also select for more 'manageable' resistance patterns in failing children. ... baseline NNRTI resistance (plasma RNA >1 000 copies/mL) when.

  16. CME1003Pg011ED

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    People with diabetes who choose to drink alcohol, should limit daily intake to one drink for adult women and two drinks for adult men. One drink is defined ... Older adults. • Energy requirements for older adults are lower than for younger adults. • Physical activity should be encouraged. • In the elderly, undernutrition is.

  17. Arrival times of Flare/Halo CME associated shocks at the Earth: comparison of the predictions of three numerical models with these observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. P. McKenna-Lawlor

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The arrival times at L1 of eleven travelling shocks associated both with X-ray flaring and with halo CMEs recorded aboard SOHO/LASCO have been considered. Close to the Sun the velocities of these events were estimated using either Type II radio records or CME speeds. Close to the Earth the shocks were detected in the data of various solar wind plasma, interplanetary magnetic field (IMF and energetic particle experiments aboard SOHO, ACE, WIND, INTERBALL-1 and IMP-8. The real-time shock arrival predictions of three numerical models, namely the Shock Time of Arrival Model (STOA, the Interplanetary Shock Propagation Model (ISPM and the Hakamada-Akasofu-Fry Solar Wind Model (HAFv.2 were tested against these observations. This is the first time that energetic protons (tens of keV to a few MeV have been used to complement plasma and IMF data in validating shock propagation models. The models were all generally successful in predicting shock arrivals. STOA provided the smallest values of the "predicted minus measured" arrival times and displayed a typical predictive precision better than about 8 h. The ratio of the calculated standard deviation of the transit times to Earth to the standard deviation of the measurements was estimated for each model (treating interacting events as composite shocks and these ratios turned out to be 0.60, 1.15 and 1.02 for STOA, ISPM and HAFv.2, respectively. If an event in the sample for which the shock velocity was not well known is omitted from consideration, these ratios become 0.36, 0.76 and 0.81, respectively. Larger statistical samples should now be tested. The ratio of the in situ shock velocity and the "Sun to L1" transit velocity (Vsh /Vtr was in the range of 0.7–0.9 for individual, non-interacting, shock events. HAFv.2 uniquely provided information on those changes in the COBpoint (the moving Connection point on the shock along the IMF to the OBserver which directly influenced energetic particle rise times

  18. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available . Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  19. Rapid Prototyping in PVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Butler, Ricky (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    PVSio is a conservative extension to the PVS prelude library that provides basic input/output capabilities to the PVS ground evaluator. It supports rapid prototyping in PVS by enhancing the specification language with built-in constructs for string manipulation, floating point arithmetic, and input/output operations.

  20. Rapid Prototyping Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosier, James

    2011-01-01

    Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…

  1. Rapid manufacturing facilitated customisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tuck, Christopher John; Hague, Richard; Ruffo, Massimiliano; Ransley, Michelle; Adams, Paul Russell

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes the production of body-fitting customised seat profiles utilising the following digital methods: three dimensional laser scanning, reverse engineering and Rapid Manufacturing (RM). The seat profiles have been manufactured in order to influence the comfort characteristics of an existing ejector seat manufactured by Martin Baker Aircraft Ltd. The seat, known as Navy Aircrew Common Ejection Seat (NACES), was originally designed with a generic profile. ...

  2. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Perlin

    2005-08-14

    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  3. Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Mark P.; Anderson, Lawrence G.; Post, Gordon L.

    2018-01-16

    Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings are applied to substrates. The electrically conductive clear coating includes to clear layer having a resinous binder with ultrafine non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide particles dispersed therein. The clear coating may be rapidly cured by subjecting the coating to infrared radiation that heats the tungsten oxide particles and surrounding resinous binder. Localized heating increases the temperature of the coating to thereby thermally cure the coating, while avoiding unwanted heating of the underlying substrate.

  4. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  5. Arrival times of Flare/Halo CME associated shocks at the Earth: comparison of the predictions of three numerical models with these observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. P. McKenna-Lawlor

    Full Text Available The arrival times at L1 of eleven travelling shocks associated both with X-ray flaring and with halo CMEs recorded aboard SOHO/LASCO have been considered. Close to the Sun the velocities of these events were estimated using either Type II radio records or CME speeds. Close to the Earth the shocks were detected in the data of various solar wind plasma, interplanetary magnetic field (IMF and energetic particle experiments aboard SOHO, ACE, WIND, INTERBALL-1 and IMP-8. The real-time shock arrival predictions of three numerical models, namely the Shock Time of Arrival Model (STOA, the Interplanetary Shock Propagation Model (ISPM and the Hakamada-Akasofu-Fry Solar Wind Model (HAFv.2 were tested against these observations. This is the first time that energetic protons (tens of keV to a few MeV have been used to complement plasma and IMF data in validating shock propagation models. The models were all generally successful in predicting shock arrivals. STOA provided the smallest values of the "predicted minus measured" arrival times and displayed a typical predictive precision better than about 8 h. The ratio of the calculated standard deviation of the transit times to Earth to the standard deviation of the measurements was estimated for each model (treating interacting events as composite shocks and these ratios turned out to be 0.60, 1.15 and 1.02 for STOA, ISPM and HAFv.2, respectively. If an event in the sample for which the shock velocity was not well known is omitted from consideration, these ratios become 0.36, 0.76 and 0.81, respectively. Larger statistical samples should now be tested. The ratio of the in situ shock velocity and the "Sun to L1" transit velocity (Vsh /Vtr was in the range of 0.7–0.9 for individual, non-interacting, shock events. HAFv.2 uniquely provided information on those changes in the COBpoint (the moving Connection point on the shock along the IMF to the OBserver which directly influenced energetic

  6. Rapid prototype and test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, D.L.; Hansche, B.D.

    1996-06-01

    In order to support advanced manufacturing, Sandia has acquired the capability to produce plastic prototypes using stereolithography. Currently, these prototypes are used mainly to verify part geometry and ``fit and form`` checks. This project investigates methods for rapidly testing these plastic prototypes, and inferring from prototype test data actual metal part performance and behavior. Performances examined include static load/stress response, and structural dynamic (modal) and vibration behavior. The integration of advanced non-contacting measurement techniques including scanning laser velocimetry, laser holography, and thermoelasticity into testing of these prototypes is described. Photoelastic properties of the epoxy prototypes to reveal full field stress/strain fields are also explored.

  7. Right-Rapid-Rough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Craig

    2003-01-01

    IDEO (pronounced 'eye-dee-oh') is an international design, engineering, and innovation firm that has developed thousands of products and services for clients across a wide range of industries. Its process and culture attracted the attention of academics, businesses, and journalists around the world, and are the subject of a bestselling book, The Art of Innovation by Tom Kelley. One of the keys to IDEO's success is its use of prototyping as a tool for rapid innovation. This story covers some of IDEO's projects, and gives reasons for why they were successful.

  8. Rapid mineralocorticoid receptor trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekle, M; Bretschneider, M; Meinel, S; Ruhs, S; Grossmann, C

    2014-03-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that physiologically regulates water-electrolyte homeostasis and controls blood pressure. The MR can also elicit inflammatory and remodeling processes in the cardiovascular system and the kidneys, which require the presence of additional pathological factors like for example nitrosative stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for pathophysiological MR effects remain(s) elusive. The inactive MR is located in the cytosol associated with chaperone molecules including HSP90. After ligand binding, the MR monomer rapidly translocates into the nucleus while still being associated to HSP90 and after dissociation from HSP90 binds to hormone-response-elements called glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) as a dimer. There are indications that rapid MR trafficking is modulated in the presence of high salt, oxidative or nitrosative stress, hypothetically by induction or posttranslational modifications. Additionally, glucocorticoids and the enzyme 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase may also influence MR activation. Because MR trafficking and its modulation by micro-milieu factors influence MR cellular localization, it is not only relevant for genomic but also for nongenomic MR effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  10. Rapid generalization in phonotactic learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Linzen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Speakers judge novel strings to be better potential words of their language if those strings consist of sound sequences that are attested in the language. These intuitions are often generalized to new sequences that share some properties with attested ones: Participants exposed to an artificial language where all words start with the voiced stops [b] and [d] will prefer words that start with other voiced stops (e.g., [g] to words that start with vowels or nasals. The current study tracks the evolution of generalization across sounds during the early stages of artificial language learning. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants received varying amounts of exposure to an artificial language. Learners rapidly generalized to new sounds: In fact, following short exposure to the language, attested patterns were not distinguished from unattested patterns that were similar in their phonological properties to the attested ones. Following additional exposure, participants showed an increasing preference for attested sounds, alongside sustained generalization to unattested ones. Finally, Experiment 3 tested whether participants can rapidly generalize to new sounds based on a single type of sound. We discuss the implications of our results for computational models of phonotactic learning.

  11. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  12. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  13. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  14. Rapid Solidification of Magnetic Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalonji, G.; Deguire, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    The enhanced control over microstructural evolution inherent in rapid solidification processing techniques are exploited to create novel ceramic magnetic materials. The great sensitivity of magnetic properties to local structure provides a powerful probe both for the study of structure and of microscopic solidification mechanisms. The first system studied is the SrO-Fe2O3 binary, which contains the commercially important hard magnetic compound strontium hexaferrite. The products were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, Mossbauer spectroscopy, magnetic measurements, and differential thermal analysis. As-quenched ribbons contain high concentrations of super-paramagnetic particles, 80 to 250 Angstroms in diameter, in a glassy matrix. This suggests the possibility of crystallizing monodomain strontium hexaferrite during subsequent heat treatment, with a resulting increase in coercivity over conventionally processed ferrite magnets. That magnetic properties can be controlled in solidification processing by varying the quench rate is demonstrated.

  15. Anti-Campylobacter activity of resveratrol and an extract from waste Pinot noir grape skins and seeds, and resistance of Camp. jejuni planktonic and biofilm cells, mediated via the CmeABC efflux pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klančnik, A.; Šikić Pogačar, M.; Trošt, K.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: To define anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity of an extract from waste skins and seeds of Pinot noir grapes (GSS), resveratrol and possible resistance mechanisms, and the influence of these on Camp. jejuni morphology. Methods and Results: Using gene-specific knock-out Camp. jejuni mutants...... and an efflux pump inhibitor, we showed CmeABC as the most active efflux pump for extrusion across the outer membrane of GSS extract and resveratrol. Using polystyrene surface and pig small intestine epithelial (PSI) and human foetal small intestine (H4) cell lines, GSS extract shows an efficient inhibition......: An understanding of the activities of GSS extract and resveratrol as bacterial growth inhibitors and the specific mechanisms of cell accumulation is crucial for our understanding of Camp. jejuni resistance. GSS extract inhibition of Camp. jejuni adhesion to abiotic and biotic surfaces provides a further step...

  16. Building a rapid response team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Lisa; Garolis, Salomeja; Wallace-Scroggs, Allyson; Stenstrom, Judy; Maunder, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The use of rapid response teams is a relatively new approach for decreasing or eliminating codes in acute care hospitals. Based on the principles of a code team for cardiac and/or respiratory arrest in non-critical care units, the rapid response teams have specially trained nursing, respiratory, and medical personnel to respond to calls from general care units to assess and manage decompensating or rapidly changing patients before their conditions escalate to a full code situation. This article describes the processes used to develop a rapid response team, clinical indicators for triggering a rapid response team call, topics addressed in an educational program for the rapid response team members, and methods for evaluating effectiveness of the rapid response team.

  17. Problems of rapid growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T D

    1980-01-01

    South Korea's export-oriented development strategy has achieved a remarkable growth record, but it has also brought 2 different problems: 1) since the country's exports accounted for about 1% of total world export volume, the 1st world has become fearful about Korea's aggressive export drive; and 2) the fact that exports account for over 30% of its total gross national product (GNP) exposes the vulnerability of South Korea's economy itself. South Korea continues to be a poor nation, although it is rated as 1 of the most rapidly growing middle income economies. A World Bank 1978 report shows Korea to be 28th of 58 middle income countries in terms of per capita GNP in 1976. Of 11 newly industrializing countries (NIC), 5 in the European continent are more advanced than the others. A recent emphasis on the basic human needs approach has tended to downgrade the concept of GNP. Korea has only an abundant labor force and is without any natural resources. Consequently, Korea utilized an export-oriented development strategy. Oil requirements are met with imports, and almost all raw materials to be processed into exportable products must be imported. To pay import bills Korea must export and earn foreign exchange. It must be emphasized that foreign trade must always be 2-way traffic. In order to export more to middle income countries like Korea, the countries of the 1st world need to ease their protectionist measures against imports from developing countries.

  18. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  19. Rapidly rotating red giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehan, Charlotte; Mosser, Benoît; Michel, Eric

    2017-10-01

    Stellar oscillations give seismic information on the internal properties of stars. Red giants are targets of interest since they present mixed modes, wich behave as pressure modes in the convective envelope and as gravity modes in the radiative core. Mixed modes thus directly probe red giant cores, and allow in particular the study of their mean core rotation. The high-quality data obtained by CoRoT and Kepler satellites represent an unprecedented perspective to obtain thousands of measurements of red giant core rotation, in order to improve our understanding of stellar physics in deep stellar interiors. We developed an automated method to obtain such core rotation measurements and validated it for stars on the red giant branch. In this work, we particularly focus on the specific application of this method to red giants having a rapid core rotation. They show complex spectra where it is tricky to disentangle rotational splittings from mixed-mode period spacings. We demonstrate that the method based on the identification of mode crossings is precise and efficient. The determination of the mean core rotation directly derives from the precise measurement of the asymptotic period spacing ΔΠ1 and of the frequency at which the crossing of the rotational components is observed.

  20. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  1. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced, as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  2. Rapid mixing kinetic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen R; Schilstra, Maria J

    2013-01-01

    Almost all of the elementary steps in a biochemical reaction scheme are either unimolecular or bimolecular processes that frequently occur on sub-second, often sub-millisecond, time scales. The traditional approach in kinetic studies is to mix two or more reagents and monitor the changes in concentrations with time. Conventional spectrophotometers cannot generally be used to study reactions that are complete within less than about 20 s, as it takes that amount of time to manually mix the reagents and activate the instrument. Rapid mixing techniques, which generally achieve mixing in less than 2 ms, overcome this limitation. This chapter is concerned with the use of these techniques in the study of reactions which reach equilibrium; the application of these methods to the study of enzyme kinetics is described in several excellent texts (Cornish-Bowden, Fundamentals of enzyme kinetics. Portland Press, 1995; Gutfreund, Kinetics for the life sciences. Receptors, transmitters and catalysis. Cambridge University Press, 1995).There are various ways to monitor changes in concentration of reactants, intermediates and products after mixing, but the most common way is to use changes in optical signals (absorbance or fluorescence) which often accompany reactions. Although absorbance can sometimes be used, fluorescence is often preferred because of its greater sensitivity, particularly in monitoring conformational changes. Such methods are continuous with good time resolution but they seldom permit the direct determination of the concentrations of individual species. Alternatively, samples may be taken from the reaction volume, mixed with a chemical quenching agent to stop the reaction, and their contents assessed by techniques such as HPLC. These methods can directly determine the concentrations of different species, but are discontinuous and have a limited time resolution.

  3. Rapid Active Sampling Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    A field-deployable, battery-powered Rapid Active Sampling Package (RASP), originally designed for sampling strong materials during lunar and planetary missions, shows strong utility for terrestrial geological use. The technology is proving to be simple and effective for sampling and processing materials of strength. Although this originally was intended for planetary and lunar applications, the RASP is very useful as a powered hand tool for geologists and the mining industry to quickly sample and process rocks in the field on Earth. The RASP allows geologists to surgically acquire samples of rock for later laboratory analysis. This tool, roughly the size of a wrench, allows the user to cut away swaths of weathering rinds, revealing pristine rock surfaces for observation and subsequent sampling with the same tool. RASPing deeper (.3.5 cm) exposes single rock strata in-situ. Where a geologist fs hammer can only expose unweathered layers of rock, the RASP can do the same, and then has the added ability to capture and process samples into powder with particle sizes less than 150 microns, making it easier for XRD/XRF (x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence). The tool uses a rotating rasp bit (or two counter-rotating bits) that resides inside or above the catch container. The container has an open slot to allow the bit to extend outside the container and to allow cuttings to enter and be caught. When the slot and rasp bit are in contact with a substrate, the bit is plunged into it in a matter of seconds to reach pristine rock. A user in the field may sample a rock multiple times at multiple depths in minutes, instead of having to cut out huge, heavy rock samples for transport back to a lab for analysis. Because of the speed and accuracy of the RASP, hundreds of samples can be taken in one day. RASP-acquired samples are small and easily carried. A user can characterize more area in less time than by using conventional methods. The field-deployable RASP used a Ni

  4. Rapid Robot Design Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robotic designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  5. Rapid Robot Design Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robot designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  6. Rapid prototyping in medical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ákos Márk Horváth

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Even if it sound a bit incredible rapid prototyping (RPT as production method has been used for decades in other professions. Nevertheless medical science just started discover the possibilities of this technology and use the offered benefits of 3D printing. In this paper authors have investigated the pharmaceutical usage of rapid prototyping.

  7. Dynamics of rapid innovation

    CERN Document Server

    Fink, T M A; Palma, R; Farr, R S

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a model of innovation in which products are composed of components and new components are adopted one at a time. We show that the number of products we can make now gives a distorted view of the number we can make in the future: the more complex a product is, the more it gets under-represented. From this complexity discount we derive a strategy for increasing the rate of innovation by choosing components on the basis of long-term growth rather than just short-term gain. We test our model on data from language, gastronomy and technology and predict the best strategy for innovating in each.

  8. Accuracy of rapid disposition by emergency clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backay, Andrew; Bystrzycki, Adam; Smit, De Villiers; Keogh, Martin; O'Reilly, Gerard; Mitra, Biswadev

    2017-05-01

    Objectives Rapid disposition protocols are increasingly being considered for implementation in emergency departments (EDs). Among patients presenting to an adult tertiary referral hospital, this study aimed to compare prediction accuracy of a rapid disposition decision at the conclusion of history and examination, compared with disposition following standard assessment. Methods Prospective observational data were collected for 1 month between October and November 2012. Emergency clinicians (including physicians, registrars, hospital medical officers, interns and nurse practitioners) filled out a questionnaire within 5min of obtaining a history and clinical examination for eligible patients. Predicted patient disposition (representing 'rapid disposition') was compared with final disposition (determined by 'standard assessment'). Results There were 301 patient episodes included in the study. Predicted disposition was correct in 249 (82.7%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 78.0-86.8) cases. Accuracy of predicting discharge to home appeared highest among emergency physicians at 95.8% (95% CI 78.9-99.9). Overall accuracy at predicting admission was 79.7% (95% CI 67.2-89.0). The remaining 20.3% (95% CI 11.0-32.8) were not admitted following standard assessment. Conclusion Rapid disposition by ED clinicians can predict patient destination accurately but was associated with a potential increase in admission rates. Any model of care using rapid disposition decision making should involve establishment of inpatient systems for further assessment, and a culture of timely inpatient team transfer of patients to the most appropriate treating team for ongoing patient management. What is known about the topic? In response to the National Emergency Access Targets, there has been widespread adoption of rapid-disposition-themed care models across Australia. Although there is emerging data that clinicians can predict disposition accurately, this data is currently limited. What does this

  9. Rapid typing of Coxiella burnetii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidie M Hornstra

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii has the potential to cause serious disease and is highly prevalent in the environment. Despite this, epidemiological data are sparse and isolate collections are typically small, rare, and difficult to share among laboratories as this pathogen is governed by select agent rules and fastidious to culture. With the advent of whole genome sequencing, some of this knowledge gap has been overcome by the development of genotyping schemes, however many of these methods are cumbersome and not readily transferable between institutions. As comparisons of the few existing collections can dramatically increase our knowledge of the evolution and phylogeography of the species, we aimed to facilitate such comparisons by extracting SNP signatures from past genotyping efforts and then incorporated these signatures into assays that quickly and easily define genotypes and phylogenetic groups. We found 91 polymorphisms (SNPs and indels among multispacer sequence typing (MST loci and designed 14 SNP-based assays that could be used to type samples based on previously established phylogenetic groups. These assays are rapid, inexpensive, real-time PCR assays whose results are unambiguous. Data from these assays allowed us to assign 43 previously untyped isolates to established genotypes and genomic groups. Furthermore, genotyping results based on assays from the signatures provided here are easily transferred between institutions, readily interpreted phylogenetically and simple to adapt to new genotyping technologies.

  10. How Rapid is Rapid Prototyping? Analysis of ESPADON Programme Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Alston

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available New methodologies, engineering processes, and support environments are beginning to emerge for embedded signal processing systems. The main objectives are to enable defence industry to field state-of-the-art products in less time and with lower costs, including retrofits and upgrades, based predominately on commercial off the shelf (COTS components and the model-year concept. One of the cornerstones of the new methodologies is the concept of rapid prototyping. This is the ability to rapidly and seamlessly move from functional design to the architectural design to the implementation, through automatic code generation tools, onto real-time COTS test beds. In this paper, we try to quantify the term “rapid” and provide results, the metrics, from two independent benchmarks, a radar and sonar beamforming application subset. The metrics show that the rapid prototyping process may be sixteen times faster than a conventional process.

  11. Cook & Chill - Rapid Chilling of Food 'in situ'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    Rapid cooling of products is of increasing importance for food preservation and for industrial processes. Slurry ice (Binary Ice) is a two-phase cooling fluid consisting of suspended ice crystals in an aqueous solution or mixture. Latent energy contained in the fluid yields rapid cooling which...

  12. RAPID: Collaborative Commanding and Monitoring of Lunar Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Recaredo J.; Mittman, David S.; Powell, Mark W.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Abramyan, Lucy; Shams, Khawaja S.; Wallick, Michael; Allan, Mark; hide

    2011-01-01

    RAPID (Robot Application Programming Interface Delegate) software utilizes highly robust technology to facilitate commanding and monitoring of lunar assets. RAPID provides the ability for intercenter communication, since these assets are developed in multiple NASA centers. RAPID is targeted at the task of lunar operations; specifically, operations that deal with robotic assets, cranes, and astronaut spacesuits, often developed at different NASA centers. RAPID allows for a uniform way to command and monitor these assets. Commands can be issued to take images, and monitoring is done via telemetry data from the asset. There are two unique features to RAPID: First, it allows any operator from any NASA center to control any NASA lunar asset, regardless of location. Second, by abstracting the native language for specific assets to a common set of messages, an operator may control and monitor any NASA lunar asset by being trained only on the use of RAPID, rather than the specific asset. RAPID is easier to use and more powerful than its predecessor, the Astronaut Interface Device (AID). Utilizing the new robust middleware, DDS (Data Distribution System), developing in RAPID has increased significantly over the old middleware. The API is built upon the Java Eclipse Platform, which combined with DDS, provides platform-independent software architecture, simplifying development of RAPID components. As RAPID continues to evolve and new messages are being designed and implemented, operators for future lunar missions will have a rich environment for commanding and monitoring assets.

  13. A Rapid Coliform Detector Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC, in collaboration with Lucigen, proposes a rapid genetic detector for spaceflight water systems to enable real-time detection of E-coli with minimal...

  14. Rapid Multiplex Microbial Detector Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC, in collaboration with Lucigen, proposes a rapid nucleic acid-based detector for spaceflight water systems to enable simultaneous quantification of multiple...

  15. Rapid response learning of brand logo priming: Evidence that brand priming is not dominated by rapid response learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Stephan G; Smith, Ciaran; Muench, Niklas; Noble, Kirsty; Atherton, Catherine

    2017-08-31

    Repetition priming increases the accuracy and speed of responses to repeatedly processed stimuli. Repetition priming can result from two complementary sources: rapid response learning and facilitation within perceptual and conceptual networks. In conceptual classification tasks, rapid response learning dominates priming of object recognition, but it does not dominate priming of person recognition. This suggests that the relative engagement of network facilitation and rapid response learning depends on the stimulus domain. Here, we addressed the importance of the stimulus domain for rapid response learning by investigating priming in another domain, brands. In three experiments, participants performed conceptual decisions for brand logos. Strong priming was present, but it was not dominated by rapid response learning. These findings add further support to the importance of the stimulus domain for the relative importance of network facilitation and rapid response learning, and they indicate that brand priming is more similar to person recognition priming than object recognition priming, perhaps because priming of both brands and persons requires individuation.

  16. Anti-Campylobacter activity of resveratrol and an extract from waste Pinot noir grape skins and seeds, and resistance of Camp. jejuni planktonic and biofilm cells, mediated via the CmeABC efflux pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klančnik, A; Šikić Pogačar, M; Trošt, K; Tušek Žnidarič, M; Mozetič Vodopivec, B; Smole Možina, S

    2017-01-01

    To define anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity of an extract from waste skins and seeds of Pinot noir grapes (GSS), resveratrol and possible resistance mechanisms, and the influence of these on Camp. jejuni morphology. Using gene-specific knock-out Camp. jejuni mutants and an efflux pump inhibitor, we showed CmeABC as the most active efflux pump for extrusion across the outer membrane of GSS extract and resveratrol. Using polystyrene surface and pig small intestine epithelial (PSI) and human foetal small intestine (H4) cell lines, GSS extract shows an efficient inhibition of adhesion of Camp. jejuni to these abiotic and biotic surfaces. Low doses of GSS extract can inhibit Camp. jejuni adhesion to polystyrene surfaces and to PSI and H4 cells, and can thus modulate Camp. jejuni invasion and intracellular survival. An understanding of the activities of GSS extract and resveratrol as bacterial growth inhibitors and the specific mechanisms of cell accumulation is crucial for our understanding of Camp. jejuni resistance. GSS extract inhibition of Camp. jejuni adhesion to abiotic and biotic surfaces provides a further step towards the application of new innovative strategies to control Campylobacter contamination and infection via the food chain. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Hydrothermal iron flux variability following rapid sea level changes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Middleton, Jennifer L; Langmuir, Charles H; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy; McManus, Jerry F; Mitrovica, Jerry X

    2016-01-01

    .... Mir sediments reveal sixfold to eightfold increases in hydrothermal iron and copper deposition during the Last Glacial Maximum, followed by a rapid decline during the sea level rise associated with deglaciation...

  18. Marketing to Increase Participation in a Web-Based Continuing Medical Education Cultural Competence Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Carlos A.; Krishnamoorthy, Periyakaruppan; Smith, Ann; Staton, Lisa; Korf, Michele J.; Allison, Jeroan J.; Houston, Thomas K.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: CME providers may be interested in identifying effective marketing strategies to direct users to specific content. Online advertisements for recruiting participants into activities such as clinical trials, public health programs, and continuing medical education (CME) have been effective in some but not all studies. The purpose of…

  19. Do the eyes scan dream images during rapid eye movement sleep? Evidence from the rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclair-Visonneau, Laurène; Oudiette, Delphine; Gaymard, Bertrand; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2010-06-01

    Rapid eye movements and complex visual dreams are salient features of human rapid eye movement sleep. However, it remains to be elucidated whether the eyes scan dream images, despite studies that have retrospectively compared the direction of rapid eye movements to the dream recall recorded after having awakened the sleeper. We used the model of rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (when patients enact their dreams by persistence of muscle tone) to determine directly whether the eyes move in the same directions as the head and limbs. In 56 patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and 17 healthy matched controls, the eye movements were monitored by electrooculography in four (right, left, up and down) directions, calibrated with a target and synchronized with video and sleep monitoring. The rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder-associated behaviours occurred 2.1 times more frequently during rapid eye movement sleep with than without rapid eye movements, and more often during or after rapid eye movements than before. Rapid eye movement density, index and complexity were similar in patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and controls. When rapid eye movements accompanied goal-oriented motor behaviour during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (e.g. grabbing a fictive object, hand greetings, climbing a ladder), which happened in 19 sequences, 82% were directed towards the action of the patient (same plane and direction). When restricted to the determinant rapid eye movements, the concordance increased to 90%. Rapid eye movements were absent in 38-42% of behaviours. This directional coherence between limbs, head and eye movements during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder suggests that, when present, rapid eye movements imitate the scanning of the dream scene. Since the rapid eye movements are similar in subjects with and without rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, this concordance can be extended

  20. Rapid magnetic hardening by rapid thermal annealing in NdFeB-based nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, K.-T.; Jin, Z Q; Chakka, Vamsi M; Liu, J P [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2005-11-21

    A systematic study of heat treatments and magnetic hardening of NdFeB-based melt-spun nanocomposite ribbons have been carried out. Comparison was made between samples treated by rapid thermal annealing and by conventional furnace annealing. Heating rates up to 200 K s{sup -1} were adopted in the rapid thermal processing. It was observed that magnetic hardening can be realized in an annealing time as short as 1 s. Coercivity of 10.2 kOe in the nanocomposites has been obtained by rapid thermal annealing for 1 s, and prolonged annealing did not give any increase in coercivity. Detailed results on the effects of annealing time, temperature and heating rate have been obtained. The dependence of magnetic properties on the annealing parameters has been investigated. Structural characterization revealed that there is a close correlation between magnetic hardening and nanostructured morphology. The coercivity mechanism was also studied by analysing the magnetization minor loops.

  1. Composites by rapid prototyping technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available powder is a fiber, problems of manufacturing occur. The method has also been used to make Metal Matrix Composite (MMC), e.g Fe and graphite [17], WC-Co [18,19], WC-Co and Cu [20,21], Fe, Ni and TiC [22] etc and Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) e.g. Si... of various materials used. Key words: : Rapid Prototyping (RP), Laser, Composites 1 Introduction Rapid Prototyping (RP) initially focussed on polymers. These were later re- placed/supplemented by ceramics, metals and composites. Composites are used in RP...

  2. Multigrade Teaching Rapid Appraisal Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Dean

    Multigrade classes have been recognized as part of elementary education for many years, but their special needs have been largely ignored. This manual focuses on the survey research that should predate the design of instructional management strategies in multigrade classrooms. It describes rapid and reliable ways to collect information about the…

  3. Rapid thermal processing of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Borisenko, Victor E

    1997-01-01

    Rapid thermal processing has contributed to the development of single wafer cluster processing tools and other innovations in integrated circuit manufacturing environments Borisenko and Hesketh review theoretical and experimental progress in the field, discussing a wide range of materials, processes, and conditions They thoroughly cover the work of international investigators in the field

  4. Furnace for rapid thermal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Duine, P.A.; Sluis, P. van der

    2001-01-01

    A Method (1) for Rapid Thermal Processing of a wafer (7), wherein the wafer (7) is heated by lamps (9), and the heat radiation is reflected by an optical switching device (15,17) which is in the reflecting state during the heating stage. During the cooling stage of the wafer (7), the heat is

  5. Rapid Energy Modeling Workflow Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    BIM Building Information Modeling BPA Building Performance Analysis BTU British Thermal Unit CBECS Commercial Building ...geometry, orientation, weather, and materials, generates 3D Building Information Models ( BIM ) guided by satellite views of building footprints and...Rapid Energy Modeling (REM) workflows that employed building information modeling ( BIM ) approaches and conceptual energy analysis.

  6. Management of Infections with Rapidly Growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Hwan Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Infection caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM is not uncommon, andthe prevalence of RGM infection has been increasing. Clinical diagnosis is difficult becausethere are no characteristic clinical features. There is also no standard antibiotic regimenfor treating RGM infection. A small series of patients with RGM infections was studied toexamine their treatments and outcomes.Methods A total of 5 patients who had developed postoperative infections from January2009 to December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were initially screened using amycobacteria rapid screening test (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]-reverse blot hybridizationassay. To confirm mycobacterial infection, specimens were cultured for nontuberculousmycobacteria and analyzed by 16 S ribosomal RNA and rpoB gene PCR.Results The patients were treated with intravenous antibiotics during hospitalization,and oral antibiotics were administered after discharge. The mean duration of follow-upwas 9 months, and all patients were completely cured of infection with a regimen of acombination of antibiotics plus surgical treatment. Although none of the patients developedrecurrence, there were complications at the site of infection, including hypertrophic scarring,pigmentation, and disfigurement.Conclusions Combination antibiotic therapy plus drainage of surgical abscesses appeared tobe effective for the RGM infections seen in our patients. Although neither the exact dosagenor a standardized regimen has been firmly established, we propose that our treatment canprovide an option for the management of rapidly growing mycobacterial infection.

  7. Clinical investigation into the observation that silicon carbide coating on cobalt chromium stents leads to early differentiating functional endothelial layer, increased safety and DES-like recurrent stenosis rates: results of the PRO-Heal Registry (PRO-Kinetic enhancing rapid in-stent endothelialisation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Johannes B; Willems, Tine; Wolpers, Hans Georg; Nordbeck, Hans; Becker, Jürgen; Ruppert, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    Recurrent stenosis and stent thrombosis are still major concerns after drug eluting stent placement which inhibits not only the restenostic process but endothelialisation as well. In contrast, through accelerating rapid endothelialisation and development of an earlier functional endothelial layer, passive coatings have shown encouraging results. The objective of the present study was to investigate the clinical outcome and rate of recurrent stenosis of silicon carbide passive coated cobalt chromium stents (PROKinetic Coronary Stent with PROBIO coating, Biotronik AG, Switzerland) on restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. Percutaneous coronary stent deployment was carried out in 161 lesions in 145 consecutive patients. The primary combined endpoint was the rate of target-lesion revascularisation (TLR) and late lumen loss; the secondary endpoints were the procedural success and the major adverse cardiac events at 6-months follow-up. Out of 145 patients, 141 were successfully amenable to a silicon carbide coated stent (PRO-Kinetic, Biotronik AG, Switzerland) implantation (97.2% procedural success). At follow-up, the late loss was 0.75 +/- 0.71 mm. (in-stent) respectively 0.79 +/- 0.72 mm (in-segment), TLR was 4.9% and MACE was 5.6%. By augmenting rapid endothelialisation and development of an earlier functional endothelial layer, silicon carbide (PROBIO) as a passive coating on cobalt chromium stents has shown encouraging results relative to success rates, clinical outcome, TLR and late-loss in a cohort of patients with extended coronary artery disease.

  8. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Jennum, Poul

    2009-01-01

    and neurological disease. RBD is related to brainstem pathology. Furthermore, it is increasingly recognized that RBD is frequently related to Parkinsonian disorders and narcolepsy. This article reviews recent knowledge about RBD with focus on the diagnostic process and management. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-May......Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterized by loss of REM sleep and related electromyographic atonia with marked muscular activity and dream enactment behaviour. RBD is seen in 0.5% of the population. It occurs in an idiopathic form and secondarily to medical...

  9. A rapid diagnostic test for schistosomiasis mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelia Christina Mello-Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an improvement to the Kato-Katz (KK method, making it faster and more efficient for the visualisation of fertile eggs in stool samples. This modified KK method uses sodium acetate formalin as a fixative and reveals the intensity of infection in less than 1 h, reducing the diagnostic time without increasing the cost. This modified method may contribute to future epidemiological studies in both hospitals and the field due to its rapid and precise diagnostic, which allow for immediate treatment.

  10. Mirror symmetric bimanual movement priming can increase corticomotor excitability and enhance motor learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston D Byblow

    Full Text Available Repetitive mirror symmetric bilateral upper limb may be a suitable priming technique for upper limb rehabilitation after stroke. Here we demonstrate neurophysiological and behavioural after-effects in healthy participants after priming with 20 minutes of repetitive active-passive bimanual wrist flexion and extension in a mirror symmetric pattern with respect to the body midline (MIR compared to an control priming condition with alternating flexion-extension (ALT. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS indicated that corticomotor excitability (CME of the passive hemisphere remained elevated compared to baseline for at least 30 minutes after MIR but not ALT, evidenced by an increase in the size of motor evoked potentials in ECR and FCR. Short and long-latency intracortical inhibition (SICI, LICI, short afferent inhibition (SAI and interhemispheric inhibition (IHI were also examined using pairs of stimuli. LICI differed between patterns, with less LICI after MIR compared with ALT, and an effect of pattern on IHI, with reduced IHI in passive FCR 15 minutes after MIR compared with ALT and baseline. There was no effect of pattern on SAI or FCR H-reflex. Similarly, SICI remained unchanged after 20 minutes of MIR. We then had participants complete a timed manual dexterity motor learning task with the passive hand during, immediately after, and 24 hours after MIR or control priming. The rate of task completion was faster with MIR priming compared to control conditions. Finally, ECR and FCR MEPs were examined within a pre-movement facilitation paradigm of wrist extension before and after MIR. ECR, but not FCR, MEPs were consistently facilitated before and after MIR, demonstrating no degradation of selective muscle activation. In summary, mirror symmetric active-passive bimanual movement increases CME and can enhance motor learning without degradation of muscle selectivity. These findings rationalise the use of mirror symmetric bimanual movement as a

  11. Rapid Clozapine Titration in Patients with Treatment Refractory Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyraz, Cana Aksoy; Özdemir, Armağan; Sağlam, Nazife Gamze Usta; Turan, Şenol; Poyraz, Burç Çağrı; Tomruk, Nesrin; Duran, Alaattin

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of rapid clozapine titration in patients with schizophrenia in hospital settings. We conducted a retrospective two-center cohort study to compare the safety and effectiveness of clozapine with different titration rates in treatment-refractory patients with schizophrenia. In the first center, clozapine was started at 25-50 mg followed by 50-100 mg as needed every 6 h on day 1, followed by increases of 50-100 mg/day. In the second center, titration was slower; clozapine initiated with 12.5-50 mg on day 1 followed by increases of 25-50 mg/day. The number of days between starting of clozapine until discharge was shorter in the rapid titration group (22.4 ± 8.72 vs 27.0 ± 10.5, p = 0.1). Number of days of total hospital stay were significantly shorter in the rapid titration group (29.6 ± 10.6 vs 41.2 ± 14.8, p = 0.002). Hypotension was more common in the rapid titration group and one patient had suspected myocarditis. Rapid clozapine titration appeared safe and effective. The length of stay following initiation of clozapine was shorter in the rapid-titration group, although this was not statistically significant. However starting clozapine earlier together with rapid titration has significantly shortened the length of hospital stay in patients with treatment refractory schizophrenia.

  12. Transitions between states of magnetotail–ionosphere coupling and the role of solar wind dynamic pressure: the 25 July 2004 interplanetary CME case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Sandholt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In a case study, we investigate transitions between fundamental magnetosphere–ionosphere (M-I coupling modes during storm-time conditions (SYM-H between −100 and −160 nT driven by an interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME. We combine observations from the near tail, at geostationary altitude (GOES-10, and electrojet activities across the auroral oval at postnoon-to-dusk and midnight. After an interval of strong westward electrojet (WEJ activity, a 3 h long state of attenuated/quenched WEJ activity was initiated by abrupt drops in the solar wind density and dynamic pressure. The attenuated substorm activity consisted of brief phases of magnetic field perturbation and electron flux decrease at GOES-10 near midnight and moderately strong conjugate events of WEJ enhancements at the southern boundary of the oval, as well as a series of very strong eastward electrojet (EEJ events at dusk, during a phase of enhanced ring current evolution, i.e., enhanced SYM-H deflection within −120 to −150 nT. Each of these M-I coupling events was preceded by poleward boundary intensifications and auroral streamers at higher oval latitudes. We identify this mode of attenuated substorm activity as being due to a magnetotail state characterized by bursty reconnection and bursty bulk flows/dipolarization fronts (multiple current wedgelets with associated injection dynamo in the near tail, in their braking phase. The latter process is associated with activations of the Bostrøm type II (meridional current system. A transition to the next state of M-I coupling, when a full substorm expansion took place, was triggered by an abrupt increase of the ICME dynamic pressure from 1 to 5 nPa. The brief field deflection events at GOES-10 were then replaced by a 20 min long interval of extreme field stretching (Bz approaching 5 nT and Bx ≈ 100 nT followed by a major dipolarization (Δ Bz ≈ 100 nT. In the ionosphere the latter stage appeared as a "full-size" stepwise

  13. Rapid scenarios and observed intensities

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Pettenati; Livio Sirovich

    2012-01-01

    After a destructive earthquake, national Governments need to know the approximate amount of damage, the number of casualties, and the financial losses as soon as possible. Rapid scenarios are also used to inform the general public; see the widely used Shakemap package [Wald et al. 1999, 2006] of the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the one modified by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV; National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology), which is reproduced for Figure 1. T...

  14. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  15. Increasing faculty participation in resident education and providing cost-effective self-assessment module credit to faculty through resident-generated didactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun; Malatesta, Theresa M; Anné, Pramila R; McAna, John; Bar-Ad, Voichita; Dicker, Adam P; Den, Robert B

    Board certified radiation oncologists and medical physicists are required to earn self-assessment module (SAM) continuing medical education (CME) credit, which may require travel costs or usage fees. Data indicate that faculty participation in resident teaching activities is beneficial to resident education. Our hypothesis was that providing the opportunity to earn SAM credit in resident didactics would increase faculty participation in and improve resident education. SAM applications, comprising CME certified category 1 resident didactic lectures and faculty-generated questions with respective answers, rationales, and references, were submitted to the American Board of Radiology for formal review. Surveys were distributed to assess main academic campus physician, affiliate campus physician, physicist, and radiation oncology resident impressions regarding the quality of the lectures. Survey responses were designed in Likert-scale format. Sign-test was performed with P didactics (P = .004). Residents reported an increased amount of time required to prepare lectures (P = .008). We are the first department, to our knowledge, to offer SAM credit to clinical faculty for participation in resident-generated didactics. Offering SAM credit at resident lectures is a cost-effective alternative to purchasing SAM resources, increases faculty attendance, and may improve the quality of radiation oncology resident education. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. La multiplication rapide du bananier et du plantain au Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonte, E.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Multiplication of Banana and Plantain Trees in Cameroon. To increase the rate of multiplication of banana and plantain trees, several technics are practiced. Less sophisticated than tissue culture which necessitates a laboratory, this note presents two types of rapid multiplication practices : 1 ° by removal of the apical dominance, that is decapitation, bending over and false decapitation. 2° by spliting of corms and buds.

  17. La multiplication rapide du bananier et du plantain au Cameroun

    OpenAIRE

    Bonte, E.; Verdonck, R.; Grégoire, L.

    1995-01-01

    Rapid Multiplication of Banana and Plantain Trees in Cameroon. To increase the rate of multiplication of banana and plantain trees, several technics are practiced. Less sophisticated than tissue culture which necessitates a laboratory, this note presents two types of rapid multiplication practices : 1 ° by removal of the apical dominance, that is decapitation, bending over and false decapitation. 2° by spliting of corms and buds.

  18. Rapid scenarios and observed intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Pettenati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available After a destructive earthquake, national Governments need to know the approximate amount of damage, the number of casualties, and the financial losses as soon as possible. Rapid scenarios are also used to inform the general public; see the widely used Shakemap package [Wald et al. 1999, 2006] of the US Geological Survey (USGS and the one modified by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV; National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, which is reproduced for Figure 1. The general matter of the use of intensities in damage scenarios was discussed in a special session at the 2008 Annual Meeting of the Seismological Society of America (http://www.seismosoc.org/meetings/2008/specialsessions.html, and was also discussed in the NIS-1 session of the European Congress in Moscow, in August 2012 (http://www.esc2012-moscow.org/esc_thematicareas.html. The purposes of the present report are to: (i compare different types of intensities; (ii check two rapid scenarios of intensity; and (iii understand whether the KF formula [Sirovich 1996, Sirovich et al. 2009] can be used as a new 'attenuation' relationship to improve rapid scenarios. […

  19. Rapid diagnosis of mycobacterial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Drancourt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB remains an important public health issue worldwide, there is an emerging interest in non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM which is responsible for opportunistic infections of the respiratory tract as well as other anatomical sites in both developed and developing countries. In this context the one goal of the clinical mycobacteriology laboratories is to provide physicians with an accurate identification of the mycobacterium as rapidly as possible. During the last ten years, several lines of laboratory tools have been developed in order to speed the isolation and identification of mycobacteria from clinical specimens. Chiefly, the composition of culture medium was renewed along with the protocol of incubation in order to recover Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB micro-colonies as soon as 48 h after the inoculation of the specimen. MALDI-TOF rapid identification is clearly the tool to be implemented in the laboratory for the rapid identification of the micro-colonies. Also, molecular tools and genomics are necessary in order to depict new mycobacteria species, including those of the Mycobacterium abscessus complex and the Mycobacterium avium complex. All these tools and their connections will be presented during this conference.

  20. Rapid disturbances in Arctic permafrost regions (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, G.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Arp, C. D.; Jones, B. M.

    2013-12-01

    Permafrost thaw is often perceived as a slow process dominated by press disturbances such as gradual active layer thickening. However, various pulse disturbances such as thermokarst formation can substantially increase the rate of permafrost thaw and result in rapid landscape change on sub-decadal to decadal time scales. Other disturbances associated with permafrost thaw are even more dynamic and unfold on sub-annual timescales, such as catastrophic thermokarst lake drainage. The diversity of processes results in complex feedbacks with soil carbon pools, biogeochemical cycles, hydrology, and flora and fauna, and requires a differentiated approach when quantifying how these ecosystem componentsare affected,how vulnerablethey are to rapid change, and what regional to global scale impacts result. Here we show quantitative measurements for three examples of rapid pulse disturbances in permafrost regions as observed with remote sensing data time series: The formation of a mega thaw slump (>50 ha) in syngenetic permafrost in Siberia, the formation of new thermokarst ponds in ice-rich permafrost regions in Alaska and Siberia, and the drainage of thermokarst lakes along a gradient of permafrost extent in Western Alaska. The surprising setting and unabated growth of the mega thaw slump during the last 40 years indicates that limited information on panarctic ground ice distribution, abundance, and vulnerability remains a key gap for reliable projections of thermokarst and thermo-erosion impacts, and that the natural limits on the growth and size of thaw slumps are still poorly understood. Observed thermokarst pond formation and expansion in our study regions was closely tied to ice-rich permafrost terrain, such as syngenetic Yedoma uplands, but was also found in old drained thermokarst lake basins with epigenetic permafrost and shallow drained thermokarst lake basins whose ground ice had not been depleted by the prior lake phase. The very different substrates in which new

  1. Meeting increased demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Andrew

    2004-07-01

    New Zealand is a little country with a little economy but with a population that's rapidly aging. New Zealand's population is only 4.3 million people. It's GDP is only $US58.6 billion (2002). New Zealand's expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP is not out of line with that of other countries. As a nation we have been increasing expenditure on health over recent years. In 1990 we spent 7% of GDP on health. In 1995 that increased to 7.65% and is now 8.3%. However, in per capita terms our expenditure on health does not compare so well with like countries. The size of New Zealand's economy is restricting what our country spends on health. Health is already the second highest demand on the New Zealand tax dollar. The tolerance of New Zealanders would be challenged if a Government attempted to increase taxes further to meet the growing demands for expenditure on health, but at the same time the population's expectations are increasing. This is the challenging situation we face today. What lies ahead? Like all industrialized countries New Zealand is facing an aging population. The population below age 40 is decreasing, but it is increasing significantly over that age. 16% of the population is currently aged over 60. By 2051 this proportion will almost double to just over 31%. Coupled with the aging population is increased awareness and expectations, as access to options for treatment and technology becomes readily accessible to the population through such media as the internet. The extent of the impact of the aging population can be clearly represented by focusing on one specialty such as orthopaedics. The New Zealand Orthopaecic Association undertook a study in July 2003 which concluded (among other things) that as a result of the projected aging of the population, over the next 50 years: Musculo-skeletal operations will increase by over 30%. The number of hip replacements will nearly double. The incidence of osteoporosis will increase by a massive 201%. The number

  2. A rapid ultrasound particle agglutination method for HIV antibody detection: Comparison with conventional rapid HIV tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystryak, Simon; Ossina, Natalya

    2017-11-01

    We present the results of the feasibility and preliminary studies on analytical performance of a rapid test for detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies in human serum or plasma that is an important advance in detecting HIV infection. Current methods for rapid testing of antibodies against HIV are qualitative and exhibit poor sensitivity (limit of detection). In this paper, we describe an ultrasound particle agglutination (UPA) method that leads to a significant increase of the sensitivity of conventional latex agglutination tests for HIV antibody detection in human serum or plasma. The UPA method is based on the use of: 1) a dual mode ultrasound, wherein a first single-frequency mode is used to accelerate the latex agglutination process, and then a second swept-frequency mode of sonication is used to disintegrate non-specifically bound aggregates; and 2) a numerical assessment of results of the agglutination process. The numerical assessment is carried out by optical detection and analysis of moving patterns in the resonator cell during the swept-frequency mode. The single-step UPA method is rapid and more sensitive than the three commercial rapid HIV test kits analyzed in the study: analytical sensitivity of the new UPA method was found to be 510-, 115-, and 80-fold higher than that for Capillus™, Multispot™ and Uni-Gold™ Recombigen HIV antibody rapid test kits, respectively. The newly developed UPA method opens up additional possibilities for detection of a number of clinically significant markers in point-of-care settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Melcher, Cynthia P.

    2015-08-28

    The Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment was conducted in partnership with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The overall goals of the BLM Rapid Ecoregional Assessments (REAs) are to identify important ecosystems and wildlife habitats at broad spatial scales; identify where these resources are at risk from Change Agents, including development, wildfire, invasive species, disease and climate change; quantify cumulative effects of anthropogenic stressors; and assess current levels of risk to ecological resources across a range of spatial scales and jurisdictional boundaries by assessing all lands within an ecoregion. There are several components of the REAs. Management Questions, developed by the BLM and stakeholders for the ecoregion, identify the regionally significant information needed for addressing land-management responsibilities. Conservation Elements represent regionally significant species and ecological communities that are of management concern. Change Agents that currently affect or are likely to affect the condition of species and communities in the future are identified and assessed. REAs also identify areas that have high conservation potential that are referred to as “large intact areas.” At the ecoregion level, the ecological value of large intact areas is based on the assumption that because these areas have not been greatly altered by human activities (such as development), they are more likely to contain a variety of plant and animal communities and to be resilient and resistant to changes resulting from natural disturbances such as fire, insect outbreaks, and disease.

  4. Rapid self-healing hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadke, Ameya; Zhang, Chao; Arman, Bedri; Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Mashelkar, Raghunath A.; Lele, Ashish K.; Tauber, Michael J.; Arya, Gaurav; Varghese, Shyni

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic materials that are capable of autonomous healing upon damage are being developed at a rapid pace because of their many potential applications. Despite these advancements, achieving self-healing in permanently cross-linked hydrogels has remained elusive because of the presence of water and irreversible cross-links. Here, we demonstrate that permanently cross-linked hydrogels can be engineered to exhibit self-healing in an aqueous environment. We achieve this feature by arming the hydrogel network with flexible-pendant side chains carrying an optimal balance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that allows the side chains to mediate hydrogen bonds across the hydrogel interfaces with minimal steric hindrance and hydrophobic collapse. The self-healing reported here is rapid, occurring within seconds of the insertion of a crack into the hydrogel or juxtaposition of two separate hydrogel pieces. The healing is reversible and can be switched on and off via changes in pH, allowing external control over the healing process. Moreover, the hydrogels can sustain multiple cycles of healing and separation without compromising their mechanical properties and healing kinetics. Beyond revealing how secondary interactions could be harnessed to introduce new functions to chemically cross-linked polymeric systems, we also demonstrate various potential applications of such easy-to-synthesize, smart, self-healing hydrogels. PMID:22392977

  5. Rapid ISS Power Availability Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    The ISS (International Space Station) Power Resource Officers (PROs) needed a tool to automate the calculation of thousands of ISS power availability simulations used to generate power constraint matrices. Each matrix contains 864 cells, and each cell represents a single power simulation that must be run. The tools available to the flight controllers were very operator intensive and not conducive to rapidly running the thousands of simulations necessary to generate the power constraint data. SOLAR is a Java-based tool that leverages commercial-off-the-shelf software (Satellite Toolkit) and an existing in-house ISS EPS model (SPEED) to rapidly perform thousands of power availability simulations. SOLAR has a very modular architecture and consists of a series of plug-ins that are loosely coupled. The modular architecture of the software allows for the easy replacement of the ISS power system model simulator, re-use of the Satellite Toolkit integration code, and separation of the user interface from the core logic. Satellite Toolkit (STK) is used to generate ISS eclipse and insulation times, solar beta angle, position of the solar arrays over time, and the amount of shadowing on the solar arrays, which is then provided to SPEED to calculate power generation forecasts. The power planning turn-around time is reduced from three months to two weeks (83-percent decrease) using SOLAR, and the amount of PRO power planning support effort is reduced by an estimated 30 percent.

  6. KEPLER RAPIDLY ROTATING GIANT STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, A. D.; Martins, B. L. Canto; Bravo, J. P.; Paz-Chinchón, F.; Chagas, M. L. das; Leão, I. C.; Oliveira, G. Pereira de; Silva, R. Rodrigues da; Roque, S.; Oliveira, L. L. A. de; Silva, D. Freire da; De Medeiros, J. R., E-mail: renan@dfte.ufrn.br [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitário, Natal RN (Brazil)

    2015-07-10

    Rapidly rotating giant stars are relatively rare and may represent important stages of stellar evolution, resulting from stellar coalescence of close binary systems or accretion of substellar companions by their hosting stars. In the present Letter, we report 17 giant stars observed in the scope of the Kepler space mission exhibiting rapid rotation behavior. For the first time, the abnormal rotational behavior for this puzzling family of stars is revealed by direct measurements of rotation, namely from photometric rotation period, exhibiting a very short rotation period with values ranging from 13 to 55 days. This finding points to remarkable surface rotation rates, up to 18 times the rotation of the Sun. These giants are combined with six others recently listed in the literature for mid-infrared (IR) diagnostics based on Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer information, from which a trend for an IR excess is revealed for at least one-half of the stars, but at a level far lower than the dust excess emission shown by planet-bearing main-sequence stars.

  7. Rapid starting methanol reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chludzinski, Paul J.; Dantowitz, Philip; McElroy, James F.

    1984-01-01

    The invention relates to a methanol-to-hydrogen cracking reactor for use with a fuel cell vehicular power plant. The system is particularly designed for rapid start-up of the catalytic methanol cracking reactor after an extended shut-down period, i.e., after the vehicular fuel cell power plant has been inoperative overnight. Rapid system start-up is accomplished by a combination of direct and indirect heating of the cracking catalyst. Initially, liquid methanol is burned with a stoichiometric or slightly lean air mixture in the combustion chamber of the reactor assembly. The hot combustion gas travels down a flue gas chamber in heat exchange relationship with the catalytic cracking chamber transferring heat across the catalyst chamber wall to heat the catalyst indirectly. The combustion gas is then diverted back through the catalyst bed to heat the catalyst pellets directly. When the cracking reactor temperature reaches operating temperature, methanol combustion is stopped and a hot gas valve is switched to route the flue gas overboard, with methanol being fed directly to the catalytic cracking reactor. Thereafter, the burner operates on excess hydrogen from the fuel cells.

  8. Rapidly Developing Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Oline Barrios Poulsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe cutaneous reactions with potentially fatal outcomes can have many different causes. The Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN are rare. They are characterized by a low incidence but high mortality, and drugs are most commonly implicated. Urgent active therapy is required. Prompt recognition and withdrawal of suspect drug and rapid intervention can result in favourable outcome. No further international guidelines for treatment exist, and much of the treatment relies on old or experimental concepts with no scientific evidence. We report on a 54-year-old man experiencing rapidly developing drug-induced severe TEN and presented multiorgan failure involving the respiratory and circulatory system, coagulopathy, and renal insufficiency. Detachment counted 30% of total body surface area (TBSA. SCORTEN = 5, indicating a mortality rate >90%. The patient was sedated and mechanically ventilated, supported with fluids and inotropes to maintain a stable circulation. Component therapy was guided by thromboelastography (TEG. The patient received plasmapheresis, and shock reversal treatment was initiated. He was transferred to a specialized intensive care burn unit within 24 hours from admittance. The initial care was continued, and hemodialysis was started. Pulmonary, circulatory, and renal sequelae resolved with intensive care, and re-epithelialization progressed slowly. The patient was discharged home on hospital day 19.

  9. Physics of Coupled CME and Flare Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-21

    principal components, machine learning and discriminant analysis), classification algorithms, and magnetic field modeling. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Solar...lines A, B, C, D and E. Figure 3 shows flux rope eruption moving beyond the local region depicted and the dipolar and quadrupolar regions relaxing...of the eruption itself. Two ribbon flares have an elongated axis that makes it favorable for field lines to connect to regions tangentially aligned

  10. Carbon Fiber Reinforced, Zero CME Composites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Technical Abstract: This project proposes to develop moisture insensitive, high performance, carbon fiber laminates for future missions. Current space-qualified...

  11. Editorial Continuing Medical Education (CME) Continuing Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    System Administrator

    necessitated by the realization that the practice of medicine is constantly changing. New diseases are emerging; diagnostic techniques are being updated and new drugs and therapeutic methods being introduced into the market. Added to this is the need for evidence based medicine (EBM) as the basis for rational choice ...

  12. What caused the rapid recovery of the Carrington storm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keika, Kunihiro; Ebihara, Yusuke; Kataoka, Ryuho

    2015-05-01

    The geomagnetic storm during the Carrington event, which occurred on 2 September 1859, displayed extremely rapid recovery. The geomagnetic field increased by approximately 650 nT/h at Bombay, India, and by >300 nT/h in 1-h averaged data. Although the rapid recovery is considered due to a sudden increase in the magnetopause current, a sudden decrease of the ring current, or/and a sudden enhancement of the ionospheric currents, this study focuses on the ring current decay. The Carrington rapid recovery had a time constant (approximately 1 h) comparable to the storm development (i.e., decrease in the geomagnetic field), indicating that energy loss from the ring current region is predominantly controlled by E × B convection transport which is responsible for energy input during the storm main phase. This feature has led us to a hypothesis that the flow-out of dense ring current ions and injections of tenuous plasma sheet ions caused the rapid decay of the ring current and in turn the storm rapid recovery. This study examines whether the Carrington rapid recovery can be explained by the flow-out effect. We extend the empirical Burton's model to a model that takes into consideration a sudden change in solar wind density which is correlated with plasma sheet density. We first apply the extended Burton's model to previously observed four intense magnetic storms (Dst minimum solar wind data are available. Using the best fit parameters found by forward modeling, the extended model estimates the recovery of the Carrington storm. The estimate indicates that a solar wind structure with a density bump by approximately 100 cm-3 (and southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) of 65 nT and solar wind speed of 1,500 km/s) can cause the rapid recovery under a continuous southward IMF condition. We conclude that the flow-out effect plays a significant role in producing the rapid recovery of the Carrington storm.

  13. RAPID MANUFACTURING SYSTEM OF ORTHOPEDIC IMPLANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relvas, Carlos; Reis, Joana; Potes, José Alberto Caeiro; Fonseca, Fernando Manuel Ferreira; Simões, José Antonio Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    This study, aimed the development of a methodology for rapid manufacture of orthopedic implants simultaneously with the surgical intervention, considering two potential applications in the fields of orthopedics: the manufacture of anatomically adapted implants and implants for bone loss replacement. This work innovation consists on the capitation of the in situ geometry of the implant by direct capture of the shape using an elastomeric material (polyvinylsiloxane) which allows fine detail and great accuracy of the geometry. After scanning the elastomeric specimen, the implant is obtained by machining using a CNC milling machine programmed with a dedicated CAD/CAM system. After sterilization, the implant is able to be placed on the patient. The concept was developed using low cost technology and commercially available. The system has been tested in an in vivo hip arthroplasty performed on a sheep. The time increase of surgery was 80 minutes being 40 minutes the time of implant manufacturing. The system developed has been tested and the goals defined of the study achieved enabling the rapid manufacture of an implant in a time period compatible with the surgery time.

  14. Rapid and precise genotyping of porcine microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, G H; Beeckmann, P; Bartenschlager, H; Moser, G; Geldermann, H

    1999-11-01

    Microsatellites are useful markers for genetic mapping and linkage analysis because they are highly polymorphic, abundant in genomes and relatively easily scored with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A rapid genotyping system for microsatellites was developed, which included multiplex PCRs, multiple use of Hydrolink gels, automated fluorescent detection of fragments on an A.L.F. DNA sequencer, automatic assignment of alleles to each locus and verification of genotypes with a self-developed computer program "Fragtest". Eight multiplex PCRs have been developed to genotype 29 microsatellites for genetic and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping on pig chromosomes 6, 7, 12 and 13. Three to six microsatellites could be amplified in one multiplex PCR. Each multiplex reaction required only different concentrations of each pair of primers and a low concentration of dNTP (100 microM). A dNTP concentration of 100 microM proved to be optimal for the coamplification of microsatellites under the concentration of 1.5 mM MgCl2. Using four internal size standards added in each sample, the 5% Hydrolink gel could subsequently be used up to five times (total running time of 500 min) on the A.L.F. automated sequencer without significant loss of resolution and precision of fragment length analysis. Automatic assignment of alleles on each locus using "Fragtest" significantly increased the efficiency and precision of the genotyping. This system is thus a rapid, cheap, and highly discriminating genotyping system.

  15. Rapid Adaptation in Digital Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Mette; Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Mathiassen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    the organization’s digitization approach. We demonstrate in detail how the leaders within these two organizations were engaged and offer recommendations for how other organizations can use the PPM to rapidly adapt their approaches to digital transformation through more effective IS leadership roles.......In today’s highly dynamic environments, organizational leaders need to quickly adapt existing approaches to digital transformation. However, without a shared mindset between IS and business leaders, it is difficult to adopt new approaches in response to changes in the competitive and technology...... landscape. In this article, we share insights gained from two public sector organizations in which IS and business leaders used the Participatory Process Model (PPM) designed by the authors to share their assumptions about IS leadership, challenge existing IT strategies and collaboration patterns and adapt...

  16. Moved by a Rapid Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueter, C.

    2013-04-01

    Enticing by virtue of its predictability, historical utility, and spectacle, the transit of Venus is a niche event among astronomical phenomena. Though the value of a transit for scientific purposes is now diminished, the brief appearance of Venus silhouetted against the background of the Sun in 2004 moved the artistic community to celebrate the rare alignment. Artists of all ages combined old traditions with fresh technology to create a 21st-century tapestry of music, sculpture, paintings, glasswork, quilts, sky shows, and digital imagery. A full catalog of transit-related art generated over the centuries would feature the sampling of entries presented here and at the Moved by a Rapid Transit website.

  17. [Rapid diagnostic test for malaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houzé, S

    2017-02-01

    The rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) whose main interest lies in their implementation without special equipment by unskilled personnel have grown significantly over the past fifteen years to diagnose malaria. They rely on the detection of specific Plasmodium proteins, PfHRP2, pLDH and aldolase. If the detection of PfHRP2 has very good sensitivity for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, the detection of pLDH or aldolase is less efficient for other species, leaving its place to the reference microscopic diagnosis. RDT could not generally be used to monitor therapeutic efficacy because they can remain positive after clinical and parasitological cure. Furthermore, the development of the use of these tests has highlighted the need for quality assurance programs to monitor their production as their use.

  18. Ceramic microfabrication by rapid prototyping process chains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To avoid high tooling costs in product development, a rapid prototyping process chain has been established that enables rapid manufacturing of ceramic microcomponents from functional models to small lot series within a short time. This process chain combines the fast and inexpensive supply of master models by rapid ...

  19. Rapid Prototyping in Instructional Design: Creating Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Carolyn D.

    2010-01-01

    Instructional designers working in rapid prototyping environments currently do not have a list of competencies that help to identify the knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required in these workplaces. This qualitative case study used multiple cases in an attempt to identify rapid prototyping competencies required in a rapid prototyping…

  20. Metals Production Requirements for Rapid Photovoltaics Deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Kavlak, Goksin; Jaffe, Robert L; Trancik, Jessika E

    2015-01-01

    If global photovoltaics (PV) deployment grows rapidly, the required input materials need to be supplied at an increasing rate. In this paper, we quantify the effect of PV deployment levels on the scale of metals production. For example, we find that if cadmium telluride {copper indium gallium diselenide} PV accounts for more than 3% {10%} of electricity generation by 2030, the required growth rates for the production of indium and tellurium would exceed historically-observed production growth rates for a large set of metals. In contrast, even if crystalline silicon PV supplies all electricity in 2030, the required silicon production growth rate would fall within the historical range. More generally, this paper highlights possible constraints to the rate of scaling up metals production for some PV technologies, and outlines an approach to assessing projected metals growth requirements against an ensemble of past growth rates from across the metals production sector. The framework developed in this paper may be...

  1. Rapid Tooling via Investment Casting and Rapid Prototype Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, Michael D.

    1999-06-01

    The objective of this work to develop the materials processing and design technologies required to reduce the die development time for metal mold processes from 12 months to 3 months, using die casting of Al and Mg as the example process. Sandia demonstrated that investment casting, using rapid prototype patterns produced from Stereo lithography or Selective laser Sintering, was a viable alternative/supplement to the current technology of machining form wrought stock. A demonstration die insert (ejector halt) was investment cast and subsequently tested in the die casting environment. The stationary half of the die insert was machined from wrought material to benchmark the cast half. The two inserts were run in a die casting machine for 3,100 shots of aluminum and at the end of the run no visible difference could be detected between the cast and machined inserts. Inspection concluded that the cast insert performed identically to the machined insert. Both inserts had no indications of heat checking or degradation.

  2. Ecological connectivity networks in rapidly expanding cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, Amal Najihah M; Corstanje, Ron; Harris, Jim A; Grafius, Darren R; Siriwardena, Gavin M

    2017-06-01

    Urban expansion increases fragmentation of the landscape. In effect, fragmentation decreases connectivity, causes green space loss and impacts upon the ecology and function of green space. Restoration of the functionality of green space often requires restoring the ecological connectivity of this green space within the city matrix. However, identifying ecological corridors that integrate different structural and functional connectivity of green space remains vague. Assessing connectivity for developing an ecological network by using efficient models is essential to improve these networks under rapid urban expansion. This paper presents a novel methodological approach to assess and model connectivity for the Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus) and Yellow-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus goiavier) in three cities (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Jakarta, Indonesia and Metro Manila, Philippines). The approach identifies potential priority corridors for ecological connectivity networks. The study combined circuit models, connectivity analysis and least-cost models to identify potential corridors by integrating structure and function of green space patches to provide reliable ecological connectivity network models in the cities. Relevant parameters such as landscape resistance and green space structure (vegetation density, patch size and patch distance) were derived from an expert and literature-based approach based on the preference of bird behaviour. The integrated models allowed the assessment of connectivity for both species using different measures of green space structure revealing the potential corridors and least-cost pathways for both bird species at the patch sites. The implementation of improvements to the identified corridors could increase the connectivity of green space. This study provides examples of how combining models can contribute to the improvement of ecological networks in rapidly expanding cities and demonstrates the usefulness of such models for

  3. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Means, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The overall goal of the Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to provide information that supports regional planning and analysis for the management of ecological resources. The REA provides an assessment of baseline ecological conditions, an evaluation of current risks from drivers of ecosystem change (including energy development, fire, and invasive species), and a predictive capacity for evaluating future risks (including climate change). Additionally, the REA may be used for identifying priority areas for conservation or restoration and for assessing cumulative effects of multiple land uses. The Wyoming Basin REA will address Management Questions developed by the Bureau of Land Management and other agency partners for 8 major biomes and 19 species or species assemblages. The maps developed for addressing Management Questions will be integrated into overall maps of landscape-level ecological values and risks. The maps can be used to address the goals of the REA at a number of levels: for individual species, species assemblages, aquatic and terrestrial systems, and for the entire ecoregion. This allows flexibility in how the products of the REA are compiled to inform planning and management actions across a broad range of spatial scales.

  4. Rapid purification of recombinant histones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike Klinker

    Full Text Available The development of methods to assemble nucleosomes from recombinant histones decades ago has transformed chromatin research. Nevertheless, nucleosome reconstitution remains time consuming to this day, not least because the four individual histones must be purified first. Here, we present a streamlined purification protocol of recombinant histones from bacteria. We termed this method "rapid histone purification" (RHP as it circumvents isolation of inclusion bodies and thereby cuts out the most time-consuming step of traditional purification protocols. Instead of inclusion body isolation, whole cell extracts are prepared under strongly denaturing conditions that directly solubilize inclusion bodies. By ion exchange chromatography, the histones are purified from the extracts. The protocol has been successfully applied to all four canonical Drosophila and human histones. RHP histones and histones that were purified from isolated inclusion bodies had similar purities. The different purification strategies also did not impact the quality of octamers reconstituted from these histones. We expect that the RHP protocol can be readily applied to the purification of canonical histones from other species as well as the numerous histone variants.

  5. Rapid Response Flood Water Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policelli, Fritz; Brakenridge, G. R.; Coplin, A.; Bunnell, M.; Wu, L.; Habib, Shahid; Farah, H.

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of operation of the MODIS instrument on the NASA Terra satellite at the end of 1999, an exceptionally useful sensor and public data stream have been available for many applications including the rapid and precise characterization of terrestrial surface water changes. One practical application of such capability is the near-real time mapping of river flood inundation. We have developed a surface water mapping methodology based on using only bands 1 (620-672 nm) and 2 (841-890 nm). These are the two bands at 250 m, and the use of only these bands maximizes the resulting map detail. In this regard, most water bodies are strong absorbers of incoming solar radiation at the band 2 wavelength: it could be used alone, via a thresholding procedure, to separate water (dark, low radiance or reflectance pixels) from land (much brighter pixels) (1, 2). Some previous water mapping procedures have in fact used such single band data from this and other sensors that include similar wavelength channels. Adding the second channel of data (band 1), however, allows a band ratio approach which permits sediment-laden water, often relatively light at band 2 wavelengths, to still be discriminated, and, as well, provides some removal of error by reducing the number of cloud shadow pixels that would otherwise be misclassified as water.

  6. Correlation between transverse expansion and increase in the upper arch perimeter after rapid maxillary expansion Correlação entre expansão transversal e aumento no perímetro do arco dentário após disjunção maxilar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Aparecida de Assis Claro

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to assess the correlation between transverse expansion and the increase in upper arch perimeter, after maxillary expansion. Dental casts of eighteen patients were obtained before treatment and again five months after maxillary expansion. Measurements of intermolar width, intercanine width, arch length and arch perimeter were made with a digital caliper on photocopies taken from the dental casts. After assessment of the method error, a multiple regression model was developed following the identification of the best subset of variables. The resulting equation led to the conclusion that the increase in arch perimeter is approximately given by the addition of 0.54 times the intercanine expansion, and 0.87 times the arch length alteration.O presente estudo avaliou a correlação entre expansão transversal e aumento no perímetro do arco dentário superior, após disjunção maxilar, em dezoito pares de modelos de gesso, obtidos antes e depois de aproximadamente cinco meses da disjunção maxilar. Os modelos foram fotocopiados e as variáveis largura intermolares, largura intercaninos, comprimento e perímetro do arco dentário superior foram mensuradas por meio de paquímetro digital. Depois de verificado o erro do método, um modelo de regressão múltipla foi desenvolvido em seqüência à identificação do melhor conjunto de variáveis. A equação resultante permitiu concluir que o aumento no perímetro do arco é dado pela adição de 0,54 vezes a alteração intercaninos e de 0,87 vezes a alteração no comprimento do arco.

  7. Severe acute maternal morbidity and maternal death audit - a rapid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... as major maternal care problems. When data for women with SAMM were combined with data for maternal deaths, however, these problems were dearly identified, and remedial action could be taken. Including SAMM in maternal death audits increases the rapidity with which health system problems can be identified.

  8. Rapid Automatized Naming and Reading Performance: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Susana; Reis, Alexandra; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Faísca, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Evidence that rapid naming skill is associated with reading ability has become increasingly prevalent in recent years. However, there is considerable variation in the literature concerning the magnitude of this relationship. The objective of the present study was to provide a comprehensive analysis of the evidence on the relationship between rapid…

  9. Rapid mortality of Populus tremuloides in southwestern Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    James J. Worrall; Leanne Egeland; Thomas Eager; Roy A. Mask; Erik W. Johnson; Philip A. Kemp; Wayne D. Shepperd

    2008-01-01

    Concentrated patches of recent trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) mortality covered 56,091 ha of Colorado forests in 2006. Mortality has progressed rapidly. Area affected increased 58% between 2005 and 2006 on the Mancos-Dolores Ranger District, San Juan National Forest, where it equaled nearly 10% of the aspen cover type. In four stands that were...

  10. Profitability of a Smallholder Late Season Rapid Multiplication of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effects of increasing poultry manure rates on the soil physicochemical properties, crop productivity and economic returns to investment of late season rapid multiplication of cassava stem enterprise at the Teaching and Research Farm, Federal University of Technology, Owerri in the humid ...

  11. Neurophysiological basis of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Christensen, Julie Anja Engelhard; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2016-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by a history of recurrent nocturnal dream enactment behavior and loss of skeletal muscle atonia and increased phasic muscle activity during REM sleep: REM sleep without atonia. RBD and associated comorbidities ha...

  12. Rapid cycling genomic selection in a multiparental tropical maize population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic selection (GS) increases genetic gain by reducing the length of the selection cycle, as has been exemplified in maize using rapid cycling recombination of biparental populations. However, no results of GS applied to maize multi-parental populations have been reported so far. This study is th...

  13. Rapid Detection of the Varicella Zoster Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michelle P.; Harding, Robert

    2011-01-01

    1.Technology Description-Researchers discovered that when the Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) reactivates from latency in the body, the virus is consistently present in saliva before the appearance of skin lesions. A small saliva sample is mixed with a specialized reagent in a test kit. If the virus is present in the saliva sample, the mixture turns a red color. The sensitivity and specificity emanates from an antibody-antigen reaction. This technology is a rapid, non-invasive, point of-of-care testing kit for detecting the virus from a saliva sample. The device is easy to use and can be used in clinics and in remote locations to quickly detect VZV and begin treatment with antiviral drugs. 2.Market Opportunity- RST Bioscience will be the first and only company to market a rapid, same day test kit for the detection of VZV in saliva. The RST detection test kit will have several advantages over existing, competitive technology. The test kit is self contained and laboratory equipment is not required for analysis of the sample. Only a single saliva sample is required to be taken instead of blood or cerebral spinal fluid. The test kit is portable, sterile and disposable after use. RST detection test kits require no electrical power or expensive storage equipment and can be used in remote locations. 3.Market Analysis- According to the CDC, it is estimated that 1 million cases of shingles occur each year in the U.S. with more than half over the age of sixty. There is a high demand for rapid diagnostics by the public. The point-of-care testing (POCT) market is growing faster than other segments of in vitro diagnostics. According to a July 2007 InteLab Corporation industry report the overall market for POCT was forecast to increase from $10.3 billion in 2005 to $18.7 billion by 2011. The market value of this test kit has not been determined. 4.Competition- The VZV vaccine prevents 50% of cases and reduces neuralgia by 66%. The most popular test detects VZV-specific IgM antibody

  14. Rapid palatal expansion: the role of microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilello, G; Currò, G; Messina, P; Scardina, G

    2015-08-01

    Transverse palate modifications fall under expansive orthopedic therapy of the upper maxilla. The only practical approach to the problem on the transverse plane is that of performing the expansion of the maxillary arch through an opening of the median palatal suture. It is important to understand the changes of the vascular network in midpalatal suture following the starting of rapid maxillary expansion. It is critical to maintain the blood supply and circulation for the osteogenesis and bone remodeling after the expansion. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of rapid orthopedic expansion (REP) at the microcirculatory level through capillaroscopic examination. Fifteen patients in their developing years between 9 and 15 years of age (average age 12.16 years) were examined. The application of the REP was the first step in the planning of orthopedic-orthodontic treatment which foresaw further stages in the odonto-osseous movement. The method of Biomicroscopic Video-Imaging of the microcirculation of oral mucosa is performed through the technique of computerized capillaroscopy and the related software. From the results it is evident that immediately after achieving the expansion of the upper maxilla (t1), a slight decrease in the number of vessels per mm² can be observed. In addition, a slight ectasia can be observed in these vessels in comparison to t0. Comparing the videocapillaroscopic images of t1 and t2, an increase in the capillaries per mm² can be observed. Ectasia of the capillaries, though subject to strictly individual variables, can be considered perfectly normal and it is compatible with the normal biology and physiology of vessel microcirculation.

  15. Rapid preparation of functional polysaccharides from Pyropia yezoensis by microwave-assistant rapid enzyme digest system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hyeok; Kim, Hyung-Ho; Ko, Ju-Young; Jang, Jun-Ho; Kim, Gwang-Hoon; Lee, Jung-Suck; Nah, Jae-Woon; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-11-20

    This study describes a simple preparation of functional polysaccharides from Pyropia yezoensis using a microwave-assistant rapid enzyme digest system (MAREDS) with various carbohydrases, and evaluates their antioxidative effects. Polysaccharide hydrolysates were prepared using MAREDS under different hydrolytic conditions of the carbohydrases and microwave powers. Polysaccharides less than 10kDa (Low molecular weight polysaccharides, LMWP, ≤10kDa) were efficiently obtained using an ultrafiltration (molecular weight cut-off of 10kDa). MAREDS increases AMG activation via an increased degree of hydrolysis; the best AMG hydrolysate was prepared using a 10:1 ratio of substrate to enzyme for 2h in MAREDS with 400W. LMWP consisted of galactose (27.3%), glucose (64.5%), and mannose (8.3%) from the AMG hydrolysate had stronger antioxidant effects than the high molecular weight polysaccharides (>10kDa). We rapidly prepared functional LMWPs by using MAREDS with carbohydrases, and suggest that LMWP might be potentially a valuable algal polysaccharide antioxidant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Final rapid reactivation project environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-10

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the Rapid Reactivation Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. The EA analyzes the potential effects of a proposal to increase production of neutron generators from the current capability of 600 units per year up to 2,000 units per year. The project would use existing buildings and infrastructure to the maximum extent possible to meet the additional production needs. The increased production levels would necessitate modifications and additions involving a total area of approximately 26,290 gross square feet at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Technical Area 1. Additional production equipment would be procured and installed. The no-action alternative would be to continue production activities at the current capability of 600 units per year. The EA analyzes effects on health, safety, and air quality, resulting from construction and operation and associated cumulative effects. A detailed description of the proposed action and its environmental consequences is presented in the EA.

  17. Nanostructured bioluminescent sensor for rapidly detecting thrombin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Longyan; Bao, Yige; Denstedt, John; Zhang, Jin

    2016-03-15

    Thrombin plays a key role in thrombosis and hemostasis. The abnormal level of thrombin in body fluids may lead to different diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, glomerulonephritis, etc. Detection of thrombin level in blood and/or urine is one of important methods for medical diagnosis. Here, a bioluminescent sensor is developed for non-invasively and rapidly detecting thrombin in urine. The sensor is assembled through conjugating gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and a recombinant protein containing Renilla luciferase (pRluc) by a peptide, which is thrombin specific substrate. The luciferase-catalyzed bioluminescence can be quenched by peptide-conjugating Au NPs. In the presence of thrombin, the short peptide conjugating luciferase and Au NPs is digested and cut off, which results in the recovery of bioluminescence due to the release of luciferase from Au NPs. The bioluminescence intensity at 470 nm is observed, and increases with increasing concentration of thrombin. The bioluminescence intensity of this designed sensor is significantly recovered when the thrombin digestion time lasts for 10 min. In addition, a similar linear relationship between luminescence intensity and the concentration of thrombin is found in the range of 8 nM to 8 μM in both buffer and human urine spiked samples. The limit of detection is as low as 80 pM. It is anticipated that our nanosensor could be a promising tool for clinical diagnosis of thrombin in human urine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Application Trends of Rapid Prototyping Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Xiao Lin

    2016-01-01

    characteristics of laser stero lithography (LSL selective laser sintering (SLS, three-dimensional printing (DP, fused deposition modeling (FDM, computer numerical control (CNC and other rapid prototyping technologies. After discussed these five rapid prototyping technology materials, we presented the hotspot and direction of rapid prototyping technology and look forward to the development of its technique, the expansion of its field and the progress of its academic ideology.

  19. Rapid detection of genetic modification for GMO monitoring in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Sofija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic technology has expanded the ways of new genetic variability creation. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs are organisms which total genome is altered in a way that could not happen in nature. GM crops recorded a steady increase in its share in agricultural production. However, for the most part, GMO in agriculture has been limited to two cultivars - soy and corn, and the two genetic modifications, the total herbicide resistance and pest of the Lepidoptera genus. In order to monitor cultivation and trade of GMOs, tests of different precision are used, qualitatively and/or quantitatively determining the presence of genetic modification. Tests for the rapid determination of the presence of GM are suitable, since they can be implemented quickly and accurately, in terms of declared sensitivity, outside or in the laboratory. The example of the use of rapid tests demonstrates their value in use for rapid and efficient monitoring.

  20. Methods and systems for rapid prototyping of high density circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jeremy A [Albuquerque, NM; Davis, Donald W [Albuquerque, NM; Chavez, Bart D [Albuquerque, NM; Gallegos, Phillip L [Albuquerque, NM; Wicker, Ryan B [El Paso, TX; Medina, Francisco R [El Paso, TX

    2008-09-02

    A preferred embodiment provides, for example, a system and method of integrating fluid media dispensing technology such as direct-write (DW) technologies with rapid prototyping (RP) technologies such as stereolithography (SL) to provide increased micro-fabrication and micro-stereolithography. A preferred embodiment of the present invention also provides, for example, a system and method for Rapid Prototyping High Density Circuit (RPHDC) manufacturing of solderless connectors and pilot devices with terminal geometries that are compatible with DW mechanisms and reduce contact resistance where the electrical system is encapsulated within structural members and manual electrical connections are eliminated in favor of automated DW traces. A preferred embodiment further provides, for example, a method of rapid prototyping comprising: fabricating a part layer using stereolithography and depositing thermally curable media onto the part layer using a fluid dispensing apparatus.

  1. Rapid Automated Mission Planning System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an automated UAS mission planning system that will rapidly identify emergency (contingency) landing sites, manage contingency routing, and...

  2. WIST: toolkit for rapid, customized LIMS development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Y Wayne; Arkin, Adam P; Chandonia, John-Marc

    2011-01-01

    Workflow Information Storage Toolkit (WIST) is a set of application programming interfaces and web applications that allow for the rapid development of customized laboratory information management systems (LIMS...

  3. JIEDDO Experience Provides Rapid Acquisition Insights

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James P Craft

    2015-01-01

    .... JIDA's rapid acquisition capabilities were preserved by transitioning the expedient organization that received supplemental funding into the Defense Department's newest combat support agency (CSA...

  4. Urban flood risk warning under rapid urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yangbo; Zhou, Haolan; Zhang, Hui; Du, Guoming; Zhou, Jinhui

    2015-05-01

    In the past decades, China has observed rapid urbanization, the nation's urban population reached 50% in 2000, and is still in steady increase. Rapid urbanization in China has an adverse impact on urban hydrological processes, particularly in increasing the urban flood risks and causing serious urban flooding losses. Urban flooding also increases health risks such as causing epidemic disease break out, polluting drinking water and damaging the living environment. In the highly urbanized area, non-engineering measurement is the main way for managing urban flood risk, such as flood risk warning. There is no mature method and pilot study for urban flood risk warning, the purpose of this study is to propose the urban flood risk warning method for the rapidly urbanized Chinese cities. This paper first presented an urban flood forecasting model, which produces urban flood inundation index for urban flood risk warning. The model has 5 modules. The drainage system and grid dividing module divides the whole city terrain into drainage systems according to its first-order river system, and delineates the drainage system into grids based on the spatial structure with irregular gridding technique; the precipitation assimilation module assimilates precipitation for every grids which is used as the model input, which could either be the radar based precipitation estimation or interpolated one from rain gauges; runoff production module classifies the surface into pervious and impervious surface, and employs different methods to calculate the runoff respectively; surface runoff routing module routes the surface runoff and determines the inundation index. The routing on surface grid is calculated according to the two dimensional shallow water unsteady flow algorithm, the routing on land channel and special channel is calculated according to the one dimensional unsteady flow algorithm. This paper then proposed the urban flood risk warning method that is called DPSIR model based

  5. Rapid Health and Needs assessments after disasters: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yzermans CJ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Publichealth care providers, stakeholders and policy makers request a rapid insight into health status and needs of the affected population after disasters. To our knowledge, there is no standardized rapid assessment tool for European countries. The aim of this article is to describe existing tools used internationally and analyze them for the development of a workable rapid assessment. Methods A review was conducted, including original studies concerning a rapid health and/or needs assessment. The studies used were published between 1980 and 2009. The electronic databasesof Medline, Embase, SciSearch and Psychinfo were used. Results Thirty-three studies were included for this review. The majority of the studies was of US origin and in most cases related to natural disasters, especially concerning the weather. In eighteen studies an assessment was conducted using a structured questionnaire, eleven studies used registries and four used both methods. Questionnaires were primarily used to asses the health needs, while data records were used to assess the health status of disaster victims. Conclusions Methods most commonly used were face to face interviews and data extracted from existing registries. Ideally, a rapid assessment tool is needed which does not add to the burden of disaster victims. In this perspective, the use of existing medical registries in combination with a brief questionnaire in the aftermath of disasters is the most promising. Since there is an increasing need for such a tool this approach needs further examination.

  6. Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop (RAPID) Toolkit (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, K. R.; Levine, A.

    2014-09-01

    The Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop (RAPID) Toolkit combines the former Geothermal Regulatory Roadmap, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Database, and other resources into a Web-based tool that gives the regulatory and utility-scale geothermal developer communities rapid and easy access to permitting information. RAPID currently comprises five tools - Permitting Atlas, Regulatory Roadmap, Resource Library, NEPA Database, and Best Practices. A beta release of an additional tool, the Permitting Wizard, is scheduled for late 2014. Because of the huge amount of information involved, RAPID was developed in a wiki platform to allow industry and regulatory agencies to maintain the content in the future so that it continues to provide relevant and accurate information to users. In 2014, the content was expanded to include regulatory requirements for utility-scale solar and bulk transmission development projects. Going forward, development of the RAPID Toolkit will focus on expanding the capabilities of current tools, developing additional tools, including additional technologies, and continuing to increase stakeholder involvement.

  7. Numerical modelling of rapid solidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    1997-01-01

    A mathematical model of the melt spinning process has been developed based on the control-volume finite-difference method. The model avoids some of the limitations of the previous models, for example including the effect of the wheel in the heat how calculations and the temperature dependence......, for example the recalescence characteristic, was investigated. The results of the model showed that the effect of heating of the wheel is difficult to prevent even for a wheel material of high conductivity. The recalescence effect was found to be influenced by the wheel surface temperature and to decrease...... with increasing thermal conductivity of the wheel. The observed increase in the wheel surface temperature suggests the importance of including the wheel in the numerical calculations, especially for a wheel made of a low-conductive material...

  8. Determination of hormonal combination for increased multiplication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    In Uganda, the use of tissue culture is a new technique in seed potato production, therefore, appropriate media composition for rapid multiplication of potato tissue culture plantlets has not been optimised. Thus, the objective of this study was to optimize hormonal combinations for increased multiplication of tissue culture.

  9. Test plan for the Rapid Geophysical Surveyor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roybal, L.G.

    1993-06-01

    This document describes the test plant for demonstrating and testing a set of optically pumped cesium-based total field magnetometers using the Rapid Geophysical Surveyor platform. The proposed testing will be used to assess the function of these magnetometers as deployed on the Rapid Geophysical Surveyor and evaluate the practical utility of high resolution magnetic data for supporting waste retrieval efforts.

  10. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenck, C H; Montplaisir, J Y; Frauscher, B

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to provide a consensus statement by the International Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Study Group (IRBD-SG) on devising controlled active treatment studies in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and devising studies of neuroprotection against Parkinson disease (PD...

  11. Rapid Prototyping of Mobile Learning Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federley, Maija; Sorsa, Timo; Paavilainen, Janne; Boissonnier, Kimo; Seisto, Anu

    2014-01-01

    This position paper presents the first results of an on-going project, in which we explore rapid prototyping method to efficiently produce digital learning solutions that are commercially viable. In this first phase, rapid game prototyping and an iterative approach was tested as a quick and efficient way to create learning games and to evaluate…

  12. Rapid methods for detection of bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Andersen, B.Ø.; Miller, M.

    2006-01-01

    Traditional methods for detection of bacteria in drinking water e.g. Heterotrophic Plate Counts (HPC) or Most Probable Number (MNP) take 48-72 hours to give the result. New rapid methods for detection of bacteria are needed to protect the consumers against contaminations. Two rapid methods...

  13. Dijets at large rapidity intervals

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, B G

    2001-01-01

    Inclusive diet production at large pseudorapidity intervals ( Delta eta ) between the two jets has been suggested as a regime for observing BFKL dynamics. We have measured the dijet cross section for large Delta eta in pp collisions at square root s = 1800 and 630 GeV using the DOE detector. The partonic cross section increases strongly with the size of Delta eta . The observed growth is even stronger than expected on the basis of BFKL resummation in the leading logarithmic approximation. The growth of the partonic cross section can be accommodated with an effective BFKL intercept of alpha /sub BFKL/(20 GeV) = 1.65 +or- 0.07.

  14. Rapid Increase in Neural Conduction Time in the Adult Human Auditory Brainstem Following Sudden Unilateral Deafness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maslin, M R. D; Lloyd, S K; Rutherford, S; Freeman, S; King, A; Moore, D R; Munro, K J

    2015-01-01

    .... Click-evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to stimulation of the healthy ear were recorded from ten adults during the course of translabyrinthine surgery for the removal of a unilateral acoustic neuroma...

  15. Waterbirds increase more rapidly in Ramsar-designated wetlands than in unprotected wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, D.; Cherkaoui, I.; Goedhart, P.W.; Hout, van der J.; Lammertsma, D.R.

    2014-01-01

    There is a general lack of information on how international conservation treaties affect biodiversity. The Ramsar convention on the protection of internationally important wetlands is such an international conservation policy. It initiated the worldwide establishment of over 2000 protected areas

  16. Rapid increases in obesity in Jamaica, compared to Nigeria and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazo-Arvizu, Ramón A; Luke, Amy; Cooper, Richard S; Cao, Guichan; Dugas, Lara; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Boyne, Michael; Forrester, Terrence

    2008-01-01

    Background Weight gain in adulthood is now common in many populations, ranging from modest gains in developing countries to a substantial percentage of body weight in some Western societies. To examine the rate of change across the spectrum of low to high-income countries we compared rates of weight change in samples drawn from three countries, Nigeria, Jamaica and the United States. Methods Population samples from Nigeria (n = 1,242), Jamaica (n = 1,409), and the US (n = 809) were selected during the period 1995–1999 in adults over the age of 19; participation rates in the original survey were 96%, 60%, and 60%, respectively. Weight in (kg) was measured on 3 different occasions, ending in 2005. Multi-level regression models were used to estimate weight change over time and pattern-mixture models were applied to assess the potential effect of missing data on estimates of the model parameters. Results The unadjusted weight gain rate (standard error) was 0.34(0.06), 1.26(0.12), 0.34(0.19) kg/year among men and 0.43(0.06), 1.28(0.10), 0.40(0.15) kg/year among women in Nigeria, Jamaica, US, respectively. Regression-adjusted weight change rates were significantly different across country, sex, and baseline BMI. Adjusted weight gain in Nigeria, Jamaica and US was 0.31(0.05), 1.37(.04), and 0.52(0.05) kg/year respectively. Women in Nigeria and the US had higher weight gains than men, with the converse observed among Jamaicans. The obese experienced weight loss across all three samples, whereas the normal weight (BMI Jamaica, relative to Nigeria and the US, is most likely attributable to the accelerating effects of the cultural and behavioral shifts which have come to bear on transitional societies. PMID:18433493

  17. Explaining the Rapid Increase in Nigeria's Sex Ratio at Birth: Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    from the records of the Maternity Hospital for. 5,780 live births from 1976 to 1980, showed sex ratio of 1.2. ... sex ratio of 1.039 (1.07 for hospital deliveries, 1.037 for deliveries in maternity homes, and 1.02 for births in ..... earlier in adolescence than boys, who are more impulsive and take more risks than their sisters. Teenage ...

  18. Rapidly increasing collimation and magnetic field changes of a protostellar H2O maser outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surcis, G.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; van Langevelde, H. J.; Goddi, C.; Torrelles, J. M.; Cantó, J.; Curiel, S.; Kim, S.-W.; Kim, J.-S.

    2014-05-01

    Context. W75N(B) is a massive star-forming region that contains three radio continuum sources (VLA 1, VLA 2, and VLA 3), which are thought to be three massive young stellar objects at three different evolutionary stages. VLA 1 is the most evolved and VLA 2 the least evolved source. The 22 GHz H2O masers associated with VLA 1 and VLA 2 have been mapped at several epochs over eight years. While the H2O masers in VLA 1 show a persistent linear distribution along a radio jet, those in VLA 2 are distributed around an expanding shell. Furthermore, H2O maser polarimetric measurements revealed magnetic fields aligned with the two structures. Aims: Using new polarimetric observations of H2O masers, we aim to confirm the elliptical expansion of the shell-like structure around VLA 2 and, at the same time, to determine if the magnetic fields around the two sources have changed. Methods: The NRAO Very Long Baseline Array was used to measure the linear polarization and the Zeeman-splitting of the 22 GHz H2O masers towards the massive star-forming region W75N(B). Results: The H2O maser distribution around VLA 1 is unchanged from that previously observed. We made an elliptical fit of the H2O masers around VLA 2. We find that the shell-like structure is still expanding along the direction parallel to the thermal radio jet of VLA 1. While the magnetic field around VLA 1 has not changed in the past ~7 years, the magnetic field around VLA 2 has changed its orientation according to the new direction of the major-axis of the shell-like structure and it is now aligned with the magnetic field in VLA 1. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. Rapid increase of genetically diverse methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Mette Damkjaer; Boye, Kit; Rhod Larsen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    In Copenhagen, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) accounted for ... by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, Staphylococcus protein A (spa) typing, multilocus sequence typing, staphylococcal chromosome cassette (SCC) mec typing, and detection of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes. Seventy-one percent of cases were community-onset MRSA (CO-MRSA); of these, 36% had...

  20. Rapid increase in the prevalence of metronidazole-resistant Helicobacter pylori in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderWouden, EJ; vanZwet, AA; Thijs, JC; Vosmaer, GDC; Oom, JAJ; deJong, A; Kleibeuker, JH

    1997-01-01

    The prevalence of primary metronidazole resistance of Helicobacter pylori was studied in one Dutch hospital from 1993 to 1996 and in two additional Dutch hospitals in 1993 and 1996. All cultures of antral biopsy specimens yielding H. pylori in the study period were evaluated, except those from

  1. Rapid Recollection of Foresight Judgments Increases Hindsight Bias in a Memory Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvillo, Dustin P.

    2013-01-01

    One component of hindsight bias is memory distortion. This component is measured with a memory design, in which individuals answer questions, learn the correct answers, and recall their original answers. Hindsight bias occurs when participants' recollections are closer to the correct answers than their original judgments actually were. The present…

  2. Rapid increase of genetically diverse methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Mette Damkjaer; Boye, Kit; Rhod Larsen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, Staphylococcus protein A (spa) typing, multilocus sequence typing, staphylococcal chromosome cassette (SCC) mec typing, and detection of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes. Seventy-one percent of cases were community-onset MRSA (CO-MRSA); of these, 36% had...

  3. Rapid Increase of Genetically Diverse Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Mette Damkjær; Boye, Kit; Larsen, Anders Rhod

    2007-01-01

    by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, Staphylococcus protein A (spa) typing, multilocus sequence typing, staphylococcal chromosome cassette (SCC) mec typing, and detection of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes. Seventy-one percent of cases were community-onset MRSA (CO-MRSA); of these, 36% had...

  4. A Rapid Process for Fabricating Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ching Hsiao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO is a low-toxicity and environmentally-friendly material applied on devices, sensors or actuators for “green” usage. A porous ZnO film deposited by a rapid process of aerosol deposition (AD was employed as the gas-sensitive material in a CO gas sensor to reduce both manufacturing cost and time, and to further extend the AD application for a large-scale production. The relative resistance change (△R/R of the ZnO gas sensor was used for gas measurement. The fabricated ZnO gas sensors were measured with operating temperatures ranging from 110 °C to 180 °C, and CO concentrations ranging from 100 ppm to 1000 ppm. The sensitivity and the response time presented good performance at increasing operating temperatures and CO concentrations. AD was successfully for applied for making ZnO gas sensors with great potential for achieving high deposition rates at low deposition temperatures, large-scale production and low cost.

  5. Web tools for rapid experimental visualization prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Jonathan W.; Livingstion, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Quite often a researcher finds themselves looking at spreadsheets of high-dimensional data generated by experimental models and user studies. We can use analysis to challenge or confirm hypothesis, but unexpected results can easily be lost in the shuffle. For this reason, it would be useful to visualize the results so we can explore our data and make new discoveries. Web browsers have become increasingly capable for creating complex, multi-view applications. Javascript is quickly becoming a de facto standard for scripting, online and offline. This work demonstrates the use of web technologies as a powerful tool for rapid visualization prototyping. We have developed two prototypes: One for high-dimensional results of the abELICIT - multi-agent version of the ELICIT platform tasked with collaborating to identify the parameters of a pending attack. Another prototype displays responses to a user study on the effectiveness of multi-layer visualization techniques. We created coordinated multiple views prototypes in the Google Chrome web browser written in Javascript, CSS and HTML. We will discuss the benefits and shortcomings of this approach.

  6. YAM- A Framework for Rapid Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhinandan; Biesiadecki, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    YAM is a software development framework with tools for facilitating the rapid development and integration of software in a concurrent software development environment. YAM provides solutions for thorny development challenges associated with software reuse, managing multiple software configurations, the development of software product-lines, multiple platform development and build management. YAM uses release-early, release-often development cycles to allow developers to incrementally integrate their changes into the system on a continual basis. YAM facilitates the creation and merging of branches to support the isolated development of immature software to avoid impacting the stability of the development effort. YAM uses modules and packages to organize and share software across multiple software products. It uses the concepts of link and work modules to reduce sandbox setup times even when the code-base is large. One side-benefit is the enforcement of a strong module-level encapsulation of a module s functionality and interface. This increases design transparency, system stability as well as software reuse. YAM is in use by several mid-size software development teams including ones developing mission-critical software.

  7. The Chinese experience of rapid modernization: sociocultural changes, psychological consequences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahong eSun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mainland China has undergone profound changes dating back to the nineteenth century, including a contemporary period of rapid modernization that began in the 1980s. The result has been dramatic social, cultural, and economic shifts impacting the daily lives of Chinese people. In this paper, we explore the psychological implications of sociocultural transformation in China, emphasizing two central themes. First, rising individualism: findings from social and developmental psychology suggest that China’s rapid development has been accompanied by ever-increasing adherence to individualistic values. Second, rising rates of depression: findings from psychiatric epidemiology point to increasing prevalence of depression over this same time period, particularly in rural settings. We argue that links between sociocultural and psychological shifts in China can be usefully studied through a cultural psychology lens, emphasizing the mutual constitution of culture, mind, and brain. In particular, we note that the link between social change, individualism, and rising mental illness deserves careful attention. Our review suggests that shifting values and socialization practices shape emotion norms of concealment and display, with implications for depressive symptom presentation. The challenge comes with interpretation. Increasing prevalence rates of depression may indeed be a general response to the rapidity of sociocultural change, or a specific consequence of rising individualism—but may also result from increasingly ‘Western’ patterns of symptom presentation, or improvements in diagnostic practice. We conclude by considering the challenges posed to standard universal models of psychological phenomena.

  8. The Chinese Experience of Rapid Modernization: Sociocultural Changes, Psychological Consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiahong; Ryder, Andrew G.

    2016-01-01

    Mainland China has undergone profound changes dating back to the nineteenth century, including a contemporary period of rapid modernization that began in the 1980s. The result has been dramatic social, cultural, and economic shifts impacting the daily lives of Chinese people. In this paper, we explore the psychological implications of sociocultural transformation in China, emphasizing two central themes. First, rising individualism: findings from social and developmental psychology suggest that China’s rapid development has been accompanied by ever-increasing adherence to individualistic values. Second, rising rates of depression: findings from psychiatric epidemiology point to increasing prevalence of depression over this same time period, particularly in rural settings. We argue that links between sociocultural and psychological shifts in China can be usefully studied through a cultural psychology lens, emphasizing the mutual constitution of culture, mind, and brain. In particular, we note that the link between social change, individualism, and rising mental illness deserves careful attention. Our review suggests that shifting values and socialization practices shape emotion norms of concealment and display, with implications for depressive symptom presentation. The challenge comes with interpretation. Increasing prevalence rates of depression may indeed be a general response to the rapidity of sociocultural change, or a specific consequence of rising individualism—but may also result from increasingly ‘Western’ patterns of symptom presentation, or improvements in diagnostic practice. We conclude by considering the challenges posed to standard universal models of psychological phenomena. PMID:27092093

  9. India Ink Staining, a Rapid and Affordable Test for Diagnosis of Cryptococcal Meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Masfiyah Masfiyah

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis incidence has increased along with an increase in incidence of HIV-AIDS. This infection causes increased morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV-AIDS. A rapid diagnosis plays an important role to ensure a prompt therapy of the disease. The cryptococcal polysaccharide antigen test for diagnosis of meningitis is rapid but relatively expensive while culture is time consuming. A 47-year man was admitted to hospital with a headache, fever, nausea, and vomiting and ...

  10. A new method for rapid Canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Khavari A

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis method (Do in bone lengthening and rapid midpalatal expansion have shown the great ability of osteognic tissues for rapid bone formation under distraction force and special protocol with optimum rate of one millimeter per day. Periodontal membrane of teeth (PDM is the extension of periostium in the alveolar socked. Orthodontic force distracts PDM fibers in the tension side and then bone formation will begin.Objects: Rapid retraction of canine tooth into extraction space of first premolar by DO protocol in order to show the ability of the PDM in rapid bone formation. The other objective was reducing total orthodontic treatment time of extraction cases.Patients and Methods: Tweleve maxillary canines in six patients were retracted rapidly in three weeks by a custom-made tooth-born appliance. Radiographic records were taken to evaluate the effects of heavy applied force on canine and anchorage teeth.Results: Average retraction was 7.05 mm in three weeks (2.35 mm/week. Canines rotated distal- in by mean 3.5 degrees.Anchorage loss was from 0 to 0.8 mm with average of 0.3 mm.Root resorption of canines was negligible, and was not significant clinically. Periodontium was normal after rapid retraction. No hazard for pulp vitality was observed.Discussion: PDM responded well to heavy distraction force by Do protocol. Rapid canine retraction seems to be a safe method and can considerabely reduce orthodontic time.

  11. Risks and Benefits of Rapid Clozapine Titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochhead, Jeannie D; Nelson, Michele A; Schneider, Alan L

    2016-05-18

    Clozapine is often considered the gold standard for the treatment of schizophrenia. Clinical guidelines suggest a gradual titration over 2 weeks to reduce the risks of adverse events such as seizures, hypotension, agranulocytosis, and myocarditis. The slow titration often delays time to therapeutic response. This raises the question of whether, in some patients, it may be safe to use a more rapid clozapine titration. The following case illustrates the potential risks associated with the use of multiple antipsychotics and rapid clozapine titration. We present the case of a young man with schizophrenia who developed life threatening neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) during rapid clozapine titration and treatment with multiple antipsychotics. We were unable to find another case in the literature of NMS associated with rapid clozapine titration. This case is meant to urge clinicians to carefully evaluate the risks and benefits of rapid clozapine titration, and to encourage researchers to further evaluate the safety of rapid clozapine titration. Rapid clozapine titration has implications for decreasing health care costs associated with prolonged hospitalizations, and decreasing the emotional suffering associated with uncontrolled symptoms of psychosis. Clozapine is considered the most effective antipsychotic available thus efforts should focus on developing strategies that would allow for safest and most efficient use of clozapine to encourage its utilization for treatment resistance schizophrenia.

  12. Risks and benefits of rapid clozapine titration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannie D. Lochhead

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Clozapine is often considered the gold standard for the treatment of schizophrenia. Clinical guidelines suggest a gradual titration over 2 weeks to reduce the risks of adverse events such as seizures, hypotension, agranulocytosis, and myocarditis. The slow titration often delays time to therapeutic response. This raises the question of whether, in some patients, it may be safe to use a more rapid clozapine titration. The following case illustrates the potential risks associated with the use of multiple antipsychotics and rapid clozapine titration. We present the case of a young man with schizophrenia who developed life threatening neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS during rapid clozapine titration and treatment with multiple antipsychotics. We were unable to find another case in the literature of NMS associated with rapid clozapine titration. This case is meant to urge clinicians to carefully evaluate the risks and benefits of rapid clozapine titration, and to encourage researchers to further evaluate the safety of rapid clozapine titration. Rapid clozapine titration has implications for decreasing health care costs associated with prolonged hospitalizations, and decreasing the emotional suffering associated with uncontrolled symptoms of psychosis. Clozapine is considered the most effective antipsychotic available thus efforts should focus on developing strategies that would allow for safest and most efficient use of clozapine to encourage its utilization for treatment resistance schizophrenia.

  13. A scoping review of rapid review methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricco, Andrea C; Antony, Jesmin; Zarin, Wasifa; Strifler, Lisa; Ghassemi, Marco; Ivory, John; Perrier, Laure; Hutton, Brian; Moher, David; Straus, Sharon E

    2015-09-16

    Rapid reviews are a form of knowledge synthesis in which components of the systematic review process are simplified or omitted to produce information in a timely manner. Although numerous centers are conducting rapid reviews internationally, few studies have examined the methodological characteristics of rapid reviews. We aimed to examine articles, books, and reports that evaluated, compared, used or described rapid reviews or methods through a scoping review. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, internet websites of rapid review producers, and reference lists were searched to identify articles for inclusion. Two reviewers independently screened literature search results and abstracted data from included studies. Descriptive analysis was conducted. We included 100 articles plus one companion report that were published between 1997 and 2013. The studies were categorized as 84 application papers, seven development papers, six impact papers, and four comparison papers (one was included in two categories). The rapid reviews were conducted between 1 and 12 months, predominantly in Europe (58 %) and North America (20 %). The included studies failed to report 6 % to 73 % of the specific systematic review steps examined. Fifty unique rapid review methods were identified; 16 methods occurred more than once. Streamlined methods that were used in the 82 rapid reviews included limiting the literature search to published literature (24 %) or one database (2 %), limiting inclusion criteria by date (68 %) or language (49 %), having one person screen and another verify or screen excluded studies (6 %), having one person abstract data and another verify (23 %), not conducting risk of bias/quality appraisal (7 %) or having only one reviewer conduct the quality appraisal (7 %), and presenting results as a narrative summary (78 %). Four case studies were identified that compared the results of rapid reviews to systematic reviews. Three studies found that the conclusions between

  14. New developments in rapidly solidified magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.K. [Allied-Signal, Inc., Morristown, NJ (United States); Chang, C.F. [Allied-Signal, Inc., Morristown, NJ (United States); Raybould, D. [Allied-Signal, Inc., Morristown, NJ (United States); King, J.F. [Magnesium Elektron Ltd., Manchester (United Kingdom); Thistlethwaite, S. [Magnesium Elektron Ltd., Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1992-12-31

    In the present paper, we will examine the new developments in the rapidly solidified Mg-Al-Zn-Nd (EA55RS) alloy. We shall first briefly review the process scale-up currently employed for producing rapidly solidified magnesium alloys in large quantities, and then discuss the effect of billet size and processing parameters on the mechanical properties of various mill product forms such as extrusions and sheets. The superplastic behavior of EA55RS extrusions and rolled sheets are also discussed. Finally, some results on magnesium metal-matrix composites using rapidly solidified EA55RS matrix powders and SiC particulates are presented. (orig.)

  15. Rapid clozapine titration in treatment-refractory bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifteni, Petru; Correll, Christoph U; Nielsen, Jimmi; Burtea, Victoria; Kane, John M; Manu, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Clozapine is effective in treatment-refractory bipolar disorder (BD). Guidelines recommend slow titration to prevent seizures, hypotension and myocarditis, but this stance is not supported by comparative data. To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of rapid clozapine titration in BD. Analysis of a consecutive cohort of treatment-refractory BD patients with mixed/manic episode admitted on alternate days to one of two units of a psychiatric hospital. On one unit, clozapine was started at 25mg followed by 25-50mg as needed every 6h (maximum=100mg/day) on day 1, followed by increases of 25-100mg/day. On the other unit, clozapine was initiated with 25mg in day 1, followed by increases of 25-50mg/day. The primary outcome was the number of days from starting clozapine until readiness for discharge, adjusted in logistic regression for the number of antipsychotics tried during the hospitalization, psychotropic co-treatments and presence of psychotic features. Patients subject to rapid (N=44) and standard (N=23) titration were similar in age, gender, smoking status, body mass index, illness severity at baseline and discharge, and highest clozapine dose. Clozapine was discontinued due to hypotension (N=1) and pneumonia (N=1) during rapid titration, and for excessive sedation (N=1) in each titration group. The number of hospital days from starting clozapine until readiness for discharge was 3.8 days shorter in the rapid titration group (12.7±6.3 vs. 16.5±5.8, p=0.0077). Rapid clozapine titration appeared safe and effective for treatment-refractory BD. The potential for shorter hospital stays justifies prospective trials of this method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid exocytosis and endocytosis in nerve terminals of the rat posterior pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, S F; Jackson, M B

    1996-07-15

    1. Ca(2+)-induced exocytosis and endocytosis were studied by measuring the membrane capacitance of voltage-clamped peptidergic nerve terminals in slices prepared from the rat posterior pituitary. 2. Depolarizing pulses produced rapid increases in capacitance. These increases varied in parallel with Ca2+ current as voltage was varied. Elimination of Ca2+ current blocked depolarization-induced capacitance changes. 3. Depolarization-induced capacitance changes increased with pulse duration. Capacitance changes also increased with integrated Ca2+ influx, but saturated at high levels of Ca2+ entry. This saturation allowed us to estimate a pool size of 190 vesicles, assuming each vesicle has a capacitance of 1 fF. Vesicles from this pool fused with a time constant of 0.43 s. The capacitance change increased with the first power of integrated Ca2+ influx. 4. Experiments with briefer pulses revealed a rapid component of exocytosis comprising a pool of forty vesicles that fuse with a time constant of 14 ms. This rapid process may reflect a final Ca(2+)-regulated triggering step, which is distinct from the slower kinetic step revealed by longer duration pulses. The slower step may reflect a priming of vesicles prior to exocytosis. 5. Depolarization-induced capacitance increases in most cases were followed by a rapid decay in capacitance, reflecting membrane reuptake tightly coupled to exocytosis. A variable amount of rapid endocytosis followed depolarization-induced capacitance increases. The time constant for rapid endocytosis to baseline was 0.44 s. Excess endocytosis was occasionally observed, with capacitance decaying below the pre-stimulus baseline with a time constant of 2.1 s. 6. Rapid endocytosis was slower after pulses that produced greater increases in intracellular Ca2+, consistent with the hypothesis that intracellular Ca2+ inhibits rapid endocytosis. 7. Exocytosis follows depolarization with no detectable delay, indicating that Ca2+ triggers neuropeptide

  17. Commercial aspects of rapid thermal processing (RTP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.G.; Huffman, D.R. [Ensyn Technologies Inc., Greely, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    In its broadest sense, Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP{sup TM}) covers the conversion of all types of carbonaceous materials to liquid fuels, high quality fuel gases, and chemicals. Scientifically, it is based on the general premise that products which result from the extremely rapid application of heat to a given feedstock are inherently more valuable than those which are produced when heat is applied much more slowly over longer periods of processing time. Commercial RTP{sup TM} activities (including the actual implementation in the market as well as the short-term R and D initiatives) are much narrower in scope, and are focused on the production of high yields of light, non-tarry liquids (i.e. `bio-crude`) from biomass for fuel and chemical markets. Chemicals are of significant interest from an economical point of view since they typically have a higher value than fuel products. Liquid fuels are of interest for many reasons: (1) Liquid fuels do not have to be used immediately after production, such as is the case with hot combustion gases or combustible gases produced via gasification. This allows the decoupling of fuel production from the end-use (ie. the conversion of fuel to energy). (2) The higher energy density of liquid fuels vs. that of fuel gases and solid biomass results in a large reduction in the costs associated with storage and transportation. (3) The costs to retrofit an existing gas or oil fired combustion system are much lower than replacement with a solid fuel combustor. (4) In general, liquid fuel combustion is much more efficient, controllable, and cleaner than the combustion of solid fuels. (5) The production of liquid `bio-crude` permits the removal of ash from the biomass prior to combustion or other end-use applications. (6) Gas or liquid fuel-fired diesel or turbine engines cannot operate commercially on solid fuels. Although wood represents the biomass which is of principal commercial interest (including a vast array of wood residues

  18. Observation Bias Correction Reveals More Rapidly Draining Lakes on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Sarah W.; Christoffersen, Poul

    2017-10-01

    Rapid drainage of supraglacial lakes on the Greenland Ice Sheet enables the establishment of surface-to-bed hydrologic connections and subsequent basal water delivery. Estimates of the number and spatial distribution of rapidly draining lakes vary widely, and no study has so far quantified the impact of observation bias due to cloud cover in satellite imagery on reported frequency of rapid lake drainage. To better understand the rapid drainage mechanism, we map and track an average of 515 supraglacial lakes per year in central West Greenland from 2000 to 2015. We test four previously published definitions of rapid lake drainage and find the proportion of rapidly draining lakes to vary from 3% to 38% and to be strongly dependent on observation frequency. We then apply an observation bias correction and test three new drainage criteria, which reveal a bias-corrected rapid drainage probability of 36-45%. When observation bias is addressed, we can also show that lakes above 1,600 m are as likely to drain rapidly as lakes located at lower elevations. We conclude that inconsistent detection methodologies and observation bias have obscured the true frequency of rapidly draining lakes and that the rapid lake drainage mechanism will establish surface-to-bed hydrologic connections at increasing distance from the margin as supraglacial lakes expand inland under climate warming.

  19. A taxonomy of rapid reviews links report types and methods to specific decision-making contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartling, Lisa; Guise, Jeanne-Marie; Kato, Elisabeth; Anderson, Johanna; Belinson, Suzanne; Berliner, Elise; Dryden, Donna M; Featherstone, Robin; Mitchell, Matthew D; Motu'apuaka, Makalapua; Noorani, Hussein; Paynter, Robin; Robinson, Karen A; Schoelles, Karen; Umscheid, Craig A; Whitlock, Evelyn

    2015-12-01

    Describe characteristics of rapid reviews and examine the impact of methodological variations on their reliability and validity. We conducted a literature review and interviews with organizations that produce rapid reviews or related products to identify methods, guidance, empiric evidence, and current practices. We identified 36 rapid products from 20 organizations (production time, 5 minutes to 8 months). Methods differed from systematic reviews at all stages. As time frames increased, methods became more rigorous; however, restrictions on database searching, inclusion criteria, data extracted, and independent dual review remained. We categorized rapid products based on extent of synthesis. "Inventories" list what evidence is available. "Rapid responses" present best available evidence with no formal synthesis. "Rapid reviews" synthesize the quality of and findings from the evidence. "Automated approaches" generate meta-analyses in response to user-defined queries. Rapid products rely on a close relationship with end users and support specific decisions in an identified time frame. Limited empiric evidence exists comparing rapid and systematic reviews. Rapid products have tremendous methodological variation; categorization based on time frame or type of synthesis reveals patterns. The similarity across rapid products lies in the close relationship with the end user to meet time-sensitive decision-making needs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Biological aspects and candidate biomarkers for rapid-cycling in bipolar disorder: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buoli, Massimiliano; Serati, Marta; Altamura, A Carlo

    2017-12-01

    Rapid-cycling bipolar disorder represents a frequent severe subtype of illness which has been associated with poor response to pharmacological treatment. Aim of the present article is to provide an updated review of biological markers associated with rapid-cycling bipolar disorder. A research in the main database sources has been conducted to identify relevant papers about the topic. Rapid-cycling bipolar disorder patients seem to have a more frequent family history for bipolar spectrum disorders (d range: 0.44-0.74) as well as an increased susceptibility to DNA damage or mRNA hypo-transcription (d range: 0.78-1.67) than non rapid-cycling ones. A susceptibility to hypothyroidism, which is exacerbated by treatment with lithium, is possible in rapid-cycling bipolar disorder, but further studies are needed to draw definitive conclusions. Rapid-cycling bipolar patients might have more insuline resistance as well as more severe brain changes in frontal areas (d range: 0.82-0.94) than non rapid-cycling ones. Many questions are still open about this topic. The first is whether the rapid-cycling is inheritable or is more generally the manifestation of a severe form of bipolar disorder. The second is whether some endocrine dysfunctions (diabetes and hypothyroidism) predispose to rapid-cycling or rapid-cycling is the consequence of drug treatment or medical comorbidities (e.g. obesity). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid Peptide Reagent Isolation in a Disposable Microfluidic Cartridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    researchers: S. Moore, J. Rice , P. Bessette, B. Valdovinos, N. Stagliano, Y. T. Zhang, P. Pagano, D. Chang-Yen, M. Turewicz, A. deFusco, P. Daugherty...ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and ribosome display (5), eukaryotic virus display (6–7), and bacterial and yeast surface display (3, 8), are used to rapidly...increased red fluorescence and are easily distinguishable by flow cytometry. Ultra-Rare Cell Recovery To measure the rare and ultra-rare cell recovery of

  2. AN INTEGRATED RAPID MAPPING SYSTEM FOR DISASTER MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    D. Hein; Bayer, S.; Berger, R.; Kraft, T; D. Lesmeister

    2017-01-01

    Natural disasters as well as major man made incidents are an increasingly serious threat for civil society. Effective, fast and coordinated disaster management crucially depends on the availability of a real-time situation picture of the affected area. However, in situ situation assessment from the ground is usually time-consuming and of limited effect, especially when dealing with large or inaccessible areas. A rapid mapping system based on aerial images can enable fast and effective assessm...

  3. Implementation of rapid diagnostics with antimicrobial stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minejima, Emi; Wong-Beringer, Annie

    2016-11-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship (ASP) is an intervention-based program to improve patient outcomes to infection while limiting spread of resistance and unintended consequences. Many rapid diagnostic tools are now FDA cleared for clinical use, with three evaluated across multiple settings: Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry, Verigene, and FilmArray. Areas covered: This review will focus on studies published that evaluated ASP intervention with rapid diagnostic implementation on outcomes of infection. A description of the key ASP personnel, rapid diagnostic notification methods, hours of notification, and scope of ASP intervention is summarized. Expert commentary: It is critical that ASPs continually re-evaluate and evolve with technological advances. Rapid diagnostic tools are powerful in their ability to identify organisms quickly. A trained clinician is needed to evaluate the results and interact with the providers to educate them on result interpretation and optimal antimicrobial selection to maximize treatment success.

  4. Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) weather forecast model was developed by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). On May 1, 2012, the RUC was replaced...

  5. Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) weather forecast model was developed by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). On May 1, 2012, the RUC was replaced...

  6. Rapid Chemical Exposure and Dose Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA evaluates the potential risks of the manufacture and use of thousands of chemicals. To assist with this evaluation, EPA scientists developed a rapid, automated model using off the shelf technology that predicts exposures for thousands of chemicals.

  7. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Data Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Datasets used in the analysis of the Colorado Plateau (COP) Rapid Ecoregion Assessment (REA).They can be downloaded via a layer package (lpk, similar to a zip file...

  8. Development of a Rapid Thermoplastic Impregnation Device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weustink, A.P.D.

    2007-01-01

    A melt impregnation device for rapid thermoplastic impregnation of fiber bundles has been developed through modeling and experiments. The basic principles behind the thermoplastic impregnation process are investigated and the properties needed for a successful thermoplastic impregnation device are

  9. Practical implications of rapid development methodologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gerber, A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development methodologies are popular approaches for the development of modern software systems. The goals of these methodologies are the inclusion of the client into the analysis, design and implementation activities, as well...

  10. The Rapid Perceptual Impact of Emotional Distractors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briana L Kennedy

    Full Text Available The brief presentation of an emotional distractor can temporarily impair perception of a subsequent, rapidly presented target, an effect known as emotion-induced blindness (EIB. How rapidly does this impairment unfold? To probe this question, we examined EIB for targets that immediately succeeded ("lag-1" emotional distractors in a rapid stream of items relative to EIB for targets at later serial positions. Experiments 1 and 2 suggested that emotional distractors interfere with items presented very soon after them, with impaired target perception emerging as early as lag-1. Experiment 3 included an exploratory examination of individual differences, which suggested that EIB onsets more rapidly among participants scoring high in measures linked to negative affect.

  11. Effect of rapid maxillary expansion on sleep characteristics in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navya Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rapid maxillary expansion (RME is an orthopedic treatment procedure routinely used to treat constricted maxillary arches and also a potential additional treatment in children presenting with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB. Aims and Objectives: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of RME on sleep characteristics in children. Materials and Methods: Polysomnography was done on children of 8-13 years of age before expansion (T0, after expansion (T1 and after a period of 3 months after retention (T2. Bonded rapid maxillary expander was cemented in all children. Inter-molar distance was also measured at T0 and T2. Statistical Analysis: Nonparametric Friedman test was used for comparing the averages of sleep parameters at different time period (T0, T1, T2. Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used for comparing the averages of inter-molar width (T0-T2. P < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results: All children showed an improvement in sleep parameters with an increase in sleep efficiency, decreased in arousal and desaturation index after expansion. Total sleep time showed a statistically significant increase after expansion. A statistically significant increase in inter-molar distance was obtained after expansion. Conclusions: Rapid maxillary expansion is a useful treatment option for improving quality of sleep even in normal children without SDB. It also induces widening of the maxilla, corrects posterior crossbites and improves maxillary and mandibular dental arch coordination.

  12. Effect of rapid maxillary expansion on sleep characteristics in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Navya; Varma, N K Sapna; Ajith, V V; Gopinath, Siby

    2014-10-01

    Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is an orthopedic treatment procedure routinely used to treat constricted maxillary arches and also a potential additional treatment in children presenting with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of RME on sleep characteristics in children. Polysomnography was done on children of 8-13 years of age before expansion (T0), after expansion (T1) and after a period of 3 months after retention (T2). Bonded rapid maxillary expander was cemented in all children. Inter-molar distance was also measured at T0 and T2. Nonparametric Friedman test was used for comparing the averages of sleep parameters at different time period (T0, T1, T2). Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used for comparing the averages of inter-molar width (T0-T2). P children showed an improvement in sleep parameters with an increase in sleep efficiency, decreased in arousal and desaturation index after expansion. Total sleep time showed a statistically significant increase after expansion. A statistically significant increase in inter-molar distance was obtained after expansion. Rapid maxillary expansion is a useful treatment option for improving quality of sleep even in normal children without SDB. It also induces widening of the maxilla, corrects posterior crossbites and improves maxillary and mandibular dental arch coordination.

  13. Self-consistent viscous heating of rapidly compressed turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Alejandro; Morgan, Brandon; Olson, Britton; Greenough, Jeffrey

    2016-11-01

    Given turbulence subjected to infinitely rapid deformations, linear terms representing interactions between the mean flow and the turbulence dictate the flow evolution, whereas non-linear terms corresponding to turbulence-turbulence interactions are safely ignored. For rapidly deformed flows where the turbulence Reynolds number is not sufficiently large, viscous effects can't be neglected and tend to play a prominent role, as shown in Davidovits & Fisch (2016). For such a case, the rapid increase of viscosity in a plasma-as compared to the weaker scaling of viscosity in a fluid-leads to the sudden viscous dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy. As described in Davidovits & Fisch, increases in temperature caused by the direct compression of the plasma drive sufficiently large values of viscosity. We report on numerical simulations of turbulence where the increase in temperature is the result of both the direct compression (an inviscid mechanism) and the self-consistent viscous transfer of energy from the turbulent scales towards the thermal energy. A comparison between implicit large-eddy simulations against well-resolved direct numerical simulations is included to asses the effect of the numerical and subgrid-scale dissipation on the self-consistent viscous energy transfer. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF THE PRIEST RAPIDS TURBINE UPGRADE PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBolt, Donald; Richmond, Marshall C.; Donelson, Richard K.; Strickler, Brad; Weisbeck, Molly

    2015-07-14

    The Priest Rapids Dam is located on the Columbia River and is operated by Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County, WA (GCPUD). In operation since 1959, GCPUD decided that a major upgrade was necessary. As with other hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River, improving fish passage at Priest Rapids Dam is of great importance for salmon and steelhead populations in the Pacific Northwest. Consequently, GCPUD established the Priest Rapids Turbine Upgrade Project to extend the life of the units, increase efficiency and power production, and improve fish-passage. The Priest Rapids powerhouse is equipped with 10 vertical Kaplan turbines with runner diameters of 7.21 m operating under net heads varying from 18 m to 27 m. The scope of the project included a design competition involving three turbine manufacturers providing up to two designs for evaluation. Selection of the replacement design was determined by the lowest evaluated price based on model test results conducted at an independent laboratory (Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne in Lausanne Switzerland) and a biological performance score determined by a newly developed Biological Performance Assessment (BioPA) performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, WA. In the paper, the hydraulic design challenges are reviewed, in addition to comparisons of designs evaluated during the competitive model test program and biological assessment. The paper also provides a description of the process followed by GCPUD, and how the evaluation criteria influenced the development and the finally selected solution.

  15. Rapidly separating microneedles for transdermal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan Dan; Wang, Qi Lei; Liu, Xu Bo; Guo, Xin Dong

    2016-09-01

    The applications of polymer microneedles (MNs) into human skin emerged as an alternative of the conventional hypodermic needles. However, dissolving MNs require many minutes to be dissolved in the skin and typically have difficulty being fully inserted into the skin, which may lead to the low drug delivery efficiency. To address these issues, we introduce rapidly separating MNs that can rapidly deliver drugs into the skin in a minimally invasive way. For the rapidly separating MNs, drug loaded dissolving MNs are mounted on the top of solid MNs, which are made of biodegradable polylactic acid which eliminate the biohazardous waste. These MNs have sufficient mechanical strength to be inserted into the skin with the drug loaded tips fully embedded for subsequent dissolution. Compared with the traditional MNs, rapidly separating MNs achieve over 90% of drug delivery efficiency in 30s while the traditional MNs needs 2min to achieve the same efficiency. With the in vivo test in mice, the micro-holes caused by rapidly separating MNs can heal in 1h, indicating that the rapidly separating MNs are safe for future applications. These results indicate that the design of rapidly separating dissolvable MNs can offer a quick, high efficient, convenient, safe and potentially self-administered method of drug delivery. Polymer microneedles offer an attractive, painless and minimally invasive approach for transdermal drug delivery. However, dissolving microneedles require many minutes to be dissolved in the skin and typically have difficulty being fully inserted into the skin due to the skin deformation, which may lead to the low drug delivery efficiency. In this work we proposed rapidly separating microneedles which can deliver over 90% of drug into the skin in 30s. The in vitro and in vivo results indicate that the new design of these microneedles can offer a quick, high efficient, convenient and safe method for transdermal drug delivery. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc

  16. Exploring data with RapidMiner

    CERN Document Server

    Chisholm, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step tutorial style using examples so that users of different levels will benefit from the facilities offered by RapidMiner.If you are a computer scientist or an engineer who has real data from which you want to extract value, this book is ideal for you. You will need to have at least a basic awareness of data mining techniques and some exposure to RapidMiner.

  17. When rapid adaptation paradigm is not too rapid: Evidence of face-sensitive N170 adaptation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tengxiang; Feng, Xue; Feng, Chunliang; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2015-07-01

    Recent findings have demonstrated that N170 adaptation effects evoked by face adaptors are general to face and non-face tests, implicating adaptor-locked interferences in the rapid adaptation paradigm. Here we examined the extent to which adaptor-locked interferences confound N170 adaptation effects in different experimental parameters by manipulating the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) duration and jitter between adaptors and tests. In the short SOA, those interferences were well visible for the grand-average ERP waveforms evoked by tests, and they are likely to render rapid adaptation paradigm with short SOA unreliable. The adaptor-locked interferences were attenuated by appropriately increasing SOA duration, such that face-sensitive adaptation effects were evident in the long SOA for both baseline-to-peak and peak-to-peak N170 measurements. These findings suggest that the rapid adaptation paradigm may work with a relative long SOA. Our findings provide useful information for future studies regarding the choosing of appropriate experimental parameters and measurements for the rapid adaptation paradigm. In addition, future studies are needed to investigate how to objectively subtract the overlaps of adaptors from tests and to validate the N170 adaptation effect with appropriate behavioral performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Transverse vetoes with rapidity cutoff in SCET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornig, Andrew; Kang, Daekyoung; Makris, Yiannis; Mehen, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    We consider di-jet production in hadron collisions where a transverse veto is imposed on radiation for (pseudo-)rapidities in the central region only, where this central region is defined with rapidity cutoff. For the case where the transverse measurement (e.g., transverse energy or min p T for jet veto) is parametrically larger relative to the typical transverse momentum beyond the cutoff, the cross section is insensitive to the cutoff parameter and is factorized in terms of collinear and soft degrees of freedom. The virtuality for these degrees of freedom is set by the transverse measurement, as in typical transverse-momentum dependent observables such as Drell-Yan, Higgs production, and the event shape broadening. This paper focuses on the other region, where the typical transverse momentum below and beyond the cutoff is of similar size. In this region the rapidity cutoff further resolves soft radiation into (u)soft and soft-collinear radiation with different rapidities but identical virtuality. This gives rise to rapidity logarithms of the rapidity cutoff parameter which we resum using renormalization group methods. We factorize the cross section in this region in terms of soft and collinear functions in the framework of soft-collinear effective theory, then further refactorize the soft function as a convolution of the (u)soft and soft-collinear functions. All these functions are calculated at one-loop order. As an example, we calculate a differential cross section for a specific partonic channel, qq ' → qq ' , for the jet shape angularities and show that the refactorization allows us to resum the rapidity logarithms and significantly reduce theoretical uncertainties in the jet shape spectrum.

  19. Rapid synthesis of acetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, D A; Drachman, D B; Pestronk, A

    1988-10-11

    The rate of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) degradation in mature, innervated mammalian neuromuscular junctions has recently been shown to be biphasic; up to 20% are rapidly turned over (RTOs; half life less than 1 day) whereas the remainder are lost more slowly ('stable' AChRs; half life 10-12 days). In order to maintain normal junctional receptor density, synthesis and insertion of AChRs should presumably be sufficiently rapid to replace both the RTOs and the stable receptors. We have tested this prediction by blocking pre-existing AChRs in the mouse sternomastoid muscle with alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BuTx), and monitoring the subsequent appearance of 'new' junctional AChRs at intervals of 3 h to 20 days by labeling them with 125I-alpha-BuTx. The results show that new receptors were initially inserted rapidly (16% at 24 h and 28% at 48 h). The rate of increase of 'new' 125I-alpha-BuTx binding sites gradually slowed down during the remainder of the time period studied. Control observations excluded possible artifacts of the experimental procedure including incomplete blockade of AChRs, dissociation of toxin-receptor complexes, or experimentally induced alteration of receptor synthesis. The present demonstration of rapid synthesis and incorporation of AChRs at innervated neuromuscular junctions provides support for the concept of a subpopulation of rapidly turned over AChRs. The RTOs may serve as precursors for the larger population of stable receptors and have an important role in the metabolism of the neuromuscular synapse.

  20. Rapid response oxygen-sensing nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Ruipeng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Behera, Prajna; Viapiano, Mariano S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Lannutti, John J., E-mail: lannutti.1@osu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Molecular oxygen has profound effects on cell and tissue viability. Relevant sensor forms that can rapidly determine dissolved oxygen levels under biologically relevant conditions provide critical metabolic information. Using 0.5 μm diameter electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) fiber containing an oxygen-sensitive probe, tris (4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) dichloride, we observed a response time of 0.9 ± 0.12 s while the t{sub 95} for the corresponding film was more than two orders of magnitude greater. Interestingly, the response and recovery times of slightly larger diameter PCL fibers were 1.79 ± 0.23 s and 2.29 ± 0.13 s, respectively, while the recovery time was not statistically different likely due to the more limited interactions of nitrogen with the polymer matrix. A more than 10-fold increase in PCL fiber diameter reduces oxygen sensitivity while having minor effects on response time; conversely, decreases in fiber diameter to less than 0.5 μm would likely decrease response times even further. In addition, a 50 °C heat treatment of the electrospun fiber resulted in both increased Stern–Volmer slope and linearity likely due to secondary recrystallization that further homogenized the probe microenvironment. At exposure times up to 3600 s in length, photobleaching was observed but was largely eliminated by the use of either polyethersulfone (PES) or a PES–PCL core–shell composition. However, this resulted in 2- and 3-fold slower response times. Finally, even the non-core shell compositions containing the Ru oxygen probe result in no apparent cytotoxicity in representative glioblastoma cell populations. Highlights: • Nanofiber-based structures can self-report localized oxygen concentrations. • Ideal for tissue engineering as they allow close interaction of cells. • Nanofiber-incorporated oxygen-sensitive probes provide a perfectly linear response. • Photobleaching is largely eliminated by the use of PES–PCL core

  1. Prostate treatments, 1MRT o RapidArc; Tratamiento de prostata, IMART o RapidArc?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro novais, J.; Ruiz Maqueda, S.; Pardo Perez, E.; Molina Lopez, M. Y.; Cerro Penalver, E.

    2015-07-01

    Techniques that modulate the dose (as IMRT or RapidArcTM) improve dose homogeneity within the target volume decreasing the dose in healthy organs. The aim of this work is to study the dosimetric differences in prostate radiotherapy treatments with IMRT and RapidArcTM. The results of the 109 patients studied show that plans to RapidArcTM have better coverage, compliance and dose gradient outside the target volume. (Author)

  2. AE Monitoring of Diamond Turned Rapidly Soldified Aluminium 443

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuka, G.; Abou-El-Hossein, K.; Mkoko, Z.

    2017-05-01

    The fast replacement of conventional aluminium with rapidly solidified aluminium alloys has become a noticeable trend in the current manufacturing industries involved in the production of optics and optical molding inserts. This is as a result of the improved performance and durability of rapidly solidified aluminium alloys when compared to conventional aluminium. Melt spinning process is vital for manufacturing rapidly solidified aluminium alloys like RSA 905, RSA 6061 and RSA 443 which are common in the industries today. RSA 443 is a newly developed alloy with few research findings and huge research potential. There is no available literature focused on monitoring the machining of RSA 443 alloys. In this research, Acoustic Emission sensing technique was applied to monitor the single point diamond turning of RSA 443 on an ultrahigh precision lathe machine. The machining process was carried out after careful selection of feed, speed and depths of cut. The monitoring process was achieved with a high sampling data acquisition system using different tools while concurrent measurement of the surface roughness and tool wear were initiated after covering a total feed distance of 13km. An increasing trend of raw AE spikes and peak to peak signal were observed with an increase in the surface roughness and tool wear values. Hence, acoustic emission sensing technique proves to be an effective monitoring method for the machining of RSA 443 alloy.

  3. An Exponential Regulator for Rapidity Divergences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ye [Fermilab; Neill, Duff [MIT, Cambridge, CTP; Zhu, Hua Xing [MIT, Cambridge, CTP

    2016-04-01

    Finding an efficient and compelling regularization of soft and collinear degrees of freedom at the same invariant mass scale, but separated in rapidity is a persistent problem in high-energy factorization. In the course of a calculation, one encounters divergences unregulated by dimensional regularization, often called rapidity divergences. Once regulated, a general framework exists for their renormalization, the rapidity renormalization group (RRG), leading to fully resummed calculations of transverse momentum (to the jet axis) sensitive quantities. We examine how this regularization can be implemented via a multi-differential factorization of the soft-collinear phase-space, leading to an (in principle) alternative non-perturbative regularization of rapidity divergences. As an example, we examine the fully-differential factorization of a color singlet's momentum spectrum in a hadron-hadron collision at threshold. We show how this factorization acts as a mother theory to both traditional threshold and transverse momentum resummation, recovering the classical results for both resummations. Examining the refactorization of the transverse momentum beam functions in the threshold region, we show that one can directly calculate the rapidity renormalized function, while shedding light on the structure of joint resummation. Finally, we show how using modern bootstrap techniques, the transverse momentum spectrum is determined by an expansion about the threshold factorization, leading to a viable higher loop scheme for calculating the relevant anomalous dimensions for the transverse momentum spectrum.

  4. Rapid, generalized adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Burg, Erik; Goodbourn, Patrick T

    2015-04-07

    The brain is adaptive. The speed of propagation through air, and of low-level sensory processing, differs markedly between auditory and visual stimuli; yet the brain can adapt to compensate for the resulting cross-modal delays. Studies investigating temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech have used prolonged adaptation procedures, suggesting that adaptation is sluggish. Here, we show that adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech occurs rapidly. Participants viewed a brief clip of an actor pronouncing a single syllable. The voice was either advanced or delayed relative to the corresponding lip movements, and participants were asked to make a synchrony judgement. Although we did not use an explicit adaptation procedure, we demonstrate rapid recalibration based on a single audiovisual event. We find that the point of subjective simultaneity on each trial is highly contingent upon the modality order of the preceding trial. We find compelling evidence that rapid recalibration generalizes across different stimuli, and different actors. Finally, we demonstrate that rapid recalibration occurs even when auditory and visual events clearly belong to different actors. These results suggest that rapid temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech is primarily mediated by basic temporal factors, rather than higher-order factors such as perceived simultaneity and source identity. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Rapid penetration into granular media visualizing the fundamental physics of rapid earth penetration

    CERN Document Server

    Iskander, Magued

    2015-01-01

    Rapid Penetration into Granular Media: Visualizing the Fundamental Physics of Rapid Earth Penetration introduces readers to the variety of methods and techniques used to visualize, observe, and model the rapid penetration of natural and man-made projectiles into earth materials. It provides seasoned practitioners with a standard reference that showcases the topic's most recent developments in research and application. The text compiles the findings of new research developments on the subject, outlines the fundamental physics of rapid penetration into granular media, and assembles a com

  6. A parent-oriented approach to rapid toilet training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Doan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current evaluation assessed the effectiveness of a rapid toilet training procedure for three young males with autism. The evaluation extended the research on rapid toilet training procedures by assessing parents’ preference to include two common toilet training components, a urine alarm and positive practice. In addition, we assessed child challenging behaviors during intervention. All parent participants’ elected not to use the urine alarm, and one parent elected to discontinue the implementation of positive practice techniques. All child participants engaged in challenging behavior with the initiation of toilet training. The toileting intervention was successful as all three participants increased successful self-initiations for the toilet and decreased accidents across home and clinic settings. All parents provided favorable social validity ratings of the treatment. Findings suggest that clinicians should partner with parents to develop individualized toileting interventions that are appropriate and effective.

  7. Rapid Prototyping as an Auxiliary in Mandibular Reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Pedro Henrique da Hora; Cetira Filho, Edson Luiz; Oliveira Neto, Jair Queiroz de; Silva, Julianne Coelho da; Aguiar, Andrea Silvia Walter de; Mello, Manoel de Jesus Rodrigues

    2017-11-01

    The reconstruction of mandible is a challenge with regard to aesthetic and reconstructive demands. The etiology of mandibular fractures is variable, trauma, pathology, bone infections. There are many materials that provide an excellent form of rehabilitation for these defects, where the autogenous graft presents important characteristics that favor a greater success rate. Furthermore, the rapid prototyping method is quite interesting, because it brings a series of advantages to the surgeon, like reducing the operative time, among others. The purpose of the present article is to describe a clinical case of a patient with mandible bone defect caused by gunshot perforation, treated through iliac crest bone graft with planning through rapid prototyping. The mandibular reconstruction can present a real challenge for the surgeon. Biomodels should be required in complex cases because they help to decrease surgical time and to increase the predictability of the procedure.

  8. Effectiveness Analysis of a Part-Time Rapid Response System During Operation Versus Nonoperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youlim; Lee, Dong Seon; Min, Hyunju; Choi, Yun Young; Lee, Eun Young; Song, Inae; Park, Jong Sun; Cho, Young-Jae; Jo, You Hwan; Yoon, Ho Il; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Choon-Taek; Do, Sang Hwan; Lee, Yeon Joo

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of a part-time rapid response system on the occurrence rate of cardiopulmonary arrest by comparing the times of rapid response system operation versus nonoperation. Retrospective cohort study. A 1,360-bed tertiary care hospital. Adult patients admitted to the general ward were screened. Data were collected over 36 months from rapid response system implementation (October 2012 to September 2015) and more than 45 months before rapid response system implementation (January 2009 to September 2012). None. The rapid response system operates from 7 AM to 10 PM on weekdays and from 7 AM to 12 PM on Saturdays. Primary outcomes were the difference of cardiopulmonary arrest incidence between pre-rapid response system and post-rapid response system periods and whether the rapid response system operating time affects the cardiopulmonary arrest incidence. The overall cardiopulmonary arrest incidence (per 1,000 admissions) was 1.43. Although the number of admissions per month and case-mix index were increased (3,555.18 vs 4,564.72, p times (0.82 vs 0.49/1,000 admissions; p = 0.001) but remained similar during rapid response system nonoperating times (0.77 vs 0.73/1,000 admissions; p = 0.729). The implementation of a part-time rapid response system reduced the cardiopulmonary arrest incidence based on the reduction of cardiopulmonary arrest during rapid response system operating times. Further analysis of the cost effectiveness of part-time rapid response system is needed.

  9. Polyjet technology applications for rapid tooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udroiu Razvan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer Jetting (PolyJet has proved to be one of the most accurate additive manufacturing technologies, in order to manufacture rapid tools. Rapid Tooling (RT is different from conventional tooling as follow: manufacturing time is shorter, the cost is much less, but the tool life is shorter and tolerances are wider. The purpose of this paper is to make a comparative study between the soft tools (silicon moulds and hard tools (acrylic thermoplastic moulds based on the Polymer Jetting technology. Thus, two types of moulds have been made in order to manufacture a test part. Reaction injection moulding (RIM and casting techniques were used to fill these moulds with resins that simulate the plastic injection materials. Rapid tooling applications, such as indirect tooling and direct tooling, based on PolyJet technology were experimentally investigated.

  10. Rapid Hepatitis B Vaccination in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansur Özcan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination is a very important method in prevention of HBV.Especially rapid immunization takes an important place in subjects at highrisk. We have injected HBV vaccine to health workers who are attending inour hospital by rapid immunisation programme (at 0, 1 and 2 months andaimed to identify it’s efficiacy. Eighty seven subjects (69% male, 31%female were included to our study. Median age was 34 for male and 32 forwomen. We obtained 90% achievement of immunity rate after theprogramme finished. There were no significant difference between maleend female groups, and age groups. The non-responder rate was 11.6% inmale, and 7.4% in female. This rate was 6% in under 40 years old group,and 22.7% in 40 or older group. This difference was significant in twogroups statistically (p=0.02. The rapid immunization programme, weperformed has nearly the same success results as in standard programme.

  11. Rapid solidification of Nb-base alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, A. B.; Javed, K. R.; Abbaschian, G. J.; Lewis, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    New Nb-base alloys are of interest for aerospace structural applications at high temperatures, viz, 800 to 1650 C. Fundamental information regarding the effects of rapid solidification in achieving greatly refined microstructures, extended solid solubility, suppression of embrittling equilibrium phases, and formation of new phases is desired in a number of Nb-X alloys. The microstructures and selected properties of Nb-Si and other Nb-base alloys are presented for materials both rapidly quenched from the equilibrium liquidus and rapidly solidified following deep supercooling. Electromagnetic levitation was used to achieve melting and supercooling in a containerless inert gas environment. A variety of solidification conditions were employed including splatting or drop casting of supercooled samples. The morphology and composition of phases formed are discussed in terms of both solidification history and bulk composition.

  12. Increasingly minimal bias routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataineh, Abdulla; Court, Thomas; Roweth, Duncan

    2017-02-21

    A system and algorithm configured to generate diversity at the traffic source so that packets are uniformly distributed over all of the available paths, but to increase the likelihood of taking a minimal path with each hop the packet takes. This is achieved by configuring routing biases so as to prefer non-minimal paths at the injection point, but increasingly prefer minimal paths as the packet proceeds, referred to herein as Increasing Minimal Bias (IMB).

  13. Rapid serial visual presentation design for cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Spence, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A powerful new image presentation technique has evolved over the last twenty years, and its value demonstrated through its support of many and varied common tasks. Conceptually, Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) is basically simple, exemplified in the physical world by the rapid riffling of the pages of a book in order to locate a known image. Advances in computation and graphics processing allow RSVP to be applied flexibly and effectively to a huge variety of common tasks such as window shopping, video fast-forward and rewind, TV channel selection and product browsing. At its heart is a

  14. Rapidly destructive osteoarthritis can mimic infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Hart, MD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The intraoperative appearance of rapidly destructive osteoarthritis and septic arthritis can be similar. Three patients at our institution demonstrated preoperative or intraoperative findings potentially consistent with infection during primary total hip arthroplasty; however, none of these patients were found to have an actual infection. One of these patients underwent an unnecessary 2-stage total hip arthroplasty secondary to the intraoperative appearance of their joint fluid. We advocate performing an infection workup preoperatively when patients present with rapid degenerative changes of their hip joint to diminish the uncertainty of proceeding with arthroplasty.

  15. Increasing SLEDed Linac Gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, Zoltan D

    2001-11-08

    This note will show how to increase the SLED [1] gradient by varying Q{sub e}, the external Q of the SLED cavity, by increasing its Q{sub 0} and by increasing the compression ratio. If varying the external Q is to be effective, then the copper losses should be small so that Q{sub 0} >> Q{sub e}. Methods of varying Q{sub e} will be indicated but no experimental data will be presented. If we increase the klystron pulse width from 3.5 to 5 {micro}S and increase Q{sub 0} from the present 100000 to 300000, then the gradient increases by 19% and the beam energy increases from 50 to 60 GeV. This note will also discuss SLED operation at 11424 MHz, the NLC frequency. Without Q{sub e} switching, using SLED at 11424 MHz increases the SLAC gradient from 21 MV/m to 34 MV/m, and at the same repetition rate, uses about 1/5 of rf average power. If we also double the compression ratio, we reach 47 MV/m and over 100 GeV beam energy.

  16. Rapidity dependence of charged pion production at relativistic energies using Tsallis statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristea, Oana; Jipa, Alexandru [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Bucharest - Magurele (Romania); Ristea, Catalin [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Bucharest - Magurele (Romania); Institute of Space Science, Bucharest - Magurele (Romania)

    2017-05-15

    Transverse momentum distributions of charged pions produced in Au+Au collisions at 62.4 GeV, 130 GeV, 200 GeV, Cu+Cu and d+Au collisions at 200 GeV, p+p collisions at 62.4 and 200 GeV and Pb+Pb collisions at 17.3 GeV are studied using the Tsallis distribution as a parametrization. The non-extensivity parameter and Tsallis volume increase with energy, while the Tsallis temperature shows a decrease at higher energies. Using BRAHMS p{sub T} spectra obtained in Au+Au collisions at 62.4 GeV and 200 GeV, Tsallis fit parameters are obtained on a very wide rapidity range. Results are compared with p+p and Cu+Cu data and changes of Tsallis parameters with rapidity and energy are investigated. We found that non-extensivity parameter q shows a decrease from midrapidity to forward rapidities for all the studied systems. Tsallis volume, V, increases with the system size from p+p, Cu+Cu to Au+Au, both in central rapidity region and at forward rapidities. The values of temperatures increase with rapidity, but the T/cosh(y) ratio is constant as a function of rapidity. (orig.)

  17. Rapid palatal expansion: a comparison of two appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda do Prado Rodrigues

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed occlusal radiographs to compare the transverse changes produced in patients treated with rapid maxillary expansion using two types of appliances. The sample consisted of 31 children aged 7 to 10.6 years, of both genders, with posterior cross-bite. Fifteen children were treated with a tooth-borne expander and 16 were treated with a tooth-tissue-borne expander. Occlusal radiographs obtained at treatment onset and at the end of the retention period were digitized. The following variables were measured: intermolar distance (IMD, interapical distance (IApD, interbase distance (IBaD and interarm distance (IArD. The results revealed increases in all measurements in both groups after rapid maxillary expansion. Comparison between groups revealed that the increases were greater in patients treated with the tooth-borne expander, except for the IArD measurement, which presented the same increase in both groups. Even though the IMD measurements differed between expanders, they were proportional to the activation of the appliances (IBaD. The increase in the IApD measurement was proportionally greater in the group treated with the tooth-borne expander (0.7:1.0 than in that treated with the tooth-tissue-borne expander (0.4:1.0. It was concluded that both appliances had similar effects, although the tooth-tissue-borne expander produced a lesser opening at the apical region of the incisors.

  18. Rapid stimulus-evoked astrocyte Ca2+ elevations and hemodynamic responses in mouse somatosensory cortex in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Barbara Lykke; Brazhe, Alexey; Jessen, Sanne Barsballe

    2013-01-01

    Increased neuron and astrocyte activity triggers increased brain blood flow, but controversy exists over whether stimulation-induced changes in astrocyte activity are rapid and widespread enough to contribute to brain blood flow control. Here, we provide evidence for stimulus-evoked Ca(2+) elevat...... brief Ca(2+) responses with a rapid onset in vivo, fast enough to initiate hemodynamic responses or influence synaptic activity.......Increased neuron and astrocyte activity triggers increased brain blood flow, but controversy exists over whether stimulation-induced changes in astrocyte activity are rapid and widespread enough to contribute to brain blood flow control. Here, we provide evidence for stimulus-evoked Ca(2......+) elevations with rapid onset and short duration in a large proportion of cortical astrocytes in the adult mouse somatosensory cortex. Our improved detection of the fast Ca(2+) signals is due to a signal-enhancing analysis of the Ca(2+) activity. The rapid stimulation-evoked Ca(2+) increases identified...

  19. Increasing Public Expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Ben Zaed

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze and interpret the phenomenon of increased public expenditures and test explanatory theories as well as to analyze Abstract the relationship between public spending and GDP in the short and long term where you see the Wagner hypothesis that causal heading of GDP to government spending while there is a causal relationship analysis positive trending of government spending to GDP according to the Keynesian hypothesis in this study will be used descriptive analytical method to validate these hypotheses. Results in the short and long term made it clear that there is a difference in the outcome of Applied Studies where we find that each supports a relationship Wagner in the sense that the causal trending of real GDP to government spending and more precisely to increase the economic growth lead to increased aggregate demand which leads in turn increasing the need to increase government spending and to increase the resources available to the government sector to finance the increase in spending by the additional resources resulting from the economic growth while others opines opposes the existence of the relationship.

  20. A Standardized Approach to Assessing Physician Expectations and Perceptions of Continuing Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewchuk, Richard M.; Schmidt, Hilary J.; Benarous, Alexandra; Bennett, Nancy L.; Abdolrasulnia, Maziar; Casebeer, Linda L.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Rapidly expanding science and mandates for maintaining credentials place increasing demands on continuing medical education (CME) activities to provide information that is current and relevant to patient care. Quality may be seen as the perceived level of service measured against consumer expectations. Standard tools have not been…