WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapidly exploring random

  1. MARRT: Medial Axis biased rapidly-exploring random trees

    KAUST Repository

    Denny, Jory

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Motion planning is a difficult and widely studied problem in robotics. Current research aims not only to find feasible paths, but to ensure paths have certain properties, e.g., shortest or safest paths. This is difficult for current state-of-the-art sampling-based techniques as they typically focus on simply finding any path. Despite this difficulty, sampling-based techniques have shown great success in planning for a wide range of applications. Among such planners, Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs) search the planning space by biasing exploration toward unexplored regions. This paper introduces a novel RRT variant, Medial Axis RRT (MARRT), which biases tree exploration to the medial axis of free space by pushing all configurations from expansion steps towards the medial axis. We prove that this biasing increases the tree\\'s clearance from obstacles. Improving obstacle clearance is useful where path safety is important, e.g., path planning for robots performing tasks in close proximity to the elderly. Finally, we experimentally analyze MARRT, emphasizing its ability to effectively map difficult passages while increasing obstacle clearance, and compare it to contemporary RRT techniques.

  2. Intelligent bidirectional rapidly-exploring random trees for optimal motion planning in complex cluttered environments

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Ahmed Hussain; Ayaz, Yasar

    2017-01-01

    The sampling based motion planning algorithm known as Rapidly-exploring Random Trees (RRT) has gained the attention of many researchers due to their computational efficiency and effectiveness. Recently, a variant of RRT called RRT* has been proposed that ensures asymptotic optimality. Subsequently its bidirectional version has also been introduced in the literature known as Bidirectional-RRT* (B-RRT*). We introduce a new variant called Intelligent Bidirectional-RRT* (IB-RRT*) which is an impr...

  3. A multi-directional rapidly exploring random graph (mRRG) for protein folding

    KAUST Repository

    Nath, Shuvra Kanti

    2012-01-01

    Modeling large-scale protein motions, such as those involved in folding and binding interactions, is crucial to better understanding not only how proteins move and interact with other molecules but also how proteins misfold, thus causing many devastating diseases. Robotic motion planning algorithms, such as Rapidly Exploring Random Trees (RRTs), have been successful in simulating protein folding pathways. Here, we propose a new multi-directional Rapidly Exploring Random Graph (mRRG) specifically tailored for proteins. Unlike traditional RRGs which only expand a parent conformation in a single direction, our strategy expands the parent conformation in multiple directions to generate new samples. Resulting samples are connected to the parent conformation and its nearest neighbors. By leveraging multiple directions, mRRG can model the protein motion landscape with reduced computational time compared to several other robotics-based methods for small to moderate-sized proteins. Our results on several proteins agree with experimental hydrogen out-exchange, pulse-labeling, and F-value analysis. We also show that mRRG covers the conformation space better as compared to the other computation methods. Copyright © 2012 ACM.

  4. A Novel Path Planning for Robots Based on Rapidly-Exploring Random Tree and Particle Swarm Optimizer Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Feng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A based on Rapidly-exploring Random Tree(RRT and Particle Swarm Optimizer (PSO for path planning of the robot is proposed.First the grid method is built to describe the working space of the mobile robot,then the Rapidly-exploring Random Tree algorithm is used to obtain the global navigation path,and the Particle Swarm Optimizer algorithm is adopted to get the better path.Computer experiment results demonstrate that this novel algorithm can plan an optimal path rapidly in a cluttered environment.The successful obstacle avoidance is achieved,and the model is robust and performs reliably.

  5. Rapidly-Exploring Roadmaps: Weighing Exploration vs. Refinement in Optimal Motion Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterovitz, Ron; Patil, Sachin; Derbakova, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Computing globally optimal motion plans requires exploring the configuration space to identify reachable free space regions as well as refining understanding of already explored regions to find better paths. We present the rapidly-exploring roadmap (RRM), a new method for single-query optimal motion planning that allows the user to explicitly consider the trade-off between exploration and refinement. RRM initially explores the configuration space like a rapidly exploring random tree (RRT). Once a path is found, RRM uses a user-specified parameter to weigh whether to explore further or to refine the explored space by adding edges to the current roadmap to find higher quality paths in the explored space. Unlike prior methods, RRM does not focus solely on exploration or refine prematurely. We demonstrate the performance of RRM and the trade-off between exploration and refinement using two examples, a point robot moving in a plane and a concentric tube robot capable of following curved trajectories inside patient anatomy for minimally invasive medical procedures.

  6. The random exploration graph for optimal exploration of unknown environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Toriz Palacios

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of an unknown environment by a robot system is a well-studied problem in robotics; however, although many of the proposals made in this field represent efficient tools in terms of exploration paradigm, most of them are not efficient for time critical applications since the robot may visit the same place more than once during backtracking. In this way and considering these limitations, this article presents a novel approach called the random exploration graph, which addresses the problem of exploring unknown environments by building a graph structure created incrementally by the random choice of the free frontier in the observation range of the robot. In addition, the random exploration graph algorithm uses a new concept called “frontier control” introduced in this work, used to store nodes left behind in the graph structure that have not been fully explored and that will be used to guide the exploration process in an efficient way, when the algorithm needs to go back to previously visited areas to continue exploration. The frontier control concept next to the versatility of the graph structure used for the exploration process is the main contribution of this work.

  7. Exploring data with RapidMiner

    CERN Document Server

    Chisholm, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step tutorial style using examples so that users of different levels will benefit from the facilities offered by RapidMiner.If you are a computer scientist or an engineer who has real data from which you want to extract value, this book is ideal for you. You will need to have at least a basic awareness of data mining techniques and some exposure to RapidMiner.

  8. Exploring complex networks through random walks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Luciano da Fontoura; Travieso, Gonzalo

    2007-01-01

    Most real complex networks--such as protein interactions, social contacts, and the Internet--are only partially known and available to us. While the process of exploring such networks in many cases resembles a random walk, it becomes a key issue to investigate and characterize how effectively the nodes and edges of such networks can be covered by different strategies. At the same time, it is critically important to infer how well can topological measurements such as the average node degree and average clustering coefficient be estimated during such network explorations. The present article addresses these problems by considering random, Barabási-Albert (BA), and geographical network models with varying connectivity explored by three types of random walks: traditional, preferential to untracked edges, and preferential to unvisited nodes. A series of relevant results are obtained, including the fact that networks of the three studied models with the same size and average node degree allow similar node and edge coverage efficiency, the identification of linear scaling with the size of the network of the random walk step at which a given percentage of the nodes/edges is covered, and the critical result that the estimation of the averaged node degree and clustering coefficient by random walks on BA networks often leads to heavily biased results. Many are the theoretical and practical implications of such results.

  9. Randomized tree construction algorithm to explore energy landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaillet, Léonard; Corcho, Francesc J; Pérez, Juan-Jesús; Cortés, Juan

    2011-12-01

    In this work, a new method for exploring conformational energy landscapes is described. The method, called transition-rapidly exploring random tree (T-RRT), combines ideas from statistical physics and robot path planning algorithms. A search tree is constructed on the conformational space starting from a given state. The tree expansion is driven by a double strategy: on the one hand, it is naturally biased toward yet unexplored regions of the space; on the other, a Monte Carlo-like transition test guides the expansion toward energetically favorable regions. The balance between these two strategies is automatically achieved due to a self-tuning mechanism. The method is able to efficiently find both energy minima and transition paths between them. As a proof of concept, the method is applied to two academic benchmarks and the alanine dipeptide. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Raexplore: Enabling Rapid, Automated Architecture Exploration for Full Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Balaprakash, Prasanna [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Meng, Jiayuan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Morozov, Vitali [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Parker, Scott [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kumaran, Kalyan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present Raexplore, a performance modeling framework for architecture exploration. Raexplore enables rapid, automated, and systematic search of architecture design space by combining hardware counter-based performance characterization and analytical performance modeling. We demonstrate Raexplore for two recent manycore processors IBM Blue- Gene/Q compute chip and Intel Xeon Phi, targeting a set of scientific applications. Our framework is able to capture complex interactions between architectural components including instruction pipeline, cache, and memory, and to achieve a 3–22% error for same-architecture and cross-architecture performance predictions. Furthermore, we apply our framework to assess the two processors, and discover and evaluate a list of architectural scaling options for future processor designs.

  11. Randomness in retrospect: exploring the interactions between memory and randomness cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivola, Christopher Y; Oppenheimer, Daniel M

    2008-10-01

    People tend to believe that sequences of random events produce fewer and shorter streaks than is actually the case. Although this error has been demonstrated repeatedly and in many forms, nearly all studies of randomness cognition have focused on how people think about random events occurring in the present or future. This article examines how our biased beliefs about randomness interact with properties of memory to influence our judgments about and memory for past random events. We explore this interaction by examining how beliefs about randomness affect our memory for random events and how certain properties of memory alter our tendency to categorize events as random. Across three experiments, we demonstrate an interaction between randomness cognition and three well-established but distinct properties of memory: (1) the reconstructive nature of memory, (2) primacy and recency effects, and (3) duration neglect. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  12. Rapidly Exploring Random Trees Used for Mobile Robots Path Planning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejsa, Jiří; Věchet, S.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 4 (2005), s. 231-238 ISSN 1802-1484. [Mechatronics, Robot ics and Biomechanics 2005. Třešť, 26.09.2005-29.09.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : path planning * mobile robot Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robot ics

  13. Using Psychokinesis to Explore the Nature of Quantum Randomness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jean E.

    2011-11-01

    In retrocausation different causal events can produce different successor events, yet a successor event reflecting a particular cause occurs before the causal event does. It is sometimes proposed that the successor event is determined by propagation of the causal effect backwards in time via the dynamical equations governing the events. However, because dynamical equations are time reversible, the evolution of the system is not subject to change. Therefore, the backward propagation hypothesis implies that what may have seemed to be an arbitrary selection of a causal factor was in reality predetermined. Yet quantum randomness can be used to determine the causal factor, and a quantum random event is ordinarily thought of as being arbitrarily generated. So we must ask, when quantum random events occur, are they arbitrary (subject to their probabilistic constraints) or are they predetermined? Because psychokinesis (PK) can act on quantum random events, it can be used as a probe to explore questions such as the above. It is found that if quantum random events are predetermined (aside from the action of PK), certain types of experimental design can show enhanced PK through the use of precognition. Actual experiments are examined and compared, and most of those for which the design is especially suitable for showing this effect had unusually low p values for the number of trials. It is concluded that either the experimenter produced a remarkably strong experimenter effect or quantum random events are predetermined, thereby enabling enhanced PK in suitable experimental designs.

  14. Rapid and Reusable Text Visualization and Exploration Development with DELVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Daniel R; Kavuluru, Ramakanth; Jaromczyk, Jerzy W; Johnson, Todd R

    2017-01-01

    We present DELVE (Document ExpLoration and Visualization Engine), a framework for developing interactive visualizations as modular Web-applications to assist researchers with exploratory literature search. The goal for web-applications driven by DELVE is to better satisfy the information needs of researchers and to help explore and understand the state of research in scientific liter ature by providing immersive visualizations that both contain facets and are driven by facets derived from the literature. We base our framework on principles from user-centered design and human-computer interaction (HCI). Preliminary evaluations demon strate the usefulness of DELVE's techniques: (1) a clinical researcher immediately saw that her original query was inappropriate simply due to the frequencies displayed via generalized clouds and (2) a muscle biologist quickly learned of vocabulary differences found between two disciplines that were referencing the same idea, which we feel is critical for interdisciplinary work. We dis cuss the underlying category-theoretic model of our framework and show that it naturally encourages the development of reusable visualizations by emphasizing interoperability.

  15. Exploring MEDLINE space with random indexing and pathfinder networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Trevor

    2008-11-06

    The integration of disparate research domains is a prerequisite for the success of the translational science initiative. MEDLINE abstracts contain content from a broad range of disciplines, presenting an opportunity for the development of methods able to integrate the knowledge they contain. Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) and related methods learn human-like associations between terms from unannotated text. However, their computational and memory demands limits their ability to address a corpus of this size. Furthermore, visualization methods previously used in conjunction with LSA have limited ability to define the local structure of the associative networks LSA learns. This paper explores these issues by (1) processing the entire MEDLINE corpus using Random Indexing, a variant of LSA, and (2) exploring learned associations using Pathfinder Networks. Meaningful associations are inferred from MEDLINE, including a drug-disease association undetected by PUBMED search.

  16. RAPID: A random access picture digitizer, display, and memory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakimovsky, Y.; Rayfield, M.; Eskenazi, R.

    1976-01-01

    RAPID is a system capable of providing convenient digital analysis of video data in real-time. It has two modes of operation. The first allows for continuous digitization of an EIA RS-170 video signal. Each frame in the video signal is digitized and written in 1/30 of a second into RAPID's internal memory. The second mode leaves the content of the internal memory independent of the current input video. In both modes of operation the image contained in the memory is used to generate an EIA RS-170 composite video output signal representing the digitized image in the memory so that it can be displayed on a monitor.

  17. Teaching Tip: Using Rapid Game Prototyping for Exploring Requirements Discovery and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Nikunj

    2012-01-01

    We describe the use of rapid game prototyping as a pedagogic technique to experientially explore and learn requirements discovery, modeling, and specification in systems analysis and design courses. Students have a natural interest in gaming that transcends age, gender, and background. Rapid digital game creation is used to build computer games…

  18. A randomized trial of Rapid Rhino Riemann and Telfa nasal packs following endoscopic sinus surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruise, A. S.; Amonoo-Kuofi, K.; Srouji, I.; Kanagalingam, J.; Georgalas, C.; Patel, N. N.; Badia, L.; Lund, V. J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare Telfa with the Rapid Rhino Riemann nasal pack for use following endoscopic sinus surgery. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, double-blind, paired trial. SETTING: Tertiary otolaryngology hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-five adult patients undergoing bilateral endoscopic sinus

  19. Catalysis of Silver catfish Major Hepatic Glutathione Transferase proceeds via rapid equilibrium sequential random Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele O. Kolawole

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish hepatic glutathione transferases are connected with the elimination of intracellular pollutants and detoxification of organic micro-pollutants in their aquatic ecosystem. The two-substrate steady state kinetic mechanism of Silver catfish (Synodontis eupterus major hepatic glutathione transferases purified to apparent homogeneity was explored. The enzyme was dimeric enzyme with a monomeric size of 25.6 kDa. Initial-velocity studies and Product inhibition patterns by methyl glutathione and chloride with respect to GSH-CDNB; GSH-ρ-nitrophenylacetate; and GSH-Ethacrynic acid all conforms to a rapid equilibrium sequential random Bi Bi kinetic mechanism rather than steady state sequential random Bi Bi kinetic. α was 2.96 ± 0.35 for the model. The pH profile of Vmax/KM (with saturating 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and variable GSH concentrations showed apparent pKa value of 6.88 and 9.86. Inhibition studies as a function of inhibitor concentration show that the enzyme is a homodimer and near neutral GST. The enzyme poorly conjugates 4-hydroxylnonenal and cumene hydroperoxide and may not be involved in oxidative stress protection. The seGST is unique and overwhelmingly shows characteristics similar to those of homodimeric class Pi GSTs, as was indicated by its kinetic mechanism, substrate specificity and inhibition studies. The rate- limiting step, probably the product release, of the reaction is viscosity-dependent and is consequential if macro-viscosogen or micro-viscosogen.

  20. Rapid, easy, and cheap randomization: prospective evaluation in a study cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Melissa J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When planning a randomized controlled trial (RCT, investigators must select randomization and allocation procedures based upon a variety of factors. While third party randomization is cited as being among the most desirable randomization processes, many third party randomization procedures are neither feasible nor cost-effective for small RCTs, including pilot RCTs. In this study we present our experience with a third party randomization and allocation procedure that utilizes current technology to achieve randomization in a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective manner. Methods This method was developed by the investigators for use in a small 48-participant parallel group RCT with four study arms. As a nested study, the reliability of this randomization procedure was prospectively evaluated in this cohort. The primary outcome of this nested study was the proportion of subjects for whom allocation information was obtained by the Research Assistant within 15 min of the initial participant randomization request. A secondary outcome was the average time for communicating participant group assignment back to the Research Assistant. Descriptive information regarding any failed attempts at participant randomization as well as costs attributable to use of this method were also recorded. Statistical analyses included the calculation of simple proportions and descriptive statistics. Results Forty-eight participants were successfully randomized and group allocation instruction was received for 46 (96% within 15 min of the Research Assistant placing the initial randomization request. Time elapsed in minutes until receipt of participant allocation instruction was Mean (SD 3.1 +/− 3.6; Median (IQR 2 (2,3; Range (1–20 for the entire cohort of 48. For the two participants for whom group allocation information was not received by the Research Assistant within the 15-min pass threshold, this information was obtained following a second

  1. Random vibration test of Mars Exploration Rover spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharton, T.; Lee, D.

    2003-01-01

    The primary objective of the random vibration test was to identify any hardware problems, which might compromise the mission. The test objectives, configuration, and requirements are briefly described in this presentation, and a representative sample of the measured data is presented.

  2. Exploring biological network structure with clustered random networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal Shweta

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex biological systems are often modeled as networks of interacting units. Networks of biochemical interactions among proteins, epidemiological contacts among hosts, and trophic interactions in ecosystems, to name a few, have provided useful insights into the dynamical processes that shape and traverse these systems. The degrees of nodes (numbers of interactions and the extent of clustering (the tendency for a set of three nodes to be interconnected are two of many well-studied network properties that can fundamentally shape a system. Disentangling the interdependent effects of the various network properties, however, can be difficult. Simple network models can help us quantify the structure of empirical networked systems and understand the impact of various topological properties on dynamics. Results Here we develop and implement a new Markov chain simulation algorithm to generate simple, connected random graphs that have a specified degree sequence and level of clustering, but are random in all other respects. The implementation of the algorithm (ClustRNet: Clustered Random Networks provides the generation of random graphs optimized according to a local or global, and relative or absolute measure of clustering. We compare our algorithm to other similar methods and show that ours more successfully produces desired network characteristics. Finding appropriate null models is crucial in bioinformatics research, and is often difficult, particularly for biological networks. As we demonstrate, the networks generated by ClustRNet can serve as random controls when investigating the impacts of complex network features beyond the byproduct of degree and clustering in empirical networks. Conclusion ClustRNet generates ensembles of graphs of specified edge structure and clustering. These graphs allow for systematic study of the impacts of connectivity and redundancies on network function and dynamics. This process is a key step in

  3. Exploring biological network structure with clustered random networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Shweta; Khandelwal, Shashank; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

    2009-12-09

    Complex biological systems are often modeled as networks of interacting units. Networks of biochemical interactions among proteins, epidemiological contacts among hosts, and trophic interactions in ecosystems, to name a few, have provided useful insights into the dynamical processes that shape and traverse these systems. The degrees of nodes (numbers of interactions) and the extent of clustering (the tendency for a set of three nodes to be interconnected) are two of many well-studied network properties that can fundamentally shape a system. Disentangling the interdependent effects of the various network properties, however, can be difficult. Simple network models can help us quantify the structure of empirical networked systems and understand the impact of various topological properties on dynamics. Here we develop and implement a new Markov chain simulation algorithm to generate simple, connected random graphs that have a specified degree sequence and level of clustering, but are random in all other respects. The implementation of the algorithm (ClustRNet: Clustered Random Networks) provides the generation of random graphs optimized according to a local or global, and relative or absolute measure of clustering. We compare our algorithm to other similar methods and show that ours more successfully produces desired network characteristics.Finding appropriate null models is crucial in bioinformatics research, and is often difficult, particularly for biological networks. As we demonstrate, the networks generated by ClustRNet can serve as random controls when investigating the impacts of complex network features beyond the byproduct of degree and clustering in empirical networks. ClustRNet generates ensembles of graphs of specified edge structure and clustering. These graphs allow for systematic study of the impacts of connectivity and redundancies on network function and dynamics. This process is a key step in unraveling the functional consequences of the structural

  4. Embedded Memory Hierarchy Exploration Based on Magnetic Random Access Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Vitório Cargnini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Static random access memory (SRAM is the most commonly employed semiconductor in the design of on-chip processor memory. However, it is unlikely that the SRAM technology will have a cell size that will continue to scale below 45 nm, due to the leakage current that is caused by the quantum tunneling effect. Magnetic random access memory (MRAM is a candidate technology to replace SRAM, assuming appropriate dimensioning given an operating threshold voltage. The write current of spin transfer torque (STT-MRAM is a known limitation; however, this has been recently mitigated by leveraging perpendicular magnetic tunneling junctions. In this article, we present a comprehensive comparison of spin transfer torque-MRAM (STT-MRAM and SRAM cache set banks. The non-volatility of STT-MRAM allows the definition of new instant on/off policies and leakage current optimizations. Through our experiments, we demonstrate that STT-MRAM is a candidate for the memory hierarchy of embedded systems, due to the higher densities and reduced leakage of MRAM.We demonstrate that adopting STT-MRAM in L1 and L2 caches mitigates the impact of higher write latencies and increased current draw due to the use of MRAM. With the correct system-on-chip (SoC design, we believe that STT-MRAM is a viable alternative to SRAM, which minimizes leakage current and the total power consumed by the SoC.

  5. Exploring community structure in biological networks with random graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Pratha; Singh, Lisa O; Clauset, Aaron; Bansal, Shweta

    2014-06-25

    Community structure is ubiquitous in biological networks. There has been an increased interest in unraveling the community structure of biological systems as it may provide important insights into a system's functional components and the impact of local structures on dynamics at a global scale. Choosing an appropriate community detection algorithm to identify the community structure in an empirical network can be difficult, however, as the many algorithms available are based on a variety of cost functions and are difficult to validate. Even when community structure is identified in an empirical system, disentangling the effect of community structure from other network properties such as clustering coefficient and assortativity can be a challenge. Here, we develop a generative model to produce undirected, simple, connected graphs with a specified degrees and pattern of communities, while maintaining a graph structure that is as random as possible. Additionally, we demonstrate two important applications of our model: (a) to generate networks that can be used to benchmark existing and new algorithms for detecting communities in biological networks; and (b) to generate null models to serve as random controls when investigating the impact of complex network features beyond the byproduct of degree and modularity in empirical biological networks. Our model allows for the systematic study of the presence of community structure and its impact on network function and dynamics. This process is a crucial step in unraveling the functional consequences of the structural properties of biological systems and uncovering the mechanisms that drive these systems.

  6. Exploring multicollinearity using a random matrix theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feher, Kristen; Whelan, James; Müller, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Clustering of gene expression data is often done with the latent aim of dimension reduction, by finding groups of genes that have a common response to potentially unknown stimuli. However, what is poorly understood to date is the behaviour of a low dimensional signal embedded in high dimensions. This paper introduces a multicollinear model which is based on random matrix theory results, and shows potential for the characterisation of a gene cluster's correlation matrix. This model projects a one dimensional signal into many dimensions and is based on the spiked covariance model, but rather characterises the behaviour of the corresponding correlation matrix. The eigenspectrum of the correlation matrix is empirically examined by simulation, under the addition of noise to the original signal. The simulation results are then used to propose a dimension estimation procedure of clusters from data. Moreover, the simulation results warn against considering pairwise correlations in isolation, as the model provides a mechanism whereby a pair of genes with `low' correlation may simply be due to the interaction of high dimension and noise. Instead, collective information about all the variables is given by the eigenspectrum.

  7. A novel case-control subsampling approach for rapid model exploration of large clustered binary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephen T; Ryan, Louise M; Pham, Tung

    2017-12-11

    In many settings, an analysis goal is the identification of a factor, or set of factors associated with an event or outcome. Often, these associations are then used for inference and prediction. Unfortunately, in the big data era, the model building and exploration phases of analysis can be time-consuming, especially if constrained by computing power (ie, a typical corporate workstation). To speed up this model development, we propose a novel subsampling scheme to enable rapid model exploration of clustered binary data using flexible yet complex model set-ups (GLMMs with additive smoothing splines). By reframing the binary response prospective cohort study into a case-control-type design, and using our knowledge of sampling fractions, we show one can approximate the model estimates as would be calculated from a full cohort analysis. This idea is extended to derive cluster-specific sampling fractions and thereby incorporate cluster variation into an analysis. Importantly, we demonstrate that previously computationally prohibitive analyses can be conducted in a timely manner on a typical workstation. The approach is applied to analysing risk factors associated with adverse reactions relating to blood donation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Random migration and signal integration promote rapid and robust T cell recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Textor, Johannes; Henrickson, Sarah E; Mandl, Judith N; von Andrian, Ulrich H; Westermann, Jürgen; de Boer, Rob J; Beltman, Joost B

    2014-08-01

    To fight infections, rare T cells must quickly home to appropriate lymph nodes (LNs), and reliably localize the antigen (Ag) within them. The first challenge calls for rapid trafficking between LNs, whereas the second may require extensive search within each LN. Here we combine simulations and experimental data to investigate which features of random T cell migration within and between LNs allow meeting these two conflicting demands. Our model indicates that integrating signals from multiple random encounters with Ag-presenting cells permits reliable detection of even low-dose Ag, and predicts a kinetic feature of cognate T cell arrest in LNs that we confirm using intravital two-photon data. Furthermore, we obtain the most reliable retention if T cells transit through LNs stochastically, which may explain the long and widely distributed LN dwell times observed in vivo. Finally, we demonstrate that random migration, both between and within LNs, allows recruiting the majority of cognate precursors within a few days for various realistic infection scenarios. Thus, the combination of two-scale stochastic migration and signal integration is an efficient and robust strategy for T cell immune surveillance.

  9. Rapid in vivo exploration of a 5S rRNA neutral network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengdong D; Nayar, Madhavi; Ammons, David; Rampersad, Joanne; Fox, George E

    2009-02-01

    A partial knockout compensation method to screen 5S ribosomal RNA sequence variants in vivo is described. The system utilizes an Escherichia coli strain in which five of eight genomic 5S rRNA genes were deleted in conjunction with a plasmid which is compensatory when carrying a functionally active 5S rRNA. The partial knockout strain is transformed with a population of potentially compensatory plasmids each carrying a randomly generated 5S rRNA gene variant. a The ability to compensate the slow growth rate of the knockout strain is used in conjunction with sequencing to rapidly identify variant 5S rRNAs that are functional as well as those that likely are not. The assay is validated by showing that the growth rate of 15 variants separately expressed in the partial knockout strain can be accurately correlated with in vivo assessments of the potential validity of the same variants. A region of 5S rRNA was mutagenized with this approach and nine novel variants were recovered and characterized. Unlike a complete knockout system, the method allows recovery of both deleterious and functional variants.. The method can be used to study variants of any 5S rRNA in the E. coli context including those of E. coli.

  10. Exploring Mechanisms of Effective Teacher Coaching: A Tale of Two Cohorts From a Randomized Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazar, David; Kraft, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research has shown that teacher coaching can improve teaching practices and student achievement, little is known about specific features of effective coaching programs. We estimate the impact of MATCH Teacher Coaching (MTC) on a range of teacher practices using a blocked randomized trial and explore how changes in the coaching…

  11. Random Testing and Model Checking: Building a Common Framework for Nondeterministic Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groce, Alex; Joshi, Rajeev

    2008-01-01

    Two popular forms of dynamic analysis, random testing and explicit-state software model checking, are perhaps best viewed as search strategies for exploring the state spaces introduced by nondeterminism in program inputs. We present an approach that enables this nondeterminism to be expressed in the SPIN model checker's PROMELA language, and then lets users generate either model checkers or random testers from a single harness for a tested C program. Our approach makes it easy to compare model checking and random testing for models with precisely the same input ranges and probabilities and allows us to mix random testing with model checking's exhaustive exploration of non-determinism. The PROMELA language, as intended in its design, serves as a convenient notation for expressing nondeterminism and mixing random choices with nondeterministic choices. We present and discuss a comparison of random testing and model checking. The results derive from using our framework to test a C program with an effectively infinite state space, a module in JPL's next Mars rover mission. More generally, we show how the ability of the SPIN model checker to call C code can be used to extend SPIN's features, and hope to inspire others to use the same methods to implement dynamic analyses that can make use of efficient state storage, matching, and backtracking.

  12. Exploring oral health and hygiene practices in the Algonquin community of Rapid Lake, Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Adonia; Macdonald, Mary Ellen; Carnevale, Franco A; Nottaway, Waylon; Thivierge, Christine; Vignola, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC), a disease characterized by tooth decay in the primary teeth of children, has become particularly burdensome in Aboriginal communities in Canada. Prevalence estimates of ECC range between 50% and 100%. Most concerning are the severe cases of ECC that require treatment with restorative surgery under general anesthesia. These surgeries often displace children and families from their local communities to specialty hospitals for treatment; further, they are very costly to dental insurance payers such as the government. This study used community-based participatory research (CBPR) to explore oral health and hygiene practices in the Algonquin community of Rapid Lake, Quebec. A key goal of the study was to create a culturally adapted activity to promote children's oral health and hygiene practices. Focused ethnography was used to explore oral health beliefs and practices, and factors related to child oral health promotion with community members. Participants included children, parents, educators, healthcare workers, youth workers and elders. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with key informants. Following, two focus group interviews were conducted: one with parents and one with school children. All data were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed iteratively using thematic analysis. Preliminary findings were then used to develop oral health promoting activities for children in the community. These activities were designed in collaboration with community workers. Three main themes emerged from the analysis: (1) a gap existed between oral health knowledge and oral health behaviors; (2) challenges for oral health promotion included attitudes and beliefs, access, and priorities; and (3) parents needed to be further integrated into health promotion strategies. Key outcomes included: (1) the development of Eagles & Otters, a game designed to increase children's oral health knowledge; (2) an activity sheet to promote child oral health

  13. Exploration of Simple Analytical Approaches for Rapid Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Salma [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Many of the current methods for pathogenic bacterial detection require long sample-preparation and analysis time, as well as complex instrumentation. This dissertation explores simple analytical approaches (e.g., flow cytometry and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy) that may be applied towards ideal requirements of a microbial detection system, through method and instrumentation development, and by the creation and characterization of immunosensing platforms. This dissertation is organized into six sections. In the general Introduction section a literature review on several of the key aspects of this work is presented. First, different approaches for detection of pathogenic bacteria will be reviewed, with a comparison of the relative strengths and weaknesses of each approach, A general overview regarding diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is then presented. Next, the structure and function of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) formed from organosulfur molecules at gold and micrometer and sub-micrometer patterning of biomolecules using SAMs will be discussed. This section is followed by four research chapters, presented as separate manuscripts. Chapter 1 describes the efforts and challenges towards the creation of imunosensing platforms that exploit the flexibility and structural stability of SAMs of thiols at gold. 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecyl-1-thiol SAM (PFDT) and dithio-bis(succinimidyl propionate)-(DSP)-derived SAMs were used to construct the platform. Chapter 2 describes the characterization of the PFDT- and DSP-derived SAMs, and the architectures formed when it is coupled to antibodies as well as target bacteria. These studies used infrared reflection spectroscopy (IRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM), Chapter 3 presents a new sensitive, and portable diffuse reflection based technique for the rapid identification and quantification of pathogenic bacteria. Chapter 4 reports research efforts in the

  14. Expediting evidence synthesis for healthcare decision-making: exploring attitudes and perceptions towards rapid reviews using Q methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon E. Kelly

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Rapid reviews expedite the knowledge synthesis process with the goal of providing timely information to healthcare decision-makers who want to use evidence-informed policy and practice approaches. A range of opinions and viewpoints on rapid reviews is thought to exist; however, no research to date has formally captured these views. This paper aims to explore evidence producer and knowledge user attitudes and perceptions towards rapid reviews. Methods A Q methodology study was conducted to identify central viewpoints about rapid reviews based on a broad topic discourse. Participants rank-ordered 50 text statements and explained their Q-sort in free-text comments. Individual Q-sorts were analysed using Q-Assessor (statistical method: factor analysis with varimax rotation. Factors, or salient viewpoints on rapid reviews, were identified, interpreted and described. Results Analysis of the 11 individual Q sorts identified three prominent viewpoints: Factor A cautions against the use of study design labels to make judgements. Factor B maintains that rapid reviews should be the exception and not the rule. Factor C focuses on the practical needs of the end-user over the review process. Conclusion Results show that there are opposing viewpoints on rapid reviews, yet some unity exists. The three factors described offer insight into how and why various stakeholders act as they do and what issues may need to be resolved before increase uptake of the evidence from rapid reviews can be realized in healthcare decision-making environments.

  15. Slow versus rapid maxillary expansion in bilateral cleft lip and palate: a CBCT randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Araci Malagodi; Ozawa, Terumi Okada; Alves, Arthur César de Medeiros; Janson, Guilherme; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Ioshida, Marilia Sayako Yatabe; Garib, Daniela Gamba

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this "two-arm parallel" trial was to compare the orthopedic, dental, and alveolar bone plate changes of slow (SME) and rapid (RME) maxillary expansions in patients with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP). Forty-six patients with BCLP and maxillary arch constriction in the late mixed dentition were randomly and equally allocated into two groups. Computer-generated randomization was used. Allocation was concealed with sequentially, numbered, sealed, opaque envelopes. The SME and RME groups comprised patients treated with quad-helix and Haas/Hyrax-type expanders, respectively. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) exams were performed before expansion and 4 to 6 months post-expansion. Nasal cavity width, maxillary width, alveolar crest width, arch width, palatal cleft width, inclination of posterior teeth, alveolar crest level, and buccal and lingual bone plate thickness were assessed. Blinding was applicable for outcome assessment only. Interphase and intergroup comparisons were performed using paired t tests and t tests, respectively (p Palatal cleft width had a significant increase in both groups. Significant buccal inclination of posterior teeth was only observed for RME. Additionally, both expansion procedures promoted a slight reduction of the alveolar crest level and the buccal bone plate thickness. No difference was found between the orthopedic, dental, and alveolar bone plate changes of SME and RME in children with BCLP. Both appliances produced significant skeletal transverse gains with negligible periodontal bone changes. Treatment time for SME, however, was longer than the observed for RME. SME and RME can be similarly indicated to correct maxillary arch constriction in patients with BCLP in the mixed dentition.

  16. Rapid Land Cover Map Updates Using Change Detection and Robust Random Forest Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad J. Wessels

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluated the Landsat Automated Land Cover Update Mapping (LALCUM system designed to rapidly update a land cover map to a desired nominal year using a pre-existing reference land cover map. The system uses the Iteratively Reweighted Multivariate Alteration Detection (IRMAD to identify areas of change and no change. The system then automatically generates large amounts of training samples (n > 1 million in the no-change areas as input to an optimized Random Forest classifier. Experiments were conducted in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa using a reference land cover map from 2008, a change mask between 2008 and 2011 and Landsat ETM+ data for 2011. The entire system took 9.5 h to process. We expected that the use of the change mask would improve classification accuracy by reducing the number of mislabeled training data caused by land cover change between 2008 and 2011. However, this was not the case due to exceptional robustness of Random Forest classifier to mislabeled training samples. The system achieved an overall accuracy of 65%–67% using 22 detailed classes and 72%–74% using 12 aggregated national classes. “Water”, “Plantations”, “Plantations—clearfelled”, “Orchards—trees”, “Sugarcane”, “Built-up/dense settlement”, “Cultivation—Irrigated” and “Forest (indigenous” had user’s accuracies above 70%. Other detailed classes (e.g., “Low density settlements”, “Mines and Quarries”, and “Cultivation, subsistence, drylands” which are required for operational, provincial-scale land use planning and are usually mapped using manual image interpretation, could not be mapped using Landsat spectral data alone. However, the system was able to map the 12 national classes, at a sufficiently high level of accuracy for national scale land cover monitoring. This update approach and the highly automated, scalable LALCUM system can improve the efficiency and update rate of regional land

  17. Mandibular response after rapid maxillary expansion in class II growing patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lione

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT was to evaluate the sagittal mandibular response induced by rapid maxillary expansion (RME therapy in mixed dentition patients with class II malocclusion, comparing the effects of bonded RME and banded RME with a matched untreated class II control group. Methods This RCT was designed in parallel with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. The sample consisted of 30 children with a mean age of 8.1 ± 0.6 years who were randomly assigned to three groups: group 1 treated with bonded RME, group 2 treated with banded RME, and group 3 the untreated control group. All patients met the following inclusion criteria: early mixed dentition, class II molar relationship, transverse discrepancy ≥ 4 mm, overjet ≥ 5 mm, and prepubertal skeletal maturity stage (CS1–CS2. The expansion screw was activated one quarter of a turn per day (0.25 mm until overcorrection was reached. For each subject, lateral cephalograms and plaster casts were obtained before treatment (T1 and after 1 year (T2. A randomization list was created for the group assignment, with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. The observer who performed all the measurements was blinded to group assignment. The study was single-blinded in regard to statistical analysis. Results RME was effective in the correction of maxillary deficiency. Class II patients treated with both types of RME showed no significant improvement of the anteroposterior relationship of the maxilla and the mandible at both skeletal and occlusal levels. The acrylic splint RME had significant effects on reducing the skeletal vertical dimension and the gonial angle. Conclusions The orthopedic expansion did not affect the sagittal relationship of class II patients treated in the early mixed dentition when compared with the untreated control group. Additional studies with a larger sample are warranted to elucidate individual variations in dento-skeletal mandibular

  18. Mandibular response after rapid maxillary expansion in class II growing patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lione, Roberta; Brunelli, Valerio; Franchi, Lorenzo; Pavoni, Chiara; Quiroga Souki, Bernardo; Cozza, Paola

    2017-11-06

    The aim of this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to evaluate the sagittal mandibular response induced by rapid maxillary expansion (RME) therapy in mixed dentition patients with class II malocclusion, comparing the effects of bonded RME and banded RME with a matched untreated class II control group. This RCT was designed in parallel with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. The sample consisted of 30 children with a mean age of 8.1 ± 0.6 years who were randomly assigned to three groups: group 1 treated with bonded RME, group 2 treated with banded RME, and group 3 the untreated control group. All patients met the following inclusion criteria: early mixed dentition, class II molar relationship, transverse discrepancy ≥ 4 mm, overjet ≥ 5 mm, and prepubertal skeletal maturity stage (CS1-CS2). The expansion screw was activated one quarter of a turn per day (0.25 mm) until overcorrection was reached. For each subject, lateral cephalograms and plaster casts were obtained before treatment (T1) and after 1 year (T2). A randomization list was created for the group assignment, with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. The observer who performed all the measurements was blinded to group assignment. The study was single-blinded in regard to statistical analysis. RME was effective in the correction of maxillary deficiency. Class II patients treated with both types of RME showed no significant improvement of the anteroposterior relationship of the maxilla and the mandible at both skeletal and occlusal levels. The acrylic splint RME had significant effects on reducing the skeletal vertical dimension and the gonial angle. The orthopedic expansion did not affect the sagittal relationship of class II patients treated in the early mixed dentition when compared with the untreated control group. Additional studies with a larger sample are warranted to elucidate individual variations in dento-skeletal mandibular response to the maxillary expansion protocol in class

  19. Exploring Gender Differences in a Randomized Trial of Weight Loss Maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Crane, Melissa M.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Sherwood, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore gender differences in reasons for losing weight, weight loss methods, and weight loss behaviors prior to and during a weight loss maintenance trial. This is a secondary analysis of data from a 24-month randomized controlled trial comparing Self-Directed or Guided phone-based weight loss maintenance interventions among adults who had intentionally lost ≥10% of their body weight in the year prior to enrollment. Participants reported their weight loss meth...

  20. Random Search with Memory in Patchy Media: Exploration-Exploitation Tradeoff

    CERN Document Server

    Chupeau, M; Redner, S

    2016-01-01

    How to best exploit patchy resources? This long-standing question belongs to the extensively studied class of explore/exploit problems that arise in a wide range of situations, from animal foraging, to robotic exploration, and to human decision processes. Despite its broad relevance, the issue of optimal exploitation has previously only been tackled through two paradigmatic limiting models---patch-use and random search---that do not account for the interplay between searcher motion within patches and resource depletion. Here, we bridge this gap by introducing a minimal patch exploitation model that incorporates this coupling: the searcher depletes the resources along its random-walk trajectory within a patch and travels to a new patch after it takes $\\mathcal{S}$ consecutive steps without finding resources. We compute the distribution of the amount of resources $F_t$ consumed by time $t$ for this non-Markovian random walker and show that exploring multiple patches is beneficial. In one dimension, we analytica...

  1. Rapid selection of accessible and cleavable sites in RNA by Escherichia coli RNase P and random external guide sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Lundblad, Eirik W.; Xiao, Gaoping; Ko, Jae-hyeong; Altman, Sidney

    2008-01-01

    A method of inhibiting the expression of particular genes by using external guide sequences (EGSs) has been improved in its rapidity and specificity. Random EGSs that have 14-nt random sequences are used in the selection procedure for an EGS that attacks the mRNA for a gene in a particular location. A mixture of the random EGSs, the particular target RNA, and RNase P is used in the diagnostic procedure, which, after completion, is analyzed in a gel with suitable control lanes. Within a few ho...

  2. Using rapidly-exploring random tree-based algorithms to find smooth and optimal trajectories

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matebese, B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available feasible solution faster than other algorithms. The drawback of using RRT is that, as the number of samples increases, the probability that the algorithm converges to a sub-optimal solution increases. Furthermore, the path generated by this algorithm...

  3. Transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS Shapes the Processing of Rapidly Changing Auditory Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina S. Rufener

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neural oscillations in the gamma range are the dominant rhythmic activation pattern in the human auditory cortex. These gamma oscillations are functionally relevant for the processing of rapidly changing acoustic information in both speech and non-speech sounds. Accordingly, there is a tight link between the temporal resolution ability of the auditory system and inherent neural gamma oscillations. Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS has been demonstrated to specifically increase gamma oscillation in the human auditory cortex. However, neither the physiological mechanisms of tRNS nor the behavioral consequences of this intervention are completely understood. In the present study we stimulated the human auditory cortex bilaterally with tRNS while EEG was continuously measured. Modulations in the participants’ temporal and spectral resolution ability were investigated by means of a gap detection task and a pitch discrimination task. Compared to sham, auditory tRNS increased the detection rate for near-threshold stimuli in the temporal domain only, while no such effect was present for the discrimination of spectral features. Behavioral findings were paralleled by reduced peak latencies of the P50 and N1 component of the auditory event-related potentials (ERP indicating an impact on early sensory processing. The facilitating effect of tRNS was limited to the processing of near-threshold stimuli while stimuli clearly below and above the individual perception threshold were not affected by tRNS. This non-linear relationship between the signal-to-noise level of the presented stimuli and the effect of stimulation further qualifies stochastic resonance (SR as the underlying mechanism of tRNS on auditory processing. Our results demonstrate a tRNS related improvement in acoustic perception of time critical auditory information and, thus, provide further indices that auditory tRNS can amplify the resonance frequency of the auditory system.

  4. Rapid selection of accessible and cleavable sites in RNA by Escherichia coli RNase P and random external guide sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundblad, Eirik W; Xiao, Gaoping; Ko, Jae-Hyeong; Altman, Sidney

    2008-02-19

    A method of inhibiting the expression of particular genes by using external guide sequences (EGSs) has been improved in its rapidity and specificity. Random EGSs that have 14-nt random sequences are used in the selection procedure for an EGS that attacks the mRNA for a gene in a particular location. A mixture of the random EGSs, the particular target RNA, and RNase P is used in the diagnostic procedure, which, after completion, is analyzed in a gel with suitable control lanes. Within a few hours, the procedure is complete. The action of EGSs designed by an older method is compared with EGSs designed by the random EGS method on mRNAs from two bacterial pathogens.

  5. One Size Fits All Learning Preferences: an Exploration of Rapid Authoring Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niav McEvoy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs are increasingly being used by colleges and universities to deliver and/or complement traditional face-to-face courses. The range of learning technologies available for use within these virtual platforms is considerable, but how confident are we that these learning tools support the learning process for students? It is crucial that the learning tools utilised in virtual platforms do not cause additional barriers for the online and distant learner. This Survey research study is designed to determine if rapid authoring tools can meet the needs of a variety of learning preferences of adult learners. The study focuses specifically on the use of virtual tutorials, created using the rapid authoring tool Articulate Presenter 2007, to establish the learning preferences of the students as represented by Fleming's (2011 VARK model. In total, ten variations of the VARK learning preferences were represented across respondents, with the majority indicating a uni-modal preference in an online self-administered questionnaire. Overall, the majority of students responded positively in relation to their experience of the virtual tutorial.

  6. The rapid bi-level exploration on the evolution of regional solar energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qing; An, Haizhong; Li, Huajiao; Hao, Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    As one of the renewable energy, solar energy is experiencing increased but exploratory development worldwide. The positive or negative influences of regional characteristics, like economy, production capacity and allowance policies, make them have uneven solar energy development. In this paper, we aim at quickly exploring the features of provincial solar energy development, and their concerns about solar energy. We take China as a typical case, and combine text mining and two-actor networks. We find that the classification of levels based on certain nodes and the amount of degree avoids missing meaningful information that may be ignored by global level results. Moreover, eastern provinces are hot focus for the media, western countries are key to bridge the networks and special administrative region has local development features; third, most focus points are more about the application than the improvement of material. The exploration of news provides practical information to adjust researches and development strategies of solar energy. Moreover, the bi-level exploration, which can also be expanded to multi-level, is helpful for governments or researchers to grasp more targeted and precise knowledge.

  7. Exploring interprofessional practices in rapid response systems: a case study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Emily; Jackson, Debra; Elliott, Doug

    2015-01-01

    To describe the development of a proposed case study protocol investigating interprofessional relationships in a rapid response system (RRS) in a socioculturally complex clinical environment. Suboptimal care of deteriorating ward patients remains a concern for many acute healthcare organisations. Despite the advent of RRSs, emergency response teams are not always used to their full potential. How and why interprofessional relationships influence practices associated with the care and management of ward patients at risk of clinical deterioration requires investigation. Theoretical and empirical literature describing case study research and RRSs. Review methods An integrative review approach of the literature, focusing on key terms relating to 'case study research' and 'rapid response system', provided context and informed development of the study protocol. A single-site mixed-method instrumental case study protocol was developed using methodological triangulation and a multi-level model to examine interprofessional relationships between a broad range of stakeholders. Concurrent data collection and analysis will occur using document review of clinical scenarios, non-participant observations and semi-structured interviews. Case study research is an effective method for investigating socioculturally complex clinical environments. A strength of this approach is the flexibility in the choice of methods, which allows the researcher to build the design most suitable for the subjects or phenomena being investigated. Although this flexibility may be considered a potential weakness, rigour can be achieved by application of the strategies described. Findings from this research will provide rich descriptive insights into RRS relationships and healthcare professional practices during day-to-day management of acute ward patients at risk of or experiencing clinical deterioration. Description of this structured case study research approach will also inform other researchers.

  8. The flood event explorer - a web based framework for rapid flood event analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Kai; Lüdtke, Stefan; Kreibich, Heidi; Merz, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Flood disaster management, recovery and reconstruction planning benefit from rapid evaluations of flood events and expected impacts. The near real time in-depth analysis of flood causes and key drivers for flood impacts requires a close monitoring and documentation of hydro-meteorological and socio-economic factors. Within the CEDIM's Rapid Flood Event Analysis project a flood event analysis system is developed which enables the near real-time evaluation of large scale floods in Germany. The analysis system includes functionalities to compile event related hydro-meteorological data, to evaluate the current flood situation, to assess hazard intensity and to estimate flood damage to residential buildings. A German flood event database is under development, which contains various hydro-meteorological information - in the future also impact information -for all large-scale floods since 1950. This data base comprises data on historic flood events which allow the classification of ongoing floods in terms of triggering processes and pre-conditions, critical controls and drivers for flood losses. The flood event analysis system has been implemented in a database system which automatically retrieves and stores data from more than 100 online discharge gauges on a daily basis. The current discharge observations are evaluated in a long term context in terms of flood frequency analysis. The web-based frontend visualizes the current flood situation in comparison to any past flood from the flood catalogue. The regional flood data base for Germany contains hydro-meteorological data and aggregated severity indices for a set of 76 historic large-scale flood events in Germany. This data base has been used to evaluate the key drivers for the flood in June 2013.

  9. Control capacity and a random sampling method in exploring controllability of complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Tao; Barabási, Albert-László

    2013-01-01

    Controlling complex systems is a fundamental challenge of network science. Recent advances indicate that control over the system can be achieved through a minimum driver node set (MDS). The existence of multiple MDS's suggests that nodes do not participate in control equally, prompting us to quantify their participations. Here we introduce control capacity quantifying the likelihood that a node is a driver node. To efficiently measure this quantity, we develop a random sampling algorithm. This algorithm not only provides a statistical estimate of the control capacity, but also bridges the gap between multiple microscopic control configurations and macroscopic properties of the network under control. We demonstrate that the possibility of being a driver node decreases with a node's in-degree and is independent of its out-degree. Given the inherent multiplicity of MDS's, our findings offer tools to explore control in various complex systems.

  10. Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Part of an annual review of mines and mineral resources in the U.S. An overview of nonfuel-mineral exploration in 2000 is presented. Principal exploration target was gold exploration in Latin America, Australia, and the U.S. There was a decrease of 18 percent in the exploration budget for gold as compared with the budget for 1999. Statistical information on nonfuel-mineral exploration worldwide is presented, analyzed, and interpreted.

  11. Generation of Aptamers from A Primer-Free Randomized ssDNA Library Using Magnetic-Assisted Rapid Aptamer Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Shih-Ming; Lai, Ji-Ching; Horng, Horng-Er; Liu, Tu-Chen; Hong, Chin-Yih

    2017-04-01

    Aptamers are oligonucleotides that can bind to specific target molecules. Most aptamers are generated using random libraries in the standard systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Each random library contains oligonucleotides with a randomized central region and two fixed primer regions at both ends. The fixed primer regions are necessary for amplifying target-bound sequences by PCR. However, these extra-sequences may cause non-specific bindings, which potentially interfere with good binding for random sequences. The Magnetic-Assisted Rapid Aptamer Selection (MARAS) is a newly developed protocol for generating single-strand DNA aptamers. No repeat selection cycle is required in the protocol. This study proposes and demonstrates a method to isolate aptamers for C-reactive proteins (CRP) from a randomized ssDNA library containing no fixed sequences at 5‧ and 3‧ termini using the MARAS platform. Furthermore, the isolated primer-free aptamer was sequenced and binding affinity for CRP was analyzed. The specificity of the obtained aptamer was validated using blind serum samples. The result was consistent with monoclonal antibody-based nephelometry analysis, which indicated that a primer-free aptamer has high specificity toward targets. MARAS is a feasible platform for efficiently generating primer-free aptamers for clinical diagnoses.

  12. Introducing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria into drug shops in Uganda: design and implementation of a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Magnussen, Pascal; Chandler, Clare I R; Hansen, Kristian S; Lal, Sham; Cundill, Bonnie; Lynch, Caroline A; Clarke, Siân E

    2014-07-29

    An intervention was designed to introduce rapid diagnostics tests for malaria (mRDTs) into registered drug shops in Uganda to encourage rational and appropriate treatment of malaria with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). We conducted participatory training of drug shop vendors and implemented supporting interventions to orientate local communities (patients) and the public sector (health facility staff and district officials) to the behavioral changes in diagnosis, treatment and referral being introduced in drug shops. The intervention was designed to be evaluated through a cluster randomized trial. In this paper, we present detailed design, implementation and evaluation experiences in order to help inform future studies of a complex nature. Three preparatory studies (formative, baseline and willingness-to-pay) were conducted to explore perceptions on diagnosis and treatment of malaria at drug shops, and affordable prices for mRDTs and ACTs in order to inform the design of the intervention and implementation modalities. The intervention required careful design with the intention to be acceptable, sustainable and effective. Critical components of intervention were: community sensitization and creating awareness, training of drug shop vendors to diagnose malaria with mRDTs, treat and refer customers to formal health facilities, giving pre-referral rectal artesunate and improved record-keeping. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients receiving appropriately-targeted treatment with ACT, evaluated against microscopy on a research blood slide. Introducing mRDTs in drug shops may seem simple, but our experience of intervention design, conduct and evaluation showed this to be a complex process requiring multiple interventions and evaluation components drawing from a combination of epidemiological, social science and health economics methodologies. The trial was conducted in phases sequenced such that each benefited from the other. The main challenges

  13. Rapid land cover map updates using change detection and robust random forest classifiers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluated the Landsat Automated Land Cover Update Mapping (LALCUM) system designed to rapidly update a land cover map to a desired nominal year using a pre-existing reference land cover map. The system uses the Iteratively Reweighted...

  14. Vernakalant hydrochloride for rapid conversion of atrial fibrillation - A phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, D.; Pratt, C.M.; Torp-Pedersen, C.

    2008-01-01

    .6%; P complete atrioventricular block, and cardiogenic shock) occurred in 3 patients. Conclusion - Vernakalant......Background - The present study assessed the efficacy and safety of vernakalant hydrochloride ( RSD1235), a novel compound, for the conversion of atrial fibrillation ( AF). Methods and Results - Patients were randomized in a 2: 1 ratio to receive vernakalant or placebo and were stratified by AF...... was conversion of AF to sinus rhythm for at least 1 minute within 90 minutes of the start of drug infusion in the short-duration AF group. A total of 336 patients were randomized and received treatment (short duration, n = 220; long duration, n = 116). Of the 145 vernakalant patients, 75 (51.7%) in the short...

  15. A randomized controlled feasibility trial exploring partnered ballroom dancing for people with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, D; Fitton, C; Roberts, L; Pickering, R M; Roberts, H C; Wiles, R; Hulbert, S; Robison, J; Ashburn, A

    2017-10-01

    To determine the feasibility of a Dance Centre delivering a programme of mixed dances to people with Parkinson's and identify suitable outcomes for a future definitive trial. A two-group randomized controlled feasibility trial. People with Parkinson's were randomized to a control or experimental group (ratio 15:35), alongside usual care. In addition, participants in the experimental group danced with a partner for one hour, twice-a-week for 10 weeks; professional dance teachers led the classes and field-notes were kept. Control-group participants were given dance class vouchers at the end of the study. Blinded assessments of balance, mobility and function were completed in the home. Qualitative interviews were conducted with a subsample to explore the acceptability of dance. A total of 51 people with Parkinson's (25 male) with Hoehn and Yahr scores of 1-3 and mean age of 71 years (range 49-85 years), were recruited to the study. Dance partners were of similar age (mean 68, range 56-91 years). Feasibility findings focused on recruitment (target achieved); retention (five people dropped out of dancing); outcome measures (three measures were considered feasible, changes were recommended). Proposed sample size for a Phase III trial, based on the 6-minute walk test at six months was 220. Participants described dance as extremely enjoyable and the instructors were skilled in instilling confidence and motivation. The main organizational challenges for a future trial were transport and identifying suitable dance partners. We have demonstrated the feasibility of conducting the study through a Dance Centre and recommend a Phase III trial.

  16. Exploring Gender Differences in a Randomized Trial of Weight Loss Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Melissa M; Jeffery, Robert W; Sherwood, Nancy E

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore gender differences in reasons for losing weight, weight loss methods, and weight loss behaviors prior to and during a weight loss maintenance trial. This is a secondary analysis of data from a 24-month randomized controlled trial comparing Self-Directed or Guided phone-based weight loss maintenance interventions among adults who had intentionally lost ≥10% of their body weight in the year prior to enrollment. Participants reported their weight loss methods and reasons for recently losing weight at baseline. Dietary intake, physical activity, and dietary patterns were assessed at baseline, 12, and 24 months. Participants included 419 adults (18.4% men, age 47.0 ± 10.8, BMI 28.4 ± 5.0). Women were more likely than men to report having used an organized weight loss program during their weight loss (55.9% vs. 24.7%, p .05). Men reported higher energy intake than women while physical activity was similar. Although more men self-directed their initial weight loss and more women utilized organized weight loss programs, behaviors reported during weight loss maintenance were similar. Futures studies are needed to understand if these results generalize to other men who have successfully lost weight and are participants in other weight loss maintenance interventions.

  17. The cost-effectiveness of rapid HIV testing in substance abuse treatment: results of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schackman, Bruce R; Metsch, Lisa R; Colfax, Grant N; Leff, Jared A; Wong, Angela; Scott, Callie A; Feaster, Daniel J; Gooden, Lauren; Matheson, Tim; Haynes, Louise F; Paltiel, A David; Walensky, Rochelle P

    2013-02-01

    The President's National HIV/AIDS Strategy calls for coupling HIV screening and prevention services with substance abuse treatment programs. Fewer than half of US community-based substance abuse treatment programs make HIV testing available on-site or through referral. We measured the cost-effectiveness of three HIV testing strategies evaluated in a randomized trial conducted in 12 community-based substance abuse treatment programs in 2009: off-site testing referral, on-site rapid testing with information only, on-site rapid testing with risk-reduction counseling. Data from the trial included patient demographics, prior testing history, test acceptance and receipt of results, undiagnosed HIV prevalence (0.4%) and program costs. The Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC) computer simulation model was used to project life expectancy, lifetime costs, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for HIV-infected individuals. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (2009 US $/QALY) were calculated after adding costs of testing HIV-uninfected individuals; costs and QALYs were discounted at 3% annually. Referral for off-site testing is less efficient (dominated) compared to offering on-site testing with information only. The cost-effectiveness ratio for on-site testing with information is $60,300/QALY in the base case, or $76,300/QALY with 0.1% undiagnosed HIV prevalence. HIV risk-reduction counseling costs $36 per person more without additional benefit. A strategy of on-site rapid HIV testing offer with information only in substance abuse treatment programs increases life expectancy at a cost-effectiveness ratio substance abuse treatment leaders should seek funding to implement on-site rapid HIV testing in substance abuse treatment programs for those not recently tested. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of brief daily resistance training on rapid force development in painful neck and shoulder muscles: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Kenneth; Schraefel, Mc; Andersen, Christoffer H; Ebbesen, Frederik S; Christiansen, David H; Skotte, Jørgen; Zebis, Mette K; Andersen, Lars L

    2013-09-01

    To determine the effect of small daily amounts of progressive resistance training on rapid force development of painful neck/shoulder muscles. 198 generally healthy adults with frequent neck/shoulder muscle pain (mean: age 43.1 years, computer use 93% of work time, 88% women, duration of pain 186 day during the previous year) were randomly allocated to 2- or 12 min of daily progressive resistance training with elastic tubing or to a control group receiving weekly information on general health. A blinded assessor took measures at baseline and at 10-week follow-up; participants performed maximal voluntary contractions at a static 90-degree shoulder joint angle. Rapid force development was determined as the rate of torque development and maximal muscle strength was determined as the peak torque. Compared with the control group, rate of torque development increased 31.0 Nm s(-1) [95% confidence interval: (1.33-11.80)] in the 2-min group and 33.2 Nm s(-1) (1.66-12.33) in the 12-min group from baseline to 10-week follow-up, corresponding to an increase of 16.0% and 18.2% for the two groups, respectively. The increase was significantly different compared to controls (Pmuscle strength increased only ~5-6% [mean and 95% confidence interval for 2- and 12-min groups to control, respectively: 2.5 Nm (0.05-0.73) and 2.2 Nm (0.01-0.70)]. No significant differences between the 2- and 12-min groups were evident. A weak but significant relationship existed between changes in rapid force development and pain (r = 0.27, Pmuscle strength and pain. Small daily amounts of progressive resistance training in adults with frequent neck/shoulder pain increases rapid force development and, to a less extent, maximal force capacity. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  19. Exploring MALDI-TOF MS approach for a rapid identification of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis field isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricchi, M; Mazzarelli, A; Piscini, A; Di Caro, A; Cannas, A; Leo, S; Russo, S; Arrigoni, N

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the suitability of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for a rapid and correct identification of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) field isolates. MALDI-TOF MS approach is becoming one of the most popular tests for the identification of intact bacterial cells which has been shown to be fast and reliable. For this purpose, 36 MAP field isolates were analysed through MALDI-TOF MS and the spectra compared with two different databases: one provided by the vendor of the system employed (Biotyper ver. 3·0; Bruker Daltonics) and a homemade database containing spectra from both tuberculous and nontuberculous Mycobacteria. Moreover, principal component analysis procedure was employed to confirm the ability of MALDI-TOF MS to discriminate between very closely related subspecies. Our results suggest MAP can be differentiated from other Mycobacterium species, both when the species are very close (M. intracellulare) and when belonging to different subspecies (M. avium ssp. avium and M. avium ssp. silvaticum). The procedure applied is fast, easy to perform, and achieves an earlier accurate species identification of MAP and nontuberculous Mycobacteria in comparison to other procedures. The gold standard test for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis is still isolation of MAP by cultural methods, but additional assays, such as qPCR and subculturing for determination of mycobactin dependency are required to confirm its identification. We have provided here evidence pertaining to the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS approach for a rapid identification of this mycobacterium among other members of M. avium complex. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Geometrical versus Random β-TCP Scaffolds: Exploring the Effects on Schwann Cell Growth and Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Sweet

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated that Schwann cells (SCs play a role in nerve regeneration; however, their role in innervating a bioceramic scaffold for potential application in bone regeneration is still unknown. Here we report the cell growth and functional behavior of SCs on β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP scaffolds arranged in 3D printed-lattice (P-β-TCP and randomly-porous, template-casted (N-β-TCP structures. Our results indicate that SCs proliferated well and expressed the phenotypic markers p75LNGFR and the S100-β subunit of SCs as well as displayed growth morphology on both scaffolds, but SCs showed spindle-shaped morphology with a significant degree of SCs alignment on the P-β-TCP scaffolds, seen to a lesser degree in the N-β-TCP scaffold. The gene expressions of nerve growth factor (β-ngf, neutrophin-3 (nt-3, platelet-derived growth factor (pdgf-bb, and vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf-a were higher at day 7 than at day 14. While no significant differences in protein secretion were measured between these last two time points, the scaffolds promoted the protein secretion at day 3 compared to that on the cell culture plates. These results together imply that the β-TCP scaffolds can support SC cell growth and that the 3D-printed scaffold appeared to significantly promote the alignment of SCs along the struts. Further studies are needed to investigate the early and late stage relationship between gene expression and protein secretion of SCs on the scaffolds with refined characteristics, thus better exploring the potential of SCs to support vascularization and innervation in synthetic bone grafts.

  1. Exploring the "active ingredients" of an online smoking intervention: a randomized factorial trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Jennifer B; Peterson, Do; Derry, Holly; Riggs, Karin; Saint-Johnson, Jackie; Nair, Vijay; An, Lawrence; Shortreed, Susan M

    2014-08-01

    Research needs to systematically identify which components increase online intervention effectiveness (i.e., active ingredients). This study explores the effects of 4 potentially important design features in an Internet-based, population-level smoking intervention. Smokers (n = 1,865) were recruited from a large health care organization, regardless of readiness to quit. Using a full factorial design, participants were randomized to 1 of the 2 levels of each experimental factor (message tone [prescriptive vs. motivational], navigation autonomy [dictated vs. not], e-mail reminders [yes vs. no], and receipt of personally tailored testimonials [yes vs. no]) and provided access to the online intervention. Primary outcomes were self-reported 7-day point-prevalent smoking abstinence and confirmed utilization of adjunct treatment (pharmacotherapy or phone counseling) available through the health plan at 1 year. Outcomes were also assessed at 2 and 6 months and were examined among all enrolled participants (intent-to-treat [ITT]) and all who viewed the intervention (modified ITT). At 1 year, 13.7% were abstinent and 26.0% utilized adjunct treatment. None of the contrasting factor levels differentially influenced abstinence or treatment utilization at 12 months. In the modified ITT sample, smokers receiving testimonials were less likely to use adjunct treatment at 6 months (odds ratio = 0.54, 95% confidence interval = 0.30-0.98, p = .04). None of the design features enhanced treatment outcome. The negative effect observed for testimonials is provocative, but it should be viewed with caution. This study offers a model for future research testing the "active ingredients" of online interventions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Geometrical versus Random β-TCP Scaffolds: Exploring the Effects on Schwann Cell Growth and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Lauren; Kang, Yunqing; Czisch, Christopher; Witek, Lukasz; Shi, Yang; Smay, Jim; Plant, Giles W; Yang, Yunzhi

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that Schwann cells (SCs) play a role in nerve regeneration; however, their role in innervating a bioceramic scaffold for potential application in bone regeneration is still unknown. Here we report the cell growth and functional behavior of SCs on β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds arranged in 3D printed-lattice (P-β-TCP) and randomly-porous, template-casted (N-β-TCP) structures. Our results indicate that SCs proliferated well and expressed the phenotypic markers p75LNGFR and the S100-β subunit of SCs as well as displayed growth morphology on both scaffolds, but SCs showed spindle-shaped morphology with a significant degree of SCs alignment on the P-β-TCP scaffolds, seen to a lesser degree in the N-β-TCP scaffold. The gene expressions of nerve growth factor (β-ngf), neutrophin-3 (nt-3), platelet-derived growth factor (pdgf-bb), and vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf-a) were higher at day 7 than at day 14. While no significant differences in protein secretion were measured between these last two time points, the scaffolds promoted the protein secretion at day 3 compared to that on the cell culture plates. These results together imply that the β-TCP scaffolds can support SC cell growth and that the 3D-printed scaffold appeared to significantly promote the alignment of SCs along the struts. Further studies are needed to investigate the early and late stage relationship between gene expression and protein secretion of SCs on the scaffolds with refined characteristics, thus better exploring the potential of SCs to support vascularization and innervation in synthetic bone grafts.

  3. Slow vs rapid delivery rate shock wave lithotripsy for pediatric renal urolithiasis: a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Hosni Khairy; Fathy, Hesham; Elfayoumy, Hanny; Aly, Hussein; Ghonium, Ahmed; Mohsen, Mostafa A; Hegazy, Abd El Rahim

    2014-05-01

    We compared slow vs fast shock wave frequency rates in disintegration of pediatric renal stones less than 20 mm. Our study included 60 children with solitary 10 to 20 mm radiopaque renal stones treated with shock wave lithotripsy. Patients were prospectively randomized into 2 groups, ie those undergoing lithotripsy at a rate of 80 shock waves per minute (group 1, 30 patients) and those undergoing lithotripsy at a rate of 120 shock waves per minute (group 2, 30 patients). The 2 groups were compared in terms of treatment success, anesthesia time, secondary procedures and efficiency quotient. Stone clearance rate was significantly higher in group 1 (90%) than in group 2 (73.3%, p = 0.025). A total of 18 patients in group 1 (60%) were rendered stone-free after 1 session, 8 required 2 sessions and 1 needed 3 sessions, while shock wave lithotripsy failed in 3 patients. By comparison, 8 patients (26.6%) in group 2 were rendered stone-free after 1 session, 10 (33.3%) required 2 sessions and 4 (13.3%) needed 3 sessions to become stone-free. Mean general anesthesia time was significantly longer in group 1 (p = 0.041). Postoperatively 2 patients in group 1 and 4 in group 2 suffered low grade fever (Clavien grade II). Significantly more secondary procedures (percutaneous nephrolithotomy, repeat shock wave lithotripsy) were required in group 2 (p = 0.005). The predominant stone analysis was calcium oxalate dihydrate in both groups. Efficiency quotient was 0.5869 and 0.3437 for group 1 and group 2, respectively (p = 0.0247). In children with renal stones slow delivery rates of shock wave lithotripsy have better results regarding stone clearance than fast delivery rates. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A randomized trial of motivational interviewing and facilitated contraceptive access to prevent rapid repeat pregnancy among adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jack; Lutz, Robyn; Osuagwu, Ngozi; Rotz, Dana; Goesling, Brian

    2017-10-01

    Most interventions designed to reduce teen pregnancy rates have not focused on pregnant and/or parenting adolescents. Therefore, a large randomized controlled trial was conducted regarding a motivational interviewing program entitled Teen Options to Prevent Pregnancy in a low-income sample of adolescent mothers. This program recommended monthly sessions between a participant and a registered nurse over 18 months. This program also featured facilitated birth control access through transportation assistance and a part-time contraceptive clinic. The impact of this program on rapid repeat pregnancies at 18 months after enrollment was evaluated. Five hundred ninety-eight adolescent females were enrolled from 7 obstetrics-gynecology clinics and 5 postpartum units of a large hospital system in a Midwestern city. Each participant was enrolled at least 28 weeks pregnant or less than 9 weeks postpartum. Each participant was randomized to either the Teen Options to Prevent Pregnancy intervention or a usual-care control condition. Intervention participants averaged 4.5 hours of assistance. Participants were contacted by blinded research staff at 6 and 18 months to complete self-report surveys. Differences in outcomes between the intervention and control groups were assessed using ordinary least-squares regression. There was an 18.1% absolute reduction in self-reported repeat pregnancy in the intervention group relative to the control group (20.5% vs 38.6%%; P Pregnancy program represents one of the few evidence-based interventions to reduce rapid repeat teen pregnancy. This relatively brief intervention may be a viable alternative to more time-intensive programs that adolescent mothers may be unable or unwilling to receive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Exploring a New Simulation Approach to Improve Clinical Reasoning Teaching and Assessment: Randomized Trial Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennaforte, Thomas; Moussa, Ahmed; Loye, Nathalie; Charlin, Bernard; Audétat, Marie-Claude

    2016-02-17

    Helping trainees develop appropriate clinical reasoning abilities is a challenging goal in an environment where clinical situations are marked by high levels of complexity and unpredictability. The benefit of simulation-based education to assess clinical reasoning skills has rarely been reported. More specifically, it is unclear if clinical reasoning is better acquired if the instructor's input occurs entirely after or is integrated during the scenario. Based on educational principles of the dual-process theory of clinical reasoning, a new simulation approach called simulation with iterative discussions (SID) is introduced. The instructor interrupts the flow of the scenario at three key moments of the reasoning process (data gathering, integration, and confirmation). After each stop, the scenario is continued where it was interrupted. Finally, a brief general debriefing ends the session. System-1 process of clinical reasoning is assessed by verbalization during management of the case, and System-2 during the iterative discussions without providing feedback. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Simulation with Iterative Discussions versus the classical approach of simulation in developing reasoning skills of General Pediatrics and Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine residents. This will be a prospective exploratory, randomized study conducted at Sainte-Justine hospital in Montreal, Qc, between January and March 2016. All post-graduate year (PGY) 1 to 6 residents will be invited to complete one SID or classical simulation 30 minutes audio video-recorded complex high-fidelity simulations covering a similar neonatology topic. Pre- and post-simulation questionnaires will be completed and a semistructured interview will be conducted after each simulation. Data analyses will use SPSS and NVivo softwares. This study is in its preliminary stages and the results are expected to be made available by April, 2016. This will be the first study to explore a new

  6. Efficacy and safety of rapid escalation of cabergoline in comparison to conventional regimen for macroprolactinoma: A prospective, randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashu Rastogi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cabergoline (CAB is conventionally started at a dose of 0.25-0.5 mg once a week with dose escalation at 1to 3months intervals. Previously, we and others have shown that rapid escalation and high doses of CAB can lead to normalization of serum PRL as early as 8.2 weeks in 93% of the patients. We hypothesize that rapid escalation of CAB doses, may help in both the earlier normalization of PRL and also significant shrinkage of tumor mass. Study Design: Randomized, prospective, interventional trial. Subjects and Methods: Forty two patients (male or female with macroprolactinoma were randomized to conventional (group A or rapid escalation (group B of CAB dosing. In group B, CAB was started at a dose of 0.5 mg twice a week followed by a weekly hike of 1 mg/week, based on serum PRL and then monthly. The end point of the present study was a composite of normoprolactinemia and tumor shrinkage ≥50% from baseline. PRL and visual field analysis (weekly, other hormonal work up periodically and magnetic resonance imaging (sella was performed monthly. Results: A total of 19 patients in each group completed a minimum follow-up of 6 months. There was a reduction of 72.7 ± 26.2% in group A and 84.1 ± 15.0 in group B (P = 0.24 within a week of CAB therapy. The duration of CAB treatment to normalize PRL was 10.2 ± 9.2 week(2-36 in group A and 7.2 ± 6.2 weeks(1-24 in group B (P = 0.28. There was no difference in the tumor shrinkage in either of the groups (92.3% [46.7-100%] in group A and 90.5% [66.6-100%] reduction in group B. The composite end point was achieved in 14 patients in group A (73.6% and 16 patients in group B (84.2% (P = 0.69. The composite end point was achieved in 13.1 ± 9.5 weeks (group A versus 16.5 ± 14.1 weeks (group B (P = 0.61. Discussion: This is first head to head comparative trial showing that a rapid hike of CAB dose is not associated with earlier normalization of PRL or reduction in tumor volume as compared to

  7. Evaluation of surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion with piezosurgery versus oscillating saw and chisel osteotomy - a randomized prospective trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Ultrasonic bone-cutting surgery has been introduced as a feasible alternative to the conventional sharp instruments used in craniomaxillofacial surgery because of its precision and safety. The piezosurgery medical device allows the efficient cutting of mineralized tissues with minimal trauma to soft tissues. Piezoelectric osteotome has found its role in surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME), a procedure well established to correct transverse maxillary discrepancies. The advantages include minimal risk to critical anatomic structures. The purpose of this clinical comparative study (CIS 2007-237-M) was to present the advantages of the piezoelectric cut as a minimally invasive device in surgically assisted, rapid maxillary expansion by protecting the maxillary sinus mucosal lining. Methods Thirty patients (18 females and 12 males) at the age of 18 to 54 underwent a surgically assisted palatal expansion of the maxilla with a combined orthodontic and surgical approach. The patients were randomly divided into two separate treatment groups. While Group 1 received conventional surgery using an oscillating saw, Group 2 was treated with piezosurgery. The following parameters were examined: blood pressure, blood values, required medication, bleeding level in the maxillary sinus, duration of inpatient stay, duration of surgery and height of body temperature. Results The results displayed no statistically significant differences between the two groups regarding laboratory blood values and inpatient stay. The duration of surgery revealed a significant discrepancy. Deploying piezosurgery took the surgeon an average of 10 minutes longer than working with a conventional-saw technique. However, the observation of the bleeding level in the paranasal sinus presented a major and statistically significant advantage of piezosurgery: on average the bleeding level was one category above the one of the remaining patients. Conclusion This method of piezoelectric

  8. A new way to rapidly create functional, fluorescent fusion proteins: random insertion of GFP with an in vitro transposition reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakobsdottir Klara B

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP can be inserted into the middle of another protein to produce a functional, fluorescent fusion protein. Finding permissive sites for insertion, however, can be difficult. Here we describe a transposon-based approach for rapidly creating libraries of GFP fusion proteins. Results We tested our approach on the glutamate receptor subunit, GluR1, and the G protein subunit, αs. All of the in-frame GFP insertions produced a fluorescent protein, consistent with the idea that GFP will fold and form a fluorophore when inserted into virtually any domain of another protein. Some of the proteins retained their signaling function, and the random nature of the transposition process revealed permissive sites for insertion that would not have been predicted on the basis of structural or functional models of how that protein works. Conclusion This technique should greatly speed the discovery of functional fusion proteins, genetically encodable sensors, and optimized fluorescence resonance energy transfer pairs.

  9. [Use of a rapid rotavirus test in prescription of antibiotics in acute diarrhea in pediatrics: an observational, randomized, controlled study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Andrea; Rivara, Gustavo; Briceño, Diego; Huicho, Luis

    2012-01-01

    To determine the impact of a rapid and accurate rotavirus test in the emergency ward on the reduction of antibiotic prescription in children under 5 years old with acute diarrhea at "Arzobispo Loayza National Hospital", Lima, Peru. We performed an observational prospective randomized controlled study, from July 2008 to January 2009. Stool samples from patients with diarrhea lasting less than 5 days were analyzed. Out of 201 cases, 101 were classified in Group A (with fecal leukocytes test performed) and 100 in Group B (with fecal leukocytes test and rotavirus/adenovirus test performed). We aimed to associate the signs and symptoms with the decision of prescribing antibiotics and with hospitalization risk. Both groups were comparable with regard to age, weight and illness duration. In patients with rotavirus infection, fecal leukocytes were positive in 46.9% of cases. Frequency of antibiotic use was directly associated with the number of fecal leukocytes (Pdiarrhea-attributable deaths were reported. The use of rotavirus test in the pediatric emergency room decreased antibiotic prescription in children with diarrhea.

  10. Random regret minimization : Exploration of a new choice model for environmental and resource economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiene, M.; Boeri, M.; Chorus, C.G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the discrete choice model-paradigm of Random Regret Minimization (RRM) to the field of environmental and resource economics. The RRM-approach has been very recently developed in the context of travel demand modelling and presents a tractable, regret-based alternative to the

  11. Control Capacity and A Random Sampling Method in Exploring Controllability of Complex Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Tao; Barab?si, Albert-L?szl?

    2013-01-01

    Controlling complex systems is a fundamental challenge of network science. Recent advances indicate that control over the system can be achieved through a minimum driver node set (MDS). The existence of multiple MDS's suggests that nodes do not participate in control equally, prompting us to quantify their participations. Here we introduce control capacity quantifying the likelihood that a node is a driver node. To efficiently measure this quantity, we develop a random sampling algorithm. Thi...

  12. Evaluation of the rapid and slow maxillary expansion using cone-beam computed tomography: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da S. Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the dental, dentoalveolar, and skeletal changes occurring right after the rapid maxillary expansion (RME and slow maxillary expansion (SME treatment using Haas-type expander. METHODS: All subjects performed cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT before installation of expanders (T1 and right after screw stabilization (T2. Patients who did not follow the research parameters were excluded. The final sample resulted in 21 patients in RME group (mean age of 8.43 years and 16 patients in SME group (mean age of 8.70 years. Based on the skewness and kurtosis statistics, the variables were judged to be normally distributed and paired t-test and student t-test were performed at significance level of 5%. RESULTS: Intermolar angle changed significantly due to treatment and RME showed greater buccal tipping than SME. RME showed significant changes in other four measurements due to treatment: maxilla moved forward and mandible showed backward rotation and, at transversal level both skeletal and dentoalveolar showed significant changes due to maxillary expansion. SME showed significant dentoalveolar changes due to maxillary expansion. CONCLUSIONS: Only intermolar angle showed significant difference between the two modalities of maxillary expansion with greater buccal tipping for RME. Also, RME produced skeletal maxillary expansion and SME did not. Both maxillary expansion modalities were efficient to promote transversal gain at dentoalveolar level. Sagittal and vertical measurements did not show differences between groups, but RME promoted a forward movement of the maxilla and backward rotation of the mandible.

  13. Rapid and sustainable detoxication of airborne pollutants by broccoli sprout beverage: results of a randomized clinical trial in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egner, Patricia A; Chen, Jian-Guo; Zarth, Adam T; Ng, Derek K; Wang, Jin-Bing; Kensler, Kevin H; Jacobson, Lisa P; Muñoz, Alvaro; Johnson, Jamie L; Groopman, John D; Fahey, Jed W; Talalay, Paul; Zhu, Jian; Chen, Tao-Yang; Qian, Geng-Sun; Carmella, Steven G; Hecht, Stephen S; Kensler, Thomas W

    2014-08-01

    Broccoli sprouts are a convenient and rich source of the glucosinolate, glucoraphanin, which can generate the chemopreventive agent, sulforaphane, an inducer of glutathione S-transferases (GST) and other cytoprotective enzymes. A broccoli sprout-derived beverage providing daily doses of 600 μmol glucoraphanin and 40 μmol sulforaphane was evaluated for magnitude and duration of pharmacodynamic action in a 12-week randomized clinical trial. Two hundred and ninety-one study participants were recruited from the rural He-He Township, Qidong, in the Yangtze River delta region of China, an area characterized by exposures to substantial levels of airborne pollutants. Exposure to air pollution has been associated with lung cancer and cardiopulmonary diseases. Urinary excretion of the mercapturic acids of the pollutants, benzene, acrolein, and crotonaldehyde, were measured before and during the intervention using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid and sustained, statistically significant (P ≤ 0.01) increases in the levels of excretion of the glutathione-derived conjugates of benzene (61%), acrolein (23%), but not crotonaldehyde, were found in those receiving broccoli sprout beverage compared with placebo. Excretion of the benzene-derived mercapturic acid was higher in participants who were GSTT1-positive than in the null genotype, irrespective of study arm assignment. Measures of sulforaphane metabolites in urine indicated that bioavailability did not decline over the 12-week daily dosing period. Thus, intervention with broccoli sprouts enhances the detoxication of some airborne pollutants and may provide a frugal means to attenuate their associated long-term health risks. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Exploring the Causal Pathway From Telomere Length to Coronary Heart Disease: A Network Mendelian Randomization Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yiqiang; Karlsson, Ida K; Karlsson, Robert; Tillander, Annika; Reynolds, Chandra A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Hägg, Sara

    2017-07-21

    Observational studies have found shorter leukocyte telomere length (TL) to be a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), and recently the association was suggested to be causal. However, the relationship between TL and common metabolic risk factors for CHD is not well understood. Whether these risk factors could explain pathways from TL to CHD warrants further attention. To examine whether metabolic risk factors for CHD mediate the causal pathway from short TL to increased risk of CHD using a network Mendelian randomization design. Summary statistics from several genome-wide association studies were used in a 2-sample Mendelian randomization study design. Network Mendelian randomization analysis-an approach using genetic variants as the instrumental variables for both the exposure and mediator to infer causality-was performed to examine the causal association between telomeres and CHD and metabolic risk factors. Summary statistics from the ENGAGE Telomere Consortium were used (n=37 684) as a TL genetic instrument, CARDIoGRAMplusC4D Consortium data were used (case=22 233 and control=64 762) for CHD, and other consortia data were used for metabolic traits (fasting insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting glucose, diabetes mellitus, glycohemoglobin, body mass index, waist circumference, and waist:hip ratio). One-unit increase of genetically determined TL was associated with -0.07 (95% confidence interval, -0.01 to -0.12; P=0.01) lower log-transformed fasting insulin (pmol/L) and 21% lower odds (95% confidence interval, 3-35; P=0.02) of CHD. Higher genetically determined log-transformed fasting insulin level was associated with higher CHD risk (odds ratio, 1.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-3.41; P=0.04). Overall, our findings support a role of insulin as a mediator on the causal pathway from shorter telomeres to CHD pathogenesis. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. RRT*-SMART: A Rapid Convergence Implementation of RRT*

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir, Jauwairia; Islam, Fahad; Malik, Usman; Ayaz, Yasar; Hasan, Osman; Khan, Mushtaq; Muhammad, Mannan Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Many sampling based algorithms have been introduced recently. Among them Rapidly Exploring Random Tree (RRT) is one of the quickest and the most efficient obstacle free path finding algorithm. Although it ensures probabilistic completeness, it cannot guarantee finding the most optimal path. Rapidly Exploring Random Tree Star (RRT*), a recently proposed extension of RRT, claims to achieve convergence towards the optimal solution thus ensuring asymptotic optimality along with probabilistic comp...

  16. Online games: a novel approach to explore how partial information influences human random searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Ricardo; Calabrese, Justin M.; López, Cristóbal

    2017-01-01

    Many natural processes rely on optimizing the success ratio of a search process. We use an experimental setup consisting of a simple online game in which players have to find a target hidden on a board, to investigate how the rounds are influenced by the detection of cues. We focus on the search duration and the statistics of the trajectories traced on the board. The experimental data are explained by a family of random-walk-based models and probabilistic analytical approximations. If no initial information is given to the players, the search is optimized for cues that cover an intermediate spatial scale. In addition, initial information about the extension of the cues results, in general, in faster searches. Finally, strategies used by informed players turn into non-stationary processes in which the length of e ach displacement evolves to show a well-defined characteristic scale that is not found in non-informed searches.

  17. Why cancer patients enter randomized clinical trials: exploring the factors that influence their decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, James R; Whelan, Timothy J; Schiff, Susan; Dubois, Sacha; Crooks, Dauna; Haines, Patricia T; DeRosa, Diane; Roberts, Robin S; Gafni, Amiram; Pritchard, Kathleen; Levine, Mark N

    2004-11-01

    Few interventions have been designed and tested to improve recruitment to clinical trials in oncology. The multiple factors influencing patients' decisions have made the prioritization of specific interventions challenging. The present study was undertaken to identify the independent predictors of a cancer patient's decision to enter a randomized clinical trial. A list of factors from the medical literature was augmented with a series of focus groups involving cancer patients, physicians, and clinical research associates (CRAs). A series of questionnaires was developed with items based on these factors and were administered concurrently to 189 cancer patients, their physicians, and CRAs following the patient's decision regarding trial entry. Forward logistic regression modeling was performed using the items significantly correlated (by univariate analysis) with the decision to enter a clinical trial. A number of items were significantly correlated with the patient's decision. In the multivariate logistic regression model, the patient's perception of personal benefit was the most important, with an odds ratio (OR) of 3.08 (P decision-making process were also important. These included whether the CRA helped with the decision (OR = 1.71; P decision was hard for the patient to make (OR = 0.52; P decision-making process while respecting the need for information and patient autonomy may also lead to meaningful improvements in accrual.

  18. Exploration and practice of methods and processes of evidence-based rapid review on peer review of WHO EML application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Youping; Yu, Jiajie; Du, Liang; Sun, Xin; Kwong, Joey S W; Wu, Bin; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lu, Jing; Xu, Ting; Zhang, Lingli

    2015-11-01

    After 38 years of development, the procedure of selection and evaluation of the World Health Organization Essential Medicine List (WHO EML) is increasingly scientific and formal. However, peer review for the applications of World Health Organization Essential Medicine List is always required in a short period. It is necessary to build up a set of methods and processes for rapid review. We identified the process of evidenced-based rapid review on WHO EML application for peer reviews according to 11 items which were required during reporting of the peer review results of the proposals. The most important items for the rapid review of World Health Organization Essential Medicine List peer reviewers are (1) to confirm the requirements and identify the purposes; (2) to establish the research questions and translate the questions into the 'Participants, Interventions, Comparators, Outcomes, Study design' (PICOS) format; (3) to search and screen available evidence, for which high-level evidence is preferred, such as systematic reviews or meta-analyses, health technology assessment, clinical guidelines; (4) to extract data, where we extract primary information based on the purposes; (5) to synthesize data by qualitative methods, assess the quality of evidence, and compare the results; (6) to provide the answers to the applications, quality of evidences and strength of recommendations. Our study established a set of methods and processes for the rapid review of World Health Organization Essential Medicine List peer review, and our findings were used to guide the reviewers to fulfill the 19(th) World Health Organization Essential Medicine List peer review. The methods and processes were feasible and met the necessary requirements in terms of time and quality. Continuous improvement and evaluation in practice are warranted. © 2015 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Efficacy and safety of a sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone rapidly dissolving tablet for the treatment of adults with opioid dependence: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Lynn; Hjelmström, Peter; Sumner, Michael; Gunderson, Erik W

    2016-01-01

    This prospective, randomized, active-controlled, non-inferiority study evaluated the efficacy and safety of a sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone rapidly dissolving tablet (Zubsolv ® ; buprenorphine/naloxone rapidly dissolving tablet) versus generic buprenorphine for induction of opioid maintenance among dependent adults. The study, conducted at 13 sites from June 2013 to January 2014, included a 2-day blinded induction phase and a 27-day open-label stabilization/maintenance phase. During the blinded induction, patients received fixed doses of buprenorphine/naloxone rapidly dissolving tablets or generic buprenorphine. During open-label stabilization/early maintenance, all patients received buprenorphine/naloxone rapidly dissolving tablets. The primary efficacy assessment was treatment retention at day 3; buprenorphine/naloxone rapidly dissolving tablets were considered non-inferior to generic buprenorphine if the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval for the difference between the treatments was ≥-10% in patients retained on day 3. Secondary assessments included opioid withdrawal symptoms and cravings as measured using the Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale, the Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale, and the opioid cravings visual analogue scale. Safety was also assessed. A total of 313 patients were randomly assigned to induction with generic buprenorphine or buprenorphine/naloxone rapidly dissolving tablets. The mean age was 38.4 years, and the mean duration of opioid dependence was 12.4 years. For the primary efficacy assessment, 235 of 256 patients (91.8%) were retained at day 3 and continued to the maintenance phase. The lower limit of the 95% confidence interval was -13.7; thus, buprenorphine/naloxone rapidly dissolving tablets did not demonstrate non-inferiority to generic buprenorphine, and significantly more patients who received induction with generic buprenorphine (122/128 [95.3%]) were retained at day 3 compared with those who received induction with

  20. Renal function following xenon anesthesia for partial nephrectomy-An explorative analysis of a randomized controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Stevanovic

    Full Text Available Perioperative preservation of renal function has a significant impact on morbidity and mortality in kidney surgery. Nephroprotective effects of the anesthetic xenon on ischemia-reperfusion injury were found in several experimental studies.We aimed to explore whether xenon anesthesia can reduce renal damage in humans undergoing partial nephrectomy and to gather pilot data of possible nephroprotection in these patients.A prospective randomized, single-blinded, controlled study.Single-center, University Hospital of Aachen, Germany between July 2013-October 2015.Forty-six patients with regular renal function undergoing partial nephrectomy.Patients were randomly assigned to receive xenon- (n = 23 or isoflurane (n = 23 anesthesia.Primary outcome was the maximum postoperative glomerular filtration rate (GFR decline within seven days after surgery. Secondary outcomes included intraoperative and tumor-related data, assessment of further kidney injury markers, adverse events and optional determination of renal function after 3-6 months.Unexpected radical nephrectomy was performed in 5 patients, thus they were excluded from the per-protocol analysis, but included in the intention-to-treat analysis. The maximum postoperative GFR decline was attenuated by 45% in the xenon-group (10.9 ml min-1 1.73 cm-2 versus 19.7 ml min-1 1.73 cm-2 in the isoflurane group, but without significance (P = 0.084. Occurrence of adverse events was reduced (P = 0.003 in the xenon group. Renal function was similar among the groups after 3-6 months.Xenon anesthesia was feasible and safe in patients undergoing partial nephrectomy with regard to postoperative renal function. We found no significant effect on early renal function but less adverse events in the xenon group. Larger randomized controlled studies in more heterogeneous collectives are required, to confirm or refute the possible clinical benefit on renal function by xenon.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01839084 and EudraCT 2012-005698-30.

  1. Renal function following xenon anesthesia for partial nephrectomy-An explorative analysis of a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, Ana; Schaefer, Patrick; Coburn, Mark; Rossaint, Rolf; Stoppe, Christian; Boor, Peter; Pfister, David; Heidenreich, Axel; Christ, Hildegard; Hellmich, Martin; Fahlenkamp, Astrid V

    2017-01-01

    Perioperative preservation of renal function has a significant impact on morbidity and mortality in kidney surgery. Nephroprotective effects of the anesthetic xenon on ischemia-reperfusion injury were found in several experimental studies. We aimed to explore whether xenon anesthesia can reduce renal damage in humans undergoing partial nephrectomy and to gather pilot data of possible nephroprotection in these patients. A prospective randomized, single-blinded, controlled study. Single-center, University Hospital of Aachen, Germany between July 2013-October 2015. Forty-six patients with regular renal function undergoing partial nephrectomy. Patients were randomly assigned to receive xenon- (n = 23) or isoflurane (n = 23) anesthesia. Primary outcome was the maximum postoperative glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decline within seven days after surgery. Secondary outcomes included intraoperative and tumor-related data, assessment of further kidney injury markers, adverse events and optional determination of renal function after 3-6 months. Unexpected radical nephrectomy was performed in 5 patients, thus they were excluded from the per-protocol analysis, but included in the intention-to-treat analysis. The maximum postoperative GFR decline was attenuated by 45% in the xenon-group (10.9 ml min-1 1.73 cm-2 versus 19.7 ml min-1 1.73 cm-2 in the isoflurane group), but without significance (P = 0.084). Occurrence of adverse events was reduced (P = 0.003) in the xenon group. Renal function was similar among the groups after 3-6 months. Xenon anesthesia was feasible and safe in patients undergoing partial nephrectomy with regard to postoperative renal function. We found no significant effect on early renal function but less adverse events in the xenon group. Larger randomized controlled studies in more heterogeneous collectives are required, to confirm or refute the possible clinical benefit on renal function by xenon. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01839084 and EudraCT 2012-005698-30.

  2. Exploring the impact of high intensity interval training on adolescents' objectively measured physical activity: Findings from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigan, Sarah A; Ridgers, Nicola D; Eather, Narelle; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Harris, Nigel; Lubans, David R

    2018-05-01

    High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) may be effective for accumulating VPA. However, the contribution of HIIT to overall physical activity is unknown. Our primary aim was to explore the impact of school-based HIIT on physical activity. The secondary aim was to explore within-individual changes in physical activity after participating in HIIT. Participants [n = 65; 15.8(0.6)years] were randomized to a HIIT or control group. Intervention groups participated in three HIIT sessions/week. GENEActiv accelerometers assessed objective physical activity at baseline and week-one, to detect changes in MPA and VPA. Intervention effects were examined using linear mixed models and evidence of a change in physical activity (i.e., compensation) were examined using multilevel linear regression models. The group-by-time interaction effects for MPA and VPA were small and moderate, respectively. Adjusted difference between groups for VPA was 1.70 min/day, 95%CI -1.96 to 5.36; p = 0.354; d = 0.55). Embedding HIIT within the school-day had a moderate effect on VPA compared to controls. Compensation analyses (i.e., individual level) suggested that adolescents were more active on days when they participated in HIIT. Further studies are needed to test the effects of HIIT on adolescents' physical activity over extended time periods.

  3. On-site bundled rapid HIV/HCV testing in substance use disorder treatment programs: study protocol for a hybrid design randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimpong, Jemima A; D'Aunno, Thomas; Perlman, David C; Strauss, Shiela M; Mallow, Alissa; Hernandez, Diana; Schackman, Bruce R; Feaster, Daniel J; Metsch, Lisa R

    2016-03-03

    More than 1.2 million people in the United States are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and 3.2 million are living with hepatitis C virus (HCV). An estimated 25 % of persons living with HIV also have HCV. It is therefore of great public health importance to ensure the prompt diagnosis of both HIV and HCV in populations that have the highest prevalence of both infections, including individuals with substance use disorders (SUD). In this theory-driven, efficacy-effectiveness-implementation hybrid study, we will develop and test an on-site bundled rapid HIV/HCV testing intervention for SUD treatment programs. Its aim is to increase the receipt of HIV and HCV test results among SUD treatment patients. Using a rigorous process involving patients, providers, and program managers, we will incorporate rapid HCV testing into evidence-based HIV testing and linkage to care interventions. We will then test, in a randomized controlled trial, the extent to which this bundled rapid HIV/HCV testing approach increases receipt of HIV and HCV test results. Lastly, we will conduct formative research to understand the barriers to, and facilitators of, the adoption, implementation, and sustainability of the bundled rapid testing strategy in SUD treatment programs. Novel approaches that effectively integrate on-site rapid HIV and rapid HCV testing are needed to address both the HIV and HCV epidemics. If feasible and efficacious, bundled rapid HIV/HCV testing may offer a scalable, potentially cost-effective approach to testing high-risk populations, such as patients of SUD treatment programs. It may ultimately lead to improved linkage to care and progress through the HIV and HCV care and treatment cascades. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02355080 . (30 January 2015).

  4. Rapid Gist Perception of Meaningful Real-Life Scenes: Exploring Individual and Gender Differences in Multiple Categorization Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Vanmarcke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In everyday life, we are generally able to dynamically understand and adapt to socially (irelevant encounters, and to make appropriate decisions about these. All of this requires an impressive ability to directly filter and obtain the most informative aspects of a complex visual scene. Such rapid gist perception can be assessed in multiple ways. In the ultrafast categorization paradigm developed by Simon Thorpe et al. (1996, participants get a clear categorization task in advance and succeed at detecting the target object of interest (animal almost perfectly (even with 20 ms exposures. Since this pioneering work, follow-up studies consistently reported population-level reaction time differences on different categorization tasks, indicating a superordinate advantage (animal versus dog and effects of perceptual similarity (animals versus vehicles and object category size (natural versus animal versus dog. In this study, we replicated and extended these separate findings by using a systematic collection of different categorization tasks (varying in presentation time, task demands, and stimuli and focusing on individual differences in terms of e.g., gender and intelligence. In addition to replicating the main findings from the literature, we find subtle, yet consistent gender differences (women faster than men.

  5. Exploring the Possibility of Cryopreservation of Feline and Canine Erythrocytes by Rapid Freezing with Penetrating and Non-Penetrating Cryoprotectants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Pogozhykh

    Full Text Available Efficient application of veterinary blood transfusion approaches for small companion animals requires readily available supply of the donor material. This can be achieved by developing of effective biobanking technologies allowing long-term storage of donor blood components via cryopreservation. Transfusion of an erythrocyte concentrate allows the successful correction of various hematological pathologies, severe bleeding, and etc. While in the past there were several approaches to cryopreserve red blood cells of dogs, to our knowledge there is virtually no data on cryopreservation of feline erythrocytes. In this paper, we performed a comprehensive parameter optimization for low temperature storage of RBCs of both species. Here, the efficiency of single-component and multicomponent cryoprotective media as well as necessary time of pre-incubation with penetrating and non-penetrating cryoprotectants prior to rapid freezing is analyzed. This study showed that glycerol was not sufficient for cryopreservation of red blood cells of the studied species under the investigated conditions. Application of 10% (v/v ME2SO allowed for a significant reduction of canine and feline erythrocytes hemolysis after thawing. 17.5% hydroxyethyl starch demonstrated the highest cryoprotective activity for both species. It was found that dog RBCs should be incubated in cryoprotective media for 30 min at 22°C prior to freezing, while for cat RBCs 20 min is sufficient. Combination of CPAs was less effective. Presented data may be considered in further studies in veterinary transfusion and blood banking optimization.

  6. [Exploration of rapidly determining quality of traditional Chinese medicines by (NIR) spectroscopy based on internet sharing mode].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Li-Jun; Luan, Shao-Rong; Zhang, Li-Guo

    2016-10-01

    Because of the numerous varieties of herbal species and active ingredients in the traditional Chinese medicine(TCM),the traditional methods employed could hardly satisfy the current determination requirements of TCM.The present work proposed an idea to realize rapid determination of the quality of TCM based on near infrared(NIR)spectroscopy and internet sharing mode. Low cost and portable multi-source composite spectrometer was invented by our group for in-site fast measurement of spectra of TCM samples. The database could be set up by sharing spectra and quality detection data of TCM samples among TCM enterprises based on the internet platform.A novel method called as keeping same relationship between X and Y space based on K nearest neighbors(KNN-KSR for short)was applied to predict the contents of effective compounds of the samples. In addition,a comparative study between KNN-KSR and partial least squares(PLS)was conducted. Two datasets were applied to validate above idea:one was about 58 Ginkgo Folium samples samples measured with four near-infrared spectroscopy instruments and two multi-source composite spectrometers,another one was about 80 corn samples available online measured with three NIR instruments. The results show that the KNN-KSR method could obtain more reliable outcomes without correcting spectrum.However transforming the PLS models to other instruments could hardly acquire better predictive results until spectral calibration is performed. Meanwhile,the similar analysis results of total flavonoids and total lactones of Ginkgo Folium samples are achieved on the multi-source composite spectrometers and near-infrared spectroscopy instruments,and the prediction results of KNN-KSR are better than PLS. The idea proposed in present study is in urgent need of more samples spectra, and then to be verified by more case studies. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  7. UHPLC-TOFMS coupled with chemometric method as a powerful technique for rapid exploring of differentiating components between two Ziziphus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-ao; Tang, Yuping; Qian, Dawei; Zhu, Zhenhua; Qian, Yefei; Shang, Erxin; Su, Shulan

    2011-03-01

    To rapidly explore the differentiating components and the potential chemical markers for discrimination between those Chinese medicinal herbs with similar chemical characteristics, an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-TOFMS coupled with multivariate statistical analysis method was proposed and validated by using two Ziziphus species (Z. jujuba and Z. jujuba var. spinosa) as the model herbs. After the samples were analyzed using UHPLC-TOFMS, the data sets of retention time (RT)-m/z pairs, ion intensities and sample codes were further processed with orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to holistically compare the difference between the fruits of these two Ziziphus species, and to generate an S-plot. Those compounds correlating to the points at the two ends of "S" were regarded as the most differentiating components between these two kinds of samples. By comparing the mass/UV spectra and retention times with those of reference compounds, these components were finally characterized as zizyberenalic acid, palmitoleic acid, oleic acid, pomonic acid and rutin, and these compounds would be the potential chemical markers for discrimination of these jujube products. The results suggested that this newly established approach could be used to rapidly determine the subtle differences and explore the potential chemical markers for differentiation within the herbs with similar chemical ingredients. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Rapid response to intensive treatment for bulimia nervosa and purging disorder: A randomized controlled trial of a CBT intervention to facilitate early behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Danielle E; McFarlane, Traci L; Dionne, Michelle M; David, Lauren; Olmsted, Marion P

    2017-09-01

    Rapid response to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for eating disorders (i.e., rapid and substantial change to key eating disorder behaviors in the initial weeks of treatment) robustly predicts good outcome at end-of-treatment and in follow up. The objective of this study was to determine whether rapid response to day hospital (DH) eating disorder treatment could be facilitated using a brief adjunctive CBT intervention focused on early change. 44 women (average age 27.3 [8.4]; 75% White, 6.3% Black, 6.9% Asian) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 4-session adjunctive interventions: CBT focused on early change, or motivational interviewing (MI). DH was administered as usual. Outcomes included binge/purge frequency, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Intent-to-treat analyses were used. The CBT group had a higher rate of rapid response (95.7%) compared to MI (71.4%; p = .04, V = .33). Those who received CBT also had fewer binge/purge episodes (p = .02) in the first 4 weeks of DH. By end-of-DH, CBT participants made greater improvements on overvaluation of weight and shape (p = .008), and emotion regulation (ps .05). The results of this study demonstrate that rapid response can be clinically facilitated using a CBT intervention that explicitly encourages early change. This provides the foundation for future research investigating whether enhancing rates of rapid response using such an intervention results in improved longer term outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Rapid automated materials synthesis instrument: exploring the composition and heat-treatment of nanoprecursors toward low temperature red phosphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tian; Kellici, Suela; Gong, Kenan; Thompson, Kathryn; Evans, Julian R G; Wang, Xue; Darr, Jawwad A

    2010-05-10

    We report on the commissioning experimental run of the rapid automated materials synthesis instrument (RAMSI), a combinatorial robot designed to manufacture, clean, and print libraries of nanocrystal precursor solid compositions. The first stage of RAMSI, parallel synthesis, uses a fully automated high throughput continuous hydrothermal (HiTCH) flow reactor for automatic metal salt precursor mixing, hydrothermal flow reaction, and sample slurry collection. The second stage of RAMSI provides integrated automated cleanup, and the third section is a ceramic printing function. Nanocrystal precursor solid ceramics were synthesized from precursor solutions and collected into 50 mL centrifuge tubes where they were cleaned by multiple centrifugation and redispersion cycles (monitored by intelligent scanning turbidimetry) and printed with an automated pipette. Eight unique compositions of a model phosphor library comprising pure nano-Y(OH)(3) and Eu(3+) doped-yttrium hydroxide, Y(OH)(3):Eu(3+) nanocrystal precursor solid were synthesized (with 2 centrifuge tubes' worth collected per composition), processed, and printed in duplicate as 75, 100, and 125 microL dots in a 21.6 ks (6 h) experiment (note: the actual time for synthesis of each sample tube was only 12 min so up to 60 compositions could easily be synthesized in 12 h if one centrifuge tube per composition was collected instead). The Y(OH)(3):Eu(3+) samples were manually placed in a furnace and heat-treated in air for 14.4 ks (4 h) in the temperature range 200-1200 at 100 degrees C intervals (giving a total of 84 samples plus one as-prepared pure Y(OH)(3) sample). The as-prepared and heat-treated ceramic samples were affixed to 4 mm wide hemispherical wells in a custom-made aluminum well-plate and analyzed using a fluorescence spectrometer. When the library was illuminated with a 254 nm light source (and digitally imaged and analyzed), the 3 mol % Eu(3+) sample heat-treated at 1200 degrees C gave the most intense

  10. Rapidly resorbable vs. non-resorbable suture for experimental colonic anastomoses in rats--a randomized experimental study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Mads; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Gögenur, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Anastomotic dehiscence remains an important challenge for colorectal surgeons worldwide. Extensive research focused on performing a safe anastomosis is conducted with rats being the most used model when examining colorectal anastomoses. In daily clinical practice resorbable sutures are used when...... hand-sewn anastomoses are performed. However, in the experimental studies examining colorectal anastomoses, non-resorbable sutures have predominantly been used. The aim of this study was to compare a rapidly resorbable suture with a non-resorbable suture in experimental colorectal anastomoses....

  11. Rapid Protective Effects of Early BCG on Neonatal Mortality Among Low Birth Weight Boys: Observations From Randomized Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Monterio, Ivan; Ravn, Henrik; Aaby, Peter; Benn, Christine Stabell

    2018-02-14

    Three randomized trials (RCTs) in low-weight (BCG) vaccine nonspecifically reduces all-cause mortality in the neonatal period. Using data from 3 RCTs of early BCG (n = 6583) we examined potential sex differences in the timing of the mortality reduction in the neonatal period, presenting metaestimates of the main outcome mortality rate ratios (MRR) for BCG-vaccinated and controls. Among controls, boys had a particularly high mortality during the first week after randomization: male-female MRR 2.71 (95% CI, 1.70-4.50). During the first week, BCG had a marked beneficial effect for boys, reducing mortality 3-fold (MRR [BCG/no BCG] = 0.36 [0.20-0.67]). In weeks 2-4 the effect waned for boys (MRR = 0.91 [0.51-1.69]). In girls, the pattern was opposite with a limited effect in the first week (MRR = 0.85 [0.46-1.54]), but a significant reduction in weeks 2-4 (MRR = 0.56 [0.31-1.00]). This was consistent in all 3 trials. Verbal autopsies linked early benefit to fewer sepsis-related deaths among BCG-vaccinated boys. The marked reduction in mortality in the days after BCG vaccination in boys emphasizes the importance of providing BCG soon after birth. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00146302) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00625482).

  12. Rapid Propellant Loading Approach Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The Data Module process can also be run with its own text user interface. Ethernet data provider edp [ -q|b|v ] [ -c channel...run option tells the text ui to start the edp program automatically. Note: This functionality is not available in the latest version

  13. Random amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis for rapid identification of thermophilic Actinomycete-like bacteria involved in hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, I; Cormier, Y; Beaulieu, C; Akimov, V N; Mériaux, A; Duchaine, C

    2001-07-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a pulmonary disease characterised by inflammation that can be caused by, amongst other substances, a subset of 4 thermophilic mycelial bacteria: Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula, Saccharomonospora viridis, Thermoactinomyces sacchari, and Thermoactinomyces vulgaris. Air sampling analyses in highly contaminated environments are often performed to evaluate exposure to these species which are difficult and fastidious to identify by conventional techniques. The aim of this study was to use amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) to develop a method of identification for those thermophilic organisms that would be more rapid and simple. Strains of these 4 species were obtained from the American type culture collection (ATCC) and were characterized using biochemical tests and ARDRA patterns obtained on their partial-lenght amplified 16S rDNAs. To validate this approach, ARDRA with two restriction enzymes, TaqI and HhaI, was applied to 49 thermophilic actinomycete-like strains from environmental samples (sawmills). The results obtained show that combining some cultural characteristics and biochemical tests, such as xanthine or hypoxanthine decomposition, growth in the presence of NaCl, lysozyme or novobiocin, and spore resistance over 100 degrees C provide a rough identification and selection of the genera of interest. Consequently, target species could be confirmed by digestion of partial-lenght 16S rDNA with the use of Taql and HhaI restriction enzymes that gave specific restriction patterns. ARDRA analyses on the 49 environmental actinomycete-like organisms revealed the presence of 8 Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula, 2 Saccharomonospora viridis, and 15 Thermoactinomyces vulgaris strains, the other strains had restriction patterns different than those of the species of interest. Results of the present study will be applicable to other potential HP environments such as dairy barns, peat bogs and compost plants.

  14. Manipulation Therapy Relieved Pain More Rapidly Than Acupuncture among Lateral Epicondylalgia (Tennis Elbow Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial with 8-Week Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yuan Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radial bone adjustment manipulation treatment may be effective to reduce pain rapidly in lateral epicondylalgia patients and the pathological tension in the biceps brachii muscle is highly concerned. To prove this hypothesis, we conducted a randomized controlled trial and included 35 patients with lateral epicondylalgia for more than 2 months. Either manipulation treatment (n=16 or acupuncture (n=19 was given to these patients for 2 weeks and all patients’ symptoms were followed up for 8 weeks after treatment. Both groups demonstrated changes in pain VAS score, grip strength, and DASH questionnaire. Lateral epicondylalgia patients who received manipulation treatment felt pain relief sooner than those who had acupuncture treatments during the first few treatments. However, both acupuncture and manipulation are effective, while the difference has no significance at the 8-week follow-up. The trial was registered with Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN81308551 on 5 February 2016.

  15. Effect of maxillary protraction with alternating rapid palatal expansion and constriction vs expansion alone in maxillary retrusive patients: a single-center, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weitao; Zhou, Yanheng; Wang, Xuedong; Liu, Dawei; Zhou, Shaonan

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the effects of facemask protraction combined with alternating rapid palatal expansion and constriction (RPE/C) vs rapid palatal expansion (RPE) alone in the early treatment of maxillary retrusive patients. Patients with a midface deficiency were recruited and randomly allocated into either the control group (RPE) or the intervention group (RPE/C). Eligibility criteria included the following: age 7 to 13 years old, Class III malocclusion, anterior crossbite, ANB less than 0°, Wits appraisal less than -2 mm, A-Np less than 0 mm, and no cleft of lip or palate. The primary outcome was the degree of maxillary forward movement after treatment. The secondary outcomes were the changes of the other cephalometric variables after treatment and the treatment time. Simple randomization was carried out using a random number table at the beginning of the study. Envelopes containing the grouping information were used to ensure allocation concealment from the researchers. Blinding was applicable for cephalometric analysis only. Hyrax palatal expanders and facemask maxillary protraction were used in all patients. Patients in the RPE group were treated with rapid palatal expansion for 1 week. Patients in the RPE/C group were treated with RPE/C for 7 weeks. The expansion or constriction rate was 1 mm per day. Cephalometric analysis with traditional cephalometric measurements and an x-y coordinate system were used to compare the pretreatment and posttreatment cephalometric radiographs. Independent t tests were used to compare the data between the 2 groups. A total of 44 patients were randomized to either the RPE group or the RPE/C group in a 1:1 ratio. One subject in the RPE group was lost to follow-up during the treatment. Per-protocol analysis was used. All the other 43 patients reached the treatment completion criteria and were analyzed (RPE group: n = 21; RPE/C group: n = 22). The average protraction time was 10

  16. A simple and rapid infrared-assisted self enzymolysis extraction method for total flavonoid aglycones extraction from Scutellariae Radix and mechanism exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liping; Duan, Haotian; Jiang, Jiebing; Long, Jiakun; Yu, Yingjia; Chen, Guiliang; Duan, Gengli

    2017-09-01

    A new, simple, and fast infrared-assisted self enzymolysis extraction (IRASEE) approach for the extraction of total flavonoid aglycones (TFA) mainly including baicalein, wogonin, and oroxylin A from Scutellariae Radix is presented to enhance extraction yield. Extraction enzymolysis temperature, enzymolysis liquid-to-solid ratio, enzymolysis pH, enzymolysis time and infrared power, the factors affecting IRASEE procedure, were investigated in a newly designed, temperature-controlled infrared-assisted extraction (TC-IRAE) system to acquire the optimum analysis conditions. The results illustrated that IRASEE possessed great advantages in terms of efficiency and time compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Furthermore, the mechanism of IRASEE was preliminarily explored by observing the microscopic change of the samples surface structures, studying the main chemical compositions change of the samples before and after extraction and investigating the kinetics and thermodynamics at three temperature levels during the IRASEE process. These findings revealed that IRASEE can destroy the surface microstructures to accelerate the mass transfer and reduce the activation energy to intensify the chemical process. This integrative study presents a simple, rapid, efficient, and environmental IRASEE method for TFA extraction which has promising prospects for other similar herbal medicines. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  17. Rapid enteric testing to permit targeted antimicrobial therapy, with and without Lactobacillus reuteri probiotics, for paediatric acute diarrhoeal disease in Botswana: A pilot, randomized, factorial, controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Pernica

    Full Text Available Diarrhoeal disease is the second-leading cause of death in young children. Current guidelines recommend treating children with acute non-bloody diarrhea with oral rehydration solutions and zinc, but not antimicrobials. However, in many resource-limited settings, infections with treatable enteric bacterial and protozoan pathogens are common. Probiotics have shown promise as an adjunct treatment for diarrhoea but have not been studied in sub-Saharan Africa.We conducted a pilot, factorial, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of children aged 2-60 months hospitalized in Botswana for acute non-bloody diarrhoea. A rapid test-and-treat intervention, consisting of multiplex PCR testing of rectal swabs taken at enrolment, accompanied by targeted antimicrobial therapy if treatable pathogens were detected, was compared to the reference standard of no stool testing. Additionally, Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 x 60 days was compared to placebo treatment. The main objective of this pilot study was to assess feasibility. The primary clinical outcome was the increase in age-standardized height (HAZ at 60 days adjusted for baseline HAZ.Seventy-six patients were enrolled over a seven-month study period. We judged that the recruitment rate, lab processing times, communication protocols, provision of specific antimicrobials, and follow-up rates were acceptable. Compared to the reference arm (no stool testing and placebo treatment, the combination of the rapid test-and-treat strategy plus L. reuteri DSM 17938 was associated with an increase of 0.61 HAZ (95% CI 0.09-1.13 and 93% lower odds of recurrent diarrhoea (OR 0.07, 95%CI 0.01-0.61 at 60 days.We demonstrated that it was feasible to evaluate the study interventions in Botswana. Despite the small sample size, we observed a statistically significant increase in HAZ at 60 days and significantly lower odds of recurrent diarrhoea in children receiving both rapid test-and-treat and L. reuteri. There is sufficient

  18. Rapid enteric testing to permit targeted antimicrobial therapy, with and without Lactobacillus reuteri probiotics, for paediatric acute diarrhoeal disease in Botswana: A pilot, randomized, factorial, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernica, Jeffrey M; Steenhoff, Andrew P; Mokomane, Margaret; Moorad, Banno; Lechiile, Kwana; Smieja, Marek; Mazhani, Loeto; Cheng, Ji; Kelly, Matthew S; Loeb, Mark; Stordal, Ketil; Goldfarb, David M

    2017-01-01

    Diarrhoeal disease is the second-leading cause of death in young children. Current guidelines recommend treating children with acute non-bloody diarrhea with oral rehydration solutions and zinc, but not antimicrobials. However, in many resource-limited settings, infections with treatable enteric bacterial and protozoan pathogens are common. Probiotics have shown promise as an adjunct treatment for diarrhoea but have not been studied in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a pilot, factorial, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of children aged 2-60 months hospitalized in Botswana for acute non-bloody diarrhoea. A rapid test-and-treat intervention, consisting of multiplex PCR testing of rectal swabs taken at enrolment, accompanied by targeted antimicrobial therapy if treatable pathogens were detected, was compared to the reference standard of no stool testing. Additionally, Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 x 60 days was compared to placebo treatment. The main objective of this pilot study was to assess feasibility. The primary clinical outcome was the increase in age-standardized height (HAZ) at 60 days adjusted for baseline HAZ. Seventy-six patients were enrolled over a seven-month study period. We judged that the recruitment rate, lab processing times, communication protocols, provision of specific antimicrobials, and follow-up rates were acceptable. Compared to the reference arm (no stool testing and placebo treatment), the combination of the rapid test-and-treat strategy plus L. reuteri DSM 17938 was associated with an increase of 0.61 HAZ (95% CI 0.09-1.13) and 93% lower odds of recurrent diarrhoea (OR 0.07, 95%CI 0.01-0.61) at 60 days. We demonstrated that it was feasible to evaluate the study interventions in Botswana. Despite the small sample size, we observed a statistically significant increase in HAZ at 60 days and significantly lower odds of recurrent diarrhoea in children receiving both rapid test-and-treat and L. reuteri. There is sufficient evidence to

  19. Rapid resolution of sleep disturbances related to frequent reflux: effect of esomeprazole 20 mg in two randomized, double-blind, controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David A; Le Moigne, Anne; Hugo, Vincent; Nagy, Peter

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the resolution of heartburn and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-related sleep disturbances during the first 14 days of treatment with esomeprazole 20 mg compared to placebo in subjects with frequent nighttime heartburn and GERD-related sleep disturbances. This was a post hoc analysis of 2 week data from two previously published, similarly designed randomized, placebo-controlled trials of 4 weeks' duration comparing esomeprazole 20 mg, 40 mg (one study), and placebo. Inclusion and exclusion criteria for both trials were the same. NCT00628342; NCT00660660. The main outcome measures for this analysis were the resolution and/or relief of GERD-related sleep disturbances during 2 weeks of treatment with esomeprazole 20 mg or placebo. Resolution and/or relief of heartburn symptoms were also measured. In trial 1, 455 subjects were randomized, with 225 and 229 receiving esomeprazole 20 mg and placebo, respectively. In trial 2, 276 subjects were randomized, with 142 and 132 receiving esomeprazole and placebo, respectively. After 2 weeks, significantly more subjects who received esomeprazole 20 mg (50.5% [95% confidence interval: 43.8%-57.1%] and 39.4% [31.2%-47.6%] in trials 1 and 2, respectively) had resolution of sleep disturbances compared to placebo (19.9% [14.6%-25.2%] and 16.0% [9.6%-22.4%], respectively; p esomeprazole 20 mg was 1 day in both trials. After 2 weeks, significantly more subjects receiving esomeprazole 20 mg (32.3% [26.1%-38.5%] and 26.3% [18.9%-33.6%] in trials 1 and 2, respectively) had resolution of nighttime heartburn symptoms compared to placebo (5.4% [2.4%-8.4%] and 4.8% [1.1%-8.5%], respectively; p Esomeprazole 20 mg significantly and effectively reduced nighttime heartburn and GERD-related sleep disturbances in the first 2 weeks of treatment compared to placebo, with rapid resolution of sleep disturbances in the first days of treatment.

  20. Dental arch response to Haas-type rapid maxillary expansion anchored to deciduous vs permanent molars: A multicentric randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugolini, Alessandro; Cerruto, Carmen; Di Vece, Luca; Ghislanzoni, Luis Huanca; Sforza, Chiarella; Doldo, Tiziana; Silvestrini-Biavati, Armando; Caprioglio, Alberto

    2015-07-01

    To assess maxilla and mandibular arch widths' response to Haas-type rapid maxillary expansion (RME) anchored to deciduous vs permanent molars on children with unilateral posterior crossbite. Seventy patients with unilateral posterior crossbite recruited at the Universities of Genova, Siena, and Insubria (Varese) were randomly located into GrE (RME on second deciduous molars) or Gr6 (RME on first permanent molars) and compared. Upper intermolar distance and permanent molar angulation increased significantly in Gr6 vs GrE at T1. Upper intercanine distance increased significantly in GrE vs Gr6 at T1 and T2. GrE showed significant increases for upper intermolar and upper intercanine widths. Gr6 showed statistically significant increases for upper intermolar widths, for upper and lower intercanine widths, and for increases of angulation of upper and lower permanent molars. GrE showed reduced molar angulation increases at T1 and reduced molar angulation decreases at T2 when compared with Gr6. At T2, the net increase of the upper intercanine distance in GrE was still significant compared with Gr6, indicating a more stable expansion in the anterior area.

  1. Rapid and sustained symptom reduction following psilocybin treatment for anxiety and depression in patients with life-threatening cancer: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Stephen; Bossis, Anthony; Guss, Jeffrey; Agin-Liebes, Gabrielle; Malone, Tara; Cohen, Barry; Mennenga, Sarah E; Belser, Alexander; Kalliontzi, Krystallia; Babb, James; Su, Zhe; Corby, Patricia; Schmidt, Brian L

    2016-12-01

    Clinically significant anxiety and depression are common in patients with cancer, and are associated with poor psychiatric and medical outcomes. Historical and recent research suggests a role for psilocybin to treat cancer-related anxiety and depression. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial, 29 patients with cancer-related anxiety and depression were randomly assigned and received treatment with single-dose psilocybin (0.3 mg/kg) or niacin, both in conjunction with psychotherapy. The primary outcomes were anxiety and depression assessed between groups prior to the crossover at 7 weeks. Prior to the crossover, psilocybin produced immediate, substantial, and sustained improvements in anxiety and depression and led to decreases in cancer-related demoralization and hopelessness, improved spiritual wellbeing, and increased quality of life. At the 6.5-month follow-up, psilocybin was associated with enduring anxiolytic and anti-depressant effects (approximately 60-80% of participants continued with clinically significant reductions in depression or anxiety), sustained benefits in existential distress and quality of life, as well as improved attitudes towards death. The psilocybin-induced mystical experience mediated the therapeutic effect of psilocybin on anxiety and depression. In conjunction with psychotherapy, single moderate-dose psilocybin produced rapid, robust and enduring anxiolytic and anti-depressant effects in patients with cancer-related psychological distress. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00957359. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Short-term skeletal and dental changes following bone-borne versus tooth-borne surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion: a randomized clinical trial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandi, Mohammad; Miresmaeili, Amirfarhang; Heidari, Ali

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate and compare the short-term (post-retention) skeletal and dental changes following bone-borne and tooth-borne surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME) using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). In this randomized clinical study, 30 patients with transverse maxillary deficiency underwent either tooth-borne (n = 15) or bone-borne (n = 15) SARME. Before treatment and immediately after the consolidation period, CBCT was obtained and the nasal floor width, interdental root distance, palatal bone width and interdental cusp distance were measured at first premolar and first molar regions of maxilla. Twenty eight patients completed the study protocol. In both tooth-borne (n = 13) and bone-borne (n = 15) groups the highest degree of expansion occurred in the dental arch, followed by palatal bone, and nasal floor (V-shaped widening in coronal dimension). The amount and pattern of expansion was comparable between anterior and posterior maxillary regions in each group (parallel posteroanterior expansion) and between the two groups. Dental and skeletal effects of tooth-borne and bone-borne devices were comparable. The overall complication rate was negligible. Selection of an expansion device should be based on each individual patient's requirements. Future long-term clinical trial studies to evaluate the stability and relapse of these two techniques are recommended. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. "Tristan Chords and Random Scores": Exploring Undergraduate Students' Experiences of Music in Higher Education through the Lens of Bourdieu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Gwen

    2012-01-01

    Within a theoretical framework drawn from Bourdieu, this article explores the relationship between undergraduate students' experiences of music in higher education and their musical backgrounds and prior music education experiences. More critically, this study aims to discover whether ideologies surrounding musical value impact on the student…

  4. {sup 90}Y -PET imaging: Exploring limitations and accuracy under conditions of low counts and high random fraction

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    Carlier, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.carlier@chu-nantes.fr [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Nantes, Place Alexis Ricordeau, Nantes 44093, France and CRCNA–UMR 892 INSERM 6299 CNRS, 8 quai Moncousu BP 70721, Nantes 44007 (France); Willowson, Kathy P. [Institute of Medical Physics, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Fourkal, Eugene [Department of Radiation Oncology, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212 (United States); Bailey, Dale L. [Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Lidcombe 2141, Australia and Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, New South Wales 2065 (Australia); Doss, Mohan [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111 (United States); Conti, Maurizio [Siemens Healthcare Molecular Imaging, 810 Innovation Drive, Knoxville, Tennessee 37932 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: {sup 90}Y -positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is becoming a recognized modality for postinfusion quantitative assessment following radioembolization therapy. However, the extremely low counts and high random fraction associated with {sup 90}Y -PET may significantly impair both qualitative and quantitative results. The aim of this work was to study image quality and noise level in relation to the quantification and bias performance of two types of Siemens PET scanners when imaging {sup 90}Y and to compare experimental results with clinical data from two types of commercially available {sup 90}Y microspheres. Methods: Data were acquired on both Siemens Biograph TruePoint [non-time-of-flight (TOF)] and Biograph microcomputed tomography (mCT) (TOF) PET/CT scanners. The study was conducted in three phases. The first aimed to assess quantification and bias for different reconstruction methods according to random fraction and number of true counts in the scan. The NEMA 1994 PET phantom was filled with water with one cylindrical insert left empty (air) and the other filled with a solution of {sup 90}Y . The phantom was scanned for 60 min in the PET/CT scanner every one or two days. The second phase used the NEMA 2001 PET phantom to derive noise and image quality metrics. The spheres and the background were filled with a {sup 90}Y solution in an 8:1 contrast ratio and four 30 min acquisitions were performed over a one week period. Finally, 32 patient data (8 treated with Therasphere{sup ®} and 24 with SIR-Spheres{sup ®}) were retrospectively reconstructed and activity in the whole field of view and the liver was compared to theoretical injected activity. Results: The contribution of both bremsstrahlung and LSO trues was found to be negligible, allowing data to be decay corrected to obtain correct quantification. In general, the recovered activity for all reconstruction methods was stable over the range studied, with a small bias appearing at extremely

  5. A randomized controlled trial exploring the effect of music on quality of life and depression in older people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Marie; Moyle, Wendy; Shum, David; Harrison, Scott; Murfield, Jenny

    2010-07-01

    This randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of live music on quality of life and depression in 47 older people with dementia using the Dementia Quality of Life and Geriatric Depression Scale. The control/reading group reported higher mid-point feelings of belonging than the music group (F(1, 45) = 6.672, p or= 50 per cent music session attendance found improvements in self-esteem over time (F(2, 46) = 4.471, p depressive symptoms had fewer depressive symptoms over time (F(2, 22) = 8.129, p music and reading activities can improve self-esteem, belonging and depression in some older people with dementia.

  6. Rapid healing of cutaneous leishmaniasis by high-frequency electrocauterization and hydrogel wound care with or without DAC N-055: a randomized controlled phase IIa trial in Kabul.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fawad Jebran

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL due to Leishmania (L. tropica infection is a chronic, frequently disfiguring skin disease with limited therapeutic options. In endemic countries healing of ulcerative lesions is often delayed by bacterial and/or fungal infections. Here, we studied a novel therapeutic concept to prevent superinfections, accelerate wound closure, and improve the cosmetic outcome of ACL.From 2004 to 2008 we performed a two-armed, randomized, double-blinded, phase IIa trial in Kabul, Afghanistan, with patients suffering from L. tropica CL. The skin lesions were treated with bipolar high-frequency electrocauterization (EC followed by daily moist-wound-treatment (MWT with polyacrylate hydrogel with (group I or without (group II pharmaceutical sodium chlorite (DAC N-055. Patients below age 5, with facial lesions, pregnancy, or serious comorbidities were excluded. The primary, photodocumented outcome was the time needed for complete lesion epithelialization. Biopsies for parasitological and (immunohistopathological analyses were taken prior to EC (1(st, after wound closure (2(nd and after 6 months (3(rd. The mean duration for complete wound closure was short and indifferent in group I (59 patients, 43.1 d and II (54 patients, 42 d; p = 0.83. In patients with Leishmania-positive 2(nd biopsies DAC N-055 caused a more rapid wound epithelialization (37.2 d vs. 58.3 d; p = 0.08. Superinfections occurred in both groups at the same rate (8.8%. Except for one patient, reulcerations (10.2% in group I, 18.5% in group II; p = 0.158 were confined to cases with persistent high parasite loads after healing. In vitro, DAC N-055 showed a leishmanicidal effect on pro- and amastigotes.Compared to previous results with intralesional antimony injections, the EC plus MWT protocol led to more rapid wound closure. The tentatively lower rate of relapses and the acceleration of wound closure in a subgroup of patients with parasite persistence warrant

  7. Rapid Healing of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis by High-Frequency Electrocauterization and Hydrogel Wound Care with or without DAC N-055: A Randomized Controlled Phase IIa Trial in Kabul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Reto; Wentker, Pia; Mahfuz, Farouq; Stahl, Hans-Christian; Amin, Faquir Mohammad; Bogdan, Christian; Stahl, Kurt-Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Background Anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) due to Leishmania (L.) tropica infection is a chronic, frequently disfiguring skin disease with limited therapeutic options. In endemic countries healing of ulcerative lesions is often delayed by bacterial and/or fungal infections. Here, we studied a novel therapeutic concept to prevent superinfections, accelerate wound closure, and improve the cosmetic outcome of ACL. Methodology/Principal Findings From 2004 to 2008 we performed a two-armed, randomized, double-blinded, phase IIa trial in Kabul, Afghanistan, with patients suffering from L. tropica CL. The skin lesions were treated with bipolar high-frequency electrocauterization (EC) followed by daily moist-wound-treatment (MWT) with polyacrylate hydrogel with (group I) or without (group II) pharmaceutical sodium chlorite (DAC N-055). Patients below age 5, with facial lesions, pregnancy, or serious comorbidities were excluded. The primary, photodocumented outcome was the time needed for complete lesion epithelialization. Biopsies for parasitological and (immuno)histopathological analyses were taken prior to EC (1st), after wound closure (2nd) and after 6 months (3rd). The mean duration for complete wound closure was short and indifferent in group I (59 patients, 43.1 d) and II (54 patients, 42 d; p = 0.83). In patients with Leishmania-positive 2nd biopsies DAC N-055 caused a more rapid wound epithelialization (37.2 d vs. 58.3 d; p = 0.08). Superinfections occurred in both groups at the same rate (8.8%). Except for one patient, reulcerations (10.2% in group I, 18.5% in group II; p = 0.158) were confined to cases with persistent high parasite loads after healing. In vitro, DAC N-055 showed a leishmanicidal effect on pro- and amastigotes. Conclusions/Significance Compared to previous results with intralesional antimony injections, the EC plus MWT protocol led to more rapid wound closure. The tentatively lower rate of relapses and the acceleration of

  8. Rapid healing of cutaneous leishmaniasis by high-frequency electrocauterization and hydrogel wound care with or without DAC N-055: a randomized controlled phase IIa trial in Kabul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebran, Ahmad Fawad; Schleicher, Ulrike; Steiner, Reto; Wentker, Pia; Mahfuz, Farouq; Stahl, Hans-Christian; Amin, Faquir Mohammad; Bogdan, Christian; Stahl, Kurt-Wilhelm

    2014-02-01

    Anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) due to Leishmania (L.) tropica infection is a chronic, frequently disfiguring skin disease with limited therapeutic options. In endemic countries healing of ulcerative lesions is often delayed by bacterial and/or fungal infections. Here, we studied a novel therapeutic concept to prevent superinfections, accelerate wound closure, and improve the cosmetic outcome of ACL. From 2004 to 2008 we performed a two-armed, randomized, double-blinded, phase IIa trial in Kabul, Afghanistan, with patients suffering from L. tropica CL. The skin lesions were treated with bipolar high-frequency electrocauterization (EC) followed by daily moist-wound-treatment (MWT) with polyacrylate hydrogel with (group I) or without (group II) pharmaceutical sodium chlorite (DAC N-055). Patients below age 5, with facial lesions, pregnancy, or serious comorbidities were excluded. The primary, photodocumented outcome was the time needed for complete lesion epithelialization. Biopsies for parasitological and (immuno)histopathological analyses were taken prior to EC (1(st)), after wound closure (2(nd)) and after 6 months (3(rd)). The mean duration for complete wound closure was short and indifferent in group I (59 patients, 43.1 d) and II (54 patients, 42 d; p = 0.83). In patients with Leishmania-positive 2(nd) biopsies DAC N-055 caused a more rapid wound epithelialization (37.2 d vs. 58.3 d; p = 0.08). Superinfections occurred in both groups at the same rate (8.8%). Except for one patient, reulcerations (10.2% in group I, 18.5% in group II; p = 0.158) were confined to cases with persistent high parasite loads after healing. In vitro, DAC N-055 showed a leishmanicidal effect on pro- and amastigotes. Compared to previous results with intralesional antimony injections, the EC plus MWT protocol led to more rapid wound closure. The tentatively lower rate of relapses and the acceleration of wound closure in a subgroup of patients with parasite persistence warrant

  9. Reduction of anti-malarial consumption after rapid diagnostic tests implementation in Dar es Salaam: a before-after and cluster randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swai Ndeniria

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presumptive treatment of all febrile patients with anti-malarials leads to massive over-treatment. The aim was to assess the effect of implementing malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs on prescription of anti-malarials in urban Tanzania. Methods The design was a prospective collection of routine statistics from ledger books and cross-sectional surveys before and after intervention in randomly selected health facilities (HF in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The participants were all clinicians and their patients in the above health facilities. The intervention consisted of training and introduction of mRDTs in all three hospitals and in six HF. Three HF without mRDTs were selected as matched controls. The use of routine mRDT and treatment upon result was advised for all patients complaining of fever, including children under five years of age. The main outcome measures were: (1 anti-malarial consumption recorded from routine statistics in ledger books of all HF before and after intervention; (2 anti-malarial prescription recorded during observed consultations in cross-sectional surveys conducted in all HF before and 18 months after mRDT implementation. Results Based on routine statistics, the amount of artemether-lumefantrine blisters used post-intervention was reduced by 68% (95%CI 57-80 in intervention and 32% (9-54 in control HF. For quinine vials, the reduction was 63% (54-72 in intervention and an increase of 2.49 times (1.62-3.35 in control HF. Before-and-after cross-sectional surveys showed a similar decrease from 75% to 20% in the proportion of patients receiving anti-malarial treatment (Risk ratio 0.23, 95%CI 0.20-0.26. The cluster randomized analysis showed a considerable difference of anti-malarial prescription between intervention HF (22% and control HF (60% (Risk ratio 0.30, 95%CI 0.14-0.70. Adherence to test result was excellent since only 7% of negative patients received an anti-malarial. However, antibiotic

  10. Efficacy of ketamine in the rapid treatment of major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Y

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Yu Han,1–3 Jianjun Chen,2–4 Dezhi Zou,1–3 Peng Zheng,1–3 Qi Li,1–3 Haiyang Wang,1–3 Pengfei Li,1–3 Xinyu Zhou,1–3 Yuqing Zhang,1–3 Yiyun Liu,1–3 Peng Xie1–3 1Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 2Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, 3Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, 4Institute of Life Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Background: An increasing number of studies are reporting that ketamine could be treated as a novel antidepressant for major depressive disorder (MDD. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to comprehensively and systematically assess the efficacy of ketamine for treating patients with MDD. Method: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies on ketamine versus placebo for treating MDD were searched up to April 2016 in medical databases (PubMed, CCTR, Web of Science, Embase, CBM-disc, and CNKI. Three treatment time points (24 and 72 h, and day 7 were chosen. Response and remission rates were the main outcomes. The random effects model was used. An intention-to-treat analysis was conducted. Results: Nine high-quality studies that included 368 patients were selected to compare the efficacy of ketamine to placebo. The therapeutic effects of ketamine at 24 and 72 h, and day 7 were found to be significantly better than placebo. Response and remission rates in the ketamine group at 24 and 72 h, and day 7 were 52.2% and 20.6%; 47.9% and 23.8%; and 39.8% and 26.2%, respectively. No significant heterogeneity existed, and the Egger’s test showed no publication bias. Conclusion: These results indicated that ketamine could yield a good efficacy in the rapid treatment of MDD. Future large-scale clinical studies are needed to confirm our results and investigate the mid- and long-term efficacy of ketamine in treating MDD. Keywords: major depressive disorder

  11. Effects of Pterygomaxillary Separation on Skeletal and Dental Changes After Surgically Assisted Rapid Maxillary Expansion: A Single-Center, Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro-Bezerra, Marcelo; Tavares, Rodrygo Nunes; de Medeiros, José Rômulo; Nogueira, Alexandre Simões; Avelar, Rafael Linard; Studart Soares, Eduardo Costa

    2017-08-31

    Surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME) is a procedure routinely performed to correct transverse maxillary deformities and can be performed with or without pterygomaxillary disjunction (PD). The aim of the present study was to measure the effect of the amount of expansion and stability of SARME with or without PD. We designed and implemented a double-blind, randomized clinical trial. The patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups: group 1, SARME without PD; and group 2, SARME with PD. Cone-beam computed tomography scans were performed at 3 points: baseline (T0), after maxillary expansion (T1), and at the end of the retention period (T2). Dental and bone expansion and dental inclination at the maxillary canine and first molar regions were assessed. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate the differences between the 2 groups at the 3 evaluation periods (T0, T1, and T2), using a level of significance of P patients underwent maxillary surgical expansion (group 1, n = 12; and group 2, n = 12). Both techniques promoted a significant transverse dental expansion in the first molar at T2 (with PD, 5.4 mm; vs without PD, 6.4 mm; change, -6.18 mm to 1.48 mm). However, no statistically significant differences were observed between the 2 groups. The tipping molars at T2 remained at a higher level in the SARME, no PD group than in the SARME, PD group (with PD, 2.3°; vs no PD, 4.6° for 3 teeth; change, -12.72° to 5.57°; and with PD, 1.6° vs without PD, 3.6° for 14 teeth; change, -9.96° to 9.83°). SARME with and without PD is a reliable method for obtaining maxillary expansion, with slight differences in the patterns of skeletal and dental alterations. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Brimonidine gel 0.33% rapidly improves patient-reported outcomes by controlling facial erythema of rosacea: a randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, A M; Schaller, M; Homey, B; Hofmann, M A; Bewley, A P; Lehmann, P; Nohlgård, C; Sarwer, D B; Kerrouche, N; Ma, Y M

    2015-12-01

    Facial redness contributes to impaired psychosocial functioning in rosacea patients and the only approved treatment for erythema is topical brimonidine gel 0.33%. To evaluate patient-reported outcomes, as well as efficacy and safety, in subjects with self-perceived severe erythema treated with brimonidine gel 0.33% compared to vehicle. An 8-day multicenter, randomized study comparing once-daily brimonidine gel 0.33% with vehicle gel using a facial redness questionnaire, subject satisfaction questionnaire and a patient diary of facial redness control to assess patient-reported outcomes. Of the 92 included subjects with self-perceived severe erythema, very few were satisfied with their appearance at baseline (4.2% brimonidine group, 0 vehicle group). On Day 8, significantly more brimonidine group subjects were satisfied with their facial appearance compared to vehicle group (36.9% vs. 21.5%; P brimonidine group subjects were able to control their facial redness daily (e.g. 83.0% vs. 38.9% on Day 1). On Day 8, significantly more brimonidine group subjects than vehicle group had at least a one-grade improvement from baseline in the Clinician Erythema Assessment score (71.7% vs. 35.7%; P = 0.0011) and Patient Self-Assessment score (76.1% vs. 47.6%; P = 0.004). More subjects in the brimonidine group (29.2%) reported treatment-related adverse events than in the vehicle group (15.9%) but most were mild and transient. Once-daily brimonidine gel 0.33% allowed patients to rapidly control their facial redness and significantly improved patient-reported outcomes in the treatment of persistent facial erythema of rosacea. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  13. Analysis of the dentoalveolar effects of slow and rapid maxillary expansion in complete bilateral cleft lip and palate patients: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros Alves, Arthur César; Garib, Daniela Gamba; Janson, Guilherme; de Almeida, Araci Malagodi; Calil, Louise Resti

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the dentoalveolar effects of slow (SME) and rapid (RME) maxillary expansions in patients with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP). A sample of 50 patients with BCLP and maxillary arch constriction was randomly and equally allocated into two groups. Group SME comprised patients (mean age of 8.8 years) treated with quad-helix appliance. Group RME comprised individuals (mean age of 8.9 years) treated with Hyrax expander. Digital dental models obtained immediately pre-expansion (T1) and 6 months after the active expansion period (T2) were used for measuring maxillary dental arch widths, arch perimeter, arch length, palatal depth, buccolingual inclination of posterior teeth and differential amount of expansion accomplished at the canine and molar regions. Inter-phase and intergroup comparisons were performed using paired t tests and t tests, respectively (p < 0.05). SME and RME caused significant increase of arch widths and arch perimeter. Arch length and palatal depth decreased nonsignificantly with SME but significantly with RME. Buccal tooth inclination was significant only for maxillary deciduous canines in both groups. The quad-helix appliance showed a significant differential expansion between anterior and posterior regions. No differences were observed between SME and RME for all variables. Differences were not found between the dentoalveolar effects of SME and RME in patients with BCLP. SME demanded a greater therapy time compared to RME. Both expansion procedures can be similarly indicated to correct maxillary arch constriction in patients with BCLP in the mixed dentition.

  14. Comparison of the effects of slowly and rapidly absorbed carbohydrates on postprandial glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Meidjie; Linn, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Isomaltulose attenuates postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations compared with sucrose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the mechanism by which isomaltulose limits postprandial hyperglycemia has not been clarified. The objective was therefore to assess the effects of bolus administration of isomaltulose on glucose metabolism compared with sucrose in T2DM. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, 11 participants with T2DM initially underwent a 3-h euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (0.8 mU · kg(-1) · min(-1)) clamp that was subsequently combined with 1 g/kg body wt of an oral (13)C-enriched isomaltulose or sucrose load. Hormonal responses and glucose kinetics were analyzed during a 4-h postprandial period. Compared with sucrose, absorption of isomaltulose was prolonged by ∼50 min (P = 0.004). Mean plasma concentrations of insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide were ∼10-23% lower (P insulin-to-glucagon ratio (P Insulin action was enhanced after isomaltulose compared with sucrose (P = 0.013). Ingestion of slowly absorbed isomaltulose attenuates postprandial hyperglycemia by reducing oral glucose appearance, inhibiting endogenous glucose production (EGP), and increasing SGU compared with ingestion of rapidly absorbed sucrose in patients with T2DM. In addition, GLP-1 secretion contributes to a beneficial shift in the insulin-to-glucagon ratio, suppression of EGP, and enhancement of SGU after isomaltulose consumption. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01070238. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Unexpectedly high leprosy seroprevalence detected using a random surveillance strategy in midwestern Brazil: A comparison of ELISA and a rapid diagnostic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frade, Marco Andrey C; de Paula, Natália A; Gomes, Ciro M; Vernal, Sebastian; Bernardes Filho, Fred; Lugão, Helena B; de Abreu, Marilda M M; Botini, Patrícia; Duthie, Malcolm S; Spencer, John S; Soares, Rosa Castália F R; Foss, Norma T

    2017-02-01

    Leprosy diagnosis is mainly based on clinical evaluation, although this approach is difficult, especially for untrained physicians. We conducted a temporary campaign to detect previously unknown leprosy cases in midwestern Brazil and to compare the performance of different serological tests. A mobile clinic was stationed at the main bus terminal in Brasília, Brazil. Volunteers were quizzed and given a clinical exam to allow categorization as either patients, known contacts of patients or non-contacts, and blood was collected to determine anti-PGL-I and anti-LID-1 antibody titers by ELISA and by the NDO-LID rapid test. New cases of leprosy and the impact of performing this broad random surveillance strategy were evaluated. Accuracy values and concordance between the test results were evaluated among all groups. Four hundred thirty-four individuals were evaluated, and 44 (10.1%) were diagnosed with leprosy. Borderline forms were the most frequent presentation. Both tests presented higher positivity in those individuals with multibacillary disease. Serological tests demonstrated specificities arround 70% for anti-PGL-1 and anti-LID ELISA; and arround 40% for NDO-LID. Sensitivities ranged from 48 to 62%. A substantial agreement between NDO-LID and ELISA with concomitant positive results was found within leprosy patients (Kappa index = 0.79 CI95% 0.36-1.22). The unexpectedly high leprosy prevalence in this population indicates ongoing community-based exposure to Mycobacterium leprae antigens and high rates of subclinical infection. All tests showed low specificity and sensitivity values and therefore cannot be considered for use as stand-alone diagnostics. Rather, considering their positivity among MB patients and non-patients, these tests can be considered effective tools for screening and identifying individuals at high risk who might benefit from regular monitoring.

  16. Exploring ART intake scenes in a human rights-based intervention to improve adherence: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Cáritas Relva; Helena, Ernani Tiaraju Santa; Caraciolo, Joselita Maria Magalhães; Paiva, Vera; Nemes, Maria Ines Battistela

    2013-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a psychosocial individual intervention to improve adherence to ART in a Brazilian reference-center, consenting PLHIV with viral load >50 copies/ml were selected. After 4 weeks of MEMS cap use, participants were randomized into an intervention group (IG) (n = 64) or control group (CG) (n = 57). CG received usual care only. The IG participated in a human rights-based intervention approach entailing four dialogical meetings focused on medication intake scenes. Comparison between IG and CG revealed no statistically significant difference in adherence measured at weeks 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24. Viral load (VL) decreased in both groups (p < 0.0001) with no significant difference between study groups. The lower number of eligible patients than expected underpowered the study. Ongoing qualitative analysis should provide deeper understanding of the trial results. NIH Clinical Trials: NCT00716040.

  17. Exploring the Effect of Lactium™ and Zizyphus Complex on Sleep Quality: A Double-Blind, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Scholey

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute, non-clinical insomnia is not uncommon. Sufferers commonly turn to short-term use of herbal supplements to alleviate the symptoms. This placebo-controlled, double-blind study investigated the efficacy of LZComplex3 (lactium™, Zizyphus, Humulus lupulus, magnesium and vitamin B6, in otherwise healthy adults with mild insomnia. After a 7-day single-blind placebo run-in, eligible volunteers (n = 171 were randomized (1:1 to receive daily treatment for 2 weeks with LZComplex3 or placebo. Results revealed that sleep quality measured by change in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI score improved in both the LZComplex3 and placebo groups. There were no significant between group differences between baseline and endpoint on the primary outcome. The majority of secondary outcomes, which included daytime functioning and physical fatigue, mood and anxiety, cognitive performance, and stress reactivity, showed similar improvements in the LZComplex3 and placebo groups. A similar proportion of participants reported adverse events (AEs in both groups, with two of four treatment-related AEs in the LZComplex3 group resulting in permanent discontinuation. It currently cannot be concluded that administration of LZComplex3 for 2 weeks improves sleep quality, however, a marked placebo response (despite placebo run-in and/or short duration of treatment may have masked a potential beneficial effect on sleep quality.

  18. Exploring Outcomes Related to Anxiety and Depression in Completers of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Complicated Grief Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickman, Kim; Shear, M Katherine; Wall, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines a more fine-grained analysis of anxiety-related and depression-related outcomes amongst a sample of treatment completers who were assigned to complicated grief treatment (CGT) (n = 35) or interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) (n = 34) in a previously reported randomized controlled trial. We examined effects of antidepressant use and measures of anxiety and depression, focusing especially on guilt related to the death or deceased and grief-related avoidance in order to further understand the differential effectiveness of CGT and IPT amongst participants who received the full course of treatment. Analyses showed that CGT produced greater reductions in anxiety and depressive symptoms including negative thoughts about the future and grief-related avoidance. CGT's advantage over IPT in lowering depression was most pronounced amongst those not taking antidepressants. Our results further elucidate CGT effects and support the idea that CG and major depressive disorder are distinct conditions. Targeted treatment for complicated grief (CG) produces benefits in associated mood and anxiety symptoms and CG symptoms. Amongst patients with CG, interpersonal psychotherapy seems relatively ineffective in ameliorating depressive symptoms. Grief-related depressive symptoms may not respond to standard treatments unless CG symptoms are also addressed. Reducing grief-related symptoms, such as anxieties about the future, guilt related to the death or deceased and avoidance of reminders of the loss may be important aspects in reducing CG. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Exploring daily affective changes in university students with a mindful positive reappraisal intervention: A daily diary randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrebtsova, Ekaterina; Craig, Jacqueline; Chris, Alexandra; O'Shea, Deirdre; González-Morales, M Gloria

    2017-05-17

    Brief and cost-effective interventions focused on emotion regulation techniques can buffer against stress and foster positive functioning. Mindfulness and positive reappraisal are two techniques that can mutually enhance one another to promote well-being. However, research testing the effectiveness of interventions combining mindfulness and reappraisal is lacking. The current pilot examined the effect of a combined mindful-reappraisal intervention on daily affect in a 5-day diary study with 106 university students. Participants were randomized to a mindful-reappraisal intervention (n = 36), a reappraisal-only intervention (n = 34), or an active control activity (n = 36). All participants described a negative event each day but only reappraised the event in the intervention conditions. Using multilevel growth modelling, results indicated that negative affect in both interventions declined over 5 days compared to the control; however, there were no differences in the growth of positive affect. Compared to reappraisal-only, the mindful-reappraisal group reported overall lower daily negative affect and marginally higher daily positive affect over the 5-day intervention. These findings suggest that brief daily practice combining mindfulness and positive reappraisal can be trained as a self-regulatory resource to promote positive affect and buffer negative affect above and beyond reappraisal practice alone. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. A randomized controlled trial exploring the effect of music on agitated behaviours and anxiety in older people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Marie L; Moyle, Wendy; Shum, David H K; Harrison, Scott D; Murfield, Jenny E

    2010-11-01

    This study, as part of a larger programme of research, sought to investigate the effect that participation in a 40-min live group music programme, involving facilitated engagement with song-singing and listening, three times a week for eight weeks, had on agitation and anxiety in older people with dementia. A randomized cross-over design, with music and reading control groups, was employed. Forty-seven participants with mild-moderate dementia, from two aged care facilities in Queensland, Australia, were recruited. Participants were assessed three times on the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory-Short Form (CMAI-SF) and the Rating Anxiety in Dementia Scale (RAID). A sub-analysis of 24 participants attending ≥50% of music sessions found a significant increase in the frequency of verbal aggression over time, regardless of group (F(2,46) = 3.534, p affect agitation and anxiety in older people with dementia. Both the music and reading group activities, however, gave some participants a 'voice' and increased their verbalization behaviour. Agitation was found to be predicted by a number of background factors (namely level of cognitive impairment, length of time in the facility and gender). Future studies would benefit more from in-depth participant assessment prior to study commencement, helping to moderate the influence of low scores, and by undertaking interventions at times when assessed symptoms are most prevalent.

  1. Comparing interventions and exploring neural mechanisms of exercise in Parkinson disease: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earhart, Gammon M; Duncan, Ryan P; Huang, John L; Perlmutter, Joel S; Pickett, Kristen A

    2015-02-05

    important insights regarding the effects of different modes of exercise on locomotor function in PD. The protocol is innovative because it: 1) uses group exercise approaches for all conditions including treadmill training, 2) directly compares tango to treadmill training and stretching, 3) tests participants OFF medication, and 4) utilizes two distinct neuroimaging approaches to explore mechanisms of the effects of exercise on the brain. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01768832 .

  2. Exploring telemonitoring and self-management by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a qualitative study embedded in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbrother, Peter; Pinnock, Hilary; Hanley, Janet; McCloughan, Lucy; Sheikh, Aziz; Pagliari, Claudia; McKinstry, Brian

    2013-12-01

    To explore patient and professional views on self-management in the context of telemonitoring in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Semi-structured interviews with patients with COPD and healthcare professionals participating in a randomized controlled trial of telemonitoring in Lothian, Scotland, explored experiences of using telemonitoring, and dynamics in patient-practitioner relationships. Transcribed data were analyzed using the Framework approach. 38 patients (mean age 67.5 years) and 32 professionals provided 70 interviews. Patients considered that telemonitoring empowered self-management by enhancing their understanding of COPD and providing additional justification for their decisions to adjust treatment or seek professional advice. Professionals discussed telemonitoring as promoting compliance with medical advice and encouraged patients to exercise personal responsibility within clinical parameters, but expressed concerns about promoting the sick role and creating dependence on telemonitoring. Telemonitoring assisted many patients to embrace greater responsibility for their health but the model of service provision remained clinician-centered. A medical model of 'compliant self-management' may paradoxically have promoted dependence on professionals. Patients and professionals shared responsibility for meeting the central objective of prompt management of exacerbations of COPD. Care is needed, however, to minimize the risk in some patients, of telemonitoring increasing dependence on practitioner support. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Boom for Whom? Exploring the Impacts of a Rapid Increase in the Male Population Upon Women's Services in Darwin, Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Gretchen; Tofa, Matalena; Finlayson, Mary; U'Ren, Julie

    2016-05-03

    A rapidly expanding natural-resource extraction industry and a growing military presence mean an increasingly male-skewed population for the city of Darwin, Australia. This has sparked concerns about the potential for increased violence against women. In this article, we present qualitative research detailing the views of 13 participants from 10 women's support services in the Darwin area. We argue that women's support services bear witness to and are tasked with responding to the impacts of population change on women, yet their work is undermined by uncertainties that stem from neoliberal funding rationales and limited demands on companies to address social issues. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Nausea and Vomiting following Balanced Xenon Anesthesia Compared to Sevoflurane: A Post-Hoc Explorative Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid V Fahlenkamp

    Full Text Available Like other inhalational anesthetics xenon seems to be associated with post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV. We assessed nausea incidence following balanced xenon anesthesia compared to sevoflurane, and dexamethasone for its prophylaxis in a randomized controlled trial with post-hoc explorative analysis.220 subjects with elevated PONV risk (Apfel score ≥2 undergoing elective abdominal surgery were randomized to receive xenon or sevoflurane anesthesia and dexamethasone or placebo after written informed consent. 93 subjects in the xenon group and 94 subjects in the sevoflurane group completed the trial. General anesthesia was maintained with 60% xenon or 2.0% sevoflurane. Dexamethasone 4mg or placebo was administered in the first hour. Subjects were analyzed for nausea and vomiting in predefined intervals during a 24h post-anesthesia follow-up.Logistic regression, controlled for dexamethasone and anesthesia/dexamethasone interaction, showed a significant risk to develop nausea following xenon anesthesia (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.02-5.19, p = 0.044. Early-onset nausea incidence was 46% after xenon and 35% after sevoflurane anesthesia (p = 0.138. After xenon, nausea occurred significantly earlier (p = 0.014, was more frequent and rated worse in the beginning. Dexamethasone did not markedly reduce nausea occurrence in both groups. Late-onset nausea showed no considerable difference between the groups.In our study setting, xenon anesthesia was associated with an elevated risk to develop nausea in sensitive subjects. Dexamethasone 4mg was not effective preventing nausea in our study. Group size or dosage might have been too small, and change of statistical analysis parameters in the post-hoc evaluation might have further contributed to a limitation of our results. Further trials will be needed to address prophylaxis of xenon-induced nausea.EU Clinical Trials EudraCT-2008-004132-20 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00793663.

  5. Nausea and Vomiting following Balanced Xenon Anesthesia Compared to Sevoflurane: A Post-Hoc Explorative Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlenkamp, Astrid V; Stoppe, Christian; Cremer, Jan; Biener, Ingeborg A; Peters, Dirk; Leuchter, Ricarda; Eisert, Albrecht; Apfel, Christian C; Rossaint, Rolf; Coburn, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Like other inhalational anesthetics xenon seems to be associated with post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV). We assessed nausea incidence following balanced xenon anesthesia compared to sevoflurane, and dexamethasone for its prophylaxis in a randomized controlled trial with post-hoc explorative analysis. 220 subjects with elevated PONV risk (Apfel score ≥2) undergoing elective abdominal surgery were randomized to receive xenon or sevoflurane anesthesia and dexamethasone or placebo after written informed consent. 93 subjects in the xenon group and 94 subjects in the sevoflurane group completed the trial. General anesthesia was maintained with 60% xenon or 2.0% sevoflurane. Dexamethasone 4mg or placebo was administered in the first hour. Subjects were analyzed for nausea and vomiting in predefined intervals during a 24h post-anesthesia follow-up. Logistic regression, controlled for dexamethasone and anesthesia/dexamethasone interaction, showed a significant risk to develop nausea following xenon anesthesia (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.02-5.19, p = 0.044). Early-onset nausea incidence was 46% after xenon and 35% after sevoflurane anesthesia (p = 0.138). After xenon, nausea occurred significantly earlier (p = 0.014), was more frequent and rated worse in the beginning. Dexamethasone did not markedly reduce nausea occurrence in both groups. Late-onset nausea showed no considerable difference between the groups. In our study setting, xenon anesthesia was associated with an elevated risk to develop nausea in sensitive subjects. Dexamethasone 4mg was not effective preventing nausea in our study. Group size or dosage might have been too small, and change of statistical analysis parameters in the post-hoc evaluation might have further contributed to a limitation of our results. Further trials will be needed to address prophylaxis of xenon-induced nausea. EU Clinical Trials EudraCT-2008-004132-20 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00793663.

  6. Causes of variation in BCG vaccine efficacy: examining evidence from the BCG REVAC cluster randomized trial to explore the masking and the blocking hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Mauricio L; Pilger, Daniel; Pereira, Susan M; Genser, Bernd; Cruz, Alvaro A; Cunha, Sergio S; Sant'Anna, Clemax; Hijjar, Miguel A; Ichihara, Maria Y; Rodrigues, Laura C

    2014-06-24

    BCG protection varies and in some places (nearest the equator) is low or absent. Understanding this variation can inform the efforts to develop new vaccines against tuberculosis. Two main hypotheses are used to explain this variation: under masking, new vaccines are unlikely to increase protection; under blocking new vaccines have a greater potential to be effective when BCG is not. We conducted a cluster randomized trial to explored the masking and blocking hypotheses by studying BCG vaccine efficacy of neonatal vaccination and when administered for the first or a second (revaccination) time at school age in two sites (Manaus close and Salvador further south from the equator). Seven hundred and sixty three state schools were matched on socio economic characteristics of the neighborhood and 239,934 children were randomized to vaccine (BCG vaccination at school age) or control group. Protection by first BCG vaccination at school age was high in Salvador (34%, 95% CI 7-53%, p=0.017) but low in Manaus (8%, 95% CI t0 39-40%, p=0.686). For revaccination at school age, protection was modest in Salvador (19%, 95% CI 3-33%, p=0.022) and absent in Manaus (1%, 95% CI to 27-23%, p=0.932). Vaccine efficacy for neonatal vaccination was similar in Salvador (40%, 95% CI 22-54%, pBCG efficacy was marked when vaccine was given at school age but absent at birth, which points towards blocking as the dominant mechanism. New tuberculosis vaccines that overcome or by pass this blocking effect could confer protection in situations where BCG is not protective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Suitability of random forest analysis for epidemiological research: Exploring sociodemographic and lifestyle-related risk factors of overweight in a cross-sectional design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, Noora; Kontto, Jukka; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Nevalainen, Jaakko; Männistö, Satu

    2017-10-01

    Factors that contribute to the development of overweight are numerous and form a complex structure with many unknown interactions and associations. We aimed to explore this structure (i.e. the mutual importance or hierarchy of sociodemographic and lifestyle-related risk factors of being overweight) using a machine-learning technique called random forest (RF). The results were compared with traditional logistic regression (LR) analysis. The cross-sectional FINRISK 2007 Study included 4757 Finns (aged 25-74 years). Information on participants' lifestyle and sociodemographic characteristics were collected with questionnaires. Diet was assessed, using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Height and weight were measured. Participants with a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 were classified as overweight. R-statistical software was used to run RF analysis ('randomForest') to derive estimates for variable importance and out-of-bag error, which were compared to a LR model. In total, 704 (32%) men and 1119 (44%) women had normal BMI, whereas 1502 (69%) men and 1432 (57%) women had BMI ≥25. Estimated error rates for the models were similar (RF vs. LR: 42% vs. 40% for men, 38% vs. 35% for women). Both models ranked age, education and physical activity as the most important risk factors for being overweight, but RF ranked macronutrients (carbohydrates and protein) as more important compared to LR. RF did not demonstrate higher power in variable selection compared to LR in our study. The features of RF are more likely to appear beneficial in settings with a larger number of predictors.

  8. Effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) on non-specific chronic back pain: a randomized controlled trial with additional exploration of the underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesarz, Jonas; Gerhardt, Andreas; Leisner, Sabine; Janke, Susanne; Hartmann, Mechthild; Seidler, Günther H; Eich, Wolfgang

    2013-08-30

    Non-specific chronic back pain (CBP) is often accompanied by psychological trauma, but treatment for this associated condition is often insufficient.Nevertheless, despite the common co-occurrence of pain and psychological trauma, a specific trauma-focused approach for treating CBP has been neglected to date. Accordingly, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), originally developed as a treatment approach for posttraumatic stress disorders, is a promising approach for treating CBP in patients who have experienced psychological trauma.Thus, the aim of this study is to determine whether a standardized, short-term EMDR intervention added to treatment as usual (TAU) reduces pain intensity in CBP patients with psychological trauma vs. TAU alone. The study will recruit 40 non-specific CBP patients who have experienced psychological trauma. After a baseline assessment, the patients will be randomized to either an intervention group (n = 20) or a control group (n = 20). Individuals in the EMDR group will receive ten 90-minute sessions of EMDR fortnightly in addition to TAU. The control group will receive TAU alone. The post-treatment assessments will take place two weeks after the last EMDR session and six months later.The primary outcome will be the change in the intensity of CBP within the last four weeks (numeric rating scale 0-10) from the pre-treatment assessment to the post-treatment assessment two weeks after the completion of treatment.In addition, the patients will undergo a thorough assessment of the change in the experience of pain, disability, trauma-associated distress, mental co-morbidities, resilience, and quality of life to explore distinct treatment effects. To explore the mechanisms of action that are involved, changes in pain perception and pain processing (quantitative sensory testing, conditioned pain modulation) will also be assessed.The statistical analysis of the primary outcome will be performed on an intention-to-treat basis

  9. Functional Brain Activity Changes after 4 Weeks Supplementation with a Multi-Vitamin/Mineral Combination: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial Exploring Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials during Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David J; Cox, Katherine H M; Hughes, Matthew E; Pipingas, Andrew; Peters, Riccarda; Scholey, Andrew B

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the neurocognitive effects of 4 weeks daily supplementation with a multi-vitamin and -mineral combination (MVM) in healthy adults (aged 18-40 years). Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, participants underwent assessments of brain activity using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI; n = 32, 16 females) and Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential recordings (SSVEP; n = 39, 20 females) during working memory and continuous performance tasks at baseline and following 4 weeks of active MVM treatment or placebo. There were several treatment-related effects suggestive of changes in functional brain activity associated with MVM administration. SSVEP data showed latency reductions across centro-parietal regions during the encoding period of a spatial working memory task following 4 weeks of active MVM treatment. Complementary results were observed with the fMRI data, in which a subset of those completing fMRI assessment after SSVEP assessment (n = 16) demonstrated increased BOLD response during completion of the Rapid Visual Information Processing task (RVIP) within regions of interest including bilateral parietal lobes. No treatment-related changes in fMRI data were observed in those who had not first undergone SSVEP assessment, suggesting these results may be most evident under conditions of fatigue. Performance on the working memory and continuous performance tasks did not significantly differ between treatment groups at follow-up. In addition, within the fatigued fMRI sample, increased RVIP BOLD response was correlated with the change in number of target detections as part of the RVIP task. This study provides preliminary evidence of changes in functional brain activity during working memory associated with 4 weeks of daily treatment with a multi-vitamin and -mineral combination in healthy adults, using two distinct but complementary measures of functional brain activity.

  10. Functional brain activity changes after four weeks supplementation with a multi-vitamin/mineral combination: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial exploring functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials during working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J White

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the neurocognitive effects of four weeks daily supplementation with a multivitamin and mineral combination (MVM in healthy adults (aged 18-40 years. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, participants underwent assessments of brain activity using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI; n=32, 16 females and Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential recordings (SSVEP; n=39, 20 females during working memory and continuous performance tasks at baseline and following four weeks of active MVM treatment or placebo. There were several treatment-related effects suggestive of changes in functional brain activity associated with MVM administration. SSVEP data showed latency reductions across centro-parietal regions during the encoding period of a spatial working memory task following four weeks of active MVM treatment. Complementary results were observed with the fMRI data, in which a subset of those completing fMRI assessment after SSVEP assessment (n=16 demonstrated increased BOLD response during completion of the Rapid Visual Information Processing task (RVIP within regions of interest including bilateral parietal lobes. No treatment-related changes in fMRI data were observed in those who had not first undergone SSVEP assessment, suggesting these results may be most evident under conditions of fatigue. Performance on the working memory and continuous performance tasks did not significantly differ between treatment groups at follow-up. In addition, within the fatigued fMRI sample, increased RVIP BOLD response was correlated with the change in number of target detections as part of the RVIP task. This study provides preliminary evidence of changes in functional brain activity during working memory associated with four weeks of daily treatment with a multivitamin and mineral combination in healthy adults, using two distinct but complementary measures of functional brain activity.

  11. Exploration of rapid start-up of the CANON process from activated sludge inoculum in a sequencing biofilm batch reactor (SBBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yangfan; Zhang, Xiaoling; Miao, Ying; Hu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a laboratory-scale sequencing biofilm batch reactor (SBBR) was employed to explore a fast start-up of completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process. Partial nitrification was achieved by controlling free ammonia concentration and operating at above 30 °C; then the reactor was immediately operated with alternating periods of aerobiosis and anaerobiosis to start the anammox process. The CANON process was successfully achieved in less than 50 d, and the total-nitrogen removal efficiency and the nitrogen removal rate were 81% and 0.14 kg-N m(-3) d(-1) respectively. Afterwards, with the increasing of ammonium loading rate a maximum nitrogen removal rate of 0.39 kg-N m(-3) d(-1) was achieved on day 94. DNA analysis showed that 'Candidatus Brocadia' was the dominant anammox species and Nitrosomonas was the dominant aerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the CANON reactor. This study revealed that due to shortening the persistent and stable nitrite accumulation period the long start-up time of the CANON process can be significantly reduced.

  12. Reducing patient delay in Acute Coronary Syndrome (RAPiD): research protocol for a web-based randomized controlled trial examining the effect of a behaviour change intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Barbara; Johnston, Marie; Smith, Karen; Williams, Brian; Treweek, Shaun; Dombrowski, Stephan U; Dougall, Nadine; Abhyankar, Purva; Grindle, Mark

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a behaviour change technique-based intervention and compare two possible modes of delivery (text + visual and text-only) with usual care. Patient delay prevents many people from achieving optimal benefit of time-dependent treatments for acute coronary syndrome. Reducing delay would reduce mortality and morbidity, but interventions to change behaviour have had mixed results. Systematic inclusion of behaviour change techniques or a visual mode of delivery might improve the efficacy of interventions. A three-arm web-based, parallel randomized controlled trial of a theory-based intervention. The intervention comprises 12 behaviour change techniques systematically identified following systematic review and a consensus exercise undertaken with behaviour change experts. We aim to recruit n = 177 participants who have experienced acute coronary syndrome in the previous 6 months from a National Health Service Hospital. Consenting participants will be randomly allocated in equal numbers to one of three study groups: i) usual care, ii) usual care plus text-only behaviour change technique-based intervention or iii) usual care plus text + visual behaviour change technique-based intervention. The primary outcome will be the change in intention to phone an ambulance immediately with symptoms of acute coronary syndrome ≥15-minute duration, assessed using two randomized series of eight scenarios representing varied symptoms before and after delivery of the interventions or control condition (usual care). Funding granted January 2014. Positive results changing intentions would lead to a randomized controlled trial of the behaviour change intervention in clinical practice, assessing patient delay in the event of actual symptoms. Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02820103. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Improved recovery of regional left ventricular function after PCI of chronic total occlusion in STEMI patients: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study of the randomized controlled EXPLORE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Joëlle; van Dongen, Ivo M; Hoebers, Loes P; Ouweneel, Dagmar M; Claessen, Bimmer E P M; Råmunddal, Truls; Laanmets, Peep; Eriksen, Erlend; van der Schaaf, René J; Ioanes, Dan; Nijveldt, Robin; Tijssen, Jan G; Hirsch, Alexander; Henriques, José P S

    2017-07-19

    The Evaluating Xience and left ventricular function in PCI on occlusiOns afteR STEMI (EXPLORE) trial did not show a significant benefit of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of the concurrent chronic total occlusion (CTO) in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients on global left ventricular (LV) systolic function. However a possible treatment effect will be most pronounced in the CTO territory. Therefore, we aimed to study the effect of CTO PCI compared to no-CTO PCI on the recovery of regional LV function, particularly in the CTO territory. Using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) we studied 180 of the 302 EXPLORE patients with serial CMR (baseline and 4 months follow-up). Segmental wall thickening (SWT) was quantified on cine images by an independent core laboratory. Dysfunctional segments were defined as SWT < 45%. Dysfunctional segments were further analyzed by viability (transmural extent of infarction (TEI) ≤50%.). All outcomes were stratified for randomization treatment. In the dysfunctional segments in the CTO territory recovery of SWT was better after CTO PCI compared to no-CTO PCI (ΔSWT 17 ± 27% vs 11 ± 23%, p = 0.03). This recovery was most pronounced in the dysfunctional but viable segments(TEI < 50%) (ΔSWT 17 ± 27% vs 11 ± 22%, p = 0.02). Furthermore in the CTO territory, recovery of SWT was significantly better in the dysfunctional segments in patients with Rentrop grade 2-3 collaterals compared to grade 0-1 collaterals to the CTO (16 ± 26% versus 11 ± 24%, p = 0.04). CTO PCI compared with no-CTO PCI is associated with a greater recovery of regional systolic function in the CTO territory, especially in the dysfunctional but viable segments. Further research is needed to evaluate the use of CMR in selecting post-STEMI patients for CTO PCI and the effect of regional LV function recovery on clinical outcome. Trialregister.nl NTR1108 , Date registered NTR: 30-okt-2007.

  14. An introduction to random sets

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Hung T

    2006-01-01

    The study of random sets is a large and rapidly growing area with connections to many areas of mathematics and applications in widely varying disciplines, from economics and decision theory to biostatistics and image analysis. The drawback to such diversity is that the research reports are scattered throughout the literature, with the result that in science and engineering, and even in the statistics community, the topic is not well known and much of the enormous potential of random sets remains untapped.An Introduction to Random Sets provides a friendly but solid initiation into the theory of random sets. It builds the foundation for studying random set data, which, viewed as imprecise or incomplete observations, are ubiquitous in today''s technological society. The author, widely known for his best-selling A First Course in Fuzzy Logic text as well as his pioneering work in random sets, explores motivations, such as coarse data analysis and uncertainty analysis in intelligent systems, for studying random s...

  15. Exploring the Efficacy of Replacing Linear Paper-Based Patient Cases in Problem-Based Learning With Dynamic Web-Based Virtual Patients: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Problem-based learning (PBL) is well established in medical education and beyond, and continues to be developed and explored. Challenges include how to connect the somewhat abstract nature of classroom-based PBL with clinical practice and how to maintain learner engagement in the process of PBL over time. Objective A study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of decision-PBL (D-PBL), a variant form of PBL that replaces linear PBL cases with virtual patients. These Web-based interactive cases provided learners with a series of patient management pathways. Learners were encouraged to consider and discuss courses of action, take their chosen management pathway, and experience the consequences of their decisions. A Web-based application was essential to allow scenarios to respond dynamically to learners’ decisions, to deliver the scenarios to multiple PBL classrooms in the same timeframe, and to record centrally the paths taken by the PBL groups. Methods A randomized controlled trial in crossover design was run involving all learners (N=81) in the second year of the graduate entry stream for the undergraduate medicine program at St George’s University of London. Learners were randomized to study groups; half engaged in a D-PBL activity whereas the other half had a traditional linear PBL activity on the same subject material. Groups alternated D-PBL and linear PBL over the semester. The measure was mean cohort performance on specific face-to-face exam questions at the end of the semester. Results D-PBL groups performed better than linear PBL groups on questions related to D-PBL with the difference being statistically significant for all questions. Differences between the exam performances of the 2 groups were not statistically significant for the questions not related to D-PBL. The effect sizes for D-PBL–related questions were large and positive (>0.6) except for 1 question that showed a medium positive effect size. The effect sizes for questions

  16. Exploring the efficacy of replacing linear paper-based patient cases in problem-based learning with dynamic Web-based virtual patients: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Terry; Ellaway, Rachel H; Round, Jonathan; Jivram, Trupti; Kavia, Sheetal; Hilton, Sean

    2014-11-05

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is well established in medical education and beyond, and continues to be developed and explored. Challenges include how to connect the somewhat abstract nature of classroom-based PBL with clinical practice and how to maintain learner engagement in the process of PBL over time. A study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of decision-PBL (D-PBL), a variant form of PBL that replaces linear PBL cases with virtual patients. These Web-based interactive cases provided learners with a series of patient management pathways. Learners were encouraged to consider and discuss courses of action, take their chosen management pathway, and experience the consequences of their decisions. A Web-based application was essential to allow scenarios to respond dynamically to learners' decisions, to deliver the scenarios to multiple PBL classrooms in the same timeframe, and to record centrally the paths taken by the PBL groups. A randomized controlled trial in crossover design was run involving all learners (N=81) in the second year of the graduate entry stream for the undergraduate medicine program at St George's University of London. Learners were randomized to study groups; half engaged in a D-PBL activity whereas the other half had a traditional linear PBL activity on the same subject material. Groups alternated D-PBL and linear PBL over the semester. The measure was mean cohort performance on specific face-to-face exam questions at the end of the semester. D-PBL groups performed better than linear PBL groups on questions related to D-PBL with the difference being statistically significant for all questions. Differences between the exam performances of the 2 groups were not statistically significant for the questions not related to D-PBL. The effect sizes for D-PBL-related questions were large and positive (>0.6) except for 1 question that showed a medium positive effect size. The effect sizes for questions not related to D-PBL were all small (≤0

  17. Exploring the relationship between maternal iron status and offspring’s blood pressure and adiposity: a Mendelian randomization study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwan NA

    2012-08-01

    was no difference between the OLS and the IV models coefficients for any of the outcomes considered.Conclusion: We found no association between maternal iron status and adult offspring’s BP and adiposity using both multivariable OLS and IV modeling. To our knowledge, this is the first study examining this relationship. Further exploration in larger studies that have genetic variation assessed in both mother and offspring should be considered.Keywords: iron, pregnancy, developmental origins, Mendelian randomization

  18. Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial to explore the effects of personalized lifestyle advices and tandem skydives on pleasure in anhedonic young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roekel, Eeske; Masselink, Maurits; Vrijen, Charlotte; Heininga, Vera E; Bak, Tom; Nederhof, Esther; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-06-04

    Anhedonia is generally defined as the inability to feel pleasure in response to experiences that are usually enjoyable. Anhedonia is one of the two core symptoms of depression and is a major public health concern. Anhedonia has proven particularly difficult to counteract and predicts poor treatment response generally. It has often been hypothesized that anhedonia can be deterred by a healthy lifestyle. However, it is quite unlikely that a one-size-fits-all approach will be effective for everyone. In this study the effects of personalized lifestyle advice based on observed individual patterns of lifestyle behaviors and experienced pleasure will be examined. Further, we will explore whether a tandem skydive following the personalized lifestyle advice positively influences anhedonic young adults' abilities to carry out the recommended lifestyle changes, and whether this ultimately improves their self-reported pleasure. Our study design is an exploratory intervention study, preceded by a cross-sectional survey as a screening instrument. For the survey, 2000 young adults (18-24 years old) will be selected from the general population. Based on survey outcomes, 72 individuals (36 males and 36 females) with persistent anhedonia (i.e., more than two months) and 60 individuals (30 males and 30 females) without anhedonia (non-anhedonic control group) will be selected for the intervention study. The non-anhedonic control group will fill out momentary assessments of pleasure and lifestyle behaviors three times a day, for one month. The anhedonic individuals will fill out momentary assessments for three consecutive months. After the first month, the anhedonic individuals will be randomly assigned to (1) no intervention, (2) lifestyle advice only, (3) lifestyle advice plus tandem skydive. The personalized lifestyle advice is based on patterns observed in the first month. The present study is the first to examine the effects of a personalized lifestyle advice and tandem skydive on

  19. Exploring longitudinal shifts in international nurse migration to the United States between 2003 and 2013 through a random effects panel data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Allison; Ojemeni, Melissa T; Jones, Simon

    2016-06-30

    No study has examined the longitudinal trends in National Council Licensure Exam for Registered Nurse (NCLEX-RN) applicants and pass rates among internationally-educated nurses (IENs) seeking to work in the United States, nor has any analysis explored the impact of specific events on these trends, including changes to the NCLEX-RN exam, the role of the economic crisis, or the passing of the WHO Code on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel. This study seeks to understand the impact of the three aforementioned factors that may be influencing current and future IEN recruitment patterns in the United States. In this random effects panel data analysis, we analyzed 11 years (2003-2013) of annual IEN applicant numbers and pass rates for registered nurse credentialing. Data were obtained from publicly available reports on exam pass rates. With the global economic crisis and NCLEX-RN changes in 2008 coupled with the WHO Code passage in 2010, we sought to compare if (1) the number of applicants changed significantly after those 2 years and (2) if pass rates changed following exam modifications implemented in 2008 and 2011. A total of 177 countries were eligible for inclusion in this analysis, representing findings from 200,453 IEN applicants to the United States between 2003 and 2013. The majority of applicants were from the Philippines (58 %) and India (11 %), with these two countries combined representing 69 % of the total. Candidates from Sub-Saharan African countries totalled 7133 (3 % of all applications) over the study period, with half of these coming from Nigeria alone. No significant changes were found in the number of candidates following the 2008 economic crisis or the 2010 WHO Code, although pass rates decreased significantly following the 2008 exam modifications and the WHO Code implementation. This study suggests that, while the WHO Code has had an influence on overall IEN migration dynamics to the United States by decreasing candidate

  20. Clinical efficacy of antazoline in rapid cardioversion of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation -- a protocol of a single center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (the AnPAF Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Rapid conversion of atrial fibrillation (AF) to sinus rhythm may be achieved by the administration of class IA, IC and III antiarrhythmic drugs or vernakalant hydrochloride. However, that treatment may be related to potential pro-arrhythmia, lack of efficacy or the exceptionally high cost of a compound used. Antazoline is a first generation antihistaminic agent with chinidin-like properties. When administered intravenously, antazoline exerts a strong antiarrhythmic effect on supraventricular arrhythmia, especially on AF, facilitating rapid conversion to sinus rhythm. Despite a relative lack of published data antazoline has been marketed in Poland and widely used in cardiology wards and emergency rooms for many years due to its efficacy, safety and rapid onset of action within minutes of administration. Methods/design A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, superiority clinical trial was designed to assess clinical efficacy of antazoline in rapid conversion of AF to sinus rhythm. Eligible patients will present AF lasting less than 43 hours, will be in stable cardio-pulmonary condition and will have no prior history of advanced heart failure or significant valvular disease. Long-term antiarrhythmic therapy is not considered an exclusion criterion. Subjects who fulfill selection criteria will be randomly assigned to receive intravenously either antazoline or placebo in divided doses and observed for 1.5 hours after conversion to sinus rhythm or after the last i.v. bolus. Primary end point will be the conversion of AF to sinus rhythm confirmed in an electrocardiogram (ECG) during the observation period. Secondary end points will be comprised of time to conversion and return of AF during the observation period. Special consideration will be given to the observation of any adverse events. A sample size of 80 patients was calculated based on the following assumptions: two-tailed test, a type I error of 0.01, a power of 90%, efficacy of placebo 5

  1. Clinical efficacy of antazoline in rapid cardioversion of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation--a protocol of a single center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (the AnPAF Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkowski, Michal M; Maciag, Aleksander; Dabrowski, Rafal; Pytkowski, Mariusz; Kowalik, Ilona; Szwed, Hanna

    2012-09-11

    Rapid conversion of atrial fibrillation (AF) to sinus rhythm may be achieved by the administration of class IA, IC and III antiarrhythmic drugs or vernakalant hydrochloride. However, that treatment may be related to potential pro-arrhythmia, lack of efficacy or the exceptionally high cost of a compound used. Antazoline is a first generation antihistaminic agent with chinidin-like properties. When administered intravenously, antazoline exerts a strong antiarrhythmic effect on supraventricular arrhythmia, especially on AF, facilitating rapid conversion to sinus rhythm. Despite a relative lack of published data antazoline has been marketed in Poland and widely used in cardiology wards and emergency rooms for many years due to its efficacy, safety and rapid onset of action within minutes of administration. A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, superiority clinical trial was designed to assess clinical efficacy of antazoline in rapid conversion of AF to sinus rhythm. Eligible patients will present AF lasting less than 43 hours, will be in stable cardio-pulmonary condition and will have no prior history of advanced heart failure or significant valvular disease. Long-term antiarrhythmic therapy is not considered an exclusion criterion. Subjects who fulfill selection criteria will be randomly assigned to receive intravenously either antazoline or placebo in divided doses and observed for 1.5 hours after conversion to sinus rhythm or after the last i.v. bolus. Primary end point will be the conversion of AF to sinus rhythm confirmed in an electrocardiogram (ECG) during the observation period. Secondary end points will be comprised of time to conversion and return of AF during the observation period. Special consideration will be given to the observation of any adverse events. A sample size of 80 patients was calculated based on the following assumptions: two-tailed test, a type I error of 0.01, a power of 90%, efficacy of placebo 5%, efficacy of antazoline 50% and

  2. Clinical efficacy of antazoline in rapid cardioversion of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation -- a protocol of a single center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (the AnPAF Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkowski Michal M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid conversion of atrial fibrillation (AF to sinus rhythm may be achieved by the administration of class IA, IC and III antiarrhythmic drugs or vernakalant hydrochloride. However, that treatment may be related to potential pro-arrhythmia, lack of efficacy or the exceptionally high cost of a compound used. Antazoline is a first generation antihistaminic agent with chinidin-like properties. When administered intravenously, antazoline exerts a strong antiarrhythmic effect on supraventricular arrhythmia, especially on AF, facilitating rapid conversion to sinus rhythm. Despite a relative lack of published data antazoline has been marketed in Poland and widely used in cardiology wards and emergency rooms for many years due to its efficacy, safety and rapid onset of action within minutes of administration. Methods/design A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, superiority clinical trial was designed to assess clinical efficacy of antazoline in rapid conversion of AF to sinus rhythm. Eligible patients will present AF lasting less than 43 hours, will be in stable cardio-pulmonary condition and will have no prior history of advanced heart failure or significant valvular disease. Long-term antiarrhythmic therapy is not considered an exclusion criterion. Subjects who fulfill selection criteria will be randomly assigned to receive intravenously either antazoline or placebo in divided doses and observed for 1.5 hours after conversion to sinus rhythm or after the last i.v. bolus. Primary end point will be the conversion of AF to sinus rhythm confirmed in an electrocardiogram (ECG during the observation period. Secondary end points will be comprised of time to conversion and return of AF during the observation period. Special consideration will be given to the observation of any adverse events. A sample size of 80 patients was calculated based on the following assumptions: two-tailed test, a type I error of 0.01, a power of 90

  3. Rapid improvement of glycemic control in type 2 diabetes using weekly intensive multifactorial interventions: structured glucose monitoring, patient education, and adjustment of therapy-a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimazoni-Netto, Augusto; Rodbard, David; Zanella, Maria Teresa

    2011-10-01

    We evaluated intensive intervention in poorly controlled patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus involving weekly clinic visits and adjustment of therapy with analysis of three seven-point glucose profiles and intervention from an interdisciplinary staff. Sixty-three patients were randomized to an intensive treatment group that obtained self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) profiles (six or seven values per day, 3 days/week) and were seen in the clinic at Weeks 1-6 and 12. SMBG results were downloaded, analyzed using Accu-Chek(®) 360° software (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN), and used to adjust therapy. Control group subjects obtained glucose profiles and had clinic visits only at Weeks 0, 6, and 12. There were highly statistically significant improvements in the intensive treatment group compared with the control group between Weeks 0 and 6 with greater reductions in weekly mean glycemia (WMG) (-76.7±8.9 mg/dL vs. -20.5±8.1 mg/dL), glycemic variability (SD) (-16.3±3.1 mg/dL vs. -5.0±3.1 mg/dL), and glycated hemoglobin (-1.82±0.16% vs. -0.66±0.22%) without significant changes in frequency of hypoglycemia or weight. Improvements were sustained in the intensive treatment group through Week 12. A minimal but statistically significant degree of improvement was seen in the control group at Week 12. This short-term pilot study of an intensive monitoring, educational, and pharmacological interventions program resulted in dramatic improvement of glycemic control within 6 weeks, and these effects are sustained through Week 12. SMBG glucose profiles, calculation of WMG and SD, and graphical displays of glucose data can improve the effectiveness of adjustment of therapy at weekly clinic visits when combined with intensive support from a multidisciplinary team.

  4. Randomized comparison of ticagrelor versus prasugrel in patients with acute coronary syndrome and planned invasive strategy--design and rationale of the iNtracoronary Stenting and Antithrombotic Regimen: Rapid Early Action for Coronary Treatment (ISAR-REACT) 5 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Stefanie; Angiolillo, Dominick J; Antoniucci, David; Bernlochner, Isabell; Hamm, Christian; Jaitner, Juliane; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Mayer, Katharina; von Merzljak, Barbara; Morath, Tanja; Neumann, Franz-Josef; Richardt, Gert; Ruf, Judith; Schömig, Gisela; Schühlen, Helmut; Schunkert, Heribert; Kastrati, Adnan

    2014-02-01

    In acute coronary syndromes (ACS), a dual antiplatelet regimen with an adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonist plus aspirin has become the cornerstone of treatment. The third-generation thienopyridine prasugrel and the cyclopentyl-triazolo-pyrimidine ticagrelor provide a greater, more rapid and consistent platelet inhibition compared to their predecessor clopidogrel. Based on their advantages over clopidogrel in two landmark studies, both drugs received a class I recommendation for their use in ACS patients with and without ST segment elevation. Due to differences in ACS populations and conditions investigated, the relative merits of ticagrelor versus prasugrel in the treatment of ACS patients with planned invasive strategy cannot be reliably estimated from independent trials. To date, no direct head-to-head comparison of ticagrelor and prasugrel in terms of clinical outcome exists. The aim of this multicenter, randomized, open-label trial is to assess whether ticagrelor is superior to prasugrel in ACS patients with planned invasive strategy.

  5. No “Magic Bullet”: Exploring Community Mobilization Strategies Used in a Multi-site Community Based Randomized Controlled Trial: Project Accept (HPTN 043)

    OpenAIRE

    Tedrow, Virginia A.; Zelaya, Carla E.; Kennedy, Caitlin E.; Morin, Stephen F.; Khumalo-Sakutukwa, Gertrude; Sweat, Michael D.; Celentano, David D.

    2012-01-01

    As community-level interventions become more common in HIV prevention, processes such as community mobilization (CM) are increasingly utilized in public health programs and research. Project Accept, a multi-site community randomized controlled trial, is testing the hypothesis that CM coupled with community-based mobile voluntary counseling and testing and post-test support services will alter community norms and reduce the incidence of HIV. By using a multiple-case study approach, this qualit...

  6. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  7. No “Magic Bullet”: Exploring Community Mobilization Strategies Used in a Multi-site Community Based Randomized Controlled Trial: Project Accept (HPTN 043)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedrow, Virginia A.; Zelaya, Carla E.; Kennedy, Caitlin E.; Morin, Stephen F.; Khumalo-Sakutukwa, Gertrude; Sweat, Michael D.; Celentano, David D.

    2012-01-01

    As community-level interventions become more common in HIV prevention, processes such as community mobilization (CM) are increasingly utilized in public health programs and research. Project Accept, a multi-site community randomized controlled trial, is testing the hypothesis that CM coupled with community-based mobile voluntary counseling and testing and post-test support services will alter community norms and reduce the incidence of HIV. By using a multiple-case study approach, this qualitative study identifies seven major community mobilization strategies used in Project Accept, including stakeholder buy-in, formation of community coalitions, community engagement, community participation, raising community awareness, involvement of leaders, and partnership building, and describes three key elements of mobilization success. PMID:21822627

  8. No "magic bullet": exploring community mobilization strategies used in a multi-site community based randomized controlled trial: Project Accept (HPTN 043).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedrow, Virginia A; Zelaya, Carla E; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Morin, Stephen F; Khumalo-Sakutukwa, Gertrude; Sweat, Michael D; Celentano, David D

    2012-07-01

    As community-level interventions become more common in HIV prevention, processes such as community mobilization (CM) are increasingly utilized in public health programs and research. Project Accept, a multi-site community randomized controlled trial, is testing the hypothesis that CM coupled with community-based mobile voluntary counseling and testing and post-test support services will alter community norms and reduce the incidence of HIV. By using a multiple-case study approach, this qualitative study identifies seven major community mobilization strategies used in Project Accept, including stakeholder buy-in, formation of community coalitions, community engagement, community participation, raising community awareness, involvement of leaders, and partnership building, and describes three key elements of mobilization success.

  9. Early Psychological Preventive Intervention For Workplace Violence: A Randomized Controlled Explorative and Comparative Study Between EMDR-Recent Event and Critical Incident Stress Debriefing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarquinio, Cyril; Rotonda, Christine; Houllé, William A; Montel, Sébastien; Rydberg, Jenny Ann; Minary, Laetitia; Dellucci, Hélène; Tarquinio, Pascale; Fayard, Any; Alla, François

    2016-11-01

    This randomized controlled trial study aims to investigate the efficacy of an early psychological intervention called EMDR-RE compared to Critical Incident Stress Debriefing on 60 victims of workplace violence, which were divided into three groups: 'EMDR-RE' (n = 19), 'CISD' (n = 23), and 'delayed EMDR-RE' (n = 18). EMDR-RE and CISD took place 48 hours after the event, whilst third intervention was delayed by an additional 48 hours. Results showed that after 3 months PCLS and SUDS scores were significantly lower with EMDR-RE and delayed EMDR-RE compared to CISD. After 48 hours and 3 months, none of the EMDR-RE-treated victims showed PTSD symptoms.

  10. Impact of Flavonols on Cardiometabolic Biomarkers: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Human Trials to Explore the Role of Inter-Individual Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Regina; Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Kaltsatou, Antonia; González-Sarrías, Antonio; Greyling, Arno; Giannaki, Christoforos; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina; Milenkovic, Dragan; Gibney, Eileen R.; Dumont, Julie; Schär, Manuel; Garcia-Aloy, Mar; Palma-Duran, Susana Alejandra; Ruskovska, Tatjana; Maksimova, Viktorija; Combet, Emilie; Pinto, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have linked flavonols with decreased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, some heterogeneity in the individual physiological responses to the consumption of these compounds has been identified. This meta-analysis aimed to study the effect of flavonol supplementation on biomarkers of CVD risk such as, blood lipids, blood pressure and plasma glucose, as well as factors affecting their inter-individual variability. Data from 18 human randomized controlled trials were pooled and the effect was estimated using fixed or random effects meta-analysis model and reported as difference in means (DM). Variability in the response of blood lipids to supplementation with flavonols was assessed by stratifying various population subgroups: age, sex, country, and health status. Results showed significant reductions in total cholesterol (DM = −0.10 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.20, −0.01), LDL cholesterol (DM = −0.14 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.21, 0.07), and triacylglycerol (DM = −0.10 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.18, 0.03), and a significant increase in HDL cholesterol (DM = 0.05 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.07). A significant reduction was also observed in fasting plasma glucose (DM = −0.18 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.29, −0.08), and in blood pressure (SBP: DM = −4.84 mmHg; 95% CI: −5.64, −4.04; DBP: DM = −3.32 mmHg; 95% CI: −4.09, −2.55). Subgroup analysis showed a more pronounced effect of flavonol intake in participants from Asian countries and in participants with diagnosed disease or dyslipidemia, compared to healthy and normal baseline values. In conclusion, flavonol consumption improved biomarkers of CVD risk, however, country of origin and health status may influence the effect of flavonol intake on blood lipid levels. PMID:28208791

  11. Exploring Mediators of Physical Activity in Young Adult Cancer Survivors: Evidence from a Randomized Trial of a Facebook-Based Physical Activity Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Carmina G; Tate, Deborah F; Mayer, Deborah K; Allicock, Marlyn; Cai, Jianwen

    2015-03-01

    This study examined the effects of a physical activity (PA) intervention for young adult cancer survivors on changes in self-efficacy, social support, and self-monitoring and determined whether changes in these social cognitive theory constructs mediated the relationship between the intervention and changes in PA. A 12-week randomized trial compared a Facebook-based intervention (FITNET) aimed at increasing moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA to a Facebook-based self-help comparison group. Young adult cancer survivors (N=86, aged 21-39) were randomly assigned to one of the two groups. Self-report measures of PA and psychosocial variables were collected at baseline and after 12 weeks. The FITNET group reported lower self-efficacy for sticking to exercise (mean change=-0.38; 95% CI: -0.62 to -0.12; p=0.025) and social support from friends on social networking websites (mean change=-0.47; 95% CI: -1.45 to 0.65; p=0.039) relative to the self-help comparison group over time. Changes in social support from friends on social networking websites partially mediated the intervention effects on moderate-to-vigorous PA (mean indirect effect=-22.4; 95% CI: -62.0 to -2.8) in the unexpected direction. Across both groups, social support from friends and self-monitoring were positively associated with changes in moderate-to-vigorous PA. The proposed mediators did not explain the positive effects of the FITNET intervention on mild PA. The lack of significant improvements in psychosocial constructs among FITNET participants may partly explain why the intervention did not increase moderate-to-vigorous PA relative to the self-help comparison group. Future PA interventions with young adult cancer survivors should examine targeting social support from friends and self-monitoring.

  12. Exploring the relationship between patients' information preference style and knowledge acquisition process in a computerized patient decision aid randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawka, Anna M; Straus, Sharon; Rodin, Gary; Tsang, Richard W; Brierley, James D; Rotstein, Lorne; Segal, Phillip; Gafni, Amiram; Ezzat, Shereen; Goldstein, David P

    2015-06-19

    We have shown in a randomized controlled trial that a computerized patient decision aid (P-DA) improves medical knowledge and reduces decisional conflict, in early stage papillary thyroid cancer patients considering adjuvant radioactive iodine treatment. Our objectives were to examine the relationship between participants' baseline information preference style and the following: 1) quantity of detailed information obtained within the P-DA, and 2) medical knowledge. We randomized participants to exposure to a one-time viewing of a computerized P-DA (with usual care) or usual care alone. In pre-planned secondary analyses, we examined the relationship between information preference style (Miller Behavioural Style Scale, including respective monitoring [information seeking preference] and blunting [information avoidance preference] subscale scores) and the following: 1) the quantity of detailed information obtained from the P-DA (number of supplemental information clicks), and 2) medical knowledge. Spearman correlation values were calculated to quantify relationships, in the entire study population and respective study arms. In the 37 P-DA users, high monitoring information preference was moderately positively correlated with higher frequency of detailed information acquisition in the P-DA (r = 0.414, p = 0.011). The monitoring subscale score weakly correlated with increased medical knowledge in the entire study population (r = 0.268, p = 0.021, N = 74), but not in the respective study arms. There were no significant associations with the blunting subscale score. Individual variability in information preferences may affect the process of information acquisition from computerized P-DA's. More research is needed to understand how individual information preferences may impact medical knowledge acquisition and decision-making.

  13. The impact of an intervention to introduce malaria rapid diagnostic tests on fever case management in a high transmission setting in Uganda: A mixed-methods cluster-randomized trial (PRIME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Clare I R; Webb, Emily L; Maiteki-Sebuguzi, Catherine; Nayiga, Susan; Nabirye, Christine; DiLiberto, Deborah D; Ssemmondo, Emmanuel; Dorsey, Grant; Kamya, Moses R; Staedke, Sarah G

    2017-01-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (mRDTs) have been scaled-up widely across Africa. The PRIME study evaluated an intervention aiming to improve fever case management using mRDTs at public health centers in Uganda. A cluster-randomized trial was conducted from 2010-13 in Tororo, a high malaria transmission setting. Twenty public health centers were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to intervention or control. The intervention included training in health center management, fever case management with mRDTs, and patient-centered services; plus provision of mRDTs and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) when stocks ran low. Three rounds of Interviews were conducted with caregivers of children under five years of age as they exited health centers (N = 1400); reference mRDTs were done in children with fever (N = 1336). Health worker perspectives on mRDTs were elicited through semi-structured questionnaires (N = 49) and in-depth interviews (N = 10). The primary outcome was inappropriate treatment of malaria, defined as the proportion of febrile children who were not treated according to guidelines based on the reference mRDT. There was no difference in inappropriate treatment of malaria between the intervention and control arms (24.0% versus 29.7%, adjusted risk ratio 0.81 [95% CI: 0.56, 1.17] p = 0.24). Most children (76.0%) tested positive by reference mRDT, but many were not prescribed AL (22.5% intervention versus 25.9% control, p = 0.53). Inappropriate treatment of children testing negative by reference mRDT with AL was also common (31.3% invention vs 42.4% control, p = 0.29). Health workers appreciated mRDTs but felt that integrating testing into practice was challenging given constraints on time and infrastructure. The PRIME intervention did not have the desired impact on inappropriate treatment of malaria for children under five. In this high transmission setting, use of mRDTs did not lead to the reductions in antimalarial prescribing seen elsewhere. Broader investment in health

  14. Rationale and design of EXPLORE: a randomized, prospective, multicenter trial investigating the impact of recanalization of a chronic total occlusion on left ventricular function in patients after primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background In the setting of primary percutaneous coronary intervention, patients with a chronic total occlusion in a non-infarct related artery were recently identified as a high-risk subgroup. It is unclear whether ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients with a chronic total occlusion in a non-infarct related artery should undergo additional percutaneous coronary intervention of the chronic total occlusion on top of optimal medical therapy shortly after primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Possible beneficial effects include reduction in adverse left ventricular remodeling and preservation of global left ventricular function and improved clinical outcome during future coronary events. Methods/Design The Evaluating Xience V and left ventricular function in Percutaneous coronary intervention on occLusiOns afteR ST-Elevation myocardial infarction (EXPLORE) trial is a randomized, prospective, multicenter, two-arm trial with blinded evaluation of endpoints. Three hundred patients after primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction with a chronic total occlusion in a non-infarct related artery are randomized to either elective percutaneous coronary intervention of the chronic total occlusion within seven days or standard medical treatment. When assigned to the invasive arm, an everolimus-eluting coronary stent is used. Primary endpoints are left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular end-diastolic volume assessed by cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging at four months. Clinical follow-up will continue until five years. Discussion The ongoing EXPLORE trial is the first randomized clinical trial powered to investigate whether recanalization of a chronic total occlusion in a non-infarct related artery after primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction results in a better preserved residual left ventricular ejection fraction, reduced end-diastolic volume and enhanced clinical

  15. Adapted low intensity ergometer aerobic training for early and severely impaired stroke survivors: a pilot randomized controlled trial to explore its feasibility and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zun; Wang, Lei; Fan, Hongjuan; Jiang, Wenjun; Wang, Sheng; Gu, Zhaohua; Wang, Tong

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of adapted low intensity ergometer aerobic training for early and severely impaired stroke survivors. [Subjects] The subjects were forty-eight early stroke survivors. [Methods] Eligible subjects were recruited and randomly assigned to an experimental group and a control group. Both groups participated in comprehensive rehabilitation training. Low intensity aerobic training was only performed by the experimental group. Outcome measures were the Fugl-Meyer motor score, Barthel index, exercise test time, peak heart rate, plasma glucose level and serum lipid profiles. [Results] Patients in the experimental group finished 88.6% of the total aerobic training sessions prescribed. In compliant participants (adherence≥80%), aerobic training significantly improved the Barthel index (from 40.1±21.1 to 79.2±14.2), Fugl-Meyer motor score (from 26.4±19.4 to 45.4±12.7), exercise test time (from 12.2±3.62 min to 13.9±3.6 min), 2-hour glucose level (from 9.22±1.16 mmol/L to 7.21±1.36 mmol/L) and homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistence index (from 1.72±1.01 to 1.28±0.88). [Conclusion] Preliminary findings suggest that early and severely impaired stroke patients may benefit from low intensity ergometer aerobic training.

  16. Improving working memory: exploring the effect of transcranial random noise stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulquiney, Paul G; Hoy, Kate E; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if working memory (WM) performance is significantly improved after the delivery of transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), compared to an active comparator or sham. Ten participants undertook three experimental sessions in which they received 10 min of anodal tDCS (active comparator), tRNS or sham tDCS whilst performing the Sternberg WM task. Intra-stimulation engagement in a WM task was undertaken as this has been previously shown to enhance the effects of tDCS. Experimental sessions were separated by a minimum of 1 week. Immediately prior to and after each stimulation session the participants were measured on speed and accuracy of performance on an n-back task. There was significant improvement in speed of performance following anodal tDCS on the 2-back WM task; this was the only significant finding. The results do not provide support for the hypothesis that tRNS improves WM. However, the study does provide confirmation of previous findings that anodal tDCS enhances some aspects of DLPFC functioning. Methodological limitations that may have contributed to the lack of significant findings following tRNS are discussed. Anodal tDCS may have significant implications for WM remediation in psychiatric conditions, particularly schizophrenia. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of A One-week Fasting Therapy in Patients with Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus and Metabolic Syndrome - A Randomized Controlled Explorative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenying; Sadraie, Badri; Steckhan, Nico; Kessler, Christian; Stange, Rainer; Jeitler, Michael; Michalsen, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    There is increasing experimental evidence for beneficial effects of calorie restriction and intermittent fasting in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In humans, prolonged fasting is established as a health-promoting complementary treatment in Europe and claimed to improve metabolism by a complex hormetic response. We aimed to investigate effects of a one-week fasting period compared to usual care in T2DM by means of a pilot trial. Patients with manifest T2DM medically treated with oral hypoglycemic agents and/or insulin were randomly assigned to a 7-day fasting program followed by dietary advice or to usual care and dietary advice only. Fasting was performed according to the method of Buchinger with a nutritional energy intake of 300kcal/day by liquids only and stepwise re-introduction of solid food thereafter. Outcomes were assessed baseline and after 4 months. Of 46 enrolled participants, 32 (n=16 each group) completed the trial and were included for final analyses. Fasting was well accepted, there were no serious adverse events. After 4 months mean weight decreased by 3.5 kg and 2.0 kg in the fasting vs. control group (p=0.03) paralleled by greater reduction of abdominal circumference (p=0.001). Fasting led to a significant decrease of systolic/diastolic blood pressure (p=0.01; p=0.003) and increased quality-of-life (p=0.04), while for HbA1c, insulin and HOMA-index only non-significant improvements were observed. Results of this study suggest that prolonged fasting is feasible and might have beneficial clinical effects. The effectiveness of fasting should be proved in larger confirmatory trials that include intermittent fasting in follow-ups to enable more pronounced and long-term effects. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Using random forests to explore the effects of site attributes and soil properties on near-saturated and saturated hydraulic conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorda, Helena; Koestel, John; Jarvis, Nicholas

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge of the near-saturated and saturated hydraulic conductivity of soil is fundamental for understanding important processes like groundwater contamination risks or runoff and soil erosion. Hydraulic conductivities are however difficult and time-consuming to determine by direct measurements, especially at the field scale or larger. So far, pedotransfer functions do not offer an especially reliable alternative since published approaches exhibit poor prediction performances. In our study we aimed at building pedotransfer functions by growing random forests (a statistical learning approach) on 486 datasets from the meta-database on tension-disk infiltrometer measurements collected from peer-reviewed literature and recently presented by Jarvis et al. (2013, Influence of soil, land use and climatic factors on the hydraulic conductivity of soil. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 17(12), 5185-5195). When some data from a specific source publication were allowed to enter the training set whereas others were used for validation, the results of a 10-fold cross-validation showed reasonable coefficients of determination of 0.53 for hydraulic conductivity at 10 cm tension, K10, and 0.41 for saturated conductivity, Ks. The estimated average annual temperature and precipitation at the site were the most important predictors for K10, while bulk density and estimated average annual temperature were most important for Ks prediction. The soil organic carbon content and the diameter of the disk infiltrometer were also important for the prediction of both K10 and Ks. However, coefficients of determination were around zero when all datasets of a specific source publication were excluded from the training set and exclusively used for validation. This may indicate experimenter bias, or that better predictors have to be found or that a larger dataset has to be used to infer meaningful pedotransfer functions for saturated and near-saturated hydraulic conductivities. More research is in progress

  19. Exploring user experience and technology acceptance for a fall prevention system: results from a randomized clinical trial and a living lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziri, Daryoush D; Aal, Konstantin; Ogonowski, Corinna; Von Rekowski, Thomas; Kroll, Michael; Marston, Hannah R; Poveda, Rakel; Gschwind, Yves J; Delbaere, Kim; Wieching, Rainer; Wulf, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Falls are common in older adults and can result in serious injuries. Due to demographic changes, falls and related healthcare costs are likely to increase over the next years. Participation and motivation of older adults in fall prevention measures remain a challenge. The iStoppFalls project developed an information and communication technology (ICT)-based system for older adults to use at home in order to reduce common fall risk factors such as impaired balance and muscle weakness. The system aims at increasing older adults' motivation to participate in ICT-based fall prevention measures. This article reports on usability, user-experience and user-acceptance aspects affecting the use of the iStoppFalls system by older adults. In the course of a 16-week international multicenter study, 153 community-dwelling older adults aged 65+ participated in the iStoppFalls randomized controlled trial, of which half used the system in their home to exercise and assess their risk of falling. During the study, 60 participants completed questionnaires regarding the usability, user experience and user acceptance of the iStoppFalls system. Usability was measured with the System Usability Scale (SUS). For user experience the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) was applied. User acceptance was assessed with the Dynamic Acceptance Model for the Re-evaluation of Technologies (DART). To collect more detailed data on usability, user experience and user acceptance, additional qualitative interviews and observations were conducted with participants. Participants evaluated the usability of the system with an overall score of 62 (Standard Deviation, SD 15.58) out of 100, which suggests good usability. Most users enjoyed the iStoppFalls games and assessments, as shown by the overall PACES score of 31 (SD 8.03). With a score of 0.87 (SD 0.26), user acceptance results showed that participants accepted the iStoppFalls system for use in their own home. Interview data suggested that certain

  20. Exploring mediators of accelerometer assessed physical activity in young adolescents in the Health In Adolescents Study - a group randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, Ingunn H; van Stralen, Maartje M; Grydeland, May; Bjelland, Mona; Lien, Nanna; Andersen, Lene F; Anderssen, Sigmund A; Ommundsen, Yngvar

    2012-09-21

    There is a shortage of information about the factors that mediate physical activity intervention effects which involve youth. The purpose of this study was to examine whether personal, social and physical-environmental factors mediated the intervention effect on physical activity and whether gender and weight status moderated mediated effects in the Health In Adolescents Study - a school-based intervention to promote healthy weight development among young adolescents. Participating schools were randomized to Control (n = 25) and Intervention (n = 12). The intervention components to enhance physical activity targeted change through theoretically informed mediators embedded in a social-ecological framework. Accelerometer assessed physical activity (mean count per minute) and self-efficacy, enjoyment, perceived social support from parents, teachers and friends and perceived environmental opportunities were measured by questionnaires at baseline and post-intervention after 20 months among 700 11-13 year-old adolescents (Intervention = 485; Control = 215). The product-of-coefficient test was used to examine mediation. No mediating effect of any of the hypothesized mediators was identified and gender and weight status did not moderate any mediated effects with the exception of weight status that moderated the mediated effect of enjoyment. Few intervention effects were seen on the mediators, except for a positive change in social support from teachers among girls and the normal weight, and a negative effect on enjoyment and self-efficacy among the overweight. However, change in enjoyment, self-efficacy, perceived social support from friends and environmental opportunities were associated with change in mean count per minute with some variation across the investigated subgroups, and thus show evidence of being potential mediators of physical activity change in adolescents. While no mediation effects were observed, change in both personal and social-environmental factors

  1. Exploring mediators of accelerometer assessed physical activity in young adolescents in the Health in adolescents study – a group randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergh Ingunn H

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a shortage of information about the factors that mediate physical activity intervention effects which involve youth. The purpose of this study was to examine whether personal, social and physical-environmental factors mediated the intervention effect on physical activity and whether gender and weight status moderated mediated effects in the Health In Adolescents Study – a school-based intervention to promote healthy weight development among young adolescents. Methods Participating schools were randomized to Control (n = 25 and Intervention (n = 12. The intervention components to enhance physical activity targeted change through theoretically informed mediators embedded in a social-ecological framework. Accelerometer assessed physical activity (mean count per minute and self-efficacy, enjoyment, perceived social support from parents, teachers and friends and perceived environmental opportunities were measured by questionnaires at baseline and post-intervention after 20 months among 700 11–13 year-old adolescents (Intervention = 485; Control = 215. The product-of-coefficient test was used to examine mediation. Results No mediating effect of any of the hypothesized mediators was identified and gender and weight status did not moderate any mediated effects with the exception of weight status that moderated the mediated effect of enjoyment. Few intervention effects were seen on the mediators, except for a positive change in social support from teachers among girls and the normal weight, and a negative effect on enjoyment and self-efficacy among the overweight. However, change in enjoyment, self-efficacy, perceived social support from friends and environmental opportunities were associated with change in mean count per minute with some variation across the investigated subgroups, and thus show evidence of being potential mediators of physical activity change in adolescents. Conclusions While no

  2. Rapid prototype and test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, D.L.; Hansche, B.D.

    1996-06-01

    In order to support advanced manufacturing, Sandia has acquired the capability to produce plastic prototypes using stereolithography. Currently, these prototypes are used mainly to verify part geometry and ``fit and form`` checks. This project investigates methods for rapidly testing these plastic prototypes, and inferring from prototype test data actual metal part performance and behavior. Performances examined include static load/stress response, and structural dynamic (modal) and vibration behavior. The integration of advanced non-contacting measurement techniques including scanning laser velocimetry, laser holography, and thermoelasticity into testing of these prototypes is described. Photoelastic properties of the epoxy prototypes to reveal full field stress/strain fields are also explored.

  3. Treatment Extension of Pegylated Interferon Alpha and Ribavirin Does Not Improve SVR in Patients with Genotypes 2/3 without Rapid Virological Response (OPTEX Trial: A Prospective, Randomized, Two-Arm, Multicentre Phase IV Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Heidrich

    Full Text Available Although sofosbuvir has been approved for patients with genotypes 2/3 (G2/3, many parts of the world still consider pegylated Interferon alpha (P and ribavirin (R as standard of care for G2/3. Patients with rapid virological response (RVR show response rates >80%. However, SVR (sustained virological response in non-RVR patients is not satisfactory. Longer treatment duration may be required but evidence from prospective trials are lacking. A total of 1006 chronic HCV genotype 2/3 patients treated with P/R were recruited into a German HepNet multicenter screening registry. Of those, only 226 patients were still HCV RNA positive at week 4 (non-RVR. Non-RVR patients with ongoing response after 24 weeks P-2b/R qualified for OPTEX, a randomized trial investigating treatment extension of additional 24 weeks (total 48 weeks, Group A or additional 12 weeks (total 36 weeks, group B of 1.5 μg/kg P-2b and 800-1400 mg R. Due to the low number of patients without RVR, the number of 150 anticipated study patients was not met and only 99 non-RVR patients (n=50 Group A, n=49 Group B could be enrolled into the OPTEX trial. Baseline factors did not differ between groups. Sixteen patients had G2 and 83 patients G3. Based on the ITT (intention-to-treat analysis, 68% [55%; 81%] in Group A and 57% [43%; 71%] in Group B achieved SVR (p= 0.31. The primary endpoint of better SVR rates in Group A compared to a historical control group (SVR 70% was not met. In conclusion, approximately 23% of G2/3 patients did not achieve RVR in a real world setting. However, subsequent recruitment in a treatment-extension study was difficult. Prolonged therapy beyond 24 weeks did not result in higher SVR compared to a historical control group.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00803309.

  4. Clinical correlates of patients with rapid-cycling bipolar disorder and a recent history of substance use disorder: a subtype comparison from baseline data of 2 randomized, placebo-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Keming; Verduin, Marcia L; Kemp, David E; Tolliver, Bryan K; Ganocy, Stephen J; Elhaj, Omar; Bilali, Sarah; Brady, Kathleen T; Findling, Robert L; Calabrese, Joseph R

    2008-07-01

    To compare clinical variables in patients with rapid-cycling bipolar I or II disorder and a recent history of substance use disorder (SUD). Cross-sectional data from 2 studies of patients with rapid-cycling bipolar I disorder or rapid-cycling bipolar II disorder and a recent history of SUD were used to retrospectively assess the differences in clinical variables between the subtypes. The studies were conducted from November 1997 to February 2007 at University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio. Extensive clinical interview and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview were used to ascertain DSM-IV diagnoses of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder, SUDs, and other Axis I disorders and to collect clinical variables. The Addiction Severity Index (ASI), Global Assessment Scale (GAS), and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey were used to measure the severity of impairment at the initial assessment. One-way analysis of variance or chi(2) was used for significance tests. A Bonferroni adjustment was applied for multiple comparisons. Of 245 patients with rapid-cycling bipolar disorder (rapid-cycling bipolar I disorder, N = 191; rapid-cycling bipolar II disorder, N = 54) and a recent history of SUD, the demographics were similar. A significantly higher rate of panic disorder was observed in patients with rapid-cycling bipolar I disorder than in those with rapid-cycling bipolar II disorder (odds ratio = 3.72, 95% CI = 1.66 to 8.32, p = .008). A significantly higher psychiatric composite score on the ASI was also found in patients with rapid-cycling bipolar I disorder than in those with rapid-cycling bipolar II disorder even after Bonferroni adjustment (p = .0007). There were no significant differences between the subtypes in the rates of previous hospitalization or suicide attempt, early childhood verbal, physical, or sexual abuse, lifetime substance abuse or dependence, the number of

  5. RRT*-SMART: A Rapid Convergence Implementation of RRT*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauwairia Nasir

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Many sampling based algorithms have been introduced recently. Among them Rapidly Exploring Random Tree (RRT is one of the quickest and the most efficient obstacle free path finding algorithm. Although it ensures probabilistic completeness, it cannot guarantee finding the most optimal path. Rapidly Exploring Random Tree Star (RRT*, a recently proposed extension of RRT, claims to achieve convergence towards the optimal solution thus ensuring asymptotic optimality along with probabilistic completeness. However, it has been proven to take an infinite time to do so and with a slow convergence rate. In this paper an extension of RRT*, called as RRT*-Smart, has been prposed to overcome the limitaions of RRT*. The goal of the proposecd method is to accelerate the rate of convergence, in order to reach an optimum or near optimum solution at a much faster rate, thus reducing the execution time. The novel approach of the proposed algorithm makes use of two new techniques in RRT*–Path Optimization and Intelligent Sampling. Simulation results presented in various obstacle cluttered environments along with statistical and mathematical analysis confirm the efficiency of the proposed RRT*-Smart algorithm.

  6. Random tensors

    CERN Document Server

    Gurau, Razvan

    2017-01-01

    Written by the creator of the modern theory of random tensors, this book is the first self-contained introductory text to this rapidly developing theory. Starting from notions familiar to the average researcher or PhD student in mathematical or theoretical physics, the book presents in detail the theory and its applications to physics. The recent detections of the Higgs boson at the LHC and gravitational waves at LIGO mark new milestones in Physics confirming long standing predictions of Quantum Field Theory and General Relativity. These two experimental results only reinforce today the need to find an underlying common framework of the two: the elusive theory of Quantum Gravity. Over the past thirty years, several alternatives have been proposed as theories of Quantum Gravity, chief among them String Theory. While these theories are yet to be tested experimentally, key lessons have already been learned. Whatever the theory of Quantum Gravity may be, it must incorporate random geometry in one form or another....

  7. Scheduled Intermittent Screening with Rapid Diagnostic Tests and Treatment with Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine versus Intermittent Preventive Therapy with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine for Malaria in Pregnancy in Malawi: An Open-Label Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwayiwawo Madanitsa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In Africa, most plasmodium infections during pregnancy remain asymptomatic, yet are associated with maternal anemia and low birthweight. WHO recommends intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP. However, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP efficacy is threatened by high-level parasite resistance. We conducted a trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of scheduled intermittent screening with malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs and treatment of RDT-positive women with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP as an alternative strategy to IPTp-SP.This was an open-label, two-arm individually randomized superiority trial among HIV-seronegative women at three sites in Malawi with high SP resistance. The intervention consisted of three or four scheduled visits in the second and third trimester, 4 to 6 wk apart. Women in the IPTp-SP arm received SP at each visit. Women in the intermittent screening and treatment in pregnancy with DP (ISTp-DP arm were screened for malaria at every visit and treated with DP if RDT-positive. The primary outcomes were adverse live birth outcome (composite of small for gestational age, low birthweight [<2,500 g], or preterm birth [<37 wk] in paucigravidae (first or second pregnancy and maternal or placental plasmodium infection at delivery in multigravidae (third pregnancy or higher. Analysis was by intention to treat. Between 21 July 2011 and 18 March 2013, 1,873 women were recruited (1,155 paucigravidae and 718 multigravidae. The prevalence of adverse live birth outcome was similar in the ISTp-DP (29.9% and IPTp-SP (28.8% arms (risk difference = 1.08% [95% CI -3.25% to 5.41%]; all women: relative risk [RR] = 1.04 [95% CI 0.90-1.20], p = 0.625; paucigravidae: RR = 1.10 [95% CI 0.92-1.31], p = 0.282; multigravidae: RR = 0.92 [95% CI 0.71-1.20], p = 0.543. The prevalence of malaria at delivery was higher in the ISTp-DP arm (48.7% versus 40.8%; risk difference = 7.85%, [95% CI 3

  8. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  9. Exploration Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, D.R.; Stanley, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for 2012 draws upon information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents analyses of exploration activities performed by the mineral industry. Three sources of information are reported and analyzed in this annual review of international exploration for 2012: 1) budgetary statistics expressed in U.S. nominal dollars provided by SNL Metals Economics Group (MEG) of Halifax, Nova Scotia; 2) regional and site-specific exploration activities that took place in 2012 as compiled by the USGS and 3) regional events including economic, social and political conditions that affected exploration activities, which were derived from published sources and unpublished discussions with USGS and industry specialists.

  10. Exploration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennevik, H.C. [Saga Petroleum A/S, Forus (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    The paper evaluates exploration technology. Topics discussed are: Visions; the subsurface challenge; the creative tension; the exploration process; seismic; geology; organic geochemistry; seismic resolution; integration; drilling; value creation. 4 refs., 22 figs.

  11. Rapid Prototyping of Mobile Learning Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federley, Maija; Sorsa, Timo; Paavilainen, Janne; Boissonnier, Kimo; Seisto, Anu

    2014-01-01

    This position paper presents the first results of an on-going project, in which we explore rapid prototyping method to efficiently produce digital learning solutions that are commercially viable. In this first phase, rapid game prototyping and an iterative approach was tested as a quick and efficient way to create learning games and to evaluate…

  12. Random matrices, random processes and integrable systems

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    This book explores the remarkable connections between two domains that, a priori, seem unrelated: Random matrices (together with associated random processes) and integrable systems. The relations between random matrix models and the theory of classical integrable systems have long been studied. These appear mainly in the deformation theory, when parameters characterizing the measures or the domain of localization of the eigenvalues are varied. The resulting differential equations determining the partition function and correlation functions are, remarkably, of the same type as certain equations appearing in the theory of integrable systems. They may be analyzed effectively through methods based upon the Riemann-Hilbert problem of analytic function theory and by related approaches to the study of nonlinear asymptotics in the large N limit. Associated with studies of matrix models are certain stochastic processes, the "Dyson processes", and their continuum diffusion limits, which govern the spectrum in random ma...

  13. Space exploration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chris Moore

    2012-01-01

      Here, Moore presents a year in review on space exploration programs. This 2012 NASA's strategy of stimulating the development of commercial capabilities to launch crew and cargo to the ISS began to pay off...

  14. Farside explorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mimoun, David; Wieczorek, Mark A.; Alkalai, Leon

    2012-01-01

    Farside Explorer is a proposed Cosmic Vision medium-size mission to the farside of the Moon consisting of two landers and an instrumented relay satellite. The farside of the Moon is a unique scientific platform in that it is shielded from terrestrial radio-frequency interference, it recorded...... the primary differentiation and evolution of the Moon, it can be continuously monitored from the Earth-Moon L2 Lagrange point, and there is a complete lack of reflected solar illumination from the Earth. Farside Explorer will exploit these properties and make the first radio-astronomy measurements from...... the most radio-quiet region of near-Earth space, determine the internal structure and thermal evolution of the Moon, from crust to core, and quantify impact hazards in near-Earth space by the measurement of flashes generated by impact events. The Farside Explorer flight system includes two identical solar...

  15. Exploring Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Godinho, Catarina

    2017-01-01

    Online social networks have been growing exponentially and are now one of the most important platforms of communication among users. This study aims to understand the impact of this new place of interaction on consumers’ behavior. To measure this impact, a quantitative study was conducted. The sample was randomly selected with 150 men across different nationalities and age groups, and was made in co-operation with the Consumer Goods Company P&G. The objective of the study was twofold: 1) unde...

  16. Introducing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria into drug shops in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Magnussen, Pascal; Chandler, Clare Ir

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An intervention was designed to introduce rapid diagnostics tests for malaria (mRDTs) into registered drug shops in Uganda to encourage rational and appropriate treatment of malaria with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). We conducted participatory training of drug shop...... through a cluster randomized trial. In this paper, we present detailed design, implementation and evaluation experiences in order to help inform future studies of a complex nature. METHODS: Three preparatory studies (formative, baseline and willingness-to-pay) were conducted to explore perceptions...

  17. Random maintenance policies

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Exploring random maintenance models, this book provides an introduction to the implementation of random maintenance, and it is one of the first books to be written on this subject.  It aims to help readers learn new techniques for applying random policies to actual reliability models, and it provides new theoretical analyses of various models including classical replacement, preventive maintenance and inspection policies. These policies are applied to scheduling problems, backup policies of database systems, maintenance policies of cumulative damage models, and reliability of random redundant systems. Reliability theory is a major concern for engineers and managers, and in light of Japan’s recent earthquake, the reliability of large-scale systems has increased in importance. This also highlights the need for a new notion of maintenance and reliability theory, and how this can practically be applied to systems. Providing an essential guide for engineers and managers specializing in reliability maintenance a...

  18. Appropriate targeting of artemisinin-based combination therapy by community health workers using malaria rapid diagnostic tests: findings from randomized trials in two contrasting areas of high and low malaria transmission in south-western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Magnussen, Pascal; Lal, Sham; Hansen, Kristian; Clarke, Siân E

    2016-09-01

    To compare the impact of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs), used by community health workers (CHWs), on the proportion of children decisions by CHWs were validated by microscopy on a reference blood slide collected at the time of consultation, to compare the proportion of children <5 years receiving appropriately targeted ACT treatment, defined as patients with microscopically-confirmed presence of parasites in a peripheral blood smear receiving artemether-lumefantrine or rectal artesunate, and patients with no malaria parasites not given ACT. In the moderate-to-high transmission area, ACT treatment was appropriately targeted in 79.3% (520/656) of children seen by CHWs using mRDTs to diagnose malaria, vs. 30.8% (215/699) of children seen by CHWs using presumptive diagnosis (P < 0.001). In the low transmission area, 90.1% (363/403) children seen by CHWs using mRDTs received appropriately targeted ACT treatment vs. 7.8% (64/817) seen by CHWs using presumptive diagnosis (P < 0.001). Low mRDT sensitivity in children with low-density parasitaemia (<200 parasites/μl) was identified as a potential concern. When equipped with mRDTs, ACT treatments delivered by CHWs are more accurately targeted to children with malaria parasites. mRDT use could play an important role in reducing overdiagnosis of malaria and improving fever case management within iCCM, in both moderate-to-high and low transmission areas. Nonetheless, missed treatments due to the low sensitivity of current mRDTs in patients with low parasite density are a concern. For community-based treatment in areas of low transmission and/or non-immune populations, presumptive treatment of all fevers as malaria may be advisable, until more sensitive diagnostic assays, suitable for routine use by CHWs in remote settings, become available. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Changes in body composition, hematologic parameters, and serum biochemistry after rapid intravenous infusion or oral intake of 2 liters of 0.9% saline solution in young healthy volunteers: randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguilar-Nascimento, José E; Valente, Ana C; Oliveira, Sergio S; Hartmann, Arthur; Slhessarenko, Natasha

    2012-12-01

    The perioperative infusion of 2 L of saline is associated with weight gain and decreased serum albumin and hematocrit. We hypothesized that these parameters would respond differently to oral administration and intravenous infusion of saline solution. This was a crossover study that included 10 healthy young men (ages 18-26 years). At two times, 8 weeks apart, the participants were randomized to receive 2 L of 0.9% saline over 1 h by intravenous (IV) administration to a forearm vein or by oral intake. The participants were weighed and body masses were calculated. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was performed with a single-frequency device using tetrapolar distal limb electrodes. Blood samples were collected 1 h after the administration period for laboratory assays: hematocrit, hemoglobin, blood glucose, serum electrolytes, albumin, creatinine, osmolality. There was an increase in body weight (p<0.01), total body water (p<0.01), and lean body mass (p<0.01) after the experiment in both groups, with no difference between them. The volume of urine output was similar in the two experiments. The hemoglobin (oral group from 14.4±0.8 g/dl to 13.8±0.8 g/dl; IV group from 14.4±0.6 g/dl to 12.6±0.6 g/dl) and hematocrit (oral group from 43.2±1.8% to 43.2±2.8%; IV group from 43.6±2.2% to 40.0±2.6%) significantly decreased (p<0.01) with IV saline. Serum albumin remained stable after oral intake but significantly decreased (p=0.04) after IV infusion. Oral intake of 2 L of 0.9% saline results in minimal variations in serum albumin, hemoglobin, and hematocrit when compared to IV infusion of the same volume.

  20. Exploring quadrangulations

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chihan

    2014-01-01

    Here we presented a framework to explore quad mesh topologies. The core of our work is a systematic enumeration algorithm that can generate all possible quadrangular meshes inside a defined boundary with an upper limit of v3-v5 pairs. The algorithm is orders of magnitude more efficient than previous work. The combination of topological enumeration and shape-space exploration demonstrates that mesh topology has a powerful influence on geometry. The Fig. 18. A gallery of different quadrilateral meshes for a Shuriken. The quadrilaterals of the model were colored in a postprocess. Topological variations have distinctive, interesting patterns of mesh lines. © 2014 ACM 0730-0301/2014/01-ART3 15.00.

  1. Exploring improvisation in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Mary Anne; Fenton, Mary V

    2007-06-01

    Improvisation has long been considered a function of music, dance, and the theatre arts. An exploration of the definitions and characteristics of this concept in relation to the art and practice of nursing provide an opportunity to illuminate related qualities within the field of nursing. Nursing has always demonstrated improvisation because it is often required to meet the needs of patients in a rapidly changing environment. However, little has been done to identify improvisation in the practice of nursing or to teach improvisation as a nursing knowledge-based skill. This article strives to explore the concept of improvisation in nursing, to describe the characteristics of improvisation as applied to nursing, and to utilize case studies to illustrate various manifestations of improvisation in nursing practice.

  2. Rayleigh-Wave Dispersion Technique for Rapid Subsurface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-04-01

    density of the soil is known or can be esatimated. Heukelom and Foster (1960), in the’r ayniunic testing of pave- mnsusing the vibratory technique...Heiland, C. A., 1940, Geophy.icai explorationt New York, Prentice-Hall. Heukelom , W., and Foster, C. R., 1960, Dynamic testing of pavements; Journal

  3. Exploring the role of antithrombin replacement for the treatment of preeclampsia: a prospective randomized evaluation of the safety and efficacy of recombinant antithrombin in very preterm preeclampsia (PRESERVE-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paidas, Michael J; Sibai, Bahaeddine M; Triche, Elizabeth W; Frieling, Johan; Lowry, Simon

    2013-06-01

    Antithrombin (AT) replacement has been described in patients with hereditary AT deficiency undergoing delivery; however, the kinetics of AT replacement in preeclampsia is not adequately understood. Therefore, the Prospective Randomized Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of Recombinant Antithrombin in Very Preterm Preeclampsia (PRESERVE-1) study has been proposed. Sixty women aged≥18 years at 24 0/7-28 0/7 weeks' gestation and with hypertension and proteinuria will be enrolled and randomly assigned to receive recombinant human AT or placebo until fetal and/or maternal indications cause cessation of expectant management or until 34 0/7 weeks' gestation. The primary endpoint is the increase in gestational age from randomization to delivery. Safety assessments and laboratory assays will also be performed. PRESERVE-1 study enrollment will begin during the second half of 2013. The PRESERVE-1 study will provide further insight into the pharmacokinetic activity and safety of AT therapy in preeclampsia. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  5. Space exploration

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Space Exploration, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes.  Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp.  Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary help and an index.

  6. Geoelectrical exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Said Barseem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sinai development is a goal of successive governments in Egypt. The present study is a geoelectrical exploration to find appropriate solutions of the problems affecting the land of a Research Station in Southeast Al Qantara. This research station is one of the Desert Research Center stations to facilitate the development of desert land for agriculture by introducing applied research. It suffers from some problems which can be summarized in the shortage of irrigation water and water logging. The appropriate solutions of these problems have been delineated by the results of 1D and 2D geoelectrical measurements. Electrical resistivity (ER revealed the subsurface sedimentary sequences and extension of subsurface layers in the horizontal and vertical directions, especially, the water bearing layer. Additionally it helped to choose the most suitable places to drill productive wells with a good condition.

  7. Exploring ESASky

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, Guido; ESASky Team

    2017-06-01

    ESASky is a science-driven discovery portal for all ESA space astronomy missions. It also includes missions from international partners such as Suzaku and Chandra. The first public release of ESASky features interfaces for sky exploration and for single and multiple target searches. Using the application requires no prior-knowledge of any of the missions involved and gives users world-wide simplified access to high-level science-ready data products from space-based Astronomy missions, plus a number of ESA-produced source catalogues, including the Gaia Data Release 1 catalogue. We highlight here the latest features to be developed, including one that allows the user to project onto the sky the footprints of the JWST instruments, at any chosen position and orientation. This tool has been developed to aid JWST astronomers when they are defining observing proposals. We aim to include other missions and instruments in the near future.

  8. Rapid Response in Psychological Treatments for Binge-Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Agras, W. Stewart; Wilfley, Denise E.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2015-01-01

    Objective Analysis of short- and long-term effects of rapid response across three different treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED). Method In a randomized clinical study comparing interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive-behavioral guided self-help (CBTgsh), and behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatment in 205 adults meeting DSM-IV criteria for BED, the predictive value of rapid response, defined as ≥ 70% reduction in binge-eating by week four, was determined for remission from binge-eating and global eating disorder psychopathology at posttreatment, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-up. Results Rapid responders in CBTgsh, but not in IPT or BWL, showed significantly greater rates of remission from binge-eating than non-rapid responders, which was sustained over the long term. Rapid and non-rapid responders in IPT and rapid responders in CBTgsh showed a greater remission from binge-eating than non-rapid responders in CBTgsh and BWL. Rapid responders in CBTgsh showed greater remission from binge-eating than rapid responders in BWL. Although rapid responders in all treatments had lower global eating disorder psychopathology than non-rapid responders in the short term, rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT were more improved than those in BWL and non-rapid responders in each treatment. Rapid responders in BWL did not differ from non-rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT. Conclusions Rapid response is a treatment-specific positive prognostic indicator of sustained remission from binge-eating in CBTgsh. Regarding an evidence-based stepped care model, IPT, equally efficacious for rapid and non-rapid responders, could be investigated as a second-line treatment in case of non-rapid response to first-line CBTgsh. PMID:25867446

  9. Rapid Targeted Genomics in Critically Ill Newborns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diemen, Cleo C; Kerstjens-Frederikse, Wilhelmina S; Bergman, Klasien A; de Koning, Tom J; Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; van der Velde, Joeri K; Abbott, Kristin M; Herkert, Johanna C; Löhner, Katharina; Rump, Patrick; Meems-Veldhuis, Martine T; Neerincx, Pieter B T; Jongbloed, Jan D H; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M; Swertz, Morris A; Sinke, Richard J; van Langen, Irene M; Wijmenga, Cisca

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rapid diagnostic whole-genome sequencing has been explored in critically ill newborns, hoping to improve their clinical care and replace time-consuming and/ or invasive diagnostic testing. A previous retrospective study in a research setting showed promising results with diagnoses in

  10. A randomized phase 2 study exploring the role of bevacizumab and a chemotherapy-free approach in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer: The HAT study (BOOG 2008-2003), a Dutch Breast Cancer Research Group trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Drooger (Jan); H. van Tinteren (Harm); de Groot, S.M. (Steffen M.); A.J. ten Tije (Albert Jan); H. de Graaf (Hiltje); J.E.A. Portielje (Johanneke ); A. Jäger (A.); A.H. Honkoop (Aafke H); S.C. Linn (Sabine); J.R. Kroep (Judith); F.L.G. Erdkamp (Frans ); A.P. Hamberg (Paul); Imholz, A.L.T. (Alex L. T.); van Rossum-Schornagel, Q.C. (Quirine C.); J.B. Heijns (Joan); A.E. van Leeuwen-Stok; S. Sleijfer (Stefan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: To explore the role of bevacizumab and a chemotherapy-free approach, the authors evaluated the combination of bevacizumab, trastuzumab, and paclitaxel (HAT) and the regimen of trastuzumab and bevacizumab (HA) with the addition of paclitaxel after progression (HA-HAT) as

  11. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  12. Looking inside the black box: results of a theory-based process evaluation exploring the results of a randomized controlled trial of printed educational messages to increase primary care physicians' diabetic retinopathy referrals [Trial registration number ISRCTN72772651].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Presseau, Justin; Tetroe, Jacqueline; Eccles, Martin P; Francis, Jill J; Godin, Gaston; Graham, Ian D; Hux, Janet E; Johnston, Marie; Légaré, France; Lemyre, Louise; Robinson, Nicole; Zwarenstein, Merrick

    2014-08-06

    Theory-based process evaluations conducted alongside randomized controlled trials provide the opportunity to investigate hypothesized mechanisms of action of interventions, helping to build a cumulative knowledge base and to inform the interpretation of individual trial outcomes. Our objective was to identify the underlying causal mechanisms in a cluster randomized trial of the effectiveness of printed educational materials (PEMs) to increase referral for diabetic retinopathy screening. We hypothesized that the PEMs would increase physicians' intention to refer patients for retinal screening by strengthening their attitude and subjective norm, but not their perceived behavioral control. Design: A theory based process evaluation alongside the Ontario Printed Educational Material (OPEM) cluster randomized trial. Postal surveys based on the Theory of Planned Behavior were sent to a random sample of trial participants two months before and six months after they received the intervention. Setting: Family physicians in Ontario, Canada. Participants: 1,512 family physicians (252 per intervention group) from the OPEM trial were invited to participate, and 31.3% (473/1512) responded at time one and time two. The final sample comprised 437 family physicians fully completing questionnaires at both time points. Main Outcome Measures: Primary: behavioral intention related to referring patient for retinopathy screening; secondary: attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control. At baseline, family physicians reported positive intention, attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control to advise patients about retinopathy screening suggesting limited opportunities for improvement in these constructs. There were no significant differences on intention, attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control following the intervention. Respondents also reported additional physician- and patient-related factors perceived to influence whether patients received

  13. Random thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ajansen; kwhitefoot; panteltje1; edprochak; sudhakar, the

    2014-07-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com news story “How to make a quantum random-number generator from a mobile phone” (16 May, http://ow.ly/xFiYc, see also p5), which describes a way of delivering random numbers by counting the number of photons that impinge on each of the individual pixels in the camera of a Nokia N9 smartphone.

  14. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the smallest air passages of the lungs in children ( bronchiolitis ) Pneumonia or other lung infection Transient tachypnea of the newborn Anxiety and panic Other serious lung disease Home Care Rapid, shallow breathing should not be treated at home. It is ...

  15. Rapid Strep Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worse than normal. Your first thoughts turn to strep throat. A rapid strep test in your doctor’s office ... your suspicions.Viruses cause most sore throats. However, strep throat is an infection caused by the Group A ...

  16. RAPID3? Aptly named!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, J-M

    2014-01-01

    The RAPID3 score is the sum of three 0-10 patient self-report scores: pain, functional impairment on MDHAQ, and patient global estimate. It requires 5 seconds for scoring and can be used in all rheumatologic conditions, although it has mostly been used in rheumatoid arthritis where cutoffs for low disease activity (12/30) have been set. A RAPID3 score of ≤ 3/30 with 1 or 0 swollen joints (RAPID3 ≤ 3 + ≤ SJ1) provides remission criteria comparable to Boolean, SDAI, CDAI, and DAS28 remission criteria, in far less time than a formal joint count. RAPID3 performs as well as the DAS28 in separating active drugs from placebos in clinical trials. RAPID3 also predicts subsequent structural disease progression. RAPID3 can be determined at short intervals at home, allowing the determination of the area under the curve of disease activity between two visits and flare detection. However, RAPID3 should not be seen as a substitute for DAS28 and face to face visits in routine care. Monitoring patient status with only self-report information without a rheumatologist's advice (including joints and physical examination, and consideration of imaging and laboratory tests) may indeed be as undesirable for most patients than joint examination without a patient questionnaire. Conversely, combining the RAPID3 and the DAS28 may consist in faster or more sensitive confirmation that a medication is effective. Similarly, better enquiring of most important concerns of patients (pain, functional status and overall opinion on their disorder) should reinforces patients' confidence in their rheumatologist and treatments.

  17. POROSIMETRY BY RANDOM NODE STRUCTURING IN VIRTUAL CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Stroeven

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Two different porosimetry methods are presented in two successive papers. Inspiration for the development came from the rapidly-exploring random tree (RRT approach used in robotics. The novel methods are applied to virtual cementitious materials produced by a modern concurrent algorithm-based discrete element modeling system, HADES. This would render possible realistically simulating all aspects of particulate matter that influence structure-sensitive features of the pore network structure in maturing concrete, namely size, shape and dispersion of the aggregate and cement particles. Pore space is a complex tortuous entity. Practical methods conventionally applied for assessment of pore size distribution may fail or present biased information. Among them, mercury intrusion porosimetry and 2D quantitative image analysis are popular. The mathematical morphology operator “opening” can be applied to sections and even provide 3D information on pore size distribution, provided isotropy is guaranteed. However, aggregate grain surfaces lead to anisotropy in porosity. The presented methods allow exploration of pore space in the virtual material, after which pore size distribution is derived from star volume measurements. In addition to size of pores their continuity is of crucial importance for durability estimation. Double-random multiple tree structuring (DRaMuTS, introduced earlier in IA&S (Stroeven et al., 2011b and random node structuring (RaNoS provide such information.

  18. Rapid endovascular catheter core cooling combined with cold saline as an adjunct to percutaneous coronary intervention for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. The CHILL-MI trial: a randomized controlled study of the use of central venous catheter core cooling combined with cold saline as an adjunct to percutaneous coronary intervention for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlinge, David; Götberg, Matthias; Lang, Irene; Holzer, Michael; Noc, Marko; Clemmensen, Peter; Jensen, Ulf; Metzler, Bernhard; James, Stefan; Bötker, Hans Erik; Omerovic, Elmir; Engblom, Henrik; Carlsson, Marcus; Arheden, Håkan; Ostlund, Ollie; Wallentin, Lars; Harnek, Jan; Olivecrona, Göran K

    2014-05-13

    The aim of this study was to confirm the cardioprotective effects of hypothermia using a combination of cold saline and endovascular cooling. Hypothermia has been reported to reduce infarct size (IS) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions. In a multicenter study, 120 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions (cold saline and endovascular cooling or standard of care. Hypothermia was initiated before percutaneous coronary intervention and continued for 1 h after reperfusion. The primary end point was IS as a percent of myocardium at risk (MaR), assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at 4 ± 2 days. Mean times from symptom onset to randomization were 129 ± 56 min in patients receiving hypothermia and 132 ± 64 min in controls. Patients randomized to hypothermia achieved a core body temperature of 34.7°C before reperfusion, with a 9-min longer door-to-balloon time. Median IS/MaR was not significantly reduced (hypothermia: 40.5% [interquartile range: 29.3% to 57.8%; control: 46.6% [interquartile range: 37.8% to 63.4%]; relative reduction 13%; p = 0.15). The incidence of heart failure was lower with hypothermia at 45 ± 15 days (3% vs. 14%, p cold saline and endovascular cooling was feasible and safe, and it rapidly reduced core temperature with minor reperfusion delay. The primary end point of IS/MaR was not significantly reduced. Lower incidence of heart failure and a possible effect in patients with early anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions need confirmation. (Efficacy of Endovascular Catheter Cooling Combined With Cold Saline for the Treatment of Acute Myocardial Infarction [CHILL-MI]; NCT01379261). Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Universal randomness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotsenko, Viktor S [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-31

    In the last two decades, it has been established that a single universal probability distribution function, known as the Tracy-Widom (TW) distribution, in many cases provides a macroscopic-level description of the statistical properties of microscopically different systems, including both purely mathematical ones, such as increasing subsequences in random permutations, and quite physical ones, such as directed polymers in random media or polynuclear crystal growth. In the first part of this review, we use a number of models to examine this phenomenon at a simple qualitative level and then consider the exact solution for one-dimensional directed polymers in a random environment, showing that free energy fluctuations in such a system are described by the universal TW distribution. The second part provides detailed appendix material containing the necessary mathematical background for the first part. (reviews of topical problems)

  20. Random triangles

    OpenAIRE

    Matula, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    The author summarizes some previous results concerning random triangles. He describes the Gaussian triangle and random triangles whose vertices lie in a unit n-dimensional ball, in a rectangle or in a general bounded convex set. In the second part, the author deals with an inscribed triangle in a triangle - let ABC be an equilateral triangle and let M, N, O be three points, each laying on one side of the ABC. We call MNO inscribed triangle (in an equi- laterral triangle). The median triangle ...

  1. Random matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Madan Lal

    1990-01-01

    Since the publication of Random Matrices (Academic Press, 1967) so many new results have emerged both in theory and in applications, that this edition is almost completely revised to reflect the developments. For example, the theory of matrices with quaternion elements was developed to compute certain multiple integrals, and the inverse scattering theory was used to derive asymptotic results. The discovery of Selberg's 1944 paper on a multiple integral also gave rise to hundreds of recent publications. This book presents a coherent and detailed analytical treatment of random matrices, leading

  2. KEPLER RAPIDLY ROTATING GIANT STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, A. D.; Martins, B. L. Canto; Bravo, J. P.; Paz-Chinchón, F.; Chagas, M. L. das; Leão, I. C.; Oliveira, G. Pereira de; Silva, R. Rodrigues da; Roque, S.; Oliveira, L. L. A. de; Silva, D. Freire da; De Medeiros, J. R., E-mail: renan@dfte.ufrn.br [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitário, Natal RN (Brazil)

    2015-07-10

    Rapidly rotating giant stars are relatively rare and may represent important stages of stellar evolution, resulting from stellar coalescence of close binary systems or accretion of substellar companions by their hosting stars. In the present Letter, we report 17 giant stars observed in the scope of the Kepler space mission exhibiting rapid rotation behavior. For the first time, the abnormal rotational behavior for this puzzling family of stars is revealed by direct measurements of rotation, namely from photometric rotation period, exhibiting a very short rotation period with values ranging from 13 to 55 days. This finding points to remarkable surface rotation rates, up to 18 times the rotation of the Sun. These giants are combined with six others recently listed in the literature for mid-infrared (IR) diagnostics based on Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer information, from which a trend for an IR excess is revealed for at least one-half of the stars, but at a level far lower than the dust excess emission shown by planet-bearing main-sequence stars.

  3. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  4. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Rapid Cycling and its Treatment What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar ... to Depression and Manic Depression . What is rapid cycling? Rapid cycling is defined as four or more ...

  5. The Exploration Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, A. D.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Klug Boonstra, S.; Ben-Naim, D.

    2016-12-01

    In the past decade, advances in scientific visualization and public data access transformed science outreach and communication. At the same time, the development of adaptive, personalized online learning platforms began to transform education. These revolutions are advancing rapidly, but largely separately: spectacular visualizations have found only limited use in formal instruction, while online learning experiences do not often effectively integrate the cutting edge of visualization and accessible data. With support from NASA SMD, we are developing a new type of learning experience that brings these revolutions together, centered on space science, for the purpose of improving science literacy at societal scale. In these experiences, learners develop and apply authentic scientific reasoning skills to explore, test, and discover the science of our Solar System. These experiences embed state-of-the-art, authentic data and 3D visualization within purpose-built interactive simulations. These simulations are, in turn, embedded in standards-aligned, gamefully designed learning experiences developed using the Smart Sparrow e-learning platform. The platform enables interactive feedback and adaptive learning pathways, and provides rich analytics about learner interaction from large-scale deployments that can guide rapid improvement cycles. In the first of these learning experiences, centered on the "small worlds" of the Solar System and aimed at informal settings, learners explore the motions of different objects in the sky to discover the locations of asteroids, Near Earth Objects, and Kuiper Belt Objects, in relation to the planets. Exploration takes place in a visually rich, interactive environment built on a 3D graphics engine and realistic physics model. Learners make observations, and develop and test their conceptual understanding of these observations, via a learning process that is guided by adaptive feedback. The experience is motivated by an "astrocaching

  6. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available . Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  7. Rapid Prototyping in PVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Butler, Ricky (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    PVSio is a conservative extension to the PVS prelude library that provides basic input/output capabilities to the PVS ground evaluator. It supports rapid prototyping in PVS by enhancing the specification language with built-in constructs for string manipulation, floating point arithmetic, and input/output operations.

  8. Rapid Prototyping Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosier, James

    2011-01-01

    Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…

  9. Fractional random walk lattice dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelitsch, T. M.; Collet, B. A.; Riascos, A. P.; Nowakowski, A. F.; Nicolleau, F. C. G. A.

    2017-02-01

    We analyze time-discrete and time-continuous ‘fractional’ random walks on undirected regular networks with special focus on cubic periodic lattices in n  =  1, 2, 3,.. dimensions. The fractional random walk dynamics is governed by a master equation involving fractional powers of Laplacian matrices {{L}\\fracα{2}}} where α =2 recovers the normal walk. First we demonstrate that the interval 0<α ≤slant 2 is admissible for the fractional random walk. We derive analytical expressions for the transition matrix of the fractional random walk and closely related the average return probabilities. We further obtain the fundamental matrix {{Z}(α )} , and the mean relaxation time (Kemeny constant) for the fractional random walk. The representation for the fundamental matrix {{Z}(α )} relates fractional random walks with normal random walks. We show that the matrix elements of the transition matrix of the fractional random walk exihibit for large cubic n-dimensional lattices a power law decay of an n-dimensional infinite space Riesz fractional derivative type indicating emergence of Lévy flights. As a further footprint of Lévy flights in the n-dimensional space, the transition matrix and return probabilities of the fractional random walk are dominated for large times t by slowly relaxing long-wave modes leading to a characteristic {{t}-\\frac{n{α}} -decay. It can be concluded that, due to long range moves of fractional random walk, a small world property is emerging increasing the efficiency to explore the lattice when instead of a normal random walk a fractional random walk is chosen.

  10. Rapid manufacturing facilitated customisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tuck, Christopher John; Hague, Richard; Ruffo, Massimiliano; Ransley, Michelle; Adams, Paul Russell

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes the production of body-fitting customised seat profiles utilising the following digital methods: three dimensional laser scanning, reverse engineering and Rapid Manufacturing (RM). The seat profiles have been manufactured in order to influence the comfort characteristics of an existing ejector seat manufactured by Martin Baker Aircraft Ltd. The seat, known as Navy Aircrew Common Ejection Seat (NACES), was originally designed with a generic profile. ...

  11. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Perlin

    2005-08-14

    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  12. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  13. Random walks in a random environment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. Random walks as well as diffusions in random media are considered. Methods are developed that allow one to establish large deviation results for both the 'quenched' and the 'averaged' case. Keywords. Large deviations; random walks in a random environment. 1. Introduction. A random walk on Zd is a stochastic ...

  14. Random functions and turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Panchev, S

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 32: Random Functions and Turbulence focuses on the use of random functions as mathematical methods. The manuscript first offers information on the elements of the theory of random functions. Topics include determination of statistical moments by characteristic functions; functional transformations of random variables; multidimensional random variables with spherical symmetry; and random variables and distribution functions. The book then discusses random processes and random fields, including stationarity and ergodicity of random

  15. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  16. Right-Rapid-Rough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Craig

    2003-01-01

    IDEO (pronounced 'eye-dee-oh') is an international design, engineering, and innovation firm that has developed thousands of products and services for clients across a wide range of industries. Its process and culture attracted the attention of academics, businesses, and journalists around the world, and are the subject of a bestselling book, The Art of Innovation by Tom Kelley. One of the keys to IDEO's success is its use of prototyping as a tool for rapid innovation. This story covers some of IDEO's projects, and gives reasons for why they were successful.

  17. Photo-Interviewing to Explore Everyday Occupation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukhave, Elise Bromann; Huniche, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This article sheds light on the potential and the limitations of photo-interviewing for the study of human occupation and in so doing, reflects the rapid growth in the use of participatory visual methods in a number of other disciplines. Using a study that explored first person perspecti......Abstract This article sheds light on the potential and the limitations of photo-interviewing for the study of human occupation and in so doing, reflects the rapid growth in the use of participatory visual methods in a number of other disciplines. Using a study that explored first person...

  18. The application of compressive sampling in rapid ultrasonic computerized tomography (UCT) technique of steel tube slab (STS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Baofeng; Jia, Pengjiao; Zhao, Wen; Wang, Wentao

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores a new method for rapid structural damage inspection of steel tube slab (STS) structures along randomly measured paths based on a combination of compressive sampling (CS) and ultrasonic computerized tomography (UCT). In the measurement stage, using fewer randomly selected paths rather than the whole measurement net is proposed to detect the underlying damage of a concrete-filled steel tube. In the imaging stage, the ℓ1-minimization algorithm is employed to recover the information of the microstructures based on the measurement data related to the internal situation of the STS structure. A numerical concrete tube model, with the various level of damage, was studied to demonstrate the performance of the rapid UCT technique. Real-world concrete-filled steel tubes in the Shenyang Metro stations were detected using the proposed UCT technique in a CS framework. Both the numerical and experimental results show the rapid UCT technique has the capability of damage detection in an STS structure with a high level of accuracy and with fewer required measurements, which is more convenient and efficient than the traditional UCT technique. PMID:29293593

  19. Rapid induction of neutrophil-endothelial adhesion by endothelial complement fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, R M; Todd, R F; Ward, P A

    1989-05-25

    The adhesion of neutrophils to vascular endothelium is an early event in their recruitment into acute inflammatory lesions. In evaluating potential neutrophil-endothelial adhesive mechanisms in acute inflammation, important considerations are that adhesion in vivo may occur very rapidly following injury and that the specificity of the reaction resides in altered endothelium. That is, neutrophils adhere only to altered endothelium adjacent to an inflammatory focus, rather than at random as would be expected if activation of neutrophils were the initiator of adhesion. We have explored a possible bridging role for complement in causing early neutrophil-endothelial cell adhesion. The complement system is involved in inflammatory processes, is capable of rapid amplification, and endothelial complement fixation at sites of inflammation could generate an endothelium-restricted signal for neutrophil adhesion. We have now developed a model in which this can be investigated without complicating factors such as immunoglobulin deposition, by constructing a novel molecule, a hybrid of the endothelial binding lectin Ulex europaeus I and of the complement activator cobra venom factor. This molecule has the capacity to cause fixation of complement on human umbilical vein endothelial cells. We show that complement fixation is a potent and rapid stimulus for neutrophil adhesion. Neutrophil adhesion requires only endothelial deposition of C3, and is mediated through the type 3 complement receptor.

  20. Rapid mineralocorticoid receptor trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekle, M; Bretschneider, M; Meinel, S; Ruhs, S; Grossmann, C

    2014-03-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that physiologically regulates water-electrolyte homeostasis and controls blood pressure. The MR can also elicit inflammatory and remodeling processes in the cardiovascular system and the kidneys, which require the presence of additional pathological factors like for example nitrosative stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for pathophysiological MR effects remain(s) elusive. The inactive MR is located in the cytosol associated with chaperone molecules including HSP90. After ligand binding, the MR monomer rapidly translocates into the nucleus while still being associated to HSP90 and after dissociation from HSP90 binds to hormone-response-elements called glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) as a dimer. There are indications that rapid MR trafficking is modulated in the presence of high salt, oxidative or nitrosative stress, hypothetically by induction or posttranslational modifications. Additionally, glucocorticoids and the enzyme 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase may also influence MR activation. Because MR trafficking and its modulation by micro-milieu factors influence MR cellular localization, it is not only relevant for genomic but also for nongenomic MR effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  2. Rapid parapatric speciation on holey adaptive landscapes

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilets, S; Vose, M D; Gavrilets, Sergey; Li, Hai; Vose, Michael D.

    1998-01-01

    A classical view of speciation is that reproductive isolation arises as a by-product of genetic divergence. Here, individual-based simulations are used to evaluate whether the mechanisms implied by this view may result in rapid speciation if the only source of genetic divergence are mutation and random genetic drift. Distinctive features of the simulations are the consideration of the complete process of speciation (from initiation until completion), and of a large number of loci, which was only one order of magnitude smaller than that of bacteria. It is demonstrated that rapid speciation on the time scale of hundreds of generations is plausible without the need for extreme founder events, complete geographic isolation, the existence of distinct adaptive peaks or selection for local adaptation. The plausibility of speciation is enhanced by population subdivision. Simultaneous emergence of more than two new species from a subdivided population is highly probable. Numerical examples relevant to the theory of ce...

  3. Exploring a Large Space of Small Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barros, Gabriella; Togelius, Julian

    We explore the soundness and playability of randomly generated games expressed in the Video Game Description Language (VGDL). A grammar is defined for VGDL, which is able to express a large variety of simple arcade-like games, and random expansions of this grammar are fed to a VGDL interpreter...... and played with off the shelf agents. We see this work as the first step towards generating complete, playable games....

  4. Birth Control Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STIs Media Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 579 Birth Control Explorer Sort by all methods most effective methods ... You are here Home » Birth Control Explorer Birth Control Explorer If you’re having sex —or if ...

  5. Bile Duct Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Departments Home / Health Library / Articles / Bile Duct Exploration Bile Duct Exploration The CBD is a tube connecting the ... liver and gallbladder to the intestine. When is bile duct exploration performed? If something is blocking the bile ...

  6. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  7. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  8. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  9. Tools for Exploring the Proteomosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Andrej; Valcu, Cristina-Maria; Junqueira, Magno

    2009-01-01

    Homology-driven proteomics aims at exploring the proteomes of organisms with unsequenced genomes that, despite rapid genomic sequencing progress, still represent the overwhelming majority of species in the biosphere. Methodologies have been developed to enable automated LC-MS/MS identifications of unknown proteins, which rely on the sequence similarity between the fragmented peptides and reference database sequences from phylogenetically related species. However, because full sequences of matched proteins are not available and matching specificity is reduced, estimating protein abundances should become the obligatory element of homology-driven proteomics pipelines to circumvent the interpretation bias towards proteins from evolutionary conserved families. PMID:19167528

  10. Rapid prototyping tools

    OpenAIRE

    Birkeland, Petter I

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the description of the method and result of the master project of Petter Ildgruben at the Department of Engineering Design and Materials (IPM) at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) in the spring of 2016. The goal of this master s thesis has been to explore the barriers that novel users face in makerspaces, specifically when interacting with the 3D printer, the laser cutter and the Computer Numerical Control (CNC) mill and how to overcome them. The first...

  11. Random fixed points and random differential inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos S. Papageorgiou

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, first, we study random best approximations to random sets, using fixed point techniques, obtaining this way stochastic analogues of earlier deterministic results by Browder-Petryshyn, KyFan and Reich. Then we prove two fixed point theorems for random multifunctions with stochastic domain that satisfy certain tangential conditions. Finally we consider a random differential inclusion with upper semicontinuous orientor field and establish the existence of random solutions.

  12. Nuclear Energy for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear power and propulsion systems can enable exciting space exploration missions. These include bases on the moon and Mars; and the exploration, development, and utilization of the solar system. In the near-term, fission surface power systems could provide abundant, constant, cost-effective power anywhere on the surface of the Moon or Mars, independent of available sunlight. Affordable access to Mars, the asteroid belt, or other destinations could be provided by nuclear thermal rockets. In the further term, high performance fission power supplies could enable both extremely high power levels on planetary surfaces and fission electric propulsion vehicles for rapid, efficient cargo and crew transfer. Advanced fission propulsion systems could eventually allow routine access to the entire solar system. Fission systems could also enable the utilization of resources within the solar system. Fusion and antimatter systems may also be viable in the future

  13. Active Exploration for Learning Symbolic Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Garrett; Konidaris, George

    2017-01-01

    We introduce an online active exploration algorithm for data-efficiently learning an abstract symbolic model of an environment. Our algorithm is divided into two parts: the first part quickly generates an intermediate Bayesian symbolic model from the data that the agent has collected so far, which the agent can then use along with the second part to guide its future exploration towards regions of the state space that the model is uncertain about. We show that our algorithm outperforms random ...

  14. Rocuronium versus succinylcholine in air medical rapid-sequence intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiestand, Brian; Cudnik, Michael T; Thomson, David; Werman, Howard A

    2011-01-01

    by air medical crews with succinylcholine as opposed to rocuronium. Prospective, randomized studies are needed to confirm these findings and to explore the impact of succinylcholine on the outcomes of air medical-transported patients. Key words: airway management; critical care; emergency medical services; neuromuscular blockade; succinylcholine; rocuronium; rapid-sequence intubation; intubation; air medical transport.

  15. Building a rapid response team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Lisa; Garolis, Salomeja; Wallace-Scroggs, Allyson; Stenstrom, Judy; Maunder, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The use of rapid response teams is a relatively new approach for decreasing or eliminating codes in acute care hospitals. Based on the principles of a code team for cardiac and/or respiratory arrest in non-critical care units, the rapid response teams have specially trained nursing, respiratory, and medical personnel to respond to calls from general care units to assess and manage decompensating or rapidly changing patients before their conditions escalate to a full code situation. This article describes the processes used to develop a rapid response team, clinical indicators for triggering a rapid response team call, topics addressed in an educational program for the rapid response team members, and methods for evaluating effectiveness of the rapid response team.

  16. Virtual reality and planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Michael W.

    Exploring planetary environments is central to NASA's missions and goals. A new computing technology called Virtual Reality has much to offer in support of planetary exploration. This technology augments and extends human presence within computer-generated and remote spatial environments. Historically, NASA has been a leader in many of the fundamental concepts and technologies that comprise Virtual Reality. Indeed, Ames Research Center has a central role in the development of this rapidly emerging approach to using computers. This ground breaking work has inspired researchers in academia, industry, and the military. Further, NASA's leadership in this technology has spun off new businesses, has caught the attention of the international business community, and has generated several years of positive international media coverage. In the future, Virtual Reality technology will enable greatly improved human-machine interactions for more productive planetary surface exploration. Perhaps more importantly, Virtual Reality technology will democratize the experience of planetary exploration and thereby broaden understanding of, and support for, this historic enterprise.

  17. Astrobiology and Venus exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinspoon, David H.; Bullock, Mark A.

    life. Life, once established in the early oceans of Venus, may have migrated to the clouds which, on present day Venus, may represent a habitable niche. Though highly acidic, this aqueous environment enjoys moderate temperatures, surroundings far from chemical equilibrium, and potentially useful radiation fluxes. Observations of unusual chemistry in the clouds, and particle populations that are not well characterized, suggest that this environment must be explored much more fully before biology can be ruled out. A sulfur-based metabolism for cloud-based life on Venus has recently been proposed (Schulze-Makuch et al., 2004). While speculative, these arguments, along with the discovery of terrestrial extremophile organisms that point toward the plausibility of survival in the Venusian clouds, establish the credibility of astrobiological exploration of Venus. Arguments for the possible existence of life on Mars or Europa are, by convention and repetition, seen as more mainstream than arguments for life elsewhere, but their logical status is similar to plausibility arguments for life on Venus. With the launch of COROT in 2006 and Kepler in 2008 the demographics of Earth-sized planets in our galaxy should finally become known. Future plans for a Terrestrial Planet Finder or Darwin-type space-based spectrograph should provide the capability of studying the atmospheric composition and other properties of terrestrial planets. One of the prime rationales for building such instruments is the possibility of identifying habitable planets or providing more generalized observational constraints on the habitable zones of stellar systems. Given the prevalence of CO2 dominated atmospheres in our own solar system, it is quite likely that a large fraction of these will be Venus-like in composition and evolutionary history. We will be observing these planets at random times in their evolution. In analogy with our own solar system, it is just as likely that we will find representatives of

  18. Problems of rapid growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T D

    1980-01-01

    South Korea's export-oriented development strategy has achieved a remarkable growth record, but it has also brought 2 different problems: 1) since the country's exports accounted for about 1% of total world export volume, the 1st world has become fearful about Korea's aggressive export drive; and 2) the fact that exports account for over 30% of its total gross national product (GNP) exposes the vulnerability of South Korea's economy itself. South Korea continues to be a poor nation, although it is rated as 1 of the most rapidly growing middle income economies. A World Bank 1978 report shows Korea to be 28th of 58 middle income countries in terms of per capita GNP in 1976. Of 11 newly industrializing countries (NIC), 5 in the European continent are more advanced than the others. A recent emphasis on the basic human needs approach has tended to downgrade the concept of GNP. Korea has only an abundant labor force and is without any natural resources. Consequently, Korea utilized an export-oriented development strategy. Oil requirements are met with imports, and almost all raw materials to be processed into exportable products must be imported. To pay import bills Korea must export and earn foreign exchange. It must be emphasized that foreign trade must always be 2-way traffic. In order to export more to middle income countries like Korea, the countries of the 1st world need to ease their protectionist measures against imports from developing countries.

  19. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  20. Rapidly rotating red giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehan, Charlotte; Mosser, Benoît; Michel, Eric

    2017-10-01

    Stellar oscillations give seismic information on the internal properties of stars. Red giants are targets of interest since they present mixed modes, wich behave as pressure modes in the convective envelope and as gravity modes in the radiative core. Mixed modes thus directly probe red giant cores, and allow in particular the study of their mean core rotation. The high-quality data obtained by CoRoT and Kepler satellites represent an unprecedented perspective to obtain thousands of measurements of red giant core rotation, in order to improve our understanding of stellar physics in deep stellar interiors. We developed an automated method to obtain such core rotation measurements and validated it for stars on the red giant branch. In this work, we particularly focus on the specific application of this method to red giants having a rapid core rotation. They show complex spectra where it is tricky to disentangle rotational splittings from mixed-mode period spacings. We demonstrate that the method based on the identification of mode crossings is precise and efficient. The determination of the mean core rotation directly derives from the precise measurement of the asymptotic period spacing ΔΠ1 and of the frequency at which the crossing of the rotational components is observed.

  1. Rapid response in psychological treatments for binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Agras, W Stewart; Wilfley, Denise E; Wilson, G Terence

    2015-06-01

    Analysis of short- and long-term effects of rapid response across 3 different treatments for binge eating disorder (BED). In a randomized clinical study comparing interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive-behavioral therapy guided self-help (CBTgsh), and behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatment in 205 adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; APA, 1994) criteria for BED, the predictive value of rapid response, defined as ≥70% reduction in binge eating by Week 4, was determined for remission from binge eating and global eating disorder psychopathology at posttreatment, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-ups. Rapid responders in CBTgsh, but not in IPT or BWL, showed significantly greater rates of remission from binge eating than nonrapid responders, which was sustained over the long term. Rapid and nonrapid responders in IPT and rapid responders in CBTgsh showed a greater remission from binge eating than nonrapid responders in CBTgsh and BWL. Rapid responders in CBTgsh showed greater remission from binge eating than rapid responders in BWL. Although rapid responders in all treatments had lower global eating disorder psychopathology than nonrapid responders in the short term, rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT were more improved than those in BWL and nonrapid responders in each treatment. Rapid responders in BWL did not differ from nonrapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT. Rapid response is a treatment-specific positive prognostic indicator of sustained remission from binge eating in CBTgsh. Regarding an evidence-based, stepped-care model, IPT, equally efficacious for rapid and nonrapid responders, could be investigated as a second-line treatment in case of nonrapid response to first-line CBTgsh. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Rapid prototyping of composite aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George; Rais-Rohani, Masoud; Hall, Kenneth; Holifield, Walt; Sullivan, Rani; Brown, Scott

    The faculty, staff and students of the Raspet Flight Research Laboratory (RFRL) have developed a rapid prototyping capability in a series of research aircraft and unmanned aircraft development projects. There has been a steady change in the technologies used to accomplish these tasks at the RFRL. The most recent development has been the utilization of computer graphics and a 5-axis gantry robot router to accelerate the design, moldmaking and parts trimming tasks. The composite structure fabrication processes at the RFRL have evolved from wet-lay-up to autoclave curve. Currently, the feasibility of the stitched composite material preform and resin transfer molding process is being explored.

  3. Crowdsourced Translation for Rapid Internationalization in Cyberspace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Yen; Yonatany, Moshe; Mahnke, Volker

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores how Facebook effectively used crowdsourced translation to accelerate its rapid internationalization. We apply the learning perspective of internationalization theory to unpack what the firm learned in order to mobilize crowd-based knowledge to facilitate internationalization...... and codified knowledge, rather than the experiential knowledge traditionally suggested in the literature on the process of internationalization, and (2) the firm's success rested on its ability to use virtual learning tools and incentive systems to acquire, articulate and integrate knowledge from communities...... of internationally dispersed users – the “crowd” – to accelerate its internationalization in cyberspace. This empirical study extends internationalization theory regarding knowledge and organizational learning....

  4. Rapid mixing kinetic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen R; Schilstra, Maria J

    2013-01-01

    Almost all of the elementary steps in a biochemical reaction scheme are either unimolecular or bimolecular processes that frequently occur on sub-second, often sub-millisecond, time scales. The traditional approach in kinetic studies is to mix two or more reagents and monitor the changes in concentrations with time. Conventional spectrophotometers cannot generally be used to study reactions that are complete within less than about 20 s, as it takes that amount of time to manually mix the reagents and activate the instrument. Rapid mixing techniques, which generally achieve mixing in less than 2 ms, overcome this limitation. This chapter is concerned with the use of these techniques in the study of reactions which reach equilibrium; the application of these methods to the study of enzyme kinetics is described in several excellent texts (Cornish-Bowden, Fundamentals of enzyme kinetics. Portland Press, 1995; Gutfreund, Kinetics for the life sciences. Receptors, transmitters and catalysis. Cambridge University Press, 1995).There are various ways to monitor changes in concentration of reactants, intermediates and products after mixing, but the most common way is to use changes in optical signals (absorbance or fluorescence) which often accompany reactions. Although absorbance can sometimes be used, fluorescence is often preferred because of its greater sensitivity, particularly in monitoring conformational changes. Such methods are continuous with good time resolution but they seldom permit the direct determination of the concentrations of individual species. Alternatively, samples may be taken from the reaction volume, mixed with a chemical quenching agent to stop the reaction, and their contents assessed by techniques such as HPLC. These methods can directly determine the concentrations of different species, but are discontinuous and have a limited time resolution.

  5. Explore with Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Lester

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental goal of this vision is to advance U.S. scientific, security and economic interest through a robust space exploration program. Implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic program to explore the solar system and beyond. Extend human presence across the solar system, starting with a human return to the Moon by the year 2020, in preparation for human exploration of Mars and other destinations. Develop the innovative technologies, knowledge, and infrastructures both to explore and to support decisions about the destinations for human exploration. Promote international and commercial participation in exploration to further U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests.

  6. Rapid Active Sampling Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    A field-deployable, battery-powered Rapid Active Sampling Package (RASP), originally designed for sampling strong materials during lunar and planetary missions, shows strong utility for terrestrial geological use. The technology is proving to be simple and effective for sampling and processing materials of strength. Although this originally was intended for planetary and lunar applications, the RASP is very useful as a powered hand tool for geologists and the mining industry to quickly sample and process rocks in the field on Earth. The RASP allows geologists to surgically acquire samples of rock for later laboratory analysis. This tool, roughly the size of a wrench, allows the user to cut away swaths of weathering rinds, revealing pristine rock surfaces for observation and subsequent sampling with the same tool. RASPing deeper (.3.5 cm) exposes single rock strata in-situ. Where a geologist fs hammer can only expose unweathered layers of rock, the RASP can do the same, and then has the added ability to capture and process samples into powder with particle sizes less than 150 microns, making it easier for XRD/XRF (x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence). The tool uses a rotating rasp bit (or two counter-rotating bits) that resides inside or above the catch container. The container has an open slot to allow the bit to extend outside the container and to allow cuttings to enter and be caught. When the slot and rasp bit are in contact with a substrate, the bit is plunged into it in a matter of seconds to reach pristine rock. A user in the field may sample a rock multiple times at multiple depths in minutes, instead of having to cut out huge, heavy rock samples for transport back to a lab for analysis. Because of the speed and accuracy of the RASP, hundreds of samples can be taken in one day. RASP-acquired samples are small and easily carried. A user can characterize more area in less time than by using conventional methods. The field-deployable RASP used a Ni

  7. Rapid Robot Design Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robotic designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  8. Rapid Robot Design Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robot designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  9. Efficient exploration of multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiston, Federico; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Latora, Vito

    2016-04-01

    Efficient techniques to navigate networks with local information are fundamental to sample large-scale online social systems and to retrieve resources in peer-to-peer systems. Biased random walks, i.e. walks whose motion is biased on properties of neighbouring nodes, have been largely exploited to design smart local strategies to explore a network, for instance by constructing maximally mixing trajectories or by allowing an almost uniform sampling of the nodes. Here we introduce and study biased random walks on multiplex networks, graphs where the nodes are related through different types of links organised in distinct and interacting layers, and we provide analytical solutions for their long-time properties, including the stationary occupation probability distribution and the entropy rate. We focus on degree-biased random walks and distinguish between two classes of walks, namely those whose transition probability depends on a number of parameters which is extensive in the number of layers, and those whose motion depends on intrinsically multiplex properties of the neighbouring nodes. We analyse the effect of the structure of the multiplex network on the steady-state behaviour of the walkers, and we find that heterogeneous degree distributions as well as the presence of inter-layer degree correlations and edge overlap determine the extent to which a multiplex can be efficiently explored by a biased walk. Finally we show that, in real-world multiplex transportation networks, the trade-off between efficient navigation and resilience to link failure has resulted into systems whose diffusion properties are qualitatively different from those of appropriately randomised multiplex graphs. This fact suggests that multiplexity is an important ingredient to include in the modelling of real-world systems.

  10. Exploration and Mining Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2002-09-01

    This Exploration and Mining Technology Roadmap represents the third roadmap for the Mining Industry of the Future. It is based upon the results of the Exploration and Mining Roadmap Workshop held May 10 ñ 11, 2001.

  11. POROSIMETRY BY DOUBLE-RANDOM MULTIPLE TREE STRUCTURING IN VIRTUAL CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Stroeven

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Two different porosimetry methods are presented in two successive papers. Inspiration for the development came from the rapidly-exploring random tree (RRT approach used in robotics. The novel methods are applied to virtual cementitious materials produced by a modern concurrent algorithm-based discrete element modeling system, HADES. This would render possible realistically simulating all aspects of particulate matter that influence structure-sensitive features of the pore network structure in maturing concrete, namely size, shape and dispersion of aggregate and cement particles. Pore space is a complex tortuous entity. Practical methods conventionally applied for assessment of pore size distribution may fail or present biased information. Among them, mercury intrusion porosimetry and 2D quantitative image analysis are popular. The mathematical morphology operator “opening” can be applied to sections and even provide 3D information on pore size distribution, provided isotropy is guaranteed. Unfortunately, aggregate grain surfaces lead to pore anisotropy. The presented methods allow exploration of pore space in the virtual material, after which pore size distribution is derived from star volume measurements.  In addition to size of pores their continuity is of crucial importance for durability estimation. Double-random multiple tree structuring (DRaMuTS, presented herein, and random node structuring (RaNoS provide such information. The latter method will be introduced in a next issue of IA&S.

  12. Botanical Exploration Of Sinai

    OpenAIRE

    Batanouny, K. H. [كمال الدين حسن البتانوني

    1985-01-01

    The history of the botanical exploration of Sinai has been reviewed. It has been divided into the following periods: I. Expeditions in the eighteenth century. II. Exploration from 1800 till the publication of "Florula Sinaica". III. Exploration from 1835 till the publication of "Flora Orientalis". IV. A decade of intensive exploration (1861-1871). V. An era of extensive floristic studies (1871-1929) with the publication of the Flora of Egypt. VI. A period of updating. VII...

  13. Exploration cost-cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttrer, J.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Jerry Huttrer, President, Geothermal Management Company, discusses the general state of exploration in the geothermal industry today, and mentions some ways to economize and perhaps save costs of geothermal exploration in the future. He suggests an increased use of satellite imagery in the mapping of geothermal resources and the identification of hot spots. Also, coordinating with oil and gas exploration efforts, the efficiency of the exploration task could be optimized.

  14. Rapid prototyping in medical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ákos Márk Horváth

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Even if it sound a bit incredible rapid prototyping (RPT as production method has been used for decades in other professions. Nevertheless medical science just started discover the possibilities of this technology and use the offered benefits of 3D printing. In this paper authors have investigated the pharmaceutical usage of rapid prototyping.

  15. Diffraction and rapidity gap measurements in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Bernat, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The early data recorded by the ATLAS detector during 2010 presents a great opportunity to study diffraction cross section in proton-proton collision. The differential cross section of diffractive dissociation is studied as a function of the maximum rapidity gap, up to 8 in rapidity units. Data are compared to different models of diffractive dynamics in standard event generators. A rise at large rapidity gaps is interpreted with a triple pomeron based approach, using Pythia 8 prediction (with a Donnachie-Landshoff model). A pomeron intercept of 1.058 ± 0.003(stat) +0.034-0.039 (syst) is found. A measurement of the dijet production with a jet veto on additional central activity using 2010 data is also presented. The use of a veto scale at 20 GeV allows to measure the jet activity in dijet events. As the veto scale is much larger than Lambda_s different QCD phenomena can be studied. Moreover, ATLAS data explores regions of the phase space for the first time. The main observable in this analysis is the fraction ...

  16. Rapid sampling of molecular motions with prior information constraints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barak Raveh

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Proteins are active, flexible machines that perform a range of different functions. Innovative experimental approaches may now provide limited partial information about conformational changes along motion pathways of proteins. There is therefore a need for computational approaches that can efficiently incorporate prior information into motion prediction schemes. In this paper, we present PathRover, a general setup designed for the integration of prior information into the motion planning algorithm of rapidly exploring random trees (RRT. Each suggested motion pathway comprises a sequence of low-energy clash-free conformations that satisfy an arbitrary number of prior information constraints. These constraints can be derived from experimental data or from expert intuition about the motion. The incorporation of prior information is very straightforward and significantly narrows down the vast search in the typically high-dimensional conformational space, leading to dramatic reduction in running time. To allow the use of state-of-the-art energy functions and conformational sampling, we have integrated this framework into Rosetta, an accurate protocol for diverse types of structural modeling. The suggested framework can serve as an effective complementary tool for molecular dynamics, Normal Mode Analysis, and other prevalent techniques for predicting motion in proteins. We applied our framework to three different model systems. We show that a limited set of experimentally motivated constraints may effectively bias the simulations toward diverse predicates in an outright fashion, from distance constraints to enforcement of loop closure. In particular, our analysis sheds light on mechanisms of protein domain swapping and on the role of different residues in the motion.

  17. Event selection with a Random Forest in IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhe, Tim [TU, Dortmund (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2011-07-01

    The Random Forest method is a multivariate algorithm that can be used for classification and regression respectively. The Random Forest implemented in the RapidMiner learning environment has been used for training and validation on data and Monte Carlo simulations of the IceCube neutrino telescope. Latest results are presented.

  18. Rapid Response Predicts Treatment Outcomes in Binge Eating Disorder: Implications for Stepped Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined rapid response in 75 overweight patients with binge eating disorder (BED) who participated in a randomized clinical trial of guided self-help treatments (cognitive-behavioral therapy [CBTgsh] and behavioral weight loss [BWLgsh]). Rapid response, defined as a 65% or greater reduction in binge eating by the 4th treatment week,…

  19. How Rapid is Rapid Prototyping? Analysis of ESPADON Programme Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Alston

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available New methodologies, engineering processes, and support environments are beginning to emerge for embedded signal processing systems. The main objectives are to enable defence industry to field state-of-the-art products in less time and with lower costs, including retrofits and upgrades, based predominately on commercial off the shelf (COTS components and the model-year concept. One of the cornerstones of the new methodologies is the concept of rapid prototyping. This is the ability to rapidly and seamlessly move from functional design to the architectural design to the implementation, through automatic code generation tools, onto real-time COTS test beds. In this paper, we try to quantify the term “rapid” and provide results, the metrics, from two independent benchmarks, a radar and sonar beamforming application subset. The metrics show that the rapid prototyping process may be sixteen times faster than a conventional process.

  20. Random broadcast on random geometric graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elsasser, Robert [UNIV OF PADERBORN; Friedrich, Tobias [ICSI/BERKELEY; Sauerwald, Tomas [ICSI/BERKELEY

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we consider the random broadcast time on random geometric graphs (RGGs). The classic random broadcast model, also known as push algorithm, is defined as: starting with one informed node, in each succeeding round every informed node chooses one of its neighbors uniformly at random and informs it. We consider the random broadcast time on RGGs, when with high probability: (i) RGG is connected, (ii) when there exists the giant component in RGG. We show that the random broadcast time is bounded by {Omicron}({radical} n + diam(component)), where diam(component) is a diameter of the entire graph, or the giant component, for the regimes (i), or (ii), respectively. In other words, for both regimes, we derive the broadcast time to be {Theta}(diam(G)), which is asymptotically optimal.

  1. Synchronous Routing for Personal Rapid Transit Pods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mrad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal rapid transit (PRT is a public and automated transport system in which a fleet of small driverless vehicles operate in order to transport passengers between a set of stations through a network of guided ways. Each customer is carried from one station to another directly with no stop in intermediate stations. This mode of transport can result in a high level of unused capacity due to the empty moves of the vehicles. In this paper, we model the problem of minimizing the energy consumed by the PRT system while assuming predeterministic list of orders; then we solve it using some constructive heuristics. Experiments are run on 1320 randomly generated test problems with various sizes. Our algorithms are shown to give good results over large trip instances.

  2. Ergodicity of Random Walks on Random DFA

    OpenAIRE

    Balle, Borja

    2013-01-01

    Given a DFA we consider the random walk that starts at the initial state and at each time step moves to a new state by taking a random transition from the current state. This paper shows that for typical DFA this random walk induces an ergodic Markov chain. The notion of typical DFA is formalized by showing that ergodicity holds with high probability when a DFA is sampled uniformly at random from the set of all automata with a fixed number of states. We also show the same result applies to DF...

  3. Random fractional Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengjun; Liu, Shutian

    2007-08-01

    We propose a novel random fractional Fourier transform by randomizing the transform kernel function of the conventional fractional Fourier transform. The random fractional Fourier transform inherits the excellent mathematical properties from the fractional Fourier transform and can be easily implemented in optics. As a primary application the random fractional Fourier transform can be directly used in optical image encryption and decryption. The double phase encoding image encryption schemes can thus be modeled with cascaded random fractional Fourier transformers.

  4. Solid modeling and applications rapid prototyping, CAD and CAE theory

    CERN Document Server

    Um, Dugan

    2016-01-01

    The lessons in this fundamental text equip students with the theory of Computer Assisted Design (CAD), Computer Assisted Engineering (CAE), the essentials of Rapid Prototyping, as well as practical skills needed to apply this understanding in real world design and manufacturing settings. The book includes three main areas: CAD, CAE, and Rapid Prototyping, each enriched with numerous examples and exercises. In the CAD section, Professor Um outlines the basic concept of geometric modeling, Hermite and Bezier Spline curves theory, and 3-dimensional surface theories as well as rendering theory. The CAE section explores mesh generation theory, matrix notion for FEM, the stiffness method, and truss Equations. And in Rapid Prototyping, the author illustrates stereo lithographic theory and introduces popular modern RP technologies. Solid Modeling and Applications: Rapid Prototyping, CAD and CAE Theory is ideal for university students in various engineering disciplines as well as design engineers involved in product...

  5. A Rapid Coliform Detector Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC, in collaboration with Lucigen, proposes a rapid genetic detector for spaceflight water systems to enable real-time detection of E-coli with minimal...

  6. Rapid Multiplex Microbial Detector Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC, in collaboration with Lucigen, proposes a rapid nucleic acid-based detector for spaceflight water systems to enable simultaneous quantification of multiple...

  7. Visual explorer facilitator's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Palus, Charles J

    2010-01-01

    Grounded in research and practice, the Visual Explorer™ Facilitator's Guide provides a method for supporting collaborative, creative conversations about complex issues through the power of images. The guide is available as a component in the Visual Explorer Facilitator's Letter-sized Set, Visual Explorer Facilitator's Post card-sized Set, Visual Explorer Playing Card-sized Set, and is also available as a stand-alone title for purchase to assist multiple tool users in an organization.

  8. Rapid visual colorimetry of peritoneal lavage fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandberg, D; Reitmeyer, S T; Cheney, P R

    1990-11-01

    That visual colorimetry can be used to rapidly and precisely estimate the erythrocyte count of 1:5 dilutions of simulated peritoneal lavage fluid. Fifty-four normal adult human subjects. The automated or chamber RBC count is often used on fluid obtained by peritoneal lavage in patients with abdominal trauma to help determine the need for surgery. Unfortunately, this method sometimes results in excessive delay. We designed and built a simple colorimeter that facilitated rapid direct visual comparison of unknown samples with known color standards. A radiograph view box was used as a light source. Standards were prepared in 16-mm glass tubes to simulate peritoneal lavage fluid with RBC counts ranging from 0 to 140,000 in 10,000 cell/microL increments; 1:5 dilutions with water were used throughout to reduce opacity. Thimerosal was added to unknowns and standards to stabilize color; all samples were kept refrigerated at 4 C when not in use. In a double-blind in-vitro study, each subject matched 20 randomly distributed unknowns ranging from 12,000 to 131,000 erythrocytes/microL to the nearest standard. The mean absolute error for all 1,080 determinations was 3,560 RBC/microL (95% CI = 4,290-4,830; SD = 4,560; t = 39.6; df = 1,079; P less than .001). This method correctly predicted the RBC count to within 9,000 cells/microL 95% of the time. Visual comparison of 1:5 dilutions of simulated peritoneal lavage fluid with known color standards can be used to rapidly and precisely estimate the erythrocyte count.

  9. Exploring Massive Incomplete Lineage Sorting in Arctoids (Laurasiatheria, Carnivora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronina, Liliya; Churakov, Gennady; Shi, Jingjing; Brosius, Jürgen; Baertsch, Robert; Clawson, Hiram; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    Freed from the competition of large raptors, Paleocene carnivores could expand their newly acquired habitats in search of prey. Such changing conditions might have led to their successful distribution and rapid radiation. Today, molecular evolutionary biologists are faced, however, with the consequences of such accelerated adaptive radiations, because they led to sequential speciation more rapidly than phylogenetic markers could be fixed. The repercussions being that current genealogies based on such markers are incongruent with species trees.Our aim was to explore such conflicting phylogenetic zones of evolution during the early arctoid radiation, especially to distinguish diagnostic from misleading phylogenetic signals, and to examine other carnivore-related speciation events. We applied a combination of high-throughput computational strategies to screen carnivore and related genomes in silico for randomly inserted retroposed elements that we then used to identify inconsistent phylogenetic patterns in the Arctoidea group, which is well known for phylogenetic discordances.Our combined retrophylogenomic and in vitro wet lab approach detected hundreds of carnivore-specific insertions, many of them confirming well-established splits or identifying and solving conflicting species distributions. Our systematic genome-wide screens for Long INterspersed Elements detected homoplasy-free markers with insertion-specific truncation points that we used to distinguish phylogenetically informative markers from conflicting signals. The results were independently confirmed by phylogenetic diagnostic Short INterspersed Elements. As statistical analysis ruled out ancestral hybridization, these doubly verified but still conflicting patterns were statistically determined to be genomic remnants from a time of ancestral incomplete lineage sorting that especially accompanied large parts of Arctoidea evolution. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  10. Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer: Status and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Alan

    2009-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer is a balloon-borne instrument to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background in order to detect the characteristic signature of gravity waves created during an inflationary epoch in the early universe. PIPER combines cold /I.G K\\ optics, 5120 bolometric detectors, and rapid polarization modulation using VPM grids to achieve both high sensitivity and excellent control of systematic errors. I will discuss the current status and plans for the PIPER instrument.

  11. Random walks in a random environment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 114; Issue 4. Random Walks in a Random Environment. S R S Varadhan. Invited Articles Volume 114 Issue ... Author Affiliations. S R S Varadhan1. Department of Mathematics, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, NY 10012, USA ...

  12. The exploration metaphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgreevy, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    NASA's experience in planetary exploration has demonstrated that the desktop workstation is inadequate for many visualization situations. The primary mission displays for the unmanned Surveyor missions to the moon during the mid-1960's, for example, were environmental images assembled on the inside surfaces of spherical shells. Future exploration missions will greatly benefit from advances in digital computer and display technology, but there remain unmet user interface needs. Alternative user interfaces and metaphors are needed for planetary exploration and other interactions with complex spatial environments. These interfaces and metaphors would enable the user to directly explore environments and naturally manipulate objects in those environments. Personal simulators, virtual workstations, and telepresence user interfaces are systems capable of providing this integration of user space and task space. The Exploration Metaphor is a useful concept for guiding the design of user interfaces for virtual environments and telepresence. To apply the Exploration Metaphor is to assert that computing is like exploration, and to support objects, operations, and contexts comparable to those encountered in the exploration of natural environments. The Exploration Metaphor, under development for user interfaces in support of NASA's planetary exploration missions and goals, will also benefit other applications where complex spatial information must be visualized. Visualization methods and systems for planetary exploration are becoming increasingly integrated and interactive as computing technology improves. These advances will benefit from virtual environment and telepresence interface technology. A key development has been the processing of multiple images and other sensor data to create detailed digital models of the planets and moons. Data from images of the Earth, Mars, and Miranda, for example, have been converted into 3D models, and dynamic virtual fly-overs have been

  13. Rapidly developing multimorbidity and disability in older adults: does social background matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia; Santoni, Giola; Wang, Hui Xin; Welmer, Anna-Karin; Rizzuto, Debora; Vetrano, Davide L; Marengoni, Alessandra; Fratiglioni, Laura

    2018-02-07

    Multimorbidity is among the most disabling geriatric conditions. In this study we explored whether a rapid development of multimorbidity potentiates its impact on the functional independence of older adults, and whether different sociodemographic factors play a role beyond the rate of chronic disease accumulation. A random sample of persons aged ≥60 years (n = 2387) from the Swedish National study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K) was followed over 6 years. The speed of multimorbidity development was estimated as the rate of chronic disease accumulation (linear mixed models) and further dichotomized into the upper versus the three lower rate quartiles. Binomial negative mixed models were used to analyse the association between speed of multimorbidity development and disability (impaired basic and instrumental activities of daily living), expressed as the incidence rate ratio (IRR). The effect of sociodemographic factors, including sex, education, occupation and social network, was investigated. The risk of new activity impairment was higher among participants who developed multimorbidity faster (IRR 2.4, 95% CI 1.9-3.1) compared with those who accumulated diseases more slowly over time, even after considering the baseline number of chronic conditions. Only female sex (IRR for women vs. men 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.0) and social network (IRR for poor vs. rich social network 1.7, 95% CI 1.3-2.2) showed an effect on disability beyond the rate of chronic disease accumulation. Rapidly developing multimorbidity is a negative prognostic factor for disability. However, sociodemographic factors such as sex and social network may determine older adults' reserves of functional ability, helping them to live independently despite rapid accumulation of chronic conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Random walks on random Koch curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, S; Hoffmann, K H [Institut fuer Physik, Technische Universitaet, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Essex, C [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B7 (Canada)

    2009-06-05

    Diffusion processes in porous materials are often modeled as random walks on fractals. In order to capture the randomness of the materials random fractals are employed, which no longer show the deterministic self-similarity of regular fractals. Finding a continuum differential equation describing the diffusion on such fractals has been a long-standing goal, and we address the question of whether the concepts developed for regular fractals are still applicable. We use the random Koch curve as a convenient example as it provides certain technical advantages by its separation of time and space features. While some of the concepts developed for regular fractals can be used unaltered, others have to be modified. Based on the concept of fibers, we introduce ensemble-averaged density functions which produce a differentiable estimate of probability explicitly and compare it to random walk data.

  15. Smallsats, Cubesats and Scientific Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stofan, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    Smallsats (including Cubesats) have taken off in the aerospace research community - moving beyond simple tools for undergraduate and graduate students and into the mainstream of science research. Cubesats started the "smallsat" trend back in the late 1990's early 2000's, with the first Cubesats launching in 2003. NASA anticipates a number of future benefits from small satellite missions, including lower costs, more rapid development, higher risk tolerance, and lower barriers to entry for universities and small businesses. The Agency's Space Technology Mission Directorate is currently addressing technology gaps in small satellite platforms, while the Science Mission Directorate pursues miniaturization of science instruments. Launch opportunities are managed through the Cubesat Launch Initiative, and the Agency manages these projects as sub-orbital payloads with little program overhead. In this session we bring together scientists and technologists to discuss the current state of the smallsat field. We explore ideas for new investments, new instruments, or new applications that NASA should be investing in to expand the utility of smallsats. We discuss the status of a NASA-directed NRC study on the utility of small satellites. Looking to the future, what does NASA need to invest in now, to enable high impact ("decadal survey" level) science with smallsats? How do we push the envelope? We anticipate smallsats will contribute significantly to a more robust exploration and science program for NASA and the country.

  16. Exploring Technology Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duzer, Eric

    Modular middle school technology programs, generically called Exploring Technology Education (ETE) courses, are described and analyzed to determine their strengths and weaknesses and their appropriate role in middle school curricula. Interviews were conducted with teachers, officers of the Exploring Technology Educators Association, vendors and…

  17. Composite Technology for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, John

    2017-01-01

    The CTE (Composite Technology for Exploration) Project will develop and demonstrate critical composites technologies with a focus on joints that utilize NASA expertise and capabilities. The project will advance composite technologies providing lightweight structures to support future NASA exploration missions. The CTE project will demonstrate weight-saving, performance-enhancing bonded joint technology for Space Launch System (SLS)-scale composite hardware.

  18. Rapid ethnographic assessment of breastfeeding practices in periurban Mexico City.

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero, M.L.; Morrow, R C; Calva, J.J.; Ortega-Gallegos, H.; Weller, S. C.; Ruiz-Palacios, G M; Morrow, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    Before carrying out a breastfeeding promotion programme in a periurban area of Mexico City, we conducted a rapid ethnographic study to determine the factors associated with absence of exclusive breastfeeding. The responses to pilot interviews were used to develop a standardized questionnaire regarding reasons for infant feeding choice, sources of advice, and barriers to breastfeeding. We interviewed a random sample of 150 mothers with a child < 5 years of age; 136 (91%) of them had initiated ...

  19. Rapid Optical Characterization Suite for in situ Target Analysis of Rock Surfaces Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ROCSTAR is an in situ instrument suite that can accomplish rapid mineral and molecular identification without sample preparation for in situ planetary exploration;...

  20. Experiments on rapidly-sheared wall turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Sourabh; Morrison, Jonathan

    2013-11-01

    The use of linear theories in wall turbulence dates back to Townsend (1976, Cambridge University Press) who extensively used Rapid Distortion Theory (RDT) for understanding the structure of near-wall turbulence. Various other linear tools have been used in more recent investigations. The present study is an attempt to further explore this aspect and is in part motivated by the recent numerical work of Sharma et al. (Phys. Fluids 23, 2011) that highlighted the possible role of linear mechanisms in wall turbulence. Our experimental arrangement involves passing a grid-generated turbulent flow over a flat plate mounted downstream of the grid in a wind tunnel. The grid turbulence is subjected to large rates of shear strain by the wall layer close to the leading edge of the plate and as a result, over a certain region in its vicinity, the approximations of the RDT can be expected to be approximately satisfied. We present detailed single-point and planar velocity measurements, and pressure measurements using surface-mounted pressure transducers, the aim being to establish a turbulent wall layer in which linear processes are dominant. Such a flow can be used to evaluate the ideas relating to linear theories of Townsend and Landahl, among others. We also present the structural changes that take place as the rapidly-sheared wall layer evolves towards a more conventional boundary layer further downstream. We acknowledge financial support from EPSRC under Grant No. EP/I037938.

  1. The auditory brainstem is a barometer of rapid auditory learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoe, E; Krizman, J; Spitzer, E; Kraus, N

    2013-07-23

    To capture patterns in the environment, neurons in the auditory brainstem rapidly alter their firing based on the statistical properties of the soundscape. How this neural sensitivity relates to behavior is unclear. We tackled this question by combining neural and behavioral measures of statistical learning, a general-purpose learning mechanism governing many complex behaviors including language acquisition. We recorded complex auditory brainstem responses (cABRs) while human adults implicitly learned to segment patterns embedded in an uninterrupted sound sequence based on their statistical characteristics. The brainstem's sensitivity to statistical structure was measured as the change in the cABR between a patterned and a pseudo-randomized sequence composed from the same set of sounds but differing in their sound-to-sound probabilities. Using this methodology, we provide the first demonstration that behavioral-indices of rapid learning relate to individual differences in brainstem physiology. We found that neural sensitivity to statistical structure manifested along a continuum, from adaptation to enhancement, where cABR enhancement (patterned>pseudo-random) tracked with greater rapid statistical learning than adaptation. Short- and long-term auditory experiences (days to years) are known to promote brainstem plasticity and here we provide a conceptual advance by showing that the brainstem is also integral to rapid learning occurring over minutes. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Composites by rapid prototyping technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available powder is a fiber, problems of manufacturing occur. The method has also been used to make Metal Matrix Composite (MMC), e.g Fe and graphite [17], WC-Co [18,19], WC-Co and Cu [20,21], Fe, Ni and TiC [22] etc and Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) e.g. Si... of various materials used. Key words: : Rapid Prototyping (RP), Laser, Composites 1 Introduction Rapid Prototyping (RP) initially focussed on polymers. These were later re- placed/supplemented by ceramics, metals and composites. Composites are used in RP...

  3. Neurodynamics of mental exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfield, John J

    2010-01-26

    Thinking allows an animal to take an effective action in a novel situation based on a mental exploration of possibilities and previous knowledge. We describe a model animal, with a neural system based loosely on the rodent hippocampus, which performs mental exploration to find a useful route in a spatial world it has previously learned. It then mentally recapitulates the chosen route, and this intent is converted to motor acts that move the animal physically along the route. The modeling is based on spiking neurons with spike-frequency adaptation. Adaptation causes the continuing evolution in the pattern of neural activity that is essential to mental exploration. A successful mental exploration is remembered through spike-timing-dependent synaptic plasticity. The system is also an episodic memory for an animal chiefly concerned with locations.

  4. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    resources was negotiated by the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III). A most important outcome of this conference was the establishment of an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of at least 200 nautical miles for all coastal states and the recognition of a deep-sea regime. Mineral deposits......The past 20 years have seen extensive marine exploration work by the major industrialized countries. Studies have, in part, been concentrated on Pacific manganese nodule occurrences and on massive sulfides on mid-oceanic ridges. An international jurisdictional framework of the sea-bed mineral...... in EEZ areas are fairly unknown; many areas need detailed mapping and mineral exploration, and the majority of coastal or island states with large EEZ areas have little experience in exploration for marine hard minerals. This book describes the systematic steps in marine mineral exploration...

  5. Foreign Aid Explorer)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Foreign Aid Explorer shows the multi-dimensional picture of U.S. foreign assistance through a highly visual and interactive website. The website makes it easy...

  6. Advanced Exploration Systems Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AES consists of more than 35 projects that target high-priority capabilities needed for human exploration such as crew mobility, deep-space habitation, vehicle...

  7. Sternal exploration or closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    You may have already been receiving wound care or treatment and antibiotics. There are two main reasons for doing exploration and closure procedures for the chest wound after heart surgery: Get rid ...

  8. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research describes a quantitative methodology for deriving optimal exploration target zones based on a probabilistic mineral prospectivity map. In order to arrive at out objective, we provide a plausible answer to the following question: "Which...

  9. Exploring Mayan Numerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jeff D.; Powers, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes an exploration activity involving Mayan numerals, which can be adapted by teachers at various levels to help students better understand the concept of place value and appreciate contributions to mathematics made by an indigenous Central American culture.

  10. Titanic: A Statistical Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takis, Sandra L.

    1999-01-01

    Uses the available data about the Titanic's passengers to interest students in exploring categorical data and the chi-square distribution. Describes activities incorporated into a statistics class and gives additional resources for collecting information about the Titanic. (ASK)

  11. Technologies for Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacny, K.; Indyk, S.

    2017-10-01

    Honeybee Robotics, with its partners, developed numerous technologies for lunar exploration. Most of these technologies are at high TRL and have been designed for small landers, rovers, as well as astronauts. This abstract presents several of these technologies.

  12. Exploration of Multimedia Collections

    OpenAIRE

    Moško, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    Multimedia retrieval systems are supposed to provide the method and the interface for users to retrieve particular multimedia data from multimedia collections. Although, many different retrieval techniques evolved from times when the search in multimedia collections firstly appeared as a research task, not all of them can fulfill specific requirements that the multimedia exploration is determined for. The multimedia exploration is designated for revealing the content of a whole multimedia col...

  13. Exploring ambiguous realms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemensen, Nana

    2016-01-01

    In Hang'ombe Village in rural Zambia, the relative lack of physical boundaries between the activities of family members allow children to observe the actions and discussions of adults on close hand, exposing them to the ambiguities of daily life. Children explore these ambiguities...... in their interactions, testing social roles and conventions. This article explores the vigilance and creative agency displayed by Hang'ombe children, in an environment spurring their acquisition of distinct social and discursive skills....

  14. Exploring Clinical Overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleron, Benedicte

    Clinical overview is explored at four emergency departments (EDs) during the introduction of a new IT system to support hereof. Important aspects of clinical overview are described for the clinical practice and for the further development of the IT system.......Clinical overview is explored at four emergency departments (EDs) during the introduction of a new IT system to support hereof. Important aspects of clinical overview are described for the clinical practice and for the further development of the IT system....

  15. Misuse of randomization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianping; Kjaergard, Lise Lotte; Gluud, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The quality of randomization of Chinese randomized trials on herbal medicines for hepatitis B was assessed. Search strategy and inclusion criteria were based on the published protocol. One hundred and seventy-six randomized clinical trials (RCTs) involving 20,452 patients with chronic hepatitis B....../150) of the studies were imbalanced at the 0.05 level of probability for the two treatments and 13.3% (20/150) imbalanced at the 0.01 level in the randomization. It is suggested that there may exist misunderstanding of the concept and the misuse of randomization based on the review....

  16. Developmental evolution facilitates rapid adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Kazlauskas, Romas J; Travisano, Michael

    2017-11-21

    Developmental evolution has frequently been identified as a mode for rapid adaptation, but direct observations of the selective benefits and associated mechanisms of developmental evolution are necessarily challenging to obtain. Here we show rapid evolution of greatly increased rates of dispersal by developmental changes when populations experience stringent selection. Replicate populations of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma citrinoviride underwent 85 serial transfers, under conditions initially favoring growth but not dispersal. T. citrinoviride populations shifted away from multicellular growth toward increased dispersal by producing one thousand times more single-celled asexual conidial spores, three times sooner than the ancestral genotype. Conidia of selected lines also germinated fifty percent faster. Gene expression changed substantially between the ancestral and selected fungi, especially for spore production and growth, demonstrating rapid evolution of tight regulatory control for down-regulation of growth and up-regulation of conidia production between 18 and 24 hours of growth. These changes involved both developmentally fixed and plastic changes in gene expression, showing that complex developmental changes can serve as a mechanism for rapid adaptation.

  17. Multigrade Teaching Rapid Appraisal Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Dean

    Multigrade classes have been recognized as part of elementary education for many years, but their special needs have been largely ignored. This manual focuses on the survey research that should predate the design of instructional management strategies in multigrade classrooms. It describes rapid and reliable ways to collect information about the…

  18. Rapid thermal processing of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Borisenko, Victor E

    1997-01-01

    Rapid thermal processing has contributed to the development of single wafer cluster processing tools and other innovations in integrated circuit manufacturing environments Borisenko and Hesketh review theoretical and experimental progress in the field, discussing a wide range of materials, processes, and conditions They thoroughly cover the work of international investigators in the field

  19. Furnace for rapid thermal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Duine, P.A.; Sluis, P. van der

    2001-01-01

    A Method (1) for Rapid Thermal Processing of a wafer (7), wherein the wafer (7) is heated by lamps (9), and the heat radiation is reflected by an optical switching device (15,17) which is in the reflecting state during the heating stage. During the cooling stage of the wafer (7), the heat is

  20. Rapid Energy Modeling Workflow Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    BIM Building Information Modeling BPA Building Performance Analysis BTU British Thermal Unit CBECS Commercial Building ...geometry, orientation, weather, and materials, generates 3D Building Information Models ( BIM ) guided by satellite views of building footprints and...Rapid Energy Modeling (REM) workflows that employed building information modeling ( BIM ) approaches and conceptual energy analysis.

  1. Portable Diagnostics and Rapid Germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Zachary Spencer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In the Bioenergy and Defense Department of Sandia National Laboratories, characterization of the BaDx (Bacillus anthracis diagnostic cartridge) was performed and rapid germination chemistry was investigated. BaDx was tested with complex sample matrixes inoculated with Bacillus anthracis, and the trials proved that BaDx will detect Bacillus anthracis in a variety of the medium, such as dirt, serum, blood, milk, and horse fluids. The dimensions of the device were altered to accommodate an E. coli or Listeria lateral flow immunoassay, and using a laser printer, BaDx devices were manufactured to identify E. coli and Listeria. Initial testing with E. coli versions of BaDx indicate that the device will be viable as a portable diagnostic cartridge. The device would be more effective with faster bacteria germination; hence studies were performed the use of rapid germination chemistry. Trials with calcium dipicolinic acid displayed increased cell germination, as shown by control studies using a microplate reader. Upon lyophilization the rapid germination chemistry failed to change growth patterns, indicating that the calcium dipicolinic acid was not solubilized under the conditions tested. Although incompatible with the portable diagnostic device, the experiments proved that the rapid germination chemistry was effective in increasing cell germination.

  2. Rapid Diversity Loss of Competing Animal Species in Well-Connected Landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schippers

    Full Text Available Population viability of a single species, when evaluated with metapopulation based landscape evaluation tools, always increases when the connectivity of the landscape increases. However, when interactions between species are taken into account, results can differ. We explore this issue using a stochastic spatially explicit meta-community model with 21 competing species in five different competitive settings: (1 weak, coexisting competition, (2 neutral competition, (3 strong, excluding competition, (4 hierarchical competition and (5 random species competition. The species compete in randomly generated landscapes with various fragmentation levels. With this model we study species loss over time. Simulation results show that overall diversity, the species richness in the entire landscape, decreases slowly in fragmented landscapes whereas in well-connected landscapes rapid species losses occur. These results are robust with respect to changing competitive settings, species parameters and spatial configurations. They indicate that optimal landscape configuration for species conservation differs between metapopulation approaches, modelling species separately and meta-community approaches allowing species interactions. The mechanism behind this is that species in well-connected landscapes rapidly outcompete each other. Species that become abundant, by chance or by their completive strength, send out large amounts of dispersers that colonize and take over other patches that are occupied by species that are less abundant. This mechanism causes rapid species loss. In fragmented landscapes the colonization rate is lower, and it is difficult for a new species to establish in an already occupied patch. So, here dominant species cannot easily take over patches occupied by other species and higher diversity is maintained for a longer time. These results suggest that fragmented landscapes have benefits for species conservation previously unrecognized by the

  3. Exploring Children's Data Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Richard; Romberg, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Two experiments examined fifth-grade students' reasoning about data modeling: one involved development of hypermedia documents, the other, use of a simple randomization distribution to test students' hypotheses. Found that data construction and analysis provide an opportunity to involve students in the important enterprise of mathematical…

  4. Predictors of Adverse Cosmetic Outcome in the RAPID Trial: An Exploratory Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David; Truong, Pauline T. [Vancouver Island Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Parpia, Sameer [Ontario Clinical Oncology Group, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Olivotto, Ivo A. [Tom Baker Cancer Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Berrang, Tanya [Vancouver Island Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Kim, Do-Hoon; Kong, Iwa [Juravinski Cancer Centre at Hamilton Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Germain, Isabelle [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec, Pavillon Hôtel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec City, Québec (Canada); Nichol, Alan [Vancouver Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Akra, Mohamed [CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Roy, Isabelle [Centre intégré de cancérologie de Laval, Laval, Québec (Canada); Reed, Melanie [Center for the Southern Interior, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Kelowna, British Columbia (Canada); Fyles, Anthony [University Health Network, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Trotter, Theresa [Tom Baker Cancer Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Perera, Francisco [London Regional Cancer Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Balkwill, Susan [Fraser Valley Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada); Lavertu, Sophie [Centre Hospitalier de l' Université de Montréal, Hôpital Notre-Dame, Montreal, Québec (Canada); Elliott, Elizabeth [Juravinski Cancer Centre at Hamilton Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); and others

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate factors associated with adverse cosmesis outcome in breast cancer patients randomized to accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy or whole-breast irradiation in the RAPID (Randomized Trial of Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation) trial. Methods and Materials: Subjects were trial participants with nurse-assessed global cosmetic scores at baseline and at 3 years. Adverse cosmesis was defined as a score of fair or poor. Cosmetic deterioration was defined as any adverse change in score from baseline to 3 years. The analysis is based on data from the previously reported interim analysis. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association of risk factors for these outcomes among all patients and those treated with APBI only. Results: Clinicopathologic characteristics were similar between subjects randomized to APBI (n=569) or whole-breast irradiation (n=539). For all subjects, factors associated with adverse cosmesis at 3 years were older age, central/inner tumor location, breast infection, smoking, seroma volume, breast volume, and use of APBI; factors associated with cosmetic deterioration were smoking, seroma volume, and use of APBI (P<.05). For APBI subjects, tumor location, smoking, age, and seroma volume were associated with adverse cosmesis (P<.05), and smoking was associated with cosmetic deterioration (P=.02). An independent association between the V95/whole-breast volume ratio and adverse cosmesis (P=.28) or cosmetic deterioration (P=.07) was not detected. On further exploration a V95/whole-breast volume ratio <0.15 was associated with a lower risk of cosmetic deterioration (p=.04), but this accounted for only 11% of patients. Conclusion: In the RAPID trial, a number of patient tumor and treatment-related factors, including the use of APBI, were associated with adverse cosmesis and cosmetic deterioration. For patients treated with APBI alone, the high-dose treatment

  5. Rapid Estimation of Tsunami Impact Following the Samoa Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, H. K.; Polet, J.

    2009-12-01

    Rapid estimation of the tsunami waveheight after a large earthquake can significantly aid in disaster recovery efforts, planning of post-tsunami surveys and even early warning for more distant regions. We are exploring methods for refining these estimates by addressing variability due to uncertainties in the source parameters. After the Samoa earthquake, we used the solution from the near real-time Research CMT system at the National Earthquake Information Center to compute the tsunami wavefield. Given the close proximity to Samoa and American Samoa, details of the rupture geometry are very important for the character of the tsunami wavefield and we computed tsunami waveforms for several different geometries that are consistent with the rCMT solution. We will evaluate these results by comparing them with observed runups and explore ways to express the uncertainties in the simulated runup maps. We will also evaluate other real-time source estimates for use in rapid tsunami impact simulation.

  6. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  7. Blocked randomization with randomly selected block sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efird, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  8. Random Quantum Dynamics: From Random Quantum Circuits to Quantum Chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Winton G.

    Quantum circuits consisting of single and two-qubit gates selected at random from a universal gate set are examined. Specifically, the asymptotic rate for large numbers of qubits n and large circuit depth k at which t-order statistical moments of the matrix elements of the resulting random unitary transformation converge to their values with respect to the invariant Haar measure on U(2 n) are determined. The asymptotic convergence rate is obtained from the spectral gap of a superoperator describing the action of the circuit on t-copies of the system Hilbert space. For a class of random quantum circuits that are reversible and invariant under permutation of the qubit labels, the gap and hence the asymptotic convergence rate is shown to scale as ˜ 1/n for sufficiently large n, with a coefficient that may in general depend on t. Bounds are derived between the convergence rates for a broader class of reversible random quantum circuits and the convergence rates of second order moments of irreversible random quantum circuits are examined through a mapping to a Markov chain. Weak constraints are constructed for finite moments of matrix elements of local observables with respect to the eigenvectors of general many-body Hamiltonians in the thermodynamic limit. This is accomplished by means of an expansion in terms of polynomials which are orthogonal with respect to the density of states. The way in which such constraints are satisfied is explored in connection to non-integrability and is argued to provide a general framework for analyzing many-body quantum chaos. Hamiltonians consisting of the XX-interaction between spin-1/2 particles (qubits) which are nearest neighbors on a 3-regular random graph (non-integrable), and an open chain (integrable), are diagonalized numerically to illustrate how the weak constraints can be satisfied. The entanglement content of the eigenvectors of chaotic many-body Hamiltonians is discussed as well as the connection between quantum chaos and

  9. The NASA Exoplanet Exploration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, Douglas M.; Blackwood, Gary H.; Gagosian, John S.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA Exoplanet Exploration Program (ExEP) is chartered to implement the NASA space science goals of detecting and characterizing exoplanets and to search for signs of life. The ExEP manages space missions, future studies, technology investments, and ground-based science that either enables future missions or completes mission science. The exoplanet science community is engaged by the Program through Science Definition Teams and through the Exoplanet Program Analysis Group (ExoPAG). The ExEP includes the space science missions of Kepler, K2 , and the proposed WFIRST-AFTA that includes dark energy science, a widefield infrared survey, a microlensing survey for outer-exoplanet demographics, and a coronagraph for direct imaging of cool outer gas- and ice-giants around nearby stars. Studies of probe-scale (medium class) missions for a coronagraph (internal occulter) and starshade (external occulter) explore the trades of cost and science and provide motivation for a technology investment program to enable consideration of missions at the next decadal survey for NASA Astrophysics. Program elements include follow-up observations using the Keck Observatory, which contribute to the science yield of Kepler and K2, and include mid-infrared observations of exo-zodiacal dust by the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer which provide parameters critical to the design and predicted science yield of the next generation of direct imaging missions. ExEP includes the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute which provides archives, tools, and professional education for the exoplanet community. Each of these program elements contribute to the goal of detecting and characterizing earth-like planets orbiting other stars, and seeks to respond to rapid evolution in this discovery-driven field and to ongoing programmatic challenges through engagement of the scientific and technical communities.

  10. MBN Explorer Users' Guide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia A.; Sushko, Gennady; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    The MBN Explorer Users' Guide describes how to install and to run MBN Explorer, the software package for advanced multiscale simulations of complex molecular structure and dynamics. This guide includes the description of the main features and the algorithms of the program, the manual how to use...... package for advanced multiscale simulations of complex molecular structure and dynamics. It has many unique features and a wide range of applications in Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Materials Science, and Industry. A broad variety of algorithms and interatomic potentials implemented in the program allows...... the program for specific tasks, the description of all the program commands and keywords, the specification of input information, parameters, files and formats, and instructions on how to handle the program on Windows, Linux/Unix and Macintosh platforms. MesoBioNano (MBN) Explorer is a multi-purpose software...

  11. Random walks, random fields, and disordered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Černý, Jiří; Kotecký, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on the mathematics that lies at the intersection of probability theory, statistical physics, combinatorics and computer science, this volume collects together lecture notes on recent developments in the area. The common ground of these subjects is perhaps best described by the three terms in the title: Random Walks, Random Fields and Disordered Systems. The specific topics covered include a study of Branching Brownian Motion from the perspective of disordered (spin-glass) systems, a detailed analysis of weakly self-avoiding random walks in four spatial dimensions via methods of field theory and the renormalization group, a study of phase transitions in disordered discrete structures using a rigorous version of the cavity method, a survey of recent work on interacting polymers in the ballisticity regime and, finally, a treatise on two-dimensional loop-soup models and their connection to conformally invariant systems and the Gaussian Free Field. The notes are aimed at early graduate students with a mod...

  12. Robotics for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Deans, Mathew; Bualat, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Robots can do a variety of work to increase the productivity of human explorers. Robots can perform tasks that are tedious, highly repetitive or long-duration. Robots can perform precursor tasks, such as reconnaissance, which help prepare for future human activity. Robots can work in support of astronauts, assisting or performing tasks in parallel. Robots can also perform "follow-up" work, completing tasks designated or started by humans. In this paper, we summarize the development and testing of robots designed to improve future human exploration of space.

  13. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available , Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study Methodology Results Optimal Exploration Target Zones Pravesh Debba1, Emmanual M.J. Carranza2, Alfred Stein2, Freek D. van der Meer2 1CSIR, Logistics... and Quantitative Methods, CSIR Built Environment 2International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), Hengelosestraat 99, P.O. Box 6, 7500AA Enschede, The Netherlands Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer...

  14. Exploring the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The exploration of our solar system is one of humanity's greatest scientific achievements. The last fifty years in particular have seen huge steps forward in our understanding of the planets, the sun, and other objects in the solar system. Whilst planetary science is now a mature discipline - involving geoscientists, astronomers, physicists, and others - many profound mysteries remain, and there is indeed still the tantalizing possibility that we may find evidence of life on another planet in our system.Drawing upon the latest results from the second golden age of Solar System exploration, aut

  15. Rapid scenarios and observed intensities

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Pettenati; Livio Sirovich

    2012-01-01

    After a destructive earthquake, national Governments need to know the approximate amount of damage, the number of casualties, and the financial losses as soon as possible. Rapid scenarios are also used to inform the general public; see the widely used Shakemap package [Wald et al. 1999, 2006] of the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the one modified by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV; National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology), which is reproduced for Figure 1. T...

  16. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  17. Rapid scenarios and observed intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Pettenati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available After a destructive earthquake, national Governments need to know the approximate amount of damage, the number of casualties, and the financial losses as soon as possible. Rapid scenarios are also used to inform the general public; see the widely used Shakemap package [Wald et al. 1999, 2006] of the US Geological Survey (USGS and the one modified by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV; National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, which is reproduced for Figure 1. The general matter of the use of intensities in damage scenarios was discussed in a special session at the 2008 Annual Meeting of the Seismological Society of America (http://www.seismosoc.org/meetings/2008/specialsessions.html, and was also discussed in the NIS-1 session of the European Congress in Moscow, in August 2012 (http://www.esc2012-moscow.org/esc_thematicareas.html. The purposes of the present report are to: (i compare different types of intensities; (ii check two rapid scenarios of intensity; and (iii understand whether the KF formula [Sirovich 1996, Sirovich et al. 2009] can be used as a new 'attenuation' relationship to improve rapid scenarios. […

  18. Rapid diagnosis of mycobacterial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Drancourt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB remains an important public health issue worldwide, there is an emerging interest in non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM which is responsible for opportunistic infections of the respiratory tract as well as other anatomical sites in both developed and developing countries. In this context the one goal of the clinical mycobacteriology laboratories is to provide physicians with an accurate identification of the mycobacterium as rapidly as possible. During the last ten years, several lines of laboratory tools have been developed in order to speed the isolation and identification of mycobacteria from clinical specimens. Chiefly, the composition of culture medium was renewed along with the protocol of incubation in order to recover Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB micro-colonies as soon as 48 h after the inoculation of the specimen. MALDI-TOF rapid identification is clearly the tool to be implemented in the laboratory for the rapid identification of the micro-colonies. Also, molecular tools and genomics are necessary in order to depict new mycobacteria species, including those of the Mycobacterium abscessus complex and the Mycobacterium avium complex. All these tools and their connections will be presented during this conference.

  19. Quantum random number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Collantes, Miguel; Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Random numbers are a fundamental resource in science and engineering with important applications in simulation and cryptography. The inherent randomness at the core of quantum mechanics makes quantum systems a perfect source of entropy. Quantum random number generation is one of the most mature quantum technologies with many alternative generation methods. This review discusses the different technologies in quantum random number generation from the early devices based on radioactive decay to the multiple ways to use the quantum states of light to gather entropy from a quantum origin. Randomness extraction and amplification and the notable possibility of generating trusted random numbers even with untrusted hardware using device-independent generation protocols are also discussed.

  20. Astronaut Clothing for Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poritz, Darwin H.; Orndoff, Evelyne; Kaspranskiy, Rustem R.; Schesinger, Thilini; Byrne, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    Astronaut clothes for exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit need to satisfy several challenges not met by the currently-used mostly-cotton clothing. A laundering system is not expected to be available, and thus soiled garments must be trashed. Jettisoning waste does not seem feasible at this time. The cabin oxygen concentration is expected to be higher than standard, and thus fabrics must better resist ignition and burning. Fabrics need to be identified that reduce logistical mass, that can be worn longer before disposal, that are at least as comfortable as cotton, and that resist ignition or that char immediately after ignition. Human factors and psychology indicate that crew well-being and morale require a variety of colors and styles to accommodate personal identity and preferences. Over the past four years, the Logistics Reduction Project under NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program has sponsored the Advanced Clothing System Task to conduct several ground studies and one ISS study. These studies have evaluated length of wear and personal preferences of commercially-available exercise- and routine-wear garments made from several fabrics (cotton, polyester, Merino wool, and modacrylic), woven and knitted. Note that Merino wool and modacrylic char like cotton in ambient air, while polyester unacceptably melts. This paper focuses on the two components of an International Space Station study, onboard and on the ground, with astronauts and cosmonauts. Fabrics were randomized to participants. Length of wear was assessed by statistical survival analysis, and preference by exact binomial confidence limits. Merino wool and modacrylic t-shirts were worn longer on average than polyester t-shirts. Interestingly, self-assessed preferences were inconsistent with length-of-wear behavior, as polyester was preferred to Merino wool and modacrylic.

  1. Random Differential Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Rob; Rinaldo, Alessandro; Wasserman, Larry

    2011-01-01

    We propose a relaxed privacy definition called {\\em random differential privacy} (RDP). Differential privacy requires that adding any new observation to a database will have small effect on the output of the data-release procedure. Random differential privacy requires that adding a {\\em randomly drawn new observation} to a database will have small effect on the output. We show an analog of the composition property of differentially private procedures which applies to our new definition. We sh...

  2. Exploring the Higgs portal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englert, Christoph, E-mail: c.englert@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Plehn, Tilman [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Zerwas, Dirk [LAL, IN2P3/CNRS, Orsay (France); Zerwas, Peter M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Institut fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2011-09-14

    We study the Higgs portal from the Standard-Model to a hidden sector and examine which elements of the extended theory can be discovered and explored at the LHC. Our model includes two Higgs bosons covering parameter regions where the LHC will be sensitive to two, one or none of the particles at typical discovery luminosities for Standard Model Higgs production.

  3. Exploration in POMDPs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrakakis, C.

    2008-01-01

    In recent work, Bayesian methods for exploration in Markov decision processes (MDPs) and for solving known partially-observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) have been proposed. In this paper we review the similarities and differences between those two domains and propose methods to deal with

  4. Exploratorium: Exploring Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium focuses on water and its varied uses in our environment. Articles include: (1) "Adventures with Water" (Eric Muller); (2) "Water: The Liquid of Life" (Karen E. Kalumuck); (3) "Water-Drop Projector" (Gorazd Planinsic); (4) "Waterways and Means" (Pearl Tesler); (5) "Explore Natural Phenomena in the Museum--and Just…

  5. SpaceExplorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Riisgaard

    2007-01-01

    Web pages are designed to be displayed on a single screen, but as more and more screens are being introduced in our surroundings a burning question becomes how to design, interact, and display web pages on multiple devices and displays. In this paper I present the SpaceExplorer prototype, which...

  6. Exploring Sound with Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Meyer, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in insect morphology and movement during singing provide a fascinating opportunity for students to investigate insects while learning about the characteristics of sound. In the activities described here, students use a free online computer software program to explore the songs of the major singing insects and experiment with making…

  7. Antarctica: Discovery & Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoigne, Toss; Collett, Peter

    An examination of Antarctica, from the first sightings to the heroic explorations of the late 18th and early 19th centuries to modern-day research, is presented in this book. Twelve chapters are as follows: (1) The search begins; (2) Whalers and sealers: bites and nibbles; (3) The new continent: first sight; (4) Wintering: the first party; (5)…

  8. Bile Duct Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 223.2273 Request an Appointment Contact Us Share Facebook Twitter Linkedin Email Bile Duct Exploration Menu Print Full Article Overview Test Details Results and Follow-Up Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We ...

  9. Exploring Consumer Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Virginia; Sumrall, William; Mott, Michael; Mitchell, Elizabeth; Theobald, Becky

    2015-01-01

    Methods for facilitating students' standards-based consumer literacy are addressed via the use of problem solving with food and product labels. Fifth graders will be able to: (1) provide detailed analysis of food and product labels; (2) understand large themes, including production, distribution, and consumption; and (3) explore consumer…

  10. Arts of urban exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    2005-01-01

    to the city’ and ‘writing the city’. Through addressing recent cases of psychogeographical experimentation in terms of these themes, the paper raises broad questions about artistic practices and urban exploration to introduce this theme issue on ‘Arts of urban exploration’ and to lead into the specific...

  11. Exploring Project Management Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steven Nijhuis

    2017-01-01

    From the article: "The object of this paper is to explore the actual practice in project management education in the Netherlands and compare it to reference institutions and recent literature. A little over 40% of the Higher Education institutions in the Netherlands mentions PM education in

  12. Exploring Racism through Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, Cass; Shin, Ryan; Cinquemani, Shana; Marino, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Photography is a powerful medium with which to explore social issues and concerns through the intersection of artistic form and concept. Through the discussions of images and suggested activities, students will understand various ways photographers have documented and addressed racism and discrimination. This Instructional Resource presents a…

  13. Exploring the Visual Landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.; Van Lammeren, R.; Van der Hoeven, F.

    2011-01-01

    Exploring the Visual Landscape is about the combination of landscape research and planning, visual perception and Geographic Information Science. It showcases possible ways of getting a grip on themes like: landscape openness, cluttering of the rural landscape, high-rise buildings in relation to

  14. Exploring the Conceptual Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Humans can learn to organize many kinds of domains into categories, including real-world domains such as kinsfolk and synthetic domains such as sets of geometric figures that vary along several dimensions. Psychologists have studied many individual domains in detail, but there have been few attempts to characterize or explore the full space of…

  15. Connecting network properties of rapidly disseminating epizoonotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel L Rivas

    Full Text Available To effectively control the geographical dissemination of infectious diseases, their properties need to be determined. To test that rapid microbial dispersal requires not only susceptible hosts but also a pre-existing, connecting network, we explored constructs meant to reveal the network properties associated with disease spread, which included the road structure.Using geo-temporal data collected from epizoonotics in which all hosts were susceptible (mammals infected by Foot-and-mouth disease virus, Uruguay, 2001; birds infected by Avian Influenza virus H5N1, Nigeria, 2006, two models were compared: 1 'connectivity', a model that integrated bio-physical concepts (the agent's transmission cycle, road topology into indicators designed to measure networks ('nodes' or infected sites with short- and long-range links, and 2 'contacts', which focused on infected individuals but did not assess connectivity.THE CONNECTIVITY MODEL SHOWED FIVE NETWORK PROPERTIES: 1 spatial aggregation of cases (disease clusters, 2 links among similar 'nodes' (assortativity, 3 simultaneous activation of similar nodes (synchronicity, 4 disease flows moving from highly to poorly connected nodes (directionality, and 5 a few nodes accounting for most cases (a "20:80" pattern. In both epizoonotics, 1 not all primary cases were connected but at least one primary case was connected, 2 highly connected, small areas (nodes accounted for most cases, 3 several classes of nodes were distinguished, and 4 the contact model, which assumed all primary cases were identical, captured half the number of cases identified by the connectivity model. When assessed together, the synchronicity and directionality properties explained when and where an infectious disease spreads.Geo-temporal constructs of Network Theory's nodes and links were retrospectively validated in rapidly disseminating infectious diseases. They distinguished classes of cases, nodes, and networks, generating information usable

  16. Random errors revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    2000-01-01

    the random errors of estimates of the sound intensity in, say, one-third octave bands from the power and cross power spectra of the signals from an intensity probe determined with a dual channel FFT analyser. This is not very practical, though. In this paper it is demonstrated that one can predict the random...

  17. a randomized controlled trial.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    milk, only an estimated one -fourth of neonates in India were breastfed within ... standard of care in India and mothers are informed about. 6 months of ... weeks postpartum. A random number sequence was generated using a com- puter program. Block randomization was used with a fixed block size of four. Concealment of ...

  18. Hashing, Randomness and Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Rasmus

    time and memory space. To some extent we also consider lower bounds, i.e., we attempt to show limitations on how efficient algorithms are possible. A central theme in the thesis is randomness. Randomized algorithms play an important role, in particular through the key technique of hashing. Additionally...

  19. Label-free, rapid and quantitative phenotyping of stress response in E. coli via ramanome

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Teng; Xian Wang; Xiaojun Wang; Honglei Gou; Lihui Ren; Tingting Wang; Yun Wang; Yuetong Ji; Huang, Wei E.; Jian Xu

    2016-01-01

    Rapid profiling of stress-response at single-cell resolution yet in a label-free, non-disruptive and mechanism-specific manner can lead to many new applications. We propose a single-cell-level biochemical fingerprinting approach named "ramanome", which is the collection of Single-cell Raman Spectra (SCRS) from a number of cells randomly selected from an isogenic population at a given time and condition, to rapidly and quantitatively detect and characterize stress responses of cellular populat...

  20. Rapid Texture Optimization of Three-Dimensional Urban Model Based on Oblique Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weilong; Li, Ming; Guo, Bingxuan; Li, Deren; Guo, Ge

    2017-04-20

    Seamless texture mapping is one of the key technologies for photorealistic 3D texture reconstruction. In this paper, a method of rapid texture optimization of 3D urban reconstruction based on oblique images is proposed aiming at the existence of texture fragments, seams, and inconsistency of color in urban 3D texture mapping based on low-altitude oblique images. First, we explore implementing radiation correction on the experimental images with a radiation procession algorithm. Then, an efficient occlusion detection algorithm based on OpenGL is proposed according to the mapping relation between the terrain triangular mesh surface and the images to implement the occlusion detection of the visible texture on the triangular facets as well as create a list of visible images. Finally, a texture clustering algorithm is put forward based on Markov Random Field utilizing the inherent attributes of the images and solve the energy function minimization by Graph-Cuts. The experimental results display that the method is capable of decreasing the existence of texture fragments, seams, and inconsistency of color in the 3D texture model reconstruction.

  1. Random Walks and Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Zhan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available These notes provide an elementary and self-contained introduction to branching random walks. Section 1 gives a brief overview of Galton–Watson trees, whereas Section 2 presents the classical law of large numbers for branching random walks. These two short sections are not exactly indispensable, but they introduce the idea of using size-biased trees, thus giving motivations and an avant-goût to the main part, Section 3, where branching random walks are studied from a deeper point of view, and are connected to the model of directed polymers on a tree. Tree-related random processes form a rich and exciting research subject. These notes cover only special topics. For a general account, we refer to the St-Flour lecture notes of Peres [47] and to the forthcoming book of Lyons and Peres [42], as well as to Duquesne and Le Gall [23] and Le Gall [37] for continuous random trees.

  2. The design explorer project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Annelise Mark; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Buur, Jacob

    1997-01-01

    the 'Design Explorer' research project whose goal is to specify requirements for an information system that will effectively help design team members from different domains and organizational cultures to locate and utilize diverse information sources and interact more effectively throughout the design process......It is widely recognized that the increasingly dynamic and competitive business environment requires the exploration and integration of specialized knowledge from different domains in order to create innovative and competitive artefacts and reduce design and development costs. This paper presents....... The project introduces a new approach to support of design; instead of design guidelines, support is given by creating a transparent information environment in which designers can navigate freely according to their individual preferences. The project is based on a framework that structures the dimensions...

  3. The Primordial Inflation Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer is an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIXIE uses an innovative optical design to achieve background-limited sensitivity in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r < 10(exp -3) at 5 standard deviations. The rich PIXIE data set will also constrain physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology to the nature of the first stars to physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. I describe the PIXIE instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the inflationary signature using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  4. Exploring Urban Screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatan Krajina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a tautological tendency in the widespread claims that urban space is 'me-diated'. Never before has the citizen, it is argued, been confronted with such an unprecedented array of signage. I depart from the rhetoric of 'biggest-ever-saturation' as not necessarily untrue, but as insufficient in exploring the diverse spatial operations of urban screens. I examine some contemporary cases of ani-mated architectural surfaces, informational panels, and advertising billboards, with reference to much longer standing cultural practices of spatial management in modern cities, such as illumination, to suggest that the contemporary display media do not mediate the city anew but re-invent urban space as a field of ubiqui-tous mediation. From that standpoint I suggest exploring urban screens as a both singular visual agents and indivisible items in plural structural assemblages, b complementary forces of public illumination, and c complex perceptual platforms in visual play of scale and distance.

  5. Exploring the Dark Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essig, Rouven

    2014-03-01

    Dark sectors, consisting of new, light, weakly-coupled particles that do not interact with the known strong, weak, or electromagnetic forces, are a particularly compelling possibility for new physics. Nature may contain numerous dark sectors, each with their own beautiful structure, distinct particles, and forces. This talk summarizes the physics motivation for dark sectors and the exciting opportunities for experimental exploration. It discusses axions, axion-like particles, dark photons, and other dark-sector particles, including sub-GeV dark matter. In many cases, the exploration of dark sectors can proceed with existing facilities and comparatively modest experiments. A rich, diverse, and low-cost experimental program has the potential for one or more game-changing discoveries.

  6. Exploring nurses' learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lioba Howatson-Jones

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the concept of compelling space for learning. The research presented uses an auto/biographical methodology to explore nurses' learning. Theoretical perspective is drawn from biographical approaches and ideas around development of the self, to examine the nature of people's experience. The argument is advanced, through the narrations of three study participants from a PhD study, that there is a need for nurses to have space to tell their stories of learning and to reconnect with personal experience. The narrations focus upon learning by mistake, developing an interpretive imagination and using biography in teaching and learning and have something to contribute to the development of spaces of learning. This is developed further by considering how biographical method and reflexive responses offer opportunity to find the personal voice and make spaces more compelling and integrative as a different form of pedagogy for nurse education.

  7. Exploring textual data

    CERN Document Server

    Lebart, Ludovic; Berry, Lisette

    1998-01-01

    Researchers in a number of disciplines deal with large text sets requiring both text management and text analysis. Faced with a large amount of textual data collected in marketing surveys, literary investigations, historical archives and documentary data bases, these researchers require assistance with organizing, describing and comparing texts. Exploring Textual Data demonstrates how exploratory multivariate statistical methods such as correspondence analysis and cluster analysis can be used to help investigate, assimilate and evaluate textual data. The main text does not contain any strictly mathematical demonstrations, making it accessible to a large audience. This book is very user-friendly with proofs abstracted in the appendices. Full definitions of concepts, implementations of procedures and rules for reading and interpreting results are fully explored. A succession of examples is intended to allow the reader to appreciate the variety of actual and potential applications and the complementary processin...

  8. Intubation conditions after rocuronium or succinylcholine for rapid sequence induction with alfentanil and propofol in the emergency patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, P B; Hansen, E G; Jacobsen, L S

    2005-01-01

    and with increased risk of pulmonary aspiration of gastric content were randomized to a rapid-sequence induction with succinylcholine 1.0 mg kg[-1] or rocuronium 0.6 mg kg[-1]. Patients with a predicted difficult airway were excluded. A senior anaesthesiologist 'blinded' for the randomization performed...

  9. Exploring Controversy in Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Garimella, Kiran; Mathioudakis, Michael; De Francisci Morales, Gianmarco; Gionis, Aristides

    2016-01-01

    Among the topics discussed on social media, some spark more heated debate than others. For example, experience suggests that major political events, such as a vote for healthcare law in the US, would spark more debate between opposing sides than other events, such as a concert of a popular music band. Exploring the topics of discussion on Twitter and understanding which ones are controversial is extremely useful for a variety of purposes, such as for journalists to understand what issues divi...

  10. Exploring Catalyst Behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, Annie; Cox, Jayne; Barnett, Julia; Thomas, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The ‘Exploring catalyst behaviours’ project continues Defra’s programme of research designed to develop a deeper understanding of pro-environmental behaviour. The research, conducted by Brook Lyndhurst, Dr Julie Barnett of the University of Surrey and Dr Christine Thomas of the Open University, feeds into the body of evidence that is guiding Defra and other stakeholders in developing policy, communications and other interventions to galvanise public action on the environment.The aim of the pr...

  11. Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.

    2013-01-01

    Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.

  12. COACH – EXPLORER - MANAGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđe Nićin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowdays technologies are characterised by the expert specialists. In training technologies there are also coaches-experts for some sports. Aport from governing training technology, thus he performs manager’s work (planning, programing, accomplishing, controlling, correcting the coach also performs the work of an explorer, because the work of the coach is creative, creating, exploring and it is necessary to include innovation into training process, and innovations are nothing but rehearse of someting new, what is but scientific approach to the training. More the coach succeeds in controlling more factors which influence the sport achievement, he will be more successful. To be able to do all that, the coach must observe, follow, control and correct sportist’s reactions on exercises and loads all the time. The coach demonstrates his activity even through marketing, educational psychological, administrative- technical, nutritional and entire useful social role, so his work is interdisciplinary very complex, important, public, and thus it is a subject to critics. In order to be successful, a modern coach must be an exellent expert-specialist, but also an explorer and manager, and before all a creator of training technology

  13. Strategies to Support Exploration of Mars' Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, L.; Sykes, M.; Farr, T.; Adams, J.; Blaney, D.

    2003-01-01

    Surface Visible infrared spectroscopy has a long history of providing fundamental compositional discoveries in the solar system. However, we are entering a new era of Mars exploration in which missions will take place nearly every 2 years.The visible infrared spectral community thus faces a more rapid influx in data volume and variety than it has previously handled.Visible- infrared instruments are on the 1996 Mars Global Surveyor, 2001 Mars Odyssey 2003 Mars Exploration Rovers, 2003 Mars Express, 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter; and likely on the 2007 and 2009 missions. Interpretations of those data sets provide a critical foundation for geologic and climatic interpretations as well as an opportunity to select landing sites.

  14. Exploring complex networks by means of adaptive walkers

    OpenAIRE

    Prignano, Luce; Moreno, Yamir; Diaz-Guilera, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Finding efficient algorithms to explore large networks with the aim of recovering information about their structure is an open problem. Here, we investigate this challenge by proposing a model in which random walkers with previously assigned home nodes navigate through the network during a fixed amount of time. We consider that the exploration is successful if the walker gets the information gathered back home, otherwise, no data is retrieved. Consequently, at each time step, the walkers, wit...

  15. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Melcher, Cynthia P.

    2015-08-28

    The Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment was conducted in partnership with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The overall goals of the BLM Rapid Ecoregional Assessments (REAs) are to identify important ecosystems and wildlife habitats at broad spatial scales; identify where these resources are at risk from Change Agents, including development, wildfire, invasive species, disease and climate change; quantify cumulative effects of anthropogenic stressors; and assess current levels of risk to ecological resources across a range of spatial scales and jurisdictional boundaries by assessing all lands within an ecoregion. There are several components of the REAs. Management Questions, developed by the BLM and stakeholders for the ecoregion, identify the regionally significant information needed for addressing land-management responsibilities. Conservation Elements represent regionally significant species and ecological communities that are of management concern. Change Agents that currently affect or are likely to affect the condition of species and communities in the future are identified and assessed. REAs also identify areas that have high conservation potential that are referred to as “large intact areas.” At the ecoregion level, the ecological value of large intact areas is based on the assumption that because these areas have not been greatly altered by human activities (such as development), they are more likely to contain a variety of plant and animal communities and to be resilient and resistant to changes resulting from natural disturbances such as fire, insect outbreaks, and disease.

  16. Rapid self-healing hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadke, Ameya; Zhang, Chao; Arman, Bedri; Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Mashelkar, Raghunath A.; Lele, Ashish K.; Tauber, Michael J.; Arya, Gaurav; Varghese, Shyni

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic materials that are capable of autonomous healing upon damage are being developed at a rapid pace because of their many potential applications. Despite these advancements, achieving self-healing in permanently cross-linked hydrogels has remained elusive because of the presence of water and irreversible cross-links. Here, we demonstrate that permanently cross-linked hydrogels can be engineered to exhibit self-healing in an aqueous environment. We achieve this feature by arming the hydrogel network with flexible-pendant side chains carrying an optimal balance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that allows the side chains to mediate hydrogen bonds across the hydrogel interfaces with minimal steric hindrance and hydrophobic collapse. The self-healing reported here is rapid, occurring within seconds of the insertion of a crack into the hydrogel or juxtaposition of two separate hydrogel pieces. The healing is reversible and can be switched on and off via changes in pH, allowing external control over the healing process. Moreover, the hydrogels can sustain multiple cycles of healing and separation without compromising their mechanical properties and healing kinetics. Beyond revealing how secondary interactions could be harnessed to introduce new functions to chemically cross-linked polymeric systems, we also demonstrate various potential applications of such easy-to-synthesize, smart, self-healing hydrogels. PMID:22392977

  17. Rapid generalization in phonotactic learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Linzen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Speakers judge novel strings to be better potential words of their language if those strings consist of sound sequences that are attested in the language. These intuitions are often generalized to new sequences that share some properties with attested ones: Participants exposed to an artificial language where all words start with the voiced stops [b] and [d] will prefer words that start with other voiced stops (e.g., [g] to words that start with vowels or nasals. The current study tracks the evolution of generalization across sounds during the early stages of artificial language learning. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants received varying amounts of exposure to an artificial language. Learners rapidly generalized to new sounds: In fact, following short exposure to the language, attested patterns were not distinguished from unattested patterns that were similar in their phonological properties to the attested ones. Following additional exposure, participants showed an increasing preference for attested sounds, alongside sustained generalization to unattested ones. Finally, Experiment 3 tested whether participants can rapidly generalize to new sounds based on a single type of sound. We discuss the implications of our results for computational models of phonotactic learning.

  18. Rapid ISS Power Availability Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    The ISS (International Space Station) Power Resource Officers (PROs) needed a tool to automate the calculation of thousands of ISS power availability simulations used to generate power constraint matrices. Each matrix contains 864 cells, and each cell represents a single power simulation that must be run. The tools available to the flight controllers were very operator intensive and not conducive to rapidly running the thousands of simulations necessary to generate the power constraint data. SOLAR is a Java-based tool that leverages commercial-off-the-shelf software (Satellite Toolkit) and an existing in-house ISS EPS model (SPEED) to rapidly perform thousands of power availability simulations. SOLAR has a very modular architecture and consists of a series of plug-ins that are loosely coupled. The modular architecture of the software allows for the easy replacement of the ISS power system model simulator, re-use of the Satellite Toolkit integration code, and separation of the user interface from the core logic. Satellite Toolkit (STK) is used to generate ISS eclipse and insulation times, solar beta angle, position of the solar arrays over time, and the amount of shadowing on the solar arrays, which is then provided to SPEED to calculate power generation forecasts. The power planning turn-around time is reduced from three months to two weeks (83-percent decrease) using SOLAR, and the amount of PRO power planning support effort is reduced by an estimated 30 percent.

  19. Rapid starting methanol reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chludzinski, Paul J.; Dantowitz, Philip; McElroy, James F.

    1984-01-01

    The invention relates to a methanol-to-hydrogen cracking reactor for use with a fuel cell vehicular power plant. The system is particularly designed for rapid start-up of the catalytic methanol cracking reactor after an extended shut-down period, i.e., after the vehicular fuel cell power plant has been inoperative overnight. Rapid system start-up is accomplished by a combination of direct and indirect heating of the cracking catalyst. Initially, liquid methanol is burned with a stoichiometric or slightly lean air mixture in the combustion chamber of the reactor assembly. The hot combustion gas travels down a flue gas chamber in heat exchange relationship with the catalytic cracking chamber transferring heat across the catalyst chamber wall to heat the catalyst indirectly. The combustion gas is then diverted back through the catalyst bed to heat the catalyst pellets directly. When the cracking reactor temperature reaches operating temperature, methanol combustion is stopped and a hot gas valve is switched to route the flue gas overboard, with methanol being fed directly to the catalytic cracking reactor. Thereafter, the burner operates on excess hydrogen from the fuel cells.

  20. Rapidly Developing Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Oline Barrios Poulsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe cutaneous reactions with potentially fatal outcomes can have many different causes. The Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN are rare. They are characterized by a low incidence but high mortality, and drugs are most commonly implicated. Urgent active therapy is required. Prompt recognition and withdrawal of suspect drug and rapid intervention can result in favourable outcome. No further international guidelines for treatment exist, and much of the treatment relies on old or experimental concepts with no scientific evidence. We report on a 54-year-old man experiencing rapidly developing drug-induced severe TEN and presented multiorgan failure involving the respiratory and circulatory system, coagulopathy, and renal insufficiency. Detachment counted 30% of total body surface area (TBSA. SCORTEN = 5, indicating a mortality rate >90%. The patient was sedated and mechanically ventilated, supported with fluids and inotropes to maintain a stable circulation. Component therapy was guided by thromboelastography (TEG. The patient received plasmapheresis, and shock reversal treatment was initiated. He was transferred to a specialized intensive care burn unit within 24 hours from admittance. The initial care was continued, and hemodialysis was started. Pulmonary, circulatory, and renal sequelae resolved with intensive care, and re-epithelialization progressed slowly. The patient was discharged home on hospital day 19.

  1. Randomized clinical trials in HEPATOLOGY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergard, L L; Nikolova, D; Gluud, C

    1999-01-01

    Evidence shows that the quality of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) affects estimates of intervention efficacy, which is significantly exaggerated in low-quality trials. The present study examines the quality of all 235 RCTs published in HEPATOLOGY from the initiation in 1981 through August 1998......-blinding. The median quality score of all trials was 3 points (range, 1-5 points). Multiple logistic regression analysis explored the association between quality and therapeutic areas, number of centers, external funding, year of publication, and country of origin. High-quality trials were most likely to investigate......, single-center trials, and trials with no external funding. Quality did not improve with time and was not associated with country of origin. The main conclusions are that the quality of RCTs in HEPATOLOGY needs improvement and that the probability of high quality increased with the number of centers...

  2. Web tools for rapid experimental visualization prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Jonathan W.; Livingstion, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Quite often a researcher finds themselves looking at spreadsheets of high-dimensional data generated by experimental models and user studies. We can use analysis to challenge or confirm hypothesis, but unexpected results can easily be lost in the shuffle. For this reason, it would be useful to visualize the results so we can explore our data and make new discoveries. Web browsers have become increasingly capable for creating complex, multi-view applications. Javascript is quickly becoming a de facto standard for scripting, online and offline. This work demonstrates the use of web technologies as a powerful tool for rapid visualization prototyping. We have developed two prototypes: One for high-dimensional results of the abELICIT - multi-agent version of the ELICIT platform tasked with collaborating to identify the parameters of a pending attack. Another prototype displays responses to a user study on the effectiveness of multi-layer visualization techniques. We created coordinated multiple views prototypes in the Google Chrome web browser written in Javascript, CSS and HTML. We will discuss the benefits and shortcomings of this approach.

  3. Examining Factors of Engagement With Digital Interventions for Weight Management: Rapid Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Emma Elizabeth; Karasouli, Eleni; Meyer, Caroline

    2017-10-23

    Digital interventions for weight management provide a unique opportunity to target daily lifestyle choices and eating behaviors over a sustained period of time. However, recent evidence has demonstrated a lack of user engagement with digital health interventions, impacting on the levels of intervention effectiveness. Thus, it is critical to identify the factors that may facilitate user engagement with digital health interventions to encourage behavior change and weight management. The aim of this study was to identify and synthesize the available evidence to gain insights about users' perspectives on factors that affect engagement with digital interventions for weight management. A rapid review methodology was adopted. The search strategy was executed in the following databases: Web of Science, PsycINFO, and PubMed. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they investigated users' engagement with a digital weight management intervention and were published from 2000 onwards. A narrative synthesis of data was performed on all included studies. A total of 11 studies were included in the review. The studies were qualitative, mixed-methods, or randomized controlled trials. Some of the studies explored features influencing engagement when using a Web-based digital intervention, others specifically explored engagement when accessing a mobile phone app, and some looked at engagement after text message (short message service, SMS) reminders. Factors influencing engagement with digital weight management interventions were found to be both user-related (eg, perceived health benefits) and digital intervention-related (eg, ease of use and the provision of personalized information). The findings highlight the importance of incorporating user perspectives during the digital intervention development process to encourage engagement. The review contributes to our understanding of what facilitates user engagement and points toward a coproduction approach for developing digital

  4. Exploring student teachers' perceptions of the influence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid global technological developments have affected all facets of life, including the teaching and learning of mathematics. This qualitative study was designed to identify the ways in which technology was used and to explore the nature of this use by a group of 52 mathematics student teachers. The participants were ...

  5. Exploring the Effectiveness of Online Education in K-12 Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heafner, Tina L., Ed.; Hartshorne, Richard, Ed.; Petty, Teresa, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    The integration of technology in classrooms is rapidly emerging as a way to provide more educational opportunities for students. As virtual learning environments become more popular, evaluating the impact of this technology on student success is vital. "Exploring the Effectiveness of Online Education in K-12 Environments" combines…

  6. Exploring compression techniques for ROOT IO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Bockelman, B.

    2017-10-01

    ROOT provides an flexible format used throughout the HEP community. The number of use cases - from an archival data format to end-stage analysis - has required a number of tradeoffs to be exposed to the user. For example, a high “compression level” in the traditional DEFLATE algorithm will result in a smaller file (saving disk space) at the cost of slower decompression (costing CPU time when read). At the scale of the LHC experiment, poor design choices can result in terabytes of wasted space or wasted CPU time. We explore and attempt to quantify some of these tradeoffs. Specifically, we explore: the use of alternate compressing algorithms to optimize for read performance; an alternate method of compressing individual events to allow efficient random access; and a new approach to whole-file compression. Quantitative results are given, as well as guidance on how to make compression decisions for different use cases.

  7. Exploration Medical System Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D. A.; Watkins, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exploration class missions will present significant new challenges and hazards to the health of the astronauts. Regardless of the intended destination, beyond low Earth orbit a greater degree of crew autonomy will be required to diagnose medical conditions, develop treatment plans, and implement procedures due to limited communications with ground-based personnel. SCOPE: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will act as a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate to crew and ground personnel that an end-to-end medical system can assist clinician and non-clinician crew members in optimizing medical care delivery and data management during an exploration mission. Challenges facing exploration mission medical care include limited resources, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and potential rendering of medical care by non-clinicians. This system demonstrates the integration of medical devices and informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making and can be designed to assist crewmembers in nominal, non-emergent situations and in emergent situations when they may be suffering from performance decrements due to environmental, physiological or other factors. PROJECT OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a. Reduce or eliminate the time required of an on-orbit crew and ground personnel to access, transfer, and manipulate medical data. b. Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information via an intuitive and crew-friendly solution to aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c. Develop a common data management framework that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all activities pertaining to crew health and life sciences. d. Ensure crew access to medical data during periods of restricted ground communication. e. Develop a common data management framework that

  8. Exploring Late Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this viewpoint paper is to motivate a program of research on late globalization, a program that could eventually lead to one or more significant theories of late globalization. The paper explores the phenomenon of late globalization as well as the idea of “late” by drawing on sparse...... literature on late globalization from sociocultural and economic perspectives. It illustrates in a vignette the character and features of late globalization observable in the withdrawal from foreign locations or deinternationalization of universities, as late globalizing entitis. The paper discusses...... the range of constructs around the core idea of late globalization, generating questions for future work in a late globalization research program....

  9. Exploring C++ 11

    CERN Document Server

    Lischner, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Exploring C++ divides C++ up into bite-sized chunks that will help you learn the language one step at a time. Assuming no familiarity with C++, or any other C-based language, you'll be taught everything you need to know in a logical progression of small lessons that you can work through as quickly or as slowly as you need.C++ can be a complicated language. Writing even the most straight-forward of programs requires you to understand many disparate aspects of the language and how they interact with one another. C++ doesn't lend itself to neat compartmentalization the way other languages do. Rat

  10. Method of geoelectrical exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aladinskiy, Yu.V.; Bobrovnikov, L.Z.; Chernyak, G.Ya.; Lyakhov, L.L.; Plyusnin, M.I.; Popov, V.A.; Sharapanov, N.N.

    1979-11-03

    A method is proposed for geoelectrical exploration (nonstationary fields) in which the electromagnetic field is excited by current pulses and signals of secondary electromagnetic field are measured in the intervals between the current pulses. In order to improve the accuracy of measurements by separating the polarization and induction effects, difference in absolute values of the signals of the secondary electromagnetic field measured through the same time interval are determined after disengagement of the current pulses of different duration by which the magnitude of polarization effects are judged.

  11. Exploration of second tracheotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAI Xiang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the surgical management of second tracheotomy. Methods Retrospective analysis of 32 cases with recurrent cerebrovascular disease or pulmonary infection who under-went second tracheotomy in our hospital from 2008 to 2010. Results These 32 cases were operated successfully without complication. Among these cases, 6 patients occurred hemorrhage after operation and the hemostatic effect was good. Conclusion Second tracheotomy is difficult. It depends on the first tracheotomy condition and the trachea exposure to decide the operation mode and incision position.

  12. Exploring rationality in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Rasmus; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Owen, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Background Empirical studies of rationality (syllogisms) in patients with schizophrenia have obtained different results. One study found that patients reason more logically if the syllogism is presented through an unusual content. Aims To explore syllogism-based rationality in schizophrenia. Method...... Thirty-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 29 syllogisms that varied in presentation content (ordinary v. unusual) and validity (valid v. invalid). Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting for intelligence...... differences became non-significant. Conclusions When taking intelligence and neuropsychological performance into account, patients with schizophrenia and controls perform similarly on syllogism tests of rationality....

  13. Exploring Monte Carlo methods

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, William L

    2012-01-01

    Exploring Monte Carlo Methods is a basic text that describes the numerical methods that have come to be known as "Monte Carlo." The book treats the subject generically through the first eight chapters and, thus, should be of use to anyone who wants to learn to use Monte Carlo. The next two chapters focus on applications in nuclear engineering, which are illustrative of uses in other fields. Five appendices are included, which provide useful information on probability distributions, general-purpose Monte Carlo codes for radiation transport, and other matters. The famous "Buffon's needle proble

  14. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  15. Rapid Adaptation in Digital Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Mette; Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Mathiassen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    the organization’s digitization approach. We demonstrate in detail how the leaders within these two organizations were engaged and offer recommendations for how other organizations can use the PPM to rapidly adapt their approaches to digital transformation through more effective IS leadership roles.......In today’s highly dynamic environments, organizational leaders need to quickly adapt existing approaches to digital transformation. However, without a shared mindset between IS and business leaders, it is difficult to adopt new approaches in response to changes in the competitive and technology...... landscape. In this article, we share insights gained from two public sector organizations in which IS and business leaders used the Participatory Process Model (PPM) designed by the authors to share their assumptions about IS leadership, challenge existing IT strategies and collaboration patterns and adapt...

  16. Moved by a Rapid Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueter, C.

    2013-04-01

    Enticing by virtue of its predictability, historical utility, and spectacle, the transit of Venus is a niche event among astronomical phenomena. Though the value of a transit for scientific purposes is now diminished, the brief appearance of Venus silhouetted against the background of the Sun in 2004 moved the artistic community to celebrate the rare alignment. Artists of all ages combined old traditions with fresh technology to create a 21st-century tapestry of music, sculpture, paintings, glasswork, quilts, sky shows, and digital imagery. A full catalog of transit-related art generated over the centuries would feature the sampling of entries presented here and at the Moved by a Rapid Transit website.

  17. [Rapid diagnostic test for malaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houzé, S

    2017-02-01

    The rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) whose main interest lies in their implementation without special equipment by unskilled personnel have grown significantly over the past fifteen years to diagnose malaria. They rely on the detection of specific Plasmodium proteins, PfHRP2, pLDH and aldolase. If the detection of PfHRP2 has very good sensitivity for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, the detection of pLDH or aldolase is less efficient for other species, leaving its place to the reference microscopic diagnosis. RDT could not generally be used to monitor therapeutic efficacy because they can remain positive after clinical and parasitological cure. Furthermore, the development of the use of these tests has highlighted the need for quality assurance programs to monitor their production as their use.

  18. Rapid Solidification of Magnetic Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalonji, G.; Deguire, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    The enhanced control over microstructural evolution inherent in rapid solidification processing techniques are exploited to create novel ceramic magnetic materials. The great sensitivity of magnetic properties to local structure provides a powerful probe both for the study of structure and of microscopic solidification mechanisms. The first system studied is the SrO-Fe2O3 binary, which contains the commercially important hard magnetic compound strontium hexaferrite. The products were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, Mossbauer spectroscopy, magnetic measurements, and differential thermal analysis. As-quenched ribbons contain high concentrations of super-paramagnetic particles, 80 to 250 Angstroms in diameter, in a glassy matrix. This suggests the possibility of crystallizing monodomain strontium hexaferrite during subsequent heat treatment, with a resulting increase in coercivity over conventionally processed ferrite magnets. That magnetic properties can be controlled in solidification processing by varying the quench rate is demonstrated.

  19. Ceramic microfabrication by rapid prototyping process chains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To avoid high tooling costs in product development, a rapid prototyping process chain has been established that enables rapid manufacturing of ceramic microcomponents from functional models to small lot series within a short time. This process chain combines the fast and inexpensive supply of master models by rapid ...

  20. Rapid Prototyping in Instructional Design: Creating Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Carolyn D.

    2010-01-01

    Instructional designers working in rapid prototyping environments currently do not have a list of competencies that help to identify the knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required in these workplaces. This qualitative case study used multiple cases in an attempt to identify rapid prototyping competencies required in a rapid prototyping…

  1. Drawing a random number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen Bundgaard; Sørensen, Majken Vildrik

    2006-01-01

    highly uniform multidimensional draws, which are highly relevant for todays traffic models. This paper shows among others combined shuffling and scrambling seems needless, that scrambling gives the lowest correlation and that there are detectable differences between random numbers, dependent...

  2. Theory of random sets

    CERN Document Server

    Molchanov, Ilya

    2017-01-01

    This monograph, now in a thoroughly revised second edition, offers the latest research on random sets. It has been extended to include substantial developments achieved since 2005, some of them motivated by applications of random sets to econometrics and finance. The present volume builds on the foundations laid by Matheron and others, including the vast advances in stochastic geometry, probability theory, set-valued analysis, and statistical inference. It shows the various interdisciplinary relationships of random set theory within other parts of mathematics, and at the same time fixes terminology and notation that often vary in the literature, establishing it as a natural part of modern probability theory and providing a platform for future development. It is completely self-contained, systematic and exhaustive, with the full proofs that are necessary to gain insight. Aimed at research level, Theory of Random Sets will be an invaluable reference for probabilists; mathematicians working in convex and integ...

  3. A rapid online telepathy test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldrake, Rupert; Beharee, Ashwin

    2009-06-01

    In an automated online telepathy test, each participant had four senders, two actual and two virtual, generated by the computer. In a series of 12 30-sec. trials, the computer selected one of the senders at random and asked him to write a message to the subject. After 30 sec., the participant was asked to guess who had written a message. After the computer had recorded his guess, it sent him the message. In a total of 6,000 trials, there were 1,559 hits (26.7%), significantly above the chance expectation of 25%. In filmed tests, the hit rate was very similar. The hit rate with actual senders was higher than with virtual senders, but there was a strong guessing bias in favour of actual senders. When high-scoring subjects were retested, hit rates generally declined, but one subject repeatedly scored above chance.

  4. Mars Exploration Rover mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Joy A.; Adler, Mark; Matijevic, Jacob R.; Squyres, Steven W.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Kass, David M.

    2003-10-01

    In January 2004 the Mars Exploration Rover mission will land two rovers at two different landing sites that show possible evidence for past liquid-water activity. The spacecraft design is based on the Mars Pathfinder configuration for cruise and entry, descent, and landing. Each of the identical rovers is equipped with a science payload of two remote-sensing instruments that will view the surrounding terrain from the top of a mast, a robotic arm that can place three instruments and a rock abrasion tool on selected rock and soil samples, and several onboard magnets and calibration targets. Engineering sensors and components useful for science investigations include stereo navigation cameras, stereo hazard cameras in front and rear, wheel motors, wheel motor current and voltage, the wheels themselves for digging, gyros, accelerometers, and reference solar cell readings. Mission operations will allow commanding of the rover each Martian day, or sol, on the basis of the previous sol's data. Over a 90-sol mission lifetime, the rovers are expected to drive hundreds of meters while carrying out field geology investigations, exploration, and atmospheric characterization. The data products will be delivered to the Planetary Data System as integrated batch archives.

  5. Exploration Supply Chain Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Supply Chain Simulation project was chartered by the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop a software tool, with proper data, to quantitatively analyze supply chains for future program planning. This tool is a discrete-event simulation that uses the basic supply chain concepts of planning, sourcing, making, delivering, and returning. This supply chain perspective is combined with other discrete or continuous simulation factors. Discrete resource events (such as launch or delivery reviews) are represented as organizational functional units. Continuous resources (such as civil service or contractor program functions) are defined as enabling functional units. Concepts of fixed and variable costs are included in the model to allow the discrete events to interact with cost calculations. The definition file is intrinsic to the model, but a blank start can be initiated at any time. The current definition file is an Orion Ares I crew launch vehicle. Parameters stretch from Kennedy Space Center across and into other program entities (Michaud Assembly Facility, Aliant Techsystems, Stennis Space Center, Johnson Space Center, etc.) though these will only gain detail as the file continues to evolve. The Orion Ares I file definition in the tool continues to evolve, and analysis from this tool is expected in 2008. This is the first application of such business-driven modeling to a NASA/government-- aerospace contractor endeavor.

  6. Exploring Metric Symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwart, P.H.; Grosse-Kunstleve, R.W.; Adams, P.D.

    2006-07-31

    Relatively minor perturbations to a crystal structure can in some cases result in apparently large changes in symmetry. Changes in space group or even lattice can be induced by heavy metal or halide soaking (Dauter et al, 2001), flash freezing (Skrzypczak-Jankun et al, 1996), and Se-Met substitution (Poulsen et al, 2001). Relations between various space groups and lattices can provide insight in the underlying structural causes for the symmetry or lattice transformations. Furthermore, these relations can be useful in understanding twinning and how to efficiently solve two different but related crystal structures. Although (pseudo) symmetric properties of a certain combination of unit cell parameters and a space group are immediately obvious (such as a pseudo four-fold axis if a is approximately equal to b in an orthorhombic space group), other relations (e.g. Lehtio, et al, 2005) that are less obvious might be crucial to the understanding and detection of certain idiosyncrasies of experimental data. We have developed a set of tools that allows straightforward exploration of possible metric symmetry relations given unit cell parameters and a space group. The new iotbx.explore{_}metric{_}symmetry command produces an overview of the various relations between several possible point groups for a given lattice. Methods for finding relations between a pair of unit cells are also available. The tools described in this newsletter are part of the CCTBX libraries, which are included in the latest (versions July 2006 and up) PHENIX and CCI Apps distributions.

  7. UWC geothermal resource exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    A program was developed to explore the strength of the geothermal and hot dry rock (HDR) resource at the Montezuma Hot Springs at the United World College (UWC). The purpose of the UWC {number_sign}1 well is to obtain hydrologic, geologic, and temperature information for ongoing geothermal evaluation of the Montezuma Hot Springs area. If sufficient fluids are encountered, the hole will be cased with a 4 1/2 inch production casing and re-permitted as a geothermal low-temperature well. If no fluid is encountered, the well will be abandoned per Oil Conservation Division regulation. The objectives of the exploration are to evaluate the resource potential to provide space heating for the entire campus of the United World College, determine the effect of a well on the Hot Springs outflow, accurately measure the UWC heating loads versus time, evaluate the potential to support local thermal industry development, assess the feasibility of HDR development, and create an educational program from the collection of data derived from the research effort.

  8. Exploring Servitization in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raja, Jawwad Z.; Frandsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research has predominately focused on the servitization strategies of Western manufacturers in advanced economies, neglecting the potential for servitization in those which are emerging, such as China. This paper explores the role of the external service partner network of a Eur......Purpose: Previous research has predominately focused on the servitization strategies of Western manufacturers in advanced economies, neglecting the potential for servitization in those which are emerging, such as China. This paper explores the role of the external service partner network...... of a European manufacturer providing services in China, in order to develop a better understanding of the resulting and associated challenges. Design/methodology/approach: An in-depth case study approach was used to examine the parent company, its subsidiary in China and the related service partner network....... Data collection involved all three actors and took place in Denmark and China. Findings: The findings suggest that motivation, opportunity and ability (MOA) need not only be mutually reinforcing for the organization attempting to move towards services but also aligned between organizational units...

  9. Quasiclassical Random Matrix Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Prange, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    We directly combine ideas of the quasiclassical approximation with random matrix theory and apply them to the study of the spectrum, in particular to the two-level correlator. Bogomolny's transfer operator T, quasiclassically an NxN unitary matrix, is considered to be a random matrix. Rather than rejecting all knowledge of the system, except for its symmetry, [as with Dyson's circular unitary ensemble], we choose an ensemble which incorporates the knowledge of the shortest periodic orbits, th...

  10. Rapid Tooling via Investment Casting and Rapid Prototype Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, Michael D.

    1999-06-01

    The objective of this work to develop the materials processing and design technologies required to reduce the die development time for metal mold processes from 12 months to 3 months, using die casting of Al and Mg as the example process. Sandia demonstrated that investment casting, using rapid prototype patterns produced from Stereo lithography or Selective laser Sintering, was a viable alternative/supplement to the current technology of machining form wrought stock. A demonstration die insert (ejector halt) was investment cast and subsequently tested in the die casting environment. The stationary half of the die insert was machined from wrought material to benchmark the cast half. The two inserts were run in a die casting machine for 3,100 shots of aluminum and at the end of the run no visible difference could be detected between the cast and machined inserts. Inspection concluded that the cast insert performed identically to the machined insert. Both inserts had no indications of heat checking or degradation.

  11. Exploring the effects of shale gas development on natural gas markets : A multi-method approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moorlag, R.; Auping, W.L.; Pruyt, E.

    2014-01-01

    Now that conventional gas resources are rapidly declining in many industrialised regions, national governments are considering the exploration and production of unconventional resources, with shale gas in particular. Large-scale development of these resources could significantly lower import

  12. Exploring features and opportunities of rapid-growth wine firms in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge J. Román

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available While much has been studied regarding the wine industry in Spain and France, little has been studied in developing countries. The aim of this work is to study the characteristics of dynamic wine firms in Chile. This paper presents qualitative research and reports six cases of wine companies, where several variables are analyzed according to Barringer, Jones and Neubaum framework. These variables include prior experience, founders’ knowledge regarding large company management, the use of strategic-planning systems and the use of new technology in the majority of its production. The results of this research could prove insightful for wine entrepreneurs looking to enhance their growth, based on greater differentiation and innovation, and not only on being competitive in pricing.

  13. Exploring New Roles of Classroom Teachers in Iowa Communities Experiencing Rapid Ethnic Diversification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cindy R.

    2012-01-01

    Non-English speakers are currently the fastest growing population group in Iowa schools. Immigrant and refugee families are choosing in record numbers to make Iowa their home. Across the state, newcomers are added daily to classroom rosters, and teachers are challenged to meet the unique social, emotional, and educational needs of students. The…

  14. Exploring synergies between transit investment and dense redevelopment: A scenario analysis in a rapidly urbanizing landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like many urban areas around the world, Durham and Orange counties in North Carolina, USA are experiencing population growth and sprawl that is putting stress on the transportation system. Light rail and denser transit-oriented development are being considered as possible solutio...

  15. Rapid development of cognitive maps in people with visual impairments when exploring novel geographic spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, Dan; Lippa, Yvonne; Golledge, Reginald G.; Kitchin, Rob; Blades, Mark

    2001-01-01

    'Cognitive' map is a term that refers to a person's environmental knowledge. Anyone experiencing a new environment will, over time, develop a cognitive representation of that environment, including information derived from that environment (e.g., about places, routes and spatial relationships) and information about personal experiences (e.g. memories about events at locations and attitudes towards places). There is now a great deal of research into the cognitive maps of sighted people (see Go...

  16. Quantum randomness and unpredictability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Gregg [Quantum Communication and Measurement Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Division of Natural Science and Mathematics, Boston University, Boston, MA (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Quantum mechanics is a physical theory supplying probabilities corresponding to expectation values for measurement outcomes. Indeed, its formalism can be constructed with measurement as a fundamental process, as was done by Schwinger, provided that individual measurements outcomes occur in a random way. The randomness appearing in quantum mechanics, as with other forms of randomness, has often been considered equivalent to a form of indeterminism. Here, it is argued that quantum randomness should instead be understood as a form of unpredictability because, amongst other things, indeterminism is not a necessary condition for randomness. For concreteness, an explication of the randomness of quantum mechanics as the unpredictability of quantum measurement outcomes is provided. Finally, it is shown how this view can be combined with the recently introduced view that the very appearance of individual quantum measurement outcomes can be grounded in the Plenitude principle of Leibniz, a principle variants of which have been utilized in physics by Dirac and Gell-Mann in relation to the fundamental processes. This move provides further support to Schwinger's ''symbolic'' derivation of quantum mechanics from measurement. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Epigenetic randomness, complexity and singularity of human iris patterns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John Daugman; Cathryn Downing

    2001-01-01

    .... The resulting diversity, and the combinatorial complexity created by so many dimensions of random variation, mean that the failure of a simple test of statistical independence performed on iris patterns can serve as a reliable rapid basis for automatic personal identification.

  18. Assertive community treatment in the Netherlands : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sytema, S.; Wunderink, L.; Bloemers, W.; Roorda, L.; Wiersma, D.

    Objective: Assertive community treatment is rapidly implemented by many European mental health services, but recently the evidence base has been questioned. Positive results of randomized trials in the USA were not replicated in the UK. The question is whether the UK findings are representative for

  19. Usefulness of Leukocyte Esterase Test Versus Rapid Strep Test for Diagnosis of Acute Strep Pharyngitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibhanipudi, Kumara V

    2015-01-01

    A study to compare the usage of throat swab testing for leukocyte esterase on a test strip(urine dip stick-multi stick) to rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of Group A Beta hemolytic streptococci in cases of acute pharyngitis in children. The testing of throat swab for leukocyte esterase on test strip currently used for urine testing may be used to detect throat infection and might be as useful as rapid strep. All patients who come with a complaint of sore throat and fever were examined clinically for erythema of pharynx, tonsils and also for any exudates. Informed consent was obtained from the parents and assent from the subjects. 3 swabs were taken from pharyngo-tonsillar region, testing for culture, rapid strep & Leukocyte Esterase. Total number is 100. Cultures 9(+); for rapid strep== 84(-) and16 (+); For LE== 80(-) and 20(+) From data configuration Rapid Strep versus LE test don't seem to be a random (independent) assignment but extremely aligned. The Statistical results show rapid and LE show very agreeable results. Calculated Value of Chi Squared Exceeds Tabulated under 1 Degree Of Freedom (Pthroat swab is as useful as rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of strep pharyngitis on test strip currently used for urine dip stick causing acute pharyngitis in children.

  20. Usefulness of Leukocyte Esterase Test Versus Rapid Strep Test for Diagnosis of Acute Strep Pharyngitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumara V. Nibhanipudi MD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A study to compare the usage of throat swab testing for leukocyte esterase on a test strip(urine dip stick-multi stick to rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of Group A Beta hemolytic streptococci in cases of acute pharyngitis in children. Hypothesis: The testing of throat swab for leukocyte esterase on test strip currently used for urine testing may be used to detect throat infection and might be as useful as rapid strep. Methods: All patients who come with a complaint of sore throat and fever were examined clinically for erythema of pharynx, tonsils and also for any exudates. Informed consent was obtained from the parents and assent from the subjects. 3 swabs were taken from pharyngo-tonsillar region, testing for culture, rapid strep & Leukocyte Esterase. Results: Total number is 100. Cultures 9(+; for rapid strep== 84(- and16 (+; For LE== 80(- and 20(+ Statistics: From data configuration Rapid Strep versus LE test don’t seem to be a random (independent assignment but extremely aligned. The Statistical results show rapid and LE show very agreeable results. Calculated Value of Chi Squared Exceeds Tabulated under 1 Degree Of Freedom (P<.0.0001 reject Null Hypothesis and Conclude Alternative Conclusions: Leukocyte esterase on throat swab is as useful as rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of strep pharyngitis on test strip currently used for urine dip stick causing acute pharyngitis in children.

  1. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder and Neurodegenerative Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Michael Joseph; Schenck, Carlos Hugh

    2015-06-01

    The dream enactment of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is often the first indication of an impending α-synuclein disorder, such as Parkinson disease, multiple-system atrophy, or dementia with Lewy bodies. To provide an overview of RBD from the onset of dream enactment through the emergence of a parkinsonian disorder. Peer-reviewed articles, including case reports, case series, retrospective reviews, prospective randomized trials, and basic science investigations, were identified in a PubMed search of articles on RBD from January 1, 1986, through July 31, 2014. Under normal conditions, vivid dream mentation combined with skeletal muscle paralysis characterizes rapid eye movement sleep. In RBD, α-synuclein abnormalities in the brainstem disinhibit rapid eye movement sleep motor activity, leading to dream enactment. The behaviors of RBD are often theatrical, with complexity, aggression, and violence; fighting and fleeing actions can be injurious to patients as well as bed partners. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is distinguished from other parasomnias by clinical features and the demonstration of rapid eye movement sleep without atonia on polysomnography. Consistent with early neurodegeneration, patients with RBD demonstrate subtle motor, cognitive, and autonomic impairments. Approximately 50% of patients with spontaneous RBD will convert to a parkinsonian disorder within a decade. Ultimately, nearly all (81%-90%) patients with RBD develop a neurodegenerative disorder. Among patients with Parkinson disease, RBD predicts a non-tremor-predominant subtype, gait freezing, and an aggressive clinical course. The most commonly cited RBD treatments include low-dose clonazepam or high-dose melatonin taken orally at bedtime. Treatment of RBD can prevent injury to patients and bed partners. Because RBD is a prodromal syndrome of Parkinson disease (or related disorder), it represents a unique opportunity for developing and testing disease

  2. Mars Exploration 2050: Human and Robotic Exploration Intertwined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakosky, B. M.

    2017-02-01

    Mars exploration over the next thirty years will have increased collaboration between human and robotic missions. Combined, we can explore fundamental science questions. We have the technology to start mission definition and development today.

  3. International Cometary Explorer (ICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, R.; Pashby, P.

    1991-01-01

    The primary mission objectives of the International Cometary Explorer (ICE) Comet Mission are to determine the composition and physical state of the Giacobini-Zinner Comet's nucleus; to determine the processes that governs the composition and distribution of neutral and ionized species in the cometary atmosphere; and to investigate the interaction between the solar wind and the cometary atmosphere. The spacecraft was in a halo orbit around the Sun-Earth libration point until it was moved 10 Jun. 1982 to the Earth's Geomagnetic Tail (GT). The spacecraft reached the GT in Jan. 1983 and remained there until Dec. 1983, at which time a lunar swing-by placed the spacecraft in a trajectory heliocentric orbit which encountered the comet Giacobini-Zinner in Sep. 1985. The spacecraft provided observations of solar wind upstream of Halley's Comet in 1986. Information is presented in tabular form and includes the following areas: Deep Space Network support, frequency assignments, telemetry, command, and tracking support responsibilities.

  4. Exploring String Theory Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, B P

    2004-01-01

    This thesis examines phenomenological and theoretical questions by exploring string theoretic backgrounds. Part I focuses on cosmology. First we propose that the induced metric along a brane moving through a curved bulk may be interpreted as the cosmology of the brane universe, providing a resolution to the apparent cosmological singularity on the brane. We then look at various decay channels of the certain meta-stable de Sitter vacua and show that there exist NS5-brane meditated decays which are much faster than decays to decompactification. Part II discusses a new class of nongeometric vacua in string theory. These backgrounds may be described locally as T2 fibrations. By enlarging the monodromy group of the fiber to include perturbative stringy duality symmetries we are able to explicitly construct nongeometric backgrounds.

  5. Exploring the Moon

    CERN Document Server

    Harland, David M

    2008-01-01

    David Harland opens with a review of the robotic probes, namely the Rangers which returned television before crashing into the Moon, the Surveyors which ''soft landed'' in order to investigate the nature of the surface, and the Lunar Orbiters which mapped prospective Apollo landing sites. He then outlines the historic landing by Apollo 11 in terms of what was discovered, and how over the next several missions the program was progressively geared up to enable the final three missions each to spend three days on comprehensive geological investigations. He concludes with a review of the robotic spacecraft that made remote-sensing observations of the Moon. Although aimed at the enthusiast, and can be read as an adventure in exploration, the book develops the scientific theme of lunar geology, and therefore will be of use as background reading for undergraduate students of planetary sciences. In addition, with the prospect of a resumption of human missions, it will help journalists understand what Apollo achieved ...

  6. Exploring the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netter, Sarah

    Despite the growing interest on the part of proponents and opponents - ranging from business, civil society, media, to policy-makers alike - there is still limited knowledge about the working mechanisms of the sharing economy. The thesis is dedicated to explore this understudied phenomenon...... and to provide a more nuanced understanding of the micro- and macro-level tensions that characterize the sharing economy. This thesis consists of four research papers, each using different literature, methodology, and data sets. The first paper investigates how the sharing economy is diffused and is ‘talked......-level tensions experience by sharing platforms by looking at the case of mobile fashion reselling and swapping markets. The final paper combines the perspectives of different sharing economy stakeholders and outlines some of the micro and macro tensions arising in and influencing the organization of these multi...

  7. Nutrition for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition has proven to be critical throughout the history of human exploration, on both land and water. The importance of nutrition during long-duration space exploration is no different. Maintaining optimal nutritional status is critical for all bodily systems, especially in light of the fact that that many are also affected by space flight itself. Major systems of concern are bone, muscle, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, protection against radiation damage, and others. The task ahead includes defining the nutritional requirements for space travelers, ensuring adequacy of the food system, and assessing crew nutritional status before, during, and after flight. Accomplishing these tasks will provide significant contributions to ensuring crew health on long-duration missions. In addition, development and testing of nutritional countermeasures to effects of space flight is required, and assessment of the impact of other countermeasures (such as exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutrition is also critical for maintaining overall crew health. Vitamin D stores of crew members are routinely low after long-duration space flight. This occurs even when crew members take vitamin D supplements, suggesting that vitamin D metabolism may be altered during space flight. Vitamin D is essential for efficient absorption of calcium, and has numerous other benefits for other tissues with vitamin D receptors. Protein is a macronutrient that requires additional study to define the optimal intake for space travelers. Administration of protein to bed rest subjects can effectively mitigate muscle loss associated with disuse, but too much or too little protein can also have negative effects on bone. In another bed rest study, we found that the ratio of protein to potassium was correlated with the level of bone resorption: the higher the ratio, the more bone resorption. These relationships warrant further study to optimize the beneficial effect of protein on both bone and muscle

  8. Exploring Modularity in Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlonitis, Viktor; Hsuan, Juliana

    2017-01-01

    insights on the mirroring hypothesis of modularity theory to services. Originality/value The paper provides a conceptualization of service architectures drawing on service design, modularity, and market relationships. The study enriches service design literature with elements from modularity theory......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how modularity manifests in the design of services. The study brings new insights on the organization of service firms by empirically exploring and theoretically advancing the intersection of modularity and service design. Design....../methodology/approach The paper compares two companies that offer similar services in the same geographical region but represent polar case types. A framework grounded on extant literature is constructed and applied to the two cases to assess its practicality and provide theoretical insights. Findings The paper demonstrates...

  9. A cluster randomised trial introducing rapid diagnostic tests into registered drug shops in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Magnussen, Pascal; Lal, Sham

    2015-01-01

    the impact of introducing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (mRDTs) in registered drug shops in Uganda, with the aim to increase appropriate treatment of malaria with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in patients seeking treatment for fever in drug shops. METHODS: A cluster-randomized trial...

  10. Rapid Discovery of Potent and Selective Glycosidase-Inhibiting De Novo Peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongkees, Seino A.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412783061; Caner, Sami; Tysoe, Christina; Brayer, Gary D.; Withers, Stephen G.; Suga, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    Human pancreatic α-amylase (HPA) is responsible for degrading starch to malto-oligosaccharides, thence to glucose, and is therefore an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetes and obesity. Here we report the discovery of a unique lariat nonapeptide, by means of the RaPID (Random

  11. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Means, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The overall goal of the Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to provide information that supports regional planning and analysis for the management of ecological resources. The REA provides an assessment of baseline ecological conditions, an evaluation of current risks from drivers of ecosystem change (including energy development, fire, and invasive species), and a predictive capacity for evaluating future risks (including climate change). Additionally, the REA may be used for identifying priority areas for conservation or restoration and for assessing cumulative effects of multiple land uses. The Wyoming Basin REA will address Management Questions developed by the Bureau of Land Management and other agency partners for 8 major biomes and 19 species or species assemblages. The maps developed for addressing Management Questions will be integrated into overall maps of landscape-level ecological values and risks. The maps can be used to address the goals of the REA at a number of levels: for individual species, species assemblages, aquatic and terrestrial systems, and for the entire ecoregion. This allows flexibility in how the products of the REA are compiled to inform planning and management actions across a broad range of spatial scales.

  12. Rapid purification of recombinant histones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike Klinker

    Full Text Available The development of methods to assemble nucleosomes from recombinant histones decades ago has transformed chromatin research. Nevertheless, nucleosome reconstitution remains time consuming to this day, not least because the four individual histones must be purified first. Here, we present a streamlined purification protocol of recombinant histones from bacteria. We termed this method "rapid histone purification" (RHP as it circumvents isolation of inclusion bodies and thereby cuts out the most time-consuming step of traditional purification protocols. Instead of inclusion body isolation, whole cell extracts are prepared under strongly denaturing conditions that directly solubilize inclusion bodies. By ion exchange chromatography, the histones are purified from the extracts. The protocol has been successfully applied to all four canonical Drosophila and human histones. RHP histones and histones that were purified from isolated inclusion bodies had similar purities. The different purification strategies also did not impact the quality of octamers reconstituted from these histones. We expect that the RHP protocol can be readily applied to the purification of canonical histones from other species as well as the numerous histone variants.

  13. Rapid typing of Coxiella burnetii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidie M Hornstra

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii has the potential to cause serious disease and is highly prevalent in the environment. Despite this, epidemiological data are sparse and isolate collections are typically small, rare, and difficult to share among laboratories as this pathogen is governed by select agent rules and fastidious to culture. With the advent of whole genome sequencing, some of this knowledge gap has been overcome by the development of genotyping schemes, however many of these methods are cumbersome and not readily transferable between institutions. As comparisons of the few existing collections can dramatically increase our knowledge of the evolution and phylogeography of the species, we aimed to facilitate such comparisons by extracting SNP signatures from past genotyping efforts and then incorporated these signatures into assays that quickly and easily define genotypes and phylogenetic groups. We found 91 polymorphisms (SNPs and indels among multispacer sequence typing (MST loci and designed 14 SNP-based assays that could be used to type samples based on previously established phylogenetic groups. These assays are rapid, inexpensive, real-time PCR assays whose results are unambiguous. Data from these assays allowed us to assign 43 previously untyped isolates to established genotypes and genomic groups. Furthermore, genotyping results based on assays from the signatures provided here are easily transferred between institutions, readily interpreted phylogenetically and simple to adapt to new genotyping technologies.

  14. Rapid Response Flood Water Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policelli, Fritz; Brakenridge, G. R.; Coplin, A.; Bunnell, M.; Wu, L.; Habib, Shahid; Farah, H.

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of operation of the MODIS instrument on the NASA Terra satellite at the end of 1999, an exceptionally useful sensor and public data stream have been available for many applications including the rapid and precise characterization of terrestrial surface water changes. One practical application of such capability is the near-real time mapping of river flood inundation. We have developed a surface water mapping methodology based on using only bands 1 (620-672 nm) and 2 (841-890 nm). These are the two bands at 250 m, and the use of only these bands maximizes the resulting map detail. In this regard, most water bodies are strong absorbers of incoming solar radiation at the band 2 wavelength: it could be used alone, via a thresholding procedure, to separate water (dark, low radiance or reflectance pixels) from land (much brighter pixels) (1, 2). Some previous water mapping procedures have in fact used such single band data from this and other sensors that include similar wavelength channels. Adding the second channel of data (band 1), however, allows a band ratio approach which permits sediment-laden water, often relatively light at band 2 wavelengths, to still be discriminated, and, as well, provides some removal of error by reducing the number of cloud shadow pixels that would otherwise be misclassified as water.

  15. Exploring Lightning Jump Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronis, Themis; Carey, Larry D.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Schultz, Elise; Calhoun, Kristin; Goodman, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    This study is concerned with the characteristics of storms exhibiting an abrupt temporal increase in the total lightning flash rate (i.e., lightning jump, LJ). An automated storm tracking method is used to identify storm "clusters" and total lightning activity from three different lightning detection systems over Oklahoma, northern Alabama and Washington, D.C. On average and for different employed thresholds, the clusters that encompass at least one LJ (LJ1) last longer, relate to higher Maximum Expected Size of Hail, Vertical Integrated Liquid and lightning flash rates (area-normalized) than the clusters that did not exhibit any LJ (LJ0). The respective mean values for LJ1 (LJ0) clusters are 80 min (35 min), 14 mm (8 mm), 25 kg per square meter (18 kg per square meter) and 0.05 flash per min per square kilometer (0.01 flash per min per square kilometer). Furthermore, the LJ1 clusters are also characterized by slower decaying autocorrelation functions, a result that implies a less "random" behavior in the temporal flash rate evolution. In addition, the temporal occurrence of the last LJ provides an estimate of the time remaining to the storm's dissipation. Depending of the LJ strength (i.e., varying thresholds), these values typically range between 20-60 min, with stronger jumps indicating more time until storm decay. This study's results support the hypothesis that the LJ is a proxy for the storm's kinematic and microphysical state rather than a coincidental value.

  16. RMBNToolbox: random models for biochemical networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemi Jari

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing interest to model biochemical and cell biological networks, as well as to the computational analysis of these models. The development of analysis methodologies and related software is rapid in the field. However, the number of available models is still relatively small and the model sizes remain limited. The lack of kinetic information is usually the limiting factor for the construction of detailed simulation models. Results We present a computational toolbox for generating random biochemical network models which mimic real biochemical networks. The toolbox is called Random Models for Biochemical Networks. The toolbox works in the Matlab environment, and it makes it possible to generate various network structures, stoichiometries, kinetic laws for reactions, and parameters therein. The generation can be based on statistical rules and distributions, and more detailed information of real biochemical networks can be used in situations where it is known. The toolbox can be easily extended. The resulting network models can be exported in the format of Systems Biology Markup Language. Conclusion While more information is accumulating on biochemical networks, random networks can be used as an intermediate step towards their better understanding. Random networks make it possible to study the effects of various network characteristics to the overall behavior of the network. Moreover, the construction of artificial network models provides the ground truth data needed in the validation of various computational methods in the fields of parameter estimation and data analysis.

  17. Venus Exploration Forthcoming -Scientific View

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matsuzaki, Akiyoshi

    1988-01-01

      As a mission after MAGELLAN, which is the NASA's next Venus explorer and will be launched in April 1989 for making a Radar map, a Venus exploration program is proposed here with the special interest...

  18. Wave Propagation inside Random Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaojun

    This thesis presents results of studies of wave scattering within and transmission through random and periodic systems. The main focus is on energy profiles inside quasi-1D and 1D random media. The connection between transport and the states of the medium is manifested in the equivalence of the dimensionless conductance, g, and the Thouless number which is the ratio of the average linewidth and spacing of energy levels. This equivalence and theories regarding the energy profiles inside random media are based on the assumption that LDOS is uniform throughout the samples. We have conducted microwave measurements of the longitudinal energy profiles within disordered samples contained in a copper tube supporting multiple waveguide channels with an antenna moving along a slit on the tube. These measurements allow us to determine the local density of states (LDOS) at a location which is the sum of energy from all incoming channels on both sides. For diffusive samples, the LDOS is uniform and the energy profile decays linearly as expected. However, for localized samples, we find that the LDOS drops sharply towards the middle of the sample and the energy profile does not follow the result of the local diffusion theory where the LDOS is assumed to be uniform. We analyze the field spectra into quasi-normal modes and found that the mode linewidth and the number of modes saturates as the sample length increases. Thus the Thouless number saturates while the dimensionless conductance g continues to fall with increasing length, indicating that the modes are localized near the boundaries. This is in contrast to the general believing that g and Thouless number follow the same scaling behavior. Previous measurements show that single parameter scaling (SPS) still holds in the same sample where the LDOS is suppressed te{shi2014microwave}. We explore the extension of SPS to the interior of the sample by analyzing statistics of the logrithm of the energy density ln W(x) and found that

  19. Robotic Exploration: New Heuristic Backtracking Algorithm, Performance Evaluation and Complexity Metric

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    El-Hussieny, Haitham; Assal, Samy F.M; Abdellatif, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    .... Although sensor-based random tree techniques have been used extensively for exploration, they are not efficient for time-critical applications since the robot may visit the same place more than once during backtracking...

  20. Improving prescribing practices with rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burchett, Helen E D; Leurent, Baptiste; Baiden, Frank

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The overuse of antimalarial drugs is widespread. Effective methods to improve prescribing practice remain unclear. We evaluated the impact of 10 interventions that introduced rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (mRDTs) on the use of tests and adherence to results in different contexts...... packages, supervision, supplies and community sensitisation. OUTCOME MEASURES: Analysis explored variation in: (1) uptake of mRDTs (% febrile patients tested); (2) provider adherence to positive mRDTs (% Plasmodium falciparum positive prescribed/given Artemisinin Combination Treatment); (3) provider...

  1. Method and apparatus for subsurface exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A subsurface explorer (SSX) for exploring beneath the terrestrial surface of planetary bodies such as the Earth, Mars, or comets. This exploration activity utilizes appropriate sensors and instrument to evaluate the composition, structure, mineralogy and possibly biology of the subsurface medium, as well as perhaps the ability to return samples of that medium back to the surface. The vehicle comprises an elongated skin or body having a front end and a rear end, with a nose piece at the front end for imparting force to composition material of the planetary body. Force is provided by a hammer mechanism to the back side of a nose piece from within the body of the vehicle. In the preferred embodiment, a motor spins an intermediate shaft having two non-uniform threads along with a hammer which engages these threads with two conical rollers. A brake assembly halts the rotation of the intermediate shaft, causing the conical roller to spin down the non-uniform thread to rapidly and efficiently convert the rotational kinetic energy of the hammer into translational energy.

  2. Coded Random Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paolini, Enrico; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Liva, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    , in which the structure of the access protocol can be mapped to a structure of an erasure-correcting code defined on graph. This opens the possibility to use coding theory and tools for designing efficient random access protocols, offering markedly better performance than ALOHA. Several instances of coded......The rise of machine-to-machine communications has rekindled the interest in random access protocols as a support for a massive number of uncoordinatedly transmitting devices. The legacy ALOHA approach is developed under a collision model, where slots containing collided packets are considered...... as waste. However, if the common receiver (e.g., base station) is capable to store the collision slots and use them in a transmission recovery process based on successive interference cancellation, the design space for access protocols is radically expanded. We present the paradigm of coded random access...

  3. Exploring Translations Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autor: Anthony Pym

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2016v36n3p214 This work is a translation of the chapter “Descriptions – the intellectual background” serving as a complement to the chapter 5 of the book titled Exploring Translations Studies (2010 by Anthony Pym. The chapter outlines the relationship between Russian Formalism and some of the strands of the Translation Studies which emerged during the 19th century. It brings to the fore works done in Prague (Prague Circle, Bratislava, Leipzig, Holland and Flanders focusing specially on the Tel-Aviv School of Itamar-Even and Gideon Toury, the main forerunners of the Descriptive Translation Studies (DTS. By analyzing this academic context, not only it describes the type of approaches those theorists suggested, but it also discusses the ups and downs of such paradigms problematizing concepts like “translation shifts”, “assumed translations” and “norms”. This translation aims at presenting and sharing Pym’s work as clearly and fluid as the original is, so that it serves as both a historical reference and an introductory text to Translation Studies.

  4. Exploring Translations Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pym

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is a translation of the chapter “Descriptions – the intellectual background” serving as a complement to the chapter 5 of the book titled Exploring Translations Studies (2010 by Anthony Pym. The chapter outlines the relationship between Russian Formalism and some of the strands of the Translation Studies which emerged during the 19th century. It brings to the fore works done in Prague (Prague Circle, Bratislava, Leipzig, Holland and Flanders focusing specially on the Tel-Aviv School of Itamar-Even and Gideon Toury, the main forerunners of the Descriptive Translation Studies (DTS. By analyzing this academic context, not only it describes the type of approaches those theorists suggested, but it also discusses the ups and downs of such paradigms problematizing concepts like “translation shifts”, “assumed translations” and “norms”. This translation aims at presenting and sharing Pym’s work as clearly and fluid as the original is, so that it serves as both a historical reference and an introductory text to Translation Studies.

  5. Exploring the dusty Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borghese, F

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Dust is an ubiquitous inhabitant of the interstellar medium, and leaves an unmistakable signature in its optical properties, and physico-chemical evolution. Although there is little direct knowledge of the true nature of interstellar dust grains, strong evidences point toward the possibility that such grains are composites of many small monomers (mainly made of silicates and carbonaceous materials. We consider two different models of fluffy dust aggregates, occurring as result of ballistic particle-cluster and cluster-cluster aggregation, and a cluster with a Gaussian-like sphere size distribution. We study the optical properties of such composite structures through the multipole fields and the Transition Matrix approach. Our results show the severe limits of applicability of the effective medium theories. By comparing radiation and gravitational forces, we also infer some relevant insights into the dynamical evolution of composite grains in the Solar System. We finally explore the possible role of composite fluffy dust grains in igniting an extraterrestrial prebiotic chemistry.

  6. Language and Identity Explored

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Rozanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between language and identity is widely discussed in applied linguistics, sociology, communications and other related scholarly fields. Furthermore, many researchers have focused on the post-Soviet region, which given its unique historical context allows for testing of this relationship. The widespread bilingualism as a result of historical russification and the linguistic transformations that occurred after the collapse of the Soviet Union make the region a ‘sociolinguistic playground’. Recent events in Ukraine have given grounds to further explore this relationship, now in attempt to link language and identity as potential forces for geopolitical change in the region. This paper presents an overview of existing research, theories, and opposing perspectives related to the relationship between language and identity, and considers complications such as historical russification, religious influence, socioeconomic factors, and education with regards to the Ukrainian and post-Soviet context.  I aim to illustrate the significance of language and its effects on socio-political change in the case of Ukraine, by presenting arguments and complications in support of the relationship between language and identity.

  7. Exploring digital professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaway, Rachel H; Coral, Janet; Topps, David; Topps, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    The widespread use of digital media (both computing devices and the services they access) has blurred the boundaries between our personal and professional lives. Contemporary students are the last to remember a time before the widespread use of the Internet and they will be the first to practice in a largely e-health environment. This article explores concepts of digital professionalism and their place in contemporary medical education, and proposes a series of principles of digital professionalism to guide teaching, learning and practice in the healthcare professions. Despite the many risks and fears surrounding their use, digital media are not an intrinsic threat to medical professionalism. Professionals should maintain the capacity for deliberate, ethical, and accountable practice when using digital media. The authors describe a digital professionalism framework structured around concepts of proficiency, reputation, and responsibility. Digital professionalism can be integrated into medical education using strategies based on awareness, alignment, assessment, and accountability. These principles of digital professionalism provide a way for medical students and medical practitioners to embrace the positive aspects of digital media use while being mindful and deliberate in its use to avoid or minimize any negative consequences.

  8. Innovative interstellar explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, R.; Innovative Interstellar Explorer Team

    Fundamental scientific questions about the interaction of the Sun with the interstellar medium can only be answered with in situ measurements. The problem is the development of a probe that can provide the required measurements and can reach a heliocentric distance of at least 200 astronomical units (AU) in 15 years or less, an average speed almost four times the 3.6 AU/yr speed of Voyager 1. The Innovative Interstellar Explorer (IIE) and its use of Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP) is now being studied under a NASA Vision Mission grant to enable such a mission. Speed is provided by a high-energy launch using current launch vehicle technology followed by long-term, low-thrust, continuous acceleration. The latter is provided by a kilowatt-class ion thruster running off of electricity provided by advanced Stirling radioisotope generators (SRGs) powered by Pu-238. While subject to mass and power limitations for the instruments on board, such an approach relies on known General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) Pu-238 technology and current launch vehicles for speed, both of which require little new development and have well-known regulatory requirements for launch. In addition, this approach avoids the intrinsically large masses associated with nuclear fission reactors and incorporates launch of all nuclear material directly into an Earth-escape trajectory. We discuss the ongoing trade studies and development of this approach to an Interstellar Probe

  9. Rapid smoking may not be aversive in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jill M; Gandhi, Kunal K; Lu, Shou-En; Steinberg, Marc L; Benowitz, Neal L

    2013-01-01

    Aversive smoking has been investigated as a smoking cessation technique that involves rapid smoking in a clinic or laboratory and typically involves (a) puffing every 6-10 s or (b) smoking 3 or more cigarettes sequentially in 8-20 min. Rapid smoking usually results in dizziness, sore throat, nausea, and other unpleasant feelings. To explore rapid smoking, 161 smokers (75 with schizophrenia [SS]; 86 controls [CON]) were assessed in a single day (24 ± 2 hr), ad libitum smoking topography session using the Clinical Research Support System micro portable topography device. SS smoked significantly more cigarettes in the 24-hr period versus CON and the time between puffs, or interpuff interval (IPI) was shorter in SS versus CON by an average of 6.5 s (p < .001). The median IPI was also significantly shorter in SS versus CON (9.3 vs.15.7 s; p < .001). SS were twice as likely to have IPIs ≤ 6 s than CON (OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 1.68, 3.20; p < .001). SS were also more likely to smoke 3 or more cigarettes in any 20 min during a 24-hr topography session (OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 1.03, 2.44; p < .001). Rapid smoking was associated with baseline characteristics of smoking more cigarettes per day, higher Fagerström score, and higher carbon monoxide level but not with serum cotinine values or trans-3'-hydroxycotinine/cotinine ratios. Using either definition, SS exhibit patterns of rapid smoking that they seemingly do not experience as aversive, since it reflects their naturalistic pattern of smoking, outside of the laboratory.

  10. A discrete fractional random transform

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhengjun; Zhao, Haifa; Liu, Shutian

    2006-01-01

    We propose a discrete fractional random transform based on a generalization of the discrete fractional Fourier transform with an intrinsic randomness. Such discrete fractional random transform inheres excellent mathematical properties of the fractional Fourier transform along with some fantastic features of its own. As a primary application, the discrete fractional random transform has been used for image encryption and decryption.

  11. The Application Trends of Rapid Prototyping Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Xiao Lin

    2016-01-01

    characteristics of laser stero lithography (LSL selective laser sintering (SLS, three-dimensional printing (DP, fused deposition modeling (FDM, computer numerical control (CNC and other rapid prototyping technologies. After discussed these five rapid prototyping technology materials, we presented the hotspot and direction of rapid prototyping technology and look forward to the development of its technique, the expansion of its field and the progress of its academic ideology.

  12. Tinboektoe toe: Spatial explorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. (Franci Greyling

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop and advance research in the creative disciplines in a university context, it is important to create a space in which the expectations in the formal research environment and the unique features of the creative disciplines are in balance. To this end it is necessary to investigate more closely the challenges and possibilities of practice-based research approaches, and to understand their internal functioning better. The experimental and unique nature of artists’ books and the variety of activities that form part of the creative process may bring about an increased awareness of the creative process, and in that way it may also create space conducive for reflection. In this article the development of an artist’s book, Tinboektoe toe, being discussed, from the perspective of the reflective practitioner. This book, consisting of postcards, invited readers to literally and figuratively become part of the space of the book, to participate in its writing and to make stories, in order to dismantle and undermine the traditional boundaries of the narrative world and the book. Although reader participation in the construct of meaning underpins all writing, it became a deliberate and centrifugal force in this project, influencing the research themes and possibilities. This specific and nuanced focus is probably only feasible if a creative project and research issues are allowed to develop jointly organically. The project can be regarded as a case where artistic practice is the subject, method, content and outcome of research. Practice-based research must offer room for a journey of exploration and discovery.

  13. Explore Mediterranean in classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balesevic, Ivana

    2017-04-01

    I am a science teacher at a primary school and my students are very interested in science. Through this year I will work with my students, organizing several workshops and or results will be presented on poster. I will work with several groups (4-6) students 8th grade. In this poster all activities will be presented, showing how science is easy to learn even in a classroom. 1. Workshop > Chemical characteristic of sea water Using school laboratory each group of students will analyze the physical and chemical characteristic of sea water and they have to explain the results to younger student's 5th and 6th grade. The final result will be presented on poster. 2. Workshop> Meet the Mediterranean life During this workshop students will work in different groups. The aim of the workshop is to meet lots of species that we can find in Mediterranean using movies, phone applications, internet explorer, science books and school collections of invertebrates … 3. Workshop>Stop the pollution Several groups of students have to debate about causes of pollution and possibilities for prevention. At the end of workshop we will organize a quiz. Student's answers and suggestions will be shown on the poster. 4. Workshop> How we see the Mediterranean During this workshop students will make models of Mediterranean in 2d and 3d perspective, using different materials. They can show on models parts of Mediterranean area, country, sea... After making models students need to visit 5th and 6th grade classes, to show them and explain the final results. Few models will be presented on poster

  14. Rapid Automated Mission Planning System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an automated UAS mission planning system that will rapidly identify emergency (contingency) landing sites, manage contingency routing, and...

  15. WIST: toolkit for rapid, customized LIMS development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Y Wayne; Arkin, Adam P; Chandonia, John-Marc

    2011-01-01

    Workflow Information Storage Toolkit (WIST) is a set of application programming interfaces and web applications that allow for the rapid development of customized laboratory information management systems (LIMS...

  16. JIEDDO Experience Provides Rapid Acquisition Insights

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James P Craft

    2015-01-01

    .... JIDA's rapid acquisition capabilities were preserved by transitioning the expedient organization that received supplemental funding into the Defense Department's newest combat support agency (CSA...

  17. Random regression models

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zlukovi

    modelled as a quadratic regression, nested within parity. The previous lactation length was ... This proportion was mainly covered by linear and quadratic coefficients. Results suggest that RRM could .... The multiple trait models in scalar notation are presented by equations (1, 2), while equation. (3) represents the random ...

  18. Randomized response methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, P.G.M.; Cruyff, Maarten; Bockenholt, U.

    2014-01-01

    In survey research it is often problematic to ask people sensitive questions because they may refuse to answer or they may provide a socially desirable answer that does not reveal their true status on the sensitive question. To solve this problem Warner (1965) proposed randomized response (RR). Here

  19. Random eigenvalue problems revisited

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The description of real-life engineering structural systems is associated with some amount of uncertainty in specifying material properties, geometric parameters, boundary conditions and applied loads. In the context of structural dynamics it is necessary to consider random eigenvalue problems in order to account for these ...

  20. absolutely regular random sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Harel

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the central limit theorems for the density estimator and for the integrated square error are proved for the case when the underlying sequence of random variables is nonstationary. Applications to Markov processes and ARMA processes are provided.

  1. A random matrix analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chaos to galaxies. We demonstrate the applicability of random matrix theory for networks by pro- viding a new dimension to complex systems research. We show that in spite of huge differences ... as mentioned earlier, different types of networks can be constructed based on the nature of connections. For example,.

  2. Random eigenvalue problems revisited

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Several studies have been conducted on this topic since the mid-sixties. The. A list of .... Random eigenvalue problems revisited. 297 and various elements of Hij ,i ≤ j are statistically independent and Gaussian. The pdf of H can be expressed as, ...... Generality of this result however remains to be verified in future studies.

  3. On Randomness and Probability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 2. On Randomness and Probability How to Mathematically Model Uncertain Events ... Author Affiliations. Rajeeva L Karandikar1. Statistics and Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 7 S J S Sansanwal Marg, New Delhi 110 016, India.

  4. Alzheimer random walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odagaki, Takashi; Kasuya, Keisuke

    2017-09-01

    Using the Monte Carlo simulation, we investigate a memory-impaired self-avoiding walk on a square lattice in which a random walker marks each of sites visited with a given probability p and makes a random walk avoiding the marked sites. Namely, p = 0 and p = 1 correspond to the simple random walk and the self-avoiding walk, respectively. When p> 0, there is a finite probability that the walker is trapped. We show that the trap time distribution can well be fitted by Stacy's Weibull distribution b(a/b){a+1}/{b}[Γ({a+1}/{b})]-1x^a\\exp(-a/bx^b)} where a and b are fitting parameters depending on p. We also find that the mean trap time diverges at p = 0 as p- α with α = 1.89. In order to produce sufficient number of long walks, we exploit the pivot algorithm and obtain the mean square displacement and its Flory exponent ν(p) as functions of p. We find that the exponent determined for 1000 step walks interpolates both limits ν(0) for the simple random walk and ν(1) for the self-avoiding walk as [ ν(p) - ν(0) ] / [ ν(1) - ν(0) ] = pβ with β = 0.388 when p ≪ 0.1 and β = 0.0822 when p ≫ 0.1. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Continuous Time Random Walk Still Trendy: Fifty-year History, Current State and Outlook", edited by Ryszard Kutner and Jaume Masoliver.

  5. Probing cell activity in random access modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacconi, L.; Crocini, C.; Lotti, J.; Coppini, R.; Ferrantini, C.; Tesi, C.; Yan, P.; Loew, L. M.; Cerbai, E.; Poggesi, C.; Pavone, F. S.

    2013-06-01

    We combined the advantage of an ultrafast random access microscope with novel labelling technologies to study the intra- and inter-cellular action potential propagation in neurons and cardiac myocytes with sub-millisecond time resolution. The random accesses microscopy was used in combination with a new fluorinated voltage sensitive dye with improved photostability to record membrane potential from multiple Purkinje cells with near simultaneous sampling. The RAMP system rapidly scanned between lines drawn in the membranes of neurons to perform multiplex measurements of the TPF signal. This recording was achieved by rapidly positioning the laser excitation with the AOD to sample a patch of membrane from each cell in <100 μs for recording from five cells, multiplexing permits a temporal resolution of 400 μs sufficient to capture every spike. The system is capable to record spontaneous activity over 800 ms from five neighbouring cells simultaneously, showing that spiking is not temporally correlated. The system was also used to investigate the electrical properties of tubular system (TATS) in isolated rat ventricular myocytes.

  6. Effective trapping of random walkers in complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, S; Lee, D-S; Kahng, B

    2012-04-01

    Exploring the World Wide Web has become one of the key issues in information science, specifically in view of its application to the PageRank-like algorithms used in search engines. The random walk approach has been employed to study such a problem. The probability of return to the origin (RTO) of random walks is inversely related to how information can be accessed during random surfing. We find analytically that the RTO probability for a given starting node shows a crossover from a slow to a fast decay behavior with time and the crossover time increases with the degree of the starting node. We remark that the RTO probability becomes almost constant in the early-time regime as the degree exponent approaches two. This result indicates that a random surfer can be effectively trapped at the hub and supports the necessity of the random jump strategy empirically used in the Google's search engine.

  7. Rapid shape detection signals in area V4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Katherine F; Ghose, Geoffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Vision in foveate animals is an active process that requires rapid and constant decision-making. For example, when a new object appears in the visual field, we can quickly decide to inspect it by directing our eyes to the object's location. We studied the contribution of primate area V4 to these types of rapid foveation decisions. Animals performed a reaction time task that required them to report when any shape appeared within a peripherally-located noisy stimulus by making a saccade to the stimulus location. We found that about half of the randomly sampled V4 neurons not only rapidly and precisely represented the appearance of this shape, but they were also predictive of the animal's saccades. A neuron's ability to predict the animal's saccades was not related to the specificity with which the cell represented a single type of shape but rather to its ability to signal whether any shape was present. This relationship between sensory sensitivity and behavioral predictiveness was not due to global effects such as alertness, as it was equally likely to be observed for cells with increases and decreases in firing rate. Careful analysis of the timescales of reliability in these neurons implies that they reflect both feedforward and feedback shape detecting processes. In approximately 7% of our recorded sample, individual neurons were able to predict both the delay and precision of the animal's shape detection performance. This suggests that a subset of V4 neurons may have been directly and causally contributing to task performance and that area V4 likely plays a critical role in guiding rapid, form-based foveation decisions.

  8. Exploring overlay journals: the RIOJA project

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Researchers in cosmology and astrophysics depend on the arXiv repository for the registration and dissemination of their work, as well as for current awareness, yet they continue to submit papers to journals for review. Could rapid quality certification be overlaid directly onto the arXiv repository? This presentation introduces the RIOJA (Repository Interface to Overlaid Journal Archives) project, on which a group of cosmology researchers from the UK is working with UCL Library Services and Cornell University. The project is creating a tool to support the overlay of journals onto repositories, and will demonstrate a cosmology journal overlaid on top of arXiv. RIOJA will also work with the cosmology community to explore the social and economic aspects of journal overlay in this discipline: what other value, besides the quality stamp, does journal publication typically add? What are the costs of the ideal overlay journal for this community, and how could those costs be recovered? Would researchers real...

  9. A Parallel Randomized Path Planner for Robot Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sengupta

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Computation of a collision-free path for a movable object among obstacles is an important problem in the fields of robotics, CIM and AI. Various automatic task level programming systems can be build for robot guidance, teleoperation, assembly and disassembly among others, if a suitable method for motion planning is available. In the basic variation of motion planning, the task is to generate a collision-free path for a movable object among known and static obstacles. Classically the problem was defined for a rigid 6 degrees-of-freedom body as 'the piano mover's problem'. However, the majority of the research has been conducted in the field of robotics, often under the title of path planning. Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs are a recently developed representation on which fast continuous domain path planners can be based. In this work, we have built a parallel path planning system based on RRTs that interleaves planning and execution, first evaluating it in simulation and then applying it to physical robots. Our distributed algorithm, PRRT (parallel RRT, introduces a parallel extension of previous RRT work, the process splitting and parallel cost penalty search with a comment on Real Time Stagnancy reduction, which improves re-planning efficiency, decreases latency involved in finding feasible paths and the quality of generated paths. PRRT is successfully applied to a real-time multi-robot system. In this paper we illustrate how it is possible to implement a parallel version of RRT based motion planner which yields optimal speed up.

  10. A Parallel Randomized Path Planner for Robot Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sengupta

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Computation of a collision-free path for a movable object among obstacles is an important problem in the fields of robotics, CIM and AI. Various automatic task level programming systems can be build for robot guidance, teleoperation, assembly and disassembly among others, if a suitable method for motion planning is available. In the basic variation of motion planning, the task is to generate a collision-free path for a movable object among known and static obstacles. Classically the problem was defined for a rigid 6 degrees-of-freedom body as ‘the piano mover's problem’. However, the majority of the research has been conducted in the field of robotics, often under the title of path planning. Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs are a recently developed representation on which fast continuous domain path planners can be based. In this work, we have built a parallel path planning system based on RRTs that interleaves planning and execution, first evaluating it in simulation and then applying it to physical robots. Our distributed algorithm, PRRT (parallel RRT, introduces a parallel extension of previous RRT work, the process splitting and parallel cost penalty search with a comment on Real Time Stagnancy reduction, which improves re-planning efficiency, decreases latency involved in finding feasible paths and the quality of generated paths. PRRT is successfully applied to a real-time multi-robot system. In this paper we illustrate how it is possible to implement a parallel version of RRT based motion planner which yields optimal speed up.

  11. Test plan for the Rapid Geophysical Surveyor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roybal, L.G.

    1993-06-01

    This document describes the test plant for demonstrating and testing a set of optically pumped cesium-based total field magnetometers using the Rapid Geophysical Surveyor platform. The proposed testing will be used to assess the function of these magnetometers as deployed on the Rapid Geophysical Surveyor and evaluate the practical utility of high resolution magnetic data for supporting waste retrieval efforts.

  12. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenck, C H; Montplaisir, J Y; Frauscher, B

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to provide a consensus statement by the International Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Study Group (IRBD-SG) on devising controlled active treatment studies in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and devising studies of neuroprotection against Parkinson disease (PD...

  13. Rapid methods for detection of bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Andersen, B.Ø.; Miller, M.

    2006-01-01

    Traditional methods for detection of bacteria in drinking water e.g. Heterotrophic Plate Counts (HPC) or Most Probable Number (MNP) take 48-72 hours to give the result. New rapid methods for detection of bacteria are needed to protect the consumers against contaminations. Two rapid methods...

  14. Rapid identification of Sporothrix schenckii in biopsy tissue by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Zhang, Z; Hou, B; Wang, D; Sun, T; Li, F; Wang, H; Han, S

    2013-12-01

    The dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii is the etiological agent of sporotrichosis, an important cutaneous mycosis with a worldwide distribution. At present, it is challenging to rapidly discover and identify Sporothrix schenckii in biopsy tissues nowadays. To explore new methods for rapid diagnosis of sporotrichosis. We screened specific primers for Sporothrix schenckii using 50 clinical isolates from patients with sporotrichosis. DNA was extracted from the lesions of 30 cases of clinically suspected sporotrichosis using the Graham s method of CTAB and amplified by PCR using the screened specific primers. The primer S2-R2 was applicable for the identification of S. schenckii from different geographic areas and clinical types with high specificity and sensitivity. Twenty-five out of the thirty cases (83.3%) amplified using the primer S2-R2 showed positive bands. Further positive bands were observed in 95.6% of cases tested positive by fungal culture. Using the PCR technique and specific primers, we developed a new diagnostic method that can rapidly diagnose sporotrichosis with tissues obtained from clinical biopsies. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2012 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  15. Onboard Radar Processing Development for Rapid Response Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yunling; Chien, Steve; Clark, Duane; Doubleday, Josh; Muellerschoen, Ron; Wang, Charles C.

    2011-01-01

    We are developing onboard processor (OBP) technology to streamline data acquisition on-demand and explore the potential of the L-band SAR instrument onboard the proposed DESDynI mission and UAVSAR for rapid response applications. The technology would enable the observation and use of surface change data over rapidly evolving natural hazards, both as an aid to scientific understanding and to provide timely data to agencies responsible for the management and mitigation of natural disasters. We are adapting complex science algorithms for surface water extent to detect flooding, snow/water/ice classification to assist in transportation/ shipping forecasts, and repeat-pass change detection to detect disturbances. We are near completion of the development of a custom FPGA board to meet the specific memory and processing needs of L-band SAR processor algorithms and high speed interfaces to reformat and route raw radar data to/from the FPGA processor board. We have also developed a high fidelity Matlab model of the SAR processor that is modularized and parameterized for ease to prototype various SAR processor algorithms targeted for the FPGA. We will be testing the OBP and rapid response algorithms with UAVSAR data to determine the fidelity of the products.

  16. Rapid laser prototyping of valves for microfluidic autonomous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, M. I.; Abraham, E.; Y Desmulliez, M. P.

    2013-03-01

    Capillary forces in microfluidics provide a simple yet elegant means to direct liquids through flow channel networks. The ability to manipulate the flow in a truly automated manner has proven more problematic. The majority of valves require some form of flow control devices, which are manually, mechanically or electrically driven. Most demonstrated capillary systems have been manufactured by photolithography, which, despite its high precision and repeatability, can be labour intensive, requires a clean room environment and the use of fixed photomasks, limiting thereby the agility of the manufacturing process to readily examine alternative designs. In this paper, we describe a robust and rapid CO2 laser manufacturing process and demonstrate a range of capillary-driven microfluidic valve structures embedded within a microfluidic network. The manufacturing process described allows for advanced control and manipulation of fluids such that flow can be halted, triggered and delayed based on simple geometrical alterations to a given microchannel. The rapid prototyping methodology has been employed with PMMA substrates and a complete device has been created, ready for use, within 2-3 h. We believe that this agile manufacturing process can be applied to produce a range of complex autonomous fluidic platforms and allows subsequent designs to be rapidly explored.

  17. The Chinese experience of rapid modernization: sociocultural changes, psychological consequences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahong eSun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mainland China has undergone profound changes dating back to the nineteenth century, including a contemporary period of rapid modernization that began in the 1980s. The result has been dramatic social, cultural, and economic shifts impacting the daily lives of Chinese people. In this paper, we explore the psychological implications of sociocultural transformation in China, emphasizing two central themes. First, rising individualism: findings from social and developmental psychology suggest that China’s rapid development has been accompanied by ever-increasing adherence to individualistic values. Second, rising rates of depression: findings from psychiatric epidemiology point to increasing prevalence of depression over this same time period, particularly in rural settings. We argue that links between sociocultural and psychological shifts in China can be usefully studied through a cultural psychology lens, emphasizing the mutual constitution of culture, mind, and brain. In particular, we note that the link between social change, individualism, and rising mental illness deserves careful attention. Our review suggests that shifting values and socialization practices shape emotion norms of concealment and display, with implications for depressive symptom presentation. The challenge comes with interpretation. Increasing prevalence rates of depression may indeed be a general response to the rapidity of sociocultural change, or a specific consequence of rising individualism—but may also result from increasingly ‘Western’ patterns of symptom presentation, or improvements in diagnostic practice. We conclude by considering the challenges posed to standard universal models of psychological phenomena.

  18. The Chinese Experience of Rapid Modernization: Sociocultural Changes, Psychological Consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiahong; Ryder, Andrew G.

    2016-01-01

    Mainland China has undergone profound changes dating back to the nineteenth century, including a contemporary period of rapid modernization that began in the 1980s. The result has been dramatic social, cultural, and economic shifts impacting the daily lives of Chinese people. In this paper, we explore the psychological implications of sociocultural transformation in China, emphasizing two central themes. First, rising individualism: findings from social and developmental psychology suggest that China’s rapid development has been accompanied by ever-increasing adherence to individualistic values. Second, rising rates of depression: findings from psychiatric epidemiology point to increasing prevalence of depression over this same time period, particularly in rural settings. We argue that links between sociocultural and psychological shifts in China can be usefully studied through a cultural psychology lens, emphasizing the mutual constitution of culture, mind, and brain. In particular, we note that the link between social change, individualism, and rising mental illness deserves careful attention. Our review suggests that shifting values and socialization practices shape emotion norms of concealment and display, with implications for depressive symptom presentation. The challenge comes with interpretation. Increasing prevalence rates of depression may indeed be a general response to the rapidity of sociocultural change, or a specific consequence of rising individualism—but may also result from increasingly ‘Western’ patterns of symptom presentation, or improvements in diagnostic practice. We conclude by considering the challenges posed to standard universal models of psychological phenomena. PMID:27092093

  19. Random vibrations theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Wirsching, Paul H; Ortiz, Keith

    1995-01-01

    Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice covers the theory and analysis of mechanical and structural systems undergoing random oscillations due to any number of phenomena— from engine noise, turbulent flow, and acoustic noise to wind, ocean waves, earthquakes, and rough pavement. For systems operating in such environments, a random vibration analysis is essential to the safety and reliability of the system. By far the most comprehensive text available on random vibrations, Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice is designed for readers who are new to the subject as well as those who are familiar with the fundamentals and wish to study a particular topic or use the text as an authoritative reference. It is divided into three major sections: fundamental background, random vibration development and applications to design, and random signal analysis. Introductory chapters cover topics in probability, statistics, and random processes that prepare the reader for the development of the theory of random vibrations a...

  20. Even Shallower Exploration with Airborne Electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auken, E.; Christiansen, A. V.; Kirkegaard, C.; Nyboe, N. S.; Sørensen, K.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne electromagnetics (EM) is in many ways undergoing the same type rapid technological development as seen in the telecommunication industry. These developments are driven by a steadily increasing demand for exploration of minerals, groundwater and geotechnical targets. The latter two areas demand shallow and accurate resolution of the near surface geology in terms of both resistivity and spatial delineation of the sedimentary layers. Airborne EM systems measure the grounds electromagnetic response when subject to either a continuous discrete sinusoidal transmitter signal (frequency domain) or by measuring the decay of currents induced in the ground by rapid transmission of transient pulses (time domain). In the last decade almost all new developments of both instrument hardware and data processing techniques has focused around time domain systems. Here we present a concept for measuring the time domain response even before the transient transmitter current has been turned off. Our approach relies on a combination of new instrument hardware and novel modeling algorithms. The newly developed hardware allows for measuring the instruments complete transfer function which is convolved with the synthetic earth response in the inversion algorithm. The effect is that earth response data measured while the transmitter current is turned off can be included in the inversion, significantly increasing the amount of available information. We demonstrate the technique using both synthetic and field data. The synthetic examples provide insight on the physics during the turn off process and the field examples document the robustness of the method. Geological near surface structures can now be resolved to a degree that is unprecedented to the best of our knowledge, making airborne EM even more attractive and cost-effective for exploration of water and minerals that are crucial for the function of our societies.

  1. Exploring Disks Around Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    Giant planets are thought to form in circumstellar disks surrounding young stars, but material may also accrete into a smaller disk around the planet. Weve never detected one of these circumplanetary disks before but thanks to new simulations, we now have a better idea of what to look for.Image from previous work simulating a Jupiter-mass planet forming inside a circumstellar disk. The planet has its own circumplanetary disk of accreted material. [Frdric Masset]Elusive DisksIn the formation of giant planets, we think the final phase consists of accretion onto the planet from a disk that surrounds it. This circumplanetary disk is important to understand, since it both regulates the late gas accretion and forms the birthplace of future satellites of the planet.Weve yet to detect a circumplanetary disk thus far, because the resolution needed to spot one has been out of reach. Now, however, were entering an era where the disk and its kinematics may be observable with high-powered telescopes (like the Atacama Large Millimeter Array).To prepare for such observations, we need models that predict the basic characteristics of these disks like the mass, temperature, and kinematic properties. Now a researcher at the ETH Zrich Institute for Astronomy in Switzerland, Judit Szulgyi, has worked toward this goal.Simulating CoolingSzulgyi performs a series of 3D global radiative hydrodynamic simulations of 1, 3, 5, and 10 Jupiter-mass (MJ) giant planets and their surrounding circumplanetary disks, embedded within the larger circumstellar disk around the central star.Density (left column), temperature (center), and normalized angular momentum (right) for a 1 MJ planet over temperatures cooling from 10,000 K (top) to 1,000 K (bottom). At high temperatures, a spherical circumplanetary envelope surrounds the planet, but as the planet cools, the envelope transitions around 64,000 K to a flattened disk. [Szulgyi 2017]This work explores the effects of different planet temperatures and

  2. Random phase textures: theory and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galerne, Bruno; Gousseau, Yann; Morel, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the mathematical and algorithmic properties of two sample-based texture models: random phase noise (RPN) and asymptotic discrete spot noise (ADSN). These models permit to synthesize random phase textures. They arguably derive from linearized versions of two early Julesz texture discrimination theories. The ensuing mathematical analysis shows that, contrarily to some statements in the literature, RPN and ADSN are different stochastic processes. Nevertheless, numerous experiments also suggest that the textures obtained by these algorithms from identical samples are perceptually similar. The relevance of this study is enhanced by three technical contributions providing solutions to obstacles that prevented the use of RPN or ADSN to emulate textures. First, RPN and ADSN algorithms are extended to color images. Second, a preprocessing is proposed to avoid artifacts due to the nonperiodicity of real-world texture samples. Finally, the method is extended to synthesize textures with arbitrary size from a given sample.

  3. Statistical properties of random matrix product states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnerone, Silvano; de Oliveira, Thiago R.; Haas, Stephan; Zanardi, Paolo

    2010-11-01

    We study the set of random matrix product states (RMPS) introduced by Garnerone, de Oliveira, and Zanardi [S. Garnerone, T. R. de Oliveira, and P. Zanardi, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.81.032336 81, 032336 (2010)] as a tool to explore foundational aspects of quantum statistical mechanics. In the present work, we provide an accurate numerical and analytical investigation of the properties of RMPS. We calculate the average state of the ensemble in the nonhomogeneous case, and numerically check the validity of this result. We also suggest using RMPS as a tool to approximate properties of general quantum random states. The numerical simulations presented here support the accuracy and efficiency of this approximation. These results suggest that any generalized canonical state can be approximated with high probability by the reduced density matrix of a RMPS, if the average matrix product states coincide with the associated microcanonical ensemble.

  4. Rapid Extremity Pain Relief by Battlefield Acupuncture after Orthopedic Surgery: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-21

    been a higher proportion of orthopedic injuries from secondary blast injury than in previous conflicts. Since 2003, it is estimated that approximately...32,195 soldiers have been wounded in combat in the Iraq conflict alone. According to the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, more than four

  5. Hi'iaka: Haumea's Rapidly Spinning Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    An image from the Keck telescope of the dwarf planet Haumea (center) and its two moons, Hiiaka (above) and Namaka (below). [Caltech/Keck/Mike Brown]Recent observations of Hiiaka, the largest satellite of the dwarf planet Haumea, reveal that the moon is spinning much more rapidly than expected. What could this tell us about how Haumea and its moons formed?A Distant DwarfThe dwarf planet Haumea orbits beyond Neptune and has a mass of roughly 1/3 that of Pluto. Like Pluto, Haumea also has companions: two satellites of roughly 0.5% and 0.05% of Haumeas mass, orbiting at rather large distances of 36 and 70 Haumea radii (roughly 26,000 and 50,000 km).In a recently published study, a team led by Danielle Hastings (UC Los Angeles and Florida Institute of Technology) explored Hubble and Magellan observations of Hiiaka Haumeas larger, outer satellite to determine the rate at which it rotates on its axis.Hiiakas light curve, phase-folded at its most likely rotation period of 9.8 hours. The double peak is due to the fact that Hiiaka is likely not a spherical body, so it shows two maxima in brightness in each full rotation. [Hastings et al. 2016]Rapid RotationNominally, wed expect Hiiaka to be rotating synchronously its rotation period should be the same as its orbital period of 49.5 days. We expect this because the amount of time needed for tidal forces to despin Hiiaka to synchronous rotation should be much shorter than the time needed for these forces to produce Hiiakas observed low eccentricity and large semimajor axis.Therefore it was quite the surprise when Hastings and collaborators analyzed Hiiakas light curve and found that the moon revolves on its axis once every 9.8 hours! Thats roughly 120 times faster than the expected synchronous rate.Formation TheoriesWhat does this discovery reveal about Hiiakas formation? Hastings and collaborators propose three possible scenarios. They then use analytic calculations and numerical simulations to try to constrain them based on

  6. SIMS: a hybrid method for rapid conformational analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant Gipson

    Full Text Available Proteins are at the root of many biological functions, often performing complex tasks as the result of large changes in their structure. Describing the exact details of these conformational changes, however, remains a central challenge for computational biology due the enormous computational requirements of the problem. This has engendered the development of a rich variety of useful methods designed to answer specific questions at different levels of spatial, temporal, and energetic resolution. These methods fall largely into two classes: physically accurate, but computationally demanding methods and fast, approximate methods. We introduce here a new hybrid modeling tool, the Structured Intuitive Move Selector (sims, designed to bridge the divide between these two classes, while allowing the benefits of both to be seamlessly integrated into a single framework. This is achieved by applying a modern motion planning algorithm, borrowed from the field of robotics, in tandem with a well-established protein modeling library. sims can combine precise energy calculations with approximate or specialized conformational sampling routines to produce rapid, yet accurate, analysis of the large-scale conformational variability of protein systems. Several key advancements are shown, including the abstract use of generically defined moves (conformational sampling methods and an expansive probabilistic conformational exploration. We present three example problems that sims is applied to and demonstrate a rapid solution for each. These include the automatic determination of "active" residues for the hinge-based system Cyanovirin-N, exploring conformational changes involving long-range coordinated motion between non-sequential residues in Ribose-Binding Protein, and the rapid discovery of a transient conformational state of Maltose-Binding Protein, previously only determined by Molecular Dynamics. For all cases we provide energetic validations using well

  7. Aerial Explorers and Robotic Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg

    2004-01-01

    A unique bio-inspired approach to autonomous aerial vehicle, a.k.a. aerial explorer technology is discussed. The work is focused on defining and studying aerial explorer mission concepts, both as an individual robotic system and as a member of a small robotic "ecosystem." Members of this robotic ecosystem include the aerial explorer, air-deployed sensors and robotic symbiotes, and other assets such as rovers, landers, and orbiters.

  8. Auxiliary Library Explorer (ALEX) Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Auxiliary Library Explorer (ALEX) Development Alex Bunting 1, Stephen G. McAteer 2 and Justin Beck 2 1 University of New South Wales 2...the Auxiliary Library Explorer (ALEX) which was carried out as part of a DST Group summer vacation scholarship in 2013–14 by Alex Bunting. ALEX is a...Auxiliary Library Explorer (ALEX) Development Executive Summary In this report we describe the work completed by DST Group summer vacation scholar, Alex

  9. Random Raman lasing

    CERN Document Server

    Hokr, Brett H; Mason, John D; Beier, Hope T; Rockwll, Benjamin A; Thomas, Robert J; Noojin, Gary D; Petrov, Georgi I; Golovan, Leonid A; Yakovlev, Vladislav V

    2013-01-01

    Propagation of light in a highly scattering medium is among the most fascinating optical effect that everyone experiences on an everyday basis and possesses a number of fundamental problems which have yet to be solved. Conventional wisdom suggests that non-linear effects do not play a significant role because the diffusive nature of scattering acts to spread the intensity, dramatically weakening these effects. We demonstrate the first experimental evidence of lasing on a Raman transition in a bulk three-dimensional random media. From a practical standpoint, Raman transitions allow for spectroscopic analysis of the chemical makeup of the sample. A random Raman laser could serve as a bright Raman source allowing for remote, chemically specific, identification of powders and aerosols. Fundamentally, the first demonstration of this new light source opens up an entire new field of study into non-linear light propagation in turbid media, with the most notable application related to non-invasive biomedical imaging.

  10. On fairness and randomness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the relation between the behavior of non-deterministic systems under fairness constraints, and the behavior of probabilistic systems. To this end, first a framework based on computable stopping strategies is developed that provides a common foundation for describing both fair...... and probabilistic behavior. On the basis of stopping strategies it is then shown that fair behavior corresponds in a precise sense to random behavior in the sense of Martin-Löf's definition of randomness. We view probabilistic systems as concrete implementations of more abstract non-deterministic systems. Under...... this perspective the question is investigated what probabilistic properties are needed in such an implementation to guarantee (with probability one) certain required fairness properties in the behavior of the probabilistic system. Generalizing earlier concepts of ε -bounded transition probabilities, we introduce...

  11. Free random variables

    CERN Document Server

    Voiculescu, Dan; Nica, Alexandru

    1992-01-01

    This book presents the first comprehensive introduction to free probability theory, a highly noncommutative probability theory with independence based on free products instead of tensor products. Basic examples of this kind of theory are provided by convolution operators on free groups and by the asymptotic behavior of large Gaussian random matrices. The probabilistic approach to free products has led to a recent surge of new results on the von Neumann algebras of free groups. The book is ideally suited as a textbook for an advanced graduate course and could also provide material for a seminar. In addition to researchers and graduate students in mathematics, this book will be of interest to physicists and others who use random matrices.

  12. Intravaginal stimulation randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J J

    1996-01-01

    The effectiveness of intravaginal electrical stimulation was compared to standard therapy in the treatment of genuine stress urinary incontinence and detrusor instability. A total of 57 women with urinary incontinence was evaluated with video urodynamics and voiding diaries before and after treatment. Of the women 18 with stress urinary incontinence were randomized to electrical stimulation or Kegel exercise and 38 with detrusor instability were randomized to anticholinergic therapy or electrical stimulation. Of patients using electrical stimulation in the stress urinary incontinence group 66% improved and 72% of the patients with detrusor instability treated with electrical stimulation improved. These rates were not statistically significant when compared to traditional therapy. Electrical stimulation is safe and at least as effective as properly performed Kegel and anticholinergic therapy in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence and detrusor instability.

  13. Avionics Architecture for Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Avionics Architectures for Exploration Project team will develop a system level environment and architecture that will accommodate equipment from multiple...

  14. Certified randomness in quantum physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acín, Antonio; Masanes, Lluis

    2016-12-07

    The concept of randomness plays an important part in many disciplines. On the one hand, the question of whether random processes exist is fundamental for our understanding of nature. On the other, randomness is a resource for cryptography, algorithms and simulations. Standard methods for generating randomness rely on assumptions about the devices that are often not valid in practice. However, quantum technologies enable new methods for generating certified randomness, based on the violation of Bell inequalities. These methods are referred to as device-independent because they do not rely on any modelling of the devices. Here we review efforts to design device-independent randomness generators and the associated challenges.

  15. Certified randomness in quantum physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acín, Antonio; Masanes, Lluis

    2016-12-01

    The concept of randomness plays an important part in many disciplines. On the one hand, the question of whether random processes exist is fundamental for our understanding of nature. On the other, randomness is a resource for cryptography, algorithms and simulations. Standard methods for generating randomness rely on assumptions about the devices that are often not valid in practice. However, quantum technologies enable new methods for generating certified randomness, based on the violation of Bell inequalities. These methods are referred to as device-independent because they do not rely on any modelling of the devices. Here we review efforts to design device-independent randomness generators and the associated challenges.

  16. Exploring the Mobility of Mobile Phone Users

    CERN Document Server

    Csáji, Balázs Cs; Traag, V A; Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Huens, Etienne; Van Dooren, Paul; Smoreda, Zbigniew; Blondel, Vincent D

    2013-01-01

    Mobile phone datasets allow for the analysis of human behavior on an unprecedented scale. The social network, temporal dynamics and mobile behavior of mobile phone users have often been analyzed independently from each other using mobile phone datasets. In this article, we explore the connections between various features of human behavior extracted from a large mobile phone dataset. Our observations are based on the analysis of communication data of 100000 anonymized and randomly chosen individuals in a dataset of communications in Portugal. We show that clustering and principal component analysis allow for a significant dimension reduction with limited loss of information. The most important features are related to geographical location. In particular, we observe that most people spend most of their time at only a few locations. With the help of clustering methods, we then robustly identify home and office locations and compare the results with official census data. Finally, we analyze the geographic spread ...

  17. Rapid assessment of octocoral diversity and habitat on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Etnoyer

    Full Text Available Saba Bank is a large submerged platform (approximately 2200 km(2, average depth 30 m, located 4 km southwest of Saba Island in Netherlands Antilles, Caribbean Sea. Ships traveling to and from oil terminals on nearby St. Eustatius routinely anchor on the Bank, damaging benthic megafauna. Gorgonian octocorals are vulnerable to anchor damage, and they are common and conspicuous in shallow water (15-50 m around the banks. This prompted a rapid assessment of octocoral habitat and diversity. The primary objectives were to estimate total species richness and to characterize habitats vis a vis gorgonians. Landsat imagery and multibeam bathymetry were employed to identify random sites for quantitative transects. A Seabotix LBV200L remotely operated vehicle (ROV and SCUBA were used to collect and survey to 130 m. A total of 14 scuba dives and 3 ROV dives were completed in 10 days. During that time, 48 octocoral species were collected, including two likely undescribed species in the genera Pterogorgia and Lytreia. Gorgonian richness was exceptional, but not all species were collected, because the species accumulation curve remained steeply inclined after all surveys. Two shallow-water gorgonian habitat types were identified using multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analyses: 1 a high diversity, high density fore-reef environment characterized by Eunicea spp., Gorgonia spp., and Pseudopterogorgia spp. and 2 a low diversity, low density plateau environment characterized by Pseudopterogorgia acerosa, Pterogorgia guadalupensis, and Gorgonia mariae. The analyses support hypotheses of broad (approximately 15 km habitat homogeneity (ANOSIM, P>0.05, but a significant difference between fore-reef and plateau environments (ANOSIM, P<0.05. However, there was some indication of habitat heterogeneity along the 15 km study section of the 50 km platform edge along the southeast rim. Our results highlight the complexity and biodiversity of the Saba Bank, and

  18. Rapid Development of Hybrid Courses for Distance Education: A Midwestern University's Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Jodi

    2011-01-01

    A descriptive case study was used to explore how repurposing and a pedagogical-based instructional design model, the multimodal model (Picciano, 2009), were used to create quality distance education courses in a rapid development setting at a Midwestern land grant university. Data triangulation was used to secure data from faculty member…

  19. [Rapid Cycling in Bipolar Disorders: Symptoms, Background and Treatment Recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Stephan; Friedel, Eva; Stamm, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Rapid cycling bipolar disorder is encountered frequently in clinical practice with a lifetime prevalence of up to 31 %. Besides its association with greater illness severity, increased suicide and comorbidity rates, rapid cycling bipolar disorder has been closely associated with a longer and more complicated course of disease and inadequate treatment response compared to non-rapid cycling bipolar disorder. However rapid cycling does not serve as a stable characteristic of bipolar disorder, though its prevalence increases with illness duration. Female gender, hypothyreoidism and antidepressant medications have been suggested as correlates of rapid cycling bipolar disorder; however, the interaction amongst these factors make an interpretation of their causal relations difficult. Only very few data are available from randomized clinical trials that investigated the therapeutic options of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Based on these trials, the therapeutic outcome of lithium is similar to that of the class of anticonvulsants. Positive treatment outcome reported for atypical neuroleptics is often based on pharmaceutical company-financed, placebo-controlled RCTS. Altogether independent prospective RCTs and head-to-head comparisons are lacking that can provide sufficient information on treatment response. In addition, the role of antidepressant treatment in the course and phase acceleration of bipolar disorder remains insufficiently understood. However, in the light of present empirical evidence, the use of antidepressant medication in the treatment of rapid cycling bipolar disorder has to be looked at highly critically. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. A new method for rapid Canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Khavari A

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis method (Do in bone lengthening and rapid midpalatal expansion have shown the great ability of osteognic tissues for rapid bone formation under distraction force and special protocol with optimum rate of one millimeter per day. Periodontal membrane of teeth (PDM is the extension of periostium in the alveolar socked. Orthodontic force distracts PDM fibers in the tension side and then bone formation will begin.Objects: Rapid retraction of canine tooth into extraction space of first premolar by DO protocol in order to show the ability of the PDM in rapid bone formation. The other objective was reducing total orthodontic treatment time of extraction cases.Patients and Methods: Tweleve maxillary canines in six patients were retracted rapidly in three weeks by a custom-made tooth-born appliance. Radiographic records were taken to evaluate the effects of heavy applied force on canine and anchorage teeth.Results: Average retraction was 7.05 mm in three weeks (2.35 mm/week. Canines rotated distal- in by mean 3.5 degrees.Anchorage loss was from 0 to 0.8 mm with average of 0.3 mm.Root resorption of canines was negligible, and was not significant clinically. Periodontium was normal after rapid retraction. No hazard for pulp vitality was observed.Discussion: PDM responded well to heavy distraction force by Do protocol. Rapid canine retraction seems to be a safe method and can considerabely reduce orthodontic time.

  1. Risks and Benefits of Rapid Clozapine Titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochhead, Jeannie D; Nelson, Michele A; Schneider, Alan L

    2016-05-18

    Clozapine is often considered the gold standard for the treatment of schizophrenia. Clinical guidelines suggest a gradual titration over 2 weeks to reduce the risks of adverse events such as seizures, hypotension, agranulocytosis, and myocarditis. The slow titration often delays time to therapeutic response. This raises the question of whether, in some patients, it may be safe to use a more rapid clozapine titration. The following case illustrates the potential risks associated with the use of multiple antipsychotics and rapid clozapine titration. We present the case of a young man with schizophrenia who developed life threatening neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) during rapid clozapine titration and treatment with multiple antipsychotics. We were unable to find another case in the literature of NMS associated with rapid clozapine titration. This case is meant to urge clinicians to carefully evaluate the risks and benefits of rapid clozapine titration, and to encourage researchers to further evaluate the safety of rapid clozapine titration. Rapid clozapine titration has implications for decreasing health care costs associated with prolonged hospitalizations, and decreasing the emotional suffering associated with uncontrolled symptoms of psychosis. Clozapine is considered the most effective antipsychotic available thus efforts should focus on developing strategies that would allow for safest and most efficient use of clozapine to encourage its utilization for treatment resistance schizophrenia.

  2. Risks and benefits of rapid clozapine titration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannie D. Lochhead

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Clozapine is often considered the gold standard for the treatment of schizophrenia. Clinical guidelines suggest a gradual titration over 2 weeks to reduce the risks of adverse events such as seizures, hypotension, agranulocytosis, and myocarditis. The slow titration often delays time to therapeutic response. This raises the question of whether, in some patients, it may be safe to use a more rapid clozapine titration. The following case illustrates the potential risks associated with the use of multiple antipsychotics and rapid clozapine titration. We present the case of a young man with schizophrenia who developed life threatening neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS during rapid clozapine titration and treatment with multiple antipsychotics. We were unable to find another case in the literature of NMS associated with rapid clozapine titration. This case is meant to urge clinicians to carefully evaluate the risks and benefits of rapid clozapine titration, and to encourage researchers to further evaluate the safety of rapid clozapine titration. Rapid clozapine titration has implications for decreasing health care costs associated with prolonged hospitalizations, and decreasing the emotional suffering associated with uncontrolled symptoms of psychosis. Clozapine is considered the most effective antipsychotic available thus efforts should focus on developing strategies that would allow for safest and most efficient use of clozapine to encourage its utilization for treatment resistance schizophrenia.

  3. Seismic random noise attenuation using modified wavelet thresholding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-sheng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In seismic exploration, random noise deteriorates the quality of acquired data. This study analyzed existing denoising methods used in seismic exploration from the perspective of random noise. Wavelet thresholding offers a new approach to reducing random noise in simulation results, synthetic data, and real data. A modified wavelet threshold function was developed by considering the merits and demerits of conventional soft and hard thresholding schemes. A MATLAB (matrix laboratory simulation model was used to compare the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs and mean square errors (MSEs of the soft, hard, and modified threshold functions. The results demonstrated that the modified threshold function can avoid the pseudo-Gibbs phenomenon and produce a higher SNR than the soft and hard threshold functions. A seismic convolution model was built using seismic wavelets to verify the effectiveness of different denoising methods. The model was used to demonstrate that the modified thresholding scheme can effectively reduce random noise in seismic data and retain the desired signal. The application of the proposed tool to a real raw seismogram recorded during a land seismic exploration experiment located in north China clearly demonstrated its efficiency for random noise attenuation.

  4. Complexity in Simplicity: Flexible Agent-based State Space Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob Illum; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a new flexible framework for state space exploration based on cooperating agents. The idea is to let various agents with different search patterns explore the state space individually and communicate information about fruitful subpaths of the search tree to each other....... That way very complex global search behavior is achieved with very simple local behavior. As an example agent behavior, we propose a novel anytime randomized search strategy called frustration search. The effectiveness of the framework is illustrated in the setting of priced timed automata on a number...

  5. Communication-Oriented Design Space Exploration for Reconfigurable Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogniat Guy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Many academic works in computer engineering focus on reconfigurable architectures and associated tools. Fine-grain architectures, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs, are the most well-known structures of reconfigurable hardware. Dedicated tools (generic or specific allow for the exploration of their design space to choose the best architecture characteristics and/or to explore the application characteristics. The aim is to increase the synergy between the application and the architecture in order to get the best performance. However, there is no generic tool to perform such an exploration for coarse-grain or heterogeneous-grain architectures, just a small number of very specific tools are able to explore a limited set of architectures. To address this major lack, in this paper we propose a new design space exploration approach adapted to fine- and coarse-grain granularities. Our approach combines algorithmic and architecture explorations. It relies on an automatic estimation tool which computes the communication hierarchical distribution and the architectural processing resources use rate for the architecture under exploration. Such an approach forwards the rapid definition of efficient reconfigurable architectures dedicated to one or several applications.

  6. Communication-Oriented Design Space Exploration for Reconfigurable Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Bossuet

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Many academic works in computer engineering focus on reconfigurable architectures and associated tools. Fine-grain architectures, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs, are the most well-known structures of reconfigurable hardware. Dedicated tools (generic or specific allow for the exploration of their design space to choose the best architecture characteristics and/or to explore the application characteristics. The aim is to increase the synergy between the application and the architecture in order to get the best performance. However, there is no generic tool to perform such an exploration for coarse-grain or heterogeneous-grain architectures, just a small number of very specific tools are able to explore a limited set of architectures. To address this major lack, in this paper we propose a new design space exploration approach adapted to fine- and coarse-grain granularities. Our approach combines algorithmic and architecture explorations. It relies on an automatic estimation tool which computes the communication hierarchical distribution and the architectural processing resources use rate for the architecture under exploration. Such an approach forwards the rapid definition of efficient reconfigurable architectures dedicated to one or several applications.

  7. Explorations in Social Interaction Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giaccardi, E.; Ciolfi, L.; Hornecker, E.; Speed, C.; Bardzell, S.; Stappers, P.J.; Hekkert, P.P.M.; Rozendaal, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    This one-day workshop brings together HCI scholars and practitioners who share a common interest in understanding and exploring how we will be socially connected in the future. Central to our discussion will be the exploration of an interdisciplinary research agenda in social interaction design

  8. Mars exploration: follow the water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Ho

    2004-01-01

    Over the centuries, the red planet Mars has been a subject of imagination as well as intense scientific interest. As the overwhelming success of two Mars Exploration Rovers unfolds before us, this article provides an overview of and rationale for NASA's Mars exploration program.

  9. Dog Mathematics: Exploring Base-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Terri L.; Yanik, H. Bahadir; Lee, Mi Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Using a dog's paw as a basis for numerical representation, sixth grade students explored how to count and regroup using the dog's four digital pads. Teachers can connect these base-4 explorations to the conceptual meaning of place value and regrouping using base-10.

  10. A scoping review of rapid review methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricco, Andrea C; Antony, Jesmin; Zarin, Wasifa; Strifler, Lisa; Ghassemi, Marco; Ivory, John; Perrier, Laure; Hutton, Brian; Moher, David; Straus, Sharon E

    2015-09-16

    Rapid reviews are a form of knowledge synthesis in which components of the systematic review process are simplified or omitted to produce information in a timely manner. Although numerous centers are conducting rapid reviews internationally, few studies have examined the methodological characteristics of rapid reviews. We aimed to examine articles, books, and reports that evaluated, compared, used or described rapid reviews or methods through a scoping review. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, internet websites of rapid review producers, and reference lists were searched to identify articles for inclusion. Two reviewers independently screened literature search results and abstracted data from included studies. Descriptive analysis was conducted. We included 100 articles plus one companion report that were published between 1997 and 2013. The studies were categorized as 84 application papers, seven development papers, six impact papers, and four comparison papers (one was included in two categories). The rapid reviews were conducted between 1 and 12 months, predominantly in Europe (58 %) and North America (20 %). The included studies failed to report 6 % to 73 % of the specific systematic review steps examined. Fifty unique rapid review methods were identified; 16 methods occurred more than once. Streamlined methods that were used in the 82 rapid reviews included limiting the literature search to published literature (24 %) or one database (2 %), limiting inclusion criteria by date (68 %) or language (49 %), having one person screen and another verify or screen excluded studies (6 %), having one person abstract data and another verify (23 %), not conducting risk of bias/quality appraisal (7 %) or having only one reviewer conduct the quality appraisal (7 %), and presenting results as a narrative summary (78 %). Four case studies were identified that compared the results of rapid reviews to systematic reviews. Three studies found that the conclusions between

  11. New developments in rapidly solidified magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.K. [Allied-Signal, Inc., Morristown, NJ (United States); Chang, C.F. [Allied-Signal, Inc., Morristown, NJ (United States); Raybould, D. [Allied-Signal, Inc., Morristown, NJ (United States); King, J.F. [Magnesium Elektron Ltd., Manchester (United Kingdom); Thistlethwaite, S. [Magnesium Elektron Ltd., Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1992-12-31

    In the present paper, we will examine the new developments in the rapidly solidified Mg-Al-Zn-Nd (EA55RS) alloy. We shall first briefly review the process scale-up currently employed for producing rapidly solidified magnesium alloys in large quantities, and then discuss the effect of billet size and processing parameters on the mechanical properties of various mill product forms such as extrusions and sheets. The superplastic behavior of EA55RS extrusions and rolled sheets are also discussed. Finally, some results on magnesium metal-matrix composites using rapidly solidified EA55RS matrix powders and SiC particulates are presented. (orig.)

  12. On Zeros of Self-Reciprocal Random Algebraic Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Farahmand

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an asymptotic estimate for the expected number of level crossings of a trigonometric polynomial TN(θ=∑j=0N−1{αN−jcos(j+1/2θ+βN−jsin(j+1/2θ}, where αj and βj, j=0,1,2,…, N−1, are sequences of independent identically distributed normal standard random variables. This type of random polynomial is produced in the study of random algebraic polynomials with complex variables and complex random coefficients, with a self-reciprocal property. We establish the relation between this type of random algebraic polynomials and the above random trigonometric polynomials, and we show that the required level crossings have the functionality form of cos(N+θ/2. We also discuss the relationship which exists and can be explored further between our random polynomials and random matrix theory.

  13. Effect of contrasting physical exercise interventions on rapid force capacity of chronically painful muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Jesper L; Suetta, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    torque increased 18-29% (P muscle fibers hypertrophied 20% (P muscles is highly responsive......Rapid force capacity of chronically painful muscles is inhibited markedly more than maximal force capacity and is therefore relevant to assess in rehabilitation settings. Our objective was to investigate the effect of two contrasting types of physical exercise on rapid force capacity, as well...... as neural and muscular adaptations in women with chronic neck muscle pain. A group of employed women (n = 42) with a clinical diagnosis of trapezius myalgia participated in a 10-wk randomized controlled trial; specific strength training of the neck/shoulder muscles, general fitness training performed as leg...

  14. Dynamic Decision Making for Graphical Models Applied to Oil Exploration

    CERN Document Server

    Martinelli, Gabriele; Hauge, Ragnar

    2012-01-01

    We present a framework for sequential decision making in problems described by graphical models. The setting is given by dependent discrete random variables with associated costs or revenues. In our examples, the dependent variables are the potential outcomes (oil, gas or dry) when drilling a petroleum well. The goal is to develop an optimal selection strategy that incorporates a chosen utility function within an approximated dynamic programming scheme. We propose and compare different approximations, from simple heuristics to more complex iterative schemes, and we discuss their computational properties. We apply our strategies to oil exploration over multiple prospects modeled by a directed acyclic graph, and to a reservoir drilling decision problem modeled by a Markov random field. The results show that the suggested strategies clearly improve the simpler intuitive constructions, and this is useful when selecting exploration policies.

  15. Exploring complex networks by means of adaptive walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prignano, Luce; Moreno, Yamir; Díaz-Guilera, Albert

    2012-12-01

    Finding efficient algorithms to explore large networks with the aim of recovering information about their structure is an open problem. Here, we investigate this challenge by proposing a model in which random walkers with previously assigned home nodes navigate through the network during a fixed amount of time. We consider that the exploration is successful if the walker gets the information gathered back home, otherwise no data are retrieved. Consequently, at each time step, the walkers, with some probability, have the choice to either go backward approaching their home or go farther away. We show that there is an optimal solution to this problem in terms of the average information retrieved and the degree of the home nodes and design an adaptive strategy based on the behavior of the random walker. Finally, we compare different strategies that emerge from the model in the context of network reconstruction. Our results could be useful for the discovery of unknown connections in large-scale networks.

  16. Exploring Pacific Seamounts through Telepresence Mapping on the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobecker, E.; Malik, M.; Sowers, D.; Kennedy, B. R.

    2016-12-01

    Telepresence utilizes modern computer networks and a high bandwidth satellite connection to enable remote users to participate virtually in ocean research and exploration cruises. NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER) has been leveraging telepresence capabilities since the early 2000s. Through telepresence, remote users have provided support for operations planning and execution, troubleshooting hardware and software, and data interpretation during exploratory ocean mapping and remotely operated vehicle missions conducted by OER. The potential for this technology's application to immersive data acquisition and processing during mapping missions, however, has not yet been fully realized. We report the results of the application of telepresence to an 18-day 24 hour / day seafloor mapping expedition with the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer. The mapping team was split between shipboard and shore-based mission team members based at the Exploration Command Center at the University of New Hampshire. This cruise represented the third dedicated mapping cruise in a multi-year NOAA Campaign to Address the Pacific monument Science, Technology, and Ocean Needs (CAPSTONE). Cruise objectives included mapping several previously unmapped seamounts in the Wake Atoll Unit of the recently expanded Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument, and mapping of prominent seamount, ridge, and fracture zone features during transits. We discuss (1) expanded shore-based data processing of multiple sonar data streams leading to enhanced, rapid, initial site characterization, (2) remote access control of shipboard sonar data acquisition and processing computers, and (3) potential for broadening multidisciplinary applications of ocean mapping cruises including outreach, education, and communications efforts focused on expanding societal cognition and benefits of ocean exploration.

  17. Random recursive trees and the elephant random walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kürsten, Rüdiger

    2016-03-01

    One class of random walks with infinite memory, so-called elephant random walks, are simple models describing anomalous diffusion. We present a surprising connection between these models and bond percolation on random recursive trees. We use a coupling between the two models to translate results from elephant random walks to the percolation process. We calculate, besides other quantities, exact expressions for the first and the second moment of the root cluster size and of the number of nodes in child clusters of the first generation. We further introduce another model, the skew elephant random walk, and calculate the first and second moment of this process.

  18. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...... of a discrete random variable....

  19. Random Numbers and Quantum Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Mark; Glass, David

    2002-01-01

    The topic of random numbers is investigated in such a way as to illustrate links between mathematics, physics and computer science. First, the generation of random numbers by a classical computer using the linear congruential generator and logistic map is considered. It is noted that these procedures yield only pseudo-random numbers since…

  20. Investigating the Randomness of Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Kenn L.

    2009-01-01

    The use of random numbers is pervasive in today's world. Random numbers have practical applications in such far-flung arenas as computer simulations, cryptography, gambling, the legal system, statistical sampling, and even the war on terrorism. Evaluating the randomness of extremely large samples is a complex, intricate process. However, the…