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Sample records for rapidly eroding pinyon-juniper

  1. Frijolito Watershed: Integrated investigations of a rapidly eroding pinyon-juniper hillslope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, B.P.; Pitlick, J.

    1995-01-01

    The dramatic acceleration of erosion associated with the expansion of pinyon-juniper woodlands over the past 100 years has been widely recognized, but few process-based studies of this phenomenon have been undertaken. In an attempt to identify the underlying causes, and the factors that affect erosion processes, we have initiated an interdisciplinary study of a rapidly eroding pinyon-juniper woodland in northern New Mexico. Since July 1993, we have collected data on runoff, erosion, and weather conditions from a 1-ha catchment study area and have conducted surveys of topography, soils, and vegetation. Our preliminary results indicate that although runoff makes up less than 10% of the annual water budget, runoff events - which are frequent in the summer - are capable of moving large amounts of sediment. We estimate that between July 1993 and October 1994, between 25,000 and 50,000 kg of sediment has eroded and been transported from the catchment. The information gained from such studies is essential to our ability to formulate effective strategies for managing these rapidly eroding woodlands

  2. Pinyon-juniper woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Gerald J.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Allen, Craig D.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Chung-MacCoubrey, Alice L.; Finch, Deborah M.; Tainter, Joseph A.

    1995-01-01

    Pinyon-juniper woodlands are one of the largest ecosystems in the Southwest and in the Middle Rio Grande Basin (Fig. 1). The woodlands have been important to the region's inhabitants since prehistoric times for a variety of natural resources and amenities. The ecosystems have not been static; their distributions, stand characteristics, and site conditions have been altered by changes in climatic patterns and human use and, often, abuse. Management of these lands since European settlement has varied from light exploitation and benign neglect, to attempts to remove the trees in favor of forage for livestock, and then to a realization that these lands contain useful resources and should be managed accordingly. Land management agencies are committed to ecosystem management. While there are several definitions of ecosystem management, the goal is to use ecological approaches to create and maintain diverse, productive, and healthy ecosystems (Kaufmann et al. 1994). Ecosystem management recognizes that people are an integral part of the system and that their needs must be considered. Ecological approaches are central to the concept, but our understanding of basic woodland ecology is incomplete, and there are different opinions and interpretations of existing information (Gottfried and Severson 1993). There are many questions concerning proper ecosystem management of the pinyon-juniper woodlands and how managers can achieve these goals (Gottfried and Severson 1993). While the broad concept of ecosystem management generally is accepted, the USDA Forest Service, other public land management agencies, American Indian tribes, and private landowners may have differing definitions of what constitutes desired conditions. Key questions about the pinyon-juniper ecosystems remain unanswered. Some concern the basic dynamics of biological and physical components of the pinyon-juniper ecosystems. Others concern the distribution of woodlands prior to European settlement and changes

  3. Assessing Pinyon Juniper Feedstock Properties and Utilization Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gresham, Garold Linn [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kenney, Kevin Louis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Pinyon-juniper woodlands are a major ecosystem type found in the Southwest and the Intermountain West regions of the United States. These ecosystems are characterized by the presence of several different species of pinyon pine and juniper as the dominant plant cover. Since the 1800s, pinyon-juniper woodlands have rapidly expanded their range at the expense of existing ecosystems. Additionally, existing woodlands have become more dense, potentially increasing fire hazards. Land managers responsible for these areas often desire to reduce pinyonjuniper coverage on their lands for a variety of reasons, including restoration to previous vegetative cover, mitigation of fire risk, and improvement in wildlife habitat. However, the cost of clearing or thinning pinyon-juniper stands can be prohibitive. One reason for this is the lack of utilization options for the resulting biomass that could help recover some of the cost of pinyonjuniper stand management. The goal of this project was to assess the feedstock characteristics of biomass from a pinyon-juniper harvest so that potential applications for the biomass may be evaluated.

  4. Pinyon/juniper woodlands [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin J. Tausch; Sharon Hood

    2007-01-01

    Pinyon-juniper woodlands occur in 10 states and cover large areas in many of them. These woodlands can be dominated by several species of pinyon pine (Pinus spp. L.) and juniper (Juniperus spp. L.) (Lanner 1975; Mitchell and Roberts 1999; West 1999a). A considerable amount of information is available on the expansion of the woodlands that has occurred over large parts...

  5. Commercialization of fuels from Pinyon-Juniper biomass in Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, G.P.

    1994-01-01

    This study analyzes and defines energy applications and markets that could stimulate the commercial use of Eastern Nevada's Pinyon-Juniper resources. The commercialization potential for producing energy from Pinyon-Juniper biomass is analyzed by examining the resource base and resource availability for a commercial harvesting and processing operation. The study considered the spectrum of available equipment and technology for carrying out harvesting and processing operations, investigated the markets that might be able to use energy products derived from Pinyon-Juniper biomass, analyzed the costs of harvesting, processing, and transporting Pinyon-Juniper fuels, and set forth a plan for developing the commercial potential of these resources. The emerging residential pellet-fuels market is a promising entry market for the commercialization of an energy from Pinyon-Juniper biomass industry in Eastern Nevada, although there are serious technical issues that may render Pinyon-Juniper biomass an unsuitable feedstock for the manufacture of pellet fuels. These issues could be investigated at a moderate cost in order to determine whether to proceed with development efforts in this direction. In the longer term, one or two biomass-fired power plants in the size range of 5-10 MW could provide a stable and predictable market for the production and utilization of fuels derived from local Pinyon-Juniper biomass resources, and would provide valuable economic and environmental benefits to the region. Municipal utility ownership of such facilities could help to enhance the economic benefits of the investments by qualifying them for federal energy credits and tax-free financing

  6. Silvics and silviculture in the southwestern pinyon-juniper woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald J. Gottfried

    2004-01-01

    Southwestern pinyon-juniper and juniper woodlands cover large areas of the western United States. The woodlands have been viewed as places of beauty and sources of valuable resource products or as weed-dominated landscapes that hinder the production of forage for livestock. They are special places because of the emotions and controversies that encircle their management...

  7. Ecohydrological Linkages, Multi-scale Processes, Temporal Variability, and Drivers of Change in a Degraded Pinyon-Juniper Watershed: Implications for Erosion Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C. D.

    2006-12-01

    In 1993 long-term research began on the runoff and erosion dynamics of a pinyon-juniper woodland hillslope at Bandelier National Monument in northern New Mexico (USA). In the 1.09 ha Frijolito watershed, erosion has been continuously studied at 3 spatial scales: 1 square meter, about 1000 square meters, and the entire watershed. This site is currently representative of degraded woodlands of pinyon (Pinus edulis) and one-seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma) in this region, exhibiting marked connectivity of exposed bare soil interspaces between tree canopy patches and obvious geomorphic signs of accelerated soil erosion (e.g., pedestalling, actively expanding rill networks). Ecological and land use histories show that this site has undergone a number of dramatic ecohydrological shifts since ca. C.E. 1850, transitioning from: 1) open ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) overstory with limited pinyon-juniper component and substantial herbaceous understory that supported surface fires and constrained soil erosion, to; 2) ponderosa pine with reduced herbaceous cover due to livestock grazing after ca.1870, resulting in collapse of the surface fire regime and increased establishment of young pinyon and juniper trees, to; 3) mortality of all of the ponderosa pine during the extreme drought of the 1950s, leaving eroding pinyon-juniper woodland, to; 4) mortality of all mature pinyon at or above sapling size during the 2002-2003 drought, with juniper now the only dominant woody species. Detailed measurements since 1993 document high rates of soil erosion (> 2.75 Mg/ha/year on average at the watershed scale) that are rapidly stripping the local soils. Long-term observations are needed to distinguish short-term variability from longer term trends, as measurements of runoff and erosion show extreme variability at multiple time scales since 1993. The multi-scale erosion data from the Frijolito watershed reveal little dropoff in erosion rate (g/meter-squared) between the one meter

  8. Detection of soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands using Thematic Mapper (TM) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kevin P.

    1993-01-01

    Multispectral measurements collected by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) were correlated with field measurements, direct soil loss estimates, and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) estimates to determine the sensitivity of TM data to varying degrees of soil erosion in pinyon-juniper woodland in central Utah. TM data were also evaluated as a predictor of the USLE Crop Management C factor for pinyon-juniper woodlands. TM spectral data were consistently better predictors of soil erosion factors than any combination of field factors. TM data were more sensitive to vegetation variations than the USLE C factor. USLE estimates showed low annual rates of erosion which varied little among the study sites. Direct measurements of rate of soil loss using the SEDIMENT (Soil Erosion DIrect measureMENT) technique, indicated high and varying rates of soil loss among the sites since tree establishment. Erosion estimates from the USLE and SEDIMENT methods suggest that erosion rates have been severe in the past, but because significant amounts of soil have already been eroded, and the surface is now armored by rock debris, present erosion rates are lower. Indicators of accelerated erosion were still present on all sites, however, suggesting that the USLE underestimated erosion within the study area.

  9. Genetic analysis of interacting trophic levels in a stressed pinyon-juniper community: A model for examining community responses to a rapid and recent environmental changes. Final report, May 1, 1994--April 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keim, P.; Whithmam, T.; Cobb, N.; Gehring, C.

    1998-05-01

    The goals of this project were to examine the genetic component of a pinyon-juniper woodland that had recently experienced a dramatic environmental change. The environmental change was increased temperature and decreased water associated with the volcanic cinder field at Sunset Crater National Monument. In all of these experiments we have used adjacent soil sites as controls for the effects of the stressed locations. We have examined mycorrhizal colonization and diversity in order to understand this important component in community {open_quotes}adaptation{close_quotes} to climate change. We have examined genetic diversity in the pinyon pine populations to determine what level of genetic differentiation has occurred between stressed and nonstressed locations. In addition, we have recently expanded our environmental parameters to include elevated CO{sub 2} on mycorrhizal performance and diversity.

  10. Off-road transport of pinyon/juniper

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Klepac; B. Rummer

    2012-01-01

    A 8-wheel forwarder was observed while transporting pinyon pine (P. edulis) and Utah juniper (J. osteosperma) from woods to landing in southern Utah. The forwarder was part of a 2-machine system used to treat pinyon-juniper stands. Trees were felled using a rubber tracked skid steer with a shear head, then transported to a collection point with a Ponsse Buffalo King 20...

  11. Detection of soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands using Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kevin P.; Ridd, Merrill K.

    1991-01-01

    The sensitivity of Landsat TM data for detecting soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands, and the potential of the spectral data for assigning the universal soil loss equation (USLE) crop managemnent (C) factor to varying cover types within the woodlands are assessed. Results show greatly accelerated rates of soil erosion on pinyon-juniper sites. Percent cover by pinyon-juniper, total soil-loss, and total nonliving ground cover accounted for nearly 70 percent of the variability in TM channels 2, 3, 4, and 5. TM spectral data were consistently better predictors of soil erosion than the biotic and abiotic field variables. Satellite data were more sensitive to vegetation variation than the USLE C factor, and USLE was found to be a poor predictor of soil loss on pinyon-juniper sites. A new string-to-ground soil erosion prediction technique is introduced.

  12. Detection of soil erosion with Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data within Pinyon-Juniper woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kevin Paul

    1987-01-01

    Pinyon-Juniper woodlands dominate approximately 24.3 million hectares (60 million acres) in the western United States. The overall objective was to test the sensitivity of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) spectral data for detecting varying degrees of soil erosion within the Pinyon-Juniper woodlands. A second objective was to assess the potential of the spectral data for assigning the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) crop management (C) factor values to varying cover types within the woodland. Thematic Mapper digital data for June 2, 1984 on channels 2, 3, 4, and 5 were used. Digital data analysis was performed using the ELAS software package. Best results were achieved using CLUS, an unsupervised clustering algorithm. Fifteen of the 40 Pinyon-Juniper signatures were identified as being relatively pure Pinyon-Juniper woodland. Final analysis resulted in the grouping of the 15 signatures into three major groups. Ten study sites were selected from each of the three groups and located on the ground. At each site the following field measurements were taken: percent tree canopy and percent understory cover, soil texture, total soil loss, and soil erosion rate estimates. A technique for measuring soil erosion within Pinyon-Juniper woodlands was developed. A theoretical model of site degradation after Pinyon-Juniper invasion is presented.

  13. Modeling wind fields and fire propagation following bark beetle outbreaks in spatially-heterogeneous pinyon-juniper woodland fuel complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodman R. Linn; Carolyn H. Sieg; Chad M. Hoffman; Judith L. Winterkamp; Joel D. McMillin

    2013-01-01

    We used a physics-based model, HIGRAD/FIRETEC, to explore changes in within-stand wind behavior and fire propagation associated with three time periods in pinyon-juniper woodlands following a drought-induced bark beetle outbreak and subsequent tree mortality. Pinyon-juniper woodland fuel complexes are highly heterogeneous. Trees often are clumped, with sparse patches...

  14. Commercialization analysis for fuels from Pinyon-Juniper biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, G.P.

    1993-01-01

    Pinyon-Juniper (P-J) is a predominant forest type in the Southwestern US, and in many areas it is considered a hinderance to optimal land use management. There is only limited commercial demand for the traditional products that are produced from PJ biomass, like Christmas trees, fence poles, and firewood, and their production does not always promote overall land-management goals. This research effort, which is supported by the DOE through the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program, identifies commercially feasible energy markets to promote sustainable land clearing operations for alternative land uses of P-J woodlands in Eastern Nevada. All of the woodlands under consideration are federal lands managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, which is supportive of our concept. Three possible markets are available or could reasonably be developed to use fuels derived from PJ biomass in Nevada: (1) The existing market for biomass power-plant fuels in California. (2) The emerging market for fuels for residential pellet-burning stoves. (3) The development of a biomass-fired power plant in the Eastern Nevada Area. The study analyzes the cost of harvesting, processing, transporting, and delivering fuels derived from P-J biomass, and identifies commercialization strategies for bringing these fuels to market. The best opportunity for near term commercial conversion of P-J biomass to fuel lies in the area of entering the pellet-stove fuel market, establishing a 10,000 ton per year pelletizing facility in Lincoln County. Such a facility would have excellent access to markets in Las Vegas, Phoenix, Denver, and Salt Lake City

  15. A demonstration project to test ecological restoration of a pinyon-juniper ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Huffman; Michael T. Stoddard; Peter Z. Fule; W. Wallace Covington; H. B. Smith

    2008-01-01

    To test an approach for restoring historical stand densities and increasing plant species diversity of a pinyon-juniper ecosystem, we implemented a demonstration project at two sites (CR and GP) on the Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument in northern Arizona. Historical records indicated that livestock grazing was intensive on the sites beginning in the late 1800s...

  16. Growth and yield of southwest pinyon-juniper woodlands: Modeling growth and drought effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Shaw

    2008-01-01

    A complex of drought, insects, and disease caused widespread mortality in the pinyon-juniper forest types of the American Southwest in recent years. Most public and scientific attention has been given to the extent of drought-related mortality and causal factors. At the same time, there has been relatively little attention given to non-lethal drought effects. As part...

  17. Big sagebrush in pinyon-juniper woodlands: Using forest inventory and analysis data as a management tool for quantifying and monitoring mule deer habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Witt; Paul L. Patterson

    2011-01-01

    We used Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IW-FIA) data to identify conditions where pinyon-juniper woodlands provide security cover, thermal cover, and suitable amounts of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata spp.) forage to mule deer in Utah. Roughly one quarter of Utah's pinyon-juniper woodlands had a big sagebrush component in their understory....

  18. Encounters with Pinyon-Juniper influence riskier movements in Greater Sage-Grouse across the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazka, Brian; Coates, Peter S.; Ricca, Mark; Casazza, Michael L.; Gustafson, K. Ben; Hull, Josh M.

    2016-01-01

    Fine-scale spatiotemporal studies can better identify relationships between individual survival and habitat fragmentation so that mechanistic interpretations can be made at the population level. Recent advances in Global Positioning System (GPS) technology and statistical models capable of deconstructing high-frequency location data have facilitated interpretation of animal movement within a behaviorally mechanistic framework. Habitat fragmentation due to singleleaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla; hereafter pinyon) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma; hereafter juniper) encroachment into sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities is a commonly implicated perturbation that can adversely influence greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereafter sage-grouse) demographic rates. Using an extensive GPS data set (233 birds and 282,954 locations) across 12 study sites within the Great Basin, we conducted a behavioral change point analysis and subsequently constructed Brownian bridge movement models from each behaviorally homogenous section. We found a positive relationship between modeled movement rate and probability of encountering pinyon-juniper with significant variation among age classes. The probability of encountering pinyon-juniper among adults was two and three times greater than that of yearlings and juveniles, respectively. However, the movement rate in response to the probability of encountering pinyon-juniper trees was 1.5 times greater for juveniles. We then assessed the risk of mortality associated with an interaction between movement rate and the probability of encountering pinyon-juniper using shared frailty models. During pinyon-juniper encounters, on average, juvenile, yearling, and adult birds experienced a 10.4%, 0.2%, and 0.3% reduction in annual survival probabilities. Populations that used pinyon-juniper habitats with a frequency ≥ 3.8 times the overall mean experienced decreases in annual survival probabilities of 71.1%, 0.9%, and 0.9%. This

  19. Assessing mechanical mastication and thinning-piling-burning treatments on the pinyon-juniper woodlands of southwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald Gottfried; Steve Overby

    2011-01-01

    New knowledge of fire regimes in the pinyon-juniper woodlands of the interior western United States has altered management views. Once known as being at low wildfire risk, these woodlands are now at a higher risk for severe wildfires because of high tree densities exacerbated by ongoing drought and region-wide bark beetle (Ips confusus) infestation. To help reduce...

  20. Variation in ant populations with elevation, tree cover, and fire in a pinyon-juniper-dominated watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugenie M. MontBlanc; Jeanne C. Chambers; Peter E. Brussard

    2007-01-01

    Climate change and fire suppression have facilitated expansion of pinyon-juniper woodlands into sagebrush- steppe ecosystems of the Great Basin, USA, resulting in a loss of biological diversity. To assess the effects of using prescribed fire in restoration efforts, ant abundance, species richness, and composition were examined pre- and post-burn along the elevation and...

  1. Effects of a spring prescribed burn on the soil seed bank in sagebrush steppe exhibiting pinyon-juniper expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth A. Allen; Jeanne C. Chambers; Robert S. Nowak

    2008-01-01

    Pinyon-juniper (Pinus monophylla-Juniperus osteosperma) woodlands are expanding into shrubsteppe ecosystems in western portions of the Great Basin. Often, highly competitive trees displace the understory, and prescribed fire is increasingly used as a restoration tool. To inform management decisions about post-fire recovery, we...

  2. Drought-Related Mortality in Pinyon-Juniper Woodlands: A Test Case for the FIA Annual Inventory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Shaw

    2006-01-01

    Several years of drought in the Southwest United States are associated with widespread mortality in the pinyon-juniper forest type. A complex of drought, insects, and disease is responsible for pinyon mortality rates approaching 100 percent in some areas, while other areas have experienced little or no mortality. Implementation of the Forest Inventory and Analysis...

  3. Developing a Carbon Monitoring System For Pinyon-juniper Forests and Woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowski, M. J.; Hudak, A. T.; Fekety, P.; Filippelli, S.

    2017-12-01

    Pinyon-juniper (PJ) forests and woodlands are the third largest vegetation type in the United States. They cover over 40 million hectares across the western US, representing 40% of the total forest and woodland area in the Intermountain West. Although the density of carbon stored in these ecosystems is relatively low compared to other forest types, the vast area of short stature forests and woodlands (both nationally and globally) make them critical components of regional, national, and global carbon budgets. The overarching goal of this research is to prototype a carbon monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) system for characterizing total aboveground biomass stocks and flux across the PJ vegetation gradient in the western United States. We achieve this by combining in situ forest measurements and novel allometric equations with tree measurements derived from high resolution airborne imagery to map aboveground biomass across 500,000 km2 in the Western US. These high-resolution maps of aboveground biomass are then leveraged as training data to predict biomass flux through time from Landsat time-series data. The results from this research highlight the potential in mapping biomass stocks and flux in open forests and woodlands, and could be easily adopted into an MRV framework.

  4. Effects of thinning, burning, seeding, and slash arrangements on understory communities in pinyon-juniper woodlands of northern Arizona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Irwin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pinyon-juniper woodlands are a dominant ecosystem in the American Southwest that have been increasing in density over the last century, generating concerns about the effects on wildlife habitat, livestock forage, and wildfire risk. We tested 16 treatment combinations designed to restore stands to historic conditions by examining the impact on understory plant richness and abundance. We thinned three sites comprised of different parent soil materials: limestone, sandstone, and basalt. Each site had one of four slash arrangements: piled, broadcast, clustered, or no thinning. Each of these arrangements received a different burning/seeding treatment: prescribed fire, seeding, prescribed fire and seeding, or none. This study corresponded with the driest period in the last 55 years, and plant species richness decreased by an average of 40% from the previous year in the control plots. Richness was significantly different due to slash arrangement at the basalt site only. Burning or seeding did not affect richness at any of the sites. Plant species abundance was generally low and not influenced by treatment or site. This study demonstrates that extensive ecosystem manipulation in the pinyon-juniper woodlands of northern Arizona did not affect understory richness or abundance the first year after treatment during a drought.

  5. Effects of thinning, burning, seeding, and slash arrangements on understory communities in pinyon-juniper woodlands of northern Arizona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria R. Irwin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pinyon-juniper woodlands are a dominant ecosystem in the American Southwest that have been increasing in density over the last century, generating concerns about the effects on wildlife habitat, livestock forage, and wildfire risk. We tested 16 treatment combinations designed to restore stands to historic conditions by examining the impact on understory plant richness and abundance. We thinned three sites comprised of different parent soil materials: limestone, sandstone, and basalt. Each site had one of four slash arrangements: piled, broadcast, clustered, or no thinning. Each of these arrangements received a different burning/seeding treatment: prescribed fire, seeding, prescribed fire and seeding, or none. This study corresponded with the driest period in the last 55 years, and plant species richness decreased by an average of 40% from the previous year in the control plots. Richness was significantly different due to slash arrangement at the basalt site only. Burning or seeding did not affect richness at any of the sites. Plant species abundance was generally low and not influenced by treatment or site. This study demonstrates that extensive ecosystem manipulation in the pinyon-juniper woodlands of northern Arizona did not affect understory richness or abundance the first year after treatment during a drought.

  6. Evaluation of the WEPP hillslope model on stable and eroding semiarid woodlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, B.P.; Simanton, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate runoff and erosion prediction by the WEPP hillslope model for two pinyon-juniper sites in New Mexico: one has a low erosion rate (stable site) and the other (unstable site) is eroding at very rapid rates (as a result of landuse and climatic perturbations over the last century). Runoff and erosion measurements were made at plot and hillslope scales at both sites. WEPP was evaluated using both rainfall simulation and natural rainfall data. Rainfall simulation was performed on both vegetated and bare plots. Parameter values used were developed from rainfall simulation experiments and site characteristics. In general, runoff and erosion were underpredicted at both sites but to a much larger degree at the unstable site. On the unstable site predictions were much improved when we used hydraulic conductivity (Ke) derived from the bare plot rainfall simulation. Also of importance, at the unstable site we observed a large increase in erosion as scale increased from the plot to the hillslope as a result of a well developed channel network. These results are preliminary, in that only a few storms were evaluated, however, they do suggest some important strategies for predicting the impact of reduced vegetation cover to erosion in semiarid landscapes

  7. Microbial oxidation of lithospheric organic carbon in rapidly eroding tropical mountain soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Jordon D; Hilton, Robert G; Hovius, Niels; Eglinton, Timothy I; Haghipour, Negar; Wacker, Lukas; Chen, Meng-Chiang; Galy, Valier V

    2018-04-13

    Lithospheric organic carbon ("petrogenic"; OC petro ) is oxidized during exhumation and subsequent erosion of mountain ranges. This process is a considerable source of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) to the atmosphere over geologic time scales, but the mechanisms that govern oxidation rates in mountain landscapes are poorly constrained. We demonstrate that, on average, 67 ± 11% of the OC petro initially present in bedrock exhumed from the tropical, rapidly eroding Central Range of Taiwan is oxidized in soils, leading to CO 2 emissions of 6.1 to 18.6 metric tons of carbon per square kilometer per year. The molecular and isotopic evolution of bulk OC and lipid biomarkers during soil formation reveals that OC petro remineralization is microbially mediated. Rapid oxidation in mountain soils drives CO 2 emission fluxes that increase with erosion rate, thereby counteracting CO 2 drawdown by silicate weathering and biospheric OC burial. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  8. The evolution of stream coupled hillslopes by bedrock landsliding in a rapidly eroding mountain belt, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenske, Dirk; Jen, Chia-Hung; Böse, Margot; Lin, Jiun-Chuan

    2010-05-01

    Being affected frequently by violent weather condition such as typhoons and regular seismic activity, the high mountains of Taiwan belong to the earth's most dynamic landscapes. In the fast-eroding mountain belt of Taiwan, hillslopes and valley systems have been reported to show a high level of coupling (Hovius et al. 2000). In the catchment of the Tachia river numerous bedrock landslides occur frequently as a result of seismic events and typhoons (Lin et al. 2006). This study attempts to take a closer look at the temporal and spatial pattern of hillslope evolution at two study sites in the upper catchement of the Tachia river. Therefore we have carried out a repeated field surveying of active slopes by means of traditional survey instruments and terrestrial laser scanning from early 2008 until late 2009 on a half year basis. Additionally, a set of aerial photos and satellite images from 1969, 1980,2001, 2004, 2007, 2008 and 2009 is used to assess the long-term and short-term changes of the river channel. Near the town of Huan Shan, the valley bottom shows elevations around 1520 m above sea level and the river is draining and upstream area of 155 km². Downstream of Huan Shan lies the confluence of the Tachia River and two of its tributaries, namely the Nanhu River and the Hehuan River. Therefore, the catchment area upstream of second study area in Sung Mao is considerably larger being of 420 km², in that place, the current level of the channel varies around 1425 m above sea level. In the two study areas strong lateral erosion has been observed. In the case of the Sung Mao study area, the latter is linked to a severe aggradation of sediments in the channel since the building of the Dechi Dam downstream. The active hillslopes have been surveyed and their reaction to the typhoons in 2008 and 2009 is studied. Rates of sediment yield from the slopes have been calculated for three periods between April 2008, November 2008, April 2009 and November 2009. Furthermore, the

  9. Erodibility of cemented materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gass, BG

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of stabilised layers is cost effective in road construction in South Africa. Some stabilised materials have however been found to be susceptible to erosion. To identify erodible materials the Erosion Test was developed in 1989...

  10. TAP Report - Southwest Idaho Juniper Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gresham, Garold Linn [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    There is explicit need for characterization of the materials for possible commercialization as little characterization data exists. Pinyon-juniper woodlands are a major ecosystem type found in the Southwest and the Intermountain West regions of the United States including Nevada, Idaho and Oregon. These widespread ecosystems are characterized by the presence of several different species of pinyon and juniper as the dominant plant cover. Since the 1800s, pinyon-juniper woodlands have rapidly expanded their range at the expense of existing ecosystems. Additionally, existing woodlands have become denser, progressively creating potential fire hazards as seen in the Soda Fire, which burned more than 400 sq. miles. Land managers responsible for these areas often desire to reduce pinyon-juniper coverage on their lands for a variety of reasons, as stated in the Working Group objectives. However, the cost of clearing thinning pinyon-juniper stands can be prohibitive. One reason for this is the lack of utilization options for the resulting biomass that could help recover some of the cost of pinyon-juniper stand management. The goal of this TAP effort was to assess the feedstock characteristics of biomass from a juniper harvested from Owyhee County to evaluate possible fuel and conversion utilization options.

  11. Puerto Rico Soil Erodibility (Kffact)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Puerto Rico soil erodibility (Kffactor) - low values indicate low vulnerability to erosion, higher values mean higher susceptibility to runoff.

  12. Assessment of drought related mortality in pinyon-juniper and ponderosa pine forests using Forest Inventory and Analysis data

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Shaw

    2008-01-01

    (Please note, this is an abstract only) Widespread mortality in several forest types is associated with several years of drought in the Southwest. Implementation of USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) annual inventory in several states coincided with the onset of elevated mortality rates. Analysis of data collected 2000-2004 reveals the status and...

  13. Societal Forces That ERODE Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert; Kaufman, James C.

    2018-01-01

    Background/Context: Creativity is an indispensable force in intellectual, social, cultural, and economic development. Yet societal forces conspire to erode it. Educators have despaired for many years over how schools often fail to encourage creativity, but society as a whole is just as guilty. But how do schools and society fail to encourage, or…

  14. Experimental Study of Factors Affecting Soil Erodibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, G. A.; Bushueva, O. G.; Gorobets, A. V.; Dobrovolskaya, N. G.; Kiryukhina, Z. P.; Krasnov, S. F.; Litvin, L. F.; Maksimova, I. A.; Sudnitsyn, I. I.

    2018-03-01

    The effect of different factors and preparation conditions of monofraction samples from the arable horizon of leached chernozem on soil erodibility and its relationship with soil tensile strength (STS) has been studied. The exposure of samples at 38°C reduces their erodibility by two orders of magnitude. The drying of samples, on the contrary, increases their erodibility. It has been shown that erodibility decreases during the experiment. It has been found that the inoculation of soil with yeast cultures ( Naganishia albida, Lipomyces tetrasporus) reliably increases the STS value in 1.5-1.9 times. The sterile soil is eroded more intensively than the unsterile soil: at 4.9 and 0.3 g/(m2 s), respectively. The drying of soil followed by wetting to the initial water content (30%) has no significant effect on the STS value in almost all experimental treatments.

  15. Linking nutrient enrichment, sediment erodibility and biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, B.; Mahon, R.; Sojka, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Sediment movement in coastal lagoons affects nutrient flux and primary producer growth. Previous research has shown that sediment erodibility is affected by biofilm concentration and that growth of benthic organisms, which produce biofilm, is affected by nutrient enrichment. However, researchers have not examined possible links between nutrient addition and sediment erodibility. We manipulated nutrient levels in the water column of 16 microcosms filled with homogenized sediment from a shallow coastal lagoon and artificial seawater to determine the effects on biofilm growth, measured through chlorophyll a and colloidal carbohydrate concentrations. Erosion tests using a Gust microcosm were conducted to determine the relationship between sediment erodibility and biofilm concentration. Results show that carbohydrate levels decreased with increasing nutrient enrichment and were unrelated to chlorophyll concentrations and erodibility. The nutrient levels did not predictably affect the chlorophyll levels, with lower chlorophyll concentrations in the control and medium enrichment treatments than the low and high enrichment treatments. Controls on biofilm growth are still unclear and the assumed relationship between carbohydrates and erodibility may be invalid. Understanding how biofilms respond to nutrient enrichment and subsequent effects on sediment erodibility is essential for protecting and restoring shallow coastal systems.

  16. Historical and modern disturbance regimes, stand structures, and landscape dynamics in pinyon-juniper vegetation of the Western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. Romme; Craig D. Allen; John D. Bailey; William L. Baker; Brandon T. Bestelmeyer; Peter M. Brown; Karen S. Eisenhart; M. Lisa Floyd; David W. Huffman; Brian F. Jacobs; Richard F. Miller; Esteban H. Muldavin; Thomas W. Swetnam; Robin J. Tausch; Peter J. Weisberg

    2009-01-01

    Pinon-juniper is a major vegetation type in western North America. Effective management of these ecosystems has been hindered by inadequate understanding of 1) the variability in ecosystem structure and ecological processes that exists among the diverse combinations of Pinons, junipers, and associated shrubs, herbs, and soil organisms; 2) the prehistoric and historic...

  17. Dispersive and erodible soils - fundamental differences

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Dispersive, erodible and slaking soils are prevalent over wide areas of South Africa. Each of these materials increases the cost of construction, but dispersive soils are likely to lead to far more serious problems, particularly in dam construction...

  18. Morphodynamic modeling of erodible laminar channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devauchelle, Olivier; Josserand, Christophe; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves; Zaleski, Stéphane

    2007-11-01

    A two-dimensional model for the erosion generated by viscous free-surface flows, based on the shallow-water equations and the lubrication approximation, is presented. It has a family of self-similar solutions for straight erodible channels, with an aspect ratio that increases in time. It is also shown, through a simplified stability analysis, that a laminar river can generate various bar instabilities very similar to those observed in natural rivers. This theoretical similarity reflects the meandering and braiding tendencies of laminar rivers indicated by F. Métivier and P. Meunier [J. Hydrol. 27, 22 (2003)]. Finally, we propose a simple scenario for the transition between patterns observed in experimental erodible channels.

  19. Soil erodibility for water erosion: A perspective and Chinese experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Zheng, Fenli; Römkens, Mathias J. M.; Darboux, Frédéric

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of soil erodibility is an essential requirement for erosion prediction, conservation planning, and the assessment of sediment related environmental effects of watershed agricultural practices. This paper reviews the status of soil erodibility evaluations and determinations based on 80 years of upland area erosion research mainly in China and the USA. The review synthesizes the general research progress made by discussing the basic concepts of erodibility and its evaluation, determination, and prediction as well as knowledge of its spatio-temporal variations. The authors found that soil erodibility is often inappropriately or inaccurately applied in describing soil loss caused by different soil erosion component processes and mechanisms. Soil erodibility indicators were related to intrinsic soil properties and exogenic erosional forces, measurements, and calculations. The present review describes major needs including: (1) improved definition of erodibility, (2) modified erodibility determinations in erosion models, especially for specific geographical locations and in the context of different erosion sub-processes, (3) advanced methodologies for quantifying erodibilities of different soil erosion sub-processes, and (4) a better understanding of the mechanism that causes temporal variations in soil erodibility. The review also provides a more rational basis for future research on soil erodibility and supports predictive modeling of soil erosion processes and the development of improved conservation practices.

  20. Quality Uncertainty Erodes Trust in Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simine Vazire

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available When consumers of science (readers and reviewers lack relevant details about the study design, data, and analyses, they cannot adequately evaluate the strength of a scientific study. Lack of transparency is common in science, and is encouraged by journals that place more emphasis on the aesthetic appeal of a manuscript than the robustness of its scientific claims. In doing this, journals are implicitly encouraging authors to do whatever it takes to obtain eye-catching results. To achieve this, researchers can use common research practices that beautify results at the expense of the robustness of those results (e.g., p-hacking. The problem is not engaging in these practices, but failing to disclose them. A car whose carburetor is duct-taped to the rest of the car might work perfectly fine, but the buyer has a right to know about the duct-taping. Without high levels of transparency in scientific publications, consumers of scientific manuscripts are in a similar position as buyers of used cars – they cannot reliably tell the difference between lemons and high quality findings. This phenomenon – quality uncertainty – has been shown to erode trust in economic markets, such as the used car market. The same problem threatens to erode trust in science. The solution is to increase transparency and give consumers of scientific research the information they need to accurately evaluate research. Transparency would also encourage researchers to be more careful in how they conduct their studies and write up their results. To make this happen, we must tie journals’ reputations to their practices regarding transparency. Reviewers hold a great deal of power to make this happen, by demanding the transparency needed to rigorously evaluate scientific manuscripts. The public expects transparency from science, and appropriately so – we should be held to a higher standard than used car salespeople.

  1. Eroded Layered Material in Southwest Utopia Planitia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Images from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC)dramatically illustrate that many places on the red planet have outcrops of layered geologic materials. The two pictures above show the remains of layered material inside craters in southwestern Utopia Planitia (see inset for detailed view). These remnant layers indicate that the craters--and perhaps the plains that surround them--were once buried beneath a deposit that has since been eroded away. This theme of layered outcrops and exhumed craters appears to be one of the dominant observations that MGS MOC has made--to date--about Mars. The origin and composition of the layered material--and its ultimate fate once it was largely eroded away--are unknown. Each of the two pictures shown here covers an area about 4 kilometers (2.5 miles)by 6.3 kilometers (3.9 miles). Illumination is from the lower right. These are subframes of a single MOC image acquired in July 1998 during the MGS Science Phasing Orbits imaging campaign. This figure was presented at the 30th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in Houston, Texas, March 1999. Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  2. U.S.V.I. Soil Erodibility (Kffact)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — U.S.V.I. soil erodibility (Kffactor) - low values indicate low vulnerability to erosion, higher values mean higher susceptibility to runoff.

  3. Soil erodibility variability in laboratory and field rainfall simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Boglárka; Szabó, Judit; Jakab, Gergely; Centeri, Csaba; Szalai, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    Rainfall simulation experiments are the most common way to observe and to model the soil erosion processes in in situ and ex situ circumstances. During modelling soil erosion, one of the most important factors are the annual soil loss and the soil erodibility which represent the effect of soil properties on soil loss and the soil resistance against water erosion. The amount of runoff and soil loss can differ in case of the same soil type, while it's characteristics determine the soil erodibility factor. This leads to uncertainties regarding soil erodibility. Soil loss and soil erodibility were examined with the investigation of the same soil under laboratory and field conditions with rainfall simulators. The comparative measurement was carried out in a laboratory on 0,5 m2, and in the field (Shower Power-02) on 6 m2 plot size where the applied slope angles were 5% and 12% with 30 and 90 mm/h rainfall intensity. The main idea was to examine and compare the soil erodibility and its variability coming from the same soil, but different rainfall simulator type. The applied model was the USLE, nomograph and other equations which concern single rainfall events. The given results show differences between the field and laboratory experiments and between the different calculations. Concerning for the whole rainfall events runoff and soil loss, were significantly higher at the laboratory experiments, which affected the soil erodibility values too. The given differences can originate from the plot size. The main research questions are that: How should we handle the soil erodibility factors and its significant variability? What is the best solution for soil erodibility determination?

  4. Robotic removal of eroded vaginal mesh into the bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Francisco Igor B; O'Connor, Jeffrey; Mittal, Vijay K; Hurley, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Vaginal mesh erosion into the bladder after midurethral sling procedure or cystocele repair is uncommon, with only a few cases having been reported in the literature. The ideal surgical management is still controversial. Current options for removal of eroded mesh include: endoscopic, transvaginal or abdominal (either open or laparoscopic) approaches. We, herein, present the first case of robotic removal of a large eroded vaginal mesh into the bladder and discuss potential benefits and limitations of the technique. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  5. sessment of ground water contamination in Erode District, Tamilnadu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A systematic study has been carried out to assess the water contamination and the effect of the tanneries and dyeing industries effluents on Erode District, Tamil Nadu. Ten (10) sampling locations were selected in and around industries. The water samples were collected from the selected sampling points. The samples ...

  6. Assessment of ground water contamination in Erode District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    A systematic study has been carried out to assess the water contamination and the effect of the tanneries and dyeing industries effluents on Erode District, Tamil Nadu. Ten (10) sampling locations were selected in and around industries. The water samples were collected from the selected sampling points. The samples ...

  7. Interrill and rill erodibility in the northern andean highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, C.; Stroosnijder, L.; Baigorria, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    There is a lack of quantitative information describing the physical processes causing soil erosion in the Andean Highlands, especially those related to interrill and rill erodibility factors. To assess how susceptible are soils to erosion in this region, field measurements of interrill (Ki) and rill

  8. Seasonal change of WEPP erodibility parameters on a fallow plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. K. McCool; S. Dun; J. Q. Wu; W. J. Elliot

    2011-01-01

    In cold regions, frozen soil has a significant influence on runoff and water erosion. Frozen soil can reduce infiltration capacity, and the freeze-thaw processes degrade soil cohesive strength and increase soil erodibility. In the Inland Pacific Northwest of the USA, major erosion events typically occur during winter from low-intensity rain, snowmelt, or both as frozen...

  9. Advancing Understanding of Earthquakes by Drilling an Eroding Convergent Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Huene, R.; Vannucchi, P.; Ranero, C. R.

    2010-12-01

    A program of IODP with great societal relevance is sampling and instrumenting the seismogenic zone. The zone generates great earthquakes that trigger tsunamis, and submarine slides thereby endangering coastal communities containing over sixty percent of the earth’s population. To asses and mitigate this endangerment it is urgent to advance understanding of fault dynamics that allows more timely anticipation of hazardous seismicity. Seismogenesis on accreting and eroding convergent plate boundaries apparently differ because of dissimilar materials along the interplate fault. As the history of instrumentally recorded earthquakes expands the difference becomes clearer. The more homogeneous clay, silt and sand subducted at accreting margins is associated with great earthquakes (M 9) whereas the fragmented upper plate rock that can dominate subducted material along an eroding margin plate interface is associated with many tsunamigenic earthquakes (Bilek, 2010). Few areas have been identified where the seismogenic zone can be reached with scientific drilling. In IODP accreting margins are studied on the NanTroSeize drill transect off Japan where the ultimate drilling of the seismogenic interface may occur by the end of IODP. The eroding Costa Rica margin will be studied in CRISP where a drill program will begin in 2011. The Costa Rican geophysical site survey will be complete with acquisition and processing of 3D seismic data in 2011 but the entire drilling will not be accomplished in IODP. It is appropriate that the accreting margin study be accomplished soon considering the indications of a pending great earthquake that will affect a country that has devoted enormous resources to IODP. However, understanding the erosional end-member is scientifically as important to an understanding of fault mechanics. Transoceanic tsunamis affect the entire Pacific rim where most subduction zones are eroding margins. The Costa Rican subduction zone is less complex operationally and

  10. Bonding stability of adhesive systems to eroded dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Barros CRUZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study evaluated the immediate and 6 months microshear bond strength (µSBS of different adhesive systems to sound and eroded dentin. Sixty bovine incisors were embedded in acrylic resin and ground to obtain flat buccal dentin surfaces. Specimens were randomly allocated into two groups: sound dentin (immersion in artificial saliva and eroded dentin (erosive challenge following a pH cycling model comprising 4 ×/day Sprite Light® drink for 10 days. Then, specimens were reassigned according to the adhesive system: etch-and-rinse adhesive (Adper Single Bond, two-step self-etch system (Clearfil SE Bond, or one-step self-etch adhesive (Adper Easy One. Polyethylene tubes with an internal diameter of 0.76 mm were placed over pre-treated dentin and filled with resin composite (Z250. Half of the specimens were evaluated by the µSBS test after 24 h, and the other half 6 months later, after water storage at 37°C. Failure mode was evaluated using a stereomicroscope (400×. Data were analyzed by three-way repeated measures analysis of variance and Tukey’s post hoc tests (α = 0.05. After 6 months of water aging, marked reductions in µSBS values were observed, irrespective of the substrate. The µSBS values for eroded dentin were lower than those obtained for sound dentin. No difference in bonding effectiveness was observed among adhesive systems. For all groups, adhesive/mixed failure was observed. In conclusion, eroded dentin compromises the bonding quality of adhesive systems over time.

  11. Salt Efflorescence Effects on Soil Surface Erodibility and Dust Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Pelt, R. S.; Zhang, G.

    2017-12-01

    Soluble salts resulting from weathering of geological materials often form surface crusts or efflorescences in areas with shallow saline groundwater. In many cases, the affected areas are susceptible to wind erosion due to their lack of protective vegetation and their flat topography. Fugitive dusts containing soluble salts affect the biogeochemistry of deposition regions and may result in respiratory irritation during transport. We created efflorescent crusts on soil trays by surface evaporation of single salt solutions and bombarded the resultant efflorescences with quartz abrader sand in a laboratory wind tunnel. Four replicate trays containing a Torrifluvent soil affected by one of nine salts commonly found in arid and semiarid streams were tested and the emissions were captured by an aspirated multi-stage deposition and filtering system. We found that in most cases the efflorescent crust reduced the soil surface erodibility but also resulted in the emission of salt rich dust. Two of the salts, sodium thiosulfate and calcium chloride, resulted in increased soil volume and erodibility. However, one of the calcium chloride replicates was tested after an outbreak of humid air caused hygroscopic wetting of the soil and it became indurated upon drying greatly decreasing the erodibility. Although saline affected soils are not used for agricultural production and degradation is not a great concern, the release of salt rich dust is an area of environmental concern and steps to control the dust emissions from affected soils should be developed. Future testing will utilize suites of salts found in streams of arid and semiarid regions.

  12. Biorock Electric Reefs Grow Back Severely Eroded Beaches in Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. F. Goreau

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Severely eroded beaches on low lying islands in Indonesia were grown back in a few months—believed to be a record—using an innovative method of shore protection, Biorock electric reef technology. Biorock shore protection reefs are growing limestone structures that get stronger with age and repair themselves, are cheaper than concrete or rock sea walls and breakwaters, and are much more effective at shore protection and beach growth. Biorock reefs are permeable, porous, growing, self-repairing structures of any size or shape, which dissipate wave energy by internal refraction, diffraction, and frictional dissipation. They do not cause reflection of waves like hard sea walls and breakwaters, which erodes the sand in front of, and then underneath, such structures, until they collapse. Biorock reefs stimulate settlement, growth, survival, and resistance to the environmental stress of all forms of marine life, restoring coral reefs, sea grasses, biological sand production, and fisheries habitat. Biorock reefs can grow back eroded beaches and islands faster than the rate of sea level rise, and are the most cost-effective method of shore protection and adaptation to global sea level rise for low lying islands and coasts.

  13. 7 CFR 12.20 - NRCS responsibilities regarding highly erodible land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... WETLAND CONSERVATION Highly Erodible Land Conservation § 12.20 NRCS responsibilities regarding highly... public lists of highly erodible soil map units; (c) Make soil surveys for purposes of identifying highly erodible land; and (d) Provide technical guidance to conservation districts which approve conservation...

  14. Wind erodibility of soils from North Darfur State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medani, G. H.; Mustafa, M. A.

    2003-01-01

    Wind erodibility of soils (WE) is a prime factor for the prediction, assessment and mapping of wind erosion. Hence, this study was undertaken to generate WE data and pertinent relationships for North Darfur State. Surface soil samples (0-3 cm) were collected from forty farms scattered all over the state. Non-erodible soil particles (NEP) (>0.84 mm in diameter), WE and various relevant physical and chemical soil properties were determined. Regression analysis showed that NEP significantly (p 2 =0.825), clay (r 2 =0.754), silt (r 2 =0.737) and clay/ (silt + sand) ratio (r 2 =0.663), and decreased with increase in sand (r 2 =0.761), (silt+sand) / clay ratio (r 2 =0.766) and (silt+sand) / (clay+organic matter) ratio (r 2 =0.811). The four basic soil properties and their ratios gave the reverse effects on WE with slightly lower coefficients of determinations. Although organic matter is a slightly better predictor of both NEP and WE than (Si+S)/ (C+OM) ratio, the latter is preferred because it integrates in addition to OM resilient soil properties. A multiple regression equation with a relatively high coefficient of determination (R 2 =0.830) may also be used for predicting NEP from knowledge of the four prime soil properties. These properties accounted for only 62% of the variation of WE, thus it is not recommended for prediction purposes. The determined wind erodibility groups correlated very well with those established else where.(Author)

  15. Dynamic replacement and loss of soil carbon on eroding cropland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, J.W.; Sharpe, J.M.; Parton, W.J.; Ojima, D.S.; Fries, T.L.; Huntington, T.G.; Dabney, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    Links between erosion/sedimentation history and soil carbon cycling were examined in a highly erosive setting in Mississippi loess soils. We sampled soils on (relatively) undisturbed and cropped hillslopes and measured C, N, 14C, and CO2 flux to characterize carbon storage and dynamics and to parameterize Century and spreadsheet 14C models for different erosion and tillage histories. For this site, where 100 years of intensive cotton cropping were followed by fertilization and contour plowing, there was an initial and dramatic decline in soil carbon content from 1870 to 1950, followed by a dramatic increase in soil carbon. Soil erosion amplifies C loss and recovery: About 100% of the original, prehistoric soil carbon was likely lost over 127 years of intensive land use, but about 30% of that carbon was replaced after 1950. The eroded cropland was therefore a local sink for CO2 since the 1950s. However, a net CO2 sink requires a full accounting of eroded carbon, which in turn requires that decomposition rates in lower slopes or wetlands be reduced to about 20% of the upland value. As a result, erosion may induce unaccounted sinks or sources of CO2, depending on the fate of eroded carbon and its protection from decomposition. For erosion rates typical of the United States, the sink terms may be large enough (1 Gt yr-1, back-of-the-envelope) to warrant a careful accounting of site management, cropping, and fertilization histories, as well as burial rates, for a more meaningful global assessment.

  16. A statistical model for horizontal mass flux of erodible soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babiker, A.G.A.G.; Eltayeb, I.A.; Hassan, M.H.A.

    1986-11-01

    It is shown that the mass flux of erodible soil transported horizontally by a statistically distributed wind flow has a statistical distribution. Explicit expression for the probability density function, p.d.f., of the flux is derived for the case in which the wind speed has a Weibull distribution. The statistical distribution for a mass flux characterized by a generalized Bagnold formula is found to be Weibull for the case of zero threshold speed. Analytic and numerical values for the average horizontal mass flux of soil are obtained for various values of wind parameters, by evaluating the first moment of the flux density function. (author)

  17. Impact of land use change on soil erodibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Taleshian Jeloudar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability of soil separates to detachment by water is described as soil erodibility by Universal Soil Loss Equation which can be affected by land use change. In this study it was attempted to quantify the changes of Universal Soil Loss Equation K-factor and its soil driving factors in three land uses including rangeland, rainfed farming, and orchards in Babolrood watershed, northern Iran. Soil composite samples were obtained from two layers in three land uses, and the related soil physico-chemical properties were measured. The rainfed farming land use showed the highest clay contents, but the highest amounts of soil organic matter and sand particles were found in orchard land use. The high intensity of tillage led to the significant decrease of soil aggregate stability and permeability in the rainfed farming land use. The Universal Soil Loss Equation K-factor was negatively correlated with soil permeability (r=-0.77**. In rangeland, the K-factor (0.045 Mg h/MJ/mm was significantly higher and the particle size distribution had a great impact on the K-factor. The orchard land use, converted from the rangeland, did not show any increase of soils erodibility and can potentially be introduced as a good alternative land use in sloping areas. However, more detailed studies on environmental, social and economic aspects of this land use are needed.

  18. Effects of organic and inorganic amendments on soil erodibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutullah Özdemir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation is to find out the effect of incorporating of various organic and inorganic matter sources such as lime (L, zeolit (Z, polyacrylamide (PAM and biosolid (BS on the instability index. A bulk surface (0–20 cm depth soil sample was taken from Samsun, in northern part of Turkey. Some soil properties were determined as follows; fine in texture, modarete in organic matter content, low in pH and free of alkaline problem. The soil samples were treated with the inorganic and organic materials at four different levels including the control treatments in a randomized factorial block design. The soil samples were incubated for ten weeks. After the incubation period, corn was grown in all pots. The results can be summarized as organic and inorganic matter treatments increased structure stability and decreased soil erodibility. Effectiveness of the treatments varied depending on the types and levels of organic and inorganic materials.

  19. How Welfare Regimes Generate and Erode Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2007-01-01

    in the USA and other liberal welfare regimes, while social capital is stable in the so-called social democratic and conservative welfare regimes. The second puzzle is why the group of social democratic regimes have extremely high levels of social trust. It is argued that both puzzles have to do......Comparative studies of social capital, operationalised as social trust between citizens, have revealed two major puzzles. The first puzzle has to do with the decline in social trust in the USA, which fuelled considerable debate about social capital. The question is why social capital erodes...... with the presence or absence of a poor and culturally distinct underclass. The social democratic welfare regimes hinder – while the liberal welfare regime generate – such underclass phenomena....

  20. Eroding market stability by proliferation of financial instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccioli, F.; Marsili, M.; Vivo, P.

    2009-10-01

    We contrast Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT), the theoretical basis for the development of financial instruments, with a dynamical picture of an interacting market, in a simple setting. The proliferation of financial instruments apparently provides more means for risk diversification, making the market more efficient and complete. In the simple market of interacting traders discussed here, the proliferation of financial instruments erodes systemic stability and it drives the market to a critical state characterized by large susceptibility, strong fluctuations and enhanced correlations among risks. This suggests that the hypothesis of APT may not be compatible with a stable market dynamics. In this perspective, market stability acquires the properties of a common good, which suggests that appropriate measures should be introduced in derivative markets, to preserve stability. in here

  1. Analysis of eroded bovine teeth through laser speckle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshoji, Nelson H.; Bussadori, Sandra K.; Bortoletto, Carolina C.; Oliveira, Marcelo T.; Prates, Renato A.; Deana, Alessandro M.

    2015-02-01

    Dental erosion is a non-carious lesion that causes progressive tooth wear of structure through chemical processes that do not involve bacterial action. Its origin is related to eating habits or systemic diseases involving tooth contact with substances that pose a very low pH. This work demonstrates a new methodology to quantify the erosion by coherent light scattering of tooth surface. This technique shows a correlation between acid etch duration and laser speckle contrast map (LASCA). The experimental groups presented a relative contrast between eroded and sound tissue of 17.8(45)%, 23.4 (68)% 39.2 (40)% and 44.3 (30)%, for 10 min, 20 min, 30 min and 40 min of acid etching, respectively.

  2. The abrasive effect of commercial whitening toothpastes on eroded enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquim, Victor; Martines Souza, Beatriz; Foratori Junior, Gerson Aparecido; Wang, Linda; Magalhães, Ana Carolina

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the in vitro abrasive effect of commercial whitening toothpastes on eroded bovine enamel samples in respect to erosive tooth wear. 72 bovine crowns were embedded, polished and subjected to the baseline profile analysis. The samples were then protected in 2/3 of the enamel surface and were randomly assigned to six groups (n= 12/group): G1: Oral-B 3D White, G2: Close-up Diamond Attraction Power White, G3: Sorriso Xtreme White 4D, G4: Colgate Luminous White, G5: Crest (conventional toothpaste), G6:erosion only (control). All samples were submitted to an erosive pH cycling (4 x 90 seconds in 0.1% citric acid, pH 2.5, per day) and abrasive challenges (2 x 15 seconds, per day) for 7 days. After the first and the last daily cycles, the samples were subjected to abrasive challenges, using a toothbrushing machine, soft toothbrushes and slurry of the tested toothpastes (1.5 N). Between the challenges, the samples were immersed in artificial saliva. The final profile was obtained and overlaid to the baseline profile for the calculation of the erosive tooth wear (μm). The data were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn tests (Penamel wear (3.68±1.06 μm), similarly to G3 (3.17± 0.80 μm) and G4 (3.44± 1.29 μm). G3 and G4 performed similarly between them and compared with G5 (2.35± 1.44 μm). G2 (1.51± 0.95 μm) and G6 (0.85± 0.36 μm) showed the lowest enamel wear, which did not differ between them and from G5. Oral-B 3D White showed the highest abrasive potential while Close-up Diamond Attraction Power White showed the lowest abrasive potential on eroded enamel in vitro. This study showed that some commercial whitening toothpastes, especially those containing pyrophosphate associated with hydrated silica, enhanced enamel erosive wear.

  3. Differential effects of biochar on soils within an eroded field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Thomas; Chintala, Rajesh; Sandhu, Saroop; Kumar, Sandeep; Clay, Dave; Gelderman, Ron; Papiernik, Sharon; Malo, Douglas; Clay, Sharon; Julson, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Future uses of biochar will in part be dependent not only on the effects of biochar on soil processes but also on the availability and economics of biochar production. If pyrolysis for production of bio-oil and syngas becomes wide-spread, biochar as a by-product of bio-oil production will be widely available and relatively inexpensive compared to the production of biochar as primary product. Biochar produced as a by-product of optimized bio-oil production using regionally available feedstocks was examined for properties and for use as an amendment targeted to contrasting soils within an eroded field in an on-farm study initiated in 2013 at Brookings, South Dakota, USA. Three plant based biochar materials produced from carbon optimized gasification of corn stover (Zea mays L.), Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson and C. Lawson) wood residue, and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) were applied at a 1% (w/w) rate to a Maddock soil (Sandy, Mixed, Frigid Entic Hapludolls) located in an eroded upper landscape position and a Brookings soil (Fine-Silty, Mixed, Superactive, Frigid Pachic Hapludolls) located in a depositional landscape position. The cropping system within this agricultural landscape was a corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) rotation. Biochar physical and chemical properties for each of the feedstocks were determined including pH, surface area, surface charge potential, C-distribution, ash content, macro and micro nutrient composition. Yields, nutrient content, and carbon isotope ratio measurements were made on the harvested seed. Soil physical properties measured included water retention, bulk density, and water infiltration from a ponded double ring infiltrometer. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effects of biochar on partitioning of nitrate and phosphorus at soil surface exchange complex and the extracellular enzymes activity of C and N cycles. Crop yields were increased only in the Maddock soil. Biochar interacted with each

  4. Surgical excision of eroded mesh after prior abdominal sacrocolpopexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Mary M T; Foster, Raymond T; Webster, George D; Weidner, Alison C; Amundsen, Cindy L

    2007-12-01

    months. Seven patients ultimately required abdominal excision and all had symptom resolution, however, not without complications. Two patients had bowel injury during lysis of adhesions requiring bowel resection in 1 case and repair in another, 1 had a postoperative wound infection with breakdown, 1 was readmitted for postoperative fever requiring antibiotics, and 1 had an acute coronary syndrome requiring transfer to the cardiology service. Transvaginal excision of mesh with or without endoscopy appears to be a safe and less invasive method for excision of eroded vaginal mesh after prior abdominal sacrocolpopexy. Up to 3 vaginal excision attempts may be necessary to achieve symptom resolution, and complete removal of mesh will likely improve outcomes with the transvaginal technique. Although abdominal excision can be considered the gold standard for excision of eroded mesh, it is not without potentially increased morbidity.

  5. EROD induction by environmental contaminants in avian embryo livers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunstroem, B.; Halldin, K. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Norbyvaegen 18A SE-752 36, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1998-11-01

    The CYP1A (EROD)-inducing potencies of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 3,3minutes or feet,4,4minutes or feet,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) and benzo(k)fluoranthene (B(k)F) were studied in avian embryo livers. TCDD and PCB126 proved to be much more potent as inducers in the chicken than in the other species examined. This finding is consistent with a considerably higher sensitivity of the chicken compared with a number of other avian species to the embryotoxic effects of these compounds. Furthermore, the relative potencies of the tested Ah receptor agonists as CYP1A inducers differed substantially between species. B(k)F and PCB126 showed similar induction potencies in domestic duck embryos, whereas PCB126 is much more potent than B(k)F in the chicken. Also, the potency of PCB126,relative to that of TCDD, was much lower in quail embryo liver in vitro than in chicken embryo liver. Thus, there are large interspecific differences in birds in the sensitivity to CYP1A inducers and furthermore, the relative potencies of these compounds may differ substantially between species. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. EROD induction by environmental contaminants in avian embryo livers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunstroem, B.; Halldin, K.

    1998-01-01

    The CYP1A (EROD)-inducing potencies of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 3,3minutes or feet,4,4minutes or feet,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) and benzo(k)fluoranthene (B(k)F) were studied in avian embryo livers. TCDD and PCB126 proved to be much more potent as inducers in the chicken than in the other species examined. This finding is consistent with a considerably higher sensitivity of the chicken compared with a number of other avian species to the embryotoxic effects of these compounds. Furthermore, the relative potencies of the tested Ah receptor agonists as CYP1A inducers differed substantially between species. B(k)F and PCB126 showed similar induction potencies in domestic duck embryos, whereas PCB126 is much more potent than B(k)F in the chicken. Also, the potency of PCB126, relative to that of TCDD, was much lower in quail embryo liver in vitro than in chicken embryo liver. Thus, there are large interspecific differences in birds in the sensitivity to CYP1A inducers and furthermore, the relative potencies of these compounds may differ substantially between species. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  7. Eroding students' rural motivation: first do no harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Samia

    2014-01-01

    Migration of health professionals is one of the drivers of vast inequalities in access to healthcare, as medical graduates tend to move away from both poorer countries and rural areas. One of the central ethical problems raised in attempting to alleviate these inequalities is the tension between the healthcare needs of under-served patients and the rights of medical graduates to choose their place of work and specialty. If medical graduates had greater motivation to work in under-served rural areas, this tension would decrease accordingly. Medical schools have a duty to avoid eroding existing motivation for such training and practice. This duty has practical implications. Medical students' motivation regarding their choice of specialty changes during medical training, turning them away from choices such as primary care and rural practice towards more highly specialised, more hospital based specialties. Although students may be victims of a number of biases in the initial assessment, this is unlikely to be the whole story. Students' priorities are likely to change based on their admiration for specialist role models and the visibility of the financial and non-financial rewards attached to these specialties. Students may also have a false expectation upon admission that they will be proficient in rural medicine on graduation, and change their mind once they realise the limits of their skills in that area. Although the measures required to reverse this effect currently lack a solid evidence base, they are plausible and supported by the available data.

  8. Cranium eroding sweat gland carcinoma. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, M.; Karadeniz, A. N.; Aksu, G.; Guveli, M.

    2005-01-01

    Background. Sweat gland carcinomas are rare tumors. Eccrine sweat gland carcinomas are also very rare, with only about 200 cases reported in the world literature and only one of them was eroding the cranium. Treatment modalities of these carcinomas are not well known. Case report. Our patient was 47 years old female. Since 1989, she was operated on six times because of the tumour relapses. After each operation, the pathological results were: sweat gland adenoma, sweat gland tumour, cylindroma, turban tumour, malign cylindiroma. That was her seventh relapse. On examination, a lesion of the size 10 x 6 cm was observed in the left parietal region. Computed tomography showed the lesion had the size of 11 x 5 cm, and was destroying the tabula externa, diploic region and tabula. The tumour was invading the dura and causing periost reaction. Surgery and postoperative radiotherapy treatment was planned because of malign transformation and risk of recurrence. Conclusions. Only one case with cranium erosion was reported in literature. In our case, also intracranial extension of the tumor was observed. (author)

  9. Correlation of erosion and erodibility assessments using caesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, G.L.; Campbell, B.L.; Loughran, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Data are presented which show that in soils in which net erosion is occurring, the content of the environmental isotope caesium-137 is highly correlated with soil loss. Other soil characteristics which may be related to the caesium content and therefore to soil loss have also been examined. Of these factors, an improved index of soil aggregate stability explained the most variation in caesium content (52%). Soil organic matter content explained 27% of variation in caesium content and other soil erodibility indices based on quantitative measurement of aggregate stability, explained between 6% and 21% of the variation. Indices based on implied hydrologic characteristics, implied aggregation and clay dispersion explained between 1% and 3% of caesium variation. It is suggested that practical factors of soil protection are relevant to the prediction of erosion hazard and may be more relevant than some indices of soil resistance. It is noted further that caesium-137 content of a soil gives every indication of being a most suitable predictor of soil erosion status

  10. Value-Eroding Teacher Behaviors Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arseven, Zeynep; Kiliç, Abdurrahman; Sahin, Seyma

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, it is aimed to develop a valid and reliable scale for determining value-eroding behaviors of teachers, hence their values of judgment. The items of the "Value-eroding Teacher Behaviors Scale" were designed in the form of 5-point likert type rating scale. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to…

  11. 75 FR 75961 - Notice of Implementation of the Wind Erosion Prediction System for Soil Erodibility System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... implementation of the WEPS system does not affect the Highly Erodible Map Unit List contained in the NRCS Field Office Technical Guide as of January 1, 1990. This 1990 list will continue to be used for all erodibility... plant damage, and predict PM-10 emissions when wind speeds exceed the erosion threshold. The WEPS model...

  12. Soil erodibility mapping using three approaches in the Tangiers province –Northern Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Iaaich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil erodibility is a key factor in assessing soil loss rates. In fact, soil loss is the most occurring land degradation form in Morocco, affecting rural and urban vulnerable areas. This work deals with large scale mapping of soil erodibility using three mapping approaches: (i the CORINE approach developed for Europe by the JRC; (ii the UNEP/FAO approach developed within the frame of the United Nations Environmental Program for the Mediterranean area; (iii the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE K factor. Our study zone is the province of Tangiers, North-West of Morocco. For each approach, we mapped and analyzed different erodibility factors in terms of parent material, topography and soil attributes. The thematic maps were then integrated using a Geographic Information System to elaborate a soil erodibility map for each of the three approaches. Finally, the validity of each approach was checked in the field, focusing on highly eroded areas, by confronting the estimated soil erodibility and the erosion state as observed in the field. We used three statistical indicators for validation: overall accuracy, weighted Kappa factor and omission/commission errors. We found that the UNEP/FAO approach, based principally on lithofacies and topography as mapping inputs, is the most adapted for the case of our study zone, followed by the CORINE approach. The USLE K factor underestimated the soil erodibility, especially for highly eroded areas.

  13. 7 CFR 12.21 - Identification of highly erodible lands criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE): (i) Rainfall and runoff (R); (ii) The degree to which the... and surface soil moisture (C) and the degree to which soil resists wind erosion (I). (3) The USLE is...) Basis for identification as highly erodible. Soil map units and an erodibility index will be used as the...

  14. Relationship between soil erodibility and modeled infiltration rate in different soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqiang; Fang, Qingqing; Wu, Binbin; Yang, Huicai; Xu, Zongxue

    2015-09-01

    The relationship between soil erodibility, which is hard to measure, and modeled infiltration rate were rarely researched. Here, the soil erodibility factors (K and Ke in the USLE, Ki and K1 in the WEPP) were calculated and the infiltration rates were modeled based on the designed laboratory simulation experiments and proposed infiltration model, in order to build their relationship. The impacts of compost amendment on the soil erosion characteristics and relationship were also studied. Two contrasting agricultural soils (bare and cultivated fluvo-aquic soils) were used, and different poultry compost contents (control, low and high) were applied to both soils. The results indicated that the runoff rate, sediment yield rate and soil erodibility of the bare soil treatments were generally higher than those of the corresponding cultivated soil treatments. The application of composts generally decreased sediment yield and soil erodibility but did not always decrease runoff. The comparison of measured and modeled infiltration rates indicated that the model represented the infiltration processes well with an N-S coefficient of 0.84 for overall treatments. Significant negative logarithmic correlations have been found between final infiltration rate (FIR) and the four soil erodibility factors, and the relationship between USLE-K and FIR demonstrated the best correlation. The application of poultry composts would not influence the logarithmic relationship between FIR and soil erodibility. Our study provided a useful tool to estimate soil erodibility.

  15. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) induction in rainbow trout exposed to diluted oil sand wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbeek, A.; Mackay, W.; Birkholz, D.

    1995-01-01

    Toxic industrial wastewaters, such as those from oil sands extraction, must be assessed for their potential sublethal effects before they can be safely disposed in the environment. The induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity was assessed as a potential bioindicator of sublethal stress in rainbow trout exposed to sublethal concentrations of oil sands tailings water. The mixed-function oxygenase system in rainbow trout responded rapidly following a definable concentration-response relationship; however, it proved to be a relatively insensitive indicator of sublethal exposure to oil sands tailings water. Increased activity and maximal induction, as a result of exposure to 0.3 and 0.6 times the LC 50 (Toxic Units), occurred rapidly within 24 hours of exposure. The linearity of the relationship between the concentration of oil sands tailings pond water and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity, expressed by the following regression equation, In EROD = 3.68 (conc.) + 3.20, had an r 2 value of 0.593. Maximal induction required 0.4--0.8 Toxic Units. The absolute level of maximal induction was only one-fifth to one-sixth of the potential induction as found in response to the positive control, 0.5 mg/kg β-naphthoflavone (i.p.). The authors also present data that suggests that the different levels of induction observed in trout exposed to tailings pond water vs those injected with 0.5 mg/kg β-naphthoflavone (i.p.) may be indicative of two different P450 isoforms, the CYP4Al isoform responding to the organic acidic surfactants in oil sands tailings pond water and the CYP1A1 isoform, the isoform generally associated with most xenobiotic transformation in fish, responding to β-naphthoflavone

  16. [Spatiotemporal variation of typical red soil eroded landscape pattern: a case study in Changting County of Fujian Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guo-sheng; Lin, Hui-hua; Zhu, He-jian; Sha, Jin-ming; Dai, Wen-yuan

    2011-07-01

    Based on the 1988, 2000, and 2007 remote sensing images of a typical red soil eroded region (Changting County, Fujian Province) and the digital elevation model (DEM), the eroded landscape types were worked out, and the changes of the eroded landscape pattern in the region from 1988 to 2007 were analyzed with the spatial mathematics model. In 1988-2007, different eroded landscape types in the region had the characteristics of inter-transfer, mainly manifested in the transfer from seriously eroded to lightly eroded types but still existed small amount of the transference from lightly eroded to seriously eroded types. Little change was observed in the controid of the eroded landscape. In the County, Hetian Town was all along the eroded center. During the study period, the landscape pattern index showed a tendency of low heterogeneity, low fragmentation, and high regularization at landscape level, but an overall improvement and expansion of lightly eroded and easy-to-tackle patches as well as the partial improvement and fragmentation of seriously eroded and difficult-to-tackle patches at patch level.

  17. Harlequin duck capture and EROD activity data from Prince William Sound, Alaska, 2011, 2013, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This data set includes capture information and ethoxyresorufin­O­deethylase (EROD) activity results for harlequin ducks sampled during March 2011, 2013, and 2014 in...

  18. Elastic wave generated by granular impact on rough and erodible surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelet, Vincent; Mangeney, Anne; de Rosny, Julien; Toussaint, Renaud; Farin, Maxime

    2018-01-01

    The elastic waves generated by impactors hitting rough and erodible surfaces are studied. For this purpose, beads of variable materials, diameters, and velocities are dropped on (i) a smooth PMMA plate, (ii) stuck glass beads on the PMMA plate to create roughness, and (iii) the rough plate covered with layers of free particles to investigate erodible beds. The Hertz model validity to describe impacts on a smooth surface is confirmed. For rough and erodible surfaces, an empirical scaling law that relates the elastic energy to the radius Rb and normal velocity Vz of the impactor is deduced from experimental data. In addition, the radiated elastic energy is found to decrease exponentially with respect to the bed thickness. Lastly, we show that the variability of the elastic energy among shocks increases from some percents to 70% between smooth and erodible surfaces. This work is a first step to better quantify seismic emissions of rock impacts in natural environment, in particular on unconsolidated soils.

  19. Wind-Eroded Silicate as a Source of Hydrogen Peroxide on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, E. N.; Merrison, J. P.; Jensen, S. K.; Nørnberg, P.; Finster, K.

    2014-07-01

    Laboratory simulations show that wind-eroded silicate can be a source of hydrogen peroxide. The ubiquitous, fine-grained silicate dust might thus explain the oxidizing properties of the martian soil and affect the preservation of organic compounds.

  20. An iso-erodent map Imo state of Nigeria | Madubuike | International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among inputs/resources often needed for erosion risk assessment of a region is the iso-erodent map of the region. This is a map showing areas of equal erosion potentials in the region. As Imo and Abia states of Nigeria lie in a high erosion region of the country, it was decided in this work to produce an iso-erodent map of ...

  1. Soil erodibility in Europe: a high-resolution dataset based on LUCAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagos, Panos; Meusburger, Katrin; Ballabio, Cristiano; Borrelli, Pasqualle; Alewell, Christine

    2014-05-01

    The greatest obstacle to soil erosion modelling at larger spatial scales is the lack of data on soil characteristics. One key parameter for modelling soil erosion is the soil erodibility, expressed as the K-factor in the widely used soil erosion model, the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and its revised version (RUSLE). The K-factor, which expresses the susceptibility of a soil to erode, is related to soil properties such as organic matter content, soil texture, soil structure and permeability. With the Land Use/Cover Area frame Survey (LUCAS) soil survey in 2009 a pan-European soil dataset is available for the first time, consisting of around 20,000 points across 25 Member States of the European Union. The aim of this study is the generation of a harmonised high-resolution soil erodibility map (with a grid cell size of 500 m) for the 25 EU Member States. Soil erodibility was calculated for the LUCAS survey points using the nomograph of Wischmeier and Smith (1978). A Cubist regression model was applied to correlate spatial data such as latitude, longitude, remotely sensed and terrain features in order to develop a high-resolution soil erodibility map. The mean K-factor for Europe was estimated at 0.032 thahha(-1)MJ(-1)mm(-1) with a standard deviation of 0.009 thahha(-1)MJ(-1)mm(-1). The yielded soil erodibility dataset compared well with the published local and regional soil erodibility data. However, the incorporation of the protective effect of surface stone cover, which is usually not considered for the soil erodibility calculations, resulted in an average 15% decrease of the K-factor. The exclusion of this effect in K-factor calculations is likely to result in an overestimation of soil erosion, particularly for the Mediterranean countries, where highest percentages of surface stone cover were observed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Erodibility of waste (Loess) soils from construction sites under water and wind erosional forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Smadar; Katra, Itzhak; Argaman, Eli; Ben-Hur, Meni

    2018-03-01

    Excess soils from construction sites (waste soils) become a problem when exposed to soil erosion by water or wind. Understanding waste soil erodibility can contribute to its proper reuse for various surface applications. The general objective of the study was to provide a better understanding of the effects of soil properties on erodibility of waste soils excavated from various depths in a semiarid region under rainfall and wind erosive forces. Soil samples excavated from the topsoil (0-0.3m) and subsoil layers (0.3-0.9 and >1m depths) were subjected to simulated rainfall and wind. Under rainfall erosive forces, the subsoils were more erodible than the topsoil, in contrast to the results obtained under wind erosive forces. Exchangeable sodium percentage was the main factor controlling soil erodibility (K i ) under rainfall, and a significant logarithmic regression line was found between these two parameters. In addition, a significant, linear regression was found between K i and slaking values for the studied soil samples, suggesting that the former can be predicted from the latter. Soil erodibility under wind erosion force was controlled mainly by the dry aggregate characteristics (mean weight diameter and aggregate density): their higher values in the subsoil layers resulted in lower soil erodibility compared to the topsoil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Physically—Based Geometry Model for Transport Distance Estimation of Rainfall-Eroded Soil Sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Gui Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimations of rainfall-induced soil erosion are mostly derived from the weight of sediment measured in natural runoff. The transport distance of eroded soil is important for evaluating landscape evolution but is difficult to estimate, mainly because it cannot be linked directly to the eroded sediment weight. The volume of eroded soil is easier to calculate visually using popular imaging tools, which can aid in estimating the transport distance of eroded soil through geometry relationships. In this study, we present a straightforward geometry model to predict the maximum sediment transport distance incurred by rainfall events of various intensity and duration. In order to verify our geometry prediction model, a series of experiments are reported in the form of a sediment volume. The results show that cumulative rainfall has a linear relationship with the total volume of eroded soil. The geometry model can accurately estimate the maximum transport distance of eroded soil by cumulative rainfall, with a low root-mean-square error (4.7–4.8 and a strong linear correlation (0.74–0.86.

  4. Soil Erodibility for Water Pollution Management of Melaka Watershed in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ibrahim Adham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between surface runoffand soil erodibility are significant in water pollution and watershed management practices. Land use pattern, soil series and slope percentage are also major factors to develop the relationships. Daily rainfall data were collected and analyzed for variations in precipitation for calculating the surface runoff of these watersheds and surface runoff map was produced by GIS tools. Tew equation was utilized to predict soil erodibility of watershed soils.Results indicated that the weighted curve number varies from 82 to 85 and monthly runoff 23% to 30% among the five watersheds. Soil erodibility varies from 0.038 to 0.06 ton/ha (MJ.mm/ha/h. Linau-Telok-Local Alluvium, Malacca-Munchong, Munchong-Malacca-Serdang and Malacca-Munchong-Tavy are the dominant soil series of this region having the average soil erodibility of about 0.042 ton/ha (MJ.mm/ha/h. The main focus of this study is to provide the information of soil erodibility to reduce the water pollution of a watershed.

  5. Textural characteristics and sedimentary environment of sediment at eroded and deposited regions in the severely eroded coastline of Batu Pahat, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Mohtar, Wan Hanna Melini; Nawang, Siti Aminah Bassa; Abdul Maulud, Khairul Nizam; Benson, Yannie Anak; Azhary, Wan Ahmad Hafiz Wan Mohamed

    2017-11-15

    This study investigates the textural characteristics of sediments collected at eroded and deposited areas of highly severed eroded coastline of Batu Pahat, Malaysia. Samples were taken from systematically selected 23 locations along the 67km stretch of coastline and are extended to the fluvial sediments of the main river of Batu Pahat. Grain size distribution analysis was conducted to identify its textural characteristics and associated sedimentary transport behaviours. Sediments obtained along the coastline were fine-grained material with averaged mean size of 7.25 ϕ, poorly sorted, positively skewed and has wide distributions. Samples from eroded and deposition regions displayed no distinctive characteristics and exhibited similar profiles. The high energy condition transported the sediments as suspension, mostly as pelagic and the sediments were deposited as shallow marine and agitated deposits. The fluvial sediments of up to 3km into the river have particularly similar profile of textural characteristics with the neighbouring marine sediments from the river mouth. Profiles were similar with marine sediments about 3km opposite the main current and can go up to 10km along the current of Malacca Straits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Water and dissolved carbon transport in an eroding soil landscape using column experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieckh, Helene; Gerke, Horst; Glæsner, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    In the hummocky ground moraine soil landscape, a spatial continuum of more or less eroded soils developed from till under intensive agricultural cultivation. Water flow and solute transport are affected by the variable soil structural and pedological developments, which are posing a challenge...... for flux estimation. The objective of this study was to investigate transport of water, dissolved organic (DOC), and particulate carbon (PC) through soil profiles of an eroded Haplic Luvisol and a heavily eroded Haplic Regosol. We studied 5 soil horizons in three replicates each: Ap (0-20 cm) and E (20...... boundary. Breakthrough curves for a pre-applied tracer (Br-) on the soil surface and a tracer applied with irrigation water (3H2O) were modeled analytically using CXTFIT. The heterogeneity of the Luvisol horizons was generally higher than that of the Regosol horizons, which relates to the higher...

  7. MAPPING ERODED AREAS ON MOUNTAIN GRASSLAND WITH TERRESTRIAL PHOTOGRAMMETRY AND OBJECT-BASED IMAGE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mayr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Alps as well as in other mountain regions steep grassland is frequently affected by shallow erosion. Often small landslides or snow movements displace the vegetation together with soil and/or unconsolidated material. This results in bare earth surface patches within the grass covered slope. Close-range and remote sensing techniques are promising for both mapping and monitoring these eroded areas. This is essential for a better geomorphological process understanding, to assess past and recent developments, and to plan mitigation measures. Recent developments in image matching techniques make it feasible to produce high resolution orthophotos and digital elevation models from terrestrial oblique images. In this paper we propose to delineate the boundary of eroded areas for selected scenes of a study area, using close-range photogrammetric data. Striving for an efficient, objective and reproducible workflow for this task, we developed an approach for automated classification of the scenes into the classes grass and eroded. We propose an object-based image analysis (OBIA workflow which consists of image segmentation and automated threshold selection for classification using the Excess Green Vegetation Index (ExG. The automated workflow is tested with ten different scenes. Compared to a manual classification, grass and eroded areas are classified with an overall accuracy between 90.7% and 95.5%, depending on the scene. The methods proved to be insensitive to differences in illumination of the scenes and greenness of the grass. The proposed workflow reduces user interaction and is transferable to other study areas. We conclude that close-range photogrammetry is a valuable low-cost tool for mapping this type of eroded areas in the field with a high level of detail and quality. In future, the output will be used as ground truth for an area-wide mapping of eroded areas in coarser resolution aerial orthophotos acquired at the same time.

  8. Morphology of ductile metals eroded by a jet of spherical particles impinging at normal incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerabhadra Rao, P.; Young, S. G.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy are used, together with surface profile measurements, in the present morphological study of the erosion of an aluminum alloy and copper by the normal impact of spherical glass erodent particles. The morphology of the damage pattern is a manifestation of the flow pattern of erodent particles, and yields insight into the mechanisms that may be active at different stages of erosion. The simultaneous appearance of radial cracks and concentric rings is reported, together with wave crests which contain an accumulation of metallic flakes. A preliminary analysis is advanced to explain the formation of the various damage patterns observed.

  9. Wind-eroded silicate as a source of hydrogen peroxide on Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Ebbe Norskov; Merrison, Jonathan P.; Jensen, Svend Knak

    -sists of silicates [4] that due to wind erosion has a very fine grained texture. Based on the composition of the surface material and investigations showing that crushing of silicates can give rise to reactive oxygen species [5], we hypothesized that wind erosion of silicates can explain the reactivity of Martian...... soil. Wind-erosion of silicate could thus be one of several causes of the soil’s reactivity. As our experiments show, the globally distributed wind eroded silicate dust can lead to the production of hydrogen peroxide which might explain the reactivity of the Martian soil. The reactivity of eroded...

  10. Continuum modeling of ion-beam eroded surfaces under normal incidence: Impact of stochastic fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreimann, Karsten; Linz, Stefan J.

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Deterministic surface pattern (left) and its stochastic counterpart (right) arising in a stochastic damped Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation that serves as a model equation for ion-beam eroded surfaces and is systematically investigated. - Abstract: Using a recently proposed field equation for the surface evolution of ion-beam eroded semiconductor target materials under normal incidence, we systematically explore the impact of additive stochastic fluctuations that are permanently present during the erosion process. Specifically, we investigate the dependence of the surface roughness, the underlying pattern forming properties and the bifurcation behavior on the strength of the fluctuations.

  11. Glyphosate and AMPA distribution in wind-eroded sediment derived from loess soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins Bento, Celia; Goossens, Dirk; Rezaei, Mahrooz; Riksen, M.J.P.M.; Mol, J.G.J.; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.

    2017-01-01

    Glyphosate is one of the most used herbicides in agricultural lands worldwide. Wind-eroded sediment and dust, as an environmental transport pathway of glyphosate and of its main metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), can result in environmental- and human exposure far beyond the agricultural

  12. Erodibility of a mixed mudflat dominated by microphytobenthos and Cerastoderma edule, East Frisian Wadden Sea, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Lanuru, Mahatma; van Bernem, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    Sediment erodibility and a range of physical and biological parameters were measured at an intertidal site in the German Wadden Sea area in June, September and November 2002 and February and April 2003 in order to examine the influence of macrozoobenthos and microphytobenthos on sediment erodibil......Sediment erodibility and a range of physical and biological parameters were measured at an intertidal site in the German Wadden Sea area in June, September and November 2002 and February and April 2003 in order to examine the influence of macrozoobenthos and microphytobenthos on sediment...... erodibility and the temporal variation. The study site was a mixed mudflat situated in the mesotidal Baltrum-Langeoog tidal basin at the East Frisian barrier coast. The mud content at the site was about 35% and the filter-feeding cockle Cerastoderma edule was the dominating macrozoobenthic species (by biomass...... of C. edule will therefore probably increase the content of fine-grained sediments at the surface compared to an abiotic situation. Increasing the amount of fine-grained material in mixed sediments has previously been shown to reduce the erodibility of the sediments and C. edule will therefore...

  13. Eroded dentin does not jeopardize the bond strength of adhesive restorative materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Barros Cruz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study evaluated the bond strength of adhesive restorative materials to sound and eroded dentin. Thirty-six bovine incisors were embedded in acrylic resin and ground to obtain flat buccal dentin surfaces. Specimens were randomly allocated in 2 groups: sound dentin (immersion in artificial saliva and eroded dentin (pH cycling model - 3× / cola drink for 7 days. Specimens were then reassigned according to restorative material: glass ionomer cement (KetacTM Molar Easy Mix, resin-modified glass ionomer cement (VitremerTM or adhesive system with resin composite (Adper Single Bond 2 + Filtek Z250. Polyethylene tubes with an internal diameter of 0.76 mm were placed over the dentin and filled with the material. The microshear bond test was performed after 24 h of water storage at 37ºC. The failure mode was evaluated using a stereomicroscope (400×. Bond strength data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests (α = 0.05. Eroded dentin showed bond strength values similar to those for sound dentin for all materials. The adhesive system showed the highest bond strength values, regardless of the substrate (p < 0.0001. For all groups, the adhesive/mixed failure prevailed. In conclusion, adhesive materials may be used in eroded dentin without jeopardizing the bonding quality. It is preferable to use an etch-and-rinse adhesive system because it shows the highest bond strength values compared with the glass ionomer cements tested.

  14. Turbidity current hydraulics and sediment deposition in erodible sinuous channels: Laboratory experiments and numerical simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janocko, M.; Cartigny, M.J.B.; Nemec, W.; Hansen, E.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between the hydraulics of turbidity currents in erodible sinuous channels and the resulting intra-channel sediment depocentres (channel bars). Four factors are considered to exert critical control on sedimentation in sinuous submarine channels: (1) the

  15. Incorporation of Fine-Grained Sediment Erodibility Measurements into Sediment Transport Modeling, Capitol Lake, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Andrew W.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Elias, Edwin; Jones, Craig

    2008-01-01

    Capitol Lake was created in 1951 with the construction of a concrete dam and control gate that prevented salt-water intrusion into the newly formed lake and regulated flow of the Deschutes River into southern Puget Sound. Physical processes associated with the former tidally dominated estuary were altered, and the dam structure itself likely caused an increase in retention of sediment flowing into the lake from the Deschutes River. Several efforts to manage sediment accumulation in the lake, including dredging and the construction of sediment traps upriver, failed to stop the lake from filling with sediment. The Deschutes Estuary Feasibility Study (DEFS) was carried out to evaluate the possibility of removing the dam and restoring estuarine processes as an alternative ongoing lake management. An important component of DEFS was the creation of a hydrodynamic and sediment transport model of the restored Deschutes Estuary. Results from model simulations indicated that estuarine processes would be restored under each of four restoration alternatives, and that over time, the restored estuary would have morphological features similar to the predam estuary. The model also predicted that after dam-removal, a large portion of the sediment eroded from the lake bottom would be deposited near the Port of Olympia and a marina located in lower Budd Inlet seaward of the present dam. The volume of sediment transported downstream was a critical piece of information that managers needed to estimate the total cost of the proposed restoration project. However, the ability of the model to predict the magnitude of sediment transport in general and, in particular, the volume of sediment deposition in the port and marina was limited by a lack of information on the erodibility of fine-grained sediments in Capitol Lake. Cores at several sites throughout Capitol Lake were collected between October 31 and November 1, 2007. The erodibility of sediments in the cores was later determined in the

  16. Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) at 193 nm using an erodible mask: new developments and clinical progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michael; Seiler, Theo; Carey, Joseph P.; Friedman, Marc D.; Johnsson, N. M. F.; King, Michael C.; Muller, David F.

    1993-06-01

    This paper reports on our progress using an erodible mask to perform photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for the correction of myopic astigmatism. We describe modifications to the mask, the mask eye cup and the surgical microscope aimed at simplifying the procedure and improving the ergonomics of the hardware. We report the clinical results of the post-op exam for 20 patients who have undergone PRK for myopic astigmatism under a Phase IIA study. The results compare favorably with an earlier Phase IIA study for performing PRK with a computer-controlled iris. Most important, the clinical data show the absence of any significant corneal haze and no significant decrease in spectacle corrected visual acuity. Although more long term follow-up is needed, the preliminary results support the safety and effectiveness of using an erodible mask to perform PRK for myopic astigmatism.

  17. Testing the effect of a microbial-based soil amendment on aggregate stability and erodibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malozo, Mponda; Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    to the rainfall-runoff experiment where the microbial-based product had a clear effect on soil erodibility. In relation to measurement of aggregate stability as well as clay dispersion, the picture was less clear. Especially for the sandy Tanzania soil with a low content of organic matter, a clear effect was seen...... aggregate stability and erodibility. Two commercial products, gypsum and a microbial-based solution were used for the experiment and were tested on two Danish sandy loamy soils as well on a sandy soil from Tanzania. The carrier of the microbial-based product, a glycerol solution, was tested as well....... In the laboratory, soils were treated with the soil amendments in a two-step procedure at controlled water contents following aerobic incubation in closed containers. Water-aggregate stability and clay dispersion were measured on soil aggregates less than 8 mm in diameter. Aggregate stability was measured...

  18. Effects of human pharmaceuticals on cytotoxicity, EROD activity and ROS production in fish hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laville, N.; Aiet-Aiessa, S.; Gomez, E.; Casellas, C.; Porcher, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are found in the aquatic environment but their potential effects on non-target species like fish remain unknown. This in vitro study is a first approach in the toxicity assessment of human drugs on fish. Nine pharmaceuticals were tested on two fish hepatocyte models: primary cultures of rainbow trout hepatocytes (PRTH) and PLHC-1 fish cell line. Cell viability, interaction with cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) enzyme and oxidative stress were assessed by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrasodium bromide tetrazolium (MTT), 7-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) and dichlorofluorescein (DCFH-DA) assays, respectively. The tested drugs were clofibrate (CF), fenofibrate (FF), carbamazepine (CBZ), fluoxetine (FX), diclofenac (DiCF), propranolol (POH), sulfamethoxazole (SFX), amoxicillin (AMX) and gadolinium chloride (GdCl 3 ). All substances were cytotoxic, except AMX at concentration up to 500 μM. The calculated MTT EC 50 values ranged from 2 μM (CF) to 651 μM (CBZ) in PLHC-1, and from 53 μM (FF) to 962 μM (GdCl 3 ) in PRTH. CF, FF, and FX were the most cytotoxic drugs and induced oxidative stress before being cytotoxic. Compared to hepatocytes from human and dog, fish hepatocytes seemed to be more susceptible to the peroxisome proliferators (PPs) CF and FF. In PLHC-1 cells none of the tested drugs induced the EROD activity whereas POH appeared as a weak EROD inducer in PRTH. Moreover, in PRTH, SFX, DiCF, CBZ and to a lesser extend, FF and CF inhibited the basal EROD activity at clearly sublethal concentrations which may be of concern at the biological and chemical levels in a multipollution context

  19. Assessment of Ground Water Quality in and around Gobichettipalayam Town Erode District, Tamilnadu

    OpenAIRE

    P. N. Palanisamy; A. Geetha; M. Sujatha; P. Sivakumar; K. Karunakaran

    2007-01-01

    Ground water samples collected from different localities in and around Gobichettipalayam town, Erode District, Tamil Nadu were analyzed for their physico- chemical characteristics. This analysis result was compared with the WHO & ICMR standards of drinking water quality parameters with the following water quality parameters namely pH, Electrical conductivity, CN-, Cl-, SO42-, Na+, K+, Ca & Mg in CaCO3 equivalents, phenolphthalein alkalinity, hydroxide alkalinity, carbonate alkalinity, bicarbo...

  20. Erodibility of surface-mine spoil banks in southeastern Ohio : an approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, C D; Studlick, J R.J.

    1979-07-01

    Measurements of accumulated sediment in inter-bank basins of unreclaimed strip mines determined the average annual site loss from unvegetated, 18-year-old spoil banks. Assuming that the universal soil loss equation (USLE) can be used to estimate sediment yield from strip mine slopes, the topographic factor in the USLE was determined in 2 ways, and values for erodibility well calculated. The technique is applicable to unreclaimed mines where inter-bank basins trap all slope-derived sediment.

  1. The Influence of Eroded Blades on Wind Turbine Performance Using Numerical Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schramm

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available During their operation, wind turbine blades are eroded due to rain and hail, or they are contaminated with insects. Since the relative inflow velocity is higher at the outer than at the inner part of the blades, erosion occurs mostly at the outer blade region. In order to prevent strong erosion, it is possible to install a leading edge protection, which can be applied to the blades after the initial installation, but changes the shape of the initial airfoil sections. It is unclear how this modification influences the aerodynamic performance of the turbine. Hence, it is investigated in this work. The NREL 5 MW turbine is simulated with clean and eroded blades, which are compared to coated blades equipped with leading edge protection. Aerodynamic polars are generated by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics, and load calculations are conducted using the blade element momentum theory. The analysis in this work shows that, compared to clean rotor blades, the worse aerodynamic behaviour of strongly eroded blades can lead to power losses of 9 % . In contrast, coated blades only have a small impact on the turbine power of less than 1 % .

  2. Predicting of soil erosion with regarding to rainfall erosivity and soil erodibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suif, Zuliziana; Razak, Mohd Amirun Anis Ab; Ahmad, Nordila

    2018-02-01

    The soil along the hill and slope are wearing away due to erosion and it can take place due to occurrence of weak and heavy rainfall. The aim of this study is to predict the soil erosion degree in Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia (UPNM) area focused on two major factor which is soil erodibility and rainfall erosivity. Soil erodibility is the possibilities of soil to detach and carried away during rainfall and runoff. The "ROM" scale was used in this study to determine the degree of soil erodibility, namely low, moderate, high, and very high. As for rainfall erosivity, the erosive power caused by rainfall that cause soil loss. A daily rainfall data collected from January to April was analyzed by using ROSE index classification to identify the potential risk of soil erosion. The result shows that the soil erodibilty are moderate at MTD`s hill, high at behind of block Lestari and Landslide MTD hill, and critical at behind the mess cadet. While, the highest rainfall erosivity was recorded in March and April. Overall, this study would benefit the organization greatly in saving cost in landslide protection as relevant authorities can take early measures repairing the most affected area of soil erosion.

  3. Influence of bleaching agents on surface roughness of sound or eroded dental enamel specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrak, Birgül; Callaway, Angelika; Kurth, Petra; Willershausen, Brita

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present in vitro study was to assess the effect of bleaching agents on eroded and sound enamel specimens. Enamel specimens prepared from human permanent anterior teeth were incubated with different bleaching agents containing active ingredients as 7.5 or 13.5% hydrogen peroxide or 35% carbamide peroxide, ranging in pH from 4.9 to 10.8. The effect of the tooth whitening agents on surface roughness was tested for sound enamel surfaces as well as for eroded enamel specimens. To provoke erosive damage, the enamel specimens were incubated for 10 hours with apple juice (pH = 3.4). Afterwards, pretreated and untreated dental slices were incubated with one of the bleaching agents for 10 hours. The surface roughness (R(a)) of all enamel specimens (N = 80) was measured using an optical profilometric device. A descriptive statistical analysis of the R(a) values was performed. The study demonstrated that exposure to an acidic bleaching agent (pH = 4.9) resulted in a higher surface roughness (p = 0.043) than treatment with a high peroxide concentration (pH = 6.15). If the enamel surface was previously exposed to erosive beverages, subsequent bleaching may enhance damage to the dental hard tissue. Bleaching agents with a high concentration of peroxide or an acidic pH can influence the surface roughness of sound or eroded enamel. © 2010, COPYRIGHT THE AUTHORS. JOURNAL COMPILATION © 2010, WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  4. Risk assessment of PCDD/Fs levels in human tissues related to major food items based on chemical analyses and micro-EROD assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, H L; Wu, S C; Wong, C K C; Leung, C K M; Tao, S; Wong, M H

    2009-10-01

    Nine groups of food items (freshwater fish, marine fish, pork, chicken, chicken eggs, leafy, non-leafy vegetables, rice and flour) and three types of human samples (human milk, maternal serum and cord serum) were collected for the analysis of PCDD/Fs. Results of chemical analysis revealed PCDD/Fs concentrations (pg g(-1) fat) in the following ascending order: pork (0.289 pg g(-1) fat), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) (freshwater fish) (0.407), golden thread (Nemipterus virgatus) (marine fish) (0.511), chicken (0.529), mandarin fish (Siniperca kneri) (marine fish) (0.535), chicken egg (0.552), and snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) (marine fish) (1.219). The results of micro-EROD assay showed relatively higher PCDD/Fs levels in fish (2.65 pg g(-1) fat) when compared with pork (0.47), eggs (0.33), chicken (0.13), flour (0.07), vegetables (0.05 pg g(-1) wet wt) and rice (0.05). The estimated average daily intake of PCDD/Fs of 3.51 pg EROD-TEQ/kg bw/day was within the range of WHO Tolerable Daily Intake (1-4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day) and was higher than the Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PMTL) (70 pg for dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs) recommended by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) [Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), Summary and conclusions of the fifty-seventh meeting, JECFA, 2001.]. Nevertheless, the current findings were significantly lower than the TDI (14 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/bw/day) recommended by the Scientific Committee on Food of the Europe Commission [European Scientific Committee on Food (EU SCF), Opinions on the SCF on the risk assessment of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in food, 2000.]. However, it should be noted that micro-EROD assay overestimates the PCDD/Fs levels by 2 to 7 folds which may also amplify the PCDD/Fs levels accordingly. Although the levels of PCDD/Fs obtained from micro-EROD assay were much higher than those obtained by chemical analysis by 2 to 7 folds, it provides a cost-effective and

  5. Influence of biochar and terra preta substrates on wettability and erodibility of soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetanova, A.; Dotterweich, M.; Diehl, D.; Ulrich, U.; Fohrer, N.

    2012-04-01

    Biochar (BC) and terra preta substrates (TPS) have recently been promoted as soil amendments suitable for soil stabilization, soil amelioration and long-term carbon sequestration. BC is a carbon-enriched substance produced by thermal decomposition of organic material. TPS is composed of liquid and solid organic matter, including BC, altered by acid-lactic fermentation. Their effect on wettability, soil erodibility and nutrient discharge through overland flow was studied by laboratory experiments. At water contents between 0 and 100% BC is water repellent, while TPS changes from a wettable into a repellent state. The 5 and 10 vol % mixtures of BC and 10 and 20 vol% mixtures of TPS with sand remain mainly wettable during drying but repellency maxima are shifted to higher water contents with respect to pure sand and are mainly of subcritical nature. The runoff response was dominated by infiltration properties of the substrates rather than their wettability.Only one mixtures (20% TPS) produced more runoff than sandy-loamy soil on a 15% slope at an intensity of 25 mm•h-1. The 10% BC decreased runoff by up to 40%. At higher rainfall intensities (45 and 55 mm•h-1) the 10% TPS7 was up to 35% less erodible than 10% BC. Despite the TPS containing more nutrients, nutrient discharge varied between types of nutrients, slopes, rainfall intensities and mixtures. The application of a 1 cm layer onto the soil surface instead of 10% mixtures is not recommended due to high nutrient concentrations in the runoff and the wettability of pure substrates. The usage of 10% BC in lowland areas with low frequency and low-intensity precipitation and 10% TPS7 in areas with higher rainfall intensities appears to be appropriate and commendable according to current results. However, together with reversibility of repellency, it needs to undergo further examination in the field under different environmental and land use conditions Key words: biochar, terra preta substrate, wettability

  6. Strength, shrinkage, erodibility and capillary flow characteristics of cement-treated recycled pavement materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Fedrigo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Full-depth recycling with portland cement (FDR-PC has been widely used for pavement rehabilitation; however, doubts remain regarding factors affecting some properties of the recycled material. Aiming on quantifying the effects of those factors on the strength, drying shrinkage, erodibility, capillary rise and absorption of cement-treated mixtures (CTM of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP and graded crushed stone, tests were conducted considering different RAP contents, cement contents, compaction efforts and curing times. Cement addition increased the mixtures strength and reduced their erodibility and capillary flow characteristics, but increased shrinkage. Low cement contents resulted in acceptable strength for CTM, but in high capillary rise and absorption, not being suitable if the layer is exposed to long periods of water soaking. Higher compaction effort led to similar effects as cement addition, counterbalancing low cement contents usage and reducing costs and shrinkage cracking risk. Strength and shrinkage showed higher growth rates at early stages, and then precautions should be taken in order to avoid moisture loss. Increasing RAP content decreased strength; though, RAP effect on the other properties was statistically non-significant, indicating a similar behaviour as CTM without RAP. Considering the studied properties, the mixture with most satisfactory behaviour for field applications was identified. The results highlighted strength is not the only property to be considered when designing FDR-PC mixtures; although presenting acceptable strength, some mixtures may fail due to shrinkage cracking or erosion, when exposed to water content variations. Keywords: Full-depth recycling with cement, Strength, Drying shrinkage, Erodibility, Capillary rise, Absorption

  7. Measuring the Amount of Eroded Soil and Surface Runoff Water in the Field

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulfatah Faraj Aboufayed

    2013-01-01

    Water erosion is the most important problems of the soil in the Jabel Nefusa area located in northwest of Libya; therefore, erosion station had been established in the Faculty of Veterinary and dryfarming research Station, University of the Al-japel Al-gharbi in Zentan. The length of the station is 72.6 feet, 6 feet width and the percentage of its slope is 3%. The station were established to measure the amount of soil eroded and amount of surface water produced during the seasons 95/96 and 96...

  8. Numerical simulation of evolutionary erodible bedforms using the particle finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Rafael; Becker, Pablo; Ortiz, Pablo

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a numerical strategy for the simulation of flows with evolutionary erodible boundaries. The fluid equations are fully resolved in 3D, while the sediment transport is modelled using the Exner equation and solved with an explicit Lagrangian procedure based on a fixed 2D mesh. Flow and sediment are coupled in geometry by deforming the fluid mesh in the vertical direction and in velocities with the experimental sediment flux computed using the Meyer Peter Müller model. A comparison with real experiments on channels is performed, giving good agreement.

  9. Distribution of Shrubland and Grassland Soil Erodibility on the Loess Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is one of the most severe problems facing environments and has increased throughout the 20th century. Soil erodibility (K-factor is one of the important indicators of land degradation, and many models have been used to estimate K values. Although soil erodibility has been estimated, the comparison of different models and their usage at a regional scale and, in particular, for different land use types, need more research. Four of the most widely distributed land use types were selected to analyze, including introduced and natural grassland, as well as introduced and natural shrubland. Soil particle size, soil organic matter and other relevant soil properties were measured to estimate soil erodibility in the Loess Plateau. The results show that: (1 the erosion productivity impact calculator (EPIC model and SHIRAZI model are both suitable for the Loess Plateau, while the SHIRAZI model has the advantage of fewer parameters; (2 introduced grassland has better ability to protect both the 0–5 cm soils and 5–20 cm soils, while the differences between introduced and natural shrubland are not obvious at a catchment scale; (3 the K values of introduced grassland, natural grassland, introduced shrubland and natural shrubland in the 0–5 cm layer vary from 0.008 to 0.037, 0.031 to 0.046, 0.012 to 0.041 and 0.008 to 0.045 (t·hm2·h/(MJ·mm·hm2, while the values vary from 0.009 to 0.039, 0.032 to 0.046, 0.012 to 0.042 and 0.008 to 0.048 (t·hm2·h/(MJ·mm·hm2 in the 5–20 cm layer. The areas with a mean multiyear precipitation of 370–440 mm are the most important places for vegetation restoration construction management at a regional scale. A comprehensive balance between water conservation and soil conservation is needed and important when selecting the species used to vegetation restoration. This study provides suggestions for ecological restoration and provides a case study for the estimate of soil erodibility in arid and semiarid

  10. Fluvial organic carbon flux from an eroding peatland catchment, southern Pennines, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Pawson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates for the first time the relative importance of dissolved organic carbon (DOC and particulate organic carbon (POC in the fluvial carbon flux from an actively eroding peatland catchment in the southern Pennines, UK. Event scale variability in DOC and POC was examined and the annual flux of fluvial organic carbon was estimated for the catchment. At the event scale, both DOC and POC were found to increase with discharge, with event based POC export accounting for 95% of flux in only 8% of the time. On an annual cycle, exports of 35.14 t organic carbon (OC are estimated from the catchment, which represents an areal value of 92.47 g C m−2 a−1. POC was the most significant form of organic carbon export, accounting for 80% of the estimated flux. This suggests that more research is required on both the fate of POC and the rates of POC export in eroding peatland catchments.

  11. Predictive model for local scour downstream of hydrokinetic turbines in erodible channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Mirko; Heisel, Michael; Guala, Michele

    2018-02-01

    A modeling framework is derived to predict the scour induced by marine hydrokinetic turbines installed on fluvial or tidal erodible bed surfaces. Following recent advances in bridge scour formulation, the phenomenological theory of turbulence is applied to describe the flow structures that dictate the equilibrium scour depth condition at the turbine base. Using scaling arguments, we link the turbine operating conditions to the flow structures and scour depth through the drag force exerted by the device on the flow. The resulting theoretical model predicts scour depth using dimensionless parameters and considers two potential scenarios depending on the proximity of the turbine rotor to the erodible bed. The model is validated at the laboratory scale with experimental data comprising the two sediment mobility regimes (clear water and live bed), different turbine configurations, hydraulic settings, bed material compositions, and migrating bedform types. The present work provides future developers of flow energy conversion technologies with a physics-based predictive formula for local scour depth beneficial to feasibility studies and anchoring system design. A potential prototype-scale deployment in a large sandy river is also considered with our model to quantify how the expected scour depth varies as a function of the flow discharge and rotor diameter.

  12. Sub ablative Er: YAG laser irradiation on surface roughness of eroded dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curylofo-Zotti, Fabiana Almeida; Lepri, Taísa Penazzo; Colucci, Vivian; Turssi, Cecília Pedroso; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Er:YAG laser irradiation applied at varying pulse repetition rate on the surface roughness of eroded enamel. Bovine enamel slabs (n = 10) were embedded in polyester resin, ground, and polished. To erosive challenges, specimens were immersed two times per day in 20mL of concentrated orange juice (pH = 3.84) under agitation, during a two-day period. Specimens were randomly assigned to irradiation with the Er:YAG laser (focused mode, pulse energy of 60 mJ and energy density of 3.79 J/cm(2) ) operating at 1, 2, 3, or 4 Hz. The control group was left nonirradiated. Surface roughness measurements were recorded post erosion-like formation and further erosive episodes by a profilometer and observed through atomic force microscopy (AFM). Analysis of variance revealed that the control group showed the lowest surface roughness, while laser-irradiated substrates did not differ from each other following post erosion-like lesion formation. According to analysis of covariance, at further erosive episodes, the control group demonstrated lower surface roughness (P > 0.05), than any of the irradiated groups (P enamel eroded. The AFM images showed that the specimens irradiated by the Er:YAG laser at 1 Hz presented a less rough surface than those irradiated at 2, 3, and 4 Hz. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A PEDOTRANSFER FUNCTION FOR ESTIMATING THE SOIL ERODIBILITY FACTOR IN SICILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Bagarello

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The soil erodibility factor, K, of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE is a simple descriptor of the soil susceptibility to rill and interrill erosion. The original procedure for determining K needs a knowledge of soil particle size distribution (PSD, soil organic matter, OM, content, and soil structure and permeability characteristics. However, OM data are often missing and soil structure and permeability are not easily evaluated in regional analyses. The objective of this investigation was to develop a pedotransfer function (PTF for estimating the K factor of the USLE in Sicily (south Italy using only soil textural data. The nomograph soil erodibility factor and its associated first approximation, K’, were determined at 471 sampling points distributed throughout the island of Sicily. Two existing relationships for estimating K on the basis of the measured geometric mean particle diameter were initially tested. Then, two alternative PTFs for estimating K’ and K, respectively, on the basis of the measured PSD were derived. Testing analysis showed that the K estimate by the proposed PTF (eq.11, which was characterized by a Nash-Suttcliffe efficiency index, NSEI, varying between 0.68 and 0.76, depending on the considered data set, was appreciably more accurate than the one obtained by other existing equations, yielding NSEI values varying between 0.21 and 0.32.

  14. Geomorphology and forest management in New Zealand's erodible steeplands: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Chris; Marden, Michael; Basher, Les R.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we outline how geomorphological understanding has underpinned forest management in New Zealand's erodible steeplands, where it contributes to current forest management, and suggest where it will be of value in the future. We focus on the highly erodible soft-rock hill country of the East Coast region of North Island, but cover other parts of New Zealand where appropriate. We conclude that forestry will continue to make a significant contribution to New Zealand's economy, but several issues need to be addressed. The most pressing concerns are the incidence of post-harvest, storm-initiated landslides and debris flows arising from steepland forests following timber harvesting. There are three areas where geomorphological information and understanding are required to support the forest industry - development of an improved national erosion susceptibility classification to support a new national standard for plantation forestry; terrain analysis to support improved hazard and risk assessment at detailed operational scales; and understanding of post-harvest shallow landslide-debris flows, including their prediction and management.

  15. Granular flows on erodible layers: type and evolution of flow and deposit structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, G.; De Blasio, F.; De Caro, M.; Volpi, G.; Frattini, P.

    2012-04-01

    The interaction of a fast moving landslide mass with the basal layer over which movement takes place has been discussed in previous contributions. Nevertheless, the evolution of the structures within the moving mass and the erodible layer are still to be described in detail (Hungr and Evans, 2004; Crosta et al., 1992, 2006, 2009, 2011; Dufresne et al., 2010; Mangeney et al., 2010) and modeling results (Crosta et al., 2006, 2009, 2011; Mangeney et al., 2010). We present some of the results from a campaign of laboratory experiments aimed at studying the evolution of a granular flow at the impact with and during the successive spreading over a cohesionless erodible layer. We performed these test to study the processes and to collect data and evidences to compare them with the results of numerical simulations and to verify capabilities of numerical codes. The laboratory setup consists of an inclined slope and an horizontal sector where release and transport, and deposition take place, respectively. Materials used for the tests are: a uniform rounded siliceous sand (Hostun sand; 0.125-0.5 mm) commonly adopted in lab tests because free of scale effects, and a gravel made of angular elements (12 mm in ave. size). Both the materials have been tested in dry conditions. Different slope angles have been tested (40, 45, 50, 55, 50, 66°) as well as different thicknesses of the erodible layer (0, 0.5, 1, 2 cm) and volumes of the released material (1.5, 3, 5, 9.6 liters). Tests have been monitored by means of a high speed camera and the pre- and post-failure geometries have been surveyed by means of a laser scanner. Deposit description allowed also the computation of volumes and the characterization of the different structures developed and frozen into the deposit. Experiments allowed us to observe the extreme processes occurring during the movement and the mise en place of the deposits. In particular, we observe the formation of a clear wave-like feature developing during the

  16. Determination of interrill soil erodibility coefficient based on Fuzzy and Fuzzy-Genetic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Palizvan Zand

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the fuzzy logic science has been used successfully in various sudies of hydrology and soil erosion, but in literature review no article was found about its performance for estimating of interrill erodibility. On the other hand, studies indicate that genetic algorithm techniques can be used in fuzzy models and finding the appropriate membership functions for linguistic variables and fuzzy rules. So this study was conducted to develop the fuzzy and fuzzy–genetics models and investigation of their performance in the estimation of soil interrill erodibility factor (Ki. Materials and Methods: For this reason 36 soil samples with different physical and chemical properties were collected from west of Azerbaijan province . soilsamples were also taken from the Ap or A horizon of each soil profile. The samples were air-dried , sieved and Some soil characteristics such as soil texture, organic matter (OM, cation exchange capacity (CEC, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, EC and pH were determined by the standard laboratory methods. Aggregates size distributions (ASD were determined by the wet-sieving method and fractal dimension of soil aggregates (Dn was also calculated. In order to determination of soil interrill erodibility, the flume experiment performed by packing soil a depth of 0.09-m in 0.5 × 1.0 m. soil was saturated from the base and adjusted to 9% slope and was subjected to at least 90 min rainfall . Rainfall intensity treatments were 20, 37 and 47 mm h-1. During each rainfall event, runoff was collected manually in different time intervals, being less than 60 s at the beginning, up to 15 min near the end of the test. At the end of the experiment, the volumes of runoff samples and the mass of sediment load at each time interval were measured. Finally interrill erodibility values were calculated using Kinnell (11 Equation. Then by statistical analyses Dn and sand percent of the soils were selected as input variables and Ki as

  17. Physico-chemical properties and fertility status of water eroded soils of Sharkul area of district Mansehra, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmanullah Khan, A. Iqbal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil degradation is the major threat to agricultural sustainability because it affects the soil productivity. Present study was conducted in 2008 to evaluate physico-chemical properties and fertility status of some eroded soil series of Sharkul area district Manshera, Hazara division, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Six soil series including slightly eroded (Dosera and Girari, moderately eroded (Nakholi and Sharkul and severely eroded (Ahl and Banser were selected. Soil samples were collected from surface (0-15 cm, subsurface (30-45 cm and substrata soil (60-75cm depths and were analyzed for various soil properties. Due to severity of erosion, bulk density increased, while total porosity, saturation percentage and organic matter decreased significantly. AB-DTPA extractable P, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn concentrations were decreased due to the severity of erosion in surface and sub surface soils, whereas in the substrata soils (60-75 cm depth, the effect of erosion was almost non significant. Sub-surface and sub-strata soils were found deficient in available P ( Zn > Fe > Mn. The physical and chemical properties of eroded soils varied significantly and the increasing severity of erosion resulted in corresponding deterioration of soil quality.

  18. Coupled diffusion of two species in a slab with an eroding boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, S.B.; Ozisik, M.N.; Verghese, K.

    1981-01-01

    The diffusion of two interchangeable species in a medium with an eroding boundary is analyzed by modeling the problem as the solution of two diffusion equations coupled at the source term for a slab with a moving boundary. Formal solutions are developed for the concentration of the two species as a function of time and position in the slab for arbitrary initial distributions of the diffusing species, arbitrary sources within the medium and boundary conditions of the third kind at the bounding surfaces. It is shown with an illustrative example, that the resulting coupled integral equations for the species can be solved very efficiently by an approach employing both a lower- and upper-bound starting function for the concentrations. (author)

  19. Bond Stability of a Universal Adhesive System to Eroded/Abraded Dentin After Deproteinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, M G; Torres, Crg; Pucci, C R; Schlueter, N; Borges, A B

    Erosive/abrasive challenges can potentially compromise bonding to dentin. Aiming to improve the quality and stability of bonding to this substrate, this study investigated the combined effect of erosion and toothbrush abrasion on the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) stability to dentin using a universal adhesive system in total and self-etching modes, associated or not associated with deproteinization. Bovine dentin specimens were divided into five groups according to the organic matrix condition (n=20): control (C); erosion (E); erosion + abrasion (EA); erosion + sodium hypochlorite (EH); erosion + abrasion + sodium hypochlorite (EAH). The groups were further divided (n=10) according to the mode of application (total or self-etching) of a universal adhesive. After the bonding procedure, composite blocks were built up, and the samples were cut to obtain sticks for μTBS testing. For each specimen, one-half of the sticks was immediately tested, and the other one-half was tested after artificial aging (5000 thermocycles, 5°C and 55°C). Three-way analysis of variance (α=5%) showed a significant difference for the triple interaction ( p=0.0007). Higher μTBS means were obtained for the EH and EAH groups compared with the E and EA groups. The control group showed immediate μTBS values similar to that of the E and EA groups for both bond strategies. Erosion and erosion/abrasion did not significantly influence the immediate μTBS to dentin. Artificial aging reduced μTBS values for the groups C, E, and EA using the total-etching mode. Deproteinization maintained the bond stability to artificially aged eroded and eroded/abraded dentin.

  20. The transient response for different types of erodable surface thermocouples using finite element analysis

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    Mohammed Hussein

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient response of erodable surface thermocouples has been numerically assessed by using a two dimensional finite element analysis. Four types of base metal erodable surface thermocouples have been examined in this study, included type-K (alumel-chromel, type-E (chromel-constantan, type-T (copper-constantan, and type-J (iron-constantan with 50 mm thick- ness for each. The practical importance of these types of thermocouples is to be used in internal combustion engine studies and aerodynamics experiments. The step heat flux was applied at the surface of the thermocouple model. The heat flux from the measurements of the surface temperature can be commonly identified by assuming that the heat transfer within these devices is one-dimensional. The surface temperature histories at different positions along the thermocouple are presented. The normalized surface temperature histories at the center of the thermocouple for different types at different response time are also depicted. The thermocouple response to different heat flux variations were considered by using a square heat flux with 2 ms width, a sinusoidal surface heat flux variation width 10 ms period and repeated heat flux variation with 2 ms width. The present results demonstrate that the two dimensional transient heat conduction effects have a significant influence on the surface temperature history measurements made with these devices. It was observed that the surface temperature history and the transient response for thermocouple type-E are higher than that for other types due to the thermal properties of this thermocouple. It was concluded that the thermal properties of the surrounding material do have an impact, but the properties of the thermocouple and the insulation materials also make an important contribution to the net response.

  1. Crop Performance and Soil Properties in Two Artificially-Eroded Soils in North-Central Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Malhi, S. S.; Nyborg, M.; Solberg, E. D.; Quiroga Jakas, Maria C.

    2006-09-01

    Field experiments were conducted from 1991 to 1995 at Josephburg (Orthic Black Chernozem, Typic Cryoboroll) and Cooking Lake (Orthic Gray Luvisol, Typic Cryoboralf), Alberta, to determine impact of topsoil removal on selected soil properties, N-mineralization potential and crop yield, and effectiveness of various amendments for restoring the productivity of eroded soils. The simulated-erosion levels were established in the autumn of 1990 by removing 20 cm topsoil in 5-cm depth increments. The four amendments were: control, addition of 5 cm of topsoil, fertilizers to supply 100 kg N ha-1 and 20 kg P ha-1, and cattle manure at 75 Mg ha-1. Topsoil and manure were applied once in the autumn of 1990, while fertilizers were applied annually from 1991 to 1995. Available N and P, total C, N and P, and N-mineralization potential decreased, while bulk density increased with increasing depth of topsoil removal. Tiller number, plant height, spike density, thousand kernel weight, and leaf area index decreased with simulated erosion. Grain yield reductions due to simulated soil erosion were either linear or curvilinear functions of nutrient removal. Application of N and P fertilizers and manure improved grain yield and reduced the impact of yield loss due to erosion. Return of 5 cm of topsoil also increased grain yield, but to a lesser extent than manure or fertilizers. Grain yields were maximized when fertilizers were also applied to organic amendment treatments. In conclusion, the findings suggest the importance of integrated use of organic amendments and chemical fertilizers for best crop yields on severely-eroded soils.

  2. Deposition of eroded soil on terraced croplands in Minchet catchment, Ethiopian Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemtsehay Subhatu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Ethiopian Highlands, soil and water conservation practices are of utmost importance to conserve eroded soil and combat soil loss. This study provides detailed results on on-site sediment deposition and net soil loss in terraced croplands in a catchment in the sub-humid Ethiopian Highlands. Sediment deposition was measured on horse bean and maize fields during the crop growing seasons of 2014 and 2015. Measurements took place on observation plots on terraced cropland with varying spacing between terraces and varying slope gradients. Net soil loss, in this case the amount leaving the terraced cropland, was calculated by modelling the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE for the whole observation field and subtracting the measured sediment deposition. The study result showed about 8–11 t ha−1 sediment was deposited in the deposition zone of the terraced cropland, with greater sediment deposition on terraces with narrow spacing and steeper slope gradients. Sediment deposition was highest in July and August, and relatively low in September. Annual soil loss ranged from 32 to 37 t ha−1 in the terraced cropland of the study area. From the total soil loss in the crop growing season, about 54–74% sediment was deposited on the deposition zone of terraced crop fields. Implementation of soil and water conservation with narrow spacing, especially on the steep slopes of the sub-humid Ethiopian Highlands or other similar area, are thus highly recommended as they enable conservation of the eroded soil in the cropland.

  3. Interrill Erodibility of P and C on conventially and organically farmed Devon soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, N. J.

    2012-04-01

    Soil erosion can have significant off-site effects on water quality and thus human and habitat health. Apart from sedimentation, the transfer of nutrients, both dissolved and particulate, is a major concern. The particulate transfer of nutrients from agricultural land can occur either by rill or interrill erosion. Rill erosion is non-selective and affects only a limited extent of agricultural land. Interrill processes such as crusting, splash and raindrop-impacted wash, on the other hand, act on all cropland and affect the quality of the water from all areas generating runoff. A significant amount of phosphorus (P) is contained in the surface soil layer transformed by interrill processes annually. In the EU, the P content of a crusted (2 mm) surface layer corresponds to 4 to 40 kg ha-1 of P on arable land (1.094 mil km2). Therefore, the role of interrill processes and erosion for regional nutrient cycling requires close attention. Interrill erosion is a complex phenomenon, involving the detachment, transport and deposition of soil particles by raindrop impacted flow. Resistance to interrill erosion varies between soils depending on their physical, chemical and mineralogical properties. In addition, significant changes in soil resistance to interrill erosion occur during storms as a result of changes in surface roughness, cohesion and particle size. As a consequence, erosion on interrill areas is selective, moving the most easily detached small and/or light soil particles which are often enriched in clay, P and organic C. Commonly, the risk of erosion associated with organically farmed soils is lower than those farmed in a conventional way. This is attributed to greater aggregate stability and thus greater infiltration and lower erodibility. Erosion of nutrients on organically farmed soils is therefore considered to be reduced by the same order of magnitude than the amount of eroded soil compared to conventionally farmed soils. However, the selective nature of

  4. Sensitivity Analysis of the USLE Soil Erodibility Factor to Its Determining Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitova, Milena; Rousseva, Svetla

    2014-05-01

    Soil erosion is recognized as one of the most serious soil threats worldwide. Soil erosion prediction is the first step in soil conservation planning. The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is one of the most widely used models for soil erosion predictions. One of the five USLE predictors is the soil erodibility factor (K-factor), which evaluates the impact of soil characteristics on soil erosion rates. Soil erodibility nomograph defines K-factor depending on soil characteristics, such as: particle size distribution (fractions finer that 0.002 mm and from 0.1 to 0.002 mm), organic matter content, soil structure and soil profile water permeability. Identifying the soil characteristics, which mostly influence the K-factor would give an opportunity to control the soil loss through erosion by controlling the parameters, which reduce the K-factor value. The aim of the report is to present the results of analysis of the relative weight of these soil characteristics in the K-factor values. The relative impact of the soil characteristics on K-factor was studied through a series of statistical analyses of data from the geographic database for soil erosion risk assessments in Bulgaria. Degree of correlation between K-factor values and the parameters that determine it was studied by correlation analysis. The sensitivity of the K-factor was determined by studying the variance of each parameter within the range between minimum and maximum possible values considering average value of the other factors. Normalizing transformation of data sets was applied because of the different dimensions and the orders of variation of the values of the various parameters. The results show that the content of particles finer than 0.002 mm has the most significant relative impact on the soil erodibility, followed by the content of particles with size from 0.1 mm to 0.002 mm, the class of the water permeability of the soil profile, the content of organic matter and the aggregation class. The

  5. Soil aggregates, organic matter turnover and carbon balance in a Mediterranean eroded vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Agata; Lo Papa, Giuseppe; Dazzi, Carmelo; Gristina, Luciano; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    The carbon cycle is being affected by the human impacts (Novara et al., 2011; Yan-Gui et al., 2013), and one of those is the intensification in the soil erosion in agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009; García Orenes et al., 2009). Vineyards also are affected by the human activities (Fernández Calviño, 2012). Vineyards in Sicily are cultivated on 110.000 ha, 10% of which on >10% slope. Deficiencies of soil organic matter are typical of the semi arid Mediterranean environment especially where traditional intensive cropping practices are adopted (Novara et al., 2012; 2013). These practices in vineyards could lead soil to intensive erosion processes (Novara et al., 2011). The fate of SOC under erosion processes is difficult to understand because of the influence of the erosion impact on SOC pathway, which depends on the different features of the process involved (detachment, transport and/or deposition). Soil erosion must be considered a net C source (Lal, 2003), as eroded soils have lower net primary productivity (NPP) (Dick and Gregorich, 2004) caused by reduction in the effective rooting depth and all in all determining decline in soil quality. Breakdown of aggregates and soil dispersion expose SOM to microbial/enzymatic processes and chemical soil properties (Dimoyiannis, 2012; Kocyigit and Demirci, 2012). Moreover the light fraction, transported by runoff, is labile and easily mineralized determining CO2 emission in the atmosphere (Jacinthe and Lal, 2004). Therefore, the carbon pool is lower in eroded than in un-eroded soil scapes and the rate of mineralization of soil organic matter is higher in sediments than in original soil. In this survey we show a research conducted on a slope sequence of three soil profiles in an irrigated vineyard located in Sambuca di Sicilia, Italy (UTM33-WGS84: 4169367N; 325011E). The SOC content was measured at depth intervals of 10 cm up to a depth of 60 cm in each pedon. Wet aggregate-size fractions with no prior chemical

  6. Mulching as a strategy to improve soil properties and reduce soil erodibility in coffee farming systems of Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nzeyimana, I.; Hartemink, A.E.; Ritsema, C.J.; Stroosnijder, L.; Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Geissen, V.

    2017-01-01

    In Rwanda, mulch is applied in coffee fields to control soil erosion. The objective of this paper is to quantify the effects of different types of mulch on soil properties and soil erodibility in coffee farming systems in three different agro-ecological zones of the highlands of Rwanda. The

  7. Tracing the source of soil organic matter eroded from temperate forest catchments using carbon and nitrogen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emma P. McCorkle; Asmeret Asefaw Berhe; Carolyn T. Hunsaker; Dale W. Johnson; Karis J. McFarlane; Marilyn L. Fogel; Stephen C. Hart

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion continuously redistributes soil and associated soil organic matter (SOM) on the Earth's surface, with important implications for biogeochemical cycling of essential elements and terrestrial carbon sequestration. Despite the importance of soil erosion, surprisingly few studies have evaluated the sources of eroded carbon (C). We used natural abundance...

  8. The impacts of grazing land management on the wind erodibility of the Mulga Lands of western Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    An estimated 100 Mt of dust is eroded by wind from the Australian land surface each year. Wind erosion may be widespread across the arid and semi-arid rangelands, with impacts on soil nutrients, carbon and ecosystem services, human health, and climate. The susceptibility of landscapes to wind erosio...

  9. Restoring crop productivity of eroded lands through , integrated plant nutrient management (IPNM) for sustained production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, A.U.; Ali, S.

    2005-01-01

    Crop productivity of eroded lands is very poor due to removal of top fertile soil losing organic matter and plant nutrients, with consequent exposure of the sub-soil with poor fertility status. Crop productivity of such lands needs to be restored in order to help farmers feed many mouths because of increased population and high land pressure. Three field experiments were laid out at three sites, Thana, Malakand Agency; Kabal and Matta, Swat during 2003-2004 to study the effect of integrated plant nutrient management on the yield of wheat. The fertilizer treatments consisted of farmer's practice (60-45-0 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/), recommended fertilizer rate (120-90-60 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-K/sub 2/O ha/sup -l/ + 5 kg Zn ha/sup -1), and combined application of organic and inorganic sources of plant nutrients (FYM at the rate of 20 t ha/sup -1/ plus 60-90-60 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + 5 kg Zn ha/sup -1/). The results obtained from these field trails showed that the combined application of FYM with NPK Zn increased the grain yield significantly over the other two treatments with an increase of 50-80% over the farmer's practice and 11 to 23 % over the recommended dose. As regards straw yields, T/sub 2/ and T/sub 3/ increased the yields significantly over farmer's practice (T) at all the sites; However, T/sub 2/ and T/sub 3/ at Thana and Kabal were at par with each other. As regards effect of various treatments on soil properties, organic matter content was improved at Thana and Kabal sites while at Matta the results were inconsistent. Similarly soil P and Zn contents were increased considerably in T/sub 2/ and T/sub 3/ at Thana and Kabal being at par with each other. It is apparent from these results that the crop productivity of eroded lands at all the three sties was considerably restored and the soil fertility status was improved by integrated plant nutrient management. (author)

  10. Erodibility of calcareous soils as influenced by land use and intrinsic soil properties in a semiarid region of central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoubi, Shamsollah; Mokhtari, Javad; Mosaddeghi, Mohammad Reza; Zeraatpisheh, Mojtaba

    2018-03-06

    The most important properties affecting the soil loss and runoff were investigated, and the effects of land use on the soil properties, together with the erodibility indices in a semiarid zone, central Iran, were evaluated. The locations of 100 positions were acquired by cLHS and 0-5-cm surface soil layer samples were used for laboratory analyses from the Borujen Region, Chaharmahal-Va-Bakhtiari Province, central Iran. To measure in situ runoff and soil erodibility of three different land uses comprising dryland, irrigated farming, and rangeland, a portable rainfall simulator was used. The results showed that the high variations (coefficient of variation, CV) were obtained for electrical conductivity (EC), mean weight diameter (MWD), soil organic carbon (SOC), and soil erodibility indices including runoff volume, soil loss, and sediment concentration (CV ~ 43.6-77.4%). Soil erodibility indices showed positive and significant correlations with bulk density and negative correlations with SOC, MWD, clay content, and soil shear strength in the area under investigation. The values of runoff in the dryland, irrigated farming, and rangeland were found 1.5, 28.9, and 58.7 cm 3 ; soil loss in the dryland, irrigated farming, and rangeland were observed 0.25, 2.96, and 76.8 g; and the amount of sediment concentration in the dryland, irrigated farming, and rangeland were found 0.01, 0.11, and 0.15 g cm -3 . It is suggested that further investigations should be carried out on soil erodibility and the potential of sediment yield in various land uses with varying topography and soil properties in semiarid regions of Iran facing the high risk of soil loss.

  11. Numerical Investigation of Temperature Distribution in an Eroded Bend Pipe and Prediction of Erosion Reduced Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongjun; Feng, Guang; Wang, Qijun

    2014-01-01

    Accurate prediction of erosion thickness is essential for pipe engineering. The objective of the present paper is to study the temperature distribution in an eroded bend pipe and find a new method to predict the erosion reduced thickness. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations with FLUENT software are carried out to investigate the temperature field. And effects of oil inlet rate, oil inlet temperature, and erosion reduced thickness are examined. The presence of erosion pit brings about the obvious fluctuation of temperature drop along the extrados of bend. And the minimum temperature drop presents at the most severe erosion point. Small inlet temperature or large inlet velocity can lead to small temperature drop, while shallow erosion pit causes great temperature drop. The dimensionless minimum temperature drop is analyzed and the fitting formula is obtained. Using the formula we can calculate the erosion reduced thickness, which is only needed to monitor the outer surface temperature of bend pipe. This new method can provide useful guidance for pipeline monitoring and replacement. PMID:24719576

  12. Tritium recycling and inventory in eroded debris of plasma-facing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.

    1999-01-01

    Damage to plasma-facing components (PFCs) and structural materials due to loss of plasma confinement in magnetic fusion reactors remains one of the most serious concerns for safe, successful, and reliable tokamak operation. High erosion losses due to surface vaporization, spallation, and melt-layer splashing are expected during such an event. The eroded debris and dust of the PFCs, including trapped tritium, will be contained on the walls or within the reactor chamber therefore, they can significantly influence plasma behavior and tritium inventory during subsequent operations. Tritium containment and behavior in PFCS and in the dust and debris is an important factor in evaluating and choosing the ideal plasma-facing materials (PFMs). Tritium buildup and release in the debris of candidate materials is influenced by the effect of material porosity on diffusion and retention processes. These processes have strong nonlinear behavior due to temperature, volubility, and existing trap sites. A realistic model must therefore account for the nonlinear and multidimensional effects of tritium diffusion in the porous-redeposited and neutron-irradiated materials. A tritium-transport computer model, TRAPS (Tritium Accumulation in Porous Structure), was developed and used to evaluate and predict the kinetics of tritium transport in porous media. This model is coupled with the TRICS (Tritium In Compound Systems) code that was developed to study the effect of surface erosion during normal and abnormal operations on tritium behavior in PFCS

  13. Workplace bullying erodes job and personal resources: between- and within-person perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckey, Michelle R; Neall, Annabelle M

    2014-10-01

    Workplace bullying is a serious psychosocial occupational hazard. Despite a wealth of empirical study, research has rarely examined the mechanisms through which bullying has its negative effects. Accordingly, using both between- and within-person approaches, we investigated the erosion of job (Study 1) and personal (Study 2) resources following workplace bullying, mediated by the depletion of emotional energy. In Study 1, self-report survey data were collected from 221 retail workers at 2 time-points spaced 6 months apart. Structural equation modeling revealed that over time bullying depletes coworker support, partially mediated by emotional exhaustion. In Study 2, a 6-week diary was completed by a separate sample of 45 workers employed in various occupations. Within-person weekly variability in bullying exposure was 34%. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that weekly emotional exhaustion partially mediated the negative effects of weekly workplace bullying on both optimism and self-efficacy. The consistent pattern across both studies supports the idea of a resource loss process whereby exposure to bullying at work erodes job and personal resources by depleting energy. Future research should clarify the role of exhaustion in utilizing resources to respond to bullying, focus on predictors of within-person variability in bullying exposure, and more explicitly model the resource loss spiral following workplace bullying. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. SOIL ERODIBILITY IN THE BRAZILIAN COASTAL PLAINS ERODIBILIDADE DO SOLO NOS TABULEIROS COSTEIROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Curi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    In order to determine soil losses caused by water erosion, in different situations, erosion prediction models, such as the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE, are used. Their application on agricultural and environmental planning depends on the determination of the USLE factors, including erodibility (K factor. The objective of this study was to determine erodibility for the main soil classes of the Brazilian Coastal Plains region, in Aracruz, Espírito Santo State. The experiment was established in the following soils: medium/clayey texture Yellow Argisol (PA1, Haplic Plinthosol (FX, and moderately rocky Yellow Argisol (PA2. For the calculation of soil erodibility, data of erosivity and soil losses, from November 1997 to May 2004, were used. Soil losses samplings were performed for each rainfall event regarded as erosive. The erodibility values were 0.007 Mg h MJ-1 mm-1

  15. Social perception of soil conservation benefits in Kondoa eroded area of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra P. Shrestha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A soil conservation project was implemented in Tanzania for over 30 years. This study applied a socio-economic approach to examine and analyse the benefits of soil conservation in the Kondoa eroded area of Tanzania by conducting a household survey of 240 households. The study findings show that 89% and 70% of respondents consider soil conservation activities have increased vegetation and soil fertility, respectively. Decreased soil erosion was perceived by 68% of respondents, increased firewood by 98%, increased fodder by 50%, high crop yields by 56%, and food sufficiency by 68%. These are the outcomes of conservation tillage, integrated farming and use of organic fertilizers, controlled stall feeding, agroforestry, construction of cut off drains, contour bunds and contour ridges cultivation, which are the main land use practices in the area. Access to extension services, household sizes, long term land ownership, crop incomes and awareness of soil conservation project were found to determine the level of participation in soil conservation. Major challenges are the lack of sustainability of those activities because of a recent policy decision to withdraw conservation investment. Despite the challenge, this study concluded that past government efforts on soil conservation activities initiated since the early 1970s through decentralization, institutional collaboration, socioeconomic support to farmers and continuous local community participation in restoring the degraded ecosystem of Kondoa have contributed to ensure environmental and socio-economic sustainability in the area.

  16. Erodibility of cement-stabilized tropical soils in highway engineering in Togo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklu-Natey, T.E.D.

    1992-01-01

    This work contains a methodical study on the suceptibility to weather of cement-stabilized tropical soils of Togo by simulating on the one hand the climatic conditions of the original surroundings and on the other hand the variations occuring in situ of the degree of saturation and compaction. The chosen tests ensure for the first time a simple execution and at the same time reproducible numerical values of the results achieved. From results of the slaking, erosion, adhesion, durability and swelling tests clear parameters and classification criteria were derived which help to forecast the susceptibility to weather of soils in tropical climates. A method for the determination of the reaction to water of soils is proposed consisting of a particular process of derivation and interpretation of the consistency value for a given swelling rate. Moreover a possibility is recommended with which the time-consuming and expensive mineralogical analyses which were frequently used in the past for torpical soils can be avoided. The proposed evaluation criteria provides civil engineers working in permanently moist, arid or intermittently moist tropical regions with practical and theoretical bases for the estimation of the erodibility of soils. (orig./BBR) [de

  17. Local and non-local effects of spanwise finite perturbations in erodible river bathymetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Mirko; Hill, Craig; Guala, Michele

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to study the effect of axial-flow hydrokinetic turbine models on an erodible river bed under live-bed conditions. Results indicate that the presence of an operating turbine rotor creates a blockage in the mean flow which produces a remarkable geomorphic signature in the migrating bedforms. These impacts affect a local area downstream of the turbines when placed symmetrically with respect to the cross section of the channel. On the other hand, more interesting results are observed with an asymmetric installation of the turbines. This configuration demonstrates a stronger effect on the mean flow, resulting in a larger plan-wise distortion of the mean topography and differential migration patterns of bedforms. Different turbine installation arrangements and hub heights above the mean bed were investigated, focusing mainly on the perturbation of sediment transport characteristics influenced by the turbine wake. Additional results with spanwise modulated submerged walls explore the possibility to control river topography harvesting this type of geomorphic destabilization.

  18. Bond strength and interfacial morphology of orthodontic brackets bonded to eroded enamel treated with calcium silicate-sodium phosphate salts or resin infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costenoble, Aline; Vennat, Elsa; Attal, Jean-Pierre; Dursun, Elisabeth

    2016-11-01

     To investigate the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets bonded to eroded enamel treated with preventive approaches and to examine the enamel/bracket interfaces.  Ninety-one brackets were bonded to seven groups of enamel samples: sound; eroded; eroded+treated with calcium silicate-sodium phosphate salts (CSP); eroded+infiltrated by ICON ® ; eroded+infiltrated by ICON ® and brackets bonded with 1-month delay; eroded+infiltrated by an experimental resin; and eroded+infiltrated by an experimental resin and brackets bonded with 1-month delay. For each group, 12 samples were tested in SBS and bond failure was assessed with the adhesive remnant index (ARI); one sample was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).  Samples treated with CSP or infiltration showed no significant differences in SBS values with sound samples. Infiltrated samples followed by a delayed bonding showed lower SBS values. All of the values remained acceptable. The ARI scores were significantly higher for sound enamel, eroded, and treated with CSP groups than for all infiltrated samples. SEM examinations corroborated the findings.  Using CSP or resin infiltration before orthodontic bonding does not jeopardize the bonding quality. The orthodontic bonding should be performed shortly after the resin infiltration.

  19. ASSESSMENT SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF SOIL ERODIBILITY BY USING OF GEOSTATISTIC AND GIS (Case study MEHR watershed of SABZEVAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoubi, S.A

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil erodibility is one of the key factors on some sediment and soil erosion models such as USLE, MUSLE, RUSLE, AUSLE (USLE modified in LS factor and MMF and represents like K factor and is function of particle distribution, organic mater, soil structure and ermeability. Traditional methods do not take spatial variability and estimate precision of variables in to consideration and amount of them are constant across the whole of soil series .This study was performed to assess spatial variability of soil erodibility and its relevant variables at MEHR watershed from Khorasan province, in northern Iran. Interested network was designed by 110 samples like nested- systematic with distance about 50, 100, 250 and 500 meter across the study area by preparing point map at GIS. Sampling points were identified in field by an Global Positioning system. Soil sampling was done at depth of 0-5cm of ground surface and permeability was studied at depth of 5-30 cm. Some soil properties such as particle distribution and organic mater were measured at laboratory. Particle size distribution was determined by Hydrometer method and Organic matter was measured by wet oxidation approach. Then spatial analysis was done. Variography analysis on soil attributes according to soil erodibility, showed that Gaussian, exponential and spherical models were the most models to predict spatial variability of soil parameters. The range of spatial dependencies was changed from 320 to 3200 m. Soil attribute maps prepared by kriging technique using models parameters. Then soil attributes were composed by Wischmeier (1978 formula in Illwis media to calculate K factor. Amount of soil erodibility changed from 0.13 to 0.91 that it's maximum and minimum was identified in east and southwest of studiedarea. Soil spatial variability pattern, is similar to silt pattern due to high effect of silt on soil rodibility, Also that is partially confirmed with geology map, indicated which soil

  20. Molecular weight-dependent degradation and drug release of surface-eroding poly(ethylene carbonate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohr, Adam; Wang, Yingya; Harmankaya, Necati; Water, Jorrit J; Baldursdottír, Stefania; Almdal, Kristoffer; Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz

    2017-06-01

    Poly(ethylene carbonate) (PEC) is a unique biomaterial showing significant potential for controlled drug delivery applications. The current study investigated the impact of the molecular weight on the biological performance of drug-loaded PEC films. Following the preparation and thorough physicochemical characterization of diverse PEC (molecular weights: 85, 110, 133, 174 and 196kDa), the degradation and drug release behavior of rifampicin- and bovine serum albumin-loaded PEC films was investigated in vitro (in the presence and absence of cholesterol esterase), in cell culture (RAW264.7 macrophages) and in vivo (subcutaneous implantation in rats). All investigated samples degraded by means of surface erosion (mass loss, but constant molecular weight), which was accompanied by a predictable, erosion-controlled drug release pattern. Accordingly, the obtained in vitro degradation half-lives correlated well with the observed in vitro half-times of drug delivery (R 2 =0.96). Here, the PEC of the highest molecular weight resulted in the fastest degradation/drug release. When incubated with macrophages or implanted in animals, the degradation rate of PEC films superimposed the results of in vitro incubations with cholesterol esterase. Interestingly, SEM analysis indicated a distinct surface erosion process for enzyme-, macrophage- and in vivo-treated polymer films in a molecular weight-dependent manner. Overall, the molecular weight of surface-eroding PEC was identified as an essential parameter to control the spatial and temporal on-demand degradation and drug release from the employed delivery system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Wind-Eroded Crater Floors and Intercrater Plains, Terra Sabaea, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Rossman P.; Wray, James J.; Mest, Scott C.; Maxwell, Ted A.

    2018-02-01

    Ancient impact craters with wind-eroded layering on their floors provide a record of resurfacing materials and processes on early Mars. In a 54 km Noachian crater in Terra Sabaea (20.2°S, 42.6°E), eolian deflation of a friable, dark-toned layer up to tens of meters thick has exposed more resistant, underlying light-toned material. These layers differ significantly from strata of similar tone described in other regions of Mars. The light-toned material has no apparent internal stratification, and visible/near-infrared spectral analysis suggests that it is rich in feldspar. Its origin is ambiguous, as we cannot confidently reject igneous, pyroclastic, or clastic alternatives. The overlying dark-toned layer is probably a basaltic siltstone or sandstone that was emplaced mostly by wind, although its weak cementation and inverted fluvial paleochannels indicate some modification by water. Negative-relief channels are not found on the crater floor, and fluvial erosion is otherwise weakly expressed in the study area. Small impacts onto this crater's floor have exposed deeper friable materials that appear to contain goethite. Bedrock outcrops on the crater walls are phyllosilicate bearing. The intercrater plains contain remnants of a post-Noachian thin, widespread, likely eolian mantle with an indurated surface. Plains near Hellas-concentric escarpments to the north are more consistent with volcanic resurfacing. A 48 km crater nearby contains similar dark-over-light outcrops but no paleochannels. Our findings indicate that dark-over-light stratigraphy has diverse origins across Mars and that some dark-toned plains with mafic mineralogy are not of igneous origin.

  2. Temporal shift of sea turtle nest sites in an eroding barrier island beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Lamont, Margaret M.; Carthy, Raymond R.

    2018-01-01

    Shoreline changes affect functionality of a sandy beach as a wildlife habitat and coastal erosion is among the primary causes of the changes. We examined temporal shifts in locations where loggerheads placed nests in relation to coastal erosion along a barrier island beach in the northern Gulf of Mexico. We first confirmed consistency in long-term (1855–2001), short-term (1976–2001), and more recent (2002–2012) shoreline change rates in two adjacent beach sections, one historically eroding (west beach) and the other accreting (east beach). The mean annual shoreline change rate in the two sections was significantly different in all time periods. The recent (1998–2012) mean change rate was −10.9 ± 9.9 m/year in the west beach and −2.8 ± 4.9 m/year in the east beach, which resulted in the loss of about 70% and 30% of area in the west and east beaches, respectively. Loggerheads nested significantly closer to the vegetation line in 2012 than in 2002 in the west beach but the difference between the two time periods was not significant in the east beach. However, the distance from nests to the vegetation line from 2002 to 2014 was significantly reduced annually in both beaches; on average, loggerheads nested closer to the vegetation line by 9 m/year in the west beach and 5.8 m/year in the east beach. The observed shoreline change rate and corresponding shift of nest placement sites, combined with the forecasted future beach loss, highlighted the importance of addressing the issue of beach erosion to conserve sandy beach habitats.

  3. Reconstruction of Eroded and Visually Complicated Archaeological Geometric Patterns: Minaret Choli, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Al Ajlouni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Visually complicated patterns can be found in many cultural heritages of the world. Islamic geometric patterns present us with one example of such visually complicated archaeological ornaments. As long-lived artifacts, these patterns have gone through many phases of construction, damage, and repair and are constantly subject to erosion and vandalism. The task of reconstructing these visually complicated ornaments faces many practical challenges. The main challenge is posed by the fact that archaeological reality often deals with ornaments that are broken, incomplete or hidden. Recognizing faint traces of eroded or missing parts proved to be an extremely difficult task. This is also combined with the need for specialized knowledge about the mathematical rules of patterns’ structure, in order to regenerate the missing data. This paper presents a methodology for reconstructing deteriorated Islamic geometric patterns; to predict the features that are not observed and output a complete reconstructed two-dimension accurate measurable model. The simulation process depends primarily on finding the parameters necessary to predict information, at other locations, based on the relationships embedded in the existing data and in the prior -knowledge of these relations. The aim is to build up from the fragmented data and from the historic and general knowledge, a model of the reconstructed object. The proposed methodology was proven to be successful in capturing the accurate structural geometry of many of the deteriorated ornaments on the Minaret Choli, Iraq. However, in the case of extremely deteriorated samples, the proposed methodology failed to recognize the correct geometry. The conceptual framework proposed by this paper can serve as a platform for developing professional tools for fast and efficient results.

  4. Modification of the USLE K factor for soil erodibility assessment on calcareous soils in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostovari, Yaser; Ghorbani-Dashtaki, Shoja; Bahrami, Hossein-Ali; Naderi, Mehdi; Dematte, Jose Alexandre M.; Kerry, Ruth

    2016-11-01

    The measurement of soil erodibility (K) in the field is tedious, time-consuming and expensive; therefore, its prediction through pedotransfer functions (PTFs) could be far less costly and time-consuming. The aim of this study was to develop new PTFs to estimate the K factor using multiple linear regression, Mamdani fuzzy inference systems, and artificial neural networks. For this purpose, K was measured in 40 erosion plots with natural rainfall. Various soil properties including the soil particle size distribution, calcium carbonate equivalent, organic matter, permeability, and wet-aggregate stability were measured. The results showed that the mean measured K was 0.014 t h MJ- 1 mm- 1 and 2.08 times less than the estimated mean K (0.030 t h MJ- 1 mm- 1) using the USLE model. Permeability, wet-aggregate stability, very fine sand, and calcium carbonate were selected as independent variables by forward stepwise regression in order to assess the ability of multiple linear regression, Mamdani fuzzy inference systems and artificial neural networks to predict K. The calcium carbonate equivalent, which is not accounted for in the USLE model, had a significant impact on K in multiple linear regression due to its strong influence on the stability of aggregates and soil permeability. Statistical indices in validation and calibration datasets determined that the artificial neural networks method with the highest R2, lowest RMSE, and lowest ME was the best model for estimating the K factor. A strong correlation (R2 = 0.81, n = 40, p soils.

  5. Simulated bat populations erode when exposed to climate change projections for western North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Hayes

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated that temperature and precipitation conditions correlate with successful reproduction in some insectivorous bat species that live in arid and semiarid regions, and that hot and dry conditions correlate with reduced lactation and reproductive output by females of some species. However, the potential long-term impacts of climate-induced reproductive declines on bat populations in western North America are not well understood. We combined results from long-term field monitoring and experiments in our study area with information on vital rates to develop stochastic age-structured population dynamics models and analyzed how simulated fringed myotis (Myotis thysanodes populations changed under projected future climate conditions in our study area near Boulder, Colorado (Boulder Models and throughout western North America (General Models. Each simulation consisted of an initial population of 2,000 females and an approximately stable age distribution at the beginning of the simulation. We allowed each population to be influenced by the mean annual temperature and annual precipitation for our study area and a generalized range-wide model projected through year 2086, for each of four carbon emission scenarios (representative concentration pathways RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, RCP8.5. Each population simulation was repeated 10,000 times. Of the 8 Boulder Model simulations, 1 increased (+29.10%, 3 stayed approximately stable (+2.45%, +0.05%, -0.03%, and 4 simulations decreased substantially (-44.10%, -44.70%, -44.95%, -78.85%. All General Model simulations for western North America decreased by >90% (-93.75%, -96.70%, -96.70%, -98.75%. These results suggest that a changing climate in western North America has the potential to quickly erode some forest bat populations including species of conservation concern, such as fringed myotis.

  6. Quantifying sediment connectivity in an actively eroding gully complex, Waipaoa catchment, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard J.; Massey, Chris; Fuller, Ian C.; Marden, Mike; Archibald, Garth; Ries, William

    2018-04-01

    Using a combination of airborne LiDAR (2005) and terrestrial laser scanning (2007, 2008, 2010, 2011), sediment delivery processes and sediment connectivity in an 20-ha gully complex, which significantly contributes to the Waipaoa sediment cascade, are quantified over a 6-year period. The acquisition of terrain data from high-resolution surveys of the whole gully-fan system provides new insights into slope processes and slope-channel linkages operating in the complex. Raw terrain data from the airborne and ground-based laser scans were converted into raster DEMs with a vertical accuracy between surveys of models of change across the gully and fan complex. In these models deposition equates to positive and erosion to negative vertical change. Debris flows, slumping, and erosion by surface runoff (gullying in the conventional sense) generated on average 95,232 m3 of sediment annually, with a standard deviation of ± 20,806 m3. The volumes of debris eroded from those areas dominated by surface erosion processes were higher than in areas dominated by landslide processes. Over the six-year study period, sediment delivery from the source zones to the fan was a factor of 1.4 times larger than the volume of debris exported from the fan into Te Weraroa Stream. The average annual volume of sediment exported to Te Weraroa Stream varies widely from 23,195 to 102,796 m3. Fluctuations in the volume of stored sediment within the fan, rather than external forcing by rainstorms or earthquakes, account for this annual variation. No large rainfall events occurred during the monitoring period; therefore, sediment volumes and transfer processes captured by this study are representative of the background conditions that operate in this geomorphic system.

  7. Comparative study of soil erodibility and critical shear stress between loess and purple soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Hang; Huang, Yu-han; Chen, Xiao-yan; Luo, Bang-lin; Mi, Hong-xing

    2018-03-01

    Loess and purple soils are two very important cultivated soils, with the former in the loess region and the latter in southern sub-tropical region of China, featured with high-risks of erosion, considerable differences of soil structures due to differences in mineral and nutrient compositions. Study on soil erodibility (Kr) and critical shear stress (τc) of these two soils is beneficial to predict soil erosion with such models as WEPP. In this study, rill erosion experimental data sets of the two soils are used for estimating their Kr and τc before they are compared to understand their differences of rill erosion behaviors. The maximum detachment rates of the loess and purple soils are calculated under different hydrodynamic conditions (flow rates: 2, 4, 8 L/min; slope gradients: 5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, 25°) through analytical and numerical methods respectively. Analytical method used the derivative of the function between sediment concentration and rill length to estimate potential detachment rates, at the rill beginning. Numerical method estimated potential detachment rates with the experimental data, at the rill beginning and 0.5 m location. The Kr and τc of these two soils are determined by the linear equation based on experimental data. Results show that the methods could well estimate the Kr and τc of these two soils as they remain basically unchanged under different hydrodynamic conditions. The Kr value of loess soil is about twice of the purple soil, whereas the τc is about half of that. The numerical results have good correlations with the analytical values. These results can be useful in modeling rill erosion processes of loess and purple soils.

  8. An integrated methodology to forecast the efficiency of nourishment strategies in eroding deltas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergillos, Rafael J; López-Ruiz, Alejandro; Principal-Gómez, Daniel; Ortega-Sánchez, Miguel

    2018-02-01

    Many deltas across the globe are retreating, and nearby beaches are undergoing strong erosion as a result. Among soft and prompt solutions, nourishments are the most heavily used. This paper presents an integrated methodology to forecast the efficiency of nourishment strategies by means of wave climate simulations, wave propagations with downscaling techniques, computation of longshore sediment transport rates and application of the one-line model. It was applied to an eroding deltaic beach (Guadalfeo, southern Spain), where different scenarios as a function of the nourished coastline morphology, input volume and grain size were tested. For that, the evolution of six scenarios of coastline geometry over a two-year period (lifetime of nourishment projects at the study site) was modelled and the uncertainty of the predictions was also quantified through Monte Carlo techniques. For the most efficient coastline shape in terms of gained dry beach area, eight sub-scenarios with different nourished volumes were defined and modelled. The results indicate that an input volume around 460,000m 3 is the best strategy since nourished morphologies with higher volumes are more exposed to the prevailing storm directions, inducing less efficient responses. After setting the optimum coastline morphology and input sediment volume, eleven different nourished grain sizes were modelled; the most efficient coastline responses were obtained for sediment sizes greater than 0.01m. The availability of these sizes in the sediment accumulated upstream of a dam in the Guadalfeo River basin allows for the conclusion that this alternative would not only mitigate coastal erosion problems but also sedimentation issues in the reservoir. The methodology proposed in this work is extensible to other coastal areas across the world and can be helpful to support the decision-making process of artificial nourishment projects and other environmental management strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  9. The fate of eroded soil organic carbon along a European transect – controls after deposition in terrestrial and aquatic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkels, Frédérique; Cammeraat, Erik; Kalbitz, Karsten

    that the turnover of deposited C is significantly affected by soil and organic matter properties, and whether deposition occurs in terrestrial or aquatic environments. We sampled topsoils from 10 agricultural sites along a European transect, spanning a wide range of SOC and soil characteristics (e.g. texture......The potential fate of eroded soil organic carbon (SOC) after deposition is key to understand carbon cycling in eroding landscapes. Globally, large quantities of sediments and SOC are redistributed by soil erosion on agricul-tural land, particularly after heavy precipitation events. Deposition......, aggregation, C content, etc.). Turnover of SOC was determined for terrestrial and aquatic depositional conditions in a 10-week incubation study. Moreover, we studied the impact of labile carbon inputs (‘priming’) on SOC stability using 13C labelled cellulose. We evaluated potentially important controls...

  10. Initial Response of Pine Seedlings and Weeds to Dried Sewage Sludge in Rehabilitation of an Eroded Forest Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Berry

    1977-01-01

    Dried sewage sludge was applied at rates of 0, 17, 34, and 69 metric tons/ha on a badly eroded forest site in the Piedmont region of northeast Georgia. Production of weed bio mass varied directly with amount of sludge applied. Heigh growth for both shortleafand loblolly pine seedlings appeared to be greater on plots receiving 17 metric tons of sludge/ha, bu differences...

  11. Spatially variable rock erodibility in bedrock channels undergoing transient response to baselevel change, Great Falls area, Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Shobe, Charles; Kee, Connor; Hancock, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    This is a poster that was presented in April 2014 at the Geological Society of America southeastern section meeting in Blacksburg, VA, USA. The poster presents rock strength and roughness data from tributaries to the Potomac River in Virginia. Our data support the idea that bedrock channel erodibility is greater on the channel margins than at the thalweg, which we hypothesize to be the result of weathering damage preferentially accumulated on the channel banks. This work was published in Shob...

  12. Evaluating the influence of feedbacks between erosion rate and weathering on the distribution of erodibility in bedrock river channels

    OpenAIRE

    Shobe, Charles; Hancock, Gregory; Eppes, Martha; Small, Eric

    2018-01-01

    This is a poster presented on November 3rd, 2015 at the Geological Society of America annual meeting in Baltimore, MD, USA. The poster presents rock strength and roughness data from tributaries to the Potomac River in Virginia. Our data support the idea that bedrock channel erodibility is greater on the channel margins than at the thalweg, which we hypothesize to be the result of weathering damage preferentially accumulated on the channel banks. This work was published in Shobe et al (2017; E...

  13. EROD activity and stable isotopes in seabirds to disentangle marine food web contamination after the Prestige oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velando, Alberto; Munilla, Ignacio; Lopez-Alonso, Marta; Freire, Juan; Perez, Cristobal

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we measured via surgical sampling hepatic EROD activity in yellow-legged gulls from oiled and unoiled colonies, 17 months after the Prestige oil spill. We also analyzed stable isotope composition in feathers of the biopsied gulls, in an attempt to monitor oil incorporation into marine food web. We found that yellow-legged gulls in oiled colonies were being exposed to remnant oil as shown by hepatic EROD activity levels. EROD activity was related to feeding habits of individual gulls with apparent consequences on delayed lethality. Capture-recapture analysis of biopsied gulls suggests that the surgery technique did not affect gull survival, giving support to this technique as a monitoring tool for oil exposure assessment. Our study highlights the combination of different veterinary, toxicological and ecological methodologies as a useful approach for the monitoring of exposure to remnant oil after a large oil spill. - Two years after Prestige oil spill, seabirds were exposed to remnant oil related to their feeding habits with consequences on delayed lethality.

  14. EROD activity and stable isotopes in seabirds to disentangle marine food web contamination after the Prestige oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velando, Alberto, E-mail: avelando@uvigo.e [Departamento de Ecoloxia e Bioloxia Animal, Facultade de Ciencias, Universidade de Vigo, Campus As Lagoas, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Munilla, Ignacio [Departamento de Botanica, Facultade de Farmacia, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Lopez-Alonso, Marta [Departamento de Patoloxia Animal, Facultade de Veterinaria, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Lugo (Spain); Freire, Juan [Grupo de Recursos Marinos y Pesquerias Universidade da Coruna, A Coruna (Spain); Perez, Cristobal [Departamento de Ecoloxia e Bioloxia Animal, Facultade de Ciencias, Universidade de Vigo, Campus As Lagoas, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    In this study, we measured via surgical sampling hepatic EROD activity in yellow-legged gulls from oiled and unoiled colonies, 17 months after the Prestige oil spill. We also analyzed stable isotope composition in feathers of the biopsied gulls, in an attempt to monitor oil incorporation into marine food web. We found that yellow-legged gulls in oiled colonies were being exposed to remnant oil as shown by hepatic EROD activity levels. EROD activity was related to feeding habits of individual gulls with apparent consequences on delayed lethality. Capture-recapture analysis of biopsied gulls suggests that the surgery technique did not affect gull survival, giving support to this technique as a monitoring tool for oil exposure assessment. Our study highlights the combination of different veterinary, toxicological and ecological methodologies as a useful approach for the monitoring of exposure to remnant oil after a large oil spill. - Two years after Prestige oil spill, seabirds were exposed to remnant oil related to their feeding habits with consequences on delayed lethality.

  15. Land degradation assessment by geo-spatially modeling different soil erodibility equations in a semi-arid catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygın, Selen Deviren; Basaran, Mustafa; Ozcan, Ali Ugur; Dolarslan, Melda; Timur, Ozgur Burhan; Yilman, F Ebru; Erpul, Gunay

    2011-09-01

    Land degradation by soil erosion is one of the most serious problems and environmental issues in many ecosystems of arid and semi-arid regions. Especially, the disturbed areas have greater soil detachability and transportability capacity. Evaluation of land degradation in terms of soil erodibility, by using geostatistical modeling, is vital to protect and reclaim susceptible areas. Soil erodibility, described as the ability of soils to resist erosion, can be measured either directly under natural or simulated rainfall conditions, or indirectly estimated by empirical regression models. This study compares three empirical equations used to determine the soil erodibility factor of revised universal soil loss equation prediction technology based on their geospatial performances in the semi-arid catchment of the Saraykoy II Irrigation Dam located in Cankiri, Turkey. A total of 311 geo-referenced soil samples were collected with irregular intervals from the top soil layer (0-10 cm). Geostatistical analysis was performed with the point values of each equation to determine its spatial pattern. Results showed that equations that used soil organic matter in combination with the soil particle size better agreed with the variations in land use and topography of the catchment than the one using only the particle size distribution. It is recommended that the equations which dynamically integrate soil intrinsic properties with land use, topography, and its influences on the local microclimates, could be successfully used to geospatially determine sites highly susceptible to water erosion, and therefore, to select the agricultural and bio-engineering control measures needed.

  16. Effect of biocrust: study of mechanical and hydraulic properties and erodibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavík, Martin; Bruthans, Jiří; Schweigstillová, Jana

    2016-04-01

    It is well-known that lichens and other organisms forming crust on soil or rock surface play important role in weathering but may also protect underlying material from fast erosion. So far, there have been only few measurements comparing mechanical or hydraulic properties of biocrust with its subsurface on locked sand and friable sandstones, so the overall effect of the biocrust is not well-understood. Objective of our study is to quantify the effect of the biocrust on mechanical and hydraulic properties of friable sandstone and locked sand of Cretaceous age in six different localities with varying aspect and inclination and age of exposure in sandpit Strelec (Czech Rep.). On the artificial exposures, biocrust developed within last 10-30 years. Beside measurements of mechanical and hydraulic properties, SEM and mercury intrusion porosimetry in crust and subsurface was performed. Drilling resistance technique was found an excellent method to distinguish the biocrust from its subsurface (~3 mm thick biocrust has up to 12 times higher drilling resistance than underlying material). Surface zone with the biocrust has 3 - 25 times higher tensile strength than the subsurface material (1 - 25 kPa). In comparison with the subsurface, the biocrust is considerably less erodible (based on water jet testing). Biocrust saturated hydraulic conductivity is 15 - 240 times lower than the subsurface (6*10 -5 - 1*10 -4 m/s) and its permeability for water vapor is 4 - 9 times lower than subsurface. Presence of the biocrust slows down capillary absorption of water 4 - 25 times. The biocrust is thus forming firm surface which protects underlying material from rain and flowing water erosion and which considerably modifies its hydraulic properties. Material with crust exposed to calcination, leaching by concentrated peroxide and experiments with zymoliase enzyme strongly indicate that major contribution to crust hardening is provided by organic matter. Based on DNA sequencing the crust is

  17. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: Soil Erodibility (KFFACT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the adjusted soil erodibility factor within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds. Attributes of the...

  18. Effect of root density on erosion and erodibility of a loamy soil under simulated rain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katuwal, Sheela; Vermang, J.; Cornelis, W. M.

    2013-01-01

    of complete plants and (2) after clipping off the shoots. Roots of ryegrass grew rapidly, attaining densities of 0.614 kg m−2 and 2.280 kg m−2 in 4 and 12 weeks respectively. There was no significant influence of root density alone in runoff whereas presence of shoots decreased runoff over control...

  19. Effects of land conversion from native shrub to pistachio orchard on soil erodibility in an arid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakupoglu, Tugrul; Gundogan, Recep; Dindaroglu, Turgay; Kara, Zekeriya

    2017-10-29

    Land-use change through degrading natural vegetation for agricultural production adversely affects many of soil properties particularly organic carbon content of soils. The native shrub land and grassland of Gaziantep-Adiyaman plateau that is an important pistachio growing eco-region have been cleared to convert into pistachio orchard for the last 50 to 60 years. In this study, the effects of conversion of natural vegetation into agricultural uses on soil erodibility have been investigated. Soil samples were collected from surface of agricultural fields and adjacent natural vegetation areas, and samples were analyzed for some soil erodibility indices such as dispersion ratio (DR), erosion ratio (ER), structural stability index (SSI), Henin's instability index (I s ), and aggregate size distribution after wet sieving (AggSD). According to the statistical evaluation, these two areas were found as different from each other in terms of erosion indices except for I s index (P < 0.001 for DR and ER or P < 0.01 for SSI). In addition, native shrub land and converted land to agriculture were found different in terms of AggSD in all aggregate size groups. As a contrary to expectations, correlation tests showed that there were no any interaction between soil organic carbon and measured erodibility indices in two areas. In addition, significant relationships were determined between measured variables and soil textural fractions as statistical. These obtaining findings were attributed to changing of textural component distribution and initial aggregate size distribution results from land-use change in the study area. Study results were explained about hierarchical aggregate formation mechanism.

  20. [Characteristics of Soil Respiration along Eroded Sloping Land with Different SOC Background on the Hilly Loess Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gai; Xu, Ming-xiang; Zhang, Ya-feng; Wang, Chao-hua; Fan, Hui-min; Wang, Shan-shan

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to characterize soil respiration along eroded sloping land at erosion and deposition area under different soil organic carbon(SOC) levels, and linked the relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature, soil moisture, SOC and slope position. Experiments were carried out in the plots of S type slopes include five different soil organic carbon levels in the Loess Hilly Region. The S type slopes were divided into control area at the top of the slope, erosion area at the middle of the slope and deposition area at the toe of the slope. We found that soil temperature had a greater impact on soil respiration in the deposition area, whereas soil moisture had a greater impact on soil respiration in the erosion area compared among control area, erosion area and deposition area. In addition, SOC was the most important factor affecting soil respiration, which can explain soil respiration variation 54. 72%, followed by soil moisture, slope position and soil temperature, which explain soil respiration variation 18. 86% , 16. 13% and 10. 29%, respectively. Soil respiration response to erosion showed obvious on-site and off-site effects along the eroded sloping land. Soil respiration in the erosion area was reduced by 21. 14% compared with control area, and soil respiration in the deposition area was increased by 21. 93% compared with control area. Erosion effect on source and sink of carbon emission was correlated with SOC content of the eroded sloping land. When SOC content was higher than 6. 82 g.kg-1, the slope. erosion tended to be a carbon sequestration process, and when SOC content was lower than 3.03 g.kg-1, the slope erosion tended to be a process of the carbon emission source. The model could reflect the relationship between soil respiration and independent variables of soil organic carbon content, soil temperature and moisture.

  1. Highly erodible terrain in agriculture land against chipped pruned branches. Or how to stop the soil erosion with low investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, A.

    2009-04-01

    The session on "Soil erosion and sediment control with vegetation and bioengineering on severely eroded terrain" pays special attention to the severe soil erosion suffered on steep slopes and erodible parent materials and soils. Within the last 20 years, in the Mediterranean lands, the citrus orchards were reallocated on steep slopes due to the urban development and better climatic and management conditions of the new plantations. The lack of vegetation cover on the new slope plantations of citrus resulted in high erosion rates. Those non-sustainable soil losses were measured by means of rainfall simulation experiments, Gerlach collectors, geomorphological transect and topographical measurements. The October 2007 and October 2008 rainy periods resulted in sheet, rill and gully erosion. Some recently planted orchards (2005) had the first pruning season in 2008. The pruned chipped branches reduced the soil losses to 50 % of the expected, although the litter (pruned branches) covered 4.67 % of the soil. This is why a research was developed by means of simulated rainfall experiments to determine the vegetation cover (litter, mainly leaves) to protect the soil to reach a sustainable erosion rate. Rainfall simulation experiments at 43 mm h-1 where performed on 1 m2 plots covered with 0, 3, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 80 and 100 % litter cover (pruned chipped branches) to determine the sustainable litter cover to avoid the soil losses. The results show that more that 45 % litter cover almost reduces the soil losses to negligible rates. The results confirm that 4 % of vegetation cover reduces the soil losses to 50 %. Key words: Agriculture land, erodible terrain, land management, citrus, erosion, Spain, Valencia, herbicides. Acknowledgements, We thanks the financial support of the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación by means of the project CGL2008-02879/BTE, "PERDIDA DE SUELO EN NUEVAS EXPLOTACIONES CITRICOLAS EN PENDIENTE. ESTRATEGIAS PARA EL CONTROL DE LA EROSION HIDRICA"

  2. Rapidly Moving Divertor Plates In A Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.

    2011-01-01

    It may be possible to replace conventional actively cooled tokamak divertor plates with a set of rapidly moving, passively cooled divertor plates on rails. These plates would absorb the plasma heat flux with their thermal inertia for ∼10-30 sec, and would then be removed from the vessel for processing. When outside the tokamak, these plates could be cooled, cleaned, recoated, inspected, and then returned to the vessel in an automated loop. This scheme could provide nearoptimal divertor surfaces at all times, and avoid the need to stop machine operation for repair of damaged or eroded plates. We describe various possible divertor plate designs and access geometries, and discuss an initial design for a movable and removable divertor module for NSTX-U.

  3. Contaminated soil phytoremediation by Cyperus laxus Lam. cytochrome p450 EROD-activity induced by hydrocarbons in roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martínez, S; Gallegos-Martínez, M E; Pérez-Flores, L J; Gutiérrez-Rojas, M

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse experiments with Cyperus laxus Lam were conducted to determine the rate and extent of phytoremediation and the effect of hydrocarbons on the cytochrome P450 EROD (7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase) enzymatic activity in roots. Plants were cultivated on hydrocarbon-contaminated soil (HCS) and spiked perlite. Phytoremediation was evaluated using 6.5 kg HCS (173 +/- 15 mg total petroleum hydrocarbons [TPH] g(-1) of dry soil) pots at different moisture contents; the average removal rate was 3.46-0.25 mg TPH g(-1) dry soil month(-1) and 48% was removed when moisture was kept at 60%. The aromatic hydrocarbon fraction was the mostly removed, 60%; aliphatic, 51%; and polar 24% after 24-month experiments. In unplanted pots, TPH concentration did not exhibit significant differences with respect to the initial concentration. We confirmed that the presence of hydrocarbons induced ERODactivity up to 6.5-fold. Moreover, short-term experiments (up to 13 d) with spiked perlite demonstrated that two EROD activities in roots contributed to the total detected; 60% was found in the cytosolic and 40% in the microsomal fraction. To our knowledge, this is the first work that tries to build links between the hydrocarbon-inducible character of ERODactivity in roots and the phytoremediation ability of C. laxus in highly contaminated soils.

  4. Effect of CPP-ACP on the remineralization of acid-eroded human tooth enamel: nanomechanical properties and microtribological behaviour study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, L; Zheng, J; Zhang, Y F; Qian, L M; Zhou, Z R

    2013-01-01

    Casein phosphopeptide-stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) has been used to enhance tooth remineralization in the dental clinic. But the contribution of CPP-ACP to the remineralization of acid-eroded human tooth enamel is of widespread controversy. To confirm the application potential of CPP-ACP in the remineralization repair of tooth erosion caused by acid-attack, the effect of remineralization in vitro in 2% w/v CPP-ACP solution on the acid-eroded human tooth enamel was investigated in this study. The repair of surface morphology and the improvement of nanomechanical and microtribological properties were characterized with laser confocal scanning microscope, scanning electron microscope, nanoindentation tester and nanoscratch tester. Results showed that a layer of uneven mineral deposits, which were mainly amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) in all probability, was observed on the acid-eroded enamel surface after remineralization. Compared with the acid-eroded enamel surface, the nanoindentation hardness and Young's modulus of the remineralized enamel surface obviously increased. Both the friction coefficient and wear volume of the acid-eroded enamel surface decreased after remineralization. However, both the nanomechanical and the anti-wear properties of the remineralized enamel surface were still inferior to those of original enamel surface. In summary, tooth damage caused by acid erosion could be repaired by remineralization in CPP-ACP solution, but the repair effect, especially on the nanomechanical and anti-wear properties of the acid-eroded enamel, was limited. These results would contribute to a further exploration of the remineralization potential of CPP-ACP and a better understanding of the remineralization repair mechanism for acid-eroded human tooth enamel. (paper)

  5. Effect of CPP-ACP on the remineralization of acid-eroded human tooth enamel: nanomechanical properties and microtribological behaviour study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, L.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, Y. F.; Qian, L. M.; Zhou, Z. R.

    2013-10-01

    Casein phosphopeptide-stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) has been used to enhance tooth remineralization in the dental clinic. But the contribution of CPP-ACP to the remineralization of acid-eroded human tooth enamel is of widespread controversy. To confirm the application potential of CPP-ACP in the remineralization repair of tooth erosion caused by acid-attack, the effect of remineralization in vitro in 2% w/v CPP-ACP solution on the acid-eroded human tooth enamel was investigated in this study. The repair of surface morphology and the improvement of nanomechanical and microtribological properties were characterized with laser confocal scanning microscope, scanning electron microscope, nanoindentation tester and nanoscratch tester. Results showed that a layer of uneven mineral deposits, which were mainly amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) in all probability, was observed on the acid-eroded enamel surface after remineralization. Compared with the acid-eroded enamel surface, the nanoindentation hardness and Young's modulus of the remineralized enamel surface obviously increased. Both the friction coefficient and wear volume of the acid-eroded enamel surface decreased after remineralization. However, both the nanomechanical and the anti-wear properties of the remineralized enamel surface were still inferior to those of original enamel surface. In summary, tooth damage caused by acid erosion could be repaired by remineralization in CPP-ACP solution, but the repair effect, especially on the nanomechanical and anti-wear properties of the acid-eroded enamel, was limited. These results would contribute to a further exploration of the remineralization potential of CPP-ACP and a better understanding of the remineralization repair mechanism for acid-eroded human tooth enamel.

  6. Potential of surface-eroding poly(ethylene carbonate) for drug delivery to macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Adam; Water, Jorrit J; Wang, Yingya

    2016-01-01

    Films composed of poly(ethylene carbonate) (PEC), a biodegradable polymer, were compared with poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) films loaded with and without the tuberculosis drug rifampicin to study the characteristics and performance of PEC as a potential carrier for controlled drug delivery...... to macrophages. All drug-loaded PLGA and PEC films were amorphous indicating good miscibility of the drug in the polymers, even at high drug loading (up to 50wt.%). Polymer degradation studies showed that PLGA degraded slowly via bulk erosion while PEC degraded more rapidly and near-linearly via enzyme mediated...... surface erosion (by cholesterol esterase). Drug release studies performed with polymer films indicated a diffusion/erosion dependent delivery behavior for PLGA while an almost zero-order drug release profile was observed from PEC due to the controlled polymer degradation process. When exposed to polymer...

  7. Towards prediction of soil erodibility using hyperspectral information: a case study in a semi-arid region of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostovari, Yaser; Ghorbani-Dashtaki, Shoja; Bahrami, Hossein-Ali

    2018-01-01

    and develop Spectrotransfer Function (STF) using spectral reflectance information and Pedotransfer Function (PTF) to predict the K-factor, respectively. The derived STF was compared with developed PTF using measurable soil properties by Ostovari et al. (2016) and the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE......Soil Visible–Near-Infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy has become an applicable and interesting technique to evaluate a number of soil properties because it is a fast, cost-effective, and non-invasive measurement technique. The main objective of the study to predict soil erodibility (K-factor), soil...... organic matter (SOM), and calcium carbonate equivalent (CaCO3) in calcareous soils of semi-arid regions located in south of Iran using spectral reflectance information in the Vis-NIR range. The K-factor was measured in 40 erosion plots under natural rainfall and the spectral reflectance of soil samples...

  8. Effects of in vivo chronic exposure to pendimethalin on EROD activity and antioxidant defenses in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danion, Morgane; Le Floch, Stéphane; Lamour, François; Quentel, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Pendimethalin, an herbicide active substance frequently used in terrestrial systems, has detected in European aquatic ecosystems. Reliable indicators still need to be found in order to properly assess the impact of pesticides in fish. After an in vivo chronic exposure to pendimethalin, the detoxification process and the antioxidant defense system were assessed in 120 adult rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Four nominal exposure conditions were tested: control (C), 500 ng L(-1) (P500), 800 ng L(-1) (P800) and the commercial formulation Prowl(®) at 500 ng L(-1) (Pw500). Fish samples were made after a 28 day exposure period (D28) and after a fifteen day recovery period in clean fresh water (D43). At D28, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was not activated in liver in spite of the pendimethalin uptake in fish. At D43, EROD activity in fish exposed to the commercial product was lower than in control fish, which may be explained by the high presence of herbicide in fish (613±163 ng g bile(-1)). Furthermore, antioxidant defense responses were set up by trout in gills and liver following chronic exposure to 800 ng L(-1) of pendimethalin concentration. While the glutathione content (GSH) decreased in gills, it increased in liver associated with higher activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). These disturbances could lead to reactive oxygen species production and oxidative stress in the vital organs in fish. After fifteen days in clean water, while the SOD activity was restored, the GSH content and GPx activity were still significantly disturbed in fish exposed to pendimethalin in comparison with control. These significant differences between treatments in antioxidant defenses parameters measured, attesting to the irreversibility of the effects. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Toxicity of sediments from Bahía de Chetumal, México, as assessed by hepatic EROD induction and histology in nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Pérez, O; Simá-Alvarez, R; Noreña-Barroso, E; Güemes, J; Gold-Bouchot, G; Ortega, A; Albores-Medina, A

    2000-01-01

    The effect of environmental pollutants present in sediments obtained from Bahía de Chetumal, a bay on the border between Mexico and Belize, was studied in nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) intraperitoneally injected with sediment extracts from six different sites of the Bay. Sediment samples used for the study contained a variety of organic chemicals such as organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total cytochrome P-450 and EROD activity were measured in fish liver. Haematological and histological analyses were also carried out. Hepatic P-450 content in treated fish increased from 43 to 240%, and EROD activity from 85 to 160% compared to controls. Extracts from two sampling sites inhibited EROD activity. There were positive significant correlations between P-450 content and the levels of PCBs 44 and 128. EROD activity correlated to HCB, op'-DDE, pp'-DDE, pp'-DDD, mirex and PCB 18 concentrations. Blood examination showed cell degeneration and binucleated leukocytes with abnormal chromatin. Extract treatment also resulted in foci of hyperplasia on the basement of gill lamellae, hypertrophy and oedema in gills and liver necrosis. Control fish showed no abnormalities. The results demonstrate that sediments from Bahía of Chetumal have the potential to cause histopathological, haematological and biochemical alterations in fish. The administration of sediment extracts to fish may serve as a useful test to screen the toxicity of sediments from different areas.

  10. The effects of the mineral phase on C stabilization mechanisms and the microbial community along an eroding slope transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doetterl, S.; Opfergelt, S.; Cornelis, J.; Boeckx, P. F.; van oost, K.; Six, J.

    2013-12-01

    An increasing number of studies show the importance of including soil redistribution processes in understanding carbon (C) dynamics in eroding landscapes. The quality and quantity of soil organic carbon in sloping cropland differs with topographic position. These differences are commonly more visible in the subsoil, while the size and composition of topsoil C pools are similar along the hillslope. The type (plant- or microbial-derived) and quality (level of degradation) of C found in a specific soil fraction depends on the interplay between the temporal dynamic of the specific mechanism and it's strength to protect C from decomposition. Here, we present an analysis that aims to clarify the bio/geo-chemical and mineralogical components involved in stabilizing C at various depths and slope positions and how they affect the microbial community and the degradation of C. For this we analyzed soil samples from different soil depths along a slope transect applying (i) a sequential extraction of the reactive soil phase using pyrophosphate, oxalate and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate, (ii) a semi-quantitative and qualitative analysis of the clay mineralogy, (iii) an analysis of the microbial community using amino sugars and (iv) an analysis of the level of degradation of C in different soil fractions focusing on the soil Lignin signature. The results show that the pattern of minerals and their relative importance in stabilizing C varies greatly along the transect. In the investigated soils, pyrophosphate extractable Manganese, and not Iron or Aluminum as often observed, is strongly correlated to C in the bulk soil and in the non-aggregated silt and clay fractions. This suggests a certain role of Manganese for C stabilization where physical protection is absent. In contrast, pyrophosphate extractable Iron and Aluminum components are largely abundant in water-stable soil aggregates but not correlated to C, suggesting importance of these extracts to stabilize aggregates and

  11. Effect of farmyard manure, mineral fertilizers and mung bean residues on some microbiological properties of eroded soil in district Swat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Naeem

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of organic and inorganic fertilizers and mung bean residues on improving microbiological properties of eroded lands of District Swat, North West Frontier Province (NWFP Pakistan under wheat-mung bean-wheat cropping system during 2006 to 2008. The experiment was laid out in RCBD split-plot arrangement. Mung bean was grown and a basal dose of 25-60 kg N-P2O5 ha-1 was applied. After mung bean harvest, three residues management practices, i.e., R+ (mung bean residues incorporated into soil, R- (mung bean residues removed and F (fallow were performed in the main-plots. Sub-plot factor consisted of six fertilizer treatments for wheat crop i.e., T1 (control, T2 (120 kg N ha-1, T3 (120-90-0 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1, T4 (120-90-60 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1, T5 (90-90-60 kg N-P2O5-K2O + 10 t FYM ha-1 and T6 (60-90-60 kg N-P2O5- K2O + 20 t FYM ha-1. The results showed that microbial activity, microbial biomass-C and-N, mineralizable C and N were highest with T6 as well as with the incorporation of mung bean residues (R+. Compared with control, T6 increased microbial biomass C, N, mineralizable C and N by 33.8, 164.1, 35.5 and 110.6% at surface and 38.4, 237.5, 38.7 and 124.1% at sub-surface soil, respectively, while R+ compared with fallow increased these properties by 33.7, 47.4, 21.4 and 32.2% at surface and 36.8, 51, 21.9 and 35.4% at sub-surface soil, respectively. Inclusion of mung bean with its residues incorporated and application of 20 t FYM ha-1 and reducing inorganic N fertilizer to 60 kg N ha-1 for wheat is recommended for improving microbiological properties of slightly eroded lands

  12. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the ...

  13. Quantifying the eroded volume of mercury-contaminated sediment using terrestrial laser scanning at Stocking Flat, Deer Creek, Nevada County, California, 2010–13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howle, James F.; Alpers, Charles N.; Bawden, Gerald W.; Bond, Sandra

    2016-07-28

    High-resolution ground-based light detection and ranging (lidar), also known as terrestrial laser scanning, was used to quantify the volume of mercury-contaminated sediment eroded from a stream cutbank at Stocking Flat along Deer Creek in the Sierra Nevada foothills, about 3 kilometers west of Nevada City, California. Terrestrial laser scanning was used to collect sub-centimeter, three-dimensional images of the complex cutbank surface, which could not be mapped non-destructively or in sufficient detail with traditional surveying techniques.The stream cutbank, which is approximately 50 meters long and 8 meters high, was surveyed on four occasions: December 1, 2010; January 20, 2011; May 12, 2011; and February 4, 2013. Volumetric changes were determined between the sequential, three-dimensional lidar surveys. Volume was calculated by two methods, and the average value is reported. Between the first and second surveys (December 1, 2010, to January 20, 2011), a volume of 143 plus or minus 15 cubic meters of sediment was eroded from the cutbank and mobilized by Deer Creek. Between the second and third surveys (January 20, 2011, to May 12, 2011), a volume of 207 plus or minus 24 cubic meters of sediment was eroded from the cutbank and mobilized by the stream. Total volumetric change during the winter and spring of 2010–11 was 350 plus or minus 28 cubic meters. Between the third and fourth surveys (May 12, 2011, to February 4, 2013), the differencing of the three-dimensional lidar data indicated that a volume of 18 plus or minus 10 cubic meters of sediment was eroded from the cutbank. The total volume of sediment eroded from the cutbank between the first and fourth surveys was 368 plus or minus 30 cubic meters.

  14. Flow and transport through a damaged buffer - exploration of the impact of a cemented and an eroded buffer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neretnieks, Ivars [Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    The compacted bentonite buffer that surrounds the canister with spent fuel is designed not to allow water to flow through it in any appreciable quantities. Should the buffer be severely damaged water could flow to the canister and bring with it corrosive agent such as sulphide. This could speed up the rate of copper corrosion. Should the canister have a damage or be corroded so that the spent fuel inside the canister comes in contact with the water radionuclides could dissolve in the water and be carried away. Two modes of canister damage and their consequences for solute transport are explored in this report. In one case the buffer can potentially be eroded by the water seeping in the fractures in the surrounding rock and attain a high hydraulic conductivity allowing water to flow through it, at least locally. In another case it is conjectured that the buffer is cemented and becomes brittle. Then a crack could conceivably form in the cemented buffer allowing water to flow through it directly to the canister surface. Both cases are hypothetical although in the erosion case the erosion rate could possibly be quantified. The cases studied are to be seen as exploratory calculations for 'what if' cases. Some worst case assumptions have been used to explore bounding scenarios. Thus for the erosion case it is assumed that the hydraulic conductivity is so high that the buffer exerts negligible resistance to water flow. This implies that all the water that can flow through the fractures intersecting the deposition hole can reach the canister. Similarly for the cemented buffer case it is assumed that the crack in the buffer directly connects the rock fracture to the canister surface. For these circumstances it is found that the flowrate that can enter the deposition hole will be approximately two times as large as the water flow that would pass a projected area equal to that of the deposition hole. Thus if the flux in the rock some distance from the deposition

  15. INDIRECT ASSESSMENT OF RIVER-TORRENTIAL EROSION BY MEASURING THE ERODED VOLUM CASE STUDY: THE REGHIU STREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICULAE LUCICA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The landform, as a whole, is the basic component of the environment and evolves as an open system controlled by two categories of components, in a close relationship of dynamic interconditioning. The endodynamic components are stable and they define the relief physiognomy: hypsometry, the gradient and length of the slope, lithologic conditions and the drainage density. The exodynamic components, with high spatial and temporal mobility, control the flow of matter and energy within the hydrographic basin, the solar energy, the rainfalls, the temperature, the plant cover, and the anthropic activity. The volume of eroded material of a hydrographic basin will set the relationship between the present physiognomy of the landform and the flow of materials carried and discharged. The quantitative evaluation of the erosion in a hydrographic basin, specific to a certain region, will deal with the parameters reflecting the intensity of the morphogenetic processes over a specified period of time. The Reghiu Stream, a left-side tributary of the River Milcov, drains varied landforms, developed on geological formations with different physical properties; moreover, it manifests a regressive erosion, weaker than the Zabala River (they used to have a common evolution during the geological past, and the interfluve is very narrow – there are few facts which lead to the conclusion that the erosion is differential, depending on the local conditions of shaping.

  16. Does market integration buffer risk, erode traditional sharing practices and increase inequality? A test among Bolivian forager-farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurven, Michael; Jaeggi, Adrian V; von Rueden, Chris; Hooper, Paul L; Kaplan, Hillard

    2015-08-01

    Sharing and exchange are common practices for minimizing food insecurity in rural populations. The advent of markets and monetization in egalitarian indigenous populations presents an alternative means of managing risk, with the potential impact of eroding traditional networks. We test whether market involvement buffers several types of risk and reduces traditional sharing behavior among Tsimane Amerindians of the Bolivian Amazon. Results vary based on type of market integration and scale of analysis (household vs. village), consistent with the notion that local culture and ecology shape risk management strategies. Greater wealth and income were unassociated with the reliance on others for food, or on reciprocity, but wealth was associated with a greater proportion of food given to others (i.e., giving intensity) and a greater number of sharing partners (i.e., sharing breadth). Across villages, greater mean income was negatively associated with reciprocity, but economic inequality was positively associated with giving intensity and sharing breadth. Incipient market integration does not necessarily replace traditional buffering strategies but instead can often enhance social capital.

  17. Flow and transport through a damaged buffer - exploration of the impact of a cemented and an eroded buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretnieks, Ivars

    2006-12-01

    The compacted bentonite buffer that surrounds the canister with spent fuel is designed not to allow water to flow through it in any appreciable quantities. Should the buffer be severely damaged water could flow to the canister and bring with it corrosive agent such as sulphide. This could speed up the rate of copper corrosion. Should the canister have a damage or be corroded so that the spent fuel inside the canister comes in contact with the water radionuclides could dissolve in the water and be carried away. Two modes of canister damage and their consequences for solute transport are explored in this report. In one case the buffer can potentially be eroded by the water seeping in the fractures in the surrounding rock and attain a high hydraulic conductivity allowing water to flow through it, at least locally. In another case it is conjectured that the buffer is cemented and becomes brittle. Then a crack could conceivably form in the cemented buffer allowing water to flow through it directly to the canister surface. Both cases are hypothetical although in the erosion case the erosion rate could possibly be quantified. The cases studied are to be seen as exploratory calculations for 'what if' cases. Some worst case assumptions have been used to explore bounding scenarios. Thus for the erosion case it is assumed that the hydraulic conductivity is so high that the buffer exerts negligible resistance to water flow. This implies that all the water that can flow through the fractures intersecting the deposition hole can reach the canister. Similarly for the cemented buffer case it is assumed that the crack in the buffer directly connects the rock fracture to the canister surface. For these circumstances it is found that the flowrate that can enter the deposition hole will be approximately two times as large as the water flow that would pass a projected area equal to that of the deposition hole. Thus if the flux in the rock some distance from the deposition hole is 1

  18. Mechanism of cadmium ion removal by base treated juniper fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo-Hong Min; J.K. Park; James S. Han; Eun Woo Shin

    2003-01-01

    Pinyon juniper, Juniperus Monosperma, is a small-diameter and underutilized (SDU) lignocellulosic material. Evaluated were efficacy of base-treated juniper fiber (BTJF) sample for cadmium (Cd 2+ ) sorption and the viability of juniper fiber as a sorbent for the removal of Cd 2+ from water. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis indicated that...

  19. The hidden treasures of long-term paired watershed monitoring in the forests and grasslands of Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Poff; D. G. Neary; V. Henderson; A. Tecle

    2012-01-01

    Beginning in the 1950s, researchers of the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service established a series of paired watershed studies throughout north-central and eastern Arizona. A total of nine experimental watershed areas were established in the pinyon-juniper and chaparral woodlands, as well as the ponderosa pine and mixed conifer forests. While most...

  20. Fallugia paradoxa (D. Don) Endl. ex Torr.: Apache-plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan E. Meyer

    2008-01-01

    The genus Fallugia contains a single species - Apache-plume, F. paradoxa (D. Don) Endl. ex Torr. - found throughout the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. It occurs mostly on coarse soils on benches and especially along washes and canyons in both warm and cool desert shrub communities and up into the pinyon-juniper vegetation type. It is a sprawling, much-...

  1. LASL models for environmental transport of radionuclides in forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, A.F.; Smith, W.J.; Johnson, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has been developing techniques for evaluating the adequacy of shallow land radioactive disposal sites to contain disposed radionuclides. This report discusses developments in applying a Biological Transport Model to simulate the cycling of plutonium in pinyon-juniper, and ponderosa pine forest ecosystems through serial stage developments using plant growth dynamics created in the model

  2. Genetic sampling of Palmer's chipmunks in the Spring Mountains, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin S. McKelvey; Jennifer E. Ramirez; Kristine L. Pilgrim; Samuel A. Cushman; Michael K. Schwartz

    2013-01-01

    Palmer's chipmunk (Neotamias palmeri) is a medium-sized chipmunk whose range is limited to the higher-elevation areas of the Spring Mountain Range, Nevada. A second chipmunk species, the Panamint chipmunk (Neotamias panamintinus), is more broadly distributed and lives in lower-elevation, primarily pinyon-juniper (Pinus monophylla-Juniperus osteosperma) habitat...

  3. Avian community responses to juniper woodland structure and thinning treatments on the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Claire; van Riper, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Federal land managers are increasingly implementing fuels-reduction treatments throughout the western United States with objectives of ecological restoration and fire hazard reduction in pinyon-juniper (Pinus spp.-Juniperus spp.) woodlands. The pinyon-juniper woodland ecosystem complex is highly variable across the western landscape, as is bird community composition. We investigated relations between breeding birds and vegetation characteristics in modified pinyon-juniper woodlands at three sites (BLM, USFS, NPS) on the Colorado Plateau. During the breeding seasons of 2005 and 2006, we surveyed birds and measured vegetation in 74 study plots. These plots were each 3.1 hectares (ha; 7.6 acres), located across the range of natural variation, with 41 control sites and 33 plots in areas previously thinned by hand-cutting or chaining. We found that relations of avian pinyon-juniper specialists and priority species to vegetation characteristics were generally in agreement with the findings of previous studies and known nesting and feeding habits of those birds. Relatively high density of pinyon pines was important to species richness and abundance in 6 of 14 species. Abundance of all species was related to treatment method, and we found no difference in bird communities at chaining and hand-cut sites.

  4. Identifying markets for pinyon pine in the Four Corners Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Mackes

    2008-01-01

    A search for opportunities to use pinyon pine is currently being conducted at Colorado State University by the Colorado Wood Utilization and Marketing Program as part of an effort to improve financial feasibility of forest restoration and hazardous fuel reduction work in pinyon-juniper stands. The properties of pinyon wood reveal that it is suitable for a range of...

  5. A numerical simulation on the flow of watershed filtration reactors using lignocellulosic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. Hur; B. Choi; J.S. Han; E.W. Shin; S. Min; R.M. Rowell

    2003-01-01

    Pinyon juniper, a small-diameter and underutilized (SDU) lignocellulosic material, was harvested in New Mexico, identified as Juniperus monosperma at the USDA Forest Products Laboratory, chipped, fiberized and chemically modified to remove pollutants from wastewater. This juniper species was selected as a raw material through screening test for removal of pollutants...

  6. The immediate effectiveness of barley straw mulch in reducing soil erodibility and surface runoff generation in Mediterranean vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosdocimi, Massimo; Jordán, Antonio; Tarolli, Paolo; Keesstra, Saskia; Novara, Agata; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-03-15

    Soil and water loss in agriculture is a major problem throughout the world, and especially in Mediterranean areas. Non-conservation agricultural practices have further aggravated the situation, especially in vineyards, which are affected by one of the highest rates of soil loss among cultivated lands. Therefore, it is necessary to find the right soil practices for more sustainable viticulture. In this regard, straw mulching has proven to be effective in other crop and fire affected soils, but, nonetheless, little research has been carried out in vineyards. This research tests the effect of barley straw mulching on soil erosion and surface runoff on vineyards in Eastern Spain where the soil and water losses are non-sustainable. An experiment was setup using rainfall simulation tests at 55 mm h(-1) over 1h on forty paired plots of 0.24 m(2): twenty bare and twenty straw covered. Straw cover varied from 48 to 90% with a median value of 59% as a result of the application of 75 g of straw per m(2). The use of straw mulch resulted in delayed ponding and runoff generation and, as a consequence, the median water loss decreased from 52.59 to 39.27% of the total rainfall. The straw cover reduced the median sediment concentration in runoff from 9.8 to 3.0 g L(-1) and the median total sediment detached from 70.34 to 15.62 g per experiment. The median soil erosion rate decreased from 2.81 to 0.63 Mg ha(-1)h(-1) due to the straw mulch protection. Straw mulch is very effective in reducing soil erodibility and surface runoff, and this benefit was achieved immediately after the application of the straw. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A Hydrodynamic and Sediment Transport Model for the Waipaoa Shelf, New Zealand: Sensitivity of Fluxes to Spatially-Varying Erodibility and Model Nesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M. Moriarty

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerical models can complement observations in investigations of marine sediment transport and depositional processes. A coupled hydrodynamic and sediment transport model was implemented for the Waipaoa River continental shelf offshore of the North Island of New Zealand, to complement a 13-month field campaign that collected seabed and hydrodynamic measurements. This paper described the formulations used within the model, and analyzed the sensitivity of sediment flux estimates to model nesting and seabed erodibility. Calculations were based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System—Community Sediment Transport Modeling System (ROMS-CSTMS, a primitive equation model using a finite difference solution to the equations for momentum and water mass conservation, and transport of salinity, temperature, and multiple classes of suspended sediment. The three-dimensional model resolved the complex bathymetry, bottom boundary layer, and river plume that impact sediment dispersal on this shelf, and accounted for processes including fluvial input, winds, waves, tides, and sediment resuspension. Nesting within a larger-scale, lower resolution hydrodynamic model stabilized model behavior during river floods and allowed large-scale shelf currents to impact sediment dispersal. To better represent observations showing that sediment erodibility decreased away from the river mouth, the seabed erosion rate parameter was reduced with water depth. This allowed the model to account for the observed spatial pattern of erodibility, though the model held the critical shear stress for erosion constant. Although the model neglected consolidation and swelling processes, use of a spatially-varying erodibility parameter significantly increased export of fluvial sediment from Poverty Bay to deeper areas of the shelf.

  8. Some heterocyclic aromatic compounds are Ah receptor agonists in the DR-CALUX assay and the EROD assay with RTL-W1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinger, Gunnar; Brinkmann, Markus; Bluhm, Kerstin; Sagner, Anne; Takner, Helena; Eisenträger, Adolf; Braunbeck, Thomas; Engwall, Magnus; Tiehm, Andreas; Hollert, Henner

    2011-09-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic compounds containing nitrogen, sulfur, or oxygen heteroatoms (NSO-HET) have been detected in air, soil, marine, and freshwater systems. However, only few publications are available investigating NSO-HET using in vitro bioassays. To support better characterization of environmental samples, selected NSO-HET were screened for dioxin-like activity in two bioassays. The present study focuses on the identification and quantification of dioxin-like effects of 12 NSO-HET using the DR-CALUX assay, and the 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay with the permanent fish liver cell line RTL-W1. Changes of the total medium compound concentrations during the test procedure due to, e.g., sorption or volatilization were quantified using GC/MS. The NSO-HET benzofuran, 2,3-dimethylbenzofuran, dibenzofuran, dibenzothiophen, acridine, xanthene, and carbazole caused a response in the DR-CALUX assay. Only benzofuran and 2,3-dimethylbenzofuran were also positive in the EROD assay. All other compounds were inactive in the EROD assay. Relative potency (REP) values ranged from (2.80 ± 1.32) · 10(-8) to (3.26 ± 2.03) · 10(-6) in the DR-CALUX and from (3.26 ± 0.91) · 10(-7) to (4.87 ± 1.97) · 10(-7) in the EROD assay. The REP values were comparable to those of larger polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g., fluoranthene and pyrene. Thus, and because of the ubiquitous distribution of heterocyclic aromatic compounds in the environment, the provided data will further facilitate the bioanalytical and analytical characterization of environmental samples towards these toxicants.

  9. Sparus aurata L. liver EROD and GST activities, plasma cortisol, lactate, glucose and erythrocytic nuclear anomalies following short-term exposure either to 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) or E{sub 2} combined with 4-nonylphenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teles, M.; Pacheco, M.; Santos, M.A

    2005-01-05

    Immature Sparus aurata L. (gilthead seabream) were exposed to 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) 4000 ng/l and to the same E{sub 2} concentration mixed with 50,000 ng/l 4-nonylphenol (E{sub 2}+NP) during 4, 8, 12 and 16 h. E{sub 2} availability and E{sub 2} plasma level variations were assessed. Liver biotransformation capacity was measured as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities. Plasma cortisol, lactate and glucose were also determined. Genotoxicity was assessed through erythrocytic nuclear anomalies (ENA) frequency. Liver EROD activity significantly decreased during the whole experiment for both treatments, with the exception of 16 h exposure to E{sub 2}. Liver GST activity was significantly increased after 8 and 12 h of exposure either to E{sub 2} or E{sub 2}+NP. An endocrine disruption expressed as plasma cortisol decrease was observed after 16 h exposure under both tested conditions, concomitantly with a plasma lactate increase. No genotoxic responses, measured as ENA frequency, were detected. Analyzing the E{sub 2} water concentration in aquaria without fish it was demonstrated an intense and fast E{sub 2} loss, considerably reducing its availability to fish. In the presence of fish, E{sub 2} water levels were drastically reduced after 4 h exposure, being this reduction more pronounced in E{sub 2} aquarium when compared to E{sub 2}+NP aquarium. In addition, it was demonstrated a rapid E{sub 2} uptake from the water since the highest E{sub 2} plasma concentrations were observed after 4 h exposure, followed by a continuous decrease, which became more pronounced between 8 and 12 h of exposure. Furthermore, during the first 8 h exposure to E{sub 2} and E{sub 2}+NP, seabream plasma E{sub 2} concentrations were higher than the initial water exposure concentration. Comparing the E{sub 2} plasma levels in both seabream-exposed groups, it was clear that its concentration is always higher in E{sub 2}+NP-treated fish. Despite

  10. Towards a better understanding of the interaction between bed roughness and flow hydraulics in small eroded channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Rafael; Zubieta, Elena; Campo-Bescós, Miguel A.; Casalí, Javier

    2016-04-01

    Rills eroding cohesive materials are hydraulically different from rivers or large channels. Unlike rivers, rills are small, shallow flow stream with frequently a relatively steep slope gradient. Besides, rills evolve morphologically over much shorter timescales due to active bed erosion. This leads to a strong interaction between the channel flow and bed roughness. This interaction gives rise to a reconfiguration of the bed geometry generated by the important erosive action of the flow. This new shape is characterized by a typical alternance between concavities (pools) and more or less flat reaches (steps). The new rill geometry affects, in turn, the behaviour of the flow that is why we talk about interaction or feedback. In addition, the greatest energy dissipation occurs in the pools -mainly due to the action of hydraulic jumps- which, in turn, lead to an increase in the pool size. We hypothesize there is a regular spacing of step-pools units and that, both the frequency and the depth of the pools will be strongly conditioned by the discharge and the general rill slope. The determination of that periodicity (if any) would be an important contribution for concentrated flow erosion modelling of small channels. That is because the majority of erosion models are based on formulations which assume that a rill has a flat bed, only affected by micro-roughness. For instance, equations like Manning's - widely used in river and large channel hydraulics -, if a constant value of roughness is assumed, would be inappropriate in erosion rills since, as explained above, the roughness is not constant. The objectives of this work are then: (i) to investigate the geometry of erosion rills aiming at determining if there is a spatial arrangement of the macro roughness of their beds; and (ii) to establish (semi)-empirical models of prediction of this periodicity, mainly based on topographic parameters. Rills were generated in an agricultural field in a homogeneous hillslope (with no

  11. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  12. Erosion of the Alps: use of Rb-Sr isotopic data from molassic sediments to identify the ages of the metamorphism recorded by the eroded rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, P.; Deloule, E.

    1994-01-01

    Rb-Sr isotopic data from Oligocene and Miocene peri-alpine molassic sediments allow us to identify the different periods for which the eroded rocks have or have not recorded an alpine metamorphism. The Chattian and the Burdigalian sediments result from the erosion of rocks for which the latest metamorphic event was variscan, while the Stampian, Aquitanian and ''Helvetian'' sediments show evidence for the erosion of rocks which have recorded alpine metamorphic events. The application of this method to old detrital sediments could permit determination of the ages of the tectonic events which occurred in the sediment source regions. (authors). 18 refs., 6 figs

  13. Reconstruction of eroded and deposited sediment volumes in the floodplains of the embanked River Waal, the Netherlands, for the period 1650 - 1850 AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobo, Noortje; Makaske, Bart; Middelkoop, Hans

    2010-05-01

    The embanked floodplains of the River Waal developed as a result of stepwise downstream migration of meander bends between confining dykes. Accretion in the upstream limb of the outer bend - enhanced by groynes and trees - and erosion in the downstream limb have resulted in a series of successively developed sand bars, separated by secondary channels. On top of the sand bars and the secondary channel fills, fine-grained overbank sediments were deposited. Downstream migration ceased around 1850 AD, when the river bed was fixed by large-scale construction of groynes, and only overbank deposition continued. Eroded and deposited sediment volumes associated with downstream migration are affected by human activities. Goal of the present research is to estimate a sediment budget for a 12-km-long section along the River Waal, by quantifying the amount of erosion and deposition. We estimated these volumes for time slices of 50 years, between 1650 and 1850 AD, in order to be able to assess the variable impact of human interference during this period. To estimate erosion, we created geomorphological maps for all time slices, based on maps dating from the 17th century to present. In these maps, distinction is made between sand bars, residual channels, and older deposits (all sediments deposited before 1650 AD). Comparison between all maps allowed us to calculate the eroded area per time slice. Eroded volumes were hence estimated by multiplying the eroded area by the average river depth at that period, which is assumed to be the erosion depth. For estimation of deposition we used lithological cross-sections. These cross-sections are positioned such that every sand bar and every residual channel is represented in at least one cross-section. In every cross-section isochrones were drawn, based on OSL datings, chronologic interpretation of heavy metal profiles, and the historical maps. These isochrones are used to calculate the thickness of the sand bars, the residual channel fills

  14. Rapid Tooling via Stereolithography

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, composite stereolithography (SL) resins were introduced to the marketplace, offering performance features beyond what traditional SL resins could offer. In particular, the high heat deflection temperatures and high stiffness of these highly filled resins have opened the door to several new rapid prototyping (RP) applications, including wind tunnel test modelling and, more recently, rapid tooling.

  15. Rapid improvement teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemi, F; Moore, S; Headrick, L; Neuhauser, D; Hekelman, F; Kizys, N

    1998-03-01

    Suggestions, most of which are supported by empirical studies, are provided on how total quality management (TQM) teams can be used to bring about faster organizationwide improvements. Ideas are offered on how to identify the right problem, have rapid meetings, plan rapidly, collect data rapidly, and make rapid whole-system changes. Suggestions for identifying the right problem include (1) postpone benchmarking when problems are obvious, (2) define the problem in terms of customer experience so as not to blame employees nor embed a solution in the problem statement, (3) communicate with the rest of the organization from the start, (4) state the problem from different perspectives, and (5) break large problems into smaller units. Suggestions for having rapid meetings include (1) choose a nonparticipating facilitator to expedite meetings, (2) meet with each team member before the team meeting, (3) postpone evaluation of ideas, and (4) rethink conclusions of a meeting before acting on them. Suggestions for rapid planning include reducing time spent on flowcharting by focusing on the future, not the present. Suggestions for rapid data collection include (1) sample patients for surveys, (2) rely on numerical estimates by process owners, and (3) plan for rapid data collection. Suggestions for rapid organizationwide implementation include (1) change membership on cross-functional teams, (2) get outside perspectives, (3) use unfolding storyboards, and (4) go beyond self-interest to motivate lasting change in the organization. Additional empirical investigations of time saved as a consequence of the strategies provided are needed. If organizations solve their problems rapidly, fewer unresolved problems may remain.

  16. Rapid response systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Patrick G; Edelson, Dana P; Churpek, Matthew M

    2018-07-01

    Rapid response systems are commonly employed by hospitals to identify and respond to deteriorating patients outside of the intensive care unit. Controversy exists about the benefits of rapid response systems. We aimed to review the current state of the rapid response literature, including evolving aspects of afferent (risk detection) and efferent (intervention) arms, outcome measurement, process improvement, and implementation. Articles written in English and published in PubMed. Rapid response systems are heterogeneous, with important differences among afferent and efferent arms. Clinically meaningful outcomes may include unexpected mortality, in-hospital cardiac arrest, length of stay, cost, and processes of care at end of life. Both positive and negative interventional studies have been published, although the two largest randomized trials involving rapid response systems - the Medical Early Response and Intervention Trial (MERIT) and the Effect of a Pediatric Early Warning System on All-Cause Mortality in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients (EPOCH) trial - did not find a mortality benefit with these systems, albeit with important limitations. Advances in monitoring technologies, risk assessment strategies, and behavioral ergonomics may offer opportunities for improvement. Rapid responses may improve some meaningful outcomes, although these findings remain controversial. These systems may also improve care for patients at the end of life. Rapid response systems are expected to continue evolving with novel developments in monitoring technologies, risk prediction informatics, and work in human factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid Gorge Formation in an Artificially Created Waterfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, L.; Mather, A. E.; Stokes, M.; Munoz Martin, A.

    2014-12-01

    A number of studies have examined rates of gorge formation, nick point retreat, and the controls on those rates via bedrock erodibility, the effectiveness of bedrock erosion mechanisms and the role of hillslope processes. Most findings are based on conceptual / empirical models or long term landscape analysis; but studies of recent quantifiable events are scarce yet highly valuable. Here we present expert eye witness account and quantitative survey of large and rapid fluvial erosion events that occurred over an artificially created waterfall at a spillway mouth. In 6 years a ~270 m long, ~100 m deep and ~100 to 160 m wide canyon was carved, and ~1.58 x106 m3 of granite bedrock was removed from the spillway site. Available flow data indicates that the erosion took place under unremarkable flood discharge conditions. The analysis of historic topographic maps enables the reconstruction of the former topography and successive erosion events, enabling the quantification of bedrock erosion amounts, and rates. Analysis of bedrock erodibility and discontinuity patterns demonstrates that the bedrock is mechanically strong, and that similar rock strength and fracture patterns are found throughout the region. It is apparent that structural pre-conditioning through fracture density and orientation in relation to flow and slope direction is of paramount importance in the gorge development. The presented example provides an exceptional opportunity for studying the evolution process of a bedrock canyon and to precisely measure the rate of bedrock channel erosion over a six year period. Results illustrate the highly episodic nature of the erosion and highlight several key observations for the adjustability of bedrock rivers. The observations have implications for the efficiency of bedrock erosion and raise important questions about incision rates, driving mechanisms and timescale assumptions' in models of landscape change.

  18. Remineralization of eroded enamel by a NaF rinse containing a novel calcium phosphate agent in an in situ model: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett T Amaechi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bennett T Amaechi1, Ramalingam Karthikeyan1, Poornima K Mensinkai1, Kaveh Najibfard1, Allen C Mackey2, Robert L Karlinsey21University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, USA; 2Indiana Nanotech, Indianapolis, IN, USAPurpose: An in situ study evaluated the remineralization potential of 225 ppm fluoride (F rinses with and without a calcium phosphate agent (TCP-Si-Ur on eroded enamel.Methods: 20 human patients participated in this IRB approved study. Enamel blocks extracted from 20 human molars were assigned to each of the three study phases (G1, G2, G3. Each block was eroded using 1% citric acid (pH = 2.5, with a slice cut from each block to establish baseline lesion parameters (ie, integrated mineral loss ∆Z, and lesion depth LD using ­transverse microradiography (TMR. Participants and assigned blocks were randomly divided into three 28-day phases. The blocks were mounted into modified orthodontic brackets and bonded to the buccal surface of one of the subject’s mandibular molars. The appliance remained in the ­subject’s mouth for 28 days. Prior to each study phase, participants observed a one-week-washout period using a fluoride-free dentifrice. In each phase, participants brushed with the fluoride-free ­dentifrice for 1 min, followed by one of the following coded treatments: G1: 225 ppm F + 40 ppm ­TCP-Si-Ur rinse (1 min; G2: 225 ppm F rinse (1 min; G3: no rinse (saliva-only. After each phase, appliances were removed and specimens were analyzed using TMR.Results: TMR data (ie, ∆Z and LD revealed all three groups significantly remineralized eroded enamel (paired t-tests, P , 0.001. Net mineralization (% change in ∆Z, LD were as follows (mean (std.dev.: G1: 44.1 (22.6, 30.5 (27.0; G2: 30.0 (7.4, 29.4 (10.5; G3: 23.8 (16.4, 25.7 (15.5. Furthermore, G1 was found to cause significantly more remineralization than G2 (P = 0.039 and G3, (P = 0.002.Conclusion: Mouthrinse containing 225 ppm F plus TCP

  19. Eroding dipoles and vorticity growth for Euler flows in {{{R}}}^{3}: the hairpin geometry as a model for finite-time blowup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Stephen; Gilbert, Andrew D.

    2018-02-01

    A theory of an eroding ‘hairpin’ vortex dipole structure in three-dimensions is developed, extending our previous study of an axisymmetric eroding dipole without swirl. The axisymmetric toroidal dipole was found to lead to maximal growth of vorticity, as {t}4/3. The hairpin is here similarly proposed as a model to produce large ‘self-stretching’ of vorticity, with the possibility of finite-time blow-up. We derive a system of partial differential equations of ‘generalized’ form, involving contour averaging of a locally two-dimensional Euler flow. We do not attempt here to solve the system exactly, but point out that non-existence of physically acceptable solutions would most probably be a result of the axial flow. Because of the axial flow the vorticity distribution within the dipole eddies is no longer of the simple Sadovskii type (vorticity constant over a cross-section) obtained in the axisymmetric problem. Thus the solution of the system depends upon the existence of a larger class of propagating two-dimensional dipoles. The hairpin model is obtained by formal asymptotic analysis. As in the axisymmetric problem a local transformation to ‘shrinking’ coordinates is introduced, but now in a self-similar form appropriate to the study of a possible finite-time singularity. We discuss some properties of the model, including a study of the helicity and a first step in iterating toward a solution from the Sadovskii structure. We also present examples of two-dimensional propagating dipoles not previously studied, which have a vorticity profile consistent with our model. Although no rigorous results can be given, and analysis of the system is only partial, the formal calculations are consistent with the possibility of a finite time blowup of vorticity at a point of vanishing circulation of the dipole eddies, but depending upon the existence of the necessary two-dimensional propagating dipole. Our results also suggest that conservation of kinetic energy as

  20. Low-temperature thermal decomposition of dioxin-like compounds in fly ash: combination of chemical analysis with in vitro bioassays (EROD and DR-CALUX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnisch, Peter A; Hosoe, Kazunori; Shiozaki, Ken; Ozaki, Hironori; Nakamura, Kazuo; Sakai, Shin-Ichi

    2002-12-01

    To investigate the dechlorination of fly ash during low-temperature treatment under oxygen-deficient conditions (thermocatalyic treatment or Hagenmaier process), six fly ash samples from six different incineration plants were treated in a laboratory experiment or in the actual plant, either under ideal (400 degrees C, 120 min) or intermediate (300 degrees C, 30 min) conditions. The aim of the present study was to confirm the decrease in the I-TEQ (international toxicity equivalency) of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/-furans (PCDD/Fs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (co-PXBs) and, also for the first time, the decrease in the sum of dioxin-like toxicity (bioassay- or bio-TEQ) of all kinds of other dioxin-like Ah receptor agonists (such as PXDD/Fs, PXBs, PXN, X = Br, F) measured by two state-of-the-art cell-based Ah receptor-dependent bioassays: H4IIE-Ethoxy-Resorufin-o-Deethylase (EROD) and H4IIE-luc/DR-Chemical Activated Luciferase expression (DR-CALUX). The treatment efficiency was calculated on the basis of the reduction in the I-TEQ and bio-TED values. For these fly ash samples, the treatment efficiency, as measured by chemical analysis, was higher than 99%, and 85%-99%, in the case of the bio-TED values, indicating that these Ah receptor binding toxic compounds were sufficiently decomposed. Bio-TEQ values for untreated fly ash samples (n = 6) were on average 1.2 times (range 0.7-1.9), for the H4IIE-EROD assay, and 2.8 times (1.1-4.9), for the DR-CALUX assay, higher than I-TEQ values measured by chemical analyses (sum of PCDD/Fs and co-PCBs). In the case of these fly ash samples treated under ideal conditions and therefore low in contaminants, the bio-TEQ values were on average 1.4 times (range 0.9-1.8), for the H4IIE-EROD assay, and 5.1 times (range 1.2-12), for the DR-CALUX assay, higher than the I-TEQ values.

  1. Were Viking Dry-dock methods in the Americas used earlier to Build Pyramids, with Outflow Eroding the Sphinx, and were Stonehenge, the Obelisks, and Moas Similarly Erected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Edward; McLeod, Roger

    2006-03-01

    Chisel-quarried recycled granite in MA is datable by runes to 1069 CE; it could corroborate dating by a LIDAR. Associated sites, possibly used by Vikings to dry-dock their ships, could have exploited lock-like controls, possibly a continued technology. Site-leveling at the Giza Pyramids proves water was used. `Locks' and body-immersion worked for building, moving, erecting, or watering, at sites like Stonehenge, The Hanging Gardens at Babylon, the Moas of Easter Island, or The Pyramids, where the eroding water discharge was deliberately flushed over the Sphinx complex. It enhance the electromagnetically excited blue light signals we can detect, especially at sites frequented by Molocket of ME. Information, as at America's Stonehenge, in NH, and constructions at Acton MA, at Giza or at Rumford ME proves that the Pyramids and Sphinx were engineered and built about 4500 BP.

  2. CHUVAS, EROSIVIDADE, ERODIBILIDADE, USO DO SOLO E SUAS RELAÇÕES COM FOCOS EROSIVOS LINEARES NA ALTA BACIA DO RIO ARAGUAIA / Rainfall, erosivity, erodibility, land use and their relationships with erosion sites in the upper Araguaia River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvando Carlos da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The intensive process of land occupation by farmers in the tropical savanna region of MidwestBrazil during the last three decades has promoted several environment impacts, such as theoccurrence of gully erosion processes as a consequence of intensive deforestation. Just in theUpper Araguaia River Basin, it was identified more than 300 large and medium gully features,which are related with the high natural susceptibility of the sandy soils; high erosivity and erodibility; inadequate land-use; lack of soil conservation practices; and a high annual rainfallindex during the rainy season. The objective of this research was to identify spatial relationshipsbetween rainfall distribution, erosivity, erodibility, land-use, and gully erosion distribution,which may support environmental planning actions related to land use conservation.Quantitative results show a high correlation between gully erosion distribution and higherosivity/erodibility and inadequate land-use.

  3. A process to estimate net infiltration using a site-scale water-budget approach, Rainier Mesa, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, 2002–05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David W.; Moreo, Michael T.; Garcia, C. Amanda; Halford, Keith J.; Fenelon, Joseph M.

    2017-08-29

    This report documents a process used to estimate net infiltration from precipitation, evapotranspiration (ET), and soil data acquired at two sites on Rainier Mesa. Rainier Mesa is a groundwater recharge area within the Nevada National Security Site where recharged water flows through bedrock fractures to a deep (450 meters) water table. The U.S. Geological Survey operated two ET stations on Rainier Mesa from 2002 to 2005 at sites characterized by pinyon-juniper and scrub-brush vegetative cover. Precipitation and ET data were corrected to remove measurement biases and gap-filled to develop continuous datasets. Net infiltration (percolation below the root zone) and changes in root-zone water storage were estimated using a monthly water-balance model.Site-scale water-budget results indicate that the heavily-fractured welded-tuff bedrock underlying thin (water source for vegetation during dry periods. Annual precipitation during the study period ranged from fourth lowest (182 millimeters [mm]) to second highest (708 mm) on record (record = 55 years). Annual ET exceeded precipitation during dry years, indicating that the fractured-bedrock reservoir capacity is sufficient to meet atmospheric-evaporative demands and to sustain vegetation through extended dry periods. Net infiltration (82 mm) was simulated during the wet year after the reservoir was rapidly filled to capacity. These results support previous conclusions that preferential fracture flow was induced, resulting in an episodic recharge pulse that was detected in nearby monitoring wells. The occurrence of net infiltration only during the wet year is consistent with detections of water-level rises in nearby monitoring wells that occur only following wet years.

  4. Restoration of eroded soil in the Sonoran Desert with native leguminous trees using plant growth-promoting microorganisms and limited amounts of compost and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashan, Yoav; Salazar, Bernardo G; Moreno, Manuel; Lopez, Blanca R; Linderman, Robert G

    2012-07-15

    Restoration of highly eroded desert land was attempted in the southern Sonoran Desert that had lost its natural capacity for self-revegetation. In six field experiments, the fields were planted with three native leguminous trees: mesquite amargo Prosopis articulata, and yellow and blue palo verde Parkinsonia microphylla and Parkinsonia florida. Restoration included inoculation with two of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB; Azospirillum brasilense and Bacillus pumilus), native arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and small quantities of compost. Irrigation was applied, when necessary, to reach a rainy year (300 mm) of the area. The plots were maintained for 61 months. Survival of the trees was marginally affected by all supplements after 30 months, in the range of 60-90%. This variation depended on the plant species, where all young trees were established after 3 months. Plant density was a crucial variable and, in general, low plant density enhanced survival. High planting density was detrimental. Survival significantly declined in trees 61 months after planting. No general response of the trees to plant growth-promoting microorganisms and compost was found. Mesquite amargo and yellow palo verde responded well (height, number of branches, and diameter of the main stem) to inoculation with PGPB, AM fungi, and compost supplementation after three months of application. Fewer positive effects were recorded after 30 months. Blue palo verde did not respond to most treatments and had the lowest survival. Specific plant growth parameters were affected to varying degrees to inoculations or amendments, primarily depending on the tree species. Some combinations of tree/inoculant/amendment resulted in small negative effects or no response when measured after extended periods of time. Using native leguminous trees, this study demonstrated that restoration of severely eroded desert lands was possible. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. EROD activity, chromosomal damage, and oxidative stress in response to contaminants exposure in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) nestlings from Great Lakes Areas of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Thomas W.; Custer, Christine M.; Dummer, Paul; Bigorgne, Emilie; Oziolor, Elias; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Schultz, Sandra; Erickson, Richard A.; Aagaard, Kevin; Matson, Cole W.

    2017-01-01

    Tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor, nestlings were collected from 60 sites in the Great Lakes, which included multiple sites within 27 Areas of Concern (AOCs) and six sites not listed as AOCs from 2010 to 2014. Nestlings, approximately 12 days-of-age, were evaluated for ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) activity, chromosomal damage, and six measures of oxidative stress. Data on each of these biomarkers were divided into four equal numbered groups from the highest to lowest values and the groups were compared to contaminant concentrations using multivariate analysis. Contaminant concentrations, from the same nestlings, included polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and 17 elements. Alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (aPAHs) and parent PAHs (pPAHs) were measured in pooled nestling dietary samples. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and pesticides were measured in sibling eggs. Concentrations of aPAHs, pPAHs, chlordane, dieldrin, heptachlor, and PCBs, in that order, were the major contributors to the significant differences between the lowest and highest EROD activities; PFCs, PBDEs, the remaining pesticides, and all elements were of secondary importance. The four categories of chromosomal damage did not separate out well based on the contaminants measured. Concentrations of aPAHs, pPAHs, heptachlor, PCBs, chlordane, and dieldrin were the major contributors to the significant differences between the lowest and highest activities of two oxidative stress measures, total sulfhydryl (TSH) activity and protein bound sulfhydryl (PBSH) activity. The four categories of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), reduced glutathione (GSH), and the ratio of GSSG/GSH did not separate well based on the contaminants measured.

  6. Surface remineralization potential of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on enamel eroded by cola-drinks: An in-situ model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Grewal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the remineralization potential of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP on enamel eroded by cola drinks. Subjects and Methods: A total of 30 healthy subjects were selected from a random sample of 1200 children and divided into two groups of 15 each wherein calcium and phosphorus analyses and scanning electron microscope (SEM analysis was carried out to investigate the remineralization of enamel surface. A total of 30 non-carious premolar teeth were selected from the human tooth bank (HTB to prepare the in-situ appliance. Three enamel slabs were prepared from the same. One enamel slab was used to obtain baseline values and the other two were embedded into the upper palatal appliances prepared on the subjects′ maxillary working model. The subjects wore the appliance after which 30 ml cola drink exposure was given. After 15 days, the slabs were removed and subjected to respective analysis. Statistical Analysis Used: Means of all the readings of soluble calcium and phosphorous levels at baseline,post cola-drink exposure and post cpp-acp application were subjected to statistical analysis SPSS11.5 version.Comparison within groups and between groups was carried out using ANOVA and F-values at 1% level of significance. Results: Decrease in calcium solubility of enamel in the CPP-ACP application group as compared to post-cola drink exposure group (P < 0.05 was seen. Distinctive change in surface topography of enamel in the post-CPP-ACP application group as compared to post-cola drink exposure group was observed. Conclusion: CPP-ACP significantly promoted remineralization of enamel eroded by cola drinks as revealed by significant morphological changes seen in SEM magnification and spectrophotometric analyses.

  7. Rapid world modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Charles; Jensen, Ken

    2002-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has designed and developed systems capable of large-scale, three-dimensional mapping of unstructured environments in near real time. This mapping technique is called rapid world modeling and has proven invaluable when used by prototype systems consisting of sensory detection devices mounted on mobile platforms. These systems can be deployed into previously unmapped environments and transmit real-time 3-D visual images to operators located remotely. This paper covers a brief history of the rapid world modeling system, its implementation on mobile platforms, and the current state of the technology. Applications to the nuclear power industry are discussed. (author)

  8. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on relativistic multiparticle processes in the central rapidity region at asymptotically high energies, a new experimental study of charged K→3π decays, pre-Cherenkov radiation as a phenomenon of 'light barrier', stable S=-2 H dibaryon found in Dubna, calculation of Green functions and gluon top in some unambiguous gauges, a method of a fast selection of inelastic nucleus-nucleus collisions for the CMS experiment and the manifestation of jet quenching in differential distributions of the total transverse energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions

  9. Rapid microbiology - raising awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A 'high-level overview' of some of the emerging rapid microbiology technologies designed to help healthcare engineering and infection control teams working in hospitals and other healthcare facilities more rapidly identify potentially hazardous levels of waterborne microorganisms in their water systems, enabling them to take prompt remedial action, and a look at the some of the 'pros and cons' of such testing techniques, was given by Nalco technical director, Howard Barnes, the vice-chair of the Legionella Control Association (LCA), at a recent LCA open day. HEJ editor, Jonathan Bailie, reports.

  10. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on invisible Z-boson width and restrictions on next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model, cosmic test of honeycomb drift chambers, fission of 209 Bi, 232 Th, 235 U, 238 U and 237 Np in a spallation neutron field, rapid screening of spontaneous and radiation-induced structural changes at the vestigial gene of Drosophila melanogaster by polymerase chain reaction, gamma-ray multiplicities in sub-barrier fission of 226 Th and the decay constants of the scalar and pseudoscalar mesons in the quark models with quasilocal interaction

  11. Navigate the Digital Rapids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Julie; Davis, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    How can teachers teach digital citizenship when the digital landscape is changing so rapidly? How can teachers teach proper online social interactions when the students are outside their classroom and thus outside their control? Will encouraging students to engage in global collaborative environments land teachers in hot water? These are the…

  12. Rapid bursts and slow declines: on the possible evolutionary trajectories of enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Matilda S; Arcus, Vickery L; Patrick, Wayne M

    2015-06-06

    The evolution of enzymes is often viewed as following a smooth and steady trajectory, from barely functional primordial catalysts to the highly active and specific enzymes that we observe today. In this review, we summarize experimental data that suggest a different reality. Modern examples, such as the emergence of enzymes that hydrolyse human-made pesticides, demonstrate that evolution can be extraordinarily rapid. Experiments to infer and resurrect ancient sequences suggest that some of the first organisms present on the Earth are likely to have possessed highly active enzymes. Reconciling these observations, we argue that rapid bursts of strong selection for increased catalytic efficiency are interspersed with much longer periods in which the catalytic power of an enzyme erodes, through neutral drift and selection for other properties such as cellular energy efficiency or regulation. Thus, many enzymes may have already passed their catalytic peaks. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid road repair vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  14. Rapidly processable radiographic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabandere, L.A. de; Borginon, H.A.; Pattyn, H.A.; Pollet, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A new rapidly processable radiographic silver halide material is described for use in mammography and non-destructive testing of industrial materials. The radiographic material is used for direct exposure to penetrating radiation without the use of fluorescent-intensifying screens. It consists of a transparent support with a layer of hydrophilic colloid silver halide emulsion on one or both sides. Examples of the preparation of three different silver halide emulsions are given including the use of different chemical sensitizers. These new radiographic materials have good resistance to the formation of pressure marks in rapid processing apparatus and they have improved sensitivity for direct exposure to penetrating radiation compared to conventional radiographic emulsions. (U.K.)

  15. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available for microfluidics K. LAND, S. HUGO, M MBANJWA, L FOURIE CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing P O Box 395, Pretoria 0001, SOUTH AFRICA Email: kland@csir.co.za INTRODUCTION Microfluidics refers to the manipulation of very small volumes of fluid.... Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  16. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  17. Rapid MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelman, R.R.; Buxton, R.B.; Brady, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods typically require several minutes to produce an image, but the periods of respiration, cardiac motion and peristalsis are on the order of seconds or less. The need to reduce motion artifact, as well as the need to reduce imaging time for patient comfort and efficiency, have provided a strong impetus for the development of rapid imaging methods. For abdominal imaging, motion artifacts due to respiration can be significantly reduced by collecting the entire image during one breath hold. For other applications, such as following the kinetics of administered contrast agents, rapid imaging is essential to achieve adequate time resolution. A shorter imaging time entails a cost in image signal/noise (S/N), but improvements in recent years in magnet homogeneity, gradient and radiofrequency coil design have led to steady improvements in S/N and consequently in image quality. For many chemical applications the available S/N is greater than needed, and a trade-off of lower S/N for a shorter imaging time is acceptable. In this chapter, the authors consider the underlying principles of rapid imaging as well as clinical applications of these methods. The bulk of this review concentrates on short TR imaging, but methods that provide for a more modest decrease in imaging time as well as or those that dramatically shorten the imaging time to tens of milliseconds are also discussed

  18. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on decays of excited strange mesons in the extended NJL model, production of heavy evaporation residues in the reactions induced by an extracted 48 Ca beam on a 208 Pb target, scaling behaviour of tensor analyzing power (A yy ) in the inelastic scattering or relativistic deuterons,two-photon collisions at very low Q 2 from LEP2: forthcoming results, high magnetic field uniformity superconducting magnet for a movable polarized target, multichannel time-to-digital converter for drift detector and wavelet-analysis: application to Gaussian signals

  19. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate reports on the measurement of charge radii for Ti nuclei, spectroscopy of 13 Be, concentrations of hadrons and quark-gluon plasma in mixed phase, experimental results on one-spin pion asymmetry in the d↑ + A → π±(90 0 ) + X process, new results on cumulative pion and proton production in p-D collisions, investigation of charge exchange reactions, the study of the tensor analyzing power in cumulative particle production on a deuteron beam and an evidence for the excited states of the S = -2 stable light dibaryon. 32 figs., 6 tabs

  20. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains five separate reports on analytic QCD running coupling with finite IR behaviour and universal α bar s (0) value, quark condensate in the interacting pion- nucleon medium at finite temperature and baryon number density, γ-π 0 discrimination with a shower maximum detector using neural networks for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC, off-specular neutron reflection from magnetic media with nondiagonal reflectivity matrices and molecular cytogenetics of radiation-induced gene mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. 21 fig., 1 tab

  1. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on additional conditions on eigenvectors in solving inverse problem for two-dimensional Schroedinger equation, on an absolute calibration of deuteron beam polarization at LHE, determination of the vector component of the polarization of the JINR synchrophasotron deuteron beam, wavelet-analysis: criterion of reliable signal selection, on asymptotics in inclusive production of antinuclei and nuclear fragments, use of neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor for atmospheric monitoring and impulse method for temperature measurement of silicon detectors

  2. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains six separate reports on Monte Carlo simulation of silicon detectors for the ALICE experiment at LHC, a study of single tagged multihadronic γγ* events at an average Q 2 of 90 GeV 2 , epithermal neutron activation analysis of moss, lichen and pine needles in atmospheric deposition monitoring, the theory of neutrino oscillation, coupled quadrupole and monopole vibrations of large amplitude and test of the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule using parametrization of the measured lepton-proton asymmetry. 21 figs., 18 tabs

  3. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  4. Using object-based image analysis to conduct high-resolution conifer extraction at regional spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Gustafson, K. Benjamin; Roth, Cali L.; Chenaille, Michael P.; Ricca, Mark A.; Mauch, Kimberly; Sanchez-Chopitea, Erika; Kroger, Travis J.; Perry, William M.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2017-08-10

    The distribution and abundance of pinyon (Pinus monophylla) and juniper (Juniperus osteosperma, J. occidentalis) trees (hereinafter, "pinyon-juniper") in sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystems of the Great Basin in the Western United States has increased substantially since the late 1800s. Distributional expansion and infill of pinyon-juniper into sagebrush ecosystems threatens the ecological function and economic viability of these ecosystems within the Great Basin, and is now a major contemporary challenge facing land and wildlife managers. Particularly, pinyon-juniper encroachment into intact sagebrush ecosystems has been identified as a primary threat facing populations of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereinafter, "sage-grouse"), which is a sagebrush obligate species. Even seemingly innocuous scatterings of isolated pinyon-juniper in an otherwise intact sagebrush landscape can negatively affect survival and reproduction of sage-grouse. Therefore, accurate and high-resolution maps of pinyon-juniper distribution and abundance (indexed by canopy cover) across broad geographic extents would help guide land management decisions that better target areas for pinyon-juniper removal projects (for example, fuel reduction, habitat improvement for sage-grouse, and other sagebrush species) and facilitate science that further quantifies ecological effects of pinyon-juniper encroachment on sage-grouse populations and sagebrush ecosystem processes. Hence, we mapped pinyon-juniper (referred to as conifers for actual mapping) at a 1 × 1-meter (m) high resolution across the entire range of previously mapped sage-grouse habitat in Nevada and northeastern California.We used digital orthophoto quad tiles from National Agriculture Imagery Program (2010, 2013) as base imagery, and then classified conifers using automated feature extraction methodology with the program Feature Analyst™. This method relies on machine learning algorithms that extract features from

  5. Soil Erodibility under Natural Rainfall Conditions as the K Factor of the Universal Soil Loss Equation and Application of the Nomograph for a Subtropical Ultisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elemar Antonino Cassol

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Erodibility represents the intrinsic susceptibility of the soil to the erosion process, represented by the K factor in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE. In Brazil, there are few field experiments determined with a series larger than ten years of data, which are the most reliable for quantifying the K factor. The aim of this study was to determine the K factor of the USLE by the direct method, relating soil losses determined in the field under standard conditions to erosivity of rains, and by the analytic method, applying the Wischmeier nomograph. The data on soil loss by water erosion were obtained in a field experiment under natural rainfall conditions from 1976 to 1989 in an Ultisol at the Agronomic Experimental Station in Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil. The value of the K factor by the direct method was 0.0338 Mg ha h ha-1 MJ-1 mm-1, which is high, showing considerable susceptibility of the soil to erosion. From the analytical method, the K factor obtained was 0.0325 Mg ha h ha-1 MJ-1 mm-1, a value very close to that determined experimentally. Thus, the Wischmeier nomograph proved to be valid for determination of the K factor of the Ultisol under study. This method proved to be valid for this type of soil. These results can be used for calibration models based on the USLE.

  6. Rapid Geophysical Surveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of US Department of Energy waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sites where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed because of refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INEL in September 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 in. along survey lines spaced 1-ft apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 worker-days using conventional ground survey techniques

  7. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC

  8. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, DUBNA, contains eight separate records on symmetry in modern physics (dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of academician V.A.Fock), the double φ-meson production investigation on the Serpukhov accelerator, two-leptonic η-meson decays and SUSY without R parity, charge form factors and alpha-cluster internal structure of 12 C, increasing of muon-track reconstruction efficiency in ME1/1 Dubna prototype for the CMS/LHC, study of photon-structure function F 2 γ in the reaction e + e - → e + e - + hadrons at LEP2, jets reconstruction possibility in pAu and AuAu interactions at STAR RHIC and high-vacuum nondispersable gas absorber

  9. Rapid thermal pulse annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.G.; Koehn, B.W.; Chaplin, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    Characteristics of recovery processes have been investigated for cases of heating a sample to successively higher temperatures by means of isochronal annealing or by using a rapid pulse annealing. A recovery spectra shows the same features independent of which annealing procedure is used. In order to determine which technique provides the best resolution, a study was made of how two independent first-order processes are separated for different heating rates and time increments of the annealing pulses. It is shown that the pulse anneal method offers definite advantages over isochronal annealing when annealing for short time increments. Experimental data by means of the pulse anneal techniques are given for the various substages of stage I of aluminium. (author)

  10. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on the identification of events with a secondary vertex in the experiment EXCHARM, the zero degree calorimeter for CERN WA-98 experiment, a new approach to increase the resource of installation elements for super-high energy physics, a method of the in-flight production of exotic systems in the charge-exchange reactions, the neutron activation analysis for monitoring northern terrestrial ecosystems, a search for 28 O and study of the neutron-rich nuclei near the neutron closure N=20, a search for new neutron-rich nuclei with a 70A MeV 48 Ca beam. 33 figs., 4 tabs

  11. JINR Rapid Communications. Collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on quasi-classical description of one-nucleon transfer reactions with heavy ions, elastic and inelastic scattering in the high energy approximation, experimental study of fission and evaporation cross sections for 6 He + 209 Bi reaction, d ↑ + 12 C → p + X at Θ p = 0 o in the region of high internal momenta in the deuteron, the Nuclotron internal targets, actively screened superconducting magnets, using of polarized target in backward elastic dp scattering, application of transputers in the data acquisition system of the INESS-ALPHA spectrometer, narrow dibaryon resonances with isotopic spin I=2. 93 refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs

  12. JINR Rapid Communications. Collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate reports on Lorentz transformations with superluminal velocities, photo chromic effect in HTSC films, the investigation of hypernuclei in the Nuclotron accelerator, a new hadron jets finding algorithm in the four-dimensional velocity space, investigations of neutral particle production by relativistic nuclei on the LHE 90-channel γ-spectrometer (results and perspectives), coherent meson production in the dp → 3 HeX reaction, the relativistic projectile nuclei fragmentation and A-dependence of nucleon Fermi-momenta, energy spectra of γ-quanta from d-propane interactions at momentum P d = 1.25 GeV/c per nucleon. 86 refs., 26 figs., 4 tabs

  13. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on measurements of the total cross section difference Δσ L (np) at 1.59, 1.79, and 2.20 GeV, to the estimation of angular distributions of double charged spectator fragments in nucleus-nucleus interactions at superhigh energies, simulation dE/dx analysis results for silicon inner tracking system of ALICE set-up at LHC accelerator, high-multiplicity processes, triggering of high-multiplicity events using calorimetry, ORBIT-3.0 - a computer code for simulation and correction of the closed orbit and first turn in synchrotrons and determination of memory performance

  14. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on yields of the rare-earth neutron-deficient isotopes in the reactions of Mo isotopes with 40 Ca ions, observations of slow components of solitonic-type wave structure excited by e-beam in massive copper sample, development and investigation of low-mass multilayer drift chambers (MDC-2) for inner part of the HADES spectrometer, temperature measurement of the uranium sample irradiated with secondary neutrons, edge effects in multiwire proportional chambers, the influence of the dielectric frame, an object-oriented framework for the hadronic Monte-Carlo event generators and uranium-238 as a source for electronuclear power production. 32 figs., 3 tabs

  15. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on collective energy dissipation and fluctuations in elastoplastic systems, diagnostics system of the circulating beam of the NUCLOTRON based on microchannel plates, time-of-flight detector for WA98 CERN experiment, fractal structure formation on the surfaces of solids subjected to high intensity electron and ion treatment, production of nuclei in 32,34,36 S-induced reactions in the energy range 6-75 MeV/A, rare-earth elements in soil and pine needle from northern terrestrial ecosystems, 'thermal' multifragmentation in p + Au collisions at relativistic energies, search for effects of the OZI rule violation in φ and ω mesons production in polarized deuteron beam interaction with polarized proton target (project DPHE3) and fast detector for triggering on charged particle multiplicity for relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

  16. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on observation of transversal handedness in the diffractive production of pion triples, a possible experiment on the research of dibaryon states, Cherenkov beam counter system of the CERES/NA45 spectrometer for investigation with 160 GeV/n. lead ions, a profile-based gaseous detector with capacitive pad readout as the prototype of the shower maximum detector for the end-cap electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment, what DELPHI can get with an upgraded position for the very small angle tagger, estimation of the radiation environment and the shielding aspect for the point 2 area of the LHC and the orthopositronium decay puzzle

  17. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  18. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on investigation of the tensor analyzing power A yy in the reaction A(d polarized, p)X at large transverse momenta of proton, double-differential ionization cross section calculations for fast collisions of ions and atoms, a study of the two-photon interactions tagged at an average 2 > of 90 GeV 2 , cluster and single-particle distributions in nucleus-nucleus interactions, the Coulomb interaction of charged pions in CC-and CTa-collisions at 4.2 A GeV/c, influence of nitrogen and oxygen gas admixtures on the response of the DELPHI HCAL and MUS detectors and an automation of physics research on base of open standards

  19. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on effects arising from charged particles overcoming of the light velocity barrier, deformable templates for circle recognition, scintillation detectors for precise time measurements, atomic form factors and incoherent scattering functions of atoms and ions with the number of electrons N ≤ 10, experimental set-up ANOMALON for measurement of relativistic nuclear fragmentation cross sections, superconducting dipole magnet for ALICE dimuon arm spectrometer, analysis of transverse mass dependence of Bose-Einstein correlation radii using the DELPHI data, low-energy theorem in softly broken supersymmetry and study of the characteristics of particles in reactions π - , p, d, He, C + C with the total disintegration on carbon nucleus

  20. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains six separate records on test of a threshold aerogel Cherenkov counter on cosmic particles, first results of study of transversal dimension of region of cumulative particles production in d + C and d + Cu reactions for energy 2 GeV/nucleon, the evidence of σ[0 + (0 ++ 0)] meson at a mass of M π + π - = 750 ± 5 MeV/c 2 observed in π + π - combinations from the reaction np → npπ + π - at an incident momentum of P n (5.20 ± 0.16 GeV/c, inclusive spectra of protons and π - mesons emitted in 4 HeC and 12 CC interactions with total disintegration of nuclei, heavy quark-antiquark pair production by double pomeron exchange in pp and AA collisions on the CMS and global features of nucleus-nucleus collisions in ultrarelativistic domain

  1. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  2. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  3. Rapid population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    At the current rate of population growth, world population by 2000 is expected to reach 7 billion or more, with developing countries accounting for some 5.4 billion, and economically advanced nations accounting for 1.6 billion. 'Population explosion' is the result of falling mortality rates and continuing high birth rates. Many European countries, and Japan, have already completed what is termed as demographic transition, that is, birth rates have fallen to below 20 births per 1000 population, death rates to 10/1000 population, and annual growth rates are 1% or less; annual growth rates for less developed countries ranged from 2 to 3.5%. Less developed countries can be divided into 3 groups: 1) countries with both high birth and death rates; 2) countries with high birth rates and low death rates; and 3) countries with intermediate and declining birth rates and low death rates. Rapid population growth has serious economic consequences. It encourages inequities in income distribution; it limits rate of growth of gross national product by holding down level of savings and capital investments; it exerts pressure on agricultural production and land; and it creates unemployment problems. In addition, the quality of education for increasing number of chidren is adversely affected, as high proportions of children reduce the amount that can be spent for the education of each child out of the educational budget; the cost and adequacy of health and welfare services are affected in a similar way. Other serious consequences of rapid population growth are maternal death and illness, and physical and mental retardation of children of very poor families. It is very urgent that over a billion births be prevented in the next 30 years to reduce annual population growth rate from the current 2% to 1% per year.

  4. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF ERODED SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Maya

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La degradación del suelo causada por erosión hídrica amenaza seriamente la calidad de los recursos de los que depende el hombre para su subsistencia, como el agua, suelos y cultivos. El diagnóstico de los suelos a partir de variables ambientales es indispensable para la planeación e implementación de planes de manejo para el mejoramiento de este recurso. En este trabajo se presenta una revisión de algunas de las herramientas tecnológicas que se utilizan para evaluar la degradación del suelo causada por erosión hídrica a diversas escalas, considerando los factores determinantes en cada nivel. Las escalas analizadas son: agregados superficiales del suelo, parcela o potrero y cuenca hidrológica. Se mencionan en cada caso las variables indicadoras de la erosión, así como los métodos y herramientas que se utilizan para su evaluación. Se presenta un estudio caso.

  6. Estimativa da erodibilidade pela desagregação por ultra-som e atributos de solos com horizonte B textural Estimating soil erodibility from sonication indexes and other attributes of textural B horizon soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurélio Carolino de Sá

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available A erodibilidade de solos é um fator importante na estimativa das perdas por erosão. Este fator é uma expressão da combinação de atributos do solo, os quais possibilitam sua estimativa por meio de equações. O objetivo deste trabalho foi medir atributos químicos e mineralógicos que, combinados com índices de estabilidade de agregados determinados por ultra-som, pudessem ser utilizados como variáveis em modelos na estimativa da erodibilidade de solos com horizonte B textural do Brasil. Estes atributos foram determinados em 22 solos de erodibilidade conhecida, medida diretamente em parcelas no campo. Atributos de 21 dos solos foram utilizados no ajuste dos modelos. Um dos solos (Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo foi escolhido ao acaso para teste. De 96 variáveis, 15 foram incluídas nos modelos de estimativa da erodibilidade. A maioria delas é representada por índices de desagregação por sonificação de amostras do horizonte A. Foram obtidos quatro modelos para estimar a erodibilidade, com R² variando entre 0,83** e 0,91**. A erodibilidade pode ser estimada com base na estabilidade de agregados por ultra-som.Soil erodibility is an important factor for estimating soil erosion losses. This factor is an expression of combined soil attributes, which make possible its estimation by equations. The objective of this study was to measure some chemical and mineralogical attributes, and to combine them with aggregate stability indexes from sonication analysis, in equations in order to estimate soil erodibility of textural B horizon soils from Brazil. These attributes were measured for 22 soils that had their erodibility measured from field plots. Attributes of 21 soils were used to adjust the equations. One of the soils (Red-Yellow Argisol was used to test the equations. From 96 variables, 15 were significantly correlated to soil erodibility. Most of them are represented by the disruption indexes from sonication analysis of A horizon samples. This

  7. Major element compositions of fluid inclusions from hydrothermal vein-type deposits record eroded sedimentary units in the Schwarzwald district, SW Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Benjamin F.; Burisch, Mathias; Marks, Michael A. W.; Markl, Gregor

    2017-12-01

    Mixing of sedimentary formation fluids with basement-derived brines is an important mechanism for the formation of hydrothermal veins. We focus on the sources of the sediment-derived fluid component in ore-forming processes and present a comprehensive fluid inclusion study on 84 Jurassic hydrothermal veins from the Schwarzwald mining district (SW Germany). Our data derive from about 2300 fluid inclusions and reveal differences in the average fluid composition between the northern, central, and southern Schwarzwald. Fluids from the northern and southern Schwarzwald are characterised by high salinities (18-26 wt% NaCl+CaCl2), low Ca/(Ca+Na) mole ratios (0.1-0.4), and variable Cl/Br mass ratios (30-1140). In contrast, fluids from the central Schwarzwald show even higher salinities (23-27 wt% NaCl+CaCl2), higher Ca/(Ca+Na) mole ratios (0.2-0.9), and less variable Cl/Br mass ratios (40-130). These fluid compositions correlate with the nature and thickness of the now eroded sedimentary cover rocks. Compared to the northern and the southern Schwarzwald, where halite precipitation occurred during the Middle Triassic, the sedimentary basin in the central Schwarzwald was relatively shallow at this time and no halite was precipitated. Accordingly, Cl/Br ratios of fluids from the central Schwarzwald provide no evidence for the reaction of a sedimentary brine with halite, whereas those from the northern and southern Schwarzwald do. Instead, elevated Ca/(Ca+Na), high SO4 contents, and relatively low Cl/Br imply the presence of a gypsum dissolution brine during vein formation in the central Schwarzwald which agrees with the reconstructed regional Triassic geology. Hence, the information archived in fluid inclusions from hydrothermal veins in the crystalline basement has the potential for reconstructing sedimentary rocks in the former overburden.

  8. New views on "old" carbon in the Amazon River: Insight from the source of organic carbon eroded from the Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K. E.; Hilton, R. G.; West, A. J.; Malhi, Y.; Gröcke, D. R.; Bryant, C. L.; Ascough, P. L.; Robles Caceres, A.; New, M.

    2013-05-01

    rivers play a key role in the delivery of particulate organic carbon (POC) to large river systems and the ocean. Due to the extent of its drainage area and runoff, the Amazon River is one of Earth's most important biogeochemical systems. However, the source of POC eroded from the humid region of the Eastern Andes and the input of fossil POC from sedimentary rocks (POCfossil) remains poorly constrained. Here we collected suspended sediments from the Kosñipata River during flood events to better characterize Andean POC, measuring the nitrogen to organic carbon ratio (N/C), stable carbon isotopes (δ13Corg) and radiocarbon (Δ14Corg). Δ14Corg values ranged from -711‰ to -15‰, and significant linear trends between Δ14Corg, N/C and δ13Corg suggested that this reflects the mixing of POCfossil with very young organic matter (Δ14Corg 50‰) from the terrestrial biosphere (POCnon-fossil). Using N/C and Δ14Corg in an end-member mixing analysis, we quantify the fraction of POCfossil (to within 0.1) and find that it contributes a constant proportion of the suspended sediment mass (0.37 ± 0.03%) and up to 80% of total POC. In contrast, the relative contribution of POCnon-fossil was variable, being most important during the rising limb and peak discharges of flood events. The new data shed light on published measurements of "old" POC (low Δ14Corg) in Andean-fed tributaries of the Amazon River, with their Δ14Corg and δ13Corg values consistent with variable addition of POCfossil. The findings suggest a greater persistence of Andean POC in the lowland Amazon than previously recognized.

  9. Soil erodibility mapping using the RUSLE model to prioritize erosion control in the Wadi Sahouat basin, North-West of Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubal, Abderrezak Kamel; Achite, Mohammed; Ouillon, Sylvain; Dehni, Abdelatif

    2018-03-12

    Soil losses must be quantified over watersheds in order to set up protection measures against erosion. The main objective of this paper is to quantify and to map soil losses in the Wadi Sahouat basin (2140 km 2 ) in the north-west of Algeria, using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model assisted by a Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing. The Model Builder of the GIS allowed the automation of the different operations for establishing thematic layers of the model parameters: the erosivity factor (R), the erodibility factor (K), the topographic factor (LS), the crop management factor (C), and the conservation support practice factor (P). The average annual soil loss rate in the Wadi Sahouat basin ranges from 0 to 255 t ha -1  year -1 , maximum values being observed over steep slopes of more than 25% and between 600 and 1000 m elevations. 3.4% of the basin is classified as highly susceptible to erosion, 4.9% with a medium risk, and 91.6% at a low risk. Google Earth reveals a clear conformity with the degree of zones to erosion sensitivity. Based on the soil loss map, 32 sub-basins were classified into three categories by priority of intervention: high, moderate, and low. This priority is available to sustain a management plan against sediment filling of the Ouizert dam at the basin outlet. The method enhancing the RUSLE model and confrontation with Google Earth can be easily adapted to other watersheds.

  10. Erodabilidad de suelos del sur de la Región Semiárida argentina Erodibility of soils in the south of the semiarid region of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora E Echeverría

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available La erodabilidad de los suelos se puede medir a campo mediante simuladores de lluvia o predecir mediante modelos matemáticos como USLE y WEPP. El objetivo del trabajo fue medir la erodabilidad de tres suelos representativos del Sur de la Región semiárida argentina y compararla con la estimada por los modelos WEPP y USLE. En los suelos Bahía Blanca (SBB y Cabildo (SC -Paleustoles Petrocálcicos- y Villarino (SV -Calciustol Petrocálcicose aplicaron, mediante un simulador portátil, dos lluvias consecutivas de 32 mm en 30 minutos. Las pérdidas de suelo debido a la 1° y 2° lluvia indicaron: SV 3,26 y 5,86 Mg ha-1 h-1; SC 2,04 y 5,53 Mg ha-1 h-1; SBB 0,75 y 2,66 Mg ha-1 h-1, respectivamente. La resistencia del suelo a la erosión correlacionó con la relación limo: arcilla (r:0,60, CO (r:0,55 y estabilidad estructural (r:0,56.Las tasas de escurrimiento y sedimentación promedio fueron para SV: 12,4 10-6 m s-1 y 15,6 10-5 kg s-1 m-2; para SC: 9,9 10-6 m s-1 y 13,5 10-5 kg s-1 m-2 y para SBB: 9,6 10-6 m s-1 y 6,1 10-5 kg s-1 m-2, respectivamente. El comportamiento de SV se debió al rápido sellado del horizonte superficial, mientras que el de SBB y el SC se relacionó con la estabilidad estructural. En el modelo WEPP, la erodabilidad medida entre surcos (Ki fue, para SV: 2,5; SC: 1,89 y SBB: 1,39 (10(6 kg s m-4; mientras que la estimada (Kib fue significativamente más alta, SV: 6,26; SC: 10,2 y SBB: 10,2 (10(6 kg s m-4. Los índices de erosión (IE fueron, SV: 0,30; SC: 0,21 y SBB: 0,10 Mg MJ-1 y discreparon significativamente de los valores K estimados a partir del nomograma, confirmando que las predicciones del mismo resultan poco confiables en suelos con el 65% o más de arenas.Water erodibility of soils can be measured in the field using rainfall simulators or be predicted with mathematical models as USLE and WEPP. The objective of our research was to determine water erodibility of three representative soils in the southern semiarid

  11. Rapid Evaporation of microbubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Jitendra; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2008-11-01

    When a liquid is heated to a temperature far above its boiling point, it evaporates abruptly. Boiling of liquid at high temperatures can be explosive and destructive, and poses a potential hazard for a host of industrial processes. Explosive boiling may occur if a cold and volatile liquid is brought into contact with a hot and non-volatile liquid, or if a liquid is superheated or depressurized rapidly. Such possibilities are realized, for example, in the depressurization of low boiling point liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the pipelines or storage tanks as a result of a leak. While boiling of highly heated liquids can be destructive at macroscale, the (nearly) instantaneous pace of the process and the release of large amount of kinetic energy make the phenomena extremely attractive at microscale where it is possible to utilize the released energy to derive micromechanical systems. For instance, there is currently a growing interest in micro-explosion of liquid for generation of micro bubbles for actuation purposes. The aim of the current study is to gain a fundamental understanding of the subject using direct numerical simulations. In particular, we seek to investigate the boundary between stable and unstable nucleus growth in terms of the degree of liquid superheat and to compare the dynamics of unstable and stable growth.

  12. Rapid flow imaging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelc, N.J.; Spritzer, C.E.; Lee, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    A rapid, phase-contrast, MR imaging method of imaging flow has been implemented. The method, called VIGRE (velocity imaging with gradient recalled echoes), consists of two interleaved, narrow flip angle, gradient-recalled acquisitions. One is flow compensated while the second has a specified flow encoding (both peak velocity and direction) that causes signals to contain additional phase in proportion to velocity in the specified direction. Complex image data from the first acquisition are used as a phase reference for the second, yielding immunity from phase accumulation due to causes other than motion. Images with pixel values equal to MΔΘ where M is the magnitude of the flow compensated image and ΔΘ is the phase difference at the pixel, are produced. The magnitude weighting provides additional vessel contrast, suppresses background noise, maintains the flow direction information, and still allows quantitative data to be retrieved. The method has been validated with phantoms and is undergoing initial clinical evaluation. Early results are extremely encouraging

  13. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains twelve separate reports on an estimation of the possibility of fusion reactions in water molecules, an analysis of pion spectra of the charge-exchange reaction Mg(t, 3 He), the results of simulation of e + e - pair production and detection in the ALICE experiment, the data on the edge effects in multiwire proportional chambers, standard and nonstandard applications of wavelet analysis, the design and study of light readout system for scintillator shower maximum detector for the endcap electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment at RHIC, a study of multiparticle azimuthal correlations in high energy interactions, coherent multifragmentation of relativistic nuclei, superposition of neutrino eigenstates and neutrino oscillation, simulation results and suggestions for possible design of gaseous shower maximum detector for the endcap electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment at RHIC, determination of the sizes of the pion emission region in np-interactions at P n =(5.2±0.16)GeV/c using the interference correlation method for identical particles, inelasticity of nucleus-nucleus collisions in the CMS experiment. 65 figs., 19 tabs

  14. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  15. [Soil anti-erodibility of abandoned lands during different succession stages of plant community in hilly-gullied region of the Loess Plateau: Take Fangta small watershed as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang-chen; Jiao, Ju-ying; Cao, Bin-ting; Yu, Wei-jie; Wei, Yan-hong; Kou, Meng; Hu, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Field survey and laboratory experiment were conducted to study the soil anti-erodibility of abandoned croplands during different vegetation succession stages in hilly-gullied region of the Loess Plateau, based on the analysis of soil particle composition, size distribution and group characteristics, soil aggregate fractal dimensions and stability. The results showed that in the earlier stages of succession from annual to perennial herbs in abandoned croplands, soil size distribution changed a little bit, the fractal dimension of soil particle increased, soil structure improved, fractal dimension and damage percent of soil aggregate structure decreased, soil stability increased, thus soil anti-erodibility increased. Therefore, natural restoration of vegetation is of great significance to improve the soil structure, increase soil erosion resistance, reduce soil erosion and promote sustainable development of regional ecological environment.

  16. Rapid prototyping: een veelbelovende methode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverman, T.M.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Prins, H.; Schulten, E.A.J.M.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is a method which makes it possible to produce a three-dimensional model based on two-dimensional imaging. Various rapid prototyping methods are available for modelling, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, direct laser metal sintering, two-photon polymerization,

  17. How Rapid is Rapid Prototyping? Analysis of ESPADON Programme Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Alston

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available New methodologies, engineering processes, and support environments are beginning to emerge for embedded signal processing systems. The main objectives are to enable defence industry to field state-of-the-art products in less time and with lower costs, including retrofits and upgrades, based predominately on commercial off the shelf (COTS components and the model-year concept. One of the cornerstones of the new methodologies is the concept of rapid prototyping. This is the ability to rapidly and seamlessly move from functional design to the architectural design to the implementation, through automatic code generation tools, onto real-time COTS test beds. In this paper, we try to quantify the term “rapid” and provide results, the metrics, from two independent benchmarks, a radar and sonar beamforming application subset. The metrics show that the rapid prototyping process may be sixteen times faster than a conventional process.

  18. Rapid deployment intrusion detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    A rapidly deployable security system is one that provides intrusion detection, assessment, communications, and annunciation capabilities; is easy to install and configure; can be rapidly deployed, and is reusable. A rapidly deployable intrusion detection system (RADIDS) has many potential applications within the DOE Complex: back-up protection for failed zones in a perimeter intrusion detection and assessment system, intrusion detection and assessment capabilities in temporary locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations. Many DOE user-need documents have indicated an interest in a rapidly deployable intrusion detection system. The purpose of the RADIDS project is to design, develop, and implement such a system. 2 figs

  19. Rapid Continuous Multimaterial Extrusion Bioprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Wanjun; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Heinrich, Marcel A.; De Ferrari, F; Jang, HL; Bakht, SM; Alvarez, MM; Yang, J; Li, YC; Trujillo-de Stantiago, G; Miri, AK; Zhu, K; Khoshakhlagh, P; Prakash, G; Cheng, H; Guan, X; Zhong, Z; Ju, J; Zhu, GH; Jin, X; Ryon Shin, Su; Dokmeci, M.R.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    The development of a multimaterial extrusion bioprinting platform is reported. This platform is capable of depositing multiple coded bioinks in a continuous manner with fast and smooth switching among different reservoirs for rapid fabrication of complex constructs, through digitally controlled

  20. Colour reconnections and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennblad, Leif

    1996-01-01

    I argue that the success of recently proposed models describing events with large rapidity gaps in DIS at HERA in terms of non-perturbative colour exchange is heavily reliant on suppression of perturbative gluon emission in the proton direction. There is little or no physical motivation for such suppression and I show that a model without this suppression cannot describe the rapidity gap events at HERA. (author)

  1. Dilepton distributions at backward rapidities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betemps, M. A.; Ducati, M. B. Gay; Oliveira, E. G. de

    2006-01-01

    The dilepton production at backward rapidities in pAu and pp collisions at RHIC and LHC energies is investigated in the dipole approach. The results are shown through the nuclear modification ratio R pA considering transverse momentum and rapidity spectra. The dilepton modification ratio presents interesting behavior at the backward rapidities when compared with the already known forward ones, since it is related with the large x kinematical region that is being probed. The rapidity dependence of the nuclear modification ratio in the dilepton production is strongly dependent on the Bjorken x behavior of the nuclear structure function ratio R F 2 =F 2 A /F 2 p . The R pA transverse momentum dependence at backward rapidities is modified due to the large x nuclear effects: at RHIC energies, for instance, the ratio R pA is reduced as p T increases, presenting an opposite behavior when compared with the forward one. It implies that the dilepton production at backward rapidities should carry information of the nuclear effects at large Bjorken x, as well as that it is useful to investigate the p T dependence of the observables in this kinematical regime

  2. Erodibilidade e tensão crítica de cisalhamento em solos de estradas não pavimentadas Erodibility and critical shear stress on unpaved road soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João F. de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A falta de um sistema adequado para drenagem de águas pluviais em estradas não pavimentadas é um dos principais fatores que causam a sua degradação e, para que referidos sistemas possam ser adequadamente planejados e dimensionados é necessário o conhecimento de parâmetros de resistência dos solos. Com este trabalho se teve, por objetivo, determinar a erodibilidade e a tensão crítica de cisalhamento para diferentes solos de estradas não pavimentadas. Utilizou-se um simulador de escoamento superficial instalado diretamente nos canais das estradas, sob condição natural e se determinou a perda de solo para diferentes lâminas de escoamento. A erodibilidade e a tensão crítica de cisalhamento foram determinadas por meio do ajuste de curvas relacionando-se a perda de solo em função da tensão cisalhante provocada pelo escoamento. Os resultados alcançados mostraram variações nos valores de erodibilidade e de tensão crítica de cisalhamento das estradas avaliadas. Os valores de erodibilidade encontrados mostraram, quando comparados com valores observados na literatura, elevada suscetibilidade à erosão para as condições de estradas, sendo mais elevados nos solos de textura mais arenosa e siltosa. Os valores de tensão crítica se mostraram bastante próximos aos observados em outros trabalhos.The absence of an adequate drainage system in unpaved roads is one of the main factors for their degradation. For adequate planning knowledge of the resistance parameters of soil is necessary. This study had as its objective the determinatiom of the erodibility and critical shear stress of unpaved road soils. For this work, a runoff simulator was directly installed on road channels, under natural conditions. Different flow depths were applied and the soil loss was measured for each depth. The erodibility and the critical shear stress were determined through adjusted curves relating soil disaggregation and flow shear stress. The results

  3. The concentrations of heavy metals and the incidence of micronucleated erythrocytes and liver EROD activity in two edible-fish from the Paraíba do Sul river basin in Brazil | Concentração de metais pesados e incidência de eritrócitos micronucleados e atividade de EROD hepática em duas espécies de peixes comestíveis na bacia do Rio Paraíba do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Estevam Martins Parente

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Paraíba do Sul river (PSR basin crosses one of the most populated and industrialized regions of Brazil and receives effluent from the metallurgic, paper mill and agricultural industries. PSR water has multiple uses, including being a supply of potable water and riverine populations which consume some species of its fish. In the present study, we investigated the responses of two biomarkers of aquatic pollution, EROD activity in the liver and micronuclei frequency in peripheral blood, as well as the concentrations of seven heavy metals in the muscle tissue of two species of fish native to the PSR: Geophagus brasiliensis and Hypostomus sp. Sampling was performed in both the wet and dry seasons of 2003, with a total of 339 fish collected from 16 sites along the PSR basin. Fish collected at Levy Gasparian, Barra Mansa and Três Rios both had higher EROD activity and micronuclei frequency. The results also suggested a moderate induction of EROD activity in fish collected from S.L. Paraitinga and Sapucaia. Micronuclei frequency was elevated in fish from S.J. Campos, Além Paraíba, Campos and S.J. Barra. In all cases, heavy metal concentrations did not exceed the maximum considered safe for fish meat consumption. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- A bacia do rio Paraíba do Sul (PSR atravessa uma das regiões mais povoadas e industrializadas do Brasil, recebendo efluentes de indústrias metalúrgicas, de papel e celulose e agrícolas. Os usos das águas do PSR são múltiplos, incluem o fornecimento de água potável, e as populações ribeirinhas consomem algumas de suas espécies de peixes. No presente trabalho foram investigadas as respostas de dois biomarcadores à poluição, a atividade hepática de EROD e a freqüência de micronúcleo em sangue periférico, e medidos os níveis de sete metais pesados no músculo de duas espécies de peixes nativas do PSR, Geophagus brasiliensis and

  4. Evidence for rapid topographic evolution and crater degradation on Mercury from simple crater morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, Caleb I.; Crowley, Malinda C.; Leight, Clarissa; Dyar, M. Darby; Minton, David A.; Hirabayashi, Masatoshi; Thomson, Bradley J.; Watters, Wesley A.

    2017-06-01

    Examining the topography of impact craters and their evolution with time is useful for assessing how fast planetary surfaces evolve. Here, new measurements of depth/diameter (d/D) ratios for 204 craters of 2.5 to 5 km in diameter superposed on Mercury's smooth plains are reported. The median d/D is 0.13, much lower than expected for newly formed simple craters ( 0.21). In comparison, lunar craters that postdate the maria are much less modified, and the median crater in the same size range has a d/D ratio that is nearly indistinguishable from the fresh value. This difference in crater degradation is remarkable given that Mercury's smooth plains and the lunar maria likely have ages that are comparable, if not identical. Applying a topographic diffusion model, these results imply that crater degradation is faster by a factor of approximately two on Mercury than on the Moon, suggesting more rapid landform evolution on Mercury at all scales.Plain Language SummaryMercury and the Moon are both airless bodies that have experienced numerous impact events over billions of years. These impacts form craters in a geologic instant. The question examined in this manuscript is how fast these craters erode after their formation. To simplify the problem, we examined craters of a particular size (2.5 to 5 km in diameter) on a particular geologic terrain type (volcanic smooth plains) on both the Moon and Mercury. We then measured the topography of hundreds of craters on both bodies that met these criteria. Our results suggest that craters on Mercury become shallower much more quickly than craters on the Moon. We estimate that Mercury's topography erodes at a rate at least a factor of two faster than the Moon's.

  5. Rapid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla M. Wassim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of Aedes caspius mosquitoes are incriminated to be a potential reservoir of “Rift Valley Fever Virus” (RVF during interepizootic periods in Egypt. Ae. caspius contains two distinct forms which are morphologically indistinguishable but differ in physiology and behavior; Ae. caspius form (a requires a blood meal for each egg batch(anautogeny, is unable to mate in confined spaces(eurygamous. The second form (b lays egg batch without blood meal (autogenous and can mate in confined spaces (stenogamous. In this work, we collected the autogenous and anautogenous forms of Ae. caspius from two different breeding habitats in the Qalyubia Governorate. Analysis of the Drosophila ace-Orthologous acetylecholinesterase gene revealed that a single polymorphic region characterized each species. Based on this region, specific primers were used to amplify the entire section of intron II, sections of Exon 2 and Exon 3 of ace-2 gene for differentiating the complex species of mosquitoes. The amplicons of anautogenous form sized 441 pb and increase 116 bp than autogenous form of Ae. caspius. High rates of point mutations were addressed; deletion/insertion events are 120 bases. The transversion mutations were 44 bases and were relatively close to the transtion mutations 43 base. The genetic distance was 0.01 between the two forms.

  6. Aplicación del bioensayo EROD-H4IIE para la determinación de dioxinas en carnes de pollos broiler: un estudio de equivalencia con la cromatografía de gases de alta resolución acoplada a espectrometría de masas de alta resolución Application of the EROD-H4IIE bioassay for the determination of dioxins in broiler chicken meat: an equivalence study with high resolution gas chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    JT Schoffer; C Bustos-López; P Sotomayor; CA Mattar; A González; C Robles; F Samsing; O Acevedo; CE Valdovinos

    2011-01-01

    En el presente estudio se aplicó el bioensayo EROD con línea celular H4IIE para determinar la equivalencia de resultados para carnes de pollo, entre el bioensayo EROD-H4IIE en pg TCDD-EQ/g de tejido y los resultados de la cromatografía de gases de alta resolución acoplada a espectrometría de alta resolución (HRGC/HRMS) en pg WHO-TEQ/g de grasa. Para lo anterior se utilizaron 41 muestras compuestas de trutros de pollo. Éstas fueron obtenidas en la planta faenadora de 4 planteles diferentes de ...

  7. Hard diffraction and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, A.

    1995-09-01

    The field of hard diffraction, which studies events with a rapidity gap and a hard scattering, has expanded dramatically recently. A review of new results from CDF, D OE, H1 and ZEUS will be given. These results include diffractive jet production, deep-inelastic scattering in large rapidity gap events, rapidity gaps between high transverse energy jets, and a search for diffractive W-boson production. The combination of these results gives new insight into the exchanged object, believed to be the pomeron. The results axe consistent with factorization and with a hard pomeron that contains both quarks and gluons. There is also evidence for the exchange of a strongly interacting color singlet in high momentum transfer (36 2 ) events

  8. Erosividade da chuva e erodibilidade de Cambissolo e Latossolo na região de Lavras, sul de Minas Gerais Rainfall erosivity and erodibility of Cambisol (Inceptisol and Latosol (Oxisol in the region of Lavras, Southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marcos da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, ainda são relativamente poucos os estudos envolvendo erodibilidade do solo, principalmente Cambissolos, dada a morosidade na obtenção dos resultados de experimentos com chuva natural. O conhecimento dos índices de erosividade e de erodibilidade é importante para o planejamento conservacionista, contribuindo para a sustentabilidade dos solos. Este estudo teve como objetivos determinar a erosividade da chuva e a erodibilidade de Cambissolo Háplico Tb distrófico típico e Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico, sob chuva natural, em Lavras (MG, no período de 1998 a 2002. Os dados de precipitação pluviométrica foram obtidos na Estação Climatológica Principal de Lavras, localizada no campus da Universidade Federal de Lavras, próxima das unidades experimentais de perdas de solo. A erosividade (EI30 foi determinada a partir do produto da energia cinética da chuva pela sua intensidade máxima em 30 min. Estes dados, correlacionados com as perdas de solo, permitiram obter o índice de erodibilidade dos solos. A precipitação total média anual foi 1.287 mm e a erosividade média foi de 4.865 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 ano-1. A erodibilidade foi 0,0355 Mg h MJ-1 mm-1 para o Cambissolo e 0,0032 Mg h MJ-1 mm-1 para o Latossolo, em consonância com seus atributos mineralógicos, químicos, físicos e morfológicos diferenciais.Relatively few studies in Brazil have investigated soil erodibility, mainly for Cambisols (Inceptisols, due to the tediousness of data collection in natural rainfall experiments. Knowledge about erodibility and erosivity is important for conservation planning, which contributes to soil sustainability. This study aimed at evaluating the rainfall erosivity and erodibility of a typic dystrophic Tb Haplic Cambisol (Inceptisol and a typic dystroferric Red Latosol (Oxisol under natural rainfall, in Lavras, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, between 1998 and 2002. Pluvial precipitation data were obtained from the main weather

  9. On the rapid melt quenching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usatyuk, I.I.; Novokhatskij, I.A.; Kaverin, Yu.F.

    1994-01-01

    Specific features of instrumentation of traditionally employed method of melt spinning (rapid quenching), its disadvantages being discussed, were analyzed. The necessity of the method upgrading as applied to the problems of studying fine structure of molten metals and glasses was substantiated. The principle flowsheet of experimental facility for extremely rapid quenching of the melts of metals is described, specificity of its original functional units being considered. The sequence and character of all the principal stages of the method developed were discussed. 18 refs.; 3 figs

  10. Furnace for rapid thermal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Duine, P.A.; Sluis, P. van der

    2001-01-01

    A Method (1) for Rapid Thermal Processing of a wafer (7), wherein the wafer (7) is heated by lamps (9), and the heat radiation is reflected by an optical switching device (15,17) which is in the reflecting state during the heating stage. During the cooling stage of the wafer (7), the heat is

  11. Rapid thermal processing of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Borisenko, Victor E

    1997-01-01

    Rapid thermal processing has contributed to the development of single wafer cluster processing tools and other innovations in integrated circuit manufacturing environments Borisenko and Hesketh review theoretical and experimental progress in the field, discussing a wide range of materials, processes, and conditions They thoroughly cover the work of international investigators in the field

  12. Rapid general microdetermination of fluorine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuven, H.C.E. van; Rotscheid, G.J.; Buis, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    A rapid micromethod for the determination of fluorine in a wide variety of materials has been developed. The method is based on the liberation of the fluorine (as HF) from the sample by means of pyrohydrolysis with steam at 1120?? C, The amount of fluoride in the condensate is subsequently measured

  13. Rapid Prototyping Enters Mainstream Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winek, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Explains rapid prototyping, a process that uses computer-assisted design files to create a three-dimensional object automatically, speeding the industrial design process. Five commercially available systems and two emerging types--the 3-D printing process and repetitive masking and depositing--are described. (SK)

  14. Portable Diagnostics and Rapid Germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Zachary Spencer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In the Bioenergy and Defense Department of Sandia National Laboratories, characterization of the BaDx (Bacillus anthracis diagnostic cartridge) was performed and rapid germination chemistry was investigated. BaDx was tested with complex sample matrixes inoculated with Bacillus anthracis, and the trials proved that BaDx will detect Bacillus anthracis in a variety of the medium, such as dirt, serum, blood, milk, and horse fluids. The dimensions of the device were altered to accommodate an E. coli or Listeria lateral flow immunoassay, and using a laser printer, BaDx devices were manufactured to identify E. coli and Listeria. Initial testing with E. coli versions of BaDx indicate that the device will be viable as a portable diagnostic cartridge. The device would be more effective with faster bacteria germination; hence studies were performed the use of rapid germination chemistry. Trials with calcium dipicolinic acid displayed increased cell germination, as shown by control studies using a microplate reader. Upon lyophilization the rapid germination chemistry failed to change growth patterns, indicating that the calcium dipicolinic acid was not solubilized under the conditions tested. Although incompatible with the portable diagnostic device, the experiments proved that the rapid germination chemistry was effective in increasing cell germination.

  15. Rapid-scan EPR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sandra S; Shi, Yilin; Woodcock, Lukas; Buchanan, Laura A; McPeak, Joseph; Quine, Richard W; Rinard, George A; Epel, Boris; Halpern, Howard J; Eaton, Gareth R

    2017-07-01

    In rapid-scan EPR the magnetic field or frequency is repeatedly scanned through the spectrum at rates that are much faster than in conventional continuous wave EPR. The signal is directly-detected with a mixer at the source frequency. Rapid-scan EPR is particularly advantageous when the scan rate through resonance is fast relative to electron spin relaxation rates. In such scans, there may be oscillations on the trailing edge of the spectrum. These oscillations can be removed by mathematical deconvolution to recover the slow-scan absorption spectrum. In cases of inhomogeneous broadening, the oscillations may interfere destructively to the extent that they are not visible. The deconvolution can be used even when it is not required, so spectra can be obtained in which some portions of the spectrum are in the rapid-scan regime and some are not. The technology developed for rapid-scan EPR can be applied generally so long as spectra are obtained in the linear response region. The detection of the full spectrum in each scan, the ability to use higher microwave power without saturation, and the noise filtering inherent in coherent averaging results in substantial improvement in signal-to-noise relative to conventional continuous wave spectroscopy, which is particularly advantageous for low-frequency EPR imaging. This overview describes the principles of rapid-scan EPR and the hardware used to generate the spectra. Examples are provided of its application to imaging of nitroxide radicals, diradicals, and spin-trapped radicals at a Larmor frequency of ca. 250MHz. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. State trends in premiums and deductibles, 2003-2009: how building on the Affordable Care Act will help stem the tide of rising costs and eroding benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Cathy; Stremikis, Kristof; How, Sabrina K H; Collins, Sara R

    2010-12-01

    Rapidly rising health insurance costs have strained U.S. families and employers in recent years. This issue brief examines data for all states on changes in private employer premiums and deductibles for 2003 and 2009. The analysis finds that premiums for businesses and their employees increased 41 percent across states from 2003 to 2009, while per-person deductibles jumped 77 percent in large as well as small firms. If these trends continue at the rate prior to enactment of the Affordable Care Act, the average premium for family coverage will rise 79 percent by 2020, to more than $23,000. The authors describe how health reform offers the potential to reduce insurance cost growth while improving value and protection. If reforms succeed in slowing premium growth by 1 percentage point annually in all states, by 2020 employers and families together will save $2,323 annually for family coverage, compared with projected trends.

  17. Rapid and sustained cost management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.

    2009-01-01

    Accenture helps clients develop comprehensive, process-driven strategies for rapid and sustained cost management that leverage deep insights and analytics. This approach enables companies to gain operating cost advantages by rationalizing, simplifying and automating current operating capabilities. It drives structural cost advantages by optimizing business mix, capital structure, organizational structure and geographic presence. This paper discussed how successful companies achieve high performance during times of economic turmoil. It also discussed the value of the winner's strategy in terms of rapid and sustained cost management (RSCM). It discussed how Accenture operates and its leveraged capabilities, improved efficiency, margins and cash flow while maintaining customer service levels. Building structural advantage and the Accenture difference were also discussed. It was concluded that RSCM is one vital way that Accenture can help companies achieve success. 4 figs

  18. Rapidly Progressive Quadriplegia and Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, DonRaphael; McCorquodale, Donald; Peters, Angela; Juster-Switlyk, Kelsey; Smith, Gordon; Ansari, Safdar

    2016-11-01

    A woman aged 77 years was transferred to our neurocritical care unit for evaluation and treatment of rapidly progressive motor weakness and encephalopathy. Examination revealed an ability to follow simple commands only and abnormal movements, including myoclonus, tongue and orofacial dyskinesias, and opsoclonus. Imaging study findings were initially unremarkable, but when repeated, they demonstrated enhancement of the cauda equina nerve roots, trigeminal nerve, and pachymeninges. Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed mildly elevated white blood cell count and protein levels. Serial electrodiagnostic testing demonstrated a rapidly progressive diffuse sensory motor axonopathy, and electroencephalogram findings progressed from generalized slowing to bilateral periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges. Critical details of her recent history prompted a diagnostic biopsy. Over time, the patient became completely unresponsive with no further abnormal movements and ultimately died. The differential diagnosis, pathological findings, and diagnosis are discussed with a brief review of a well-known yet rare diagnosis.

  19. Rapid mask prototyping for microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisonneuve, B G C; Honegger, T; Cordeiro, J; Lecarme, O; Thiry, T; Fuard, D; Berton, K; Picard, E; Zelsmann, M; Peyrade, D

    2016-03-01

    With the rise of microfluidics for the past decade, there has come an ever more pressing need for a low-cost and rapid prototyping technology, especially for research and education purposes. In this article, we report a rapid prototyping process of chromed masks for various microfluidic applications. The process takes place out of a clean room, uses a commercially available video-projector, and can be completed in less than half an hour. We quantify the ranges of fields of view and of resolutions accessible through this video-projection system and report the fabrication of critical microfluidic components (junctions, straight channels, and curved channels). To exemplify the process, three common devices are produced using this method: a droplet generation device, a gradient generation device, and a neuro-engineering oriented device. The neuro-engineering oriented device is a compartmentalized microfluidic chip, and therefore, required the production and the precise alignment of two different masks.

  20. Rapidity correlations test stochastic hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zin, C; Gavin, S; Moschelli, G

    2017-01-01

    We show that measurements of the rapidity dependence of transverse momentum correlations can be used to determine the characteristic time τ π that dictates the rate of isotropization of the stress energy tensor, as well as the shear viscosity ν = η/sT . We formulate methods for computing these correlations using second order dissipative hydrodynamics with noise. Current data are consistent with τ π /ν ∼ 10 but targeted measurements can improve this precision. (paper)

  1. Rapid duodenal and jejunal intubation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    A size 12 French radiopaque catheter, 135 cm long, suitable for rapid duodenal and jejunal intubation, is described. Its size and flexibility enable it to be passed with ease through the nose, stomach and duodenum. A guide wire is used to act as a stiffener as the catheter is passed through the stomach. The catheter is suitable for infusing barium directly into the small intestine and for performing hypotonic duodenography. The technique for duodenal and jejunal intubation is discussed. (author)

  2. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  3. Rapid reconnection of flux lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samain, A.

    1982-01-01

    The rapid reconnection of flux lines in an incompressible fluid through a singular layer of the current density is discussed. It is shown that the liberated magnetic energy must partially appear in the form of plasma kinetic energy. A laminar structure of the flow is possible, but Alfven velocity must be achieved in eddies of growing size at the ends of the layer. The gross structure of the flow and the magnetic configuration may be obtained from variational principles. (author)

  4. Single wafer rapid thermal multiprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraswat, K.C.; Moslehi, M.M.; Grossman, D.D.; Wood, S.; Wright, P.; Booth, L.

    1989-01-01

    Future success in microelectronics will demand rapid innovation, rapid product introduction and ability to react to a change in technological and business climate quickly. These technological advances in integrated electronics will require development of flexible manufacturing technology for VLSI systems. However, the current approach of establishing factories for mass manufacturing of chips at a cost of more than 200 million dollars is detrimental to flexible manufacturing. The authors propose concepts of a micro factory which may be characterized by more economical small scale production, higher flexibility to accommodate many products on several processes, and faster turnaround and learning. In-situ multiprocessing equipment where several process steps can be done in sequence may be a key ingredient in this approach. For this environment to be flexible, the equipment must have ability to change processing environment, requiring extensive in-situ measurements and real time control. This paper describes the development of a novel single wafer rapid thermal multiprocessing (RTM) reactor for next generation flexible VLSI manufacturing. This reactor will combine lamp heating, remote microwave plasma and photo processing in a single cold-wall chamber, with applications for multilayer in-situ growth and deposition of dielectrics, semiconductors and metals

  5. Rapid Sampling from Sealed Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, R.G.; Garcia, A.R.E.; Martinez, R.K.; Baca, E.T.

    1999-01-01

    The authors have developed several different types of tools for sampling from sealed containers. These tools allow the user to rapidly drill into a closed container, extract a sample of its contents (gas, liquid, or free-flowing powder), and permanently reseal the point of entry. This is accomplished without exposing the user or the environment to the container contents, even while drilling. The entire process is completed in less than 15 seconds for a 55 gallon drum. Almost any kind of container can be sampled (regardless of the materials) with wall thicknesses up to 1.3 cm and internal pressures up to 8 atm. Samples can be taken from the top, sides, or bottom of a container. The sampling tools are inexpensive, small, and easy to use. They work with any battery-powered hand drill. This allows considerable safety, speed, flexibility, and maneuverability. The tools also permit the user to rapidly attach plumbing, a pressure relief valve, alarms, or other instrumentation to a container. Possible applications include drum venting, liquid transfer, container flushing, waste characterization, monitoring, sampling for archival or quality control purposes, emergency sampling by rapid response teams, counter-terrorism, non-proliferation and treaty verification, and use by law enforcement personnel during drug or environmental raids

  6. Aplicación del bioensayo EROD-H4IIE para la determinación de dioxinas en carnes de pollos broiler: un estudio de equivalencia con la cromatografía de gases de alta resolución acoplada a espectrometría de masas de alta resolución

    OpenAIRE

    Schoffer, JT; Bustos-López, C; Sotomayor, P; Mattar, CA; González, A; Robles, C; Samsing, F; Acevedo, O; Valdovinos, CE

    2011-01-01

    En el presente estudio se aplicó el bioensayo EROD con línea celular H4IIE para determinar la equivalencia de resultados para carnes de pollo, entre el bioensayo EROD-H4IIE en pg TCDD-EQ/g de tejido y los resultados de la cromatografía de gases de alta resolución acoplada a espectrometría de alta resolución (HRGC/HRMS) en pg WHO-TEQ/g de grasa. Para lo anterior se utilizaron 41 muestras compuestas de trutros de pollo. Éstas fueron obtenidas en la planta faenadora de 4 planteles diferentes de ...

  7. [Comparition of ecological security stress effects of artificial landscapes on natural landscapes in different rapid urban sprawl areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mei Xia; Lin, Tao; Qiu, Quan Yi; Sun, Cai Ge; Deng, Fu Liang; Zhang, Guo Qin

    2017-04-18

    The expansion of built-up area will cause stress effect on the regional natural ecological security pattern during urbanization process. Taking rapid expanding regions of four inland and coastal cities as study areas, including Tongzhou in Beijing, Zhengding in Hebei, Tanggu in Tianjin and Xiamen in Fujian, we constructed regional landscape stress indexes according to the principle of landscape ecology and comparatively analyzed the landscape pattern characteristics of rapid expanding regions and the differences of stress effect of artificial landscapes on four natural landscapes ecological security pattern in the process of rapid urbanization. Results showed that landscape erosion indexes of Tongzhou, Zhengding, Tanggu and Xiamen in 2015 were 1.039, 0.996, 1.239 and 0.945, respectively, which indicated that the natural landscapes were eroded significantly. Natural landscape types of those four regions presented different threatened levels. Among all natural landscape types, unused land and waters were worst threatened in Tongzhou, Zhengding and Tanggu, while in Xiamen cultivated land and waters showed the highest threat levels. The waters threat indexes of those four areas were all more than 0.743. Landscape isolation indexes of waters and unused land of the inland cities were greater than those of coastal cities, which meant water distribution of inland cities in the space was less gathered than that of coastal cities. Besides, compared with the other natural landscape, unused land and waters suffered the largest stress from artificial landscapes.

  8. Rapid runoff via shallow throughflow and deeper preferential flow in a boreal catchment underlain by frozen silt (Alaska, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Joshua C.; Ewing, Stephanie A.; Striegl, Robert G.; McKnight, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    In high-latitude catchments where permafrost is present, runoff dynamics are complicated by seasonal active-layer thaw, which may cause a change in the dominant flowpaths as water increasingly contacts mineral soils of low hydraulic conductivity. A 2-year study, conducted in an upland catchment in Alaska (USA) underlain by frozen, well-sorted eolian silt, examined changes in infiltration and runoff with thaw. It was hypothesized that rapid runoff would be maintained by flow through shallow soils during the early summer and deeper preferential flow later in the summer. Seasonal changes in soil moisture, infiltration, and runoff magnitude, location, and chemistry suggest that transport is rapid, even when soils are thawed to their maximum extent. Between June and September, a shift occurred in the location of runoff, consistent with subsurface preferential flow in steep and wet areas. Uranium isotopes suggest that late summer runoff erodes permafrost, indicating that substantial rapid flow may occur along the frozen boundary. Together, throughflow and deep preferential flow may limit upland boreal catchment water and solute storage, and subsequently biogeochemical cycling on seasonal to annual timescales. Deep preferential flow may be important for stream incision, network drainage development, and the release of ancient carbon to ecosystems

  9. Rapid Adaptation in Digital Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Mette; Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Mathiassen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    landscape. In this article, we share insights gained from two public sector organizations in which IS and business leaders used the Participatory Process Model (PPM) designed by the authors to share their assumptions about IS leadership, challenge existing IT strategies and collaboration patterns and adapt...... the organization’s digitization approach. We demonstrate in detail how the leaders within these two organizations were engaged and offer recommendations for how other organizations can use the PPM to rapidly adapt their approaches to digital transformation through more effective IS leadership roles....

  10. Rapid thermal processing by stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stradins, Pauls; Wang, Qi

    2013-03-05

    A rapid thermal processing device and methods are provided for thermal processing of samples such as semiconductor wafers. The device has components including a stamp (35) having a stamping surface and a heater or cooler (40) to bring it to a selected processing temperature, a sample holder (20) for holding a sample (10) in position for intimate contact with the stamping surface; and positioning components (25) for moving the stamping surface and the stamp (35) in and away from intimate, substantially non-pressured contact. Methods for using and making such devices are also provided. These devices and methods allow inexpensive, efficient, easily controllable thermal processing.

  11. Rapidly Adaptable Instrumentation Tester (RAIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargo, Timothy D.

    1999-01-01

    Emerging technologies in the field of ''Test ampersand Measurement'' have recently enabled the development of the Rapidly Adaptable Instrumentation Tester (RAIT). Based on software developed with LabVIEW, the RAIT design enables quick reconfiguration to test and calibrate a wide variety of telemetry systems. The consequences of inadequate testing could be devastating if a telemetry system were to fail during an expensive flight mission. Supporting both open-bench testing as well as automated test sequences, the RAIT has significantly lowered total time required to test and calibrate a system. This has resulted in an overall lower per unit testing cost than has been achievable in the past

  12. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Melcher, Cynthia P.

    2015-08-28

    The Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment was conducted in partnership with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The overall goals of the BLM Rapid Ecoregional Assessments (REAs) are to identify important ecosystems and wildlife habitats at broad spatial scales; identify where these resources are at risk from Change Agents, including development, wildfire, invasive species, disease and climate change; quantify cumulative effects of anthropogenic stressors; and assess current levels of risk to ecological resources across a range of spatial scales and jurisdictional boundaries by assessing all lands within an ecoregion. There are several components of the REAs. Management Questions, developed by the BLM and stakeholders for the ecoregion, identify the regionally significant information needed for addressing land-management responsibilities. Conservation Elements represent regionally significant species and ecological communities that are of management concern. Change Agents that currently affect or are likely to affect the condition of species and communities in the future are identified and assessed. REAs also identify areas that have high conservation potential that are referred to as “large intact areas.” At the ecoregion level, the ecological value of large intact areas is based on the assumption that because these areas have not been greatly altered by human activities (such as development), they are more likely to contain a variety of plant and animal communities and to be resilient and resistant to changes resulting from natural disturbances such as fire, insect outbreaks, and disease.

  13. Direct, rapid RNA sequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peattie, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The original methods of RNA sequence analysis were based on enzymatic production and chromatographic separation of overlapping oligonucleotide fragments from within an RNA molecule followed by identification of the mononucleotides comprising the oligomer. Over the past decade the field of nucleic acid sequencing has changed dramatically, however, and RNA molecules now can be sequenced in a variety of more streamlined fashions. Most of the more recent advances in RNA sequencing have involved one-dimensional electrophoretic separation of 32 P-end-labeled oligoribonucleotides on polyacrylamide gels. In this chapter the author discusses two of these methods for determining the nucleotide sequences of RNA molecules rapidly: the chemical method and the enzymatic method. Both methods are direct and degradative, i.e., they rely on fragmatic and chemical approaches should be utilized. The single-strand-specific ribonucleases (A, T 1 , T 2 , and S 1 ) provide an efficient means to locate double-helical regions rapidly, and the chemical reactions provide a means to determine the RNA sequence within these regions. In addition, the chemical reactions allow one to assign interactions to specific atoms and to distinguish secondary interactions from tertiary ones. If the RNA molecule is small enough to be sequenced directly by the enzymatic or chemical method, the probing reactions can be done easily at the same time as sequencing reactions

  14. Rapid learning: a breakthrough agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheredge, Lynn M

    2014-07-01

    A "rapid-learning health system" was proposed in a 2007 thematic issue of Health Affairs. The system was envisioned as one that uses evidence-based medicine to quickly determine the best possible treatments for patients. It does so by drawing on electronic health records and the power of big data to access large volumes of information from a variety of sources at high speed. The foundation for a rapid-learning health system was laid during 2007-13 by workshops, policy papers, large public investments in databases and research programs, and developing learning systems. Challenges now include implementing a new clinical research system with several hundred million patients, modernizing clinical trials and registries, devising and funding research on national priorities, and analyzing genetic and other factors that influence diseases and responses to treatment. Next steps also should aim to improve comparative effectiveness research; build on investments in health information technology to standardize handling of genetic information and support information exchange through apps and software modules; and develop new tools, data, and information for clinical decision support. Further advances will require commitment, leadership, and public-private and global collaboration. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  15. Rapid chemical analysis of allanite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Goro; Hayashi, Hiroshi

    1981-01-01

    Rapid chemical analysis of allanite was studied by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Powdered sample was fused with mixture of sodium carbonate anhydrous and borax (4 : 1 weight) in platinum crucible and sample solution was prepared. SiO 2 , Fe 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 , MnO and rare earth metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, CaO, MgO and Ce 2 O 3 by titration, ThO 2 by colorimetry, and La 2 O 3 by flame photometry respectively. For sample solution treated with hydrofluoric acid and sulfuric acid. Na 2 O and K 2 O were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, TiO 2 and P 2 O 5 by colorimetry. Chemical analyses for four samples were carried out and gave consistent results. (author)

  16. Rapid world modelling for robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littile, C.Q.; Wilson, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    The ability to use an interactive world model, whether it is for robotics simulation or most other virtual graphical environments, relies on the users ability to create an accurate world model. Typically this is a tedious process, requiring many hours to create 3-D CAD models of the surfaces within a workspace. The goal of this ongoing project is to develop usable methods to rapidly build world models of real world workspaces. This brings structure to an unstructured environment and allows graphical based robotics control to be accomplished in a reasonable time frame when traditional CAD modelling is not enough. To accomplish this, 3D range sensors are deployed to capture surface data within the workspace. This data is then transformed into surface maps, or models. A 3D world model of the workspace is built quickly and accurately, without ever having to put people in the environment

  17. On rapid rotation in stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helander, Per

    2008-01-01

    The conditions under which rapid plasma rotation may occur in a three-dimensional magnetic field, such as that of a stellarator, are investigated. Rotation velocities comparable to the ion thermal speed are found to be attainable only in magnetic fields which are approximately isometric. In an isometric magnetic field the dependence of the magnetic field strength B on the arc length l along the field is the same for all field lines on each flux surface ψ. Only in fields where the departure from exact isometry, B=B(ψ,l), is of the order of the ion gyroradius divided by the macroscopic length scale are rotation speeds comparable to the ion thermal speed possible. Moreover, it is shown that the rotation must be in the direction of the vector ∇ψx∇B. (author)

  18. Microstructure of rapidly solidified materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H.

    1984-07-01

    The basic features of rapidly solidified microstructures are described and differences arising from alternative processing strategies are discussed. The possibility of achieving substantial undercooling prior to solidification in processes such as quench atomization and chill block melt spinning can give rise to striking microstructural transitions even when external heat extraction is nominally Newtonian. The increased opportunity in laser and electron beam surface melting for epitaxial growth on the parent solid at an accelerating rate, however, does not exclude the formation of nonequilibrium phases since the required undercooling can be locally attained at the solidification front which is itself advancing at a sufficiently high velocity. The effects of fluid flow indicated particularly in melt spinning and surface melting are additional to the transformational and heat flow considerations that form the present basis for interpretation of such microstructural effects.

  19. Rapid iconic erasure without masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijus, Charles Albert; Reeves, Adam

    2004-01-01

    We report on the erasure of the iconic memory of an array of 12 black letters flashed on a continuously- present white field. Erasure is accomplished by replacing the 16 ms letter array (frame 1) with a blank white frame for 16 ms (frame 2). The letter array returns in frame 3, with from one to six letters missing. Report of the missing letters is accurate without the blank white frame but is impoverished with it, as if interposing the blank erases the icon. Erasure occurs without any obvious luminance masking, 'mud splashes', pattern masking (backward, forward, or metacontrast), lateral masking, or masking by object substitution. Erasure is greatly decreased if the blank is presented one frame earlier or later. We speculate that erasure is due to a rapid reset of the icon produced by an informational mis-match.

  20. Rapid onset aggressive vertebral haemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Nicholas K; Doorenbosch, Xenia; Christie, John G

    2011-03-01

    Vertebral haemangiomas are generally benign asymptomatic vascular tumours seen commonly in the adult population. Presentations in paediatric populations are extremely rare, which can result in rapid onset of neurological symptoms. We present a highly unusual case of an aggressive paediatric vertebral haemangioma causing significant cord compression. A 13-year-old boy presented with only 2 weeks duration of progressive gait disturbance, truncal ataxia and loss of bladder control. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine revealed a large vascular epidural mass extending between T6 and T8 vertebral bodies. Associated displacement and compression of the spinal cord was present. A highly vascular bony lesion was found during surgery. Histopathology identified this tumour to be a vertebral haemangioma. We present an extremely unusual acute presentation of a paediatric vertebral haemangioma. This study highlights the need for early diagnosis, MRI for investigation and urgent surgical management. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  1. Customer-experienced rapid prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Fu; Li, Anbo

    2008-12-01

    In order to describe accurately and comprehend quickly the perfect GIS requirements, this article will integrate the ideas of QFD (Quality Function Deployment) and UML (Unified Modeling Language), and analyze the deficiency of prototype development model, and will propose the idea of the Customer-Experienced Rapid Prototyping (CE-RP) and describe in detail the process and framework of the CE-RP, from the angle of the characteristics of Modern-GIS. The CE-RP is mainly composed of Customer Tool-Sets (CTS), Developer Tool-Sets (DTS) and Barrier-Free Semantic Interpreter (BF-SI) and performed by two roles of customer and developer. The main purpose of the CE-RP is to produce the unified and authorized requirements data models between customer and software developer.

  2. Mapping and quantifying sediment transfer between the front of rapidly moving rock glaciers and torrential gullies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummert, Mario; Delaloye, Reynald

    2018-05-01

    The sedimentary connection which may occur between the front of active rock glaciers and torrential channels is not well understood, despite its potential impact on the torrential activity characterizing the concerned catchments. In this study, DEMs of difference (DoDs) covering various time intervals between 2013 and 2016 were obtained from LiDAR-derived multitemporal DEMs for three rapidly moving rock glaciers located in the western Swiss Alps. The DoDs were used to map and quantify sediment transfer activity between the front of these rock glaciers and the corresponding underlying torrential gullies. Sediment transfer rates ranging between 1500 m3/y and 7800 m3/y have been calculated, depending on the sites. Sediment eroded from the fronts generally accumulated in the upper sectors of the torrential gullies where they were occasionally mobilized within small to medium sized debris flow events. A clear relation between the motion rates of the rock glaciers and the sediment transfer rates calculated at their fronts could be highlighted. Along with the size of the frontal areas, rock glacier creep rates influence thus directly sediment availability in the headwaters of the studied torrents. The frequency-magnitude of debris flow events varied between sites and was mainly related to the concordance of local factors such as topography, water availability, sediment availability or sediment type.

  3. Rapid Prototyping in Instructional Design: Creating Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Carolyn D.

    2010-01-01

    Instructional designers working in rapid prototyping environments currently do not have a list of competencies that help to identify the knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required in these workplaces. This qualitative case study used multiple cases in an attempt to identify rapid prototyping competencies required in a rapid prototyping…

  4. Rapid charging of nickel-cadmium accumulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruck, F

    1972-01-01

    Four types of charging of gas-tight Ni-Cd accumulators (a) normal; (b) accelerated; (c) rapid; and (d) ultra-rapid are described. For rapid charging, a built-in temperature sensor cuts off charging current at a prescribed point. In ultra-rapid charging, 50% charge can be attained in 3.5 min. and 25% charge within 50 sec. In the second phase of ultra-rapid charging, a surplus of oxygen is released at the positive electrode and a safety valve is provided for pressure reduction. Characteristic curves are given for various rates of charging and some data on discharge rates is also given.

  5. Rapid typing of Coxiella burnetii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidie M Hornstra

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii has the potential to cause serious disease and is highly prevalent in the environment. Despite this, epidemiological data are sparse and isolate collections are typically small, rare, and difficult to share among laboratories as this pathogen is governed by select agent rules and fastidious to culture. With the advent of whole genome sequencing, some of this knowledge gap has been overcome by the development of genotyping schemes, however many of these methods are cumbersome and not readily transferable between institutions. As comparisons of the few existing collections can dramatically increase our knowledge of the evolution and phylogeography of the species, we aimed to facilitate such comparisons by extracting SNP signatures from past genotyping efforts and then incorporated these signatures into assays that quickly and easily define genotypes and phylogenetic groups. We found 91 polymorphisms (SNPs and indels among multispacer sequence typing (MST loci and designed 14 SNP-based assays that could be used to type samples based on previously established phylogenetic groups. These assays are rapid, inexpensive, real-time PCR assays whose results are unambiguous. Data from these assays allowed us to assign 43 previously untyped isolates to established genotypes and genomic groups. Furthermore, genotyping results based on assays from the signatures provided here are easily transferred between institutions, readily interpreted phylogenetically and simple to adapt to new genotyping technologies.

  6. Rapid contextual conditioning in autoshaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, P D; Schwartz, A L

    1981-10-01

    Two experiments are reported which investigate the speed of contextual conditioning in autoshaping. In both experiments, a procedure was employed in which ring doves were magazine trained in one context prior to the manipulation of background values in a second context. In Experiment 1, subjects were exposed to 4, 8, 64, 128, or 256 US-only presentations prior to autoshaping. Acquisition speed and maintained response measures were monotonically related to the number of pretraining trials. Subjects in Group 4 acquired the key-peck response fastest, and retardation was maximal within 64 pretraining trials. In Experiment 2, subjects given 20 pretraining trials were significantly more retarded than subjects given 2 pretraining trials, but only when pretraining and testing were conducted in the same context. Overall, the results of these experiments show that in autoshaping, contextual conditioning is very rapid; this demonstrates the plausibility of theoretical accounts of Pavlovian conditioning which assert that the development of the conditioned response depends on the associative values of both the CS and background stimuli.

  7. Rapid Gradient-Echo Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Gradient echo sequences are widely used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for numerous applications ranging from angiography to perfusion to functional MRI. Compared with spin-echo techniques, the very short repetition times of gradient-echo methods enable very rapid 2D and 3D imaging, but also lead to complicated “steady states.” Signal and contrast behavior can be described graphically and mathematically, and depends strongly on the type of spoiling: fully balanced (no spoiling), gradient spoiling, or RF-spoiling. These spoiling options trade off between high signal and pure T1 contrast while the flip angle also affects image contrast in all cases, both of which can be demonstrated theoretically and in image examples. As with spin-echo sequences, magnetization preparation can be added to gradient-echo sequences to alter image contrast. Gradient echo sequences are widely used for numerous applications such as 3D perfusion imaging, functional MRI, cardiac imaging and MR angiography. PMID:23097185

  8. Rapidly developing market regions : Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britto, A.

    1997-01-01

    Brazil and the State of Rio Grande do Sul are experiencing a period of rapid industrial development. Global investment has been forecast to reach $240 billion over the next five to seven years. This level of development is likely to result in a sharp increase in the consumption of plastic products made from olefins and from aromatic products. Accordingly, Copesul, the centre of raw materials for the State complex, is expected to increase its production of ethane from 685 tonnes to 1.13 million tonnes after 1999. The government has established a program of incentives to stimulate investment in third generation industries. Also, the State petrochemical industry has been rendered more competitive as a result of the purchase of the latest generation equipment. The principal challenges that exist for the petrochemical industry in Brazil and for that matter, around the world, are to reduce production costs and to preserve the natural environment. Another challenge, also world-wide, is to address the issue of plastic residues and to eliminate such residues through plastic recycling programs

  9. Rapidly Progressive Corticobasal Degeneration Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Herrero Valverde

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Corticobasal syndrome (CBS has a heterogeneous clinical presentation with no specific pathologic substratum. Its accurate diagnosis is a challenge for neurologists; in order to establish CBS definitively, postmortem confirmation is required. Some clinical and radiological features can help to distinguish it from other neurodegenerative conditions, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD. Clinical Case: A 74-year-old woman presented with language impairment, difficulty in walking and poor attentiveness that had begun 10 days before. Other symptoms, such as asymmetrical extra-pyramidal dysfunction, limb dystonia and ‘alien limb’ phenomena, were established over the next 2 months, with rapid progression. Death occurred 3 months after symptom onset. Laboratory results were normal. Initially, imaging only showed restricted diffusion with bilateral parieto-occipital gyri involvement on DWI-MRI, with unspecific EEG changes. An autopsy was performed. Brain neuropathology confirmed sporadic CJD (sCJD. Conclusions: CBS is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome whose differential diagnosis is extensive. CJD can occasionally present with clinical characteristics resembling CBS. MRI detection of abnormalities in some sequences (FLAIR, DWI, as previously reported, has high diagnostic utility for sCJD diagnosis – especially in early stages – when other tests can still appear normal. Abnormalities on DWI sequencing may not correlate with neuropathological findings, suggesting a functional basis to explain the changes found.

  10. Rapid purification of recombinant histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinker, Henrike; Haas, Caroline; Harrer, Nadine; Becker, Peter B; Mueller-Planitz, Felix

    2014-01-01

    The development of methods to assemble nucleosomes from recombinant histones decades ago has transformed chromatin research. Nevertheless, nucleosome reconstitution remains time consuming to this day, not least because the four individual histones must be purified first. Here, we present a streamlined purification protocol of recombinant histones from bacteria. We termed this method "rapid histone purification" (RHP) as it circumvents isolation of inclusion bodies and thereby cuts out the most time-consuming step of traditional purification protocols. Instead of inclusion body isolation, whole cell extracts are prepared under strongly denaturing conditions that directly solubilize inclusion bodies. By ion exchange chromatography, the histones are purified from the extracts. The protocol has been successfully applied to all four canonical Drosophila and human histones. RHP histones and histones that were purified from isolated inclusion bodies had similar purities. The different purification strategies also did not impact the quality of octamers reconstituted from these histones. We expect that the RHP protocol can be readily applied to the purification of canonical histones from other species as well as the numerous histone variants.

  11. Effect of Biochar Application on Erodibility of Plow Layer Soil on Loess Slopes%添加生物炭对黄绵土耕层土壤可蚀性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴媛媛; 杨明义; 张风宝; 张加琼; 赵恬茵; 刘淼

    2016-01-01

    The Loess Plateau is one of the areas that suffer the most serious soil erosion and the soil in the area is characterized by low soil fertility and high soil erodibility. Thanks to its inherent characteristics and physicochemical properties,biochar has become a novel soil structure amendment. However,so far studies on biochar have mostly focused on its effects of improving soil physical and chemical properties and plant growth conditions,reducing greenhouse gas emission and remedying polluted soil,and demonstrated that its positive effects on soil quality,soil bulk density,soil porosity,quantity and structure of soil aggregate and soil water dynamics. Little has been reported on its effects on soil resistance to erosion. Getting to know the effects of biochar on soil erosion will be of great significance not only to soil and water conservancy,but also to soil building and crop yield. An indoor artificial rainfall experiment was carried out to explore effect of biochar on sheet erosion on loessal soil slope. The experiment was designed to have one rainfall intensity(90 mm h-1),five application rates(0%,1%,3%,5% and 7%)and three particle sizes(<2mm,<1mm and<0.25mm)of biochar of sawdust. Results show that the effect of biochar application on erodibility of loessal soil plow layers is attributed mainly to its effects altering composition and porosity of the soil and the effect of its own properties on water,which were embodied in delayed runoff and reduced runoff and sediment yields and sediment in runoff. Incorporation of biochar,the same in particle size,shortened the duration of runoff and the effect intensified with rising application rate of biochar. However,when the application rate was lower than 3%,it delayed runoff,but when the rate went on rising,it affected runoff reversely. Incorporations of biochar,the same in rate,but different in particle size,did not show much difference in affecting time of runoff yield. Incorporation of biochar of any size at a rate

  12. Linking Backbarrier Lacustrine Stratigraphy with Spatial Dynamics of Shoreline Retreat in a Rapidly Subsiding Region of the Mississippi River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, M.; Liu, K. B.; Bianchette, T. A.; Yao, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The shoreline along the northern Gulf of Mexico is rapidly retreating as coastal features of abandoned Mississippi River delta complexes erode and subside. Bay Champagne is located in the Caminada-Moreau headland, a region of shoreline west of the currently active delta that has one of the highest rates of retreat and land loss. As a result, this site has transitioned from a stable, circular inland lake several kilometers from the shore to a frequently perturbed, semi-circular backbarrier lagoon, making it ideal to study the environmental effects of progressive land loss. Analyses of clastic layers in a series of sediment cores collected at this site over the past decade indicate the lake was less perturbed in the past and has become increasingly more sensitive to marine incursion events caused by tropical cyclones. Geochemical and pollen analyses of these cores also reveal profound changes in environmental and chemical conditions in Bay Champagne over the past century as the shoreline has retreated. Through relating stratigraphy to spatial changes observed from satellite imagery, this study attempts to identify the tipping point at which Bay Champagne began the transition from an inland lake to a backbarrier environment, and to determine the rate at which this transition occurred. Results will be used to develop a model of the environmental transition experienced by a rapidly retreating coastline and to predict how other regions of the Mississippi River deltaic system could respond to future shoreline retreat.

  13. RAPID TRANSFER ALIGNMENT USING FEDERATED KALMAN FILTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUDong-qing; QINYong-yuan; PENGRong; LIXin

    2005-01-01

    The dimension number of the centralized Kalman filter (CKF) for the rapid transfer alignment (TA) is as high as 21 if the aircraft wing flexure motion is considered in the rapid TA. The 21-dimensional CKF brings the calculation burden on the computer and the difficulty to meet a high filtering updating rate desired by rapid TA. The federated Kalman filter (FKF) for the rapid TA is proposed to solve the dilemma. The structure and the algorithm of the FKF, which can perform parallel computation and has less calculation burden, are designed.The wing flexure motion is modeled, and then the 12-order velocity matching local filter and the 15-order attitud ematching local filter are devised. Simulation results show that the proposed EKE for the rapid TA almost has the same performance as the CKF. Thus the calculation burden of the proposed FKF for the rapid TA is markedly decreased.

  14. Theory of hard diffraction and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Duca, V.

    1995-06-01

    In this talk we review the models describing the hard diffractive production of jets or more generally high-mass states in presence of rapidity gaps in hadron-hadron and lepton-hadron collisions. By rapidity gaps we mean regions on the lego plot in (pseudo)-rapidity and azimuthal angle where no hadrons are produced, between the jet(s) and an elastically scattered hadron (single hard diffraction) or between two jets (double hard diffraction). (orig.)

  15. Theory of hard diffraction and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Duca, V.

    1996-01-01

    In this talk we review the models describing the hard diffractive production of jets or more generally high-mass states in presence of rapidity gaps in hadron-hadron and lepton-hadron collisions. By rapidity gaps we mean regions on the lego plot in (pseudo)-rapidity and azimuthal angle where no hadrons are produced, between the jet(s) and an elastically scattered hadron (single hard diffraction) or between two jets (double hard diffraction). copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  16. Parallel, Rapid Diffuse Optical Tomography of Breast

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yodh, Arjun

    2001-01-01

    During the last year we have experimentally and computationally investigated rapid acquisition and analysis of informationally dense diffuse optical data sets in the parallel plate compressed breast geometry...

  17. Parallel, Rapid Diffuse Optical Tomography of Breast

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yodh, Arjun

    2002-01-01

    During the last year we have experimentally and computationally investigated rapid acquisition and analysis of informationally dense diffuse optical data sets in the parallel plate compressed breast geometry...

  18. Numerology on pion and proton rapidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugelot, P.C.

    1987-01-01

    The pseudo-rapidity of pion jets which were measured for 50 GeV and 150 GeV incident pions and protons on carbon, copper and lead targets is analysed. The shape of the rapidity distribution for a ''fireball'' which emits particles isotropically in its center of mass is a cosh -2 y distribution. It is possible to unfold all measured distributions into three groups which correspond to a low rapidity originating from the target fragmentation, a middle group which is a function of the center of mass of the projectile and target rapidity and a fast group which is due to the projectile. 11 refs., 8 figs. (author)

  19. Rapid Automated Mission Planning System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an automated UAS mission planning system that will rapidly identify emergency (contingency) landing sites, manage contingency routing, and...

  20. Rapid Robot Design Validation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robot designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  1. RWOPS abuse 'eroding ethical standards of juniors'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Work Outside the Public ... and lack of actual physical care. ... she gave included the failure of Home Affairs to control illegal immigration (which sends patient loads soaring), failing equipment, lack of ... their primary employment commitment.

  2. Impact assessment: Eroding benefits through streamlining?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Alan, E-mail: alan.bond@uea.ac.uk [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia (United Kingdom); School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University (South Africa); Pope, Jenny, E-mail: jenny@integral-sustainability.net [Integral Sustainability (Australia); Curtin University Sustainability Policy Institute (Australia); Morrison-Saunders, Angus, E-mail: A.Morrison-Saunders@murdoch.edu.au [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University (South Africa); Environmental Science, Murdoch University (Australia); Retief, Francois, E-mail: francois.retief@nwu.ac.za [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University (South Africa); Gunn, Jill A.E., E-mail: jill.gunn@usask.ca [Department of Geography and Planning and School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2014-02-15

    This paper argues that Governments have sought to streamline impact assessment in recent years (defined as the last five years) to counter concerns over the costs and potential for delays to economic development. We hypothesise that this has had some adverse consequences on the benefits that subsequently accrue from the assessments. This hypothesis is tested using a framework developed from arguments for the benefits brought by Environmental Impact Assessment made in 1982 in the face of the UK Government opposition to its implementation in a time of economic recession. The particular benefits investigated are ‘consistency and fairness’, ‘early warning’, ‘environment and development’, and ‘public involvement’. Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom and Western Australia are the jurisdictions tested using this framework. The conclusions indicate that significant streamlining has been undertaken which has had direct adverse effects on some of the benefits that impact assessment should deliver, particularly in Canada and the UK. The research has not examined whether streamlining has had implications for the effectiveness of impact assessment, but the causal link between streamlining and benefits does sound warning bells that merit further investigation. -- Highlights: • Investigation of the extent to which government has streamlined IA. • Evaluation framework was developed based on benefits of impact assessment. • Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and Western Australia were examined. • Trajectory in last five years is attrition of benefits of impact assessment.

  3. Impact assessment: Eroding benefits through streamlining?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, Alan; Pope, Jenny; Morrison-Saunders, Angus; Retief, Francois; Gunn, Jill A.E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that Governments have sought to streamline impact assessment in recent years (defined as the last five years) to counter concerns over the costs and potential for delays to economic development. We hypothesise that this has had some adverse consequences on the benefits that subsequently accrue from the assessments. This hypothesis is tested using a framework developed from arguments for the benefits brought by Environmental Impact Assessment made in 1982 in the face of the UK Government opposition to its implementation in a time of economic recession. The particular benefits investigated are ‘consistency and fairness’, ‘early warning’, ‘environment and development’, and ‘public involvement’. Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom and Western Australia are the jurisdictions tested using this framework. The conclusions indicate that significant streamlining has been undertaken which has had direct adverse effects on some of the benefits that impact assessment should deliver, particularly in Canada and the UK. The research has not examined whether streamlining has had implications for the effectiveness of impact assessment, but the causal link between streamlining and benefits does sound warning bells that merit further investigation. -- Highlights: • Investigation of the extent to which government has streamlined IA. • Evaluation framework was developed based on benefits of impact assessment. • Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and Western Australia were examined. • Trajectory in last five years is attrition of benefits of impact assessment

  4. Giant Submandibular Calculus Eroding Oral Cavity Mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eng Haw; Nadarajah, Sanjeevan; Mohamad, Irfan

    2017-09-01

    Sialolithiasis is the formation of calculi or sialoliths in the salivary gland. It is the most common benign condition of the salivary gland. Sialolithiasis can occur in all salivary glands. The submandibular gland is most commonly affected followed by the parotid gland. Calculi commonly measure less than 10 mm. Calculi of more than 15 mm are termed giant salivary gland calculi and are infrequently reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of unusually large submandibular gland calculus of 5 cm in greatest dimension which caused erosion of the oral cavity.

  5. Fine sediment erodibility in Lake Okeechobee, Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Ashish J.; Hwang, Kyu-Nam

    1989-01-01

    The critical need to predict the turbidity in water due to fine-grained sediment suspension under wave action over mud deposits for sedimentation and erosion studies, as well as sorbed contaminant transport, is well known. Since fall velocities of fine sediment particles are very small, they can be easily transported by hydrodynamic flows such as waves and currents. The presence of these particles in the water column affects accoustic transmission, heat absorption and depth of ...

  6. On the Eroding Foundations of Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotnik, Kenneth A.

    1990-01-01

    When 128 students were queried regarding the values, beliefs, or moral imperatives underlying their teacher education program, most were speechless at first. Students either indicated their unawareness of any underlying philosophy or responded in generalities akin to moral relativism. Includes 19 references. (MLH)

  7. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenck, C H; Montplaisir, J Y; Frauscher, B

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to provide a consensus statement by the International Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Study Group (IRBD-SG) on devising controlled active treatment studies in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and devising studies of neuroprotection against Parkinson disease (PD...

  8. Rapid methods for detection of bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Andersen, B.Ø.; Miller, M.

    2006-01-01

    Traditional methods for detection of bacteria in drinking water e.g. Heterotrophic Plate Counts (HPC) or Most Probable Number (MNP) take 48-72 hours to give the result. New rapid methods for detection of bacteria are needed to protect the consumers against contaminations. Two rapid methods...

  9. Rapid 3-D analysis of rockfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Greg M.; Guerin, A.; Avdievitch, Nikita N.; Collins, Brian D.; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2018-01-01

    Recent fatal and damaging rockfalls in Yosemite National Park indicate the need for rapid response data collection methods to inform public safety and assist with management response. Here we show the use of multiple-platform remote sensing methods to rapidly capture pertinent data needed to inform management and the public following a several large rockfalls from El Capitan cliff in Yosemite Valley, California.

  10. Rapid Prototyping: An Alternative Instructional Design Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Steven D.; Bichelmeyer, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the nature of instructional design and describes rapid prototyping as a feasible model for instructional system design (ISD). The use of prototyping in software engineering is described, similarities between software design and instructional design are discussed, and an example is given which uses rapid prototyping in designing a…

  11. A Systems Approach to Rapid School Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Carlas

    2018-01-01

    To support systemic thinking about school improvement, the Center on School Turnaround at WestEd developed a framework to assist states, districts, and schools in leading and managing rapid improvement efforts. The framework, which is presented in this article, has four domains that have proved central to rapid, significant improvement: (1)…

  12. Erodibilidade de um nitossolo háplico alumínico determinada em condições de campo Erodibility of a typic hapludox evaluated under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O termo erodibilidade do solo (fator K na Equação Universal de Perda de Solo - EUPS expressa a suscetibilidade natural do solo à erosão hídrica. O fator K representa a taxa de perda de solo por unidade de erosividade da chuva (fator R na EUPS. O conhecimento do fator K, juntamente com os demais fatores do modelo EUPS, é importante no planejamento conservacionista, pois, por meio desse modelo, estimam-se as perdas médias anuais de solo esperadas para determinadas condições. Dados de perda de solo, obtidos em campo em solo sem cultivo e com preparo convencional, sob condições de chuva simulada, no período de novembro de 2001 a março de 2004, no sul do Planalto Catarinense, foram utilizados para calcular o fator K de um Nitossolo Háplico alumínico típico, com declividade média de 0,15 m m-1. O fator K foi calculado pela razão entre as perdas de solo e a erosividade das chuvas e, ainda, estimado por análise de regressão linear simples entre estas duas variáveis. Foram utilizados valores de erosividade das chuvas (EI30 de 11 testes de chuva simulada e suas respectivas perdas de solo, obtidas em parcelas de 3,5 x 11,0 m, desprovidas de vegetação e de crosta superficial, após terem sido mantidas sem cultivo e sob preparo de solo contínuo por dois anos. O preparo do solo, executado no sentido do declive, duas vezes ao ano, consistiu de uma aração e duas gradagens. A crosta superficial e as plantas espontâneas eram mecanicamente eliminadas por meio de escarificação e de capina manual com enxada. O fator erodibilidade do solo determinado para o Nitossolo Háplico alumínico foi de 0,011 Mg ha h ha-1 MJ-1 mm-1 quando calculado por meio da razão entre os valores anuais de perda de solo e do índice de erosividade das chuvas e de 0,012 Mg ha h ha-1 MJ-1 mm-1 quando estimado por meio de regressão linear simples entre estas duas variáveis.The term soil erodibility (factor K in the Universal Soil Loss Equation - USLE expresses

  13. Risks and Benefits of Rapid Clozapine Titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochhead, Jeannie D; Nelson, Michele A; Schneider, Alan L

    2016-05-18

    Clozapine is often considered the gold standard for the treatment of schizophrenia. Clinical guidelines suggest a gradual titration over 2 weeks to reduce the risks of adverse events such as seizures, hypotension, agranulocytosis, and myocarditis. The slow titration often delays time to therapeutic response. This raises the question of whether, in some patients, it may be safe to use a more rapid clozapine titration. The following case illustrates the potential risks associated with the use of multiple antipsychotics and rapid clozapine titration. We present the case of a young man with schizophrenia who developed life threatening neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) during rapid clozapine titration and treatment with multiple antipsychotics. We were unable to find another case in the literature of NMS associated with rapid clozapine titration. This case is meant to urge clinicians to carefully evaluate the risks and benefits of rapid clozapine titration, and to encourage researchers to further evaluate the safety of rapid clozapine titration. Rapid clozapine titration has implications for decreasing health care costs associated with prolonged hospitalizations, and decreasing the emotional suffering associated with uncontrolled symptoms of psychosis. Clozapine is considered the most effective antipsychotic available thus efforts should focus on developing strategies that would allow for safest and most efficient use of clozapine to encourage its utilization for treatment resistance schizophrenia.

  14. A new method for rapid Canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Khavari A

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis method (Do in bone lengthening and rapid midpalatal expansion have shown the great ability of osteognic tissues for rapid bone formation under distraction force and special protocol with optimum rate of one millimeter per day. Periodontal membrane of teeth (PDM is the extension of periostium in the alveolar socked. Orthodontic force distracts PDM fibers in the tension side and then bone formation will begin.Objects: Rapid retraction of canine tooth into extraction space of first premolar by DO protocol in order to show the ability of the PDM in rapid bone formation. The other objective was reducing total orthodontic treatment time of extraction cases.Patients and Methods: Tweleve maxillary canines in six patients were retracted rapidly in three weeks by a custom-made tooth-born appliance. Radiographic records were taken to evaluate the effects of heavy applied force on canine and anchorage teeth.Results: Average retraction was 7.05 mm in three weeks (2.35 mm/week. Canines rotated distal- in by mean 3.5 degrees.Anchorage loss was from 0 to 0.8 mm with average of 0.3 mm.Root resorption of canines was negligible, and was not significant clinically. Periodontium was normal after rapid retraction. No hazard for pulp vitality was observed.Discussion: PDM responded well to heavy distraction force by Do protocol. Rapid canine retraction seems to be a safe method and can considerabely reduce orthodontic time.

  15. Risks and benefits of rapid clozapine titration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannie D. Lochhead

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Clozapine is often considered the gold standard for the treatment of schizophrenia. Clinical guidelines suggest a gradual titration over 2 weeks to reduce the risks of adverse events such as seizures, hypotension, agranulocytosis, and myocarditis. The slow titration often delays time to therapeutic response. This raises the question of whether, in some patients, it may be safe to use a more rapid clozapine titration. The following case illustrates the potential risks associated with the use of multiple antipsychotics and rapid clozapine titration. We present the case of a young man with schizophrenia who developed life threatening neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS during rapid clozapine titration and treatment with multiple antipsychotics. We were unable to find another case in the literature of NMS associated with rapid clozapine titration. This case is meant to urge clinicians to carefully evaluate the risks and benefits of rapid clozapine titration, and to encourage researchers to further evaluate the safety of rapid clozapine titration. Rapid clozapine titration has implications for decreasing health care costs associated with prolonged hospitalizations, and decreasing the emotional suffering associated with uncontrolled symptoms of psychosis. Clozapine is considered the most effective antipsychotic available thus efforts should focus on developing strategies that would allow for safest and most efficient use of clozapine to encourage its utilization for treatment resistance schizophrenia.

  16. Degeneration of rapid eye movement sleep circuitry underlies rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Dillon; Peever, John

    2017-05-01

    During healthy rapid eye movement sleep, skeletal muscles are actively forced into a state of motor paralysis. However, in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder-a relatively common neurological disorder-this natural process is lost. A lack of motor paralysis (atonia) in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder allows individuals to actively move, which at times can be excessive and violent. At first glance this may sound harmless, but it is not because rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder patients frequently injure themselves or the person they sleep with. It is hypothesized that the degeneration or dysfunction of the brain stem circuits that control rapid eye movement sleep paralysis is an underlying cause of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. The link between brain stem degeneration and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder stems from the fact that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder precedes, in the majority (∼80%) of cases, the development of synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy, which are known to initially cause degeneration in the caudal brain stem structures where rapid eye movement sleep circuits are located. Furthermore, basic science and clinical evidence demonstrate that lesions within the rapid eye movement sleep circuits can induce rapid eye movement sleep-specific motor deficits that are virtually identical to those observed in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. This review examines the evidence that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is caused by synucleinopathic neurodegeneration of the core brain stem circuits that control healthy rapid eye movement sleep and concludes that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is not a separate clinical entity from synucleinopathies but, rather, it is the earliest symptom of these disorders. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and

  17. A scoping review of rapid review methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricco, Andrea C; Antony, Jesmin; Zarin, Wasifa; Strifler, Lisa; Ghassemi, Marco; Ivory, John; Perrier, Laure; Hutton, Brian; Moher, David; Straus, Sharon E

    2015-09-16

    Rapid reviews are a form of knowledge synthesis in which components of the systematic review process are simplified or omitted to produce information in a timely manner. Although numerous centers are conducting rapid reviews internationally, few studies have examined the methodological characteristics of rapid reviews. We aimed to examine articles, books, and reports that evaluated, compared, used or described rapid reviews or methods through a scoping review. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, internet websites of rapid review producers, and reference lists were searched to identify articles for inclusion. Two reviewers independently screened literature search results and abstracted data from included studies. Descriptive analysis was conducted. We included 100 articles plus one companion report that were published between 1997 and 2013. The studies were categorized as 84 application papers, seven development papers, six impact papers, and four comparison papers (one was included in two categories). The rapid reviews were conducted between 1 and 12 months, predominantly in Europe (58 %) and North America (20 %). The included studies failed to report 6 % to 73 % of the specific systematic review steps examined. Fifty unique rapid review methods were identified; 16 methods occurred more than once. Streamlined methods that were used in the 82 rapid reviews included limiting the literature search to published literature (24 %) or one database (2 %), limiting inclusion criteria by date (68 %) or language (49 %), having one person screen and another verify or screen excluded studies (6 %), having one person abstract data and another verify (23 %), not conducting risk of bias/quality appraisal (7 %) or having only one reviewer conduct the quality appraisal (7 %), and presenting results as a narrative summary (78 %). Four case studies were identified that compared the results of rapid reviews to systematic reviews. Three studies found that the conclusions between

  18. Economic analyses of rapid population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsall, N

    1989-01-01

    "Discussion of the macroeconomic consequences of rapid population growth is organized into three schools: pessimists, optimists, and the recent revisionists. For the revisionists, differing views are presented about the pervasiveness and relevance of market failures, such as the negative externalities of childbearing, and about the ability of families and institutions to adjust rapidly to changes brought on by rapid population growth. A welfare economics approach is used to review the merits of various public policies to reduce fertility, including public financing of family planning services and taxes and incentives associated with childbearing." The focus is on developing countries. excerpt

  19. Cation distributions on rapidly solidified cobalt ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guire, Mark R.; Kalonji, Gretchen; O'Handley, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    The cation distributions in two rapidly solidified cobalt ferrites have been determined using Moessbauer spectroscopy at 4.2 K in an 8-T magnetic field. The samples were obtained by gas atomization of a Co0-Fe2O3-P2O5 melt. The degree of cation disorder in both cases was greater than is obtainable by cooling unmelted cobalt ferrite. The more rapidly cooled sample exhibited a smaller departure from the equilibrium cation distribution than did the more slowly cooled sample. This result is explained on the basis of two competing effects of rapid solidification: high cooling rate of the solid, and large undercooling.

  20. [Rapid prototyping: a very promising method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverman, T M; Karagozoglu, K H; Prins, H-J; Schulten, E A J M; Forouzanfar, T

    2013-03-01

    Rapid prototyping is a method which makes it possible to produce a three-dimensional model based on two-dimensional imaging. Various rapid prototyping methods are available for modelling, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, direct laser metal sintering, two-photon polymerization, laminated object manufacturing, three-dimensional printing, three-dimensional plotting, polyjet inkjet technology,fused deposition modelling, vacuum casting and milling. The various methods currently being used in the biomedical sector differ in production, materials and properties of the three-dimensional model which is produced. Rapid prototyping is mainly usedforpreoperative planning, simulation, education, and research into and development of bioengineering possibilities.

  1. Rapid Multiplex Microbial Detector, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC, in collaboration with Lucigen, proposes a rapid nucleic acid-based detector for spaceflight water systems to enable simultaneous quantification of multiple...

  2. simple and rapid spectrophotometric assay of levocetirizine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Simple, rapid, selective and fairly sensitive method is described for the ... Determination of small amounts of LCTZ in pharmaceutical preparations is important for .... sodium hydroxide and extraction of HCl-free-amine into chloroform followed ...

  3. Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) weather forecast model was developed by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). On May 1, 2012, the RUC was replaced...

  4. The Rapid Perceptual Impact of Emotional Distractors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briana L Kennedy

    Full Text Available The brief presentation of an emotional distractor can temporarily impair perception of a subsequent, rapidly presented target, an effect known as emotion-induced blindness (EIB. How rapidly does this impairment unfold? To probe this question, we examined EIB for targets that immediately succeeded ("lag-1" emotional distractors in a rapid stream of items relative to EIB for targets at later serial positions. Experiments 1 and 2 suggested that emotional distractors interfere with items presented very soon after them, with impaired target perception emerging as early as lag-1. Experiment 3 included an exploratory examination of individual differences, which suggested that EIB onsets more rapidly among participants scoring high in measures linked to negative affect.

  5. Mars Sample Return Orbiter Rapid Architecture Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, A.; Johnson, M.; Stroud, C.

    2018-04-01

    An overview of rapid systems analysis (mass, risk, and schedule) on 1000s of MSRO configurations to understand key technologies and feasible options. Can we generate enough power? Can we aerobrake in time? Are some technology elements just too risky?

  6. Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) weather forecast model was developed by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). On May 1, 2012, the RUC was replaced...

  7. A Rapid Coliform Detector, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC, in collaboration with Lucigen, proposes a rapid genetic detector for spaceflight water systems to enable real-time detection of E-coli with minimal...

  8. Exploring data with RapidMiner

    CERN Document Server

    Chisholm, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step tutorial style using examples so that users of different levels will benefit from the facilities offered by RapidMiner.If you are a computer scientist or an engineer who has real data from which you want to extract value, this book is ideal for you. You will need to have at least a basic awareness of data mining techniques and some exposure to RapidMiner.

  9. Clan structure analysis and rapidity gap probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupia, S.; Giovannini, A.; Ugoccioni, R.

    1995-01-01

    Clan structure analysis in rapidity intervals is generalized from negative binomial multiplicity distribution to the wide class of compound Poisson distributions. The link of generalized clan structure analysis with correlation functions is also established. These theoretical results are then applied to minimum bias events and evidentiate new interesting features, which can be inspiring and useful in order to discuss data on rapidity gap probability at TEVATRON and HERA. (orig.)

  10. Clan structure analysis and rapidity gap probability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupia, S. [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Teorica]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin (Italy); Giovannini, A. [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Teorica]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin (Italy); Ugoccioni, R. [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Teorica]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin (Italy)

    1995-03-01

    Clan structure analysis in rapidity intervals is generalized from negative binomial multiplicity distribution to the wide class of compound Poisson distributions. The link of generalized clan structure analysis with correlation functions is also established. These theoretical results are then applied to minimum bias events and evidentiate new interesting features, which can be inspiring and useful in order to discuss data on rapidity gap probability at TEVATRON and HERA. (orig.)

  11. Characterization of aluminium alloys rapidly solidified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discussed the investigation of the microstructural and mechanical properties of the aluminium alloys (3003; 7050; Al-9% Mg) rapidly solidified by melt spinning process (cooling rate 10 4 - 10 6 K/s). The rapidly solidification process of the studied aluminium alloys brought a microcrystallinity, a minimum presence of coarse precipitation and, also, better mechanical properties of them comparing to the same alloys using ingot process. (author) [pt

  12. Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Mark P.; Anderson, Lawrence G.; Post, Gordon L.

    2018-01-16

    Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings are applied to substrates. The electrically conductive clear coating includes to clear layer having a resinous binder with ultrafine non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide particles dispersed therein. The clear coating may be rapidly cured by subjecting the coating to infrared radiation that heats the tungsten oxide particles and surrounding resinous binder. Localized heating increases the temperature of the coating to thereby thermally cure the coating, while avoiding unwanted heating of the underlying substrate.

  13. Rapid modification of retroviruses using lipid conjugates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Nimisha G; Le Doux, Joseph M; Andrew Lyon, L

    2009-01-01

    Methods are needed to manipulate natural nanoparticles. Viruses are particularly interesting because they can act as therapeutic cellular delivery agents. Here we examine a new method for rapidly modifying retroviruses that uses lipid conjugates composed of a lipid anchor (1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine), a polyethylene glycol chain, and biotin. The conjugates rapidly and stably modified retroviruses and enabled them to bind streptavidin. The implication of this work for modifying viruses for gene therapy and vaccination protocols is discussed.

  14. Rapid development of cyanobacterial crust in the field for combating desertification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-Ho; Li, Xin Rong; Zhao, Yang; Jia, Rong Liang; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2017-01-01

    Desertification is currently a major concern, and vast regions have already been devastated in the arid zones of many countries. Combined application of cyanobacteria with soil fixing chemicals is a novel method of restoring desertified areas. Three cyanobacteria, Nostoc sp. Vaucher ex Bornet & Flahault, Phormidium sp. Kützing ex Gomont and Scytonema arcangeli Bornet ex Flahault were isolated and tested in this study. Tacki-SprayTM (TKS7), which consists of bio-polysaccharides and tackifiers, was used as a soil fixing agent. In addition, superabsorbent polymer (SAP) was applied to the soil as a water-holding material and nutrient supplement. Application of cyanobacteria with superabsorbent polymer and TKS7 (CST) remarkably improved macro-aggregate stability against water and erodibility against wind after 12 months of inoculation when compared to the control soil. The mean weight diameter and threshold friction velocity of the CST treated soil were found to be 75% and 88% of those of the approximately 20-year-old natural cyanobacterial crust (N-BSC), respectively, while these values were 68% and 73% of those of the N-BSC soil after a single treatment of cyanobacteria alone (CY). Interestingly, biological activities of CST were similar to those of CY. Total carbohydrate contents, cyanobacterial biomass, microbial biomass, soil respiration, carbon fixation and effective quantum yield of CST treated soil were enhanced by 50-100% of the N-BSC, while those of control soil were negligible. Our results suggest that combined application of cyanobacteria with soil fixing chemicals can rapidly develop cyanobacterial crust formation in the field within 12 months. The physical properties and biological activities of the inoculated cyanobacterial crust were stable during the study period. The novel method presented herein serves as another approach for combating desertification in arid regions.

  15. Rapid development of cyanobacterial crust in the field for combating desertification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Ho Park

    Full Text Available Desertification is currently a major concern, and vast regions have already been devastated in the arid zones of many countries. Combined application of cyanobacteria with soil fixing chemicals is a novel method of restoring desertified areas. Three cyanobacteria, Nostoc sp. Vaucher ex Bornet & Flahault, Phormidium sp. Kützing ex Gomont and Scytonema arcangeli Bornet ex Flahault were isolated and tested in this study. Tacki-SprayTM (TKS7, which consists of bio-polysaccharides and tackifiers, was used as a soil fixing agent. In addition, superabsorbent polymer (SAP was applied to the soil as a water-holding material and nutrient supplement. Application of cyanobacteria with superabsorbent polymer and TKS7 (CST remarkably improved macro-aggregate stability against water and erodibility against wind after 12 months of inoculation when compared to the control soil. The mean weight diameter and threshold friction velocity of the CST treated soil were found to be 75% and 88% of those of the approximately 20-year-old natural cyanobacterial crust (N-BSC, respectively, while these values were 68% and 73% of those of the N-BSC soil after a single treatment of cyanobacteria alone (CY. Interestingly, biological activities of CST were similar to those of CY. Total carbohydrate contents, cyanobacterial biomass, microbial biomass, soil respiration, carbon fixation and effective quantum yield of CST treated soil were enhanced by 50-100% of the N-BSC, while those of control soil were negligible. Our results suggest that combined application of cyanobacteria with soil fixing chemicals can rapidly develop cyanobacterial crust formation in the field within 12 months. The physical properties and biological activities of the inoculated cyanobacterial crust were stable during the study period. The novel method presented herein serves as another approach for combating desertification in arid regions.

  16. Review on CNC-Rapid Prototyping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M Nafis O Z; Nafrizuan M Y; Munira M A; Kartina J

    2012-01-01

    This article reviewed developments of Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) technology in rapid prototyping process. Rapid prototyping (RP) can be classified into three major groups; subtractive, additive and virtual. CNC rapid prototyping is grouped under the subtractive category which involves material removal from the workpiece that is larger than the final part. Richard Wysk established the use of CNC machines for rapid prototyping using sets of 2½-D tool paths from various orientations about a rotary axis to machine parts without refixturing. Since then, there are few developments on this process mainly aimed to optimized the operation and increase the process capabilities to stand equal with common additive type of RP. These developments include the integration between machining and deposition process (hybrid RP), adoption of RP to the conventional machine and optimization of the CNC rapid prototyping process based on controlled parameters. The article ended by concluding that the CNC rapid prototyping research area has a vast space for improvement as in the conventional machining processes. Further developments and findings will enhance the usage of this method and minimize the limitation of current approach in building a prototype.

  17. Accelerated relative sea-level rise and rapid coastal erosion: Testing a causal relationship for the Louisiana barrier islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, J.H.; Sallenger, A.H.; Hansen, M.E.; Jaffe, B.E.

    1997-01-01

    The role of relative sea-level rise as a cause for the rapid erosion of Louisiana's barrier island coast is investigated through a numerical implementation of a modified Bruun rule that accounts for the low percentage of sand-sized sediment in the eroding Louisiana shoreface. Shore-normal profiles from 150 km of coastline west of the Mississippi delta are derived from bathymetric surveys conducted during the 1880s. 1930s and 1980s. An RMS difference criterion is employed to test whether an equilibrium profile form is maintained between survey years. Only about half the studied profiles meet the equilibrium Criterion this represents a significant limitation on the potential applicability of the Bruun rule. The profiles meeting the equilibrium criterion, along with measured rates of relative sea-level rise, are used to hindcast shoreline retreat rates at 37 locations within the study area. Modeled and observed shoreline retreat rates show no significant correlation. Thus in terms of the Bruun approach relative sea-level rise has no power for hindcasting (and presumably forecasting) rates of coastal erosion for the Louisiana barrier islands.

  18. Rapid, generalized adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Burg, Erik; Goodbourn, Patrick T

    2015-04-07

    The brain is adaptive. The speed of propagation through air, and of low-level sensory processing, differs markedly between auditory and visual stimuli; yet the brain can adapt to compensate for the resulting cross-modal delays. Studies investigating temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech have used prolonged adaptation procedures, suggesting that adaptation is sluggish. Here, we show that adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech occurs rapidly. Participants viewed a brief clip of an actor pronouncing a single syllable. The voice was either advanced or delayed relative to the corresponding lip movements, and participants were asked to make a synchrony judgement. Although we did not use an explicit adaptation procedure, we demonstrate rapid recalibration based on a single audiovisual event. We find that the point of subjective simultaneity on each trial is highly contingent upon the modality order of the preceding trial. We find compelling evidence that rapid recalibration generalizes across different stimuli, and different actors. Finally, we demonstrate that rapid recalibration occurs even when auditory and visual events clearly belong to different actors. These results suggest that rapid temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech is primarily mediated by basic temporal factors, rather than higher-order factors such as perceived simultaneity and source identity. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid-Sequence Serial Sexual Homicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Louis B; Ramirez, Stephanie; Tusa, Brittany; Jarvis, John P; Erdberg, Philip

    2017-03-01

    Serial sexual murderers have been described as committing homicides in a methodical manner, taking substantial time between offenses to elude the authorities. The results of our study of the temporal patterns (i.e., the length of time between homicides) of a nonrandom national sample of 44 serial sexual murderers and their 201 victims indicate that this representation may not always be accurate. Although 25 offenders (56.8%) killed with longer than a 14-day period between homicides, a sizeable subgroup was identified: 19 offenders (43.2%) who committed homicides in rapid-sequence fashion, with fewer than 14 days between all or some of the murders. Six offenders (13.6%) killed all their victims in one rapid-sequence, spree-like episode, with homicides just days apart or sometimes two murders in the same day. Thirteen offenders (29.5%) killed in one or two rapid-sequence clusters (i.e., more than one murder within a 14-day period, as well as additional homicides with greater than 14 days between each). The purpose of our study was to describe this subgroup of rapid-sequence offenders who have not been identified until now. These findings argue for accelerated forensic assessments of dangerousness and public safety when a sexual murder is detected. Psychiatric disorders with rapidly occurring symptom patterns, or even atypical mania or mood dysregulation, may serve as exemplars for understanding this extraordinary group of offenders. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  20. An Exponential Regulator for Rapidity Divergences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ye [Fermilab; Neill, Duff [MIT, Cambridge, CTP; Zhu, Hua Xing [MIT, Cambridge, CTP

    2016-04-01

    Finding an efficient and compelling regularization of soft and collinear degrees of freedom at the same invariant mass scale, but separated in rapidity is a persistent problem in high-energy factorization. In the course of a calculation, one encounters divergences unregulated by dimensional regularization, often called rapidity divergences. Once regulated, a general framework exists for their renormalization, the rapidity renormalization group (RRG), leading to fully resummed calculations of transverse momentum (to the jet axis) sensitive quantities. We examine how this regularization can be implemented via a multi-differential factorization of the soft-collinear phase-space, leading to an (in principle) alternative non-perturbative regularization of rapidity divergences. As an example, we examine the fully-differential factorization of a color singlet's momentum spectrum in a hadron-hadron collision at threshold. We show how this factorization acts as a mother theory to both traditional threshold and transverse momentum resummation, recovering the classical results for both resummations. Examining the refactorization of the transverse momentum beam functions in the threshold region, we show that one can directly calculate the rapidity renormalized function, while shedding light on the structure of joint resummation. Finally, we show how using modern bootstrap techniques, the transverse momentum spectrum is determined by an expansion about the threshold factorization, leading to a viable higher loop scheme for calculating the relevant anomalous dimensions for the transverse momentum spectrum.

  1. Rapid penetration into granular media visualizing the fundamental physics of rapid earth penetration

    CERN Document Server

    Iskander, Magued

    2015-01-01

    Rapid Penetration into Granular Media: Visualizing the Fundamental Physics of Rapid Earth Penetration introduces readers to the variety of methods and techniques used to visualize, observe, and model the rapid penetration of natural and man-made projectiles into earth materials. It provides seasoned practitioners with a standard reference that showcases the topic's most recent developments in research and application. The text compiles the findings of new research developments on the subject, outlines the fundamental physics of rapid penetration into granular media, and assembles a com

  2. Rapidity gap survival in enhanced Pomeron scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostapchenko, Sergey [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Moscow State University, D.V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bleicher, Marcus [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Goethe-Universitat, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2018-01-15

    We apply the phenomenological Reggeon field theory framework to investigate rapidity gap survival (RGS) probability for diffractive dijet production in proton-proton collisions. In particular, we study in some detail rapidity gap suppression due to elastic rescatterings of intermediate partons in the underlying parton cascades, described by enhanced (Pomeron-Pomeron interaction) diagrams. We demonstrate that such contributions play a subdominant role, compared to the usual, so-called ''eikonal'', rapidity gap suppression due to elastic rescatterings of constituent partons of the colliding protons. On the other hand, the overall RGS factor proves to be sensitive to color fluctuations in the proton. Hence, experimental data on diffractive dijet production can be used to constrain the respective model approaches. (orig.)

  3. Rapid Quench in an Electrostatic Levitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.; Matson, Douglas M.

    2016-01-01

    The Electrostatic Levitation (ESL) Laboratory at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is a unique facility for investigators studying high-temperature materials. The ESL laboratory's main chamber has been upgraded with the addition of a rapid quench system. This system allows samples to be dropped into a quench vessel that can be filled with a low melting point material, such as a gallium or indium alloy, as a quench medium. Thereby allowing rapid quenching of undercooled liquid metals. Up to eight quench vessels can be loaded into a wheel inside the chamber that is indexed with control software. The system has been tested successfully with samples of zirconium, iron-cobalt alloys, titanium-zirconium-nickel alloys, and a silicon-cobalt alloy. This new rapid quench system will allow materials science studies of undercooled materials and new materials development. In this presentation, the system is described and some initial results are presented.

  4. Rapid web development using AJAX and Python

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolgert, A; Gibbons, L; Kuznetsov, V [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)], E-mail: vkuznet@gmail.com

    2008-07-15

    We discuss the rapid development of a large scale data discovery service for the CMS experiment using modern AJAX techniques and the Python language. To implement a flexible interface capable of accommodating several different versions of the DBS database, we used a 'stack' approach. Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) together with an SQL abstraction layer, template engine, code generation tool and dynamic queries provide powerful tools for constructing interactive interfaces to large amounts of data. We show how the use of these tools, with rapid development in a modern scripting language, improved the scalability and usability of the the search interface for different user communities.

  5. Rapid web development using AJAX and Python

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgert, A; Gibbons, L; Kuznetsov, V

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the rapid development of a large scale data discovery service for the CMS experiment using modern AJAX techniques and the Python language. To implement a flexible interface capable of accommodating several different versions of the DBS database, we used a 'stack' approach. Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) together with an SQL abstraction layer, template engine, code generation tool and dynamic queries provide powerful tools for constructing interactive interfaces to large amounts of data. We show how the use of these tools, with rapid development in a modern scripting language, improved the scalability and usability of the the search interface for different user communities

  6. Rapid prototyping using robot welding : process description

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, António Fernando; Norrish, John

    1997-01-01

    Rapid Prototyping is a relatively recent technique to produce component prototypes for industry in a much shorter period of time, since the time to market a product is essential to its success. A new Rapid Prototyping process which uses metal as the raw material had been under development at Cranfield University in the last few years. The process uses a Gas Metal Arc fusion welding robot which deposits successive layers of metal in such way that it forms a 3D solid component. Firstly, a CAD s...

  7. Rapid serial visual presentation design for cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Spence, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A powerful new image presentation technique has evolved over the last twenty years, and its value demonstrated through its support of many and varied common tasks. Conceptually, Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) is basically simple, exemplified in the physical world by the rapid riffling of the pages of a book in order to locate a known image. Advances in computation and graphics processing allow RSVP to be applied flexibly and effectively to a huge variety of common tasks such as window shopping, video fast-forward and rewind, TV channel selection and product browsing. At its heart is a

  8. Minimizing risk associated with shallow burial of waste in semiarid ecosystems: Erosion and vegetation dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breshears, D.D.; Martens, S.N.; Nyhan, J.W.; Springer, E.P.; Wilcox, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    Numerous regulations govern the disposal of low-level radioactive and hazardous waste by burial in shallow pits. The overall goal of these regulations is to reduce the risk to humans and components of the ecosystem for 500 to 1 000 years. Erosional loss of the soil profile covering waste and contamination of groundwater by leachate are two pathways that influence human and ecological risks. Screening calculations for a waste site in a pinyon-juniper woodland at Los Alamos National Laboratory predict the entire 2 m cover of a waste site could be lost by erosion in less than 500 years. In contrast, less than 0.001% of the waste would reach groundwater by leachate. Predicted erosion rates depend highly on plant cover. The boundary between ponderosa pine forest and pinyon-juniper woodland has shifted more than 1 km in less than 50 years in the Los Alamos region and additional boundary shifts have been hypothesized in conjunction with global warming. High erosion rates (> 0.2 cm per year) have been measured in these transition zones. In concert, these results suggest that risk associated with erosional loss of the waste site cover may greatly exceed risks associated with groundwater contamination in semiarid ecosystems

  9. Rapid evolution of a marsh tidal creek network in response to sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Z. J.; Fitzgerald, D. M.; Mahadevan, A.; Wilson, C. A.; Pennings, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    In the Santee River Delta (SRD), South Carolina, tidal creeks are extending rapidly onto the marsh platform. A time-series of aerial photographs establishes that these channels were initiated in the 1950's and are headward eroding at a rate of 1.9 m /yr. Short-term trends in sea level show an average relative sea level rise (RSLR) of 4.6 mm/yr over a 20-year tide gauge record from nearby Winyah Bay and Charleston Harbor (1975-1995). Longer-term (85-year) records in Charleston suggest a rate of 3.2 mm/yr. RSLR in the SRD is likely even higher as sediment cores reveal that the marsh is predominantly composed of fine-grained sediment, making it highly susceptible to compaction and subsidence. Furthermore, loss in elevation will have been exacerbated by the decrease in sediment supply due to the damming of the Santee River in 1939. The rapid rate of headward erosion indicates that the marsh platform is in disequilibrium; unable to keep pace with RSLR through accretionary processes and responding to an increased volume and frequency of inundation through the extension of the drainage network. The observed tidal creeks show no sinuosity and a distinctive morphology associated with their young age and biological mediation during their evolution. Feedbacks between tidal flow, vegetation and infauna play a strong role in the morphological development of the creeks. The creek heads are characterized by a region denuded of vegetation, the edges of which are densely populated and burrowed by Uca Pugnax (fiddler crab). Crab burrowing destabilizes sediment, destroys rooting and impacts drainage. Measured infiltration rates are three orders of magnitude higher in the burrowed regions than in a control area (1000 ml/min and 0.6 ml/min respectively). Infiltration of oxygenated water enhances decomposition of organic matter and root biomass is reduced within the creek head (marsh=4.3 kg/m3, head=0.6 kg/m3). These processes lead to the removal and collapse of the soils, producing

  10. Ceramic microfabrication by rapid prototyping process chains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ceramic microfabrication by rapid prototyping process chains ... is nearly impossible, shaping has to be done by a replication step in the green, unfired state. ... This process chain combines the fast and inexpensive supply of master models by ...

  11. Plant MAPK cascades: Just rapid signaling modules?

    KAUST Repository

    Boudsocq, Marie; Danquah, Agyemang; Zé licourt, Axel de; Hirt, Heribert; Colcombet, Jean

    2015-01-01

    rapid MAPK activation, we showed that the activation of the new MAPK module is delayed and relies on the MAP3K protein synthesis. In this addendum, we discuss the role of this original and unexpected activation mechanism of MAPK cascades which suggests

  12. Integrating Rapid Prototyping into Graphic Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Renmei; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Integrating different science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) areas can help students learn and leverage both the equipment and expertise at a single school. In comparing graphic communications classes with classes that involve rapid prototyping (RP) technologies like 3D printing, there are sufficient similarities between goals,…

  13. Rapid City Native American Population Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, Abdollah

    1993-01-01

    Interviews with 301 Native American households in Rapid City, South Dakota, examined demographic variables and attitudes and needs in the areas of education, housing, transportation, health care, recreation, and employment. The ultimate goals for Native American people are achieving empowerment and group determination through greater cultural…

  14. High precision, rapid laser hole drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jim J.; Friedman, Herbert W.; Comaskey, Brian J.

    2013-04-02

    A laser system produces a first laser beam for rapidly removing the bulk of material in an area to form a ragged hole. The laser system produces a second laser beam for accurately cleaning up the ragged hole so that the final hole has dimensions of high precision.

  15. Utilizing Rapid Prototyping for Architectural Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirton, E. F.; Lavoie, S. D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper will discuss our approach to, success with and future direction in rapid prototyping for architectural modeling. The premise that this emerging technology has broad and exciting applications in the building design and construction industry will be supported by visual and physical evidence. This evidence will be presented in the form of…

  16. A rapidly enlarging cutaneous hemangioma in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ma'ayeh, Marwan

    2014-06-18

    This is a case of a rapidly enlarging cutaneous pedunculated tumor on a patient\\'s thumb during her pregnancy. This was excised and identified as a hemangioma. A literature search identified a possible hormonal factor in causing an accelerated growth of this tumor.

  17. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Jennum, Poul

    2009-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterized by loss of REM sleep and related electromyographic atonia with marked muscular activity and dream enactment behaviour. RBD is seen in 0.5% of the population. It occurs in an idiopathic form and secondarily to medical...

  18. Rapid arc - clinical rationale and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzi, Lucca

    2008-01-01

    The presentation will focus on the background of Intensity modulation volumetric arc therapy Rapid Arc from Varian Medical Systems aiming to highlight the technical and clinical rational also from an historical perspective to the founding pillars of fast delivery with a minimum number of arcs and a minimum number of monitor units

  19. Rapid thermal annealing of phosphorus implanted silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.H.; Pogany, A.; Harrison, H.B.; Williams, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    Rapid thermal annealing (RTA) of phosphorus-implanted silicon has been investigated by four point probe, Van der Pauw methods and transmission electron microscopy. The results have been compared to furnace annealing. Experiments show that RTA, even at temperatures as low as 605 deg C, results in good electrical properties with little remnant damage and compares favourably with furnace annealing

  20. Utilizing Information Technology to Facilitate Rapid Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    PAGES 109 14. SUBJECT TERMS Rapid Acquisition, eCommerce , eProcurement, Information Technology, Contracting, Global Information Network...Agency. 5 eCommerce and eProcurement, and possess an adequate knowledge of information technology. D. RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. Primary Research... eCommerce , Information Technology, and eProcurement knowledge, and government and private industry reports utilizing numerous library and Internet

  1. Cognitive Predictors of Rapid Picture Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Scott L.; Roberts, Alycia M.; Englund, Julia A.

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in rapid automatized naming (RAN) have been found to be a sensitive cognitive marker for children with dyslexia. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the construct validity and theoretical neuro-cognitive processes involved in RAN. Additionally, most studies investigating RAN include a narrow range of cognitive measures. The…

  2. Rapidly solidified aluminium for optical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, G.P.H.; Venrooy, B.W.H. van; Bosch, A.J.; Senden, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper present the results of a diamond turning study of a rapidly solidified aluminium 6061 alloy grade, known as RSA6061. It is shown that this small grain material can be diamond turned to smaller roughness values than standard AA6061 aluminium grades. Also, the results are nearly as good as

  3. The Health Penalty of China's Rapid Urbanization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Van de Poel (Ellen); O.A. O'Donnell (Owen); E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractRapid urbanization could have positive and negative health effects, such that the net impact on population health is not obvious. It is, however, highly pertinent to the human welfare consequences of development. This paper uses community and individual level longitudinal data from the

  4. Analysis of the Rapid Chloride Migration test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiesz, P.R.; Ballari, M.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Ferreira, R. M.; Gulikers, J.; Andrade, C.

    2009-01-01

    In this study the Rapid Chloride Migration test (RCM) standardized as NT Build 492 and BAW-Merkblatt is reviewed. Since the traditional natural diffusion tests are laborious, time consuming and costly, they are not always preferred from a practical point of view. To overcome these disadvantages,

  5. Rapid pasteurization of shell eggs using RF

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel method for rapidly pasteurizing eggs in the shell could enhance the safety of the United States’ food supply. Current federal regulations do not require eggs sold in stores to be pasteurized, yet these eggs are often consumed raw or undercooked and cause untold cases of salmonella illness ea...

  6. Classroom Evaluation of a Rapid Prototyping System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Stephen A.; Krueger, Thomas J.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces rapid prototyping which creates virtual models through a variety of automated material additive processes. Relates experiences using JP System 5 in freshman and sophomore engineering design graphics courses. Analyzes strengths and limitations of the JP System 5 and discusses how to use it effectively. (Contains 15 references.)…

  7. Rapid restoration after lignite mining in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    The 30th anniversary of the commencement of large scale lignite production by opencast mining in Hungary was celebrated in 1987. A process of rapid technical and biological reclamation without the use of humus has now been developed. The costs involved are only 5-10% of those of conventional methods and reclamation cycle is four years compared to ten years for conventional methods.

  8. Implementing RapidArc into clinical routine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Esch, Ann; Huyskens, Dominique P; Behrens, Claus F

    2011-01-01

    With the increased commercial availability of intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT) comes the need for comprehensive QA programs, covering the different aspects of this newly available technology. This manuscript proposes such a program for the RapidArc (RA) (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto...

  9. Erosion of the Alps: use of Rb-Sr isotopic data from molassic sediments to identify the ages of the metamorphism recorded by the eroded rocks; Erosion des Alpes: histoire metamorphique des roches erodees par l`analyse du couple Rb-Sr des sediments molassiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, P; Deloule, E [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 54 - Nancy (France). Centre de Recherches Petrographiques et Geochimiques; Michard, A [Aix-Marseille-3 Univ., 13 - Marseille (France)

    1994-06-01

    Rb-Sr isotopic data from Oligocene and Miocene peri-alpine molassic sediments allow us to identify the different periods for which the eroded rocks have or have not recorded an alpine metamorphism. The Chattian and the Burdigalian sediments result from the erosion of rocks for which the latest metamorphic event was variscan, while the Stampian, Aquitanian and ``Helvetian`` sediments show evidence for the erosion of rocks which have recorded alpine metamorphic events. The application of this method to old detrital sediments could permit determination of the ages of the tectonic events which occurred in the sediment source regions. (authors). 18 refs., 6 figs.

  10. JPSS CGS Tools For Rapid Algorithm Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. C.; Grant, K. D.

    2011-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will contribute the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the restructured National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). As such, JPSS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the ground processing component of both POES and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) replacement known as the Defense Weather Satellite System (DWSS), managed by the Department of Defense (DoD). The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS), and consists of a Command, Control, and Communications Segment (C3S) and the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS). Both are developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems (IIS). The Interface Data Processing Segment will process NPOESS Preparatory Project, Joint Polar Satellite System and Defense Weather Satellite System satellite data to provide environmental data products to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. Under NPOESS, Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems Algorithms and Data Products (A&DP) organization was responsible for the algorithms that produce the EDRs, including their quality aspects. For JPSS, that responsibility has transferred to NOAA's Center for Satellite Applications & Research (STAR). As the Calibration and Validation (Cal/Val) activities move forward following both the NPP launch and subsequent JPSS and DWSS launches, rapid algorithm updates may be required. Raytheon and

  11. Rapid ion-exchange separations of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usuda, Shigekazu

    1988-01-01

    For the purpose of studying short-lived actinide nuclides, three methods for rapid ion exchange separation of actinide elements with mineral acid-alcohol mixed media were developed: anion exchange with nitric acid-methyl alcohol mixed media to separate the transplutonium and rare earth elements from target material, U or Pu and Al catcher foils; anion exchange with hydrochloric acid-methyl alcohol media to separate Am+Cm, Bk and Cf+Fm from the target, catcher foils and major fission products; and cation exchange with hydrochloric acid-methyl alcohol media and with concentrated hydrochloric acid to separate the transplutonium elements as a group from the rare earths after eliminating the large amounts of U, Al, Cu, Fe etc. The methods enable one to perform rapid and effective separation at elevated temperature (90 deg C) and immediate source preparation for alpha-ray spectrometry. (author) 47 refs.; 10 figs

  12. Rapid prototyping: An innovative technique in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeba Quadri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergence of advanced digital technology has opened up new perspectives for design and production in the field of dentistry. Rapid prototyping (RP is a technique to quickly and automatically construct a three-dimensional (3D model of a part or product using 3D printers or stereolithography machines. RP has various dental applications, such as fabrication of implant surgical guides, zirconia prosthesis and molds for metal castings, maxillofacial prosthesis and frameworks for fixed and removable partial dentures, wax patterns for the dental prosthesis and complete denture. Rapid prototyping presents fascinating opportunities, but the process is difficult as it demands a high level of artistic skill, which means that the dental technicians should be able to work with the models obtained after impression to form a mirror image and achieve good esthetics. This review aims to focus on various RP methods and its application in dentistry.

  13. Surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrel, M A; Kaban, L B; Vargervik, K; Baumrind, S

    1992-01-01

    Twelve adults with maxillary width discrepancy of greater than 5 mm were treated by surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion. The procedure consisted of bilateral zygomatic buttress and midpalatal osteotomies combined with the use of a tooth-borne orthopedic device postoperatively. Mean palatal expansion of 7.5 mm (range of 6 to 13 mm), measured in the first molar region, was achieved within 3 weeks in all patients. Expansion remained stable during the 12-month study period, with a mean relapse for the entire group of 0.88 +/- 0.48 mm. Morbidity was limited to mild postoperative discomfort. The results of this preliminary study indicated that surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion is a safe, simple, and reliable procedure for achieving a permanent increase in skeletal maxillary width in adults. Further study is necessary to document the three-dimensional movements of the maxillary segments and long-term stability of the skeletal and dental changes.

  14. To Internationalize Rapidly from Inception: Crowdsource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirosh Kannangara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Technology entrepreneurs continuously search for tools to accelerate the internationalization of their startups. For the purpose of internationalizing rapidly from inception, we propose that technology startups use crowdsourcing to internalize the tacit knowledge embodied in members of a crowd distributed across various geographies. For example, a technology startup can outsource to a large crowd the definition of a customer problem that occurs across various geographies, the development of the best solution to the problem, and the identification of attractive business expansion opportunities. In this article, we analyze how three small firms use crowdsourcing, discuss the benefits of crowdsourcing, and offer six recommendations to technology entrepreneurs interested in using crowdsourcing to rapidly internationalize their startups from inception.

  15. Relatively Inexpensive Rapid Prototyping of Small Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Scott A.

    2003-01-01

    Parts with complex three-dimensional shapes and with dimensions up to 8 by 8 by 10 in. (20.3 by 20.3 by 25.4 cm) can be made as unitary pieces of a room-temperature-curing polymer, with relatively little investment in time and money, by a process now in use at Johnson Space Center. The process is one of a growing number of processes and techniques that are known collectively as the art of rapid prototyping. The main advantages of this process over other rapid-prototyping processes are greater speed and lower cost: There is no need to make paper drawings and take them to a shop for fabrication, and thus no need for the attendant paperwork and organizational delays. Instead, molds for desired parts are made automatically on a machine that is guided by data from a computer-aided design (CAD) system and can reside in an engineering office.

  16. Rapid scanning system for fuel drawers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, J.T.; Fehlau, P.E.; France, S.W.

    1981-01-01

    A nondestructive method for uniqely distinguishing among and quantifying the mass of individual fuel plates in situ in fuel drawers utilized in nuclear reactors is described. The method is both rapid and passive, eliminating the personnel hazard of the commonly used irradiation techniques which require that the analysis be performed in proximity to an intense neutron source such as a reactor. In the present technique, only normally decaying nuclei are observed. This allows the analysis to be performed anywhere. This feature, combined with rapid scanning of a given fuel drawer (in approximately 30 s), and the computer data analysis allows the processing of large numbers of fuel drawers efficiently in the event of a loss alert

  17. Automated rapid chemistry in heavy element research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaedel, M.

    1994-01-01

    With the increasingly short half-lives of the heavy element isotopes in the transition region from the heaviest actinides to the transactinide elements the demand for automated rapid chemistry techniques is also increasing. Separation times of significantly less than one minute, high chemical yields, high repetition rates, and an adequate detection system are prerequisites for many successful experiments in this field. The development of techniques for separations in the gas phase and in the aqueous phase for applications of chemical or nuclear studies of the heaviest elements are briefly outlined. Typical examples of results obtained with automated techniques are presented for studies up to element 105, especially those obtained with the Automated Rapid Chemistry Apparatus, ARCA. The prospects to investigate the properties of even heavier elements with chemical techniques are discussed

  18. Rapid-Cycling Bubble-Chamber, details

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Parts of the hydraulic expansion system of the Rapid-Cycling Bubble-Chamber (RCBC). RCBC was the largest of 3 rapid-cycling bubble-chambers (the others were LEBC and HOLEBC), used as target- and vertex-detectors within the European Hybrid Spectrometer (EHS) in the SPS North Area (EHN1). RCBC contained 250 l of liquid hydrogen and was located inside a 3 T superconducting magnet. It was designed for 30 expansions/s (100 times faster than BEBC), the system shown here allowed 50 expansions/s. RCBC operated from 1981 to 1983 for experiments NA21, NA22 and NA23 at a rate of 15 expansions/s, clocking up a total of over 4 million. In the rear, at left, is bearded Lucien Veillet; Augustin Didona is at the right. See also 8001009. The installation of the piston assembly in the RCBC chamber body is shown in the Annual Report 1980, p.65.

  19. Removable partial dentures: use of rapid prototyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Julia Magalhaes Costa; Anami, Lilian Costa; Araujo, Rodrigo Maximo; Pavanelli, Carlos A

    2014-10-01

    The CAD/CAM technology associated with rapid prototyping (RP) is already widely used in the fabrication of all-ceramic fixed prostheses and in the biomedical area; however, the use of this technology for the manufacture of metal frames for removable dentures is new. This work reports the results of a literature review conducted on the use of CAD/CAM and RP in the manufacture of removable partial dentures. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  20. A rapid stereoselective synthesis of fluorinated carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, M.J.; Neeser, J-R.; Hall, L.D.; Pate, B.D.

    1983-01-01

    Acetyl hypofluorite has been added to six unsaturated carbohydrates which contain the vinyl ether moiety. All reactions were rapid (less than 5 min.) at -78 degrees C and gave, with one exception, high yields of isomerically pure products. The hypofluorite was shown to add exclusively in a cis mode and with a strong preference for a particular 'face' of the double bond. As well as the syntheses, NMR data and preferred conformations for the fluorinated products are also discussed

  1. Rapid depressurization of a compressible fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, M.; Dupont, J.F.; Weber, H.

    1978-08-01

    The rapid depressurization of a plenum is a situation frequently encountered in the dynamical analysis of nuclear gas cycles of the HHT type. Various methods of numerical analyses for a 1-dimensional flow model are examined: finite difference method; control volume method; method of characteristics. Based on the shallow water analogy to compressible flow, the numerical results are compared with those from a water table set up to simulate a standard problem. (Auth.)

  2. Rapid quality assurance with requirements smells

    OpenAIRE

    Femmer, Henning; Méndez Fernández, Daniel; Wagner, Stefan; Eder, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Context: Bad requirements quality can cause expensive consequences during the software development lifecycle, especially if iterations are long and feedback comes late. Objectives: We aim at a light-weight static requirements analysis approach that allows for rapid checks immediately when requirements are written down. Method: We transfer the concept of code smells to Requirements Engineering as Requirements Smells. To evaluate the benefits and limitations, we define Requirements Smells, real...

  3. Rapid quality assurance with Requirements Smells

    OpenAIRE

    Femmer, H.; Fernández, D. Méndez; Wagner, S.; Eder, S.

    2016-01-01

    Bad requirements quality can cause expensive consequences during the software development lifecycle, especially if iterations are long and feedback comes late. %-- the faster a problem is found, the cheaper it is to fix. This makes explicit the need of a lightweight detection mechanism of requirements quality violations. We aim at a light-weight static requirements analysis approach that allows for rapid checks immediately when requirements are written down. We transfer the concept of code sm...

  4. Rapid hydrolysis of celluloses in homogeneous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garves, K

    1979-01-01

    Dissolution of cellulose (I), cotton, and cotton linters in a mixture of Ac0H, Ac/sub 2/O, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, and DMF at 120 to 160 degrees resulted in rapid and complete hydrolysis of I with decomposition of the cellulose acetatesulfate formed by gradual addition of aqueous acid. Highly crystalline I is quickly decomposed to glucose with minimum byproduct formation. Carbohydrate products containing sugar units other than glucose are hydrolyzed with destruction of monosaccharides.

  5. Rapid prototyping using CBCT: an initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yovchev, D.; Deliverska, E.; Indjova, J.; Ugrinov, R.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents a case of fibrous dysplasia in the left lower jaw of a 12-year-old girl, scanned with CBCT. On the basis of CBCT scan a model of affected jaw was produced using a rapid-prototyping three-dimensional printer. The case demonstrates the possibility to get a prototype by CBCT data. Prototypes can be used to support the diagnosis, planning, training (students and postgraduates) and to obtain informed consent from the patient.

  6. An Analysis of Army Rapid Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    measuring its bottom-line impacts enables managers to increase the productivity of these critical assets.”16 If we determine that the current rapid...readiness-requirements/. 111 William Beaver , “Mantech Awarded $61M for Contractor Logistics Sustainment Support Services,” Danger Zone Jobs (blog...could be quickly produced and fielded.”120  Stable and Available Funding. MRAP “was able to avoid negative cost and schedule impacts that are

  7. Rapidly solidified long-range-ordered alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.H.; Koch, C.C.; Liu, C.T.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of rapid solidification processing on the microstructure of long-range-ordered alloys in the (Fe, Co, Ni) 3 V system has been studied by transmission electron microscopy. The main microstructural feature of the as-quenched alloys was a fine cell structure (approx. 300 nm diameter) decorated with carbide particles. This structure was maintained aftr annealing treatments which develop the ordered crystal structure. Other features of the microstructures both before and after annealing are presented and discussed. 6 figures

  8. Software testing for evolutionary iterative rapid prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Edward V., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Rapid prototyping is emerging as a promising software development paradigm. It provides a systematic and automatable means of developing a software system under circumstances where initial requirements are not well known or where requirements change frequently during development. To provide high software quality assurance requires sufficient software testing. The unique nature of evolutionary iterative prototyping is not well-suited for ...

  9. Rapid and highly fieldable viral diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKnight, Timothy E.

    2016-12-20

    The present invention relates to a rapid, highly fieldable, nearly reagentless diagnostic to identify active RNA viral replication in a live, infected cells, and more particularly in leukocytes and tissue samples (including biopsies and nasal swabs) using an array of a plurality of vertically-aligned nanostructures that impale the cells and introduce a DNA reporter construct that is expressed and amplified in the presence of active viral replication.

  10. Rapid Spontaneously Resolving Acute Subdural Hematoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Qi; Zhao, Hexiang; Zhang, Hanmei; You, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study reports a rare patient of a rapid spontaneously resolving acute subdural hematoma. In addition, an analysis of potential clues for the phenomenon is presented with a review of the literature. Patient Presentation: A 1-year-and-2-month-old boy fell from a height of approximately 2 m. The patient was in a superficial coma with a Glasgow Coma Scale of 8 when he was transferred to the authors’ hospital. Computed tomography revealed the presence of an acute subdural hematoma with a midline shift beyond 1 cm. His guardians refused invasive interventions and chose conservative treatment. Repeat imaging after 15 hours showed the evident resolution of the hematoma and midline reversion. Progressive magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the complete resolution of the hematoma, without redistribution to a remote site. Conclusions: Even though this phenomenon has a low incidence, the probability of a rapid spontaneously resolving acute subdural hematoma should be considered when patients present with the following characteristics: children or elderly individuals suffering from mild to moderate head trauma; stable or rapidly recovered consciousness; and simple acute subdural hematoma with a moderate thickness and a particularly low-density band in computed tomography scans. PMID:28468224

  11. Survey of methods for rapid spin reversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKibben, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    The need for rapid spin reversal technique in polarization experiments is discussed. The ground-state atomic-beam source equipped with two rf transitions for hydrogen can be reversed rapidly, and is now in use on several accelerators. It is the optimum choice provided the accelerator can accept H + ions. At present all rapid reversal experiments using H - ions are done with Lamb-shift sources; however, this is not a unique choice. Three methods for the reversal of the spin of the atomic beam within the Lamb-shift source are discussed in order of development. Coherent intensity and perhaps focus modulation seem to be the biggest problems in both types of sources. Methods for reducing these modulations in the Lamb-shift source are discussed. The same Lamb-shift apparatus is easily modified to provide information on the atomic physics of quenching of the 2S/sub 1/2/ states versus spin orientation, and this is also discussed. 2 figures

  12. Rapid prototyping model for percutaneous nephrolithotomy training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyère, Franck; Leroux, Cecile; Brunereau, Laurent; Lermusiaux, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is a technique used for creating computer images in three dimensions more efficiently than classic techniques. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is a popular method to remove kidney stones; however, broader use by the urologic community has been hampered by the morbidity associated with needle puncture to gain access to the renal calix (bleeding, pneumothorax, hydrothorax, inadvertent colon injury). A training model to improve technique and understanding of renal anatomy could improve complications related to renal puncture; however, no model currently exists for resident training. We created a training model using the rapid prototyping technique based on abdominal CT images of a patient scheduled to undergo PCNL. This allowed our staff and residents to train on the model before performing the operation. This model allowed anticipation of particular difficulties inherent to the patient's anatomy. After training, the procedure proceeded without complication, and the patient was discharged at postoperative day 1 without problems. We hypothesize that rapid prototyping could be useful for resident education, allowing the creation of numerous models for research and surgical training. In addition, we anticipate that experienced urologists could find this technique helpful in preparation for difficult PCNL operations.

  13. NPOESS Tools for Rapid Algorithm Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Route, G.; Grant, K. D.; Hughes, B.; Reed, B.

    2009-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system; the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD. The NPOESS satellites carry a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground data processing segment for NPOESS is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems. The IDPS processes both NPP and NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems Algorithms and Data Products (A&DP) organization is responsible for the algorithms that produce the EDRs, including their quality aspects. As the Calibration and Validation activities move forward following both the NPP launch and subsequent NPOESS launches, rapid algorithm updates may be required. Raytheon and Northrop Grumman have developed tools and processes to enable changes to be evaluated, tested, and moved into the operational baseline in a rapid and efficient manner. This presentation will provide an overview of the tools available to the Cal/Val teams to ensure rapid and accurate assessment of algorithm changes, along with the processes in place to ensure baseline integrity.

  14. Rapid Prototyping and its Application in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. V. Madhav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical implants and biological models have three main characteristics: low volume, complex shape, and can be customized. These characteristics suit very well with Rapid Prototyping (RP and Rapid Manufacturing (RM processes. RP/RM processes are fabricated part layer- by-layer until complete shape finished from 3D model. Biocompatible materials, such as Titanium and Titanium alloy, Zirconium, Cobalt Chromium, PEEK, etc, are used for fabrication process. Reverse Engineering (RE technology greatly affects RP/RM processes. RE is used to capture or scan image of the limb, cranium, tooth, and other biological objects. Three common methods to get the image are 3D laser scanning, Computer Tomography (CT, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. Main RP/RM techniques used in Dentistry are Stereotype Lithography Apparatus (SLA, Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM, Selective Laser Sintering (SLS, and ink jet printing. This article reviews the changing scenario of technology in dentistry with special emphasis on Rapid Prototyping and its various applications in Dentistry.

  15. Rapid Thermal Processing to Enhance Steel Toughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, V K; Speer, J G; Clarke, K D; Findley, K O; Clarke, A J

    2018-01-11

    Quenching and Tempering (Q&T) has been utilized for decades to alter steel mechanical properties, particularly strength and toughness. While tempering typically increases toughness, a well-established phenomenon called tempered martensite embrittlement (TME) is known to occur during conventional Q&T. Here we show that short-time, rapid tempering can overcome TME to produce unprecedented property combinations that cannot be attained by conventional Q&T. Toughness is enhanced over 43% at a strength level of 1.7 GPa and strength is improved over 0.5 GPa at an impact toughness of 30 J. We also show that hardness and the tempering parameter (TP), developed by Holloman and Jaffe in 1945 and ubiquitous within the field, is insufficient for characterizing measured strengths, toughnesses, and microstructural conditions after rapid processing. Rapid tempering by energy-saving manufacturing processes like induction heating creates the opportunity for new Q&T steels for energy, defense, and transportation applications.

  16. MSFC Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) Rapid Quench System

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Craven, Paul D.; Rogers, Jan R.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) Laboratory is a unique facility for investigators studying high-temperature materials. The laboratory boasts two levitators in which samples can be levitated, heated, melted, undercooled, and resolidified, all without the interference of a container or data-gathering instrument. The ESL main chamber has been upgraded with the addition of a rapid quench system. This system allows samples to be dropped into a quench vessel that can be filled with a low melting point material, such as a gallium or indium alloy. Thereby allowing rapid quenching of undercooled liquid metals. Up to 8 quench vessels can be loaded into the quench wheel, which is indexed with LabVIEW control software. This allows up to 8 samples to be rapidly quenched before having to open the chamber. The system has been tested successfully on several zirconium samples. Future work will be done with other materials using different quench mediums. Microstructural analysis will also be done on successfully quench samples.

  17. Rapid Radiochemical Methods for Asphalt Paving Material ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Brief Validated rapid radiochemical methods for alpha and beta emitters in solid matrices that are commonly encountered in urban environments were previously unavailable for public use by responding laboratories. A lack of tested rapid methods would delay the quick determination of contamination levels and the assessment of acceptable site-specific exposure levels. Of special concern are matrices with rough and porous surfaces, which allow the movement of radioactive material deep into the building material making it difficult to detect. This research focuses on methods that address preparation, radiochemical separation, and analysis of asphalt paving materials and asphalt roofing shingles. These matrices, common to outdoor environments, challenge the capability and capacity of very experienced radiochemistry laboratories. Generally, routine sample preparation and dissolution techniques produce liquid samples (representative of the original sample material) that can be processed using available radiochemical methods. The asphalt materials are especially difficult because they do not readily lend themselves to these routine sample preparation and dissolution techniques. The HSRP and ORIA coordinate radiological reference laboratory priorities and activities in conjunction with HSRP’s Partner Process. As part of the collaboration, the HSRP worked with ORIA to publish rapid radioanalytical methods for selected radionuclides in building material matrice

  18. Rapid determination of actinides in seawater samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, S.L.; Culligan, B.K.; Hutchison, J.B.; Utsey, R.C.; McAlister, D.R.

    2014-01-01

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in seawater samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory. The actinides can be measured by alpha spectrometry or inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The new method employs novel pre-concentration steps to collect the actinide isotopes quickly from 80 L or more of seawater. Actinides are co-precipitated using an iron hydroxide co-precipitation step enhanced with Ti +3 reductant, followed by lanthanum fluoride co-precipitation. Stacked TEVA Resin and TRU Resin cartridges are used to rapidly separate Pu, U, and Np isotopes from seawater samples. TEVA Resin and DGA Resin were used to separate and measure Pu, Am and Cm isotopes in seawater volumes up to 80 L. This robust method is ideal for emergency seawater samples following a radiological incident. It can also be used, however, for the routine analysis of seawater samples for oceanographic studies to enhance efficiency and productivity. In contrast, many current methods to determine actinides in seawater can take 1-2 weeks and provide chemical yields of ∼30-60 %. This new sample preparation method can be performed in 4-8 h with tracer yields of ∼85-95 %. By employing a rapid, robust sample preparation method with high chemical yields, less seawater is needed to achieve lower or comparable detection limits for actinide isotopes with less time and effort. (author)

  19. Rapid maxillary expansion in contemporary orthodontic literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Mutinelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have reviewed our retrospective research about rapid maxillary expansion performed in the early mixed dentition to summarize the results of different studies regarding maxillary dental arch width variation and crowding improvement in light of contemporary literature. The aim is to define the effects of treatments followed until the end of dental arch growth. In all studies, a Haas expander anchored to the deciduous dentition was used. The samples consisted of treated patients with and without a lateral crossbite and homogeneous untreated individuals as controls. Two additional control groups of adolescents and adults in dental Class 1 were also compared. As a result of the analysis, rapid maxillary expansion with anchorage to the deciduous dentition was found to be effective in increasing transverse width in intermolar and intercanine areas, and the change was preserved until the full permanent dentition stage. When performed before maxillary lateral incisors have fully erupted, this procedure allows for a rapid increase in the arch length in the anterior area and consequently, in the space available for permanent incisors with a stable reduction in crowding over time.

  20. Motion-insensitive rapid configuration relaxometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Damien; Bieri, Oliver

    2017-08-01

    Triple echo steady state (TESS) uses the lowest steady state configuration modes for rapid relaxometry. Due to its unbalanced gradient scheme, however, TESS is inherently motion-sensitive. The purpose of this work is to merge TESS with a balanced acquisition scheme for motion-insensitive rapid configuration relaxometry, termed MIRACLE. The lowest order steady state free precession (SSFP) configurations are retrieved by Fourier transformation of the frequency response of N frequency-shifted balanced SSFP (bSSFP) scans and subsequently processed for relaxometry, as proposed with TESS. Accuracy of MIRACLE is evaluated from simulations, phantom studies as well as in vivo brain and cartilage imaging at 3T. Simulations and phantom results revealed no conceptual flaw, and artifact-free configuration imaging was achieved in vivo. Overall, relaxometry results were accurate in phantoms and in good agreement for cartilage and for T2 in the brain, but apparent low T1 values were observed for brain white matter; reflecting asymmetries in the bSSFP profile. Rapid T1 and T2 mapping with MIRACLE offers analogous properties as TESS while successfully mitigating its motion-sensitivity. As a result of the Fourier transformation, relaxometry becomes sensitive to the voxel frequency distribution, which may contain useful physiologic information, such as structural brain integrity. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. Magn Reson Med 78:518-526, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. Rapid Aminoglycoside NP Test for Rapid Detection of Multiple Aminoglycoside Resistance in Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmann, Patrice; Jayol, Aurélie; Dobias, Jan; Poirel, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    The rapid aminoglycoside NP (Nordmann/Poirel) test was developed to rapidly identify multiple aminoglycoside (AG) resistance in Enterobacteriaceae It is based on the detection of the glucose metabolism related to enterobacterial growth in the presence of a defined concentration of amikacin plus gentamicin. Formation of acid metabolites was evidenced by a color change (orange to yellow) of the red phenol pH indicator. The rapid aminoglycoside NP test was evaluated by using bacterial colonies of 18 AG-resistant isolates producing 16S rRNA methylases, 20 AG-resistant isolates expressing AG-modifying enzymes (acetyl-, adenyl-, and phosphotransferases), and 10 isolates susceptible to AG. Its sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 97%, respectively, compared to the broth dilution method, which was taken as the gold standard for determining aminoglycoside resistance. The test is inexpensive, rapid (<2 h), and implementable worldwide. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Improved safety and reduction in stent thrombosis associated with biodegradable polymer-based biolimus-eluting stents versus durable polymer-based sirolimus-eluting stents in patients with coronary artery disease: final 5-year report of the LEADERS (Limus Eluted From A Durable Versus ERodable Stent Coating) randomized, noninferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serruys, Patrick W; Farooq, Vasim; Kalesan, Bindu; de Vries, Ton; Buszman, Pawel; Linke, Axel; Ischinger, Thomas; Klauss, Volker; Eberli, Franz; Wijns, William; Morice, Marie Claude; Di Mario, Carlo; Corti, Roberto; Antoni, Diethmar; Sohn, Hae Y; Eerdmans, Pedro; Rademaker-Havinga, Tessa; van Es, Gerrit-Anne; Meier, Bernhard; Jüni, Peter; Windecker, Stephan

    2013-08-01

    This study sought to report the final 5 years follow-up of the landmark LEADERS (Limus Eluted From A Durable Versus ERodable Stent Coating) trial. The LEADERS trial is the first randomized study to evaluate biodegradable polymer-based drug-eluting stents (DES) against durable polymer DES. The LEADERS trial was a 10-center, assessor-blind, noninferiority, "all-comers" trial (N = 1,707). All patients were centrally randomized to treatment with either biodegradable polymer biolimus-eluting stents (BES) (n = 857) or durable polymer sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) (n = 850). The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), or clinically indicated target vessel revascularization within 9 months. Secondary endpoints included extending the primary endpoint to 5 years and stent thrombosis (ST) (Academic Research Consortium definition). Analysis was by intention to treat. At 5 years, the BES was noninferior to SES for the primary endpoint (186 [22.3%] vs. 216 [26.1%], rate ratio [RR]: 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68 to 1.02], p for noninferiority 1 year) and associated composite clinical outcomes. (Limus Eluted From A Durable Versus ERodable Stent Coating [LEADERS] trial; NCT00389220). Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapid thermal conditioning of sewage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jianhong

    Rapid thermal conditioning (RTC) is a developing technology recently applied to sewage sludge treatment. Sludge is heated rapidly to a reaction temperature (up to about 220sp°C) under sufficient pressure to maintain the liquid phase. Reaction is quenched after 10 to 30 seconds when the mixture of sludge and steam pass through a pressure let-down valve. This process reduces the amount of sludge requiring land disposal, eliminates the need for polymer coagulant, improves dewaterability, increases methane production, and further reduces the concentration of pathogens. The odor problem associated with traditional thermal conditioning processes is largely minimized. Ammonia removal is readily integrated with the process. For this research, a pilot unit was constructed capable of processing 90 liters of sludge per hour. Over 22 runs were made with this unit using sludge from New York City Water Pollution Control Plants (WPCP). Sludges processed in this equipment were tested to determine the effect of RTC operating conditions on sludge dewaterability, biodegradability, and other factors affecting the incorporation of RTC into wastewater treatment plants. Dewaterability of thermally conditioned sludge was assessed for cetrifugeability and filterability. Bench scale centrifugation was used for evaluating centrifugeability, pressure filtration and capillary suction time (CST) for filterability. A mathematical model developed for centrifuge dewatering was used to predict the effect of RTC on full scale centrifuge performance. Particle size distribution and solids density of raw and treated PDS were also analyzed. An observed increase in sludge solids density at least partially explains its improved centrifugeability. An investigation of thermally conditioned amino acids showed that the L-isomer is highly biodegradable while the D-isomers are generally less so. Glucose is highly biodegradable, but rapidly becomes refractory as thermal conditioning time is lengthened. This

  4. On the mechanism of rapid postirradiation recovery of yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazunov, A.V.; Kapul'tsevich, Yu.G.

    1983-01-01

    Rapid postirradiation recovery of diploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is equally effective both in water and in a liquid nutrition medium. In the haploid strains, rapid recovery occurs more readily in the log phase than in the stationary phase of growth. In the diploid strains, rapid recovery is more effective in the log phase than in the stationary phase. Rapid recovery of yeast does not require an additional protein synthesis. Damages induced by UV-light are not sub ected to rapid recovery

  5. Rapid Response in Psychological Treatments for Binge-Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Agras, W. Stewart; Wilfley, Denise E.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2015-01-01

    Objective Analysis of short- and long-term effects of rapid response across three different treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED). Method In a randomized clinical study comparing interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive-behavioral guided self-help (CBTgsh), and behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatment in 205 adults meeting DSM-IV criteria for BED, the predictive value of rapid response, defined as ≥ 70% reduction in binge-eating by week four, was determined for remission from binge-eating and global eating disorder psychopathology at posttreatment, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-up. Results Rapid responders in CBTgsh, but not in IPT or BWL, showed significantly greater rates of remission from binge-eating than non-rapid responders, which was sustained over the long term. Rapid and non-rapid responders in IPT and rapid responders in CBTgsh showed a greater remission from binge-eating than non-rapid responders in CBTgsh and BWL. Rapid responders in CBTgsh showed greater remission from binge-eating than rapid responders in BWL. Although rapid responders in all treatments had lower global eating disorder psychopathology than non-rapid responders in the short term, rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT were more improved than those in BWL and non-rapid responders in each treatment. Rapid responders in BWL did not differ from non-rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT. Conclusions Rapid response is a treatment-specific positive prognostic indicator of sustained remission from binge-eating in CBTgsh. Regarding an evidence-based stepped care model, IPT, equally efficacious for rapid and non-rapid responders, could be investigated as a second-line treatment in case of non-rapid response to first-line CBTgsh. PMID:25867446

  6. Global Landslides on Rapidly Spinning Spheroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeres, Daniel J.; Sanchez, P.

    2013-10-01

    The angle of repose and conditions for global landslides on the surfaces of small, rapidly spinning, spheroidal asteroids are studied. Applying techniques of soil mechanics, we develop a theory for, and examples of, how regolith will fail and flow in this microgravity environment. Our motivation is to develop an understanding of the "top-shaped" class of asteroids based on analytical soil mechanics. Our analysis transforms the entire asteroid surface into a local frame where we can model it as a conventional granular pile with a surface slope, acceleration and height variations as a function of the body's spin rate, shape and density. A general finding is that the lowest point on a rapidly spinning spheroid is at the equator with the effective height of surface material monotonically increasing towards the polar regions, where the height can be larger than the physical radius of the body. We study the failure conditions of both cohesionless and cohesive regolith, and develop specific predictions of the surface profile as a function of the regolith angle of friction and the maximum spin rate experienced by the body. The theory also provides simple guidelines on what the shape may look like, although we do not analyze gravitationally self-consistent evolution of the body shape. The theory is tested with soft-sphere discrete element method granular mechanics simulations to better understand the dynamical aspects of global asteroid landslides. We find significant differences between failure conditions for cohesive and cohesionless regolith. In the case of cohesive regolith, we show that extremely small values of strength (much less than that found in lunar regolith) can stabilize a surface even at very rapid spin rates. Cohesionless surfaces, as expected, fail whenever their surface slopes exceed the angle of friction. Based on our analysis we propose that global landslides and the flow of material towards the equator on spheroidal bodies are precipitated by exogenous

  7. Intraperitoneal Glucose Sensing is Sometimes Surprisingly Rapid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Lyngvi Fougner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid, accurate and robust glucose measurements are needed to make a safe artificial pancreas for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2. The present gold standard of continuous glucose sensing, subcutaneous (SC glucose sensing, has been claimed to have slow response and poor robustness towards local tissue changes such as mechanical pressure, temperature changes, etc. The present study aimed at quantifying glucose dynamics from central circulation to intraperitoneal (IP sensor sites, as an alternative to the SC location. Intraarterial (IA and IP sensors were tested in three anaesthetized non-diabetic pigs during experiments with intravenous infusion of glucose boluses, enforcing rapid glucose level excursions in the range 70--360 mg/dL (approximately 3.8--20 mmol/L. Optical interferometric sensors were used for IA and IP measurements. A first-order dynamic model with time delay was fitted to the data after compensating for sensor dynamics. Additionally, off-the-shelf Medtronic Enlite sensors were used for illustration of SC glucose sensing. The time delay in glucose excursions from central circulation (IA to IP sensor location was found to be in the range 0--26 s (median: 8.5 s, mean: 9.7 s, SD 9.5 s, and the time constant was found to be 0.5--10.2 min (median: 4.8 min, mean: 4.7 min, SD 2.9 min. IP glucose sensing sites have a substantially faster and more distinctive response than SC sites when sensor dynamics is ignored, and the peritoneal fluid reacts even faster to changes in intravascular glucose levels than reported in previous animal studies. This study may provide a benchmark for future, rapid IP glucose sensors.

  8. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM). Final CRADA report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1998-02-10

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies have to be able to respond quickly with improved, high quality, cost efficient products. Because companies and their suppliers are geographically distributed, rapid product realization is dependent on the development of a secure integrated concurrent engineering environment operating across multiple business entities. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies implemented in a secure environment. This documents the work done under this CRADA to develop capabilities, which permit the effective application, incorporation, and use of advanced technologies in a secure environment to facilitate the product realization process. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES), through a CRADA with the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS), worked within a consortium of major industrial firms--Ford, General Motors, Texas Instruments, United Technologies, and Eastman Kodak--and several small suppliers of advanced manufacturing technology--MacNeal-Schwendler Corp., Teknowledge Corp., Cimplex Corp., Concentra, Spatial Technology, and Structural Dynamics Research Corp. (SDRC)--to create infrastructure to support the development and implementation of secure engineering environments for Rapid Response Manufacturing. The major accomplishment achieved under this CRADA was the demonstration of a prototypical implementation of a broad-based generic framework for automating and integrating the design-to-manufacturing activities associated with machined parts in a secure NWC compliant environment. Specifically, methods needed to permit the effective application, incorporation, and use of advanced technologies in a secure environment to facilitate the product realization process were developed and demonstrated. An important aspect of this demonstration was

  9. Rapid River Hatchery - Spring Chinook, Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, M.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Rapid River Hatchery (Spring Chinook). The hatchery is located in the lower Snake River basin near Riggins Idaho. The hatchery is used for adult collection, egg incubation, and rearing of spring chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

  10. Rapid reformatting of cine CT data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, E.D.; Reynolds, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Cine CT scanners acquire data sufficiently rapidly to freeze the cardiac motion. Display hardware with sufficient highspeed computer memory permits instantaneous reformatting of sections at any orientation. Normal or abnormal cardiac motion may be studies interactively along any axial, sagittal, coronal, or oblique plane through the beating heart. Cine Ct studies, consisting of eight levels through the heart with 8-mm interlevel spacing, acquired at 10 time intervals for a total of 80 sections, were acquired on an Imatron C-100 scanner and displayed. Each entire study was loaded into t = internal display processor memory, permitting instantaneous recall without loss of spatial or density resolution. Results are presented

  11. Rapid identification of staphylococci by Raman spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rebrošová, K.; Šiler, Martin; Samek, Ota; Růžička, F.; Bernatová, Silvie; Holá, V.; Ježek, Jan; Zemánek, Pavel; Sokolová, J.; Petráš, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, NOV (2017), s. 1-8, č. článku 14846. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-20645S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : coagulase-negative staphylococci * Raman spectroscopy * rapid identification Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  12. Surface quality in rapid prototype MMD process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro Vargas Henríquez

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This article summarises a Manufacturing Materials and Processes MSc thesis written for the Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Department. The paper shows the interaction of process, gap (deposition distance and extursion terminal velocity modelled process parameters for CEIF's (Centro de Equipos Interfacultades rapid prototype molten material deposit (MMD Titan SH-1 machine by analysing prototupes improved surface quality and resistence to tension and characterising material. The project applies experimental design criteria for orientating the selection of experimental process parameters. Acrylonitrile-buttadin-styrene (ABS had alredy been mechanically and physicochemically characterised (i.e the material used in the MMD process.

  13. Rapid viscosity measurements of powdered thermosetting resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, H. L.; Burks, H. D.; Dalal, S. K.

    1978-01-01

    A rapid and inexpensive method of obtaining processing-related data on powdered thermosetting resins has been investigated. The method involved viscosity measurements obtained with a small specimen (less than 100 mg) parallel plate plastometer. A data acquisition and reduction system was developed which provided a value of viscosity and strain rate about 12-13 second intervals during a test. The effects of specimen compaction pressure and reduction of adhesion between specimen and parallel plates were examined. The plastometer was used to measure some processing-related viscosity changes of an addition polyimide resin, including changes caused by pre-test heat treatment, test temperature, and strain rate.

  14. Rapid Prototyping: Technologies, Materials and Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of product development, the term rapid prototyping (RP is widely used to describe technologies which create physical prototypes directly from digital data. Recently, this technology has become one of the fastest-growing methods of manufacturing parts. The paper provides brief notes on the creation of composites using RP methods, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering or melting, laminated object modelling, fused deposition modelling or three-dimensional printing. The emphasis of this work is on the methodology of composite fabrication and the variety of materials used in these technologies.

  15. Super-rapid medical film processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, C.; Iwata, M.; Nozaki, H.

    1988-01-01

    A new super-rapid medical film processing system cuts processing time from 90 to 45 seconds, a critical advantage in traumatic injury, surgical operation, and other time-vital applications. The system consists of new films new processing chemicals (developer and fixer), and a new high-speed medical film processor. The system's creation is made possible by three new technologies. In film, multilayered monodispersed grains reduce processing time. In processing chemicals, an innovative design maximizes processing speed. And in the processor itself, a new drying apparatus increases drying efficiency. Together, these technologies achieve 45-second processing without degradation of image quality

  16. 4. Rapidly industrializing countries: Forging new models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starke, L.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the following: the experience of newly industrializing countries (NIC); human development; broadening economic development; conserving natural resources (agriculture, forests, air quality); energy consumption; using more efficient technology; new markets and new products. Governments in rapidly industrializing countries can do a great deal to steer development in a sustainable direction by adopting appropriate policies - many of which are discussed in this and preceding chapters. Governments in industrialized countries also have an important role to play by offering the necessary technical and financial assistance to support this kind of development. The chapter uses as examples Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand

  17. Experimental study on rapid embankment construction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Hideaki; Egawa, Kikuji; Hyodo, Kazuya; Kannoto, Yasuo; Sekimoto, Tsuyoshi; Kobayashi, Kokichi.

    1982-01-01

    In the construction of a thermal or nuclear power plant in a coastal area, shorter embankment construction period has come to be called for recently. This tendency is remarkable where construction period is limited due to meteorological or sea conditions. To meet this requirement, the authors have been conducting basic experimental studies on two methods for the rapid execution of embankment construction, that is, Steel Plate Cellular Bulkhead Embedding Method and Ship Hull Caisson Method. This paper presents an outline of the results of the experimental study on these two methods. (author)

  18. An Unusual Case of Rapidly Progressive Hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly M. Thornton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an unusual case of hyperbilirubinemia with rapid early progression leading to bilirubin encephalopathy in a term neonate. Despite early recognition and intervention, the total serum bilirubin reached a maximum level of 39 mg/dL at 32 hours of life. Prior to an emergent exchange transfusion, the patient’s diagnostic evaluation was significant for Coombs-negative microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. Further testing revealed a deficiency of ADAMTS13 protein, or von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease, a finding diagnostic of congenital thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, or Upshaw-Schulman syndrome. This rare disease is often misdiagnosed, especially in the newborn period.

  19. Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM). Final CRADA report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-08-28

    A major accomplishment of the Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM) project was the development of a broad-based generic framework for automating and integrating the design-to-manufacturing activities associated with machined part products. Key components of the framework are a manufacturing model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering working environment, knowledge-based software systems for design, process planning, and manufacturing and new production technologies for making products directly from design application software.

  20. Plant MAPK cascades: Just rapid signaling modules?

    KAUST Repository

    Boudsocq, Marie

    2015-08-27

    © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a major phytohormone mediating important stress-related processes. We recently unveiled an ABA-activated MAPK signaling module constituted of MAP3K17/18-MKK3-MPK1/2/7/14. Unlike classical rapid MAPK activation, we showed that the activation of the new MAPK module is delayed and relies on the MAP3K protein synthesis. In this addendum, we discuss the role of this original and unexpected activation mechanism of MAPK cascades which suggests that MAPKs can regulate both early and longterm plant stress responses.

  1. Rapidly Progressive Spontaneous Spinal Epidural Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Aycan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal epidural abscess (SEA is a rare disease which is often rapidly progressive. Delayed diagnosis of SEA may lead to serious complications and the clinical findings of SEA are generally nonspecific. Paraspinal abscess should be considered in the presence of local low back tenderness, redness, and pain with fever, particularly in children. In case of delayed diagnosis and treatment, SEA may spread to the epidural space and may cause neurological deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI remains the method of choice in the diagnosis of SEA. Treatment of SEA often consists of both medical and surgical therapy including drainage with percutaneous entry, corpectomy, and instrumentation.

  2. Crowdsourced Translation for Rapid Internationalization in Cyberspace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Yen; Yonatany, Moshe; Mahnke, Volker

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores how Facebook effectively used crowdsourced translation to accelerate its rapid internationalization. We apply the learning perspective of internationalization theory to unpack what the firm learned in order to mobilize crowd-based knowledge to facilitate internationalization...... and codified knowledge, rather than the experiential knowledge traditionally suggested in the literature on the process of internationalization, and (2) the firm's success rested on its ability to use virtual learning tools and incentive systems to acquire, articulate and integrate knowledge from communities...... of internationally dispersed users – the “crowd” – to accelerate its internationalization in cyberspace. This empirical study extends internationalization theory regarding knowledge and organizational learning....

  3. Rapidly Destructive Inflammatory Arthritis of the Hip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Shu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly destructive coxarthrosis (RDC is a rare syndrome that involves aggressive hip joint destruction within 6–12 months of symptom onset with no single diagnostic laboratory, pathological, or radiographic finding. We report an original case of RDC as an initial presentation of seronegative rheumatoid arthritis (RA in a 57-year-old Caucasian woman presenting with 6 months of progressive right groin pain and no preceding trauma or chronic steroid use. Over 5 months, she was unable to ambulate and plain films showed complete resorption of the right femoral head and erosion of the acetabulum. There were inflammatory features seen on computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. She required a right total hip arthroplasty, but arthritis in other joints showed improvement with triple disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD therapy and almost complete remission with the addition of adalimumab. We contrast our case of RDC as an initial presentation of RA to 8 RDC case reports of patients with established RA. Furthermore, this case highlights the importance of obtaining serial imaging to evaluate a patient with persistent hip symptoms and rapid functional deterioration.

  4. Transient burnout under rapid flow reduction condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamura, Takamichi

    1987-01-01

    Burnout characteristics were experimentally studied using uniformly heated tube and annular test sections under rapid flow reduction conditions. Observations indicated that the onset of burnout under a flow reduction transient is caused by the dryout of a liquid film on the heated surface. The decrease in burnout mass velocity at the channel inlet with increasing flow reduction rate is attributed to the fact that the vapor flow rate continues to increase and sustain the liquid film flow after the inlet flow rate reaches the steady-state burnout flow rate. This is because the movement of the boiling boundary cannot keep up with the rapid reduction of inlet flow rate. A burnout model for the local condition could be applied to the burnout phenomena with the flow reduction under pressures of 0.5 ∼ 3.9 MPa and flow reduction rates of 0.6 ∼ 35 %/s. Based on this model, a method to predict the burnout time under a flow reduction condition was presented. The calculated burnout times agreed well with experimental results obtained by some investigators. (author)

  5. Mechanism for rapid sawtooth crashes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydemir, A.Y.; Hazeltine, R.D.

    1986-09-01

    The sawtooth oscillations in the soft x-ray signals observed in tokamaks are associated with periodic changes in the central electron temperature, T/sub e/. Typically, a slow phase during which the central temperature slowly rises is followed by a fast drop in T/sub e/, associated with flattening of the central temperature. The time scale of the slow phase is determined by various transport processes such as ohmic heating. The resistive internal kink mode was invoked by Kadomtsev to explain the crash phase of the oscillations. Fast crash times observed in the large tokamaks are studied here, especially the fast crashes observed in JET. These sawtooth oscillations are characterized by the absence of any discrenible precursor oscillations, and a rapid collapse of the central temperature in about 100 microseconds. During the crash phase, the hot core region rapidly moves outward and is replaced by colder plasma. Then, this highly asymmetric state relaxes (in ∼100μsec) to a poloidally symmetric state in which a ring of hot plasma surrounds the colder core plasma, producing a hollow pressure profile

  6. Rapid lard identification with portable electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latief, Marsad; Khorsidtalab, Aida; Saputra, Irwan; Akmeliawati, Rini; Nurashikin, Anis; Jaswir, Irwandi; Witjaksono, Gunawan

    2017-11-01

    Human sensory systems are limited in many different regards, yet they are great sources of inspiration for development of technologies that help humans to overcome their restraints. This paper signifies the capability of our developed electronic nose in rapid lard identification. The developed device, known as E-Nose, mimics human’s olfactory system’s technique to identify a particular substance. Lard is a common pig derivative which is often used as a food additive, emulsion or shortening. It’s also commonly used as an adulterant or as an alternative for cooking oils, margarine and butter. This substance is prohibited to be consumed by Muslims and Orthodox Jews for religious reasons. A portable reliable device with an ability to identify lard rapidly can be convenient to users concerned about lard adulteration. The prototype was examined using K-Nearest Neighbors algorithm (KNN), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Bagged Trees and Simple Tree, and can identify lard with the highest accuracy of 95.6% among three types of fat (lard, chicken and beef) in liquid form over a certain range of temperature using KNN.

  7. Multiple gingival pregnancy tumors with rapid growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lian Sun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy gingivitis is an acute form of gingivitis that affects pregnant women, with a prevalence of 30%, possibly ranging up to 100%. Sometimes, pregnancy gingivitis shows a tendency toward a localized hyperplasia called gingival pyogenic granuloma. Pregnancy tumor is a benign gingival hyperplasia with the gingiva as the most commonly involved site, but rarely it involves almost the entire gingiva. A 22-year-old woman was referred to our clinic with a chief complaint of gingival swelling that had lasted for 2 days. The lesions progressed rapidly and extensively, and almost all the gingiva was involved a week later. Generalized erythema, edema, hyperplasia, a hemorrhagic tendency, and several typical hemangiomatous masses were noted. Pregnancy was denied by the patient at the first and second visits, but was confirmed 2 weeks after the primary visit. The patient was given oral hygiene instructions. She recovered well, and the mass gradually regressed and had disappeared completely at the end of 12 weeks of pregnancy, without recurrence. The gingival lesions were finally diagnosed as multiple gingival pregnancy tumors. The patient delivered a healthy infant. An extensive and rapid growth of gingival pregnancy tumors during the early first month of pregnancy is a rare occurrence that is not familiar to dentists, gynecologists, and obstetricians. Those practitioners engaged in oral medicine and periodontology, primary care obstetrics, and gynecology should be aware of such gingival lesions to avoid misdiagnosis and overtreatment.

  8. Rapid roll inflation with conformal coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kofman, Lev; Mukohyama, Shinji

    2008-01-01

    Usual inflation is realized with a slow rolling scalar field minimally coupled to gravity. In contrast, we consider dynamics of a scalar with a flat effective potential, conformally coupled to gravity. Surprisingly, it contains an attractor inflationary solution with the rapidly rolling inflaton field. We discuss models with the conformal inflaton with a flat potential (including hybrid inflation). There is no generation of cosmological fluctuations from the conformally coupled inflaton. We consider realizations of modulated (inhomogeneous reheating) or curvaton cosmological fluctuations in these models. We also implement these unusual features for the popular string-theoretic warped inflationary scenario, based on the interacting D3-D3 branes. The original warped brane inflation suffers a large inflaton mass due to conformal coupling to 4-dimensional gravity. Instead of considering this as a problem and trying to cure it with extra engineering, we show that warped inflation with the conformally coupled, rapidly rolling inflaton is yet possible with N=37 efoldings, which requires low-energy scales 1-100 TeV of inflation. Coincidentally, the same warping numerology can be responsible for the hierarchy. It is shown that the scalars associated with angular isometries of the warped geometry of compact manifold (e.g. S 3 of Klebanov-Strassler (KS) geometry) have solutions identical to conformally coupled modes and also cannot be responsible for cosmological fluctuations. We discuss other possibilities

  9. Rapid roll inflation with conformal coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofman, Lev; Mukohyama, Shinji

    2008-02-01

    Usual inflation is realized with a slow rolling scalar field minimally coupled to gravity. In contrast, we consider dynamics of a scalar with a flat effective potential, conformally coupled to gravity. Surprisingly, it contains an attractor inflationary solution with the rapidly rolling inflaton field. We discuss models with the conformal inflaton with a flat potential (including hybrid inflation). There is no generation of cosmological fluctuations from the conformally coupled inflaton. We consider realizations of modulated (inhomogeneous reheating) or curvaton cosmological fluctuations in these models. We also implement these unusual features for the popular string-theoretic warped inflationary scenario, based on the interacting D3-D¯3 branes. The original warped brane inflation suffers a large inflaton mass due to conformal coupling to 4-dimensional gravity. Instead of considering this as a problem and trying to cure it with extra engineering, we show that warped inflation with the conformally coupled, rapidly rolling inflaton is yet possible with N=37 efoldings, which requires low-energy scales 1 100 TeV of inflation. Coincidentally, the same warping numerology can be responsible for the hierarchy. It is shown that the scalars associated with angular isometries of the warped geometry of compact manifold (e.g. S3 of Klebanov-Strassler (KS) geometry) have solutions identical to conformally coupled modes and also cannot be responsible for cosmological fluctuations. We discuss other possibilities.

  10. Nitrogen evolution during rapid hydropyrolysis of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, W.-C.; Kumagai, M. [Institute of Research and Innovation, Kashiwa (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    The behavior of nitrogen evolution during rapid hydropyrolysis of coal has been investigated at temperatures ranging from 923 to 1123 K and hydrogen pressure up to 5 MPa using a continuous free fall pyrolyzer. Three coals have been tested in this study. The dominant nitrogen gaseous species is ammonia, together with a little amount of HCN because most of HCN is converted to NH{sub 3} through secondary reactions. The results show that the evolution of nitrogen in coal is caused mainly by devolatilization at temperatures below 973 K, while the evolution of volatile nitrogen in char is accelerated with increasing temperature and hydrogen pressure. The mineral matter in coal act as catalysts to promote the evolution of volatile nitrogen in char to N{sub 2} apparently at high temperatures of 1123 K, as found during pyrolysis of coal by Ohtsuka et al. A pseudo-first-order kinetic model was applied to the evolution of nitrogen in coal during rapid hydropyrolysis. The model shows the activation energy for the nitrogen evolution from coal is 36.6 58.6 kJ/mol while the rate of the nitrogen evolution depends on hydrogen pressure in the order of 0.16 0.24. 41 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Contrast bolus technique with rapid CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, H.; Kuehne, D.; Rohr, W.; Heller, M.

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-three patients complying with the clinical criteria for brain death were studied by contrast-enhanced CT. In all but one, the great intracranial vessels escaped visualization; accordingly, angiography demonstrated cerebral circulatory arrest. In the remaining case, faint enhancement of the circle of Willis corresponded to angiographic demonstration of the proximal segments of cerebral arteris. Neither in normal brain nor in dead brain did slow CT scanning disclose any postcontrast increase in parenchymal attenuation. An improved technique is proposed to demonstrate the transit of the contrast bolus by rapid CT with image splitting. If cerebral blood flow is preserved, the grey and white matter will enhance significantly following administration of contrast medium. Vice versa, the absence of enhancement confirms brain death, even in instances in which the great cerebral vessels are obscured by hemorrhage or other extensive lesions. Two additional cases of brain death were evaluated by rapid CT scanning. As to brain death, the technique obviates the need for angiography or radionuclide angiography, usually applied in prospective organ donors, because its informative content is superior to that of either method. The CT technique described affords a reliable and safe diagnosis of brain death, and can be interpreted easily. (orig.)

  12. Rapid neural discrimination of communicative gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redcay, Elizabeth; Carlson, Thomas A

    2015-04-01

    Humans are biased toward social interaction. Behaviorally, this bias is evident in the rapid effects that self-relevant communicative signals have on attention and perceptual systems. The processing of communicative cues recruits a wide network of brain regions, including mentalizing systems. Relatively less work, however, has examined the timing of the processing of self-relevant communicative cues. In the present study, we used multivariate pattern analysis (decoding) approach to the analysis of magnetoencephalography (MEG) to study the processing dynamics of social-communicative actions. Twenty-four participants viewed images of a woman performing actions that varied on a continuum of communicative factors including self-relevance (to the participant) and emotional valence, while their brain activity was recorded using MEG. Controlling for low-level visual factors, we found early discrimination of emotional valence (70 ms) and self-relevant communicative signals (100 ms). These data offer neural support for the robust and rapid effects of self-relevant communicative cues on behavior. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Rapid analytical extraction of volatile fermentation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, N B; Flickinger, M C; Tsao, G T

    1979-10-01

    With renewed interest in production of liquid fuels and chemical feedstocks from carbohydrates, numerous authors have utilized gas-liquid chromatography (GC) for quantification of volatile products. Poor separation and short column life will result if residual sugars present in the medium are not separated from the volatile compounds before injection. In our current investigation of 2,3-butanediol production from xylose, we have developed a rapid GC assay for 2,3-butanediol, acetyl methyl carbinol (acetoin), 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl), and ethanol. This method extracts the fermentation products at high pH from residual xylose before injection into the GC. This routine is a modification of the method of Kolfenbach et al. and is more rapid than the method of separation of diacetyl and acetoin from carbohydrates by distillation reported by Gupta et al. Their erroneous reports of yields of 640 mg diacetyl + acetoin/g sugar are 30% higher than the theoretical maximum for Enterobacter cloacae (ATCC 27613) and points out the need for a reliable, accurate assay for these products.

  14. Ada and the rapid development lifecycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deforrest, Lloyd; Gref, Lynn

    1991-01-01

    JPL is under contract, through NASA, with the US Army to develop a state-of-the-art Command Center System for the US European Command (USEUCOM). The Command Center System will receive, process, and integrate force status information from various sources and provide this integrated information to staff officers and decision makers in a format designed to enhance user comprehension and utility. The system is based on distributed workstation class microcomputers, VAX- and SUN-based data servers, and interfaces to existing military mainframe systems and communication networks. JPL is developing the Command Center System utilizing an incremental delivery methodology called the Rapid Development Methodology with adherence to government and industry standards including the UNIX operating system, X Windows, OSF/Motif, and the Ada programming language. Through a combination of software engineering techniques specific to the Ada programming language and the Rapid Development Approach, JPL was able to deliver capability to the military user incrementally, with comparable quality and improved economies of projects developed under more traditional software intensive system implementation methodologies.

  15. Rapid shoreline erosion induced by human impacts in a tropical muddy coast context, an example from western French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunier, Guillaume; Anthony, Edward; Gardel, Antoine

    2015-04-01

    The Guyanas coast (French Guiana, Surinam and Guiana) is the longest muddy coast in the world (1500 km). It is under the influence of mud banks in transit from the Amazon delta in Brazil to the Orinoco delta in Venezuela. This westward mud bank migration induces a strong geomorphic control on the shoreline which can be summarized in terms of "bank" (shoreline advance and wave energy dissipation) and "inter-bank" phases (erosion of shoreline by waves). Our study site, rice polders close to Mana city (western French Guiana), is a fine example of the exacerbation, by human activities, of the erosional dynamics on this muddy coast during an "inter-bank" phase. The polders cover 50,000 ha, in 200 x 600 m compartments flanked by earth dikes and canals. They were built in the muddy Holocene coastal plain in the 1980s and are rapidly eroding. Waves (mean significant height = 1.5 m height) comprise Atlantic swell and local trade wind-waves, and the tidal context is semi-diurnal and meso-tidal. We determined historical shoreline evolution from satellite (Landsat & SPOT) and orthophotography images, and conducted four field campaigns between October 2013 and October 2014, comprising topographic (RTK-DGPS) and hydrodynamic (pressure sensors) measurements. The results show intense erosion of 150 m/year affecting the polders since 2001, and lesser retreat (30 to 100 m/year) of the adjacent sectors colonized by mangrove forests. The erosive shoreface shows the same structure in each polder compartment: a chenier beach which freely retreats backwards under the influence of wave overwash. The chenier retreat rate is 100 m/year and it appears to be more intense (net retreat of 45 m) during the high wave-energy season (December to March), which generates more overwashing. In front of the chenier, we observed a large (50 m) inter-tidal mud bed showing different levels of induration and bioturbation by mangrove roots. The mud shorefaces exhibit an erosion rate of 100 m/year on average

  16. Rapid magnetic hardening by rapid thermal annealing in NdFeB-based nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, K.-T.; Jin, Z Q; Chakka, Vamsi M; Liu, J P [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2005-11-21

    A systematic study of heat treatments and magnetic hardening of NdFeB-based melt-spun nanocomposite ribbons have been carried out. Comparison was made between samples treated by rapid thermal annealing and by conventional furnace annealing. Heating rates up to 200 K s{sup -1} were adopted in the rapid thermal processing. It was observed that magnetic hardening can be realized in an annealing time as short as 1 s. Coercivity of 10.2 kOe in the nanocomposites has been obtained by rapid thermal annealing for 1 s, and prolonged annealing did not give any increase in coercivity. Detailed results on the effects of annealing time, temperature and heating rate have been obtained. The dependence of magnetic properties on the annealing parameters has been investigated. Structural characterization revealed that there is a close correlation between magnetic hardening and nanostructured morphology. The coercivity mechanism was also studied by analysing the magnetization minor loops.

  17. Ultra-modified rapid sequence induction with transnasal humidified rapid insufflation ventilatory exchange: Challenging convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan Sakharam Kulkarni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During positive pressure ventilation, gastric inflation and subsequent pulmonary aspiration can occur. Rapid sequence induction (RSI technique is an age-old formula to prevent this. We adopted a novel approach of RSI for patients with high risk of aspiration and evaluated it further in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgeries. We believe that, in patients with risk of gastric insufflation and pulmonary aspiration, transnasal humidified rapid-insufflation ventilatory exchange can be useful in facilitating pre- and apnoeic oxygenation till tracheal isolation is achieved.

  18. Effects of rapid urbanization on streamflow, erosion, and sedimentation in a desert stream in the American Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, John W.; Glancy, Patrick A.; Buckingham , Susan E.; Ehrenberg, Arthur C.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid urbanization has resulted in a series of sequential effects on a desert stream in the American Southwest. Lower Las Vegas Wash was a dry wash characterized by infrequent flood deposition when Las Vegas, Nevada was established in 1905. Wastewater effluent was discharged into the wash in low volumes for over 3 decades. Wastewater volumes increased commensurably with accelerated population growth during the late 20th century and created a sequence of feedback effects on the floodplain. Initially slow saturation of the valley fill created a desert oasis of dense floodplain vegetation and wetlands. Annual streamflow began in 1958 and erosion began a decade later with shallow incision in discontinuous channel segments. Increasing baseflow gradually enlarged channels; headcutting was active during the 1970s to 1984. The incised channels concentrated storm runoff, which accelerated local channel erosion, and in 1984 the headcuts were integrated during a series of monsoon floods. Wetlands were drained and most floodplain vegetation destroyed. Channel erosion continued unabated until engineering interventions began in the 21st century. No natural channel recovery occurred after initial urbanization effects because streamflow never stabilized in the late 20th century. A 6.6 M m3 sediment slug, eroded from the wash in ∼25 years, was deposited in Las Vegas Bay in Lake Mead. Falling reservoir levels during the 21st century are responsible for sediment redistribution and infilling of the bay. Close monitoring of impacts is recommended when urban wastewater and storm runoff are discharged on a desert wash. Channel interventions, when necessary, are advised in order to prevent costly engineering schemes of channel stabilization, flood control, and floodplain restoration.

  19. Rapid Detection of the Varicella Zoster Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michelle P.; Harding, Robert

    2011-01-01

    1.Technology Description-Researchers discovered that when the Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) reactivates from latency in the body, the virus is consistently present in saliva before the appearance of skin lesions. A small saliva sample is mixed with a specialized reagent in a test kit. If the virus is present in the saliva sample, the mixture turns a red color. The sensitivity and specificity emanates from an antibody-antigen reaction. This technology is a rapid, non-invasive, point of-of-care testing kit for detecting the virus from a saliva sample. The device is easy to use and can be used in clinics and in remote locations to quickly detect VZV and begin treatment with antiviral drugs. 2.Market Opportunity- RST Bioscience will be the first and only company to market a rapid, same day test kit for the detection of VZV in saliva. The RST detection test kit will have several advantages over existing, competitive technology. The test kit is self contained and laboratory equipment is not required for analysis of the sample. Only a single saliva sample is required to be taken instead of blood or cerebral spinal fluid. The test kit is portable, sterile and disposable after use. RST detection test kits require no electrical power or expensive storage equipment and can be used in remote locations. 3.Market Analysis- According to the CDC, it is estimated that 1 million cases of shingles occur each year in the U.S. with more than half over the age of sixty. There is a high demand for rapid diagnostics by the public. The point-of-care testing (POCT) market is growing faster than other segments of in vitro diagnostics. According to a July 2007 InteLab Corporation industry report the overall market for POCT was forecast to increase from $10.3 billion in 2005 to $18.7 billion by 2011. The market value of this test kit has not been determined. 4.Competition- The VZV vaccine prevents 50% of cases and reduces neuralgia by 66%. The most popular test detects VZV-specific IgM antibody

  20. Seismogeodesy for rapid earthquake and tsunami characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid estimation of earthquake magnitude and fault mechanism is critical for earthquake and tsunami warning systems. Traditionally, the monitoring of earthquakes and tsunamis has been based on seismic networks for estimating earthquake magnitude and slip, and tide gauges and deep-ocean buoys for direct measurement of tsunami waves. These methods are well developed for ocean basin-wide warnings but are not timely enough to protect vulnerable populations and infrastructure from the effects of local tsunamis, where waves may arrive within 15-30 minutes of earthquake onset time. Direct measurements of displacements by GPS networks at subduction zones allow for rapid magnitude and slip estimation in the near-source region, that are not affected by instrumental limitations and magnitude saturation experienced by local seismic networks. However, GPS displacements by themselves are too noisy for strict earthquake early warning (P-wave detection). Optimally combining high-rate GPS and seismic data (in particular, accelerometers that do not clip), referred to as seismogeodesy, provides a broadband instrument that does not clip in the near field, is impervious to magnitude saturation, and provides accurate real-time static and dynamic displacements and velocities in real time. Here we describe a NASA-funded effort to integrate GPS and seismogeodetic observations as part of NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers in Alaska and Hawaii. It consists of a series of plug-in modules that allow for a hierarchy of rapid seismogeodetic products, including automatic P-wave picking, hypocenter estimation, S-wave prediction, magnitude scaling relationships based on P-wave amplitude (Pd) and peak ground displacement (PGD), finite-source CMT solutions and fault slip models as input for tsunami warnings and models. For the NOAA/NASA project, the modules are being integrated into an existing USGS Earthworm environment, currently limited to traditional seismic data. We are focused on a network of

  1. The Rapid Ice Sheet Change Observatory (RISCO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, P.; Howat, I. M.; Ahn, Y.; Porter, C.; McFadden, E. M.

    2010-12-01

    The recent expansion of observational capacity from space has revealed dramatic, rapid changes in the Earth’s ice cover. These discoveries have fundamentally altered how scientists view ice-sheet change. Instead of just slow changes in snow accumulation and melting over centuries or millennia, important changes can occur in sudden events lasting only months, weeks, or even a single day. Our understanding of these short time- and space-scale processes, which hold important implications for future global sea level rise, has been impeded by the low temporal and spatial resolution, delayed sensor tasking, incomplete coverage, inaccessibility and/or high cost of data available to investigators. New cross-agency partnerships and data access policies provide the opportunity to dramatically improve the resolution of ice sheet observations by an order of magnitude, from timescales of months and distances of 10’s of meters, to days and meters or less. Advances in image processing technology also enable application of currently under-utilized datasets. The infrastructure for systematically gathering, processing, analyzing and distributing these data does not currently exist. Here we present the development of a multi-institutional, multi-platform observatory for rapid ice change with the ultimate objective of helping to elucidate the relevant timescales and processes of ice sheet dynamics and response to climate change. The Rapid Ice Sheet Observatory (RISCO) gathers observations of short time- and space-scale Cryosphere events and makes them easily accessible to investigators, media and general public. As opposed to existing data centers, which are structured to archive and distribute diverse types of raw data to end users with the specialized software and skills to analyze them, RISCO focuses on three types of geo-referenced raster (image) data products in a format immediately viewable with commonly available software. These three products are (1) sequences of images

  2. Synchronous Routing for Personal Rapid Transit Pods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mrad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal rapid transit (PRT is a public and automated transport system in which a fleet of small driverless vehicles operate in order to transport passengers between a set of stations through a network of guided ways. Each customer is carried from one station to another directly with no stop in intermediate stations. This mode of transport can result in a high level of unused capacity due to the empty moves of the vehicles. In this paper, we model the problem of minimizing the energy consumed by the PRT system while assuming predeterministic list of orders; then we solve it using some constructive heuristics. Experiments are run on 1320 randomly generated test problems with various sizes. Our algorithms are shown to give good results over large trip instances.

  3. Search for rapid variability of 53 Cam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zverko, J.

    1982-01-01

    Photoelectric observations of magnetic Ap star 53 Cam made at the Skalnate Pleso Observatory in 1978 and 1979 are analyzed from the point of view of rapid variability. The observations were made with an intermediate passband filter, effective wavelength 526 nm. Besides the differences msub(53Cam)-msub(Comp), the behaviour was also investigated of the deflections for the comparison star during the observation runs. A strong correlation between the behaviour of the comparison and variable star light curve was found and the appearance differs from night to night depending on atmospheric conditions. Each observation run is analyzed in detail and it was concluded that all observed variations are only apparent and due to the variability of atmospheric extinction above the observation site. (author)

  4. World NGL markets continue rapid expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, K.; Gist, R.; Whitley, C.; Haun, R.

    1998-01-01

    The international LPG industry has expanded rapidly during the 1990s and undergone significant changes. LPG consumption has expanded at nearly twice the rate of world petroleum demand. In particular, LPG use in residential and commercial markets has more than doubled in many developing countries. Markets for LPG and other petroleum products have been opened in many countries, accelerating demand growth and creating investment opportunities in all downstream segments. This has led to an overall strengthening of global LPG pricing and the development of many new export gas-processing projects. The paper discusses world LPG demand in residential and commercial markets and in petrochemicals, world LPG supply, regional increases, international trade, the US situation in natural gas, NGL supply, and NGL demand

  5. Projectile rapidity dependence in target fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haustein, P.E.; Cumming, J.B.; Hseuh, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    The thick-target, thick-catcher technique was used to determine mean kinetic properties of selected products of the fragmentation of Cu by 1 H, 4 He, and 12 C ions (180 to 28,000 MeV/amu). Momentum transfer, as inferred from F/B ratios, is ovserved to occur most efficiently for the lower velocity projectiles. Recoil properties of target fragments vary strongly with product mass, but show only a weak dependence on projectile type. The projectile's rapidity is shown to be a useful variable for quantitative intercomparison of different reactions. These results indicate that E/sub proj//A/sub proj/ is the dominant parameter which governs the mean recoil behavior of target fragments. 20 references

  6. Rapid induction of false memory for pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Yana; Shanks, David R

    2010-07-01

    Recognition of pictures is typically extremely accurate, and it is thus unclear whether the reconstructive nature of memory can yield substantial false recognition of highly individuated stimuli. A procedure for the rapid induction of false memories for distinctive colour photographs is proposed. Participants studied a set of object pictures followed by a list of words naming those objects, but embedded in the list were names of unseen objects. When subsequently shown full colour pictures of these unseen objects, participants consistently claimed that they had seen them, while discriminating with high accuracy between studied pictures and new pictures whose names did not appear in the misleading word list. These false memories can be reported with high confidence as well as the feeling of recollection. This new procedure allows the investigation of factors that influence false memory reports with ecologically valid stimuli and of the similarities and differences between true and false memories.

  7. Chandra Data Reveal Rapidly Whirling Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    A new study using results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory provides one of the best pieces of evidence yet that many supermassive black holes are spinning extremely rapidly. The whirling of these giant black holes drives powerful jets that pump huge amounts of energy into their environment and affects galaxy growth. A team of scientists compared leading theories of jets produced by rotating supermassive black holes with Chandra data. A sampling of nine giant galaxies that exhibit large disturbances in their gaseous atmospheres showed that the central black holes in these galaxies must be spinning at near their maximum rates. People Who Read This Also Read... NASA’s Swift Satellite Catches First Supernova in The Act of Exploding Black Holes Have Simple Feeding Habits Jet Power and Black Hole Assortment Revealed in New Chandra Image Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself "We think these monster black holes are spinning close to the limit set by Einstein's theory of relativity, which means that they can drag material around them at close to the speed of light," said Rodrigo Nemmen, a visiting graduate student at Penn State University, and lead author of a paper on the new results presented at American Astronomical Society in Austin, Texas. The research reinforces other, less direct methods previously used which have indicated that some stellar and supermassive black holes are spinning rapidly. According to Einstein's theory, a rapidly spinning black hole makes space itself rotate. This effect, coupled with gas spiraling toward the black hole, can produce a rotating, tightly wound vertical tower of magnetic field that flings a large fraction of the inflowing gas away from the vicinity of the black hole in an energetic, high-speed jet. Computer simulations by other authors have suggested that black holes may acquire their rapid spins when galaxies merge, and through the accretion of gas from their surroundings. "Extremely fast spin might be very common for large

  8. Rapid variability of extragalactic radio sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirrenbach, A.; Witzel, A.; Krichbaum, T.; Hummel, C.A.; Alberdi, A.; Schalinski, C.

    1989-02-02

    Since its discovery more than 20 years ago, variability of extragalactic radio sources on timescales of weeks to years has been the subject of many investigations. We have examined the variability of these sources on timescales of hours at wavelengths of 6 and 11 cm using the 100-m telescope of the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie and report the results for two sources. The quasar QSO0917 + 62 showed variations with amplitudes of up to 23% in /similar to/ 24 hours, which were correlated at the two wavelengths; in the BL Lac object 0716 + 71 we found variations with amplitudes of 7-11%. We discuss intrinsic effects, gravitational lensing and scattering in the interstellar medium as possible explanations for rapid radio variability.

  9. Rapid prototyping-assisted maxillofacial reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qian; Tang, Zhangui; Liu, Ousheng; Peng, Zhiwei

    2015-05-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) technologies have found many uses in dentistry, and especially oral and maxillofacial surgery, due to its ability to promote product development while at the same time reducing cost and depositing a part of any degree of complexity theoretically. This paper provides an overview of RP technologies for maxillofacial reconstruction covering both fundamentals and applications of the technologies. Key fundamentals of RP technologies involving the history, characteristics, and principles are reviewed. A number of RP applications to the main fields of oral and maxillofacial surgery, including restoration of maxillofacial deformities and defects, reduction of functional bone tissues, correction of dento-maxillofacial deformities, and fabrication of maxillofacial prostheses, are discussed. The most remarkable challenges for development of RP-assisted maxillofacial surgery and promising solutions are also elaborated.

  10. Market design for rapid demand response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt; Tamirat, Tseganesh Wubale

    We suggest a market design for rapid demand response in electricity markets. The solution consists of remotely controlled switches, meters, forecasting models as well as a flexible auction market to set prices and select endusers job by job. The auction market motivates truth-telling and makes...... it simple to involve the endusers in advance and to activate demand response immediately. The collective solution is analyzed and economic simulations are conducted for the case of Kenya. Kenya has been su ering from unreliable electricity supply for many years and companies and households have learned...... to adjust by investments in backup generators. We focus on turning the many private backup generators into a demand response system. The economic simulation focuses on possible distortion introduced by various ways of splitting the generated surplus from the demand response system. An auction run instantly...

  11. Rapid learning in visual cortical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Dragoi, Valentin

    2015-08-26

    Although changes in brain activity during learning have been extensively examined at the single neuron level, the coding strategies employed by cell populations remain mysterious. We examined cell populations in macaque area V4 during a rapid form of perceptual learning that emerges within tens of minutes. Multiple single units and LFP responses were recorded as monkeys improved their performance in an image discrimination task. We show that the increase in behavioral performance during learning is predicted by a tight coordination of spike timing with local population activity. More spike-LFP theta synchronization is correlated with higher learning performance, while high-frequency synchronization is unrelated with changes in performance, but these changes were absent once learning had stabilized and stimuli became familiar, or in the absence of learning. These findings reveal a novel mechanism of plasticity in visual cortex by which elevated low-frequency synchronization between individual neurons and local population activity accompanies the improvement in performance during learning.

  12. Rapid bioassay for oil-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, J. [ALS Environmental, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Oosterbroek, L. [HydroQual, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation described a study conducted to develop a rapid bioassay for soils contaminated with oil. The bioassay method was designed for a weight of evidence (WoE) approach and eco-contact guideline derivation protocol. Microtox bioassays were conducted on cyclodextrin extracts of soil quantified by solvent extraction and gas chromatography. The method was demonstrated using straight {beta}-cyclodextrin soil extracts and activated {beta}-cyclodextrin soil extracts. An analysis of the methods showed that the activation step weakens or breaks the cyclodextrin and polycyclic hydrocarbon (PHC) inclusion complex. The released PHC became toxic to the microtox organism. Results from the bioassays were then correlated with earthworm reproduction bioassay results. tabs., figs.

  13. Rapid deployable global sensing hazard alert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordaro, Joseph V; Tibrea, Steven L; Shull, Davis J; Coleman, Jerry T; Shuler, James M

    2015-04-28

    A rapid deployable global sensing hazard alert system and associated methods of operation are provided. An exemplary system includes a central command, a wireless backhaul network, and a remote monitoring unit. The remote monitoring unit can include a positioning system configured to determine a position of the remote monitoring unit based on one or more signals received from one or more satellites located in Low Earth Orbit. The wireless backhaul network can provide bidirectional communication capability independent of cellular telecommunication networks and the Internet. An exemplary method includes instructing at least one of a plurality of remote monitoring units to provide an alert based at least in part on a location of a hazard and a plurality of positions respectively associated with the plurality of remote monitoring units.

  14. Rapid diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Guerra, Luis; Fernández-Blázquez, Ana; Vazquez, Fernando

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are responsible for an enormous burden of morbidity and mortality. Worldwide, millions of cases of STIs, such as syphilis, chlamydia, or gonorrhoea occur every year, and there is now an increase in antimicrobial resistance in pathogens, such as gonococcus. Delay in diagnosis is one of the factors that justifies the difficulty in controlling these infections. Rapid diagnostic tests allow the introduction of aetiological treatment at the first visit, and also leads to treating symptomatic and asymptomatic patients more effectively, as well as to interrupt the epidemiological transmission chain without delay. The World Health Organisation includes these tests in its global strategy against STIs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  15. Methods and compositions for rapid thermal cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Benett, William J.; Frank, James M.; Deotte, Joshua R.; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2018-04-10

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A microfluidic heat exchanger with an internal porous medium is coupled to tanks containing cold fluid and hot fluid. Fluid flows alternately from the cold tank and the hot tank into the porous medium, cooling and heating samples contained in the microfluidic heat exchanger's sample wells. A valve may be coupled to the tanks and a pump, and switching the position of the valve may switch the source and direction of fluid flowing through the porous medium. A controller may control the switching of valve positions based on the temperature of the samples and determined temperature thresholds. A sample tray for containing samples to be thermally cycled may be used in conjunction with the thermal cycling system. A surface or internal electrical heater may aid in heating the samples, or may replace the necessity for the hot tank.

  16. Rapid surface sampling and archival record system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barren, E.; Penney, C.M.; Sheldon, R.B. [GE Corporate Research and Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    A number of contamination sites exist in this country where the area and volume of material to be remediated is very large, approaching or exceeding 10{sup 6} m{sup 2} and 10{sup 6} m{sup 3}. Typically, only a small fraction of this material is actually contaminated. In such cases there is a strong economic motivation to test the material with a sufficient density of measurements to identify which portions are uncontaminated, so extensively they be left in place or be disposed of as uncontaminated waste. Unfortunately, since contamination often varies rapidly from position to position, this procedure can involve upwards of one million measurements per site. The situation is complicated further in many cases by the difficulties of sampling porous surfaces, such as concrete. This report describes a method for sampling concretes in which an immediate distinction can be made between contaminated and uncontaminated surfaces. Sample acquisition and analysis will be automated.

  17. Rapid construction of concrete pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limbert, D.; Weatherseed, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper opens with a general description of the concrete pressure vessel followed by a more detailed examination of the critical elements of the construction, including choice of methods and plant which were selected to ensure its rapid construction. The pressure vessel construction cannot be treated in isolation, because it is very closely linked with its surrounding structures - namely the reactor hall which surrounds it and the charge hall which tops it, as will be seen in the context of this paper. Rate of progress of construction is not entirely in the civil contractor's hands because so many of the operations affecting the civil works are of a mechanical nature, hence a very close liaison and understanding amongst all contractors concerned was of the utmost importance. (author)

  18. Dysfunction of Rapid Neural Adaptation in Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrachione, Tyler K; Del Tufo, Stephanie N; Winter, Rebecca; Murtagh, Jack; Cyr, Abigail; Chang, Patricia; Halverson, Kelly; Ghosh, Satrajit S; Christodoulou, Joanna A; Gabrieli, John D E

    2016-12-21

    Identification of specific neurophysiological dysfunctions resulting in selective reading difficulty (dyslexia) has remained elusive. In addition to impaired reading development, individuals with dyslexia frequently exhibit behavioral deficits in perceptual adaptation. Here, we assessed neurophysiological adaptation to stimulus repetition in adults and children with dyslexia for a wide variety of stimuli, spoken words, written words, visual objects, and faces. For every stimulus type, individuals with dyslexia exhibited significantly diminished neural adaptation compared to controls in stimulus-specific cortical areas. Better reading skills in adults and children with dyslexia were associated with greater repetition-induced neural adaptation. These results highlight a dysfunction of rapid neural adaptation as a core neurophysiological difference in dyslexia that may underlie impaired reading development. Reduced neurophysiological adaptation may relate to prior reports of reduced behavioral adaptation in dyslexia and may reveal a difference in brain functions that ultimately results in a specific reading impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Electrical acupoint stimulation increases athletes' rapid strength].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua-yuan; Liu, Tang-yi; Kuai, Le; Gao, Ming

    2006-05-01

    To search for a stimulation method for increasing athletes' performance. One hundred and fifty athletes were randomly divided into a trial group and a control group, 75 athletes in each group. Acupoints were stimulated with audio frequency pulse modulated wave and multi-blind method were used to investigate effects of the electric stimulation of acupoints on 30-meter running, standing long jumping and Cybex isokinetic testing index. The acupoint electric stimulation method could significantly increase athlete's performance (P < 0.05), and the biomechanical indexes, maximal peak moment of force (P < 0.05), force moment accelerating energy (P < 0.05) and average power (P < 0.05). Electrical acupoint stimulation can enhance athlete's rapid strength.

  20. Rapid resistome mapping using nanopore sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Helm, Eric; Imamovic, Lejla; Hashim Ellabaan, Mostafa M; van Schaik, Willem; Koza, Anna; Sommer, Morten O A

    2017-05-05

    The emergence of antibiotic resistance in human pathogens has become a major threat to modern medicine. The outcome of antibiotic treatment can be affected by the composition of the gut. Accordingly, knowledge of the gut resistome composition could enable more effective and individualized treatment of bacterial infections. Yet, rapid workflows for resistome characterization are lacking. To address this challenge we developed the poreFUME workflow that deploys functional metagenomic selections and nanopore sequencing to resistome mapping. We demonstrate the approach by functionally characterizing the gut resistome of an ICU (intensive care unit) patient. The accuracy of the poreFUME pipeline is with >97% sufficient for the annotation of antibiotic resistance genes. The poreFUME pipeline provides a promising approach for efficient resistome profiling that could inform antibiotic treatment decisions in the future. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. Droplet condensation in rapidly decaying pressure fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, P.F.; Bai, R.Y.; Schrock, V.E.; Hijikata, K.

    1992-01-01

    Certain promising schemes for cooling inertial confinement fusion reactors call for highly transient condensation in a rapidly decaying pressure field. After an initial period of condensation on a subcooled droplet, undesirable evaporation begins to occur. Recirculation within the droplet strongly impacts the character of this condensation-evaporation cycle, particularly when the recirculation time constant is of the order of the pressure decay time constant. Recirculation can augment the heat transfer, delay the onset of evaporation, and increase the maximum superheat inside the drop by as much as an order of magnitude. This numerical investigation identifies the most important parameters and physics characterizing transient, high heat flux droplet condensation. The results can be applied to conceptual designs of inertial confinement fusion reactors, where initial temperature differences on the order of 1,500 K decay to zero over time spans the order of tens of milliseconds

  2. Rapid variability of extragalactic radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirrenbach, A.; Witzel, A.; Krichbaum, T.; Hummel, C.A.; Alberdi, A.; Schalinski, C.

    1989-01-01

    Since its discovery more than 20 years ago, variability of extragalactic radio sources on timescales of weeks to years has been the subject of many investigations. We have examined the variability of these sources on timescales of hours at wavelengths of 6 and 11 cm using the 100-m telescope of the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie and report the results for two sources. The quasar QSO0917 + 62 showed variations with amplitudes of up to 23% in ∼ 24 hours, which were correlated at the two wavelengths; in the BL Lac object 0716 + 71 we found variations with amplitudes of 7-11%. We discuss intrinsic effects, gravitational lensing and scattering in the interstellar medium as possible explanations for rapid radio variability. (author)

  3. Experimental visualization of rapid maneuvering fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigh, S.; Techet, A. H.

    2003-11-01

    A freshwater tropical fish, Danio aequippinatus, is studied undergoing rapid turning and fast starting maneuvers. This agile species of fish is ideal for this study as it is capable of quick turning and darting motions up to 5g's. The fgish studied are 4-5 cm in length. The speed and kinematics of the maneuvering is determined by video analysis. Planar and stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is used to map the vortical patterns in the wake of the maneuvering fish. PIV visualizations reveal that during C-shaped maneuvers a ring shaped jet vortex is formed. Fast starting behavior is also presented. PIV data is used to approixmate the thrust vectoring force produced during each maneuver.

  4. Measurement of very rapidly variable temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elberg, S.; Mathonnet, P.

    1974-01-01

    Bibliographical research and visits to laboratories were undertaken in order to survey the different techniques used to measure rapidly variable temperatures, specifying the limits in maximum temperature and variation rate (time constant). On the basis of the bibliographical study these techniques were classified in three categories according to the physical meaning of their response time. Extension of the bibliographical research to methods using fast temperature variation measurement techniques and visits to research and industrial laboratories gave in an idea of the problems raised by the application of these methods. The use of these techniques in fields other than those for which they were developed can sometimes be awkward in the case of thermometric probe devices where the time constant cannot generally be specified [fr

  5. Motion Analysis Based on Invertible Rapid Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Turan

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study on the use of invertible rapid transform (IRT for the motion estimation in a sequence of images. Motion estimation algorithms based on the analysis of the matrix of states (produced in the IRT calculation are described. The new method was used experimentally to estimate crowd and traffic motion from the image data sequences captured at railway stations and at high ways in large cities. The motion vectors may be used to devise a polar plot (showing velocity magnitude and direction for moving objects where the dominant motion tendency can be seen. The experimental results of comparison of the new motion estimation methods with other well known block matching methods (full search, 2D-log, method based on conventional (cross correlation (CC function or phase correlation (PC function for application of crowd motion estimation are also presented.

  6. Emergence of epidemics in rapidly varying networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohar, Vivek; Sinha, Sudeshna

    2013-01-01

    We describe a simple model mimicking disease spreading on a network with dynamically varying connections, and investigate the dynamical consequences of switching links in the network. Our central observation is that the disease cycles get more synchronized, indicating the onset of epidemics, as the underlying network changes more rapidly. This behavior is found for periodically switched links, as well as links that switch randomly in time. We find that the influence of changing links is more pronounced in networks where the nodes have lower degree, and the disease cycle has a longer infective stage. Further, when the switching of links is periodic we observe finer dynamical features, such as beating patterns in the emergent oscillations and resonant enhancement of synchronization, arising from the interplay between the time-scales of the connectivity changes and that of the epidemic outbreaks

  7. Rapid enzymatic analysis of plasma for tyrosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, H; Taniguchi, K; Sugiyama, M; Kanno, T

    1990-01-01

    In this rapid, simple, and convenient enzymatic method for measurement of tyrosine in plasma, tyrosine is converted to tyramine by action of tyrosine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.25) and the tyramine produced is oxidized to p-hydroxybenzyl aldehyde and hydrogen peroxide by action of tyramine oxidase (EC 1.4.3.9). The hydrogen peroxide is reacted with 4-aminoantipyrine and N-ethyl-N-(2-hydroxy-3-sulfopropyl)-m-toluidine in the presence of peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) to obtain quinoneimine dye, the absorbance of which is measured at 570 nm. Thus tyrosine is measured in the visible range. The CV was 4.6% or less, and the measurement was unaffected by other amino acids, except for phenylalanine. The values obtained (y) correlated well with those obtained with an amino acid analyzer (x): y = 0.902x + 3.92 mumol/L (Syx = 12.3; r = 0.985; n = 54).

  8. Rapid Genetic Analysis in Congenital Hyperinsulinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, Henrik Thybo; Brusgaard, Klaus; Alm, Jan

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In severe, medically unresponsive congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI), the histological differentiation of focal versus diffuse disease is vital, since the surgical management is completely different. Genetic analysis may help in the differential diagnosis, as focal CHI is associated...... with a paternal germline ABCC8 or KCNJ11 mutation and a focal loss of maternal chromosome 11p15, whereas a maternal mutation, or homozygous/compound heterozygous ABCC8 and KCNJ11 mutations predict diffuse-type disease. However, genotyping usually takes too long to be helpful in the absence of a founder mutation....... METHODS: In 4 patients, a rapid genetic analysis of the ABBC8 and KCNJ11 genes was performed within 2 weeks on request prior to the decision of pancreatic surgery. RESULTS: Two patients had no mutations, rendering the genetic analysis non-informative. Peroperative multiple biopsies showed diffuse disease...

  9. Evaluating the use of dedicated swab for rapid antigen detection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluating the use of dedicated swab for rapid antigen detection testing in group a ... African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology ... Several generations of rapid antigen detection tests (RADTs) have been developed to facilitate ...

  10. [Rapid analysis of suppositories by quantitative 1H NMR spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovich, R A; Kovaleva, S A; Goriainov, S V; Vorob'ev, A N; Kalabin, G A

    2012-01-01

    Rapid analysis of suppositories with ibuprofen and arbidol by quantitative 1H NMR spectroscopy was performed. Optimal conditions for the analysis were developed. The results are useful for design of rapid methods for quality control of suppositories with different components

  11. Effect of phenolic compounds on the rapid direct enzymatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-05-15

    May 15, 2009 ... A range of bioprobes and biosensors have recently been developed for the rapid, direct and in situ .... maximum absorbance of 4 mOD (milli optical density). ..... FIKSDAL L and TRYLAND I (2008) Application of rapid enzyme.

  12. Review of freeboard: Grand Rapids Generating Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groeneveld, J.L.; Harding, W.B.; Bonin, D.V.; Fuchs, D.M. [Acres Manitoba Ltd., Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Warner, B.J. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2001-10-01

    Constructed during the period 1960-1965, the Grand Rapids Generating Station is a 472 MW hydroelectric station located approximately 400 kilometres northwest of Winnipeg, Manitoba, on the Saskatchewan River. An intake structure, four penstocks, a four-unit plus house unit powerhouse, wing walls, extensive dyke structures and a four-bay spillway are the components of the generating station. A little over ten years ago, the Manitoba Hydro Dam Safety Program was initiated. The program included a detailed dam safety review of the Grand rapids Generating Station. A potential deficiency in the freeboard allowance for several of the earthen dykes was revealed by the review process. The dam safety guidelines sponsored by the Canadian Dam Association were not met. The occurrence of a 1:1000 year wind event from the critical direction when the reservoir was at or near its full supply level was compounded by the analysis. The establishment of a wind and wave monitoring program was included in the deficiency studies commissioned. The objective was to confirm the empirical estimates concerning wave height, the development and usage of a two dimensional numerical wave model, and additional freeboard analyses to refine estimates of the recurrence interval of the current level of protection. A statistical Monte Carlo analysis was performed in the case of the estimates of the recurrence interval to determine the joint probabilities of seasonal variations in wind direction, wind speed, and reservoir level. The estimate of the actual risk of overtopping was therefore refined, and the details pertaining to the methodology and the conclusions of the analysis are all included in the paper. 15 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  13. Ecological connectivity networks in rapidly expanding cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, Amal Najihah M; Corstanje, Ron; Harris, Jim A; Grafius, Darren R; Siriwardena, Gavin M

    2017-06-01

    Urban expansion increases fragmentation of the landscape. In effect, fragmentation decreases connectivity, causes green space loss and impacts upon the ecology and function of green space. Restoration of the functionality of green space often requires restoring the ecological connectivity of this green space within the city matrix. However, identifying ecological corridors that integrate different structural and functional connectivity of green space remains vague. Assessing connectivity for developing an ecological network by using efficient models is essential to improve these networks under rapid urban expansion. This paper presents a novel methodological approach to assess and model connectivity for the Eurasian tree sparrow ( Passer montanus ) and Yellow-vented bulbul ( Pycnonotus goiavier ) in three cities (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Jakarta, Indonesia and Metro Manila, Philippines). The approach identifies potential priority corridors for ecological connectivity networks. The study combined circuit models, connectivity analysis and least-cost models to identify potential corridors by integrating structure and function of green space patches to provide reliable ecological connectivity network models in the cities. Relevant parameters such as landscape resistance and green space structure (vegetation density, patch size and patch distance) were derived from an expert and literature-based approach based on the preference of bird behaviour. The integrated models allowed the assessment of connectivity for both species using different measures of green space structure revealing the potential corridors and least-cost pathways for both bird species at the patch sites. The implementation of improvements to the identified corridors could increase the connectivity of green space. This study provides examples of how combining models can contribute to the improvement of ecological networks in rapidly expanding cities and demonstrates the usefulness of such models for

  14. Characteristics of centrifugal rapid contactor, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Mitsuo; Hirayama, Hiroshi; Takasu, Nobuyuki; Takeda, Hiroshi; Hoshino, Tadaya

    1979-01-01

    Organic solvent yields the degradation product as a result of irradiation, in the extraction process of spent fuel reprocessing. The development of a centrifugal rapid contactor is required for the reduction of the solvent degradation by shortening the contact time. The effects of fine solid particles were investigated with a SGN-Robatel LX-208N contactor, following the uranium extraction and re-extraction performance tests. It was found as the experimental result that the considerable quantity of solids accumulated in the rotor of the centrifugal contactor. As for this experimental apparatus, the flow diagram for the centrifugal rapid contactor and auxiliary apparatuses is shown, which are the same system used for the uranium extraction and re-extraction tests. The schematic diagram, the typical stage construction and fluid transfer path of the LX-208 contactor are illustrated. The main specifications of the LX-208 contactor are as follows: the internal diameter of a rotating bowl 200 mm, the material SUS 316, the number of stages 8, and the total hold-up volume of the contactor 1.8 l. Most tests were carried out with aqueous feed only, because white Alundum is easily deposited in the rotor, and the particle concentration in effluent stream becomes undetectable when organic and aqueous feeds are supplied simultaneously. As the experimental results, the correlation of Alundum concentration in effluent and running time, the effect of rotor speed on effluent stream concentration, the particle size distribution curves for No. 6000 and No. 8000 white Alundum, the effect of flow rate on effluent stream concentration and the effect of flow rate on particle size distribution for both No. 6000 and No. 8000 white Alundum are presented. (Nakai, Y.)

  15. Rapid colorimetric assay for gentamicin injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbutton, P

    1987-01-01

    A rapid colorimetric method for determining gentamicin concentration in commercial preparations of gentamicin sulfate injection was developed. Methods currently available for measuring gentamicin concentration via its colored complex with cupric ions in alkaline solution were modified to reduce the time required for a single analysis. The alkaline copper tartrate (ACT) reagent solution was prepared such that each milliliter contained 100 mumol cupric sulfate, 210 mumol potassium sodium tartrate, and 1.25 mmol sodium hydroxide. The assay involves mixing 0.3 mL gentamicin sulfate injection 40 mg/mL (of gentamicin), 1.0 mL ACT reagent, and 0.7 mL water; the absorbance of the resulting solution at 560 nm was used to calculate the gentamicin concentration in the sample. For injections containing 10 mg/mL of gentamicin, the amount of the injection was increased to 0.5 mL and water decreased to 0.5 mL. The concentration of gentamicin in samples representing 11 lots of gentamicin sulfate injection 40 mg/mL and 8 lots of gentamicin sulfate injection 10 mg/mL was determined. The specificity, reproducibility, and accuracy of the assay were assessed. The colored complex was stable for at least two hours. Gentamicin concentration ranged from 93.7 to 108% and from 95 to 109% of the stated label value of the 40 mg/mL and the 10 mg/mL injections, respectively. No components of the preservative system present in the injections interfered with the assay. Since other aminoglycosides produced a colored complex, the assay is not specific for gentamicin. The assay was accurate and reproducible over the range of 4-20 mg of gentamicin. This rapid and accurate assay can be easily applied in the hospital pharmacy setting.

  16. Ecological connectivity networks in rapidly expanding cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Najihah M. Nor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban expansion increases fragmentation of the landscape. In effect, fragmentation decreases connectivity, causes green space loss and impacts upon the ecology and function of green space. Restoration of the functionality of green space often requires restoring the ecological connectivity of this green space within the city matrix. However, identifying ecological corridors that integrate different structural and functional connectivity of green space remains vague. Assessing connectivity for developing an ecological network by using efficient models is essential to improve these networks under rapid urban expansion. This paper presents a novel methodological approach to assess and model connectivity for the Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus and Yellow-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus goiavier in three cities (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Jakarta, Indonesia and Metro Manila, Philippines. The approach identifies potential priority corridors for ecological connectivity networks. The study combined circuit models, connectivity analysis and least-cost models to identify potential corridors by integrating structure and function of green space patches to provide reliable ecological connectivity network models in the cities. Relevant parameters such as landscape resistance and green space structure (vegetation density, patch size and patch distance were derived from an expert and literature-based approach based on the preference of bird behaviour. The integrated models allowed the assessment of connectivity for both species using different measures of green space structure revealing the potential corridors and least-cost pathways for both bird species at the patch sites. The implementation of improvements to the identified corridors could increase the connectivity of green space. This study provides examples of how combining models can contribute to the improvement of ecological networks in rapidly expanding cities and demonstrates the usefulness of such

  17. Transitions in rapidly rotating convection dynamos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilgner, A.

    2013-12-01

    It is commonly assumed that buoyancy in the fluid core powers the geodynamo. We study here the minimal model of a convection driven dynamo, which is a horizontal plane layer in a gravity field, filled with electrically conducting fluid, heated from below and cooled from above, and rotating about a vertical axis. Such a plane layer may be viewed as a local approximation to the geophysically more relevant spherical geometry. The numerical simulations have been run on graphics processing units with at least 960 cores. If the convection is driven stronger and stronger at fixed rotation rate, the flow behaves at some point as if it was not rotating. This transition shows in the scaling of the heat transport which can be used to distinguish slow from rapid rotation. One expects dynamos to behave differently in these two flow regimes. But even within the convection flows which are rapidly rotating according to this criterion, it will be shown that different types of dynamos exist. In one state, the magnetic field strength obeys a scaling indicative of a magnetostrophic balance, in which the Lorentz force is in equilibrium with the Coriolis force. The flow in this case is helical. A different state exists at higher magnetic Reynolds numbers, in which the magnetic energy obeys a different scaling law and the helicity of the flow is much reduced. As one increases the Rayleigh number, all other parameters kept constant, one may find both types of dynamos separated by an interval of Rayleigh numbers in which there are no dynamos at all. The effect of these transitions on energy dissipation and mean field generation have also been studied.

  18. Rapidity distributions of secondary particles in hadron-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaverdyan, G.B.; Pak, A.S.; Tarasov, A.V.; Tseren, Ch.; Uzhinsky, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    In the framework of the cascade model of a leading particle the rapidity distributions of secondary particles in the hadron-nucleus interactions are considered. The energy loss fluctuations of leading particles in the successive collisions have been taken into account. It is shown that the centre of rapidity distribution is displaced towards small rapidity with target nucleus atomic number A growth. The model well reproduces the energy and A dependences of the rapidity distributions

  19. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A.; Knauz, Robert O.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the application of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to the treatment of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Between 10% and 24% of bipolar patients experience a rapid cycling course, with 4 or more mood episodes occurring per year. Characterized by nonresponse to standard mood-stabilizing medications, rapid cyclers are…

  20. Lingual Kinematics during Rapid Syllable Repetition in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Min Ney; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Whelan, Brooke-Mai

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rapid syllable repetition tasks are commonly used in the assessment of motor speech disorders. However, little is known about the articulatory kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Aims: To investigate and compare lingual kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in dysarthric…