Sample records for rapidly exchangeable pool

  1. Rapidly exchangeable pool study of zinc in free-living or institutionalized elderly women. (United States)

    Faure, Patrice; Ducros, Véronique; Couzy, François; Favier, Alain; Ferry, Monique


    We evaluated the effect of age and institutionalization on zinc metabolism by using a stable isotope technique. This was a randomized case-control study. Three groups were recruited: nine young women (group 1, ages 36+/-1 y) as controls, nine free-living elderly women (group 2, ages 72+/-2 y), and nine institutionalized women (group 3, ages 73+/-2 y). Only women were recruited to obtain homogeneous groups. The study was set in a Valence hospital (France) in the geriatric department (headed by Dr. Ferry). The experimental design of the study was reviewed and approved by the local ethical committee, and all participants signed a consent form. No subject dropped out of the study. A zinc stable isotope label (0.73 mg of (70)Zn) was injected intravenously into patients and measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Decay curves of the plasma (70)Zn followed a one-compartment kinetic leading to the determination of one pool. The size of this pool suggested that it corresponded to the liver compartment. The size of this pool was significantly smaller in elderly people. (70)Zn plasma resident time was significantly longer in elderly individuals, and shorter in institutionalized than in free-living elderly subjects. These data suggest that the zinc metabolism of elderly women is related to lifestyle or its consequences and to age. Moreover, we have demonstrated that kinetic studies using stable isotopes of zinc can provide novel information on exchangeable zinc pools in clinical situations.

  2. Dynamics of Inorganic Nutrients in Intertidal Sediments: Porewater, Exchangeable, and Intracellular Pools (United States)

    Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Bohorquez, Julio; Corzo, Alfonso; Jimenez-Arias, Juan L.; Papaspyrou, Sokratis


    The study of inorganic nutrients dynamics in shallow sediments usually focuses on two main pools: porewater (PW) nutrients and exchangeable (EX) ammonium and phosphate. Recently, it has been found that microphytobenthos (MPB) and other microorganisms can accumulate large amounts of nutrients intracellularly (IC), highlighting the biogeochemical importance of this nutrient pool. Storing nutrients could support the growth of autotrophs when nutrients are not available, and could also provide alternative electron acceptors for dissimilatory processes such as nitrate reduction. Here, we studied the magnitude and relative importance of these three nutrient pools (PW, IC, and EX) and their relation to chlorophylls (used as a proxy for MPB abundance) and organic matter (OM) contents in an intertidal mudflat of Cadiz Bay (Spain). MPB was localized in the first 4 mm of the sediment and showed a clear seasonal pattern; highest chlorophylls content was found during autumn and lowest during spring-summer. The temporal and spatial distribution of nutrients pools and MPB were largely correlated. Ammonium was higher in the IC and EX fractions, representing on average 59 and 37% of the total ammonium pool, respectively. Similarly, phosphate in the IC and EX fractions accounted on average for 40 and 31% of the total phosphate pool, respectively. Nitrate in the PW was low, suggesting low nitrification activity and rapid consumption. Nitrate accumulated in the IC pool during periods of moderate MPB abundance, being up to 66% of the total nitrate pool, whereas it decreased when chlorophyll concentration peaked likely due to a high nitrogen demand. EX-Nitrate accounted for the largest fraction of total sediment nitrate, 66% on average. The distribution of EX-Nitrate was significantly correlated with chlorophyll and OM, which probably indicates a relation of this pool to an increased availability of sites for ionic adsorption. This EX-Nitrate pool could represent an alternative nitrate

  3. Two on exchange : Transferring Goods or Splitting a Resource Pool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jacob; Van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.

    We investigated the consequences for exchange outcomes of the violation of an assumption underlying most social psychological research on exchange. This assumption is that the negotiated direct exchange of commodities between two actors (pure exchange) can be validly represented as two actors

  4. DNA Probe Pooling for Rapid Delineation of Chromosomal Breakpoints

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    Lu, Chun-Mei; Kwan, Johnson; Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly F.; Wang, Mei; Escudero, Tomas; Munne' , Santiago; Zitzelsberger, Horst F.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich


    Structural chromosome aberrations are hallmarks of many human genetic diseases. The precise mapping of translocation breakpoints in tumors is important for identification of genes with altered levels of expression, prediction of tumor progression, therapy response, or length of disease-free survival as well as the preparation of probes for detection of tumor cells in peripheral blood. Similarly, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for carriers of balanced, reciprocal translocations benefit from accurate breakpoint maps in the preparation of patient-specific DNA probes followed by a selection of normal or balanced oocytes or embryos. We expedited the process of breakpoint mapping and preparation of case-specific probes by utilizing physically mapped bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones. Historically, breakpoint mapping is based on the definition of the smallest interval between proximal and distal probes. Thus, many of the DNA probes prepared for multi-clone and multi-color mapping experiments do not generate additional information. Our pooling protocol described here with examples from thyroid cancer research and PGD accelerates the delineation of translocation breakpoints without sacrificing resolution. The turnaround time from clone selection to mapping results using tumor or IVF patient samples can be as short as three to four days.

  5. Rapid Assay for In Situ Identification of Coagulase-Positive Staphylococci Recovered by Membrane Filtration from Swimming Pool Water


    Klapes, N. Arlene; Vesley, Donald


    A rapid, in situ thermonuclease test that identifies colonies of Staphylococcus aureus among staphylococci isolated from swimming pool water by membrane filtration recovery on various selective and differential media is described.

  6. Pools and rapids as spawning and nursery areas for fish in a river stretch without floodplains

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    Sunshine de Ávila-Simas

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the importance of two environments situated in the main channel of the Peixe River (a tributary of the upper Uruguay River on fish reproduction and initial growth. Ichthyoplankton, macrozooplankton, and zoobenthos collections were taken on a monthly basis from October 2011 to March 2012, sampling a rapids and a pool environment. The instrument used for the capture of the ichthyoplankton in both environments was a light trap. In total, 795 eggs and 274 larvae were captured. The species that presented higher abundance and occurrence frequency out of the total captured in both environments were Leporinus obtusidens, Bryconamericus iheringii, and Bryconamericus stramineus. The evaluation of the feeding activity reveals a major repletion degree of the larvae in more advanced stages in the pool. The pool environment presented a higher abundance of larvae in more advanced development stages. We conclude that the channel of the Peixe River is important for the reproduction and initial growth of fish and that each river environment seems to fulfill a different role in the life cycle of the ichthyoplankton community.

  7. Role of Western Hemisphere Warm Pool in Rapid Climate Changes over the Western North Pacific (United States)

    Kug, Jong-Seong; Park, Jae-Heung; An, Soon-Il


    Oceanic states over the western North Pacific (WNP), which is surrounded by heavily populated countries, are closely tied to the lives of the people in East Asia in regards to both climate and socioeconomics. As global warming continues, remarkable increases in sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface height (SSH) have been observed in the WNP in recent decades. Here, we show that the SST increase in the western hemisphere warm pool (WHWP), which is the second largest warm pool on the globe, has contributed considerably to the rapid surface warming and sea level rise in the WNP via its remote teleconnection along the Pacific Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). State-of-the-art climate models strongly support the role of the WHWP not only on interannual time sales but also in long-term climate projections. We expect that understanding the processes initiated by the WHWP-SST could permit better forecasts of western North Pacific climate and the further development of the socioeconomics of East Asia.

  8. Rapid mutation of endogenous zebrafish genes using zinc finger nucleases made by Oligomerized Pool ENgineering (OPEN.

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    Jonathan E Foley

    Full Text Available Customized zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs form the basis of a broadly applicable tool for highly efficient genome modification. ZFNs are artificial restriction endonucleases consisting of a non-specific nuclease domain fused to a zinc finger array which can be engineered to recognize specific DNA sequences of interest. Recent proof-of-principle experiments have shown that targeted knockout mutations can be efficiently generated in endogenous zebrafish genes via non-homologous end-joining-mediated repair of ZFN-induced DNA double-stranded breaks. The Zinc Finger Consortium, a group of academic laboratories committed to the development of engineered zinc finger technology, recently described the first rapid, highly effective, and publicly available method for engineering zinc finger arrays. The Consortium has previously used this new method (known as OPEN for Oligomerized Pool ENgineering to generate high quality ZFN pairs that function in human and plant cells.Here we show that OPEN can also be used to generate ZFNs that function efficiently in zebrafish. Using OPEN, we successfully engineered ZFN pairs for five endogenous zebrafish genes: tfr2, dopamine transporter, telomerase, hif1aa, and gridlock. Each of these ZFN pairs induces targeted insertions and deletions with high efficiency at its endogenous gene target in somatic zebrafish cells. In addition, these mutations are transmitted through the germline with sufficiently high frequency such that only a small number of fish need to be screened to identify founders. Finally, in silico analysis demonstrates that one or more potential OPEN ZFN sites can be found within the first three coding exons of more than 25,000 different endogenous zebrafish gene transcripts.In summary, our study nearly triples the total number of endogenous zebrafish genes successfully modified using ZFNs (from three to eight and suggests that OPEN provides a reliable method for introducing targeted mutations in nearly any

  9. Operating experiences with rotary air-to-air heat exchangers: hospitals, schools, nursing homes, swimming pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, R.J.


    Systems utilizing rotary air-to-air heat exchangers are discussed. Basic considerations of use (fresh air requirements, system configurations, cost considerations), typical system layout/design considerations, and operating observations by engineers, staff and maintenance personnel are described.

  10. Dynamic exchanges between DOM and POM pools in coastal and inland aquatic ecosystems: A review. (United States)

    He, Wei; Chen, Meilian; Schlautman, Mark A; Hur, Jin


    Dynamic exchanges between dissolved organic matter (DOM) and particulate organic matter (POM) plays a critical role in organic carbon cycling in coastal and inland aquatic ecosystems, interactions with aquatic organisms, mobility and bioavailability of pollutants, among many other ecological and geochemical phenomena. Although DOM-POM exchange processes have been widely studied from different aspects, little to no effort has been made to date to provide a comprehensive, mechanistic, and micro-spatial schema for understanding various exchange processes occurring in different aquatic ecosystems in a unified way. The phenomena occurring between DOM and POM were explained here with the homogeneous and heterogeneous mechanisms. In the homogeneous mechanism, the participating components are only organic matter (OM) constituents themselves with aggregation and dissolution involved, whereas OM is associated with other components such as minerals and particulate colloids in the heterogeneous counterpart. Besides the generally concerned processes of aggregation/dissolution and adsorption/desorption, other ecological factors such as sunlight and organisms can also participate in DOM-POM exchanges through altering the chemical nature of OM. Despite the limitation of current analytical technologies, many unknown and/or unquantified processes need to be identified to unravel the complicated exchanges of OM between its dissolved and particulate states. Based on the review of several previous mathematical models, we proposed a unified conceptual model to describe all major dynamic exchange mechanisms on the basis of exergy theory. More knowledge of dynamic DOM-POM exchanges is warranted to overcome the potential problems arising from a simple division of OM into dissolved versus particulate states and to further develop more sophisticated mathematic models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sequences from first settlers reveal rapid evolution in Icelandic mtDNA pool. (United States)

    Helgason, Agnar; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Ghosh, Shyamali; Sigurethardóttir, Sigrún; Sampietro, Maria Lourdes; Gigli, Elena; Baker, Adam; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Arnadóttir, Lilja; Thornorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefánsson, Kári


    A major task in human genetics is to understand the nature of the evolutionary processes that have shaped the gene pools of contemporary populations. Ancient DNA studies have great potential to shed light on the evolution of populations because they provide the opportunity to sample from the same population at different points in time. Here, we show that a sample of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences from 68 early medieval Icelandic skeletal remains is more closely related to sequences from contemporary inhabitants of Scotland, Ireland, and Scandinavia than to those from the modern Icelandic population. Due to a faster rate of genetic drift in the Icelandic mtDNA pool during the last 1,100 years, the sequences carried by the first settlers were better preserved in their ancestral gene pools than among their descendants in Iceland. These results demonstrate the inferential power gained in ancient DNA studies through the application of population genetics analyses to relatively large samples.

  12. Exchangeable and secondary mineral reactive pools of aluminium in coastal lowland acid sulfate soils. (United States)

    Yvanes-Giuliani, Yliane A M; Waite, T David; Collins, Richard N


    The use of coastal floodplain sulfidic sediments for agricultural activities has resulted in the environmental degradation of many areas worldwide. The generation of acidity and transport of aluminium (Al) and other metals to adjacent aquatic systems are the main causes of adverse effects. Here, a five-step sequential extraction procedure (SEP) was applied to 30 coastal lowland acid sulfate soils (CLASS) from north-eastern New South Wales, Australia. This enabled quantification of the proportion of aluminium present in 'water-soluble', 'exchangeable', 'organically-complexed', 'reducible iron(III) (oxyhydr)oxide/hydroxysulfate-incorporated' and 'amorphous Al mineral' fractions. The first three extractions represented an average of 5% of 'aqua regia' extractable Al and their cumulative concentrations were extremely high, reaching up to 4000 mg·kg(-1). Comparison of Al concentrations in the final two extractions indicated that 'amorphous Al minerals' are quantitatively a much more important sink for the removal of aqueous Al derived from the acidic weathering of these soils than reducible Fe(III) minerals. Correlations were observed between soil pH, dissolved and total organic carbon (DOC and TOC) and Al concentrations in organic carbon-rich CLASS soil horizons. These results suggest that complexation of Al by dissolved organic matter significantly increases soluble Al concentrations at pH values >5.0. As such, present land management practices would benefit with redefinition of an 'optimal' soil from pH ≥5.5 to ~4.8 for the preservation of aquatic environments adjacent to organic-rich CLASS where Al is the sole or principle inorganic contaminant of concern. Furthermore, it was observed that currently-accepted standard procedures (i.e. 1 M KCl extraction) to measure exchangeable Al concentrations in these types of soils severely underestimate exchangeable Al and a more accurate representation may be obtained through the use of 0.2 M CuCl2. Copyright © 2014

  13. Sequences from first settlers reveal rapid evolution in Icelandic mtDNA pool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnar Helgason


    Full Text Available A major task in human genetics is to understand the nature of the evolutionary processes that have shaped the gene pools of contemporary populations. Ancient DNA studies have great potential to shed light on the evolution of populations because they provide the opportunity to sample from the same population at different points in time. Here, we show that a sample of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control region sequences from 68 early medieval Icelandic skeletal remains is more closely related to sequences from contemporary inhabitants of Scotland, Ireland, and Scandinavia than to those from the modern Icelandic population. Due to a faster rate of genetic drift in the Icelandic mtDNA pool during the last 1,100 years, the sequences carried by the first settlers were better preserved in their ancestral gene pools than among their descendants in Iceland. These results demonstrate the inferential power gained in ancient DNA studies through the application of population genetics analyses to relatively large samples.

  14. Rapid Sequential in Situ Multiplexing with DNA Exchange Imaging in Neuronal Cells and Tissues. (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Woehrstein, Johannes B; Donoghue, Noah; Dai, Mingjie; Avendaño, Maier S; Schackmann, Ron C J; Zoeller, Jason J; Wang, Shan Shan H; Tillberg, Paul W; Park, Demian; Lapan, Sylvain W; Boyden, Edward S; Brugge, Joan S; Kaeser, Pascal S; Church, George M; Agasti, Sarit S; Jungmann, Ralf; Yin, Peng


    To decipher the molecular mechanisms of biological function, it is critical to map the molecular composition of individual cells or even more importantly tissue samples in the context of their biological environment in situ. Immunofluorescence (IF) provides specific labeling for molecular profiling. However, conventional IF methods have finite multiplexing capabilities due to spectral overlap of the fluorophores. Various sequential imaging methods have been developed to circumvent this spectral limit but are not widely adopted due to the common limitation of requiring multirounds of slow (typically over 2 h at room temperature to overnight at 4 °C in practice) immunostaining. We present here a practical and robust method, which we call DNA Exchange Imaging (DEI), for rapid in situ spectrally unlimited multiplexing. This technique overcomes speed restrictions by allowing for single-round immunostaining with DNA-barcoded antibodies, followed by rapid (less than 10 min) buffer exchange of fluorophore-bearing DNA imager strands. The programmability of DEI allows us to apply it to diverse microscopy platforms (with Exchange Confocal, Exchange-SIM, Exchange-STED, and Exchange-PAINT demonstrated here) at multiple desired resolution scales (from ∼300 nm down to sub-20 nm). We optimized and validated the use of DEI in complex biological samples, including primary neuron cultures and tissue sections. These results collectively suggest DNA exchange as a versatile, practical platform for rapid, highly multiplexed in situ imaging, potentially enabling new applications ranging from basic science, to drug discovery, and to clinical pathology.

  15. Rapid detection of respiratory viruses by shell vial culture and direct staining by using pooled and individual monoclonal antibodies. (United States)

    Matthey, S; Nicholson, D; Ruhs, S; Alden, B; Knock, M; Schultz, K; Schmuecker, A


    The Bartels respiratory virus panel detection kit is an indirect fluorescent-antibody (IFA) method that uses pooled and individual antisera for tissue culture confirmation of seven respiratory viruses. We evaluated these reagents for detecting viral antigen in shell vial cultures and by direct staining of cells from respiratory specimens. The isolation from 254 specimens of respiratory viruses in shell vial cultures compared with standard tube cultures was highly sensitive (94%) and specific (97.3%). The numbers of viral isolates detected in three consecutive years of testing with shell vial cultures were 68 of 254 (26.8%), 101 of 381 (26.5%), and 122 of 430 (28.4%). IFA direct staining of all 1,065 specimens resulted in 183 (17.2) being uninterpretable because of inadequate numbers of cells or interfering fluorescence. The sensitivity and specificity of the interpretable IFA direct stains in comparison with shell vial cultures were 85.9 and 87.1%, respectively. For detection of 881 adequate specimens, Bartels respiratory syncytial virus IFA direct staining compared with an Ortho Diagnostics Systems direct fluorescent-antibody test for respiratory syncytial virus RSV was highly sensitive (95.5%) and specific (97%). Shell vial cultures combined with Bartels IFA reagents are a rapid alternative to standard tube cultures. Bartels IFA direct staining with individual antisera provides useful same-day screening of respiratory specimens, but the antiserum pool was not effective in screening for positive specimens because of excessive amounts of nonspecific fluorescence.

  16. Parametric investigation on transient boiling heat transfer of metal rod cooled rapidly in water pool

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    Lee, Chi Young [Department of Fire Protection Engineering, Pukyong National University, 45, Yongso-ro, Nam-gu, Busan 48513 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sunwoo, E-mail: [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Alaska Fairbanks, P. O. Box 755905, Fairbanks, AK 99775-5905 (United States)


    Highlights: • Effects of liquid subcooling, surface coating, material property, and surface oxidation are examined. • Liquid subcooling affects remarkably the quenching phenomena. • Cr-coated surfaces for ATF might extend the quenching duration. • Solids with low heat capacity shorten the quenching duration. • Surface oxidation can affect strongly the film boiling heat transfer and MFB point. - Abstract: In this work, the effects of liquid subcooling, surface coating, material property, and surface oxidation on transient pool boiling heat transfer were investigated experimentally using the vertical metal rod and quenching method. The change in rod temperature was measured with time during quenching, and the visualization of boiling around the test specimen was performed using the high-speed video camera. As the test materials, the zircaloy (Zry), stainless steel (SS), niobium (Nb), and copper (Cu) were tested. In addition, the chromium-coated niobium (Cr-Nb) and chromium-coated stainless steel (Cr-SS) were prepared for accident tolerant fuel (ATF) application. Low liquid subcooling and Cr-coating shifted the quenching curve to the right, which indicates a prolongation of quenching duration. On the other hand, the material with small heat capacity and surface oxidation caused the quenching curve to move to the left. To examine the influence of the material property and surface oxidation on the film boiling heat transfer performance and minimum film boiling (MFB) point in more detail, the wall temperature and heat flux were calculated from the present transient temperature profile using the inverse heat transfer analysis, and then the curves of wall temperature and heat flux in the film boiling regime were obtained. In the present experimental conditions, the effect of material property on the film boiling heat transfer performance and MFB point seemed to be minor. On the other hand, based on the experimental results of the Cu test specimen, the surface

  17. Rapid detection of malto-oligosaccharide-forming bacterial amylases by high performance anion-exchange chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Larsen, K. L.; Zimmermann, W.


    High performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection was applied for the rapid analysis of malto-oligosaccharides formed by extracellular enzyme preparations from 49 starch-degrading bacterial strains isolated from soil and compost samples. Malto-oligosaccharide-formi......High performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection was applied for the rapid analysis of malto-oligosaccharides formed by extracellular enzyme preparations from 49 starch-degrading bacterial strains isolated from soil and compost samples. Malto......-oligosaccharide-forming amylases, indicated by a predominant formation of maltohexaose from starch, were produced by enzyme preparations from four of the isolates growing at pH 7.0 and 10....

  18. Evaluation of the Pseudalert/Quanti-Tray MPN Test for the Rapid Enumeration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Swimming Pool and Spa Pool Waters. (United States)

    Sartory, David P; Brewer, Megan; Beswick, Agnieszka; Steggles, Darron


    This study assessed the performance of a new most probable number test (Pseudalert/Quanti-Tray) for the enumeration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from swimming pool and spa pool waters by comparing it to the international and national membrane filtration-based culture methods for P. aeruginosa: ISO 16266:2006 and UK The Microbiology of Drinking Water-Part 8 (MoDW Part 8) which both use Pseudomonas CN agar. The comparison was based on the calculation of mean relative differences between the two methods conducted according to ISO 17994:2014. Using both routine pool water samples (149 from 8 laboratories) and artificially contaminated samples (309 from 7 laboratories), paired counts from each sample and enumeration method were analysed. For routine samples, there were insufficient data for a conclusive assessment, but the data do indicate at least equivalent performance of Pseudalert/Quanti-Tray to the reference methods. For the artificially contaminated samples, the data also did not result in a statistically conclusive assessment but did indicate potentially better performance of Pseudalert/Quanti-Tray. Combining the data from the routine samples and artificially contaminated samples resulted in an ISO 17994 outcome that the two methods were not statistically significantly different. Thus, the Pseudalert/Quanti-Tray method is an acceptable alternative to ISO 16266 and MoDW Part 8. The Pseudalert/Quanti-Tray method has the advantage in that it does not require confirmation testing, and of providing confirmed counts within 24-28 h incubation compared to 40-48 h or longer for the ISO 16266 and MoDW Part 8 methods.

  19. Microfluidic device for rapid solution exchange to study kinetics of cell physiology (United States)

    Hu, Howard; Honnatti, Meghana; Gillis, Kevin


    Exchanging the extracellular solution of the cell rapidly (less than 10ms) is an important requirement in study the kinetics of cell physiology. A microfluidic device is developed to exchange the solution around the cells as they flow through a junction at the intersection of two microfluidic channels. The solution exchange time is measured experimentally by fluorescently labeling the cell surface membranes with a styryl dye, FM1-43 or FM 2-10, and then observing the time course of cell fluorescence decay following the rapid drop in the extracellular concentration of the FM dye that occurs as the cell flows past the fluidic junction. A numerical model is developed to guide the experimental design of microfluidic device. In the model, the motion of a single cell through a fluid junction is simulated and the mixing process of the solutions is solved. The model also includes the kinetics of departitioning of FM dyes from the cell membrane. The departitioning time constants for the FM dyes are determined from fitting the measured data of the cell fluorescence decay. This departitioning kinetics is important as FM dyes are commonly used to label cell membranes for the purpose of measuring the release of neurotransmitter from synaptic vesicles via exocytosis and the subsequent reuptake of vesicular membrane by endocytosis.

  20. Rapid exchange between atmospheric CO2 and carbonate anion intercalated within magnesium rich layered double hydroxide. (United States)

    Sahoo, Pathik; Ishihara, Shinsuke; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Deguchi, Kenzo; Ohki, Shinobu; Tansho, Masataka; Shimizu, Tadashi; Eisaku, Nii; Sasai, Ryo; Labuta, Jan; Ishikawa, Daisuke; Hill, Jonathan P; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Bastakoti, Bishnu Prasad; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Iyi, Nobuo


    The carbon cycle, by which carbon atoms circulate between atmosphere, oceans, lithosphere, and the biosphere of Earth, is a current hot research topic. The carbon cycle occurring in the lithosphere (e.g., sedimentary carbonates) is based on weathering and metamorphic events so that its processes are considered to occur on the geological time scale (i.e., over millions of years). In contrast, we have recently reported that carbonate anions intercalated within a hydrotalcite (Mg0.75Al0.25(OH)2(CO3)0.125·yH2O), a class of a layered double hydroxide (LDH), are dynamically exchanging on time scale of hours with atmospheric CO2 under ambient conditions. (Ishihara et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 18040-18043). The use of (13)C-labeling enabled monitoring by infrared spectroscopy of the dynamic exchange between the initially intercalated (13)C-labeled carbonate anions and carbonate anions derived from atmospheric CO2. In this article, we report the significant influence of Mg/Al ratio of LDH on the carbonate anion exchange dynamics. Of three LDHs of various Mg/Al ratios of 2, 3, or 4, magnesium-rich LDH (i.e., Mg/Al ratio = 4) underwent extremely rapid exchange of carbonate anions, and most of the initially intercalated carbonate anions were replaced with carbonate anions derived from atmospheric CO2 within 30 min. Detailed investigations by using infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, adsorption, thermogravimetric analysis, and solid-state NMR revealed that magnesium rich LDH has chemical and structural features that promote the exchange of carbonate anions. Our results indicate that the unique interactions between LDH and CO2 can be optimized simply by varying the chemical composition of LDH, implying that LDH is a promising material for CO2 storage and/or separation.

  1. Rapid and Convenient Separation of Chitooligosaccharides by Ion-Exchange Chromatography (United States)

    Wu, Yuxiao; Lu, Wei-Peng; Wang, Jianing; Gao, Yunhua; Guo, Yanchuan


    Pervious methods for separation of highly purified chitooligosaccharides was time-consuming and labor-intensive, which limited the large-scale production. This study developed a convenient ion-exchange chromatography using the ÄKTA™ avant 150 chromatographic system. Five fractions were automatically collected under detecting the absorption at 210 nm. The fractions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. It proved that they primarily comprised chitobiose, chitotriose, chitotetraose, chitopentaose, and chitohexaose, respectively, with chromatographic purities over 90%. The separation process was rapid, convenient and could be monitored on-line, which would be benefit for the mass production of chitooligosaccharides.

  2. Evaluation of a rapid analyte measurement platform and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay West Nile virus detection system in mosquito pools. (United States)

    Burkhalter, Kristen L; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Savage, Harry M; Nasci, Roger S


    We evaluated the commercially available Rapid Analyte Measurement Platform (RAMP) West Nile virus (WNV) antigen detection test for sensitivity and consistency with real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmation testing. Panels of samples consisting of WNV-spiked mosquito pools and negative control pools were sent to 20 mosquito abatement districts (MADs) that processed the pools using the RAMP assay. The samples were then sent to the reference laboratories used by the MADs for confirmation by real-time RT-PCR. Positive pools with virus titers of roughly 1-3 log10 PFU/ml had RAMP scores above the RAMP test positive cutoff score of 30 RAMP units, but these virus-positive samples could not be reliably confirmed by real-time RT-PCR testing. Pools with virus titers > or =4 log10 PFU/ml scored > or =50 RAMP units. Real-time RT-PCR results varied among the confirmation laboratories. With few exceptions, pools returning a RAMP score of > or =100 were confirmed with real-time RT-PCR, while pools returning a RAMP score of 50-99 appeared to be at the limit of real-time RT-PCR detection. Therefore, we recommend using a positive cutoff of 50 RAMP units with no real-time RT-PCR confirmation to maximize speed, efficiency, and economy of the RAMP assay. A more conservative approach would be to implement a "gray zone" range of 50-100 RAMP units. Pools scoring within the gray zone could be submitted for real-time RT-PCR confirmation with the understanding that positive pools may not confirm due to the inhibitory effect of the RAMP buffer on the real-time RT-PCR assay. We also conducted a series of experiments using laboratory-prepared mosquito pools spiked with WNV to compare mosquito homogenization buffers, pool sizes, and grinding methods in order to determine how these variables affect the RAMP and real-time RT-PCR assay results.

  3. Nanofiber Ion-Exchange Membranes for the Rapid Uptake and Recovery of Heavy Metals from Water

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    Nithinart Chitpong


    Full Text Available An evaluation of the performance of polyelectrolyte-modified nanofiber membranes was undertaken to determine their efficacy in the rapid uptake and recovery of heavy metals from impaired waters. The membranes were prepared by grafting poly(acrylic acid (PAA and poly(itaconic acid (PIA to cellulose nanofiber mats. Performance measurements quantified the dynamic ion-exchange capacity for cadmium (Cd, productivity, and recovery of Cd(II from the membranes by regeneration. The dynamic binding capacities of Cd(II on both types of nanofiber membrane were independent of the linear flow velocity, with a residence time of as low as 2 s. Analysis of breakthrough curves indicated that the mass flow rate increased rapidly at constant applied pressure after membranes approached equilibrium load capacity for Cd(II, apparently due to a collapse of the polymer chains on the membrane surface, leading to an increased porosity. This mechanism is supported by hydrodynamic radius (Rh measurements for PAA and PIA obtained from dynamic light scattering, which show that Rh values decrease upon Cd(II binding. Volumetric productivity was high for the nanofiber membranes, and reached 0.55 mg Cd/g/min. The use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as regeneration reagent was effective in fully recovering Cd(II from the membranes. Ion-exchange capacities were constant over five cycles of binding-regeneration.

  4. Nanofiber Ion-Exchange Membranes for the Rapid Uptake and Recovery of Heavy Metals from Water (United States)

    Chitpong, Nithinart; Husson, Scott M.


    An evaluation of the performance of polyelectrolyte-modified nanofiber membranes was undertaken to determine their efficacy in the rapid uptake and recovery of heavy metals from impaired waters. The membranes were prepared by grafting poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(itaconic acid) (PIA) to cellulose nanofiber mats. Performance measurements quantified the dynamic ion-exchange capacity for cadmium (Cd), productivity, and recovery of Cd(II) from the membranes by regeneration. The dynamic binding capacities of Cd(II) on both types of nanofiber membrane were independent of the linear flow velocity, with a residence time of as low as 2 s. Analysis of breakthrough curves indicated that the mass flow rate increased rapidly at constant applied pressure after membranes approached equilibrium load capacity for Cd(II), apparently due to a collapse of the polymer chains on the membrane surface, leading to an increased porosity. This mechanism is supported by hydrodynamic radius (Rh) measurements for PAA and PIA obtained from dynamic light scattering, which show that Rh values decrease upon Cd(II) binding. Volumetric productivity was high for the nanofiber membranes, and reached 0.55 mg Cd/g/min. The use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as regeneration reagent was effective in fully recovering Cd(II) from the membranes. Ion-exchange capacities were constant over five cycles of binding-regeneration. PMID:27999394

  5. Time-varying dependency in European energy markets: an analysis of Nord Pool, European Energy Exchange and Intercontinental Exchange energy commodities


    Veka, Steinar; Lien, Gudbrand; Westgaard, Sjur; Higgs, Helen


    In this paper we investigate the extent to which the price of Nordic electricity derivatives correlates with European Energy Exchange (EEX) and Intercontinental Exchange (ICE) electricity contracts. We also include their price correlation with ICE gas, Brent crude oil, coal and carbon emission contracts. Using multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity models, we find significant time-varying relationships between all of the energy commodities included in the analy...

  6. Rapid and Efficient Collection of Platinum from Karstedt's Catalyst Solution via Ligands-Exchange-Induced Assembly. (United States)

    Yang, Gonghua; Wei, Yanlong; Huang, Zhenzhu; Hu, Jiwen; Liu, Guojun; Ou, Ming; Lin, Shudong; Tu, Yuanyuan


    Reported herein is a novel strategy for the rapid and efficient collection of platinum from Karstedt's catalyst solution. By taking advantage of a ligand-exchange reaction between alkynols and the 1,3-divinyltetramethyldisiloxane ligand (M Vi M Vi ) that coordinated with platinum (Pt(0)), the Karstedt's catalyst particles with a size of approximately 2.5 ± 0.7 nm could be reconstructed and assembled into larger particles with a size of 150 ± 35 nm due to the hydrogen bonding between the hydroxyl groups of the alkynol. In addition, because the silicone-soluble M Vi M Vi ligand of the Karstedt's catalyst was replaced by water-soluble alkynol ligands, the resultant large particles were readily dispersed in water, resulting in rapid, efficient, and complete collection of platinum from the Karstedt's catalyst solutions with platinum concentrations in the range from ∼20 000 to 0.05 ppm. Our current strategy not only was used for the rapid and efficient collection of platinum from the Karstedt's catalyst solutions, but it also enabled the precise evaluation of the platinum content in the Karstedt's catalysts, even if this platinum content was extremely low (i.e., 0.05 ppm). Moreover, these platinum specimens that were efficiently collected from the Karstedt's catalyst solutions could be directly used for the evaluation of platinum without the need for pretreatment processes, such as calcination and digestion with hydrofluoric acid, that were traditionally used prior to testing via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in conventional methods.

  7. mRNA secondary structures fold sequentially but exchange rapidly in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth M Mahen


    Full Text Available RNAs adopt defined structures to perform biological activities, and conformational transitions among alternative structures are critical to virtually all RNA-mediated processes ranging from metabolite-activation of bacterial riboswitches to pre-mRNA splicing and viral replication in eukaryotes. Mechanistic analysis of an RNA folding reaction in a biological context is challenging because many steps usually intervene between assembly of a functional RNA structure and execution of a biological function. We developed a system to probe mechanisms of secondary structure folding and exchange directly in vivo using self-cleavage to monitor competition between mutually exclusive structures that promote or inhibit ribozyme assembly. In previous work, upstream structures were more effective than downstream structures in blocking ribozyme assembly during transcription in vitro, consistent with a sequential folding mechanism. However, upstream and downstream structures blocked ribozyme assembly equally well in vivo, suggesting that intracellular folding outcomes reflect thermodynamic equilibration or that annealing of contiguous sequences is favored kinetically. We have extended these studies to learn when, if ever, thermodynamic stability becomes an impediment to rapid equilibration among alternative RNA structures in vivo. We find that a narrow thermodynamic threshold determines whether kinetics or thermodynamics govern RNA folding outcomes in vivo. mRNA secondary structures fold sequentially in vivo, but exchange between adjacent secondary structures is much faster in vivo than it is in vitro. Previous work showed that simple base-paired RNA helices dissociate at similar rates in vivo and in vitro so exchange between adjacent structures must occur through a different mechanism, one that likely involves facilitation of branch migration by proteins associated with nascent transcripts.

  8. High-Capacity and Rapid Removal of Refractory NOM Using Nanoscale Anion Exchange Resin. (United States)

    Johnson, Billy R; Eldred, Tim B; Nguyen, Andy T; Payne, William M; Schmidt, Emily E; Alansari, Amir Y; Amburgey, James E; Poler, Jordan C


    As human health concerns over disinfection byproducts (DBP) in drinking water increase, so does the need to develop new materials that remove them rapidly and at high capacity. Ion exchange (IEX) is an effective method for the removal of natural organic matter (NOM), especially anion exchange resins (AERs) with quaternary ammonium functional groups. However, capacity is limited in existing commercial resin materials because adsorbates can only interact with the outermost surface area, which makes these products inefficient on a mass basis. We have synthesized a novel "NanoResin" exploiting the enhanced NOM removal of the quaternary ammonium resin while utilizing the vast surface area of SWCNTs, which act as scaffolding for the resin. Our nanomaterials show increased adsorption capacity compared to commercially available adsorbents, in a fraction of the time. This NanoResin requires only about 10 s to reach ion-exchange equilibrium. Comparatively, commercial AERs only achieved partial removal after more than 30 min. High capacity adsorption of a low molecular weight (MW) surrogate has been measured. NOM removal was demonstrated in solutions of both low and high specific UV absorbance (SUVA) composition with these nanomaterials. Additionally, the NanoResin showed enhanced removal of a NOM concentrate sample taken from Myrtle Beach, SC, demonstrating NanoResin is an effective method of removal for refractory NOM in a natural aqueous environment. Synthesis and characterization of the polymers and nanomaterials are presented below. Adsorption capacity, adsorption kinetics, and the regeneration and reusability of these new materials for NOM removal are described. The open matrix microstructure precludes any intraparticle diffusion of adsorbates; thus, these nanomaterials act as a "contact resin".

  9. Rapid assessment of genetic ancestry in populations of unknown origin by genome-wide genotyping of pooled samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charleston W K Chiang


    Full Text Available As we move forward from the current generation of genome-wide association (GWA studies, additional cohorts of different ancestries will be studied to increase power, fine map association signals, and generalize association results to additional populations. Knowledge of genetic ancestry as well as population substructure will become increasingly important for GWA studies in populations of unknown ancestry. Here we propose genotyping pooled DNA samples using genome-wide SNP arrays as a viable option to efficiently and inexpensively estimate admixture proportion and identify ancestry informative markers (AIMs in populations of unknown origin. We constructed DNA pools from African American, Native Hawaiian, Latina, and Jamaican samples and genotyped them using the Affymetrix 6.0 array. Aided by individual genotype data from the African American cohort, we established quality control filters to remove poorly performing SNPs and estimated allele frequencies for the remaining SNPs in each panel. We then applied a regression-based method to estimate the proportion of admixture in each cohort using the allele frequencies estimated from pooling and populations from the International HapMap Consortium as reference panels, and identified AIMs unique to each population. In this study, we demonstrated that genotyping pooled DNA samples yields estimates of admixture proportion that are both consistent with our knowledge of population history and similar to those obtained by genotyping known AIMs. Furthermore, through validation by individual genotyping, we demonstrated that pooling is quite effective for identifying SNPs with large allele frequency differences (i.e., AIMs and that these AIMs are able to differentiate two closely related populations (HapMap JPT and CHB.

  10. BiobankConnect: software to rapidly connect data elements for pooled analysis across biobanks using ontological and lexical indexing. (United States)

    Pang, Chao; Hendriksen, Dennis; Dijkstra, Martijn; van der Velde, K Joeri; Kuiper, Joel; Hillege, Hans L; Swertz, Morris A


    Pooling data across biobanks is necessary to increase statistical power, reveal more subtle associations, and synergize the value of data sources. However, searching for desired data elements among the thousands of available elements and harmonizing differences in terminology, data collection, and structure, is arduous and time consuming. To speed up biobank data pooling we developed BiobankConnect, a system to semi-automatically match desired data elements to available elements by: (1) annotating the desired elements with ontology terms using BioPortal; (2) automatically expanding the query for these elements with synonyms and subclass information using OntoCAT; (3) automatically searching available elements for these expanded terms using Lucene lexical matching; and (4) shortlisting relevant matches sorted by matching score. We evaluated BiobankConnect using human curated matches from EU-BioSHaRE, searching for 32 desired data elements in 7461 available elements from six biobanks. We found 0.75 precision at rank 1 and 0.74 recall at rank 10 compared to a manually curated set of relevant matches. In addition, best matches chosen by BioSHaRE experts ranked first in 63.0% and in the top 10 in 98.4% of cases, indicating that our system has the potential to significantly reduce manual matching work. BiobankConnect provides an easy user interface to significantly speed up the biobank harmonization process. It may also prove useful for other forms of biomedical data integration. All the software can be downloaded as a MOLGENIS open source app from, with a demo available at © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association.

  11. A weak-base fibrous anion exchanger effective for rapid phosphate removal from water. (United States)

    Awual, Md Rabiul; Jyo, Akinori; El-Safty, Sherif A; Tamada, Masao; Seko, Noriaki


    This work investigated that weak-base anion exchange fibers named FVA-c and FVA-f were selectively and rapidly taken up phosphate from water. The chemical structure of both FVA-c and FVA-f was the same; i.e., poly(vinylamine) chains grafted onto polyethylene coated polypropylene fibers. Batch study using FVA-c clarified that this preferred phosphate to chloride, nitrate and sulfate in neutral pH region and an equilibrium capacity of FVA-c for phosphate was from 2.45 to 6.87 mmol/g. Column study using FVA-f made it clear that breakthrough capacities of FVA-f were not strongly affected by flow rates from 150 to 2000 h(-1) as well as phosphate feed concentration from 0.072 to 1.6mM. Under these conditions, breakthrough capacities were from 0.84 to 1.43 mmol/g indicating high kinetic performances. Trace concentration of phosphate was also removed from feeds containing 0.021 and 0.035 mM of phosphate at high feed flow rate of 2500 h(-1), breakthrough capacities were 0.676 and 0.741 mmol/g, respectively. The column study also clarified that chloride and sulfate did not strongly interfere with phosphate uptake even in their presence of equimolar and fivefold molar levels. Adsorbed phosphate on FVA-f was quantitatively eluted with 1M HCl acid and regenerated into hydrochloride form simultaneously for next phosphate adsorption operation. Therefore, FVA-f is able to use long time even under rigorous chemical treatment of multiple regeneration/reuse cycles without any noticeable deterioration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Plasma Exchange for Renal Vasculitis and Idiopathic Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis: A Meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsh, Michael; Catapano, Fausta; Szpirt, Wladimir


    .9). LIMITATIONS:: Although the primary result was statistically significant, there is insufficient statistical information to reliably determine whether plasma exchange decreases the composite of end-stage renal disease or death. CONCLUSIONS:: Plasma exchange may decrease the composite end point of end...

  13. HDL-apoA-I exchange: rapid detection and association with atherosclerosis. (United States)

    Borja, Mark S; Zhao, Lei; Hammerson, Bradley; Tang, Chongren; Yang, Richard; Carson, Nancy; Fernando, Gayani; Liu, Xiaoqin; Budamagunta, Madhu S; Genest, Jacques; Shearer, Gregory C; Duclos, Franck; Oda, Michael N


    High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels are associated with decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, but not all HDL are functionally equivalent. A primary determinant of HDL functional status is the conformational adaptability of its main protein component, apoA-I, an exchangeable apolipoprotein. Chemical modification of apoA-I, as may occur under conditions of inflammation or diabetes, can severely impair HDL function and is associated with the presence of cardiovascular disease. Chemical modification of apoA-I also impairs its ability to exchange on and off HDL, a critical process in reverse cholesterol transport. In this study, we developed a method using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) to quantify HDL-apoA-I exchange. Using this approach, we measured the degree of HDL-apoA-I exchange for HDL isolated from rabbits fed a high fat, high cholesterol diet, as well as human subjects with acute coronary syndrome and metabolic syndrome. We observed that HDL-apoA-I exchange was markedly reduced when atherosclerosis was present, or when the subject carries at least one risk factor of cardiovascular disease. These results show that HDL-apoA-I exchange is a clinically relevant measure of HDL function pertinent to cardiovascular disease.

  14. HDL-apoA-I exchange: rapid detection and association with atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S Borja

    Full Text Available High density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels are associated with decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, but not all HDL are functionally equivalent. A primary determinant of HDL functional status is the conformational adaptability of its main protein component, apoA-I, an exchangeable apolipoprotein. Chemical modification of apoA-I, as may occur under conditions of inflammation or diabetes, can severely impair HDL function and is associated with the presence of cardiovascular disease. Chemical modification of apoA-I also impairs its ability to exchange on and off HDL, a critical process in reverse cholesterol transport. In this study, we developed a method using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR to quantify HDL-apoA-I exchange. Using this approach, we measured the degree of HDL-apoA-I exchange for HDL isolated from rabbits fed a high fat, high cholesterol diet, as well as human subjects with acute coronary syndrome and metabolic syndrome. We observed that HDL-apoA-I exchange was markedly reduced when atherosclerosis was present, or when the subject carries at least one risk factor of cardiovascular disease. These results show that HDL-apoA-I exchange is a clinically relevant measure of HDL function pertinent to cardiovascular disease.

  15. Creating a data exchange strategy for radiotherapy research: Towards federated databases and anonymised public datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skripcak, Tomas; Belka, Claus; Bosch, Walter


    Disconnected cancer research data management and lack of information exchange about planned and ongoing research are complicating the utilisation of internationally collected medical information for improving cancer patient care. Rapidly collecting/pooling data can accelerate translational resear...

  16. Creating a data exchange strategy for radiotherapy research: Towards federated databases and anonymised public datasets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skripcak, T.; Belka, C.; Bosch, W.; Brink, C. Van den; Brunner, T.; Budach, V.; Büttner, D.; Debus, J.; Dekker, A.; Grau, C.; Gulliford, S.; Hurkmans, C.; Just, U.; Krause, M.; Lambin, P.; Langendijk, J.A.; Lewensohn, R.; Luhr, A.; Maingon, P.; Masucci, M.; Niyazi, M.; Poortmans, P.M.P.; Simon, M.; Schmidberger, H.; Spezi, E.; Stuschke, M.; Valentini, V.; Verheij, M.; Whitfield, G.; Zackrisson, B.; Zips, D.; Baumann, M.


    Disconnected cancer research data management and lack of information exchange about planned and ongoing research are complicating the utilisation of internationally collected medical information for improving cancer patient care. Rapidly collecting/pooling data can accelerate translational research

  17. Creating a data exchange strategy for radiotherapy research : Towards federated databases and anonymised public datasets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skripcak, Tomas; Belka, Claus; Bosch, Walter; Brink, Carsten; Brunner, Thomas; Budach, Volker; Buettner, Daniel; Debus, Juergen; Dekker, Andre; Grau, Cai; Gulliford, Sarah; Hurkmans, Coen; Just, Uwe; Krause, Mechthild; Lambin, Philippe; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Lewensohn, Rolf; Luehr, Armin; Maingon, Philippe; Masucci, Michele; Niyazi, Maximilian; Poortmans, Philip; Simon, Monique; Schmidberger, Heinz; Spezi, Emiliano; Stuschke, Martin; Valentini, Vincenzo; Verheij, Marcel; Whitfield, Gillian; Zackrisson, Bjoern; Zips, Daniel; Baumann, Michael


    Disconnected cancer research data management and lack of information exchange about planned and ongoing research are complicating the utilisation of internationally collected medical information for improving cancer patient care. Rapidly collecting/pooling data can accelerate 'translational research

  18. Characterizing rapid, activity-linked conformational transitions in proteins via sub-second hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Resetca, Diana; Wilson, Derek J


    This review outlines the application of time-resolved electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (TRESI-MS) and hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) to study rapid, activity-linked conformational transitions in proteins. The method is implemented on a microfluidic chip which incorporates all sample-handling steps required for a 'bottom-up' HDX workflow: a capillary mixer for sub-second HDX labeling, a static mixer for HDX quenching, a microreactor for rapid protein digestion, and on-chip electrospray. By combining short HDX labeling pulses with rapid digestion, this approach provides a detailed characterization of the structural transitions that occur during protein folding, ligand binding, post-translational modification and catalytic turnover in enzymes. This broad spectrum of applications in areas largely inaccessible to conventional techniques means that microfluidics-enabled TRESI-MS/HDX is a unique and powerful approach for investigating the dynamic basis of protein function. © 2013 FEBS.

  19. Rapid Guest Exchange and Ultra-Low Surface Tension Solvents Optimize Metal-Organic Framework Activation. (United States)

    Ma, Jialiu; Kalenak, Andre P; Wong-Foy, Antek G; Matzger, Adam J


    Exploratory research into the critical steps in metal-organic framework (MOF) activation involving solvent exchange and solvent evacuation are reported. It is discovered that solvent exchange kinetics are extremely fast, and minutes rather days are appropriate for solvent exchange in many MOFs. It is also demonstrated that choice of a very low surface tension solvent is critical in successfully activating challenging MOFs. MOFs that have failed to be activated previously can achieve predicted surface areas provided that lower surface tension solvents, such as n-hexane and perfluoropentane, are applied. The insights herein aid in the efficient activation of MOFs in both laboratory and industrial settings and provide best practices for avoiding structural collapse. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Auxin induces exocytosis and the rapid synthesis of a high-turnover pool of plasma-membrane H(+)-ATPase. (United States)

    Hager, A; Debus, G; Edel, H G; Stransky, H; Serrano, R


    Auxin causes elongation growth of plant cells by increasing the plastic extensibility of the cell wall. Putative cellular events involved in this hormone action were studied using maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptiles with the following results: (i) Auxin enhances membrane flow from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane (PM). This effect was demonstrated by pulse-labeling of the endoplasmic reticulum with myo-[(3)H]inositol in coleoptile segments and by measuring the distribution of the label within isolated and separated microsomal membrane fractions, (ii) Auxin rapidly increases the amount of antibody-detectable H(+)-ATPase in the PM. This augmentation is already significant 10 min after the addition of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and reaches a new higher steady-state level after about 30 min. (iii) Cycloheximide, a potent inhibitor of both protein synthesis and extension growth, quickly diminishes the auxin-enhanced level of the PM H(+)-ATPase, indicating an apparent half-life of the enzyme of around 12 min. (iv) Cordycepin, which blocks the synthesis of mRNAs, reduces the auxin-elevated level of the H(+)-ATPase similar to cycloheximide. (v) Changes in the growth rate of coleoptile segments in response to IAA, cycloheximide, and cordycepin exactly reflect the changes of the H(+)-ATPase level in the PM. (vi) The elongation growth induced by fusicoccin, or ester compounds, or by an elevated CO2 concentration in the incubation medium, is not related to an increased number of H(+)-ATPase molecules within the PM. (vii) The necessity of H(+) for cell-wall-loosening processes is again demonstrated by growth experiments with abraded coleoptile segments. The adjustment of the cell wall to a pH of ≥6.5 completely abolishes the auxin-induced elongation growth; no inhibition occurs with non-abraded segments. Buffer solutions of pH ≤6.0 induce "acid growth" of abraded segments for several hours. It is suggested that auxin activates a cluster of genes responsible (i

  1. Exchangeable Zinc Pool Size at Birth in Pakistani SGA and AGA Infants Do Not Differ but are Lower than in US Infants. (United States)

    Ariff, Shabina; Krebs, Nancy F; Westcott, Jamie E; Hambidge, K Michael; Miller, Leland V; Rizvi, Arjumand; Soofi, Sajid Bashir; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A


    Small for gestational age (SGA) infants are more susceptible to infectious morbidity and growth faltering compared to their appropriate for gestational age (AGA) counterparts. Zinc supplementation of SGA infants may be beneficial but the underlying susceptibility to zinc deficiency of SGA infants has not been examined. In a community-based, observational, longitudinal study in a peri-urban settlement of Karachi, Pakistan, we compared the size of the exchangeable zinc pools (EZP) in term SGA and AGA infants at birth and at 6 months of age, hypothesizing that the EZP would be lower in the SGA group. To measure EZP size, a zinc stable isotope was intravenously administered within 48 hours of birth (n = 17 and 22) at 6 months (n = 11 and 14) in SGA and AGA infants, respectively. Isotopic enrichment in urine was used to determine EZP. No significant difference was detected in the mean (± SD) EZP between SGA and AGA infants at birth, with values of 9.8 ± 3.5 and 10.1 ± 4.1 mg/kg, respectively (p = 0.86), or at 6 months. Longitudinal EZP measurements demonstrated a significant decline in EZP relative to body weight in both groups at 6 months (p SGA and AGA Pakistani infants. However, they do suggest lower in utero zinc transfer to the fetus in a setting where poor maternal nutritional status may confer a high susceptibility to postnatal zinc deficiency.

  2. Rapid oxygen exchange across the leaves of Littorella uniflora provides tolerance to sediment anoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Claus Lindskov; Jensen, Kaj Sand


    from water and underlies its greater tolerance to sediment anoxia following organic enrichment. 2. We studied plant response to varying sediment O2 demand and biogeochemistry by measuring photosynthesis, gas exchange across leaves and O2 dynamics in plants during long-term laboratory and field studies...

  3. Three-Dimensional Ionic Covalent Organic Frameworks for Rapid, Reversible, and Selective Ion Exchange. (United States)

    Li, Zonglong; Li, Hui; Guan, Xinyu; Tang, Junjie; Yusran, Yusran; Li, Zhan; Xue, Ming; Fang, Qianrong; Yan, Yushan; Valtchev, Valentin; Qiu, Shilun


    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) have emerged as functional materials for various potential applications. However, the availability of three-dimensional (3D) COFs is still limited, and nearly all of them exhibit neutral porous skeletons. Here we report a general strategy to design porous positively charged 3D ionic COFs by incorporation of cationic monomers in the framework. The obtained 3D COFs are built of 3-fold interpenetrated diamond net and show impressive surface area and CO2 uptakes. The ion-exchange ability of 3D ionic COFs has been highlighted by reversible removal of nuclear waste model ions and excellent size-selective capture for anionic pollutants. This research thereby provides a new perspective to explore 3D COFs as a versatile type of ion-exchange materials.

  4. Rapid fabrication of microfluidic polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell in PDMS by surface patterning of perfluorinated ion-exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yong-Ak; Han, Jongyoon [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Batista, Candy [Roxbury Community College, 1234 Columbus Ave., Roxbury Crossing, MA 02120 (United States); Sarpeshkar, Rahul [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)


    In this paper we demonstrate a simple and rapid fabrication method for a microfluidic polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which has become the de facto standard material in BioMEMS. Instead of integrating a Nafion sheet film between two layers of a PDMS device in a traditional ''sandwich format,'' we pattern a perfluorinated ion-exchange resin such as a Nafion resin on a glass substrate using a reversibly bonded PDMS microchannel to generate an ion-selective membrane between the fuel-cell electrodes. After this patterning step, the assembly of the microfluidic fuel cell is accomplished by simple oxygen plasma bonding between the PDMS chip and the glass substrate. In an example implementation, the planar PEM microfluidic fuel cell generates an open circuit voltage of 600-800 mV and delivers a maximum current output of nearly 4 {mu}A. To enhance the power output of the fuel cell we utilize self-assembled colloidal arrays as a support matrix for the Nafion resin. Such arrays allow us to increase the thickness of the ion-selective membrane to 20 {mu}m and increase the current output by 166%. Our novel fabrication method enables rapid prototyping of microfluidic fuel cells to study various ion-exchange resins for the polymer electrolyte membrane. Our work will facilitate the development of miniature, implantable, on-chip power sources for biomedical applications. (author)

  5. Rapid RNA Exchange in Aqueous Two-Phase System and Coacervate Droplets (United States)

    Jia, Tony Z.; Hentrich, Christian; Szostak, Jack W.


    Compartmentalization in a prebiotic setting is an important aspect of early cell formation and is crucial for the development of an artificial protocell system that effectively couples genotype and phenotype. Aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) and complex coacervates are phase separation phenomena that lead to the selective partitioning of biomolecules and have recently been proposed as membrane-free protocell models. We show in this study through fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) microscopy that despite the ability of such systems to effectively concentrate RNA, there is a high rate of RNA exchange between phases in dextran/polyethylene glycol ATPS and ATP/poly-L-lysine coacervate droplets. In contrast to fatty acid vesicles, these systems would not allow effective segregation and consequent evolution of RNA, thus rendering these systems ineffective as model protocells.

  6. Effect of elevated incubation temperature (42 Degrees C) On the multiplication and rapid detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in Egg Contents Pools. (United States)

    Detecting internal contamination of eggs with Salmonella enteritidis is essential for identifying laying flocks that could threaten public health. The most commone strategy for such testing is to prepare pools of the contents of 10-20 eggs adn to then incubate these pools at 25-37 degrees C to allo...

  7. Rapid chiral separation and impurity determination of levofloxacin by ligand-exchange chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Hongyuan [Center for Advanced Bioseparation Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Row, Kyung Ho [Center for Advanced Bioseparation Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail:


    A sensitive, simple, and accurate method for determination of levofloxacin and its (R)-enantiomer was developed to determine the chiral impurity of levofloxacin in Cravit Tablets material by ligand-exchange high performance liquid chromatography. The effects of different kinds of ligands, concentration of ligands in mobile phase, organic modifier, pH of mobile phase, and temperature on enantioseparation were investigated and evaluated. Chiral separation was performed on a conventional C{sub 18} column, where the mobile phase consisted of a methanol-water solution (containing10 mmol L{sup -1} L-leucine and 5 mmol L{sup -1} copper sulfate) (88:12, v/v) and its flow-rate was set at 1.0 mL min{sup -1}. The conventional C{sub 18} column offers baseline separation of two enantiomers with a resolution of 2.4 in less than 20 min. Thermodynamic data ({delta}{delta}H and {delta}{delta}S) obtained by Van't Hoff plots revealed the chiral separation is an enthalpy-controlled process. The standard curves showed excellent linearity over the concentration range from 0.5 to 400 mg L{sup -1} for levofloxacin and its (R)-enantiomer. The linear correlation equations are: y = 1.33 x 10{sup 5} x + 6297 (r = 0.9991) and y = 1.34 x 10{sup 5} x + 3565 (r = 0.9997), respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the method was below 2.3% (n = 3)

  8. Transferring Goods or Splitting a Resource Pool (United States)

    Dijkstra, Jacob; Van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.


    We investigated the consequences for exchange outcomes of the violation of an assumption underlying most social psychological research on exchange. This assumption is that the negotiated direct exchange of commodities between two actors (pure exchange) can be validly represented as two actors splitting a fixed pool of resources (split pool…

  9. Variable primary coordination environments of Cd(ɪɪ) binding to three helix bundles provide a pathway for rapid metal exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tebo, Alison G.; Hemmingsen, Lars Bo Stegeager; Pecoraro, Vincent L.


    exchange between CdS3O and CdS4 coordination spheres. Correlation of (111m)Cd PAC spectroscopy and (113)Cd NMR spectroscopy suggests that Cd(ii) coordinated to CadC is in fast exchange between CdS3O and CdS4 forms, which may provide a mechanism for rapid sensing of heavy metal contaminants...

  10. Vernal Pools (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This is a polygon layer representing existing vernal pool complexes in California's Central Valley, as identified and mapped by Dr. Robert F. Holland. The purpose of...

  11. Transport of H2S and HS(-) across the human red blood cell membrane: rapid H2S diffusion and AE1-mediated Cl(-)/HS(-) exchange. (United States)

    Jennings, Michael L


    The rates of H2S and HS(-) transport across the human erythrocyte membrane were estimated by measuring rates of dissipation of pH gradients in media containing 250 μM H2S/HS(-). Net acid efflux is caused by H2S/HS(-) acting analogously to CO2/HCO3(-) in the Jacobs-Stewart cycle. The steps are as follows: 1) H2S efflux through the lipid bilayer and/or a gas channel, 2) extracellular H2S deprotonation, 3) HS(-) influx in exchange for Cl(-), catalyzed by the anion exchange protein AE1, and 4) intracellular HS(-) protonation. Net acid transport by the Cl(-)/HS(-)/H2S cycle is more efficient than by the Cl(-)/HCO3(-)/CO2 cycle because of the rapid H2S-HS(-) interconversion in cells and medium. The rates of acid transport were analyzed by solving the mass flow equations for the cycle to produce estimates of the HS(-) and H2S transport rates. The data indicate that HS(-) is a very good substrate for AE1; the Cl(-)/HS(-) exchange rate is about one-third as rapid as Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchange. The H2S permeability coefficient must also be high (>10(-2) cm/s, half time <0.003 s) to account for the pH equilibration data. The results imply that H2S and HS(-) enter erythrocytes very rapidly in the microcirculation of H2S-producing tissues, thereby acting as a sink for H2S and lowering the local extracellular concentration, and the fact that HS(-) is a substrate for a Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger indicates that some effects of exogenous H2S/HS(-) may not result from a regulatory role of H2S but, rather, from net acid flux by H2S and HS(-) transport in a Jacobs-Stewart cycle.

  12. Propionate exchange reactions in methanogenic ecosystems. (United States)

    Boone, D R


    Propionate degradation was measured with [1-C]- and [2-C]propionate in an anaerobic digestor. When [1-C]propionate was used, label disappeared more rapidly from the propionate pool than when [2-C]propionate was used. This indicated that an exchange reaction involving the carboxyl group of propionate occurred. Labeled propionate added to digestor samples which were equilibrated with H(2) lost label from the carboxyl group but not from the methylene group.

  13. The pulsations of boundary conditions – factor of the rapid wear on heat exchange surfaces in heterogeneous dispersed flows (United States)

    Khodunkov, V. P.


    The results of experimental studies of industrial furnace with a fluidized bed reactor. The data on the values of the coefficient of heat transfer, the quality of fluidization and mixing efficiency. In theory shows that there are significant variables of temperature gradients on the walls of the heat exchange elements are qualitative arguments about the causes of increased wear of heat exchange surfaces in a fluidized bed.

  14. Modeling and robust pooling design of a preparative cation-exchange chromatography step for purification of monoclonal antibody monomer from aggregates. (United States)

    Borg, Niklas; Brodsky, Yan; Moscariello, John; Vunnum, Suresh; Vedantham, Ganesh; Westerberg, Karin; Nilsson, Bernt


    This study has implemented and calibrated a model that describes the separation of the monomer of monoclonal antibodies from the dimer and larger oligomers on preparative-scale using cation-exchange chromatography. A general rate model with temperature dependent diffusion was coupled to a pH- and temperature-dependent steric mass action model. The model was shown to predict the retention of the monomer, dimer, and oligomer at low loadings for different pH levels and temperatures. Additionally, the model was shown to adequately predict the elution behavior of the monomer and soluble aggregates at high loadings within the same ranges with some limitations. The model was not able to accurately describe the shape of the product break-through curves or the slight levels of co-elution of the dimer and oligomer with the monomer at higher pH. The model was used to predict how 12 process variations impact the separation. The model is used to establish an elution end collection criterion such that the step can robustly provide the target purity of monomers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Utility of Automated MRI Analysis Software (RAPID) to Select Patients for Reperfusion Therapy: A Pooled Analysis of the EPITHET and DEFUSE Studies (United States)

    Lansberg, Maarten; Lee, Jun; Christensen, Soren; Straka, Matus; De Silva, Deidre A; Mlynash, Michael; Campbell, Bruce C; Bammer, Roland; Olivot, Jean-Marc; Desmond, Patricia; Davis, Stephen M; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Albers, Gregory W


    Background The aim of this study was to determine if automated MRI Analysis Software (RAPID) can be used to identify stroke patients in whom reperfusion is associated with an increased chance of good outcome. Methods Baseline diffusion (DWI) and perfusion-weighted MRI scans (PWI) from DEFUSE (n=74) and EPITHET (n=100) were reprocessed with RAPID. Based on RAPID-generated DWI and PWI lesion volumes, patients were categorized according to three pre-specified MRI profiles that were hypothesized to predict benefit (Target Mismatch), harm (Malignant), and no effect (No Mismatch) from reperfusion. Favorable clinical response was defined as a NIHSS score of 0–1 or a ≥8 point improvement on the NIHSS score at day 90. Results In Target Mismatch patients reperfusion was strongly associated with a favorable clinical response (odds ratio 5.6; 95% CI 2.1–15.3) and attenuation of infarct growth (10±23 mL with reperfusion vs 40±44 mL without reperfusion p<0.001). In Malignant profile patients reperfusion was not associated with favorable clinical response (odds ratio 0.74; 95% CI 0.1–5.8) or attenuation of infarct growth (85±74mL with reperfusion vs 95±79 mL without reperfusion p=0.7). Reperfusion was also not associated with favorable clinical response (odds ratio 1.05; 95% CI 0.1–9.4) or attenuation of lesion growth (10±15 mL with reperfusion vs 17±30 mL without reperfusion p=0.9) in No Mismatch patients. Conclusion MRI profiles that are associated with a differential response to reperfusion can be identified with RAPID. This supports the use of automated image analysis software such as RAPID for patient selection in acute stroke trials. PMID:21493916

  16. Rapid Preparation of Biosorbents with High Ion Exchange Capacity from Rice Straw and Bagasse for Removal of Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supitcha Rungrodnimitchai


    Full Text Available This work describes the preparation of the cellulose phosphate with high ion exchange capacity from rice straw and bagasse for removal of heavy metals. In this study, rice straw and bagasse were modified by the reaction with phosphoric acid in the presence of urea. The introduced phosphoric group is an ion exchangeable site for heavy metal ions. The reaction by microwave heating yielded modified rice straw and modified bagasse with greater ion exchange capacities (∼3.62 meq/g and shorter reaction time (1.5–5.0 min than the phosphorylation by oil bath heating. Adsorption experiments towards Pb2+, Cd2+, and Cr3+ ions of the modified rice straw and the modified bagasse were performed at room temperature (heavy metal concentration 40 ppm, adsorbent 2.0 g/L. The kinetics of adsorption agreed with the pseudo-second-order model. It was shown that the modified rice straw and the modified bagasse could adsorb heavy metal ions faster than the commercial ion exchange resin (Dowax. As a result of Pb2+ sorption test, the modified rice straw (RH-NaOH 450W removed Pb2+ much faster in the initial step and reached 92% removal after 20 min, while Dowax (commercial ion exchange resin took 90 min for the same removal efficiency.

  17. Rapid Conformational Analysis of Protein Drugs in Formulation by Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry (HDX-MS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esmail Nazari, Zeinab; van de Weert, Marco; Bou-Assaf, George


    pharmaceutically relevant formulation conditions. Of significant practical utility, the methodology allows global HDX-MS analyses to be performed without refrigeration or external cooling of the setup. In Mode 1, we used DMSO-containing solvents for SPE, allowing the HDX-MS analysis to be performed at acceptable...... back exchange levels (cooling any components of the setup. In mode 2, SPE and chromatography were performed using fast isocratic elution at 0 °C resulting in a back exchange of 10-30%. Real-world applicability was demonstrated by HDX-MS analyses of interferon-β-1a...

  18. Rapid isolation of plutonium in environmental solid samples using sequential injection anion exchange chromatography followed by detection with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao Jixin, E-mail: jixin.qiao@risoe.d [Radiation Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Hou Xiaolin; Roos, Per [Radiation Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Miro, Manuel [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of the Balearic Islands, Carretera de Valldemossa km. 7.5, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca, Illes Balears (Spain)


    This paper reports an automated analytical method for rapid determination of plutonium isotopes ({sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu) in environmental solid extracts. Anion exchange chromatographic columns were incorporated in a sequential injection (SI) system to undertake the automated separation of plutonium from matrix and interfering elements. The analytical results most distinctly demonstrated that the crosslinkage of the anion exchanger is a key parameter controlling the separation efficiency. AG 1-x4 type resin was selected as the most suitable sorbent material for analyte separation. Investigation of column size effect upon the separation efficiency revealed that small-sized (2 mL) columns sufficed to handle up to 50 g of environmental soil samples. Under the optimum conditions, chemical yields of plutonium exceeded 90% and the decontamination factors for uranium, thorium and lead ranged from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4}. The determination of plutonium isotopes in three standard/certified reference materials (IAEA-375 soil, IAEA-135 sediment and NIST-4359 seaweed) and two reference samples (Irish Sea sediment and Danish soil) revealed a good agreement with reference/certified values. The SI column-separation method is straightforward and less labor intensive as compared with batch-wise anion exchange chromatographic procedures. Besides, the automated method features low consumption of ion-exchanger and reagents for column washing and elution, with the consequent decrease in the generation of acidic waste, thus bearing green chemical credentials.

  19. Gas exchange recovery following natural drought is rapid unless limited by loss of leaf hydraulic conductance: evidence from an evergreen woodland. (United States)

    Skelton, Robert P; Brodribb, Timothy J; McAdam, Scott A M; Mitchell, Patrick J


    Drought can cause major damage to plant communities, but species damage thresholds and postdrought recovery of forest productivity are not yet predictable. We used an El Niño drought event as a natural experiment to test whether postdrought recovery of gas exchange could be predicted by properties of the water transport system, or if metabolism, primarily high abscisic acid concentration, might delay recovery. We monitored detailed physiological responses, including shoot sapflow, leaf gas exchange, leaf water potential and foliar abscisic acid (ABA), during drought and through the subsequent rehydration period for a sample of eight canopy and understory species. Severe drought caused major declines in leaf water potential, elevated foliar ABA concentrations and reduced stomatal conductance and assimilation rates in our eight sample species. Leaf water potential surpassed levels associated with incipient loss of leaf hydraulic conductance in four species. Following heavy rainfall gas exchange in all species, except those trees predicted to have suffered hydraulic impairment, recovered to prestressed rates within 1 d. Recovery of plant gas exchange was rapid and could be predicted by the hydraulic safety margin, providing strong support for leaf vulnerability to water deficit as an index of damage under natural drought conditions. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Hydraulics and gas exchange recover more rapidly from severe drought stress in small pot-grown grapevines than in field-grown plants. (United States)

    Romero, Pascual; Botía, Pablo; Keller, Markus


    Modifications of plant hydraulics and shoot resistances (Rshoot) induced by water withholding followed by rewatering, and their relationships with plant water status, leaf gas exchange and water use efficiency at the leaf level, were investigated in pot-grown and field-grown, own-rooted Syrah grapevines in an arid climate. Water stress induced anisohydric behavior, gradually reducing stomatal conductance (gs) and leaf photosynthesis (A) in response to decreasing midday stem water potential (Ψs). Water stress also rapidly increased intrinsic water-use efficiency (A/gs); this effect persisted for many days after rewatering. Whole-plant (Kplant), canopy (Kcanopy), shoot (Kshoot) and leaf (Kleaf) hydraulic conductances decreased during water stress, in tune with the gradual decrease in Ψs, leaf gas exchange and whole plant water use. Water-stressed vines also had a lower Ψ gradient between stem and leaf (ΔΨl), which was correlated with lower leaf transpiration rate (E). E and ΔΨl increased with increasing vapour pressure deficit (VPD) in non-stressed control vines but not in stressed vines. Perfusion of xylem-mobile dye showed that water flow to petioles and leaves was substantially reduced or even stopped under moderate and severe drought stress. Leaf blade hydraulic resistance accounted for most of the total shoot resistance. However, hydraulic conductance of the whole root system (Kroot) was not significantly reduced until water stress became very severe in pot-grown vines. Significant correlations between Kplant, Kcanopy and Ψs, Kcanopy and leaf gas exchange, Kleaf and Ψs, and Kleaf and A support a link between water supply, leaf water status and gas exchange. Upon re-watering, Ψs recovered faster than gas exchange and leaf-shoot hydraulics. A gradual recovery of hydraulic functionality of plant organs was also observed, the leaves being the last to recover after rewatering. In pot-grown vines, Kcanopy recovered rather quickly following restoration of

  1. Hawaii ESI: POOLS (Anchialine Pool Points) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anchialine pools in Hawaii. Anchialine pools are small, relatively shallow coastal ponds that occur...

  2. Recruitment of resting vesicles into recycling pools supports NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic potentiation in cultured hippocampal neurons (United States)

    Ratnayaka, Arjuna; Marra, Vincenzo; Bush, Daniel; Burden, Jemima J; Branco, Tiago; Staras, Kevin


    Most presynaptic terminals in the central nervous system are characterized by two functionally distinct vesicle populations: a recycling pool, which supports action potential-driven neurotransmitter release via vesicle exocytosis, and a resting pool. The relative proportions of these two pools are highly variable between individual synapses, prompting speculation on their specific relationship, and on the possible functions of the resting pool. Using fluorescence imaging of FM-styryl dyes and synaptophysinI-pHluorin (sypHy) as well as correlative electron microscopy approaches, we show here that Hebbian plasticity-dependent changes in synaptic strength in rat hippocampal neurons can increase the recycling pool fraction at the expense of the resting pool in individual synaptic terminals. This recruitment process depends on NMDA-receptor activation, nitric oxide signalling and calcineurin and is accompanied by an increase in the probability of neurotransmitter release at individual terminals. Blockade of actin-mediated intersynaptic vesicle exchange does not prevent recycling pool expansion demonstrating that vesicle recruitment is intrasynaptic. We propose that the conversion of resting pool vesicles to the functionally recycling pool provides a rapid mechanism to implement long-lasting changes in presynaptic efficacy. PMID:22271866

  3. Rapid carbon-carbon bond formation and cleavage revealed by carbon isotope exchange between the carboxyl carbon and inorganic carbon in hydrothermal fluids (United States)

    Glein, C. R.; Cody, G. D.


    The carbon isotopic composition of organic compounds in water-rock systems (e.g., hydrothermal vents, sedimentary basins, and carbonaceous meteorites) is generally interpreted in terms of the isotopic composition of the sources of such molecules, and the kinetic isotope effects of metabolic or abiotic reactions that generate or transform such molecules. This hinges on the expectation that the carbon isotopic composition of many organic compounds is conserved under geochemical conditions. This expectation is reasonable in light of the strength of carbon-carbon bonds (ca. 81 kcal/mol); in general, environmental conditions conducive to carbon-carbon bond cleavage typically lead to transformations of organic molecules (decarboxylation is a notable example). Geochemically relevant reactions that involve isotopic exchange between carbon atoms in organic molecules and inorganic forms of carbon with no change in molecular structure appear to be rare. Notwithstanding such rarity, there have been preliminary reports of relatively rapid carbon isotope exchange between the carboxyl group in carboxylic acids and carbon dioxide in hot water [1,2]. We have performed laboratory hydrothermal experiments to gain insights into the mechanism of this surprising reaction, using phenylacetate as a model structure. By mass spectrometry, we confirm that the carboxyl carbon undergoes facile isotopic exchange with 13C-labeled bicarbonate at moderate temperatures (i.e., 230 C). Detailed kinetic analysis reveals that the reaction rate is proportional to the concentrations of both reactants. Further experiments demonstrate that the exchange reaction only occurs if the carbon atom adjacent to the carboxyl carbon is bonded to a hydrogen atom. As an example, no carbon isotope exchange was observed for benzoate in experiments lasting up to one month. The requirement of an alpha C-H bond suggests that enolization (i.e., deprotonation of the H) is a critical step in the mechanism of the exchange

  4. Simultaneous detection of perchlorate and bromate using rapid high-performance ion exchange chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and perchlorate removal in drinking water. (United States)

    West, Danielle M; Mu, Ruipu; Gamagedara, Sanjeewa; Ma, Yinfa; Adams, Craig; Eichholz, Todd; Burken, Joel G; Shi, Honglan


    Perchlorate and bromate occurrence in drinking water causes health concerns due to their effects on thyroid function and carcinogenicity, respectively. The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to advance a sensitive method for simultaneous rapid detection of perchlorate and bromate in drinking water system, (2) to systematically study the occurrence of these two contaminants in Missouri drinking water treatment systems, and (3) to examine effective sorbents for minimizing perchlorate in drinking water. A rapid high-performance ion exchange chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPIC-MS/MS) method was advanced for simultaneous detection of perchlorate and bromate in drinking water. The HPIC-MS/MS method was rapid, required no preconcentration of the water samples, and had detection limits for perchlorate and bromate of 0.04 and 0.01 μg/L, respectively. The method was applied to determine perchlorate and bromate concentrations in total of 23 selected Missouri drinking water treatment systems during differing seasons. The water systems selected include different source waters: groundwater, lake water, river water, and groundwater influenced by surface water. The concentrations of perchlorate and bromate were lower than or near to method detection limits in most of the drinking water samples monitored. The removal of perchlorate by various adsorbents was studied. A cationic organoclay (TC-99) exhibited effective removal of perchlorate from drinking water matrices.

  5. A rapid anion-exchange chromatography for measurement of cholesterol concentrations in five lipoprotein classes and estimation of lipoprotein profiles in male volunteers without overt diseases. (United States)

    Manita, Daisuke; Hirowatari, Yuji; Yoshida, Hiroshi


    Analysis of lipoprotein profile gives important clinical information for lipid-lowering therapy which prevents atherosclerotic diseases. The lipoprotein classes can be isolated from serum with ultracentrifugation, which inevitably consumes a long time and needs large serum volume. We have established a method with anion-exchange chromatography with 1.0 µL of the injected volume in 5.2 min for assay of one sample. One-hundred-forty-one male volunteers without overt diseases were divided three groups (Group 1, non-dyslipidemia with LDL-cholesterol [LDL-C] cholesterol (HDL-C) ≥40 mg/dL; Group 2, borderline dyslipidemia with 120 ≤ LDL-C cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, and other fraction (chylomicron + lipoprotein [a])-cholesterol (other-C). The within-day and between-day assay coefficients of variation of lipoprotein cholesterol values were 0.33-4.31% and 2.37-9.19%, respectively. The correlation coefficients between values of HDL-C, LDL-C, IDL-C and VLDL-C by the anion-exchange chromatography and those by ultracentrifugal method were 0.97, 0.92, 0.58 and 0.94, respectively. Group 3 had significantly lower HDL-C and higher concentrations of IDL-C, VLDL-C and other-C than did Group 1. Group 2, borderline dyslipidemia, had significantly higher concentrations of IDL-C and VLDL-C than did Group 1. The rapid anion-exchange chromatography assay may be sufficiently applied to the assessment of borderline dyslipidemia. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Rapid and simultaneous determination of neptunium and plutonium in environmental samples using anion exchange chromatographic and sequential injection setup combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jixin Qiao; Hou, X.; Roos, P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy. Radiation Research Div., Roskilde (Denmark)); Miro, M. (Univ. of the Balearic Islands, Dept. of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Palma de Mallorca (Spain))


    Full text: This paper presents an automated analytical method for the rapid and simultaneous determination of Pu and Np in the environmental samples. Anion exchange chromatographic column was incorporated in a sequential injection system to actualize the automated separation of Pu isotpes along with 237Np from the matrix elements and interfering radionuclides. K{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5}-conc. HNO{sub 3} was applied as redox reagents for the valence adjustment and stabilization of Pu(IV) and Np(IV). 242Pu preformed well as a tracer for both Pu isotopes and 237Np. It was observed that the cross-link and particle size of the resins had significant effluence on the separation efficiency and anion exchange resin Bio-Rad AG 1 x 4 with the particle size of 100-200 mesh was chosen as the optimum. The investigation on the capacity showed small-sized column packed with 2mL resin sufficed up to 50g of soil sample, which provides an advantage of low consumption of the resin and low generation of acid waste after the column washing. The analytical results for Pu and Np in three reference materials showed good agreement with the certified or reference values at the 0.05 significance level. Chemical yields of Pu and Np equally range from 80% to 100%, and the decontamination factors for uranium, thorium and lead were in the range of 103 to 104. The total time of separation for a single sample was < 2.5 hours, which extremely improve the analysis efficiency and reduces the labor intensity, as well as enables a rapid determination of Pu and Np in emergency situations. (author)

  7. 17 CFR 229.1105 - (Item 1105) Static pool information. (United States)


    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 1105) Static pool information. 229.1105 Section 229.1105 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Asset-Backed Securities (Regulation AB) § 229...

  8. Rapid and long-term effects of water deficit on gas exchange and hydraulic conductance of silver birch trees grown under varying atmospheric humidity. (United States)

    Sellin, Arne; Niglas, Aigar; Õunapuu-Pikas, Eele; Kupper, Priit


    Effects of water deficit on plant water status, gas exchange and hydraulic conductance were investigated in Betula pendula under artificially manipulated air humidity in Eastern Estonia. The study was aimed to broaden an understanding of the ability of trees to acclimate with the increasing atmospheric humidity predicted for northern Europe. Rapidly-induced water deficit was imposed by dehydrating cut branches in open-air conditions; long-term water deficit was generated by seasonal drought. The rapid water deficit quantified by leaf (ΨL) and branch water potentials (ΨB) had a significant (P gas exchange parameters, while inclusion of ΨB in models resulted in a considerably better fit than those including ΨL, which supports the idea that stomatal openness is regulated to prevent stem rather than leaf xylem dysfunction. Under moderate water deficit (ΨL≥-1.55 MPa), leaf conductance to water vapour (gL), transpiration rate and leaf hydraulic conductance (KL) were higher (P < 0.05) and leaf temperature lower in trees grown in elevated air humidity (H treatment) than in control trees (C treatment). Under severe water deficit (ΨL<-1.55 MPa), the treatments showed no difference. The humidification manipulation influenced most of the studied characteristics, while the effect was to a great extent realized through changes in soil water availability, i.e. due to higher soil water potential in H treatment. Two functional characteristics (gL, KL) exhibited higher (P < 0.05) sensitivity to water deficit in trees grown under increased air humidity. The experiment supported the hypothesis that physiological traits in trees acclimated to higher air humidity exhibit higher sensitivity to rapid water deficit with respect to two characteristics - leaf conductance to water vapour and leaf hydraulic conductance. Disproportionate changes in sensitivity of stomatal versus leaf hydraulic conductance to water deficit will impose greater risk of desiccation-induced hydraulic

  9. Swimming Pool Safety (United States)

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Swimming Pool Safety Page Content ​What is the best way to keep my child safe around swimming pools? An adult should actively watch children at ...

  10. The science of pooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, E.


    The pooling of data from radon studies is described. Pooling refers to the analysis of original data from several studies, not meta-analysis in which summary measures from published data are analyzed. A main objective for pooling is to reduce uncertainty and to obtain more precise estimates of risk than would be available from any single study.

  11. Troca rápida de ferramentas: proposta metodológica e estudo de caso Rapid exchange of tools: method steps and case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Sanson Fogliatto


    Full Text Available A troca rápida de ferramentas (TRF tem por objetivo reduzir o tempo de preparação (ou setup de equipamentos, minimizando períodos não-produtivos no chão-de-fábrica. Como conseqüência, é possível a redução do tamanho dos lotes de produção na manufatura. A TRF fundamenta-se em técnicas que enfatizam o trabalho cooperativo em equipe e a proposição de formas criativas de melhoria de processos. Este artigo apresenta uma proposta metodológica para a TRF, constituída dos seguintes passos: definição do projeto, planejamento das atividades, treinamento da equipe de implantação, implantação propriamente dita, acompanhamento e consolidação. Um estudo de caso desenvolvido na indústria moveleira ilustra a metodologia proposta.Single-minute exchange of die (SMED and alternative methodologies aim at reducing the time needed for equipment setup, minimizing non-productive periods in the shop floor. That in turns enables production of increasingly smaller lot sizes. SMED is based on a number of improvement techniques that emphasize cooperative teamwork and the proposal of creative ways to improve existing processes. This paper presents a methodology for rapid exchange of die, comprised of the following steps: project definition, planning of activities, personnel training in SMED, implementation per se and follow-up and consolidation. A case study from the furniture industry illustrates the methodology steps.

  12. Rapid comprehensive amino acid analysis by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry: comparison to cation exchange with post-column ninhydrin detection. (United States)

    Dietzen, Dennis J; Weindel, Annette L; Carayannopoulos, Mary O; Landt, Michael; Normansell, Ellen T; Reimschisel, Tyler E; Smith, Carl H


    Ion-exchange chromatography with ninhydrin detection remains the gold standard for detecting inborn errors of amino acid catabolism and transport. Disadvantages of such analysis include long chromatography times and interference from other ninhydrin-positive compounds. The aim of this project was to develop a more rapid and specific technique using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Optimal fragmentation patterns for 32 amino acids were determined on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer following butylation. Chromatographic characteristics of each of the amino acids were determined using C8 reversed-phase chromatography with 20% acetonitrile/0.1% formic acid as isocratic mobile phase. Quantitation using eleven deuterated internal standards was compared to cation exchange and ninhydrin detection on a Beckman 7300 system. Following methanol extraction and butylation, determination of 32 amino acids required 20 min. The dynamic range of each amino acid was generally 1-1000 micromol/L. Imprecision ranged from 7 to 23% (CV) over 6 months and recovery ranged from 88-125%. Deming regression with the Beckman 7300 yielded slopes from 0.4-1.2, intercepts from -21 to 65 micromol/L, correlation coefficients from 0.84-0.99 and Syx from 2-125 micromol/L. Isobaric amino acids were separated by chromatography (e.g. leucine, isoleucine) or by unique fragmentation (e.g., alanine, beta-alanine). LC/MS/MS is comparable to traditional LC-ninhydrin detection. Mass spectral detection shortens analysis times and reduces potential for interference in detecting inborn metabolic errors.

  13. Propionate Exchange Reactions in Methanogenic Ecosystems † (United States)

    Boone, David R.


    Propionate degradation was measured with [1-14C]- and [2-14C]propionate in an anaerobic digestor. When [1-14C]propionate was used, label disappeared more rapidly from the propionate pool than when [2-14C]propionate was used. This indicated that an exchange reaction involving the carboxyl group of propionate occurred. Labeled propionate added to digestor samples which were equilibrated with H2 lost label from the carboxyl group but not from the methylene group. PMID:16346651

  14. 13 CFR 120.1704 - Pool Loans eligible for Pooling. (United States)


    ... Loans eligible for Pooling. (a) General Pool Loan eligibility requirements. For a First Lien Position... zoos—712130 (“Zoos and Botanical Gardens”). (b) SBA review of a Pool Loan prior to pool formation. SBA...

  15. 17 CFR 275.206(4)-8 - Pooled investment vehicles. (United States)


    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pooled investment vehicles... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940 § 275.206(4)-8 Pooled investment vehicles. (a) Prohibition. It shall constitute a fraudulent, deceptive, or manipulative act...

  16. A simple and rapid method for measuring α-D-phosphohexomutases activity by using anion-exchange chromatography coupled with an electrochemical detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Jia


    Full Text Available The interconversion of hexose-6-phosphate and hexose-1-phosphate can be directly analyzed by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled with an electrochemical detector (HPAEC-PAD. Thus, this method can be used to measure the activities of N-acetylglucosamine-phosphate mutase (AGM, glucosamine-phosphate mutase (GlmM and phosphoglucomutase (PGM, which are the members of α-D-phosphohexomutases superfamily. The detection limits were extremely low as 2.747 pmol, 1.365 pmol, 0.512 pmol, 0.415 pmol, 1.486 pmol and 0.868 pmol for N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate (GlcNAc-1-P, N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcNAc-6-P, glucosamine-1-phosphate (GlcN-1-P, glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN-6-P, glucose-1-phosphate (Glc-1-P and glucose-6-phosphate (Glc-6-P, respectively. By employing HPAEC-PAD, activities of AtAGM (AGM from Arabidopsis thaliana on these six phosphohexoses can be detected. The Km of AtAGM on Glc-1-P determined by HPAEC-PAD was 679.18 ± 156.40 µM, which is comparable with the Km of 707.09 ± 170.36 µM detected by traditional coupled assay. Moreover, the activity of MtGlmM (GlmM from Mycobacterium tuberculosis on GlcN-6-P tested by HPAEC-PAD was 7493.40 ± 309.12 nmol∕min ⋅ mg, which is much higher than 288.97 ± 35.28 nmol∕min ⋅ mg obtained by the traditional coupled assay. Accordingly, HPAEC-PAD is a more rapid and simple method than the traditional coupled assays given its high specificity and sensitivity, and will certainly bring convenience to further research of α-D-phosphohexomutases.

  17. Release of GTP Exchange Factor Mediated Down-Regulation of Abscisic Acid Signal Transduction through ABA-Induced Rapid Degradation of RopGEFs (United States)

    Waadt, Rainer; Schroeder, Julian I.


    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is critical to plant development and stress responses. Abiotic stress triggers an ABA signal transduction cascade, which is comprised of the core components PYL/RCAR ABA receptors, PP2C-type protein phosphatases, and protein kinases. Small GTPases of the ROP/RAC family act as negative regulators of ABA signal transduction. However, the mechanisms by which ABA controls the behavior of ROP/RACs have remained unclear. Here, we show that an Arabidopsis guanine nucleotide exchange factor protein RopGEF1 is rapidly sequestered to intracellular particles in response to ABA. GFP-RopGEF1 is sequestered via the endosome-prevacuolar compartment pathway and is degraded. RopGEF1 directly interacts with several clade A PP2C protein phosphatases, including ABI1. Interestingly, RopGEF1 undergoes constitutive degradation in pp2c quadruple abi1/abi2/hab1/pp2ca mutant plants, revealing that active PP2C protein phosphatases protect and stabilize RopGEF1 from ABA-mediated degradation. Interestingly, ABA-mediated degradation of RopGEF1 also plays an important role in ABA-mediated inhibition of lateral root growth. The presented findings point to a PP2C-RopGEF-ROP/RAC control loop model that is proposed to aid in shutting off ABA signal transduction, to counteract leaky ABA signal transduction caused by “monomeric” PYL/RCAR ABA receptors in the absence of stress, and facilitate signaling in response to ABA. PMID:27192441

  18. The La Hague pools; Les piscines de La Hague

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerbib, Jean-Claude; Quetel, Ghislain; Guillemette, Andre


    As the Fukushima accident highlighted the possibility of an unforeseen event, and the difficulties to manage at the same time the cooling of the core cooling and of the pool in which used fuel is stored during one or two years, this report addresses the safety issues for storage pools such as those present on the AREVA site in La Hague. The authors recall and discuss some design aspects, notably those regarding seismic resistance and the existence of a breach. They describe and comment how these pools are managed as far as fuel assembly downloading, pool water contamination, thermal exchange between irradiated fuels and pool waters, and pool content evolution are concerned. Then, they focus on pool seismic resistance, on water supply capacities, on other safety criteria, and on risk management. They finally draw some lessons from the Fukushima accident

  19. Opportunities and challenges when pooling milk samples using ELISA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Andresen, Lars Ole; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq


    -positive samples by pooling. To illustrate this, the sensitivity of antibody ELISA on pooled samples of bovine milk for Salmonella Dublin, Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis, and bovine virus diarrhea was tested. For these milk assays, the analytical sensitivity decreased rapidly with increasing pool sizes......Testing large quantities of samples in order to detect one or more test-positive sample(s) is expensive and time-consuming. It is possible to optimize this process by pooling samples. Two frameworks to produce different hierarchical and non-hierarchical pooling schemes were tested and compared...... to standard pooling. Their efficiency and the potential savings were determined as a function of prevalence and the number of pooled samples. The potential benefit of pooling samples is dependent upon the changes in the analytical sensitivity and specificity of the test used when diluting test...

  20. Rapid isolation of plutonium in environmental solid samples using sequential injection anion exchange chromatography followed by detection with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per


    is straightforward and less labor intensive as compared with batch-wise anion exchange chromatographic procedures. Besides, the automated method features low consumption of ion-exchanger and reagents for column washing and elution, with the consequent decrease in the generation of acidic waste, thus bearing green...

  1. Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Peatland Pools (United States)

    Turner, E.; Baird, A. J.; Billett, M. F.; Chapman, P. J.; Dinsmore, K. J.; Holden, J.


    Peatlands contain around one third of the global soil carbon (C) stock. Understanding the processes in peatland C cycling, and in particular those involved in the release of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere, is a current research priority. Natural open-water pools are a common feature of many peatlands, and previous research suggests pools can be strong sources of atmospheric GHGs, particularly CH4, and thus have the potential to play an important role in global radiative forcing. The area of open-water in peatlands is rapidly expanding in a warming Arctic (e.g. Walter et al., 2007) while artificially created pools are becoming more commonplace in the recent drive to restore the hydrological functioning of drained peatlands by blocking ditches. We present the results of >2 years of comprehensive field monitoring from pool complexes in the Flow Country of northern Scotland, the largest expanse (c.4000 km2) of blanket bog in Europe. Concentrations and fluxes of CO2 and CH4 are presented from 12 intensively monitored pools and the adjacent terrestrial surface. We examined both natural (n = 6) and artificial (n = 6) pools, which allowed us to quantify how pools created during restoration compare to undisturbed sites. C and hydrology budgets were determined for the study pools and the adjacent terrestrial surface. Dissolved concentrations of GHGs ranged from 0.08-4.68 mg CO2-C L-1 and 0.01-731 µg CH4-C L-1 in natural pools, and 0.29-10.38 mg CO2-C L-1 and 0.04-239 µg CH4-C L-1 in artificial pools. GHG fluxes from natural pool surfaces ranged between -2.47-653 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 and -31.7-14.8 g CO2 m-2 d-1. Artificial pool GHG fluxes were -8.19-581 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 and -7.66-34.9 g CO2 m-2 d-1. We provide more accurate GHG budgets for peatlands with natural pool complexes by considering their relative importance at the landscape-scale, and outline the potential effect on GHG fluxes when creating artificial pools during peatland restoration

  2. PDA: Pooled DNA analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chin-Yu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping using abundant single nucleotide polymorphisms is a powerful tool for identifying disease susceptibility genes for complex traits and exploring possible genetic diversity. Genotyping large numbers of SNPs individually is performed routinely but is cost prohibitive for large-scale genetic studies. DNA pooling is a reliable and cost-saving alternative genotyping method. However, no software has been developed for complete pooled-DNA analyses, including data standardization, allele frequency estimation, and single/multipoint DNA pooling association tests. This motivated the development of the software, 'PDA' (Pooled DNA Analyzer, to analyze pooled DNA data. Results We develop the software, PDA, for the analysis of pooled-DNA data. PDA is originally implemented with the MATLAB® language, but it can also be executed on a Windows system without installing the MATLAB®. PDA provides estimates of the coefficient of preferential amplification and allele frequency. PDA considers an extended single-point association test, which can compare allele frequencies between two DNA pools constructed under different experimental conditions. Moreover, PDA also provides novel chromosome-wide multipoint association tests based on p-value combinations and a sliding-window concept. This new multipoint testing procedure overcomes a computational bottleneck of conventional haplotype-oriented multipoint methods in DNA pooling analyses and can handle data sets having a large pool size and/or large numbers of polymorphic markers. All of the PDA functions are illustrated in the four bona fide examples. Conclusion PDA is simple to operate and does not require that users have a strong statistical background. The software is available at

  3. Vitamin D Pooling Project (United States)

    The Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers brought together investigators from 10 cohorts to conduct a large prospective epidemiologic study of the association between vitamin D status and seven rarer cancers.

  4. Swimming pool granuloma (United States)

    Aquarium granuloma; Fish tank granuloma; Mycobacterium marinum infection ... A swimming pool granuloma occurs when water containing Mycobacterium marinum bacteria enter a break in the skin. Signs of a skin infection appear ...

  5. Income pooling within families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Uldall-Poulsen, Hans

    This paper analyses the phenomenon of income-pooling by applying the Danish household expenditure survey, merged with authoritative register information. Responses to additional questions on income sharing among 1696 couples also allows us to analyses whether the intra-household distribution...... of resources reflects individual preferences, the distribution of power, and pre-marital experiences. The analyses show that most Danish households use some type of income pooling and that the likelihood of income pooling varies considerably according to individual characteristics (age, education, occupation......, past partners, upbringing) and household characteristics (household income, duration of marriage, location of residence and the existence of public goods, including children). However, when all variables are evaluated in a common model, only the duration of marriage and the existence of children...

  6. Preparation of radioactive acetyl-l-carnitine by an enzymatic exchange reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emaus, R.; Bieber, L.L.


    A rapid method for the preparation of (1-/sup 14/C)acetyl-L-carnitine is described. The method involves exchange of (1-/sup 14/C)acetic acid into a pool of unlabeled acetyl-L-carnitine using the enzymes acetyl-CoA synthetase and carnitine acetyltransferase. After isotopic equilibrium is attained, radioactive acetylcarnitine is separated from the other reaction components by chromatography on Dowex 1 (C1/sup -/) anion exchange resin. One of the procedures used to verify the product (1-/sup 14/C)acetyl-L-carnitine can be used to synthesize (3S)-(5-/sup 14/C)citric acid.

  7. Suncatcher and cool pool. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, J.


    The Suncatcher is a simple, conical solar concentrating device that captures light entering clerestory windows and directs it onto thermal storage elements at the back of a south facing living space. The cone shape and inclination are designed to capture low angle winter sunlight and to reflect away higher angle summer sunlight. It is found that winter radiation through a Suncatcher window is 40 to 50% higher than through an ordinary window, and that the average solar fraction is 59%. Water-filled steal culvert pipes used for thermal storage are found to undergo less stratification, and thus to be more effective, when located where sunlight strikes the bottom rather than the top. Five Suncatcher buildings are described. Designs are considered for 32/sup 0/, 40/sup 0/ and 48/sup 0/ north latitude, and as the latitude increases, the inclination angle of the cone should be lowered. The Cool Pool is an evaporating, shaded roof pond which thermosiphons cool water into water-filled columns within a building. Preliminary experiments indicate that the best shade design has unimpeded north sky view, good ventilation, complete summer shading, a low architectural profile, and low cost attic vent lowers work. Another series of experiments established the satisfactory performance of the Cool Pool on a test building using four water-filled cylinders, two cylinders, and two cylinders connected to the Cool Pool through a heat exchanger. Although an unshaded pool cools better at night than a shaded one, daytime heat gain far offsets this advantage. A vinyl waterbag heat exchanger was developed for use with the Cool Pool. (LEW)

  8. Rapid Screening for Potential Epitopes Reactive with a Polycolonal Antibody by Solution-Phase H/D Exchange Monitored by FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Noble, Kyle A.; Mao, Yuan; Young, Nicolas L.; Sathe, Shridhar K.; Roux, Kenneth H.; Marshall, Alan G.


    The potential epitopes of a recombinant food allergen protein, cashew Ana o 2, reactive to polyclonal antibodies, were mapped by solution-phase amide backbone H/D exchange (HDX) coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Ana o 2 polyclonal antibodies were purified in the serum from a goat immunized with cashew nut extract. Antibodies were incubated with recombinant Ana o 2 (rAna o 2) to form antigen:polyclonal antibody (Ag:pAb) complexes. Complexed and uncomplexed (free) rAna o 2 were then subjected to HDX-MS analysis. Four regions protected from H/D exchange upon pAb binding are identified as potential epitopes and mapped onto a homologous model.

  9. Energy conservation in outdoor swimming pools. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roskam, F.


    Part two of the report discusses the energy characteristics of three more BMFT/EC-supported demonstration plants (outdoor and indoor swimming pools) intended to investigate into low-cost energy supplies. Photographs, schematic sketches, tables, and figures facilitate access to the solar systems (collector surfaces, heat exchangers, water supply), the coverings (plastic foils), heat recovery systems recovering heat from the outgoing air (indoor swimming pools) and from filter backwash water as well as to other important aspects (swimming pool structures, site selection, climatic conditions). Water treatment and water heating systems are shown in a function diagram. (HWJ).

  10. CERN Electronics Pool presentations

    CERN Multimedia


    The CERN Electronics Pool has organised a series of presentations in collaboration with oscilloscope manufacturers. The last one will take place according to the schedule below.   Time will be available at the end of the presentation to discuss your personal needs. The Agilent presentation had to be postponed and will be organised later. -     Lecroy: Thursday, 24 November 2011, in 530-R-030, 14:00 to 16:30.

  11. Stochastic Pooling Networks


    McDonnell, Mark D; Amblard, Pierre-Olivier; Stocks, Nigel G.


    We introduce and define the concept of a stochastic pooling network (SPN), as a model for sensor systems where redundancy and two forms of 'noise' -- lossy compression and randomness -- interact in surprising ways. Our approach to analyzing SPNs is information theoretic. We define an SPN as a network with multiple nodes that each produce noisy and compressed measurements of the same information. An SPN must combine all these measurements into a single further compressed network output, in a w...

  12. Expanding the live kidney donor pool: ethical considerations regarding altruistic donors, paired and pooled programs. (United States)

    Patel, Shaneel Rajendra; Chadha, Priyanka; Papalois, Vassilios


    In renal transplant, there is a well-known deficiency in organ supply relative to demand. Live donation provides superior results when compared with deceased donation including a better rate of graft success and fewer immunologic complications. This deficiency in organs leads to significant morbidity and mortality rates. Alternative avenues have been extensively explored that may expand the live donor pool. They include altruistic donation as well as paired and pooled exchange programs. Altruistic donation is a truly selfless act from a donor unknown to the recipient. Kidney paired donation involves 2 incompatible donor-recipient pairs swapping donors to produce compatibility. Pooled donation involves at least 2 pairs, and can take the form of domino chains in which altruistic input sets up a chain of transplants, in which each recipient's incompatible donor makes a donation for the next recipient. Despite application of these various methods, there lie extensive ethical issues surrounding them. Misconceptions frequently occur; for instance, the perceived benefit that donating an organ to a loved one is greater for a related donor than for an altruistic one. Additionally, it is frequently believed that immunologic incompatibility offers coerced donors liberation from surgery, and that overcoming these barriers by introducing exchange programs provides vulnerable donors less protection. This article explores these and other complex ethical issues surrounding the various methods of expanding the donor pool. The authors offer opinions that challenge the ethical issues and attempt to overcome those views that hinder progress in the field.

  13. 13 CFR 120.611 - Pools backing Pool Certificates. (United States)


    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pools backing Pool Certificates. 120.611 Section 120.611 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS... forth in the Program Guide, each Pool must have: (1) A minimum number of guaranteed portions of loans...

  14. ECS DAAC Data Pools (United States)

    Kiebuzinski, A. B.; Bories, C. M.; Kalluri, S.


    As part of its Earth Observing System (EOS), NASA supports operations for several satellites including Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua. ECS (EOSDIS Core System) is a vast archival and distribution system and includes several Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) located around the United States. EOSDIS reached a milestone in February when its data holdings exceeded one petabyte (1,000 terabytes) in size. It has been operational since 1999 and originally was intended to serve a large community of Earth Science researchers studying global climate change. The Synergy Program was initiated in 2000 with the purpose of exploring and expanding the use of remote sensing data beyond the traditional research community to the applications community including natural resource managers, disaster/emergency managers, urban planners and others. This included facilitating data access at the DAACs to enable non-researchers to exploit the data for their specific applications. The combined volume of data archived daily across the DAACs is of the order of three terabytes. These archived data are made available to the research community and to general users of ECS data. Currently, the average data volume distributed daily is two terabytes, which combined with an ever-increasing need for timely access to these data, taxes the ECS processing and archival resources for more real-time use than was previously intended for research purposes. As a result, the delivery of data sets to users was being delayed in many cases, to unacceptable limits. Raytheon, under the auspices of the Synergy Program, investigated methods at making data more accessible at a lower cost of resources (processing and archival) at the DAACs. Large on-line caches (as big as 70 Terabytes) of data were determined to be a solution that would allow users who require contemporary data to access them without having to pull it from the archive. These on-line caches are referred to as "Data Pools." In the Data Pool concept

  15. RAPID automated patient selection for reperfusion therapy: a pooled analysis of the Echoplanar Imaging Thrombolytic Evaluation Trial (EPITHET) and the Diffusion and Perfusion Imaging Evaluation for Understanding Stroke Evolution (DEFUSE) Study. (United States)

    Lansberg, Maarten G; Lee, Jun; Christensen, Soren; Straka, Matus; De Silva, Deidre A; Mlynash, Michael; Campbell, Bruce C; Bammer, Roland; Olivot, Jean-Marc; Desmond, Patricia; Davis, Stephen M; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Albers, Gregory W


    The aim of this study was to determine if automated MRI analysis software (RAPID) can be used to identify patients with stroke in whom reperfusion is associated with an increased chance of good outcome. Baseline diffusion- and perfusion-weighted MRI scans from the Diffusion and Perfusion Imaging Evaluation for Understanding Stroke Evolution study (DEFUSE; n=74) and the Echoplanar Imaging Thrombolytic Evaluation Trial (EPITHET; n=100) were reprocessed with RAPID. Based on RAPID-generated diffusion-weighted imaging and perfusion-weighted imaging lesion volumes, patients were categorized according to 3 prespecified MRI profiles that were hypothesized to predict benefit (Target Mismatch), harm (Malignant), and no effect (No Mismatch) from reperfusion. Favorable clinical response was defined as a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 0 to 1 or a ≥ 8-point improvement on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score at Day 90. In Target Mismatch patients, reperfusion was strongly associated with a favorable clinical response (OR, 5.6; 95% CI, 2.1 to 15.3) and attenuation of infarct growth (10 ± 23 mL with reperfusion versus 40 ± 44 mL without reperfusion; P<0.001). In Malignant profile patients, reperfusion was not associated with a favorable clinical response (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.1 to 5.8) or attenuation of infarct growth (85 ± 74 mL with reperfusion versus 95 ± 79 mL without reperfusion; P=0.7). Reperfusion was also not associated with a favorable clinical response (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.1 to 9.4) or attenuation of lesion growth (10 ± 15 mL with reperfusion versus 17 ± 30 mL without reperfusion; P=0.9) in No Mismatch patients. MRI profiles that are associated with a differential response to reperfusion can be identified with RAPID. This supports the use of automated image analysis software such as RAPID for patient selection in acute stroke trials.

  16. Swimming Pools and Molluscum Contagiosum (United States)

    ... Travelers’ Health: Smallpox & Other Orthopoxvirus-Associated Infections Poxvirus Swimming Pools Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The ... often ask if molluscum virus can spread in swimming pools. There is also concern that it can ...

  17. ByOPHTEL: a Bavarian project for rapid telemedical exchange of knowledge, files and skills between practitioners and hospitals in eye care. (United States)

    Mertz, M


    ByOPHTEL, part of the Bavarian initiative Bayern Online, derived its name from the European project OPHTEL, to which it is closely linked and which, in Bavaria, is more or less worked out and performed by identical persons and institutions. It provides a group of 7 practitioners in and around the city of Munich with the possibility of exchanging general ophthalmologic knowledge as well as patient-related information with anyone in the group, or with the related ophthalmologic, internal, resp. scientific centers at the TU Munich and the GSF Neuherberg. Connections are routinely performed in the asynchronous or in the synchronous mode, and all partners participate in the scientific projects Knowledge Based Information System, Glaucoma Monitor, and Diabetic Retinopathy Monitor--as well as in the enhancement of a trustful patient-physician relationship ("second opinion") and a closer cooperation in out-patient and in-patient ophthalmical surgery and medical treatment.

  18. The Redox Potential of the Plastoquinone Pool of the Cyanobacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurmans, R.M.; Schuurmans, J.M.; Bekker, M.; Kromkamp, J.C.; Matthijs, H.C.P.; Hellingwerf, K.J.


    A method is presented for rapid extraction of the total plastoquinone (PQ) pool from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 cells that preserves the in vivo plastoquinol (PQH(2)) to -PQ ratio. Cells were rapidly transferred into ice-cold organic solvent for instantaneous extraction of the cellular PQ

  19. The Productive Ligurian Pool

    CERN Document Server

    Casella, E; Couvelard, X; Caldeira, R M A


    In contrast with the behavior of the eddies in the open-ocean, the sub-mesoscale eddies generated in the constricted Ligurian Basin (NW Mediterranean), are unproductive but their combined effect, arranged in a rim-like fashion, contributes to the containment of a Productive Ligurian Pool (PLP). Data de- rived from MODIS satellite sensor showed persistent higher chlorophyll con- centrations in the centre of the basin, concurrent with high EKE values in its surroundings, derived from AVISO altimetry merged products. This sug- gested that this 'productive pool' is maintained by the intense (sub)mesoscale eddy activity in the rim. Numerical realistic experiments, using a Regional Ocean Model System, forced by MERCATOR and by a high-resolution COSMO- l7 atmospheric model, also showed that most of the sub-mesoscale eddies, during 2009 and 2010, are concentrated in the rim surrounding the basin, contributing to the formation of a basin-scale cyclonic gyre. We hypothesized that the interaction between eddies in the r...

  20. Barter exchanges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    Although barter is often perceived as something that proceeded money, barter is still used. The focus of the paper is on barter exchanges. Barter exchanges are used both in developing countries as well as in developed countries (including the U.S.). They are used by both organizations...... and individuals. They usually allow to exchange good but some include also services. Some exchanges allow only for bi-directional barter, i.e. when only two parties are involved in the exchange. But probably most of the barter exchanges use barter money; this makes it easier to exchange goods and services...

  1. Study on the pool water treatment system in post irradiation examination facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Young Zoon; Chum, Y. B.; Kim, D. K.; Kim, E. K.; Eom, S. H.; Bae, S. M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)


    Defected spent fuels transported from NPPs have been stored in the water pool at Post-Irradiation Examination Facility. Non-destructive inspection on those fuels has been conducted in the pool. Therefore transparency of pool water should be maintained during inspection and released radionuclides from defected fuels should be effectively removed to reduce radiation exposure of inspectors. On the basis of 3-year operational experience on water treatment process, concentrations of radionuclides and inactive pollutants in the pool water have been analyzed. Decontamination efficiency of recently substituted domestic-made ion-exchanger has been also determined. In addition, the adsorption of Cs ions on inorganic ion-exchanger (Durasil-230) and those on organic ion-exchange resins (SK-1B) were experimentally investigated. Using inorganic ion-exchanger to treat the storage water can give higher removal efficiency for water treatment process. In this concern, improvement points are suggested in this study. 15 refs., 36 figs., 20 tabs. (Author)

  2. Convection in arc weld pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oreper, G.M.; Eagar, T.W.; Szekely, J.


    A mathematical model was developed to account for convection and temperature distributions in stationary arc weld pools driven by buoyancy, electromagnetic and surface tension forces. It is shown that the electromagnetic and surface tension forces dominate the flow behavior. In some cases, these forces produce double circulation loops, which are indirectly confirmed by experimental measurements of segregation in the weld pool. It is also shown that the surface tension driven flows are very effective in dissipating the incident energy flux on the pool surface which, in turn, reduces the vaporization from the weld pool.

  3. The spatial variability of water chemistry and DOC in bog pools: the importance of slope position, diurnal turnover and pool type (United States)

    Holden, Joseph; Turner, Ed; Baird, Andy; Beadle, Jeannie; Billett, Mike; Brown, Lee; Chapman, Pippa; Dinsmore, Kerry; Dooling, Gemma; Grayson, Richard; Moody, Catherine; Gee, Clare


    We have previously shown that marine influence is an important factor controlling regional variability of pool water chemistry in blanket peatlands. Here we examine within-site controls on pool water chemistry. We surveyed natural and artificial (restoration sites) bog pools at blanket peatland sites in northern Scotland and Sweden. DOC, pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperature, cations, anions and absorbance spectra from 220-750nm were sampled. We sampled changes over time but also conducted intensive spatial surveys within individual pools and between pools on the same sampling days at individual study sites. Artificial pools had significantly greater DOC concentrations and different spectral absorbance characteristics when compared to natural pools at all sites studied. Within-pool variability in water chemistry tended to be small, even for very large pools ( 400 m2), except where pools had a layer of loose, mobile detritus on their beds. In these instances rapid changes took place between the overlying water column and the mobile sediment layer wherein dissolved oxygen concentrations dropped from values of around 12-10 mg/L to values less than 0.5 mg/L over just 2-3 cm of the depth profile. Such strong contrasts were not observed for pools which had a hard peat floor and which lacked a significant detritus layer. Strong diurnal turnover occurred within the pools on summer days, including within small, shallow pools (e.g. control on several pool water chemistry variables including pH and DOC concentration with accumulation (higher concentrations) in pools that were located further downslope in both natural and artificial pool systems. These processes have important implications for our interpretation of water chemistry and gas flux data from pool systems, how we design our sampling strategies and how we upscale results.

  4. Spatio-temporal variability of hyporheic exchange through a pool-riffle-pool sequence (United States)

    Frank P. Gariglio; Daniele Tonina; Charles H. Luce


    Stream water enters and exits the streambed sediment due to hyporheic fluxes, which stem primarily from the interaction between surface water hydraulics and streambed morphology. These fluxes sustain a rich ecotone, whose habitat quality depends on their direction and magnitude. The spatio-temporal variability of hyporheic fluxes is not well understood over several...

  5. Adenine nucleotide pool variations in intact Nitrobacter winogradskyi cells. (United States)

    Eigener, U


    1. The ATP pool in Nitrobacter winogradskyi cells was determined by means of the luciferin-luciferase enzyme system and the ADP and AMP pools were measured after enzymatic conversion into ATP. 2. In the first 10 min after addition of nitrite to endogenously respiring cells, which had stood for 5--16 days after completion of the nitrite oxidation, the ATP pool dropped about 60%. 3. During the log phase the ATP pool was approx. 20--40 pmoles/5 mug cell-N. During growth it increased exponentially by 3--4 times the amount until the nitrite had been used up. Subsquently the ATP pool decreased at first rapidly and then more slowly without sinking to 0 in the first 2 months after nitrification. 4. Nitrite oxidizing cells had an energy charge of 0.37 during the log-phase. After approx. 90% of the substrate had been used up the energy charge had reached 0.57. 5. If the CO2 assimilation was inhibited in growing cultures by increased oxygen partial pressure, nitrite oxidation continued but the ATP pool increased. 6. The ATP pool and the activity of the endogenous respiration decreased by more than 50% during the first hours after the substrate had been used up.

  6. Around the laboratories: Dubna: Physics results and progress on bubble chamber techniques; Stanford (SLAC): Operation of a very rapid cycling bubble chamber; Daresbury: Photographs of visitors to the Laboratory; Argonne: Charge exchange injection tests into the ZGS in preparation for a proposed Booster

    CERN Multimedia


    Around the laboratories: Dubna: Physics results and progress on bubble chamber techniques; Stanford (SLAC): Operation of a very rapid cycling bubble chamber; Daresbury: Photographs of visitors to the Laboratory; Argonne: Charge exchange injection tests into the ZGS in preparation for a proposed Booster

  7. Determination of the exposition rapidity in the level 49.90 of the reactor building for the decrease in the water level of the spent fuel pool; Determinacion de la rapidez de exposion en el nivel 49.90 del edificio del reactor por la disminucion en el nivel de agua de la alberca de combustible gastado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mijangos D, Z. E.; Herrera H, S. F.; Cruz G, M. A.; Amador C, C., E-mail: [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Subgerencia de Ingenieria, Km 44.5 Carretera Cardel-Nautla, 91476 Laguna Verde, Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)


    The fuel assemblies storage in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-L V) represents a crucial aspect, due to the generated dose by the decay heat of the present radio-nuclides in the assemblies retired of the reactor core, after their useful life. These spent assemblies are located inside the spent fuel pool (SFP), in the level 49.90 m in the Reload Floor of the Reactor building of NPP-L V. This leads to the protection at personnel applying the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) criteria, fulfilling the established dose criteria by the Regulator Body the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS). Considering the loss scenario of the cooling system of the SFP, in which the SFP water vaporizes, is important to know the water level in which the limit of effective dose equivalent is fulfilled for the personnel. Also, is important for the instrumentation of the SFP, for the useful life of the same instruments. In this work is obtained the exposition rapidity corresponding to different water levels of SFP in the Reload Floor of NPP-L V, to identify the minimum level of water where the limit of effective dose equivalent is fulfilled of 25 rem s to the personnel, established in the Article 48 of the General Regulation of Radiological Safety of CNSNS and the Chapter 50 Section 67 of the 10-Cfr of Nuclear Regulatory Commission in USA. The water level is also identified where the exposition rapidity is of 15 m R/hr, being the value of the set point of the area radiation monitor D21-Re-N003-1, located to 125 cm over the level 49.90 meters of the Reload Floor of NPP-L V. (Author)

  8. ENERGY STAR Certified Pool Pumps (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Pool Pumps that are effective as of February 15,...

  9. Grundfoss: Chlorination of Swimming Pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Hogan, John; Andreassen, Viggo


    Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools.......Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools....

  10. Seismic analysis of large pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, R.G.; Tokarz, F.J.


    Large pools for storing spent, nuclear fuel elements are being proposed to augment present storage capacity. To preserve the ability to isolate portions of these pools, a modularization requirement appears desirable. The purpose of this project was to investigate the effects of modularization on earthquake resistance and to assess the adequacy of current design methods for seismic loads. After determining probable representative pool geometries, three rectangular pool configurations, all 240 x 16 ft and 40 ft deep, were examined. One was unmodularized; two were modularized into 80 x 40 ft cells in one case and 80 x 80 ft cells in the other. Both embedded and above-ground installations for a hard site and embedded installations for an intermediate hard site were studied. It was found that modularization was unfavorable in terms of reducing the total structural load attributable to dynamic effects, principally because one or more cells could be left unfilled. The walls of unfilled cells would be subjected to significantly higher loads than the walls of a filled, unmodularized pool. Generally, embedded installations were preferable to above-ground installations, and the hard site was superior to the intermediate hard site. It was determined that Housner's theory was adequate for calculating hydrodynamic effects on spent fuel storage pools. Current design methods for seismic loads were found to be satisfactory when results from these methods were compared with those from LUSH analyses. As a design method for dynamic soil pressure, we found the Mononobe-Okabe theory, coupled with correction factors as suggested by Seed, to be acceptable. The factors we recommend for spent fuel storage pools are tabulated.

  11. Water inventory management in condenser pool of boiling water reactor (United States)

    Gluntz, Douglas M.


    An improved system for managing the water inventory in the condenser pool of a boiling water reactor has means for raising the level of the upper surface of the condenser pool water without adding water to the isolation pool. A tank filled with water is installed in a chamber of the condenser pool. The water-filled tank contains one or more holes or openings at its lowermost periphery and is connected via piping and a passive-type valve (e.g., squib valve) to a high-pressure gas-charged pneumatic tank of appropriate volume. The valve is normally closed, but can be opened at an appropriate time following a loss-of-coolant accident. When the valve opens, high-pressure gas inside the pneumatic tank is released to flow passively through the piping to pressurize the interior of the water-filled tank. In so doing, the initial water contents of the tank are expelled through the openings, causing the water level in the condenser pool to rise. This increases the volume of water available to be boiled off by heat conducted from the passive containment cooling heat exchangers. 4 figs.

  12. How Is the Global Talent Pool Changing? Education Indicators in Focus. No. 5 (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2012


    This paper describes how the global talent pool is changing. The expansion of higher education in rapidly-developing G20 nations has reduced the share of tertiary graduates from Europe, Japan and the United States in the global talent pool. If current trends continue, China and India will account for 40% of all young people with a tertiary…

  13. Quantifying aboveground forest carbon pools and fluxes from repeat LiDAR surveys (United States)

    Andrew T. Hudak; Eva K. Strand; Lee A. Vierling; John C. Byrne; Jan U. H. Eitel; Sebastian Martinuzzi; Michael J. Falkowski


    Sound forest policy and management decisions to mitigate rising atmospheric CO2 depend upon accurate methodologies to quantify forest carbon pools and fluxes over large tracts of land. LiDAR remote sensing is a rapidly evolving technology for quantifying aboveground biomass and thereby carbon pools; however, little work has evaluated the efficacy of repeat LiDAR...

  14. Creating a data exchange strategy for radiotherapy research: towards federated databases and anonymised public datasets. (United States)

    Skripcak, Tomas; Belka, Claus; Bosch, Walter; Brink, Carsten; Brunner, Thomas; Budach, Volker; Büttner, Daniel; Debus, Jürgen; Dekker, Andre; Grau, Cai; Gulliford, Sarah; Hurkmans, Coen; Just, Uwe; Krause, Mechthild; Lambin, Philippe; Langendijk, Johannes A; Lewensohn, Rolf; Lühr, Armin; Maingon, Philippe; Masucci, Michele; Niyazi, Maximilian; Poortmans, Philip; Simon, Monique; Schmidberger, Heinz; Spezi, Emiliano; Stuschke, Martin; Valentini, Vincenzo; Verheij, Marcel; Whitfield, Gillian; Zackrisson, Björn; Zips, Daniel; Baumann, Michael


    Disconnected cancer research data management and lack of information exchange about planned and ongoing research are complicating the utilisation of internationally collected medical information for improving cancer patient care. Rapidly collecting/pooling data can accelerate translational research in radiation therapy and oncology. The exchange of study data is one of the fundamental principles behind data aggregation and data mining. The possibilities of reproducing the original study results, performing further analyses on existing research data to generate new hypotheses or developing computational models to support medical decisions (e.g. risk/benefit analysis of treatment options) represent just a fraction of the potential benefits of medical data-pooling. Distributed machine learning and knowledge exchange from federated databases can be considered as one beyond other attractive approaches for knowledge generation within "Big Data". Data interoperability between research institutions should be the major concern behind a wider collaboration. Information captured in electronic patient records (EPRs) and study case report forms (eCRFs), linked together with medical imaging and treatment planning data, are deemed to be fundamental elements for large multi-centre studies in the field of radiation therapy and oncology. To fully utilise the captured medical information, the study data have to be more than just an electronic version of a traditional (un-modifiable) paper CRF. Challenges that have to be addressed are data interoperability, utilisation of standards, data quality and privacy concerns, data ownership, rights to publish, data pooling architecture and storage. This paper discusses a framework for conceptual packages of ideas focused on a strategic development for international research data exchange in the field of radiation therapy and oncology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Laboratory investigation and simulation of breakthrough curves in karst conduits with pools (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoer; Chang, Yong; Wu, Jichun; Peng, Fu


    A series of laboratory experiments are performed under various hydrological conditions to analyze the effect of pools in pipes on breakthrough curves (BTCs). The BTCs are generated after instantaneous injections of NaCl tracer solution. In order to test the feasibility of reproducing the BTCs and obtain transport parameters, three modeling approaches have been applied: the equilibrium model, the linear graphical method and the two-region nonequilibrium model. The investigation results show that pools induce tailing of the BTCs, and the shapes of BTCs depend on pool geometries and hydrological conditions. The simulations reveal that the two-region nonequilibrium model yields the best fits to experimental BTCs because the model can describe the transient storage in pools by the partition coefficient and the mass transfer coefficient. The model parameters indicate that pools produce high dispersion. The increased tailing occurs mainly because the partition coefficient decreases, as the number of pools increases. When comparing the tracer BTCs obtained using the two types of pools with the same size, the more appreciable BTC tails that occur for symmetrical pools likely result mainly from the less intense exchange between the water in the pools and the water in the pipe, because the partition coefficients for the two types of pools are virtually identical. Dispersivity values decrease as flow rates increase; however, the trend in dispersion is not clear. The reduced tailing is attributed to a decrease in immobile water with increasing flow rate. It provides evidence for hydrodynamically controlled tailing effects.

  16. Exchange Network (United States)

    The Environmental Information Exchange Network (EIEN) is an Internet-based system used by state, tribal and territorial partners to securely share environmental and health information with one another and EPA.

  17. Swimming Pools. Managing School Facilities, Guide 2. (United States)

    Department for Education and Employment, London (England). Architects and Building Branch.

    This guide for schools with swimming pools offers advice concerning appropriate training for pool managers, the importance of water quality and testing, safety in the handling of chemicals, maintenance and cleaning requirements, pool security, and health concerns. The guide covers both indoor and outdoor pools, explains some technical terms,…

  18. 47 CFR 13.215 - Question pools. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Question pools. 13.215 Section 13.215... Question pools. The question pool for each written examination element will be composed of questions acceptable to the FCC. Each question pool must contain at least five (5) times the number of questions...

  19. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining one question pool for each written examination element. Each question pool must contain at least 10 times the...

  20. Patent pools: Intellectual property rights and competition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.F.


    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major

  1. Patent pools: Intellectual property rights and competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.


    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major

  2. 21 CFR 1250.89 - Swimming pools. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swimming pools. 1250.89 Section 1250.89 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.89 Swimming pools. (a) Fill and draw swimming pools shall not be installed or used. (b) Swimming pools of the recirculation type shall be...

  3. Pyrimidine pool imbalance induced by BLM helicase deficiency contributes to genetic instability in Bloom syndrome. (United States)

    Chabosseau, Pauline; Buhagiar-Labarchède, Géraldine; Onclercq-Delic, Rosine; Lambert, Sarah; Debatisse, Michelle; Brison, Olivier; Amor-Guéret, Mounira


    Defects in DNA replication are associated with genetic instability and cancer development, as illustrated in Bloom syndrome. Features of this syndrome include a slowdown in replication speed, defective fork reactivation and high rates of sister chromatid exchange, with a general predisposition to cancer. Bloom syndrome is caused by mutations in the BLM gene encoding a RecQ helicase. Here we report that BLM deficiency is associated with a strong cytidine deaminase defect, leading to pyrimidine pool disequilibrium. In BLM-deficient cells, pyrimidine pool normalization leads to reduction of sister chromatid exchange frequency and is sufficient for full restoration of replication fork velocity but not the fork restart defect, thus identifying the part of the Bloom syndrome phenotype because of pyrimidine pool imbalance. This study provides new insights into the molecular basis of control of replication speed and the genetic instability associated with Bloom syndrome. Nucleotide pool disequilibrium could be a general phenomenon in a large spectrum of precancerous and cancer cells.

  4. The readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles. (United States)

    Kaeser, Pascal S; Regehr, Wade G


    Each presynaptic bouton is densely packed with many vesicles, only a small fraction of which are available for immediate release. These vesicles constitute the readily releasable pool (RRP). The RRP size, and the probability of release of each vesicle within the RRP, together determine synaptic strength. Here, we discuss complications and recent advances in determining the size of the physiologically relevant RRP. We consider molecular mechanisms to generate and regulate the RRP, and discuss the relationship between vesicle docking and the RRP. We conclude that many RRP vesicles are docked, that some docked vesicles may not be part of the RRP, and that undocked vesicles can contribute to the RRP by rapid recruitment to unoccupied, molecularly activated ready-to-release sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sculpting the Barnyard Gene Pool (United States)

    Childers, Gina; Wolfe, Kim; Dupree, Alan; Young, Sheila; Caver, Jessica; Quintanilla, Ruby; Thornton, Laura


    Project-based learning (PBL) takes student engagement to a higher level through reflective collaboration, inquiry, critical thinking, problem solving, and personal relevance. This article explains how six high school teachers developed an interconnected, interdisciplinary STEM-focused PBL called "Sculpting the Barnyard Gene Pool." The…

  6. Rank Pooling for Action Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernando, B.; Gavves, E.; Oramas M., J.; Ghodrati, A.; Tuytelaars, T.

    We propose a function-based temporal pooling method that captures the latent structure of the video sequence data - e.g., how frame-level features evolve over time in a video. We show how the parameters of a function that has been fit to the video data can serve as a robust new video representation.

  7. 77 FR 62177 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions (United States)


    ... (CFTC) with jurisdiction over certain accounts and pooled investment vehicles trading in retail forex, a...' forex trading is with bank funds or insurance company separate accounts? Question 5. Should the OCC's... \\5\\ (a retail foreign exchange (forex) rule). Transactions described in section 2(c)(2)(B)(i)(I...

  8. Hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg


    Hydrogen exchange (HX) monitored by mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for investigation of protein conformation and dynamics. HX-MS monitors isotopic exchange of hydrogen in protein backbone amides and thus serves as a sensitive method for probing protein conformation...... and dynamics along the entire protein backbone. This chapter describes the exchange of backbone amide hydrogen which is highly quenchable as it is strongly dependent on the pH and temperature. The HX rates of backbone amide hydrogen are sensitive and very useful probes of protein conformation......, as they are distributed along the polypeptide backbone and form the fundamental hydrogen-bonding networks of basic secondary structure. The effect of pressure on HX in unstructured polypeptides (poly-dl-lysine and oxidatively unfolded ribonuclease A) and native folded proteins (lysozyme and ribonuclease A) was evaluated...

  9. Metal vaporization from weld pools (United States)

    Block-Bolten, A.; Eagar, T. W.


    Experimental studies of alloy vaporization from aluminum and stainless steel weld pools have been made in order to test a vaporization model based on thermodynamic data and the kinetic theory of gases. It is shown that the model can correctly predict the dominant metal vapors that form but that the absolute rate of vaporization is not known due to insufficient knowledge of the surface temperature distribution and subsequent condensation of the vapor in the cooler regions of the metal. Values of the net evaporation rates for different alloys have been measured and are found to vary by two orders of magnitude. Estimated maximum weld pool temperatures based upon the model are in good agreement with previous experimental measurements of electron beam welds.

  10. An interdepartmental, standardized equipment pool. (United States)

    Fahlstrøm, Elisabeth; Grimnes, Sverre; Johannejen, Nann Helene


    To solve problems concerning patient equipment with emphasis on patient care, nursing quality and better nursing management. A monitoring system, designed to follow the patient around in the hospital was discovered. Based on this concept a special, standardized pool system managed by the Clinical Engineering Department was developed. An all-department standardization of monitors and pumps was tried. With pumps it was a success. With monitors, two of 21 departments preferred non-standardized equipment. The equipment pool has successfully been run for 5 years. An evaluation showed that nursing care is better and that only 2% of those asked disapproved of the system. The pool eliminated problems like lack of equipment when needed, the wrong type of equipment found, lack of fitting disposables, the items that could be found being out of order or too dirty to be used. Nurses no longer waste time searching for equipment ready for use. Bedside equipment in working order can always be found in one of the storerooms. As a result, patient safety was greatly enhanced. We also show that this is economically a good system.

  11. Exchange Options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidian, F.


    The contract is described and market examples given. Essential theoretical developments are introduced and cited chronologically. The principles and techniques of hedging and unique pricing are illustrated for the two simplest nontrivial examples: the classical Black-Scholes/Merton/Margrabe exchange

  12. Streaming Pool: reuse, combine and create reactive streams with pleasure

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    When connecting together heterogeneous and complex systems, it is not easy to exchange data between components. Streams of data are successfully used in industry in order to overcome this problem, especially in the case of "live" data. Streams are a specialization of the Observer design pattern and they provide asynchronous and non-blocking data flow. The ongoing effort of the ReactiveX initiative is one example that demonstrates how demanding this technology is even for big companies. Bridging the discrepancies of different technologies with common interfaces is already done by the Reactive Streams initiative and, in the JVM world, via reactive-streams-jvm interfaces. Streaming Pool is a framework for providing and discovering reactive streams. Through the mechanism of dependency injection provided by the Spring Framework, Streaming Pool provides a so called Discovery Service. This object can discover and chain streams of data that are technologically agnostic, through the use of Stream IDs. The stream to ...

  13. Labile pools of Pb in vegetable-growing soils investigated by an isotope dilution method and its influence on soil pH. (United States)

    Xie, Hong; Huang, Zhi-Yong; Cao, Ying-Lan; Cai, Chao; Zeng, Xiang-Cheng; Li, Jian


    Pollution of Pb in the surface of agricultural soils is of increasing concern due to its serious impact on the plant growth and the human health through the food chain. However, the mobility, activity and bioavailability of Pb rely mainly on its various chemical species in soils. In the present study, E and L values, the labile pools of isotopically exchangeable Pb, were estimated using the method of isotope dilution in three vegetable-growing soils. The experiments involved adding a stable enriched isotope ((206)Pb > 96%) to a soil suspension and to soils in which plants are subsequently grown, the labile pools of Pb were then estimated by measuring the isotopic composition of Pb in soil solutions and in the plant tissues, respectively. In addition, the correlation of E values and soil pH was investigated at the ranges of pH 4.5-7.0. The amount of labile Pb in soils was also estimated using different single chemical extractants and a modified BCR approach. The results showed that after spiking the enriched isotopes of (206)Pb (>96%) for 24 hours an equilibration of isotopic exchanges in soil suspensions was achieved, and the isotope ratios of (208)Pb/(206)Pb measured at that time was used for calculating the E(24 h) values. The labile pools of Pb by %E(24 h) values, ranging from 53.2% to 61.7% with an average 57%, were found to be significantly higher (p soil pH was found in the tested soil sample. The results indicate that the %E(24 h) value can more rapidly and easily predict the labile pools of Pb in soils compared with L values, but it might be readily overestimated because of the artificial soil acidity derived from the spiked isotopic tracer and the excess of spiked enriched isotopes. The results also suggest that the amounts of Pb extracted with EDTA and the Σ(BCR) values extracted with the modified BCR approach are helpful to detect the labile pools of Pb in soils. In addition, the negative correlation between soil pH and the labile pools of Pb in soils

  14. 7 CFR 1007.7 - Pool plant. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1007.7 Section 1007.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1007.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant specified...

  15. 7 CFR 1033.7 - Pool plant. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1033.7 Section 1033.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1033.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (j) of this...

  16. 7 CFR 1131.7 - Pool plant. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1131.7 Section 1131.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1131.7 Pool plant. Pool Plant means a plant or unit of plants specified in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (g) of this section...

  17. 7 CFR 1126.7 - Pool plant. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1126.7 Section 1126.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1126.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant specified...

  18. 7 CFR 1005.7 - Pool plant. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1005.7 Section 1005.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1005.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant specified...

  19. 7 CFR 1030.7 - Pool plant. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1030.7 Section 1030.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1030.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (h) of...

  20. 7 CFR 1006.7 - Pool plant. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1006.7 Section 1006.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1006.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant specified...

  1. 7 CFR 1032.7 - Pool plant. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1032.7 Section 1032.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1032.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (i) of this...

  2. 7 CFR 1124.7 - Pool plant. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1124.7 Section 1124.7 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or a system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in...

  3. 7 CFR 1001.7 - Pool plant. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1001.7 Section 1001.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1001.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant described in paragraph (h) of...

  4. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y


    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  5. 48 CFR 9.703 - Contracting with individual pool members. (United States)


    ... individual pool members. 9.703 Section 9.703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Development Pools 9.703 Contracting with individual pool members. (a) Pool members may submit individual... by a pool member if that pool member participates in a competing offer submitted by the pool. (b) If...

  6. Riffle and pool fish communities in a large stream of southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Langeani

    Full Text Available The structure of the fish communities of a pool and a rapid in the ribeirão Santa Bárbara is described. This stream of 5th order is a direct tributary of the rio Tietê in the system of the upper rio Paraná. Thirty three species, from nine families and three orders, were referred in the two mesohabitats: the pool with 31 species, and the rapid with 18. Orders Characiformes, Siluriformes, and Perciformes presented the greatest number of species in the two mesohabitats. The families Characidae and Loricariidae were the most specious, followed by Cichlidae in the pool, and by Parodontidae in the rapid. Most species were accidental, 17 in the pool, and 10 in the rapid, and only six were constant in the two mesohabitats. The greatest diversity and evenness occurred in the pool. The seasonal variation for both assemblages was high, with the pool having a high turnover of species that could be due to the proximity with main channel of the rio Tietê.

  7. 78 FR 21666 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness... (United States)


    ...'s Internet Web site at , at the Exchange's principal office, and at the Public...-Exchanges_Fee_Schedules.pdf . The Exchange believes that reducing the percentage of TCV required to achieve... (January 14, 2010), 75 FR 3594 (January 21, 2010) (noting that dark pools and internalizing broker- dealers...

  8. Large-scale pool fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinhaus Thomas


    Full Text Available A review of research into the burning behavior of large pool fires and fuel spill fires is presented. The features which distinguish such fires from smaller pool fires are mainly associated with the fire dynamics at low source Froude numbers and the radiative interaction with the fire source. In hydrocarbon fires, higher soot levels at increased diameters result in radiation blockage effects around the perimeter of large fire plumes; this yields lower emissive powers and a drastic reduction in the radiative loss fraction; whilst there are simplifying factors with these phenomena, arising from the fact that soot yield can saturate, there are other complications deriving from the intermittency of the behavior, with luminous regions of efficient combustion appearing randomly in the outer surface of the fire according the turbulent fluctuations in the fire plume. Knowledge of the fluid flow instabilities, which lead to the formation of large eddies, is also key to understanding the behavior of large-scale fires. Here modeling tools can be effectively exploited in order to investigate the fluid flow phenomena, including RANS- and LES-based computational fluid dynamics codes. The latter are well-suited to representation of the turbulent motions, but a number of challenges remain with their practical application. Massively-parallel computational resources are likely to be necessary in order to be able to adequately address the complex coupled phenomena to the level of detail that is necessary.

  9. Renewal of the separate type pool gate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohhashi, Nobuyoshi; Izumo, Hironobu; Kameyama, Iwao; Isaka, Masaki; Nakamura, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Monden, Yoshihiro; Tazura, Akio


    As a part of the modification of JRR-4, the pool gate was renewed. The pool gate is separated into two parts with packing on the both contact faces, and holds the pool water by the pressure caused by a difference of the water levels. The structure and the principle are so simple that treatment of the pool gate is easy. However, it is very difficult to secure the watertight performance of this gate type. Because the uneven and meandering easily occurred in the surface of the packing, in the former pool gate leakage of the pool water from the separate parts of the gate often occurred. Besides, the selection width of rubber material to conform was very small. In renewal of the pool gate, the mock-up experiment of the packing parts was performed. Based on the results, the new pool gate was designed and installed. The new seal structure developed for the new gate was confirmed to have a high watertight performance even under the condition of very low pool water level. And the loads which hung on the packing is decreased in the new developed packing structure. High watertight performance of the new pool gate was confirmed by the leak tests after installation. This report gives the development of the new pool gate with high watertight performance and the construction of it. (author)

  10. 75 FR 54794 - Commodity Pool Operators: Relief From Compliance With Certain Disclosure, Reporting and... (United States)


    ... of market participants and the public; efficiency, competitiveness, and financial integrity of... national securities exchanges of units of participation in commodity pools. 3. Financial Integrity of... costs or creating benefits, on the financial integrity or price discovery function of the commodity...

  11. 13 CFR 120.1703 - Qualifications to be a Pool Originator. (United States)


    ...)(G) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(34)(G)); (2) Meets all financial and other applicable requirements of its regulatory authority and the Government Securities Act of 1986, as amended (Pub. L. 99-571, 100 Stat. 3208); (3) Has the financial capability to originate acceptable pools...

  12. Pool fencing for preventing drowning in children. (United States)

    Thompson, D C; Rivara, F P


    In most industrialized countries, drowning ranks second or third behind motor vehicles and fires as a cause of unintentional injury deaths to children under the age of 15. Death rates from drowning are highest in children less than five years old. Pool fencing is a passive environmental intervention designed to reduce unintended access to swimming pools and thus prevent drowning in the preschool age group. Because of the magnitude of the problem and the potential effectiveness of fencing we decided to evaluate the effect of pool fencing as a drowning prevention strategy for young children. To determine if pool fencing prevents drowning in young children. We used Cochrane Collaboration search strategy of electronic databases, searched reference lists of past reviews and review articles, Cochrane International Register of RCT's, studies from government agencies in the United States and Australia, and contacted colleagues from International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention, World Injury Network, and CDC funded Injury Control and Research Centers. In order to be selected a study had to be designed to evaluate pool fencing in a defined population and provide relevant and interpretable data which objectively measured the risk of drowning or near drowning or provided rates of these outcomes in fenced and unfenced pools. The completed studies meeting selection criteria employed a case-control design. No randomized controlled studies have been identified. Three published studies met selection criteria. Data were extracted by two reviewers using standard abstract form. Odds ratios with 95% CI, and incidence rates, were calculated for drowning and near-drowning. Attributable Risk percent (AR%) was calculated to report the reduction in drowning due to pool fencing. Case control studies which evaluate pool fencing interventions indicate that pool fencing significantly reduces the risk of drowning. Odds ratio for the risk of drowning or near drowning in a

  13. The picture exchange communication system. (United States)

    Bondy, A S; Frost, L A


    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) was developed as a means to teach children with autism and related developmental disabilities a rapidly acquired, self-initiating, functional communication system. Its theoretical roots combine principles from applied behavior analysis and guidelines established within the field of alternative and augmentative communication. This approach has several potential advantages relative to imitation-based strategies (both vocal and gestural) and symbol selection strategies. The system begins with the exchange of simple icons but rapidly builds "sentence" structure. The system also emphasizes developing the request function prior to developing responding to simple questions and commenting. The development of requesting with a sentence structure also permits the rapid development of attributes more traditionally taught within a receptive mode. The relationship between the introduction of PECS and various other behavioral issues (i.e., social approach and behavior management) as well as its relationship to the codevelopment of speech are reviewed.

  14. Theoretical assessment of particle generation from sodium pool fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M., E-mail: [CIEMAT, Unit of Nuclear Safety Research, Av. Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Herranz, L.E., E-mail: [CIEMAT, Unit of Nuclear Safety Research, Av. Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kissane, M.P., E-mail: [Nuclear Safety Technology and Regulation Division, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), 46 quai Alphonse Le Gallo, 92100 Boulogne-Billancourt (France)


    Highlights: • Development of particle generation model for sodium-oxides aerosol formation. • Development of partially validated numerical simulations to build up maps of saturation ratio. • Nucleation of supersaturated vapours as relevant source of aerosols over sodium pools. • Prediction of high concentrations of primary particles in the combustion zone. - Abstract: Potential sodium discharge in the containment during postulated Beyond Design Basis Accidents (BDBAs) in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) would have major consequences for accident development in terms of energetics and source term. In the containment, sodium vaporization and subsequent oxidation would result in supersaturated oxide vapours that would undergo rapid nucleation creating toxic aerosols. Therefore, modelling this vapour nucleation is essential to proper source term assessment in SFRs. In the frame of the EU-JASMIN project, a particle generation model to calculate the particle generation rate and their primary size during an in-containment sodium pool fire has been developed. Based on a suite of individual models for sodium vaporization, oxygen natural circulation (3D modelling), sodium-oxygen chemical reactions, sodium-oxides-vapour nucleation and condensation, its consistency has been partially validated by comparing with available experimental data. As an outcome, large temperature and vapour concentration gradients set over the sodium pool have been found which result in large particle concentrations in the close vicinity of the pool.

  15. Scraped surface heat exchangers. (United States)

    Rao, Chetan S; Hartel, Richard W


    Scraped surface heat exchangers (SSHEs) are commonly used in the food, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries for heat transfer, crystallization, and other continuous processes. They are ideally suited for products that are viscous, sticky, that contain particulate matter, or that need some degree of crystallization. Since these characteristics describe a vast majority of processed foods, SSHEs are especially suited for pumpable food products. During operation, the product is brought in contact with a heat transfer surface that is rapidly and continuously scraped, thereby exposing the surface to the passage of untreated product. In addition to maintaining high and uniform heat exchange, the scraper blades also provide simultaneous mixing and agitation. Heat exchange for sticky and viscous foods such as heavy salad dressings, margarine, chocolate, peanut butter, fondant, ice cream, and shortenings is possible only by using SSHEs. High heat transfer coefficients are achieved because the boundary layer is continuously replaced by fresh material. Moreover, the product is in contact with the heating surface for only a few seconds and high temperature gradients can be used without the danger of causing undesirable reactions. SSHEs are versatile in the use of heat transfer medium and the various unit operations that can be carried out simultaneously. This article critically reviews the current understanding of the operations and applications of SSHEs.

  16. Radioisotope Power System Pool Concept (United States)

    Rusick, Jeffrey J.; Bolotin, Gary S.


    Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for NASA deep space science missions have historically used static thermoelectric-based designs because they are highly reliable, and their radioisotope heat sources can be passively cooled throughout the mission life cycle. Recently, a significant effort to develop a dynamic RPS, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), was conducted by NASA and the Department of Energy, because Stirling based designs offer energy conversion efficiencies four times higher than heritage thermoelectric designs; and the efficiency would proportionately reduce the amount of radioisotope fuel needed for the same power output. However, the long term reliability of a Stirling based design is a concern compared to thermoelectric designs, because for certain Stirling system architectures the radioisotope heat sources must be actively cooled via the dynamic operation of Stirling converters throughout the mission life cycle. To address this reliability concern, a new dynamic Stirling cycle RPS architecture is proposed called the RPS Pool Concept.

  17. Segmented heat exchanger (United States)

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann


    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.





    In this study,it was investigated the situation related to the safety and management of swimming pools belongs to municipality This study was planned to determine the present situation related to the safety and management of open,half-olympic and closed swimming pools which are especially used for sports activities,to find out the deficiencies in practise and to overcome these.Our study included totally 80 open,closed,olympic, half-olympic public swimming pools(the pools that belongs to munic...

  19. When Ligand Exchange Leads to Ion Exchange: Nanocrystal Facets Dictate the Outcome. (United States)

    Hewavitharana, Indika K; Brock, Stephanie L


    This study demonstrates that ligand exchange of nanocrystals (NCs) is not always an innocuous process, but can lead to facile (room temperature) ion exchange, depending on the surface crystal faceting. Rock salt PbTe NCs prepared as cubes with neutral facets undergo room-temperature ligand exchange with sulfide ions, whereas cuboctahedron-shaped particles with neutral {100} and polar {111} facets are transformed to PbS, driven by ion exchange along the ⟨111⟩ direction. Likewise, cation exchange (with Ag + ) occurs rapidly for cuboctahedra, whereas cubes remain inert. This dramatic difference is attributed to the relative surface area of {111} facets that promote rapid ion exchange and shows how facet engineering is a powerful knob for the control of reaction pathways in nanoparticles.

  20. The warm pool in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayachandran, P.N.; Shetye, S

    is larger and warmer, a peculiarity of the pool in the Indian Ocean is its seasonal variation. The surface area of the pool changes from 24 x 106 km2 in April to 8 x 106 km2 in September due to interaction with the southwest monsoon. The annual cycles of sea...

  1. Shedding Light on Dark Liquidity Pools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; van Achter, M.; Wuyts, G.


    This article reviews the recent developments on dark liquidity pools starting from the theoretical and empirical academic literature. The number of dark liquidity pools as well as their trading volume has grown substantially in the last couple of years. We highlight the incentives of providers as

  2. Microbial quality of a marine tidal pool

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina


    Full Text Available tidal pool water was compared to South African and other marine water quality guidelines. The microbial quality of a marine tidal pool on South Africa's Atlantic coast was found to be inferior to that of the adjoining seawater (the latter Complying...

  3. The Chemistry of Swimming Pool Maintenance (United States)

    Salter, Carl; Langhus, David L.


    The study of chemistry involved in the maintenance of a swimming pool provides a lot of chemical education to the students, including the demonstration of the importance of pH in water chemistry. The various chemical aspects hidden in the maintenance of the pool are being described.

  4. Sulfur cycling in two Dutch moorland pools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marnette, E.C.L.


    Due to atmospheric acid deposition, the chemistry of many moorland pools has changed, resulting in changes in their fauna and flora. Most moorland pools are sensitive to acid loading because underlying and surrounding soils are low in chemical buffering capacity. Biological processes in the

  5. 13 CFR 120.1708 - Pool Certificates. (United States)


    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pool Certificates. 120.1708 Section 120.1708 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Establishment... amount of a Pool Certificate cannot be less than a minimum amount as specified in the Guide, and the...

  6. Ripples in a superconducting tidal pool

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, E


    The behaviour of electrons in a metal is often compared to that of water in a pool. An empty pool is like a material that has all of its electrons removed. As electrons are 'poured' into the metal, they first occupy the lowest energies available - the bottom of the pool - and eventually fill up to the Fermi energy, the top of the pool. At this point we no longer discuss electrons but quasiparticles. These are electrons that have modified properties due to their interactions within the material. Waves in a pool can be excited, and their properties will depend on the depth of the water. Similarly in a metal, quasiparticles behave like waves that have a material-dependent dispersion relation between their energy and their wavevector, which specifies their direction and wavelength. This simple analogy also hints at an indirect method of measuring the dispersion relation of a metal, and hence the myriad of properties that depend on it. (U.K.)

  7. Pool scrubbing models for iodine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, K. [Battelle Ingenieurtechnik GmbH, Eschborn (Germany)


    Pool scrubbing is an important mechanism to retain radioactive fission products from being carried into the containment atmosphere or into the secondary piping system. A number of models and computer codes has been developed to predict the retention of aerosols and fission product vapours that are released from the core and injected into water pools of BWR and PWR type reactors during severe accidents. Important codes in this field are BUSCA, SPARC and SUPRA. The present paper summarizes the models for scrubbing of gaseous Iodine components in these codes, discusses the experimental validation, and gives an assessment of the state of knowledge reached and the open questions which persist. The retention of gaseous Iodine components is modelled by the various codes in a very heterogeneous manner. Differences show up in the chemical species considered, the treatment of mass transfer boundary layers on the gaseous and liquid sides, the gas-liquid interface geometry, calculation of equilibrium concentrations and numerical procedures. Especially important is the determination of the pool water pH value. This value is affected by basic aerosols deposited in the water, e.g. Cesium and Rubidium compounds. A consistent model requires a mass balance of these compounds in the pool, thus effectively coupling the pool scrubbing phenomena of aerosols and gaseous Iodine species. Since the water pool conditions are also affected by drainage flow of condensate water from different regions in the containment, and desorption of dissolved gases on the pool surface is determined by the gas concentrations above the pool, some basic limitations of specialized pool scrubbing codes are given. The paper draws conclusions about the necessity of coupling between containment thermal-hydraulics and pool scrubbing models, and proposes ways of further simulation model development in order to improve source term predictions. (author) 2 tabs., refs.

  8. Efficient evaluation of humoral immune responses by the use of serum pools. (United States)

    Sternbæk, Louise; Draborg, Anette H; Nielsen, Christoffer T; Jacobsen, Søren; Iversen, Line V; Troelsen, Lone; Theander, Elke; Houen, Gunnar


    Collection and testing of individual serum samples are often used in research to gain knowledge about e.g. the humoral response against bacteria or virus. This is a valid but time-consuming method and might be a waste of valuable serum samples for inefficient research. So far, no study has considered using serum pools as a quick and efficient screening method to confirm or deny hypotheses. We created serum pools from four different patient groups (systemic lupus erythematosus n=85, rheumatoid arthritis n=77, Sjögren's syndrome n=91, systemic sclerosis n=66) and one healthy control group (n=67). Each serum pool was analyzed using three well-known immunoassays: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), line blot, and immunofluorescence microscopy (anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) screening). The presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) EA/D-, EBNA-1-, VCA p23-, and gp350-directed antibodies was used to validate serum pools as an efficient tool for further investigations by comparison to previous findings in this area. The presence of EBV EA/D-, EBNA-1-, VCA p23-, and gp350-directed antibodies in each pool was consistent within the obtained ELISA and line blot results, as increased titers of IgG against the four antigens were found in all patient serum pools and also in individual sera regarding gp350. These results correspond to previous findings on individual samples from patients with these diseases. The presence of ANAs was observed in all four patient serum pools and not in the HC pool by both line blots and immunofluorescence microscopy, which corresponds with the expectations and further corroborate the application of serum pools for screenings. We developed and validated the use of serum pools that reliably and rapidly can confirm or deny hypotheses, which enables a more efficient research concentrating on the most evident factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in potassium pools in Paraná soils under successive cropping and potassium fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Steiner


    Full Text Available The changes in soil potassium pools under intense cropping and fertilized with potash fertilizer are still little known to the soils of Paraná State. The effects of potassium fertilization and successive cropping on changes in K pools in different soils of Paraná, Brazil, were investigated in this study. Twelve soil samples, collected from the upper layer 0–0.20 m, were fertilized or not with K and subjected to six successive cropping (i.e., soybean, pearl millet, wheat, common beans, soybean and maize. All the crops were grown for 45 days, and at the end of the second, fourth and sixth cropping, the soil from each pot was sampled to determination of the total K, non-exchangeable K, exchangeable K and solution K. The result showed that the soil potassium pools varied widely. Total K concentration ranged from 547 to 15,563 mg kg–1 (4,714 mg kg–1, on average. On the average, structural K, non-exchangeable K, exchangeable K and solution K of the soils constituted 84.0, 11.3, 4.6 and 0.1% of the total K, respectively. Soils differ in the ability to supply potassium to the plants in the short to medium term, due to the wide range of parent material and the degree of soil weathering. When the soils were not fertilized with K, the successive cropping of plants resulted in a continuous process of depletion of non-exchangeable K and exchangeable K pools; however, this depletion was less pronounced in soils with higher potential buffer capacity of K. The concentrations of K non-exchangeable and exchangeable K were increased with the addition of potassium fertilizers, indicating the occurrence of K fixation in soil. After the second cropping, the soil exchangeable K levels remained constant with values of 141 and 36 mg kg–1, respectively, with and without the addition of K fertilizer, reflecting in establishing of a new dynamic equilibrium of K in the soil.

  10. Totalization Data Exchange (TDEX) (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Totalization Data Exchange (TDEX) process is an exchange between SSA and its foreign country partners to identify deaths of beneficiaries residing abroad. The...

  11. Apparatus for draining lower drywell pool water into suppresion pool in boiling water reactor (United States)

    Gluntz, Douglas M.


    An apparatus which mitigates temperature stratification in the suppression pool water caused by hot water drained into the suppression pool from the lower drywell pool. The outlet of a spillover hole formed in the inner bounding wall of the suppression pool is connected to and in flow communication with one end of piping. The inlet end of the piping is above the water level in the suppression pool. The piping is routed down the vertical downcomer duct and through a hole formed in the thin wall separating the downcomer duct from the suppression pool water. The piping discharge end preferably has an elevation at or near the bottom of the suppression pool and has a location in the horizontal plane which is removed from the point where the piping first emerges on the suppression pool side of the inner bounding wall of the suppression pool. This enables water at the surface of the lower drywell pool to flow into and be discharged at the bottom of the suppression pool.

  12. [Chlorine concentrations in the air of indoor swimming pools and their effects on swimming pool workers]. (United States)

    Fernández-Luna, Álvaro; Burillo, Pablo; Felipe, José Luis; Gallardo, Leonor; Tamaral, Francisco Manuel


    To describe chlorine levels in the air of indoor swimming pools in Castilla-La Mancha (Spain) and relate them to other chemical parameters in the installation and to the health problems perceived by swimming pool workers. We analyzed 21 pools with chlorine as chemical treatment in Castilla-La Mancha. The iodometry method was applied to measure chlorine concentrations in the air. The concentrations of free and combined chlorine in water, pH and temperature were also evaluated. Health problems were surveyed in 230 swimming pool workers in these facilities. The mean chlorine level in the air of swimming pools was 4.3 ± 2.3mg/m(3). The pH values were within the legal limits. The temperature parameters did not comply with regulations in 17 of the 21 pools analyzed. In the pools where chlorine values in the air were above the legal regulations, a significantly higher percentage of swimming pool workers perceived eye irritation, dryness and irritation of skin, and ear problems. Chlorine values in the air of indoor swimming pools were higher than those reported in similar studies. Most of the facilities (85%) exceeded the concentration of 1.5mg/m(3) established as the limit for the risk of irritating effects. The concentration of chlorine in indoor swimming pool air has a direct effect on the self-perceived health problems of swimming pool workers. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Biogenic silicon pools in terrestrial biogeosystems and their significance for silicon cycling (United States)

    Puppe, Daniel; Höhn, Axel; Kaczorek, Danuta; Ehrmann, Otto; Wanner, Manfred; Sommer, Michael


    , dynamics and resistibility against dissolution of various BSi pools indicated their possibility to influence biogeochemical Si cycling relatively rapid (protistic Si pools) or slow (zoogenic Si pools). In conclusion, our results are crucial for a detailed understanding and a more precise modeling of Si fluxes from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems.

  14. Cool pool development. Quarterly technical report No. 1, April-June 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowther, K.


    The Cool Pool is a passive cooling system consisting of a shaded, evaporating roof pond which thermosiphons cool water into water-filled, metal columns (culvert pipes) located within the building living space. The water in the roof pond is cooled by evaporation, convection and radiation. Because the water in the pool and downcomer is colder and denser than the water in the column a pressure difference is created and the cold water flows from the pool, through the downcomer and into the bottom of the column. The warm column water rises and flows through a connecting pipe into the pool. It is then cooled and the cycle repeats itself. The system requires no pumps. The water column absorbs heat from the building interior primarily by convection and radiation. Since the column is radiating at a significantly lower temperature than the interior walls it plays a double role in human comfort. Not only does it cool the air by convection but it provides a heat sink to which people can radiate. Since thermal radiation is important to the cooling of people, the cold water column contributes substantially to their feelings of comfort. Research on the Cool Pool system includes the following major tasks: control of biological organisms and debris in the roof pond and water cylinders; development of a heat exchanger; experimental investigation of the system's thermal performance; and development of a predictive computer simulation of the Cool Pool. Progress in these tasks is reported.

  15. 10 CFR 36.63 - Pool water purity. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pool water purity. 36.63 Section 36.63 Energy NUCLEAR... § 36.63 Pool water purity. (a) Pool water purification system must be run sufficiently to maintain the conductivity of the pool water below 20 microsiemens per centimeter under normal circumstances. If pool water...

  16. Spikes and memory in (Nord Pool) electricity price spot prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Tomasso; Haldrup, Niels; Knapik, Oskar

    Electricity spot prices are subject to transitory sharp movements commonly referred to as spikes. The paper aims at assessing their effects on model based inferences and predictions, with reference to the Nord Pool power exchange. We identify a spike as a price value which deviates substantially...... the spikes, i.e. shrinking an observation deviating substantially from the normal price towards the one-step-ahead prediction. Our empirical application illustrates the effects of the spikes on the estimates of the parameters governing the persistence of the series; moreover, a real time rolling forecasting...... from the normal price, where the latter is defined as the expectation arising from a model accounting for long memory at the zero and at the weekly seasonal frequencies, given the knowledge of the past realizations. Hence, a spike is associated to a time series innovation with size larger than...

  17. Southeastern superpave center pooled-fund activities. (United States)


    Much has been learned about materials characteristics, testing procedures, new equipment, mix design, and pavement performance through the many studies conducted as a part of the Southeastern Superpave Center (SSC) pooled-fund program. Lessons learne...

  18. Ingestion of swimming pool water by recreational (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Swimming pool water ingestion data. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Dufour, A., L. Wymer, M. Magnuson, T. Behymer, and R. Cantu. Ingestion...

  19. Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Tide Pool Ecology. (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Students investigated the salinity of tide pools at different levels in the intertidal zone. Data are analyzed collectively. Students graphed and discussed data. Included are suggestions for evaluation and further study. (Author)

  20. Analysis of Bitcoin Pooled Mining Reward Systems


    Rosenfeld, Meni


    In this paper we describe the various scoring systems used to calculate rewards of participants in Bitcoin pooled mining, explain the problems each were designed to solve and analyze their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  1. AE/VCE Unconfirmed Vernal Pools (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is derived from a project by the Vermont Center for Ecostudies(VCE) and Arrowwood Environmental(AE) to map vernal pools throughout the state of Vermont....

  2. Virulent Naegleria fowleri in indoor swimming pool. (United States)

    Kadlec, V; Skvárová, J; Cerva, L; Nebáznivá, D


    Naegleria fowleri was isolated from water during a hygienic inspection of a swimming pool in December 1977. This swimming pool was identified as a source of the infectious agent in the years 1962-1965, when a large outbreak of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAME) occurred. First two strains of N. fowleri, pathogenic for white mice after intracerebral and intranasal inoculation, were isolated from water of outlet troughs, additional strains were then isolated from various places; particularly from a cavity in the damaged wall of the pool. The incubation temperature did not inhibit a simultaneous growth of amoebae of the genera Acanthamoeba, Flabellula, Hartmannella and Vahlkampfia in the primocultures. Epidemiological investigations did not reveal any new case of PAME in relation with the occurrence of pathogenic N. fowleri in the swimming pool.

  3. Spectrum pooling in MnWave Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boccardi, Federico; Shokri-Ghadikolaei, Hossein; Fodor, Gabor


    Motivated by the specific characteristics of mmWave technologies, we discuss the possibility of an authorization regime that allows spectrum sharing between multiple operators, also referred to as spectrum pooling. In particular, considering user rate as the performance measure, we assess...... the benefit of coordination among networks of different operators, study the impact of beamforming at both base stations and user terminals, and analyze the pooling performance at different frequency carriers. We also discuss the enabling spectrum mechanisms, architectures, and protocols required to make...... spectrum pooling work in real networks. Our initial results show that, from a technical perspective, spectrum pooling at mmWave has the potential to use the resources more efficiently than traditional exclusive spectrum allocation to a single operator. However, further studies are needed in order to reach...

  4. AE/VCE Confirmed Vernal Pools (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is derived from a project by the Vermont Center for Ecostudies(VCE) and Arrowwood Environmental(AE) to map vernal pools throughout the state of Vermont....

  5. Effects of Angle of Rotation on Pool Boiling Heat Transfer of V-shape Tube Bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Myeong-Gie [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)


    The most important facility for the systems is a passive heat exchanger that transfers core decay heat to the cold water in a water storage tank under atmospheric pressure. Since the space for the installation of the heat exchanger is usually limited, developing more efficient heat exchangers is important. In general, pool boiling is generated on the surface of the heat exchanging tube. The major design parameter of the heat exchanger is a tube arrangement. The upper tube is affected by the lower tube and the enhancement of the heat transfer on the upper tube is estimated by the bundle effect. Since heat transfer is related to the conditions of a tube surface, bundle geometries, and a liquid type, lots of studies have been carried out for the combinations of those parameters. An experimental study was performed to investigate the effects of the angle of rotation on pool boiling heat transfer of a V-shape tube bundle. For the test, two smooth stainless steel tubes of 19 mm outside diameter and the water at atmospheric pressure were used. The enhancement of the heat transfer is clearly observed when the angle becomes to 90° where the upper tube has the maximum region of influence by the lower tube. The convective flow and liquid agitation enhance heat transfer while the coalescence of the bubbles deteriorates heat transfer.

  6. Pooling strategies for St Petersburg gamblers


    Csörgö, Sandor; Simons, Gordon


    Peter offers to play exactly one St Petersburg game with each of [math] players, Paul [math] , [math] , Paul [math] , whose conceivable pooling strategies are described by all possible probability distributions [math] . Comparing infinite expectations, we characterize among all [math] those admissible strategies for which the pooled winnings, each distributed as [math] , yield a finite added value for each and every one of Paul [math] , [math] , Paul [math] in comparison with their individual...

  7. A readily retrievable pool of synaptic vesicles


    Hua, Y; Sinha, R.; Thiel, C.; Schmidt, R.; Hueve, J.; Martens, H.; Hell, S.; Egner, A.; Klingauf, J.


    Abstract Although clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is thought to be the predominant mechanism of synaptic vesicle (SV) recycling, it seems to be too slow for fast recycling. Therefore, it was suggested that a pre-sorted and pre-assembled pool of SV proteins on the presynaptic membrane might support a first wave of fast CME. In this study we monitored the temporal dynamics of such a 'readily retrievable pool' of SV proteins in rat hippocampal neurons using a novel probe. Applying...

  8. Pooled genomic indexing of rhesus macaque


    Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Harris, Ronald A.; Sodergren, Erica J.; Jackson, Andrew R.; Kalafus, Ken J.; Hodgson, Anne; Cree, Andrew; Dai, Weilie; Csuros, Miklos; Zhu, Baoli; de Jong, Pieter J.; Weinstock, George M; Gibbs, Richard A.


    Pooled genomic indexing (PGI) is a method for mapping collections of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones between species by using a combination of clone pooling and DNA sequencing. PGI has been used to map a total of 3858 BAC clones covering ∼24% of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) genome onto 4178 homologous loci in the human genome. A number of intrachromosomal rearrangements were detected by mapping multiple segments within the individual rhesus BACs onto multiple disjoined loc...

  9. Welding pool measurement using thermal array sensor (United States)

    Cho, Chia-Hung; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Chen, Hsin-Yi


    Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technology that uses a high-power laser beam to melt metal powder in chamber of inert gas. The process starts by slicing the 3D CAD data as a digital information source into layers to create a 2D image of each layer. Melting pool was formed by using laser irradiation on metal powders which then solidified to consolidated structure. In a selective laser melting process, the variation of melt pool affects the yield of a printed three-dimensional product. For three dimensional parts, the border conditions of the conductive heat transport have a very large influence on the melt pool dimensions. Therefore, melting pool is an important behavior that affects the final quality of the 3D object. To meet the temperature and geometry of the melting pool for monitoring in additive manufacturing technology. In this paper, we proposed the temperature sensing system which is composed of infrared photodiode, high speed camera, band-pass filter, dichroic beam splitter and focus lens. Since the infrared photodiode and high speed camera look at the process through the 2D galvanometer scanner and f-theta lens, the temperature sensing system can be used to observe the melting pool at any time, regardless of the movement of the laser spot. In order to obtain a wide temperature detecting range, 500 °C to 2500 °C, the radiation from the melting pool to be measured is filtered into a plurality of radiation portions, and since the intensity ratio distribution of the radiation portions is calculated by using black-body radiation. The experimental result shows that the system is suitable for melting pool to measure temperature.

  10. Recent advances in probabilistic species pool delineations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Nikolaus Karger


    Full Text Available A species pool is the set of species that could potentially colonize and establish within a community. It has been a commonly used concept in biogeography since the early days of MacArthur and Wilson’s work on Island Biogeography. Despite their simple and appealing definition, an operational application of species pools is bundled with a multitude of problems, which have often resulted in arbitrary decisions and workarounds when defining species pools. Two recently published papers address the operational problems of species pool delineations, and show ways of delineating them in a probabilistic fashion. In both papers, species pools were delineated using a process-based, mechanistical approach, which opens the door for a multitude of new applications in biogeography. Such applications include detecting the hidden signature of biotic interactions, disentangling the geographical structure of community assembly processes, and incorporating a temporal extent into species pools. Although similar in their conclusions, both ‘probabilistic approaches’ differ in their implementation and definitions. Here I give a brief overview of the differences and similarities of both approaches, and identify the challenges and advantages in their application.

  11. Disentangling pooled triad genotypes for association studies. (United States)

    Shi, Min; Umbach, David M; Weinberg, Clarice R


    Association studies that genotype affected offspring and their parents (triads) offer robustness to genetic population structure while enabling assessments of maternal effects, parent-of-origin effects, and gene-by-environment interaction. We propose case-parents designs that use pooled DNA specimens to make economical use of limited available specimens. One can markedly reduce the number of genotyping assays required by randomly partitioning the case-parent triads into pooling sets of h triads each and creating three pools from every pooling set, one pool each for mothers, fathers, and offspring. Maximum-likelihood estimation of relative risk parameters proceeds via log-linear modeling using the expectation-maximization algorithm. The approach can assess offspring and maternal genetic effects and accommodate genotyping errors and missing genotypes. We compare the power of our proposed analysis for testing offspring and maternal genetic effects to that based on a difference approach and that of the gold standard based on individual genotypes, under a range of allele frequencies, missing parent proportions, and genotyping error rates. Power calculations show that the pooling strategies cause only modest reductions in power if genotyping errors are low, while reducing genotyping costs and conserving limited specimens. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. The redox potential of the plastoquinone pool of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis species strain PCC 6803 is under strict homeostatic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurmans, R.M.; Schuurmans, J.M.; Bekker, M.; Kromkamp, J.C.; Matthijs, H.C.P.; Hellingwerf, K.J.


    A method is presented for rapid extraction of the total plastoquinone (PQ) pool from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 cells that preserves the in vivo plastoquinol (PQH2) to -PQ ratio. Cells were rapidly transferred into ice-cold organic solvent for instantaneous extraction of the cellular PQ plus

  13. Nonlinearities in real exchange rate determination: Do African exchange rates follow a random walk?



    Abstract In this paper we aim at modelling the long run behaviour of the Real Effective Exchange Rates (REER) for a pool of African countries. Not much attention has been paid to this group of countries, in particular, to the existence of nonlinearities in the long run path of such a variable. Controlling for two sources of nonlinearites, i.e. asymmetric adjustment to equilibrium and nonlinear deterministic trends allows us to gain some insight about the behaviour of the African R...

  14. [Plasma exchange in nephrology: Indications and technique]. (United States)

    Ridel, Christophe; Kissling, Sébastien; Mesnard, Laurent; Hertig, Alexandre; Rondeau, Éric


    Plasma exchange is a non-selective apheresis technique that can be performed by filtration or centrifugation allowing rapid purification of high molecular weight pathogens. An immunosuppressive treatment is generally associated to reduce the rebound effect of the purified substance. Substitution solutes such as human albumin and macromolecules are needed to compensate for plasma extraction. Compensation by viro-attenuated plasma is reserved solely for the treatment of thrombotic microangiopathies or when there is a risk of bleeding, because this product is very allergenic and expensive. The treatment goal for a plasma exchange session should be between one and one and one-half times the patient's plasma volume estimated at 40 mL/kg body weight. The anticoagulation is best ensured by the citrate. Complications of plasma exchange are quite rare according to the French hemapheresis registry. The level of evidence of efficacy of plasma exchange in nephrology varies from one pathology to another. Main indications of plasma exchange in nephrology are Goodpasture syndrome, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody vasculitis when plasma creatinine is greater than 500 μmol/L, and thrombotic microangiopathies. During renal transplantation, plasma exchange may be proposed in the context of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) desensitization protocols or ABO-incompatible graft. After renal transplantation, plasma exchange is indicated as part of the treatment of acute humoral rejection or recurrent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis on the graft. Plasma exchanges are also proposed in the management of cryoglobulinemia or polyarteritis nodosa. Hemodialysis with membranes of very high permeability tends to replace plasma exchange for myeloma nephropathy. The benefit from plasma exchange has not been formally demonstrated for the treatment of severe lupus or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. There is no indication of plasma exchange in the treatment of scleroderma or nephrogenic

  15. 78 FR 28269 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness... (United States)


    ... liquidity pool, supporting the quality of price discovery, promoting market transparency and improving... of price transparency and displayed markets. See also Mary L. Schapiro, Strengthening Our Equity... the EDGX Exchange and supports price discovery on EDGX. Finally, the Exchange believes that the...

  16. 77 FR 59429 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness... (United States)


    ... proposed rule change is available on the Exchange's Web site at , at the Exchange's... dark pools for low-cost, low impact executions, which takes a greater amount of time to fill an order... submitted by any of the following methods: Electronic Comments Use the Commission's Internet comment form...

  17. 77 FR 59441 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness... (United States)


    ... proposed rule change is available on the Exchange's Web site at , at the Exchange's... dark pools for low-cost, low impact executions, which takes a greater amount of time to fill an order... with the Act. Comments may be submitted by any of the following methods: Electronic Comments Use the...

  18. 77 FR 40664 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and... (United States)


    ... Exchange's Web site ( ), at the Exchange's... (as opposed to routing such orders to dark pools or other trading centers prior to seeking execution... being sent to other trading centers because orders that scrape through multiple trading centers before...

  19. Sulfur Isotope Exchange between S-35 Labeled Inorganic Sulfur-Compounds in Anoxic Marine-Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)



    of isotope exchange, specific radioactivities of the reduced sulfur pools were poorly defined and could not be used to calculate their rates of formation. Such isotope exchange reactions between the reduced inorganic sulfur compounds will affect the stable isotope distribution and are expected to decrease...

  20. Kinetic Analysis of Lactose Exchange in Proteoliposomes Reconstituted with Purified lac Permease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lolkema, Julius S.; Carrasco, Nancy; Kaback, H. Ronald


    Lactose exchange catalyzed by purified lac permease reconstituted into proteoliposomes was analyzed with unequal concentrations of lactose on either side of the membrane and at low pH so as to prevent equilibration of the two pools. Exchange with external concentrations below 1.0 mM is a

  1. Vernal Pool Distribution - Central Valley, 2005 [ds650 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — "Great Valley Vernal Pool Distribution", originally mapped by Bob Holland, 2005. This dataset contains vernal pool areas mapped over Califorina's Central Valley,...

  2. Swimming Pool Electrical Injuries: Steps Toward Prevention. (United States)

    Tashiro, Jun; Burnweit, Cathy A


    Electrical injuries in swimming pools are an important pediatric public health concern. We sought to (1) improve our understanding of the clinical presentation and outcomes following and (2) describe the epidemiology of swimming pool electrical injuries in the United States. We reviewed 4 cases of pediatric (public (23.9%) and sports facilities (19.1%). Electrical outlets or receptacles (39.8%) were most commonly implicated, followed by electrical system doors (18.2%), electric wiring systems (17.0%), thermostats (16.3%), hair dryers (4.6%), and radios (4.1%). Pediatric cases represented 48.4% of swimming pool-related electrical injuries reported to NEISS. Electrical injuries occurring in and around swimming pools remain an important source of morbidity and mortality. Although NEISS monitors sentinel events, current efforts at preventing such cases are less than adequate. All electrical outlets near swimming pools should be properly wired with ground fault circuit interrupter devices. Possible approaches to increasing safe electrical device installation are through strengthening public awareness and education of the potential for injury, as well as changes to current inspection regulations.

  3. Rapid Prototyping (United States)


    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  4. Behavior of Free Aromatic Amino Acid Pools in Rosmarinic Acid-Producing Cell Cultures of Anchusa officinalis L. 1 (United States)

    De-Eknamkul, Wanchai; Ellis, Brian E.


    The pool sizes of free l-phenylalanine and l-tyrosine, the precursors of rosmarinic acid in Anchusa officinalis L. cell suspension cultures, fluctuated during the culture cycle. The major increase in pool sizes was preceded by a peak of prephenate aminotransferase activity, while the subsequent decrease coincided with the presence of high activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and tyrosine aminotransferase, the two entrypoint enzymes of the rosmarinic acid biosynthesis pathway. Timecourse feeding studies with linear growth stage cells revealed that the tyrosine pool turned over rapidly, consistent with direct participation in rosmarinic acid synthesis. Since externally applied l-tyrosine was rapidly incorporated into rosmarinic acid with little evidence of radioactively labeled intermediates, it is suggested that there exists a close coupling between the l-tyrosine pool and the rosmarinic acid biosynthetic pathway, which may involve the channelling of intermediates both into and within the pathway. PMID:16666560

  5. The new pooled cohort equations risk calculator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preiss, David; Kristensen, Søren L


    total cardiovascular risk score. During development of joint guidelines released in 2013 by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA), the decision was taken to develop a new risk score. This resulted in the ACC/AHA Pooled Cohort Equations Risk Calculator. This risk...... disease and any measure of social deprivation. An early criticism of the Pooled Cohort Equations Risk Calculator has been its alleged overestimation of ASCVD risk which, if confirmed in the general population, is likely to result in statin therapy being prescribed to many individuals at lower risk than...

  6. Zooplankton at deep Red Sea brine pools

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein


    The deep-sea anoxic brines of the Red Sea comprise unique, complex and extreme habitats. These environments are too harsh for metazoans, while the brine–seawater interface harbors dense microbial populations. We investigated the adjacent pelagic fauna at two brine pools using net tows, video records from a remotely operated vehicle and submerged echosounders. Waters just above the brine pool of Atlantis II Deep (2000 m depth) appeared depleted of macrofauna. In contrast, the fauna appeared to be enriched at the Kebrit Deep brine–seawater interface (1466 m).

  7. VT Telephone Exchange Boundaries (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The UtilityTelecom_EXCHANGE represents Vermont Telephone Exchange boundaries as defined by the VT Public Service Board. The original data was...

  8. Natural convection heat transfer characteristics of the molten metal pool with solidification by boiling coolant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jae Seon; Suh, Kune Yull; Chung, Chang Hyun [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paark, Rae Joon; Kim, Sang Baik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    This paper presents results of experimental studies on the heat transfer and solidification of the molten metal pool with overlying coolant with boiling. The metal pool is heated from the bottom surface and coolant is injected onto the molten metal pool. Ad a result, the crust, which is a solidified layer, may form at the top of the molten metal pool. Heat transfer is accomplished by a conjugate mechanism, which consists of the natural convection of the molten metal pool, the conduction in the crust layer and the convective boiling heat transfer in the coolant. This work examines the crust formation and the heat transfer rate on the molten metal pool with boiling coolant. The simulant molten pool material is tin (Sn) with the melting temperature of 232 deg C. Demineralized water is used as the working coolant. The crust layer thickness was ostensibly varied by the heated bottom surface temperature of the test section, but not much affected by the coolant injection rate. The correlation between the Nusselt number and the Rayleigh number in the molten metal pool region of this study is compared against the crust formation experiment without coolant boiling and the literature correlations. The present experimental results are higher than those from the experiment without coolant boiling, but show general agreement with the Eckert correlation, with some deviations in the high and low ends of the Rayleigh number. This discrepancy is currently attributed to concurrent rapid boiling of the coolant on top of the metal layer. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  9. A strategy for optimizing item-pool management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariel, A.; van der Linden, Willem J.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.


    Item-pool management requires a balancing act between the input of new items into the pool and the output of tests assembled from it. A strategy for optimizing item-pool management is presented that is based on the idea of a periodic update of an optimal blueprint for the item pool to tune item

  10. 47 CFR 90.35 - Industrial/Business Pool. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial/Business Pool. 90.35 Section 90.35... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Industrial/Business Radio Pool § 90.35 Industrial/Business Pool. (a) Eligibility... Industrial/Business Pool to provide commercial mobile radio service as defined in part 20 of this chapter or...

  11. Analysis of sequential exchanges between vulnerable forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.


    A multi-stage and -step analysis of sequences of crises or exchanges shows that aggressiveness on one side can induce rapid counter-value strikes by the other as well and knowledge that opponents will later become less aggressive does not mitigate the tendency to strike early in crises.

  12. 78 FR 36279 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate... (United States)


    ... Minimum Number of DMM Units an Issuer Must Interview From the Pool of DMM Units Eligible To Participate in... units an issuer must interview from the pool of DMM units eligible to participate in the allocation. The... principal office of the Exchange, and at the Commission's Public Reference Room. II. Self-Regulatory...

  13. Magnetic stability in exchange-spring and exchange bias systems after multiple switching cycles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, J. S.; Inomata, A.; You, C.-Y.; Pearson, J. E.; Bader, S. D.


    We have studied the magnetic stability in exchange bias and exchange spring systems prepared via epitaxial sputter deposition. The two interfacial exchange coupled systems, Fe/Cr(211) double superlattices consisting of a ferromagnetic and an antiferromagnetic Fe/Cr superlattice that are exchange coupled through a Cr spacer, and Sin-Co/Fe exchange-spring bilayer structures with ferromagnetically coupled hard Sin-Co layer and soft Fe layer, were epitaxially grown on suitably prepared Cr buffer layers to give rise to different microstructure and magnetic anisotropy. The magnetic stability was investigated using the magneto-optic Kerr effect during repeated reversal of the soft layer magnetization by field cycling up to 10{sup 7} times. For uniaxial Fe/Cr exchange biased double superlattices and exchange spring bilayers with uniaxial Sin-Co, small but rapid initial decay in the exchange bias field HE and in the remanent magnetization is observed. However, the exchange spring bilayers with biaxial and random in-plane anisotropy in the Sin-Co layer shows gradual decay in H{sub E} and without large reduction of the magnetization. The different decay behaviors are attributed to the different microstructure and spin configuration of the pinning layers.

  14. Enhanced heat transfer in confined pool boiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rops, C.M.; Lindken, R.; Velthuis, J.F.M.; Westerweel, J.


    We report the results of an experimental investigation of the heat transfer during nucleate boiling on a spatially confined boiling surface. The heat flux as a function of the boiling surface temperature was measured in pool boiling pots with diameters ranging from 15 mm down to 4.5 mm. It was found

  15. (Teleostei; Clinidae) in intertidal rock pools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting species richness and abundance of clinid fish(Fam. Clinidae)in 19 intertidal rock pools near Muizenberg, South Africa, were investigated. Some measure of cover is the most important predictor of clinid species richness, abundance and biomass. Intraspecific partitioning of habitat by Clinus superciliosus ...

  16. CDC Study Finds Fecal Contamination in Pools (United States)

    ... swimming pools, water parks, hot tubs, interactive fountains, water play areas, lakes, rivers, or oceans. To view the report, please visit CDC recommends that all swimmers take the ... out of the water. Do not swim when you have diarrhea. Shower ...

  17. Blood pool images of soft tissue tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Seiichi; Kawaguchi, Noriyoshi; Manabe, Jun; Kuroda, Hiroshi; Shimoji, Takashi; Oyamada, Hiyoshimaru (Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital)


    From January 1986 through August 1992, three-phase bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) or Tc-99m hydroxy methylene diphosphonate (HMDP) was performed on consecutive 152 patients with pathologically proven soft tissue tumors. The ability of blood pool scintigraphy to delineate tumors was examined in evaluable 149 patients. According to tumor histology, it showed hot spots in 28/29 for malignant fibrous histiocytoma, 16/16 for liposarcoma, 8/8 for periosteal sarcoma, 42/43 for other sarcomas, 10/11 for neurilemoma, 12/14 for desmoid, 1/4 for myxoma, 5/5 for pigmented villonodullar synovitis or giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, 7/7 for angiomas, and 9/12 for other benign tumors. Malignant tumors were shown as hot spots in 98% (94/96) and the entire tumors, including benign ones, in 93% (138/149). Blood pool scintigraphy was inferior in detecting mucous tumors and small nodules. It could not differentiate between degeneration or necrosis and cytoma that were detectable on MRI. Blood pool scintigraphy was superior in determining the outcome of preoperative chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. In conclusion, blood pool scintigraphy is an essential preoperative method for providing useful information on soft tissue tumors. (N.K.).

  18. Measurements of fluid flow in weld pools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, C.


    Understanding the fluid flow in weld pools contributes significantly toward controlling the heat distribution in the base material and the mass distribution of molten base and additive materials. Currently, most investigations focus primarily on numerical models, due to the experimental difficulties

  19. DNA pooling strategies for categorical (ordinal) traits (United States)

    Despite reduced genotyping costs in recent years, obtaining genotypes for all individuals in a population may still not be feasible when sample size is large. DNA pooling provides a useful alternative to determining genotype effects. Clustering algorithms allow for grouping of individuals (observati...

  20. Pool boiling inversion through bubble induced macroconvection (United States)

    Jaikumar, A.; Kandlikar, S. G.


    While numerous surface geometries have been explored to achieve enhancements in pool boiling critical heat flux and heat transfer coefficient (HTC), their mechanistic contributions towards the characteristics of the pool boiling curve are not clear. Recently reported pool boiling curves in literature have shown a trend where an increase in heat flux leads to a decrease in wall superheat. Consequently, a negative slope in the pool boiling curve accompanied by a sharp increase in HTC, termed here as boiling inversion, is observed. We demonstrate that this inversion is due to vapor stream induced reinforcement of an impinging liquid jet over the non-boiling regions. This behavior is characteristic of surfaces developed using separate liquid-vapor pathways and macroconvection enhancement mechanism resulting in a highly efficient self-sustained boiling configuration. The increased jet impingement velocities lead to higher HTCs with lower wall superheats. The analytical models available in literature are employed to quantitatively explain this trend. Furthermore, a self-adjusting boiling mechanism is seen at play wherein a reduction in nucleation activity due to lowering of wall superheat counters the increase in HTC induced by the macroconvective currents.

  1. 28 CFR 540.64 - Press pools. (United States)


    ... magazines and newspapers; and (4) All media in the local community where the institution is located. If no... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.64 Press pools. (a) The Warden may establish a... shall notify all news media representatives who have requested interviews or visits that have not been...

  2. Pricing Electricity in Pools With Wind Producers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales González, Juan Miguel; Conejo, A. J.; Kai Liu


    This paper considers an electricity pool that includes a significant number of wind producers and is cleared through a network-constrained auction, one day in advance and on an hourly basis. The hourly auction is formulated as a two-stage stochastic programming problem, where the first stage repr...

  3. Pooling ASR data for closely related languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, C


    Full Text Available We describe several experiments that were conducted to assess the viability of data pooling as a means to improve speech-recognition performance for under-resourced languages. Two groups of closely related languages from the Southern Bantu language...

  4. "Teisele poole" Agambeniga ja Agambenita / Ragne Nukk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nukk, Ragne, 1984-


    Tallinna Fotokuu rahvusvahelise fotonäituse "Teisele poole" ideeliste lähtekohtade tõlgendamisest. Autor kõrvutab Adam Budaki kuraatornäituse aluseks olnud Giorgio Agambeni esseed „Viimne kohtupäev“ näitusel eksponeeritud piltidega

  5. Rapid evolution of distinct Helicobacter pylori subpopulations in the Americas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaisa Thorell


    Full Text Available For the last 500 years, the Americas have been a melting pot both for genetically diverse humans and for the pathogenic and commensal organisms associated with them. One such organism is the stomach-dwelling bacterium Helicobacter pylori, which is highly prevalent in Latin America where it is a major current public health challenge because of its strong association with gastric cancer. By analyzing the genome sequence of H. pylori isolated in North, Central and South America, we found evidence for admixture between H. pylori of European and African origin throughout the Americas, without substantial input from pre-Columbian (hspAmerind bacteria. In the US, strains of African and European origin have remained genetically distinct, while in Colombia and Nicaragua, bottlenecks and rampant genetic exchange amongst isolates have led to the formation of national gene pools. We found three outer membrane proteins with atypical levels of Asian ancestry in American strains, as well as alleles that were nearly fixed specifically in South American isolates, suggesting a role for the ethnic makeup of hosts in the colonization of incoming strains. Our results show that new H. pylori subpopulations can rapidly arise, spread and adapt during times of demographic flux, and suggest that differences in transmission ecology between high and low prevalence areas may substantially affect the composition of bacterial populations.

  6. Benthic assemblages of rock pools in northern Portugal: seasonal and between-pool variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacopo Bertocci


    Full Text Available We investigated the seasonal (winter vs summer and within season and spatial (between-pool variability of benthic assemblages of rock pools at mid-intertidal level along the shore of Viana do Castelo (North Portugal. Physical traits of rock pools, including size, depth and position along the shore, were also compared between pools. While pools did not differ for any of the examined physical traits, results indicated a clear seasonal difference in the structure of assemblages, including a total of 49 macroalgal and 13 animal taxa. This finding was driven by six taxa that are more abundant in winter (the reef-forming polychaete Sabellaria alveolata, the articulated coralline algae Corallina spp., the brown alga Bifurcaria bifurcata, the encrusting coralline alga Lithophyllum incrustans, the red alga Chondracanthus acicularis and the grazing snails Gibbula spp. and four algal taxa that are more abundant in summer (the invasive brown Sargassum muticum, the green Ulva spp., the kelp Laminaria ochroleuca and the filamentous red Ceramium spp.. These data provide a new contribution to the knowledge of rock pool systems and have potential implications for monitoring programmes aimed at assessing ecological modifications related to natural and anthropogenic disturbances and for identifying processes responsible for the variability of rock pool assemblages.

  7. Quantitative aspects of oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative aspects of oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange through the lungs in Ocypode ceratophthalmus (Crustacea: Decapoda) during rest and exercise in water ... The percent accumulated 14-CO2 in exhaled air, plotted against time, intersects zero time on the x-axis, indicating rapid gas exchange at the lung surface.

  8. Ideal Heat Exchange System (United States)

    Tsirlin, A. M.


    The requirements with which a heat exchange system should comply in order that at certain values of the total contact surface and heat load the entropy production in it should be minimal have been determined. It has been shown that this system can serve as a standard for real systems of irreversible heat exchange. We have found the conditions for physical realizability of a heat exchange system in which heat exchange occurs by a law linear with respect to the temperature difference between contacting flows. Analogous conditions are given without deriving for the case of heat exchange by the Fourier law.

  9. Resolution exchange simulation. (United States)

    Lyman, Edward; Ytreberg, F Marty; Zuckerman, Daniel M


    We extend replica-exchange simulation in two ways and apply our approaches to biomolecules. The first generalization permits exchange simulation between models of differing resolution--i.e., between detailed and coarse-grained models. Such "resolution exchange" can be applied to molecular systems or spin systems. The second extension is to "pseudoexchange" simulations, which require little CPU usage for most levels of the exchange ladder and also substantially reduce the need for overlap between levels. Pseudoexchanges can be used in either replica or resolution exchange simulations. We perform efficient, converged simulations of a 50-atom peptide to illustrate the new approaches.

  10. Optimal sampling schedule for chemical exchange saturation transfer. (United States)

    Tee, Y K; Khrapitchev, A A; Sibson, N R; Payne, S J; Chappell, M A


    The sampling schedule for chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging is normally uniformly distributed across the saturation frequency offsets. When this kind of evenly distributed sampling schedule is used to quantify the chemical exchange saturation transfer effect using model-based analysis, some of the collected data are minimally informative to the parameters of interest. For example, changes in labile proton exchange rate and concentration mainly affect the magnetization near the resonance frequency of the labile pool. In this study, an optimal sampling schedule was designed for a more accurate quantification of amine proton exchange rate and concentration, and water center frequency shift based on an algorithm previously applied to magnetization transfer and arterial spin labeling. The resulting optimal sampling schedule samples repeatedly around the resonance frequency of the amine pool and also near to the water resonance to maximize the information present within the data for quantitative model-based analysis. Simulation and experimental results on tissue-like phantoms showed that greater accuracy and precision (>30% and >46%, respectively, for some cases) were achieved in the parameters of interest when using optimal sampling schedule compared with evenly distributed sampling schedule. Hence, the proposed optimal sampling schedule could replace evenly distributed sampling schedule in chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging to improve the quantification of the chemical exchange saturation transfer effect and parameter estimation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Determinants of chlorination by-products in indoor swimming pools. (United States)

    Bessonneau, Vincent; Derbez, Mickaël; Clément, Michel; Thomas, Olivier


    Water and air quality of fifteen swimming pools using chlorine disinfection was measured during eight sampling campaigns in Rennes, France. Concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) and trichloramine (NCl(3)) in air as well as concentrations of parameters, including total organic carbon (TOC), chlorine (free, combined and total), pH, Kjeldhal nitrogen (KN), chloride ions and THMs in water and air temperature, were measured. Water and air samples were collected during 3h in the morning and afternoon, during high and low attendance days, in summer and winter. Data analysis was perfomed by multivariate ordinary least square (OLS) and quantile (QR) regressions, from both data quality and other parameters such as the ratio between the number of visitors and the volume of water available V/W, the proportion of air re-circulated and the number of swimmers during sampling. The geometric means (GM±95% CIs) of the sum of THMs (TTHM) and NCl(3) in air were 74.9±6.7 μg/m(3) and 190±10 μg/m(3), respectively. As expected, concentrations of TTHM in air were correlated to concentrations of TTHM in water. Concentrations of TTHM and NCl(3) in air measured in winter were significantly higher than in summer, depicting that low air exchange rate in winter lead to accumulation of pollutants. NCl(3) (especially at higher quantiles) and TTHM concentrations in air were associated to the number of swimmers. NCl(3) was also linked to air temperature and pH. Moreover TTHM and NCl(3) in air seemed to be affected by additional determinants including the volume of hall and the ratio V/W. In a process of reducing exposure, the OLS regression provides useful information on key parameters influencing concentrations of THMs and NCl(3) in indoor swimming pools. In addition, QR allows identifying factors associated to elevated levels of contamination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. ViPAR: a software platform for the Virtual Pooling and Analysis of Research Data. (United States)

    Carter, Kim W; Francis, Richard W; Carter, K W; Francis, R W; Bresnahan, M; Gissler, M; Grønborg, T K; Gross, R; Gunnes, N; Hammond, G; Hornig, M; Hultman, C M; Huttunen, J; Langridge, A; Leonard, H; Newman, S; Parner, E T; Petersson, G; Reichenberg, A; Sandin, S; Schendel, D E; Schalkwyk, L; Sourander, A; Steadman, C; Stoltenberg, C; Suominen, A; Surén, P; Susser, E; Sylvester Vethanayagam, A; Yusof, Z


    Research studies exploring the determinants of disease require sufficient statistical power to detect meaningful effects. Sample size is often increased through centralized pooling of disparately located datasets, though ethical, privacy and data ownership issues can often hamper this process. Methods that facilitate the sharing of research data that are sympathetic with these issues and which allow flexible and detailed statistical analyses are therefore in critical need. We have created a software platform for the Virtual Pooling and Analysis of Research data (ViPAR), which employs free and open source methods to provide researchers with a web-based platform to analyse datasets housed in disparate locations. Database federation permits controlled access to remotely located datasets from a central location. The Secure Shell protocol allows data to be securely exchanged between devices over an insecure network. ViPAR combines these free technologies into a solution that facilitates 'virtual pooling' where data can be temporarily pooled into computer memory and made available for analysis without the need for permanent central storage. Within the ViPAR infrastructure, remote sites manage their own harmonized research dataset in a database hosted at their site, while a central server hosts the data federation component and a secure analysis portal. When an analysis is initiated, requested data are retrieved from each remote site and virtually pooled at the central site. The data are then analysed by statistical software and, on completion, results of the analysis are returned to the user and the virtually pooled data are removed from memory. ViPAR is a secure, flexible and powerful analysis platform built on open source technology that is currently in use by large international consortia, and is made publicly available at []. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  13. Balanced contribution of glycolytic and adenylate pool in supply of metabolic energy in platelets. (United States)

    Verhoeven, A J; Mommersteeg, M E; Akkerman, J W


    When platelets are treated with H2O2 the metabolic ATP content decreases sharply (Holmsen, H., and Robkin, L. (1977) J. Biol. Chem. 252, 1752-1757). Here we report that the loss of metabolic energy is fully recovered in phosphorylated glycolytic intermediates. A mixture of antimycin A/2-deoxy-D-glucose/D-gluconic acid-1,5-lactone blocks mitochondrial ATP resynthesis and prevents the entry of sugars into the glycolytic sequence. The energy-rich phosphates in the adenylate and the glycolytic pool are then consumed in a specific order. First, the glycolytic pool is consumed at a rate of 4.5 mumol of ATP equivalents/min/10(11) cells, and metabolic ATP and ADP are kept stable; then the consumption of the glycolytic pool decreases and metabolic ATP and ADP are consumed, together keeping up with the same rate of energy consumption. Thrombin stimulation increases the energy consumption to about 17 mumol of ATPeq/min/10(11) cells which is now furnished by both the glycolytic and the adenylate pool, again with a preferential consumption of the former. The results show that H2O2 triggers a shift of energy-rich phosphates from the adenylate to the glycolytic pool and that the latter remains rapidly accessible to energy consumption thereby stabilizing the level of metabolic ATP. The adenylate energy charge is independent of the distribution of energy among the two pools, which extends its importance to the regulation of energy supply and demand beyond the adenylate pool.

  14. Degradation of Organic UV filters in Chlorinated Seawater Swimming Pools: Transformation Pathways and Bromoform Formation. (United States)

    Manasfi, Tarek; Coulomb, Bruno; Ravier, Sylvain; Boudenne, Jean-Luc


    Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters are used in sunscreens and other personal-care products to protect against harmful effects of exposure to UV solar radiation. Little is known about the fate of UV filters in seawater swimming pools disinfected with chlorine. The present study investigated the occurrence and fate of five commonly used organic UV filters, namely dioxybenzone, oxybenzone, avobenzone, 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate, and octocrylene, in chlorinated seawater swimming pools. Pool samples were collected to monitor the variation of UV filter concentrations during pool opening hours. Furthermore, laboratory-controlled chlorination experiments were conducted in seawater spiked with UV filters to investigate the reactivity of UV filters. Extracts of chlorination reaction samples were analyzed using high-resolution mass spectrometry and electron-capture detection to identify the potentially formed byproducts. In the collected pool samples, all the UV filters except dioxybenzone were detected. Chlorination reactions showed that only octocrylene was stable in chlorinated seawater. The four reactive UV filters generated brominated transformation products and disinfection byproducts. This formation of brominated products resulted from reactions between the reactive UV filters and bromine, which is formed rapidly when chlorine is added to seawater. Based on the identified byproducts, the transformation pathways of the reactive UV filters were proposed for the first time. Bromoform was generated by all the reactive UV filters at different yields. Bromal hydrate was also detected as one of the byproducts generated by oxybenzone and dioxybenzone.

  15. Review and assessment of pool scrubbing models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, L.E.; Escudero, M.J.; Peyres, V.; Polo, J.; Lopez, J.


    Decontamination of fission products bearing bubbles as they pass through aqueous pools becomes a crucial phenomenon for source term evaluation of hypothetical risk dominant sequences of Light Water Reactors. In the present report a peer review and assessment of models encapsulated in SPARC and BUSCA codes is presented. Several aspects of pool scrubbing have been addressed: particle removal, fission product vapour retention and bubble hydrodynamics. Particular emphasis has been given to the close link between retention and hydrodynamics, from both modelling and experimental point of view. In addition, RHR and SGTR sequences were simulated with SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 codes, and their results were compared with those obtained with MAAP 3.0B. As a result of this work, model capabilities and shortcomings have been assessed and some areas susceptible of further research have been identified. (Author) 73 refs.

  16. Platelet storage pool deficiency in Jacobsen syndrome. (United States)

    White, James G


    Jacobsen syndrome and Paris-Trousseau Syndrome share similar congenital anomalies, thrombocytopenia, giant platelet alpha granules resulting from fusion of smaller organelles, and an 11q terminal deletion at 11q23.3. Similarities in the two cohorts have suggested that the Paris-Trousseau Syndrome is a variant of Jacobsen syndrome, or the same disorder. The present study has pointed out a significant difference between the two syndromes. Platelets from six patients with Jacobsen syndrome were markedly diminished in serotonin adenine nucleotide rich dense bodies, indicating the presence of platelet storage pool deficiency. Since platelet dense bodies are reported to be normal in size, number and distribution in the Paris-Trousseau Syndrome, the presence of platelet storage pool deficiency in six patients evaluated in the present study may distinguish the two disorders.

  17. Unveiling the Black Markets of Pooled Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Atapattu


    Full Text Available Presence of black markets is not common for every industry but is a unique phenomenon in the industries such as asset pooling and leasing services. The unique business models and the asset flows that we see in such industries are susceptible for such threats and reveals the nature and extent of extent of industry-specific threats. This paper employs agility lens (Overby et al. 2006; Roberts and Grover 2012 to understand how such firms could address the issue of black market threats with the help of network structure. Through a case study of a global asset pooling and leasing company, we reveal the criticality of network structures, the difficulties, inadequacies and impracticalities of current tracking technologies that challenge firms in minimizing such threats.

  18. Strategies for chemically healthy public swimming pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht

    spreading of pathogens between swimmers because of its residual disinfection effect. In addition to potential contamination of pathogenic microorganisms, swimming pool water is polluted by organic matter deposited from the bathers such as saliva, urine, sweat, hair and personal care products. Since chlorine...... avoided. Hair and skin cells are precursors for DBPs so good filtration with fast removal of particles could also be an option to obtain lower DBPs formation. Another way to remove precursors is to ozonate the pool water, since ozonation of the precursors leads to organic compound which is less reactive...... affected the investigated groups of DBPs differently. An analogue consisting of the main component in urine and sweat and particles consisting of skin cells and hair were used as precursor material and in both cases the formation of THMs decreased with decreasing pH while HAN formation increased...

  19. Phosphorylation of Synaptojanin Differentially Regulates Endocytosis of Functionally Distinct Synaptic Vesicle Pools. (United States)

    Geng, Junhua; Wang, Liping; Lee, Joo Yeun; Chen, Chun-Kan; Chang, Karen T


    The rapid replenishment of synaptic vesicles through endocytosis is crucial for sustaining synaptic transmission during intense neuronal activity. Synaptojanin (Synj), a phosphoinositide phosphatase, is known to play an important role in vesicle recycling by promoting the uncoating of clathrin following synaptic vesicle uptake. Synj has been shown to be a substrate of the minibrain (Mnb) kinase, a fly homolog of the dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A); however, the functional impacts of Synj phosphorylation by Mnb are not well understood. Here we identify that Mnb phosphorylates Synj at S1029 in Drosophila We find that phosphorylation of Synj at S1029 enhances Synj phosphatase activity, alters interaction between Synj and endophilin, and promotes efficient endocytosis of the active cycling vesicle pool (also referred to as exo-endo cycling pool) at the expense of reserve pool vesicle endocytosis. Dephosphorylated Synj, on the other hand, is deficient in the endocytosis of the active recycling pool vesicles but maintains reserve pool vesicle endocytosis to restore total vesicle pool size and sustain synaptic transmission. Together, our findings reveal a novel role for Synj in modulating reserve pool vesicle endocytosis and further indicate that dynamic phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of Synj differentially maintain endocytosis of distinct functional synaptic vesicle pools. Synaptic vesicle endocytosis sustains communication between neurons during a wide range of neuronal activities by recycling used vesicle membrane and protein components. Here we identify that Synaptojanin, a protein with a known role in synaptic vesicle endocytosis, is phosphorylated at S1029 in vivo by the Minibrain kinase. We further demonstrate that the phosphorylation status of Synaptojanin at S1029 differentially regulates its participation in the recycling of distinct synaptic vesicle pools. Our results reveal a new role for Synaptojanin in

  20. Poole-frenkel piezoconductive element and sensor (United States)

    Habermehl, Scott D.


    A new class of highly sensitive piezoconductive strain sensor elements and sensors has been invented. The new elements function under conditions such that electrical conductivity is dominated by Poole-Frenkel transport. A substantial piezoconductive effect appears in this regime, allowing the new sensors to exhibit sensitivity to applied strain as much as two orders of magnitude in excess of prior art sensors based on doped silicon.

  1. Adaptively Compressed Exchange Operator

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Lin


    The Fock exchange operator plays a central role in modern quantum chemistry. The large computational cost associated with the Fock exchange operator hinders Hartree-Fock calculations and Kohn-Sham density functional theory calculations with hybrid exchange-correlation functionals, even for systems consisting of hundreds of atoms. We develop the adaptively compressed exchange operator (ACE) formulation, which greatly reduces the computational cost associated with the Fock exchange operator without loss of accuracy. The ACE formulation does not depend on the size of the band gap, and thus can be applied to insulating, semiconducting as well as metallic systems. In an iterative framework for solving Hartree-Fock-like systems, the ACE formulation only requires moderate modification of the code, and can be potentially beneficial for all electronic structure software packages involving exchange calculations. Numerical results indicate that the ACE formulation can become advantageous even for small systems with tens...

  2. Vesicle Pools: Lessons from Adrenal Chromaffin Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Stevens


    Full Text Available The adrenal chromaffin cell serves as a model system to study fast Ca2+-dependent exocytosis. Membrane capacitance measurements in combination with Ca2+ uncaging offers a temporal resolution in the millisecond range and reveals that catecholamine release occurs in three distinct phases. Release of a readily releasable (RRP and a slowly releasable (SRP pool are followed by sustained release, due to maturation and release of vesicles which were not release-ready at the start of the stimulus. Trains of depolarizations, a more physiological stimulus, induce release from a small immediately releasable pool of vesicles residing adjacent to calcium channels, as well as from the RRP. The SRP is poorly activated by depolarization. A sequential model, in which non-releasable docked vesicles are primed to a slowly releasable state, and then further mature to the readily releasable state, has been proposed. The docked state, dependent on membrane proximity, requires SNAP-25, synaptotagmin and syntaxin. The ablation or modification of SNAP-25 and syntaxin, components of the SNARE complex, as well as of synaptotagmin, the calcium sensor, and modulators such complexins and Snapin alter the properties and/or magnitudes of different phases of release, and in particular can ablate the RRP. These results indicate that the composition of the SNARE complex and its interaction with modulatory molecules drives priming and provides a molecular basis for different pools of releasable vesicles.

  3. Condensation of vapor bubble in subcooled pool (United States)

    Horiuchi, K.; Koiwa, Y.; Kaneko, T.; Ueno, I.


    We focus on condensation process of vapor bubble exposed to a pooled liquid of subcooled conditions. Two different geometries are employed in the present research; one is the evaporation on the heated surface, that is, subcooled pool boiling, and the other the injection of vapor into the subcooled pool. The test fluid is water, and all series of the experiments are conducted under the atmospheric pressure condition. The degree of subcooling is ranged from 10 to 40 K. Through the boiling experiment, unique phenomenon known as microbubble emission boiling (MEB) is introduced; this phenomenon realizes heat flux about 10 times higher than the critical heat flux. Condensation of the vapor bubble is the key phenomenon to supply ambient cold liquid to the heated surface. In order to understand the condensing process in the MEB, we prepare vapor in the vapor generator instead of the evaporation on the heated surface, and inject the vapor to expose the vapor bubble to the subcooled liquid. Special attention is paid to the dynamics of the vapor bubble detected by the high-speed video camera, and on the enhancement of the heat transfer due to the variation of interface area driven by the condensation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Łaskawiec


    Full Text Available The tests were to specify the toxic effect on the basis of Vibrio fischeri luminescence inhibition caused by chemical compounds present in pool water samples. The testing tool was Microtox®; This biotest produces quick results thus making it a comfortable tool for testing water for various toxicants. Furthermore, UV254 absorbance measure was carried out and its value was a proxy parameter for defining participation of precursors to disinfection by-products in the samples. Some of the samples had high UV254 values, one of them was 144 m 1. The Microtox® quality tests of indoor and outdoor swimming pool water presented in the paper proved impact of such factors like air exchange or supply of pool water circulation on water quality. Seasonal bathing waters had lower toxicity values. In the context of the work specifies that the impurities in the water cause its toxicity. However, there was no relationship between high UV254 absorbance values and higher toxicity of the samples. The toxicological analysis may serve as a screening test of swimming pool water quality. It is of key importance to check the free chlorine value for a water sample. High chlorine concentration can cause higher bioluminescence inhibition values.

  5. Laser Processed Heat Exchangers (United States)

    Hansen, Scott


    The Laser Processed Heat Exchanger project will investigate the use of laser processed surfaces to reduce mass and volume in liquid/liquid heat exchangers as well as the replacement of the harmful and problematic coatings of the Condensing Heat Exchangers (CHX). For this project, two scale unit test articles will be designed, manufactured, and tested. These two units are a high efficiency liquid/liquid HX and a high reliability CHX.

  6. Microsoft Exchange 2013 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Van Horenbeeck, Michael


    This book is a practical, hands-on guide that provides the reader with a number of clear, step-by-step exercises.""Microsoft Exchange 2013 Cookbook"" is targeted at network administrators who deal with the Exchange server in their day-to-day jobs. It assumes you have some practical experience with previous versions of Exchange (although this is not a requirement), without being a subject matter expert.

  7. Microtube strip heat exchanger (United States)

    Doty, F. D.


    During the last quarter, Doty Scientific, Inc. (DSI) continued to make progress on the microtube strip (MTS) heat exchanger. The DSI completed a heat exchanger stress analysis of the ten-module heat exchanger bank; and performed a shell-side flow inhomogeneity analysis of the three-module heat exchanger bank. The company produced 50 tubestrips using an in-house CNC milling machine and began pressing them onto tube arrays. The DSI revised some of the tooling required to encapsulate a tube array and press tubestrips into the array to improve some of the prototype tooling.

  8. Hard Colour Singlet Exchange at the Tevatron

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian; Lonnblad, Leif; Cox, Brian; Forshaw, Jeff; Lonnblad, Leif


    We have performed a detailed phenomenological investigation of the hard colour singlet exchange process which is observed at the Tevatron in events which have a large rapidity gap between outgoing jets. We include the effects of multiple interactions to obtain a prediction for the gap survival factor. Comparing the data on the fraction of gap events with the prediction from BFKL pomeron exchange we find agreement provided that a constant value of alpha_s is used in the BFKL calculation. Moreover, the value of alpha_s is in line with that extracted from measurements made at HERA.

  9. Oxygen exchange in silicone rubber capillaries. (United States)

    Heineken, F G; Predecki, P K; Filley, G F


    Capillaries of 7 and 12.5 mu diameter have been fabricated in silicone rubber. Whole blood treated with heparin has been perfused through these capillaries. Under flowing conditions, no clotting or other clumping effects have been observed and red cells appear to maintain a constant velocity. Oxygen transfer data to and from saline perfusing the 12.5 mu diameter capillaries have been obtained in order to determine how rapidly O2 will permeate the silicone rubber film. The data indicate that the capillaries simulate lung tissue oxygen exchange and will allow for the first time the experimental determination of oxygen exchange kinetics in flowing whole blood.

  10. Hadron Spectroscopy in Double Pomeron Exchange Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrow, Michael [Fermilab


    Central exclusive production in hadron-hadron collisions at high energies, for example p + p -> p + X + p, where the "+" represents a large rapidity gap, is a valuable process for spectroscopy of mesonic states X. At collider energies the gaps can be large enough to be dominated by pomeron exchange, and then the quantum numbers of the state X are restricted. Isoscalar JPC = 0++ and 2++ mesons are selected, and our understanding of these spectra is incomplete. In particular, soft pomeron exchanges favor gluon-dominated states such as glueballs, which are expected in QCD but not yet well established. I will review some published data.

  11. Hadron spectroscopy in double pomeron exchange experiments (United States)

    Albrow, Michael G.


    Central exclusive production in hadron-hadron collisions at high energies, for example p + p → p + X + p, where the + represents a large rapidity gap, is a valuable process for spectroscopy of mesonic states X. At collider energies the gaps can be large enough to be dominated by pomeron exchange, and then the quantum numbers of the state X are restricted. Isoscalar JPC = 0++ and 2++ mesons are selected, and our understanding of these spectra is incomplete. In particular, soft pomeron exchanges favor gluon-dominated states such as glueballs, which are expected in QCD but not yet well established. I will review some published data.

  12. Analysis of Particulate and Dissolved Metabolite Pools at Station ALOHA (United States)

    Boysen, A.; Carlson, L.; Hmelo, L.; Ingalls, A. E.


    Metabolomic studies focus on identifying and quantifying the small organic molecules that are the currency by which an organism lives and dies. Metabolite profiles of microorganisms have the potential to elucidate mechanisms of chemically mediated interactions that influence the success of microbial groups living in a complex environment. However, the chemical diversity of metabolites makes resolving a wide range of compounds analytically challenging. As such, metabolomics has lagged behind other genomic analyses. Here we conduct targeted analysis of over 200 primary and secondary metabolites present in the intracellular and extracellular metabolite pools at Station ALOHA using both reverse phase and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. We selected the metabolites in our method due to their known importance in primary metabolism, secondary metabolism, and interactions between marine microorganisms such as nutrient exchange, growth promotion, and cell signaling. Through these analyses we obtain a snapshot of microbial community status that, blended with other forms of genomic data, can further our understanding of microbial dynamics. We hypothesize that monitoring a large suite of important metabolites across environmental gradients and diurnal cycles can elucidate factors controlling the distribution and activity of important microbial groups.

  13. Contribution of calcium oxalate to soil-exchangeable calcium (United States)

    Dauer, Jenny M.; Perakis, Steven S.


    Acid deposition and repeated biomass harvest have decreased soil calcium (Ca) availability in many temperate forests worldwide, yet existing methods for assessing available soil Ca do not fully characterize soil Ca forms. To account for discrepancies in ecosystem Ca budgets, it has been hypothesized that the highly insoluble biomineral Ca oxalate might represent an additional soil Ca pool that is not detected in standard measures of soil-exchangeable Ca. We asked whether several standard method extractants for soil-exchangeable Ca could also access Ca held in Ca oxalate crystals using spike recovery tests in both pure solutions and soil extractions. In solutions of the extractants ammonium chloride, ammonium acetate, and barium chloride, we observed 2% to 104% dissolution of Ca oxalate crystals, with dissolution increasing with both solution molarity and ionic potential of cation extractant. In spike recovery tests using a low-Ca soil, we estimate that 1 M ammonium acetate extraction dissolved sufficient Ca oxalate to contribute an additional 52% to standard measurements of soil-exchangeable Ca. However, in a high-Ca soil, the amount of Ca oxalate spike that would dissolve in 1 M ammonium acetate extraction was difficult to detect against the large pool of exchangeable Ca. We conclude that Ca oxalate can contribute substantially to standard estimates of soil-exchangeable Ca in acid forest soils with low soil-exchangeable Ca. Consequently, measures of exchangeable Ca are unlikely to fully resolve discrepancies in ecosystem Ca mass balance unless the contribution of Ca oxalate to exchangeable Ca is also assessed.

  14. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 18 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  15. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 8 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  16. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 4 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  17. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 13 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  18. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 6 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  19. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 20 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  20. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 21 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  1. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 19 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  2. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 24 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  3. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 26 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  4. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 14 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  5. 47 CFR 52.20 - Thousands-block number pooling. (United States)


    ... 52.20 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... number pooling as a mandatory nationwide numbering resource optimization strategy, all carriers, except... implemented and in accordance with the national thousands-block number pooling framework and implementation...

  6. [Tiit Hennoste loengusarjast 'Hüpped modernismi poole'] / Hasso Krull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krull, Hasso, 1964-


    Tiit Hennoste loengusarjast 'Hüpped modernismi poole : Eesti 20. sajandi kirjandusest Euroopa modernismi taustal' (1993, nr. 10 - 1997, nr. 10/11).Vastukaja: Hüpped modernismi poole: kajad ja vastukajad // Vikerkaar (1998) nr. 6, lk. 99-111

  7. Performance Study and Dynamic Optimization Design for Thread Pool Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Dongping [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Thread pools have been widely used by many multithreaded applications. However, the determination of the pool size according to the application behavior still remains problematic. To automate this process, in this thesis we have developed a set of performance metrics for quantitatively analyzing thread pool performance. For our experiments, we built a thread pool system which provides a general framework for thread pool research. Based on this simulation environment, we studied the performance impact brought by the thread pool on different multithreaded applications. Additionally, the correlations between internal characterizations of thread pools and their throughput were also examined. We then proposed and evaluated a heuristic algorithm to dynamically determine the optimal thread pool size. The simulation results show that this approach is effective in improving overall application performance.

  8. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 09 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  9. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 3 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  10. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 25 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  11. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 7 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  12. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 5 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  13. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 10 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  14. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 22 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  15. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 5a (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  16. Hydrology of vernal pools at three sites, southern Sacramento Valley (United States)


    The subsurface hydrology of vernal pools at three vernal pool complexes was investigated during three wet seasons in 2002- : 2004. The complexes were at Gridley Ranch, Valensin Ranch, and the Mather Field in northern California. The selected : comple...

  17. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Pool 12 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  18. Exchangeable Phosphorus Pools and Equilibrium Characteristics for River Sediment as a Function of Particle Size (United States)


    P), sodium hydroxide-extractable P (i.e., aluminum-bound P), and hydrochloric acid -extractable P (i.e., calcium-bound P). A subsample of the sodium ...digestion with nitric and hydrochloric acid (American Public Health Association 2005). Aliquots (~500 mg L-1 dry weight equivalent to simulate...1988), and Nürnberg (1988) to determine ammonium-chloride- extractable P (i.e., loosely-bound P), bicarbonate dithionite-extractable P (i.e., iron-bound

  19. GRUNDTVIG in transnational exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grundtvig in transnational exchange is the report from the seminar in december 2015 in cooperation with University of Cape Town and University of Hamburg.......Grundtvig in transnational exchange is the report from the seminar in december 2015 in cooperation with University of Cape Town and University of Hamburg....

  20. Optimization of Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivan Catton


    The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics )pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger disign.

  1. Education and Industry Exchange (United States)

    Webb, Gerald A.


    Through an exchange plan a school representative worked at the personnel counter of a local company, and a supervisor from that company worked with counselors, faculty, administrators, and students from the local school. The exchange of ideas and insights were of benefit to the school and the company. (KP)

  2. Mitigating the impact of swimming pools on domestic water demand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the impact that swimming pools have on domestic water demand. The results support the contention that properties with swimming pools use significantly more water than those without. This study estimated the additional demand resulting from swimming pools at between 2.2–2.4 kℓ/month or 7–8% of total water demand.

  3. Using "residual depths" to monitor pool depths independently of discharge (United States)

    Thomas E. Lisle


    As vital components of habitat for stream fishes, pools are often monitored to follow the effects of enhancement projects and natural stream processes. Variations of water depth with discharge, however, can complicate monitoring changes in the depth and volume of pools. To subtract the effect of discharge on depth in pools, residual depths can be measured. Residual...

  4. NACUBO's Guide to Unitizing Investment Pools. Second Edition (United States)

    Wheeler, Mary S.


    The National Association of College and University Business Officers' (NACUBO's) "Guide to Unitizing Investment Pools" addresses the principles and concepts for administering a consolidated investment pool. Unitization is the mechanism by which investment funds are pooled to maximize investment efficiencies and provide information for donors,…

  5. 17 CFR 4.22 - Reporting to pool participants. (United States)


    ..., the financial statements are not required to include consolidated information for all series. (7) For... event that the International Financial Reporting Standards require consolidated financial statements for... reporting pool's consolidated financial statements. (ii) The commodity pool operator of a pool that meets...

  6. Slower lower limb blood pooling in young women with orthostatic intolerance. (United States)

    Lindenberger, Marcus; Länne, Toste


    What is the central question of this study? Orthostatic stress is mostly caused by venous blood pooling in the lower limbs. Venous distension elicits sympathetic responses, and increased distension speed enhances the cardiovascular response. We examine whether lower limb blood pooling rate during lower body negative pressure is linked to orthostatic intolerance. What is the main finding and its importance? A similar amount of blood was pooled in the lower limb, but at a slower rate in women who developed signs of orthostatic intolerance. The difference in blood pooling rate increased with orthostatic stress and was most prominent at a presyncope-inducing level of lower body negative pressure. The findings have implications for the pathophysiology as well as treatment of orthostatic intolerance. Vasovagal syncope is common in young women, but its aetiology remains elusive. Orthostatic stress-induced lower limb blood pooling is linked with central hypovolaemia and baroreceptor unloading. Venous distension in the arm elicits a sympathetic response, which is enhanced with more rapid distension. Our aim was to study both the amount and the speed of lower limb pooling during orthostatic stress and its effects on compensatory mechanisms to maintain cardiovascular homeostasis in women with orthostatic intolerance. Twenty-seven healthy women, aged 20-27 years, were subjected to a lower body negative pressure (LBNP) of 11-44 mmHg. Five women developed symptoms of vasovagal syncope (orthostatic intolerant) and were compared with the remaining women, who tolerated LBNP well (orthostatic tolerant). Lower limb blood pooling, blood flow and compensatory mobilization of venous capacitance blood were measured. Lower body negative pressure induced equal lower limb blood pooling in both groups, but at a slower rate in orthostatic intolerant women (e.g. time to 50% of total blood pooling, orthostatic intolerant 44 ± 7 s and orthostatic tolerant 26 ± 2 s; P intolerant women (P = 0

  7. Measurements in large JP-4 pool fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keltner, N.R.; Kent, L.A.; Schneider, M.E.


    Over the past four years, Sandia National Laboratories has conducted a number of large pool fire tests to evaluate the design of radioactive material (RAM) shipping containers. Some of these tests have been designed to define the thermal environment and some have been used for certification testing. In each test there have been a number of fire diagnostic measurements. The simplest sets of diagnostics have involved measurements of temperature at several elevations on arrays of towers, measurements of hot wall heat flux with small calorimeters suspended from the towers, the average fuel recession rate, and the wind speed and direction. The most complex sets of diagnostics have included the above and in various tests added radiometers in the lower flame zone, centerline velocity measurements at a number of elevations, radiometers and calorimeters at the fuel surface, large cylindrical and flat plate calorimeters, infrared imaging, time resolved fuel recession rates, and a variety of soot particle concentration and size measurements made in the plume with a tethered balloon and an instrumented airplane. All of the large fires have been conducted in a 9.1 m by 18.3 m pool using JP-4 as the fuel. Typical duration is one-half hour. Covering all of the results is beyond the scope of a single paper. Conditionally sampled temperature and velocity measurements from one fire will be presented; for this fire, a 20 cm layer of fuel was floated on 61 cm of water. Pool surface heat flux, fuel recession rate data, and smoke emission data from a second fire are given. Because the wind has a strong effect on the temperature and velocity measurements, conditional sampling has been used to try to obtain data during periods of low winds. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Problems of rapid growth. (United States)

    Kim, T D


    South Korea's export-oriented development strategy has achieved a remarkable growth record, but it has also brought 2 different problems: 1) since the country's exports accounted for about 1% of total world export volume, the 1st world has become fearful about Korea's aggressive export drive; and 2) the fact that exports account for over 30% of its total gross national product (GNP) exposes the vulnerability of South Korea's economy itself. South Korea continues to be a poor nation, although it is rated as 1 of the most rapidly growing middle income economies. A World Bank 1978 report shows Korea to be 28th of 58 middle income countries in terms of per capita GNP in 1976. Of 11 newly industrializing countries (NIC), 5 in the European continent are more advanced than the others. A recent emphasis on the basic human needs approach has tended to downgrade the concept of GNP. Korea has only an abundant labor force and is without any natural resources. Consequently, Korea utilized an export-oriented development strategy. Oil requirements are met with imports, and almost all raw materials to be processed into exportable products must be imported. To pay import bills Korea must export and earn foreign exchange. It must be emphasized that foreign trade must always be 2-way traffic. In order to export more to middle income countries like Korea, the countries of the 1st world need to ease their protectionist measures against imports from developing countries.

  9. Pool boiling visualization on open microchannel surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaniowski Robert


    Full Text Available The paper presents visualization investigations into pool boiling heat transfer for open minichannel surfaces. The experiments were carried out wih saturated water at atmospheric pressure. Parallel microchannels fabricated by machining were about 0.3 mm wide and 0.2 to 0.4 mm deep. High-speed videos were used as an aid to understanding the heat transfer mechanism. The visualization study aimed at identifying nucleation sites of the departing bubbles and determining their diameters and frequency at various superheats.

  10. Two-signed feedback of cross-isthmus moisture transport on glacial overturning controlled by the Atlantic warm pool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, H.J. de; Roche, D.M.; Renssen, H.; Dekker, S.C.


    This paper studies the control of the Atlantic Warm Pool (AWP) on atmospheric moisture transport across the Central American isthmus as a potential feedback on rapid glacial climate fluctuations. Defined as a region of the Atlantic with surface temperatures above 28.5 °C, the modern AWP expands from

  11. An efficient modeling method for thermal stratification simulation in a BWR suppression pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haihua Zhao; Ling Zou; Hongbin Zhang; Hua Li; Walter Villanueva; Pavel Kudinov


    The suppression pool in a BWR plant not only is the major heat sink within the containment system, but also provides major emergency cooling water for the reactor core. In several accident scenarios, such as LOCA and extended station blackout, thermal stratification tends to form in the pool after the initial rapid venting stage. Accurately predicting the pool stratification phenomenon is important because it affects the peak containment pressure; and the pool temperature distribution also affects the NPSHa (Available Net Positive Suction Head) and therefore the performance of the pump which draws cooling water back to the core. Current safety analysis codes use 0-D lumped parameter methods to calculate the energy and mass balance in the pool and therefore have large uncertainty in prediction of scenarios in which stratification and mixing are important. While 3-D CFD methods can be used to analyze realistic 3D configurations, these methods normally require very fine grid resolution to resolve thin substructures such as jets and wall boundaries, therefore long simulation time. For mixing in stably stratified large enclosures, the BMIX++ code has been developed to implement a highly efficient analysis method for stratification where the ambient fluid volume is represented by 1-D transient partial differential equations and substructures such as free or wall jets are modeled with 1-D integral models. This allows very large reductions in computational effort compared to 3-D CFD modeling. The POOLEX experiments at Finland, which was designed to study phenomena relevant to Nordic design BWR suppression pool including thermal stratification and mixing, are used for validation. GOTHIC lumped parameter models are used to obtain boundary conditions for BMIX++ code and CFD simulations. Comparison between the BMIX++, GOTHIC, and CFD calculations against the POOLEX experimental data is discussed in detail.

  12. Remote sensing of LAI, chlorophyll and leaf nitrogen pools of crop- and grasslands in five European landscapes


    Boegh, E.; Houborg, R.; Bienkowski, J.; Braban, C.F.; Dalgaard, T.; van Dijk, N.; Dragosits, U.; Holmes, E.; Magliulo, V.; Schelde, K.; Di Tommasi, P.; Vitale, L.; Theobald, M.R.; Cellier, P.; Sutton, M.A.


    Leaf nitrogen and leaf surface area influence the exchange of gases between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, and play a significant role in the global cycles of carbon, nitrogen and water. The purpose of this study is to use field-based and satellite remote-sensing-based methods to assess leaf nitrogen pools in five diverse European agricultural landscapes located in Denmark, Scotland (United Kingdom), Poland, the Netherlands and Italy. REGFLEC (REGularized canopy reFLECtance) is an...

  13. Hardening Stratum, the Bitcoin Pool Mining Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recabarren Ruben


    Full Text Available Stratum, the de-facto mining communication protocol used by blockchain based cryptocurrency systems, enables miners to reliably and efficiently fetch jobs from mining pool servers. In this paper we exploit Stratum’s lack of encryption to develop passive and active attacks on Bitcoin’s mining protocol, with important implications on the privacy, security and even safety of mining equipment owners. We introduce StraTap and ISP Log attacks, that infer miner earnings if given access to miner communications, or even their logs. We develop BiteCoin, an active attack that hijacks shares submitted by miners, and their associated payouts. We build BiteCoin on WireGhost, a tool we developed to hijack and surreptitiously maintain Stratum connections. Our attacks reveal that securing Stratum through pervasive encryption is not only undesirable (due to large overheads, but also ineffective: an adversary can predict miner earnings even when given access to only packet timestamps. Instead, we devise Bedrock, a minimalistic Stratum extension that protects the privacy and security of mining participants. We introduce and leverage the mining cookie concept, a secret that each miner shares with the pool and includes in its puzzle computations, and that prevents attackers from reconstructing or hijacking the puzzles.

  14. Reduction of the pool-top radiation level in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choong-Sung; Park, Sang-Jun; Kim, Heonil; Park, Yong-Chul; Choi, Young-San [HANARO Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)


    HANARO is an open-tank-in-pool type reactor. Pool water is the only shielding to minimize the pool top radiation level. During the power ascension test of HANARO, the measured pool top radiation level was higher than the design value because some of the activation products in the coolant reached the pool surface. In order to suppress this rising coolant, the hot water layer system (HWL) was designed and installed to maintain l.2 meter-deep hot water layer whose temperature is 5degC higher than that of the underneath pool surface. After the installation of the HWL system, however, the radiation level of the pool-top did not satisfy the design value. The operation modes of the hot water layer system and the other systems in the reactor pool, which had an effect on the formation of the hot water layer, were changed to reduce pool-top radiation level. After the above efforts, the temperature and the radioactivity distribution in the pool was measured to confirm whether this system blocked the rising coolant. The radiation level at the pool-top was significantly reduced below one tenth of that before installing the HWL and satisfied the design value. It was also confirmed by calculation that this hot water layer system would significantly reduce the release of fission gases to the reactor hall and the environment during the hypothetical accident as well. (author)

  15. Plant diversity associated with pools in natural and restored peatlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Fontaine


    Full Text Available This study describes plant assemblages associated with the edges of peatland pools. We conducted inventories in six natural peatlands in the province of Québec (Canada in order to measure the contribution of pools to species diversity in climatic regions where peatlands are used for peat extraction. We also carried out vegetation surveys in a peatland that has been restored after peat extraction/harvesting to determine whether pool vegetation establishes along the edges of created pools when dry surface restoration techniques only are used. Pools enhanced plant species richness in natural peatlands. Around created pools, species associated with natural pools were still absent, and non-bog species were present, six years after restoration. On this basis, we emphasise the importance of preserving natural peatlands with pools. In order to restore fully the plant diversity associated with peatlands at harvested sites, it may be necessary to modify pool excavation techniques so that created pools resemble more closely those in natural peatlands. Active introduction of the plant species or communities associated with natural pools may also be needed; candidate species for North America include Andromeda glaucophylla, Cladopodiella fluitans, Carex limosa, Eriophorum virginicum, Rhynchospora alba and Sphagnum cuspidatum.

  16. Spatially pooled contrast responses predict neural and perceptual similarity of naturalistic image categories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris I A Groen

    Full Text Available The visual world is complex and continuously changing. Yet, our brain transforms patterns of light falling on our retina into a coherent percept within a few hundred milliseconds. Possibly, low-level neural responses already carry substantial information to facilitate rapid characterization of the visual input. Here, we computationally estimated low-level contrast responses to computer-generated naturalistic images, and tested whether spatial pooling of these responses could predict image similarity at the neural and behavioral level. Using EEG, we show that statistics derived from pooled responses explain a large amount of variance between single-image evoked potentials (ERPs in individual subjects. Dissimilarity analysis on multi-electrode ERPs demonstrated that large differences between images in pooled response statistics are predictive of more dissimilar patterns of evoked activity, whereas images with little difference in statistics give rise to highly similar evoked activity patterns. In a separate behavioral experiment, images with large differences in statistics were judged as different categories, whereas images with little differences were confused. These findings suggest that statistics derived from low-level contrast responses can be extracted in early visual processing and can be relevant for rapid judgment of visual similarity. We compared our results with two other, well- known contrast statistics: Fourier power spectra and higher-order properties of contrast distributions (skewness and kurtosis. Interestingly, whereas these statistics allow for accurate image categorization, they do not predict ERP response patterns or behavioral categorization confusions. These converging computational, neural and behavioral results suggest that statistics of pooled contrast responses contain information that corresponds with perceived visual similarity in a rapid, low-level categorization task.

  17. Investigation of segmentation based pooling for image quantification (United States)

    Porter, Reid; Harvey, Neal; Ruggiero, Christy


    A key step in many image quantification solutions is feature pooling, where subsets of lower-level features are combined so that higher-level, more invariant predictions can be made. The pooling region, which defines the subsets, often has a fixed spatial size and geometry, but data-adaptive pooling regions have also been used. In this paper we investigate pooling strategies for the data-adaptive case and suggest a new framework for pooling that uses multiple sub-regions instead of a single region. We show that this framework can help represent the shape of the pooling region and also produce useful pairwise features for adjacent pooling regions. We demonstrate the utility of the framework in a number of classification tasks relevant to image quantification in digital microscopy.

  18. Investigation of the condition of spent-fuel pool components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kustas, F.M.; Bates, S.O.; Opitz, B.E.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Perez, J.M. Jr.; Farnsworth, R.K.


    It is currently projected that spent nuclear fuel, which is discharged from the reactor and then stored in water pools, may remain in those pools for several decades. Other studies have addressed the expected integrity of the spent fuel during extended water storage; this study assesses the integrity of metallic spent fuel pool components. Results from metallurgical examinations of specimens taken from stainless steel and aluminum components exposed in spent fuel pools are presented. Licensee Event Reports (LERs) relating to problems with spent fuel components were assessed and are summarized to define the types of operational problems that have occurred. The major conclusions of this study are: aluminum and stainless steel spent fuel pool components have a good history of performance in both deionized and borated water pools. Although some operational problems involving pool components have occurred, these problems have had minimal impacts.

  19. Design of inventory pools in spare part support operation systems (United States)

    Mo, Daniel Y.; Tseng, Mitchell M.; Cheung, Raymond K.


    The objective of a spare part support operation is to fulfill the part request order with different service contracts in the agreed response time. With this objective to achieve different service targets for multiple service contracts and the considerations of inventory investment, it is not only important to determine the inventory policy but also to design the structure of inventory pools and the order fulfilment strategies. In this research, we focused on two types of inventory pools: multiple inventory pool (MIP) and consolidated inventory pool (CIP). The idea of MIP is to maintain separated inventory pools based on the types of service contract, while CIP solely maintains a single inventory pool regardless of service contract. Our research aims to design the inventory pool analytically and propose reserve strategies to manage the order fulfilment risks in CIP. Mathematical models and simulation experiments would be applied for analysis and evaluation.

  20. Heat exchanger design handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Thulukkanam, Kuppan


    Completely revised and updated to reflect current advances in heat exchanger technology, Heat Exchanger Design Handbook, Second Edition includes enhanced figures and thermal effectiveness charts, tables, new chapter, and additional topics--all while keeping the qualities that made the first edition a centerpiece of information for practicing engineers, research, engineers, academicians, designers, and manufacturers involved in heat exchange between two or more fluids.See What's New in the Second Edition: Updated information on pressure vessel codes, manufacturer's association standards A new c

  1. Anion exchange membrane (United States)

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus


    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  2. Review of Robust Data Exchange Using Optical Nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang


    Full Text Available Data exchange, namely bidirectional information swapping, provides enhanced flexibility compared to the unidirectional information transfer. To fulfill the rapid development of high-speed large-capacity optical communications with emerging multiplexing/demultiplexing techniques and advanced modulation formats, a laudable goal would be to achieve data exchange in different degrees of freedom (wavelength, time, polarization, for different modulation formats (OOK, DPSK, DQPSK, pol-muxed, and at different granularities (entire data, groups of bits, tributary channels. Optical nonlinearities are potentially suitable candidates to enable data exchange in the wavelength, time, and polarization domains. In this paper, we will review our recent works towards robust data exchange by exploiting miscellaneous optical nonlinearities, including the use of cSFG/DFG in a PPLN waveguide for time- (groups of bits and channel-selective data exchange and tributary channel exchange between two WDM+OTDM signals, nondegenerate FWM in an HNLF for phase-transparent data exchange (DPSK, DQPSK, bidirectional degenerate FWM in an HNLF for multi-channel data exchange, and Kerr-induced nonlinear polarization rotation in an HNLF for tributary channel exchange of a pol-muxed DPSK OTDM signal. The demonstrated data exchanges in different degrees of freedom, for different modulation formats, and at different granularities, open the door for alternative approaches to achieve superior network performance.

  3. Realization of standard synergy in the pool; Regelsynergie im Pool verwirklicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The supply of balancing energy can be profitable for operators of biogas plants. The necessary know-how for the marketing at the stock market and the technical interconnection to a virtual power plant pool is a challenge that can be implemented with a service provider.

  4. Data Exchange Inventory System (DEXI) (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Enterprise tool used to identify data exchanges occurring between SSA and our trading partners. DEXI contains information on both incoming and outgoing exchanges and...

  5. Both synthesis and reuptake are critical for replenishing the releasable serotonin pool in Drosophila (United States)

    Borue, Xenia; Condron, Barry; Venton, B. Jill


    The two main sources of serotonin available for release are expected to be newly synthesized serotonin and serotonin recycled after reuptake by the serotonin transporter (SERT). However, their relative importance for maintaining release and the time course of regulation are unknown. We studied serotonin signaling in the ventral nerve cord of the larval Drosophila central nervous system. Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at implanted microelectrodes was used to detect serotonin elicited by channelrhodopsin2-mediated depolarization. The effects of reuptake were probed by incubating in cocaine, which is selective for the serotonin transporter in Drosophila. p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA), an inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase2, was used to investigate the effects of synthesis. Stimulations were repeated at various intervals to assess the time course of recovery of the releasable pool. Reuptake is important for the rapid replenishment of the releasable pool, on the 1 minute time scale. Synthesis is critical to the longer-term replenishment (10 min) of the releasable pool, especially when reuptake is also inhibited. Concurrent synthesis and reuptake inhibition decreased both serotonin tissue content measured by immunohistochemistry (by 50%) and the initial amount of evoked serotonin (by 65%). Decreases in evoked serotonin are rescued by inhibiting action potential propagation with tetrodotoxin, implicating endogenous activity in the depletion. These results show synthesis is necessary to replenish part of the releasable serotonin pool that is depleted after reuptake inhibition, suggesting that regulation of synthesis may modulate the effects of serotonin reuptake inhibitors. PMID:20070864

  6. Blanketing effect of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) spillage pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yi [Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center, Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University System, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States); Olewski, Tomasz; Vechot, Luc [Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center - Qatar, Texas A and M University at Qatar, PO Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Mannan, M. Sam, E-mail: [Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center, Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University System, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States)


    Highlights: • Reveal the existence of blocking effect of high expansion foam on an LNG pool. • Study the blanketing effect of high expansion foam quantitatively. • Correlate heat flux for vaporization with foam breaking rate. • Propose the physical mechanism of blanketing effect. - Abstract: With increasing consumption of natural gas, the safety of liquefied natural gas (LNG) utilization has become an issue that requires a comprehensive study on the risk of LNG spillage in facilities with mitigation measures. The immediate hazard associated with an LNG spill is the vapor hazard, i.e., a flammable vapor cloud at the ground level, due to rapid vaporization and dense gas behavior. It was believed that high expansion foam mitigated LNG vapor hazard through warming effect (raising vapor buoyancy), but the boil-off effect increased vaporization rate due to the heat from water drainage of foam. This work reveals the existence of blocking effect (blocking convection and radiation to the pool) to reduce vaporization rate. The blanketing effect on source term (vaporization rate) is a combination of boil-off and blocking effect, which was quantitatively studied through seven tests conducted in a wind tunnel with liquid nitrogen. Since the blocking effect reduces more heat to the pool than the boil-off effect adds, the blanketing effect contributes to the net reduction of heat convection and radiation to the pool by 70%. Water drainage rate of high expansion foam is essential to determine the effectiveness of blanketing effect, since water provides the boil-off effect.

  7. Microplate Heat Exchanger Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a microplate heat exchanger for cryogenic cooling systems used for continuous flow distributed cooling systems, large focal plane arrays, multiple cooling...

  8. Exchange Risk Management Policy

    CERN Document Server


    At the Finance Committee of March 2005, following a comment by the CERN Audit Committee, the Chairman invited the Management to prepare a document on exchange risk management policy. The Finance Committee is invited to take note of this document.

  9. HUD Exchange Grantee Database (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The About Grantees section of the HUD Exchange brings up contact information, reports, award, jurisdiction, and location data for organizations that receive HUD...

  10. NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) represents a new platform for the Earth science community that provides a mechanism for scientific collaboration and knowledge sharing....

  11. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes (United States)

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik


    Anion exchange polymer electrolytes that include guanidinium functionalized polymers may be used as membranes and binders for electrocatalysts in preparation of anodes for electrochemical cells such as solid alkaline fuel cells.

  12. Parallel tagged next-generation sequencing on pooled samples - a new approach for population genetics in ecology and conservation. (United States)

    Zavodna, Monika; Grueber, Catherine E; Gemmell, Neil J


    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) on pooled samples has already been broadly applied in human medical diagnostics and plant and animal breeding. However, thus far it has been only sparingly employed in ecology and conservation, where it may serve as a useful diagnostic tool for rapid assessment of species genetic diversity and structure at the population level. Here we undertake a comprehensive evaluation of the accuracy, practicality and limitations of parallel tagged amplicon NGS on pooled population samples for estimating species population diversity and structure. We obtained 16S and Cyt b data from 20 populations of Leiopelma hochstetteri, a frog species of conservation concern in New Zealand, using two approaches - parallel tagged NGS on pooled population samples and individual Sanger sequenced samples. Data from each approach were then used to estimate two standard population genetic parameters, nucleotide diversity (π) and population differentiation (FST), that enable population genetic inference in a species conservation context. We found a positive correlation between our two approaches for population genetic estimates, showing that the pooled population NGS approach is a reliable, rapid and appropriate method for population genetic inference in an ecological and conservation context. Our experimental design also allowed us to identify both the strengths and weaknesses of the pooled population NGS approach and outline some guidelines and suggestions that might be considered when planning future projects.

  13. Parallel tagged next-generation sequencing on pooled samples - a new approach for population genetics in ecology and conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Zavodna

    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing (NGS on pooled samples has already been broadly applied in human medical diagnostics and plant and animal breeding. However, thus far it has been only sparingly employed in ecology and conservation, where it may serve as a useful diagnostic tool for rapid assessment of species genetic diversity and structure at the population level. Here we undertake a comprehensive evaluation of the accuracy, practicality and limitations of parallel tagged amplicon NGS on pooled population samples for estimating species population diversity and structure. We obtained 16S and Cyt b data from 20 populations of Leiopelma hochstetteri, a frog species of conservation concern in New Zealand, using two approaches - parallel tagged NGS on pooled population samples and individual Sanger sequenced samples. Data from each approach were then used to estimate two standard population genetic parameters, nucleotide diversity (π and population differentiation (FST, that enable population genetic inference in a species conservation context. We found a positive correlation between our two approaches for population genetic estimates, showing that the pooled population NGS approach is a reliable, rapid and appropriate method for population genetic inference in an ecological and conservation context. Our experimental design also allowed us to identify both the strengths and weaknesses of the pooled population NGS approach and outline some guidelines and suggestions that might be considered when planning future projects.

  14. Proton channels and exchangers in cancer. (United States)

    Spugnini, Enrico Pierluigi; Sonveaux, Pierre; Stock, Christian; Perez-Sayans, Mario; De Milito, Angelo; Avnet, Sofia; Garcìa, Abel Garcìa; Harguindey, Salvador; Fais, Stefano


    Although cancer is characterized by an intratumoral genetic heterogeneity, a totally deranged pH control is a common feature of most cancer histotypes. Major determinants of aberrant pH gradient in cancer are proton exchangers and transporters, including V-ATPase, Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE), monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) and carbonic anhydrases (CAs). Thanks to the activity of these proton transporters and exchangers, cancer becomes isolated and/or protected not only from the body reaction against the growing tumor, but also from the vast majority of drugs that when protonated into the acidic tumor microenvironment do not enter into cancer cells. Proton transporters and exchangers represent a key feature tumor cells use to survive in the very hostile microenvironmental conditions that they create and maintain. Detoxifying mechanisms may thus represent both a key survival option and a selection outcome for cells that behave as unicellular microorganisms rather than belonging to an organ, compartment or body. It is, in fact, typical of malignant tumors that, after a clinically measurable yet transient initial response to a therapy, resistant tumor clones emerge and proliferate, thus bursting a more malignant behavior and rapid tumor progression. This review critically presents the background of a novel and efficient approach that aims to fight cancer through blocking or inhibiting well characterized proton exchangers and transporters active in human cancer cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cryptographic Combinatorial Securities Exchanges (United States)

    Thorpe, Christopher; Parkes, David C.

    We present a useful new mechanism that facilitates the atomic exchange of many large baskets of securities in a combinatorial exchange. Cryptography prevents information about the securities in the baskets from being exploited, enhancing trust. Our exchange offers institutions who wish to trade large positions a new alternative to existing methods of block trading: they can reduce transaction costs by taking advantage of other institutions’ available liquidity, while third party liquidity providers guarantee execution—preserving their desired portfolio composition at all times. In our exchange, institutions submit encrypted orders which are crossed, leaving a “remainder”. The exchange proves facts about the portfolio risk of this remainder to third party liquidity providers without revealing the securities in the remainder, the knowledge of which could also be exploited. The third parties learn either (depending on the setting) the portfolio risk parameters of the remainder itself, or how their own portfolio risk would change if they were to incorporate the remainder into a portfolio they submit. In one setting, these third parties submit bids on the commission, and the winner supplies necessary liquidity for the entire exchange to clear. This guaranteed clearing, coupled with external price discovery from the primary markets for the securities, sidesteps difficult combinatorial optimization problems. This latter method of proving how taking on the remainder would change risk parameters of one’s own portfolio, without revealing the remainder’s contents or its own risk parameters, is a useful protocol of independent interest.

  16. Technical Facilities Management, Loan Pool, and Calibration (United States)

    Smith, Jacob


    My work at JPL for the SURF program began on June 11, 2012 with the Technical Facilities Management group (TFM). As well as TFM, I worked with Loan Pool and Metrology to help them out with various tasks. Unlike a lot of other interns, I did not have a specific project rather many different tasks to be completed over the course of the 10 weeks.The first task to be completed was to sort through old certification reports in 6 different boxes to locate reports that needed to be archived into a digital database. There were no reports within these boxes that needed to be archived but rather were to be shredded. The reports went back to the early 1980's and up to the early 2000's. I was looking for reports dated from 2002 to 2012

  17. Drop Impact on to Moving Liquid Pools (United States)

    Muñoz-Sánchez, Beatriz Natividad; Castrejón-Pita, José Rafael; Castrejón-Pita, Alfonso Arturo; Hutchings, Ian M.


    The deposition of droplets on to moving liquid substrates is an omnipresent situation both in nature and industry. A diverse spectrum of phenomena emerges from this simple process. In this work we present a parametric experimental study that discerns the dynamics of the impact in terms of the physical properties of the fluid and the relative velocity between the impacting drop and the moving liquid pool. The behaviour ranges from smooth coalescence (characterized by little mixing) to violent splashing (generation of multiple satellite droplets and interfacial vorticity). In addition, transitional regimes such as bouncing and surfing are also found. We classify the system dynamics and show a parametric diagram for the conditions of each regime. This work was supported by the EPSRC (Grant EP/H018913/1), the Royal Society, Becas Santander Universidades and the International Relationships Office of the University of Extremadura.

  18. One knowledge base or many knowledge pools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    It is increasingly realized that knowledge is the most important resource and that learning is the most important process in the economy. Sometimes this is expressed by coining the current era as characterised by a ‘knowledge based economy'. But this concept might be misleading by indicating...... that there is one common knowledge base on which economic activities can be built. In this paper we argue that it is more appropriate to see the economy as connecting to different ‘pools of knowledge'. The argument is built upon a conceptual framework where we make distinctions between private/public, local....../global, individual/collective and tacit/codified knowledge. The purpose is both ‘academic' and practical. Our analysis demonstrates the limits of a narrowly economic perspective on knowledge and we show that these distinctions have important implications both for innovation policy and for management of innovation....

  19. Soil carbon pools in different pasture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco M. Cardozo, Jr.


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the carbon pools of a tropical soil where the native forest was replaced with different pasture systems. We studied five pasture production systems, including four monoculture systems with forage grasses such as Andropogon, Brachiaria, Panicum, and Cynodon, and an agroforestry system as well as a native vegetation plot. Greater availability of fulvic acid was detected in the agroforestry system as compared with that in the other systems. Higher lability of C was detected in the Andropogon system during the dry and rainy seasons and during the dry season in Cynodon. During the dry season, all pastures systems showed deficits in the net removal of atmospheric CO2. The structure and practices of the agroforestry system enables more carbon to be sequestered in the soil as compared with the monoculture pasture, suggesting that it is an important practice to mitigate climatic change and to improve soil quality.

  20. Pooling birth cohorts in allergy and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, Jean; Anto, Josep; Sunyer, Jordi


    in the world over the past 30 years. Since 2004, several research initiatives funded under the EU Framework Program for Research and Technological Development FP6-FP7 have attempted to identify, compare, and evaluate pooling data from existing European birth cohorts (GA(2)LEN: Global Allergy and European...... Network, FP6; ENRIECO: Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts, FP7; CHICOS: Developing a Child Cohort Research Strategy for Europe, FP7; MeDALL: Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy, FP7). However, there is a general lack of knowledge about these initiatives and their potentials. The aim...... of this paper is to review current and past EU-funded projects in order to make a summary of their goals and achievements and to suggest future research needs of these European birth cohort networks....

  1. Statistical implications of pooling RNA samples for microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landfield Philip W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray technology has become a very important tool for studying gene expression profiles under various conditions. Biologists often pool RNA samples extracted from different subjects onto a single microarray chip to help defray the cost of microarray experiments as well as to correct for the technical difficulty in getting sufficient RNA from a single subject. However, the statistical, technical and financial implications of pooling have not been explicitly investigated. Results Modeling the resulting gene expression from sample pooling as a mixture of individual responses, we derived expressions for the experimental error and provided both upper and lower bounds for its value in terms of the variability among individuals and the number of RNA samples pooled. Using "virtual" pooling of data from real experiments and computer simulations, we investigated the statistical properties of RNA sample pooling. Our study reveals that pooling biological samples appropriately is statistically valid and efficient for microarray experiments. Furthermore, optimal pooling design(s can be found to meet statistical requirements while minimizing total cost. Conclusions Appropriate RNA pooling can provide equivalent power and improve efficiency and cost-effectiveness for microarray experiments with a modest increase in total number of subjects. Pooling schemes in terms of replicates of subjects and arrays can be compared before experiments are conducted.

  2. [Combined construction of rainwater catchment techniques with methane pool and greenhouse]. (United States)

    Wang, J; Li, Z; Wang, Z; Liu, H; Nan, D


    A combined structure of rainwater catchment, methane pool and reformed greenhouse was constructed to improve water use efficiency. The results showed that the combination of rainwater catchment, reserving techniques and water saving measures was efficient to resolve the problem of water deficiency in the semi-arid region with precipitation of 250-550 mm. The combined structure of water catchment engineering, greenhouse and methane pool redistributed light, temperature, water and heat to develop higher benefits economic crops, and improved water use efficiency, which made it possible to develop high yield, and best quality agriculture in this region. Through optimizing the ecological factor in greenhouse, the water use was reduced by 50%-70%, and the soil temperature and night temperature were raised. This combined construction also improved productivity in greenhouse, and efficiently controlled plant diseases and insect pests. Methane pool provided CO2 and part energy source. The shady area back of the greenhouse was exploited by growing shady crops and epiphyte, which contributed to exchange energy and CO2 between light and shady house. This model could be used as water catchment agricultural development model in the region, and some other new approaches to water catchment agriculture in semi-arid region were discussed in this paper.

  3. The application of computational fluid dynamics and small-scale physical models to assess the effects of operational practices on the risk to public health within large indoor swimming pools. (United States)

    Lewis, Lowell; Chew, John; Woodley, Iain; Colbourne, Jeni; Pond, Katherine


    Swimming pools provide an excellent facility for exercise and leisure but are also prone to contamination from microbial pathogens. The study modelled a 50-m × 20-m swimming pool using both a small-scale physical model and computational fluid dynamics to investigate how water and pathogens move around a pool in order to identify potential risk spots. Our study revealed a number of lessons for pool operators, designers and policy-makers: disinfection reaches the majority of a full-scale pool in approximately 16 minutes operating at the maximum permissible inlet velocity of 0.5 m/s. This suggests that where a pool is designed to have 15 paired inlets it is capable of distributing disinfectant throughout the water body within an acceptable time frame. However, the study also showed that the exchange rate of water is not uniform across the pool tank and that there is potential for areas of the pool tank to retain contaminated water for significant periods of time. 'Dead spots' exist at either end of the pool where pathogens could remain. This is particularly significant if there is a faecal release into the pool by bathers infected with Cryptosporidium parvum, increasing the potential for waterborne disease transmission.

  4. Using register data to deduce patterns of social exchange. (United States)

    Jansson, Fredrik


    This paper presents a novel method for deducting propensities for social exchange between individuals based on the choices they make, and based on factors such as country of origin, sex, school grades and socioeconomic background. The objective here is to disentangle the effect of social ties from the other factors, in order to find patterns of social exchange. This is done through a control-treatment design on analysing available data, where the 'treatment' is similarity of choices between socially connected individuals, and the control is similarity of choices between non-connected individuals. Structural dependencies are controlled for and effects from different classes are pooled through a mix of methods from network and meta-analysis. The method is demonstrated and tested on Swedish register data on students at upper secondary school. The results show that having similar grades is a predictor of social exchange. Also, previous results from Norwegian data are replicated, showing that students cluster based on country of origin.

  5. Cellular and Molecular Imaging Using Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer. (United States)

    McMahon, Michael T; Gilad, Assaf A


    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) is a powerful new tool well suited for molecular imaging. This technology enables the detection of low concentration probes through selective labeling of rapidly exchanging protons or other spins on the probes. In this review, we will highlight the unique features of CEST imaging technology and describe the different types of CEST agents that are suited for molecular imaging studies, including CEST theranostic agents, CEST reporter genes, and CEST environmental sensors.

  6. Sharing as risk pooling in a social dilemma experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd L. Cherry


    Full Text Available In rural economies with missing or incomplete markets, idiosyncratic risk is frequently pooled through informal networks. Idiosyncratic shocks, however, are not limited to private goods but can also restrict an individual from partaking in or benefiting from a collective activity. In these situations, a group must decide whether to provide insurance to the affected member. We describe results of a laboratory experiment designed to test whether a simple sharing institution can sustain risk pooling in a social dilemma with idiosyncratic risk. We tested whether risk could be pooled without a commitment device and, separately, whether effective risk pooling induced greater cooperation in the social dilemma. We found that even in the absence of a commitment device or reputational considerations, subjects voluntarily pooled risk, thereby reducing variance in individual earnings. In spite of effective risk pooling, however, cooperation in the social dilemma was unaffected.

  7. Amino acid pool composition of the basidiomycete Coprinus cinereus. (United States)

    Ulrich, Cynthia E; Gathman, Allen C; Lilly, Walt W


    The leaf-litter fungus Coprinus cinereus maintains a pool of free amino acid in its mycelium. When the organism is grown under conditions of high nitrogen availability with 13.2 mmol.L-1 L-asparagine as the nitrogen source, the primary constituents of this pool are glutamine, alanine, and glutamic acid. Together these 3 amino acids comprise approximately 70% of the pool. Nitrogen deprivation reduces the size of the free amino acid pool by 75%, and neither a high concentration of ammonium nor a protein nitrogen source support a similar pool size as L-asparagine. Nitrogen deprivation also reduces the concentration of glutamine to the pool while increasing glutamate. Concomitant with this shift is a marked increase in mycelial ammonium.

  8. Exchanging Description Logic Knowledge Bases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arenas, M.; Botoeva, E.; Calvanese, D.; Ryzhikov, V.; Sherkhonov, E.


    In this paper, we study the problem of exchanging knowledge between a source and a target knowledge base (KB), connected through mappings. Differently from the traditional database exchange setting, which considers only the exchange of data, we are interested in exchanging implicit knowledge. As

  9. Dehumidification by heat pump in indoor swimming pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eymery, J.C. (Electricite de France, 75 - Paris)


    The values of the quantity of water evaporated in an indoor swimming pool are determined and technical alternatives for dehumidification are discussed; standard process by air replacement; new process by heat pump, with recovery of the latent heat of the moist air in the swimming pool hall. The author offers an example of the dimensioning of the heat pump and gives energy balances (fuel and electricity comsumption) of existing swimming pools equipped subsequently.

  10. Simulation of Microstructure during Laser Rapid Forming Solidification Based on Cellular Automaton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-jian Wang


    Full Text Available The grain microstructure of molten pool during the solidification of TC4 titanium alloy in the single point laser cladding was investigated based on the CAFE model which is the cellular automaton (CA coupled with the finite element (FE method. The correct temperature field is the prerequisite for simulating the grain microstructure during the solidification of the molten pool. The model solves the energy equation by the FE method to simulate the temperature distribution in the molten pool of the single point laser cladding. Based on the temperature field, the solidification microstructure of the molten pool is also simulated with the CAFE method. The results show that the maximum temperature in the molten pool increases with the laser power and the scanning rate. The laser power has a larger influence on the temperature distribution of the molten pool than the scanning rate. During the solidification of the molten pool, the heat at the bottom of the molten pool transfers faster than that at the top of the molten pool. The grains rapidly grow into the molten pool, and then the columnar crystals are formed. This study has a very important significance for improving the quality of the structure parts manufactured through the laser cladding forming.

  11. Fire Protection Informational Exchange (United States)


    Carbon dioxide (C02); 2. Methane {CH4 ); 3. Nitrous oxide (N20); 4...Hydrofluorocarbons 4% Hydrofluorocarbons 8% Methane 17% Methane 7°1. Black Carbon 19% Black Carbon 78% Carbon Dioxide (a) 1 00-year and (b) 20-Year Global... Methanol Pool Fi 60 50 ~ 40 ::J 8 30 20 • First experiments conducted in methanol fire • Nonsooting fuel is simpler starting point for

  12. A Double Evolutionary Pool Memetic Algorithm for Examination Timetabling Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lei


    Full Text Available A double evolutionary pool memetic algorithm is proposed to solve the examination timetabling problem. To improve the performance of the proposed algorithm, two evolutionary pools, that is, the main evolutionary pool and the secondary evolutionary pool, are employed. The genetic operators have been specially designed to fit the examination timetabling problem. A simplified version of the simulated annealing strategy is designed to speed the convergence of the algorithm. A clonal mechanism is introduced to preserve population diversity. Extensive experiments carried out on 12 benchmark examination timetabling instances show that the proposed algorithm is able to produce promising results for the uncapacitated examination timetabling problem.

  13. Automated management of engineering infrastructure of pools of different purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirokov Lev Alekseevich


    Full Text Available Pools play an important role in people’s life. They answer people’s demand in rest and improve their health. At the same time pools are rather important for industrial use, for example in construction industry. In order to solve different construction problems it is essential to investigate the influence of microclimatic parameters on construction materials and structures. For this aim pools are in demand as special test sites for construction materials and structures in different environmental conditions including the case of a direct water impact. The efficient use of pools presupposes the necessity of constant hydroclimatic contro: air humidity and temperature, water temperature, chemical composition of water and air. Classification of pools of different purposes is presented in the article. The author considers the main problems of operation of pools as objects with complicated air-and-water environment. The questions of maintaining optimal microclimatic parameters in a pool are considered. The necessity of use of the control system of a microclimate, its efficiency, profitability and social effect of its implementation is described. A mathematical model of the thermal mode of a pool area is constructed. The process of indoor temperature regulation in the pool is considered.

  14. Stability versus exchange: a paradox in DNA replication. (United States)

    Åberg, Christoffer; Duderstadt, Karl E; van Oijen, Antoine M


    Multi-component biological machines, comprising individual proteins with specialized functions, perform a variety of essential processes in cells. Once assembled, most such complexes are considered very stable, retaining individual constituents as long as required. However, rapid and frequent exchange of individual factors in a range of critical cellular assemblies, including DNA replication machineries, DNA transcription regulators and flagellar motors, has recently been observed. The high stability of a multi-protein complex may appear mutually exclusive with rapid subunit exchange. Here, we describe a multisite competitive exchange mechanism, based on simultaneous binding of a protein to multiple low-affinity sites. It explains how a component can be stably integrated into a complex in the absence of competing factors, while able to rapidly exchange in the presence of competing proteins. We provide a mathematical model for the mechanism and give analytical expressions for the stability of a pre-formed complex, in the absence and presence of competitors. Using typical binding kinetic parameters, we show that the mechanism is operational under physically realistic conditions. Thus, high stability and rapid exchange within a complex can be reconciled and this framework can be used to rationalize previous observations, qualitatively as well as quantitatively. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. Microgravity condensing heat exchanger (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher M. (Inventor); Ma, Yonghui (Inventor); North, Andrew (Inventor); Weislogel, Mark M. (Inventor)


    A heat exchanger having a plurality of heat exchanging aluminum fins with hydrophilic condensing surfaces which are stacked and clamped between two cold plates. The cold plates are aligned radially along a plane extending through the axis of a cylindrical duct and hold the stacked and clamped portions of the heat exchanging fins along the axis of the cylindrical duct. The fins extend outwardly from the clamped portions along approximately radial planes. The spacing between fins is symmetric about the cold plates, and are somewhat more closely spaced as the angle they make with the cold plates approaches Passageways extend through the fins between vertex spaces which provide capillary storage and communicate with passageways formed in the stacked and clamped portions of the fins, which communicate with water drains connected to a pump externally to the duct. Water with no entrained air is drawn from the capillary spaces.

  16. Ion exchange phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.


    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  17. Modeling of condensation, stratification, and mixing phenomena in a pool of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.; Kudinov, P.; Villanueva, W. (Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety, Stockholm (Sweden))


    This work pertains to the research program on Containment Thermal-Hydraulics at KTH. The objective is to evaluate and improve performance of methods, which are used to analyze thermal-hydraulics of steam suppression pools in a BWR plant under different abnormal transient and accident conditions. As a passive safety system, the function of steam pressure suppression pools is paramount to the containment performance. In the present work, the focus is on apparently-benign but intricate and potentially risk-significant scenarios in which thermal stratification could significantly impede the pool's pressure suppression capacity. For the case of small flow rates of steam influx, the steam condenses rapidly in the pool and the hot condensate rises in a narrow plume above the steam injection plane and spreads into a thin layer at the pool's free surface. When the steam flow rate increases significantly, momentum introduced by the steam injection and/or periodic expansion and shrink of large steam bubbles due to direct contact condensation can cause breakdown of the stratified layers and lead to mixing of the pool water. Accurate prediction of the pool thermal-hydraulics in such scenarios presents a computational challenge. Lumped-parameter models have no capability to predict temperature distribution of water pool during thermal stratification development. While high-order-accurate CFD (RANS, LES) methods are not practical due to excessive computing power needed to calculate 3D high-Rayleighnumber natural circulation flow in long transients. In the present work, a middleground approach is used, namely CFD-like model of the general purpose thermalhydraulic code GOTHIC. Each cell of 3D GOTHIC grid uses lumped parameter volume type closures for modeling of various heat and mass transfer processes at subgrid scale. We use GOTHIC to simulate POOLEX/PPOOLEX experiment, in order to (a) quantify errors due to GOTHIC's physical models and numerical schemes, and (b

  18. Heat exchanger panel (United States)

    Warburton, Robert E. (Inventor); Cuva, William J. (Inventor)


    The present invention relates to a heat exchanger panel which has broad utility in high temperature environments. The heat exchanger panel has a first panel, a second panel, and at least one fluid containment device positioned intermediate the first and second panels. At least one of the first panel and the second panel have at least one feature on an interior surface to accommodate the at least one fluid containment device. In a preferred embodiment, each of the first and second panels is formed from a high conductivity, high temperature composite material. Also, in a preferred embodiment, the first and second panels are joined together by one or more composite fasteners.

  19. Microscale Regenerative Heat Exchanger (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Stelter, Stephan; Stelter, Manfred


    The device described herein is designed primarily for use as a regenerative heat exchanger in a miniature Stirling engine or Stirling-cycle heat pump. A regenerative heat exchanger (sometimes called, simply, a "regenerator" in the Stirling-engine art) is basically a thermal capacitor: Its role in the Stirling cycle is to alternately accept heat from, then deliver heat to, an oscillating flow of a working fluid between compression and expansion volumes, without introducing an excessive pressure drop. These volumes are at different temperatures, and conduction of heat between these volumes is undesirable because it reduces the energy-conversion efficiency of the Stirling cycle.

  20. Steady State Vapor Bubble in Pool Boiling. (United States)

    Zou, An; Chanana, Ashish; Agrawal, Amit; Wayner, Peter C; Maroo, Shalabh C


    Boiling, a dynamic and multiscale process, has been studied for several decades; however, a comprehensive understanding of the process is still lacking. The bubble ebullition cycle, which occurs over millisecond time-span, makes it extremely challenging to study near-surface interfacial characteristics of a single bubble. Here, we create a steady-state vapor bubble that can remain stable for hours in a pool of sub-cooled water using a femtosecond laser source. The stability of the bubble allows us to measure the contact-angle and perform in-situ imaging of the contact-line region and the microlayer, on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces and in both degassed and regular (with dissolved air) water. The early growth stage of vapor bubble in degassed water shows a completely wetted bubble base with the microlayer, and the bubble does not depart from the surface due to reduced liquid pressure in the microlayer. Using experimental data and numerical simulations, we obtain permissible range of maximum heat transfer coefficient possible in nucleate boiling and the width of the evaporating layer in the contact-line region. This technique of creating and measuring fundamental characteristics of a stable vapor bubble will facilitate rational design of nanostructures for boiling enhancement and advance thermal management in electronics.

  1. The Solitude of Relevant Documents in the Pool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipani, A.; Lupu, M.; Kanoulas, E.; Hanbury, A.


    Pool bias is a well understood problem of test-collection based benchmarking in information retrieval. The pooling method itself is designed to identify all relevant documents. In practice, 'all' translates to `as many as possible given some budgetary constraints' and the problem persists, albeit

  2. Governance and Management of Common Pool Resources in Viet ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Governance and Management of Common Pool Resources in Viet Nam. This grant will allow Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry to examine issues related to common pool resource management and poverty in the context of decentralization in central Viet Nam. The project will take place on two sites. Tam Giang ...

  3. Mathematical-programming approaches to test item pool design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.; van der Linden, Willem J.; Ariel, A.


    This paper presents an approach to item pool design that has the potential to improve on the quality of current item pools in educational and psychological testing andhence to increase both measurement precision and validity. The approach consists of the application of mathematical programming

  4. 48 CFR 9.702 - Contracting with pools. (United States)


    ... PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Defense Production Pools and Research and Development Pools 9.702... of a power of attorney identifying the agent authorized to sign the offer or contract on that member's behalf. The contracting officer shall attach a copy of each power of attorney to each signed copy...

  5. 13 CFR 120.1709 - Transfers of Pool Certificates. (United States)


    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfers of Pool Certificates. 120.1709 Section 120.1709 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS... reflect the transfer on its records. (c) Contents of letter of transmittal for Pool Certificate. A letter...

  6. Towards the car-pooling; Le covoiturage a la cle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This booklet, published by the french ministry of the environment and the national development, gives the advantages of the car-pooling and proposes examples to help the communities to install and succeed a car-pooling policy: the context, the tools of information, the national development, the strategy bonded to the public. (A.L.B.)

  7. Governance and Management of Common Pool Resources in Viet ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Governance and Management of Common Pool Resources in Viet Nam. This grant will allow Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry to examine issues related to common pool resource management and poverty in the context of decentralization in central Viet Nam. ... Les chaînes de valeur comme leviers stratégiques.

  8. Odonata (Insecta at a wadi Pool near Nizwa, northern Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine M. Cowan


    Full Text Available Fourteen damselfly and dragonfly species were recorded in 68 visits to a wadi pool in northern Oman, March 2012 to June 2014.  All identifications were based on photographs.  Apparently the pool has a core community of eight resident species.  Paragomphus sinaiticus, globally Near Threatened, was regularly  recorded. 

  9. Branchipodopsis species — specialists of ephemeral rock pools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anostracan Branchipodopsis genus is widespread throughout southern Africa and is the second most speciose anostracan taxon in this sub-continent. Branchipodopsis species are particularly dominant in small short-lived and clear rock pools, to the vagaries of which they are extremely well adapted. Such rock pools ...

  10. Sanitary Conditions of Public Swimming Pools in Amman, Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Abu Aqoulah


    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the summer of 2005 and investigated all of active public swimming pools (85 out of 93 in Amman, the capital of Jordan. The aim of this study was to find out if these swimming pools are in compliance with Jordanian Standards for Swimming Pools Water (JS 1562/2004. The pools were surveyed against the water microbial quality and other physicochemical parameters indicated in the standards. Two samples from each pool were collected for microbial analysis and pools monitoring were carried out during the afternoon of the weekends when the pools are most heavily used. The results indicated overall poor compliance with the standards. Compliance of the pools water to the microbial parameters was 56.5%, for residual chlorine 49.4%, for pH 87.7%, water temperature 48.8%, and bathing load 70.6%. The results also indicated that water microbial quality deteriorated with time. Multivariate analysis showed significant association of water contamination with time of sample collection, residual chlorine, water temperature and load of swimmers. The poor compliance was attributed to lack of proper disinfection, staff training, proper maintenance, and timely inspection.

  11. Soil carbon pools and fluxes in urban ecosystems (United States)

    R. Pouyat; P. Groffman; I Yesilonis; L. Hernandez


    The transformation of landscapes from non-urban to urban land use has the potential to greatly modify soil carbon (C) pools and fluxes. For urban ecosystems, very little data exists to assess whether urbanization leads to an increase or decrease in soil C pools. We analyzed three data sets to assess the potential for urbanization to affect soil organic C. These...

  12. 41 CFR 101-25.109-2 - Equipment pools. (United States)


    .... Pooling operations should begin expeditiously, within 120 days, if feasible, following decisions regarding... transportation and handling costs, limited personnel resources, or limited space, pooling may be accomplished by means of equipment listings. Consideration should be given to the establishment of a laboratory advisory...

  13. A highly efficient design strategy for regression with outcome pooling. (United States)

    Mitchell, Emily M; Lyles, Robert H; Manatunga, Amita K; Perkins, Neil J; Schisterman, Enrique F


    The potential for research involving biospecimens can be hindered by the prohibitive cost of performing laboratory assays on individual samples. To mitigate this cost, strategies such as randomly selecting a portion of specimens for analysis or randomly pooling specimens prior to performing laboratory assays may be employed. These techniques, while effective in reducing cost, are often accompanied by a considerable loss of statistical efficiency. We propose a novel pooling strategy based on the k-means clustering algorithm to reduce laboratory costs while maintaining a high level of statistical efficiency when predictor variables are measured on all subjects, but the outcome of interest is assessed in pools. We perform simulations motivated by the BioCycle study to compare this k-means pooling strategy with current pooling and selection techniques under simple and multiple linear regression models. While all of the methods considered produce unbiased estimates and confidence intervals with appropriate coverage, pooling under k-means clustering provides the most precise estimates, closely approximating results from the full data and losing minimal precision as the total number of pools decreases. The benefits of k-means clustering evident in the simulation study are then applied to an analysis of the BioCycle dataset. In conclusion, when the number of lab tests is limited by budget, pooling specimens based on k-means clustering prior to performing lab assays can be an effective way to save money with minimal information loss in a regression setting. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Microscopic bubble behaviour in suppression pool during wetwell venting (United States)

    Zablackaite, G.; Nagasaka, H.; Kikura, H.


    During a severe accident PCV failure should be avoided and fission products inside PCV should be confined as much as possible. In order to minimize FPs release, Wetwell venting is conducted by releasing steam-non-condensable gas mixture carrying FPs from the Drywell to Suppression Pool. Steam is condensed by subcooled water in the pool, and most of FPs are retained into water. The removal of FP in the water pool is referred to as “Pool Scrubbing effect”. Hydrodynamic parameters of bubbles have impact on pool scrubbing effect. However, there is only few data available to evaluate quantitatively the bubble behaviour under depressurization and/or thermal stratification conditions. Series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of temperature distribution, non-condensable gas content and pressure in the Wetwell on bubble behaviour. Bubbles were visualized using High Speed Camera and adopting shadowgraphy technique. Applying Particle Tracking Velocimetry, bubble velocity and size distribution were obtained from recorded images. Experimental results show that with increasing suppression pool temperature, bubbles reaching the pool surface decreased in size and traveling velocity became slower. In pressurized wetwell, bubble behaviour was similar to that in the heated up suppression pool case, although bubble parameters were similar to the low temperature case. Higher air content induced water surface movement and bubbles were smaller due to break up.

  15. Diagnosis of enzootic bovine leucosis in single and pooled samples. (United States)

    Hoff-Jørgensen, R


    Diagnosis of enzootic bovine leucosis is based on detection of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, BLV. Some ELISA modifications have proved sensitive enough for use in the examination of pooled blood samples from slaughterhouses, milk and pooled milk samples. Suggestions for the standardisation of different ELISA modifications using a common reference serum are presented.

  16. 41 CFR 109-27.5106 - Precious metals pool. (United States)


    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Precious metals pool. 109-27.5106 Section 109-27.5106 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.51-Management of Precious Metals § 109-27.5106 Precious metals pool. ...

  17. The Ineffectiveness of Manual Treatment of Swimming Pools NNAJI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Swimmers are usually endangered when they swallow contaminated pool water, inhale toxic disinfection by products such as trihalomethane (Nickmilder and Bernard, 2007) or by skin adsorption (Villanueva et al, 2007). The chance of infection through swallowing of pool water increases with the amount of water swallowed ...

  18. Nature's Heat Exchangers. (United States)

    Barnes, George


    Discusses the heat-transfer systems of different animals. Systems include heat conduction into the ground, heat transferred by convection, heat exchange in lizards, fish and polar animals, the carotid rete system, electromagnetic radiation from animals and people, and plant and animal fiber optics. (MDH)

  19. Basic Exchange Rate Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)


    textabstractThis four-chapter overview of basic exchange rate theories discusses (i) the elasticity and absorption approach, (ii) the (long-run) implications of the monetary approach, (iii) the short-run effects of monetary and fiscal policy under various economic conditions, and (iv) the transition

  20. Technology Performance Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    To address the need for accessible, high-quality data, the Department of Energy has developed the Technology Performance Exchange (TPEx). TPEx enables technology suppliers, third-party testing laboratories, and other entities to share product performance data. These data are automatically transformed into a format that technology evaluators can easily use in their energy modeling assessments to inform procurement decisions.

  1. Telephone Exchange Maintenance

    CERN Document Server


    Urgent maintenance work on CERN telephone exchanges will be performed on 24 March from 6 a.m. to 8 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted or even interrupted during this time. For more details, please contact us by email at

  2. Baltic Exchange toodi Tallinna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Viimane osa merekonteineritesse kokkupakitud Londoni laevandus- ja merebörsi Baltic Exchange'i endise peakorteri detailidest jõudis 2007. a. juunis Tallinna. Hoone detailid ostnud ärimehed Heiti Hääl ja Eerik-Niiles Kross plaanivad leida hoonele koha Tallinna kesklinnas. E.-N. Krossi kommentaar

  3. Heat exchanger. Varmeveksler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosman, I.E.; Wagner, W.R.


    The invention concerns a manifold for a plate-type heat exchanger, and includes a side channel connected the inlet of the manifold. The plates can be designed as an integral assembly together with the integrated side- and external end-manifolds as well. 16 drawings.

  4. Chemical exchange program analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waffelaert, Pascale


    As part of its EMS, Sandia performs an annual environmental aspects/impacts analysis. The purpose of this analysis is to identify the environmental aspects associated with Sandia's activities, products, and services and the potential environmental impacts associated with those aspects. Division and environmental programs established objectives and targets based on the environmental aspects associated with their operations. In 2007 the most significant aspect identified was Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage). The objective for Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage) was to improve chemical handling, storage, and on-site movement of hazardous materials. One of the targets supporting this objective was to develop an effective chemical exchange program, making a business case for it in FY07, and fully implementing a comprehensive chemical exchange program in FY08. A Chemical Exchange Program (CEP) team was formed to implement this target. The team consists of representatives from the Chemical Information System (CIS), Pollution Prevention (P2), the HWMF, Procurement and the Environmental Management System (EMS). The CEP Team performed benchmarking and conducted a life-cycle analysis of the current management of chemicals at SNL/NM and compared it to Chemical Exchange alternatives. Those alternatives are as follows: (1) Revive the 'Virtual' Chemical Exchange Program; (2) Re-implement a 'Physical' Chemical Exchange Program using a Chemical Information System; and (3) Transition to a Chemical Management Services System. The analysis and benchmarking study shows that the present management of chemicals at SNL/NM is significantly disjointed and a life-cycle or 'Cradle-to-Grave' approach to chemical management is needed. This approach must consider the purchasing and maintenance costs as well as the cost of ultimate disposal of the chemicals and materials. A chemical exchange is needed as a mechanism to re-apply chemicals on site. This

  5. Estimating species pools for a single ecological assemblage. (United States)

    Shen, Tsung-Jen; Chen, Youhua; Chen, You-Fang


    The species pool concept was formulated over the past several decades and has since played an important role in explaining multi-scale ecological patterns. Previous statistical methods were developed to identify species pools based on broad-scale species range maps or community similarity computed from data collected from many areas. No statistical method is available for estimating species pools for a single local community (sampling area size may be very small as ≤ 1 km2). In this study, based on limited local abundance information, we developed a simple method to estimate the area size and richness of a species pool for a local ecological community. The method involves two steps. In the first step, parameters from a truncated negative trinomial model characterizing the distributional aggregation of all species (i.e., non-random species distribution) in the local community were estimated. In the second step, we assume that the unseen species in the local community are most likely the rare species, only found in the remaining part of the species pool, and vice versa, if the remaining portion of the pool was surveyed and was contrasted with the sampled area. Therefore, we can estimate the area size of the pool, as long as an abundance threshold for defining rare species is given. Since the size of the pool is dependent on the rarity threshold, to unanimously determine the pool size, we developed an optimal method to delineate the rarity threshold based on the balance of the changing rates of species absence probabilities in the sampled and unsampled areas of the pool. For a 50 ha (0.5 km2) forest plot in the Barro Colorado Island of central Panama, our model predicted that the local, if not regional, species pool for the 0.5 km2 forest plot was nearly the entire island. Accordingly, tree species richness in this pool was estimated as around 360. When the sampling size was smaller, the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval could reach 418, which was very

  6. MDMS: Molecular dynamics meta-simulator for evaluating exchange type sampling methods (United States)

    Smith, Daniel B.; Okur, Asim; Brooks, Bernard R.


    Replica exchange methods have become popular tools to explore conformational space for small proteins. For larger biological systems, even with enhanced sampling methods, exploring the free energy landscape remains computationally challenging. This problem has led to the development of many improved replica exchange methods. Unfortunately, testing these methods remains expensive. We propose a molecular dynamics meta-simulator (MDMS) based on transition state theory to simulate a replica exchange simulation, eliminating the need to run explicit dynamics between exchange attempts. MDMS simulations allow for rapid testing of new replica exchange based methods, greatly reducing the amount of time needed for new method development.

  7. Irrigation systems as common-pool resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giangiacomo Bravo


    Full Text Available Les ressources communes sont des ressources naturelles ou artificielles partagées par différents utilisateurs ; l’exploitation de ces ressources crée une rivalité, souvent (mais pas nécessairement à l’origine de leur dégradation, voire de leur destruction. Cet article présente brièvement la théorie des ressources communes développée ces vingt dernières années par Elinor Ostrom et ses collègues, et l’illustre par plusieurs études de cas de systèmes d’irrigation du nord de l’Italie (Lombardie et Vallée d’Aoste. Il démontre que différents mécanismes sociaux, tels que les valeurs partagées et le réseau social existant au sein de la communauté d’utilisateurs, influent sensiblement sur l’efficacité des systèmes institutionnels de gestion des ressources communes.Common-pool resources are natural or man-made resources shared among different users, a condition that produces a competition for their utilization leading often (although not necessarily to their degradation or even to their destruction. This paper shortly discusses the "theory of the commons", as developed in the last 20 years by Elinor Ostrom and her colleagues, and illustrates it by mean of case studies regarding a number of irrigation systems in Northern Italy (Lombardy and Aosta Valley. We show that that different social mechanisms, like the shared values e the social network existing inside the community of users, play a significant role in influencing the outcomes of the institutional schemes for the commons management.

  8. Reserve growth in oil pools of Alberta: Model and forecast (United States)

    Verma, M.; Cook, T.


    Reserve growth is recognized as a major component of additions to reserves in most oil provinces around the world, particularly in mature provinces. It takes place as a result of the discovery of new pools/reservoirs and extensions of known pools within existing fields, improved knowledge of reservoirs over time leading to a change in estimates of original oil-in-place, and improvement in recovery factor through the application of new technology, such as enhanced oil recovery methods, horizontal/multilateral drilling, and 4D seismic. A reserve growth study was conducted on oil pools in Alberta, Canada, with the following objectives: 1) evaluate historical oil reserve data in order to assess the potential for future reserve growth; 2) develop reserve growth models/ functions to help forecast hydrocarbon volumes; 3) study reserve growth sensitivity to various parameters (for example, pool size, porosity, and oil gravity); and 4) compare reserve growth in oil pools and fields in Alberta with those from other large petroleum provinces around the world. The reported known recoverable oil exclusive of Athabasca oil sands in Alberta increased from 4.5 billion barrels of oil (BBO) in 1960 to 17 BBO in 2005. Some of the pools that were included in the existing database were excluded from the present study for lack of adequate data. Therefore, the known recoverable oil increased from 4.2 to 13.9 BBO over the period from 1960 through 2005, with new discoveries contributing 3.7 BBO and reserve growth adding 6 BBO. This reserve growth took place mostly in pools with more than 125,000 barrels of known recoverable oil. Pools with light oil accounted for most of the total known oil volume, therefore reflecting the overall pool growth. Smaller pools, in contrast, shrank in their total recoverable volumes over the years. Pools with heavy oil (gravity less than 20o API) make up only a small share (3.8 percent) of the total recoverable oil; they showed a 23-fold growth compared to

  9. Baseline micronuclei frequency in children: estimates from meta- and pooled analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neri, Monica; Ceppi, Marcello; Knudsen, Lisbeth E


    The number of studies evaluating the effect of environmental exposure to genotoxic agents in children has rapidly increased in the last few years. The frequency of micronuclei (MN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes determined with the cytokinesis block assay is among the most popular biomarkers used...... and from the Human Micronucleus International Collaborative Study (HUMN) database]. Thirteen articles were selected for meta-analysis, and individual data included in the pooled analysis were retrieved from the databases of 12 laboratories. Overall means of 4.48 [95% confidence interval (CI), 3...

  10. Counterflow Regolith Heat Exchanger (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert; Jonscher, Peter


    A problem exists in reducing the total heating power required to extract oxygen from lunar regolith. All such processes require heating a great deal of soil, and the heat energy is wasted if it cannot be recycled from processed material back into new material. The counterflow regolith heat exchanger (CoRHE) is a device that transfers heat from hot regolith to cold regolith. The CoRHE is essentially a tube-in-tube heat exchanger with internal and external augers attached to the inner rotating tube to move the regolith. Hot regolith in the outer tube is moved in one direction by a right-hand - ed auger, and the cool regolith in the inner tube is moved in the opposite direction by a left-handed auger attached to the inside of the rotating tube. In this counterflow arrangement, a large fraction of the heat from the expended regolith is transferred to the new regolith. The spent regolith leaves the heat exchanger close to the temperature of the cold new regolith, and the new regolith is pre-heated close to the initial temperature of the spent regolith. Using the CoRHE can reduce the heating requirement of a lunar ISRU system by 80%, reducing the total power consumption by a factor of two. The unique feature of this system is that it allows for counterflow heat exchange to occur between solids, instead of liquids or gases, as is commonly done. In addition, in variants of this concept, the hydrogen reduction can be made to occur within the counterflow heat exchanger itself, enabling a simplified lunar ISRU (in situ resource utilization) system with excellent energy economy and continuous nonbatch mode operation.

  11. Analytical applications of ion exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Inczédy, J


    Analytical Applications of Ion Exchangers presents the laboratory use of ion-exchange resins. This book discusses the development in the analytical application of ion exchangers. Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the history and significance of ion exchangers for technical purposes. This text then describes the properties of ion exchangers, which are large molecular water-insoluble polyelectrolytes having a cross-linked structure that contains ionic groups. Other chapters consider the theories concerning the operation of ion-exchange resins and investigate th

  12. Improving the Repatriation of Exchange Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidy Shata


    Full Text Available – With the world ascending the globalization ladder at record speed and the increased ease of transcending national boarders, repatriation difficulties are becoming a growing matter. Unfortunately, student repatriation difficulties are generally overlooked, and the exchange students may find that the return does not match their expectations, which may lead to difficulty readjusting to a place once considered familiar, and even a home. Repatriation is often studied on an organizational level, while exchange students’ return, is not even addressed or very little research has been conducted on the matter. The overall purpose of this research was to identify the unmet needs of repatriate students in regards to repatriation adjustment, and to find potential solutions to ensure that those needs are met. This was achieved using traditional methods of a questionnaire and interviews. The research was able to determine both educational institutions and students need to work together to achieve optimal results; universities and institutions need to become more aware of post-entry difficulties and how to prepare their students, whereas students need to become proactive and learn to utilize all resources at their disposal. It is believed that these conclusions will encourage educational institutions, researchers, and expatriate students to make use of the valuable information in this paper. They can optimize the overall re-entry process by adding to this research with their own research, identifying the difficulties faced by expatriates, developing awareness on the matter, and pooling together their knowledge and efforts to yield efficient and effective solutions.

  13. Storage pool diseases illuminate platelet dense granule biogenesis. (United States)

    Ambrosio, Andrea L; Di Pietro, Santiago M


    Platelet dense granules (DGs) are membrane bound compartments that store polyphosphate and small molecules such as ADP, ATP, Ca2+, and serotonin. The release of DG contents plays a central role in platelet aggregation to form a hemostatic plug. Accordingly, congenital deficiencies in the biogenesis of platelet DGs underlie human genetic disorders that cause storage pool disease and manifest with prolonged bleeding. DGs belong to a family of lysosome-related organelles, which also includes melanosomes, the compartments where the melanin pigments are synthesized. These organelles share several characteristics including an acidic lumen and, at least in part, the molecular machinery involved in their biogenesis. As a result, many genes affect both DG and melanosome biogenesis and the corresponding patients present not only with bleeding but also with oculocutaneous albinism. The identification and characterization of such genes has been instrumental in dissecting the pathways responsible for organelle biogenesis. Because the study of melanosome biogenesis has advanced more rapidly, this knowledge has been extrapolated to explain how DGs are produced. However, some progress has recently been made in studying platelet DG biogenesis directly in megakaryocytes and megakaryocytoid cells. DGs originate from an endosomal intermediate compartment, the multivesicular body. Maturation and differentiation into a DG begins when newly synthesized DG-specific proteins are delivered from early/recycling endosomal compartments. The machinery that orchestrates this vesicular trafficking is composed of a combination of both ubiquitous and cell type-specific proteins. Here, we review the current knowledge on DG biogenesis. In particular, we focus on the individual human and murine genes encoding the molecular machinery involved in this process and how their deficiencies result in disease.

  14. West Nile virus surveillance: A simple method for verifying the integrity of RNA in mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) pools. (United States)

    Hoffmann, Peter R; Woodrow, Robert J; Calimlim, Precilia S; Sciulli, Rebecca; Effler, Paul V; Miyamoto, Vernon; Imrie, Allison; Yanagihara, Richard; Nerurkar, Vivek R


    In a West Nile virus (WNV) -free ecosystem, it is essential to verify the integrity of RNA before concluding that RNA extracted from mosquito specimens is negative for WNV gene sequences. The primary objective of our study was to develop a rapid molecular assay to rapidly screen mosquitoes for the presence of 18S RNA and WNV gene sequences. Mosquitoes, collected from multiple sites on the island of O'ahu, were pooled into groups of 1-50 mosquitoes according to capture site, date, and species. Using primer design software and the GenBank database, generic oligonucleotide primer pairs were designed to amplify mosquito18S rRNA gene sequences from different species. RNA was extracted from mosquito pools, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed for the presence of mosquito18S rRNA and WNV gene sequences. Three of the seven primer pairs successfully detected 18S rRNA sequences for both Aedes and Culex by RT-PCR, and one primer pair successfully amplified 18S rRNA sequences for 15 different mosquito species. All 64 mosquito pools from 10 different sites on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, were negative for WNV nonstructural protein-5 gene sequences. This simple, one-step RT-PCR method for screening mosquito pools for arboviruses will become an increasingly valuable tool as WNV becomes endemic throughout the Americas.

  15. Provably-Secure Authenticated Group Diffie-Hellman KeyExchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresson, Emmanuel; Chevassut, Olivier; Pointcheval, David


    Authenticated key exchange protocols allow two participantsA and B, communicating over a public network and each holding anauthentication means, to exchange a shared secret value. Methods designedto deal with this cryptographic problem ensure A (resp. B) that no otherparticipants aside from B (resp. A) can learn any information about theagreed value, and often also ensure A and B that their respective partnerhas actually computed this value. A natural extension to thiscryptographic method is to consider a pool of participants exchanging ashared secret value and to provide a formal treatment for it. Startingfrom the famous 2-party Diffie-Hellman (DH) key exchange protocol, andfrom its authenticated variants, security experts have extended it to themulti-party setting for over a decade and completed a formal analysis inthe framework of modern cryptography in the past few years. The presentpaper synthesizes this body of work on the provably-secure authenticatedgroup DH key exchange.

  16. poolHiTS: A Shifted Transversal Design based pooling strategy for high-throughput drug screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolf Peter J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key goal of drug discovery is to increase the throughput of small molecule screens without sacrificing screening accuracy. High-throughput screening (HTS in drug discovery involves testing a large number of compounds in a biological assay to identify active compounds. Normally, molecules from a large compound library are tested individually to identify the activity of each molecule. Usually a small number of compounds are found to be active, however the presence of false positive and negative testing errors suggests that this one-drug one-assay screening strategy can be significantly improved. Pooling designs are testing schemes that test mixtures of compounds in each assay, thereby generating a screen of the whole compound library in fewer tests. By repeatedly testing compounds in different combinations, pooling designs also allow for error-correction. These pooled designs, for specific experiment parameters, can be simply and efficiently created using the Shifted Transversal Design (STD pooling algorithm. However, drug screening contains a number of key constraints that require specific modifications if this pooling approach is to be useful for practical screen designs. Results In this paper, we introduce a pooling strategy called poolHiTS (Pooled High-Throughput Screening which is based on the STD algorithm. In poolHiTS, we implement a limit on the number of compounds that can be mixed in a single assay. In addition, we show that the STD-based pooling strategy is limited in the error-correction that it can achieve. Due to the mixing constraint, we show that it is more efficient to split a large library into smaller blocks of compounds, which are then tested using an optimized strategy repeated for each block. We package the optimal block selection algorithm into poolHiTS. The MATLAB codes for the poolHiTS algorithm and the corresponding decoding strategy are also provided. Conclusion We have produced a practical version

  17. Validation of SNP allele frequencies determined by pooled next-generation sequencing in natural populations of a non-model plant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Rellstab

    Full Text Available Sequencing of pooled samples (Pool-Seq using next-generation sequencing technologies has become increasingly popular, because it represents a rapid and cost-effective method to determine allele frequencies for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in population pools. Validation of allele frequencies determined by Pool-Seq has been attempted using an individual genotyping approach, but these studies tend to use samples from existing model organism databases or DNA stores, and do not validate a realistic setup for sampling natural populations. Here we used pyrosequencing to validate allele frequencies determined by Pool-Seq in three natural populations of Arabidopsis halleri (Brassicaceae. The allele frequency estimates of the pooled population samples (consisting of 20 individual plant DNA samples were determined after mapping Illumina reads to (i the publicly available, high-quality reference genome of a closely related species (Arabidopsis thaliana and (ii our own de novo draft genome assembly of A. halleri. We then pyrosequenced nine selected SNPs using the same individuals from each population, resulting in a total of 540 samples. Our results show a highly significant and accurate relationship between pooled and individually determined allele frequencies, irrespective of the reference genome used. Allele frequencies differed on average by less than 4%. There was no tendency that either the Pool-Seq or the individual-based approach resulted in higher or lower estimates of allele frequencies. Moreover, the rather high coverage in the mapping to the two reference genomes, ranging from 55 to 284x, had no significant effect on the accuracy of the Pool-Seq. A resampling analysis showed that only very low coverage values (below 10-20x would substantially reduce the precision of the method. We therefore conclude that a pooled re-sequencing approach is well suited for analyses of genetic variation in natural populations.

  18. Solvent accessibility of protein surfaces by amide H/2H exchange MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Truhlar, Stephanie M E; Croy, Carrie H; Torpey, Justin W; Koeppe, Julia R; Komives, Elizabeth A


    One advantage of detecting amide H/2H exchange by mass spectrometry instead of NMR is that the more rapidly exchanging surface amides are still detectable. In this study, we present quench-flow amide H/2H exchange experiments to probe how rapidly the surfaces of two different proteins exchange. We compared the amide H/2H exchange behavior of thrombin, a globular protein, and IkappaBalpha, a nonglobular protein, to explore any differences in the determinants of amide H/2H exchange rates for each class of protein. The rates of exchange of only a few of the surface amides were as rapid as the "intrinsic" exchange rates measured for amides in unstructured peptides. Most of the surface amides exchanged at a slower rate, despite the fact that they were not seen to be hydrogen bonded to another protein group in the crystal structure. To elucidate the influence of the surface environment on amide H/2H exchange, we compared exchange data with the number of amides participating in hydrogen bonds with other protein groups and with the solvent accessible surface area. The best correlation with amide H/2H exchange was found with the total solvent accessible surface area, including side chains. In the case of the globular protein, the correlation was modest, whereas it was well correlated for the nonglobular protein. The nonglobular protein also showed a correlation between amide exchange and hydrogen bonding. These data suggest that other factors, such as complex dynamic behavior and surface burial, may alter the expected exchange rates in globular proteins more than in nonglobular proteins where all of the residues are near the surface.

  19. Melt-Pool Temperature and Size Measurement During Direct Laser Sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    List, III, Frederick Alyious [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carver, Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gockel, Joy E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Additive manufacturing has demonstrated the ability to fabricate complex geometries and components not possible with conventional casting and machining. In many cases, industry has demonstrated the ability to fabricate complex geometries with improved efficiency and performance. However, qualification and certification of processes is challenging, leaving companies to focus on certification of material though design allowable based approaches. This significantly reduces the business case for additive manufacturing. Therefore, real time monitoring of the melt pool can be used to detect the development of flaws, such as porosity or un-sintered powder and aid in the certification process. Characteristics of the melt pool in the Direct Laser Sintering (DLS) process is also of great interest to modelers who are developing simulation models needed to improve and perfect the DLS process. Such models could provide a means to rapidly develop the optimum processing parameters for new alloy powders and optimize processing parameters for specific part geometries. Stratonics’ ThermaViz system will be integrated with the Renishaw DLS system in order to demonstrate its ability to measure melt pool size, shape and temperature. These results will be compared with data from an existing IR camera to determine the best approach for the determination of these critical parameters.

  20. Structural Integrity Evaluation of In-Pool Assembly in Cold Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seok Hoon; Lee, K. H.; Kim, H. R.; Choi, J. W.; Kim, Y. K


    The condition for the transient operation was defined to provide the design data of the load combination, which is needed for the fatigue analysis and the component design for the In-Pool Assembly. Although the moderator vessel is classified by the Safety Class 3, the evaluation of the structural integrity was performed by the design procedure of ASME Sec. III, NB based on the concept of the design by analysis. The material for the moderator vessel and vacuum vessel is AL6061 T6. The material properties is prepared by ASME Sec. II, Part D,but those over the temperature were made using the extrapolation and the conservative value. Code Case N-519 was applied to provide the design stress intensity in condition of low temperature. The structural analysis of the vacuum tube was carried out for the vacuum pressure vessel, upper flange and bolt and the material of the upper flange and the bolt is SA182 F304 and SA193 B8, respectively. The detail analysis considering the load combination according to the service level was performed to evaluate the structural integrity. Also, the fracture mechanics evaluation for the In-Pool Assembly was carried out to guarantee the integrity of the In-Pool Assembly from the rapid fracture damage.

  1. Data Exchange Inventory (DEXI) System (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DEXI is an intranet application used by SSA users to track all incoming and outgoing data exchanges between SSA and our data exchange partners. Information such as...

  2. Swimming pool deck as environmental reservoir of Fusarium. (United States)

    Buot, G; Toutous-Trellu, L; Hennequin, C


    While investigations on fungal contamination of swimming pools usually focus on dermatophytes, data on other potentially pathogenic molds are scarce. Here, we report the investigation of fungal colonization of the deck surrounding a hospital physical therapy swimming pool. Five series of samples from 8 sites were collected over one year from the pool surroundings. Concomitantly, 58 patients using the swimming pool were examined and samples obtained from those with suspected onychomycosis. All surface samples were positive for fungi, with Fusarium the most frequently recovered from 22 of 27 samples of sites surrounding the pool. Among the outpatients evaluated, two presented with a mixed onychomycosis from which Fusarium and Trichophyton rubrum were isolated. The questions of possible acquisition from the swimming pool area must be considered in both cases as the ungual lesions had developed within the previous three months. This warrants further studies to better understand the epidemiology of potentially pathogenic molds in areas surrounding pools in order to adopt appropriate measures to avoid contamination. This is of particular importance within medical institutions, considering the potential role of Fusarium onychomycosis as a starting point for disseminated infections in immunocompromised patients.

  3. Study on water evaporation rate from indoor swimming pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzeźnik Ilona


    Full Text Available The air relative humidity in closed spaces of indoor swimming pools influences significantly on users thermal comfort and the stability of the building structure, so its preservation on suitable level is very important. For this purpose, buildings are equipped with HVAC systems which provide adequate level of humidity. The selection of devices and their technical parameters is made using the mathematical models of water evaporation rate in the unoccupied and occupied indoor swimming pool. In the literature, there are many papers describing this phenomena but the results differ from each other. The aim of the study was the experimental verification of published models of evaporation rate in the pool. The tests carried out on a laboratory scale, using model of indoor swimming pool, measuring 99cm/68cm/22cm. The model was equipped with water spray installation with six nozzles to simulate conditions during the use of the swimming pool. The measurements were made for conditions of sports pools (water temperature 24°C and recreational swimming pool (water temperature 34°C. According to the recommendations the air temperature was about 2°C higher than water temperature, and the relative humidity ranged from 40% to 55%. Models Shah and Biasin & Krumm were characterized by the best fit to the results of measurements on a laboratory scale.

  4. Study on water evaporation rate from indoor swimming pools (United States)

    Rzeźnik, Ilona


    The air relative humidity in closed spaces of indoor swimming pools influences significantly on users thermal comfort and the stability of the building structure, so its preservation on suitable level is very important. For this purpose, buildings are equipped with HVAC systems which provide adequate level of humidity. The selection of devices and their technical parameters is made using the mathematical models of water evaporation rate in the unoccupied and occupied indoor swimming pool. In the literature, there are many papers describing this phenomena but the results differ from each other. The aim of the study was the experimental verification of published models of evaporation rate in the pool. The tests carried out on a laboratory scale, using model of indoor swimming pool, measuring 99cm/68cm/22cm. The model was equipped with water spray installation with six nozzles to simulate conditions during the use of the swimming pool. The measurements were made for conditions of sports pools (water temperature 24°C) and recreational swimming pool (water temperature 34°C). According to the recommendations the air temperature was about 2°C higher than water temperature, and the relative humidity ranged from 40% to 55%. Models Shah and Biasin & Krumm were characterized by the best fit to the results of measurements on a laboratory scale.

  5. Incorporating incorporating economic models into seasonal pool conservation planning (United States)

    Freeman, Robert C.; Bell, Kathleen P.; Calhoun, Aram J.K.; Loftin, Cyndy


    Massachusetts, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Maine have adopted regulatory zones around seasonal (vernal) pools to conserve terrestrial habitat for pool-breeding amphibians. Most amphibians require access to distinct seasonal habitats in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems because of their complex life histories. These habitat requirements make them particularly vulnerable to land uses that destroy habitat or limit connectivity (or permeability) among habitats. Regulatory efforts focusing on breeding pools without consideration of terrestrial habitat needs will not ensure the persistence of pool-breeding amphibians. We used GIS to combine a discrete-choice, parcel-scale economic model of land conversion with a landscape permeability model based on known habitat requirements of wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) in Maine (USA) to examine permeability among habitat elements for alternative future scenarios. The economic model predicts future landscapes under different subdivision open space and vernal pool regulatory requirements. Our model showed that even “no build” permit zones extending 76 m (250 ft) outward from the pool edge were insufficient to assure permeability among required habitat elements. Furthermore, effectiveness of permit zones may be inconsistent due to interactions with other growth management policies, highlighting the need for local and state planning for the long-term persistence of pool-breeding amphibians in developing landscapes.

  6. Characterization of microbial populations associated with natural swimming pools. (United States)

    Casanovas-Massana, Arnau; Blanch, Anicet R


    Natural swimming pools are artificially created bodies of water that are intended for human recreational bathing and have no chemical disinfection treatment. The microbial populations in four private natural swimming pools were analysed to assess the typical microbiological parameters, establish the origin of faecal contamination in the water, and predict the behaviour of larger systems that are open to the public. For this purpose, faecal coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were enumerated in summer and winter. Moreover, faecal coliforms and enterococci populations were biochemically phenotyped with the Phene-Plate System, the diversity and similarity indexes were calculated and the isolates were identified. Three of the four natural pools exceeded the E. coli or enterococci limits stated in the recommendations for natural swimming pools. The concentrations of P. aeruginosa and aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were acceptable. The results suggest that wildlife was an important source of faecal pollution in the pools. Since there is a lack of regulations on these systems, and the health risks are higher than in conventional swimming pools, further research is needed to establish the parameters for ensuring safe bathing in private and public natural swimming pools. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Dynamical Clustering of Exchange Rates


    Fenn, Daniel J.; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J; Mark McDonald; Stacy Williams; Johnson, Neil F.; Jones, Nick S


    We use techniques from network science to study correlations in the foreign exchange (FX) market over the period 1991--2008. We consider an FX market network in which each node represents an exchange rate and each weighted edge represents a time-dependent correlation between the rates. To provide insights into the clustering of the exchange rate time series, we investigate dynamic communities in the network. We show that there is a relationship between an exchange rate's functional role withi...

  8. Serial tempering without exchange. (United States)

    Nymeyer, Hugh


    Serial tempering is a computational method that turns the temperature T (or more generally any independent λ parameter) into a dynamical variable. It is shown that, under conditions for which this variable is fast, serial tempering is equivalent to the umbrella sampling method with a single effective potential. This equivalence is demonstrated using both a small one-dimensional system and a small solvated peptide. The suggestion is then made to replace the serial tempering protocol with the equivalent umbrella sampling calculation. This approach, serial tempering without exchange (STeWiE), has the same performance as serial tempering in the limit that exchanges are frequent, is simpler to implement, and has fewer adjustable parameters than conventional serial tempering. The equivalence of serial tempering and STeWiE also provides a convenient route for estimating and optimizing the performance of serial tempering simulations and other generalized-ensemble methods.

  9. Lipid exchange by ultracentrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Nikolaj Düring; Olesen, Claus


    Lipids play an important role in maintaining P-type ATPase structure and function, and often they are crucial for ATPase activity. When the P-type ATPases are in the membrane, they are surrounded by a mix of different lipids species with varying aliphatic chain lengths and saturation......, and the complex interplay between the lipids and the P-type ATPases are still not well understood. We here describe a robust method to exchange the majority of the lipids surrounding the ATPase after solubilisation and/or purification with a target lipid of interest. The method is based on an ultracentrifugation...... step, where the protein sample is spun through a dense buffer containing large excess of the target lipid, which results in an approximately 80-85 % lipid exchange. The method is a very gently technique that maintains protein folding during the process, hence allowing further characterization...

  10. Exchange rate rebounds after foreign exchange market interventions (United States)

    Hoshikawa, Takeshi


    This study examined the rebounds in the exchange rate after foreign exchange intervention. When intervention is strongly effective, the exchange rate rebounds at next day. The effect of intervention is reduced slightly by the rebound after the intervention. The exchange rate might have been 67.12-77.47 yen to a US dollar without yen-selling/dollar-purchasing intervention of 74,691,100 million yen implemented by the Japanese government since 1991, in comparison to the actual exchange rate was 103.19 yen to the US dollar at the end of March 2014.

  11. Pooled DNA genotyping on Affymetrix SNP genotyping arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Michael J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genotyping technology has advanced such that genome-wide association studies of complex diseases based upon dense marker maps are now technically feasible. However, the cost of such projects remains high. Pooled DNA genotyping offers the possibility of applying the same technologies at a fraction of the cost, and there is some evidence that certain ultra-high throughput platforms also perform with an acceptable accuracy. However, thus far, this conclusion is based upon published data concerning only a small number of SNPs. Results In the current study we prepared DNA pools from the parents and from the offspring of 30 parent-child trios that have been extensively genotyped by the HapMap project. We analysed the two pools with Affymetrix 10 K Xba 142 2.0 Arrays. The availability of the HapMap data allowed us to validate the performance of 6843 SNPs for which we had both complete individual and pooled genotyping data. Pooled analyses averaged over 5–6 microarrays resulted in highly reproducible results. Moreover, the accuracy of estimating differences in allele frequency between pools using this ultra-high throughput system was comparable with previous reports of pooling based upon lower throughput platforms, with an average error for the predicted allelic frequencies differences between the two pools of 1.37% and with 95% of SNPs showing an error of Conclusion Genotyping thousands of SNPs with DNA pooling using Affymetrix microarrays produces highly accurate results and can be used for genome-wide association studies.

  12. A simplified model of decontamination by BWR steam suppression pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, D.A.


    Phenomena that can decontaminate aerosol-laden gases sparging through steam suppression pools of boiling water reactors during reactor accidents are described. Uncertainties in aerosol properties, aerosol behavior within gas bubbles, and bubble behavior in plumes affect predictions of decontamination by steam suppression pools. Uncertainties in the boundary and initial conditions that are dictated by the progression of severe reactor accidents and that will affect predictions of decontamination by steam suppression pools are discussed. Ten parameters that characterize boundary and initial condition uncertainties, nine parameters that characterize aerosol property and behavior uncertainties, and eleven parameters that characterize uncertainties in the behavior of bubbles in steam suppression pools are identified. Ranges for the values of these parameters and subjective probability distributions for parametric values within the ranges are defined. These uncertain parameters are used in Monte Carlo uncertainty analyses to develop uncertainty distributions for the decontamination that can be achieved by steam suppression pools and the size distribution of aerosols that do emerge from such pools. A simplified model of decontamination by steam suppression pools is developed by correlating features of the uncertainty distributions for total decontamination factor, DF(total), mean size of emerging aerosol particles, d{sub p}, and the standard deviation of the emerging aerosol size distribution, {sigma}, with pool depth, H. Correlations of the median values of the uncertainty distributions are suggested as the best estimate of decontamination by suppression pools. Correlations of the 10 percentile and 90 percentile values of the uncertainty distributions characterize the uncertainty in the best estimates. 295 refs., 121 figs., 113 tabs.

  13. O3 and NOx Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loubet, B.; Castell, J.F.; Laville, P.; Personne, E.; Tuzet, A.; Ammann, C.; Emberson, L.; Ganzeveld, L.; Kowalski, A.S.; Merbold, L.; Stella, P.; Tuovinen, J.P.


    This discussion was based on the background document “Review on modelling atmosphere-biosphere exchange of Ozone and Nitrogen oxides”, which reviews the processes contributing to biosphere-atmosphere exchange of O3 and NOx, including stomatal and non-stomatal exchange of O3 and NO, NO2.

  14. The stability of exchange networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doğan, G.; Assen, M. van; Rijt, A. van de; Buskens, V.W.


    Economic and sociological exchange theories predict divisions of exchange benefits given an assumed fixed network of exchange relations. Since network structure has been found to have a large impact on actors’ payoffs, actors have strong incentives for network change.Weanswer the question what

  15. Integrated foreign exchange risk management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Høg, Esben; Kuhn, Jochen


    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as an instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role of impor...

  16. Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Høg, Esben; Kuhn, Jochen

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for the exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as the instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role...

  17. Timing Foreign Exchange Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel W. Malone


    Full Text Available To improve short-horizon exchange rate forecasts, we employ foreign exchange market risk factors as fundamentals, and Bayesian treed Gaussian process (BTGP models to handle non-linear, time-varying relationships between these fundamentals and exchange rates. Forecasts from the BTGP model conditional on the carry and dollar factors dominate random walk forecasts on accuracy and economic criteria in the Meese-Rogoff setting. Superior market timing ability for large moves, more than directional accuracy, drives the BTGP’s success. We explain how, through a model averaging Monte Carlo scheme, the BTGP is able to simultaneously exploit smoothness and rough breaks in between-variable dynamics. Either feature in isolation is unable to consistently outperform benchmarks throughout the full span of time in our forecasting exercises. Trading strategies based on ex ante BTGP forecasts deliver the highest out-of-sample risk-adjusted returns for the median currency, as well as for both predictable, traded risk factors.

  18. Paste heat exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The subject of coal paste heat exchangers is discussed in this letter report from Gelsenberg A.G. to I.G. Farbenindustrie A.G. Gelsenberg had given little consideration to the heating of coal paste by means of regeneration (heat exchange) because of the lack of experience in paste regeneration with bituminous coal, especially at 700 atmospheres. At the I.G. Farben plant at Poelitz, paste regeneration was carried out so that low concentration coal paste was heated in the regenerator together with the process gas, and the remaining coal was fed into the cold pass of the preheater in a thicker paste. Later tests proved this process viable. Gelsenberg heated normal coal paste and the gas in heat exchangers with the goal of relieving the preheater. Good results were achieved without change in design. The coal paste was heated with process gas in the regenerator at up to 315 degrees with constant pressure difference, so that after three months no decrease in K-values and no deposition or thickening was observed. Through the omission of paste gas, the pressure difference of the system became more constant and did not rise above the former level. The temperature also was more controllable, the chamber smoother running. Principal thermal data are given in a table. 1 table, 1 graph.

  19. The exchangeability of shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaba Dramane


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Landmark based geometric morphometrics (GM allows the quantitative comparison of organismal shapes. When applied to systematics, it is able to score shape changes which often are undetectable by traditional morphological studies and even by classical morphometric approaches. It has thus become a fast and low cost candidate to identify cryptic species. Due to inherent mathematical properties, shape variables derived from one set of coordinates cannot be compared with shape variables derived from another set. Raw coordinates which produce these shape variables could be used for data exchange, however they contain measurement error. The latter may represent a significant obstacle when the objective is to distinguish very similar species. Results We show here that a single user derived dataset produces much less classification error than a multiple one. The question then becomes how to circumvent the lack of exchangeability of shape variables while preserving a single user dataset. A solution to this question could lead to the creation of a relatively fast and inexpensive systematic tool adapted for the recognition of cryptic species. Conclusions To preserve both exchangeability of shape and a single user derived dataset, our suggestion is to create a free access bank of reference images from which one can produce raw coordinates and use them for comparison with external specimens. Thus, we propose an alternative geometric descriptive system that separates 2-D data gathering and analyzes.

  20. Rapid starting methanol reactor system (United States)

    Chludzinski, Paul J.; Dantowitz, Philip; McElroy, James F.


    The invention relates to a methanol-to-hydrogen cracking reactor for use with a fuel cell vehicular power plant. The system is particularly designed for rapid start-up of the catalytic methanol cracking reactor after an extended shut-down period, i.e., after the vehicular fuel cell power plant has been inoperative overnight. Rapid system start-up is accomplished by a combination of direct and indirect heating of the cracking catalyst. Initially, liquid methanol is burned with a stoichiometric or slightly lean air mixture in the combustion chamber of the reactor assembly. The hot combustion gas travels down a flue gas chamber in heat exchange relationship with the catalytic cracking chamber transferring heat across the catalyst chamber wall to heat the catalyst indirectly. The combustion gas is then diverted back through the catalyst bed to heat the catalyst pellets directly. When the cracking reactor temperature reaches operating temperature, methanol combustion is stopped and a hot gas valve is switched to route the flue gas overboard, with methanol being fed directly to the catalytic cracking reactor. Thereafter, the burner operates on excess hydrogen from the fuel cells.

  1. Effects of Cross-Border Engineer Exchange on Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machikita, Tomohiro


    Using data from a survey to manufacturing firms, this paper attempts to detect sources of new technologies transferred to a well-established industrial district in Calabarzon, the Philippines, and a rapidly growing agglomeration in Hanoi, Vietnam. We find significant effects of exchange of engine...

  2. Looking East: Yin and Yang of an Academic Exchange (United States)

    La Roche, Claire Reeves


    Intended as a brief guide to the cultural differences associated with an East-West academic exchange, this paper discusses customs and cultural norms likely to be encountered. Chinese economic growth has been accompanied by rapidly increasing East-West study abroad opportunities. Over the past decade, China has sent more students to study abroad…

  3. Pool scrubbing and hydrodynamic experiment on jet injection regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyres, V.; Espigares, M.M.; Polo, J.; Escudero, M.J.; Herranz, L.E.; Lopez, J.


    Plant analyses nave shown that pool scrubbing can play an important role in source term during PWR risk dominant sequences. An examination of boundary conditions governing fission products and aerosols transport through aqueous beds revealed that most of radioactivity is discharged into the pool under jet injection regime. This fact and the lack of experimental data under such conditions pointed the need of setting out an experimental programme which provided reliable experimental data to validate code models. In this report the major results of a pool scrubbing experimental programme carried out in PECA facility are presented. One of the major findings was that a remarkable fraction of particle absorption was not a function of the residence time of bubbles rising through the pool. Such a contribution was assumed to be associated to aerosol removal mechanism acting at the pool entrance. As a consequence. a hydrodynamic experimental plan was launched to examine the gas behaviour during the initial stages in the pool. Size and shape of gas nuclei in the pool were measured and fitted to a lognormal distribution. Particularly, size was found to be quite sensitive to inlet gas flow and at minor extent to gas composition and pool temperature. SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 were used to simulate the retention tests. Whereas SPARC90 showed a pretty good agreement with experimental data, BUSCA-AUG92 results were far away from measurements in all the cases. SPARC90 consistency apparently pointed out the important role of fission products and aerosols retention at the injection zone; nonetheless, a peer examination of pool scrubbing phenomenology at the pool entrance should be carried out to test both hydrodynamic and removal models. Hence, one of the major high lights drawn from this work was the need of further research under representative severe accident conditions (i.e., saturated pools, jet injection regimes, etc.), as well as separate effect tests to validate, improve and

  4. Macroinvertebrate community assembly in pools created during peatland restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Lee E., E-mail:; Ramchunder, Sorain J.; Beadle, Jeannie M.; Holden, Joseph


    Many degraded ecosystems are subject to restoration attempts, providing new opportunities to unravel the processes of ecological community assembly. Restoration of previously drained northern peatlands, primarily to promote peat and carbon accumulation, has created hundreds of thousands of new open water pools. We assessed the potential benefits of this wetland restoration for aquatic biodiversity, and how communities reassemble, by comparing pool ecosystems in regions of the UK Pennines on intact (never drained) versus restored (blocked drainage-ditches) peatland. We also evaluated the conceptual idea that comparing reference ecosystems in terms of their compositional similarity to null assemblages (and thus the relative importance of stochastic versus deterministic assembly) can guide evaluations of restoration success better than analyses of community composition or diversity. Community composition data highlighted some differences in the macroinvertebrate composition of restored pools compared to undisturbed peatland pools, which could be used to suggest that alternative end-points to restoration were influenced by stochastic processes. However, widely used diversity metrics indicated no differences between undisturbed and restored pools. Novel evaluations of restoration using null models confirmed the similarity of deterministic assembly processes from the national species pool across all pools. Stochastic elements were important drivers of between-pool differences at the regional-scale but the scale of these effects was also similar across most of the pools studied. The amalgamation of assembly theory into ecosystem restoration monitoring allows us to conclude with more certainty that restoration has been successful from an ecological perspective in these systems. Evaluation of these UK findings compared to those from peatlands across Europe and North America further suggests that restoring peatland pools delivers significant benefits for aquatic fauna by

  5. Isotopically exchangeable Al in coastal lowland acid sulfate soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yvanes-Giuliani, Yliane A.M. [UNSW Water Research Centre, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, UNSW Australia, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Centre Européen de Recherche et d' Enseignement des Géosciences de l' Environnement, Aix-Marseille Université, Aix en Provence (France); Fink, D. [Centre Européen de Recherche et d' Enseignement des Géosciences de l' Environnement, Aix-Marseille Université, Aix en Provence (France); Rose, J. [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Waite, T. David [UNSW Water Research Centre, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, UNSW Australia, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Collins, Richard N., E-mail: [UNSW Water Research Centre, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, UNSW Australia, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)


    Periodic discharges of high concentrations of aluminium (Al) causing fish kills and other adverse effects occur worldwide in waterways affected by coastal lowland acid sulfate soils (CLASS). The exchangeability — a metal's ability to readily transfer between the soil solid- and solution-phases — of Al in these soils is therefore of particular importance as it has implications for metal transport, plant availability and toxicity to living organisms. In the present study, the concentrations of isotopically exchangeable Al (E values) were measured in 27 CLASS and compared with common salt extractions (i.e. KCl and CuCl{sub 2}) used to estimate exchangeable soil pools of Al. E values of Al were high in the soils, ranging from 357 to 3040 mg·kg{sup −1}. Exchangeable concentrations estimated using 1 M KCl were consistently lower than measured E values, although a reasonable correlation was obtained between the two values (E = 1.68 × Al{sub KCl}, r{sup 2} = 0.66, n = 25). The addition of a 0.2 M CuCl{sub 2} extraction step improved the 1:1 agreement between extractable and isotopically exchangeable Al concentrations, but lead to significant mobilisation of non-isotopically exchangeable Al in surficial ‘organic-rich’ CLASS having E values < 1000 mg·kg{sup −1}. It was concluded that currently used (i.e. 1 M KCl) methodology severely underestimates exchangeable Al and total actual acidity values in CLASS and should be corrected by a factor similar to the one determined here. - Highlights: • Isotopically exchangeable Al was compared to 1 M KCl or 0.2 M CuCl{sub 2} extractable Al. • 1 M KCl always underestimated isotopically exchangeable Al concentrations. • 0.2 M CuCl{sub 2} mobilised non-isotopically exchangeable Al • 1 M KCl values require correction of ~ 1.7 to reflect exchangeable Al concentrations.

  6. Novel Method for Exchange of Impella Circulatory Assist Catheter: The "Trojan Horse" Technique. (United States)

    Phillips, Colin T; Tamez, Hector; Tu, Thomas M; Yeh, Robert W; Pinto, Duane S


    Patients with an indwelling Impella may require escalation of hemodynamic support or exchange to another circulatory assistance platform. As such, preservation of vascular access is preferable in cases where anticoagulation cannot be discontinued or to facilitate exchange to an alternative catheter or closure device. Challenges exist in avoiding bleeding and loss of wire access in these situations. We describe a single-access "Trojan Horse" technique that minimizes bleeding while maintaining arterial access for rapid exchange of this percutaneous ventricular assist device.

  7. Land use change affects biogenic silica pool distribution in a subtropical soil toposequence (United States)

    Unzué-Belmonte, Dácil; Ameijeiras-Mariño, Yolanda; Opfergelt, Sophie; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas; Barão, Lúcia; Minella, Jean; Meire, Patrick; Struyf, Eric


    Land use change (deforestation) has several negative consequences for the soil system. It is known to increase erosion rates, which affect the distribution of elements in soils. In this context, the crucial nutrient Si has received little attention, especially in a tropical context. Therefore, we studied the effect of land conversion and erosion intensity on the biogenic silica pools in a subtropical soil in the south of Brazil. Biogenic silica (BSi) was determined using a novel alkaline continuous extraction where Si / Al ratios of the fractions extracted are used to distinguish BSi and other soluble fractions: Si / Al > 5 for the biogenic AlkExSi (alkaline-extractable Si) and Si / Al deforestation can rapidly (< 50 years) deplete the biogenic AlkExSi pool in soils depending on the slope of the study site (10-53 %), with faster depletion in steeper sites. We show that higher erosion in steeper sites implies increased accumulation of biogenic Si in deposition zones near the bottom of the slope, where rapid burial can cause removal of BSi from biologically active zones. Our study highlights the interaction of erosion strength and land use for BSi redistribution and depletion in a soil toposequence, with implications for basin-scale Si cycling.

  8. Reducing political risk in EU pooling and sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, D.; Faleg (ed), G.


    Can states share political accountability by allowing common defence capability development, training of troops, or procurement of military equipment? Is the defence industry ready for Pooling and Sharing (PS)?

  9. Vernal Pool Complexes - Central Valley, 1989-1998 [ds36 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This Arc/Info coverage is a polygon layer of vernal pool complexes greater than 40 acres in size for 29 counties throughout the greater Central Valley, and some...

  10. Pool Onistarist kuulub kütusefirma omanikele / Sirje Niitra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niitra, Sirje, 1948-


    Alkoholikontserni Onistar kiiret tõusu Eesti alkoholiturul toetavad Vene rahvusest ärimeestele kuuluvate kütusefirmade Infast Oil ja Saurix Petroleum omanikud, kellele kuulub pool Eesti viinaturu liidri aktsiatest

  11. 7 CFR 985.57 - Reserve pool requirements. (United States)


    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE... commercial trade practices. The Committee shall designate a Committee employee as reserve pool manager. (b...

  12. Allegheny County Public Swimming Pool, Hot Tub, and Spa Inspections (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Public swimming pool, hot tub, and spa facilities are licensed and inspected once each year to assure proper water quality, sanitation, lifeguard coverage and...

  13. schwimmbad: A uniform interface to parallel processing pools in Python (United States)

    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel


    Many scientific and computing problems require doing some calculation on all elements of some data set. If the calculations can be executed in parallel (i.e. without any communication between calculations), these problems are said to be perfectly parallel. On computers with multiple processing cores, these tasks can be distributed and executed in parallel to greatly improve performance. A common paradigm for handling these distributed computing problems is to use a processing "pool": the "tasks" (the data) are passed in bulk to the pool, and the pool handles distributing the tasks to a number of worker processes when available. schwimmbad provides a uniform interface to parallel processing pools and enables switching easily between local development (e.g., serial processing or with multiprocessing) and deployment on a cluster or supercomputer (via, e.g., MPI or JobLib).

  14. Waterfowl Count over Pool 9 Erie National Wildlife Refuge 1970 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This presents the observations of waterfowl flying over Pool 9 at Erie National Wildlife Refuge from late-August through early October, 1970.

  15. vipR: variant identification in pooled DNA using R

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Altmann, Andre; Weber, Peter; Quast, Carina; Rex-Haffner, Monika; Binder, Elisabeth B; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram


    .... Thus, recently, screens for rare sequence variants were carried out in samples of pooled DNA, in which equimolar amounts of DNA from multiple individuals are mixed prior to sequencing with HTS...

  16. LCG Persistency Framework (POOL, CORAL, COOL) - Status and Outlook

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    The LCG Persistency Framework consists of three software packages (POOL, CORAL and COOL) that address the data access requirements of the LHC experiments in several different areas. The project is the result of the collaboration between the CERN IT Department and the three experiments (ATLAS, CMS and LHCb) that are using some or all of the Persistency Framework components to access their data. The POOL package is a hybrid technology store for C++ objects, using a mixture of streaming and relational technologies to implement both object persistency and object metadata catalogs and collections. POOL provides generic components that can be used by the experiments to store both their event data and their conditions data. The CORAL package is an abstraction layer with an SQL-free API for accessing data stored using relational database technologies. It is used directly by experiment-specific applications and internally by both COOL and POOL. The COOL package provides specific software components and tools for the h...

  17. Virulent Naegleria fowleri in an indoor swimming pool. (United States)

    Kadlec, V; Cerva, L; Skvárová, J


    A reservoir of pathogenic Naegleria fowleri has been located in the cracked wall of a swimming pool where repeated outbreaks of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis were observed between 1962 and 1965.

  18. Environmental assessment, K Pool fish rearing, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to respond to a request to lease facilities at the Hanford Site 100-KE and 100-KW filter plant pools (K Pools) for fish rearing activities. These fish rearing activities would be: (1) business ventures with public and private funds and (2) long-term enhancement and supplementation programs for game fish populations in the Columbia River Basin. The proposed action is to enter into a use permit or lease agreement with the YIN or other parties who would rear fish in the 100-K Area Pools. The proposed action would include necessary piping, pump, and electrical upgrades of the facility; cleaning and preparation of the pools; water withdrawal from the Columbia River, and any necessary water or wastewater treatment; and introduction, rearing and release of fish. Future commercial operations may be included.

  19. Cumulative Permitted Vernal Pool Losses - Mitigation Sites [ds652 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This shapefile represents mitigation areas included in the Vernal Pool Clean Water Act Permit Database, developed by AECOM for the Placer Land Trust. The permit...

  20. Pool Boiling of Hydrocarbon Mixtures on Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boee, R.


    In maritime transport of liquefied natural gas (LNG) there is a risk of spilling cryogenic liquid onto water. The present doctoral thesis discusses transient boiling experiments in which liquid hydrocarbons were poured onto water and left to boil off. Composition changes during boiling are believed to be connected with the initiation of rapid phase transition in LNG spilled on water. 64 experimental runs were carried out, 14 using pure liquid methane, 36 using methane-ethane, and 14 using methane-propane binary mixtures of different composition. The water surface was open to the atmosphere and covered an area of 200 cm{sup 2} at 25 - 40{sup o}C. The heat flux was obtained by monitoring the change of mass vs time. The void fraction in the boiling layer was measured with a gamma densitometer, and a method for adapting this measurement concept to the case of a boiling cryogenic liquid mixture is suggested. Significant differences in the boil-off characteristics between pure methane and binary mixtures revealed by previous studies are confirmed. Pure methane is in film boiling, whereas the mixtures appear to enter the transitional boiling regime with only small amounts of the second component added. The results indicate that the common assumption that LNG will be in film boiling on water because of the high temperature difference, may be questioned. Comparison with previous work shows that at this small scale the results are influenced by the experimental apparatus and procedures. 66 refs., 76 figs., 28 tabs.

  1. Pooling systematic reviews of systematic reviews: a Bayesian panoramic meta-analysis. (United States)

    Hemming, Karla; Bowater, Russell James; Lilford, Richard J


    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses usually synthesise evidence from studies reporting outcomes from particular interventions in specific diseases. For example, a meta-analysis of prophylactic antibiotics (intervention) in elective arterial reconstruction (disease) for rates of wound infection (outcome). However, because systematic reviews and meta-analyses are so widespread, a body of evidence often exists around specific intervention effects on particular outcomes over a range of diseases. So for example, a multitude of independent meta-analyses have evaluated rates of wound infection with and without the use of prophylactic antibiotics over multiple surgery types. A systematic review of systematic reviews is a means of synthesising evidence for the same intervention over multiple disease types. We propose a panoramic meta-analysis as a means of pooling effect estimates over systematic reviews of systematic reviews. We explore several methods ranging from a simple two-step approach, to a meta-regression or mixed effects approach, where variation between diseases are modelled as fixed covariate effects and between-study variation by random effects, and to a three-level hierarchical model in which exchangeability is assumed, which allows both a between-disease component of variance and a between-study (within disease) component of variance. In the surgery example, we pool 18 meta-analyses (each including between 4 and 26 studies) of prophylactic antibiotics reporting rates of wound infection from 18 different surgery sites to obtain a single pooled estimate of effect and estimates of between-disease, within-disease and within-study variability. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyakov Egor Nikolaevich


    Full Text Available We provide an analysis of real effective exchange rate dynamics in Russia throughout the last decade. Authors analysed the causes and consequences of real effective exchange growth and assessed how Russian ruble real effective exchange rate comply with its equilibrium level. Authors present results of empiric analysis of relationship between real effective exchange rate and labour productivity in industry of 20 european, asian countries and Russia. The result of this writing was the formulation of key copyright conclusions, namely: 1. The price level in the country (and the level of the real exchange rate of the national currency is a key factor of competitiveness. Accordingly, the real exchange rate of the national currency - is one of the most important policy tools. 2. The ruble today seriously overvalued. Overvaluation of the national currency relative to the equilibrium level is extremely harmful to the economy. Less recognized, but also widespread YaV it possible to the idea that an undervalued currency is a prerequisite for rapid economic growth. 3. A direct consequence of the growth of the real exchange rate in the past 12 years has been the growth of the external debt of the private sector. 4. Restraining the growth rate of the national currency - is also a common practice for countries who are concerned about the level of competitiveness. But Russia is this day-the only country of the G-20, which is impossible to control the REER.

  3. Effect of size sprinkled heat exchange surface on developing boiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kracík


    Full Text Available This article presents research of sprinkled heat exchangers. This type of research has become rather topical in relation to sea water desalination. This process uses sprinkling of exchangers which rapidly separates vapour phase from a liquid phase. Applications help better utilize low-potential heat which is commonly wasted in utility systems. Low-potential heat may increase utilization of primary materials. Our ambition is to analyse and describe the whole sprinkled exchanger. Two heat exchangers were tested with a similar tube pitch: heat exchanger no. 1 had a four-tube bundle and heat exchanger no. 2 had eight-tube bundle. Efforts were made to maintain similar physical characteristics. They were tested at two flow rates (ca 0.07 and 0.11 kg s−1 m−1 and progress of boiling on the bundle was observed. Initial pressure was ca 10 kPa (abs at which no liquid was boiling at any part of the exchanger; the pressure was then lowered. Other input parameters were roughly similar for both flow rates. Temperature of heating water was ca 50°C at a constant flow rate of ca 7.2 L min−1. Results of our experiments provide optimum parameters for the given conditions for both tube bundles.

  4. Calorimetric Analysis to Infer Primary Circuit Flow in Integral and Pool-Type Reactors (United States)

    Coble, Jamie; Tarver, Ryan; Hines, J. Wesley


    Primary system flow rate is a key parameter for monitoring and controlling thermal power in a nuclear power plant. The existing fleet of large light water reactors uses direct measurements of primary flow rate with the application of venturi meters, orifice plates, and magnetic flowmeters in primary loop piping. Integral light water reactors and pool-type advanced reactor designs, however, have largely eliminated primary loop piping to improve the inherent safety characteristics of these reactors. Furthermore, longer operating cycles between maintenance opportunities (typically 4 to 40 years) limit the applicability of these direct measurement methods over the operating period. Methods to infer the primary flow rate based on other, easily measured parameters are needed to ensure the operability of integral and pool-type reactors. Calorimetric analysis across the intermediate heat exchanger was investigated for real-time inference of primary flow rate. Heat balance equations were applied to an experimental forced flow loop to evaluate the efficacy of this approach. When appropriate time delays and heat losses are accounted for, the primary flow rate was inferred with accuracy and 95% prediction variance of 1.57 and 4.80 % mean value, respectively.

  5. Development of Empirical Correlation to Calculate Pool Boiling Heat Transfer of Tandem Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Myeong-Gie [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)


    The heat exchanging tubes are in vertical alignment. For the cases, the upper tube is affected by the lower tube. Since heat transfer is closely related to the conditions of tube surface, bundle geometry, and liquid, lots of studies have been carried out for the several decades to investigate the combined effects of those factors on pool boiling heat transfer. One of the most important parameters in the analysis of a tube array is the pitch ( P ) between tubes. Many researchers have been investigated its effect on heat transfer enhancement for the tube bundles and the tandem tubes. The effect of a tube array on heat transfer enhancement was also studied for application to the flooded evaporators. Cornwell and Schuller studied the sliding bubbles by high speed photography to account the enhancement of heat transfer observed at the upper tubes of a bundle. The study by Memory et al. shows the effects of the enhanced surface and oil adds to the heat transfer of tube bundles. They identified that, for the structured and porous bundles, oil addition leads to a steady decrease in performance. The flow boiling of n-pentane across a horizontal tube bundle was investigated experimentally by Roser et al. They identified that convective evaporation played a significant part of the total heat transfer. The fouling of the tube bundle under pool boiling was also studied by Malayeri et al. They identified that the mechanisms of fouling on the middle and top heater substantially differ from those at the bottom heater.

  6. Stable hyper-pooling and query expansion for event detection


    Douze, Matthijs; Revaud, Jerome; Schmid, Cordelia; Jegou, Herve


    International audience; This paper makes two complementary contributions to event retrieval in large collections of videos. First, we propose hyper-pooling strategies that encode the frame descriptors into a representation of the video sequence in a stable manner. Our best choices compare favorably with regular pooling techniques based on k-means quantization. Second, we introduce a technique to improve the ranking. It can be interpreted either as a query expansion method or as a similarity a...

  7. Learnable pooling with Context Gating for video classification


    Miech, Antoine; Laptev, Ivan; Sivic, Josef


    Common video representations often deploy an average or maximum pooling of pre-extracted frame features over time. Such an approach provides a simple means to encode feature distributions, but is likely to be suboptimal. As an alternative, we here explore combinations of learnable pooling techniques such as Soft Bag-of-words, Fisher Vectors , NetVLAD, GRU and LSTM to aggregate video features over time. We also introduce a learnable non-linear network unit, named Context Gating, aiming at mode...

  8. A Highly Efficient Design Strategy for Regression with Outcome Pooling


    Mitchell, Emily M.; Lyles, Robert H.; Manatunga, Amita K.; Perkins, Neil J.; Schisterman, Enrique F.


    The potential for research involving biospecimens can be hindered by the prohibitive cost of performing laboratory assays on individual samples. To mitigate this cost, strategies such as randomly selecting a portion of specimens for analysis or randomly pooling specimens prior to performing laboratory assays may be employed. These techniques, while effective in reducing cost, are often accompanied by a considerable loss of statistical efficiency. We propose a novel pooling stra...

  9. Improved Energy Pooling Efficiency Through Inhibited Spontaneous Emission


    LaCount, Michael D.; Lusk, Mark T.


    The radiative lifetime of molecules or atoms can be increased by placing them within a tuned conductive cavity that inhibits spontaneous emission. This was examined as a possible means of enhancing three-body, singlet-based upconversion, known as energy pooling. Achieving efficient upconversion of light has potential applications in the fields of photovoltaics, biofuels, and medicine. The affect of the photonically constrained environment on pooling efficiency was quantified using a kinetic m...

  10. Accuracy of allele frequency estimation using pooled RNA-Seq. (United States)

    Konczal, M; Koteja, P; Stuglik, M T; Radwan, J; Babik, W


    For nonmodel organisms, genome-wide information that describes functionally relevant variation may be obtained by RNA-Seq following de novo transcriptome assembly. While sequencing has become relatively inexpensive, the preparation of a large number of sequencing libraries remains prohibitively expensive for population genetic analyses of nonmodel species. Pooling samples may be then an attractive alternative. To test whether pooled RNA-Seq accurately predicts true allele frequencies, we analysed the liver transcriptomes of 10 bank voles. Each sample was sequenced both as an individually barcoded library and as a part of a pool. Equal amounts of total RNA from each vole were pooled prior to mRNA selection and library construction. Reads were mapped onto the de novo assembled reference transcriptome. High-quality genotypes for individual voles, determined for 23,682 SNPs, provided information on 'true' allele frequencies; allele frequencies estimated from the pool were then compared with these values. 'True' frequencies and those estimated from the pool were highly correlated. Mean relative estimation error was 21% and did not depend on expression level. However, we also observed a minor effect of interindividual variation in gene expression and allele-specific gene expression influencing allele frequency estimation accuracy. Moreover, we observed strong negative relationship between minor allele frequency and relative estimation error. Our results indicate that pooled RNA-Seq exhibits accuracy comparable with pooled genome resequencing, but variation in expression level between individuals should be assessed and accounted for. This should help in taking account the difference in accuracy between conservatively expressed transcripts and these which are variable in expression level. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The Dynamics of Multilateral Exchange (United States)

    Hausken, Kjell; Moxnes, John F.

    The article formulates a dynamic mathematical model where arbitrarily many players produce, consume, exchange, loan, and deposit arbitrarily many goods over time to maximize utility. Consuming goods constitutes a benefit, and producing, exporting, and loaning away goods constitute a cost. Utilities are benefits minus costs, which depend on the exchange ratios and bargaining functions. Three-way exchange occurs when one player acquires, through exchange, one good from another player with the sole purpose of using this good to exchange against the desired good from a third player. Such a triple handshake is not merely a set of double handshakes since the player assigns no interest to the first good in his benefit function. Cognitive and organization costs increase dramatically for higher order exchanges. An exchange theory accounting for media of exchange follows from simple generalization of two-way exchange. The examples of r-way exchange are the triangle trade between Africa, the USA, and England in the 17th and 18th centuries, the hypothetical hypercycle involving RNAs as players and enzymes as goods, and reaction-diffusion processes. The emergence of exchange, and the role of trading agents are discussed. We simulate an example where two-way exchange gives zero production and zero utility, while three-way exchange causes considerable production and positive utility. Maximum utility for each player is reached when exchanges of the same order as the number of players in society are allowed. The article merges micro theory and macro theory within the social, natural, and physical sciences.

  12. Measuring and Modeling Component and Whole-System Carbon Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Bolstad


    We measured ecosystem/atmospheric carbon exchange through a range of methods covering a range of scales. We measured carbon (C) pool and flux for a number of previously poorly quantified ecosystems, developed measurement and modeling methods, and applied these to substantially increase the accuracy and reduce uncertainty in ecosystem/atmospheric C exchange at a range of scales. It appears most upland forests are weak to strong carbon sinks, and status depends largely on disturbance history and age. Net flux from wetland ecosystems appears to be from weak sinks to moderate sources of C to the atmosphere. We found limited evidence for a positive feedback of warming/drying to increased ecosystem C emissions. We further developed multi-source integration and modeling methods, including multiple towers, to scale estimates to landscapes and larger regions.

  13. Ion-exchange chromatography purification of extracellular vesicles. (United States)

    Kosanović, Maja; Milutinović, Bojana; Goč, Sanja; Mitić, Ninoslav; Janković, Miroslava


    Despite numerous studies, isolating pure preparations of extracellular vesicles (EVs) has proven challenging. Here, we compared ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) to the widely used sucrose density gradient (SDG) centrifugation method for the purification of EVs. EVs in bulk were isolated from pooled normal human amniotic fluid (AF) by differential centrifugation followed by IEC or sucrose density gradient separation. The purity of the isolated EVs was evaluated by electrophoresis and lectin blotting/immuno blotting to monitor the distribution of total proteins, different EVs markers, and selected N-glycans. Our data showed efficient separation of negatively charged EVs from other differently charged molecules, while comparative profiling of EVs using SDG centrifugation confirmed anion-exchange chromatography is advantageous for EV purification. Finally, although this IEC-based method was validated using AF, the approach should be readily applicable to isolation of EVs from other sources as well.

  14. Seasonal variation in Chironomid emergence from coastal pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander T. Egan


    Full Text Available Understanding the phenology of emergences can be useful in determining seasonal chironomid life cycle patterns, which are often influenced by ice cover and temperature in cold climates. Lake Superior is the largest lake in North America and with a mean surface temperature of 3.9 °C influences regional climate. Coastal pools at Isle Royale, a wilderness archipelago in the northern part of the lake, occur in dense patches on low-gradient volcanic bedrock between the lakeshore and forest, creating variable microhabitats for Chironomidae. Four sites were sampled monthly from April to October, 2010. Surface-floating pupal exuviae were collected from a series of pools in two zones: a lower zone near the lake influenced by wave splash, and an upper zone near the forest and influenced by upland runoff. We used Jaccard’s and Whittaker’s diversity indexes to test community similarity across months. Temperature loggers in pools collected hourly readings for most of the study. Assemblage emergences were stable in upper pools, with significant similarity across late spring and summer months. Assemblages were seasonally variable in lower pools, with significant dissimilarity across spring, summer, and fall months. Few species in either zone were unique to spring or fall months. However, many summer species in the splash zone had a narrow emergence period occurring during calm weather following distinct increases in mean water temperature. Regardless of input of cold lake water to the lower zone, pools from both zones generally had corresponding temperature trends.

  15. Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Test Area North (TAN) Pool is located within the fenced TAN facility boundaries on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The TAN pool stores 344 canisters of core debris from the March, 1979, Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 reactor accident; fuel assemblies from Loss-of-Fluid Tests (LOFT); and Government-owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies. The LOFT and government owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies are hereafter referred to collectively as {open_quotes}commercial fuels{close_quotes} except where distinction between the two is important to the analysis. DOE proposes to remove the canisters of TMI core debris and commercial fuels from the TAN Pool and transfer them to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim dry storage until an alternate storage location other than at the INEL, or a permanent federal spent nuclear fuel (SNF) repository is available. The TAN Pool would be drained and placed in an industrially and radiologically safe condition for refurbishment or eventual decommissioning. This environmental assessment (EA) identifies and evaluates environmental impacts associated with (1) constructing an Interim Storage System (ISS) at ICPP; (2) removing the TMI and commercial fuels from the pool and transporting them to ICPP for placement in an ISS, and (3) draining and stabilizing the TAN Pool. Miscellaneous hardware would be removed and decontaminated or disposed of in the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). This EA also describes the environmental consequences of the no action alternative.

  16. Cryogenic regenerative heat exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, Robert A


    An in-depth survey of regenerative heat exchangers, this book chronicles the development and recent commercialization of regenerative devices for cryogenic applications. Chapters cover historical background, concepts, practical applications, design data, and numerical solutions, providing the latest information for engineers to develop advanced cryogenic machines. The discussions include insights into the operation of a regenerator; descriptions of the cyclic and fluid temperature distributions in a regenerator; data for various matrix geometries and materials, including coarse and fine bronze, stainless steel-woven wire mesh screens, and lead spheres; and unique operating features of cryocoolers that produce deviations from ideal regenerator theory.

  17. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  18. Simulating Replica Exchange: Markov State Models, Proposal Schemes, and the Infinite Swapping Limit. (United States)

    Zhang, Bin W; Dai, Wei; Gallicchio, Emilio; He, Peng; Xia, Junchao; Tan, Zhiqiang; Levy, Ronald M


    Replica exchange molecular dynamics is a multicanonical simulation technique commonly used to enhance the sampling of solvated biomolecules on rugged free energy landscapes. While replica exchange is relatively easy to implement, there are many unanswered questions about how to use this technique most efficiently, especially because it is frequently the case in practice that replica exchange simulations are not fully converged. A replica exchange cycle consists of a series of molecular dynamics steps of a set of replicas moving under different Hamiltonians or at different thermodynamic states followed by one or more replica exchange attempts to swap replicas among the different states. How the replica exchange cycle is constructed affects how rapidly the system equilibrates. We have constructed a Markov state model of replica exchange (MSMRE) using long molecular dynamics simulations of a host-guest binding system as an example, in order to study how different implementations of the replica exchange cycle can affect the sampling efficiency. We analyze how the number of replica exchange attempts per cycle, the number of MD steps per cycle, and the interaction between the two parameters affects the largest implied time scale of the MSMRE simulation. The infinite swapping limit is an important concept in replica exchange. We show how to estimate the infinite swapping limit from the diagonal elements of the exchange transition matrix constructed from MSMRE "simulations of simulations" as well as from relatively short runs of the actual replica exchange simulations.

  19. Novel silica-based ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Eichrom`s highly successful Diphonixo resin resembles a conventional ion exchange resin in its use of sulfonic acid ligands on a styrene- divinylbenzene matrix. Diphonix resin exhibits rapid exchange kinetics that allow economical operation of ion exchange systems. Unlike conventional resins, Diphonix resin contains chelating ligands that are diphosphonic acid groups that recognize and remove the targeted metals and reject the more common elements such as sodium, calcium and magnesium. This latter property makes Diphonix ideal for many industrial scale applications, including those involving waste treatment. For treatment of low-level, transuranic (TRU) and high- level radioactive wastes, Diphonix`s polystyrene backbone hinders its application due to radiolytic stability of the carbon-hydrogen bonds and lack of compatibility with expected vitrification schemes. Polystyrene-based Diphonix is approximately 60% carbon- hydrogen. In response to an identified need within the Department of Energy for a resin with the positive attributes of Diphonix that also exhibits greater radiolytic stability and final waste form compatibility, Eichrom has successfully developed a new, silica-based resin version of Diphonix. Target application for this new resin is for use in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving the processing of low-level, transuranic and high-level radioactive wastes. The resin can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste (waste that contains low level radioactivity and hazardous constituents) including mixed wastes contaminated with organic compounds. Silica-based Diphonix is only 10% carbon-hydrogen, with the bulk of the matrix silica.

  20. Swimming pools and health-related behaviours: results of an Italian multicentre study on showering habits among pool users. (United States)

    Pasquarella, C; Veronesi, L; Napoli, C; Castaldi, S; Pasquarella, M L; Saccani, E; Colucci, M E; Auxilia, F; Gallè, F; Di Onofrio, V; Tafuri, S; Signorelli, C; Liguori, G


    Showering before entering a swimming pool is highly recommended to reduce the risk of biological and chemical contamination. This study evaluated the behaviour of indoor swimming pool users; analysed the variables associated with lack of showering; and assessed awareness of the importance of showering. Cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data about users of swimming pools located in five different Italian cities. The association between specific variables and the lack of showering was assessed. P swim showering was 'to wash oneself' (50.5%); or 'to get used to the temperature of the water' (44.3%); and 5.2% answered 'for both reasons'. Risk factors significantly associated with lack of showering were: female sex (odds ratio (OR) 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-1.59), age 14-17 years (OR 5.09, 95% CI 3.40-7.64); not reading the swimming pool rules (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.10-1.41); living in Central Italy (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.65-4.1) or Southern Italy (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.18-1.55); and previous/current attendance of a swimming course (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.48-1.97). The results revealed low compliance with the rule of showering before entering a swimming pool, and little awareness of the preventive role of showering in the hygienic management of swimming pools. There is a need for targeted educational interventions to inform swimming pool users of the reasons for the importance of showering before entering a pool. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sister chromatid exchanges induced by inhaled anesthetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White,A.E.; Takehisa, S.; Eger II, E.I.; Wolff, S.; Stevens, W.C.


    There is sufficient evidence that anesthetics may cause cancer to justify a test of their carcinogenic potential. Baden et al., using the Ames test, a rapid and inexpensive genetic indicator of carcinogenicity, have shown that among currently used anesthetics fluorxene alone caused bacterial mutations. The authors used the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) technique, another rapid assay of mutagenic-carcinogenic potential. The frequency of sister chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster ovary cells increases when the cell cultures are exposed to mutagen-carcinogens, particulary in the presence of a metabolic activating system. With this test system a one-hour exposure to 1 MAC nitrous oxide, diethyl ether, trichloroethylene, halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, methoxyflurane, or chloroform did not increase SCE values. Divinyl ether, fluroxene and ethyl vinyl ether increased SCE values in the same circumstances. Results of this study of mammalian cells suggest that no currently used anesthetic is a mutagen-carcinogen. The results also suggest that anesthetics containing a vinyl moiety may be mutagen-carcinogens.

  2. Rapid and extensive alteration of phosphorus speciation during oxic storage of wet sediment samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kraal

    Full Text Available The chemical forms of phosphorus (P in sediments are routinely measured in studies of P in modern and ancient marine environments. However, samples for such analyses are often exposed to atmospheric oxygen during storage and handling. Recent work suggests that long-term exposure of pyrite-bearing sediments can lead to a decline in apatite P and an increase in ferric Fe-bound P. Here, we report on alterations in P speciation in reducing modern Baltic Sea sediments that we deliberately exposed to atmospheric oxygen for a period of either one week or one year. During oxidation of the sediment, extensive changes occurred in all measured P reservoirs. Exchangeable P all but disappeared during the first week of exposure, likely reflecting adsorption of porewater PO4 by Fe(III (oxyhydroxides (i.e. ferric Fe-bound P formation. Detrital and organic P were also rapidly affected: decreases in both reservoirs were already observed after the first week of exposure to atmospheric oxygen. This was likely because of acidic dissolution of detrital apatite and oxidation of organic matter, respectively. These processes produced dissolved PO4 that was then scavenged by Fe(III (oxyhydroxides. Interestingly, P in authigenic calcium phosphates (i.e. apatite: authigenic Ca-P remained unaffected after the first week of exposure, which we attributed to the shielding effect of microfossils in which authigenic Ca-P occurs in Baltic Sea sediments. This effect was transient; a marked decrease in the authigenic Ca-P pool was observed in the sediments after one year of exposure to oxygen. In summary, we show that handling and storage of wet sediments under oxic conditions can lead to rapid and extensive alteration of the original sediment P speciation.

  3. Variability and Expansion of the Tropical Ocean Warm Pool (United States)

    Hoyos, C. D.; Webster, P. J.


    The tropical warm pool plays a determining role in the global climate since it acts as a sorce of thermodynamic forcing for the atmospheric general circulation. The warm pools (SST>28°C) extend from the Indian Ocean, across the Indonesian Archipelago into the western Pacific with a secondary area crossing Central America into the Caribbean and the central Atlantic ocean. The heating in the atmosphere above the warm pool influences climate over wide ranges of the planet. As there are zonal asymmetries in the extent of the warm pool, and hence variations in the locations of total heating of the atmospheric column, the warm pools also create centers of diabatic heating along the equator which set up the position and strength of the east-west Circulations which play integral roles in the coupled ocean-atmosphere tropical climate. In fact, almost all of the global vertically integrated heating resides over waters >27°C. The tropical warm pool is characterized by large-scale variations of SST on time scales that range from intraseasonal to interdecadal, considerably altering the forcing to the atmosphere. In addition to the existence of the large variability of the tropical warm pool SST, there is an upward trend in the tropical warm pool area, which is evident in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans with the area encompassed by the 28C isotherm groewing by 67% since 1920. Changes in the zonal and meridional circulation associated with the variability and expansion of the warm pool are studied using NCEP-NCAR and ERA40 reanalsysis. It is found that the impacts extend around the tropics and are associated with a slowing down of the Asian monsoon circulation and modulation of the of the equatorial Walker cells. Analysis of the IPCC-CMIP3 models for the 20th century show similar changes in the warm pool extent suggesting that changes that occur under different future emission scenarios may poossess credence. With greenhouse warming it is found that the warm pool

  4. Methods and compositions for rapid thermal cycling (United States)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Benett, William J.; Frank, James M.; Deotte, Joshua R.; Spadaccini, Christopher


    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A microfluidic heat exchanger with an internal porous medium is coupled to tanks containing cold fluid and hot fluid. Fluid flows alternately from the cold tank and the hot tank into the porous medium, cooling and heating samples contained in the microfluidic heat exchanger's sample wells. A valve may be coupled to the tanks and a pump, and switching the position of the valve may switch the source and direction of fluid flowing through the porous medium. A controller may control the switching of valve positions based on the temperature of the samples and determined temperature thresholds. A sample tray for containing samples to be thermally cycled may be used in conjunction with the thermal cycling system. A surface or internal electrical heater may aid in heating the samples, or may replace the necessity for the hot tank.

  5. Authenticated group Diffie-Hellman key exchange: theory and practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevassut, Olivier [Catholic Univ. of Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)


    Authenticated two-party Diffie-Hellman key exchange allows two principals A and B, communicating over a public network, and each holding a pair of matching public/private keys to agree on a session key. Protocols designed to deal with this problem ensure A (B resp.)that no other principals aside from B (A resp.) can learn any information about this value. These protocols additionally often ensure A and B that their respective partner has actually computed the shared secret value. A natural extension to the above cryptographic protocol problem is to consider a pool of principals agreeing on a session key. Over the years several papers have extended the two-party Diffie-Hellman key exchange to the multi-party setting but no formal treatments were carried out till recently. In light of recent developments in the formalization of the authenticated two-party Diffie-Hellman key exchange we have in this thesis laid out the authenticated group Diffie-Hellman key exchange on firmer foundations.

  6. UPDG: Utilities package for data analysis of Pooled DNA GWAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Daniel WH


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite being a well-established strategy for cost reduction in disease gene mapping, pooled DNA association study is much less popular than the individual DNA approach. This situation is especially true for pooled DNA genomewide association study (GWAS, for which very few computer resources have been developed for its data analysis. This motivates the development of UPDG (Utilities package for data analysis of Pooled DNA GWAS. Results UPDG represents a generalized framework for data analysis of pooled DNA GWAS with the integration of Unix/Linux shell operations, Perl programs and R scripts. With the input of raw intensity data from GWAS, UPDG performs the following tasks in a stepwise manner: raw data manipulation, correction for allelic preferential amplification, normalization, nested analysis of variance for genetic association testing, and summarization of analysis results. Detailed instructions, procedures and commands are provided in the comprehensive user manual describing the whole process from preliminary preparation of software installation to final outcome acquisition. An example dataset (input files and sample output files is also included in the package so that users can easily familiarize themselves with the data file formats, working procedures and expected output. Therefore, UPDG is especially useful for users with some computer knowledge, but without a sophisticated programming background. Conclusions UPDG provides a free, simple and platform-independent one-stop service to scientists working on pooled DNA GWAS data analysis, but with less advanced programming knowledge. It is our vision and mission to reduce the hindrance for performing data analysis of pooled DNA GWAS through our contribution of UPDG. More importantly, we hope to promote the popularity of pooled DNA GWAS, which is a very useful research strategy.

  7. Fe atom exchange between aqueous Fe2+ and magnetite. (United States)

    Gorski, Christopher A; Handler, Robert M; Beard, Brian L; Pasakarnis, Timothy; Johnson, Clark M; Scherer, Michelle M


    The reaction between magnetite and aqueous Fe(2+) has been extensively studied due to its role in contaminant reduction, trace-metal sequestration, and microbial respiration. Previous work has demonstrated that the reaction of Fe(2+) with magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) results in the structural incorporation of Fe(2+) and an increase in the bulk Fe(2+) content of magnetite. It is unclear, however, whether significant Fe atom exchange occurs between magnetite and aqueous Fe(2+), as has been observed for other Fe oxides. Here, we measured the extent of Fe atom exchange between aqueous Fe(2+) and magnetite by reacting isotopically "normal" magnetite with (57)Fe-enriched aqueous Fe(2+). The extent of Fe atom exchange between magnetite and aqueous Fe(2+) was significant (54-71%), and went well beyond the amount of Fe atoms found at the near surface. Mössbauer spectroscopy of magnetite reacted with (56)Fe(2+) indicate that no preferential exchange of octahedral or tetrahedral sites occurred. Exchange experiments conducted with Co-ferrite (Co(2+)Fe(2)(3+)O(4)) showed little impact of Co substitution on the rate or extent of atom exchange. Bulk electron conduction, as previously invoked to explain Fe atom exchange in goethite, is a possible mechanism, but if it is occurring, conduction does not appear to be the rate-limiting step. The lack of significant impact of Co substitution on the kinetics of Fe atom exchange, and the relatively high diffusion coefficients reported for magnetite suggest that for magnetite, unlike goethite, Fe atom diffusion is a plausible mechanism to explain the rapid rates of Fe atom exchange in magnetite.

  8. 77 FR 43636 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate... (United States)


    ... Trades data product. The text of the proposed rule change is available on the Exchange's Web site at www... at . \\18\\ See generally Mark Hirschey, Fundamentals of... dark pools and electronic communication networks (``ECNs''). Each SRO market competes to produce...

  9. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.


    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  10. Characteristics of model heat exchanger (United States)

    Kolínský, Jan


    The aim of this paper is thermal analysis of model water to water heat exchanger at different mass flow rates. Experimental study deals with determination of total heat transfer - power of the heat exchanger. Furthermore the paper deals with analysis of heat exchanger charakcteristic using a definition of thermal efficiency. It is demonstrated that it is advisable to monitor the dependence of thermal efficiency and flow ratio.

  11. A novel silica based click lysine anion exchanger for ion exchange chromatography. (United States)

    Guo, Hongyue; Chu, Changhu; Li, Yan; Yang, Bingcheng; Liang, Xinmiao


    Ion chromatography (IC) is one of the most powerful analysis technologies for the determination of charged compounds. A novel click lysine stationary phase was prepared via Cu(I) catalyzed alkyne-azide 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (CuAAC) and applied to the analysis of inorganic ions. The chromatographic evaluation demonstrated good performance (e.g. the plate number of thiocyanate is ∼50,000 plates m(-1)) and effective separation ability for the common inorganic anions with aqueous Na(2)SO(4) eluent. The separation mechanism was observed to be mainly dominated by ion exchange interaction. The retention of these analytes is highly dependent on the pH value of eluent. Compared with the lysine stationary phase prepared via the conventional manner, the click lysine exchanger demonstrated shorter retention time and better ion separation characteristics under the same chromatographic conditions, which is a great advantage for rapid separation and analysis of inorganic ions.

  12. Europium(III) Macrocyclic Complexes with Alcohol Pendant Groups as Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer Agents (United States)

    Woods, Mark; Woessner, Donald E.; Zhao, Piyu; Pasha, Azhar; Yang, Meng-Yin; Huang, Ching-Hui; Vasalitiy, Olga; Morrow, Janet R.; Sherry, A. Dean


    Paramagnetic lanthanide(III) complexes that contain hyperfine-shifted exchangeable protons offer considerable advantages over diamagnetic molecules as chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) agents for MRI. As part of a program to investigate avenues to improve the sensitivity of such agents, the CEST characteristics of europium(III) macrocyclic complexes having appended hydroxyethyl groups were investigated. The CEST spectrum of the asymmetrical complex, EuCNPHC3+, shows five distinct peaks for each magnetically nonequivalent exchangeable proton in the molecule. The CEST spectra of this complex were fitted to NMR Bloch theory to yield exchange rates between each of six exchanging proton pools (five on the agent plus bulk water). Exchange between the Eu3+-bound hydroxyl protons and bulk water protons was slow in dry acetonitrile but accelerated incrementally upon stepwise addition of water. In pure water, exchange was too fast to observe a CEST effect. The utility of this class of europium(III) complex for CEST imaging applications is ultimately limited by the small chemical shifts induced by the hydroxyl-appended ligands of this type and the resulting small Δω values for the exchangeable hydroxyl protons. PMID:16881645

  13. What Drives Stock Exchange Integration?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ekaterina Dorodnykh


    .... After a broad discussion of the existent literature, the investigation combines a large number of potentially relevant determinants for the explanation of whether stock exchanges are participating...

  14. Mastering Microsoft Exchange Server 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Elfassy, David


    The bestselling guide to Exchange Server, fully updated for the newest version Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 is touted as a solution for lowering the total cost of ownership, whether deployed on-premises or in the cloud. Like the earlier editions, this comprehensive guide covers every aspect of installing, configuring, and managing this multifaceted collaboration system. It offers Windows systems administrators and consultants a complete tutorial and reference, ideal for anyone installing Exchange Server for the first time or those migrating from an earlier Exchange Server version.Microsoft

  15. Evaluation of a new, macroporous polyvinylpyridine resin for processing plutonium using nitrate anion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, S.F.


    Anion exchange in nitric acid is the major aqueous process used to recover and purify plutonium from impure scrap materials. Most strong-base anion exchange resins incorporate a styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer. A newly available, macroporous anion exchange resin based on a copolymer of 1-methyl-4-vinylpyridine and divinylbenzene has been evaluated. Comparative data for Pu(IV) sorption kinetics and capacity are presented for this new resin and two other commonly used anion exchange resins. The new resin offers high capacity and rapid sorption kinetics for Pu(IV) from nitric acid, as well as greatly stability to chemical and radiolytic degradation. 8 refs., 14 figs.

  16. Hybrid Heat Exchangers (United States)

    Tu, Jianping Gene; Shih, Wei


    A hybrid light-weight heat exchanger concept has been developed that uses high-conductivity carbon-carbon (C-C) composites as the heat-transfer fins and uses conventional high-temperature metals, such as Inconel, nickel, and titanium as the parting sheets to meet leakage and structural requirements. In order to maximize thermal conductivity, the majority of carbon fiber is aligned in the fin direction resulting in 300 W/m.K or higher conductivity in the fin directions. As a result of this fiber orientation, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the C-C composite in both non-fiber directions matches well with the CTE of various high-temperature metal alloys. This allows the joining of fins and parting sheets by using high-temperature braze alloys.

  17. The Radioecology Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Catherine L.; Beresford, Nicholas A.; Patel, Sabera; Wells, Claire; Howard, Brenda J. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Mora, Juan Carlos; Real, Almudena [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avenida complutense 22, Madrid, 28040 (Spain); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Hinton, Thomas [IRSN-Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Vesterbacka, Pia; Muikku, Maarit; Outola, Iisa [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, FI-00881 Helsinki (Finland); Skuterud, Lavrans; AlbumYtre-Eide, Martin [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini Naeringspark 13, Oesteraas, 1332 (Norway); Bradshaw, Clare; Stark, Karolina; Jaeschke, Ben [Stockholms Universitet, Universitetsvaegen 10, Stockholm, 10691 (Sweden); Oughton, Deborah; Skipperud, Lindis [NMBU Norwegian University of Life Science P.O. Box 5003N-1432 Aas, Oslo (Norway); Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Vanhoudt, Nathalie [SCK.CEN, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Avenue Herrmann-Debroux 40, BE-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Willrodt, Christine; Steiner, Martin [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Willy-Brandt-Strasse 5, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany)


    The Radioecology Exchange ( was created in 2011 under the EU FP7 STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology) network of excellence. The project aims to integrate the research efforts on radioecology of nine European organisations into a sustainable network. The web site (together with associated Twitter feeds and Facebook page) currently provides the gateway to project outputs and other on-line radiation protection and radioecological resources. In 2013, the EU FP7 COMET (Coordination and implementation of a pan-European instrument for radioecology) project commenced; it aims to strengthen research on the impact of radiation on man and the environment. COMET includes the STAR partners with the addition of one Japanese and two Ukrainian research institutes. As STAR and COMET interact closely together and with the European Radioecology Alliance (, the Radioecology Exchange will be modified to become an international 'hub' for information related to radioecology. Project specific information will be hosted on separate web sites and This paper will present an overview of the resources hosted on the Radioecology Exchange inviting other scientists to contribute. Highlighted aspects of the site include: Social media (News blog, Twitter, Facebook) - Items announcing project outputs, training courses, jobs, studentships etc. Virtual laboratory - Information which encourages integration through joint research and integrated use of data and sample materials. These pages will focus on three categories: (1) Methodological: descriptions and video clips of commonly used analytical methods and protocols and the procedures used in STAR and COMET; (2) Informative: databases made available by STAR/COMET partners together with details of sample archives held. Fact-sheets on radio-ecologically important radionuclides and 'topical descriptions' which show absorbed

  18. Reverse energy pooling in a K-Na mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Filippo, G.; Guldberg-Kjaer, S.; Milosevic, S.; Pedersen, J.O. [Niels Bohr Institute, O/rsted Laboratory, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen O/ (Denmark); Allegrini, M. [Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa, Piazza Torricelli 2, I-56126, Pisa (Italy)]|[Dipartimento di Fisica della Materia e Tecnologie Fisiche Avanzate, Universita di Messina, Salita Sperone 31, I-98166, SantAgata-Messina (Italy)


    We report experimental rate coefficients for the reverse heteronuclear energy-pooling collisions K(5D)+Na(3S){r_arrow}K(4P)+Na(3P) and K(7S)+Na(3S){r_arrow}K(4P)+Na(3P) at thermal energies. Both reactions are exothermic and very high rates were observed showing that reverse exothermic energy-pooling is an order of magnitude more efficient than the corresponding forward endothermic energy-pooling reactions. This is in accordance with the general behavior of the exothermic and endothermic energy-pooling rate coefficients in alkali-metal atoms. In the experiment the potassium atoms were excited in two steps to either the 5D or 7S state via the 4P level using two broadband cw dye lasers. A double-modulation technique has been used to select the fluorescence contributions at the Na(3P{sub J}) exit channels due only to the above reactions. The ground-state sodium and potassium atom densities were measured by the absorption of lines from a K-Na hollow-cathode lamp. The measured densities and fluorescence intensities have been used to obtain absolute reverse energy-pooling rate coefficients. The contribution to the rate coefficients from other processes are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. [ATP pool and bioluminescence in psychrophilic bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum]. (United States)

    Alekserova, L É; Alenina, K A; Efremenko, E N; Mazhul', M M; Piskunova, N F; Ismailov, A D


    Bioluminescence activity and ATP pool were investigated in the culture of psychrophilic bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum collected-from the exponential and stationary growth phases, as well as immobilized in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel. In liquid culture, ATP pool remained at an almost a constant level throughout the luminescence cycle (over 100 h). The ATP pool in the stationary-phase and PVA-immobilizedl cells remained constant throughout their incubation in the medium (over 200 h) and in 3% NaCl solution (over 100 h): Quantitative assessment of integral photon yield and ATP pool indicated that bioluminescence decay in growing or stationary cells was not caused by limitation by the energy substrates of the luciferase reaction. Kinetic and quantitative parameters of emission activity and ATP pool excluded the possibility of formation of the aldehyde substrate for luciferase via reduction of the relevant fatty acids in NADPH and ATP-dependent reductase reaction and its oxidation in the monooxygenase reaction. Our results indicate that the aliphatic aldehyde is not utilized in the process of light emission.

  20. Health impact of disinfection by-products in swimming pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Villanueva


    Full Text Available This article is focused on the epidemiological evidence on the health impacts related to disinfection by-products (DBPs in swimming pools, which is a chemical hazard generated as an undesired consequence to reduce the microbial pathogens. Specific DBPs are carcinogenic, fetotoxic and/or irritant to the airways according to experimental studies. Epidemiological evidence shows that swimming in pools during pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of reproductive outcomes. An epidemiological study suggested an increased risk of bladder cancer with swimming pool attendance, although evidence is inconclusive. A higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms including asthma is found among swimming pool workers and elite swimmers, although the causality of this association is unclear. The body of evidence in children indicates that asthma is not increased by swimming pool attendance. Overall, the available knowledge suggests that the health benefits of swimming outweigh the potential health risks of chemical contamination. However, the positive effects of swimming should be enhanced by minimising potential risks.

  1. An Unusual Case of Rapidly Progressive Hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly M. Thornton


    Full Text Available We present an unusual case of hyperbilirubinemia with rapid early progression leading to bilirubin encephalopathy in a term neonate. Despite early recognition and intervention, the total serum bilirubin reached a maximum level of 39 mg/dL at 32 hours of life. Prior to an emergent exchange transfusion, the patient’s diagnostic evaluation was significant for Coombs-negative microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. Further testing revealed a deficiency of ADAMTS13 protein, or von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease, a finding diagnostic of congenital thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, or Upshaw-Schulman syndrome. This rare disease is often misdiagnosed, especially in the newborn period.

  2. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID) (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.


    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  3. Evaluation of Total Coliform, Fecal Coliform and Residual Chlorine in Swimming Pools in Kermanshah on the Season, the type of Pool, Disinfection System and Source of Water Supply in the during of three years (2010-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K SHarafi


    From the results , although the pools of water quality parameters has been studied in almost ideal But in summer, especially on a female pools and pools with wells water supply source than other pools , to be more oversight .

  4. Safety analysis of a pool Genesis II irradiator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues Junior, Ary de A. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica


    The Genesis II Irradiator manufactured by GRAT{sup *}STAR Inc. (USA) is a category III gamma irradiator in which the sealed source is contained in a water filled storage pool and is shielded permanently, i.e. the material has to move down to the source. Even though the pool is 5.6 m deep, what would happen if the water level lowered? There are a series of safety devices that will avoid this situation and calculations show that the water level has to be very low in order to deliver a significant dose; moreover, only in case a person remains at the border of the pool for a long time this would be risky. In conclusion, it is practically impossible for someone to be exposed to radiation from a Genesis II Irradiator source. (author)

  5. Nanoparticle Deposition During Cu-Water Nanofluid Pool Boiling (United States)

    Doretti, L.; Longo, G. A.; Mancin, S.; Righetti, G.; Weibel, J. A.


    The present research activity aims to rigorously investigate nanofluid pool boiling in order to definitively assess this as a technique for controlled nanoparticle coating of surfaces, which can enhance the nucleate boiling performance. This paper presents preliminary nanoparticle deposition results obtained during Cu-water (0.13 wt%) nanofluid pool boiling on a smooth copper surface. The tests were run in an experimental setup designed expressly to study water and nanofluid pool boiling. The square test sample block (27.2 mm × 27.2 mm) is equipped with a rake of four calibrated T-type thermocouples each located in a 13.6-mm deep holes drilled every 5 mm from 1 mm below the top surface. The imposed heat flux and wall superheat can be estimated from measurement of the temperature gradient along the four thermocouples. The samples are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to analyse the morphological characteristics of the obtained thin, Cu nanoparticle coating.

  6. Inferring local ecological processes amid species pool influences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Belmaker, Jonathan; Myers, Jonathan A.


    studies, null models of community structure, and ecologically explicit definitions of the species pool as a means to compare predominant ecological processes among regions. By uniting concepts and tools from community ecology and macroecology, this approach might facilitate synthesis and resolve many......Resolving contingencies in community ecology requires comparative studies of local communities along broad-scale environmental gradients and in different biogeographic regions. However, comparisons of local ecological processes among regions require a synthetic understanding of how the species pool...... of potential community members influences the structure of ecological communities. Here, we outline an integrative approach for quantifying local ecological processes while explicitly accounting for species pool influences. Specifically, we highlight the utility of combining geographically replicated local...

  7. Insertion sequences enrichment in extreme Red sea brine pool vent

    KAUST Repository

    Elbehery, Ali H. A.


    Mobile genetic elements are major agents of genome diversification and evolution. Limited studies addressed their characteristics, including abundance, and role in extreme habitats. One of the rare natural habitats exposed to multiple-extreme conditions, including high temperature, salinity and concentration of heavy metals, are the Red Sea brine pools. We assessed the abundance and distribution of different mobile genetic elements in four Red Sea brine pools including the world’s largest known multiple-extreme deep-sea environment, the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. We report a gradient in the abundance of mobile genetic elements, dramatically increasing in the harshest environment of the pool. Additionally, we identified a strong association between the abundance of insertion sequences and extreme conditions, being highest in the harshest and deepest layer of the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. Our comparative analyses of mobile genetic elements in secluded, extreme and relatively non-extreme environments, suggest that insertion sequences predominantly contribute to polyextremophiles genome plasticity.

  8. Models for Pooled Time-Series Cross-Section Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence E Raffalovich


    Full Text Available Several models are available for the analysis of pooled time-series cross-section (TSCS data, defined as “repeated observations on fixed units” (Beck and Katz 1995. In this paper, we run the following models: (1 a completely pooled model, (2 fixed effects models, and (3 multi-level/hierarchical linear models. To illustrate these models, we use a Generalized Least Squares (GLS estimator with cross-section weights and panel-corrected standard errors (with EViews 8 on the cross-national homicide trends data of forty countries from 1950 to 2005, which we source from published research (Messner et al. 2011. We describe and discuss the similarities and differences between the models, and what information each can contribute to help answer substantive research questions. We conclude with a discussion of how the models we present may help to mitigate validity threats inherent in pooled time-series cross-section data analysis.

  9. Motivation and results of a long-term research on pool boiling heat transfer in low gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Marco, P.; Grassi, W. Lothar [Low gravity and Thermal Advanced Research Laboratory, Dipartimento di Energetica ' ' L. Poggi' ' , Universita di Pisa (Italy)


    This paper summarises the main results of a long-term research, begun more than ten years ago, about the influence of gravity and electric fields on heat transfer. After a somehow detailed analysis of the impact of heat transfer on modern society and of the motivation of low gravity research on this subject, the authors describe their own research work on the effects of gravitational and electric forces on single-phase convection and pool boiling. This research has the twofold aim to investigate the basic mechanisms of convective heat transfer, without the masking effect of gravity, and to identify methods to make free convection possible also in the absence of buoyancy, for space applications. It has been experimentally shown that the application of an external electric field generally enhances the heat exchange between a heated wire and a liquid pool. The single-phase heat transfer coefficient is improved, the nucleate boiling region is extended to higher heat fluxes, by increasing the critical heat flux, CHF, as well as the heat transfer rate in film boiling is augmented. The convective heat exchange is an increasing function of gravity, therefore heat transfer generally deteriorates in low gravity. The application of a sufficiently intense electric field restores the same value of heat transfer coefficient and critical heat flux measured on earth, thus demonstrating the progressive overwhelming of the electrical force on the buoyancy one. (authors)

  10. Study on Pressure drop for Ion Exchanger in Jordan Research and Training Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ki-jung; Choi, Jungwoon; Kim, Seong-Hoon; Chi, Dae-Young; Park, Cheol [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The Jordan Research and Training Reactor (JRTR) is currently being constructed and commissioned in the JUST (Jordan University of Science and Technology) site. The main fluid systems relevant to the JRTR have been proceeding at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. In order to achieve the purpose of the pool water purification, two filters and two ion exchangers which can be to remove suspended solids and ionic impurities in the in-taken pool water have been designed. For the reliable design of this system pump, it is important to predict the pressure drop of the system equipment including the ion exchanger. In this study, the pressure drop in the ion exchanger of PWMS is predicted by using the well-known model and the results provided from manufacturing company. And, the calculated results are compared to the actual data which is measured from the ion exchanger during the PWMS commissioning. The predicted pressure drop is dominated by the resin bed as a portion of about 85% for total pressure drop. The predicted pressure drop is compared to the measured pressure drop of the ion exchanger which is installed in the JRTR, the data above 5 kg/s agree within 5% in the entire range.

  11. The pool chlorine hypothesis and asthma among boys.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, A


    Swimming pool sanitation has largely been concerned with the microbiological quality of pool water, which is normally treated using a number of chlorine products. Recent studies have pointed to the potential hazards of chlorine by-products to the respiratory epithelium, particularly in indoor, poorly ventilated, pools. The aim of our study was to elucidate whether chronic exposure to indoor chlorinated swimming pools was associated with an increased likelihood of the development of asthma in boys. METHODS: The subjects were boys aged between 6 and 12 years. Data was collected by means of parental responses to a standardized asthma questionnaire (ISAAC: International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood), supplemented with additional questions regarding frequency of attendance, number of years attendance, whether the child is a swimming team member. The questionnaire return rate was 71\\/% (n = 121). 23 boys were excluded on the basis that they had asthma before they started swimming (n = 97). There was a significant association between number of years a boy had been swimming and the likelihood of wheezing in the last 12 months (p = 0.009; OR = 1.351; 95% CI = 1.077-1.693) and diagnosed asthma (p = 0.046; OR = 1.299; 95% CI = 1.004-1.506). The greater the number the number of years a boy had been attending an indoor, chlorinated pool, the greater the likelihood of wheezing in the last 12 months or "had asthma". Age, parental smoking habits and being a swimming team member had no association with any of the asthma variables examined. Swimming pool attendance may be a risk factor in asthma in boys.

  12. Rapid shallow breathing (United States)

    ... the smallest air passages of the lungs in children ( bronchiolitis ) Pneumonia or other lung infection Transient tachypnea of the newborn Anxiety and panic Other serious lung disease Home Care Rapid, shallow breathing should not be treated at home. It is ...

  13. Rapid Strep Test (United States)

    ... worse than normal. Your first thoughts turn to strep throat. A rapid strep test in your doctor’s office ... your suspicions.Viruses cause most sore throats. However, strep throat is an infection caused by the Group A ...

  14. 78 FR 69910 - Joint Industry Plan; BATS Exchange, Inc., BATS-Y Exchange, Inc., BOX Options Exchange LLC, C2... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Joint Industry Plan; BATS Exchange, Inc., BATS-Y Exchange, Inc., BOX Options Exchange LLC, C2... LLC, NYSE Arca, Inc. and Topaz Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed National Market System Plan... and Exchange Commission (``Commission'') the proposed National Market System (``NMS'') Plan Governing...

  15. Rapid purification of recombinant histones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike Klinker

    Full Text Available The development of methods to assemble nucleosomes from recombinant histones decades ago has transformed chromatin research. Nevertheless, nucleosome reconstitution remains time consuming to this day, not least because the four individual histones must be purified first. Here, we present a streamlined purification protocol of recombinant histones from bacteria. We termed this method "rapid histone purification" (RHP as it circumvents isolation of inclusion bodies and thereby cuts out the most time-consuming step of traditional purification protocols. Instead of inclusion body isolation, whole cell extracts are prepared under strongly denaturing conditions that directly solubilize inclusion bodies. By ion exchange chromatography, the histones are purified from the extracts. The protocol has been successfully applied to all four canonical Drosophila and human histones. RHP histones and histones that were purified from isolated inclusion bodies had similar purities. The different purification strategies also did not impact the quality of octamers reconstituted from these histones. We expect that the RHP protocol can be readily applied to the purification of canonical histones from other species as well as the numerous histone variants.

  16. RAPID3? Aptly named! (United States)

    Berthelot, J-M


    The RAPID3 score is the sum of three 0-10 patient self-report scores: pain, functional impairment on MDHAQ, and patient global estimate. It requires 5 seconds for scoring and can be used in all rheumatologic conditions, although it has mostly been used in rheumatoid arthritis where cutoffs for low disease activity (12/30) have been set. A RAPID3 score of ≤ 3/30 with 1 or 0 swollen joints (RAPID3 ≤ 3 + ≤ SJ1) provides remission criteria comparable to Boolean, SDAI, CDAI, and DAS28 remission criteria, in far less time than a formal joint count. RAPID3 performs as well as the DAS28 in separating active drugs from placebos in clinical trials. RAPID3 also predicts subsequent structural disease progression. RAPID3 can be determined at short intervals at home, allowing the determination of the area under the curve of disease activity between two visits and flare detection. However, RAPID3 should not be seen as a substitute for DAS28 and face to face visits in routine care. Monitoring patient status with only self-report information without a rheumatologist's advice (including joints and physical examination, and consideration of imaging and laboratory tests) may indeed be as undesirable for most patients than joint examination without a patient questionnaire. Conversely, combining the RAPID3 and the DAS28 may consist in faster or more sensitive confirmation that a medication is effective. Similarly, better enquiring of most important concerns of patients (pain, functional status and overall opinion on their disorder) should reinforces patients' confidence in their rheumatologist and treatments.

  17. The central equipment pool, an opportunity for improved technology management. (United States)

    Gentles, W M


    A model for a central equipment pool managed by a clinical engineering department has been presented. The advantages to patient care and to the clinical engineering department are many. The distribution of portable technology that has been traditionally managed by the materials management function is a logical match to the expanding role of clinical engineering departments in technology management. Accurate asset management tools have allowed us to provide reliable measures of infusion pump utilization, permitting us to predict future needs as programs expand. Thus we are more actively involved in strategic technology planning. The central equipment pool is an excellent opportunity for the clinical engineering department to increase its technology management activities.

  18. The CERN Electronics Pool moves to Building 13

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department


    After 32 years in Building 4 R‐050, the CERN Electronics Pool will re‐open in Building 13 R009 on Monday 13 December at 10:00 As of this date, you will be able to come and choose the instruments you want: oscilloscopes and other measurement instruments, low and high voltage power supplies, modular instrumentation, etc. Please do not hesitate to consult the catalogue and give us any input you may have. The CERN Electronics Pool operates on a self-service basis (with a CERN budget code) and is available for any help you may need.

  19. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Swimming Pools, Atlanta, Georgia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    In this podcast, Dan Rutz speaks with Dr. Joan Shields, a guest researcher with the Healthy Swimming Program at CDC, about an article in June 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases reporting on the results of a test of swimming pools in the greater Atlanta, Georgia area. Dr. Shields tested 160 pools in metro Atlanta last year for Cryptosporidium and Giardia. These germs cause most recreational water associated outbreaks.  Created: 5/29/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 5/29/2008.

  20. Liquid/liquid heat exchanger (United States)

    Miller, C. G.


    Conceptual design for heat exchanger, utilizing two immiscible liquids with dissimilar specific gravities in direct contact, is more efficient mechanism of heat transfer than conventional heat exchangers with walls or membranes. Concept could be adapted for collection of heat from solar or geothermal sources.

  1. Educators Exchange: A Program Evaluation. (United States)

    Armstrong, William B.

    The Educators Exchange Program (EEP) was established under a training and educational exchange agreement reached by California's San Diego Community College District (SDCCD) and the republic of Mexico. In the program, the District provided a 4-week technological training program to faculty at Centros de Capacitacion Tecnologica Industrial…

  2. Risk Balance in Exchange Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T. Dashti (Mohammad); Y. Wang (Yanjing); I. Cervesato


    htmlabstractWe study the behaviour of rational agents in exchange protocols which rely on trustees. We allow malicious parties to compromise the trustee by paying a cost and, thereby, present a game analysis that advocates exchange protocols which induce balanced risks on the participants. We also

  3. Professional Exchange: Mapping the Future. (United States)

    Dingman, Robert L.


    New associate editor of Professional Exchange section of "Journal of Mental Health Counseling" discusses importance of section. Lists potential topics suggested in 1989, then adds several other topics to the list. Concludes with guidelines for submission to Professional Exchange section. (NB)

  4. Lace-Espana experimental programme on the retention of aerosols in water pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcos, M. J.; Gomez, F. J.; Melches, I.; Martin, M.; Lopez, M.


    A matrix of eleven experiments on aerosol retention behaviour in submerged beds and suppression pools in water- cooled reactors under severe accident conditions has been performed, for these experiments, an intermediate scales, multi-purpose facility was set up at CIEMAT (Madrid). The facility includes various systems: aerosol generation (Csl), mixing section, injection line and pool-vessel (8 m{sup 3} ), as well as the corresponding aerosol instrumentation and a process control and data acquisition system. Some parameters have been varied in order to study their influence in the DF: steam/noncondensable ratio in the accidental mixture (0.1 to 0.9), particle size, flow rate (two regimes: bubble and jet) and injector geometry (mono orifice and multi orifice). On the other hand, some parameters have been kept constant along the experiments; pool geometry (diameter, water level), water temperature, pressure in the atmosphere above the water, submergence, injection temperature and injection time. A rapid decrease in the DF is observed as the proportion of particles measuring less than 1 {mu}m increases. Retention decreases in the case of smaller particles and considerably higher in the case of larger particles. It has been also possible to observe the influence of the injected steam fraction. Experiments with greater fraction than the saturation fraction have greater DF than those ones with smaller fractions. The jet regime with horizontal injection and the multi orifice geometry would appear to show a somewhat higher capacity of retention than those in the bubble regime under similar conditions. It would be necessary to confirm this greater capacity for retention by means of additional experimental data. This work, performed by the LACE-Espana Consortium, has been carried out in the frame of the European Commissions Shared Cost Action Programme on Reactor Safety 1988-91 on a contractual basis. (Author)18 refs.

  5. Heat exchanger leakage problem location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jícha Miroslav


    Full Text Available Recent compact heat exchangers are very often assembled from numerous parts joined together to separate heat transfer fluids and to form the required heat exchanger arrangement. Therefore, the leak tightness is very important property of the compact heat exchangers. Although, the compact heat exchangers have been produced for many years, there are still technological problems associated with manufacturing of the ideal connection between the individual parts, mainly encountered with special purpose heat exchangers, e.g. gas turbine recuperators. This paper describes a procedure used to identify the leakage location inside the prime surface gas turbine recuperator. For this purpose, an analytical model of the leaky gas turbine recuperator was created to assess its performance. The results obtained are compared with the experimental data which were acquired during the recuperator thermal performance analysis. The differences between these two data sets are used to indicate possible leakage areas.

  6. Transendothelial lipoprotein exchange and microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jan Skov; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo; Jensen, Kurt Svarre


    OBJECTIVE: Microalbuminuria associates with increased risk of atherosclerosis in individuals without diabetes. We hypothesized that transendothelial lipoprotein exchange is elevated among such individuals, possibly explaining increased intimal lipoprotein accumulation and thus atherosclerosis....... METHODS: Using an in vivo isotope technique, transendothelial exchange of low density lipoprotein (LDL) was measured in 77 non-diabetic individuals. Autologous 131-iodinated LDL was reinjected intravenously, and the 1-h fractional escape rate was calculated as index of transendothelial exchange. RESULTS......: There was no difference in transendothelial LDL exchange between subjects with microalbuminuria versus normoalbuminuria (mean (95% confidence interval) 3.8%/h (3.3-4.3%/h) versus 4.2%/h (3.7-4.7%/h); P=0.33). In contrast, there was a positive correlation between transendothelial LDL exchange and (logarithmically...

  7. Next Generation Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Ohadi, Michael; Dessiatoun, Serguei; Cetegen, Edvin


    In Next Generation Microchannel Heat Exchangers, the authors’ focus on the new generation highly efficient heat exchangers and presentation of novel data and technical expertise not available in the open literature.  Next generation micro channels offer record high heat transfer coefficients with pressure drops much less than conventional micro channel heat exchangers. These inherent features promise fast penetration into many mew markets, including high heat flux cooling of electronics, waste heat recovery and energy efficiency enhancement applications, alternative energy systems, as well as applications in mass exchangers and chemical reactor systems. The combination of up to the minute research findings and technical know-how make this book very timely as the search for high performance heat and mass exchangers that can cut costs in materials consumption intensifies.

  8. High Temperature Heat Exchanger Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony E. Hechanova, Ph.D.


    The UNLV Research Foundation assembled a research consortium for high temperature heat exchanger design and materials compatibility and performance comprised of university and private industry partners under the auspices of the US DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative in October 2003. The objectives of the consortium were to conduct investigations of candidate materials for high temperature heat exchanger componets in hydrogen production processes and design and perform prototypical testing of heat exchangers. The initial research of the consortium focused on the intermediate heat exchanger (located between the nuclear reactor and hydrogen production plan) and the components for the hydrogen iodine decomposition process and sulfuric acid decomposition process. These heat exchanger components were deemed the most challenging from a materials performance and compatibility perspective

  9. Pool sajandit geenilugu, pikk tee veel käia / Tiit Kändler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kändler, Tiit, 1948-


    Vt. ka Koit 22. apr., lk. 7 pealkirja all: Tänavu täitub pool sajandit geenilugu. Võrumaa Teataja 26. apr., lk. 7 pealkirja all: Pool sajandit geeniuuringuid. Inimese genoom on lõplikult järjestatud. Vooremaa 29. apr., lk. 5 pealkirja all: Pool sajandit geenilugu. Virumaa Teataja 23. juuli, lk. 7 pealkirja all: Pool sajandit geenilugu

  10. Pool sizes of precursors for phosphatidylcholine formation in adult rat lung type II cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posta, M.; Batenburg, J.J.; Smith, B.T.; Golde, L.M.G. van


    1. 1. The pool sizes of the choline intermediates and cofactors involved in the CDPcholine pathway were studied in alveolar type II cells from adult rat lung. 2. 2. The choline phosphate pool was much larger than both the choline and CDPcholine pools. 3. 3. Kinetic analysis of the pool sizes

  11. Direct and Inverse Problems of Item Pool Design for Computerized Adaptive Testing (United States)

    Belov, Dmitry I.; Armstrong, Ronald D.


    The recent literature on computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has developed methods for creating CAT item pools from a large master pool. Each CAT pool is designed as a set of nonoverlapping forms reflecting the skill levels of an assumed population of test takers. This article presents a Monte Carlo method to obtain these CAT pools and discusses…

  12. 76 FR 7975 - Commodity Pool Operators and Commodity Trading Advisors: Amendments to Compliance Obligations (United States)


    ... financial regulators tasked with overseeing the financial integrity of the economy. Through the collection... implications. Finally, the Commission is proposing to collect information regarding a pool's subscriptions and...-level information, pool performance, pool subscriptions and redemptions, and the market value of pool...

  13. Measure Guideline. Replacing Single-Speed Pool Pumps with Variable Speed Pumps for Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A. [Building Media and the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA), Wilmington, DE (United States); Easley, S. [Building Media and the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA), Wilmington, DE (United States)


    This measure guideline evaluates potential energy savings by replacing traditional single-speed pool pumps with variable speed pool pumps, and provides a basic cost comparison between continued uses of traditional pumps verses new pumps. A simple step-by-step process for inspecting the pool area and installing a new pool pump follows.

  14. Measure Guideline: Replacing Single-Speed Pool Pumps with Variable Speed Pumps for Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Easley, S.


    The report evaluates potential energy savings by replacing traditional single-speed pool pumps with variable speed pool pumps, and provide a basic cost comparison between continued uses of traditional pumps verses new pumps. A simple step-by-step process for inspecting the pool area and installing a new pool pump follows.

  15. The impact of urbanization on water and sediment chemistry of ephemeral forest pools (United States)

    Robert T. Brooks; Suzanne D. Miller; John Newsted


    We compared the water and sediment composition of two ephemeral pools located in forested settings in a developed suburban area with two similar pools located in extensive forest in Massachusetts. We also compared the macroinvertebrate communities. The sediments of the forest pools were 100% organic material, while those of the urban pools were predominantly silt. The...

  16. Examination of homogeneity of selected Irish pooling groups (United States)

    Das, S.; Cunnane, C.


    In regional flood frequency estimation, a homogeneous pooling group of sites leads to a reduction in the error of quantile estimators which is the main aim of a regional flood frequency analysis. Examination of the homogeneity of regions/pooling groups is usually based on a statistic that relates to the formulation of a frequency distribution model, e.g. the coefficient of variation (Wiltshire, 1986; Fill and Stedinger, 1995) and/or skew coefficient, their L-moment equivalents (Chowdhury et al., 1991; Hosking and Wallis, 1997) or of dimensionless quantiles such as the 10-yr event (Dalrymple, 1960; Lu and Stedinger, 1992). Hosking andWallis (1993, 1997) proposed homogeneity tests based on L-moment ratios such as L-CV alone (H1) and L-CV & L-skewness jointly (H2) which were also recently investigated by Viglione et al. (2007). In this paper a study, based on annual maximum series obtained from 85 Irish gauging stations, examines how successful a common method of identifying pooling group membership is in selecting groups that actually are homogeneous. Each station has its own unique pooling group selected by use of a Euclidean distance measure in catchment descriptor space, commonly denoted dij and with a minimum of 500 station years of data in the pooling group, which satisfies the 5T rule (FEH, 1999, 3, p. 169) for the 100 yr quantile. It was found that dij could be effectively defined in terms of catchment area, mean rainfall and baseflow index. The sampling distribution of L-CV (t2) in each pooling group and the 95% confidence limits about the pooled estimate of t2 are obtained by simulation. The t2 values of the selected group members are compared with these confidence limits both graphically and numerically. Of the 85 stations, only 1 station's pooling group members have all their t2 values within the confidence limits, while 7, 33 and 44 of them have 1, 2 or 3 or more, t2 values outside the confidence limits. The outcomes are also compared with the

  17. Fault-Tolerant Heat Exchanger (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Crowley, Christopher J.


    A compact, lightweight heat exchanger has been designed to be fault-tolerant in the sense that a single-point leak would not cause mixing of heat-transfer fluids. This particular heat exchanger is intended to be part of the temperature-regulation system for habitable modules of the International Space Station and to function with water and ammonia as the heat-transfer fluids. The basic fault-tolerant design is adaptable to other heat-transfer fluids and heat exchangers for applications in which mixing of heat-transfer fluids would pose toxic, explosive, or other hazards: Examples could include fuel/air heat exchangers for thermal management on aircraft, process heat exchangers in the cryogenic industry, and heat exchangers used in chemical processing. The reason this heat exchanger can tolerate a single-point leak is that the heat-transfer fluids are everywhere separated by a vented volume and at least two seals. The combination of fault tolerance, compactness, and light weight is implemented in a unique heat-exchanger core configuration: Each fluid passage is entirely surrounded by a vented region bridged by solid structures through which heat is conducted between the fluids. Precise, proprietary fabrication techniques make it possible to manufacture the vented regions and heat-conducting structures with very small dimensions to obtain a very large coefficient of heat transfer between the two fluids. A large heat-transfer coefficient favors compact design by making it possible to use a relatively small core for a given heat-transfer rate. Calculations and experiments have shown that in most respects, the fault-tolerant heat exchanger can be expected to equal or exceed the performance of the non-fault-tolerant heat exchanger that it is intended to supplant (see table). The only significant disadvantages are a slight weight penalty and a small decrease in the mass-specific heat transfer.

  18. Deuterium enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by photochemically induced exchange with deuterium-rich cosmic ices (United States)

    Sandford, S. A.; Bernstein, M. P.; Allamandola, L. J.; Gillette, J. S.; Zare, R. N.


    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) coronene (C24H12) frozen in D2O ice in a ratio of less than 1 part in 500 rapidly exchanges its hydrogen atoms with the deuterium in the ice at interstellar temperatures and pressures when exposed to ultraviolet radiation. Exchange occurs via three different chemical processes: D atom addition, D atom exchange at oxidized edge sites, and D atom exchange at aromatic edge sites. Observed exchange rates for coronene (C24H12)-D2O and d12-coronene (C24D12)-H2O isotopic substitution experiments show that PAHs in interstellar ices could easily attain the D/H levels observed in meteorites. These results may have important consequences for the abundance of deuterium observed in aromatic materials in the interstellar medium and in meteorites. These exchange mechanisms produce deuteration in characteristic molecular locations on the PAHs that may distinguish them from previously postulated processes for D enrichment of PAHs.

  19. Perspectives of voltage control for magnetic exchange bias in multiferroic heterostructures (United States)

    Yang, Q.; Zhou, Z.; Sun, N. X.; Liu, M.


    Exchange bias, as an internal magnetic bias induced by a ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic exchange coupling, is extremely important in many magnetic applications such as memories, sensors and other devices. Voltage control of exchange bias in multiferroics provides an energy-efficient way to achieve a rapidly 180° deterministic switching of magnetization, which has been considered as a key challenge in realizing next generation of fast, compact and ultra-low power magnetoelectric memories and sensors. Additionally, exchange bias can enhance dynamic magnetoelectric coupling strength in an external-field-free manner. In this paper, we provide a perspective on voltage control of exchange bias in different multiferroic heterostructures. Brief mechanization and related experiments are discussed as well as future trend and challenges that can be overcome by electrically tuning of exchange bias in state-of-the-art magnetoelectric devices.

  20. Bubble Departure from Metal-Graphite Composite Surfaces and Its Effects on Pool Boiling Heat Transfer (United States)

    Chao, David F.; Sankovic, John M.; Motil, Brian J.; Yang, W-J.; Zhang, Nengli


    The formation and growth processes of a bubble in the vicinity of graphite micro-fiber tips on metal-graphite composite boiling surfaces and their effects on boiling behavior are investigated. It is discovered that a large number of micro bubbles are formed first at the micro scratches and cavities on the metal matrix in pool boiling. By virtue of the non-wetting property of graphite, once the growing micro bubbles touch the graphite tips, the micro bubbles are sucked by the tips and merged into larger micro bubbles sitting on the end of the tips. The micro bubbles grow rapidly and coalesce to form macro bubbles, each spanning several tips. The necking process of a detaching macro bubble is analyzed. It is revealed that a liquid jet is produced by sudden break-off of the bubble throat. The composite surfaces not only have higher temperatures in micro- and macrolayers but also make higher frequency of the bubble departure, which increase the average heat fluxes in both the bubble growth stage and in the bubble departure period. Based on these analyses, the enhancement mechanism of pool boiling heat transfer on composite surfaces is clearly revealed.