Sample records for rapidly growing latino

  1. Participatory assessment of the health of Latino immigrant men in a community with a growing Latino population. (United States)

    Documėt, Patricia I; Kamouyerou, Andrea; Pesantes, Amalia; Macia, Laura; Maldonado, Hernan; Fox, Andrea; Bachurski, Leslie; Morgenstern, Dawn; Gonzalez, Miguel; Boyzo, Roberto; Guadamuz, Thomas


    Latino immigrant men are an understudied population in the US, especially in areas with small yet growing Latino populations. For this community-based participatory health assessment we conducted four focus groups and 66 structured surveys with Latino immigrant men, and 10 openended interviews with service providers. We analyzed transcripts using content analysis and survey data using Pearson Chi-square tests. Overall, 53% of participating men had not completed high school. Our findings suggest that their social circumstances precluded men from behaving in a way they believe would protect their health. Loneliness, fear and lack of connections prompted stress among men, who had difficulty locating healthcare services. Newly immigrated men were significantly more likely to experience depression symptoms. Latino immigrant men face social isolation resulting in negative health consequences, which are amplified by the new growth community context. Men can benefit from interventions aimed at building their social connections.

  2. Improving Access to Primary Care for a Growing Latino Population: The Role of Safety Net Providers in the Rural Midwest (United States)

    Blewett, Lynn A.; Casey, Michelle; Call, Kathleen Thiede


    Many rural Midwestern communities are experiencing rapid growth in Latino populations with low rates of health insurance coverage, limited financial resources, language and cultural differences, and special health care needs. We report on 2-day site visits conducted in 2001 and 2002 in 3 communities (Marshalltown, Iowa; Great Bend, Kansas; and…

  3. Rapidly Growing Thyroid Mass in an Immunocompromised Young Male Adult

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    Mónica Santiago


    Full Text Available We describe a 20-year-old man diagnosed with a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, admitted to our hospital due to pancytopenia and fever of undetermined origin after myelosuppression with chemotherapy. Disseminated aspergillosis (DIA was suspected when he developed skin and lung involvement. A rapidly growing mass was detected on the left neck area, during hospitalization. A thyroid ultrasound reported a 3.7×2.5×2.9 cm oval heterogeneous structure, suggestive of an abscess versus a hematoma. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid revealed invasion of aspergillosis. Fungal thyroiditis is a rare occurrence. Thyroid fungal infection is difficult to diagnose; for this reason it is rarely diagnosed antemortem. To our knowledge, this is the 10th case reported in the literature in an adult where the diagnosis of fungal invasion to the thyroid was able to be corroborated antemortem by fine needle aspiration biopsy.

  4. In vitro activity of flomoxef against rapidly growing mycobacteria. (United States)

    Tsai, Moan-Shane; Tang, Ya-Fen; Eng, Hock-Liew


    The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro sensitivity of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) to flomoxef in respiratory secretions collected from 61 consecutive inpatients and outpatients at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung medical center between July and December, 2005. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of flomoxef were determined by the broth dilution method for the 61 clinical isolates of RGMs. The MICs of flomoxef at which 90% of clinical isolates were inhibited was >128 microg/mL in 26 isolates of Mycobacterium abscessus and 4 microg/mL in 31 isolates of M. fortuitum. Three out of 4 clinical M. peregrinum isolates were inhibited by flomoxef at concentrations of 4 microg/mL or less. Although the numbers of the clinical isolates of RGMs were small, these preliminary in vitro results demonstrate the potential activity of flomoxef in the management of infections due to M. fortuitum, and probably M. peregrinum in humans.

  5. Rapidly growing mycobacteria in Singapore, 2006-2011. (United States)

    Tang, S S; Lye, D C; Jureen, R; Sng, L-H; Hsu, L Y


    Nontuberculous mycobacteria infection is a growing global concern, but data from Asia are limited. This study aimed to describe the distribution and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of rapidly growing mycobacterium (RGM) isolates in Singapore. Clinical RGM isolates with antibiotic susceptibility tests performed between 2006 and 2011 were identified using microbiology laboratory databases and minimum inhibitory concentrations of amikacin, cefoxitin, clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, imipenem, linezolid, moxifloxacin, sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tigecycline and tobramycin were recorded. Regression analysis was performed to detect changes in antibiotic susceptibility patterns over time. A total of 427 isolates were included. Of these, 277 (65%) were from respiratory specimens, 42 (10%) were related to skin and soft tissue infections and 36 (8%) were recovered from blood specimens. The two most common species identified were Mycobacterium abscessus (73%) and Mycobacterium fortuitum group (22%), with amikacin and clarithromycin being most active against the former, and quinolones and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole against the latter. Decreases in susceptibility of M. abscessus to linezolid by 8.8% per year (p 0.001), M. fortuitum group to imipenem by 9.5% per year (p 0.023) and clarithromycin by 4.7% per year (p 0.033) were observed. M. abscessus in respiratory specimens is the most common RGM identified in Singapore. Antibiotic options for treatment of RGM infections are increasingly limited. Copyright © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapidly Growing Esophageal Carcinosarcoma Reduced by Neoadjuvant Radiotherapy Alone

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    Naotaka Ogasawara


    Full Text Available Esophageal carcinosarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm consisting of both carcinomatous and sarcomatous components. It is generally treated by surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy according to the protocols used for other esophageal cancers. However, the treatment of esophageal carcinosarcoma by radiotherapy alone before surgery has not been previously described. We report a patient with a rapidly growing esophageal carcinosarcoma that was efficiently reduced by neoadjuvant radiotherapy alone. A previously healthy 69-year-old man was admitted with dysphagia. Initial esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD revealed a small nodular polypoid lesion of about 10 mm in the middle esophagus. A second EGD 1 month later showed that the tumor had expanded into a huge mass. A biopsy specimen revealed that the tumor comprised squamous cell carcinoma with spindle cell components, and the tumor was diagnosed as carcinosarcoma which was diagnosed as stage I (T1bN0M0. Due to renal dysfunction, the patient was treated with neoadjuvant radiotherapy (40 Gy without chemotherapy. A third EGD 1 month later revealed remarkable tumor reduction. He then underwent total esophagectomy with regional lymph node dissection (pStage 0, pT1aN0M0. After surgical operation, the patient was followed up without adjuvant therapy. Whole body computed tomography revealed lung metastasis 14 months after surgery, and the patient died 2 months later. The neoadjuvant radiotherapy for esophageal carcinosarcoma was considered to have contributed to the subsequent surgery and his prolonged survival time. Thus, radiotherapy alone might be a suitable neoadjuvant therapy for esophageal carcinosarcomas.

  7. E-cigarettes: a rapidly growing Internet phenomenon. (United States)

    Yamin, Cyrus K; Bitton, Asaf; Bates, David W


    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) aerosolize nicotine and produce a vapor that emulates that of cigarettes but purportedly has fewer traditional toxins than secondhand smoke. Although e-cigarettes are widely sold online and by retailers, new research suggests that they may contain unexpected toxins and may provide unreliable nicotine delivery. Many countries have already banned or strictly regulated e-cigarettes. Currently in the United States, e-cigarettes are exempt from regulation as drug-delivery devices. Meanwhile, the presence of e-cigarettes on the Internet, including in Web searches, virtual user communities, and online stores where people sell e-cigarettes on commission, is increasing rapidly. Physicians should be aware of the popularity, questionable efficacy claims, and safety concerns of e-cigarettes so that they may counsel patients against use and advocate for research to inform an evidence-based regulatory approach.

  8. Rapidly growing ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma involving the vagina: A case report

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    Sunghun Na


    Conclusion: Epithelial ovarian cancer may grow very rapidly. The frequent measurement of tumor size by ultrasonography may provide important information on detection in a subset of ovarian carcinomas that develop from preexisting, detectable lesions.

  9. Latino Students and Degree Attainment (United States)

    Elliott, Jacquelyn D.; Parks, Rodney


    Latinos are the largest growing population in America, and thus, have the potential to have the greatest impact on our nation's economy. However, Latinos also graduate college at a lower rate than their counterparts. This article focuses on the various cultural, social, and financial barriers Latino students face and provides recommendations for…

  10. Structural analysis of biofilm formation by rapidly and slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) such as M. abscessus, M. mucogenicum, M. chelonae and M. fortuitum, implicated in healthcare-associated infections, are often isolated from potable water supplies as part of the microbial flora. To understa...

  11. Clinical and Taxonomic Status of Pathogenic Nonpigmented or Late-Pigmenting Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria


    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A.; Wallace, Richard J.


    The history, taxonomy, geographic distribution, clinical disease, and therapy of the pathogenic nonpigmented or late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are reviewed. Community-acquired disease and health care-associated disease are highlighted for each species. The latter grouping includes health care-associated outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks as well as sporadic disease cases. Treatment recommendations for each species and type of disease are also described. Special emphasis is on ...

  12. Nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial infections following laparoscopic surgery: CT imaging findings. (United States)

    Volpato, Richard; de Castro, Claudio Campi; Hadad, David Jamil; da Silva Souza Ribeiro, Flavya; Filho, Ezequiel Leal; Marcal, Leonardo P


    To identify the distribution and frequency of computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial (RGM) infection after laparoscopic surgery. A descriptive retrospective study in patients with RGM infection after laparoscopic surgery who underwent CT imaging prior to initiation of therapy. The images were analyzed by two radiologists in consensus, who evaluated the skin/subcutaneous tissues, the abdominal wall, and intraperitoneal region separately. The patterns of involvement were tabulated as: densification, collections, nodules (≥1.0 cm), small nodules (<1.0 cm), pseudocavitated nodules, and small pseudocavitated nodules. Twenty-six patients met the established criteria. The subcutaneous findings were: densification (88.5%), small nodules (61.5%), small pseudocavitated nodules (23.1 %), nodules (38.5%), pseudocavitated nodules (15.4%), and collections (26.9%). The findings in the abdominal wall were: densification (61.5%), pseudocavitated nodules (3.8%), and collections (15.4%). The intraperitoneal findings were: densification (46.1%), small nodules (42.3%), nodules (15.4%), and collections (11.5%). Subcutaneous CT findings in descending order of frequency were: densification, small nodules, nodules, small pseudocavitated nodules, pseudocavitated nodules, and collections. The musculo-fascial plane CT findings were: densification, collections, and pseudocavitated nodules. The intraperitoneal CT findings were: densification, small nodules, nodules, and collections. • Rapidly growing mycobacterial infection may occur following laparoscopy. • Post-laparoscopy mycobacterial infection CT findings are densification, collection, and nodules. • Rapidly growing mycobacterial infection following laparoscopy may involve the peritoneal cavity. • Post-laparoscopy rapidly growing mycobacterial intraperitoneal infection is not associated with ascites or lymphadenopathy.

  13. Rapidly Growing Chondroid Syringoma of the External Auditory Canal: Report of a Rare Case (United States)

    Vasileiadis, Ioannis; Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Petousis, Aristotelis; Karakostas, Euthimios; Simantirakis, Christos


    Introduction. Chondroid syrinoma of the external auditory canal is an extremely rare benign neoplasm representing the cutaneous counterpart of pleomorphic adenoma of salivary glands. Less than 35 cases have been reported in the international literature. Case Presentation. We report a case of a 34-year-old male in whom a rapidly growing, well-circumscribed tumor arising from the external auditory canal was presented. Otoscopy revealed a smooth, nontender lesion covered by normal skin that almost obstructs the external auditory meatus. MRI was performed to define the extension of the lesion. It confirmed the presence of a 1.5 × 0.8 cm T2 high-signal intensity lesion in the superior and posterior wall of EAC without signs of bone erosion. The patient underwent complete resection of the tumor. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic examination. Conclusion. Although chondroid syringoma is extremely rare, it should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of an aural polyp. Chondroid syringomas are usually asymptomatic, slow-growing, single benign tumors in subcutaneous or intradermal location. In our case, the new information is that this benign tumor could present also as a rapidly growing lesion, arising the suspicion for malignancy. PMID:21941560

  14. Rapidly Growing Chondroid Syringoma of the External Auditory Canal: Report of a Rare Case

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    Ioannis Vasileiadis


    Full Text Available Introduction. Chondroid syrinoma of the external auditory canal is an extremely rare benign neoplasm representing the cutaneous counterpart of pleomorphic adenoma of salivary glands. Less than 35 cases have been reported in the international literature. Case Presentation. We report a case of a 34-year-old male in whom a rapidly growing, well-circumscribed tumor arising from the external auditory canal was presented. Otoscopy revealed a smooth, nontender lesion covered by normal skin that almost obstructs the external auditory meatus. MRI was performed to define the extension of the lesion. It confirmed the presence of a 1.5×0.8 cm T2 high-signal intensity lesion in the superior and posterior wall of EAC without signs of bone erosion. The patient underwent complete resection of the tumor. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic examination. Conclusion. Although chondroid syringoma is extremely rare, it should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of an aural polyp. Chondroid syringomas are usually asymptomatic, slow-growing, single benign tumors in subcutaneous or intradermal location. In our case, the new information is that this benign tumor could present also as a rapidly growing lesion, arising the suspicion for malignancy.

  15. Mycobacterium aquiterrae sp. nov., a rapidly growing bacterium isolated from groundwater. (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Chan; Whang, Kyung-Sook


    A strain representing a rapidly growing, Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile, non-sporulating and non-pigmented species of the genus Mycobacterium, designated strain S-I-6 T , was isolated from groundwater at Daejeon in Korea. The strain grew at temperatures between 10 and 37 °C (optimal growth at 25 °C), between pH 4.0 and 9.0 (optimal growth at pH 7.0) and at salinities of 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl, growing optimally with 2 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on multilocus sequence analysis of the 16S rRNAgene, hsp65, rpoB and the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer indicated that strain S-I-6 T belonged to the rapidly growing mycobacteria, being most closely related to Mycobacterium sphagni. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic analysis, the bacterial strain was distinguished from its phylogenetic neighbours by chemotaxonomic properties and other biochemical characteristics. DNA-DNA relatedness among strain S-I-6 T and the closest phylogenetic neighbour strongly support the proposal that this strain represents a novel species within the genus Mycobacterium, for which the name Mycobacterium aquiterrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S-I-6 T (=KACC 17600 T =NBRC 109805 T =NCAIM B 02535 T ).

  16. The Political Consequences of Latino Prejudice against Blacks (United States)

    Krupnikov, Yanna; Piston, Spencer


    A good deal of scholarship examines the effects of prejudice against blacks on public opinion and vote choice in the United States. Despite producing valuable insights, this research largely ignores the attitudes of Latinos—a critical omission, since Latinos constitute a rapidly growing share of the population. Using two nationally representative survey data sets, we find that the level of racial prejudice is comparable for Latinos and non-Hispanic whites. Equally comparable are associations between prejudice and political preferences: policy opinion and support for Obama in the 2008 presidential election. Our findings suggest that despite demographic changes, efforts to enact policies intended to assist blacks and elect black candidates will continue to be undermined by prejudice. That said, Latinos are more likely than non-Hispanic whites to support policies intended to assist blacks, because Latinos are more Democratic than non-Hispanic whites, more egalitarian, and less committed to the value of limited government. PMID:27274574

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria by microdilution - Experience of a tertiary care centre

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    Set R


    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of the study was to perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM isolated from various clinically suspected cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, from January 2007 to April 2008, at a tertiary care centre in Mumbai. Materials and Methods: The specimens were processed for microscopy and culture using the standard procedures. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined by broth microdilution, using Sensititre CA MHBT. Susceptibility testing was also carried out on Mueller Hinton agar by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: Of the 1062 specimens received for mycobacterial cultures, 104 (9.79% grew mycobacteria. Of the mycobacterial isolates, six (5.76% were rapid growers. M. abscessus and M. chelonae appeared to be resistant organisms, with M. chelonae showing intermediate resistance to amikacin and minocycline. However, all the six isolates showed sensitivity to vancomycin and gentamicin by the disc diffusion test. Also all three isolates of M. abscessus were sensitive to piperacillin and erythromycin. Further studies are required to test their sensitivity to these four antimicrobials by using the microbroth dilution test, before they can be prescribed to patients. Conclusions: We wish to emphasize that reporting of rapidly growing mycobacteria from clinical settings, along with their sensitivity patterns, is an absolute need of the hour.

  18. The impact of entrepreneurial capital and rapidly growing firms: the Canadian example

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    Keen, Christian; Etemad, Hamid


    . It provides empirical evidence from small, young, high-growth enterprises that entrepreneurial capital contributes significantly to their growth through such augmentation. As emerging industries and regions face similar challenges as those of high and rapidly-growing smaller enterprises in increasingly more......World-class competitiveness is no longer an option for firms seeking growth and survival in the increasingly competitive, dynamic and interconnected world. This paper expands on the concept of entrepreneurial capital and formalizes it as a catalyst that augments other productive factors...

  19. Rapidly- growing firms and their main characteristics: a longitudinal study from United States

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    Keen, Christian; Etemad, Hamid


    concerning the theoretical relations between high-growth and location, size and temporal characteristics of the high-growth enterprises. Using non parametric tests, we analyze a 21-year longitudinal database of privately held rapidly growing enterprises from the USA. This analysis indicates that these firms...... are relatively smaller enterprises and their high growth rates are not restricted to a particular location, industrial region, size or time period. The findings of this analysis point to a population of high-growth enterprises with diverse locations, sizes and times with important implications for scholarly...

  20. Clinical management of rapidly growing mycobacterial cutaneous infections in patients after mesotherapy. (United States)

    Regnier, Stéphanie; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Meningaud, Jean-Paul; Guihot, Amelie; Deforges, Lionel; Carbonne, Anne; Bricaire, François; Caumes, Eric


    Increasing numbers of patients are expressing an interest in mesotherapy as a method of reducing body fat. Cutaneous infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria are a common complication of such procedures. We followed up patients who had developed cutaneous infections after undergoing mesotherapy during the period October 2006-January 2007. Sixteen patients were infected after mesotherapy injections performed by the same physician. All patients presented with painful, erythematous, draining subcutaneous nodules at the injection sites. All patients were treated with surgical drainage. Microbiological examination was performed on specimens that were obtained before and during the surgical procedure. Direct examination of skin smears demonstrated acid-fast bacilli in 25% of the specimens that were obtained before the procedure and 37% of the specimens obtained during the procedure; culture results were positive in 75% of the patients. Mycobacterium chelonae was identified in 11 patients, and Mycobacterium frederiksbergense was identified in 2 patients. Fourteen patients were treated with antibiotics, 6 received triple therapy as first-line treatment (tigecycline, tobramycin, and clarithromycin), and 8 received dual therapy (clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin). The mean duration of treatment was 14 weeks (range, 1-24 weeks). All of the patients except 1 were fully recovered 2 years after the onset of infection, with the mean time to healing estimated at 6.2 months (range, 1-15 months). This series of rapidly growing mycobacterial cutaneous infections highlights the difficulties in treating such infections and suggests that in vitro susceptibility to antibiotics does not accurately predict their clinical efficacy.

  1. Rapidly growing ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma involving the vagina: a case report. (United States)

    Na, Sunghun; Hwang, Jongyun; Lee, Hyangah; Lee, Jiyeon; Lee, Dongheon


    We present a rare case of a very rapidly growing stage IV ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma involving the uterine cervix and vagina without lymph node involvement. A 43-year-old woman visited the hospital with complaints of lower abdominal discomfort and vaginal bleeding over the previous 3 months. Serum levels of tumor marker CA 125 and SCC antigen (TA-4) were normal. On magnetic resonance imaging, a 7.9×9.7cm heterogeneous mass with intermediate signal intensity was observed in the posterior low body of the uterus. Two months ago, a computed tomography scan revealed an approximate 4.5×3.0cm heterogeneously enhanced subserosal mass with internal ill-defined hypodensities. A laparotomy, including a total abdominal hysterectomy with resection of the upper vagina, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, pelvic and para-aortic lymph node dissection, appendectomy, total omentectomy, and biopsy of rectal serosa was performed. A histological examination revealed poorly differentiated endometrioid ovarian adenocarcinoma with vaginal involvement. The patient had an uncomplicated post-operative course. After discharge, she completed six cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel (175mg/m(2)) and carboplatin (300mg/m(2)) and has remained clinically disease-free until June 2010. Epithelial ovarian cancer may grow very rapidly. The frequent measurement of tumor size by ultrasonography may provide important information on detection in a subset of ovarian carcinomas that develop from preexisting, detectable lesions. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Surgical site infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria in puducherry, India. (United States)

    Kannaiyan, Kavitha; Ragunathan, Latha; Sakthivel, Sulochana; Sasidar, A R; Muralidaran; Venkatachalam, G K


    Rapidly growing Mycobacteria are increasingly recognized, nowadays as an important pathogen that can cause wide range of clinical syndromes in humans. We herein describe unrelated cases of surgical site infection caused by Rapidly growing Mycobacteria (RGM), seen during a period of 12 months. Nineteen patients underwent operations by different surgical teams located in diverse sections of Tamil Nadu, Pondicherry, Karnataka, India. All patients presented with painful, draining subcutaneous nodules at the infection sites. Purulent material specimens were sent to the microbiology laboratory. Gram stain and Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods were used for direct examination. Culture media included blood agar, chocolate agar, MacConkey agar, Sabourauds agar and Lowenstein-Jensen medium for Mycobacteria. Isolated microorganisms were identified and further tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by standard microbiologic procedures. Mycobacterium fortuitum and M.chelonae were isolated from the purulent drainage obtained from wounds by routine microbiological techniques from all the specimens. All isolates analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern were sensitive to clarithromycin, linezolid and amikacin but were variable to ciprofloxacin, rifampicin and tobramycin. Our case series highlights that a high level of clinical suspicion should be maintained for patients presenting with protracted soft tissue lesions with a history of trauma or surgery as these infections not only cause physical but also emotional distress that affects both the patients and the surgeon.

  3. Rapid urbanization and the growing threat of violence and conflict: a 21st century crisis. (United States)

    Patel, Ronak B; Burkle, Frederick M


    As the global population is concentrated into complex environments, rapid urbanization increases the threat of conflict and insecurity. Many fast-growing cities create conditions of significant disparities in standards of living, which set up a natural environment for conflict over resources. As urban slums become a haven for criminal elements, youth gangs, and the arms trade, they also create insecurity for much of the population. Specific populations, such as women, migrants, and refugees, bear the brunt of this lack of security, with significant impacts on their livelihoods, health, and access to basic services. This lack of security and violence also has great costs to the general population, both economic and social. Cities have increasingly become the battlefield of recent conflicts as they serve as the seats of power and gateways to resources. International agencies, non-governmental organizations, and policy-makers must act to stem this tide of growing urban insecurity. Protecting urban populations and preventing future conflict will require better urban planning, investment in livelihood programs for youth, cooperation with local communities, enhanced policing, and strengthening the capacity of judicial systems.

  4. Aquaculture: a rapidly growing and significant source of sustainable food? Status, transitions and potential. (United States)

    Little, D C; Newton, R W; Beveridge, M C M


    The status and potential of aquaculture is considered as part of a broader food landscape of wild aquatic and terrestrial food sources. The rationale and resource base required for the development of aquaculture are considered in the context of broader societal development, cultural preferences and human needs. Attention is drawn to the uneven development and current importance of aquaculture globally as well as its considerable heterogeneity of form and function compared with established terrestrial livestock production. The recent drivers of growth in demand and production are examined and the persistent linkages between exploitation of wild stocks, full life cycle culture and the various intermediate forms explored. An emergent trend for sourcing aquaculture feeds from alternatives to marine ingredients is described and the implications for the sector with rapidly growing feed needs discussed. The rise of non-conventional and innovative feed ingredients, often shared with terrestrial livestock, are considered, including aquaculture itself becoming a major source of marine ingredients. The implications for the continued expected growth of aquaculture are set in the context of sustainable intensification, with the challenges that conventional intensification and emergent integration within, and between, value chains explored. The review concludes with a consideration of the implications for dependent livelihoods and projections for various futures based on limited resources but growing demand.

  5. Familial cerebral cavernous haemangioma diagnosed in an infant with a rapidly growing cerebral lesion

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    Ng, B.H.K.; Pereira, J.K.; Ghedia, S.; Pinner, J.; Mowat, D.; Vonau, M.


    Cavernous haemangiomas of the central nervous system are vascular malformations best imaged by MRI. They may present at any age, but to our knowledge only 39 cases in the first year of life have previously been reported. A familial form has been described and some of the underlying genetic mutations have recently been discovered. We present the clinical features and serial MRI findings of an 8-week-old boy who presented with subacute intracranial haemorrhage followed by rapid growth of a surgically proven cavernous haemangioma, mimicking a tumour. He also developed new lesions. A strong family history of neurological disease was elucidated. A familial form of cavernous haemangioma was confirmed by identification of a KRIT 1 gene mutation and cavernous haemangiomas in the patient and other family members. We stress the importance of considering cavernous haemangiomas in the context of intracerebral haemorrhage and in the differential diagnosis of rapidly growing lesions in this age group. The family history is also important in screening for familial disease

  6. [Rapidly-growing nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast: case report]. (United States)

    Elıyatkin, Nuket; Karasu, Başak; Selek, Elif; Keçecı, Yavuz; Postaci, Hakan


    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia is a benign proliferative lesion of the mammary stroma that rarely presents as a localized mass. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia is characterized by a dense, collagenous proliferation of the mammary stroma, associated with capillary-like spaces. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia can be mistaken with fibroadenoma on radiological examination or with low-grade angiosarcoma on histological examination. Its main importance is its distinction from angiosarcoma. The presented case was a 40-year-old woman who was admitted with a rapidly growing breast tumor. Physical examination revealed an elastic-firm, well-defined, mobile and painless mass in her right breast. Mammograms revealed a 6.7 x 3.7 cm, lobulated, well-circumscribed mass in her right breast but no calcification. Sonographic examination showed a well-defined and homogenous mass, not including any cyst. Based on these findings, a provisional diagnosis of fibroadenoma was made. Considering the rapid growth history of the mass, tumor excision was performed. The excised tumor was well demarcated and had a smooth external surface. Histological examination revealed the tumor to be composed of markedly increased fibrous stroma and scattered epithelial components (cystic dilatation of the ducts, blunt duct adenosis). The fibrous stroma contained numerous anastomosing slit-like spaces. Isolated spindle cells appeared intermittently at the margins of the spaces resembled endothelial cells. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the spindle cells were positive for CD34 and negative for Factor VIII-related antigen. The lesion was diagnosed as nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia.


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    Martina Kyselková


    Full Text Available Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM are common soil saprophytes, but certain strains cause infections in human and animals. The infections due to RGM have been increasing in past decades and are often difficult to treat. The susceptibility to antibiotics is regularly evaluated in clinical isolates of RGM, but the data on soil RGM are missing. The objectives of this study was to isolate RGM from four grassland soils with different impact of manuring, and assess their resistance to antibiotics and the ability to grow at 37°C and 42°C. Since isolation of RGM from soil is a challenge, a conventional decontamination method (NaOH/malachite green/cycloheximide and a recent method based on olive oil/SDS demulsification were compared. The olive oil/SDS method was less efficient, mainly because of the emulsion instability and plate overgrowing with other bacteria. Altogether, 44 isolates were obtained and 23 representatives of different RGM genotypes were screened. The number of isolates per soil decreased with increasing soil pH, consistently with previous findings that mycobacteria were more abundant in low pH soils. Most of the isolates belonged to the Mycobacterium fortuitum group. The majority of isolates was resistant to 2-4 antibiotics. Multiresistant strains occurred also in a control soil that has a long history without the exposure to antibiotic-containing manure. Seven isolates grew at 37°C, including the species M. septicum and M. fortuitum known for infections in humans. This study shows that multiresistant RGM close to known human pathogens occur in grassland soils regardless the soil history of manuring.

  8. The spatial biology of transcription and translation in rapidly growing Escherichia coli

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    Somenath eBakshi


    Full Text Available Single-molecule fluorescence provides high resolution spatial distributions of ribosomes and RNA polymerase (RNAP in live, rapidly growing E. coli. Ribosomes are more strongly segregated from the nucleoids (chromosomal DNA than previous widefield fluorescence studies suggested. While most transcription may be co-translational, the evidence indicates that most translation occurs on free mRNA copies that have diffused from the nucleoids to a ribosome-rich region. Analysis of time-resolved images of the nucleoid spatial distribution after treatment with the transcription-halting drug rifampicin and the translation-halting drug chloramphenicol shows that both drugs cause nucleoid contraction on the 0-3 min timescale. This is consistent with the transertion hypothesis. We suggest that the longer-term (20-30 min nucleoid expansion after Rif treatment arises from conversion of 70S-polysomes to 30S and 50S subunits, which readily penetrate the nucleoids. Monte Carlo simulations of a polymer bead model built to mimic the chromosomal DNA and ribosomes (either 70S-polysomes or 30S and 50S subunits explain spatial segregation or mixing of ribosomes and nucleoids in terms of excluded volume and entropic effects alone. A comprehensive model of the transcription-translation-transertion system incorporates this new information about the spatial organization of the E. coli cytoplasm. We propose that transertion, which radially expands the nucleoids, is essential for recycling of 30S and 50S subunits from ribosome-rich regions back into the nucleoids. There they initiate co-transcriptional translation, which is an important mechanism for maintaining RNAP forward progress and protecting the nascent mRNA chain. Segregation of 70S-polysomes from the nucleoid may facilitate rapid growth by shortening the search time for ribosomes to find free mRNA concentrated outside the nucleoid and the search time for RNAP concentrated within the nucleoid to find transcription

  9. Drug Susceptibility Testing of 31 Antimicrobial Agents on Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria Isolates from China. (United States)

    Pang, Hui; Li, Guilian; Zhao, Xiuqin; Liu, Haican; Wan, Kanglin; Yu, Ping


    Several species of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are now recognized as human pathogens. However, limited data on effective drug treatments against these organisms exists. Here, we describe the species distribution and drug susceptibility profiles of RGM clinical isolates collected from four southern Chinese provinces from January 2005 to December 2012. Clinical isolates (73) were subjected to in vitro testing with 31 antimicrobial agents using the cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth microdilution method. The isolates included 55 M. abscessus, 11 M. fortuitum, 3 M. chelonae, 2 M. neoaurum, and 2 M. septicum isolates. M. abscessus (75.34%) and M. fortuitum (15.07%), the most common species, exhibited greater antibiotic resistance than the other three species. The isolates had low resistance to amikacin, linezolid, and tigecycline, and high resistance to first-line antituberculous agents, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, rifapentine, dapsone, thioacetazone, and pasiniazid. M. abscessus and M. fortuitum were highly resistant to ofloxacin and rifabutin, respectively. The isolates showed moderate resistance to the other antimicrobial agents. Our results suggest that tigecycline, linezolid, clofazimine, and cefmetazole are appropriate choices for M. abscessus infections. Capreomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tigecycline, clofazimine, and cefmetazole are potentially good choices for M. fortuitum infections. Our drug susceptibility data should be useful to clinicians.

  10. Nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial infections following laparoscopic surgery: CT imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volpato, Richard; Campi de Castro, Claudio; Hadad, David Jamil; Silva Souza Ribeiro, Flavya da; Filho, Ezequiel Leal; Marcal, Leonardo P.


    To identify the distribution and frequency of computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial (RGM) infection after laparoscopic surgery. A descriptive retrospective study in patients with RGM infection after laparoscopic surgery who underwent CT imaging prior to initiation of therapy. The images were analyzed by two radiologists in consensus, who evaluated the skin/subcutaneous tissues, the abdominal wall, and intraperitoneal region separately. The patterns of involvement were tabulated as: densification, collections, nodules (≥1.0 cm), small nodules (<1.0 cm), pseudocavitated nodules, and small pseudocavitated nodules. Twenty-six patients met the established criteria. The subcutaneous findings were: densification (88.5 %), small nodules (61.5 %), small pseudocavitated nodules (23.1 %), nodules (38.5 %), pseudocavitated nodules (15.4 %), and collections (26.9 %). The findings in the abdominal wall were: densification (61.5 %), pseudocavitated nodules (3.8 %), and collections (15.4 %). The intraperitoneal findings were: densification (46.1 %), small nodules (42.3 %), nodules (15.4 %), and collections (11.5 %). Subcutaneous CT findings in descending order of frequency were: densification, small nodules, nodules, small pseudocavitated nodules, pseudocavitated nodules, and collections. The musculo-fascial plane CT findings were: densification, collections, and pseudocavitated nodules. The intraperitoneal CT findings were: densification, small nodules, nodules, and collections. (orig.)

  11. Clinical and taxonomic status of pathogenic nonpigmented or late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria. (United States)

    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wallace, Richard J


    The history, taxonomy, geographic distribution, clinical disease, and therapy of the pathogenic nonpigmented or late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are reviewed. Community-acquired disease and health care-associated disease are highlighted for each species. The latter grouping includes health care-associated outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks as well as sporadic disease cases. Treatment recommendations for each species and type of disease are also described. Special emphasis is on the Mycobacterium fortuitum group, including M. fortuitum, M. peregrinum, and the unnamed third biovariant complex with its recent taxonomic changes and newly recognized species (including M. septicum, M. mageritense, and proposed species M. houstonense and M. bonickei). The clinical and taxonomic status of M. chelonae, M. abscessus, and M. mucogenicum is also detailed, along with that of the closely related new species, M. immunogenum. Additionally, newly recognized species, M. wolinskyi and M. goodii, as well as M. smegmatis sensu stricto, are included in a discussion of the M. smegmatis group. Laboratory diagnosis of RGM using phenotypic methods such as biochemical testing and high-performance liquid chromatography and molecular methods of diagnosis are also discussed. The latter includes PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, hybridization, ribotyping, and sequence analysis. Susceptibility testing and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the RGM are also annotated, along with the current recommendations from the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) for mycobacterial susceptibility testing.

  12. Drug Susceptibility Testing of 31 Antimicrobial Agents on Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria Isolates from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Pang


    Full Text Available Objectives. Several species of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM are now recognized as human pathogens. However, limited data on effective drug treatments against these organisms exists. Here, we describe the species distribution and drug susceptibility profiles of RGM clinical isolates collected from four southern Chinese provinces from January 2005 to December 2012. Methods. Clinical isolates (73 were subjected to in vitro testing with 31 antimicrobial agents using the cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth microdilution method. The isolates included 55 M. abscessus, 11 M. fortuitum, 3 M. chelonae, 2 M. neoaurum, and 2 M. septicum isolates. Results. M. abscessus (75.34% and M. fortuitum (15.07%, the most common species, exhibited greater antibiotic resistance than the other three species. The isolates had low resistance to amikacin, linezolid, and tigecycline, and high resistance to first-line antituberculous agents, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, rifapentine, dapsone, thioacetazone, and pasiniazid. M. abscessus and M. fortuitum were highly resistant to ofloxacin and rifabutin, respectively. The isolates showed moderate resistance to the other antimicrobial agents. Conclusions. Our results suggest that tigecycline, linezolid, clofazimine, and cefmetazole are appropriate choices for M. abscessus infections. Capreomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tigecycline, clofazimine, and cefmetazole are potentially good choices for M. fortuitum infections. Our drug susceptibility data should be useful to clinicians.

  13. Nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial infections following laparoscopic surgery: CT imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpato, Richard [Cassiano Antonio de Moraes University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Campi de Castro, Claudio [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Department of Radiology, Cerqueira Cesar, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Hadad, David Jamil [Cassiano Antonio de Moraes University Hospital, Nucleo de Doencas Infecciosas, Department of Internal Medicine, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Silva Souza Ribeiro, Flavya da [Laboratorio de Patologia PAT, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Filho, Ezequiel Leal [UNIMED Diagnostico, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Marcal, Leonardo P. [The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Houston, TX (United States)


    To identify the distribution and frequency of computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial (RGM) infection after laparoscopic surgery. A descriptive retrospective study in patients with RGM infection after laparoscopic surgery who underwent CT imaging prior to initiation of therapy. The images were analyzed by two radiologists in consensus, who evaluated the skin/subcutaneous tissues, the abdominal wall, and intraperitoneal region separately. The patterns of involvement were tabulated as: densification, collections, nodules (≥1.0 cm), small nodules (<1.0 cm), pseudocavitated nodules, and small pseudocavitated nodules. Twenty-six patients met the established criteria. The subcutaneous findings were: densification (88.5 %), small nodules (61.5 %), small pseudocavitated nodules (23.1 %), nodules (38.5 %), pseudocavitated nodules (15.4 %), and collections (26.9 %). The findings in the abdominal wall were: densification (61.5 %), pseudocavitated nodules (3.8 %), and collections (15.4 %). The intraperitoneal findings were: densification (46.1 %), small nodules (42.3 %), nodules (15.4 %), and collections (11.5 %). Subcutaneous CT findings in descending order of frequency were: densification, small nodules, nodules, small pseudocavitated nodules, pseudocavitated nodules, and collections. The musculo-fascial plane CT findings were: densification, collections, and pseudocavitated nodules. The intraperitoneal CT findings were: densification, small nodules, nodules, and collections. (orig.)

  14. Rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria infection of prosthetic knee joints: A report of two cases. (United States)

    Kim, Manyoung; Ha, Chul-Won; Jang, Jae Won; Park, Yong-Beom


    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) cause prosthetic knee joint infections in rare cases. Infections with rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria (RGNTM) are difficult to treat due to their aggressive clinical behavior and resistance to antibiotics. Infections of a prosthetic knee joint by RGNTM have rarely been reported. A standard of treatment has not yet been established because of the rarity of the condition. In previous reports, diagnoses of RGNTM infections in prosthetic knee joints took a long time to reach because the condition was not suspected, due to its rarity. In addition, it is difficult to identify RGNTM in the lab because special identification tests are needed. In previous reports, after treatment for RGNTM prosthetic infections, knee prostheses could not be re-implanted in all cases but one, resulting in arthrodesis or resection arthroplasty; this was most likely due to the aggressiveness of these organisms. In the present report, two cases of prosthetic knee joint infection caused by RGNTM (Mycobacterium abscessus) are described that were successfully treated, and in which prosthetic joints were finally reimplanted in two-stage revision surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapidly-growing mycobacterial infection: a recognized cause of early-onset prosthetic joint infection. (United States)

    Jitmuang, Anupop; Yuenyongviwat, Varah; Charoencholvanich, Keerati; Chayakulkeeree, Methee


    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a major complication of total hip and total knee arthroplasty (THA, TKA). Although mycobacteria are rarely the causative pathogens, it is important to recognize and treat them differently from non-mycobacterial infections. This study aimed to compare the clinical characteristics, associated factors and long-term outcomes of mycobacterial and non-mycobacterial PJI. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of patients aged ≥18 years who were diagnosed with PJI of the hip or knee at Siriraj Hospital from January 2000 to December 2012. Patient characteristics, clinical data, treatments and outcomes were evaluated. A total of 178 patients were included, among whom 162 had non-mycobacterial PJI and 16 had mycobacterial PJI. Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) (11) and M. tuberculosis (MTB) (5) were the causative pathogens of mycobacterial PJI. PJI duration and time until onset were significantly different between mycobacterial and non-mycobacterial PJI. Infection within 90 days of arthroplasty was significantly associated with RGM infection (OR 21.86; 95% CI 4.25-112.30; p infection. RGM were the major pathogens of early onset PJI after THA and TKA. Both a high clinical index of suspicion and mycobacterial cultures are recommended when medically managing PJI with negative cultures or non-response to antibiotics. Removal of infected implants was associated with favorable outcomes.

  16. Rapid-Growing Mycobacteria Infections in Medical Tourists: Our Experience and Literature Review. (United States)

    Singh, Mansher; Dugdale, Caitlin M; Solomon, Isaac H; Huang, Anne; Montgomery, Mary W; Pomahac, Bohdan; Yawetz, Sigal; Maguire, James H; Talbot, Simon G


    "Medical tourism" has gained popularity over the past few decades. This is particularly common with patients seeking elective cosmetic surgery in the developing world. However, the risk of severe and unusual infectious complications appears to be higher than for patients undergoing similar procedures in the United States. The authors describe their experience with atypical mycobacterial infections in cosmetic surgical patients returning to the United States postoperatively. A review of patient medical records presenting with infectious complications after cosmetic surgery between January 2010 and July 2015 was performed. Patients presenting with mycobacterial infections following cosmetic surgery were reviewed in detail. An extensive literature review was performed for rapid-growing mycobacteria (RGM) related to cosmetic procedures. Between January 2010 and July 2015, three patients presented to our institution with culture-proven Mycobacterium abscessus at the sites of recent cosmetic surgery. All had surgery performed in the developing world. The mean age of these patients was 36 years (range, 29-44 years). There was a delay of up to 16 weeks between the initial presentation and correct diagnosis. All patients were treated with surgical drainage and combination antibiotics with complete resolution. We present series of patients with mycobacterial infections after cosmetic surgery in the developing world. This may be related to the endemic nature of these bacteria and/or inadequate sterilization or sterile technique. Due to low domestic incidence of these infections, diagnosis may be difficult and/or delayed. Consulting physicians should have a low threshold to consider atypical etiologies in such scenarios. 5 Therapeutic. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission:

  17. Two novel species of rapidly growing mycobacteria: Mycobacterium lehmannii sp. nov. and Mycobacterium neumannii sp. nov. (United States)

    Nouioui, Imen; Sangal, Vartul; Carro, Lorena; Teramoto, Kanae; Jando, Marlen; Montero-Calasanz, Maria Del Carmen; Igual, José Mariano; Sutcliffe, Iain; Goodfellow, Michael; Klenk, Hans-Peter


    Two rapidly growing mycobacteria with identical 16S rRNA gene sequences were the subject of a polyphasic taxonomic study. The strains formed a well-supported subclade in the mycobacterial 16S rRNA gene tree and were most closely associated with the type strain of Mycobacterium novocastrense. Single and multilocus sequence analyses based on hsp65, rpoB and 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains SN 1900 T and SN 1904 T are phylogenetically distinct but share several chemotaxonomic and phenotypic features that are are consistent with their classification in the genus Mycobacterium. The two strains were distinguished by their different fatty acid and mycolic acid profiles, and by a combination of phenotypic features. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) values for strains SN 1900 T and SN 1904 T were 61.0 % and 94.7 %, respectively; in turn, the corresponding dDDH and ANI values with M. novocastrense DSM 44203 T were 41.4 % and 42.8 % and 89.3 % and 89.5 %, respectively. These results show that strains SN1900 T and SN 1904 T form new centres of taxonomic variation within the genus Mycobacterium. Consequently, strains SN 1900 T (40 T =CECT 8763 T =DSM 43219 T ) and SN 1904 T (2409 T =CECT 8766 T =DSM 43532 T ) are considered to represent novel species, for which the names Mycobacteriumlehmannii sp. nov. and Mycobacteriumneumannii sp. nov. are proposed. A strain designated as 'Mycobacteriumacapulsensis' was shown to be a bona fide member of the putative novel species, M. lehmannii.

  18. Urban cyclist exposure to fine particle pollution in a rapidly growing city (United States)

    Luce, B. W.; Barrett, T. E.; Ponette-González, A.


    Urban cyclists are exposed to elevated atmospheric concentrations of fine particulate matter (particles vehicle exhaust, which is emitted directly into cyclists' "breathing zone." In cities, human exposure to PM2.5 is a concern because its small size allows it to be inhaled deeper into the lungs than most particles. The aim of this research is to determine "hotspots" (locations with high PM2.5 concentrations) within the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex, Texas, where urban cyclists are most exposed to fine particle pollution. Recent research indicates that common exposure hotspots include traffic signals, junctions, bus stations, parking lots, and inclined streets. To identify these and other hotspots, a bicycle equipped with a low-cost, portable, battery-powered particle counter (Dylos 1700) coupled with a Trimble Geo 5T handheld Global Positioning System (GPS; ≤1 m ± resolution) will be used to map and measure particle mass concentrations along predetermined routes. Measurements will be conducted during a consecutive four-month period (Sep-Dec) during morning and evening rush hours when PM2.5 levels are generally highest, as well as during non-rush hour times to determine background concentrations. PM2.5 concentrations will be calculated from particle counts using an equation developed by Steinle et al. (2015). In addition, traffic counts will be conducted along the routes coinciding with the mobile monitoring times. We will present results on identified "hotspots" of high fine particle concentrations and PM2.5 exposure in the City of Denton, where particle pollution puts urban commuters most at risk, as well as average traffic counts from monitoring times. These data can be used to determine pollution mitigation strategies in rapidly growing urban areas.

  19. Rare Rapidly Growing Thumb Lesion in a 12-Year-Old Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana J Arnold, MD, MBA


    t amenable to surgery.4 Surgery is the mainstay of care. The first medical treatment, denosumab, was approved by the FDA for use in adults and skeletally mature adolescents with surgically unresectable lesions.5 It is critical to obtain definitive imaging and biopsy of any rapidly growing lesions in patients presenting with masses and no history of trauma or constitutional symptoms. The best imaging study is MRI, to assess for bony and tissue involvement and surgical approach. Computed tomography may be used; however, it doesn’t delineate the soft tissue and bony connections as well. Standard oncology labs should be drawn as well, including: CBC with differential, LDH, uric acid, CMP, ESR. The growth of the tumor is insidious and therefore imaging should be done based on clinical concern. In the ED setting, if close follow up can be ensured, imaging can be done as an out-patient. Annual surveillance is recommended for at least 5 years in most patients, even after total resection, according to some studies.3 Our patient underwent GCTB resection with plastics surgery of the distal phalanx of thumb. He was seen in follow-up in the oncology clinic. Pathology of the tumor had negative margins, and he was told to follow-up in six months with plastics. Per hematology, no further follow-up was needed. Topics: Pediatrics, giant cell tumor, thumb lesion

  20. Demographic Change and the New (and Not so New) Challenges for Latino Education (United States)

    Gándara, Patricia; Mordechay, Kfir


    Latino students now make up 1 in 4 public school students in the United States and are a rapidly growing population in nontraditional settlement areas. Yet persistent racial and ethnic disparities in educational achievement and attainment are cause for grave concern, as high school graduation and postsecondary-education are increasingly necessary…

  1. Closing the Achievement Gap: Focus on Latino Students. Policy Brief Number 17 (United States)

    American Federation of Teachers, 2004


    The Latino population is the fastest growing ethnic minority in the United States. This group is rapidly changing the face of public schools and presenting a unique set of challenges to public education. This policy brief provides the data and context to support the American Federation of Teacher's call for increased attention to the condition of…

  2. Origins of the New Latino Underclass. (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S; Pren, Karen A


    Over the past four decades, the Latino population of the United States was transformed from a small, ethnically segmented population of Mexicans in the southwest, Puerto Ricans in New York, and Cubans in Miami into a large national population dominated by Mexicans, Central Americans, and South Americans. This transformation occurred through mass immigration, much of it undocumented, to the point where large fractions of non-Caribbean Hispanics lack legal protections and rights in the United States. Rising illegality is critical to understanding the disadvantaged status of Latinos today. The unauthorized population began to grow after avenues for legal entry were curtailed in 1965. The consequent rise in undocumented migration enabled political and bureaucratic entrepreneurs to frame Latino migration as a grave threat to the nation, leading to a rising frequency of negative framings in the media, a growing conservative reaction, and increasingly restrictive immigration and border policies that generated more apprehensions. Rising apprehensions, in turn, further enflamed the conservative reaction to produce even harsher enforcement and more still more apprehensions, yielding a self-feeding cycle in which apprehensions kept rising even though undocumented inflows had stabilized. The consequent militarization of the border had the perverse effect of reducing rates of out-migration rather than inhibiting in-migration, leading to a sharp rise in net undocumented population and rapid growth of the undocumented population. As a result, a majority of Mexican, Central American, and South American immigrants are presently undocumented at a time when unauthorized migrants are subject to increasing sanctions from authorities and the public, yielding down-ward pressure on the status and well-being of Latinos in the United States.

  3. Latino/a Student Misbehavior and School Punishment (United States)

    Peguero, Anthony A.; Shekarkhar, Zahra


    Although Latino/as are the fastest growing segment of the U.S. student population, Latino/a youth face a number of educational hurdles, such as disproportionate school punishment. This topic is particularly relevant today in the midst of the current social, political, and economic debate over the influence of Latino/a immigration in the US school…

  4. Voces (Voices): A Profile of Today's Latino College Students (United States)

    Santiago, Deborah A.


    Latinos are the youngest and fastest growing ethnic group in the United States. It is imperative that institutional leaders and decision makers have a better understanding of Latino students today in order to shape the policies and practices to serve college students in the future. Currently, disparate statistics about Latino students in higher…

  5. The Latino Physician Shortage: How the Affordable Care Act Increases the Value of Latino Spanish-Speaking Physicians and What Efforts Can Increase Their Supply. (United States)

    Daar, David A; Alvarez-Estrada, Miguel; Alpert, Abigail E


    The United States Latino population is growing at a rapid pace and is set to reach nearly 30% by 2050. The demand for culturally and linguistically competent health care is increasing in lockstep with this growth; however, the supply of doctors with skills and experience suited for this care is lagging. In particular, there is a major shortage of Latino Spanish-speaking physicians, and the gap between demand and supply is widening. The implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has increased the capacity of the US healthcare system to care for the growing Latino Spanish-speaking population, through health insurance exchanges, increased funding for safety net institutions, and efforts to improve efficiency and coordination of care, particularly with Accountable Care Organizations and the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program. With these policies in mind, the authors discuss how the value of Latino Spanish-speaking physicians to the healthcare system has increased under the environment of the ACA. In addition, the authors highlight key efforts to increase the supply of this physician population, including the implementation of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals Act, premedical pipeline programs, and academic medicine and medical school education initiatives to increase Latino representation among physicians.

  6. Myofibroblastoma: An Unusual Rapidly Growing Benign Tumour in a Male Breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafique, A.; Arshad, A.


    Myofibroblastoma is an unusual benign tumour of the breast predominantly seen in men in their sixth to seventh decade. The gross appearance is that of a well circumscribed nodule, characteristically small, seldom exceeding 3 cm. We present a case of an unusually large myofibroblastoma, which mimicked a malignant breast tumour. A 40 years old male, known case of tetralogy of Fallot, was operated in infancy in abroad, presented with a rapid enlargement of right breast over 5 - 6 weeks. Examination revealed a firm 10 cm hemispherical lump occupying the whole of the right breast with normal overlying skin. Since core biopsy was inconclusive, a subcutaneous mastectomy was performed to remove the tumour, which weighed 500 gms. Histopathology and immunocytochemistry revealed a mixed classical and collagenised type of myofibroblastoma. The patient is well with no evidence of recurrence. (author)

  7. Mycobacterium grossiae sp. nov., a rapidly growing, scotochromogenic species isolated from human clinical respiratory and blood culture specimens. (United States)

    Paniz-Mondolfi, Alberto Enrique; Greninger, Alexander L; Ladutko, Lynn; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Vasireddy, Ravikiran; Jakubiec, Wesley; Vasireddy, Sruthi; Wallace, Richard J; Simmon, Keith E; Dunn, Bruce E; Jackoway, Gary; Vora, Surabhi B; Quinn, Kevin K; Qin, Xuan; Campbell, Sheldon


    A previously undescribed, rapidly growing, scotochromogenic species of the genus Mycobacterium (represented by strains PB739 T and GK) was isolated from two clinical sources - the sputum of a 76-year-old patient with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, history of tuberculosis exposure and Mycobacterium avium complex isolated years prior; and the blood of a 15-year-old male with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia status post bone marrow transplant. The isolates grew as dark orange colonies at 25-37 °C after 5 days, sharing features in common with other closely related species. Analysis of the complete 16S rRNA gene sequence (1492 bp) of strain PB739 T demonstrated that the isolate shared 98.8 % relatedness with Mycobacterium wolinskyi. Partial 429 bp hsp65 and 744 bp rpoB region V sequence analyses revealed that the sequences of the novel isolate shared 94.8 and 92.1 % similarity with those of Mycobacterium neoaurum and Mycobacterium aurum, respectively. Biochemical profiling, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, HPLC/gas-liquid chromatography analyses and multilocus sequence typing support the taxonomic status of these isolates (PB739 T and GK) as representatives of a novel species. Both isolates were susceptible to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommended antimicrobials for susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria including amikacin, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, doxycycline/minocycline, imipenem, linezolid, clarithromycin and trimethropin/sulfamethoxazole. Both isolates PB739 T and GK showed intermediate susceptibility to cefoxitin. We propose the name Mycobacterium grossiae sp. nov. for this novel species and have deposited the type strain in the DSMZ and CIP culture collections. The type strain is PB739 T (=DSM 104744 T =CIP 111318 T ).

  8. Mycobacterium oryzae sp. nov., a scotochromogenic, rapidly growing species is able to infect human macrophage cell line. (United States)

    Ramaprasad, E V V; Rizvi, A; Banerjee, S; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V


    Gram-stain-positive, acid-fast-positive, rapidly growing, rod-shaped bacteria (designated as strains JC290T, JC430 and JC431) were isolated from paddy cultivated soils on the Western Ghats of India. Phylogenetic analysis placed the three strains among the rapidly growing mycobacteria, being most closely related to Mycobacterium tokaiense 47503T (98.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Mycobacterium murale MA112/96T (98.8 %) and a few other Mycobacterium species. The level of DNA-DNA reassociation of the three strains with M. tokaiense DSM 44635T was 23.4±4 % (26.1±3 %, reciprocal analysis) and 21.4±2 % (22.1±4 %, reciprocal analysis). The three novel strains shared >99.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and DNA-DNA reassociation values >85 %. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated sequences (3071 bp) of four housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, hsp65, rpoB and sodA) revealed that strain JC290T is clearly distinct from all other Mycobacteriumspecies. The three strains had diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositolmannosides, unidentified phospholipids, unidentified glycolipids and an unidentified lipid as polar lipids. The predominant isoprenoid quinone for all three strains was MK-9(H2). Fatty acids were C17 : 1ω7c, C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c and C19 : 1ω7c/C19 : 1ω6c for all the three strains. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, it was concluded that strains JC290T, JC430 and JC431 are members of a novel species within the genus Mycobacterium and for which the name Mycobacterium oryzae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC290T (=KCTC 39560T=LMG 28809T).

  9. Mycobacterium stephanolepidis sp. nov., a rapidly growing species related to Mycobacterium chelonae, isolated from marine teleost fish, Stephanolepis cirrhifer. (United States)

    Fukano, Hanako; Wada, Shinpei; Kurata, Osamu; Katayama, Kinya; Fujiwara, Nagatoshi; Hoshino, Yoshihiko


    A previously undescribed rapidly growing, non-pigmented mycobacterium was identified based on biochemical and nucleic acid analyses, as well as growth characteristics. Seven isolates were cultured from samples collected from five thread-sail filefish (Stephanolepis cirrhifer) and two farmed black scraper (Thamnaconus modestus). Bacterial growth occurred at 15-35 °C on Middlebrook 7H11 agar. The bacteria were positive for catalase activity at 68 °C and urease activity, intermediate for iron uptake, and negative for Tween 80 hydrolysis, nitrate reduction, semi-quantitative catalase activity and arylsulfatase activity at day 3. No growth was observed on Middlebrook 7H11 agar supplemented with picric acid, and very little growth was observed in the presence of 5 % NaCl. α- and α'-mycolates were identified in the cell walls, and a unique profile of the fatty acid methyl esters and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiles of the protein and cell-wall lipids were acquired. Sequence analysis revealed that the seven isolates shared identical sequences for the 16S rRNA, rpoB, hsp65, recA and sodA genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the five gene sequences confirmed that the isolates were unique, but closely related to Mycobacterium chelonae. Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of clarithromycin against this novel species was Mycobacterium salmoniphilum. The hsp65 PCR restriction enzyme analysis pattern differed from those of M. chelonae and M. salmoniphilum. Based on these findings, the name Mycobacterium stephanolepidis sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species, with the type strain being NJB0901 T (=JCM 31611 T =KCTC 39843 T ).

  10. Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov., a rapidly growing mycobacterium closely related to members of the Mycobacterium chelonae--Mycobacterium abscessus group. (United States)

    Nogueira, Christiane Lourenço; Whipps, Christopher M; Matsumoto, Cristianne Kayoko; Chimara, Erica; Droz, Sara; Tortoli, Enrico; de Freitas, Denise; Cnockaert, Margo; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Martin, Anandi; Vandamme, Peter; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso


    Five isolates of non-pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria were isolated from three patients and,in an earlier study, from zebrafish. Phenotypic and molecular tests confirmed that these isolates belong to the Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus group, but they could not be confidently assigned to any known species of this group. Phenotypic analysis and biochemical tests were not helpful for distinguishing these isolates from other members of the M. chelonae–M.abscessus group. The isolates presented higher drug resistance in comparison with other members of the group, showing susceptibility only to clarithromycin. The five isolates showed a unique PCR restriction analysis pattern of the hsp65 gene, 100 % similarity in 16S rRNA gene and hsp65 sequences and 1-2 nt differences in rpoB and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences.Phylogenetic analysis of a concatenated dataset including 16S rRNA gene, hsp65, and rpoB sequences from type strains of more closely related species placed the five isolates together, as a distinct lineage from previously described species, suggesting a sister relationship to a group consisting of M. chelonae, Mycobacterium salmoniphilum, Mycobacterium franklinii and Mycobacterium immunogenum. DNA–DNA hybridization values .70 % confirmed that the five isolates belong to the same species, while values ,70 % between one of the isolates and the type strains of M. chelonae and M. abscessus confirmed that the isolates belong to a distinct species. The polyphasic characterization of these isolates, supported by DNA–DNA hybridization results,demonstrated that they share characteristics with M. chelonae–M. abscessus members, butconstitute a different species, for which the name Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EPM10906T (5CCUG 66554T5LMG 28586T5INCQS 0733T).

  11. The economic case for low-carbon development in rapidly growing developing world cities: A case study of Palembang, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colenbrander, Sarah; Gouldson, Andy; Sudmant, Andrew Heshedahl; Papargyropoulou, Effie


    Where costs or risks are higher, evidence is lacking or supporting institutions are less developed, policymakers can struggle to make the case for low-carbon investment. This is especially the case in developing world cities where decision-makers struggle to keep up with the pace and scale of change. Focusing on Palembang in Indonesia, this paper considers the economic case for proactive investment in low-carbon development. We find that a rapidly growing industrial city in a developing country can reduce emissions by 24.1% in 2025, relative to business as usual levels, with investments of USD405.6 million that would reduce energy expenditure in the city by USD436.8 million. Emissions from the regional grid could be reduced by 12.2% in 2025, relative to business as usual trends, with investments of USD2.9 billion that would generate annual savings of USD175 million. These estimates understate the savings from reduced expenditure on energy subsidies and energy infrastructure. The compelling economic case for mainstreaming climate mitigation in this developing country city suggests that the constraints on climate action can be political and institutional rather than economic. There is therefore a need for more effective energy governance to drive the transition to a low-carbon economy. - Highlights: • We evaluate the economic case for low carbon investment in a developing world city. • Cost-effective measures could reduce emissions by 24.1% relative to BAU levels. • These pay for themselves in <1 year and generate savings throughout their lifetime. • Further savings come from reduced expenditure on energy infrastructure, subsidies. • Limitations on climate action seem to be political/institutional – not economic

  12. Effects of landscape change on fish assemblage structure in a rapidly growing metropolitan area in North Carolina, USA (United States)

    Kennen, J.G.; Chang, M.; Tracy, B.H.


    We evaluated a comprehensive set of natural and land-use attributes that represent the major facets of urban development at fish monitoring sites in the rapidly growing Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina metropolitan area. We used principal component and correlation analysis to obtain a nonredundant subset of variables that extracted most variation in the complete set. With this subset of variables, we assessed the effect of urban growth on fish assemblage structure. We evaluated variation in fish assemblage structure with nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS). We used correlation analysis to identify the most important environmental and landscape variables associated with significant NMDS axes. The second NMDS axis is related to many indices of land-use/land-cover change and habitat. Significant correlations with proportion of largest forest patch to total patch size (r = -0.460, P < 0.01), diversity of patch types (r = 0.554, P < 0.001), and population density (r = 0.385, P < 0.05) helped identify NMDS axis 2 as a disturbance gradient. Positive and negative correlations between the abundance of redbreast sunfish Lepomis auritus and bluehead chub Nocomis leptocephalus, respectively, and NMDS axis 2 also were evident. The North Carolina index of biotic integrity and many of its component metrics were highly correlated with urbanization. These results indicate that aquatic ecosystem integrity would be optimized by a comprehensive integrated management strategy that includes the preservation of landscape function by maximizing the conservation of contiguous tracts of forested lands and vegetative cover in watersheds. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.

  13. The Role of Social Capital and School Structure on Latino Access to Elite Colleges (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jeremiah J.


    Latinos make up the fastest growing population in the United States. However, this group has some of the lowest educational outcomes (Gandara & Contreras, 2009). Although large numbers of Latinos fail to achieve high levels of academic success, some Latinos are able to accomplish educational outcomes that compare with those of the most…

  14. Nuestras Voces: (Our Voices): A Phenomenological Study of Latino Parents' Perceptions of Early Intervention (United States)

    Murphy, Kathleen Mary


    There is a rise in the Latino population, a growing need to close the achievement gap, and yet there exists a paucity of research on Latino infant and child development. This phenomenological study of Latino parents explores the thoughts and feelings of a representative sample of parents pertaining to the early intervention services that their…

  15. Tetracycline resistance and presence of tetracycline resistance determinants .i.tet./i.(V) and .i.tap./i. in rapidly growing mycobacteria from agricultural soils and clinical isolates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselková, Martina; Chroňáková, Alica; Volná, Lucie; Němec, Jan; Ulmann, V.; Scharfen, J.; Elhottová, Dana


    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2012), s. 413-422 ISSN 1342-6311 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/10/2077; GA MŠk LC06066 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : efflux pump * rapidly growing Mycobacterium * tetracycline resistance * tap * tet (V) Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.444, year: 2012

  16. Latino Demographics, Democratic Individuality, and Educational Accountability: A Pragmatist's View (United States)

    Martinez Aleman, Ana M.


    In an era of heightened teacher and school accountability, what are the implications of standards-based reform for individual Latino children and their democratic self-realization? The educational demography of the fastest-growing and largest ethnic group in the United States suggests that the future of Latino self-realization is in jeopardy.…

  17. "Salud America!" Developing a National Latino Childhood Obesity Research Agenda (United States)

    Ramirez, Amelie G.; Chalela, Patricia; Gallion, Kipling J.; Green, Lawrence W.; Ottoson, Judith


    U.S. childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions, with one third of children overweight or obese. Latino children have some of the highest obesity rates, a concern because they are part of the youngest and fastest-growing U.S. minority group. Unfortunately, scarce research data on Latinos hinders the development and implementation of…

  18. Food and Beverage Marketing to Latinos: A Systematic Literature Review (United States)

    Adeigbe, Rebecca T.; Baldwin, Shannon; Gallion, Kip; Grier, Sonya; Ramirez, Amelie G.


    Obesity rates among U.S. adults and children have increased over the past two decades and, although signs of stabilization and decline among certain age groups and geographies are being reported, the prevalence of obesity among Latino adults and children remain high. The Latino population is growing in parallel to these obesity rates and marketers…

  19. Latino Mental Health (United States)

    ... How Do Mental Health Conditions Affect the Latino Community? Common mental health disorders among Latinos are generalized anxiety disorder , major ... quality care. Lack of Information and Misunderstanding about Mental Health Overall, the Latino community does not talk about mental health issues. There ...

  20. Development of project wings home visits, a mental health intervention for Latino families using community-based participatory research. (United States)

    Garcia, Carolyn; Hermann, Denise; Bartels, Anna; Matamoros, Pablo; Dick-Olson, Linda; Guerra de Patino, Janeth


    As the Latino population in the United States experiences rapid growth, the well-being of Latino adolescents is a growing concern because of their high rates of mental health problems. Latino adolescents have higher rates of mental health problems than their peers, including depressive symptoms, suicide attempts, and violence. Sophisticated, realistic health promotion efforts are needed to reduce these risk behaviors and enhance protective factors. Parents and schools can be key protective factors, or assets, in adolescents' lives. This article details the steps undertaken to develop Project Wings Home Visits, a collaborative school-based, community-linked mental health promotion intervention for Latino adolescents and their families. Core to the intervention is the use of a community health worker model to provide home-based outreach and education to parents of Latino adolescents. The intervention was developed using a community-based participatory research approach that involved the cooperation of a community health care system, a public high school, and a university. Our process demonstrates the benefits, strengths, and challenges of using community-based participatory research in creating and implementing health promotion interventions.

  1. Diversity, Community Composition, and Dynamics of Nonpigmented and Late-Pigmenting Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria in an Urban Tap Water Production and Distribution System


    Dubrou, S.; Konjek, J.; Macheras, E.; Welté, B.; Guidicelli, L.; Chignon, E.; Joyeux, M.; Gaillard, J. L.; Heym, B.; Tully, T.; Sapriel, G.


    Nonpigmented and late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) have been reported to commonly colonize water production and distribution systems. However, there is little information about the nature and distribution of RGM species within the different parts of such complex networks or about their clustering into specific RGM species communities. We conducted a large-scale survey between 2007 and 2009 in the Parisian urban tap water production and distribution system. We analyzed 1,418 w...

  2. Do farmers rapidly adapt to past growing conditions by sowing different proportions of early and late maturing cereals and cultivars?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirjo Peltonen-Sainio


    Full Text Available In the short growing season of the northernmost European growing conditions, farmers are increasingly interested in expanding cultivation of later maturing crops at the expense of early maturing ones with lower yields. In this study we aimed to assess how the switching between spring cereals that differ in earliness was associated with different external factors. This was tested using unique datasets for regional cropping areas and cultivar use for the last 15 years. Early maturing barley was favored at the expense of later maturing wheat when a high number of days to crop maturity was required in the preceding year. In contrast, farmers reduced the barley area when a high number of cumulated degree days was required for a crop to mature in the previous year. A shift was recorded from early to late maturing cultivars. This study indicated that despite limited opportunities for farmers to alter land use, they readily responded to past conditions and used the knowledge gained for decision-making to reduce risk. This is a valuable operative model for studying adaptation to opportunities and constraints induced by climate change.

  3. Monitoring Annual Urban Changes in a Rapidly Growing Portion of Northwest Arkansas with a 20-Year Landsat Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Reynolds


    Full Text Available Northwest Arkansas has undergone a significant urban transformation in the past several decades and is considered to be one of the fastest growing regions in the United States. The urban area expansion and the associated demographic increases bring unprecedented pressure to the environment and natural resources. To better understand the consequences of urbanization, accurate and long-term depiction on urban dynamics is critical. Although urban mapping activities using remote sensing have been widely conducted, long-term urban growth mapping at an annual pace is rare and the low accuracy of change detection remains a challenge. In this study, a time series Landsat stack covering the period from 1995 to 2015 was employed to detect the urban dynamics in Northwest Arkansas via a two-stage classification approach. A set of spectral indices that have been proven to be useful in urban area extraction together with the original Landsat spectral bands were used in the maximum likelihood classifier and random forest classifier to distinguish urban from non-urban pixels for each year. A temporal trajectory polishing method, involving temporal filtering and heuristic reasoning, was then applied to the sequence of classified urban maps for further improvement. Based on a set of validation samples selected for five distinct years, the average overall accuracy of the final polished maps was 91%, which improved the preliminary classifications by over 10%. Moreover, results from this study also indicated that the temporal trajectory polishing method was most effective with initial low accuracy classifications. The resulting urban dynamic map is expected to provide unprecedented details about the area, spatial configuration, and growing trends of urban land-cover in Northwest Arkansas.

  4. Examining Empowerment, Family-School Partnerships, and Advocacy among Rural and Urban Latino Families of Children with Disabilities (United States)

    Burke, Meghan M.


    Latino students and their families are the fastest growing minority group in the country, yet it is unclear whether rural (vs. urban) Latino families of students with disabilities have different needs. In this pilot study, 65 Latino family members of students with disabilities (15 rural; 50 urban) responded to a questionnaire about empowerment,…

  5. Carbon nanotubes growing on rapid thermal annealed Ni and their application to a triode-type field emission device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uh, Hyung Soo; Park, Sang Sik


    In this paper, we demonstrate a new triode-type field emitter arrays using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as an electron emitter source. In the proposed structure, the gate electrode is located underneath the cathode electrode and the extractor electrode is surrounded by CNT emitters. CNTs were selectively grown on the patterned Ni catalyst layer by using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Vertically aligned CNTs were grown with gas mixture of acetylene and ammonia under external DC bias. Compared with a conventional under-gate structure, the proposed structure reduced the turn-on voltage by about 30%. In addition, with a view to controlling the density of CNTs, Ni catalyst thickness was varied and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) treatment was optionally adopted before CNT growth. With controlled Ni thickness and RTA condition, field emission efficiency was greatly improved by reducing the density of CNTs, which is due to the reduction of the electric field screening effect caused by dense CNTs

  6. Latino/a Students and Faculty Interaction: Las Voces De Persistencia (United States)

    Hampton, Joyce L.


    Latinos consistently have the lowest degree completion rate throughout the United States (Kurlaender & Flores, 2005). At the same time, Latinos are the fastest growing sector of the U.S. population. Taken together, these facts demonstrate an ongoing and growing inequity in educational opportunities and outcomes for a significant portion of the…

  7. Compartmental analysis of roots in intact rapidly-growing Spergularia marina and Lactuca sativa: partial characterization of the symplasms functional in the radial transport of Na+ and K+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazof, D.B.


    Techniques of compartmental analysis were adapted to the study of intact roots of rapidly-growing Spergularia marine and Lactuca sativa. Using large numbers of plants short time-courses of uptake and chase, 42 K + and 22 Na + transport could be resolved, even during a chase following a brief 10 minute labeling period. The use of intact plant systems allowed distinction of that portion of the isotope flux into the root, associated with the ion-conducting symplasms. A small compartment, which rapidly (t/sub .5/ + , accounting for the observed obtention of linear translocation rates within minutes of transferring to labeled solution. The ion contents of this compartment varied in proportion to the external ion concentration. When K + was at a high external concentration, labeled K + exchanged into this same symplasm, but chasing a short pulse indicated that K + transport to the xylem was not through a rapidly-exchanging compartment. At physiological concentrations of K + the evidence indicated that transport of K + across the root proceeded through a compartment which was not exchanging rapidly with the external medium. The rise to a linear rate of isotope translocation was gradual and translocation during a chase, following a brief pulse,was prolonged, indicating that this compartment retained its specific activity for a considerable period

  8. A Multi-Level Approach to Modeling Rapidly Growing Mega-Regions as a Coupled Human-Natural System (United States)

    Koch, J. A.; Tang, W.; Meentemeyer, R. K.


    concept of our modeling approach and describe its strengths and weaknesses. We furthermore use empirical data for the states of North and South Carolina to demonstrate how the modeling framework can be applied to a large, heterogeneous study system with diverse decision-making agents. Grimm et al. (2005) Pattern-Oriented Modeling of Agent-Based Complex Systems: Lessons from Ecology. Science 310, 987-991. Liu et al. (2013) Framing Sustainability in a Telecoupled World. Ecology and Society 18(2), 26. Meentemeyer et al. (2013) FUTURES: Multilevel Simulations of Merging Urban-Rural Landscape Structure Using a Stochastic Patch-Growing Algorithm. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 103(4), 785-807.

  9. Sociocultural tailoring of a healthy lifestyle intervention to reduce cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk among Latinos. (United States)

    Mudd-Martin, Gia; Martinez, Maria C; Rayens, Mary Kay; Gokun, Yevgeniya; Meininger, Janet C


    Suboptimal lifestyle factors in combination with genetic susceptibility contribute to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk among Latinos. We describe a community-academic collaboration that developed and explored the feasibility of implementing a socioculturally tailored, healthy lifestyle intervention integrating genomics and family history education to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes among Latinos. The community-based participatory research was conducted with communities in Kentucky, which has a rapidly growing Latino population. This growth underscores the need for socioculturally appropriate health resources. Su Corazon, Su Vida (Your Heart, Your Life) is a Spanish-language, healthy lifestyle educational program to reduce cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk among Latinos. Twenty natural leaders from an urban Latino community in Kentucky participated in sociocultural tailoring of the program and development of a genomics and family history module. The tailored program was presented to 22 participants to explore implementation feasibility and assess appropriateness for community use. Preintervention and postintervention assessments of genomic knowledge and lifestyle behaviors and qualitative postintervention evaluations were conducted. Postintervention improvements in health-promoting lifestyle choices and genomic knowledge specific to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes suggested that the program may be effective in reducing risk. Feedback indicated the program was socioculturally acceptable and responsive to community needs. These findings indicated that a tailored healthy lifestyle program integrating genomics and family history education was socioculturally appropriate and may feasibly be implemented to reduce cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk in a Latino community with limited health care resources. The project highlights contributions of community-based processes in tailoring

  10. A Framework Predicting Water Availability in a Rapidly Growing, Semi-Arid Region under Future Climate Change (United States)

    Han, B.; Benner, S. G.; Glenn, N. F.; Lindquist, E.; Dahal, K. R.; Bolte, J.; Vache, K. B.; Flores, A. N.


    Climate change can lead to dramatic variations in hydrologic regime, affecting both surface water and groundwater supply. This effect is most significant in populated semi-arid regions where water availability are highly sensitive to climate-induced outcomes. However, predicting water availability at regional scales, while resolving some of the key internal variability and structure in semi-arid regions is difficult due to the highly non-linearity relationship between rainfall and runoff. In this study, we describe the development of a modeling framework to evaluate future water availability that captures elements of the coupled response of the biophysical system to climate change and human systems. The framework is built under the Envision multi-agent simulation tool, characterizing the spatial patterns of water demand in the semi-arid Treasure Valley area of Southwest Idaho - a rapidly developing socio-ecological system where urban growth is displacing agricultural production. The semi-conceptual HBV model, a population growth and allocation model (Target), a vegetation state and transition model (SSTM), and a statistically based fire disturbance model (SpatialAllocator) are integrated to simulate hydrology, population and land use. Six alternative scenarios are composed by combining two climate change scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) with three population growth and allocation scenarios (Status Quo, Managed Growth, and Unconstrained Growth). Five-year calibration and validation performances are assessed with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency. Irrigation activities are simulated using local water rights. Results show that in all scenarios, annual mean stream flow decreases as the projected rainfall increases because the projected warmer climate also enhances water losses to evapotranspiration. Seasonal maximum stream flow tends to occur earlier than in current conditions due to the earlier peak of snow melting. The aridity index and water deficit generally increase in the

  11. Safety dose of three commercially used growth promoters: nuricell- aqua, hepaprotect-aqua and rapid-grow on growth and survival of Thai pangas (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ariful Islam


    Full Text Available Objective: To optimize the dose of 3 commonly used growth promoters, viz., Nuricell-Aqua (composition: glucomannan complex and mannose polymer, Hepaprotect-Aqua (composition: β-glucan, mannose polymer and essential oil and Rapid-Grow (composition: organic acid and their salt, β-glucan, mannose oligosaccharide and essential oil, using Thai pangas (Pangasiandon hypophthalmus as cultured species. Methods: Thai pangas fingerlings with an average length and weight of 11 cm and 10 g were reared under laboratory condition and growth promoters were fed after incorporating them with a test diet at a ratio of 10% of their body weight for a period of 28 d. Estimation of data on growth such as weight gain (g, specific growth rate, survivability (% test in each aquarium were conducted and data were analyzed using statistical software. Results: After 28 d of feeding with Nutricell-Aqua, 10 mg/(20 g feed·day, which was the dose recommended by the manufacturer, was found better. When Hepaprotect-Aqua and Rapid-Grow were employed, performance was found to be better with the dose of 60 mg/(20 g feed·day which was 1.5 times higher than the dose recommended by the corresponding manufacturer. Conclusions: These results suggest that chemicals and feed additives marketed in Bangladesh Fish Feed Market need further testing under Bangladesh climatic condition before being marketed.

  12. Latino College Completion: Hawaii (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012


    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  13. Latino College Completion: Pennsylvania (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012


    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  14. Diverging fortunes? Economic well-being of Latinos and African Americans in new rural destinations. (United States)

    Crowley, Martha; Lichter, Daniel T; Turner, Richard N


    The geographic diffusion of Latinos from immigrant gateways to newly-emerging rural destinations is one of the most significant recent trends in U.S. population redistribution. Yet, few studies have explored how Latinos have fared in new destinations, and even fewer have examined economic implications for other minority workers and their families. We use county-level data from the 1990 and 2000 U.S. Census and the 2006-2010 American Community Survey to compare the changing economic circumstances (e.g., employment and unemployment, poverty, income, and homeownership) of Latinos and African Americans in new Latino boomtowns. We also evaluate the comparative economic trajectories of Latinos in new destinations and established gateways. During the 1990s, new rural destinations provided clear economic benefits to Latinos, even surpassing African Americans on some economic indicators. The 2000s, however, ushered in higher rates of Latino poverty; the economic circumstances of Latinos also deteriorated more rapidly in new vis-à-vis traditional destinations. By 2010, individual and family poverty rates in new destinations were significantly higher among Latinos than African Americans, despite higher labor force participation and lower levels of unemployment. Difference-in-difference models demonstrate that in both the 1990s and 2000s, economic trajectories of African Americans in new Latino destinations largely mirrored those observed in places without large Latino influxes. Any economic benefits for Latinos in new rural destinations thus have not come at the expense of African Americans. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Food and Beverage Marketing to Latinos: A Systematic Literature Review. (United States)

    Adeigbe, Rebecca T; Baldwin, Shannon; Gallion, Kip; Grier, Sonya; Ramirez, Amelie G


    Obesity rates among U.S. adults and children have increased over the past two decades and, although signs of stabilization and decline among certain age groups and geographies are being reported, the prevalence of obesity among Latino adults and children remain high. The Latino population is growing in parallel to these obesity rates and marketers realize they cannot ignore this growing, high-spending, media-consuming segment. Studies examining food and beverage marketing strategies tend to discuss minority groups in general but do not account for racial and ethnic differences, reducing our ability to explain existing inequities. This article aimed to identify the food and beverage marketing strategies used to influence food environments for Latinos versus non-Latinos. A systematic literature review and analysis, guided by an established marketing conceptual framework, determined that the food and beverage marketing environment for Latinos is less likely to promote healthy eating and more likely to encourage consumption of low-nutrient, calorie-dense foods and beverages. This analysis also determined that Latinos' food environment and the placement of food retail stores appears to influence their body mass index; however, placement of these stores cannot be generalized, as geographical differences exist. While food and beverage marketing is only one of many sources of influence on food and beverage consumption, these findings reinforce the notion that Latinos are at a disadvantage when it comes to exposure of healthy lifestyle messaging and health-promoting food environments. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  16. Latino Educational Leadership across the Pipeline: For Latino Communities and Latina/o Leaders (United States)

    Rodríguez, Cristóbal; Martinez, Melissa A.; Valle, Fernando


    Educational leaders have challenges providing rich and equitable education for the Latino community, the fastest growing underserved demographic in the United States. Although the field of educational leadership draws connections to serve diverse populations, this work uses existing research and theory to establish the concept of Latino…

  17. Grow, Baby, Grow (United States)

    Maybe you quit smoking during your pregnancy. Or maybe you struggled and weren’t able to stay quit. Now that your baby is here, trying to stay away from smoking is still important. That’s because the chemicals in smoke can make it harder for your baby to grow like he or she should.

  18. Special Education Referrals and Disciplinary Actions for Latino Students in the United States (United States)

    Moreno, Gerardo; Segura-Herrera, Theresa


    Latino students are the largest growing minority group in the U.S. school system. However, there are critical barriers that impeded the development of sustained academic success for this particular population. Latino students have been found to be over-represented in the delivery of disciplinary actions and in the identification of disabilities in…

  19. Psychosocial aspects of type 1 diabetes in Latino- and Asian-American youth (United States)

    Latino and Asian-Americans represent the fastest growing immigrant populations in the U.S. We aimed to review the current knowledge on the psychosocial factors that influence type 1 diabetes (T1D) care, education, and outcomes in Latino and Asian-American youth immigrants in the U.S., as well as cul...

  20. Spanish-Language Learners and Latinos: Two Community-Based Projects (United States)

    López, Sylvia


    The growing U.S. Latino dispersal is allowing for more interactions between students of Spanish and native Spanish speakers. By working with Latino community members, Spanish instructors help meet the standards for foreign language education developed by the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages. This article describes 2 projects.…

  1. Effect of Rapid Maxillary Expansion on Glenoid Fossa and Condyle-Fossa Relationship in Growing Patients (MEGP): Study Protocol for a Controlled Clinical Trial (United States)

    Ghoussoub, Mona Sayegh; Rifai, Khaldoun; Garcia, Robert; Sleilaty, Ghassan


    Aims and Objectives: Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is an orthodontic nonsurgical procedure aiming at increasing the width of the maxilla by opening mainly the intermaxillary suture in patients presenting a transverse maxillary skeletal deficiency. The objectives of the current prospective controlled clinical and radiographic study are to evaluate the hypothesis that RME in growing patients will result in radiographic changes at the level of interglenoid fossa distance, condyle-fossa relationship, and nasal cavity widths compared to the group who received no treatment initially and served as untreated control. Materials and Methods: In this prospective controlled clinical and radiographic study, forty healthy growing patients selected from a school-based population following a large screening campaign, ranging in age between 8 and 13 years, presenting a maxillary constriction with bilateral crossbite, and candidates for RME are being recruited. The first group will include participants willing to undergo treatment (n = 25) and the other group will include those inclined to postpone (n = 15). Results: The primary outcome is to compare radiologically the interglenoid fossa distance and the condyle-fossa relationship; nasal cavity width will be a secondary outcome. A multivariable analysis of Covariance model will be used, with the assessment of the time by group interaction, using age as covariate. The project protocol was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of the Lebanese University, National Institute in Lebanon (CUEMB process number 31/04/2015). The study is funded by the Lebanese University and Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, Lebanon (Number: 652 on 14/04/2016). Conclusion: This prospective controlled clinical trial will give information about the effect of RME on the glenoid fossa and condyle-fossa relationship and its impact on the nasal cavity width. Trial Registration: Retrospectively registered in BioMed Central (DOI10.1186/ISRCTN

  2. Understanding decisions Latino students make regarding persistence in the science and math pipeline (United States)

    Munro, Janet Lynn

    This qualitative study focused on the knowledge and perceptions of Latino high school students, as well those of their parents and school personnel, at a southwestern, suburban high school regarding persistence in the math/science pipeline. In the context of the unique school and community setting these students experience, the decision-making process was examined with particular focus on characterizing the relationships that influence the process. While the theoretical framework that informs this study was that of social capital, its primary purpose was to inform the school's processes and policy in support of increased Latino participation in the math and science pipeline. Since course selection may be the most powerful factor affecting school achievement and college-preparedness, and since course selection is influenced by school policy, school personnel, students, parents, and teachers alike, it is important to understand the beliefs and perceptions that characterize the relationships among them. The qualitative research design involved a phenomenological study of nine Latino students, their parents, their teachers and counselors, and certain support personnel from the high school. The school's and community's environment in support of academic intensity served as context for the portrait that developed. Given rapidly changing demographics that bring more and more Latino students to suburban high schools, the persistent achievement gap experienced by Latino students, and the growing dependence of the world economy on a citizenry versed in the math- and science-related fields, a deeper understanding of the decision-making processes Latino 12 students experience can inform school policy as educators struggle to influence those decisions. This study revealed a striking lack of knowledge concerning the college-entrance ramifications of continued course work in math and science beyond that required for graduation, relationships among peers, parents, and school

  3. National Latino AIDS Awareness Day

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast highlights National Latino AIDS Awareness Day, to increase awareness of the disproportionate impact of HIV on the Hispanic or Latino population in the United States and dependent territories. The podcast reminds Hispanics or Latinos that they have the power to take control of their health and protect themselves against HIV.

  4. Do teachers and students get the Ed-Tech products they need: The challenges of Ed-Tech procurement in a rapidly growing market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Morrison


    Full Text Available Ed-tech courseware products to support teaching and learning are being developed and made available for acquisition by school districts at a rapid rate. In this growing market, developers and providers face challenges with making their products visible to customers, while school district stakeholders must grapple with “discovering” which products of the many available best address their instructional needs. The present study presents the experiences with and perceptions about the procurement process from 47 superintendents representing diverse school districts in the U. S. Results indicate that, while improvements are desired in many aspects of the procurement process, the superintendents, overall, believe that, once desired products are identified, they are generally able to acquire them. Difficulties lie in tighter budgets, discovering products that are potentially the best choices, and evaluating the effectiveness of the products selected as options. These findings are presented and interpreted in relation to five major “Action Points” in the procurement process, and also with regard to implications for evaluating how educational technology impacts K-12 instruction.

  5. In Vitro Comparison of Ertapenem, Meropenem, and Imipenem against Isolates of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria and Nocardia by Use of Broth Microdilution and Etest. (United States)

    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Killingley, Jessica; Vasireddy, Sruthi; Bridge, Linda; Wallace, Richard J


    We compared the activities of the carbapenems ertapenem, meropenem, and imipenem against 180 isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) and 170 isolates of Nocardia using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. A subset of isolates was tested using the Etest. The rate of susceptibility to ertapenem and meropenem was limited and less than that to imipenem for the RGM. Analysis of major and minor discrepancies revealed that >90% of the isolates of Nocardia had higher MICs by the broth microdilution method than by Etest, in contrast to the lower broth microdilution MICs seen for >80% of the RGM. Imipenem remains the most active carbapenem against RGM, including Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus For Nocardia, imipenem was significantly more active only against Nocardia farcinica Although there may be utility in testing the activities of the newer carbapenems against Nocardia, their activities against the RGM should not be routinely tested. Testing by Etest is not recommended by the CLSI. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Proceedings of the Canadian Institute's 4. annual oil sands supply and infrastructure conference : maximizing opportunity and mitigating risks in a rapidly growing market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This conference addressed the challenges facing oil sands development, with particular reference to supply and infrastructure issues. Updates on oil sands markets and opportunities were presented along with strategies for mitigating risks in a rapidly growing market. The best practices for supplying a demanding market through supply shortages and high prices were identified along with policies that should be implemented to help overcome labour shortages. Some presentations expressed how commodities pricing and trends can impact business. Others showed how markets in China and the United States are prepared for oilsands products. The views of other international companies on oil sands was also discussed along with proposed plans to eliminate the infrastructure congestion and risks caused by expanding oil sands development. The challenges and benefits of investing in Alberta's oil sands were reviewed along with strategies to enhance upgrading and refining capacity in the province. Economic drivers and the creation of new markets were examined, and various export opportunities were reviewed along with industry management challenges concerning human resources, labour supply, training and education. The conference featured 10 presentations, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  7. Caring for Latino patients. (United States)

    Juckett, Gregory


    Latinos comprise nearly 16 percent of the U.S. population, and this proportion is anticipated to increase to 30 percent by 2050. Latinos are a diverse ethnic group that includes many different cultures, races, and nationalities. Barriers to care have resulted in striking disparities in quality of health care for these patients. These barriers include language, lack of insurance, different cultural beliefs, and in some cases, illegal immigration status, mistrust, and illiteracy. The National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services address these concerns with recommendations for culturally competent care, language services, and organizational support. Latinos have disproportionately higher rates of obesity and diabetes mellitus. Other health problems include stress, neurocysticercosis, and tuberculosis. It is important to explore the use of alternative therapies and belief in traditional folk illnesses, recognizing that health beliefs are dependent on education, socioeconomic status, and degree of acculturation. Many-but not all-folk and herbal treatments can be safely accommodated with conventional therapy. Physicians must be sensitive to Latino cultural values of simpatia (kindness), personalismo (relationship), respeto (respect), and modestia (modesty). The LEARN technique can facilitate cross-cultural interviews. Some cultural barriers may be overcome by using the "teach back" technique to ensure that directions are correctly understood and by creating a welcoming health care environment for Latino patients.

  8. The Impact of Acculturation and Racialization on Self-Rated Health Status Among U.S. Latinos. (United States)

    Vasquez Guzman, Cirila Estela; Sanchez, Gabriel R


    We investigate the Hispanic paradox by examining the relationship between acculturation and health status of Latinos to understand nuances among this growing heterogeneous population using a 2011 Latino Decisions survey. We find that acculturation remains an important determinant of Latino health; however, this varies based on whether the sample is restricted to immigrants or includes all Latino adults and on the measures of acculturation employed. We find Latino citizens reported better health than non-citizens; however, other acculturation measures, such as language use and time in the U.S. do not have a marked effect. Furthermore, skin color matters only for U.S.-born Latinos. Racialization is therefore important to consider within the context of the Hispanic paradox. Our findings suggest that some of the disadvantages stemming from minority status in the U.S. are more prominent among Latinos who have greater experience with the racial hierarchy of the U.S. and greater acculturation more broadly.

  9. Diversity, community composition, and dynamics of nonpigmented and late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria in an urban tap water production and distribution system. (United States)

    Dubrou, S; Konjek, J; Macheras, E; Welté, B; Guidicelli, L; Chignon, E; Joyeux, M; Gaillard, J L; Heym, B; Tully, T; Sapriel, G


    Nonpigmented and late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) have been reported to commonly colonize water production and distribution systems. However, there is little information about the nature and distribution of RGM species within the different parts of such complex networks or about their clustering into specific RGM species communities. We conducted a large-scale survey between 2007 and 2009 in the Parisian urban tap water production and distribution system. We analyzed 1,418 water samples from 36 sites, covering all production units, water storage tanks, and distribution units; RGM isolates were identified by using rpoB gene sequencing. We detected 18 RGM species and putative new species, with most isolates being Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium llatzerense. Using hierarchical clustering and principal-component analysis, we found that RGM were organized into various communities correlating with water origin (groundwater or surface water) and location within the distribution network. Water treatment plants were more specifically associated with species of the Mycobacterium septicum group. On average, M. chelonae dominated network sites fed by surface water, and M. llatzerense dominated those fed by groundwater. Overall, the M. chelonae prevalence index increased along the distribution network and was associated with a correlative decrease in the prevalence index of M. llatzerense, suggesting competitive or niche exclusion between these two dominant species. Our data describe the great diversity and complexity of RGM species living in the interconnected environments that constitute the water production and distribution system of a large city and highlight the prevalence index of the potentially pathogenic species M. chelonae in the distribution network.

  10. Residential energy consumption across different population groups: Comparative analysis for Latino and non-Latino households in U.S.A.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyer, D.A.; Teotia, A.P.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Henderson, L. [Univ. of Baltimore, MD (United States)


    Residential energy cost, an important part of the household budget, varies significantly across different population groups. In the United States, researchers have conducted many studies of household fuel consumption by fuel type -- electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) -- and by geographic areas. The results of past research have also demonstrated significant variation in residential energy use across various population groups, including white, black, and Latino. However, research shows that residential energy demand by fuel type for Latinos, the fastest-growing population group in the United States, has not been explained by economic and noneconomic factors in any available statistical model. This paper presents a discussion of energy demand and expenditure patterns for Latino and non-Latino households in the United States. The statistical model developed to explain fuel consumption and expenditures for Latino households is based on Stone and Geary`s linear expenditure system model. For comparison, the authors also developed models for energy consumption in non-Latino, black, and nonblack households. These models estimate consumption of and expenditures for electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and LPG by various households at the national level. The study revealed significant variations in the patterns of fuel consumption for Latinos and non-Latinos. The model methodology and results of this research should be useful to energy policymakers in government and industry, researchers, and academicians who are concerned with economic and energy issues related to various population groups.

  11. Social Work Practice with Latinos: Key Issues for Social Workers (United States)

    Furman, Rich; Negi, Nalini Junko; Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Rowan, Diana; Shukraft, Allison; Gragg, Jennifer


    The Latino population is the fastest growing group in the United States; thus, it is imperative that social workers and other mental health practitioners be knowledgeable about the current literature on how to effectively serve this population. This article elucidates key issues and knowledge, such as immigration and migration concerns; discusses…

  12. The Effects of a Couples-Based Health Behavior Intervention During Pregnancy on Latino Couples' Dyadic Satisfaction Postpartum. (United States)

    Coop Gordon, Kristina; Roberson, Patricia N E; Hughes, Jessica A; Khaddouma, Alexander M; Swamy, Geeta K; Noonan, Devon; Gonzalez, Alicia M; Fish, Laura; Pollak, Kathryn I


    Many couples tend to report steadily decreasing relationship quality following the birth of a child. However, little is known about the postpartum period for Latino couples, a rapidly growing ethnic group who are notably underserved by mental and physical health caregivers in the United States. Thus, this study investigated whether a brief couples' intervention focused on helping couples support each other while increasing healthy behaviors might improve dyadic functioning postpartum. This study presents secondary analyses of data regarding couple functioning from a larger randomized controlled trial with 348 Latino couples to promote smoking cessation. Portions of the intervention taught the couple communication and problem-solving skills to increase healthy behavior. Couples participated in four face-to-face assessments across 1 year starting at the end of the first trimester. Latent growth curve analyses revealed that the treatment group reported an increase in relationship satisfaction and constructive communication after the intervention, which diminished by 1-year follow-up, returning couples to their baseline levels of satisfaction. Results suggest that incorporating a brief couple intervention as part of a larger health intervention for Latinos may prevent postpartum decreases in relationship satisfaction. © 2018 Family Process Institute.

  13. Academic Aspirations as a Moderator of the Link between Negative Life Events and Delinquency in a Sample of Latino Youth (United States)

    DiPierro, Moneika; Fite, Paula J.; Cooley, John L.; Poquiz, John L.


    Background: Latino youth are one of the fastest growing populations in the United States and are at a disproportionately higher risk for experiencing negative life events (NLEs). However, there are few studies examining risk and protective factors for the potentially negative outcomes that Latino youth who experience high levels of NLEs may face.…

  14. Manufacturing Marginality among Women and Latinos in Neoliberal America. (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S


    Intersectionality is the study of how categorical distinctions made on the basis of race, class, and gender interact to generate inequality, and this concept has become a primary lens by which scholars have come to model social stratification in the United States. In addition to the historically powerful interaction between race and class, gender interactions have become increasingly powerful in exacerbating class inequalities while the growing exclusion of foreigners on the basis of legal status has progressively marginalized Latinos in U.S. society. As a result, poor whites and immigrant-origin Latinos have increasingly joined African Americans at the bottom of American society to form a new, expanded underclass.

  15. Son los latinos estadounidenses?


    Aguirre, Mariano


    En el año 2050 la población blanca no latina de Estados Unidos sumará el 46% del total de los ciudadanos de ese país. Para entonces, la población latina, negra y asiática combinada representará el 54%. En ese horizonte que predicen los cálculos oficiales, los latinos habrán crecido en un 15%, pasando de los 47 millones que viven ahora EEUU a 133 millones. Mientras que los latinos y los asiáticos (de 16 millones a 41 millones para entonces) no pararán de crecer, las poblaciones blanca y negra ...

  16. The Role of Acculturation in the Civic Engagement of Latino Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Michele Tucker


    Full Text Available Despite continued growth and dispersion of the Latino immigrant population in the United States, the lingering effects of a sluggish national economy and growing anti-immigrant sentiments have contributed to ongoing marginalization and exclusion, further hindering their participation in American civic life. Despite these challenges, Latino immigrants have remained engaged, yet the factors and processes that facilitate participation in American society remain poorly understood. Data from the Latino National Survey and focus groups with Latino immigrants were used to examine how variations in levels of acculturation, demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status (SES, and characteristics of the immigrant experience influence the civic engagement of Latino immigrants in American society. We found that citizenship, length of residence in the United States, and higher SES enhanced civic engagement, while brown skin color, migration for economic reasons, and Mexican ancestry decreased participation. The level of acculturation significantly moderated the effects of these contextual factors.

  17. "Sobresalir": Latino Parent Perspectives on New Latino Diaspora Schools (United States)

    Gallo, Sarah; Wortham, Stanton


    Although many have documented the high value Latino families place on education, prevalent discourses nonetheless characterize Latino immigrant parents as not caring about their children's education. This paper describes the practice-based components of a participatory action research project in which we created a collaborative film, intended for…

  18. Culture or No Culture? A Latino Critical Research Analysis of Latino Persistence Research (United States)

    Gonzalez, Roger Geertz; Morrison, Jeaná


    The recent literature on Latino persistence does not take into account these students' distinct cultural backgrounds. Most researchers of Latino persistence use the self-designation "Latino" as a proxy variable representing Latino culture. A Latino Critical Theory (LatCrit) lens is applied to the persistence literature to demonstrate the…

  19. Latino College Completion: New York (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012


    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  20. Latino College Completion: United States (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012


    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  1. Latino College Completion: South Dakota (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012


    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  2. Latino College Completion: North Dakota (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012


    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  3. Latino College Completion: New Mexico (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012


    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  4. Latino Immigration, Education, and Opportunity (United States)

    Jimenez, Rosa M.


    Immigration is often framed as a problem, yet it is also a time of remarkable opportunity. While immigrants come to the United States from all over the world, the author focuses on the unique and urgent issues related to Latino immigration. Immigrant Latinos have changed the face of America and U.S. schools. Approximately one in five K-12 students…

  5. Obesity reduces bone density through activation of PPAR gamma and suppression of Wnt/Beta-Catenin in rapidly growing male rats (United States)

    The relationship between obesity and skeletal development remains largely ambiguous. In this report, total enteral nutrition (TEN) was used to feed growing male rats intragastrically, with a high 45% fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity. We found that fat mass was increased (P<0.05) compared to rats fed...

  6. Gender and Power: Reconstructing Latino Ethnography. (United States)

    Zavella, Patricia; Takash, Paule Cruz


    Introduces selected papers delivered at the 91st Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association. Papers explore gender as experienced by Latinas and Latinos, examine gendered relationships between Latino men and women, and discern how Latino gender norms in Latin America are perpetrated and negotiated by Latinos within the U.S.…

  7. In Their Own Voices: Latino Student Retention (United States)

    Longerbeam, Susan D.; Sedlacek, William E.; Alatorre, Helen M.


    In a study of 2,991 college students, researchers found significant differences between Latino and non-Latino students using MANOVA and chi-square statistics. Latino students were more likely to embrace diversity than non-Latino students, and were more likely to be concerned about financing their college educations. In addition, they were more…

  8. Sociocultural variability in the Latino population: Age patterns and differences in morbidity among older US adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Garcia


    Full Text Available Background: The US Latino population is rapidly aging and becoming increasingly diverse with respect to nativity and national origin. Increased longevity along with medical advancements in treatment have resulted in a higher number of older Latinos living with morbidity. Therefore, there is a need to understand variability in Latino health among older adults. Objective: This paper documents mid- and late-life health differences in morbidity by race/ethnicity, nativity, and country of origin among adults aged 50 and older. Methods: We use data from the 2000-2015 National Health Interview Survey to calculate age- and gender-specific proportions based on reports of five morbidity measures: hypertension, heart disease, stroke, cancer, and diabetes among non-Latino Whites and seven Latino subgroups. Results: The foreign-born from Mexico, Cuba, and Central/South America, regardless of gender, exhibit an immigrant advantage for heart disease and cancer in comparison to non-Latino Whites across all age categories. Conversely, island-born Puerto Ricans are generally characterized with higher levels of morbidity. Similarly, US-born Puerto Ricans and Mexicans exhibit morbidity patterns indicative of their minority status. Latinos, regardless of gender, were more likely to report diabetes than non-Latino Whites. Hypertension and stroke have significant variability in age patterns among US- and foreign-born Latinos. Conclusions: Recognizing the importance of within-Latino heterogeneity in health is imperative if researchers are to implement social services and health policies aimed at ameliorating the risk of disease. Contribution: Considering intersectional ethnic, nativity, and country-of-origin characteristics among older Latinos is important to better understand the underlying causes of racial/ethnic disparities in morbidity across the life course.

  9. Getting Data Right — and Righteous to Improve Hispanic or Latino Health


    Rodríguez-Lainz, Alfonso; McDonald, Mariana; Penman-Aguilar, Ana; Barrett, Drue H.


    Hispanics or Latinos constitute the largest racial/ethnic minority in the United States. They are also a very diverse population. Latino/Hispanic’s health varies significantly for subgroups defined by national origin, race, primary language, and migration-related factors (place of birth, immigration status, years of residence in the United States). Most Hispanics speak Spanish at home, and one-third have limited English proficiency (LEP). There is growing awareness on the importance for popul...

  10. Perinatal grief in Latino parents. (United States)

    Whitaker, Claudia; Kavanaugh, Karen; Klima, Carrie


    Extensive research exists that describes the meaning of perinatal loss to some parents, but the experience of loss from the perspective of Latino parents is not clearly understood. Additionally, current perinatal bereavement practices used often to facilitate memory making for parents (such as viewing or holding the baby, taking photographs, or collecting mementos) are based on research done primarily with non-Latino families. Are these common practices appropriate for this population? Because there is a paucity of research on this topic, this article describes what has been written over the past 30 years on the topic of grief and perinatal loss in Latino culture.

  11. National Latino AIDS Awareness Day

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast highlights National Latino AIDS Awareness Day, to increase awareness of the disproportionate impact of HIV on the Hispanic or Latino population in the United States and dependent territories. The podcast reminds Hispanics or Latinos that they have the power to take control of their health and protect themselves against HIV.  Created: 10/8/2014 by Office of Health Equity, Office of the Director, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention.   Date Released: 10/14/2014.

  12. Selected cultural factors associated with physical activity among Latino women. (United States)

    Jurkowski, Janine M; Mosquera, Margarita; Ramos, Blanca


    In the United States, Latinos are the largest ethnic group after non-Hispanic whites. Latinos currently represent 15% of the U.S. population and their numbers are growing in nontraditional areas. Latino women (Latinas) disproportionately experience chronic disease risk factors and report low levels of leisure time physical activity. This study examined cultural factors associated with leisure time physical activity among Latinas living in a new Latino destination in northeastern New York. Community-based participatory research, a collaborative approach in which community members are equitably and actively involved in the research process, was employed for this study. The Latina Health Survey was administered in Spanish and English to 289 Latina adults through snowball sampling. Women reported that their national origin was predominantly Puerto Rican (58.7%) or Dominican (18.2%). Only 6.6% of women met American College of Sports Medicine's physical activity recommendations of exercising 5 days a week; 25% participated in physical activity two or more times per week. Acculturation and religious service attendance at least once a week was positively associated and fast food consumption one or more times a week was negatively associated with physical activity. This study implicates the need for physical activity promotion efforts among Latinas who are culturally responsive and that address fast food consumption. In addition to acculturation, other, more specific cultural factors need to be examined to understand physical activity correlates among Latinas. Research among Latinas living in new Latino destinations is important for understanding behavior and tailoring health interventions among Latinos living in nontraditional areas. Copyright 2010 Jacobs Institute of Women

  13. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with unilateral crossbite on a growing patient using facemask-bonded rapid palatal expander and fixed appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinnie Effendy


    Full Text Available Facemask (FM and bonded rapid palatal expander (RPE are part of growth modification treatments for correcting skeletal Class III pattern with retrognathic maxilla. This orthopaedic treatment is usually preceded by fixed appliances to achieve aesthetic dental alignment and improve interdigitation. This case report reviews treatment of Class III malocclusion with unilateral crossbite in a 12-year-old boy using FM and bonded RPE, followed by fixed appliances. Choice of FM and bonded RPE was in line with indication which was mild Class III malocclusion with retrognathic maxilla. Execution of treatment was made considering treatment biomechanics and patient cooperation. This orthopaedic treatment was followed by orthodontic treatment specifically aimed to correct unilateral crossbite, canine relationship yet to reach Class I, lower midline shift, as well as unintended dental consequences of using bonded RPE, namely posterior open bite and deepening curve of spee. Posttreatment facial profile and smile are more esthetic. Occlusion is significantly improved both functionally and aesthetically.

  14. Rapid development in vitro and in vivo of resistance to ceftazidime in biofilm-growing Pseudomonas aeruginosa due to chromosomal beta-lactamase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, N; Ciofu, O; Skovgaard, L T


    The aim of this study was to examine the development of resistance of biofilm-growing P. aeruginosa during treatment with ceftazidime. Biofilms were established in vitro using a modified Robbins device (MRD) and in vivo in the rat model of chronic lung infection. Three P. aeruginosa strains...... of ceftazidime to biofilms established in MDR, a statistically significant development of resistance to ceftazidime in PAO 579 or 19676A bacterial populations occurred. When ceftazidime was administered 4 h/day (200 mg/l) for 2 weeks, the frequency of resistant 19676A having MIC>25 mg/l was 4.4 10(-1) compared...... to 6.0-10(-5) in the control biofilm. The same trend was observed after continuous administration of ceftazidime. MICceftazidime of the more resistant variants was increased 500-fold for PAO 579 and 8-fold for 19676A, and the specific basal beta-lactamase activities from 19 to 1,400 units for PAO 579...

  15. Development of an in vitro Assay, based on the BioFilm Ring Test®, for Rapid Profiling of Biofilm-Growing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enea Gino Di Domenico


    Full Text Available Microbial biofilm represents a major virulence factor associated with chronic and recurrent infections. Pathogenic bacteria embedded in biofilms are highly resistant to environmental and chemical agents, including antibiotics and therefore difficult to eradicate. Thus, reliable tests to assess biofilm formation by bacterial strains as well as the impact of chemicals or antibiotics on biofilm formation represent desirable tools for a most effective therapeutic management and microbiological risk control. Current methods to evaluate biofilm formation are usually time-consuming, costly, and hardly applicable in the clinical setting.The aim of the present study was to develop and assess a simple and reliable in vitro procedure for the characterization of biofilm-producing bacterial strains for future clinical applications based on the BioFilm Ring Test® (BRT technology. The procedure developed for clinical testing (cBRT can provide an accurate and timely (5 hours measurement of biofilm formation for the most common pathogenic bacteria seen in clinical practice. The results gathered by the cBRT assay were in agreement with the traditional crystal violet (CV staining test, according to the kappa coefficient test (kappa = 0.623. However, the cBRT assay showed higher levels of specificity (92.2% and accuracy (88.1% as compared to CV. The results indicate that this procedure offers an easy, rapid and robust assay to test microbial biofilm and a promising tool for clinical microbiology.

  16. Continuity and Variability in the Parental Involvement and Advocacy Beliefs of Latino Families of Young Children: Finding the Potential for a Collective Voice (United States)

    Durand, Tina M.; Perez, Nicole A.


    Parental involvement is an important component of children's school success. Although the literature on parental involvement among Latino families is growing and moving from deficit-based perspectives, very few studies have examined the parental involvement beliefs and practices of Latino families who vary across demographic and sociocultural…

  17. Correlates of adiposity among Latino preschool children (United States)

    Childhood obesity is at record high levels in the US and disproportionately affects Latino children; however, studies examining Latino preschool children's obesity-related risk factors are sparse. This study determined correlates of Latino preschoolers' (ages 3-5 years) adiposity to inform future ob...

  18. Trends and Knowledge Gaps in the Study of Nature-Based Participation by Latinos in the United States. (United States)

    Tandon, Pooja S; Kuehne, Lauren M; Olden, Julian D


    Mounting evidence supports health and well-being benefits associated with nature experiences, while also highlighting race- and class-based inequalities in access and exposure. We synthesized the literature on nature contact by Latinos in the United States to assess the state of knowledge and strategically identify research needs to improve outcomes and reduce health disparities for this rapidly growing ethnic group. Our systematic review revealed 108 articles with a notable increase in number of papers over the past 3 decades. We noted that the body of research is focused on certain demographic targets (adults in urban areas) with a relative dearth of knowledge for others (children, seniors, and rural areas). Our analysis also revealed strong compartmentalizing of studies into research “clusters” based on nonoverlapping topics and types of outcomes that are measured. Although one-third of studies explored health outcomes, these studies rarely examined other outcomes or research topics. Moreover, less than 7% of studies reported on interventions. Given the potential for nature contact to enhance health and well-being, there is substantial need for multidisciplinary research that explores interactions between social, cultural, and economic factors, and how those ultimately relate to nature contact and outcomes for Latinos in the United States.

  19. Trends and Knowledge Gaps in the Study of Nature-Based Participation by Latinos in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja S. Tandon


    Full Text Available Mounting evidence supports health and well-being benefits associated with nature experiences, while also highlighting race- and class-based inequalities in access and exposure. We synthesized the literature on nature contact by Latinos in the United States to assess the state of knowledge and strategically identify research needs to improve outcomes and reduce health disparities for this rapidly growing ethnic group. Our systematic review revealed 108 articles with a notable increase in number of papers over the past 3 decades. We noted that the body of research is focused on certain demographic targets (adults in urban areas with a relative dearth of knowledge for others (children, seniors, and rural areas. Our analysis also revealed strong compartmentalizing of studies into research “clusters” based on nonoverlapping topics and types of outcomes that are measured. Although one-third of studies explored health outcomes, these studies rarely examined other outcomes or research topics. Moreover, less than 7% of studies reported on interventions. Given the potential for nature contact to enhance health and well-being, there is substantial need for multidisciplinary research that explores interactions between social, cultural, and economic factors, and how those ultimately relate to nature contact and outcomes for Latinos in the United States.

  20. Growing Pains

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony


    Heat expands and cold contracts: it’s a simple thermodynamic rule. But when temperatures swing from 300 K to near-absolute zero, this rule can mean a contraction of more than 80 metres across the LHC’s 27-km-long cryogenic system. Keeping this growth in check are compensators (a.k.a. bellows), which shrink and stretch in response to thermodynamic changes. Leak tests and X-rays now underway in the tunnel have revealed that these “joints” might be suffering from growing pains…   This 25-μm weld crack is thought to be the cause of the helium leaks. Prior to the LS1 warm-up, CERN’s cryogenic experts knew of two points in the machine’s cryogenic distribution system that were leaking helium. Fortunately, these leaks were sufficiently small, confined to known sub-sectors of the cryogenic line and – with help from the vacuum team (TE-VSC) – could easily be compensated for. But as the machine warmed up f...

  1. A Daily Diary Approach to Understanding Cyberbullying Experiences Among Latino Adolescents: Links with Emotional, Physical and School Adjustment


    Espinoza, Guadalupe


    With the growing use of electronic communication devices among adolescents, bullying encounters are no longer limited to the school grounds and cyberbullying is becoming increasingly more common. The current study examines how daily cyberbullying experiences among Latino adolescents are associated with their emotional and physical well-being as well as their school adjustment. High school students (N = 136) from predominately Latino backgrounds (88%) completed a baseline questionnaire and dai...

  2. Gas industry construction expenditures to grow rapidly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quarles, W.R.


    Between 1991 and 1993, the natural gas industry will invest $28.297 billion to install additional facilities for natural gas production and storage, transmission, underground storage, gas distribution and for other general expenditures, estimates the American Gas Association as shown in the 1990 Gas Facts. This is a 38% investment increase from the forecasts in the 1989 Gas Facts. This issue forecasts investments of $13.303 billion for 1991 and $18.396 billion for 1992. This issue does not include investments for 1993. In 1989, (the last figures released) the gas industry invested $7,341 billion for new transmission lines, distribution mains, underground storage, production and storage and general facilities. Included in the 1989 expenditures are: $3.980 billion in distribution facilities; $2.081 billion in gas transmission systems and $159 million in underground storage facilities. Investment in new distribution facilities in 1991 and $4.550 billion in 1993. This is a steady increase for these three years. Investments in natural gas transmission facilities show a steady increase also. In 1991, pipe line operating companies will invest $9.391 billion for new facilities, $9.005 in 1992 and $9.901 billion in 1993

  3. Social networks and treatment adherence among Latino offenders with mental illness. (United States)

    Eno Louden, Jennifer; Manchak, Sarah M


    Mental health treatment adherence is often required for offenders with mental illness supervised on probation and parole. However, research on offenders with mental illness has largely overlooked cultural and ethnic responsivity factors that may affect adherence to treatment. Latinos are a quickly growing subgroup of offenders whose social networks differ in meaningful ways from European Americans' (e.g., size, composition, centrality of family). Social networks are known to relate to both clinical and criminal justice outcomes for offenders with mental illness, and there are features of nonoffender Latinos' social networks that suggest that findings distilled from work with non-Latino offenders may not apply to them. The present study examined the social networks of 86 Latino probationers with serious mental illness to (a) describe the size and composition of these networks and (b) to determine which factors of social networks are related to treatment adherence. The authors found that Latino offenders' social networks are small (∼6 individuals), consisting primarily of family and professionals such as treatment providers and probation officers. Supportive relationships with nonprofessionals and treatment providers was related to lower likelihood of missing treatment appointments, whereas social control and pressure from family and friends to attend treatment was not related to treatment adherence. Findings are discussed within the context of improved practices for community corrections and mental health agencies in working with Latino offenders with mental illness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Genotype Imputation for Latinos Using the HapMap and 1000 Genomes Project Reference Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi eGao


    Full Text Available Genotype imputation is a vital tool in genome-wide association studies (GWAS and meta-analyses of multiple GWAS results. Imputation enables researchers to increase genomic coverage and to pool data generated using different genotyping platforms. HapMap samples are often employed as the reference panel. More recently, the 1000 Genomes Project resource is becoming the primary source for reference panels. Multiple GWAS and meta-analyses are targeting Latinos, the most populous and fastest growing minority group in the US. However, genotype imputation resources for Latinos are rather limited compared to individuals of European ancestry at present, largely because of the lack of good reference data. One choice of reference panel for Latinos is one derived from the population of Mexican individuals in Los Angeles contained in the HapMap Phase 3 project and the 1000 Genomes Project. However, a detailed evaluation of the quality of the imputed genotypes derived from the public reference panels has not yet been reported. Using simulation studies, the Illumina OmniExpress GWAS data from the Los Angles Latino Eye Study and the MACH software package, we evaluated the accuracy of genotype imputation in Latinos. Our results show that the 1000 Genomes Project AMR+CEU+YRI reference panel provides the highest imputation accuracy for Latinos, and that also including Asian samples in the panel can reduce imputation accuracy. We also provide the imputation accuracy for each autosomal chromosome using the 1000 Genomes Project panel for Latinos. Our results serve as a guide to future imputation-based analysis in Latinos.

  5. Three-Dimensional Evaluation of the Upper Airway Morphological Changes in Growing Patients with Skeletal Class III Malocclusion Treated by Protraction Headgear and Rapid Palatal Expansion: A Comparative Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueling Chen

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes of upper airway after protraction headgear and rapid maxillary expansion (PE treatment in growing patients with Class III malocclusion and maxillary skeletal deficiency compared with untreated Class III patients by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT.Thirty growing patients who have completed PE therapy were included in PE group. The control group (n = 30 was selected from the growing untreated patients with the same diagnosis. The CBCT scans of the pre-treatment (T1 and post-treatment (T2 of PE group and the control group were collected. Reconstruction and registration of the 3D models of T1 and T2 were completed. By comparing the data obtained from T1, T2 and control group, the morphological changes of the upper airway during the PE treatment were evaluated.Comparing with the data from T1 group, the subspinale (A of maxilla and the upper incisor (UI of the T2 group were moved in the anterior direction. The gnathion (Gn of mandible was moved in the posterior-inferior direction. The displacement of the hyoid bone as well as the length and width of dental arch showed significant difference. The volume and mean cross-sectional area of nasopharynx, velopharynx and glossopharynx region showed significant difference. The largest anteroposterior/the largest lateral (AP/LR ratios of the velopharynx and glossopharynx were increased, but the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx was decreased. In addition, the length and width of the maxillary dental arch, the displacement of the hyoid bone, the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx, and the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx and velopharynx showed significant difference between the data from control and T2 group.The PE treatment of Class III malocclusion with maxillary skeletal hypoplasia leads to a significant increase in the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx.

  6. Latino Literature Mediating Teacher Learning (United States)

    Martinez-Roldan, Carmen M.; Heineke, Amy J.


    This interpretive study draws on data from a larger inquiry into teacher learning in a graduate-level course on Latino literature at a large southwestern university. The article focuses on a small diverse group of educators taking part in a literature discussion of the novel "Before We Were Free" by J. Alvarez (2002). Using a…

  7. Latinos' Perceptions of Interethnic Couples (United States)

    Garcia, Amber L.; Riggio, Heidi R.; Palavinelu, Subha; Culpepper, Lane Locher


    Numerous survey findings indicate that the majority of White Americans are accepting of interracial romantic relationships. However, relatively few studies have looked at how different American ethnic minority groups view such relationships. The current research examined Latinos' evaluations of intraethnic and interethnic couples. Latino…

  8. Preimmigration Family Cohesion and Drug/Alcohol Abuse among Recent Latino Immigrants (United States)

    Dillon, Frank R.; De La Rosa, Mario; Sanchez, Mariana; Schwartz, Seth J.


    Given the growing population of Latino immigrants in the United States, it is critical for counselors to understand pre- and postimmigration social contextual factors affecting the mental health of this heterogeneous ethnic population. The objective of our cross-sectional, retrospective study was to investigate the potential protective influence…

  9. The Western States: Profound Diversity but Severe Segregation for Latino Students (United States)

    Kucsera, John; Flaxman, Greg


    The U.S. Western region and its public schools are in the midst of its largest racial and economic transformation, as the area witnesses a shrinking white majority, a surging Latino minority, and a growing class of poor. These groups, along with blacks and Asian, more often than not attend very different and segregated schools both in educational…

  10. An Examination of Dropout Rates for Hispanic or Latino Students Enrolled in Online K-12 Schools (United States)

    Corry, Michael; Dardick, William; Stella, Julie


    As the number of online K-12 educational offerings continues to grow it is important to better understand key indicators of success for students enrolled in these classes. One of those indicators is student dropout rates. This is particularly important for Hispanic or Latino students who traditionally have high dropout rates. The purpose of this…

  11. Developing the BIO Questionnaire: A Bilingual Parent Report Tool for Prekindergarten English Learners of Latino Heritage (United States)

    Hardin, Belinda J.; Scott-Little, Catherine; Mereoiu, Mariana


    With the increasing number of preschool-age children of Latino heritage entering U.S. schools comes a growing need to accurately determine children's individual needs and identify potential disabilities, beginning with the screening process. Unfortunately, teachers face many challenges when screening English language learners. Often, parents have…

  12. The Social Environment and Childbearing Expectations: Implications for Strength-Based Sexual Health Interventions for Latino Youth. (United States)

    vanDommelen-Gonzalez, Evan; Deardorff, Julianna; Herd, Denise; Minnis, Alexandra M


    In the United States, adolescent childbearing is disproportionately higher among Latino youth, a growing population facing substantial social exclusion. Exploring the relationship between the social environment and sexual health outcomes among Latino youth may offer insights into the development of novel interventions. In this study, Latino youth in partnerships were recruited from neighborhood venues in San Francisco and completed in-depth interviews. Youth reported a desire to complete higher education goals prior to starting a family to improve future opportunities and further personal development. Youth stated that social network members, family and partners, were supportive of their individual childbearing expectations. Social environment barriers tied to poverty, immigration status, and gang violence hindered educational attainment. Some differences were noted by gender and immigrant generation. Building on protective social ties and creating avenues in poor, urban neighborhoods for Latino youth to fully access educational opportunities may counter early childbearing and improve sexual health.

  13. Cultural identity and mental health: differing trajectories among Asian and Latino youth. (United States)

    Rogers-Sirin, Lauren; Gupta, Taveeshi


    Asians and Latinos are the 2 fastest growing immigrant populations in the United States. In this 3-year longitudinal study, we explored trajectories of mental health symptoms (withdrawn/depressed and somatic symptoms) among 163 first- and second-generation Asian (n = 76) and Latino (n = 97) adolescents. The focus of the study was to examine how ethnic identity and U.S. identity, as 2 separate processes of identity development, affect mental health symptoms, and whether these relationships are moderated by ethnic group, Asian or Latino. Participants were recruited when they entered 10th grade, and 2 additional waves of data were gathered at 12-month intervals. Results revealed that somatic and depressed symptoms decreased over time for both groups. Similarly, for both groups, U.S. identity and ethnic identity increased over time. Ethnic identity was associated with lower levels of withdrawn/depressed symptoms for both Latino and Asian youth. Ethnic identity was associated with lower levels of somatic symptoms for Asian youth, but not for Latino youth. U.S. identity was not associated with reduced levels of somatic or withdrawn/depressed symptoms for either group. Implications for clinicians are discussed. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Strengthening Family Practices for Latino Families (United States)

    Chartier, Karen G.; Negroni, Lirio K.; Hesselbrock, Michie N.


    This study examined the effectiveness of a culturally adapted Strengthening Families Program (SFP) for Latinos to reduce risks for alcohol and drug use in children. Latino families, predominantly Puerto Rican, with a 9- to 12-year-old child and a parent(s) with a substance abuse problem participated in the study. Pre- and post-tests were conducted…

  15. Bringing Culture into Parent Training with Latinos (United States)

    Calzada, Esther J.


    Traditional frameworks of parenting have failed to capture the distinctive nature of parenting in Latino families. Cultural values likely influence parenting practices. The study of cultural values may allow us to identify aspects of parenting that are unique to Latinos and which complement traditional frameworks of parenting. This paper presents…

  16. "La Influencia De La Familia": Latino Retention in Higher Education (United States)

    Fort Daniels, Tonya


    Although the Latino population is currently the largest minority ethnicity in the U.S. (U.S. Census, 2008), Latino students enroll in college and graduate in proportionately the smallest numbers (Latino, 2002). This dissertation examined the effect of Latino students' families on their decision to remain in school and finish a bachelor's…

  17. A Framework for Latino Nursing Leadership. (United States)

    Villarruel, Antonia M


    There is an urgent need for Latino leaders in nursing, yet little has been written about Latino leaders and leadership. Leadership comes with challenges and opportunities in particular for Latino nurses who contend with specific cultural imperatives and obstacles. In this article, I review the current healthcare environment and propose a framework for Latino nursing leadership within the context of current challenges and opportunities and my personal experience in nursing. This framework is meant to serve as a guide for the development of Latino nurses who will improve the health and well-being of those in the most vulnerable communities by utilizing their cultural strengths and professional skills to deliver quality and compassionate care.

  18. Spirituality and Cultural Identification Among Latino and Non-Latino College Students. (United States)

    Campesino, Maureen; Belyea, Michael; Schwartz, Gary


    The purposes of this study were to examine (a) differences in spiritual perspectives and practices of Latino and non-Latino young adults and (b) the cultural relevance of the Latino Spiritual Perspective Scale (LSPS). Studies indicate that spiritual perspectives are embedded within cultural group norms and vary significantly across ethnic groups. A cross-sectional survey design was used with a convenience sample of 223 Latino and non-Latino university students in the Southwestern United States. The Spiritual Perspective Scale (SPS), the LSPS, the Orthogonal Cultural Identification Scale, and a demographic questionnaire were used. Latinos scored significantly higher than non-Latinos in both measures of spiritual perspectives. Self-reported behavioral measures, such as frequency of personal prayer, were also higher among the Latino group. Latino cultural identification was the only significant predictor of LSPS scores. Findings from this study indicate that spirituality among Latinos has meanings specific to the cultural group context. These findings have implications for nursing research involving the conceptualization and measurement of spirituality among multiethnic groups.Los propósitos de este estudio eran examinar: (a) diferencias en perspectivas espirituales y prácticas de jóvenes Latinos y no Latinos; y (b) la relevancia cultural de la Escala de la Perspectiva Espiritual Latina. Estudios indican que perspectivas espirituales están incrustadas entre normas culturales del grupo y varían considerablemente entre grupos étnicos. Un diseño transversal y de encuesta fue utilizado con una muestra de conveniencia de 233 estudiantes universitarios Latinos y no Latinos en el Suroeste de los Estados Unidos. La Escala de la Perspectiva Espiritual (EPE), la Escala de la Perspectiva Espiritual Latina (EPEL), la Escala Ortogonal de Identificación Cultural, y un cuestionario demográfico fueron utilizados. Los Latinos calificaron considerablemente más alto que los no

  19. Promoting HIV risk awareness and testing in Latinos living on the U.S.-Mexico border: the Tú No Me Conoces social marketing campaign. (United States)

    Olshefsky, Alisa M; Zive, Michelle M; Scolari, Rosana; Zuñiga, María


    Increased incidence of HIV/AIDS in Latinos warrants effective social marketing messages to promote testing. The Tú No Me Conoces (You Don't Know Me) social marketing campaign promoted awareness of HIV risk and testing in Latinos living on the California-Mexico border. The 8-week campaign included Spanish-language radio, print media, a Web site, and a toll-free HIV-testing referral hotline. We documented an increase in HIV testing at partner clinics; 28% of testers who heard or saw an HIV advertisement specifically identified our campaign. Improved understanding of effective social marketing messages for HIV testing in the growing Latino border population is warranted.

  20. Fumando la piedra: emerging patterns of crack use among Latino immigrant day laborers in New Orleans. (United States)

    Valdez, Avelardo; Cepeda, Alice; Negi, Nalini Junko; Kaplan, Charles


    The devastating effects of Hurricane Katrina have contributed to a dynamic demographic shift in the Latino composition of New Orleans. This article focuses on a particularly deleterious pattern of crack cocaine smoking associated with numerous social and health consequences. Utilizing a rapid assessment methodology, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 52 Latino immigrant day laborers in New Orleans. Findings reveal that the presence of a flourishing drug market has facilitated and maintained patterns of crack use including initiation and periods of daily use. Moreover, feelings of isolation and constant exposure to victimization due to day laborers' marginal status are described as contributing to this use. This qualitative analysis reveals how social processes and contextual factors contribute to crack use among Latino day laborers in a post-disaster context. This study has important public health implications in the spread of HIV and other blood borne pathogens.

  1. Mycobacterium lutetiense sp. nov., Mycobacterium montmartrense sp. nov. and Mycobacterium arcueilense sp. nov., members of a novel group of non-pigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria recovered from a water distribution system. (United States)

    Konjek, Julie; Souded, Sabiha; Guerardel, Yann; Trivelli, Xavier; Bernut, Audrey; Kremer, Laurent; Welte, Benedicte; Joyeux, Michel; Dubrou, Sylvie; Euzeby, Jean-Paul; Gaillard, Jean-Louis; Sapriel, Guillaume; Heym, Beate


    From our recent survey of non-pigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria in the Parisian water system, three groups of isolates (taxons 1-3) corresponding to possible novel species were selected for taxonomic study. The three taxa each formed creamy white, rough colonies, had an optimal growth temperature of 30 °C, hydrolyzed Tween 80, were catalase-positive at 22 °C and expressed arylsulfatase activity. All three were susceptible to amikacin, ciprofloxacin and tigecycline. The three taxa produced specific sets of mycolic acids, including one family that has never previously been described, as determined by thin layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. The partial rpoB sequences (723 bp) showed 4-6 % divergence from each other and more than 5 % differences from the most similar species. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequences showed 99 % identity within each species. The most similar sequences for 16S rRNA genes (98-99 % identity over 1444-1461 bp) were found in the Mycobacterium fortuitum group, Mycobacterium septicum and Mycobacterium farcinogenes. The three taxa formed a new clade (bootstrap value, 99 %) on trees reconstructed from concatenated partial 16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB sequences. The above results led us to propose three novel species for the three groups of isolates, namely Mycobacterium lutetiense sp. nov. [type strain 071T=ParisRGMnew_1T (CIP 110656T=DSM 46713T)], Mycobacterium montmartrense sp. nov. [type strain 196T=ParisRGMnew_2T (CIP 110655T=DSM 46714T)] and Mycobacteriu marcueilense sp. nov. [type strain of 269T=ParisRGMnew_3T (CIP 110654T=DSM 46715T)].

  2. Using community-based participatory research to develop an intervention to reduce HIV and STD infections among Latino men. (United States)

    Rhodes, Scott D; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Montaño, Jaime; Remnitz, Ivan M; Arceo, Ramiro; Bloom, Fred R; Leichliter, Jami S; Bowden, W Patrick


    Although the Latino community living in the United States has been disproportionately affected by the intersecting epidemics of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), the development, implementation, and evaluation of HIV and STD prevention interventions designed to reduce infection among Latinos lags behind prevention efforts targeting other communities. HoMBReS: Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables is a sexual risk reduction intervention designed to reduce HIV and STD infection among recently arrived, non-English-speaking Latino men who are members of a multicounty Latino soccer league in central North Carolina, a region of the United States with both the fastest growing Latino population and disproportionate HIV and STD infection rates. HoMBReS was developed in partnership with the local Latino community using community-based participatory research (CBPR). We describe (a) the CBPR partnership history and further expansion; (b) the development of the intervention through the integration of collected formative data, theoretical considerations, and findings from the scientific literature; and (c) lessons learned while using a CBPR approach to develop HoMBReS.

  3. What Latino Puerto Ricans and non-Latinos say when they talk about Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Karlawish, Jason; Barg, Frances K; Augsburger, Deborah; Beaver, James; Ferguson, Allison; Nunez, Jessica


    To discover whether Latino Puerto Rican and non-Latino communities differ in the words they use to talk about Alzheimer's disease (AD). Four groups of 30 persons per group defined by self-identified ethnicity and caregiver status: Latino Puerto Ricans and non-Latino Whites, who were either caregivers or non-caregivers completed free-listing exercises to identify the words they use when they describe AD causes, symptoms, caregiving, and research risks and benefits. Both Latino Puerto Ricans and non-Latino Whites recognize AD as a disease of memory loss and other cognitive problems. Although both groups used the term "sadness" to describe AD, non-Latino Whites did not feature emotional, behavioral, or psychological problems as among the causes of AD. Although all the groups' descriptions of a person who lives with and cares for a person with AD shared the word "loving," Latino Puerto Ricans focused on a good spouse who exercises intelligence, patience, and attention on behalf of the person with AD and did not use the term "caregiver." In contrast, non-Latino Whites typically used the term "caregiver." Both groups' lists shared words that describe research as presenting harms to an AD patient and requiring a commitment of time. Latino Puerto Ricans' lists suggested an understanding of research benefits akin to clinical care. Notable differences exist in how Latino Puerto Ricans and non-Latino Whites talk about AD and AD research. Clinicians, clinical investigators, and patient educators need to consider these differences when they conduct clinical care and research and design outreach and educational materials. Copyright © 2011 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Strengthening Family Practices for Latino Families. (United States)

    Chartier, Karen G; Negroni, Lirio K; Hesselbrock, Michie N


    The study examined the effectiveness of a culturally-adapted Strengthening Families Program (SFP) for Latinos to reduce risks for alcohol and drug use in children. Latino families, predominantly Puerto Rican, with a 9-12 year old child and a parent(s) with a substance abuse problem participated in the study. Pre- and post-tests were conducted with each family. Parental stress, parent-child dysfunctional relations, and child behavior problems were reduced in the families receiving the intervention; family hardiness and family attachment were improved. Findings contribute to the validation of the SFP with Latinos, and can be used to inform social work practice with Puerto Rican families.

  5. Peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin in Latino and non-Latino whites with hepatitis C. (United States)

    Rodriguez-Torres, Maribel; Jeffers, Lennox J; Sheikh, Muhammad Y; Rossaro, Lorenzo; Ankoma-Sey, Victor; Hamzeh, Fayez M; Martin, Paul


    Race has been shown to be a factor in the response to therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and limited data suggest that ethnic group may be as well; however, Latinos and other ethnic subpopulations have been underrepresented in clinical trials. We evaluated the effect of Latino ethnic background on the response to treatment with peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin in patients infected with HCV genotype 1 who had not been treated previously. In a multicenter, open-label, nonrandomized, prospective study, 269 Latino and 300 non-Latino whites with HCV infection received peginterferon alfa-2a, at a dose of 180 microg per week, and ribavirin, at a dose of 1000 or 1200 mg per day, for 48 weeks, and were followed through 72 weeks. The primary end point was a sustained virologic response. We enrolled Latinos whose parents and grandparents spoke Spanish as their primary language; nonwhite Latinos were excluded. Baseline characteristics were similar in the Latino and non-Latino groups, although higher proportions of Latino patients were 40 years of age or younger, had a body-mass index (BMI, the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) of more than 27 or more than 30, and had cirrhosis. The rate of sustained virologic response was higher among non-Latino whites than among Latinos (49% vs. 34%, PLatino whites at week 4 (P=0.045) and throughout the treatment period (PLatino or non-Latino background was an independent predictor of the rate of sustained virologic response in an analysis adjusted for baseline differences in BMI, cirrhosis, and other characteristics. Adherence to treatment did not differ significantly between the two groups. The numbers of patients with adverse events and dose modifications were similar in the two groups, but fewer Latino patients discontinued therapy because of adverse events. Treatment with peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin for 48 weeks resulted in rates of sustained virologic response among patients

  6. Palliative care for Latino patients and their families: whenever we prayed, she wept. (United States)

    Smith, Alexander K; Sudore, Rebecca L; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J


    Latinos account for 15% of the US population, a proportion projected to grow to 30% by the year 2050. Although there is tremendous diversity within this community, commonalities of language, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors unite Latinos, making them more similar than different. Differences by national origin, although important, are attenuated when immigrants come to the United States, dominated by an English-language, Anglo-centric culture. For non-Latino and non-Spanish-speaking clinicians, communication barriers and cultural misunderstandings can impede the care of dying Latino patients and their families. We present the case of a young, pregnant, Spanish-speaking woman from Central America diagnosed with a fatal leukemia. As illustrated by this case, Latino immigrants face a number of external challenges to optimal end-of-life care: (1) geographic distance as well as political and economic realities often separate patients from their valued families; (2) undocumented immigrants are frequently uninsured and fear of deportation may create a barrier to accessing health services; (3) language and literacy barriers; and (4) concerns about discrimination. Other Latino issues that may be more pronounced in end-of-life settings include cultural themes and religious and spiritual influences. We recommend that professional interpreters must be used for discussions about goals of care with Spanish-speaking patients and families or when negotiating conflict between the patient, family, and the health care team. Concrete suggestions are provided for clinicians in working with interpreters, eliciting culturally based attitudes and beliefs, and implementing universal strategies for clear health communication.

  7. Children of Latino Immigrants and Out-of-School Time Programs. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2011-30 (United States)

    Valladares, Sherylls; Ramos, Manica F.


    Children who have at least one parent born outside the United States or U.S. territories presently make up almost one-quarter of the children in the country. Moreover, these children represent the fastest-growing segment of the U.S. child population. As of 2006, the majority of children of immigrants were Latino, with 41 percent of all child…

  8. Southern (DisComfort?: Latino Population Growth, Economic Integration and Spatial Assimilation in North Carolina Micropolitan Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-María González Wahl


    Full Text Available This paper examines more closely the growth and assimilation of the Latino population in non-metropolitan areas across North Carolina. More specifically, the analysis focuses on micropolitan areas. Based on the last decennial census, micropolitan areas were newly defined by the Census Bureau to reflect the growing importance of "urban clusters" located in non-metropolitan counties.

  9. Engaging Latino audiences in informal science education (United States)

    Bonfield, Susan B.

    Environment for the Americas (EFTA), a non-profit organization, developed a four-year research project to establish a baseline for Latino participation and to identify practical tools that would enable educators to overcome barriers to Latino participation in informal science education (ISE). Its national scope and broad suite of governmental and non-governmental, Latino and non-Latino partners ensured that surveys and interviews conducted in Latino communities reflected the cosmopolitan nature of the factors that influence participation in ISE programs. Information about economic and education levels, country of origin, language, length of residence in the US, and perceptions of natural areas combined with existing demographic information at six study sites and one control site provided a broader understanding of Latino communities. The project team's ability to work effectively in these communities was strengthened by the involvement of native, Spanish-speaking Latino interns in the National Park Service's Park Flight Migratory Bird Program. The project also went beyond data gathering by identifying key measures to improve participation in ISE and implementing these measures at established informal science education programs, such as International Migratory Bird Day, to determine effectiveness. The goals of Engaging Latino Audiences in Informal Science Education (ISE) were to 1) identify and reduce the barriers to Latino participation in informal science education; 2) provide effective tools to assist educators in connecting Latino families with science education, and 3) broadly disseminate these tools to agencies and organizations challenged to engage this audience in informal science education (ISE). The results answer questions and provide solutions to a challenge experienced by parks, refuges, nature centers, and other informal science education sites across the US. Key findings from this research documented low participation rates in ISE by Latinos, and that

  10. Variation in genetic admixture and population structure among Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino eye study (LALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Marchand Loic


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population structure and admixture have strong confounding effects on genetic association studies. Discordant frequencies for age-related macular degeneration (AMD risk alleles and for AMD incidence and prevalence rates are reported across different ethnic groups. We examined the genomic ancestry characterizing 538 Latinos drawn from the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study [LALES] as part of an ongoing AMD-association study. To help assess the degree of Native American ancestry inherited by Latino populations we sampled 25 Mayans and 5 Mexican Indians collected through Coriell's Institute. Levels of European, Asian, and African descent in Latinos were inferred through the USC Multiethnic Panel (USC MEP, formed from a sample from the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC study, the Yoruba African samples from HapMap II, the Singapore Chinese Health Study, and a prospective cohort from Shanghai, China. A total of 233 ancestry informative markers were genotyped for 538 LALES Latinos, 30 Native Americans, and 355 USC MEP individuals (African Americans, Japanese, Chinese, European Americans, Latinos, and Native Hawaiians. Sensitivity of ancestry estimates to relative sample size was considered. Results We detected strong evidence for recent population admixture in LALES Latinos. Gradients of increasing Native American background and of correspondingly decreasing European ancestry were observed as a function of birth origin from North to South. The strongest excess of homozygosity, a reflection of recent population admixture, was observed in non-US born Latinos that recently populated the US. A set of 42 SNPs especially informative for distinguishing between Native Americans and Europeans were identified. Conclusion These findings reflect the historic migration patterns of Native Americans and suggest that while the 'Latino' label is used to categorize the entire population, there exists a strong degree of heterogeneity within that population, and that

  11. Variation in genetic admixture and population structure among Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino eye study (LALES). (United States)

    Shtir, Corina J; Marjoram, Paul; Azen, Stanley; Conti, David V; Le Marchand, Loic; Haiman, Christopher A; Varma, Rohit


    Population structure and admixture have strong confounding effects on genetic association studies. Discordant frequencies for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) risk alleles and for AMD incidence and prevalence rates are reported across different ethnic groups. We examined the genomic ancestry characterizing 538 Latinos drawn from the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study [LALES] as part of an ongoing AMD-association study. To help assess the degree of Native American ancestry inherited by Latino populations we sampled 25 Mayans and 5 Mexican Indians collected through Coriell's Institute. Levels of European, Asian, and African descent in Latinos were inferred through the USC Multiethnic Panel (USC MEP), formed from a sample from the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) study, the Yoruba African samples from HapMap II, the Singapore Chinese Health Study, and a prospective cohort from Shanghai, China. A total of 233 ancestry informative markers were genotyped for 538 LALES Latinos, 30 Native Americans, and 355 USC MEP individuals (African Americans, Japanese, Chinese, European Americans, Latinos, and Native Hawaiians). Sensitivity of ancestry estimates to relative sample size was considered. We detected strong evidence for recent population admixture in LALES Latinos. Gradients of increasing Native American background and of correspondingly decreasing European ancestry were observed as a function of birth origin from North to South. The strongest excess of homozygosity, a reflection of recent population admixture, was observed in non-US born Latinos that recently populated the US. A set of 42 SNPs especially informative for distinguishing between Native Americans and Europeans were identified. These findings reflect the historic migration patterns of Native Americans and suggest that while the 'Latino' label is used to categorize the entire population, there exists a strong degree of heterogeneity within that population, and that it will be important to assess this heterogeneity

  12. Parental Protectiveness and Unprotected Sexual Activity Among Latino Adolescent Mothers and Fathers


    Lesser, Janna; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Huang, Rong; Takayanagi, Sumiko; Cumberland, William G.


    Latino pregnant and parenting adolescents living in inner cities are one of the populations at risk for acquiring HIV. Although teen parenthood has been predominantly looked at with a focus on potential adverse physical, emotional, and socioeconomic outcomes for the mother and child; a growing body of literature has documented the strengths and resiliency of young parents. Respeto/Proteger: Respecting and Protecting Our Relationships is a culturally rooted couple-focused and asset-based HIV p...

  13. Clinical Validity of the ADI-R in a US-Based Latino Population (United States)

    Vanegas, Sandra B.; Magaña, Sandra; Morales, Miguel; McNamara, Ellyn


    The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) has been validated as a tool to aid in the diagnosis of Autism; however, given the growing diversity in the United States, the ADI-R must be validated for different languages and cultures. This study evaluates the validity of the ADI-R in a US-based Latino, Spanish-speaking population of 50 children…

  14. Improving Diabetes Care in the Latino Population: The Emory Latino Diabetes Education Program (United States)

    Rotberg, Britt; Greene, Rachel; Ferez-Pinzon, Anyul M.; Mejia, Robert; Umpierrez, Guillermo


    Background: The incidence of diabetes in Latinos is 12.8% compared to 9.3% of the general population. Latinos suffer from a higher prevalence of diabetic complications and mortality than whites yet receive less monitoring tests and education. Purpose: (1) Identify changes in clinical indicators among subjects with type 2 diabetes participating in…

  15. The SAFER Latinos Project: Addressing a Community Ecology Underlying Latino Youth Violence (United States)

    Edberg, Mark; Cleary, Sean D.; Collins, Elizabeth; Klevens, Joanne; Leiva, Rodrigo; Bazurto, Martha; Rivera, Ivonne; del Cid, Alex Taylor; Montero, Luisa; Calderon, Melba


    This paper describes the intervention model, early implementation experience, and challenges for the "Seguridad, Apoyo, Familia, Educacion, y Recursos" (SAFER) Latinos project. The SAFER Latinos project is an attempt to build the evidence for a multilevel participatory youth violence prevention model tailored to the specific circumstances of…

  16. Consejos para los adolescentes latinos que adoptan ambas culturas (Tips for Latino teens)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Podcast para los adolescentes latinos: Este podcast ofrece consejos útiles a los adolescentes latinos sobre cómo encontrar un equilibrio entre su cultura de origen y la cultura estadounidense, con el fin de disfrutar de una vida más feliz y saludable.

  17. Growing media [Chapter 5 (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna


    Selecting the proper growing medium is one of the most important considerations in nursery plant production. A growing medium can be defined as a substance through which roots grow and extract water and nutrients. In native plant nurseries, a growing medium can consist of native soil but is more commonly an "artificial soil" composed of materials such as peat...

  18. Getting Data Right - and Righteous to Improve Hispanic or Latino Health. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lainz, Alfonso; McDonald, Mariana; Penman-Aguilar, Ana; Barrett, Drue H


    Hispanics or Latinos constitute the largest racial/ethnic minority in the United States. They are also a very diverse population. Latino/Hispanic's health varies significantly for subgroups defined by national origin, race, primary language, and migration-related factors (place of birth, immigration status, years of residence in the United States). Most Hispanics speak Spanish at home, and one-third have limited English proficiency (LEP). There is growing awareness on the importance for population health monitoring programs to collect those data elements (Hispanic subgroup, primary language, and migration-related factors) that better capture Hispanics' diversity, and to provide language assistance (translation of data collection forms, interpreters) to ensure meaningful inclusion of all Latinos/Hispanics in national health monitoring. There are strong ethical and scientific reasons for such expansion of data collection by public health entities. First, expand data elements can help identify otherwise hidden Hispanic subpopulations' health disparities. This may promote a more just and equitable distribution of health resources to underserved populations. Second, language access is needed to ensure fair and legal treatment of LEP individuals in federally supported data collection activities. Finally, these strategies are likely to improve the quality and representativeness of data needed to monitor and address the health of all Latino/Hispanic populations in the United States.

  19. Acculturation and Healthy Lifestyle Among Latinos With Diabetes


    Mainous, Arch G.; Diaz, Vanessa A.; Geesey, Mark E.


    PURPOSE Latinos have a high prevalence of diabetes and disproportionately experience diabetic complications. We sought to examine the association of acculturation on healthy lifestyle habits among the Latino population in the United States with diabetes.

  20. How do normal faults grow?


    Blækkan, Ingvild; Bell, Rebecca; Rotevatn, Atle; Jackson, Christopher; Tvedt, Anette


    Faults grow via a sympathetic increase in their displacement and length (isolated fault model), or by rapid length establishment and subsequent displacement accrual (constant-length fault model). To test the significance and applicability of these two models, we use time-series displacement (D) and length (L) data extracted for faults from nature and experiments. We document a range of fault behaviours, from sympathetic D-L fault growth (isolated growth) to sub-vertical D-L growth trajectorie...

  1. Effects of Adapted Dialogic Reading on Oral Language and Vocabulary Knowledge of Latino Preschoolers at Risk for English Language Delays (United States)

    Correa, Vivian I.; Lo, Ya-Yu; Godfrey-Hurrell, Kristi; Swart, Katie; Baker, Doris Luft


    In this single-case design study, we examined the effects of an adapted dialogic reading intervention on the oral language and vocabulary skills of four Latino preschool children who were at risk for English language delays. We used adapted dialogic reading strategies in English and two literacy games that included a rapid naming activity and…

  2. Positive Reading Attitudes of Low-Income Bilingual Latinos (United States)

    Bussert-webb, Kathy M.; Zhang, Zhidong


    Many assume low-income, emergent bilingual Latinos have poor reading attitudes. To investigate this issue, we surveyed 1,503 Texas public high school students through stratified cluster sampling to determine their reading attitudes. Most represented Latinos and mixed-race Latinos/Whites who heard Spanish at home and whose mother tongue was…

  3. Anti-Black Latino Racism in an Era of Trumpismo (United States)

    Haywood, Jasmine M.


    This article describes the Latino population that voted for the current president and overview reasons as to why they voted for the current president. I purposefully center the anti-Black racism within the Latino community and focus specifically on recent political and nationwide events that are connected to anti-Black Latino racism. Additionally,…

  4. Effects of Parent Immigration Status on Mental Health Service Use Among Latino Children Referred to Child Welfare. (United States)

    Finno-Velasquez, Megan; Cardoso, Jodi Berger; Dettlaff, Alan J; Hurlburt, Michael S


    Latino families may be at risk of experiencing stressors resulting from the immigration process, such as those related to documentation status and acculturation, that may increase their need for mental health services. However, little research exists on the mental health needs and service use of Latino children. This study examined how parental nativity and legal status influence mental health needs and service utilization among children in Latino families investigated by child welfare. Data from the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a nationally representative, prospective study of families investigated by child welfare agencies for maltreatment, were used to examine mental health need and service use in a subset of Latino children who remained in the home following a maltreatment investigation (N=390). Although children of immigrants did not differ from children of U.S.-born parents in levels of clinical need, they had lower rates of mental health service receipt. After the analyses accounted for other relevant variables, the odds of receiving services were significantly lower (odds ratio=.09) for children whose parents were undocumented compared with children whose parents were U.S. citizens. This study contributes to growing discourse on Latino family needs within the child welfare system. Analyses support earlier research regarding the effects of parent nativity on mental health service use and advance the literature by identifying parent legal status as a unique barrier to child service receipt.

  5. A Validation of the Group-Based Medical Mistrust Scale in Formerly Incarcerated Black and Latino Men. (United States)

    Valera, Pamela; Boyas, Javier F; Bernal, Camila; Chiongbian, Victoria Briones; Chang, Yvonne; Shelton, Rachel C


    While there is a growing body of literature on medical mistrust and its relevance to public health, research on formerly incarcerated Black and Latino men and their perception of mistrust toward medical providers and medical institutions remains scant. Very little is known about whether formerly incarcerated Black and Latino men mistrust medical and clinical providers given their previous experiences with the criminal justice system. It is important to determine whether medical mistrust play a key role in the health and health behaviors of released Black and Latino men. The purpose of this study is to validate and assess the psychometric properties of the Group-Based Medical Mistrust Scale for use among formerly incarcerated Black and Latino men in New York City. The findings of the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses state that a two-factor structure fit the data best. Two dimensions emerged as important subscales: discrimination and suspicion. The current findings suggest the two-factor Group-Based Medical Mistrust Scale is a valid and reliable assessment tool to discern medical mistrust levels among formerly incarcerated Black and Latino men. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Improving treatment in Hispanic/Latino patients. (United States)

    Cersosimo, Eugenio; Musi, Nicolas


    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is higher in Hispanic/Latino individuals living in the United States compared with their non-Hispanic white counterparts. Many factors contribute to the increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes, including biological characteristics, socioeconomic conditions, and cultural aspects. The contribution of genetics to the risk of type 2 diabetes in Hispanic/Latino patients is becoming increasingly clear, but this inherent risk factor cannot be modified. However, certain socioeconomic and cultural factors, such as reduced access to healthcare, language barriers, cultural beliefs, and lack of cultural competence by the healthcare provider, are modifiable and should be overcome in order to improve the management of type 2 diabetes in Hispanic/Latino patients. At the healthcare system level, policies should be put into place to reduce disparities between Hispanics/Latinos and non-Hispanic whites regarding health insurance coverage and access to healthcare. At the healthcare provider and patient level, cultural beliefs should be taken into consideration when selecting adequate treatment. Overall, type 2 diabetes management should be individualized by identifying the preferred language and level of acculturation for each patient. These considerations are necessary to further improve communication through culturally appropriate educational materials and programs. These strategies may help to overcome the barriers in the treatment of type 2 diabetes in Hispanic/Latino patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Media and Technology Use Among Hispanics/Latinos in New York: Implications for Health Communication Programs. (United States)

    Manganello, Jennifer A; Gerstner, Gena; Pergolino, Kristen; Graham, Yvonne; Strogatz, David


    There is limited information about media and technology use, as well as health information-seeking patterns, specifically for Hispanics/Latinos at the state level. An understanding of access, usage patterns, and preferences for receiving health information is critical for state-level organizations to effectively reach and serve this growing population. A telephone survey was developed to assess media and technology access, use patterns, health-seeking information patterns, and preferences for receiving health information. The survey was conducted in New York state from August 8 to November 4, 2013, using random digit dialing. The overall sample of 1350 included 412 Hispanic/Latino adults who are the focus of this study. Most Hispanic/Latino respondents reported having at least one working computer at home (78 %) and using the Internet (84 %); almost all who had a computer reported having high-speed Internet service (90 %). Cell phone ownership was common (88 %), and many had a smartphone (71 %). Activities most likely to occur several times per day were sending text messages (61 %), using phone apps (49 %), using a search engine (40 %), using email (34 %), and using social networking sites (32 %). The most preferred channels of receiving health information were websites, mail, and television. Older respondents were significantly less likely to have the technologies, engage in technology activities, and prefer newer forms of information dissemination (i.e., text messages). Education and income were important predictors in some cases. While most Hispanics/Latinos have access to various technologies, the reason for using those technologies and preferences for receiving health information most often varies by age and, sometimes, by education and income. Older adults tend to seek health information from traditional sources such as television and brochures, while younger adults favored newer technologies. Knowing preferences of the population can help ensure

  8. Correlates of Social Support Among Latino Immigrants. (United States)

    Held, Mary L


    Latino immigrants encounter considerable stressors that pose risks to health and well-being during settlement in the USA. Social support serves as a protective factor that can help to buffer the negative effects of stress. Despite the importance of social support, we know little about how Latino immigrants differentially experience this protective factor. The current study analyzed data from 100 Latino immigrants residing in Tennessee. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was employed to examine variation in self-reported social support by immigrant characteristics and immigration-related factors. Females, immigrants who are not married/cohabitating, and those who reported experiencing a greater number of discrete stressors in the USA each reported lower levels of social support. Implications for practice include an increased emphasis on assessing levels of social support and designing services to strengthen support for the most vulnerable immigrants. Future research should consider a longitudinal analysis and specific types of social support.

  9. The Latino Migrant Worker HIV Prevention Program (United States)

    Sánchez, Jesús; Silva-Suarez, Georgina; Serna, Claudia A.; De La Rosa, Mario


    There is limited information on the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on Latino migrant workers (LMWs), although available data indicate that this community is being disproportionally affected. The need for prevention programs that address the specific needs of LMWs is becoming well recognized. HIV prevention interventions that train and employ community health workers are a culturally appropriate way to address the issues of community trust and capacity building in this community. This article describes the Latino Migrant Worker HIV Prevention Program and its efforts to train and engage community health workers in the prevention of HIV among LMWs in South Florida. PMID:22367261

  10. Latino Retail Entrepreneurship in Minnesota: Implications for Extension Educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Young Kim


    Full Text Available Minnesota has become a “new destination” state for Latino migrants in the United States. What has made Latinos in Minnesota successful? In a narrower sense, what has provided them with a route out of poverty and an alternative to unemployment or discrimination in the labor market? Our purpose was to (a compile characteristics associated with the Latino community and successful Latino-owned retail businesses in Minnesota, (b identify unique problems encountered by Latino retail entrepreneurs, and (c develop recommendations to overcome obstacles encountered. To meet our objectives, we employed two methods: a Delphi study with Latino community leaders and a case study with Latino retail entrepreneurs. Implications for Extension educators are discussed.

  11. The Prevalence of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Latino Poultry Processing Workers and Other Latino Manual Workers (United States)

    Cartwright, Michael S.; Walker, Francis O.; Blocker, Jill N.; Schulz, Mark R.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Mora, Dana; Chen, Haiying; Marín, Antonio J.; Quandt, Sara A.


    Objective To determine the prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in Latino poultry processing workers. Methods Symptoms and nerve conduction studies were used to prospectively assess 287 Latino poultry processing workers and 226 Latinos in other manual labor occupations. Results The prevalence of CTS was higher in poultry processing (8.7%) compared to non-poultry manual workers (4.0%, p poultry workers was 2.51 (95% CI of 1.80 to 3.50) compared to non-poultry workers. Within the poultry workers, those who performed packing, sanitation, and chilling had a trend toward less CTS than those who performed tasks requiring more repetitive and strenuous hand movements. Discussion Latino poultry processing workers have a high prevalence of CTS, which likely results from the repetitive and strenuous nature of the work. PMID:22258161

  12. Too Latino and Not Latino Enough: The Role of Ethnicity-Related Stressors on Latino College Students' Life Satisfaction (United States)

    Ojeda, Lizette; Navarro, Rachel L.; Meza, Rocio Rosales; Arbona, Consuelo


    The relationship between demographics (generation status, age, gender, education level) and ethnicity-related stressors, namely, perceived discrimination, stereotype confirmation concern, and own-group conformity pressure, and the life satisfaction of 115 Latino college students was examined. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated…

  13. Consejos para los adolescentes latinos que adoptan ambas culturas (Tips for Latino teens)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Podcast para los adolescentes latinos: Este podcast ofrece consejos útiles a los adolescentes latinos sobre cómo encontrar un equilibrio entre su cultura de origen y la cultura estadounidense, con el fin de disfrutar de una vida más feliz y saludable.  Created: 8/19/2009 by Centro Coordinador de Salud Ambiental y Prevención de Lesiones (CCEHIP).   Date Released: 8/19/2009.

  14. Detecting prediabetes among Hispanics/Latinos from diverse heritage groups: Does the test matter? Findings from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. (United States)

    Avilés-Santa, M Larissa; Pérez, Cynthia M; Schneiderman, Neil; Savage, Peter J; Kaplan, Robert C; Teng, Yanping; Suárez, Erick L; Cai, Jianwen; Giachello, Aida L; Talavera, Gregory A; Cowie, Catherine C


    The objectives of this analysis were to compare the ability of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), post oral load plasma glucose (2hPG), and hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) to identify U.S. Hispanic/Latino individuals with prediabetes, and to assess its cardiovascular risk factor correlates. This is a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 15,507 adults without self-reported diabetes mellitus from six Hispanic/Latino heritage groups, enrolled in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, which takes place in four U.S. communities. The prevalence of prediabetes was determined according to individual or combinations of ADA-defined cut points: FPG=5.6-7.0mmol/L, 2hPG=7.8-11.1mmol/L, and HbA 1c =5.7%-6.4% (39-46mmol/mol). The sensitivity of these criteria to detect prediabetes was estimated. The prevalence ratios (PRs) for selected cardiovascular risk factors were compared among alternative categories of prediabetes versus normoglycemia [FPGprediabetes criteria. Using 2hPG as the gold standard, the sensitivity of FPG was 40.1%, HbA 1c was 45.6%, and that of HbA 1c +FPG was 62.2%. The number of significant PRs for cardiovascular risk factors was higher among individuals with isolated 2hPG=7.8-11.1mmol/L, FPG=5.6-7.0mmol/L+HbA 1c =5.7%-6.4%, or those who met the three prediabetes criteria. Assessing FPG, HbA 1c , and cardiovascular risk factors in Hispanics/Latinos at risk might enhance the early prevention of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular complications in this young and growing population, independent of their heritage group. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Bringing Together Latino Children and Their Literature. (United States)

    Shachter, Jaqueline

    In order to acquaint teachers with the range of children's literature about Latino culture, this paper describes works of writers from both the United States and Latin America. The materials described, written in English or Spanish, range from fiction and nonfiction to filmstrips and magazines. A list of 50 books, magazines, and nonprint materials…

  16. Training Materials Developed for Latino Entrepreneurs (United States)

    Abreo, Christina; Miller, Wayne; Farmer, Frank; Moon, Zola; McCullough, Stacey


    This article describes the materials and training program that Extension created to assist current and potential Latino immigrant entrepreneurs in starting businesses in Arkansas. The content-based educational materials describe the process for starting a new business, government regulatory requirements, start-up costs and considerations, and how…

  17. How Elite Universities Fail Latino Students (United States)

    Stavans, Ilan


    The US Census Bureau reveals that although there are more than 41.3 million Latinos in the US as on 2004--about 14 percent of the population, only a very small percentage of them attend the country's elite colleges. A large part of the problem is that, like most of the nation, elite colleges and universities have little awareness of the…

  18. Reflections of a Latino Associate Professor (United States)

    Peguero, Anthony A.


    The following reflection essay is about my experiences as a Latino Associate Professor who focuses on criminology, youth violence, juvenile justice, and the associated disparities with race, ethnicity, and immigration. I reflect about the "race and justice" job market, pursuing and establishing a Latina/o Criminology working group, often…

  19. Use of a Smartphone Recovery Tool for Latinos with Co-Occurring Alcohol and Other Drug Disorders and Mental Disorders. (United States)

    Muroff, Jordana; Robinson, Winslow; Chassler, Deborah; López, Luz M; Gaitan, Erika; Lundgren, Lena; Guauque, Claudia; Dargon-Hart, Susan; Stewart, Emily; Dejesus, Diliana; Johnson, Kimberly; Pe-Romashko, Klaren; Gustafson, David H


    Addressing alcohol and other drug disorders and other mental disorders among adult Hispanics/Latinos is of critical concern, as they are one of the fastest-growing ethnic groups with a disproportionate rate of disease, mental disorders, and poverty. Although improvement in outcomes is associated with sustained participation in ongoing treatment for co-occurring alcohol and other drug disorders/mental disorders, continuing care is rare for these chronic conditions, especially for Latinos with more limited access to culturally and linguistically competent services. The evidence-based smartphone recovery application Addiction-Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System (A-CHESS) was translated and adapted for Spanish-speaking Latinos with alcohol and other drug disorders/mental disorders, thus developing CASA-CHESS to address a high level of need for services, high rates of relapse, and lack of existing culturally competent services for Latinos. Of the 79 Latino clients who completed residential treatment and received a smartphone equipped with CASA-CHESS, 26.6% discontinued using CASA-CHESS and 73.4% remained active for four or more months. CASA-CHESS usage was sustained over the four months across all three tenets of self-determination theory (competence, relatedness, and autonomy), with the most commonly utilized services being relevant to relatedness (e.g., messaging, discussion boards). CASA-CHESS clients demonstrated a similar pattern of usage to A-CHESS clients. Findings illustrate that Spanish-speaking Latinos with alcohol and other drug disorders/mental disorders will use a smartphone application to assist with their recovery, continuing their access to resources, case management, and quality information after leaving residential treatment. Consistent with previous findings, our results also emphasize the importance of social support during the four months post-discharge. Such evidence-based, theory-driven digital interventions may extend access to

  20. Acculturation and the prevalence of diabetes in US Latino Adults, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010. (United States)

    O'Brien, Matthew J; Alos, Victor A; Davey, Adam; Bueno, Angeli; Whitaker, Robert C


    US Latinos are growing at the fastest rate of any racial/ethnic group in the United States and have the highest lifetime risk of diabetes. Acculturation may increase the risk of diabetes among all Latinos, but this hypothesis has not been studied in a nationally representative sample. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that acculturation was associated with an increased risk of diabetes in such a sample. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis including 3,165 Latino participants in the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants with doctor-diagnosed diabetes and participants without diagnosed diabetes who had glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) values of 6.5% or higher were classified as having diabetes. An acculturation score, ranging from 0 (lowest) to 3 (highest), was calculated by giving 1 point for each of 3 characteristics: being born in the United States, speaking predominantly English, and living in the United States for 20 years or more. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between acculturation and diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes among Latinos in our sample was 12.4%. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, the likelihood of diabetes (95% confidence interval [CI]) increased with level of acculturation- 1.71 (95% CI, 1.31-2.23), 1.63 (95% CI, 1.11-2.39), and 2.05 (95% CI, 1.27-3.29) for scores of 1, 2, and 3, respectively. This association persisted after further adjustment for body mass index (BMI), total dietary calories, and physical inactivity. Acculturation was associated with a higher risk of diabetes among US Latinos, and this risk was only partly explained by BMI and weight-related behaviors. Future research should examine the bio-behavioral mechanisms that underlie the relationship between acculturation and diabetes in Latinos.

  1. Mobility, Latino Migrants, and the Geography of Sex Work: Using Ethnography in Public Health Assessments. (United States)

    Sangaramoorthy, Thurka; Kroeger, Karen


    Recent studies have documented frequent use of female sex workers among Latino migrant men in the southeastern United States, yet little is known about the context in which sex work takes place, or the women who provide these services. As anthropologists working in applied public health, we use rapid ethnographic assessment as a technical assistance tool to document local understandings of the organization and typology of sex work and patterns of mobility among sex workers and their Latino migrant clients. By incorporating ethnographic methods in traditional public health needs assessments, we were able to highlight the diversity of migrant experiences and better understand the health needs of mobile populations more broadly. We discuss the findings in terms of their practical implications for HIV/STD prevention and call on public health to incorporate the concept of mobility as an organizing principle for the delivery of health care services.

  2. Patterns of Dating Violence Victimization and Perpetration among Latino Youth. (United States)

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Chen, May S; Ennett, Susan T


    Theory and research suggest that there may be significant heterogeneity in the development, manifestation, and consequences of adolescent dating violence that is not yet well understood. The current study contributed to our understanding of this heterogeneity by identifying distinct patterns of involvement in psychological, physical, and sexual dating violence victimization and perpetration in a sample of Latino youth (n = 201; M = 13.87 years; 42% male), a group that is understudied, growing, and at high risk for involvement in dating violence. Among both boys and girls, latent class analyses identified a three-class solution wherein the largest class demonstrated a low probability of involvement in dating violence across all indices ("uninvolved"; 56% of boys, 64% of girls) and the smallest class demonstrated high probability of involvement in all forms of dating violence except for sexual perpetration among girls and physical perpetration among boys ("multiform aggressive victims"; 10% of boys, 11% of girls). A third class of "psychologically aggressive victims" was identified for which there was a high probability of engaging and experiencing psychological dating violence, but low likelihood of involvement in physical or sexual dating violence (34% of boys, 24% of girls). Cultural (parent acculturation, acculturation conflict), family (conflict and cohesion) and individual (normative beliefs, conflict resolution skills, self-control) risk and protective factors were associated with class membership. Membership in the multiform vs. the uninvolved class was concurrently associated with emotional distress among girls and predicted emotional distress longitudinally among boys. The results contribute to understanding heterogeneity in patterns of involvement in dating violence among Latino youth that may reflect distinct etiological processes.

  3. A comparative analysis of homosexual behaviors, sex role preferences, and anal sex proclivities in Latino and non-Latino men. (United States)

    Jeffries, William L


    Machismo prescribes that homosexual encounters among Latino men are conducted along highly gendered lines: men tend to be anally insertive or receptive over the lifecourse, but not both. Some have argued that Latino men have more lifecourse homosexual behaviors in comparison to other racial/ethnic groups. This is often due to the perception that Latin America has quasi-institutionalized homosexuality, which sharply contrasts it with the United States. Although scholars suggest that sex role preferences and greater likelihoods for homosexual behaviors exist among Latino men in the United States, limited empirical data validate these claims. Latino/non-Latino differences in male homosexual behaviors and sex role preferences were analyzed by using the 2002 cycle of the National Survey of Family Growth, a nationally representative, probability sample of 4,928 men. Findings revealed that non-Mexican Latino, but not Mexican, men had increased likelihoods of ever having anal sex than non-Latino Whites and oral sex than non-Latino Blacks. These relationships remained after controlling for age, education, and foreign birth. Latino men preferred insertive or receptive sex in comparison to non-Latino Blacks and Whites, but this difference disappeared after education was controlled. In full and reduced models, Mexican men tended to be orifice-specific (oral or anal), while non-Mexican Latinos were more oriented to both oral and anal sex. Controlling for other factors, all Latinos were more likely than non-Latino Blacks and Whites to refuse to answer male homosexual behavior questions. The implications of race/ethnicity are discussed for homosexual behavior patterns among U.S. men.

  4. Recruiting and retaining low-income Latinos in psychotherapy research. (United States)

    Miranda, J; Azocar, F; Organista, K C; Muñoz, R F; Lieberman, A


    This article offers suggestions for recruiting and retaining low-income Latinos in treatment studies. Because Latinos underuse traditional mental health services, places such as medical centers or churches with large Latino constituents are suggested as useful alternative sources. To keep Latinos in research protocols, providing culturally sensitive treatments are necessary. Culturally sensitive treatments should incorporate families as part of recruitment efforts, particularly older men in the family. In addition, showing respect is an important aspect of traditional Latino culture that includes using formal titles and taking time to listen carefully. Finally, traditional Latinos tend to like interactions with others that are more warm and personal than is generally part of a research atmosphere.

  5. Latino Male Ethnic Subgroups: Patterns in College Enrollment and Degree Completion (United States)

    Ponjuan, Luis; Palomin, Leticia; Calise, Angela


    This chapter examines Latino male ethnic subgroups and their college enrollment and degree completion patterns. The chapter also offers recommendations to improve Latino male ethnic subgroups' educational achievement.

  6. Growing Safflower in Utah


    Pace, M. G.; Israelsen, C. E.; Creech, E.; Allen, N.


    This fact sheet provides information on growing safflower in Utah. It has become popular on dryland farms in rotation with winter wheat. Safflower seed provides three products, oil, meal, and birdseed.

  7. Overcoming Barriers: Tailoring Climate Education for Latino and non-Latino Citizen to Impact Decision Making (United States)

    Estrada, M.; Boudrias, M. A.; Silva-Send, N. J.; Gershunov, A.; Anders, S.


    Culture has been shown to be an important determinant of Latino/Hispanic American environmental attitudes (Schultz, Unipan, & Gamba, 2000), which might help to explain the underrepresentation of Latinos in the U.S. 'environmental' movement. With shifting U.S. demographics, however, there is increased urgency to understand how Latinos integrate into the community that is concerned and literate about climate change. As part of the Climate Education Partners (CEP) work in San Diego, we investigated how to address this ethnic group disparity. In this paper, we describe a study of how climate change science knowledge relates to Latino and Non-Latino citizen (a) engagement in conservation behaviors and (b) more informed decision-making. Drawing upon previous work on the Tripartite Integration Model of Social Influence (TIMSI) (Estrada et al., 2011), we hypothesized that climate change knowledge that promotes efficacy (i.e., a sense that one can do something) would relate to greater engagement in conservation behaviors and more informed decision-making (both common of community members concerned about climate change). To test this model, 1001 San Diego residence participated in a telephone survey in which the attitudes towards climate change were assessed using '6 Americas' segmentation (Leiserowitz et al., 2011), in addition to climate change science knowledge, efficacy, values, and engagement in weekly and yearly climate change friendly behaviors (e.g., conservation, transportation, community engagement behaviors). Results showed that there were significant differences in the 6 America segmentation distributions, knowledge, efficacy and behavioral engagement with Latinos significantly more concerned than Non-Latinos, and reporting greater knowledge, efficacy and engagement in behaviors. However, data from both groups showed support for the TIMSI theoretical framework, such that efficacy mediated the relationship between climate change knowledge and behavior. Thus, for

  8. Increased Mental Health Treatment Financing, Community-Based Organization's Treatment Programs, and Latino-White Children's Financing Disparities. (United States)

    Snowden, Lonnie R; Wallace, Neal; Cordell, Kate; Graaf, Genevieve


    Latino child populations are large and growing, and they present considerable unmet need for mental health treatment. Poverty, lack of health insurance, limited English proficiency, stigma, undocumented status, and inhospitable programming are among many factors that contribute to Latino-White mental health treatment disparities. Lower treatment expenditures serve as an important marker of Latino children's low rates of mental health treatment and limited participation once enrolled in services. We investigated whether total Latino-White expenditure disparities declined when autonomous, county-level mental health plans receive funds free of customary cost-sharing charges, especially when they capitalized on cultural and language-sensitive mental health treatment programs as vehicles to receive and spend treatment funds. Using Whites as benchmark, we considered expenditure pattern disparities favoring Whites over Latinos and, in a smaller number of counties, Latinos over Whites. Using segmented regression for interrupted time series on county level treatment systems observed over 64 quarters, we analyzed Medi-Cal paid claims for per-user total expenditures for mental health services delivered to children and youth (under 18 years of age) during a study period covering July 1, 1991 through June 30, 2007. Settlement-mandated Medicaid's Early Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) expenditure increases began in the third quarter of 1995. Terms were introduced to assess immediate and long term inequality reduction as well as the role of culture and language-sensitive community-based programs. Settlement-mandated increased EPSDT treatment funding was associated with more spending on Whites relative to Latinos unless plans arranged for cultural and language-sensitive mental health treatment programs. However, having programs served more to prevent expenditure disparities from growing than to reduce disparities. EPSDT expanded funding increased proportional

  9. Parent Training and Skill Acquisition and Utilization Among Spanish- and English-Speaking Latino Families. (United States)

    Ramos, Giovanni; Blizzard, Angela M; Barroso, Nicole E; Bagner, Daniel M


    In the U.S., there is a growing Latino population, in which parents primarily speak Spanish to their children. Despite the evidence that language preference is associated with level of acculturation and influences parenting practices in these families, no study has compared how Spanish-and English-speaking Latino families acquire and utilize the skills taught during parent-training programs such as Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). Twenty-seven mother-infant Latino dyads received a home-based adaptation of the Child-Directed Interaction (CDI) phase of PCIT as part of a larger randomized control trial. Most infants were male (63%), and their average age was 13.7 months ( SD = 1.43). Most families (52%) lived below the poverty line. The Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System-Third Edition (DPICS-III) was employed to evaluate PCIT skills at baseline and post-treatment, as well as at 3- and 6-month follow-up, assessments. We conducted multiple linear regression analyses among Spanish-speaking (55%) and English-speaking (45%) families to examine differences in acquisition and utilization of do and don't skills at each assessment while controlling for mother's education. Results yielded no group differences in the acquisition rate of do or don't skills at any time point. However, Spanish-speaking mothers used significantly more don't skills than English-speaking mothers at each assessment. Specifically, Spanish-speaking families used significantly more commands at baseline, post-treatment, and the 6-month followup assessments, as well as more questions at post-treatment and at the 6-month follow-up assessments. These findings highlight the importance of addressing cultural values such as respeto to ensure culturally robust parent-training programs for Latino families.

  10. A weight loss intervention using a commercial mobile application in Latino Americans-Adelgaza Trial. (United States)

    Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Vittinghoff, Eric; Hooper, Julie


    More than half of Latino adults living in the USA are expected to develop type 2 diabetes in their lifetime. Despite the growing interest in smartphone use for weight loss and diabetes prevention, relatively few clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy of mobile app-based interventions in Latino populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential efficacy of an in-person weight loss intervention in conjunction with a commercially available Fitbit app in a Latino sample at risk for type 2 diabetes and explore significant predictors associated with weight loss. After the run-in period, 54 self-identified Latinos with body mass index (BMI) > 24.9 kg/m2 were enrolled in an 8-week uncontrolled pilot study, and received a Fitbit Zip, its app, and two in-person weight loss sessions adapted from the Diabetes Prevention Program. Mean age was 45.3 (SD ± 10.8) years, 61.1% were born in the USA, and mean BMI was 31.4 (SD ± 4.1) kg/m2. Participants lost an average of 3.3 (SD ± 3.4) % of their body weight (p < .0005). We also observed statistically significant reductions in hip and waist circumferences, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p < .001). After controlling for demographic factors, use of the mobile app weight diary at least twice a week (p = .01) and change in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire score (p = .03) were associated with change in percent body weight. The intervention showed the potential efficacy of this intervention, which should be formally evaluated in a randomized controlled trial.

  11. A sociocultural analysis of Latino high school students' funds of knowledge and implications for culturally responsive engineering education (United States)

    Mejia, Joel Alejandro

    Previous studies have suggested that, when funds of knowledge are incorporated into science and mathematics curricula, students are more engaged and often develop richer understandings of scientific concepts. While there has been a growing body of research addressing how teachers may integrate students' linguistic, social, and cultural practices with science and mathematics instruction, very little research has been conducted on how the same can be accomplished with Latino and Latina students in engineering. The purpose of this study was to address this gap in the literature by investigating how fourteen Latino and Latina high school adolescents used their funds of knowledge to address engineering design challenges. This project was intended to enhance the educational experience of underrepresented minorities whose social and cultural practices have been traditionally undervalued in schools. This ethnographic study investigated the funds of knowledge of fourteen Latino and Latina high school adolescents and how they used these funds of knowledge in engineering design. Participant observation, bi-monthly group discussion, retrospective and concurrent protocols, and monthly one-on-one interviews were conducted during the study. A constant comparative analysis suggested that Latino and Latina adolescents, although profoundly underrepresented in engineering, bring a wealth of knowledge and experiences that are relevant to engineering design thinking and practice.

  12. Cultural factors in preventive care: Latinos. (United States)

    Diaz, Victor Alejandro


    For many, the term "Hispanic" places undue emphasis on the European influence of Spanish colonialism and may even have negative connotations for some. "Latino" is a more encompassing term that gives recognition to the influences of the indigenous and African cultures on modern day Latin Americans. Nevertheless, recognition of typical Latino attitudes and beliefs may assist health care providers. Poverty, unemployment, and low level of education usually account for adverse health in this population. Anti-immigrant sentiment and discrimination in health care and education add adversity to the immigrant's experience. Lack of health insurance and access to quality health care typically plague the adult immigrant. For many, the nearest emergency department is their only source of medical care.

  13. Bottled, filtered, and tap water use in Latino and non-Latino children. (United States)

    Hobson, Wendy L; Knochel, Miguel L; Byington, Carrie L; Young, Paul C; Hoff, Charles J; Buchi, Karen F


    To describe bottled, filtered, and tap water consumption and fluoride use among pediatric patients; to analyze differences between ethnic and socioeconomic groups; and to describe the frequency of physician-parent discussions regarding water consumption. Convenience sample survey. An urban public health clinic. Parents attending a public health clinic. The primary outcome measure was the prevalence of tap, filtered, and bottled water use. The secondary outcome measures were supplemental fluoride use and the percentage of patients reporting discussions of water consumption with their physician. A total of 216 parents (80.5% Latino and 19.5% non-Latino) completed the survey. Of the parents, 30.1% never drank tap water and 41.2% never gave it to their children. Latino parents were less likely than non-Latino parents to drink tap water (odds ratio, 0.26; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-0.67) and less likely to give tap water to their children (odds ratio, 0.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.70). More Latinos believed that tap water would make them sick (odds ratio, 5.63; 95% confidence interval, 2.17-14.54). Approximately 40% of children who never drank tap water were not receiving fluoride supplements. Of the lowest-income families (water to their children. Of the parents surveyed, 82.5% reported that their child's physician had never discussed the type of water they should use. Many Latino families avoid drinking tap water because they fear it causes illness. Unnecessary use of bottled and filtered water is costly and may result in adverse dental health outcomes. Physicians should provide guidance to families regarding the safety, low cost, and dental health benefits of drinking tap water.

  14. Collectivism and individualism in Latino recovery homes. (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A; Luna, Roberto D; Alvarez, Josefina; Stevens, Ed


    Research indicates that Latinos underutilize substance abuse interventions; cultural variables may contribute to difficulties accessing and completing treatment for this group. As a result, there is a need to understand the role of cultural constructs in treatment outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate how levels of collectivism (COL) and individualism (IND) relate to length of stay and relapse outcomes in self-run recovery homes. We compared Latinos in several culturally modified recovery Oxford Houses to Latinos in traditional recovery Oxford Houses. By examining COL and IND in the OH model, we explored whether aspects of COL and IND led to longer lengths of stay and better substance use outcomes. We hypothesized that higher levels of COL would predict longer stays in an Oxford House and less relapse. COL did not have a main effect on length of stay. However, COL had a significant interaction effect with house type such that COL was positively correlated with length of stay in traditional houses and negatively correlated with length of stay in the culturally modified condition; that is, those with higher collectivism tended to stay longer in traditional houses. When we investigated COL, length of stay, and substance use, COL was negatively correlated with relapse in the culturally modified houses and positively correlated with relapse in the traditional houses. In other words, those with higher COL spent less time and had less relapse in the culturally modified compared to the traditional Oxford Houses. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Growing Plants and Minds (United States)

    Presser, Ashley Lewis; Kamdar, Danae; Vidiksis, Regan; Goldstein, Marion; Dominguez, Ximena; Orr, Jillian


    Many preschool classrooms explore plant growth. However, because many plants take a long time to grow, it is often hard to facilitate engagement in some practices (i.e., since change is typically not observable from one day to another, children often forget their prior predictions or cannot recall what plants looked like days or weeks earlier).…

  16. Growing Backyard Textiles (United States)

    Nelson, Eleanor Hall


    For those involved in creative work with textiles, the degree of control possible in texture, finish, and color of fiber by growing and processing one's own (perhaps with students' help) can make the experience rewarding. The author describes the processes for flax and nettles and gives tips on necessary equipment. (Author/AJ)

  17. Designing a Culturally Appropriate Visually Enhanced Low-Text Mobile Health App Promoting Physical Activity for Latinos: A Qualitative Study. (United States)

    Bender, Melinda S; Martinez, Suzanna; Kennedy, Christine


    Rapid proliferation of smartphone ownership and use among Latinos offers a unique opportunity to employ innovative visually enhanced low-text (VELT) mobile health applications (mHealth app) to promote health behavior change for Latinos at risk for lifestyle-related diseases. Using focus groups and in-depth interviews with 16 promotores and 5 health care providers recruited from California clinics, this qualitative study explored perceptions of visuals for a VELT mHealth app promoting physical activity (PA) and limiting sedentary behavior (SB) for Latinos. In this Phase 1 study, participants endorsed visuals portraying PA guidelines and recommended visuals depicting family and socially oriented PA. Overall, participants supported a VELT mHealth app as an alternative to text-based education. Findings will inform the future Phase 2 study development of a culturally appropriate VELT mHealth app to promote PA for Latinos, improve health literacy, and provide an alternative to traditional clinic text-based health education materials. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Pensamento, Teoria e Estudos Latino-americanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques de Novion


    Full Text Available RESUMO O presente trabalho configura como artigo inicial do Dossiê Especial – Pensamento, Teoria e Estudos Latino-americanos, organizado conjuntamente por nós, a pedido da Revista de Estudos e Pesquisas sobre as Américas (CEPPAC, do Instituto de Ciências Sociais (ICS, da Universidade de Brasília (UnB. De forma breve, este artigo apresenta a importância alcançada pelo Pensamento, pela Teoria, e, sobre tudo, pelos Estudos Latino-americanos nas últimas décadas. Em seguida, o artigo apresenta os quatorze trabalhos e uma resenha que compõem este Dossiê, resultado da contribuição de diferentes pesquisadores de distintas localidades da região, organizados em três blocos: Ciências Sociais Latino-americanas, Pensamento e Estudos. PALAVRAS CHAVE: Ciências Sociais Latino-americanas; Pensamento Latino-americanos; Teoria Latino-americana; Estudos Latino-americanos. --- RESUMEN El presente trabajo configura como articulo inicial del Dossier Especial – Pensamiento Teoría y Estudios Latinoamericanos, organizado conjuntamente por nosotros, a pedido de la Revista de Estudos e Pesquisas sobre as Américas (CEPPAC, del Instituto de Ciências Sociais (ICS, de la Universidade de Brasília (UnB. De forma breve, este articulo presenta la importancia alcanzada por el Pensamiento, por la Teoría, y, sobre todo, por los Estudios Latinoamericanos en las últimas décadas. En seguida, el articulo presenta los catorce trabajos e una reseña que componen este Dossier, resultado de la contribución de diferentes investigadores de distintas localidades de la región, organizados en tres bloques: Ciencias Sociales Latinoamericanas, Pensamiento y Estudios. PALABRAS CLAVE: Ciencias Sociales Latinoamericanas; Pensamiento Latinoamericano; Teoría Latinoamericana; Estudios Latinoamericanos. --- ABSTRACT This paper is set up as the initial article of this Special Dossier - Thought, Theory and Latin American Studies, which we organized collectively, at the request

  19. Predictive Variables of Success for Latino Enrollment in Higher Education (United States)

    Sanchez, Jafeth E.; Usinger, Janet; Thornton, Bill W.


    It is necessary to better understand the unique variables that serve as predictors of Latino students' postsecondary enrollment and success. Impacts of various variables were examined among 850 Latino and Caucasian students (76% and 24% of the sample, respectively). Gender, ethnicity, perceived affordability, high school grade point average, and…

  20. Latino Immigration: Preparing School Psychologists to Meet Students' Needs (United States)

    Garcia-Joslin, Jacqueline J.; Carrillo, Gerardo L.; Guzman, Veronica; Vega, Desireé; Plotts, Cynthia A.; Lasser, Jon


    As the population of immigrant Latino students continues to rise, school psychologists serving Latino children and families must develop the knowledge and skills necessary to provide high-quality psychological services to culturally and linguistically diverse students from immigrant families. Following a review of the relevant literature on the…

  1. Perceived Academic Preparedness of First-Generation Latino College Students (United States)

    Boden, Karen


    First-generation Latino college students may be characterized as underprepared for college. Research points to low performance on placement tests. However, students may not perceive themselves as academically underprepared for college. This study explored first-generation Latino students' perceptions of their academic preparedness. Seven students…

  2. Latino Solo Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: Health Risks and Behaviors. (United States)

    Whitley, Deborah M; Fuller-Thomson, Esme


    The purpose of this descriptive report is to provide the first representative information on the sociodemographic profile and the prevalence of mental and physical health conditions of two "at-risk" groups of Latino caregivers: solo grandparent caregivers and single parents. The 2012 Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System was used to compare five dimensions of health on a sample of Latino solo grandparents and Latino single parents, raising their grandchildren/children alone. Bivariate and logistic regression comparative analyses were conducted on study measures. Latino solo grandparents have a high prevalence of chronic health conditions, including arthritis (51%), depression (40%), diabetes (34%), and asthma (34%). Latino single parents have lower but troubling health risks, including depression (22%), diabetes (14%), and asthma (14%). Differences between the two groups were largely due to the grandparents older age. Latino solo grandparents have a high prevalence of several chronic medical conditions. The prevalence of disorders is much lower for Latino single parents, although they too have disturbing health risks. Latino solo grandparents perform their parenting role under intense physical and emotional strain. Health professionals can be instrumental in facilitating interventions that affect the well-being of this expanding family group.

  3. The Role of Collectivism among Latino American College Students (United States)

    Arevalo, Irving; So, Dominicus; McNaughton-Cassill, Mary


    In an attempt to explain the lower Latino college graduation rate, the current study focuses on collectivism in kin and nonkin helping situations. The sample comprised 60 students at a 4-year college in the southwestern United States. Results revealed significance between ethnicity and nonkin collectivism: Latino American college students were…

  4. Socio-Psychological Predictors of Acculturative Stress among Latino Adults. (United States)

    Miranda, Alexis O.; Matheny, Kenneth B.


    A random sample (N=197) of two social service agencies completed a questionnaire to assess family cohesion and adaptability, acculturation, acculturative stress, and coping-resources effectiveness among Latino adults. The results suggest that acculturative stress experienced by Latinos relates to the efficacy of stress-coping resources, degree of…

  5. Latino Associate Degree Completion: Effects of Financial Aid over Time (United States)

    Gross, Jacob P. K.; Zerquera, Desiree; Inge, Brittany; Berry, Matthew


    Lack of financial resources to pay for postsecondary education--perceived and actual--has been cited as a barrier to student access and persistence, particularly for Latino students. This study investigates the following question: "To what extent does financial aid affect the educational attainment of Latinos enrolled in Associate's degree…

  6. Adult Latino College Students: Experiencias y la Educacion (United States)

    Garza, Ana Lisa


    The study aimed to gain a better understanding of the learning experiences of adult Latino college students, as described directly in their own voices. The study was guided by two research questions: RQ1: "How do adult Latinos describe their undergraduate college learning experiences?" and RQ2: "How do culture, gender, and ethnic…

  7. Dispelling Myths about Latino Parent Participation in Schools (United States)

    Quiocho, Alice M. L.; Daoud, Annette M.


    This qualitative study was conducted to discuss and dispel commonly held myths about Latino parents' involvement in their children's education. Differences between teacher perceptions of Latino parent involvement and parents' understanding of their roles in supporting their children's education--including the learning and use of the English…

  8. What Would They Do? Latino Church Leaders and Domestic Violence (United States)

    Behnke, Andrew O.; Ames, Natalie; Hancock, Tina U.


    Understanding what Latino church leaders believe about domestic violence, and what they do when they confront it, is a key step in developing programs to help them engage in domestic violence prevention and intervention activities in their congregations. This article presents the findings from an exploratory study of 28 Latino church leaders. The…

  9. The Connections between Latino Ethnic Identity and Adult Experiences (United States)

    Torres, Vasti; Martinez, Sylvia; Wallace, Lisa D.; Medrano, Christianne I.; Robledo, Andrea L.; Hernandez, Ebelia


    This study considers the influence of adult experiences on the development of Latino ethnic identity. Using purposeful and snowball sampling, adult participants responded to open-ended questions about their understanding of being Latino. Analysis indicated that changes in the environment or life circumstances had the greatest effect on the…

  10. Latino High School Students' Perceptions of Caring: Keys to Success (United States)

    Garza, Rubén; Soto Huerta, Mary Esther


    This mixed methods investigation specifically examined Latino high school adolescents' perceptions of teacher behaviors that demonstrate caring. A chi-square test was conducted to analyze the frequency of responses, and focus group interviews were conducted to expand on the results. The data indicated that although Latino male students were as…

  11. Latinos, the Academic Ethic, and the Transition to College (United States)

    Pino, Nathan W.; Martinez-Ramos, Gloria P.; Smith, William L.


    Research on the academic ethic of Latino college students has not yet been conducted. In order to begin filling this gap in the literature, we surveyed Latino students at a state university to determine whether those who had an academic ethic in high school performed better in college. We also assessed the perceived helpfulness of a variety of…

  12. Supporting the Development of Latino Bilingual Mental Health Professionals (United States)

    Peters, Michelle L.; Sawyer, Cheryl B.; Guzmán, Michele R.; Graziani, Cate


    Latino individuals who prefer to communicate in Spanish lack linguistically and culturally proficient mental health professionals with whom they can communicate effectively. This study illustrates the components necessary to facilitate the overall success of Latino, Spanish-speaking students in attaining advanced degrees in mental health services…

  13. Latino Parent Involvement: Seeing What Has Always Been There (United States)

    Guerra, Patricia L.; Nelson, Sarah W.


    This study reviews 20 years (1990-2010) of scholarly literature on parent involvement related to Latino parents. Parent involvement behaviors of Latino parents were identified and analyzed according to the dimensions of culture theoretical framework--specifically, the dimension of individualism-collectivism (Hofstede, 1984, 1997; Triandis, 1995;…

  14. Health-related characteristics and preferred methods of receiving health education according to dominant language among Latinos Aged 25 to 64 in a large Northern California health plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iribarren Carlos


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Latinos are a fast growing segment of the U.S. health care population. Acculturation factors, including English fluency, result in an ethnic group heterogeneous with regard to SES, health practices, and health education needs. This study examined how demographic and health-related characteristics of Spanish-dominant (SD, Bilingual (BIL, and English-dominant (ED Latino men and women aged 25–64 differed among members of a large Northern California health plan. Methods This observational study was based on data from cohorts of 171 SD (requiring an interpreter, 181 BIL, and 734 ED Latinos aged 25–64 who responded to random sample health plan member surveys conducted 2005–2006. Language groups were compared separately by gender on education, income, behavioral health risks (smoking, obesity, exercise frequency, dietary practices, health beliefs, health status (overall health and emotional health, diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, heartburn/acid reflux, back pain, depression, computer and Internet access, and health education modality preferences. Results Compared with ED Latinos, higher percentages of the SD and BIL groups had very low educational attainment and low income. While groups were similar in prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol, SD were less likely than ED Latinos to rate overall health and emotional well-being as good, very good, or excellent and more likely to report heartburn and back pain (women only. The groups were similar with regard to smoking and obesity, but among women, SD were more likely to be physically inactive than ED, and BIL were less likely than SD and ED groups to eat Conclusion There are important differences among Latinos of different English language proficiency with regard to education, income, health status, health behaviors, IT access, and health education modality preferences that ought to be considered when planning and implementing health programs for this

  15. HIV/AIDS stigma among a sample of primarily African American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) social media users


    Garett, Renee; Smith, Justin; Chiu, Jason; Young, Sean D.


    The recent increase in social media use allows these technologies to rapidly reach communities with higher HIV prevalence, such as African American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). However, no studies have looked at HIV/AIDS stigma among social media users from African American and Latino MSM communities, or the association between stigma and social media use among these groups. This study sought to assess the level of HIV/AIDS stigma among a sample of social media-using African Am...

  16. (Re)visioning U.S. Latino Literatures in High School English Classrooms (United States)

    Rojas, Mary Alexandra


    The term "Latino" in this paper adopts a U.S. definition to refer to those persons born/living in the United States who are of Latin American ancestry. U.S. Latino literature is defined as literature that is originally composed mostly in English, but not exclusively, by authors of U.S. Latino background. Selections of Latino literature…

  17. Predicting levels of Latino depression: acculturation, acculturative stress, and coping. (United States)

    Torres, Lucas


    Past research has noted that aspects of living in the United States place Latinos at risk for experiencing psychological problems. However, the specific features of the adaptation process that contribute to depression remain unclear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the ability of acculturation, acculturative stress, and coping to predict membership into low, medium, and high groups of depression among Latinos. Within a group of 148 Latino adults from the community, a multinomial logistic regression revealed that an Anglo orientation, English competency pressures, and active coping differentiated high from low depression and that a Latino orientation and, to some extent, the pressure to acculturate distinguished medium from low depression. These results highlight a pattern of characteristics that function as risk and protective factors in relation to level of symptom severity. The findings are discussed in terms of implications for Latino mental health, including considerations for intervention and prevention. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Ensuring America's Future by Increasing Latino College Completion: Latino College Completion in 50 States. Executive Summary (United States)

    Santiago, Deborah; Soliz, Megan


    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. This initiative included the release of a benchmarking guide for projections of degree attainment disaggregated by race/ethnicity that offered multiple metrics to track…

  19. How to Grow Old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bertrand Russell


    <正>1. In spite of the title, this article will really be on how not to grow old, which, at my time of life, is a much more important subject. My first advice would be to choose your ancestors carefully. Although both my parents died young, I have done well in this respect as regards my other ancestors. My maternal grandfather, it is true, was cut off in the flower of his youth at the age of sixty-seven,

  20. Geothermal Grows Up (United States)

    Johnson, William C.; Kraemer, Steven; Ormond, Paul


    Self-declared energy and carbon reduction goals on the part of progressive colleges and universities have driven ground source geothermal space heating and cooling systems into rapid evolution, as part of long-term climate action planning efforts. The period of single-building or single-well solutions is quickly being eclipsed by highly engineered…

  1. Public health interventions: reaching Latino adolescents via short message service and social media. (United States)

    Vyas, Amita N; Landry, Megan; Schnider, Marisa; Rojas, Angela M; Wood, Susan F


    Adolescents are substantial users of short message service (SMS) and social media. The public health community now has more opportunities to reach this population with positive youth development and health messages through these media. Latinos are a growing and youthful population with significant health risks and needs. This population may benefit from SMS and social media health interventions. To examine (1) SMS and social media utilization and behavior among Latino youth, and (2) how SMS and social media can be effectively used as a component of public health interventions focused on decreasing sexual risk taking among Latino youth. A mixed-methods approach, using both quantitative survey data and qualitative interview data, was used to provide a robust understanding of SMS and social media use and behavior for public health interventions. We recruited 428 ninth and tenth grade, self-identifying Latino adolescents to participate in a quantitative survey. Additionally, we conducted five key informant interviews with staff and 15 youth. We found that 90.8% (355/391) of respondents had access to a mobile phone either through having their own or through borrowing or sharing one. Of those who had access to a mobile phone, 94.1% (334/355) used SMS, with 41.1% (113/275) sending and receiving more than 100 text messages per day. Of 395 respondents, 384 (97.2%) had at least one social media account, and the mean number of accounts was 3.0 (range 0-8). A total of 75.8% (291/384) of adolescents logged in to their account daily. Of those with a social media account, 89.1% (342/384) had a Facebook account. Youth who took the survey in English were significantly more likely than those who took it in Spanish to have access to a mobile phone (χ(2) (1 )= 5.3; 93.3% vs 86.3%; P = .02); to be high-volume texters (χ(2) (2 )= 16.8; 49.4% vs 25.3%; P Facebook account (χ(2) (1 )= 9.9; 90.9% vs 79.7%; P = .002); and to have a greater mean number of social media accounts (t(387 )= 7

  2. Social cognitive correlates of leisure time physical activity among Latinos. (United States)

    Marquez, David X; McAuley, Edward


    Despite the well-documented benefits of leisure time physical activity, Latinos are reported to be highest among all ethnic groups in leisure time inactivity. The present study examined the relationship between leisure time physical activity and exercise self-efficacy, exercise barriers self-efficacy, exercise social support, and perceived importance of physical activity. Data were obtained from 153 Latinos (n = 86 female, n = 67 male). Comparisons were made between Latinos with high and low levels of leisure time physical activity and between men and women. Results revealed that Latinos high in leisure time physical activity had significantly greater exercise and barriers self-efficacy, received more social support from friends to exercise, and placed greater importance on physical activity outcomes than did Latinos low in leisure time physical activity. No significant differences were revealed for social support from family, nor between men and women on the psychosocial variables. Physical activity interventions targeting sources of self-efficacy, increasing social support, and emphasizing the importance of regular physical activity should be helpful in increasing leisure time physical activity of Latinos. Future research should examine the influence of environmental and cultural variables on the leisure time physical activity of Latinos and how they interact with psychosocial factors.

  3. Clinical trials attitudes and practices of Latino physicians. (United States)

    Ramirez, Amelie G; Wildes, Kimberly; Talavera, Greg; Nápoles-Springer, Anna; Gallion, Kipling; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J


    Ethnic differences in physicians' attitudes and behaviors related to clinical trials might partially account for disparities in clinical trial participation among Latino patients. Literature regarding Latino physicians' clinical trials attitudes and practices, in comparison to White physicians, was lacking. Cross-sectional data from randomly selected physicians (N=695), stratified by ethnicity, were analyzed to test associations of ethnicity with physicians' participation in and attitudes toward referral of patients to clinical trials. Chi-square analyses showed significant (pLatino physicians were significantly less involved in clinical trials than White physicians and found less scientific value in them, highlighting areas for future education and intervention.

  4. Differences in clinical characteristics and disease-free survival for Latino, African American, and non-Latino White men with localized prostate cancer: Data from CaPSURE™


    Latini, DM; Elkin, EP; Cooperberg, MR; Sadetsky, N; DuChane, J; Carroll, PR


    BACKGROUND. Few studies of ethnicity and prostate cancer have included Latino men in analyses of baseline clinical characteristics, treatment selection, and disease-free survival (DFS). The present study examines the impact of Latino ethnicity on these parameters in a large, multiinstitutional database of men with prostate cancer. METHODS. We compared baseline disease characteristics and clinical outcomes for Latino (N = 138), non-Latino White (NLW, N = 5619), and African-American (AA, N = 60...

  5. Perceived stigma of purchasing sex among Latino and non-Latino male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico. (United States)

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Semple, Shirley J; Wagner, Karla D; Chavarin, Claudia V; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Patterson, Thomas L


    HIV prevention efforts must be comprehensive in their understanding of the factors involved in HIV risk. Male clients, who have received less research attention than female sex workers (FSWs), may experience stigma as a function of purchasing sex. Perceived stigma may be related to poor psychological outcomes, risky psychosexual characteristics, and higher drug and sexual risk behavior among male clients of FSWs. However, perceived stigma of purchasing sex may differ between clients of different ethnic groups. In the present study, we examine the correlates of perceived stigma of purchasing sex among Latino versus non-Latino male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Using time-location sampling, we recruited 375 male clients (323 Latino, 52 non-Latino) in Tijuana who completed a computerized survey on various measures. We measured perceived stigma of purchasing sex using three items we developed for this study. Using linear regression analyses we found that perceived stigma was associated with greater guilt, a greater feeling of escape from everyday life, and more negative condom attitudes among Latino clients. This was not found among non-Latino clients. Features of Latino culture, like machismo, and how they may relate to stigma of purchasing sex are discussed.

  6. Growing a market economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.


    This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The model described in this report extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen, a new agent-based model that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories on a massively parallel Paragon computer. Aspen is significantly different from traditional models of the economy. Aspen`s emphasis on disequilibrium growth paths, its analysis based on evolution and emergent behavior rather than on a mechanistic view of society, and its use of learning algorithms to simulate the behavior of some agents rather than an assumption of perfect rationality make this model well-suited for analyzing economic variables of interest from transition economies. Preliminary results from several runs of the model are included.

  7. The growing fibroadenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Linda M; Sara, Rana


    Fibroadenomas (FAs) are the most common tumors of the breast clinically and pathologically in adolescent and young women but may be discovered at any age. With increasing use of core biopsy rather than excision for diagnosis, it is now commonplace to follow these lesions with imaging. To assess the incidence of epithelial abnormalities (atypia, in situ or invasive, ductal or lobular malignancies) in FAs diagnosed by core biopsy and to re-evaluate the management paradigm for any growing FA. A retrospective review of the senior author’s pathology results over 19 years identified 2062 nodular FAs (biopsied by ultrasound or stereotactic guidance). Eighty-three core biopsied FAs were identified which subsequently enlarged. Twelve of 2062 of core biopsied nodules demonstrated atypia, in situ, or invasive malignancy (ductal or lobular) within or adjacent to the FA (0.58%). Eighty-three FAs enlarged and underwent either surgical excision (n = 65), repeat core biopsy (n = 9), or imaging follow-up (n = 9). The incidence of atypia, in situ or invasive malignancy was 0/83 (0%). Two enlarging FAs were subsequently surgically diagnosed as benign phyllodes tumors (PT). Malignancy in or adjacent to a core biopsied FA is rare. The risk of cancer in a growing FA is even rarer; none were present in our series. FAs with abnormal epithelial abnormalities require excision. Otherwise, FAs without epithelial abnormality diagnosed by core biopsy need no specific follow-up considering the negligible incidence of conversion to malignancy. The breast interventionalist must know how to manage discordant pathology results

  8. Making Invisible Latino Adolescents Visible: A Critical Approach to Latino Diversity. Michigan State University Series on Children, Youth, and Families, Volume 7. (United States)

    Montero-Sieburth, Martha, Ed.; Villarruel, Francisco A., Ed.

    The papers in this collection explore a variety of economic and social issues facing Latino adolescents, including those of Latino diversity or unity, sexuality, and family values. The authors discuss ways to respond to these issues, suggesting approaches that can contribute to the healthy development of Latino adolescents. The chapters are: (1)…

  9. Making a difference in medical trainees' attitudes toward Latino patients: A pilot study of an intervention to modify implicit and explicit attitudes. (United States)

    Chapman, Mimi V; Hall, William J; Lee, Kent; Colby, Robert; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Day, Steve; Eng, Eugenia; Lightfoot, Alexandra F; Merino, Yesenia; Simán, Florence M; Thomas, Tainayah; Thatcher, Kari; Payne, Keith


    Negative attitudes and discrimination against Latinos exist in the dominant U.S. culture and in healthcare systems, contributing to ongoing health disparities. This article provides findings of a pilot test of Yo Veo Salud (I See Health), an intervention designed to positively modify attitudes toward Latinos among medical trainees. The research question was: Compared to the comparison group, did the intervention group show lower levels of implicit bias against Latinos versus Whites, and higher levels of ethnocultural empathy, healthcare empathy, and patient-centeredness? We used a sequential cohort, post-test design to evaluate Yo Veo Salud with a sample of 69 medical trainees. The intervention setting was an academic medical institution in a Southeastern U.S. state with a fast-growing Latino population. The intervention was delivered, and data were collected online, between July and December of 2014. Participants in the intervention group showed greater ethnocultural empathy, healthcare empathy, and patient-centeredness, compared to the comparison group. The implicit measure assessed four attitudinal dimensions (pleasantness, responsibility, compliance, and safety). Comparisons between our intervention and comparison groups did not find any average differences in implicit anti-Latino bias between the groups. However, in a subset analysis of White participants, White participants in the intervention group demonstrated a significantly decreased level of implicit bias in terms of pleasantness. A dose response was also founded indicating that participants involved in more parts of the intervention showed more change on all measures. Our findings, while modest in size, provide proof of concept for Yo Veo Salud as a means for increasing ethno-cultural and physician empathy, and patient-centeredness among medical residents and decreasing implicit provider bias toward Latinos. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Latino Parents' Awareness and Receipt of the HPV Vaccine for Sons and Daughters in a State with Low Three-Dose Completion. (United States)

    Kepka, Deanna; Ding, Qian; Bodson, Julia; Warner, Echo L; Mooney, Kathi


    Latinos suffer a disproportionate burden of human papillomavirus (HPV)-preventable cancers, yet uptake and completion of the HPV vaccine among Latinos is below recommendations. Reasons for low HPV vaccine uptake among Latinos in Utah are unknown. We surveyed Latino parents of HPV vaccine age-eligible adolescents (N=118). Univariable analyses identified sociodemographic characteristics associated with HPV vaccine awareness, interest, and uptake for daughter(s) and/or son(s) using chi-square tests or Fisher's exact tests. More parents who had lived in the USA for 15 years or more had vaccinated their daughter (43.6 vs. 32.5%, p=0.035) compared to those living in the USA for shorter time periods. Parents born in Mexico reported their son had not received the HPV vaccine (74.6 vs. 58.3%, p=0.049) more than those born elsewhere. Parents with Mexican birthplace and ancestry reported not knowing about the HPV vaccine as the main barrier to vaccinating daughters (47.1 vs. 5.9%, p=0.002 for both) and sons (birthplace 38.3 vs. 10.3%, p=0.007; ancestry 37.1 vs. 11.1%, p=0.013) compared to those born or descending elsewhere. Non-acculturated parents with a son were more likely to report not knowing about the HPV vaccine as the main barrier to vaccine receipt (47.6 vs. 12.5%, pLatinos in an understudied region and complement prior research in other regions. This study may have implications for designing culturally tailored interventions to improve uptake of the HPV vaccine among the growing population of Latinos in Utah, and other states in the Intermountain West.

  11. Latino Teen Theater: A Theater Intervention to Promote Latino Parent-Adolescent Sexual Communication. (United States)

    Noone, Joanne; Castillo, Nancy; Allen, Tiffany L; Esqueda, Teresa


    Latina teen pregnancy rates continue to be a health disparity in the United States. This study evaluated a parenting intervention using interactive theater to facilitate Latino parent-adolescent communication about sexuality and pregnancy prevention. The intervention, conducted in Spanish and with teen actors, consisted of scenes involving the audience. Fifty-nine parents participated in this 3-month prospective study. Spanish measures of comfort with communication, general communication, and parent-child sexual communication were employed comparing paired t tests for each scale. Acceptability of the intervention was assessed and demonstrated. Eighty-six percent of parents used information from the performance to talk to their child. Improvements in general communication (p < .02), sexual communication (p < .001), and comfort (p < .001) occurred. Interactive theater is an innovative approach to facilitate Latino parent communication about sexuality and pregnancy prevention.

  12. Poniendo tu granito de arena: Latinos and HIV. (United States)

    Vazquez, E


    Because the Latino community often lacks the money and power of large, white-run agencies in HIV prevention efforts, Latino HIV-service providers often turn to bootstrap efforts that are well-grounded in cultural realities. The community response to HIV prevention efforts is examined in terms of the cultural sensitivity needed to reach this ethnic group more effectively. Reasons why grassroots efforts are more effective in a Latino community than traditional agencies, and some examples of successful programs are outlined. The discrepancies seen in HIV services due to lack of resources and connections to needed funding are also discussed. Discussions on the Latino understanding of fatalism, homophobia, family values, and machismo that all affect the spread of HIV are highlighted.

  13. Recognising the Latino Immigrant's Space in the American ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    cultural values that motivate Latino consumer behavior (Lopez, 2003; Padilla, 2002; and ..... individuals are perceived, influencing future behavior and cooperation. .... restaurant, also visited by Caucasian American retired couples, construction workers, ..... uncertainty reduction, and communication satisfaction during initial ...

  14. Latinos, acculturation, and acculturative stress: a dimensional concept analysis. (United States)

    Caplan, Susan


    Acculturation can be conceived of as a process of adaptation to stressful changes. In the field of public health, research indicates that recently arrived Latino immigrants, presumably most affected by acculturative stress, have better health outcomes than those who have spent greater time in the United States. This "immigrant paradox" is not well understood but supports the distinction between the process of acculturation and acculturative stress. To understand the nature of acculturative stress for Latinos in the context of political, historical, and societal forces. Acculturative stress significantly affects the physical and mental health of many Latino immigrants. Types of stressors vary by ethnicity. Separation from family and lack of a community was the most often-cited stressor for new immigrants. Most Latino immigrants were adversely affected by discrimination. By developing an understanding of acculturative stress, nurses can better attend to the needs of our increasingly diverse population.

  15. HIV Prevention Messages Targeting Young Latino Immigrant MSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Solorio


    Full Text Available Young Latino immigrant men who have sex with men (MSM are at risk for HIV and for delayed diagnosis. A need exists to raise awareness about HIV prevention in this population, including the benefits of timely HIV testing. This project was developed through collaboration between University of WA researchers and Entre Hermanos, a community-based organization serving Latinos. Building from a community-based participatory research approach, the researchers developed a campaign that was executed by Activate Brands, based in Denver, Colorado. The authors (a describe the development of HIV prevention messages through the integration of previously collected formative data; (b describe the process of translating these messages into PSAs, including the application of a marketing strategy; (c describe testing the PSAs within the Latino MSM community; and (c determine a set of important factors to consider when developing HIV prevention messages for young Latino MSM who do not identify as gay.

  16. Deporting the American Dream: Immigration Enforcement and Latino Foreclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob S. Rugh


    Full Text Available Over the past decade, Latinos have been buffeted by two major forces: a record number of immigrant deportations and the housing foreclosure crisis. Yet, prior work has not assessed the link between the two. We hypothesize that deportations exacerbate rates of foreclosure among Latinos by removing income earners from owner-occupied households. We employ a quasi-experimental approach that leverages variation in county applications for 287(g immigration enforcement agreements with Immigration and Customs Enforcement and data on foreclosure filings from 2005–2012. These models uncover a substantial association of enforcement with Hispanic foreclosure rates. The association is stronger in counties with more immigrant detentions and a larger share of undocumented persons in owner-occupied homes. The results imply that local immigration enforcement plays an important role in understanding why Latinos experienced foreclosures most often. The reduced home ownership and wealth that result illustrate how legal status and deportation perpetuate the racial stratification of Latinos.

  17. Melting ice, growing trade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Bensassi


    Full Text Available Abstract Large reductions in Arctic sea ice, most notably in summer, coupled with growing interest in Arctic shipping and resource exploitation have renewed interest in the economic potential of the Northern Sea Route (NSR. Two key constraints on the future viability of the NSR pertain to bathymetry and the future evolution of the sea ice cover. Climate model projections of future sea ice conditions throughout the rest of the century suggest that even under the most “aggressive” emission scenario, increases in international trade between Europe and Asia will be very low. The large inter-annual variability of weather and sea ice conditions in the route, the Russian toll imposed for transiting the NSR, together with high insurance costs and scarce loading/unloading opportunities, limit the use of the NSR. We show that even if these obstacles are removed, the duration of the opening of the NSR over the course of the century is not long enough to offer a consequent boost to international trade at the macroeconomic level.

  18. Latinos in science: Identifying factors that influence the low percentage of Latino representation in the sciences (United States)

    Miranda, Susan Jennifer

    A mixed methods approach was used to identify factors that influence the underrepresentation of Latinos in the domain of science. The researcher investigated the role of family influences, academic preparation, and personal motivations to determine science-related career choices by Latinos. Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted using information from Latinos gathered from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS: 88) administered by the National Center for Education Statistics. For the present study, data were analyzed using participants' responses as high school seniors, college students, and post-baccalaureates. Students responded to questions on school, work, parental academic influences, personal aspirations, and self-perception. To provide more insight into the experiences of Latinos in science and support the statistical analyses, nine students majoring in science in a private, urban university located in the northeastern part of the country were interviewed. Eleven variables related to parents' academic support and students' perceptions of parental support were taken together as predictors for two separate criteria from the survey. These results identified parents' level of education and the importance of academics to parents in their teen's college choice as significant predictors in determining college major in science. When the criterion was degree in science, the significant predictor was the frequency parents contacted high school as volunteers. Student interviews supported this information, demonstrating the importance of parental support in attaining a degree in science. Academic preparation was also analyzed. Students' reasons for taking science classes in high school was a significant predictor for science major; significant predictors for science degree were the emphasis placed on objectives in math and science classes and number of courses in biology and physics. Student interviews supported this information and

  19. Fostering and sustaining innovation in a Fast Growing Agile Company


    Moe, NilsBrede; Barney, Sebastian; Aurum, Aybüe; Khurum, Mahvish; Wohlin, Claes; Barney, Hamish; Gorschek, Tony; Winata, Martha


    Sustaining innovation in a fast growing software development company is difficult. As organisations grow, peoples' focus often changes from the big picture of the product being developed to the specific role they fill. This paper presents two complementary approaches that were successfully used to support continued developer-driven innovation in a rapidly growing Australian agile software development company. The method "FedEx TM Day" gives developers one day to showcase a proof of concept th...

  20. Impact of Motivational Pharmacotherapy on Treatment Retention among Depressed Latinos (United States)

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Balán, Iván C.; Patel, Sapana R.; Sánchez-Lacay, J. Arturo; Alfonso, César; Gorritz, Magdaliz; Blanco, Carlos; Schmidt, Andrew; Jiang, Huiping; Schneier, Franklin; Moyers, Theresa B.


    Compared to non-Latino Whites, US racial/ethnic minority groups show higher non-adherence with outpatient antidepressant therapy, including lower retention, despite adjusting for sociodemographic and insurance covariates. Culturally salient concerns about antidepressants leading to ambivalence about treatment engagement may contribute to this discrepancy. To improve treatment adherence among depressed Latinos, we developed Motivational Pharmacotherapy, a novel approach that combines Motivational Interviewing, standard pharmacotherapy, and attention to Latino cultural concerns about antidepressants. This 12-week, open-trial, pre-post pilot study assessed the impact of Motivational Pharmacotherapy on antidepressant therapy retention, response (symptoms, functioning, and quality of life), and visit duration among N=50 first-generation Latino outpatients with Major Depressive Disorder. At study endpoint, 20% of patients discontinued treatment, with a mean therapy duration of 74.2 out of 84 days. Patients’ symptoms, psychosocial functioning, and quality of life improved significantly. Mean visit length was 36.7 minutes for visit 1 and 24.3 minutes for subsequent visits, compatible with use in community clinics. Responder and remitter rates were 82% and 68%. Compared to published Latino proportions of non-retention (32-53%) and previous studies at our clinic with similar samples and medications (36-46%), Motivational Pharmacotherapy appears to improve Latino retention in antidepressant therapy, and should be investigated further in controlled designs. PMID:23965261

  1. Improving Latino disaster preparedness using social networks. (United States)

    Eisenman, David P; Glik, Deborah; Gonzalez, Lupe; Maranon, Richard; Zhou, Qiong; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Asch, Steven M


    Culturally targeted, informal social networking approaches to improving disaster preparedness have not been empirically tested. In partnership with community health promoters and the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, this study tested a disaster preparedness program for Latino households. This study had a community-based, randomized, longitudinal cohort design with two groups and was conducted during February-October 2007. Assessments were made at baseline and 3 months. Analyses were carried out January-October 2008. Community-based study of 231 Latinos living in Los Angeles County. Participants were randomly assigned to attending platicas (small-group discussions led by a health promoter/promotora de salud) or receiving "media" (a culturally tailored mailer). A total of 187 (81.0%) completed the 3-month follow-up. A self-reported disaster preparedness checklist was used. Among participants who did not have emergency water pre-intervention, 93.3% of those in the platica arm had it at follow-up, compared to 66.7% in the media arm (p=0.003). Among participants who did not have food pre-intervention, 91.7% in the platica arm reported it at follow-up, compared to 60.6% in the media arm (p=0.013). Finally, among participants who did not have a family communication plan pre-intervention, 70.4% in the platica arm reported one at follow-up, compared to 42.3% in the media arm (p=0.002). Although both arms improved in stockpiling water and food and creating a communication plan, the platica arm showed greater improvement than the media group.

  2. Growing Galaxies Gently (United States)


    New observations from ESO's Very Large Telescope have, for the first time, provided direct evidence that young galaxies can grow by sucking in the cool gas around them and using it as fuel for the formation of many new stars. In the first few billion years after the Big Bang the mass of a typical galaxy increased dramatically and understanding why this happened is one of the hottest problems in modern astrophysics. The results appear in the 14 October issue of the journal Nature. The first galaxies formed well before the Universe was one billion years old and were much smaller than the giant systems - including the Milky Way - that we see today. So somehow the average galaxy size has increased as the Universe has evolved. Galaxies often collide and then merge to form larger systems and this process is certainly an important growth mechanism. However, an additional, gentler way has been proposed. A European team of astronomers has used ESO's Very Large Telescope to test this very different idea - that young galaxies can also grow by sucking in cool streams of the hydrogen and helium gas that filled the early Universe and forming new stars from this primitive material. Just as a commercial company can expand either by merging with other companies, or by hiring more staff, young galaxies could perhaps also grow in two different ways - by merging with other galaxies or by accreting material. The team leader, Giovanni Cresci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri) says: "The new results from the VLT are the first direct evidence that the accretion of pristine gas really happened and was enough to fuel vigorous star formation and the growth of massive galaxies in the young Universe." The discovery will have a major impact on our understanding of the evolution of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present day. Theories of galaxy formation and evolution may have to be re-written. The group began by selecting three very distant galaxies to see if they could find evidence

  3. Coming of Age on the Margins: Mental Health and Wellbeing Among Latino Immigrant Young Adults Eligible for Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA)


    Siemons, R; Raymond-Flesh, M; Auerswald, CL; Brindis, CD


    © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Undocumented immigrant young adults growing up in the United States face significant challenges. For those qualified, the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program’s protections may alleviate stressors, with implications for their mental health and wellbeing (MHWB). We conducted nine focus groups with 61 DACA-eligible Latinos (ages 18–31) in California to investigate their health needs. Participants reported MHWB as their greatest ...

  4. Exploring How the Home Environment Influences Eating and Physical Activity Habits of Low-Income, Latino Children of Predominantly Immigrant Families: A Qualitative Study. (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Wallington, Sherrie F; Lees, Faith D; Greaney, Mary L


    Latinos are the largest and fastest growing minority population group in the United States, and children in low-income Latino families are at elevated risk of becoming overweight or having obesity. A child’s home is an important social environment in which he/she develops and maintains dietary and physical activity (PA) habits that ultimately impact weight status. Previous research suggests the parents are central to creating a home environment that facilitates or hinders the development of children’s early healthy eating and PA habits. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore low-income Latino parents’ beliefs, parenting styles, and parenting practices related to their children’s eating and PA behaviors while at home. Qualitative study using focus group discussions (FGDs) with 33 low-income Latino parents of preschool children 2 to 5 years of age. FGDs were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis. Data analyses revealed that most parents recognize the importance of healthy eating and PA for their children and themselves. However, daily life demands including conflicting schedules, long working hours, financial constraints, and neighborhood safety concerns, etc., impact parents’ ability to create a home environment supportive of these behaviors. This study provides information about how the home environment may influence low-income Latino preschool children’s eating and PA habits, which may be useful for health promotion and disease prevention efforts targeting low-income Latino families with young children, and for developing home-based and parenting interventions to prevent and control childhood obesity among this population group. Pediatric healthcare providers can play an important role in facilitating communication, providing education, and offering guidance to low-income Latino parents that support their children’s development of early healthy eating and PA habits, while taking into account daily life barriers faced

  5. Día Nacional Latino para la Concientización del SIDA (National Latino AIDS Awareness Day)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Este podcast destaca el Día Nacional Latino para la Concientización acerca del SIDA, para aumentar el conocimiento sobre el impacto desproporcionado del VIH en la población hispana o latina en los Estados Unidos y sus territorios dependientes. El podcast hace recordar a los hispanos o latinos que ellos tienen el poder de tomar el control de su salud y protegerse contra el VIH.

  6. Perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms among US Latinos: the modifying role of educational attainment. (United States)

    Ward, Julia B; Feinstein, Lydia; Vines, Anissa I; Robinson, Whitney R; Haan, Mary N; Aiello, Allison E


    Despite growing evidence that discrimination may contribute to poor mental health, few studies have assessed this association among US Latinos. Furthermore, the interaction between discrimination and educational attainment in shaping Latino mental health is virtually unexplored. This study aims to examine the association between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms and the modifying role of education among a population of Mexican-origin adults. We utilized population-based data from 629 Mexican-origin adults (mean age = 52.8 years) participating the Niños Lifestyle and Diabetes Study (2013-2014). Perceived discrimination was defined as responding 'sometimes' or 'often' to at least one item on the 9-item Everyday Discrimination Scale. High depressive symptoms were defined as scoring ≥10 on the CESD-10. We used log-binomial and linear-binomial models to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) and prevalence differences (PD), respectively, of high depressive symptoms for levels of perceived discrimination. Final models were adjusted for age, sex, education, cultural orientation, and nativity. General estimating equations were employed to account for within-family clustering. Prevalence of perceived discrimination and high depressive symptoms were 49.5% and 29.2%, respectively. Participants experiencing discrimination had higher depressive symptom prevalence than those never or rarely experiencing discrimination [PR = 1.94, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.46-2.58; PD = 0.19, 95% CI: 0.12-0.27]. The strength of this association varied by education level. The association between discrimination and depressive symptoms was stronger among those with >12 years of education (PR = 2.69; PD = 0.24) compared to those with ≤12 years of education (PR = 1.36; PD = 0.09). US Latinos suffer a high burden of depressive symptoms, and discrimination may be an important driver of this burden. Our results suggest that effortful coping strategies, such

  7. Arte Juntos/Art Together: Promoting School Readiness among Latino Children through Parent Engagement and Social Inclusion in a Suburban Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoila Tazi


    Full Text Available Census data reveal that suburban communities are becoming increasingly diverse. Once considered affluent and predictable places, American suburbs are now confronting increasing poverty rates as well as ethnic, racial and linguistic diversity. Currently, more than half of US Latinos live in the suburbs. Schools and public institutions such as museums are challenged to provide programming that meets the needs of Latinos, who are disproportionately poor (Ackerman and Tazi 2015:3. Promoting school readiness among Latino children is an important effort in maximizing the potential and educational attainment of this growing population. In one suburban community, a school-museum collaboration resulted in a bilingual parent-child program promoting school readiness and social inclusion for Latino families. Arte Juntos/Art Together engaged parents and children using art andculture-based activities that developed observation skills, creativity, critical thinking, vocabulary, and aesthetic appreciation. Celebrating diverse perspectives and self-expression, the program provided access to museums as enriching spaces for informal learning, personal empowerment and social inclusion

  8. Process evaluation of a promotora de salud intervention for improving hypertension outcomes for Latinos living in a rural U.S.-Mexico border region. (United States)

    Sánchez, Victoria; Cacari Stone, Lisa; Moffett, Maurice L; Nguyen, PhoungGiang; Muhammad, Michael; Bruna-Lewis, Sean; Urias-Chauvin, Rita


    Hypertension is a growing public health problem for U.S.-Mexico border Latinos, who commonly experience low levels of awareness, treatment, and control. We report on a process evaluation that assessed the delivery of Corazón por la Vida, a 9-week promotora de salud-led curriculum to help Latinos manage and reduce hypertension risks in two rural/frontier counties in the New Mexico border region. Ninety-six adults participated in the program, delivered in three waves and in three communities. We assessed program delivery and quality, adherence, exposure, and participant responsiveness. Participant outcome measures included self-reported eating and physical activities and assessment of community resources. Findings suggest that the program was fully delivered (99%) and that most participants (81.7%) were very satisfied with the educational sessions. The average participant attendance for educational sessions was 77.47%. We found significant differences in self-reported behavioral changes depending on the number of sessions completed: The higher the dose of sessions, the better the self-reported outcomes. These findings suggest that a promotora-led curriculum may be useful for promoting self-management of chronic disease in rural/frontier border Latino populations. Future evaluation should focus on training and implementation adaptations within evidence-based chronic disease programs for diverse Latino communities.

  9. The World Is Waiting for the Sunrise: African Americans "yel Mundo Latino." (United States)

    Widener, Danny


    Traces the long and varied history of interaction and collective action by African Americans and Latinos, focusing on common culture and political cooperation. Outlines issues related to the continued cooperation of African Americans and Latinos, and common political projects. (SLD)

  10. Comparisons of Latinos, African Americans, and Caucasians with multiple sclerosis. (United States)

    Buchanan, Robert J; Zuniga, Miguel A; Carrillo-Zuniga, Genny; Chakravorty, Bonnie J; Tyry, Tuula; Moreau, Rachel L; Huang, Chunfeng; Vollmer, Timothy


    Identify racial/ethnic differences among people with multiple sclerosis (MS) in demographics, MS disease characteristics, and health services received. We analyzed enrollment data from the Registry of the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) Project to compare 26,967 Caucasians, 715 Latinos, and 1,313 African Americans with MS. Racial/ethnic analyses of NARCOMS data focused on descriptive characteristics, using ANOVA and chi-square tests to identify significant differences in means and frequencies among Caucasians, Latinos, and African Americans. We identified significant racial/ethnic differences in demographics, MS disease characteristics, and treatments. Caucasians were older when first MS symptoms were experienced (30.1 years) and at MS diagnosis (37.4 years) than Latinos (28.6 years and 34.5 years) or African Americans (29.8 years and 35.8 years). Larger proportions of Latinos reported normal function for mobility and bladder/bowel function compared to Caucasians. Larger proportions of Latinos (44.2 percent) and African Americans (45.8 percent) reported at least mild depression compared to only 38.7 percent of Caucasians. Larger proportions of Latinos never received mental health care or care from rehabilitation specialists than Caucasians or African Americans. A larger proportion of African Americans had never been treated by a neurologist specializing in MS and a smaller proportion of African Americans received care at a MS clinic than Caucasians or Latinos. Our findings highlight the need for future analyses to determine if age, disease duration, MS symptoms, and disability levels provide additional insights into racial/ethic differences in the use of MS-related providers.

  11. Mothers' beliefs about emotions, mother-child emotion discourse, and children's emotion understanding in Latino families


    Perez-Rivera, Marie Belle


    The purpose of this study was to better understand associations between acculturation, parental beliefs, mother-child emotion talk, and emotion understanding in Latino preschool-aged children. Research on Latino families may prove to be important given the little research that has focused on emotion understanding strictly in Latino cultures. Forty Latino mother-child dyads were observed throughout a series of naturalistic observations. Mothers self-reported their acculturation and their belie...

  12. Growing healthy kids: a community garden-based obesity prevention program. (United States)

    Castro, Dina C; Samuels, Margaret; Harman, Ann E


    Childhood obesity has increased dramatically in the past 3 decades, particularly among children aged 2-5 years. In this group, Latino children are among those with the highest prevalence of obesity. This paper describes a pilot study to evaluate a community intervention, known as the Growing Healthy Kids Program (GHK), to prevent childhood obesity among low-income families in a Southern state. The intervention included a weekly gardening session, a 7-week cooking and nutrition workshop, and social events for parents and children. Matched pre- and post-program height and weight data were collected for 95 children aged 2-15 years. Children's BMI was determined. Also, families reported on the availability and consumption of fruits and vegetables at the beginning and the end of the family's participation in the GHK program. Data were collected in 2008-2010 and analyzed in 2011. About 60% of participants who enrolled in the program were Latino families (n=60 families/120 children). By the end of their participation in the program, 17% (n=6, pcommunity gardens. Although there are limitations because this is a pilot study, this strategy seems to be promising for addressing childhood obesity, particularly among low-income Latino immigrant families. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Family and Cultural Influences on Low-Income Latino Children's Adjustment (United States)

    Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Wadsworth, Martha E.


    This study examined family and cultural influences on adjustment among 90 low-income Latino middle school children (46% girls; average age = 11.38, SD = 0.66) and their primary caregivers (93% female; average age = 36.12, SD = 6.13). All participants identified as Hispanic/Latino, with 75% of families identifying as Mexican-origin Latino, and 77%…

  14. Get Ready, Get in, Get through: Factors That Influence Latino College Student Success (United States)

    Murphy, Joel P.; Murphy, Shirley A.


    "Get ready, get in, and get through." Latino adolescents and young adults are enrolling in the nation's colleges and universities at record numbers. However, completion rates of Latinos range from 8% to 25%. We examined individual rather than organizational factors shown to influence Latino student post-secondary levels of success.…

  15. Ethnographies "de Lucha" (of Struggle) in Latino Education: Toward Social Movement (United States)

    Villenas, Sofia A.


    In this article, I describe the fight back imperatives of Latino educational ethnography at a time when Latino children's education continues to be the battleground for nation and culture wars. I briefly trace the expansion of the field of Latino educational ethnography during the last two decades, and point to the possibilities for the future of…

  16. No Latino Left Behind? Determinants of Support for Education Reform in the U.S. Congress (United States)

    Casellas, Jason; Shelly, Bryan


    With education consistently ranked as the highest priority for Latino voters, how have members of Congress responded to Latino constituents on this dimension? This article explores the relationship between Latino constituencies and the importance members of Congress have placed on this issue. Through an analysis of National Hispanic Leadership…

  17. Religious Literacy in the New Latino Diaspora: Combating the "Othering" of Muslim Refugee Students in Nebraska (United States)

    Sierk, Jessica


    Many communities across the United States have been undergoing recent demographic changes. Since the 1980s, low-skilled labor (e.g. meatpacking) has attracted Latino families to settle in communities that historically have been home to few, if any, Latinos (i.e. the New Latino Diaspora). In more recent years, these same job opportunities have also…

  18. Variations in Latino Parenting Practices and Their Effects on Child Cognitive Developmental Outcomes (United States)

    De Von Figueroa-Moseley, Colmar; Ramey, Craig T.; Keltner, Bette; Lanzi, Robin G.


    This research examines variations in parenting and its effects on child cognitive outcomes across Latino subgroups from a national sampling that utilized a subset of 995 former Head Start Latino parents and children. Comparisons of the Parenting Dimension Inventory scaled scores revealed Latino subgroup differences on nurturance and consistency.…

  19. Beer Advertising to Latino Youth: The Effects of Spanish vs. English Language Targeting. (United States)

    Domenech Rodriguez, Melanie M.; And Others

    Although Latino youth have slightly lower rates of alcohol use than Anglo youth, evidence suggests that as Latinos acculturate their rates of use increase to match those of the Anglo adolescent population. In light of these cultural patterns, a study examined the reactions of young adult males of Latino origin to television beer and non-beer…

  20. Perceptions of Educational Barriers Affecting the Academic Achievement of Latino K-12 Students (United States)

    Becerra, David


    This study examined different factors affecting the perceptions of barriers in academic achievement of Latino K-12 students. The study used data from 1,508 participants who identified themselves as being of Hispanic or Latino heritage in the 2004 National Survey of Latinos: Education, compiled by the Pew Hispanic Center between August 7 and…

  1. Strengthening rural Latinos' civic engagement for health: The Voceros de Salud project. (United States)

    López-Cevallos, Daniel; Dierwechter, Tatiana; Volkmann, Kelly; Patton-López, Megan


    This article describes the Latino Health Ambassadors Network (Voceros de Salud ) project created to support and mobilize Latino community leaders to address health inequalities in a rural Oregon county. Voceros de Salud is discussed as a model that other rural communities may implement towards strengthening Latino civic engagement for health.

  2. The Impact of a Collaborative Family Involvement Program on Latino Families and Children's Educational Performance (United States)

    O'Donnell, Julie; Kirkner, Sandra L.


    Latino families highly value education and are committed to their children's educational success; however, Latino students often experience educational challenges. Well-designed family involvement programs can encourage Latino families, especially new immigrants or monolingual Spanish-speakers, to increase their involvement resulting in positive…

  3. The Professional Educator: Why Supporting Latino Children and Families Is Union Work (United States)

    Fortino, Catalina R.


    This article discusses the creation and promise of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) resolution "¡Si Se Puede!: Improving Outcomes for Latino Children and Youth and Addressing the Needs of the Latino Community." The resolution affirms the AFT's commitment to elevating the importance of Latino issues. As a union committed to…

  4. Improving access for Latino immigrants: evaluation of language training adapted to the needs of health professionals. (United States)

    Bender, Deborah E; Clawson, Margaret; Harlan, Christina; Lopez, Rebecca


    The number of Latinos in North Carolina grew by almost 400% between 1990 and 2000. The rapid change in demographics in this state and other southeastern states has caught healthcare providers unprepared. Lack of ability to communicate with Latino patients may result in errors in diagnosis or reduced compliance with recommended treatments. The Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS) Standards, published in 2001, mandate culturally and linguistically appropriate services for persons with limited English proficiency. This paper describes an innovative strategy to promote Spanish and culture-learning skills of healthcare providers and presents results of the evaluation conducted to determine its impact on access to quality care. The evaluation used a 360 degrees case study design, at 1-year follow-up. Use of Spanish language health-related materials is key to the training's success. The authors make recommendations for replication of the integrated language and culture-training model in other new settlement areas, especially those in the southeast of the United States.

  5. African Ancestry Is Associated with Higher Intraocular Pressure in Latinos. (United States)

    Nannini, Drew; Torres, Mina; Chen, Yii-Der I; Taylor, Kent D; Rotter, Jerome I; Varma, Rohit; Gao, Xiaoyi


    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is a major risk factor, as well as the only modifiable risk factor, for glaucoma. Racial differences have been observed in IOP measurements with individuals of African descent experiencing the highest IOP when compared with other ethnic groups. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between genetic ancestry and IOP in Latinos. Population-based genetic association study. A total of 3541 participants recruited from the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Study participants were genotyped using the Illumina OmniExpress BeadChip (∼730K markers). We used STRUCTURE to estimate individual genetic ancestry. Simple and multiple linear regression, as well as quantile regression, analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between genetic ancestry and IOP. The relationship between genetic ancestry and IOP in Latinos. African ancestry was significantly associated with higher IOP in Latinos in our simple linear regression analysis (P = 0.002). After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, central corneal thickness, and type 2 diabetes, this association remained significant (P = 0.0005). The main association was modified by a significant interaction between African ancestry and hypertension (P = 0.037), with hypertensive individuals experiencing a greater increase in IOP with increasing African ancestry. To our knowledge, we demonstrate for the first time that African ancestry and its interaction with hypertension are associated with higher IOP in Latinos. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Heterogeneity in Past Year Cigarette Smoking Quit Attempts among Latinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Gundersen


    Full Text Available Objective. Examine the association between English language proficiency (ELP and immigrant generation and having made a cigarette smoking quit attempt in the past 12 months among Latinos. Examine if gender moderates the association between acculturation and quit attempts. Methods. Latino past year smokers from the 2003 and 2006/07 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between quit attempt and ELP and immigrant generation, controlling for demographics and smoking characteristics. Results. Latinos with poor ELP were more likely to have made a quit attempt compared to those with good ELP (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.22, confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.46 after controlling for demographic and smoking characteristics. First (AOR=1.21, CI: 1.02–1.43 and second generation immigrants (AOR=1.36, CI: 1.12–1.64 were more likely than third generation immigrants to have made a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Conclusion. Quit behaviors are shaped by differences in language ability and generational status among Latinos. This underscores the need to disaggregate Latinos beyond racial/ethnic categories to identify subgroup differences relevant for smoking and smoking cessation behaviors in this population.

  7. Gift and sacrifice: parental involvement in Latino adolescents' education. (United States)

    Ceballo, Rosario; Maurizi, Laura K; Suarez, Gloria A; Aretakis, Maria T


    Although myriad studies document the benefits of parental involvement in education on various indicators of children's academic performance, less research examines parental involvement among adolescents in low-income Latino families. Incorporating a multidimensional conceptualization of parental involvement, this study examined the relation between parental involvement and academic outcomes in a sample of 223 low-income, Latino adolescents. Results indicated that three types of parental involvement (gift/sacrifice, future discussions/academic socialization, and school involvement) had significant, positive associations with academic outcomes. Moreover, our results suggest that parents' stories about struggles with poverty and immigration are an important component of parental involvement, contributing to adolescents' desire to succeed academically and "give back" to parents. Additionally, our findings indicated that the positive relations between parental involvement and academic outcomes were stronger for immigrant youth and for those with higher endorsements of the Latino cultural value of respeto (respect).

  8. The myth of sameness among Latino men and their machismo. (United States)

    Torres, José B; Solberg, V Scott H; Carlstrom, Aaron H


    This study examined the construct of machismo in relationship to measures of machismo, masculinity, and gender role identity. One hundred forty-eight Latino men with an average age of 36, primarily Mexican American and Puerto Rican, participated. Results indicate that machismo can be characterized as a multidimensional construct, and cluster analyses found that traditional definitions of machismo as authoritarian, emotionally restrictive, and controlling represented only about 10% of the classified Latinos. Most of the sample identified with more emotionally responsive, collaborative, and flexible masculinity styles. Five identity dimensions identified were Contemporary Masculinity, Machismo, Traditional Machismo, Conflicted/Compassionate Machismo, and Contemporary Machismo. Implications include the need to change stereotypes of machismo to be more congruent with the variation in Latino male identity.

  9. Parenting Practices, Interpretive Biases, and Anxiety in Latino Children (United States)

    Varela, R. Enrique; Niditch, Laura A.; Hensley-Maloney, Lauren; Moore, Kathryn W.; Creveling, C. Christiane


    A number of factors are believed to confer risk for anxiety development in children; however, cultural variation of purported risk factors remains unclear. We examined relations between controlling and rejecting parenting styles, parental modeling of anxious behaviors, child interpretive biases, and child anxiety in a mixed clinically anxious (n = 27) and non-clinical (n = 20) sample of Latino children and at least one of their parents. Families completed discussion-based tasks and questionnaires in a lab setting. Results indicated that child anxiety was: linked with parental control and child interpretative biases; associated with parental modeling of anxious behaviors at a trend level; and not associated with low parental acceptance. Findings that controlling parenting and child interpretive biases were associated with anxiety extend current theories of anxiety development to the Latino population. We speculate that strong family ties may buffer Latino children from detrimental effects of perceived low parental acceptance. PMID:23434545

  10. Parenting practices, interpretive biases, and anxiety in Latino children. (United States)

    Varela, R Enrique; Niditch, Laura A; Hensley-Maloney, Lauren; Moore, Kathryn W; Creveling, C Christiane


    A number of factors are believed to confer risk for anxiety development in children; however, cultural variation of purported risk factors remains unclear. We examined relations between controlling and rejecting parenting styles, parental modeling of anxious behaviors, child interpretive biases, and child anxiety in a mixed clinically anxious (n=27) and non-clinical (n=20) sample of Latino children and at least one of their parents. Families completed discussion-based tasks and questionnaires in a lab setting. Results indicated that child anxiety was: linked with parental control and child interpretative biases, associated with parental modeling of anxious behaviors at a trend level, and not associated with low parental acceptance. Findings that controlling parenting and child interpretive biases were associated with anxiety extend current theories of anxiety development to the Latino population. We speculate that strong family ties may buffer Latino children from detrimental effects of perceived low parental acceptance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Sanchez R, Magaly


    In this article, I refer to structural tendencies reflected in the responses of excluded Latinos youths, who range from street children to radical youths (gangs or not) and finally to migrants. The latter, face unusual challenges as a result of being undocumented, forcing them to pursue mobility within a formal system that blocks their way. I review these tendencies through a "positive" lens, focusing mainly on Latino youth who are using different strategies to fight social exclusion. I aim to raise the paradoxical temporality , which indicates that as we learn and analyze more, we tend to move further away from the possibility of transforming pressing problems in society. I raise the question of how to intervene using more knowledge in the alarming situation of one of the most excluded social groups, Latino Youth and also of how to alert and visualize ways of integrating those youth who migrate and become undocumented.

  12. Poor representation of Blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans in medicine. (United States)

    Rodriguez, José E; Campbell, Kendall M; Adelson, Wendi J


    In this article, the authors discuss how various systems in medicine are limiting representation of blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans. Flat and decreasing percentages of Underrepresented Minorities in Medicine (URMM), especially in the black and Native American populations, is concerning for family medicine since members from URMM groups care for minority and underserved populations in greater numbers. Underrepresentation is not only noted in the medical community but also in our medical schools when it comes to numbers of URMM faculty. The changing definition of "disadvantaged" in medical school admissions has also played a part in limiting URMM representation. In addition, the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) excludes black, Latino, and Native American students in greater numbers. The authors support these arguments with evidence from the medical literature. Although unintentional, these systems effectively limit representation of blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans in medicine. Effective changes are suggested and can be implemented to ensure that URMM individuals have equal representation in careers in medicine.

  13. Growing container seedlings: Three considerations (United States)

    Kas Dumroese; Thomas D. Landis


    The science of growing reforestation and conservation plants in containers has continually evolved, and three simple observations may greatly improve seedling quality. First, retaining stock in its original container for more than one growing season should be avoided. Second, strongly taprooted species now being grown as bareroot stock may be good candidates...

  14. Enhancing the Math and Science Experiences of Latinas and Latinos: A Study of the Joaquin Bustoz Math-Science Honors Program (United States)

    Escontrias, Gabriel, Jr.

    Latinas and Latinos are currently underrepresented in terms of our 21 st century student academic attainment and workforce, compared to the total U.S. Hispanic population. In a field such as mathematical sciences, Hispanic or Latino U.S. citizenship doctoral recipients only accounted for 3.04% in 2009--2010. While there are various initiatives to engage underrepresented STEM populations through education, there is a need to give a voice to the experiences of Latinas and Latinos engaged in such programs. This study explored the experiences of seven Arizona State University undergraduate Latina and Latino Joaquin Bustoz Math-Science Honors Program (JBMSHP) participants as well as examined how the program enhanced their math and science learning experiences. Participants attended either a five-week or eight-week program and ranged in attendance from 2006 to 2011. Students were provided an opportunity to begin university mathematics and science studies before graduating high school. Through a demographic survey and one-on-one guided interview, participants shared their personal journey, their experience in the JBMSHP, and their goals. Using grounded theory, a qualitative research approach, this study focuses on the unique experiences of Latina and Latino participants. Four major themes emerged from the analysis of the data. Each participant applied to the program with a foundation in which they sought to challenge themselves academically through mathematics and/or science. Through their involvement it the JBMSHP, participants recognized benefits during and after the program. All participants recognized the value of these benefits and their participation and praised the program. Overall, the JBMSHP provided the students the resources to grow their academic capital and if they chose seek a STEM related bachelor degree. The results of this study emphasize the need to expand the JBMSHP both within Arizona and nationally. In addition, there is a need to explore the other

  15. Latino Adults' Perspectives on Treating Tobacco Use Via Social Media. (United States)

    Anguiano, Beatriz; Brown-Johnson, Cati; Rosas, Lisa G; Pechmann, Cornelia; Prochaska, Judith J


    Latinos are the largest minority group in the United States, and in California they outnumber non-Hispanic whites. Smoking cessation programs tailored for Latino culture, and this population's specific smoking patterns, are needed. Online social networks for smoking cessation have high potential for Latinos, but have not been tested to date. Building a research program on social media apps for cancer prevention in diverse populations, this qualitative study assessed acceptability of tobacco treatment that was distributed via social media for Latino smokers. We conducted three focus groups with Latino adults who were former and current smokers recruited from Santa Clara County, California in 2015 (N=32). We assessed participants' smoking histories, attempts to quit, social media exposure, and receptivity to a social media-based smoking cessation intervention. Audio transcripts were translated and coded for themes. Participants reported factors driving their tobacco use and motivations to quit, and emphasized the importance of community and family in influencing their smoking initiation, cravings and triggers, attempts to quit, and abstinence. Participants valued the communal aspect of social media and suggested strategically tailoring groups based on key features (eg, age, gender, language preference). Participants reported preferring visual, educational, and motivational messages that were connected with existing services. Participants generally voiced acceptability of a social media-delivered intervention to help them quit smoking, viewed the intervention as well-equipped for catering to the strong community orientation of Latinos, and suggested that the platform was able to address variation within the population through strategic group creation. As a group member reflected, "Podemos hacerlo juntos" (We can do it together). ©Beatriz Anguiano, Cati Brown-Johnson, Lisa G. Rosas, Cornelia Pechmann, Judith J. Prochaska. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and

  16. Political Identity Convergence: On Being Latino, Becoming a Democrat, and Getting Active

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Huddy


    Full Text Available The majority of Latinos in the United States identify with the Democratic Party, a tendency with broad political implications as Latinos become an increasingly large segment of the population. Little research, however, has delved into the origins of this preference. In this research, we contrast two explanations for Latinos’ Democratic proclivities: an instrumental explanation grounded in ideological policy preferences and an expressive identity account based on the defense of Latino identity and status. In analysis of data from two large national datasets, the 2012 Latino Immigrant National Election Study and American National Election Study focused on Latino immigrants and citizens respectively, we find strong support for the expressive identity explanation. Hispanic and partisan identities have converged among Latinos in the United States to create a large number of Latino Democrats regardless of citizenship status. Those who identify strongly as Latinos and see pervasive discrimination against Latinos are the strongest Democrats, a process that further intensified over the course of the 2012 election. A strong partisan preference increased political campaign activity, though this activity level was modest overall. Relatively few Latinos had worked on a campaign or given money to a candidate; somewhat larger numbers had tried to convince others about a candidate or worn a button or displayed a sticker. Finally, some support was evident for an instrumental account. Latino support for government-provided health insurance in 2012 consistently increased support for the Democratic Party.

  17. Pathways from acculturation stress to substance use among latino adolescents. (United States)

    Buchanan, Rachel Lee; Smokowski, Paul Richard


    The purpose of this study was to examine the link between acculturation stress and substance use among Latino adolescents. In-home interviews were completed with the participants at four time-points between 2005 and 2007. Path analysis was completed using longitudinal data from 286 Latino adolescents living in North Carolina and Arizona (65% foreign-born). Results indicate that acculturation stress influences family and friend relationships, which in turn affect adolescent mental health problems, and finally, substance use. Key mediators in the pathway from acculturation stress to substance use were parent-adolescent conflict, internalizing, and externalizing problems. Implications for practice and research have been discussed here.

  18. Parental Perceptions of Neighborhood Effects in Latino Comunas (United States)

    Horner, Pilar; Sanchez, Ninive; Castillo, Marcela; Delva, Jorge


    Objectives To obtain rich information about how adult Latinos living in high-poverty/high-drug use neighborhoods perceive and negotiate their environment. Methods In 2008, thirteen adult caregivers in Santiago, Chile were interviewed with open-ended questions to ascertain beliefs about neighborhood effects and drug use. Analysis Inductive analysis was used to develop the codebook/identify trends. Discussion Residents externalized their understanding of drug use and misuse by invoking the concept of delinquent youth. A typology of their perceptions is offered. Learning more about residents’ circumstances may help focus on needs-based interventions. More research with Latino neighborhoods is needed for culturally-competent models of interventions. PMID:22497879

  19. High cancer mortality for US-born Latinos: evidence from California and Texas. (United States)

    Pinheiro, Paulo S; Callahan, Karen E; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Cobb, Taylor R; Roca-Barcelo, Aina; Ramirez, Amelie G


    Latinos born in the US, 36 million, comprise 65% of all US Latinos. Yet their cancer experience is nearly always analyzed together with their foreign-born counterparts, 19 million, who constitute a steady influx of truly lower-risk populations from abroad. To highlight specific cancer vulnerabilities for US-born Latinos, we compare their cancer mortality to the majority non-Latino white (NLW) population, foreign-born Latinos, and non-Latino blacks. We analyzed 465,751 cancer deaths from 2008 to 2012 occurring among residents of California and Texas, the two most populous states, accounting for 47% of US Latinos. This cross-sectional analysis, based on granular data obtained from death certificates on cause of death, age, race, ethnicity and birthplace, makes use of normal standardization techniques and negative binomial regression models. While Latinos overall have lower all-cancers-combined mortality rates than NLWs, these numbers were largely driven by low rates among the foreign born while mortality rates for US-born Latinos approach those of NLWs. Among Texas males, rates were 210 per 100,000 for NLWs and 166 for Latinos combined, but 201 per 100,000 for US-born Latinos and 125 for foreign-born Latinos. Compared to NLWs, US-born Latino males in California had mortality rate ratios of 2.83 (95% CI: 2.52-3.18) for liver cancer, 1.44 (95% CI: 1.30-1.61) for kidney cancer, and 1.25 (95% CI: 1.17-1.34) for colorectal cancer (CRC). Texas results showed a similar site-specific pattern. Specific cancer patterns for US-born Latinos, who have relatively high cancer mortality, similar overall to NLWs, are masked by aggregation of all Latinos, US-born and foreign-born. While NLWs had high mortality for lung cancer, US-born Latinos had high mortality for liver, kidney and male colorectal cancers. HCV testing and reinforcement of the need for CRC screening should be a priority in this specific and understudied population. The unprecedented proximity of overall rates between

  20. Still a hard-to-reach population? Using social media to recruit Latino gay couples for an HIV intervention adaptation study. (United States)

    Martinez, Omar; Wu, Elwin; Shultz, Andrew Z; Capote, Jonathan; López Rios, Javier; Sandfort, Theo; Manusov, Justin; Ovejero, Hugo; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Chavez Baray, Silvia; Moya, Eva; López Matos, Jonathan; DelaCruz, Juan J; Remien, Robert H; Rhodes, Scott D


    Online social networking use has increased rapidly among African American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM), making it important to understand how these technologies can be used to reach, retain, and maintain individuals in care and promote health wellness. In particular, the Internet is increasingly recognized as a platform for health communication and education. However, little is known about how primarily Spanish-speaking populations use and engage with each other through social media platforms. We aimed to recruit eligible couples for a study to adapt "Connect 'n Unite" (an HIV prevention intervention initially created for black gay couples) for Spanish-speaking Latino gay couples living in New York City. In order to successfully design and implement an effective social media recruitment campaign to reach Spanish-speaking Latino gay couples for our ongoing "Latinos en Pareja" study, our community stakeholders and research team used McGuire's communication/persuasion matrix. The matrix guided our research, specifically each marketing "channel", targeted "message", and target population or "receiver". We developed a social media recruitment protocol and trained our research staff and stakeholders to conduct social media recruitment. As a result, in just 1 month, we recruited all of our subjects (N=14 couples, that is, N=28 participants) and reached more than 35,658 participants through different channels. One of the major successes of our social media recruitment campaign was to build a strong stakeholder base that became involved early on in all aspects of the research process-from pilot study writing and development to recruitment and retention. In addition, the variety of "messages" used across different social media platforms (including Facebook, the "Latinos en Pareja" study website, Craigslist, and various smartphone applications such as Grindr, SCRUFF, and Jack'd) helped recruit Latino gay couples. We also relied on a wide range of community

  1. Still a Hard-to-Reach Population? Using Social Media to Recruit Latino Gay Couples for an HIV Intervention Adaptation Study (United States)

    Wu, Elwin; Shultz, Andrew Z; Capote, Jonathan; López Rios, Javier; Sandfort, Theo; Manusov, Justin; Ovejero, Hugo; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Chavez Baray, Silvia; Moya, Eva; López Matos, Jonathan; DelaCruz, Juan J; Remien, Robert H; Rhodes, Scott D


    Background Online social networking use has increased rapidly among African American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM), making it important to understand how these technologies can be used to reach, retain, and maintain individuals in care and promote health wellness. In particular, the Internet is increasingly recognized as a platform for health communication and education. However, little is known about how primarily Spanish-speaking populations use and engage with each other through social media platforms. Objective We aimed to recruit eligible couples for a study to adapt “Connect ‘n Unite” (an HIV prevention intervention initially created for black gay couples) for Spanish-speaking Latino gay couples living in New York City. Methods In order to successfully design and implement an effective social media recruitment campaign to reach Spanish-speaking Latino gay couples for our ongoing “Latinos en Pareja” study, our community stakeholders and research team used McGuire’s communication/persuasion matrix. The matrix guided our research, specifically each marketing “channel”, targeted “message”, and target population or “receiver”. We developed a social media recruitment protocol and trained our research staff and stakeholders to conduct social media recruitment. Results As a result, in just 1 month, we recruited all of our subjects (N=14 couples, that is, N=28 participants) and reached more than 35,658 participants through different channels. One of the major successes of our social media recruitment campaign was to build a strong stakeholder base that became involved early on in all aspects of the research process—from pilot study writing and development to recruitment and retention. In addition, the variety of “messages” used across different social media platforms (including Facebook, the “Latinos en Pareja” study website, Craigslist, and various smartphone applications such as Grindr, SCRUFF, and Jack’d) helped

  2. Organization of growing random networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.


    The organizational development of growing random networks is investigated. These growing networks are built by adding nodes successively, and linking each to an earlier node of degree k with an attachment probability A k . When A k grows more slowly than linearly with k, the number of nodes with k links, N k (t), decays faster than a power law in k, while for A k growing faster than linearly in k, a single node emerges which connects to nearly all other nodes. When A k is asymptotically linear, N k (t)∼tk -ν , with ν dependent on details of the attachment probability, but in the range 2 -2 power-law tail, where s is the component size. The out component has a typical size of order lnt, and it provides basic insights into the genealogy of the network

  3. School Psychologists' Family-School Partnering Experiences with Latinos (United States)

    Vega, Desireé; Lasser, Jon; Fernandez, Sarah E.


    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to identify the beliefs, perceptions, and actions of school psychologists toward family-school partnering (FSP) with Latino families in the public school system. Existing research in this area is extremely limited; therefore, the present study has significant implications for pre- and in-service…

  4. Culinary School Gives Latinos a Taste of the Top (United States)

    Gardner, Lee


    With scholarships and other special programs, the Culinary Institute of America's (CIA) Texas campus hopes to make its Latino students into industry leaders. CIA is considered as the most august culinary school in the United States. CIA San Antonio dispatches chefs to study and document traditional cuisines throughout Latin America for its Center…

  5. Hispanics/Latinos & Cardiovascular Disease: Statistical Fact Sheet (United States)

    Statistical Fact Sheet 2013 Update Hispanics/Latinos & Cardiovascular Diseases Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) (ICD/10 codes I00-I99, Q20-Q28) (ICD/9 codes 390-459, 745-747)  Among Mexican-American adults age 20 ...

  6. MAT@USC Candidates and Latino English Language Learners (United States)

    Lomeli, Cynthia Leticia


    The purpose of this study was to further understand the perceptions of MAT@USC teacher candidates and how their perceptions and previous experiences affect the educational experiences of Latino English language learners. Three questions were developed to guide this study: (1) What are the perceptions of MAT@USC candidates in selected courses…

  7. Parent-Child Communication and Parental Involvement in Latino Adolescents (United States)

    Davidson, Tatiana M.; Cardemil, Esteban V.


    This study examines the associations among parent-child relationship characteristics, acculturation and enculturation, and child externalizing symptoms in a sample of 40 Latino parent-adolescent dyads. Specifically, the associations between parent-child relationship characteristics (i.e., communication and parental involvement) and adolescents'…

  8. Acculturative Stress and School Belonging among Latino Youth (United States)

    Roche, Cathy; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.


    Dimensions of acculturative stress and their implications for school belonging and achievement were examined among 199 Latino middle-school students. The proposed model hypothesized that school belonging would mediate the association between acculturative stress dimensions and low school achievement. Eighty percent youth of the sample were…

  9. Cultural Considerations in Advising Latino/a Students (United States)

    Negroni-Rodriguez, Lirio K.; Dicks, Barbara A.; Morales, Julio


    This paper presents a model for advising Latino/a students in graduate social work programs. The model is based on ecological-systemic and empowerment theory and ascribes to the social work values and cultural competence standards proposed by the National Association of Social Workers. It has been developed within an institution that has sought…

  10. Educating Latino Children: International Perspectives and Values in Early Education (United States)

    Souto-Manning, Mariana


    To implement culturally responsive early education that is developmentally appropriate for Latino children, it is important to look at values that permeate education in Latin America. Therefore, the author draws on ethnographic data (interviews, observations, artifacts, and field notes) from early childhood centers and schools in Mexico, Brazil…

  11. Los Grammy Latino, su meta inicial y su fin comercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinés Arroyo Sotomayor


    Full Text Available El artículo refiere lo que es este festival musical que premia el talento latino, quienes participan, su meta inicial y su fin comercial. Muestra que a pesar de la tradición de intolerancia del exilio cubano, la música sirvió, una vez más, como puente de cultura

  12. Parenting Latino Toddlers and Preschoolers: Clinical and Nonclinical Samples (United States)

    Perez, Maria E.; Fox, Robert A.


    Parenting practices contribute significantly to the social-emotional development of young children. There is limited literature that addresses the role of culture in parenting, particularly among Latino families who have very young children with significant behavior problems. The current study compared the parenting practices of 30 low-income…

  13. Preschool Education: Delivering on the Promise for Latino Children (United States)

    Beltran, Erika


    This publication highlights opportunities to improve the educational outcomes of Hispanic children at an early age, a time that is critical to setting up the academic success of children. Specifically, this paper examines barriers to quality and access that limit the participation of Latino children and families in preschool and offers…

  14. Heteronormativity and sexual partnering among bisexual Latino men. (United States)

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Garcia, Jonathan; Wilson, Patrick A; Parker, Richard G; Severson, Nicolette


    Our analyses address the question of how bisexual Latino men organize their sexual partnerships. Heteronormativity can be understood as the set of social norms and normative structures that guide sexual partnering among men and women. We provide descriptive statistics to describe bisexual Latino men's sexual partnerships. Logistic and linear regression modeling were used to explore bivariate and multivariate relationships. Of our total sample (N = 142), 41.6 % had unprotected vaginal intercourse 2 months prior to the interview; 21.8 % had unprotected anal intercourse with female partners; 37.5 % had unprotected insertive anal intercourse with male partners; and 22.5 % had unprotected receptive anal intercourse with male partners. In our multivariate model, machismo was directly associated with meeting female partners through formal spaces (workplace, school, and/or church), but inversely associated with meeting male partners in formal spaces. Machismo was positively associated with meeting male sex partners through social networks (i.e., friendship and kinship networks). The more comfortable men were with homosexuality the less likely they were to meet men online and the more likely they were to meet men through social networks of friends and kinship. Interventions to reduce sexually transmitted diseases that target bisexual behavior as an epidemiological "bridge" of transmission from homosexual to heterosexual networks might very well benefit from a more complex understanding of how Latino bisexuality is patterned. Thus, this exploratory analysis might lead to a rethinking of how to address risk and vulnerability among Latino bisexual men and their sexual networks.

  15. Addressing Cultural Variables in Parent Training Programs with Latino Families (United States)

    Barker, Chikira H.; Cook, Katrina L.; Borrego, Joaquin, Jr.


    There has recently been increased attention given to understanding how cultural variables may have an impact on the efficacy of treatments with Latino families seeking psychological services. Within parent training programs, understanding the extent to which culture can affect parenting practices is vital to providing quality care. The focus of…

  16. Institutional and Structural Barriers to Latino/a Achievement (United States)

    Valenzuela, Angela; Garcia, Emmanuel; Romo, Harriett; Perez, Beatrix


    The problem of low academic attainment for Latino/a students may be a result of the situation at the K-12 levels, a situation that is beyond the control of students or their families (Martinez, 2003). Analyses of school success must take into account the social and political hierarchies in schools, school systems, and communities, as well as the…

  17. Culturally Responsive Social Skill Instruction for Latino Male Students (United States)

    Lo, Ya-yu; Correa, Vivian I.; Anderson, Adrienne L.


    Cross-cultural friendships and peer interactions are important skills for Latino students to become socially adjusted in U.S. schools. Culturally responsive social skill instruction allows educators to teach essential social skills while attending to the native culture and personal experiences of the students. The present study examined the…

  18. Emergent Target Language Identities among Latino English Language Learners (United States)

    Ciriza-Lope, Maria; Shappeck, Marco; Arxer, Steven


    During 2nd language acquisition, a learner's identity is consigned, juxtaposed, coconstructed, and reified through various affective positions and mitigating linguistic behaviors. Our study of adult Latino ESL students in Dallas, Texas, shows how language socialization experiences are shaped by the learners' affective stances toward the project of…

  19. An Art Therapy Exploration of Immigration with Latino Families (United States)

    Linesch, Debra; Aceves, Hilda C.; Quezada, Paul; Trochez, Melissa; Zuniga, Elena


    This grounded theory study utilized art therapy techniques to explore the experiences of 8 Latino families that had immigrated to the United States. Focus group facilitators invited the parents and adolescent children in the families to share their acculturation experiences verbally and in family drawings. Emergent themes from each of three focus…

  20. Familial Influences on Dating Violence Victimization Among Latino Youth. (United States)

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Klevens, Joanne; Tharp, Andra Teten; Chapman, Mimi V; Chen, May S; Ennett, Susan T


    Despite theoretical and empirical evidence suggesting that the family environment plays a central role in Latino youth development, relatively little is known about how family processes influence dating violence victimization among Latino adolescents. To address this gap in the literature, we used data from 210 Latino parents and their 13- to 15-year-old adolescents to examine associations between several different family processes, including both parenting practices (parent monitoring, parent-adolescent communication) and aspects of the family relational climate (family cohesion, family conflict, acculturation conflict) and psychological, physical, and sexual dating violence victimization. Consistent with expectations, lower levels of family cohesion and higher levels of family and acculturation conflict were associated with risk for dating violence victimization, although associations varied depending on victimization type. In contrast, neither parental monitoring nor parent-adolescent communication was significantly associated with any type of dating violence victimization. In addition, we found that parent, but not teen, Anglo-American acculturation was associated with higher dating violence victimization risk. Findings suggest that family-based dating abuse prevention programs for Latino youth should seek to increase family cohesion and decrease family conflict, including acculturation-based conflict.

  1. Cultural conflicts in the weight loss experience of overweight Latinos. (United States)

    Diaz, V A; Mainous, A G; Pope, C


    In spite of the high prevalence of obesity in the Latino population, there is limited recent information that can be used by health-care providers to develop culturally appropriate weight loss strategies for this population. Therefore, we describe weight loss experiences, attitudes and barriers in overweight Latino adults. Qualitative study using focus group methodology. Twenty-one overweight adults (body mass index >/=25, age >/=20 years) self-identified as Latinos. Subjects participated in one of three focus groups. Reccurring themes within group discussions were identified by three independent investigators, one who was ethnicity concordant. Themes included the presence of mixed messages when determining one's appropriate weight, with participants' desire to lose weight to be healthy (based on professional advice and personal experience) conflicting with the cultural idea that being overweight is healthy. Participants described discordance when adapting to the mainstream, leading to the loss of healthy traditional habits. Participants expressed interest in weight loss and familiarity with dieting and weight loss interventions. They desired culturally appropriate nutrition education and reassurance regarding healthy dieting from health-care providers. The importance of interactions with peers during education was another relevant theme, and participants were overwhelmingly positive about group education. To improve health promotion for Latinos, cultural factors distinctive to this underserved population, and barriers they articulate, should be considered when developing weight loss interventions.

  2. Redefining Rurality: Cosmopolitanism, Whiteness, and the New Latino Diaspora (United States)

    Sierk, Jessica


    In mainstream discourse, rural generally implies white, while urban signifies not-white. However, what happens when "rural" communities experience demographic change? This paper examines how students from a rural, New Latino Diaspora community in a Midwestern state complicate traditional notions of rurality. Data from participant…

  3. Latino Bilingual Teachers: Negotiating the Figured World of Masculinity (United States)

    Lara, Gilberto P.; Fránquiz, María E.


    This article focuses on a group of male teachers from Proyecto Bilingüe, a professional development master's degree program for bilingual teachers. The study is guided by one broad research question: How do Latino male bilingual teachers negotiate their identities in a gendered profession? Specifically the study addresses: What spaces for…

  4. Convivencia to Empowerment: Latino Parent Organizing at La Familia (United States)

    Jasis, Pablo; Ordonez-Jasis, Rosario


    This article explores the emergence of La Familia Initiative, a Latino parent-organizing project at a public middle school. Motivated by their urgency to improve their children's schooling and enhance their opportunities for a better high school experience in the future, the participants organize to establish a more inclusive partnership with the…

  5. Hispanic or Latino Student Success in Online Schools (United States)

    Corry, Michael


    The purpose of this study is to examine graduation and dropout rates for Hispanic or Latino K-12 students enrolled in fully online and blended public school settings in Arizona. The independent variables of school type (charter vs. non-charter) and delivery method (fully online vs. blended) were examined using multivariate and univariate methods…

  6. Recommended and Not Recommended Bilingual Books and Books about Latinos. (United States)

    Schon, Isabel


    Describes several noteworthy books about Latinos that contrast cultures, explain a unique Mexican and Mexican American celebration, explore the debate over illegal immigration, and convey the quandaries of adolescence. Several publications are considered inferior because they disregard the Spanish language and present negative historical…

  7. Latino Adolescents' Academic Motivation: The Role of Siblings (United States)

    Alfaro, Edna C.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.


    Guided by an ecological perspective, two competing models were tested to examine how sibling relationship quality directly predicted or interacted with academic support from siblings to predict Latino adolescents' academic motivation (N = 258). Gender differences were examined utilizing multiple group analysis in structural equation modeling.…

  8. Social network characteristics associated with health promoting behaviors among Latinos. (United States)

    Marquez, Becky; Elder, John P; Arredondo, Elva M; Madanat, Hala; Ji, Ming; Ayala, Guadalupe X


    This study examined the relationship between social network characteristics and health promoting behaviors (having a routine medical check-up, consuming no alcohol, consuming no fast food, and meeting recommendations for leisure-time physical activity and sleep duration) among Latinos to identify potential targets for behavioral interventions. Personal network characteristics and health behavior data were collected from a community sample of 393 adult Latinos (73% women) in San Diego County, California. Network characteristics consisted of size and composition. Network size was calculated by the number of alters listed on a name generator questionnaire eliciting people with whom respondents discussed personal issues. Network composition variables were the proportion of Latinos, Spanish-speakers, females, family, and friends listed in the name generator. Additional network composition variables included marital status and the number of adults or children in the household. Network members were predominately Latinos (95%), Spanish-speakers (80%), females (64%), and family (55%). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, gender moderated the relationship between network composition, but not size, and a health behavior. Married women were more likely to have had a routine medical check-up than married men. For both men and women, having a larger network was associated with meeting the recommendation for leisure-time physical activity. Few social network characteristics were significantly associated with health promoting behaviors, suggesting a need to examine other aspects of social relationships that may influence health behaviors. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. How Community Colleges in Texas Prioritize Resources for Latino Men (United States)

    Rodriguez, Sarah L.; Garbee, Kelty T.; Miller, Ryan A.; Saenz, Victor B.


    This study explored how administrators at community colleges conceptualized change related to resource allocation and managing competing priorities to support targeted programming for Latino men. The study included the perspectives of 39 administrators from seven community colleges across Texas using concepts associated with institutional change…

  10. Latino Parents and Teachers: Key Players Building Neighborhood Social Capital (United States)

    Martinez, Elizabeth; Ulanoff, Sharon H.


    This narrative study examines how Latino parents and teachers in the Boyle Heights/East Los Angeles community create and appropriate social capital to increase student achievement. Specifically, the study explores how parents and teachers participate in two community organizations to extend resources that have the potential to positively impact…

  11. Scattered Challenges, Singular Solutions: The New Latino Diaspora (United States)

    Wortham, Stanton; Clonan-Roy, Katherine; Link, Holly; Martinez, Carlos


    A new Latino diaspora has seen the arrival of Spanish-speaking students in rural and suburban America--places that had not experienced Hispanic immigration in the way the Southwest and urban centers have. This new development presents educators with challenges in meeting these students' needs. But educators also have the opportunity to draw…

  12. Psychosocial Correlates of Dating Violence Victimization among Latino Youth (United States)

    Howard, Donna E.; Beck, Kenneth; Kerr, Melissa Hallmark; Shattuck, Teresa


    To examine the association between physical dating violence victimization and risk and protective factors, an anonymous, cross-sectional, self-reported survey was administered to Latino youth (n = 446) residing in suburban Washington, DC. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed, and adjusted OR and 95% CI were examined.…

  13. Gerardo: asthma and cultural beliefs in a Latino family. (United States)

    Taylor, Tasha; Pachter, Lee M; Bastian, John F; Stein, Martin T


    Gerardo is an 8-year-old Latino boy who saw his primary care pediatrician with a second asthma exacerbation this year. His frustration with his illness was immediately apparent when he said, "I hate having to go to the nurse's office to take my albuterol!" His mother expressed concern that her son frequently refused to take his prevention medication for asthma, montelukast, each morning. When questioned about compliance with his inhaled steroid, his mother hesitated and then admitted that she discontinued the controller medication because she is afraid to "poison his body with so many chemicals." She consistently gave her son the inhaled steroid for 12 months, until care by the allergy specialist was unexpectedly transferred to a Spanish-speaking allergist. She complained that the new doctor is "cold and acts like a veterinarian, not a pediatrician." Gerardo is a first generation Mexican-American who was born in the United States to Spanish-speaking parents. There is no family history of asthma, although his mother fears that she may have contributed to Gerardo's condition. She explained that during pregnancy, she worked cleaning houses where she was exposed to many toxic household cleaners. She has always worried that by inhaling these fumes during pregnancy, she induced her son's asthma. Gerardo presented with his first episode of reactive airway disease at 9 months of age. His mother vividly recalled his high temperature, rapid breathing, and their ambulance ride to the hospital. He was hospitalized for 3 days, and he has not been hospitalized since. Allergy testing revealed sensitivity to weed pollen only. Gerardo sleeps with a nonallergenic pillow and bed cover. Gerardo's mother explained that 3 days before his current exacerbation, he was playing at an amusement park with his friends on a hot day. Gerardo and his friends ran through a large fountain. His mother reported that he was soaked in water and stated, "He knows that he will get sick with asthma if he

  14. The Role of Parent Communication and Connectedness in Dating Violence Victimization among Latino Adolescents. (United States)

    Kast, Nicole Rebecca; Eisenberg, Marla E; Sieving, Renee E


    Dating violence among U.S. adolescents is a substantial concern. Previous research indicates that Latino youth are at increased risk of dating violence victimization. This secondary data analysis examined the prevalence of physical and sexual dating violence victimization among subgroups of Latino adolescents and associations of parent communication, parent caring, and dating violence victimization using data from the 2010 Minnesota Student Survey (N = 4,814). Parallel analyses were conducted for Latino-only and multiple-race Latino adolescents, stratified by gender. Multivariate logistic regression models tested associations between race/ethnicity, parent communication, perceived parent caring, and adolescent dating violence experiences. Overall, 7.2% to 16.2% of Latinos reported physical or sexual dating violence. Both types of dating violence were more prevalent among multiple-race Latinos than among Latino-only adolescents, with prevalence rates highest among multiple-race Latino females (19.8% and 19.7% for physical and sexual dating violence victimization, respectively). In multivariate models, perceived parent caring was the most important protective factor against physical and sexual dating violence among males and females. High levels of mother and father communication were associated with less physical violence victimization among males and females and with less sexual violence victimization among females. Results highlight the importance of parent communication and parent caring as buffers against dating violence victimization for Latino youth. These findings indicate potential for preventive interventions with Latino adolescents targeting family connectedness to address dating violence victimization. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Cross-Sectional Study of Unmet Mental Health Need in 5- to 7-Year Old Latino Children in the United States: Do Teachers and Parents Make a Difference in Service Utilization? (United States)

    Toppelberg, Claudio O; Hollinshead, Marisa O; Collins, Brian A; Nieto-Castañon, Alfonso


    The aim of the study is to examine the rates of mental health service utilization in young Latino children of immigrants in relation to maternal and teacher reports of child mental health need. Specific knowledge is lacking about gaps in service utilization among young Latino children, the fastest growing and possibly the most underserved segment of the US child population. The associations of mental health service utilization (Service Assessment for Children and Adolescents) and mental health need (clinical levels of internalizing, externalizing, or total problems reported by mothers [Child Behavior Checklist] and teachers [Teacher's Report Form]) were examined in a community sample of young Latino children of immigrants ( n = 228; mean age = 6) and compared across mothers' and teachers' responses. Mother-teacher agreement was also studied. Sixty-five children (28.5 %) had a mental health need; most (76.9 %) of these received no services. For all types of mental health need, service utilization was more likely when need was reported by mothers rather than teachers ( p = .03). Teachers' reports were not associated with service utilization. Mother-teacher agreement was low for externalizing ( r = .23; p ≤ 0.01) and total problems ( r = .21; p ≤ 0.05), and nonsignificant for internalizing problems. This study is the first in the United States to document, in such a young Latino group, high rates of unmet need comparable to those among older Latino youth; low or no mother-teacher agreement on which children had a mental health need; low utilization of school-based services; and a lack of association between service utilization and teacher-reported mental health need-both for externalizing and internalizing problems. These findings suggest that schools are not effectively leveraging mental health services for young Latino children. Potential factors responsible for the findings are discussed.

  16. Obesity among Latino children within a migrant farmworker community. (United States)

    Rosado, Javier I; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett; McGinnity, Kelly A; Cuevas, Jordan P


    Childhood obesity has increased substantially among Latino children, placing them at risk for its related health consequences. Limited attention has been given to childhood obesity among Latino migrant farm-working communities. To examine, within a migrant farm-working community, (1) the prevalence of obesity among Latino children and parents and (2) parent perceptions of children's weight status and intentions to take corrective action. Structured interviews were completed with the parents of 495 children seen for well-child office visits in the pediatric department of a community health center during a 15-month period between 2010 and 2011. Medical chart reviews were completed for each child participant. Forty-seven percent of the children were overweight (20%) or obese (27%). In comparison to preschool-aged children, those in elementary and middle school were more likely to be obese. In elementary school, girls were more likely than boys to be overweight or obese. Child obesity was associated with parent obesity. Parental concern about their child's weight was associated with child obesity but not with child overweight. Parental concern was associated with parent intention to address the child's weight, particularly in older children. Analysis was completed in 2012. Interventions are needed that address both childhood obesity and parent weight status among Latino migrant farmworkers. Prevention programs that address the weight status of Latino children who are overweight, but not necessarily obese, are also needed, as their parents tend to be no more concerned about a child who is overweight than one who is normal weight. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Weaving latino cultural concepts into Preparedness Core Competency training. (United States)

    Riley-Jacome, Mary; Parker, Blanca Angelica Gonzalez; Waltz, Edward C


    The New York • New Jersey Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Center (NY•NJ PERLC) is one of 14 Centers funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention designed to address the preparedness and response training and education needs of the public health workforce. One of the important niches, or focus areas for the Center, is training to improve the capacity of public health workers to respond with competence to the needs of vulnerable populations. During every phase of a disaster, racial and ethnic minorities, including Latinos, suffer worse outcomes than the general population. Communities with diverse cultural origins and limited English speakers often present more complex issues during public health emergencies. Training that incorporates cultural concepts into the Preparedness Core Competencies may improve the ability of public health workers to engage the Latino community in preparedness activities and ultimately improve outcomes during disasters. This article describes initiatives undertaken by the NY•NJ PERLC to improve the capacity of the public health workforce to respond competently to the needs of Latino populations. In 2012, the Center collaborated with national, state, and local partners to develop a nationwide broadcast founded on the Preparedness Core Competencies, Latinos During Emergencies: Cultural Considerations Impacting Disaster Preparedness. The widely viewed broadcast (497 sites in 47 states and 13 nations) highlighted the commonalities and differences within Latino culture that can impact emergency preparedness and response and outlined practical strategies to enhance participation. The success of the broadcast spurred a number of partner requests for training and technical assistance. Lessons learned from these experiences, including our "undercover" work at local Points of Dispensing, are incorporated into subsequent interactive trainings to improve the competency of public health workers. Participants recommended

  18. Restraint use law enforcement intervention in Latino communities. (United States)

    Schaechter, Judy; Uhlhorn, Susan B


    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for U.S. Latinos aged 1 to 35 years. Restraint use is an effective means of prevention of motor vehicle crash injury. Effective interventions to raise restraint use include the following: legislation, law enforcement, education, and equipment distribution. The effects of law enforcement interventions in Latino immigrant communities are understudied. We measured the community-level effect of a combined intervention that included warnings and citations phase enforcement in Latino communities. We designed and implemented in two of three Latino-majority communities a multicomponent intervention consisting of a community awareness campaign, restraint use education with equipment distribution, and a two-staged law enforcement intervention. Restraint use observations were conducted in all three communities at baseline, after the warnings phase and again after the citations phase of the intervention were completed. The combined intervention of community awareness, education, child passenger restraint distribution, and law enforcement focused on educational traffic stops with incentives and warnings was associated with a significant increase in both driver and child passenger restraint use in one intervention community, but only driver restraint increased to a level of significance in the other intervention community; significant increase was also noted among nonintervention drivers. The citations phase of the intervention did not result in a significant increase in restraint use and was complicated by interruptions due to unlicensed drivers. The combined effort of community awareness, education, equipment distribution and law enforcement intervention that included incentives and warnings may be effective at increasing seat belt use in Latino communities without the need for citations.

  19. Physical activity among Hispanic/Latino and non-Hispanic/Latino white visitors to urban-proximate public lands (United States)

    Sonia A. Wilhelm Stanis; Ingrid E. Schneider; Kimberly J. Shinew; Deborah J. Chavez; Mary C. Vogel


    Health benefits of physical activity are well recognized and documented, yet obesity rates remain high in the United States, particularly among Hispanics/Latinos. As our population becomes more urban and ethnically diverse, a greater understanding of specific populations may help agencies better address issues related to obesity and sedentary lifestyles. This study...

  20. Higher Birthweight and Maternal Pre-pregnancy BMI Persist with Obesity Association at Age 9 in High Risk Latino Children. (United States)

    Kjaer, Thora Wesenberg; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Medrano, Rosalinda; Elwan, Deena; Mehta, Kala; Christensen, Vibeke Brix; Wojcicki, Janet M


    Childhood obesity is increasing especially in Latinos and early intervention is essential to prevent later obesity complications. Latino children (n = 201) recruited at two San Francisco hospitals were assessed at birth including infant anthropometrics and feeding practices and followed to age 9 with annual anthropometric assessments. We evaluated the relationship between perinatal risk factors and obesity at age 9 and chronic obesity (obesity at both 5 and 9 years). Higher birthweight [odds ratio (OR) 2.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-5.81] and maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.00-1.18) were associated with increased risk for obesity at 9 years. Higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.20) was associated with chronic obesity. Additionally, prenatal depression symptoms were protective (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.11-0.94) against chronic obesity. We found no association between maternal age and education, exclusive breastfeeding at 4-6 weeks, rapid infant weight gain, and obesity or chronic obesity. Perinatal risk factors for obesity including higher birthweight and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI persisted until age 9, whereas, other variables significant at age 5 in our cohort and other populations including exclusive breastfeeding and rapid infant weight gain were no longer associated with increased risk.

  1. Examining the Influence of Family Environments on Youth Violence: A Comparison of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Non-Latino Black, and Non-Latino White Adolescents (United States)

    Estrada-Martinez, Lorena M.; Padilla, Mark B.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Schulz, Amy Jo


    Existing research rarely considers important ethnic subgroup variations in violent behaviors among Latino youth. Thus, their risk for severe violent behaviors is not well understood in light of the immense ethnic and generational diversity of the Latino population in the United States. Grounded in social control theory and cultural analyses of…

  2. Realidades Suburbanas: Latinos en el Condado de Dakota. Una Investigacion Dirigida por HACER = Suburban Realities: Latinos in Dakota County. A Study Conducted by HACER. (United States)

    HACER: Hispanic Advocacy and Community Empowerment through Research, Minneapolis, MN.

    A research project was conducted between April and December of 1998 to learn about the experiences of the sizable numbers of Latinos who live in Dakota County (Minnesota). This diverse group was studied through examining existing demographic information, conducting interviews with 45 Latino and Anglo individuals, and conducting several focus…

  3. Health status, activity limitations, and disability in work and housework among Latinos and non-Latinos with arthritis: an analysis of national data. (United States)

    Abraído-Lanza, Ana F; White, Kellee; Armbrister, Adria N; Link, Bruce G


    To document disparities in health status, activity limitations, and disability in work and housework between Latinos and non-Latino whites with arthritis. We examined whether sociodemographic factors (age, income, and education) account for the disparities between the ethnic groups, and whether comorbid conditions, disease duration, health care utilization, and functional abilities predict health status, activity limitations, and work and housework disability after controlling for sociodemographic variables. We analyzed data from the Condition file of the 1994 National Health Interview Survey on Disability, Phase I. The risk of worse health, activity limitations, and work and housework disability was >2 times greater among Latinos compared with non-Latino whites. In the regression models accounting for potential confounders, Latino ethnicity remained significantly associated with poorer health status, but not activity limitations or disability in work or housekeeping. Of the socioeconomic status variables, education had a significant protective effect on work disability and health status. Comorbid conditions and health care utilization increased the likelihood of worse health, activity limitations, and work disability. Limitations in physical function were associated with poorer health and disability in work and homemaking. Social status differences between Latinos and non-Latinos may account for disparities in activity limitations and disability in work and housework. Education may provide various health benefits, including access to a range of occupations that do not require physical demands. The findings help to address the great gap in knowledge concerning factors related to the health and disability status of Latinos with arthritis.

  4. Growing Oppression, Growing Resistance : LGBT Activism and Europeanisation in Macedonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miškovska Kajevska, A.; Bilić, B.


    This chapter provides one of the first socio-historical overviews of the LGBT groups in Macedonia and argues that an important impetus for the proliferation of LGBT activities has been the growing state-endorsed homophobia starting from 2008. The homophobic rhetoric of the ruling parties was clearly

  5. Cheap heat grows in fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, I.


    Slovak farmers resemble the peasants from the film T he Magnificent Seven . They keep complaining about their fate but consider any innovation as an interference. And that is why they still have not started growing fast-growing wood although the number of heating plants processing bio-mass from forests and fields is growing. Natural gas is expensive and coal creates pollution. Energy from biomass is becoming a good business and also creates new business opportunities - growing the raw material it needs. Such heating plants usually use waste from wood processing companies and Slovak Forests (Lesy SR) has also started deliveries of chip wood from old forests. There are plantations of fast growing wood suitable for heat production of over 500-thousand hectares throughout the EU. This is about 10% of Slovakian's area where the first plantations are also already being set up. The first promising plantation project was launched this spring. And this is not a project launched and backed by a big company but a starting up businessman, Miroslav Forgac from Kosice. He founded his company, Forgim, last winter. Without big money involved and thank to a new business idea he managed to persuade farmers to set up the first plantations. He supplied the seedlings and the business has started with 75 ha of plantations around Trnava, Sala, Komarno, Lucenec, Poprad and Kosice. He is gradually signing contracts with other landowners and next year the area of plantations is set to grow by 1500 ha. Plantations of fast growing trees such as willow, poplar and acacia regenerate by new trees growing out of the roots of the old and from cut trees so from one seedling and one investment there can be several harvests. Swedish willows from Forgim regenerate 20 to 25 years after the first planting. And only then new seedlings have to be purchased. Using special machines that even cut the wood to wood chips the plantations can be 'harvested' every three years. Unlike crops, the fields do not

  6. Synopsis of key persons, events, and associations in the history of Latino psychology. (United States)

    Padilla, Amado M; Olmedo, Esteban


    In this article, we present a brief synopsis of six early Latino psychologists, several key conferences, the establishment of research centers, and early efforts to create an association for Latino psychologists. Our chronology runs from approximately 1930 to 2000. This history is a firsthand account of how these early leaders, conferences, and efforts to bring Latinos and Latinas together served as a backdrop to current research and practice in Latino psychology. This history of individuals and events is also intertwined with the American Psychological Association and the National Institute of Mental Health and efforts by Latino psychologists to obtain the professional support necessary to lay down the roots of a Latino presence in psychology. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Carolina del Norte and the New South: Social Work Practice with New Latino Immigrant Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa de Saxe Zerden


    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the Latino population in North Carolina has increased 111%. More than half of North Carolina Latinos are foreign-born and most face issues related to immigration, acculturation, and often, discrimination. This article provides a brief overview of the historical context in which social workers engaged with immigrant communities, and argues that the profession brings strengths and unique skills to address North Carolina’s Latino immigrant population, historically, and within the current context. Key social demographics of Latino populations, sociopolitical realities, as well as theoretical and methodological issues related to the complex needs of this diverse population group are addressed. Two examples of Latino vulnerability in North Carolina, HIV/AIDS and discriminatory local immigration enforcement practices, are discussed to further highlight the unique strengths and challenges social workers in North Carolina and the New South face when working with Latino immigrants.

  8. Impact of end-of-life discussions on the reduction of Latino/non-Latino disparities in do-not-resuscitate order completion. (United States)

    Shen, Megan Johnson; Prigerson, Holly G; Paulk, Elizabeth; Trevino, Kelly M; Penedo, Frank J; Tergas, Ana I; Epstein, Andrew S; Neugut, Alfred I; Maciejewski, Paul K


    Compared with non-Latino, white patients with advanced cancer, Latino patients with advanced cancer are less likely to sign do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders, which is a form of advance care planning associated with better quality of life at the end of life (EOL). Latinos' completion of DNR orders may be more sensitive to clinical discussions regarding EOL care. The current study examined differences between Latino and white terminally ill patients with cancer with regard to the association between EOL discussions and DNR order completion. A total of 117 participants with advanced cancer (61 of whom were Latino and 56 of whom were non-Latino white individuals) were recruited between 2002 and 2008 from Parkland Hospital (a public hospital in Dallas, Texas) as part of the Coping with Cancer study, which is a large, multiinstitutional, prospective cohort study of patients with advanced cancer that is designed to examine social and psychological influences on EOL care. In structured interviews, patients reported if they had EOL discussions with their physicians, and if they completed DNR orders. The association between EOL discussions and DNR order completion was significantly greater in Latino compared with white patients, adjusting for potential confounds (interaction adjusted odds ratio, 6.64; P = .041). Latino patients who had an EOL discussion were >10 times more likely (adjusted odds ratio, 10.91; P = .001) to complete a DNR order than those who had not, and were found to be equally as likely to complete a DNR order as white patients. Differences in the impact of EOL discussions on DNR order completion may explain Latino/non-Latino ethnic disparities in DNR order completion in EOL care, and point to a means to eliminate those disparities. Cancer 2016;122:1749-56. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  9. Differences in clinical characteristics and disease-free survival for Latino, African American, and non-Latino white men with localized prostate cancer: data from CaPSURE. (United States)

    Latini, David M; Elkin, Eric P; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Sadetsky, Natalia; Duchane, Janeen; Carroll, Peter R


    Few studies of ethnicity and prostate cancer have included Latino men in analyses of baseline clinical characteristics, treatment selection, and disease-free survival (DFS). The present study examines the impact of Latino ethnicity on these parameters in a large, multiinstitutional database of men with prostate cancer. We compared baseline disease characteristics and clinical outcomes for Latino (N = 138), non-Latino White (NLW, N = 5619), and African-American (AA, N = 608) men with localized prostate cancer by using chi-square and ANOVA for baseline variables and survival analysis to examine differences in time to recurrence. Latino men resembled AA men more than NLW on sociodemographic characteristics. AA men had higher Gleason scores and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) at diagnosis than Latino or NLW men (both P Latino and AA men presented with advanced disease (T3b/T4/N+/M+) versus 4% of NLW (P Latino men did not receive different treatments than NLW or AA men after controlling for clinical and demographic factors; however, AA men were more likely to receive external beam radiation (OR = 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.99-2.31) and hormone treatment (OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.05-2.32) then NLW men. For prostatectomy patients, 3-year actuarial DFS rates were 83% for NLW men and 86% for Latino men versus 69% for AA men (P Latinos are more similar to African Americans on sociodemographic characteristics but more similar to NLW on clinical presentation, treatments received, and DFS. Copyright 2006 American Cancer Society.

  10. Exploring Classroom Hydroponics. Growing Ideas. (United States)

    National Gardening Association, Burlington, VT.

    Growing Ideas, the National Gardening Association's series for elementary, middle, and junior high school educators, helps teachers engage students in using plants and gardens as contexts for developing a deeper, richer understanding of the world around them. This volume's focus is on hydroponics. It presents basic hydroponics information along…

  11. Organization of growing random networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.


    The organizational development of growing random networks is investigated. These growing networks are built by adding nodes successively, and linking each to an earlier node of degree k with an attachment probability A{sub k}. When A{sub k} grows more slowly than linearly with k, the number of nodes with k links, N{sub k}(t), decays faster than a power law in k, while for A{sub k} growing faster than linearly in k, a single node emerges which connects to nearly all other nodes. When A{sub k} is asymptotically linear, N{sub k}(t){similar_to}tk{sup {minus}{nu}}, with {nu} dependent on details of the attachment probability, but in the range 2{lt}{nu}{lt}{infinity}. The combined age and degree distribution of nodes shows that old nodes typically have a large degree. There is also a significant correlation in the degrees of neighboring nodes, so that nodes of similar degree are more likely to be connected. The size distributions of the in and out components of the network with respect to a given node{emdash}namely, its {open_quotes}descendants{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}ancestors{close_quotes}{emdash}are also determined. The in component exhibits a robust s{sup {minus}2} power-law tail, where s is the component size. The out component has a typical size of order lnt, and it provides basic insights into the genealogy of the network.

  12. Growing an Emerging Research University (United States)

    Birx, Donald L.; Anderson-Fletcher, Elizabeth; Whitney, Elizabeth


    The emerging research college or university is one of the most formidable resources a region has to reinvent and grow its economy. This paper is the first of two that outlines a process of building research universities that enhance regional technology development and facilitate flexible networks of collaboration and resource sharing. Although the…

  13. Growing Crystals on the Ceiling. (United States)

    Christman, Robert A.


    Described is a method of studying growing crystals in a classroom utilizing a carrousel projector standing vertically. A saturated salt solution is placed on a slide on the lens of the projector and the heat from the projector causes the water to evaporate and salt to crystalize. (Author/DS)

  14. Agglomerative clustering of growing squares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castermans, Thom; Speckmann, Bettina; Staals, Frank; Verbeek, Kevin; Bender, M.A.; Farach-Colton, M.; Mosteiro, M.A.


    We study an agglomerative clustering problem motivated by interactive glyphs in geo-visualization. Consider a set of disjoint square glyphs on an interactive map. When the user zooms out, the glyphs grow in size relative to the map, possibly with different speeds. When two glyphs intersect, we wish

  15. Inferences from growing trees backwards (United States)

    David W. Green; Kent A. McDonald


    The objective of this paper is to illustrate how longitudinal stress wave techniques can be useful in tracking the future quality of a growing tree. Monitoring the quality of selected trees in a plantation forest could provide early input to decisions on the effectiveness of management practices, or future utilization options, for trees in a plantation. There will...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    accelerated economic growth, part of which is hoped to be achieved via increased ... at the Fifth International Conference on the Ethiopian Economy held at the United ... Samuel and Ludi: Agricultural commercialisation in coffee growing areas. ... Ethiopia produces and exports one of the best fighland coffees in the world.

  17. Aspirations, Barriers, and Transfer Opportunities for Latina and Latino Community College Students


    Sanchez, Monica


    The majority of California's students seeking higher education are enrolled in a community college and approximately a third are Latino. Yet as the number of Latinos in community colleges has risen, their degree completion and transfer rates lag in comparison to other major ethnic groups. To investigate the academic aspirations and barriers of community college students, this mixed-methods case study focused on Latinos in a specialized learning community for students entering their first year...

  18. Latino/a Youth Intentions to Smoke Cigarettes: Exploring the Roles of Culture and Gender


    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Huang, Shi; Villamar, Juan A.; Soto, Daniel W.; Pattarroyo, Monica; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes


    Latino/a youth are at risk for cigarette smoking. This risk seems to increase as youth navigate the U.S. cultural context, especially for girls. To investigate how acculturation may influence Latino/a youths’ intentions to use cigarettes, this study combines a bidimensional/multidomain model of acculturation and the Theory of Reasoned Action. Our sample consisted of 303 recent Latino/a immigrant youth who had resided in the United States for five years or less at baseline (1...

  19. Santería as Informal Mental Health Support Among U.S. Latinos with Cancer




    This article explores and examines Santería’s function as a culturally congruent informal mental health support that assists U.S. Latinos to cope with the psychosocial sequelae of living with cancer. Research has demonstrated that Santería serves as a mediating institution for many Latinos. The tradition functions as both a religion and a health care system within various Latino subgroups and has functioned as an informal mental health service in occurrences of health versus illness.

  20. USSTRIDE program is associated with competitive Black and Latino student applicants to medical school


    Campbell, Kendall M.; Berne-Anderson, Thesla; Wang, Aihua; Dormeus, Guy; Rodríguez, José E.


    Purpose: We compared MCAT scores, grade point averages (GPAs), and medical school acceptance rates of Black and Latino students in an outreach program called Undergraduate Science Students Together Reaching Instructional Diversity and Excellence (USSTRIDE) to non-USSTRIDE students. We hypothesized that Black and Latino participants in USSTRIDE had higher acceptance rates to medical school, higher MCAT scores, and college GPAs when compared to other Black and Latino medical school applicants f...

  1. Validation of interpersonal support evaluation list-12 (ISEL-12) scores among English- and Spanish-speaking Hispanics/Latinos from the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study. (United States)

    Merz, Erin L; Roesch, Scott C; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Penedo, Frank J; Llabre, Maria M; Weitzman, Orit B; Navas-Nacher, Elena L; Perreira, Krista M; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Ponguta, Liliana A; Johnson, Timothy P; Gallo, Linda C


    The Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12 (ISEL-12; Cohen, Mermelstein, Kamarck, & Hoberman, 1985) is broadly employed as a short-form measure of the traditional ISEL, which measures functional (i.e., perceived) social support. The ISEL-12 can be scored by summing the items to create an overall social support score; three subscale scores representing appraisal, belonging, and tangible social support have also been proposed. Despite extensive use, studies of the psychometric properties of ISEL-12 scores have been limited, particularly among Hispanics/Latinos, the largest and fastest growing ethnic group in the United States. The current study investigated the reliability and structural and convergent validity of ISEL-12 scores using data from 5,313 Hispanics/Latinos who participated in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study. Participants completed measures in English or Spanish and identified their ancestry as Dominican, Central American, Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, or South American. Cronbach's alphas suggested adequate internal consistency for the total score for all languages and ancestry groups; coefficients for the subscale scores were not acceptable. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the one-factor and three-factor models fit the data equally well. Results from multigroup confirmatory factor analyses supported a similar one-factor structure with equivalent response patterns and variances between language groups and ancestry groups. Convergent validity analyses suggested that the total social support score related to scores of social network integration, life engagement, perceived stress, and negative affect (depression, anxiety) in the expected directions.

  2. Achieving the American dream: facilitators and barriers to health and mental health for Latino immigrants. (United States)

    Shobe, Marcia A; Coffman, Maren J; Dmochowski, Jacek


    Latinos are the largest minority group in the U.S. For Latino immigrants, a shift in migration from larger to smaller cities has recently occurred; the Latino immigrant population in Charlotte, North Carolina, has increased by 634% since 1990. The extent to which immigrants can achieve health and well-being is often related to employment, healthcare access, and social support. This study explored the human, social, and financial capital circumstances of Latino immigrants new to Charlotte and examined the effects of different aspects of capital on health outcomes. Findings indicate that capital is significantly associated with functional status and depression. Implications for social work are discussed.

  3. Framing Effects on End-of-Life Preferences Among Latino Elders. (United States)

    Vélez Ortiz, Daniel; Martinez, Rubén O; Espino, David V


    This study compared how the presentation of end-of-life (EOL) choices influences responses by Latino and White older adults relative to resuscitation preferences. The authors apply prospect theory, which deals with decision making based on how choices are framed. Participants were presented with differently ordered questions framing a resuscitation scenario and asked to rate their preferences. Results show that Latino participants were significantly influenced by the framing order of treatment options with regard to resuscitation while Whites were not. Health professionals need to be aware that the ways they present EOL options are likely to affect the choices of Latino older adults. Further research is needed with Latino subgroups.

  4. Historical, Socio-Cultural, and Conceptual Issues to Consider When Researching Mexican American Children and Families, and other Latino Subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Buriel


    Full Text Available In order for the field of psychology in the United States to maintain its relevance and validity, it must become more inclusive in its theory and research of Latinos, who are now the largest "minority" group in the nation. In particular, due to immigration and birth rates, Mexican Americans are the largest and fastest growing segment of the Latino population. This paper addresses some of the most significant historical and socio-cultural factors contributing to the psychological nature and wellbeing of Mexican Americans. These factors should be understood and used to guide research and theory in order to make the discipline of psychology relevant for Mexican Americans. The concept of mestizaje is used to explain the biological and cultural mixing constituting the diverse origins of the Mexican people. Immigration to the U.S. is described in terms of selective socio-cultural variables giving rise to a diverse Mexican American culture that is resistant to complete assimilation. Within a U.S. context, the constructs of generational status, acculturation, and biculturalism are used to explain the socio-cultural adaptation of Mexican Americans. The special role of children in immigrant families as language and cultural brokers are also discussed, and used to explain the adjustment of Mexican American families.

  5. Reducing HIV risk among Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men: Qualitative analysis of behavior change intentions by participants in a small-group intervention (United States)

    Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Tanner, Amanda E.; Sun, Christina J.; Painter, Thomas M.; Freeman, Arin; Reboussin, Beth A.; Song, Eunyoung; Rhodes, Scott D.


    Objective The southeastern United States has the fastest-growing Hispanic/Latino population in the country and carries a disproportionate HIV burden. Among Hispanics/Latinos, men, and men who have sex with men (MSM) in particular, are at elevated risk of HIV infection; however, very few efficacious behavioral HIV prevention interventions are available for use with this vulnerable population. To address this shortage of prevention resources, our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership developed and is currently evaluating the efficacy of the HOLA en Grupos intervention to increase condom use and HIV testing among Hispanic/Latino MSM. Methods We recruited 304 Hispanic/Latino MSM who were randomized to receive the small group HOLA en Grupos intervention that was implemented during four 4-hour long sessions over four consecutive Sundays, or a 4-session small group general health education comparison intervention. At the end of the fourth session of the HOLA en Grupos intervention, the intervention facilitators asked participants to write down the sexual health-related behaviors they intended to change as a result of their participation. Results Qualitative analysis of the participants’ responses identified six types of intended behavior changes: increasing and maintaining condom use; identifying strategies to support correct and consistent condom use; increasing communication and negotiation with sexual partners about condom use; getting tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections; applying other sexual health promotion strategies; and sharing newly learned sexual health information with their peers. Conclusion Most risk-reduction intentions aligned with the intervention’s key messages of using condoms consistently and getting tested for HIV. However, participants’ stated intentions may have also depended on which behavior changes they perceived as most salient after participating in the intervention. Participants’ intentions to

  6. A longitudinal study of Latino and non-Hispanic mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms and its association with parent-child communication. (United States)

    De Luca, Susan M; Yueqi, Yan; DiCorcia, Daley; Padilla, Yolanda


    Roughly 8% of the U.S. population report moderate or severe depression for two or more weeks and Latinos (3.7%) report higher rates of severe depression compared to non-Hispanic whites (2.6%) (Pratt and Brody, 2014). As the Latino population continues to grow in the U.S., there is little research on the manifestations for depression, and how this affects the family system longitudinally. Based on data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a 3-step latent class analysis examined the association of self-reported parental depressive symptoms and their children's perceived levels of closeness and openness to communicate with their parents over 9 years (N=3956 families). Latino parents reported four different depressive patterns, while non-Hispanic parents were more diversified and had six patterns in terms of latent class analysis. Latinos reported episodic symptoms, while NH parents were more likely to report chronic depressive symptoms over time. Regardless of race/ethnicity, parental depressive symptoms negatively affected their children's reported level of parental closeness and openness to communicate with mothers and fathers. As with any self-report data, the risk of social desirability bias is likely still present. Additionally, these results cannot be generalized to the broader U.S. Due to the different mental health presentations over 9 years, and following the federal initiatives (National Institute of Mental Health, 2015) of early and consistent surveillance, we advise that clinicians and primary care physicians screen for depressive symptoms at least yearly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Reducing HIV risk among Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men: Qualitative analysis of behavior change intentions by participants in a small-group intervention. (United States)

    Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Tanner, Amanda E; Sun, Christina J; Painter, Thomas M; Freeman, Arin; Reboussin, Beth A; Song, Eunyoung; Rhodes, Scott D


    The southeastern United States has the fastest-growing Hispanic/Latino population in the country and carries a disproportionate HIV burden. Among Hispanics/Latinos, men, and men who have sex with men (MSM) in particular, are at elevated risk of HIV infection; however, very few efficacious behavioral HIV prevention interventions are available for use with this vulnerable population. To address this shortage of prevention resources, our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership developed and is currently evaluating the efficacy of the HOLA en Grupos intervention to increase condom use and HIV testing among Hispanic/Latino MSM. We recruited 304 Hispanic/Latino MSM who were randomized to receive the small group HOLA en Grupo s intervention that was implemented during four 4-hour long sessions over four consecutive Sundays, or a 4-session small group general health education comparison intervention. At the end of the fourth session of the HOLA en Grupo s intervention, the intervention facilitators asked participants to write down the sexual health-related behaviors they intended to change as a result of their participation. Qualitative analysis of the participants' responses identified six types of intended behavior changes: increasing and maintaining condom use; identifying strategies to support correct and consistent condom use; increasing communication and negotiation with sexual partners about condom use; getting tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections; applying other sexual health promotion strategies; and sharing newly learned sexual health information with their peers. Most risk-reduction intentions aligned with the intervention's key messages of using condoms consistently and getting tested for HIV. However, participants' stated intentions may have also depended on which behavior changes they perceived as most salient after participating in the intervention. Participants' intentions to share information with their peers may

  8. Correlates of Mental Health Among Latino Farmworkers in North Carolina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, R.; Grzywacz, J.G.; Swantes, Melody


    Purpose: Latino farmworkers are a vulnerable population who confront multiple threats to their mental health. Informed by the stress-process model of psychiatric disorder, the goal of this paper is to determine primary and context-specific stressors of poor mental health among Latino farmworkers....... Methods: Structured interview data were obtained from farmworkers (N = 69) in 6 counties in eastern and western North Carolina. Findings: Results indicated that a substantial number of farmworkers have poor mental health, as indicated by elevated depressive symptoms (52.2%) and anxiety (16.4%). Results...... also indicated that each mental health outcome had different predictors. Conclusion: Addressing the mental health issues of farmworkers requires a comprehensive, multifaceted approach....

  9. The experiences of Latino siblings of children with developmental disabilities. (United States)

    Kao, B; Romero-Bosch, L; Plante, W; Lobato, D


    This qualitative study explored the experiences of Latino siblings of children with developmental disabilities. Parents and typically developing siblings from 15 Latino families with a child with a developmental disability participated in separate interviews. Using consensual qualitative research methodology, domains reflecting siblings' relationships, emotional experiences and communication about the disability were identified. The child's need for caregiving was a prominent topic in the sibling and parent narratives. Parents reported concerns about siblings' experience of differential treatment, whereas siblings reported concerns about restricted social activities because of their brother/sister. Including multiple informants revealed commonalities and differences in parents' and siblings' perspectives on the impact of a child's disability. The importance of considering sibling adaptation in sociocultural context is discussed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Impairment of functioning and substance use in a Latino population. (United States)

    Mercado, Alfonso; Talavera Garza, Liza; Popan, Jason; Finn-Nguyen, Kim; Sharma, Rachita; Colunga-Rodriguez, Cecilia


    This study investigated the association of academic outcomes, romantic relationships, and substance use (tobacco, marijuana, cocaine) with alcohol dependence in a sample of Latino (N = 1,143) college students. Secondary data analysis was conducted on measures of grade point average in college, relationship satisfaction, drug use, and alcohol dependence. Latino college students who reported alcohol dependency had significant relational dissatisfaction and poor academic outcomes. Thus, lower grade point average and relationship dissatisfaction were associated with alcohol dependence. By focusing specifically on a Mexican American population, this study adds important information to current research regarding the commonality and differences across cultural groups regarding drug use and dependence and further clarifies the risk factors associated with substance use and dependency in a population that is vulnerable for at-risk behaviors. This study also offers insight into potential targets of treatment and intervention for this cultural group.

  11. Economic Hardship and Depression Among Women in Latino Farmworker Families. (United States)

    Pulgar, Camila A; Trejo, Grisel; Suerken, Cynthia; Ip, Edward H; Arcury, Thomas A; Quandt, Sara A


    Farmworker family members risk poor mental health due to stressors including poverty, relocation, and documentation status. This paper explores the relationship between farm-work related stressors and depressive symptoms in women of Latino farmworker families. 248 mothers of young children completed fixed-response interviews in Spanish. Measures included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, Migrant Farmworker Stress Inventory, and USDA Household Food Security Survey Module. Bivariate analyses indicated greater depressive symptoms with more economic hardship, more farm work-related stressors, greater age, and being unmarried. In multivariable logistic regression, economic hardship remained the only factor associated with depressive symptoms. Greater economic hardship, but not general farm work-related stress, is a main factor associated with depression in women of Latino farmworker families. Maternal depression can have consequences for both mothers and families. Mental health services for women in farmworker families should be targeted to those with the greatest economic challenges.

  12. Stream Clustering of Growing Objects (United States)

    Siddiqui, Zaigham Faraz; Spiliopoulou, Myra

    We study incremental clustering of objects that grow and accumulate over time. The objects come from a multi-table stream e.g. streams of Customer and Transaction. As the Transactions stream accumulates, the Customers’ profiles grow. First, we use an incremental propositionalisation to convert the multi-table stream into a single-table stream upon which we apply clustering. For this purpose, we develop an online version of K-Means algorithm that can handle these swelling objects and any new objects that arrive. The algorithm also monitors the quality of the model and performs re-clustering when it deteriorates. We evaluate our method on the PKDD Challenge 1999 dataset.

  13. Latino Parents' Perceptions of Pediatric Weight Counseling Terms. (United States)

    Knierim, Shanna Doucette; Newcomer, Sophia; Castillo, Alyssa; Rahm, Alanna Kulchak; Raghunath, Silvia; Clarke, Christina; Wright, Leslie; Haemer, Matthew; Hambidge, Simon J


    Little is known about Latino parents' perceptions of weight-related language in English or Spanish, particularly for counseling obese youth. We sought to identify English and Spanish weight counseling terms perceived by Latino parents across demographic groups as desirable for providers to use, motivating, and inoffensive. Latino parents of children treated at urban safety-net clinics completed surveys in English or Spanish. Parents rated the desirable, motivating, or offensive properties of terms for excess weight using a 5-point scale. We compared parental ratings of terms and investigated the association of parent and child characteristics with parent perceptions of terms. A total of 525 surveys met inclusion criteria (255 English, 270 Spanish). English survey respondents rated "unhealthy weight" and "too much weight for his/her health" the most motivating and among the most desirable and least offensive terms. Spanish survey respondents found "demasiado peso para su salud" highly desirable, highly motivating, and inoffensive, and respondents valued its connection to the child's health. Commonly used clinical terms "overweight"/"sobrepeso" and "high BMI [body mass index]"/"índice de masa corporal alta" were not as desirable or as motivating. "Chubby," "fat," "gordo," and "muy gordo" were the least motivating and most offensive terms. Parents' ratings of commonly used clinical terms varied widely across demographic groups, but more desirable terms had less variability. "Unhealthy weight," "too much weight for his/her health," and its Spanish equivalent, "demasiado peso para su salud," were the most desirable and motivating, and the least offensive terms. Latino parents' positive perceptions of these terms occurred across parent and child characteristics, supporting their use in weight counseling. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Millennium bim managing growing demand


    Lopes, Francisca Barbosa Malpique de Paiva


    Millennium bim, the Mozambican operation of Millennium bcp group, was the Company selected to serve as background for the development of a teaching case in Marketing. This case is followed by a teaching note, and is intended to be used as a pedagogical tool in undergraduate and/or graduate programs. Even though Mozambique is still characterized by high financial exclusion, the number of people entering within the banking industry has been growing at a fast pace. Actually, the demand for fi...

  15. Foreign-Born Latinos Living in Rural Areas are more likely to Experience Health Care Discrimination: Results from Proyecto de Salud para Latinos. (United States)

    López-Cevallos, Daniel F; Harvey, S Marie


    Health care discrimination is increasingly considered a significant barrier to accessing health services among minority populations, including Latinos. However, little is known about the role of immigration status. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between immigration status and perceived health care discrimination among Latinos living in rural areas. Interviews were conducted among 349 young-adult Latinos (ages 18 to 25) living in rural Oregon, as part of Proyecto de Salud para Latinos. Over a third of participants experienced health care discrimination (39.5 %). Discrimination was higher among foreign-born (44.9 %) rather than US-born Latinos (31.9 %). Multivariate results showed that foreign-born Latinos were significantly more likely to experience health care discrimination, even after controlling for other relevant factors (OR = 2.10, 95 % CI 1.16-3.82). This study provides evidence that health care discrimination is prevalent among young-adult Latinos living in rural areas, particularly the foreign-born. Effective approaches towards reducing discrimination in health care settings should take into consideration the need to reform our broken immigration system.

  16. Diurnal cortisol rhythms among Latino immigrants in Oregon, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Squires Erica C


    Full Text Available Abstract One of the most commonly used stress biomarkers is cortisol, a glucocorticoid hormone released by the adrenal glands that is central to the physiological stress response. Free cortisol can be measured in saliva and has been the biomarker of choice in stress studies measuring the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Chronic psychosocial stress can lead to dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function and results in an abnormal diurnal cortisol profile. Little is known about objectively measured stress and health in Latino populations in the United States, yet this is likely an important factor in understanding health disparities that exist between Latinos and whites. The present study was designed to measure cortisol profiles among Latino immigrant farmworkers in Oregon (USA, and to compare quantitative and qualitative measures of stress in this population. Our results indicate that there were no sex differences in average cortisol AUCg (area under the curve with respect to the ground over two days (AvgAUCg; males = 1.38, females = 1.60; P = 0.415. AUCg1 (Day 1 AUCg and AvgAUCg were significantly negatively associated with age in men (PPPP

  17. Parental Feeding Style and Pediatric Obesity in Latino Families. (United States)

    Maliszewski, Genevieve; Gillette, Meredith Dreyer; Brown, Chris; Cowden, John D


    Pediatric obesity has become an epidemic in the United States. Previous research has shown that parenting factors related to feeding style affect child weight and that Latino families are especially at risk for pediatric obesity. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the relationship between parental feeding style and child body mass index (BMI) in Latino families. Latino parents of children between the ages of 2 and 8 ( N = 124) completed a survey on parental feeding styles, acculturation, and demographics. The outcome variable was child BMI. Among respondents, 89% were mothers, 72% were overweight or obese, and 40% reported an indulgent feeding style. Children had a mean age of 59 months ( SD = 23.8) and a mean BMI z score of 0.77 ( SD = 1.14). A demanding parental feeding style was associated with lower child BMI z score, r = -.179, p parents' feeding behaviors. Future research is warranted in the area of ethnic variations of parenting and how these affect feeding and obesity in this highly vulnerable population.

  18. Factors affecting children's oral health: perceptions among Latino parents. (United States)

    Cortés, Dharma E; Réategui-Sharpe, Ludmila; Spiro Iii, Avron; García, Raul I


    The objective of this study is to understand factors that influence the oral health-related behaviors of Latino children, as reported by their parents. Focus groups and in-depth interviews assessed parental perceptions, experiences, attributions, and beliefs regarding their children's oral health. Guiding questions focused on a) the participant's child dental experiences; b) the impact of dental problems on the child's daily activities, emotions, self-esteem; c) parental experiences coping with child's dental problems; and d) hygienic and dietary habits. Participants were purposively sampled from dental clinics and public schools with a high concentration of Latinos; 92 urban low-income Latino Spanish-speaking parents participated. Transcriptions of the audio files were thematically analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Parents' explanations of their children's dental experiences were categorized under the following themes: caries and diet, access to dental care, migration experiences, and routines. Findings revealed fundamental multilevel (i.e., individual/child, family, and community) factors that are important to consider for future interventions to reduce oral health disparities: behaviors leading to caries, parental knowledge about optimal oral health, access to sugary foods within the living environment and to fluoridated water as well as barriers to oral health care such as lack of health insurance or limited health insurance coverage, among others. © 2011 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  19. Hip-Hop to Health Jr. for Latino preschool children. (United States)

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Stolley, Melinda R; Schiffer, Linda; Van Horn, Linda; KauferChristoffel, Katherine; Dyer, Alan


    Hip-Hop to Health Jr. was a diet/physical activity intervention designed to reduce gains in BMI (kilograms per meter squared) in preschool minority children. Twelve predominantly Latino Head Start centers participated in a group-randomized trial conducted between Fall 2001 and Winter 2003. Six centers were randomized to a culturally proficient 14-week (three times weekly) diet/physical activity intervention. Parents participated by completing weekly homework assignments. The children in the other six centers received a general health intervention that did not address either diet or physical activity. The primary outcome was change in BMI, and secondary outcomes were changes in dietary intake and physical activity. Measures were collected at baseline, post-intervention, and at Years 1 and 2 follow-up. There were no significant differences between intervention and control schools in either primary or secondary outcomes at post-intervention, Year 1, or Year 2 follow-ups. When Hip-Hop to Health Jr. was conducted in predominantly black Head Start centers, it was effective in reducing subsequent increases in BMI in preschool children. In contrast, when the program was conducted in Latino centers, it was not effective. Although the intervention did not prevent excessive weight gain in Latino children, it was very well received. Future interventions with this population may require further cultural tailoring and a more robust parent intervention.

  20. Do post-migration perceptions of social mobility matter for Latino immigrant health? (United States)

    Alcántara, Carmela; Chen, Chih-Nan; Alegría, Margarita


    Latino immigrants exhibit health declines with increasing duration in the United States, which some attribute to a loss in social status after migration or downward social mobility. Yet, research into the distribution of perceived social mobility and patterned associations to Latino health is sparse, despite extensive research to show that economic and social advancement is a key driver of voluntary migration. We investigated Latino immigrant sub-ethnic group variation in the distribution of perceived social mobility, defined as the difference between respondents’ perceived social status of origin had they remained in their country of origin and their current social status in the U.S. We also examined the association between perceived social mobility and past-year major depressive episode (MDE) and self-rated fair/poor physical health, and whether Latino sub-ethnicity moderated these associations. We computed weighted logistic regression analyses using subsample (N = 1561 the Latino immigrant) of the National Latino and Asian American Study. Puerto Rican migrants were more likely to perceive downward social mobility relative to Mexican and Cuban immigrants who were more likely to perceive upward social mobility. Perceived downward social mobility was associated with increased odds of fair/poor physical health and MDE. Latino sub-ethnicity was a statistically significant moderator, such that perceived downward social mobility was associated with higher odds of MDE only among Puerto Rican and Other Latino immigrants. In contrast, perceived upward social mobility was not associated with self-rated fair/poor physical health. Our findings suggest that perceived downward social mobility might be an independent correlate of health among Latino immigrants, and might help explain Latino sub-ethnic group differences in mental health status. Future studies on Latino immigrant health should use prospective designs to examine the physiological and psychological costs

  1. Differences in neighborhood social cohesion and aerobic physical activity by Latino subgroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenda Murillo


    Full Text Available Previous research has examined the role of neighborhood social cohesion in physical activity outcomes; however, less is known about this relationship across Latino subgroups. The purpose of our study was to examine the association between neighborhood social cohesion and aerobic leisure-time physical activity (LTPA among Latino adults and to determine whether these associations differ by Latino subgroup. We used cross-sectional 2013–2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS data on Latinos originating from 5 countries/regions (i.e., Latinos of Puerto Rican, Mexican/Mexican-American, Cuban/Cuban-American, Dominican and Central or South American origin aged ≥18 years (n=11,126. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between self-reported neighborhood social cohesion and meeting aerobic LTPA guidelines. Models were adjusted for age, sex, education, and acculturation. We also investigated whether associations varied by Latino subgroup. In adjusted models for all Latino adults, compared with those reporting low social cohesion, individuals who reported high social cohesion (Odds Ratio [OR]: 1.33; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.17–1.52 were significantly more likely to meet the aerobic physical activity guideline. When stratified by Latino subgroups, among Mexican/Mexicans-Americans (OR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.16, 1.66 and Cuban/Cuban Americans (OR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.97 high social cohesion was associated with meeting the aerobic activity guideline. Among Dominicans, those who reported medium social cohesion (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.93 were less likely to meet the aerobic activity guideline. When examining aerobic physical activity outcomes in the Latino population, the role of neighborhood social cohesion and the variability among Latino subgroups should be considered. Keywords: Neighborhood social cohesion, Physical activity, Latinos, subgroups

  2. Cultural systems for growing potatoes in space (United States)

    Tibbitts, T.; Bula, R.; Corey, R.; Morrow, R.


    Higher plants are being evaluated for life support to provide needed food, oxygen and water as well as removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The successful utilization of plants in space will require the development of not only highly productive growing systems but also highly efficient bioregenerative systems. It will be necessary to recycle all inedible plant parts and all human wastes so that the entire complement of elemental compounds can be reused. Potatoes have been proposed as one of the desirable crops because they are 1) extremely productive, yielding more than 100 metric tons per hectare from field plantings, 2) the edible tubers are high in digestible starch (70%) and protein (10%) on a dry weight basis, 3) up to 80% of the total plant production is in tubers and thus edible, 4) the plants are easily propagated either from tubers or from tissue culture plantlets, 5) the tubers can be utilized with a minimum of processing, and 6) potatoes can be prepared in a variety of different forms for the human diet (Tibbitts et al., 1982). However potatoes have a growth pattern that complicates the development of growing the plants in controlled systems. Tubers are borne on underground stems that are botanically termed 'rhizomes', but in common usage termed 'stolons'. The stolons must be maintained in a dark, moist area with sufficient provision for enlargement of tubers. Stems rapidly terminate in flowers forcing extensive branching and spreading of plants so that individual plants will cover 0.2 m2 or more area. Thus the growing system must be developed to provide an area that is darkened for tuber and root growth and of sufficient size for plant spread. A system developed for growing potatoes, or any plants, in space will have certain requirements that must be met to make them a useful part of a life support system. The system must 1) be constructed of materials, and involve media, that can be reused for many successive cycles of plant growth, 2

  3. Mothers' Acculturation and Beliefs about Emotions, Mother-Child Emotion Discourse, and Children's Emotion Understanding in Latino Families (United States)

    Perez Rivera, Marie Belle; Dunsmore, Julie C.


    Research Findings: We examined associations among Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, maternal beliefs, mother-child emotion talk, and emotion understanding in 40 Latino preschool-age children and their mothers. Mothers self-reported Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, and beliefs about the value/danger of children's emotions and…

  4. Parent Involvement and Views of School Success: The Role of Parents' Latino and White American Cultural Orientations (United States)

    Ryan, Carey S.; Casas, Juan F.; Kelly-Vance, Lisa; Ryalls, Brigette O.; Nero, Collette


    We examined ethnicity and cultural orientation as predictors of parents' views of and involvement in children's education, using data gathered from the Latino (n = 74) and non-Latino (17 White and 13 ethnic minority) parents of children in an elementary school's dual-language program. Parents completed a questionnaire that assessed Latino and…

  5. HIV/AIDS stigma among a sample of primarily African-American and Latino men who have sex with men social media users. (United States)

    Garett, Renee; Smith, Justin; Chiu, Jason; Young, Sean D


    The recent increase in social media use allows these technologies to rapidly reach communities with higher HIV prevalence, such as African-American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). However, no studies have looked at HIV/AIDS stigma among social media users from African-American and Latino MSM communities, or the association between stigma and social media use among these groups. This study sought to assess the level of HIV/AIDS stigma among a sample of social media-using African-American and Latino MSM from Los Angeles. A total of 112 (primarily African-American and Latino, n = 98, 88%) MSM Facebook users completed a survey on demographics, online social network use, and HIV/AIDS stigma. A composite stigma score was created by taking the cumulative score from a 15-item stigma questionnaire. Cumulative logistic models were used to assess the association between HIV/AIDS stigma and online social network use. In general, participants reported a low level of HIV/AIDS stigma (mean = 22.2/75, SD = 5.74). HIV/AIDS stigma composite score was significantly associated with increased time spent on online social networks each day (Adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 1.07, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.15). Among this diverse sample of MSM online social network users, findings suggest that HIV/AIDS stigma is associated with usage of social media. We discuss the implications of this work for future HIV prevention.

  6. Dental implants in growing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Mishra


    Full Text Available The replacement of teeth by implants is usually restricted to patients with completed craniofacial growth. The aim of this literature review is to discuss the use of dental implants in normal growing patients and in patients with ectodermal dysplasia and the influence of maxillary and mandibular skeletal and dental growth on the stability of those implants. It is recommended that while deciding the optimal individual time point of implant insertion, the status of skeletal growth, the degree of hypodontia, and extension of related psychological stress should be taken into account, in addition to the status of existing dentition and dental compliance of a pediatric patient.

  7. Torsion of a growing shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Manzhirov


    Full Text Available The torsion of a shaft by rigid disks is considered. The shaft has the form of circular cylinder. Two rigid disks are attached to its end faces. The process of continuous growth of such shaft under the influence of twisting torques applied to the disks is studied. Dual series equations which reflect the mathematical content of the problem at the different stages of the growing process are derived and solved. Results of the numerical analysis and singularities of the qualitative mechanical behaviour of the fundamental characteristics are discussed.

  8. Growing energy demand - environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rama Rao, G.A.


    Scientists can bring information, insights, and analytical skills to bear on matters of public concern. Often they can help the public and its representatives to understand the likely causes of events (such as natural and technological disasters) and to estimate the possible effects of projected policies. Often they can testify to what is not possible. Even so, scientists can seldom bring definitive answers to matters of public debate. Some issues are too complex to fit within the current scope of science, or there may be little reliable information available, or the values involved may lie outside of science. Scientists and technologists strive to find an answer to the growing energy demand

  9. Integration of Latino/a cultural values into palliative health care: a culture centered model. (United States)

    Adames, Hector Y; Chavez-Dueñas, Nayeli Y; Fuentes, Milton A; Salas, Silvia P; Perez-Chavez, Jessica G


    Culture helps us grapple with, understand, and navigate the dying process. Although often overlooked, cultural values play a critical and influential role in palliative care. The purpose of the present study was two-fold: one, to review whether Latino/a cultural values have been integrated into the palliative care literature for Latinos/as; two, identify publications that provide recommendations on how palliative care providers can integrate Latino/a cultural values into the end-of-life care. A comprehensive systematic review on the area of Latino/a cultural values in palliative care was conducted via an electronic literature search of publications between 1930-2013. Five articles were identified for reviewing, discussing, or mentioning Latino/a cultural values and palliative care. Only one article specifically addressed Latino/a cultural values in palliative care. The four remaining articles discuss or mention cultural values; however, the cultural values were not the main focus of each article's thesis. The results of the current study highlight the lack of literature specifically addressing the importance of integrating Latino/a cultural values into the delivery of palliative care. As a result, this article introduces the Culture-Centered Palliative Care Model (CCPC). The article defines five key traditional Latino/a cultural values (i.e., familismo, personalismo, respeto, confianza, and dignidad), discusses the influence of each value on palliative health care, and ends with practical recommendations for service providers. Special attention is given to the stages of acculturation and ethnic identity.

  10. Psychological and School Functioning of Latino Siblings of Children with Intellectual Disability (United States)

    Lobato, Debra; Kao, Barbara; Plante, Wendy; Seifer, Ronald; Grullon, Edicta; Cheas, Lydia; Canino, Glorisa


    Background: Siblings of children with disabilities are at risk for internalizing psychological disorders; however, little is known about how culture influences this effect. This study examined the psychological and school functioning of Latino siblings of children with intellectual disability (ID). Methods: Participants were 100 Latino (L) and…

  11. African American and Latino Enrollment Trends among Medicine, Law, Business, and Public Affairs Graduate Programs (United States)

    de la Garza, Rodolfo; Moghadam, Sepehr Hejazi


    The purpose of this Tomas Rivera Policy Institute (TRPI) report is twofold: to provide an analysis of the enrollment trends for African American and Latino students among graduate professional programs in the fields of medicine, business, law, and public affairs, and to present other relevant data pertaining to African American and Latino students…

  12. Queering "la Familia": A Phenomenological Study Reconceptualizing Familial Capital for Queer Latino Men (United States)

    Duran, Antonio; Pérez, David, II


    Using data from the National Study on Latino Male Achievement in Higher Education, we add to the scholarship on queer students of color by exploring how queer Latino men expand on familial capital in college. Specifically, we utilized phenomenology to understand how participants decided whether to disclose their sexual orientation to family. In…

  13. "Si Se Puede" Latino Students Can Succeed in School: A Success Case Method Study (United States)

    Brenes, Manuel J.


    In public schools about one fourth of the students identify themselves as Latinos or of Hispanic origin. Unfortunately of those Latino children who began at the elementary level, only 40% of them will graduate from high school and about 11% of high school graduates will go on to postsecondary school. In order to improve these numbers, educators…

  14. Latinos' Use, Desire, and Type of Non-Parental Child Care Arrangements (United States)

    Delgado, Enilda A.


    Using the Early Childhood Program Participation Survey of the 2001 National Household Education Surveys Program, this study analyzes the use, desire, and type of non-parental care among Latinos in the United States. These nationally representative data indicate that when controlled for child and household characteristics, Latinos and non-Latino…

  15. Factors Affecting the Job Satisfaction of Latino/a Immigrants in the Midwest (United States)

    Valdivia, Corinne; Flores, Lisa Y.


    This study examined the job satisfaction of 253 Latino/a newcomers in three rural communities in the Midwest. Specifically, the authors explored the effects of ethnic identity, Anglo acculturation, Latino/a acculturation, perceptions of the community (social relations, discrimination/racism, and language pressures), job tenure, work hours, and…

  16. Condom Use among Heterosexual Immigrant Latino Men in the Southeastern United States (United States)

    Knipper, Emily; Rhodes, Scott D.; Lindstrom, Kristen; Bloom, Fred R.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Montano, Jaime


    Latinos in the United States have been disproportionately affected by the intersecting epidemics of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). We examined correlates of condom use among adult heterosexual Latino men who are members of a large multicounty soccer league in rural North Carolina. Of 222 participants, the mean (plus or minus SD) age…

  17. Latino Population Growth, Socioeconomic and Demographic Characteristics, and Implications for Educational Attainment (United States)

    Chapa, Jorge; De La Rosa, Belinda


    Data from the U.S. Census Bureau and the National Center for Education Statistics indicate that Latinos lag behind non-Latinos in education and in other socioeconomic characteristics. Although there are some positive indications such as the decrease of individuals and children living in poverty and an increase in the number of individuals working…

  18. Psychological Impact of Negotiating Two Cultures: Latino Coping and Self-Esteem (United States)

    Torres, Lucas; Rollock, David


    Among 96 Latino adults, active coping accounted for variance in global self-esteem beyond that of biculturalism and sociodemographic indicators. The findings highlight the importance of accounting for the way Latino adults approach negotiating multiple cultural contexts. Extending acculturation research to integrate competence-based formulations…

  19. Global Self-Worth in Latino Youth: The Role of Acculturation and Acculturation Risk Factors (United States)

    Kapke, Theresa L.; Gerdes, Alyson C.; Lawton, Kathryn E.


    Background: Despite Latino youth being at increased risk of developing mental health problems, they are less likely to receive adequate treatment (Gonzales et al. in "Handbook of U.S. Latino psychology: developmental and community-based perspectives." Sage, Thousand Oaks, pp 115-134, 2009; Romero et al. in "Ethn Health"…

  20. SOMOS: Evaluation of an HIV Prevention Intervention for Latino Gay Men (United States)

    Vega, Miriam Y.; Spieldenner, Andrew R.; DeLeon, Dennis; Nieto, Bolivar X.; Stroman, Carolyn A.


    Latino gay men face multiple barriers to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention, in particular a lack of intervention programs that integrate prevention messages with cultural norms and address issues of social marginalization from multiple communities (gay community and Latino community), homophobia and racism. In order to address these…

  1. Devalued Black and Latino Racial Identities: A By-Product of STEM College Culture? (United States)

    McGee, Ebony O.


    At some point most Black and Latino/a college students--even long-term high achievers--question their own abilities because of multiple forms of racial bias. The 38 high-achieving Black and Latino/a STEM study participants, who attended institutions with racially hostile academic spaces, deployed an arsenal of strategies (e.g., stereotype…

  2. Colorectal Cancer Screening among Latinos in Three Communities on the Texas-Mexico Border (United States)

    Fernández, María E.; Savas, Lara S.; Wilson, Katherine M.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Atkinson, John; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Vernon, Sally W.


    Objective: To assess colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) prevalence and psychosocial correlates of CRCS among Latinos in South Texas. Method: Using multivariable analyses, we examined the association of perceived susceptibility, self-efficacy, pros and cons, subjective norms, knowledge and fatalism on CRCS among 544 Latinos (50 years and older).…

  3. "Lo Hacen Tan Complicado": Bridging the Perspectives and Expectations of Mathematics Instruction of Latino Immigrant Parents (United States)

    Colegrove, Kiyomi Sánchez-Suzuki; Krause, Gladys Helena


    The purpose of this article is to counter widespread deficit discourses about Latino parental involvement in their children's education. In particular, we show Latino immigrant parents' views and understandings of curricular and pedagogical practices in elementary school, especially in mathematics. Using data from the Agency and Young Children…

  4. "Complicando Algo Tan Sencillo": Bridging Mathematical Understanding of Latino Immigrant Parents (United States)

    Colegrove, Kiyomi Sánchez-Suzuki; Krause, Gladys


    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the mathematical understanding of Latino immigrant parents in curricular and pedagogical practices in elementary school. The paper seeks to counter widely spread deficit discourses about the parental involvement of Latinos in education. Using data from the Agency and Young Children project, a video-cued…

  5. Prevalence and treatment of eating disorders among Hispanics/Latino Americans in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez, Marisol; Ohrt, Tara K.; Hoek, Hans W.

    Purpose of reviewWe reviewed the recent literature on prevalence rates, and application of evidence-based treatments for eating disorders among Hispanics/Latinos residing in the United States.Recent findingsLifetime prevalence rates of anorexia nervosa are lower among Hispanic/Latinos than

  6. Intergenerational Conflicts among Latinos in Early Adulthood: Separating Values Conflicts with Parents from Acculturation Conflicts (United States)

    Dennis, Jessica; Basanez, Tatiana; Farahmand, Anahita


    An investigation of Latino and non-Latino college students sought to examine the ways in which perceived intergenerational conflicts with parents are related to acculturation, family dynamics, and psychosocial functioning. Participants reported the extent to which they experienced two types of intergenerational conflicts with parents:…

  7. Obesity Prevention among Latino Youth: School Counselors' Role in Promoting Healthy Lifestyles (United States)

    Cook, Amy L.; Hayden, Laura A.


    Given the burgeoning obesity problem among Latino youth and concomitant health problems (Spiotta & Luma, 2008), school counselors have begun to recognize the need for culturally sensitive programming to promote healthy lifestyles. More theoretical, evidence-based programs are needed, however, to ensure Latino youth receive appropriate…

  8. Crime Victimization among Immigrant Latino Day Laborers in Post-Katrina New Orleans (United States)

    Negi, Nalini Junko; Cepeda, Alice; Valdez, Avelardo


    Reports indicate that the criminal victimization of Latino immigrants in the United States has been increasing yet is often underreported. This may be especially true in new immigrant settlement cities that lack an established Latino community to provide support and feelings of security. New Orleans is an important context to investigate criminal…

  9. Improving Student Engagement: An Evaluation of the Latinos in Action Program (United States)

    Enriquez, Jose E.


    Hispanic students make up 12% of the enrollment in Utah elementary and secondary schools but only 3.4% of the enrollment at Utah's colleges and universities, according to Aleman and Rorrer (2006). The intervention Latinos in Action (LIA) seeks to increase high school completion and college graduation rates among emergent bilingual Latinos by…

  10. Unequal Socialization: Interrogating the Chicano/Latino(a) Doctoral Education Experience (United States)

    Ramirez, Elvia


    This article examines the experiences of Chicano/Latino(a) doctoral students at a research-intensive doctorate-granting institution. Based on in-depth qualitative interviews with 24 Chicano/Latino(a) doctoral students across social science, humanities, education, and science disciplines, this qualitative investigation analyzed how disciplinary…

  11. Assessing At-Risk Youth Using the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory with a Latino Population (United States)

    Balkin, Richard S.; Cavazos, Javier, Jr.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Garcia, Roberto; Dominguez, Denise L.; Valarezo, Alexandra


    Factor analyses were conducted on scores from the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory (RAASI; Reynolds, 2001) representing at-risk Latino youth. The 4-factor model of the RAASI did not exhibit a good fit. However, evidence of generalizability for Latino youth was noted. (Contains 3 tables.)

  12. Barriers to CRC Screening among Latino Adults in Pennsylvania: ACCN Results (United States)

    Garcia-Dominic, Oralia; Lengerich, Eugene J.; Wray, Linda A.; Parrott, Roxanne; Aumiller, Betsy; Kluhsman, Brenda; Renderos, Carlos; Dignan, Mark


    Objectives: To describe knowledge of and barriers to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening by sex and geography among Latino adults in Pennsylvania. Methods: Eighty-two Latinos greater than 50 years old engaged in one of 8 focus groups. Focus groups consisted of 4 components. Focus group data were audiotaped, transcribed, and grouped into thematic…

  13. Self-Monitoring Strategies as a Unique Predictor of Latino Male Student Achievement (United States)

    Covarrubias, Rebecca; Stone, Jeff


    We examined how self-monitoring (i.e., regulating one's behaviors; Snyder, 1987) relates to Latino male achievement. In Study 1, college students (N = 413) completed self-monitoring items and reported SAT math scores. As hypothesized, self-monitoring was positively correlated with achievement for Latino male students but was unrelated to…

  14. Literacy, Parental Roles, and Support Systems among Single Latino Father Families (United States)

    Santos, Rose A.; Alfred, Mary V.


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of eight Latino single fathers as primary caregivers and their engagement with the literacy development of their children. The sample for this study consisted of eight single Latino fathers with children of elementary to middle school age. The primary method of data collection was…

  15. "Contra La Corriente" (Against the Current): The Role of Latino Fathers in Family-School Engagement (United States)

    Quiñones, Sandra; Kiyama, Judy Marquez


    A community-based, multisite study using mixed methods examined the experiences and perspectives of Latino students and families in a low performing urban school district in New York State. This research project was spearheaded by a Latino Education Task Force which brought together multiple stakeholders in a collaborative effort to counteract…

  16. Reconsidering acculturation in dietary change research among Latino immigrants: challenging the preconditions of US migration (United States)

    Martínez, Airín D.


    BACKGROUND Dietary changes among Latino immigrants are often attributed to acculturation. Acculturation-diet research typically assumes that migration to the US is necessary for negative dietary changes to occur in Latino immigrants’ diets. OBJECTIVE The goal of this article is to demonstrate that extant acculturation research is not adequate in capturing changes in Latino immigrants’ diets. This is due to the role of globalization and transnational processes in modernizing their diets in Latin America. DESIGN Utilizing an interactionist cultural studies approach, this exploratory situational analysis based on 27 in-depth interviews with Latino immigrants, nutrition reports, and transnational food companies’ websites, examines how Latino immigrants were already engaging in negative dietary practices in their former country. RESULTS Latino immigrants who resided in urban areas in their former countries and migrated to the US on or after 2000 were fully engaged in negative dietary practices prior to migration. Such practices included consuming food outside of the home and integrating processed food into their cooking. Their dietary practices were also informed by nutrition discourses. The modernization of food production and consumption and the transnational transmission of nutrition are transnational processes changing Latino immigrants’ diets prior to migration. CONCLUSION Researchers should approach the study of dietary change among Latino immigrants in the US through a transnational perspective in order to avoid overlooking potential confounders such as current food insecurity, new socioeconomic positions as undocumented, low-income persons, and increased hours worked outside of the home. PMID:22731980

  17. Prevalence and treatment of eating disorders among Hispanics/Latino Americans in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez, Marisol; Ohrt, Tara K.; Hoek, Hans W.


    Purpose of reviewWe reviewed the recent literature on prevalence rates, and application of evidence-based treatments for eating disorders among Hispanics/Latinos residing in the United States.Recent findingsLifetime prevalence rates of anorexia nervosa are lower among Hispanic/Latinos than

  18. Motivating Latino Caregivers of Children with Asthma to Quit Smoking: A Randomized Trial (United States)

    Borrelli, Belinda; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Novak, Scott P.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Becker, Bruce


    Objective: Secondhand smoke exposure is associated with asthma onset and exacerbation. Latino children have higher rates of asthma morbidity than other groups. The current study compared the effectiveness of a newly developed smoking cessation treatment with existing clinical guidelines for smoking cessation. Method: Latino caregivers who smoked…

  19. A Healthy Lifestyle Program for Latino Daughters and Mothers: The BOUNCE Overview and Process Evaluation (United States)

    Olvera, Norma N.; Knox, Brook; Scherer, Rhonda; Maldonado, Gabriela; Sharma, Shreela V.; Alastuey, Lisa; Bush, Jill A.


    Background: Few family-based healthy lifestyle programs for Latinos have been conducted, especially family programs targeting mother-daughter dyads. Purpose: To assess the acceptability and feasibility of the Behavior Opportunities Uniting Nutrition Counseling and Exercise (BOUNCE) program designed for Latino mother-daughter pairs. Methods: 92…

  20. Assessing Student Preconceptions of Sport Management Faculty: Where Do Women and Latinos Stand? (United States)

    Sosa, Jason; Sagas, Michael


    Latino individuals and women as a group have found it difficult to become established within the professorate. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine student preconceptions of Latino professors within sport management. The study was conducted within a sport management class (N = 102), utilizing self-categorization theory based on race…

  1. Latinos in Colorado: A Profile of Culture, Changes, and Challenges. Volume V. (United States)

    Pappas, Georgia, Ed.; Guajardo, Maria, Ed.

    It is projected that the population of Colorado will increase by 25% between 1990 and 2000. The Latino community will experience a slight increase in the proportion of Colorado's population, and will remain the largest ethnic group over the next 30 years. The chapters in this profile describe the Latino population of Colorado. The following essays…

  2. Perceptions of Service Providers and Community Members on Intimate Partner Violence within a Latino Community (United States)

    Lewis, M. Jane; West, Bernadette; Bautista, Leyna; Greenberg, Alexandra M.; Done-Perez, Iris


    This study examined perceptions regarding intimate partner abuse (IPV) in a largely Latino community in New Jersey through focus groups with Latino community members and key informant interviews with providers of services to this population. Questions examined definitions of partner abuse; perceptions of factors contributing to, or protecting…

  3. Promoting Financial Literacy and Latino Males' Success at Community Colleges (United States)

    Salinas, Cristobal, Jr.; Hidrowoh, Jacob R.


    Latino males across the country enroll in community colleges with the purpose of obtaining an educational degree, which could lead to accomplishing professional and personal aspirations. Even if Latino male students enroll in post-secondary education, they continue to be disenfranchised, vanished, and often rejected through the higher education…

  4. Hispanic/Latino College Student Involvement in Student Organization Leadership Roles (United States)

    McKinney, Barry Slade


    The study examined attributes associated with Hispanic/Latino college student involvement in student organization leadership roles. The study helped identify attributes that active and involved Hispanic/Latino students felt were most important to them and their leadership roles. The roles that peer influence, role model influence, extraversion,…

  5. Latino Parental Involvement in Kindergarten: Findings from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Durand, Tina M.


    Parental involvement in children's schooling is an important component of children's early school success. Few studies have examined this construct exclusively among Latino families. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K), the present investigation (N = 2,051) explored relations between Latino parents' home and school…

  6. Latina Spanish High School Teachers' Negotiation of Capital in New Latino Communities (United States)

    Colomer, Soria Elizabeth


    Based on a qualitative study documenting how Spanish teachers bear an especially heavy burden as unofficial translators, interpreters, and school representatives, this article documents how some Latina high school Spanish teachers struggle to form social networks with Latino students in new Latino school communities. Employing social frameworks,…

  7. Latino Educators of Tomorrow: Culture-Specific Mentoring for the College Transition (United States)

    Treviño, Anna; Hite, Julie M.; Hallam, Pamela R.; Ferrin, Scott E.


    This qualitative study examines the perspectives of high school-and college-age students who participated in an educational program designed to increase the number of Latino students entering teaching as a profession: Latino Educators of Tomorrow. Using open-ended surveys and semistructured interviews, this study identified themes regarding the…

  8. Reconsidering acculturation in dietary change research among Latino immigrants: challenging the preconditions of US migration. (United States)

    Martínez, Airín D


    Dietary changes among Latino immigrants are often attributed to acculturation. Acculturation-diet research typically assumes that migration to the US is necessary for negative dietary changes to occur in Latino immigrants' diets. The goal of this article is to demonstrate that extant acculturation research is not adequate in capturing changes in Latino immigrants' diets. This is due to the role of globalization and transnational processes in modernizing their diets in Latin America. Utilizing an interactionist cultural studies approach, this exploratory situational analysis based on 27 in-depth interviews with Latino immigrants, nutrition reports, and transnational food companies' websites, examines how Latino immigrants were already engaging in negative dietary practices in their former country. Latino immigrants who resided in urban areas in their former countries and migrated to the US on or after 2000 were fully engaged in negative dietary practices prior to migration. Such practices included consuming food outside of the home and integrating processed food into their cooking. Their dietary practices were also informed by nutrition discourses. The modernization of food production and consumption and the transnational transmission of nutrition are transnational processes changing Latino immigrants' diets prior to migration. Researchers should approach the study of dietary change among Latino immigrants in the US through a transnational perspective in order to avoid overlooking potential confounders such as current food insecurity, new socioeconomic positions as undocumented, low-income persons, and increased hours worked outside of the home.

  9. Exploring the Latino Paradox: How Economic and Citizenship Status Impact Health (United States)

    Campbell, Kelly; Garcia, Donna M.; Granillo, Christina V.; Chavez, David V.


    The authors examined the contributions of economic status (ES) and citizenship status to health differences between European Americans, Latino Americans, and noncitizen Latinos. The investigation was framed using social identity and comparison theories. Southern California residents (N = 2,164) were randomly selected to complete a telephone…

  10. Cultural Competence of Parenting Education Programs Used by Latino Families: A Review (United States)

    Vesely, Colleen K.; Ewaida, Marriam; Anderson, Elaine A.


    The cultural competence of 13 parenting education programs for Latino families with young children was examined in this study. Based on our analyses, we make several recommendations for improving the cultural competence and effectiveness of parenting education programs for Latino families with young children. Specifically, we recommend the…

  11. Families, Neighborhood Socio-Demographic Factors, and Violent Behaviors among Latino, White, and Black Adolescents (United States)

    Estrada-Martinez, Lorena M.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Schulz, Amy J.; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Pedraza, Silvia


    Youth violence is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among Blacks and Latinos. Violent behaviors within Latino subgroups and the reasons for subgroup differences are not well understood. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 16,615), this study examined the risk for violent behaviors among an ethnically…

  12. Belonging in the Academy: Building a "Casa Away from Casa" for Latino/a Undergraduate Students (United States)

    Gonzales, Sandra M.; Brammer, Ethriam Cash; Sawilowsky, Shlomo


    This action research study, supported by a quantitative data analysis, presents a counternarrative to the deficit discourse regarding Latino/a First Time in Any College (FTIAC) departure during the first year of college. It argues that an intentional learning community model, that is culturally and linguistically responsive to Latino/a student…

  13. Latino Parents' Choice of Magnet School: How School Choice Differs across Racial and Ethnic Boundaries (United States)

    Haynes, Katherine Taylor; Phillips, Kristie J. R.; Goldring, Ellen B.


    Historically, magnet schools have served predominantly Black and Anglo populations. Consequently, little research exists on Latino parent's engagement in school choice and their patterns of participation. Magnet schools are increasingly part of the landscape for improving school achievement for all students. Yet Latino enrollment rates in magnet…

  14. An Exploration of Hybrid Spaces for Place-Based Geomorphology with Latino Bilingual Children (United States)

    Martínez-Álvarez, Patricia; Bannan, Brenda


    Latino bilingual children hold rich understandings, which are underexplored and underutilized in the geoscience classroom. Oftentimes, young Latinos possess unique cultural land experiences shaping their place identities. We consider science as language and culture, and propose place-based geoscience hybrid space explorations that are culturally…

  15. In Pursuit of Success: Latino Male College Students Exercising Academic Determination and Community Cultural Wealth (United States)

    Pérez, David, II


    Discourse about Latino male college students centers on their low enrollment, persistence, and graduation rates. Two asset-based theoretical frameworks were used to understand how 21 Latino males' academic determination was nurtured and sustained by cultural wealth at selective institutions. Although most participants entered college with unclear…

  16. Contexts That Matter to the Leadership Development of Latino Male College Students: A Mixed Methods Perspective (United States)

    Garcia, Gina A.; Huerta, Adrian H.; Ramirez, Jenesis J.; Patrón, Oscar E.


    As the number of Latino males entering college increases, there is a need to understand their unique leadership experiences. This study used a convergent parallel mixed methods design to understand what contexts contribute to Latino male undergraduate students' leadership development, capacity, and experiences. Quantitative data were gathered by…

  17. Understanding health-care access and utilization disparities among Latino children in the United States. (United States)

    Langellier, Brent A; Chen, Jie; Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo; Inkelas, Moira; Ortega, Alexander N


    It is important to understand the source of health-care disparities between Latinos and other children in the United States. We examine parent-reported health-care access and utilization among Latino, White, and Black children (≤17 years old) in the United States in the 2006-2011 National Health Interview Survey. Using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition, we portion health-care disparities into two parts (1) those attributable to differences in the levels of sociodemographic characteristics (e.g., income) and (2) those attributable to differences in group-specific regression coefficients that measure the health-care 'return' Latino, White, and Black children receive on these characteristics. In the United States, Latino children are less likely than Whites to have a usual source of care, receive at least one preventive care visit, and visit a doctor, and are more likely to have delayed care. The return on sociodemographic characteristics explains 20-30% of the disparity between Latino and White children in the usual source of care, delayed care, and doctor visits and 40-50% of the disparity between Latinos and Blacks in emergency department use and preventive care. Much of the health-care disadvantage experienced by Latino children would persist if Latinos had the sociodemographic characteristics as Whites and Blacks. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Cultivating Campus Environments to Maximize Success among Latino and Latina College Students (United States)

    Kiyama, Judy Marquez; Museus, Samuel D.; Vega, Blanca E.


    This chapter highlights the factors that hinder or contribute to the success of Latino and Latina students at predominantly White institutions. The Culturally Engaging Campus Environments (CECE) Model is offered as a framework from which to create environments for Latino/a students to thrive in college.

  19. Finding a Civic Voice: Latino Immigrant Youths' Experiences in High School Social Studies (United States)

    Callahan, Rebecca; Obenchain, Kathryn


    Socialization into the dominant civic and political discourse lies at the heart of social studies. As they become proficient in the discourse of home and school, Latino immigrant youth demonstrate the potential to uniquely benefit from this socialization. This qualitative study explores ten Latino immigrant young adults' perceptions of how their…

  20. Building an Understanding of the Role of Media Literacy for Latino/a High School Students (United States)

    Boske, Christa; McCormack, Susan


    Popular media is a social phenomenon, especially for young audiences. This qualitative study examined how eleven Latino/a high school students and a Latino teacher understood the impact of media messages in an animated children's film. Findings suggest participants identified negative cultural messages embedded throughout the film regarding…

  1. Examining Factors Influencing Asian American and Latino American Students' College Choice (United States)

    Wang-Yeung, Leilani Weichun


    This dissertation examines the gap in college enrollment between Asian Americans and Latino Americans regarding the effects of family and school factors, classifying them into the six ethnic/generational status groups (Asian American first generation, Asian American second generation, Asian American third generation and plus, Latino American first…

  2. "Buscando la Libertad": Latino Youths in Search of Freedom in School (United States)

    Irizarry, Jason


    Drawing from a two-year ethnographic study of Latino high school students engaged in youth participatory action research (YPAR), this article describes students' quest for freedom in schools, locating their struggle within a larger effort to realize the democratic ideals of public schooling. Using Latino/a Critical Race Theory as a theoretical…

  3. Cultural Stressors and the Hopelessness Model of Depressive Symptoms in Latino Adolescents (United States)

    Stein, Gabriela L.; Gonzalez, Laura M.; Huq, Nadia


    Depressive symptoms in Latino youth have been related to both culturally-universal and culturally-based stressors. However, few studies have examined the unique contributions of culturally-based stressors above and beyond other types of stressors. Moreover, no past studies with Latinos have examined the role of culturally-based stressors within a…

  4. Do Latino Youth Really Want to Get Pregnant?: Assessing Pregnancy Wantedness (United States)

    Martínez-García, Genevieve; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Atkinson, Nancy; Portnoy, Barry; Lee, Sunmin


    Despite recent declines, Latinas bear a disproportionate burden of teen births. Understanding social, cultural, and demographic factors underlying pregnancy desire among Latino adolescents is needed to design effective teen pregnancy prevention interventions. A questionnaire was completed by 794 Latino youth including a "pregnancy wantedness…

  5. Latino Doctoral Students in Counseling Programs: Navigating Professional Identity within a Predominantly White American Profession (United States)

    Locke, Anna Flores


    Using a basic qualitative research design, this author interviewed eight Latino doctoral students in counseling programs about their professional identity development experiences. The author analyzed the data from a Latino Critical Race theoretical perspective to explore the ways in which power and privilege played a role in the participants'…

  6. Latino Parent and Adolescent Perceptions of Hoped-for and Feared Possible Selves for Adolescents (United States)

    Halfond, Raquel; Corona, Rosalie; Moon, Anya


    The authors examined Latino parent and adolescent reports of hoped-for and feared possible selves for adolescents. Twenty-nine Latino parents (18 mothers, 11 fathers) and their 18 adolescents participated in semistructured individual interviews. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and coded for themes via content analysis. Themes that…

  7. Entre Dos Mundos/Between Two Worlds: Youth Violence Prevention for Acculturating Latino Families (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R.; Bacallao, Martica


    Objective: This study evaluated the efficacy of Entre Dos Mundos/Between Two Worlds (EDM) prevention for Latino adolescents. Method: In an experimental trial to compare implementation formats, 41 Latino families were randomly assigned to EDM action-oriented skills training groups, and 47 families were randomly assigned to unstructured EDM support…

  8. Psychosocial Correlates of Physical Dating Violence Victimization among Latino Early Adolescents (United States)

    Yan, Fang A.; Howard, Donna E.; Beck, Kenneth H.; Shattuck, Teresa; Hallmark-Kerr, Melissa


    This study examined the association between dating violence victimization and psychosocial risk and protective factors among Latino early adolescents. An anonymous, cross-sectional, self-reported survey was administered to a convenience sample of Latino youth (n = 322) aged 11 to 13 residing in suburban Washington, D.C. The dependent variable was…

  9. The Retention of Hispanic/Latino Teachers in Southeastern Rural Elementary Schools (United States)

    Rodriguez, Oscar


    This qualitative study reviewed reasons so few Hispanic/Latino teachers remain employed with rural county public elementary schools. The study evaluated issues that present high retention and attrition concerns for Hispanic/Latino teachers in rural schools. In addition, the dissertation offered suggestions on ways to increase the representation of…

  10. Fit 5 Kids TV reduction program for Latino preschoolers: A cluster randomized controlled trial (United States)

    Reducing Latino preschoolers' TV viewing is needed to reduce their risk of obesity and other chronic diseases. This study's objective was to evaluate the Fit 5 Kids (F5K) TV reduction program's impact on Latino preschooler's TV viewing. The study design was a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT...

  11. Promising Practices and Unfinished Business: Fostering Equity and Excellence for Black and Latino Males. Executive Summary (United States)

    Tung, Rosann; Carlo, Vivian Dalila; Colón, Melissa; Del Razo, Jaime L.; Diamond, John B.; Raynor, Alethea Frazier; Graves, Daren; Kuttner, Paul J.; Miranda, Helena; St. Rose, Andresse


    Boston Public Schools (BPS) commissioned companion studies as part of its efforts to address achievement gaps for Black and Latino males. The first study revealed the increasing diversity of Black and Latino males and stark opportunity gaps throughout the system that contribute in large part to wide attainment gaps for these students. We…

  12. Age of Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Latino Children: The Case of Venezuelan Children (United States)

    Montiel-Nava, Cecilia; Chacín, José A.; González-Ávila, Zoila


    Latino children are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder later in life, usually with more severe symptoms, and lower IQs, compared with non-Latino children. Possible reasons for such disparities could be due to lower levels of parent education, lower socioeconomic status, limited knowledge of parents about autism spectrum disorder, and…

  13. America's Future: Latino Child Well-Being in Numbers and Trends (United States)

    Mather, Mark; Foxen, Patricia


    This data book offers a comprehensive overview of the state of Latino children by integrating a range of key factors and outcomes in the areas of demography, citizenship, family structure, poverty, health, education, and juvenile justice. It provides an overview of current national and state-level trends for Latino children under age 18 relative…

  14. Intervention for High School Latino Students in Preparing for College: Steps for Consideration (United States)

    Rodriguez, Eric; Rhodes, Kent; Aguirre, Geoffrey


    Several factors contribute to a disproportionately lower Latino participation in college education. Foremost among those factors are policies that encourage quick job placement over career development, lack of understanding of the benefits of a college degree, lower expectations for Latino students, poor financial planning, and lack of guidance. A…

  15. How fast do eels grow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, H.J.M.


    Not so very much about the growth pattern of the eel is known yet. Eels move about nearly all the time. They are thus very difficult to follow and we do not, for examble, yet know how long it actually takes for them to grow to maturity in the wild. So far, a macroscopic analysis of the number of bright and dark areas (growth rings) in the 'earstones' has been used to determine eel age, but this method was recently challenged. Use of radioisotopes has been suggested previously for this purpose. For this present study the rare earth elements, europium-152 and europium-155 are used. When incubated in artificial sea water, a satisfactory final radioactive label was achieved. Two experiments were planned in collaboration with the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. 2000 Elvers were set out in 1982, in the cooling water outlet of the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant, each marked with europium-155. In 1984 another 10 000 elvers labelled with europium-152 were set out under similar conditions. The idea was mainly to see how fast the eels would grow, and to compare their known age with that determined by examining the earstones. Results showed that there was no clear-cut correlation between actual eel age and the biological age determination used so far. During four years, only 10 of the original 1300 eels were recaptured. It is thus hard to say anything definite from our results on the viability of setting out elvers in the environment

  16. Subjective Social Status and Self-Reported Health Among US-born and Immigrant Latinos. (United States)

    Garza, Jeremiah R; Glenn, Beth A; Mistry, Rashmita S; Ponce, Ninez A; Zimmerman, Frederick J


    Subjective social status is associated with a range of health outcomes. Few studies have tested the relevance of subjective social status among Latinos in the U.S.; those that have yielded mixed results. Data come from the Latino subsample of the 2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (N = 2554). Regression models adjusted for socioeconomic and demographic factors. Stratified analyses tested whether nativity status modifies the effect of subjective social status on health. Subjective social status was associated with better health. Income and education mattered more for health than subjective social status among U.S.-born Latinos. However, the picture was mixed among immigrant Latinos, with subjective social status more strongly predictive than income but less so than education. Subjective social status may tap into stressful immigrant experiences that affect one's perceived self-worth and capture psychosocial consequences and social disadvantage left out by conventional socioeconomic measures.

  17. Evaluations of Conflicts Between Latino Values and Autonomy Desires Among Puerto Rican Adolescents. (United States)

    Villalobos Solís, Myriam; Smetana, Judith G; Tasopoulos-Chan, Marina


    Puerto Rican adolescents (N = 105; M age  = 15.97 years, SD = 1.40) evaluated hypothetical situations describing conflicts between Latino values (family obligations and respeto) and autonomy desires regarding personal, friendship, and dating activities. Adolescents judged that peers should prioritize Latino values over autonomy, which led to greater feelings of pride than happiness. However, they believed that teens would prioritize autonomy over Latino values, which led to greater feelings of happiness than pride. Adolescents reasoned about autonomy desires as personal issues, whereas reasoning about Latino values was multifaceted, including references to conventions and concerns for others. Furthermore, judgments and reasoning depended on the type of autonomy desire and Latino value and sometimes, by participants' age and sex. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. The intersection between masculinity and health among rural immigrant Latino men. (United States)

    Daniel-Ulloa, Jason; Sun, Christina; Rhodes, Scott D


    Latino men experience health disparities in STI/HIV, diabetes, hypertension, and cancer. Gender roles likely play a role in risk behaviors and outcomes; however, there has been little focus on masculinity in Latino men. We conducted 20 semi-structured interviews with Latino men living in North Carolina. The interviews, conducted by a trained bilingual/bicultural Latino male, prompted discussion around work, family, and stress. Four themes were identified: masculine roles of being a family provider and protector, sources of stress, family responsibility and interconnectedness to health, and coping mechanism. For Latino men, masculinity may have both positive and negative influences on health. For example, the role of family provider may contribute to coping and be a stressor simultaneously. Future research should examine masculinity as a positive and a negative health influence and the additional impacts of gender roles on mens' health.

  19. Discrimination and substance use disorders among Latinos: the role of gender, nativity, and ethnicity. (United States)

    Otiniano Verissimo, Angie Denisse; Grella, Christine E; Amaro, Hortensia; Gee, Gilbert C


    We examined the relationship between discrimination and substance use disorders among a diverse sample of Latinos. We also investigated whether the relationship between discrimination and substance use disorders varied by gender, nativity, and ethnicity. Our analyses focused on 6294 Latinos who participated in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions from 2004 to 2005. We used multinomial logistic regression to examine the association between discrimination and substance use disorders. Discrimination was significantly associated with increased odds of alcohol and drug use disorders among Latinos. However, the relationship between discrimination and substance use disorders varied by gender, nativity, and ethnicity. Discrimination was associated with increased odds of alcohol and drug use disorders for certain groups, such as women, US-born Latinos, and Mexicans, but this relationship did not follow the same pattern for other subgroups. It is important to determine which subgroups among Latinos may be particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of discrimination to address their needs.

  20. The Role of Cultural Factors on Dating Aggression and Delinquency Among Latino Youth. (United States)

    Cuevas, Carlos A; Sabina, Chiara; Fahlberg, Anjuli; Espinola, Maria


    There is limited research comparatively evaluating delinquency and dating aggression among Latino youth. This analysis examines the rates and cultural correlates associated with delinquency and dating aggression among Latino youth using data from the Dating Violence Among Latino Adolescents study. The study surveyed 1,525 Latino adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years about past-year dating aggression perpetration and delinquency. Dating aggression perpetration and delinquency rates and relative risk ratios are presented. Logistic regression analyses examined the role of cultural factors on the perpetration of dating aggression and delinquent behaviors. Results showed that cultural factors had differential influence on dating aggression versus delinquency. Specifically, victimization, acculturation, and familial support were associated with dating aggression whereas only victimization and familial support were associated with delinquency. The results provide guidance for intervention and prevention efforts with Latino youth, particularly on the need for cultural consideration and the supportive role family can play in addressing these behaviors.

  1. Culturally Tailored Depression/Suicide Prevention in Latino Youth: Community Perspectives. (United States)

    Ford-Paz, Rebecca E; Reinhard, Christine; Kuebbeler, Andrea; Contreras, Richard; Sánchez, Bernadette


    Latino adolescents are at elevated risk for depression and suicide compared to other ethnic groups. Project goals were to gain insight from community leaders about depression risk factors particular to Latino adolescents and generate innovative suggestions to improve cultural relevance of prevention interventions. This project utilized a CBPR approach to enhance cultural relevance, acceptability, and utility of the findings and subsequent program development. Two focus groups of youth and youth-involved Latino community leaders (n = 18) yielded three overarching themes crucial to a culturally tailored depression prevention intervention: (1) utilize a multipronged and sustainable intervention approach, (2) raise awareness about depression in culturally meaningful ways, and (3) promote Latino youth's social connection and cultural enrichment activities. Findings suggest that both adaptation of existing prevention programs and development of hybrid approaches may be necessary to reduce depression/suicide disparities for Latino youth. One such hybrid program informed by community stakeholders is described.

  2. General and gay-related racism experienced by Latino gay men. (United States)

    Ibañez, Gladys E; Van Oss Marin, Barbara; Flores, Stephen A; Millett, Gregorio; Diaz, Rafael M


    Latino gay men report experiences of racial discrimination within and outside the gay community. This study focused on correlates of racism within general and gay contexts. Racism was assessed in a probability sample of 911 Latino gay men recruited from 3 U.S. cities. Factor analysis of the 10-item scale produced 2 factors: (a) General Racism Experiences, and (b) Racism Experiences in Gay Contexts. The scale and each factor showed adequate reliability and validity. Latino gay men with darker skin, more Indian features, more time in the United States, and low self-esteem reported more racism in both general and gay contexts. The authors examine the psychometric properties of a measure that assesses interpersonal racism among Latinos, report correlates of racism within a gay context, and provide an assessment tool for understanding the role of racism in the lives of Latino gay men.

  3. Perceptions of emotion expression and sibling-parent emotion communication in Latino and non-Latino white siblings of children with intellectual disabilities. (United States)

    Long, Kristin A; Lobato, Debra; Kao, Barbara; Plante, Wendy; Grullón, Edicta; Cheas, Lydia; Houck, Christopher; Seifer, Ronald


    Examine general emotion expression and sibling-parent emotion communication among Latino and non-Latino white (NLW) siblings of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and matched comparisons. 200 siblings (ages 8-15 years) completed the newly developed Sibling-Parent Emotion Communication Scale and existing measures of general emotion expression and psychosocial functioning. Preliminary analyses evaluated scale psychometrics across ethnicity. Structure and internal consistency of the emotion expression and communication measures differed by respondent ethnicity. Latino siblings endorsed more general emotion expression problems and marginally lower sibling-parent emotion communication than NLW siblings. Siblings of children with ID reported marginally more general emotion expression problems than comparisons. Emotion expression problems and lower sibling-parent emotion communication predicted more internalizing and somatic symptoms and poorer personal adjustment, regardless of ID status. Siblings of children with ID endorsed poorer personal adjustment. Cultural differences in emotion expression and communication may increase Latino siblings' risk for emotional adjustment difficulties.

  4. Genome-Wide Association Study of Blood Pressure Traits by Hispanic/Latino Background: the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos


    Sofer, Tamar; Wong, Quenna; Hartwig, Fernando P.; Taylor, Kent; Warren, Helen R.; Evangelou, Evangelos; Cabrera, Claudia P.; Levy, Daniel; Kramer, Holly; Lange, Leslie A.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Liang, Jingjing; Le, Thu H.; Edwards, Digna R. Velez; Tayo, Bamidele O.


    Hypertension prevalence varies between ethnic groups, possibly due to differences in genetic, environmental, and cultural determinants. Hispanic/Latino Americans are a diverse and understudied population. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of blood pressure (BP) traits in 12,278 participants from the Hispanics Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). In the discovery phase we identified eight previously unreported BP loci. In the replication stage, we tested these ...

  5. Perceptions of Emotion Expression and Sibling–Parent Emotion Communication in Latino and Non-Latino White Siblings of Children With Intellectual Disabilities


    Long, Kristin A.; Lobato, Debra; Kao, Barbara; Plante, Wendy; Grullón, Edicta; Cheas, Lydia; Houck, Christopher; Seifer, Ronald


    Objective Examine general emotion expression and sibling–parent emotion communication among Latino and non-Latino white (NLW) siblings of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and matched comparisons. Methods 200 siblings (ages 8–15 years) completed the newly developed Sibling–Parent Emotion Communication Scale and existing measures of general emotion expression and psychosocial functioning. Preliminary analyses evaluated scale psychometrics across ethnicity. Results Structure and inte...

  6. Los adolescentes latinos son más felices y saludables si sus familias adoptan ambas culturas (Latino teens happier, healthier)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Podcast para los padres latinos: Este podcast proporciona sugerencias a los padres de adolescentes latinos sobre lo que pueden hacer para ayudar a sus hijos a tener una vida más feliz y saludable.  Created: 8/19/2009 by Centro Coordinador de Salud Ambiental y Prevención de Lesiones (CCEHIP).   Date Released: 8/19/2009.

  7. Vida Alegre: Preliminary Findings of a Depression Intervention for Immigrant Latino Mothers (United States)

    Piedra, Lissette M.; Byoun, Soo-Jung


    Objectives: This article reports the outcome of a pilot study of a cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) intervention--"Vida Alegre" (the contented life)--designed for use with depressed immigrant mothers living in communities with small but rapidly growing Hispanic populations. Method: The study used a pretest/posttest/follow-up…

  8. Viking Disruptions or Growing Integration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindbæk, Søren Michael


    Long-distance communication has emerged as a particular focus for archaeological exploration using network theory, analysis, and modelling. Initial attempts to adapt methods from social network analysis to archaeological data have, however, struggled to produce decisive results. This paper...... demonstrates how formal network analysis can be combined with a contextual reading of evidence relating to a long-distance communication network in the past. A study of the combined distributions of ten vessel types in 152 settlement sites from the 10th century suggests the outline of the core structure...... of the network. The model implies that 10th century long-distance exchange in the North Sea region featured long-distance links equal to those of the Carolingian emporia trade, and represented a growth in terms of new axes of integration, above all the growing links between the Scandinavian Peninsula...

  9. Growing the Blockchain information infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbar, Karim; Bjørn, Pernille


    In this paper, we present ethnographic data that unpacks the everyday work of some of the many infrastructuring agents who contribute to creating, sustaining and growing the Blockchain information infrastructure. We argue that this infrastructuring work takes the form of entrepreneurial actions......, which are self-initiated and primarily directed at sustaining or increasing the initiator’s stake in the emerging information infrastructure. These entrepreneurial actions wrestle against the affordances of the installed base of the Blockchain infrastructure, and take the shape of engaging...... or circumventing activities. These activities purposefully aim at either influencing or working around the enablers and constraints afforded by the Blockchain information infrastructure, as its installed base is gaining inertia. This study contributes to our understanding of the purpose of infrastructuring, seen...

  10. Supplies should match growing demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmusen, H.J.


    The natural gas industry is currently enjoying healthy growth prospects. Not only is the demand for natural gas steadily growing; the outlook for increasing gas reserves is promising as well. The success of natural gas in the marketplace reflects, on one hand, continuous attention paid to public and customer requirements and, on the other hand, the ability of the gas industry to direct technological developments toward the increasing public demand for gas at competitive market prices supplied in a reliable, safe and environmentally friendly manner. In the past, the gas industry has been involved in the development of technologies for everything from gas production to the end user and from borehole to burner tip, and the author believes that the industry must continue or even increase its emphasis on technology in the future in order to capture new market opportunities. He explains this by looking at the supply side, the demand side and the structural side of the business

  11. How to grow great leaders. (United States)

    Ready, Douglas A


    Few leaders excel at both the unit and enterprise levels. More than ever, though, corporations need people capable of running business units, functions, or regions and focusing on broader company goals. It's up to organizations to develop leaders who can manage the inherent tensions between unit and enterprise priorities. Take the example of RBC Financial Group, one of the largest, most profitable companies in Canada. In the mid-1990's, RBC revamped its competitive strategy in a couple of ways. After the government announced that the Big Six banks in Canada could neither merge with nor acquire one another, RBC decided to grow through cross-border acquisitions. Additionally, because customers were starting to seek bundled products and services, RBC reached across its traditional stand-alone businesses to offer integrated solutions. These changes in strategy didn't elicit immediate companywide support. Instinctively, employees reacted against what would amount to a delicate balancing act: They would have to lift their focus out of their silos while continuing to meet unit goals. However, by communicating extensively with staff members, cross-fertilizing talent across unit boundaries, and targeting rewards to shape performance, RBC was able to cultivate rising leaders with the unit expertise and the enterprise vision to help the company fulfill its new aims. Growing such well-rounded leaders takes sustained effort because unit-enterprise tensions are quite real. Three common conditions reinforce these tensions. First, most organizational structures foster silo thinking and unimaginative career paths. Second, most companies lack venues for airing and resolving conflicts that arise when there are competing priorities. Third, many have misguided reward systems that pit unit performance against enterprise considerations. Such long-established patterns of organizational behavior are tough to break. Fortunately, as RBC discovered, people can be trained to think and work

  12. Rapid reconnection of flux lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samain, A.


    The rapid reconnection of flux lines in an incompressible fluid through a singular layer of the current density is discussed. It is shown that the liberated magnetic energy must partially appear in the form of plasma kinetic energy. A laminar structure of the flow is possible, but Alfven velocity must be achieved in eddies of growing size at the ends of the layer. The gross structure of the flow and the magnetic configuration may be obtained from variational principles. (author)

  13. Rate of new HIV diagnoses among Latinos living in Florida: disparities by country/region of birth. (United States)

    Sheehan, Diana M; Trepka, Mary Jo; Fennie, Kristopher P; Maddox, Lorene M


    HIV incidence in the USA is three times higher for Latinos than for non-Latino whites. Latinos differ in educational attainment, poverty, insurance coverage, and health-care access, factors that affect HIV knowledge, risk behaviors, and testing. The purpose of this study was to identify differences in demographics, risk factors, and rate of new HIV diagnoses by birth country/region among Latinos in Florida to guide the targeting of primary and secondary prevention programs. Using Florida HIV/AIDS surveillance data from 2007 to 2011 and the American Community Survey, we compared demographic and risk factors, and calculated annual and five-year age-adjusted rates of new HIV diagnoses for 5801 Latinos by birth country/region. Compared to US-born Latinos, those born in Cuba and South America were significantly more likely to report the HIV transmission mode of MSM; those born in the Dominican Republic (DR) heterosexual transmission; and those born in Puerto Rico injection drug use. Mexican- and Central American-born Latinos were more likely to be diagnosed with AIDS within a month of HIV diagnosis. The rate of new HIV diagnoses among Latinos declined 33% from 2007 to 2011. HIV diagnoses over time decreased significantly for Latinos born in Mexico and increased nonsignificantly for those born in the DR. Although this study was limited to Latinos living in Florida, results suggest that tailoring HIV primary prevention and testing initiatives to specific Latino groups may be warranted.

  14. Protein synthesis in the growing rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, J.; Chrin, L.


    Developmental control of protein synthesis in the postnatal growth of the lung has not been systematically studied. In male Fischer 344 rats, lung growth continues linearly as a function of body weight (from 75 to 450 g body weight). To study total protein synthesis in lungs of growing rats, we used the technique of constant intravenous infusion of tritiated leucine, an essential amino acid. Lungs of sacrificed animals were used to determine the leucine incorporation rate into newly synthesized protein. The specific radioactivity of the leucine associated with tRNA extracted from the same lungs served as an absolute index of the precursor leucine pool used for lung protein synthesis. On the basis of these measurements, we were able to calculate the fractional synthesis rate (the proportion of total protein destroyed and replaced each day) of pulmonary proteins for each rat. Under the conditions of isotope infusion, leucyl-tRNA very rapidly equilibrates with free leucine of the plasma and of the extracellular space of the lung. Infusions lasting 30 minutes or less yielded linear rates of protein synthesis without evidence of contamination of lung proteins by newly labeled intravascular albumin. The fractional synthesis rate is considerably higher in juvenile animals (55% per day) than in adult rats (20% per day). After approximately 12 weeks of age, the fractional synthesis rate remains extremely constant in spite of continued slow growth of the lung. It is apparent from these data that in both young and adult rats the bulk of total protein synthesis is devoted to rapidly turning over proteins and that less than 4 percent of newly made protein is committed to tissue growth

  15. Acculturation and drug addiction stigma among Latinos and African Americans: An examination of a church-based sample (United States)

    Flórez, Karen R.; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Breslau, Joshua; Griffin, Beth Ann; Haas, Ann C.; Kanouse, David E.; Stucky, Brian D.; Williams, Malcolm V.


    Background Substance use patterns among Latinos likely reflect changes in attitudes resulting from acculturation, but little is known about Latinos’ attitudes regarding drug addiction. Methods We surveyed a church-based sample of Latinos and African Americans (N=1,235) about attitudes toward drug addiction and socio-demographics. Linear regression models compared Latino subgroups with African-Americans. Results In adjusted models, Latinos had significantly higher drug addiction stigma scores compared to African Americans across all subgroups (U.S.-born Latinos, β = 0.22, pdrug addiction stigma decreases with acculturation, but remains higher among the most acculturated Latinos compared to African-Americans. These attitudes may pose a barrier to treatment for Latino drug users. PMID:25612923

  16. Alcohol use among Latino migrant workers in South Florida. (United States)

    Sánchez, Jesús


    A significant segment of the Latino migrant worker population in the United States is at high risk for alcohol abuse and related risk behaviors. Information about the prevalence of alcohol use and abuse and its association with sociodemographic and psychological variables is needed for designing effective intervention prevention strategies. Cross-sectional data were drawn from a baseline assessment that was part of a randomized controlled trial of 278 Latino migrant workers (LMWs) conducted between 2008 and 2010. About one-third (32%) of participants engaged in heavy drinking in the past 30 days prior to baseline interview. More females than males reported no alcohol use in the past 30 days (53.5% vs. 20.5%). On the other hand, more males reported drinking every day or nearly (25.2% vs. 7.1%). Five factors-gender, country of origin, relationship status, living arrangements, and acculturation-were significantly associated with frequency of alcohol consumption. Multivariate analyses indicated that gender, country of origin, education attainment, relationship status, living arrangement, living with children, length of stay in the US, religious beliefs, acculturation, and depression were associated with frequent heavy drinking, alcohol abuse/dependence, and unprotected sex under the influence of alcohol. There is significant variation in alcohol use among Latino migrant workers. Although a substantial proportion of this population abstains from alcohol, an equally substantial proportion report levels of alcohol use that pose significant risk. More research is needed to better understand drinking patterns in this community in order to design prevention strategies specifically tailored for this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exploring workplace TB interventions with foreign-born Latino workers. (United States)

    Eggerth, Donald E; Keller, Brenna M; Flynn, Michael A


    Persons born outside the United States are more likely to be diagnosed with tuberculosis disease (TB) than native-born individuals. Foreign-born Latinos at risk of TB may be difficult to reach with public health interventions due to cultural and institutional barriers. Workplaces employing large concentrations of foreign-born Latinos may be useful locations for TB interventions targeting this high-risk population. This study used a two-phase approach to investigate the feasibility of workplace TB interventions. The first phase investigated employer knowledge of TB and receptiveness to allowing TB interventions in their businesses through 5 structured interviews. The second phase investigated foreign-born workers' knowledge of TB and their receptiveness to receiving TB interventions in their places of employment through 12 focus groups stratified by gender and education. Phase 1: Only 1 of the 5 employers interviewed had a high level of knowledge about TB, and three had no knowledge other than that TB was a disease that involved coughing. They were receptive to workplace TB interventions, but were concerned about lost productivity and customers finding out if an employee had TB. Phase 2: There was no observed differences in responses between gender and between the bottom two education groups, so the final analysis took place between a gender-combined lower education group and higher education group. The higher education group tended to have knowledge that was more accurate and to view TB as a disease associated with poverty. The lower education group tended to have more misconceptions about TB and more often expressed concern that their employers would not support worksite interventions. The results from both phases indicate that more TB education is needed among both foreign-born Latino workers and their employers. Obstacles to implementing workplace TB interventions include knowledge, potential productivity loss, employer liability, and perceived customer response

  18. Growing hairs in shorn cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo


    Full Text Available The shearing operation can provide double benefits to the cattle: they can become more heat tolerant and the tick infestation decreases. The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus causes great losses to dairy cattle, especially to the Holstein cattle because they are very susceptible to this tick. Its control is becoming each day more difficult, owing to the increasing resistance to acaricides they are acquiring. The objective of this work was to study the growing of haircoat following shearing. We made our experiment with 17 animals, 7 females and 10 males. They were shaved on the anterior third (head, neck, dewlap, scapula and arm of one side, at random. The work was performed in two steps: they were shorn for the first time on August 2nd 2012, with a size 10 blade in a clipper Oster model GoldenA5, which left the fur coat 2 mm long. Then we evaluated the hair length growing by collecting fortnightly three sample of hairs in the middle of the scapula, with  electric pliers, modified for this purpose, in both sides of the animals, sheared and non-sheared, until 30 days after this shearing. The three hair samples were put inside a little plastic bag per animal. Meanwhile, as we thought that the animals shearing had to be done closer to the skin, we decided to shear them again (in the same side shorn before, on October 2nd 2012. We changed our procedure using the same machine, but now with a blade size 30, which left the fur coat 1mm thick. After that, we collected again, fortnightly, samples of hairs on both sides during 2 months. The 10 longest hairs in the plastig bag were measured using a graph paper and the average per animal was calculated in each data and blade. A random design was applied for statistical analysis, the hair length of both sides, sheared and non sheared were compared by a two related samples tests – Wilcoxon, in a non parametric test, using the SPSSP 12.0 program, in each data within each blade. Using blade size

  19. "Causes" of pesticide safety behavior change in Latino farmworker families. (United States)

    Grzywacz, Joseph G; Arcury, Thomas A; Talton, Jennifer W; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Trejo, Grisel; Mirabelli, Maria C; Quandt, Sara A


    To identify the source of behavior change resulting from a health education intervention focused on pesticide safety. Data were from the La Familia Sana demonstration project, a promotora-delivered pesticide safety education intervention conducted with immigrant Latinos (N = 610). The La Familia Sana program produced changes in 3 sets of pesticide safety behaviors. Changes in the conceptual targets of the intervention and promotora attributes explained 0.45-6% and 0.5-3% of the changes in pesticide-related behavior, respectively. The conceptual targets of the La Familia Sana program explained the greatest amount of change in pesticide-related behavior. Promotora attributes also contributed to intervention success.

  20. Distributed scaffolding: Wiki collaboration among Latino high school chemistry students (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Edwin Duncan, Jr.

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate if wiki collaboration among Latino high school chemistry students can help reduce the science achievement gap between Latino and White students. The study was a quasi-experimental pre/post control group mixed-methods design. It used three intact sections of a high school chemistry course. The first research question asked if there is a difference in academic achievement between a treatment and control group on selected concepts from the topics of bonding, physical changes, and chemical changes, when Latino high school chemistry students collaborate on a quasi-natural wiki project. Overall results for all three activities (Bonding, Physical Changes, and Chemical Changes) indicated no significant difference between the wiki and control group. However, students performing the chemical changes activity did significantly better than their respective control group. Furthermore, there was a significant association, with large effect size, between group membership and ability to overcome the misconception that aqueous ionic reactants in precipitation reactions exist as molecular pairs of ions. Qualitative analysis of classroom and computer lab dialogue, discussion board communication, student focus groups, teacher interviews, and wiki content attributes the better performance of the chemical changes wiki group to favorable differences in intersubjectivity and calibrated assistance, as well as learning about submicroscopic representations of precipitation reactions in multiple contexts. Furthermore, the nonsignificant result overall points to an aversion to peer editing as a possible cause. Drawing considerably on Vygotsky and Piaget, the results are discussed within the context of how distributed scaffolding facilitated medium levels of cognitive conflict. The second research question asked what the characteristics of distributed metacognitive scaffolding are when Latino high school chemistry students collaborate on a quasi

  1. How Cloud Computing can help SMEs to grow faster?


    Hasan, Ahmed Anwar


    In recent years, Cloud computing has successfully created hype and lots of people think that cloud computing might be the next big thing. The cloud platform is growing rapidly and lots of cloud service provider companies are coming up with huge number of innovative ideas where they are addressing specific needs of different organisations. The cloud computing is based on a service model architecture which is highly customisable and can fit into a specific or unique business process. Cloud comp...

  2. Czochralski method of growing single crystals. State-of-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukowski, A.; Zabierowski, P.


    Modern Czochralski method of single crystal growing has been described. The example of Czochralski process is given. The advantages that caused the rapid progress of the method have been presented. The method limitations that motivated the further research and new solutions are also presented. As the example two different ways of the technique development has been described: silicon single crystals growth in the magnetic field; continuous liquid feed of silicon crystals growth. (author)

  3. Case grows for climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hileman, B.


    In the four years since the IPCC stated that 'the balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climate', evidence for anomalous warming has become more compelling, and as a result scientists have become more concerned that human-induced climate change has already arrived. The article summarises recent extra evidence on global temperatures, carbon dioxide measurements, ice shelf breakup, coral bleaching, unstable climates and improved climate models. At the time of the Kyoto conference, the US became keen on the idea that enhancing forest and soil carbon sequestration was a good way to offset emissions reduction targets. Congress is however under the opinion on that the Kyoto protocol presents a threat to the US economy, and senate is very unlikely to ratify the protocol during the Clinton Administration. The debate as to whether the US government should mandate major emission reduction or wait for more scientific certainty may continue for a number of years, but, growing concern of scientists and the public for the harmful effects of climate change may cause a change. 4 figs., 8 photos.

  4. Development and validation of a Spanish diabetes-specific numeracy measure: DNT-15 Latino. (United States)

    White, Richard O; Osborn, Chandra Y; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Kripalani, Sunil; Rothman, Russell L


    Although deficits in health literacy and numeracy have been described among Latinos, the impact of low numeracy on diabetes outcomes has not been studied. Study objectives were (1) to establish the reliability and validity of a 15-item Spanish, diabetes-specific numeracy measure (Diabetes Numeracy Test [DNT]-15 Latino) and (2) to examine the relationship between diabetes-specific numeracy and diabetes-related outcomes among a sample of Latino adults with diabetes. Data collection included patient demographics, health literacy, general numeracy, diabetes-specific numeracy, acculturation, self-efficacy, self-care behaviors, and most recent glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Participants (n=144) were on average 47.8 years old (SD=12.1). The majority were female (62%), uninsured (81%), and of Mexican nationality (78%) and reported low levels of acculturation (96%). The DNT-15 Latino had high internal reliability (Kruder-Richardson 20=0.78). The DNT-15 Latino demonstrated construct validity, correlating with measures of health literacy (ρ=0.291), general numeracy (ρ=0.500), education (ρ=0.361), and income (ρ=0.270) (Pvalid measure of diabetes-specific numeracy for Latino patients with diabetes; however, additional studies are needed to further explore the association between diabetes-specific numeracy and acculturation and their impact on diabetes-related outcomes for Latinos.

  5. Latinos with obsessive-compulsive disorder: Mental healthcare utilization and inclusion in clinical trials. (United States)

    Wetterneck, Chad T; Little, Tannah E; Rinehart, Kimberly L; Cervantes, Maritza E; Hyde, Emma; Williams, Monnica


    Previous research has documented that ethnic minorities, particularly Latinos, obtain fewer mental health services than Caucasians (Kearney, Draper, & Baron 2005; Sue, Fujino, Hu, Takeuchi, & Zane, 1991). Conceivably, this may be due to a wide array of cultural issues (e.g., negative stigma attached to mental health, and language, socio-economic, and acculturation barriers), symptom disparities across Caucasian and Latino groups, or lack of effective outreach methods by clinicians and researchers. However, research is limited. As a result, Latinos may be insufficiently represented in clinical studies for OCD, making it unclear whether evidence-based treatments demonstrate the same efficacy and effectiveness for Latinos as has been demonstrated for Caucasians. The current study takes an in-depth analysis of 98 efficacy and effectiveness studies for OCD from across the Western hemisphere and reports the rates of Latino inclusion from each sample. Ninety clinical studies in the US and Canada, as well as eight clinical studies in Mexico and Central America were reviewed. Findings showed that only 11 (24%) US and Canadian studies included Latino participants, illustrating an overwhelming underrepresentation of Latinos in clinical studies for OCD. Further explanation of the results and their implications are discussed, along with suggestions for effectively improving access to mental health research and appropriate treatments.

  6. Crash injury risk behavior in adolescent latino males: the power of friends and relational connections. (United States)

    Vaca, Federico E; Anderson, Craig L


    The adolescent Latino male mortality profile is an anomaly when compared to an otherwise more favorable overall U.S. Latino population mortality profile. Motor vehicle crash fatalities bear a considerable proportion of mortality burden in this vulnerable population. Friend influence and relational connection are two contextual domains that may mediate crash injury risk behavior in these adolescents. Our study goal was to assess the role of friend influence over time and relational connections associated with crash injury risk behavior (CIRB) in adolescent Latino males. Waves I and II data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used. Scale of CIRB, and three relational connections; school connectedness, parent connectedness, and expectation of academic success were developed and tested. Friend nomination data were available and the index student responses were linked to friend responses. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship of relational connections and friend CIRB on index student CIRB at wave I and II. Longitudinal analysis did not show significant evidence for friend influence among adolescent Latino males on CIRB. The best predictor of CIRB at wave II for adolescent Latino males was their CIRB at wave I. Relational connections were important yet exaggerated cross-sectionally but their effect was substantially attenuated longitudinally. The lack of friend influence on CIRB for adolescent Latino males may be specific to this demographic group or characteristic of the sample studied. Prevention strategies that focus on modulating friend influence in adolescent Latino males may not yield the desired prevention effects on CIRB.

  7. Impact of growing income inequality on sustainable development in China: a provincial-level analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerink, N.B.M.; Ma, J.


    A growing body of literature has documented the rapidly increasing income disparities that accompanied China's economic growth in the 1980s and 1990s, and the driving factors behind this. Growing income inequality in its turn may have important implications for the accumulation of physical capital,

  8. Smoking-Cessation Treatment: Use Trends Among Non-Hispanic White and English-Speaking Hispanic/Latino Smokers, Colorado 2001-2012. (United States)

    Sedjo, Rebecca L; Li, Yaqiang; Levinson, Arnold H


    Most smokers who try to quit do not use an evidence-based treatment (EBT), and in 2001, Hispanic/Latino quit-attempters were about half as likely as non-Hispanic white (NHW) quit-attempters to use one. This study analyzed the patterns of EBT use in Colorado across a recent decade, 2001-2012. Data were from The Attitudes and Behaviors Survey, a random cross-sectional population-level telephone survey. Data included NHW and English-speaking Hispanic/Latino respondents from 2001 (n=11,872), 2005 (n=10,952), 2008 (n=12,323), and 2012 (n=13,265). Statistical analyses were conducted in 2014-2015. EBT measures included nicotine-replacement therapy, prescription cessation medication, telephone quit-line coaching, and other counseling. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses evaluated associations across years between EBT use and ethnicity, adjusting for covariates. Any EBT use increased with each successive survey year, and the relative increase from 2001 to 2012 was greater among Hispanic/Latino than NHW quit-attempters (75.7% vs 38.7%). However, adjusted for covariates, Hispanic/Latino quit-attempters in 2012 were still 54% less likely to use any EBT (AOR=0.46, 95% CI=0.34, 0.63), 45% less likely to use nicotine-replacement therapy (AOR=0.55, 95% CI=0.39, 0.77), and 50% less likely to use a prescription cessation medication (AOR=0.50, 95% CI=0.30, 0.85). Ethnicity was unrelated to use of a quit-line or other counseling service. EBT use for smoking cessation has increased over the past decade, with more rapid increase among English-speaking Hispanics/Latinos compared with NHWs, but a large use gap remains. Healthcare and public health efforts are needed to clarify and overcome factors contributing to this ongoing disparity. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Agricultural occupational health and safety perspectives among Latino-American youth. (United States)

    Perla, M E; Iman, Esmeralda; Campos, Leticia; Perkins, Alexandra; Liebman, Amy K; Miller, Mary E; Beaudet, Nancy J; Karr, Catherine J


    Agricultural work is one of the most dangerous jobs for adolescents. Through a university-community partnership, the authors surveyed young primarily acculturated Latino-American farmworkers 14 to 18 years of age regarding their agricultural work experience. Topics included occupational health and safety education, work history, and information sources. The authors also evaluated the Rapid Clinical Assessment Tool (RCAT), a pictorial tool for identifying agricultural tasks to enhance discussion with clinical providers. One hundred forty youth with farmwork experience completed the survey; 6% reported a previous work-related injury or illness and 53% reported receiving some workplace health and safety training. Correct identification of legally restricted duties for youth varied but were generally low: participants identified working alone past 8 pm (57%), driving a forklift (56%), doing roofing work (39%), working in freezers (34%), and driving a delivery vehicle (30%). The Internet was identified as the most likely and reliable place youth would go to find information on workplace health and safety. Few (15%) reported clinician-initiated conversations on occupational health; however, a high proportion responded positively to questions regarding the usefulness of the RCAT for this purpose. This study highlights the need for workplace health and safety guidance for youth employed in agriculture. The results support Internet-based outreach and use of the RCAT to help facilitate occupational health discussions in clinical settings.

  10. Healthy Skepticism or Corrosive Cynicism? New Insights into the Roots and Results of Latino Political Cynicism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa R. Michelson


    Full Text Available The degree to which citizens and residents trust the government is crucial for the maintenance of democracy and a stable civil society. Trust in government generates willingness to conform to rules and regulations, as well as to work within the democratic system rather than turning to more confrontational or even violent political action. The degree to which immigrants trust the government has symbolic importance, reflecting how well we are staying true to our history as a melting pot and to our history as a nation of immigrants. Residents need to feel safe to contact authorities in case of emergency, without threat of deportation or other negative reprisals related to their immigration status. Existing research finds that Latinos in the United States are increasingly cynical, threatening various negative consequences for the political system. The health of our democracy thus demands a good understanding of the causes and consequences of Latino immigrant trust in government (or lack thereof. This article compares Latino trust in government in the context of the 2012 presidential election campaign—one in which outreach to Latino citizens in pursuit of their votes signaled that they were important and powerful members of the polity—to Latino trust in government in the context of the 2006 immigration marches—one in which Latinos found themselves taking to the streets to protest anti-Latino and anti-immigrant legislation. Latino political trust is sensitive to this shifting context, suggesting that how U.S. society treats Latino immigrants has powerful effects on their political socialization and attitudes.

  11. Treatment engagement and response to CBT among Latinos with anxiety disorders in primary care. (United States)

    Chavira, Denise A; Golinelli, Daniela; Sherbourne, Cathy; Stein, Murray B; Sullivan, Greer; Bystritsky, Alexander; Rose, Raphael D; Lang, Ariel J; Campbell-Sills, Laura; Welch, Stacy; Bumgardner, Kristin; Glenn, Daniel; Barrios, Velma; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Craske, Michelle


    In the current study, we compared measures of treatment outcome and engagement for Latino and non-Latino White patients receiving a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program delivered in primary care. Participants were 18-65 years old and recruited from 17 clinics at 4 different sites to participate in a randomized controlled trial for anxiety disorders, which compared the Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management (CALM) intervention (consisting of CBT, medication, or both) with usual care. Of those participants who were randomized to the intervention arm and selected CBT (either alone or in combination with medication), 85 were Latino and 251 were non-Latino White; the majority of the Latino participants received the CBT intervention in English (n = 77). Blinded assessments of clinical improvement and functioning were administered at baseline and at 6, 12, and 18 months after baseline. Measures of engagement, including attendance, homework adherence, understanding of CBT principles, and commitment to treatment, were assessed weekly during the CBT intervention. Findings from propensity-weighted linear and logistic regression models revealed no statistically significant differences between Latinos and non-Latino Whites on symptom measures of clinical improvement and functioning at almost all time points. There were significant differences on 2 of 7 engagement outcomes, namely, number of sessions attended and patients' understanding of CBT principles. These findings suggest that CBT can be an effective treatment approach for Latinos who are primarily English speaking and likely more acculturated, although continued attention should be directed toward engaging Latinos in such interventions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Relationships among spousal communication, self-efficacy, and motivation among expectant Latino fathers who smoke. (United States)

    Khaddouma, Alexander; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Fish, Laura J; Bilheimer, Alicia; Gonzalez, Alicia; Pollak, Kathryn I


    Cigarette smoking is a prevalent problem among Latinos, yet little is known about what factors motivate them to quit smoking or make them feel more confident that they can. Given cultural emphases on familial bonds among Latinos (e.g., familismo), it is possible that communication processes among Latino spouses play an important role. The present study tested a mechanistic model in which perceived spousal constructive communication patterns predicted changes in level of motivation for smoking cessation through changes in self-efficacy among Latino expectant fathers. Latino males (n = 173) and their pregnant partners participated in a couple-based intervention targeting males' smoking. Couples completed self-report measures of constructive communication, self-efficacy (male partners only), and motivation to quit (male partners only) at 4 time points throughout the intervention. Higher levels of perceived constructive communication among Latino male partners predicted subsequent increases in male partners' self-efficacy and, to a lesser degree, motivation to quit smoking; however, self-efficacy did not mediate associations between constructive communication and motivation to quit smoking. Furthermore, positive relationships with communication were only significant at measurements taken after completion of the intervention. Female partners' level of perceived constructive communication did not predict male partners' outcomes. These results provide preliminary evidence to support the utility of couple-based interventions for Latino men who smoke. Findings also suggest that perceptions of communication processes among Latino partners (particularly male partners) may be an important target for interventions aimed at increasing desire and perceived ability to quit smoking among Latino men. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. How Well is the Medical Home Working for Latino and Black Children? (United States)

    Guerrero, Alma D; Zhou, Xinkai; Chung, Paul J


    Objective To examine the benefits of having a medical home among Latino and Black school-aged children, both with and without special health care needs (CSHCN). Methods Data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) were analyzed to examine the associations of preventive dental and medical care, unmet dental or medical care, or missed school days with having a medical home among Latino and Black children compared to White children. Multivariate logistic regression with survey weights was used to adjust for child, parent, home, and geographic characteristics and an interaction term to estimate differences in outcomes among Black or Latino children receiving care in a medical home compared to White children with a medical home. Results Approximately 35% of Latino CSHCN and Latino non-CSHCN ages 6-17 years of age had a medical home. In the adjusted model comparing the effectiveness of the medical home by race and ethnicity, Latino non-CSHCN compared to White non-CSHCN were associated with lower odds of having one or more preventive dental visit in the last 12 months (OR 0.66; 95% CI 0.46-0.95) and no other associations between having a medical home and outcomes were found among Latinos compared to Whites regardless of non-CSHCN or CHSCN status. Meanwhile, having a medical home among Black non-CHSCN and CHSCN, compared to their White counterparts, showed potential benefits in regards to unmet medical care needs after adjusting for covariates, (OR 0.15; 95% CI 0.06-0.35; OR 0.16; 95% CI 0.05-0.55). Conclusions Medical homes may not be effective in delivering health services to the majority of Latino children but provide some benefit to Black children with and without CSHCN. Alternatively, the medical home may function differently for Latinos due to the specific medical home components measured by NSCH.

  14. Protein nutrition of growing cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalupa, W.; Scott, G.C.


    In vitro studies on apparent degradation of amino acids by mixed and pure cultures of rumen bacteria demonstrated that (a) amino acids are degraded at differing rates (Arg, Thr>Lys, Phe, Leu, Ile>Val, Met); (b) certain amino acids (Met, Val, Try, Orn) are degraded to greater extents when fermented alone than in conjunction with other amino acids; (c) individual strains of rumen bacteria do not utilize all amino acids; and (d) total ruminal degradation of amino acids is the result of extensive bacterial interaction, and may vary greatly depending on the predominant types of micro-organisms present. Abomasal infusion of a mixture of 10 essential amino acids consistently increased nitrogen retention, but attempts to elucidate primary limiting amino acids were not conclusive. Our data suggested that supplementary methionine alone may not significantly increase nitrogen retention, but methionine must be present in order to obtain responses from other amino acids. Methionine plus lysine plus threonine usually increased nitrogen retention, but the magnitude of responses varied. The classical nitrogen balance technique may lack the sensitivity needed to detect small responses resulting from supplements of single amino acids, or growing cattle, unlike sheep used for wool growth, may not be suffering from specific amino acid deficiencies. Chemical suppression of ruminal degradation of amino acids produced significant increases in nitrogen retention and growth, and improved feed efficiencies. Productivity responses to rumen bypass techniques would seem to depend primarily upon (a) the degree to which dietary protein is degraded in the rumen, and (b) the quantity of absorbable amino acids supplied by the diet in relation to quantities required by the animal. (author)

  15. Growing population causes of unemployment. (United States)


    At the March, 1995, International Meeting on Population and Social Development in Copenhagen, during the session on unemployment, underemployment, and population it was stated that the problem of employment was the extent to which a nation's labor supply was not matched by labor demand or job opportunities. Population was thus a supply factor, and the country's economic situation was a demand factor. The demographic variables that were considered important in the supply of labor were: a) the size and rate of growth of the population, which was a function of the birth rate, the death rate, and migration; and b) the age structure of the population, which was also a product of the rate of growth of the population and its distribution. An imbalance between the supply of labor and the demand for it gave rise to unemployment and underemployment. The vicious cycle generated by a high dependency burden associated with a young age-structure led to low savings and investments, which in turn led to low economic growth and a low standard of living. This produced high fertility rates, which in turn heightened the dependency burden perpetuating the cycle. This vicious cycle could be broken at only two points: at the high fertility stage, primarily by introducing family planning programs; and at the stage of low economic growth, by adopting policies to accelerate economic growth. To be successful, however, both actions had to be pursued simultaneously. Numerous participants emphasized the global nature of the issue of unemployment and underemployment; the effects of international competition and restrictive trade policies on employment opportunities. The growing disparity between North and South had created a social injustice between countries. Several participants called for more humane policies that favored democracy and promoted human development, and asked for assistance to help create an enabling environment for social and economic development.

  16. PV supply chain growing pains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, A. [Matrix Energy Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada)


    This article discussed issues involving the supply chain for photovoltaic (PV) equipment that is emerging in Ontario as a result of the Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) program that was launched in late 2009. The rapidly developing PV supply chain may not be taking a sustainable path. The domestic-content requirement is making manufacturers outlay capital to set up manufacturing in Ontario without reliable market data. Only a small number of dealer/installers have any meaningful experience designing and installing grid-tie PV. Until recently, wholesale distributors designed and supplied most grid-tie PV systems in Canada, and solar dealers/installers or electricians or electrical contractors did the installation. Instead of selling directly to dealer/installers, solar manufacturers should develop strong relationships with wholesalers, who have system design experience and product training. This would allow manufacturers to focus on their core strength, reach more customers, and keep lower inventory levels. Wholesale distributors in turn provide dealer/installers with expertise in product and system design, training from a range of manufacturers, marketing and logistics support, and immediate access to inventory. Manufacturers generally lack appropriate accounting, engineering, marketing, and logistics services to deal with a multitude of active accounts, and they are not structured to work with architects and engineers to do complete system design. Partnering with wholesale distributors allows manufacturers to take on the residential and small-scale commercial sectors by building brand awareness and increasing market share and sales across Canada. 2 figs.

  17. PV supply chain growing pains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, A.


    This article discussed issues involving the supply chain for photovoltaic (PV) equipment that is emerging in Ontario as a result of the Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) program that was launched in late 2009. The rapidly developing PV supply chain may not be taking a sustainable path. The domestic-content requirement is making manufacturers outlay capital to set up manufacturing in Ontario without reliable market data. Only a small number of dealer/installers have any meaningful experience designing and installing grid-tie PV. Until recently, wholesale distributors designed and supplied most grid-tie PV systems in Canada, and solar dealers/installers or electricians or electrical contractors did the installation. Instead of selling directly to dealer/installers, solar manufacturers should develop strong relationships with wholesalers, who have system design experience and product training. This would allow manufacturers to focus on their core strength, reach more customers, and keep lower inventory levels. Wholesale distributors in turn provide dealer/installers with expertise in product and system design, training from a range of manufacturers, marketing and logistics support, and immediate access to inventory. Manufacturers generally lack appropriate accounting, engineering, marketing, and logistics services to deal with a multitude of active accounts, and they are not structured to work with architects and engineers to do complete system design. Partnering with wholesale distributors allows manufacturers to take on the residential and small-scale commercial sectors by building brand awareness and increasing market share and sales across Canada. 2 figs.

  18. Adolescent relationship violence and acculturation among NYC Latinos. (United States)

    DuPont-Reyes, Melissa; Fry, Deborah; Rickert, Vaughn; Davidson, Leslie L


    Acculturation has been shown to positively and negatively affect Latino health. Little research investigates the overlap between acculturation and the different types of relationship violence among Latino youth and most research in this area predominantly involves Mexican-American samples. The current study examined associations between indices of acculturation (language use at home, chosen survey language, and nativity) and relationship physical violence and sexual coercion, both received and delivered, among predominantly Dominican and Puerto Rican adolescents from New York City. From 2006 to 2007, 1,454 adolescents aged 13-21 years in New York City completed an anonymous survey that included the Conflict in Adolescent Relationships Inventory which estimates experiences of physical violence and sexual coercion, both received and delivered, in the previous year. This analysis includes bivariate and multivariate methods to test the associations between language use at home, chosen survey language, and nativity with the different types of relationship violence. Among females, there is a significant association between language use at home and overall level of acculturation with delivering and receiving relationship physical violence; however, we did not find this association in delivering and receiving relationship sexual coercion. We found no association between acculturation and any type of relationship violence among males. Among Latina females, language spoken at home is an indicator of other protective factors of physical relationship violence. Future research in this area should explore the potential protective factors surrounding relationship violence among Latina females of various subgroups using comprehensive measures of acculturation, household composition and family engagement.

  19. Occupational safety beliefs among Latino residential roofing workers. (United States)

    Arcury, Thomas A; Summers, Phillip; Carrillo, Lourdes; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Quandt, Sara A; Mills, Thomas H


    This analysis describes beliefs about work safety and personal protective equipment (PPE) among Latino roofing workers, it delineates their perceptions of work environment characteristics that affect work safety and PPE use, and it describes how they experience work injuries and the consequences of these injuries. In-depth interviews were completed with 10 current and former Latino residential roofers. Interview transcripts were subjected to systematic qualitative analysis. Participants' valued productivity over safety, and this had a negative influence on their safety behavior and reduced their PPE use. They understood that roofing was hazardous. They limited use of PPE when they felt it reduced productivity and when it was uncomfortable. Work environment characteristics that affected safety included company size, the physical demands of the job, lack of training, the need for work, general life stress, and distractions at work. An injury had to result in lost work time to be considered significant. Access to health care is limited by employers not providing Workers' compensation. Future research is needed to substantiate these descriptive results and to delineate factors that are associated with safety behavior and use of PPE. Interventions, based on a lay health educator model, are needed to improve safety in this population. Safety regulations need to be evaluated and their enforcement needs to be improved. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. How Your Fetus Grows During Pregnancy (United States)

    ... Patients About ACOG How Your Fetus Grows During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs How Your Fetus ... 2018 PDF Format How Your Fetus Grows During Pregnancy Pregnancy How does pregnancy begin? What is the ...

  1. Menopausal women's positive experience of growing older

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Lotte


    This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged.......This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged....

  2. Addressing Barriers to Shared Decision Making Among Latino LGBTQ Patients and Healthcare Providers in Clinical Settings. (United States)

    Baig, Arshiya A; Lopez, Fanny Y; DeMeester, Rachel H; Jia, Justin L; Peek, Monica E; Vela, Monica B


    Effective shared decision making (SDM) between patients and healthcare providers has been positively associated with health outcomes. However, little is known about the SDM process between Latino patients who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ), and their healthcare providers. Our review of the literature identified unique aspects of Latino LGBTQ persons' culture, health beliefs, and experiences that may affect their ability to engage in SDM with their healthcare providers. Further research needs to examine Latino LGBTQ patient-provider experiences with SDM and develop tools that can better facilitate SDM in this patient population.

  3. Nutritional studies on growing rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.M.E.A.M.


    This work was carried out to study the effect of adding drinking water with either, copper sulfate, ascorbic acid or drinking cooled water on growth performance (live body weight,body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion and water consumption), digestibility coefficients of nutrients, carcass traits, some physiological parameters and economical efficiency of growing NZW rabbits under Egyptian summer conditions. Ninety six weanling New Zealand White (NZW) male rabbits at five weeks of age and nearly similar average body weight (650.3 ±3.7 g) were randomly divided into eight treatment groups (twelve rabbits in each group), and then each group was subdivided into four replicates, each of three rabbits. The rabbits were assigned to drinking water as follow: the 1 st group was given fresh tap water without any additives as a control. The 2 n d, 3 r d and 4 t h groups were given tap fresh water supplemented with copper sulfate at levels of 40, 80 and 120 mg/L drinking water, respectively. The 5 t h, 6 t h and 7 t h groups were given tap fresh water supplemented with ascorbic acid at levels of 250, 500 and 750 mg/L drinking water, respectively. The 8 t h group was given cooled drinking water (CW) at 10-15 degree C. Results showed that supplementation of 40 or 80 mg copper sulfate/L or 500 mg ascorbic acid/L to heat-stressed rabbits drinking water improved final live body weight, body weight gain, daily water consumption, feed conversion ratio, performance index and economical efficiency. Hot carcass percentage was significantly (P<0.01) decreased with 80 mg/L copper sulfate and increased significantly (P<0.01) due to supplementation the drinking water with 250 mg ascorbic acid/L. Cooled water (10-15 degree C) improved significantly (P<0.01) each of final body weight, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, performance index, economical efficiency and decreased significantly (P<0.01) each of hot carcass %, dressed weight %, heart %, total giblets %, rectal

  4. Cultural Variables Underlying Obesity in Latino Men: Design, Rationale and Participant Characteristics from the Latino Men's Health Initiative. (United States)

    Sanchez-Johnsen, Lisa; Craven, Meredith; Nava, Magdalena; Alonso, Angelica; Dykema-Engblade, Amanda; Rademaker, Alfred; Xie, Hui


    Overweight and obesity are associated with significant health problems and rates of obesity are high among Latino men. This paper describes the design, rationale and participant characteristics of the key demographic variables assessed in an NIH-funded study (R21-CA143636) addressing culture and several obesity-related variables (diet, physical activity, and body image) among Mexican and Puerto Rican men using a community-based participatory research framework. Participants completed objective measures (height, weight, body fat, hip, waist), a health and culture interview, a diet questionnaire, and used an accelerometer to measure their level of physical activity. A total of 203 participants completed the measures and the health and culture interview and 193 completed all study components. Puerto Ricans were older than Mexicans (p health insurance, Body Mass Index, body fat, hip and waist measurements, and the language preference of the interview. Results have implications for the development of a future intervention that incorporates the role of cultural factors into a community participatory obesity intervention for Latino men.

  5. Health Behaviors and Health Status of At-Risk Latino Students for Diabetes. (United States)

    Hurtado-Ortiz, Maria T; Santos, Silvia; Reynosa, Astrid

    This research study examined the behavioral lifestyle patterns and health status of at-risk Latino college students for future diabetes onset in relation to their age, gender, and acculturation status. Participants were 156 Latino (34% male and 66% female) university students who had a first and/or second degree relative afflicted with diabetes. Findings indicated that Latino students exhibit similar lifestyle patterns in terms of dietary intake, physical activity, and drinking and smoking behaviors observed in the general and college population that have been linked to obesity-a particularly problematic risk factor among those who already have a genetic predisposition for diabetes. The reported findings are of importance for the development of culturally-relevant treatment interventions targeting young Latinos in college.

  6. Discrimination, acculturation, acculturative stress, and Latino psychological distress: a moderated mediational model. (United States)

    Torres, Lucas; Driscoll, Mark W; Voell, Maria


    Prior research has found that perceived discrimination is associated with adverse mental health outcomes among Latinos. However, the process by which this relationship occurs remains an understudied area. The present study investigated the role of acculturative stress in underlying the relationship between perceived discrimination and Latino psychological distress. Also examined was the ability of acculturation to serve as a moderator between perceived discrimination and acculturative stress. Among a sample of Latino adults (N = 669), moderated mediational analyses revealed that acculturative stress mediated the perceived discrimination-psychological distress relationship, and that the link between perceived discrimination and acculturative stress was moderated by Anglo behavioral orientation but not Latino behavioral orientation. The findings are discussed within a stress and coping perspective that identifies the psychological consequences associated with perceived discrimination and acculturative stress.

  7. Utility of the Static-99 and Static-99R With Latino Sex Offenders. (United States)

    Leguízamo, Alejandro; Lee, Seung C; Jeglic, Elizabeth L; Calkins, Cynthia


    The predictive validity of the Static-99 measures with ethnic minorities in the United States has only recently been assessed with mixed results. We assessed the predictive validity of the Static-99 and Static-99R with a sample of Latino sex offenders ( N = 483) as well as with two subsamples (U.S.-born, including Puerto Rico, and non-U.S.-born). The overall sexual recidivism rate was very low (1.9%). Both the Static-99 measures were able to predict sexual recidivism for offenders born in the United States and Puerto Rico, but neither was effective in doing so for other Latino immigrants. Calibration analyses ( N = 303) of the Static-99R were consistent with the literature and provided support for the potential use of the measure with Latinos born in the United States and Puerto Rico. These findings and their implications are discussed as they pertain to the assessment of Latino sex offenders.

  8. Depression and Chronic Health Conditions Among Latinos: The Role of Social Networks. (United States)

    Soto, Sandra; Arredondo, Elva M; Villodas, Miguel T; Elder, John P; Quintanar, Elena; Madanat, Hala


    The purpose of this study was to examine the "buffering hypothesis" of social network characteristics in the association between chronic conditions and depression among Latinos. Cross-sectional self-report data from the San Diego Prevention Research Center's community survey of Latinos were used (n = 393). Separate multiple logistic regression models tested the role of chronic conditions and social network characteristics in the likelihood of moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms. Having a greater proportion of the network comprised of friends increased the likelihood of depression among those with high cholesterol. Having a greater proportion of women in the social network was directly related to the increased likelihood of depression, regardless of the presence of chronic health conditions. Findings suggest that network characteristics may play a role in the link between chronic conditions and depression among Latinos. Future research should explore strategies targeting the social networks of Latinos to improve health outcomes.

  9. Walking ATMs and the immigration spillover effect: The link between Latino immigration and robbery victimization. (United States)

    Barranco, Raymond E; Shihadeh, Edward S


    Media reports and prior research suggest that undocumented Latino migrants are disproportionately robbed because they rely on a cash-only economy and they are reluctant to report crimes to law-enforcement (the Walking ATM phenomenon). From this we generate two specific research questions. First, we probe for an immigration spillover effect - defined as increased native and documented Latino robbery victimization due to offenders' inability to distinguish between the statuses of potential victims. Second, we examine the oft-repeated claim that Blacks robbers disproportionately target Latino victims. Using National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) data from 282 counties, results show (1) support for an immigration spillover effect but, (2) no support for the claim that Latinos are disproportionately singled out by Black robbers. We discuss the implications of our findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficiency and Cost-Effectiveness of Recruitment Methods for Male Latino Smokers (United States)

    Graham, Amanda L.; Lopez-Class, Maria; Mueller, Noel T.; Mota, Guadalupe; Mandelblatt, Jeanne


    Little is known about the most effective strategies to recruit male Latino smokers to cessation research studies. The purpose of this study was to identify efficient and cost-effective research recruitment strategies for this priority population. (Contains 4 tables.)

  11. Afro-Latinos in Latin America and Considerations for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seelke, Clare R


    .... Afro-Latinos comprise some 150 million of the region's 540 million total population, and, along with women and indigenous populations, are among the poorest, most marginalized groups in the region...

  12. Afro-Latinos in Latin America and Considerations for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ribando, Clare M


    .... Afro- Latinos comprise some 150 million of the region's 540 million total population, and, along with women and indigenous populations, are among the poorest, most marginalized groups in the region...

  13. [The declining socioeconomic prospects of Latinos of Mexican origin in the United States]. (United States)

    Levine, E


    "This document analyzes how the changes in the labor market conditions in the U.S. and the ongoing crisis in Mexico interact to create conditions under which it becomes increasingly more difficult for Mexican immigrants and their children to advance economically in the U.S. Even for second and third generation of [Latinos] from Mexico the educational levels, and hence wage and salary levels, are extremely low. Given the transformation that currently characterize the U.S. labor market--the growth of the service sector employment and a decline in the number of manufacturing jobs, the increased participation of women and [Latinos] in the labor force, and the rising number of contingent workers--the future perspectives for [Latinos] from Mexico, and even [Latinos] in general, do not look good." (EXCERPT)

  14. Increasing Melanoma Screening Among Hispanic/Latino Americans: A Community-Based Educational Intervention. (United States)

    Chung, Grace Y; Brown, Gina; Gibson, Desmond


    Melanoma incidence is increasing among Hispanics/Latinos in California. This community-based project reached out to a rural Hispanic/Latino community in North San Diego County to provide melanoma prevention and screening education. At a local community health fair, bilingual volunteer lay health workers led 10- to 15-minute-long information sessions on melanoma disease, risk factors, and skin self-examination techniques. Pearson chi-square analyses of participants' (N = 34) responses to pre- and postintervention evaluation surveys indicate significant increases in knowledge, risk awareness, and self-efficacy for self-screening. The results revealed that Hispanics/Latinos in a low socioeconomic stratum might be at moderate to high risk for developing melanoma. Their low annual income, low level of education, occupational sun-exposure, and lack of access to health care are likely factors that deter at-risk Hispanics/Latinos from seeking health care. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  15. Afro-Latinos in Latin America and Considerations for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ribando, Clare M


    .... In recent years, people of African descent in the Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking nations of Latin America - also known as "Afro-Latinos" have been pushing for increased rights and representation...

  16. Afro-Latinos in Latin America and Considerations for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seelke, Clare R


    .... In recent years, people of African descent in the Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking nations of Latin America - also known as "Afro-Latinos" - have been pushing for increased rights and representation...

  17. Influence of Language and Culture in the Primary Care of Spanish-Speaking Latino Adults with Poorly Controlled Diabetes: A Qualitative Study. (United States)

    Zamudio, Cindy D; Sanchez, Gabriela; Altschuler, Andrea; Grant, Richard W


    We examined the role of language and culture in the interactions between Spanish-speaking Latino patients with poorly controlled diabetes - a fast-growing population in the United States - and their primary care providers. We conducted four focus groups with 36 non-US born Spanish-speaking patients with elevated HbA1c. Participants were insured health plan members with either English-speaking (2 groups) or Spanish-speaking (2 groups) primary care providers. Moderated discussions focused on visit preparation, communication during visit, and role of other care team members. Key themes derived from these discussions were then linked to corresponding Latino cultural constructs. Patients had a mean age of 57.9 (±11.2) years and last measured HbA1c was 8.6% (1.5%). Two communication-related themes (reluctance to switch providers and use of intermediaries) and two visit-related themes (provider-driven visit agendas and problem-based visits) emerged from our analyses. These themes reflected the cultural constructs of confianza (trust), familismo (family), respeto (deference), and simpatía (harmonious relationship). Trust in the patient-provider relationship led many participants to remain with English-speaking providers who treated them well. Patients with either language concordant and discordant providers reported reliance on family or other intermediaries to close communication gaps. Deference to physician expertise and authority led to visit expectations that it is the doctor's job to know what to ask and that visits were intended to address specific, often symptom-driven problems. Spanish-speaking Latino patients' cultural expectations play an important role in framing their primary care interactions. Recognizing culturally influenced visit expectations is an important step toward improving patient-provider communication.

  18. Population-based comparison of biomarker concentrations for chemicals of concern among Latino-American and non-Hispanic white children. (United States)

    Perla, M E; Rue, Tessa; Cheadle, Allen; Krieger, James; Karr, Catherine J; Karr, C K


    promotion programs for the fast-growing Latino-American population.

  19. Generational status, health insurance, and public benefit participation among low-income Latino children. (United States)

    DeCamp, Lisa Ross; Bundy, David G


    The objectives of this study were to (1) measure health insurance coverage and continuity across generational subgroups of Latino children, and (2) determine if participation in public benefit programs is associated with increased health insurance coverage and continuity. We analyzed data on 25,388 children income-eligible for public insurance from the 2003 to 2004 National Survey of Children's Health and stratified Latinos by generational status. First- and second-generation Latino children were more likely to be uninsured (58 and 19%, respectively) than third-generation children (9.5%). Second-generation Latino children were similarly likely to be currently insured by public insurance as third-generation children (61 and 62%, respectively), but less likely to have private insurance (19 and 29%, respectively). Second-generation Latino children were slightly more likely than third-generation children to have discontinuous insurance during the year (19 and 15%, respectively). Compared with children in families where English was the primary home language, children in families where English was not the primary home language had higher odds of being uninsured versus having continuous insurance coverage (OR: 2.19; 95% CI [1.33-3.62]). Among second-generation Latino children, participation in the Food Stamp (OR 0.26; 95% CI [0.14-0.48]) or Women, Infants, and Children (OR 0.40; 95% CI [0.25-0.66]) programs was associated with reduced odds of being uninsured. Insurance disparities are concentrated among first- and second-generation Latino children. For second-generation Latino children, connection to other public benefit programs may promote enrollment in public insurance.

  20. Sexual health behavior interventions for U.S. Latino adolescents: a systematic review of the literature. (United States)

    Cardoza, Vicky J; Documét, Patricia I; Fryer, Craig S; Gold, Melanie A; Butler, James


    To identify sexual health behavior interventions targeting U.S. Latino adolescents. A systematic literature review. Peer-reviewed articles published between 1993 and 2011, conducted in any type of setting. Male and female Latino adolescents ages 11-21 years. Interventions promoting sexual abstinence, pregnancy prevention, sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention, and/or HIV/AIDS prevention. Changes in knowledge, attitudes, engagement in risky sexual behaviors, rates of STIs, and/or pregnancy. Sixty-eight articles were identified. Fifteen were included in this review that specifically addressed Latino adolescent sexual health behavior. Among the reviewed interventions, most aimed to prevent or reduce STI and HIV/AIDS incidence by focusing on behavior change at two levels of the social ecological model: individual and interpersonal. Major strengths of the articles included addressing the most critical issues of sexual health; using social ecological approaches; employing different strategies to deliver sexual health messages; and employing different intervention designs in diverse geographical locations with the largest population of Latino communities. Most of the interventions targeted female adolescents, stressing the need for additional interventions that target Latino adolescent males. Latino adolescent sexual health is a new research field with gaps that need to be addressed in reducing negative sexual health outcomes among this population. More research is needed to produce new or validate existing, age-specific, and culturally-sensitive sexual health interventions for Latino male and female adolescents. Further, this research should also be conducted in areas of the U.S. with the newest Latino migration (e.g., North Carolina). Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.