WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapidly eroding miocene

  1. Landslides as weathering reactors; links between physical erosion and weathering in rapidly eroding mountain belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberson, R.; Hovius, N.; Galy, A.

    2014-12-01

    The link between physical erosion and chemical weathering is generally modelled with a surface-blanketing weathering zone, where the supply of fresh minerals is tied to the average rate of denudation. In very fast eroding environments, however, sediment production is dominated by landsliding, which acts in a stochastic fashion across the landscape, contrasting strongly with more uniform denudation models. If physical erosion is a driver of weathering at the highest erosion rates, then an alternative weathering model is required. Here we show that landslides can be effective 'weathering reactors'. Previous work modelling the effect of landslides on chemical weathering (Gabet 2007) considered the fresh bedrock surfaces exposed in landslide scars. However, fracturing during the landslide motion generates fresh surfaces, the total surface area of which exceeds that of the exposed scar by many orders of magnitude. Moreover, landslides introduce concavity into hillslopes, which acts to catch precipitation. This is funnelled into a deposit of highly fragmented rock mass with large reactive surface area and limited hydraulic conductivity (Lo et al. 2007). This allows percolating water reaction time for chemical weathering; any admixture of macerated organic debris could yield organic acid to further accelerate weathering. In the South island of New Zealand, seepage from recent landslide deposits has systematically high solute concentrations, far outstripping concentration in runoff from locations where soils are present. River total dissolved load in the western Southern Alps is highly correlated with the rate of recent (<35yrs) landsliding, suggesting that landslides are the dominant locus of weathering in this rapidly eroding landscape. A tight link between landsliding and weathering implies that localized weathering migrates through the landscape with physical erosion; this contrasts with persistent and ubiquitous weathering associated with soil production. Solute

  2. Rapid middle Miocene extension and unroofing of the southern Ruby Mountains, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Joseph P.; Howard, Keith A.; Fleck, Robert J.; Wooden, Joseph L.

    2010-01-01

    Paleozoic rocks in the northern Ruby Mountains were metamorphosed during Mesozoic crustal shortening and Cenozoic magmatism, but equivalent strata in the southern Ruby Mountains were never buried deeper than stratigraphic depths prior to exhumation in the footwall of a west dipping brittle normal fault. In the southern Ruby Mountains, Miocene sedimentary rocks in the hanging wall of this fault date from 15.2 to 11.6 Ma and contain abundant detritus from the Paleozoic section. Apatite fission track and (U-Th)/He samples of the Eocene Harrison Pass pluton record rapid cooling that peaked ca. 17–15 Ma, while apatite fission track data from Jurassic plutons east and west of the southern Ruby Mountains indicate near-surface temperatures (period of rapid extension (ca. 17–15 to 12–10 Ma) documented widely across the northern Basin and Range Province.

  3. Puerto Rico Soil Erodibility (Kffact)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Puerto Rico soil erodibility (Kffactor) - low values indicate low vulnerability to erosion, higher values mean higher susceptibility to runoff.

  4. A New Approach for Estimating Background Rates of Erosion Using Concentration of Meteoric 10-Be Adhered to River Sediment: Application to the Rapidly Eroding Waipaoa Basin, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusser, L. J.; Bierman, P. R.; Pavich, M.; Finkel, R.

    2007-12-01

    New and existing data suggest that the concentration of atmospherically- produced, meteoric 10-Be adhered to river sediment provides a proxy for basin-scale erosion rates. Although the widely applied method of analyzing in situ produced 10-Be in river sediments has proven useful for estimating pre-anthropogenic rates of erosion in a variety of environments, there are lithologic limitation. In contrast, measuring the concentration of meteoric 10-Be adhered to river sediment allows erosion rate analysis in landscapes underlain by quartz-deficient or fine-grained lithologies, as well as in basins where the concentration of quartz varies spatially. By assuming that basins are in an overall isotopic steady-state, that erosion is rapid enough that decay is negligible, and that the integrated delivery rate of 10-Be from the atmosphere (D10-Be) can be estimated, basin-scale mass loss rates (Ms) can be solved by equating the 10-Be flux in from the atmosphere with the flux of 10-Be out of the basin on sediment (C10-Be) and expressed as sediment yield per unit area (Ys). Fin = Fout D10-Be * A = Ms * C10-Be Ms = (D10-Be * A)/ C10-Be Ys = D10-Be / C10-Be To validate this new approach, we examined the limited data that do exist and found reasonable correspondence between erosion rates estimated from meteoric 10-Be concentrations and estimated by other means. As a first application, we use meteoric 10-Be in river sediment to estimate basin-scale erosion rates from catchments within and near the mud-stone dominated Waipaoa River Basin draining the tectonically active east coast of New Zealand's North Island. Near total conversion of indigenous forest to pasture over the past century in the Waipaoa Basin has resulted in some of the most dramatic and widespread erosional features on the planet, and contemporary sediment yields that rank among the highest in the world (~7 million kg/(km2 * yr)). The amount of meteoric 10-Be adhered to eight river sediment samples suggests that modern

  5. Societal Forces That ERODE Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert; Kaufman, James C.

    2018-01-01

    Background/Context: Creativity is an indispensable force in intellectual, social, cultural, and economic development. Yet societal forces conspire to erode it. Educators have despaired for many years over how schools often fail to encourage creativity, but society as a whole is just as guilty. But how do schools and society fail to encourage, or…

  6. Rapid cooling and exhumation as a consequence of extension and crustal thinning: Inferences from the Late Miocene to Pliocene Palu Metamorphic Complex, Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Juliane; Hall, Robert; Forster, Margaret A.; Kohn, Barry P.; Lister, Gordon S.

    2017-08-01

    Metamorphic complexes forming high mountains of 1.5-2 km in Western Sulawesi were previously considered to be Mesozoic or older basement of Gondwana crust. However, many of the metamorphic rocks are much younger than previously thought. Some have Eocene sedimentary protoliths. New geothermobarometric and geochronological data from metamorphic rocks of the Palu Metamorphic Complex (PMC) and associated granitoids provide information on the timing and mechanisms of Neogene metamorphism and contemporaneous rapid exhumation. The metamorphic rocks are strongly deformed and some were partially melted to form migmatites. Schists contain relict andalusite, cordierite, staurolite and Mn-rich garnet which are wrapped by a pervasive fabric. 40Ar/39Ar dating of biotite, white mica and amphibole from strongly deformed, mylonitic schists and recrystallised amphibolites reveals cooling occurred in the Early Pliocene (c. 5.3-4.8 Ma) in the northern part and during the Late Pliocene (c. 3.1-2.7 Ma) in the southern part of the PMC. U-Pb, 40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th)/He analyses of various minerals from PMC metamorphic and S-type magmatic rocks give very similar mid to Late Pliocene ages, indicating very fast cooling and rapid exhumation, and show the high speed at which tectonic processes, including magmatism, exhumation, and reworking into a sediment, must have occurred. The high rates could be unique to this area but we suggest they record the true speed of metamorphic complex exhumation in a very young orogenic belt. Rates in older orogens appear lower because they are averages measured over longer periods of time. Contemporaneous magmatism and deformation are interpreted as a consequence of decompressional melting due to extension and thinning of the crust, promoted by possible detachment faults and normal faulting at the major NW-trending Palu-Koro and Tambarana Faults. In contrast, I-type magmatic rocks, separated from the PMC by the Palu-Koro Fault, were exhumed from upper crustal

  7. Review of Miocene larger foraminifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, E.C.

    1988-01-01

    Miocene larger foraminifera were generally restricted to shallow (<100m), warm, clear, normal marine environments and were primarily dependent on brief drifting of juveniles and rafting on vegetation for dispersal. These factors are reflected in both regional and local occurrences. Regional occurrences of Miocene larger foraminifera vary with bio-province and time. Three main foraminiferal provinces (Central American, Mediterranean, and Indo-West Pacific) developed through a combination of tectonics, eustasy, climate, and faunal evolution and migration. Important effects of Miocene tectonics included widening of the Atlantic, early Miocene occlusion of the western neo-Tethys, and northern movement of the Australian plate into the tropics. Changes in climate primarily expanded or constricted latitudinal provincial boundaries. Eustatic sea level variations caused by the destruction of the late Miocene Mediterranean fauna. Globally, Miocene faunas underwent a progressive loss of taxa. This is particularly noticeable in post-early Miocene faunas of the Mediterranean and Central American provinces. Although post-early Miocene taxa evolved in all three areas, faunal migration was prevented by environmental barriers. For a given time and province, the occurrence of larger foraminifera in well-preserved Miocene reef facies is related to paleoenvironmental factors of water depth, turbidity, water energy, and substrate and to post-mortem processes of transport and selective test destruction. Environmentally related changes in test morphology, together with the relative abundances of planktonic species and small benthic taxa, allow an estimation of the magnitude of the various environmental factors, even without detailed foraminiferal taxonomy.

  8. Dispersive and erodible soils - fundamental differences

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Dispersive, erodible and slaking soils are prevalent over wide areas of South Africa. Each of these materials increases the cost of construction, but dispersive soils are likely to lead to far more serious problems, particularly in dam construction...

  9. The Changing Mood in America. Eroding Commitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Faustine Childress; And Others

    This book examines the current social climate in the United States to determine whether there is an eroding social commitment to equal opportunity for blacks and other minorities and the poor. It is concluded that there is a changing mood in the dominant society, in the black population, and in all three branches of the federal government, and it…

  10. Erodibility and loss of marly drived soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Sokouti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering to high distribution of the marly lands in west Azerbaijan province and high sediment yield of such lands, in this research, the relation among the form and the rate of erosion on marls with their erodibility properties were studied. Therefore, marly regions of province with the special properties were recognized and the soils samples were taken from 15 points of the topsoil of this area. Soil erodibility indices were determined and analyzed by statistical methods considering the form and rate of erosion. Also portable rain simulator were used to study of the runoff and sediment yield potential of such soils. Finally the factors affected the soil erodibility were determined by variance analysis. Results showed erosion rate could be classified as moderate. Gully erosion had highest number in Gare-Agaj and Gare-tappe areas whereas rill erosion had high number in all area of marly lands. Surface runoff volume ranged between 255 to 577 cm3 in Shabanlu region and surface runoff coefficient varied from 0.23 to 0.53 in Gare-tappe. Maximum turbidity yield was determined 180 gr/lit in Gare-Agaj area. It was found that the clay ratio played the important role (P≤0.05 in creating the gully erosion and the volume of runoff in the surface and rill erosion.

  11. Quality Uncertainty Erodes Trust in Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simine Vazire

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available When consumers of science (readers and reviewers lack relevant details about the study design, data, and analyses, they cannot adequately evaluate the strength of a scientific study. Lack of transparency is common in science, and is encouraged by journals that place more emphasis on the aesthetic appeal of a manuscript than the robustness of its scientific claims. In doing this, journals are implicitly encouraging authors to do whatever it takes to obtain eye-catching results. To achieve this, researchers can use common research practices that beautify results at the expense of the robustness of those results (e.g., p-hacking. The problem is not engaging in these practices, but failing to disclose them. A car whose carburetor is duct-taped to the rest of the car might work perfectly fine, but the buyer has a right to know about the duct-taping. Without high levels of transparency in scientific publications, consumers of scientific manuscripts are in a similar position as buyers of used cars – they cannot reliably tell the difference between lemons and high quality findings. This phenomenon – quality uncertainty – has been shown to erode trust in economic markets, such as the used car market. The same problem threatens to erode trust in science. The solution is to increase transparency and give consumers of scientific research the information they need to accurately evaluate research. Transparency would also encourage researchers to be more careful in how they conduct their studies and write up their results. To make this happen, we must tie journals’ reputations to their practices regarding transparency. Reviewers hold a great deal of power to make this happen, by demanding the transparency needed to rigorously evaluate scientific manuscripts. The public expects transparency from science, and appropriately so – we should be held to a higher standard than used car salespeople.

  12. Lower Miocene echinoderms of Jamaica, West Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donovan, S.K.; Portell, R.W.; Veltkamp, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Despite being diverse globally, Miocene echinoids are poorly known from Jamaica. Moderately diverse echinoids and other echinoderms have been identified mainly from fragmentary specimens collected from chalks and mass-flow deposits of the Lower Miocene Montpelier Formation, White Limestone Group,

  13. Miocene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , viz., P. lan- caefolium Roxb., a medium-sized tree of eastern ..... Madagascar and Southeast Asia and seems to be of East Gondwanan origin. However, fossils have also been reported from the Eocene sedi- ments of North America ...

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF SOME SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES ON THEIR ERODABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. C. Stanga

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Soils from de hills and tableland regions, as well as those from subcarpathian area are characterized through higher erodability. The soils from mountain area present the lowest erodability, especially districambosol, due to the upper horizons properties. The erodabilidydepends on the ratio of historical geological erosion and surface erosion.

  15. Endoscopic management of eroded prosthesis in vertical banded gastroplasty patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmali, Shahzeer; Snyder, Brad; Wilson, Erik B; Timberlake, Matthew D; Sherman, Vadim

    2010-01-01

    One of the major complications of applying a prosthetic device to facilitate gastric partitioning has been intraluminal erosion of the prosthesis. Removing an eroded gastric band is fraught with difficulty secondary to the extensive inflammatory response around the proximal stomach and left lobe of the liver. As a result, bariatric clinicians have attempted to apply endoscopic technology to facilitate removal of eroded gastric prostheses. Our study reports on our experience of applying endoscopic scissor transection to remove eroded gastric prostheses in a large tertiary-care medical center. A retrospective chart review was conducted to identify all adult (>18 years old) patients managed endoscopically for removal of eroded prosthesis post bariatric surgery at the Baylor College of Medicine Comprehensive Bariatric Surgery Center and the University of Texas-Houston Bariatric Surgery Program. Nine patients, mean body mass index (BMI) 39.5 +/- 7.3 kg/m(2), were managed endoscopically to remove eroded gastric prosthesis post vertical banded gastroplasty. All patients (9/9) reported symptoms consistent with a proximal gastric outlet obstruction (dysphagia, nausea, vomiting). Inadequate weight loss was reported by 67% (6/9) of patients. The mean time for endoscopic band removal was 28.0 +/- 8.8 min. All eroded bands were evident at the end of the gastric pouch and were visualized with either a normal or retroflexed endoscopic view. All nine patients were discharged the same day of their procedure. Mean follow-up of the patients was 9.7 weeks (1-30 weeks). Three patients underwent revisional bariatric surgery following the band removal. Our study demonstrates that endoscopic scissor transaction is a safe and effective modality in removing eroded gastric prostheses after vertical banded gastroplasty and avoids the pitfalls associated with removing the eroded bands surgically. It also allows the patient and surgeon to make an insightful decision regarding a revisional

  16. First middle Miocene sivaladapid primate from Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaimanee, Y.; Yamee, C.; Tian, P.; Chavasseau, O.; Jaeger, J.J. [Bureau for Paleontology & Museum, Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. for Mineral Resources

    2008-03-15

    Sivaladapids are a group of Asian adapiform primates that were previously documented from deposits dating to the middle Eocene through the late Miocene in Pakistan, India, Myanmar, Thailand, and China. The group is notable for the persistence of three genera, Sivaladapis, Indraloris and Sinoadapis, into the late Miocene. In Thailand, sivaladapids were previously documented only from late Eocene deposits of the Krabi mine. Here, we describe the first Southeast Asian Miocene sivaladapid, Siamoadapis maemohensis gen. et sp. nov. from a 13.3 to 13.1 Ma lignite layer from the Mae Moh coal mine, Thailand. It differs from other Miocene sivaladapids by its distinctly smaller size and in features of the dentition. This discovery enhances the paleoecological diversity of the middle Miocene primate fauna of Thailand, which now includes sivaladapids, a loris, tarsiids, and hominoids. In this respect, the fossil primate community from the middle Miocene of Thailand is similar in its composition to roughly contemporaneous assemblages from southern China, India, and Pakistan. However, the Thai fossils represent a distinct genus, suggesting a different biogeographic province with distinctive paleoenvironments.

  17. The Middle Miocene Climate Transition in the Central Mediterranean. Geologica Ultraiectina (326)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourik, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    The Middle Miocene Climate Transition (~15-13.7 Ma) is one of the major steps in Cenozoic climate evolution. The rapid expansion of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet at ~13.9 – 13.7 Ma caused important climate changes on a global scale. The aim of this PhD research has been to study the effects of the

  18. U.S.V.I. Soil Erodibility (Kffact)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — U.S.V.I. soil erodibility (Kffactor) - low values indicate low vulnerability to erosion, higher values mean higher susceptibility to runoff.

  19. Structural studies on Miocene kerogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almendros, G.; Gonzalez-Vila, F.J.; Martin, F.; Alvarez-Ramis, C.

    1988-04-01

    The different characteristics of organic matter in Miocene sediment from Portazgo (Madrid, Spain) were studied by several physicochemical techniques. Then g.c.-m.s. was applied to bitumen and to oxidation degradation products of the insoluble organic residue. Both the palaeobotanic study and the composition of the bitumen fraction suggest an important contribution of vascular plants in the sediment; a predominance of odd-numbered alkanes, of straight-chain aliphatic compounds, and of high molecular weight homologues of the series were observed. The degradation methods employed yielded large proportions of aliphatic chains, but aromatic compounds amounted to approx. 25 wt% of the degradation products, suggesting a significant contribution of lignin. In addition to the degradation with potassium persulphate followed by alkaline permanganate oxidation, by depolymerization perborate was also applied. The latter degradation method yielded aromatic acids and polymethylene compounds, and residual kerogen was transformed into an alkali-soluble polymer, which can be studied by the usual techniques for humic acids. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Miocene to recent extension in NW Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advokaat, Eldert L.; Hall, Robert; White, Lloyd T.; Watkinson, Ian M.; Rudyawan, Alfend; BouDagher-Fadel, Marcelle K.

    2017-10-01

    The Malino Metamorphic Complex (MMC) in the western part of the North Arm of Sulawesi (Indonesia) has previously been suggested to be a metamorphic complex exhumed in the Early - Middle Miocene. This idea was based on limited K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar age data, but no structural data were presented to provide evidence for the mechanism of exhumation. Here we present new field observations, micro-structural analyses and a revised stratigraphy of NW Sulawesi based on new age data, to provide better constraints on the timing and mechanism of exhumation. The data presented here suggest that the MMC is a metamorphic core complex which underwent lithospheric extension during the Early - Middle Miocene. Although the MMC experienced significant extension, there is no evidence that it was exhumed during this time. There is no contact between the MMC and the Pliocene Ongka Volcanics, contradicting a previously inferred unconformable contact. Pliocene undeformed granitoids intruding the MMC indicate the complex was still at depth during their emplacement. Furthermore, Pliocene and Pleistocene cover sequences do not contain metamorphic detritus. A second phase of extensional uplift was accommodated by brittle faulting from the Late Miocene-Pliocene onwards, during which the MMC was exhumed. This extension is widespread, as indicated by synchronous exhumation of the adjacent Palu Metamorphic Complex in West Sulawesi, and rapid subsidence offshore in Gorontalo Bay. It is linked to northward slab rollback of the southward-subducting Celebes Sea since the Pliocene. GPS data show rapid northward motion of the North Arm of Sulawesi with respect to the Celebes Sea, indicating that this process is ongoing at present day.

  1. Relation of peralkaline magmatism to heterogeneous extension during the Middle Miocene, southeastern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    Volcanism migrated southward in the northern Basin and Range province in the Oligocene and early Miocene to produce voluminous calcalkaline silicic ash flow tuffs. Alkaline volcanism became dominant by middle Miocene (17-14 Ma) as smaller volumes of rhyolite-trachyte-basalt suites were erupted from the relatively small Kane Springs Wash caldera complex in southeastern Nevada. Only minor extension affected the Kane Wash area before the end of calcalkaline activity, but extension expressed by rate of progressive stratal tilt peaked (15-13.5 Ma) with peralkaline magmatism (14.7-14.4 Ma). Variations in distribution, degree, style, and timing of deformation demonstrate heterogeneous extension in the Kane Wash area. Only minor extension and tilting persisted post-middle Miocene (<12 Ma). All major eruptive sources overlap domains of rapid extension. -from Authors

  2. Shear bond strength of two adhesive materials to eroded enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Tathiane; Hesse, Daniela; Guglielmi, Camila; Anacleto, Ketlin; Raggio, Daniela Procida

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the bond strength of one etch-and-rinse adhesive system and one resin-modified glass ionomer cement to sound and eroded enamel. Forty-eight bovine incisors were embedded in acrylic resin and ground to obtain flat buccal enamel surfaces. Half of the specimens were submitted to erosion challenge with pH-cycling model (3x/cola drink for 7 days) to induce eroded enamel. After that, all specimens were randomly assigned according to adhesive material: etch-andrinse adhesive system (Adper Single Bond 2 - 3M ESPE, USA) or resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitro Fil LC - DFL, Brazil). The shear bond testing was performed after 24 hours water storage (0.5 mm/min). Shear bond strength means were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests (p Bond 2 showed the highest bond strength value to eroded enamel (p 0.05). Bond strength of etch-and-rinse adhesive system increases in eroded enamel, while no difference is verified to resin-modified glass ionomer cement. Adhesive materials may be used in eroded enamel without jeopardizing the bonding quality; however it is preferable to use etch-and-rinse adhesive system.

  3. Miocene Current-Modified Submarine Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce Perez, L. E.; Snedden, J.; Fisher, W. L.

    2016-12-01

    In the southwestern Gulf of Mexico, new and newly reprocessed seismic data has revealed a series of large bedforms, with set thicknesses of 130 to 250 meters. These exhibit hummocky, oblique and shingled to parallel seismic clinoform reflections. This seismic package has a paleowater depth of 450 meters. Those shingled seismic reflections in offshore east Mexico are interpreted as contourite drift deposits. These Miocene-age contourites may be related to strong ocean bottom currents that modified submarine fans and transported sediment to the north. Those contourites were identified on older seismic data, but are better imaged and interpreted on this new data. Plans are to map out and investigate the origin and extent of fans and contourites that extends over a large area of the Gulf of Mexico. In the Early Miocene several submarine fans systems were formed by the sediment input related to orogenic activity in Mexico. Submarine fan development persisted into the Middle Miocene due to continued uplift and erosion of the Mexican landmass. Initial, contourites are small and close proximity to the deep-water fan. In the Late Miocene time, contourite drift field reached its maximum extent in the Mexican deepwater area, anchored on its southern end by a submarine mound. This mounded submarine fan is located in the offshore northeast Veracruz and can be linked to increased uplift and erosion of the Trans-Mexican volcanic belt. In the Miocene-Pliocene, the large contourite drift begins to diminish in size and scale and is moribund by the Pliocene, with establishment of oceanic circulation similar to the present day. This research is important to understand more about the Gulf of Mexico and also for the Miocene timeframe that is a key phase in the earth's history. The role of the change in bottom water flow during progressive closure of the equatorial seaway separating North and South America will also be investigated.

  4. Late Miocene magnetostratigraphy in the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langereis, C.G.

    1984-01-01

    Reversals of the geomagnetic field In the geological past are recorded globally in the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) of igneous and sedimentary rock sequences. The accurate and rei iable reconstruction of this record is the basis of magnetostratigraphy. The magnetostratigraphy of Late Miocene

  5. sessment of ground water contamination in Erode District, Tamilnadu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... SO4, Na, CO3 and HCO3. The present investigation shows a constant variation in different parameters in different locations. So it is highly important to take periodical monitoring of the ground water quality in this region for future sustainability. Key words: Erode district, Tamilnadu, contamination assessment, tanneries and ...

  6. Assessment of ground water contamination in Erode District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    A systematic study has been carried out to assess the water contamination and the effect of the tanneries and dyeing industries effluents on Erode District, Tamil Nadu. Ten (10) sampling locations were selected in and around industries. The water samples were collected from the selected sampling points. The samples ...

  7. 76 FR 82075 - Highly Erodible Land and Wetland Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    .... These changes to the regulations are made to implement provisions specified in the Food, Conservation... Conservation.'' The regulations have been in place since the implementation of the requirements in the Food... Secretary 7 CFR Part 12 RIN 0560-AH97 Highly Erodible Land and Wetland Conservation AGENCY: Office of the...

  8. Bonding stability of adhesive systems to eroded dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Barros CRUZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study evaluated the immediate and 6 months microshear bond strength (µSBS of different adhesive systems to sound and eroded dentin. Sixty bovine incisors were embedded in acrylic resin and ground to obtain flat buccal dentin surfaces. Specimens were randomly allocated into two groups: sound dentin (immersion in artificial saliva and eroded dentin (erosive challenge following a pH cycling model comprising 4 ×/day Sprite Light® drink for 10 days. Then, specimens were reassigned according to the adhesive system: etch-and-rinse adhesive (Adper Single Bond, two-step self-etch system (Clearfil SE Bond, or one-step self-etch adhesive (Adper Easy One. Polyethylene tubes with an internal diameter of 0.76 mm were placed over pre-treated dentin and filled with resin composite (Z250. Half of the specimens were evaluated by the µSBS test after 24 h, and the other half 6 months later, after water storage at 37°C. Failure mode was evaluated using a stereomicroscope (400×. Data were analyzed by three-way repeated measures analysis of variance and Tukey’s post hoc tests (α = 0.05. After 6 months of water aging, marked reductions in µSBS values were observed, irrespective of the substrate. The µSBS values for eroded dentin were lower than those obtained for sound dentin. No difference in bonding effectiveness was observed among adhesive systems. For all groups, adhesive/mixed failure was observed. In conclusion, eroded dentin compromises the bonding quality of adhesive systems over time.

  9. National Highway Alignment from Namakkal to Erode Using GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subramani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The vision of the Highway Alignment is to increase the capacity, connectivity, efficiency and safety of the Highways System so as to enable balanced socioeconomic development of all sections of the people and all regions from NAMAKKAL to ERODE via and to reduce the traffic and travelling of the state. It is to establish shortest path for road network time in the roads which provide a better and comfortable base for updating the traffic and other related information in road administration. It is to identify the short route for the vehicles traveling from NAMAKKAL to ERODE and to reduce the time travel for the vehicles with possible paths or routes or places for laying eco-friendly highway. To optimize the route for the vehicles traveling from NAMAKKAL to ERODE using GIS with Network analysis tools. From this we can find the suitable route for peoples to carry out without any traffic disturbances and protecting the environment. It also took advantages of GIS capabilities that offer the ability to overlay maps, merge them, and perform spatial analysis on various layers of information in either two or three dimensions:

  10. Erodibility of soil above the groundwater level: some test results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shidlovskaya Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study on erodibility of soil above the groundwater level where the water is in tension. Such soils particularly clays are very sensitive to moisture and temperature changes and can be eroded significantly by water flow. The erosion of clay and sand samples from the US National Geotechnical Experimentation Site at Texas A&M University is studied. Two sets of experiments are done with the clay and the sand. The first set was performed on sample collected in November 2014 and the second set on samples from June 2014. The depth of the samples varied from 0.6 to 3.6 m where water content and density changes. A series of erosion tests was performed in the Erosion Function apparatus (EFA with the intact clay and then with the sand reconstructed to the field density and field water content. The erosion tests are performed at different flow velocities varying from 0.5 m/s to 5.5 m/s. The erodibility is quantified by the relationship between the erosion rate and the water velocity called the erosion function. Some relationships between the critical velocity and common soil properties are discussed. The collapse of the clay structure when inundated (soaking is studied.

  11. Biorock Electric Reefs Grow Back Severely Eroded Beaches in Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. F. Goreau

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Severely eroded beaches on low lying islands in Indonesia were grown back in a few months—believed to be a record—using an innovative method of shore protection, Biorock electric reef technology. Biorock shore protection reefs are growing limestone structures that get stronger with age and repair themselves, are cheaper than concrete or rock sea walls and breakwaters, and are much more effective at shore protection and beach growth. Biorock reefs are permeable, porous, growing, self-repairing structures of any size or shape, which dissipate wave energy by internal refraction, diffraction, and frictional dissipation. They do not cause reflection of waves like hard sea walls and breakwaters, which erodes the sand in front of, and then underneath, such structures, until they collapse. Biorock reefs stimulate settlement, growth, survival, and resistance to the environmental stress of all forms of marine life, restoring coral reefs, sea grasses, biological sand production, and fisheries habitat. Biorock reefs can grow back eroded beaches and islands faster than the rate of sea level rise, and are the most cost-effective method of shore protection and adaptation to global sea level rise for low lying islands and coasts.

  12. Global Miocene tectonics and the modern world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Paul Edwin; Szatmari, Peter

    2009-11-01

    An amazing congruence of seemingly unrelated, diverse global events began in the Middle and Upper Miocene and established our modern world. Two global orogenic belts were active, mostly in the Middle and Upper Miocene, while backarc basins formed along the eastern margin of Asia. Coincident with these events global temperatures cooled in both the ocean and atmosphere, desertification occurred from Central Asia into and across most of northern Africa and also in Australia, and in southern South America. Coincident with the expansion of the Antarctic ice cap at 14 Ma, there was initial widespread deep sea erosion and changes in patterns of deep sea sedimentation. Muddy pelagic sedimentation increased six-fold in the North and Central Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and global changes in circulation lead to more diatomites in the Pacific and fewer in the Atlantic. By the end of the Miocene most of the Mediterranean Sea had evaporated. Broadly coincident with these events, many old, large river systems were destroyed and new ones formed as much of the world's landscape changed. Collectively, these global on-shore tectonic and ocean-atmospheric events provide the foundation for our modern world—a mixture of new and rejuvenated orogenic belts and their far-field effects (distant epiorogenic uplift, rain-shadow deserts, large alluvial aprons, and distant deltas) as inherited Gondwanan landscapes persisted remote from plate boundaries. Thus at the end of the Miocene much of the world's landscape, except for that changed by Pleistocene continental glaciation, would be recognizable to us today. We argue that all of these events had the same ultimate common cause-an internal Earth engine-that drove plate motions in two broad ways: first, the opening and closing of seven key gateways to deep-water oceanic currents radically altered global heat transfer and changed a lingering Greenhouse to an Icehouse world; secondly, these events were in part coincident with renewed heat flow

  13. Formation of levees, troughs and elevated channels by avalanches on erodible slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Andrew; Viroulet, Sylvain; Kokelaar, Peter; Gray, Nico

    Snow avalanches are typically initiated on marginally stable slopes with a layer of fresh snow that may easily be incorporated into the avalanche. The net balance of erosion and deposition of snow determines whether an avalanche grows, starves away or propagates steadily. We present the results of small scale experiments in which particles are released on a rough inclined plane coated with a static erodible layer of the same grains. For thick static layers on steep slopes the initial avalanche grows rapidly in size by entraining grains. On shallower slopes an elevated channel forms and material is eventually brought to rest due to a greater rate of deposition than erosion. On steep slopes with thinner erodible layers it is possible to generate avalanches that have a perfect balance between erosion and deposition, leaving a constant width trough with levees. We then show, by combining Pouliquen & Forterre (2002)'s friction law with Gray & Edwards (2014)'s depth-averaged μ (I) -rheology, that it is possible to develop a simple 2D shallow water-like avalanche model that qualitatively captures all of the experimental behaviours. Hence this model may have important practical implications for modeling the initiation, growth and decay of snow avalanches for hazard risk assessment. NERC Grants NE/E003206/1 and NE/K003011/1 and EPSRC Grants EP/I019189/1 and EP/K00428X/1.

  14. Miocene mollusks from the Simojovel area in Chiapas, southwestern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Carmen Perrilliat, María; Vega, Francisco J.; Coutiño, Marco A.

    2010-11-01

    The fauna of gastropods and bivalves from the amber-bearing lithostratigraphic units of the Simojovel area, Chiapas is reported, including the description of two new species and one subspecies: Turbinella maya new species, Melongena corona tzeltal new subspecies and Agladrillia ( Eumetadrillia) vermeiji new species. Stratigraphic affinities of the previously described species suggest an Early Miocene age for the Mazantic Shale, and a Middle Miocene age for the overlying Balumtum Sandstone. One specimen of gastropod, with a relatively large piece of amber attached to the adapertural part of the shell is representative for an Early Miocene age and estuarine paleoenvironmental interpretation for the Mazantic Shale. Mollusca, Miocene, Chiapas, Amber, Mexico.

  15. A reinterpretation of the metamorphic Yuli belt: Evidence for a middle-late Miocene accretionary prism in eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Shan; Chung, Sun-Lin; Chou, Hsien-Yuan; Zugeerbai, Zul; Shao, Wen-Yu; Lee, Yuan-Hsi

    2017-02-01

    The Yuli metamorphic belt has been the topic of petrological and geochronological studies for over 40 years and has been interpreted as a Cretaceous mélange. Our study utilizes zircon U-Pb dating of schist and exotic blueschist blocks in the Yuli belt. These new ages indicate that these metamorphic rocks are actually middle Miocene in age and may represent the deeper structural levels of an accretionary prism. Several distinctive detrital zircon U-Pb age populations are recognized from 14 siliceous schists of mélange-hosted rocks that are similar in age population to the Cretaceous, Eocene-Oligocene, and Miocene strata of Taiwan. The wide range of ages is interpreted as a product mixing of various sedimentary strata prior to metamorphism. Three blueschists of a volcanic-arc protolith enclosed within the host rocks yield crystallization ages of 15.4 ± 0.4, 15.5 ± 0.3, and 16.0 ± 0.2 Ma based on zircon U-Pb dating. In consideration of the new data regarding the Cretaceous-Miocene host rocks and the middle Miocene exotic blueschist blocks, it strongly suggests that the Yuli belt formed at deeper levels of an accretionary wedge during subduction of South China Sea oceanic crust at the middle-late Miocene. Subsequently, the rapid uplift of the metamorphic belt was probably related to doubly vergent wedge extrusion due to the Pliocene arc-continent collision.

  16. The Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koufos, G. D.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece includes a great number of taxa, described in numerous articles since the first decades of the 19th Century. The present article is a revision of all these taxa, providing information about their history, localities, age, as well as their stratigraphic distribution and palaeoenvironment. The Early/Middle Miocene carnivore record of Greece is poor as the available fossiliferous sites and material are rare. However, the Late Miocene one is quite rich, including numerous taxa. The Miocene localities with carnivores and their age are given in a stratigraphic table covering the European Mammal zones from MN 4 to MN 13. The type locality, holotype, and some historical and morphological remarks are given for each taxon. Several carnivore taxa were erected from Greek material and new photos of their holotypes are given. The stratigraphic distribution of the Greek carnivore taxa indicates that they are covering the time span from ~19.0-5.3Ma. The majority of the Miocene taxa (Adcrocuta, Hyaenictitherium, Plioviverrops, Protictitherium, Ictitherium, Indarctos, Dinocrocuta, Promephitis disappeared at the end of Miocene. The composition of the Early/Middle Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece includes mainly viverrids (Lophocyon, Euboictis, while the hyaenids, percrocutids, felids and mustelids are very few. On the contrary the Late Miocene assemblage is richer, including more subfamilies and species; the hyaenids and mustelids dominate, while the viverrids are absent. The Late Miocene carnivore guild structure is similar to that of the modern Serengeti, indicating a relatively open, savannah-like environment.

    La asociación de carnívoros miocenos de Grecia incluye un gran número de taxones, descritos en numerosos artículos desde las primeras décadas del siglo XIX. El presente artículo supone un esfuerzo de síntesis de todos estos taxones, suministrando información sobre su

  17. Molluscan radiations and landscape evolution in Miocene Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.

    2008-01-01

    This PhD study aims to exploit the rich archive provided by the Miocene mollusc fauna of the Pebas Formation and other inland Miocene Amazonian formations to reconstruct landscape evolution and biotic development in lowland Amazonia during the Neogene. Over 160 samples from more than 70 Pebas

  18. Lagerstroemia L. from the middle Miocene Siwalik deposits ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fossil leaves of Lagerstroemia (Lythraceae) are described from the Siwalik deposits (middle Miocene) of Kathgodam, Uttarakhand, India. The fossil records of the Lythraceae indicate its worldwide distribution in the Cenozoic. The family had its widest distribution during the Miocene but became less widespread during the ...

  19. Impact of land use change on soil erodibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Taleshian Jeloudar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability of soil separates to detachment by water is described as soil erodibility by Universal Soil Loss Equation which can be affected by land use change. In this study it was attempted to quantify the changes of Universal Soil Loss Equation K-factor and its soil driving factors in three land uses including rangeland, rainfed farming, and orchards in Babolrood watershed, northern Iran. Soil composite samples were obtained from two layers in three land uses, and the related soil physico-chemical properties were measured. The rainfed farming land use showed the highest clay contents, but the highest amounts of soil organic matter and sand particles were found in orchard land use. The high intensity of tillage led to the significant decrease of soil aggregate stability and permeability in the rainfed farming land use. The Universal Soil Loss Equation K-factor was negatively correlated with soil permeability (r=-0.77**. In rangeland, the K-factor (0.045 Mg h/MJ/mm was significantly higher and the particle size distribution had a great impact on the K-factor. The orchard land use, converted from the rangeland, did not show any increase of soils erodibility and can potentially be introduced as a good alternative land use in sloping areas. However, more detailed studies on environmental, social and economic aspects of this land use are needed.

  20. Effect of erodent particles on the erosion of metal specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razzaque, M. Mahbubur, E-mail: mmrazzaque@me.buet.ac.bd; Alam, M. Khorshed; Khan, M. Ishak, E-mail: ishak.buet@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET), Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    This paper presents the experimental results of the measurement of erosion rate of carbon steel specimens in sand water slurry system in a slurry pot tester. Sylhet sand has been sieved to get three sizes of erodent particles; namely, less than 250 micron, 250 to 590 micron and 590 to 1190 micron. Experiments are done with three sand concentrations (10%, 15% and 20%). The rate of erosion of the carbon steel specimens is measured as the loss of weight per unit surface area per unit time under the dynamic action of solid particles. The eroded surfaces of the specimens are examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to visualize the impact of the slurry of various conditions. It is seen that irrespective of the particle size the rate of erosion increases with the increase of slurry concentration. This increment of erosion rate at high concentration is high for large particles. High erosion rate is observed in case of large sand particles. In case of small and fine particles erosion rate is small because of low impact energy as well as the wastage of energy to overcome the hindrance of the finer particles before striking on the specimen surface.

  1. Gratkorn - A new late Middle Miocene vertebrate fauna from Styria (Late Sarmatian, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, M.; Böhme, M.; Prieto, J.

    2009-04-01

    Integrated stratigraphic approaches provide precise correlations of global standard stages with regional Paratethys stages. Nevertheless, higher resolution stratigraphic matching of terrestrial deposits remains challenging due to the lack of a practical continental biostratigraphy. The mostly used tool for biostratigraphic correlation of non-marine deposits in the Old World is still the concept of Neogene Mammal-zones (MN-zones). However, at higher biostratigraphic resolution (imprints of gnawing structures. These taphonomic features point to a longer surface exposure before burial without considerable transportation. Trampling and the activity of scavengers (crunching, displacement of cadavers) are probable. Locally small- and medium-sized mammal remains (jaws and postcranial elements) of e.g., hamsters, flying squirrels, gymnures and shrews are concentrated, perhaps demonstrating feeding places of carnivores or more probably of birds of prey. Nonetheless, from geologic point of view, this paleosol represents an event horizon, which accumulated rapidly maybe within tens or hundreds of years. The vertebrate fauna comprises of scattered fishes (e.g. cyprinids, gobiids, ?channids), amphibians (e.g. salamandrids, ranids, discoglossids, bufonids, pelobatids,), reptiles (scincids, lacertids, gekkonids, anguids, varanids, colubrids, testudinids, emydids), birds (coliiformes), rodents and lagomorphs (cricetids, glirids, eomyids, sciurids, castorids), insectivores and chiropterans (erinaceids, soricids, talpids), and large mammals (suids, tragulids, moschids, cervids, ?palaeomerycids, equids, chalicotheriids, rhinos, proboscidians, carnivors). Litho- and biostratigraphy (terrestrial gastropods) as well as magnetostratigraphic data and the sequence stratigraphic and geodynamic frame indicate an age of 12-12.2 Ma (early Late Sarmatian s.str., chron 5An.1n) for the locality. Therefore, Gratkorn is one of richest and most complete fauna of the late Middle Miocene of Central

  2. Provenance of the upper Miocene-Pliocene Red Clay deposits of the Chinese loess plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Junsheng; Peng, Wenbin; Möller, Andreas; Song, Yougui; Stockli, Daniel F.; Stevens, Thomas; Horton, Brian K.; Liu, Shanpin; Bird, Anna; Oalmann, Jeffrey; Gong, Hujun; Fang, Xiaomin

    2014-12-01

    A clear understanding of the provenance of late Cenozoic Chinese loess and the underlying Red Clay deposits will shed light on the history and mechanisms of Asian aridification. Although much progress has been made in understanding the source of Quaternary loess on the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP), the provenance of the underlying upper Miocene-Pliocene Red Clay sequence is largely unknown. Here we present the first provenance history of the Red Clay sequence based on zircon U-Pb ages from the central CLP. Visual and statistical analyses of the U-Pb age populations and comparison with results from potential source regions reveals that (1) the lowermost Red Clay of the late Miocene (depositional age of ∼8 Ma) is likely sourced from the nearby Liupan Mountains and the Qaidam Basin; (2) the middle Red Clay (5.5-4 Ma) of the early-mid Pliocene is sourced mainly from the Taklamakan desert, transported via lower-level westerly winds; (3) the upper Red Clay of the late Pliocene (∼3 Ma) is sourced from mixed areas, although western source materials from middle-northern Tibetan plateau (including Qaidam Desert sediments and materials eroded from the Qilian Mountains) sediments appear to dominate; and (4) the Quaternary loess is also sourced from mixed source regions, albeit with dominant northern CLP proximal desert sediments transported via winter monsoon winds, which in turn may be transported from mountain source regions of the northeastern Tibet and Gobi Altai via major river systems. This long term shift in sources suggests a progressive eastward aridification during the Pliocene in Asia with the specific timing of provenance shifts synchronous with large-scale climatic transitions and Tibetan uplift, demonstrating that Asian desertification is controlled by both factors.

  3. Geomorphic Expression of a Miocene Dike Complex, San Joaquin Hills, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behl, R. J.; Ta, L.; Williams, D.; Werner, A.; Bernardino, M.; Peterson, R.; McCormick, C.; Escobedo, D.; Nagy, B.

    2009-12-01

    Miocene transtension during development of the North American-Pacific plate boundary in southern California coincided with extensive magmatism and emplacement of a 15-16 Ma basaltic to andesitic dike and sill complex in the San Joaquin Hills, Orange County. Intrusions cut through and altered a thick Mesozoic to Cenozoic marine and nonmarine siliciclastic sedimentary succession. Hydrothermally altered sandstone within 20 meters of the contact are cemented with secondary microcrystalline quartz and illite, and locally with calcite. Cementation plus removal of iron oxides from redbeds rendered the altered sandstones more resistant to erosion than the highly weathered dikes or unaltered sedimentary strata. These Miocene dikes exert a profound influence on modern topography due to differential susceptibilities of the dikes and altered wall rock to chemical and physical weathering. At vegetated inland sites, where chemical weathering is important, plagioclase feldspar in dolerite intrusions alter to smectitic clays, and the dikes weather to recessive, brush-covered soils on valleys and slopes. In contrast, altered and hardened sedimentary wall rocks stand up in resistant relief. Many of the wall rocks form the high ridges of the uplifted and dissected San Joaquin Hills and control the geometry of drainages by forming resistant ledges that set local base level and by offsetting stream drainages. Differential erosion of the soft weathered mafic dikes and hard, resistant wall rocks produced a sharp contrast that forms most of the steepest slopes in the study area. Coastal exposures of andesitic dikes, where physical weathering dominates, display a contrary behavior. Igneous dikes are more resistant to wave erosion and form prominent headlands jutting out into the ocean, whereas sedimentary wall rocks are more easily eroded back to form flanking cliffs or sand-covered beaches.

  4. Effects of erodant particle shape and various heat treatments on erosion resistance of plain carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salik, J.; Buckley, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    Erosion tests were conducted on 1045 steel samples which had been subjected to different heat treatments. The weight of material removed upon erosion with glass beads and crushed glass was measured. The data show that there is no correlation between hardness and erosion resistance. The erosion rate was strongly dependent on the shape of erodant particles, being an order of magnitude higher for erosion with crushed glass than with glass beads. Heat treatment had a profound effect on the erosion resistance when the erodant particles were glass beads but little or no effect when the particles were crushed glass. It is thus concluded that different mechanisms of material removal are involved with these two erodants. This conclusion is supported by the surface morphology of annealed 1045 steel samples which had been eroded by these two types of erodant particles. SEM micrographs of the eroded surfaces show that for erosion with glass beads it is deformation induced fracture of surface layers.

  5. How Welfare Regimes Generate and Erode Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2007-01-01

    Comparative studies of social capital, operationalised as social trust between citizens, have revealed two major puzzles. The first puzzle has to do with the decline in social trust in the USA, which fuelled considerable debate about social capital. The question is why social capital erodes...... in the USA and other liberal welfare regimes, while social capital is stable in the so-called social democratic and conservative welfare regimes. The second puzzle is why the group of social democratic regimes have extremely high levels of social trust. It is argued that both puzzles have to do...... with the presence or absence of a poor and culturally distinct underclass. The social democratic welfare regimes hinder – while the liberal welfare regime generate – such underclass phenomena....

  6. Analysis of eroded bovine teeth through laser speckle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshoji, Nelson H.; Bussadori, Sandra K.; Bortoletto, Carolina C.; Oliveira, Marcelo T.; Prates, Renato A.; Deana, Alessandro M.

    2015-02-01

    Dental erosion is a non-carious lesion that causes progressive tooth wear of structure through chemical processes that do not involve bacterial action. Its origin is related to eating habits or systemic diseases involving tooth contact with substances that pose a very low pH. This work demonstrates a new methodology to quantify the erosion by coherent light scattering of tooth surface. This technique shows a correlation between acid etch duration and laser speckle contrast map (LASCA). The experimental groups presented a relative contrast between eroded and sound tissue of 17.8(45)%, 23.4 (68)% 39.2 (40)% and 44.3 (30)%, for 10 min, 20 min, 30 min and 40 min of acid etching, respectively.

  7. Eroding market stability by proliferation of financial instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccioli, F.; Marsili, M.; Vivo, P.

    2009-10-01

    We contrast Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT), the theoretical basis for the development of financial instruments, with a dynamical picture of an interacting market, in a simple setting. The proliferation of financial instruments apparently provides more means for risk diversification, making the market more efficient and complete. In the simple market of interacting traders discussed here, the proliferation of financial instruments erodes systemic stability and it drives the market to a critical state characterized by large susceptibility, strong fluctuations and enhanced correlations among risks. This suggests that the hypothesis of APT may not be compatible with a stable market dynamics. In this perspective, market stability acquires the properties of a common good, which suggests that appropriate measures should be introduced in derivative markets, to preserve stability. in here

  8. Effects of organic and inorganic amendments on soil erodibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutullah Özdemir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation is to find out the effect of incorporating of various organic and inorganic matter sources such as lime (L, zeolit (Z, polyacrylamide (PAM and biosolid (BS on the instability index. A bulk surface (0–20 cm depth soil sample was taken from Samsun, in northern part of Turkey. Some soil properties were determined as follows; fine in texture, modarete in organic matter content, low in pH and free of alkaline problem. The soil samples were treated with the inorganic and organic materials at four different levels including the control treatments in a randomized factorial block design. The soil samples were incubated for ten weeks. After the incubation period, corn was grown in all pots. The results can be summarized as organic and inorganic matter treatments increased structure stability and decreased soil erodibility. Effectiveness of the treatments varied depending on the types and levels of organic and inorganic materials.

  9. The Miocene Cyprideis species flock (Ostracoda; Crustacea) of western Amazonia (Solimões Formation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Martin; Ramos, Maria Ines F.; Piller, Werner E.

    2015-04-01

    The Miocene mega-wetland of western Amazonia holds a diverse, largely endemic aquatic invertebrate fauna (e.g., molluscs, ostracods). Among ostracods, the genus Cyprideis experienced a remarkable radiation. Micropalaeontologic investigations of a 400-m-long sediment core (~62 km SW Benjamin Constant, Amazonia, Brazil) permitted a taxonomic revision of about two-thirds of hitherto described Cyprideis species. Ostracod index species enabled a biostratigraphic allocation of the well succession to the Cyprideis minipunctata to Cyprideis cyrtoma biozones (late middle to early late Miocene age). The current study underlines once more Cyprideis' remarkable capability to produce species flocks and western Amazonian Cyprideis comply with the criteria of a species flock: i) endemicity: up to now not a single species is recorded in adjacent areas; ii) monophyly: although hardly verifiable to date and probably Amazonian Cyprideis is not monophyletic s.str., several closely related, quite rapidly evolving species are proved; iii) speciosity: due to the present study, 30 formally described species exist; several further species, left in open nomenclature, are recorded in the literature, which strongly hints to a much higher, still unrecorded species richness; iv) ecological diversity: based on rare sedimentologic cross-references, ecological diversity within a highly structured wetland is possible; the current results demonstrate the sympatric occurrence of up to 12 Cyprideis species, which may indicate adaptations to different microhabitats; v) habitat dominance: regularly Cyprideis holds more than >90 % in western Amazonian ostracod assemblages during the early and middle Miocene. Explanations for this extreme habitat monopolisation are still arguable and touch the highly disputed question about the nature of western Amazonia's environments during the Miocene. It seems, however, evident that a strictly actualistic approach to endemic Neogene Amazonian biota is highly

  10. Evidence for a dynamic East Antarctic ice sheet during the mid-Miocene climate transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Elizabeth L.; van de Flierdt, Tina; Williams, Trevor; Hemming, Sidney R.; Cook, Carys P.; Passchier, Sandra

    2017-11-01

    The East Antarctic ice sheet underwent a major expansion during the Mid-Miocene Climate Transition, around 14 Ma, lowering sea level by ∼60 m. However, direct or indirect evidence of where changes in the ice sheet occurred is limited. Here we present new insights on timing and locations of ice sheet change from two drill sites offshore East Antarctica. IODP Site U1356, Wilkes Land, and ODP Site 1165, Prydz Bay are located adjacent to two major ice drainage areas, the Wilkes Subglacial Basin and the Lambert Graben. Ice-rafted detritus (IRD), including dropstones, was deposited in concentrations far exceeding those known in the rest of the Miocene succession at both sites between 14.1 and 13.8 Ma, indicating that large amounts of IRD-bearing icebergs were calved from independent drainage basins during this relatively short interval. At Site U1356, the IRD was delivered in distinct pulses, suggesting that the overall ice advance was punctuated by short periods of ice retreat in the Wilkes Subglacial Basin. Provenance analysis of the mid-Miocene IRD and fine-grained sediments provides additional insights on the movement of the ice margin and subglacial geology. At Site U1356, the dominant 40Ar/39Ar thermochronological age of the ice-rafted hornblende grains is 1400-1550 Ma, differing from the majority of recent IRD in the area, from which we infer an inland source area of this thermochronological age extending along the eastern part of the Adélie Craton, which forms the western side of the Wilkes Subglacial Basin. Neodymium isotopic compositions from the terrigenous fine fraction at Site U1356 imply that the ice margin periodically expanded from high ground well into the Wilkes Subglacial Basin during periods of MMCT ice growth. At Site 1165, MMCT pebble-sized IRD are sourced from both the local Lambert Graben and the distant Aurora Subglacial Basin drainage area. Together, the occurrence and provenance of the IRD and glacially-eroded sediment at these two marine

  11. Controls on turbidite sand deposition during gravity-driven extension of a passive margin: examples from Miocene sediments in Block 4, Angola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J.E.; Drysdall, S.J.; Vivian, N. [Canadian Natural Resources Ltd., (Ranger Oil Limited), Guildford (United Kingdom); Cartwright, J. [University of Wales College of Cardiff (United Kingdom). Earth Sciences Department

    2000-12-01

    -southeast. The contrast in slip vectors between these two phases emphasises the differences in driving mechanisms: the early Miocene faulting was driven by basinward tilting of the passive margin, but gravity loading due to sedimentary progradation is considered the main driver for the late Miocene extension. The geological evolution of the late Miocene grabens is consistent with southwest-directed extension due to southwest progradation of the Congo fan. High-resolution biostratigraphic data identifies the turbidite sands in Block 4 as early Miocene (17.5-15.5 Ma) and late Miocene (10.5-5.5 Ma) in age. Deposition of these sands occurred during the two main phases of gravity-driven extension. Conditions of low sedimentation rates relative to high fault displacement rates were prevalent in the early Miocene. Seafloor depressions were generated in the hangingwalls of the main extensional faults, ultimately leading to capture of the turbidity currents. Lower Miocene turbidite sand bodies therefore trend north-south, parallel to the active faults. Cross-faults and relay ramps created local topographic highs capable of deflecting turbidite flows within the half grabens. Flow-stripping of turbidity currents across these features caused preferential deposition of sands across, and adjacent to, the highs. Turbidite sands deposited in the early part of the late Miocene were influenced by both the old north-south fault trends and by the new northwest-southeast fault trends. By latest Miocene times turbidite channels crosscut the active northwest-southeast-trending faults. These latest Miocene faults had limited potential to capture turbidity currents because the associated hangingwall grabens were rapidly filled as pro-delta sediments of the Congo fan prograded across the area from the northeast. (author)

  12. Molluscan radiations and landscape evolution in Miocene Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Wesselingh, F.P.

    2008-01-01

    This PhD study aims to exploit the rich archive provided by the Miocene mollusc fauna of the Pebas Formation and other inland Miocene Amazonian formations to reconstruct landscape evolution and biotic development in lowland Amazonia during the Neogene. Over 160 samples from more than 70 Pebas Formation outcrops mostly collected by the author were processed for this study. Additional samples were collected in Andean areas of Colombia and Venezuela and further material from other northwestern S...

  13. Differential effects of biochar on soils within an eroded field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Thomas; Chintala, Rajesh; Sandhu, Saroop; Kumar, Sandeep; Clay, Dave; Gelderman, Ron; Papiernik, Sharon; Malo, Douglas; Clay, Sharon; Julson, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Future uses of biochar will in part be dependent not only on the effects of biochar on soil processes but also on the availability and economics of biochar production. If pyrolysis for production of bio-oil and syngas becomes wide-spread, biochar as a by-product of bio-oil production will be widely available and relatively inexpensive compared to the production of biochar as primary product. Biochar produced as a by-product of optimized bio-oil production using regionally available feedstocks was examined for properties and for use as an amendment targeted to contrasting soils within an eroded field in an on-farm study initiated in 2013 at Brookings, South Dakota, USA. Three plant based biochar materials produced from carbon optimized gasification of corn stover (Zea mays L.), Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson and C. Lawson) wood residue, and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) were applied at a 1% (w/w) rate to a Maddock soil (Sandy, Mixed, Frigid Entic Hapludolls) located in an eroded upper landscape position and a Brookings soil (Fine-Silty, Mixed, Superactive, Frigid Pachic Hapludolls) located in a depositional landscape position. The cropping system within this agricultural landscape was a corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) rotation. Biochar physical and chemical properties for each of the feedstocks were determined including pH, surface area, surface charge potential, C-distribution, ash content, macro and micro nutrient composition. Yields, nutrient content, and carbon isotope ratio measurements were made on the harvested seed. Soil physical properties measured included water retention, bulk density, and water infiltration from a ponded double ring infiltrometer. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effects of biochar on partitioning of nitrate and phosphorus at soil surface exchange complex and the extracellular enzymes activity of C and N cycles. Crop yields were increased only in the Maddock soil. Biochar interacted with each

  14. Growth of Planted Yellow-Poplar After Vertical Mulching and Fertilization on Eroded Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.B. Baker; B.G. Blackmon

    1976-01-01

    Fertilization and vertical mulching improved height growth of yellow-poplars planted on eroded soils. A growing demand for hardwood timber accompanied by a diminishing land base has prompted land managers to consider planting hardwoods on marginal sites such as the eroded soils in the Silty Uplands of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Many of these areas were well...

  15. Developing a parameterization approach of soil erodibility for the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil erodibility is a key factor for estimating soil erosion using physically based models. In this study, a new parameterization approach for estimating erodibility was developed for the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM). The approach uses empirical equations that were developed by apply...

  16. ECOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF COPPER CHEMICAL FORMS CONTENT IN THE ERODED SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Leah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The content of chemical forms of copper, the features of the distribution and transformation in eroded Gray soils and Calcareous chernozems are presented. Erosion process led to increase the chemical forms associated with clay minerals, carbonates, oxides, and reducing the mobile and humus organic forms. The losses of copper in different chemical forms consist 35% from humus horizon of eroded soils.

  17. Soil wind erodibility based on dry aggregate-size distribution in the Tarim Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Tarim Basin is an important source of airborne particulate matter that contributes to poor air quality in China. However, little attention has been given to estimating wind erodibility of soils in the region. The objective of this study was to determine the soil wind erodibility for six land use...

  18. Soil aggregate stability and erodibility in different gully sites in parts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assesses soil aggregate stability and erodibility in different gully sites in parts of Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria with the aim to provide quantitative information on the variation of some soil properties and their interaction with eroding agents and how this affects soil erosion on the sites. The gullies selected are found ...

  19. Developing soil erodibility prediction equations for the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil erodibility is a key factor for estimating soil erosion using physically based models. In this study, a new parameterization approach for estimating erodibility was developed for the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM). The approach uses empirical equations that were developed by apply...

  20. Rock erodibility and the interpretation of low-temperature thermochronologic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Rebecca M.; Ehlers, Todd A.

    2018-01-01

    Rocks vary significantly in strength and erodibility. Here we evaluate if rock erodibility variations should be considered when interpreting thermochronologic datasets. We do this by applying 1D thermo-kinematic numerical models that exhume two lithologies of contrasting erodibility. For thick layers (>2 km), soft over hard layering causes earlier cooling and therefore older thermochronologic dates than no layering, with the opposite true for hard over soft layering. In some circumstances, even 2-10x erodibility contrasts substantially influence the results, and a 10x erodibility contrast can be nearly as important as contrasts several orders of magnitude greater. Thinner alternating layers (rock erodibility variations should not substantially influence thermochronologic data from most continental sedimentary packages, which are dominated by lithologic layering rocks. For example, the abrupt cooling and erosion rate decrease recorded by thermochronologic data from Rocky Mountain basement uplifts of the western U.S. coincides with when erosion-resistant Precambrian basement was exposed after removal of softer sedimentary cover. These data may largely record a change in exposed rock type erodibility rather than a dramatic change in external erosional forcing. Our results suggest that in some cases, variations in rock erodibility should be considered when interpreting cooling and erosion histories from thermochronologic datasets.

  1. Soil erodibility mapping using three approaches in the Tangiers province –Northern Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Iaaich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil erodibility is a key factor in assessing soil loss rates. In fact, soil loss is the most occurring land degradation form in Morocco, affecting rural and urban vulnerable areas. This work deals with large scale mapping of soil erodibility using three mapping approaches: (i the CORINE approach developed for Europe by the JRC; (ii the UNEP/FAO approach developed within the frame of the United Nations Environmental Program for the Mediterranean area; (iii the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE K factor. Our study zone is the province of Tangiers, North-West of Morocco. For each approach, we mapped and analyzed different erodibility factors in terms of parent material, topography and soil attributes. The thematic maps were then integrated using a Geographic Information System to elaborate a soil erodibility map for each of the three approaches. Finally, the validity of each approach was checked in the field, focusing on highly eroded areas, by confronting the estimated soil erodibility and the erosion state as observed in the field. We used three statistical indicators for validation: overall accuracy, weighted Kappa factor and omission/commission errors. We found that the UNEP/FAO approach, based principally on lithofacies and topography as mapping inputs, is the most adapted for the case of our study zone, followed by the CORINE approach. The USLE K factor underestimated the soil erodibility, especially for highly eroded areas.

  2. Depth-dependent erodibility: representing burnt soils as a two-layered cohesive/non-cohesive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, P.; Sheridan, G. J.; Moody, J. A.; Smith, H. G.; Lane, P. N.

    2011-12-01

    Immediately after wildfire there is an abundant supply of non-cohesive ash, soil and gravel which is easily entrained by overland flow. Under these conditions the sediment flux on hillslopes can be assumed to be equal to the transport capacity of the flow. However, the supply of material is finite and at some point the hillslope could shift towards a system where entrainment is restricted by armouring and soil cohesion. In this study we test the notion that burnt hillslopes can be represented as a two-layered system of non-cohesive and cohesive soils. Using a combination of i) shear vane measurements, ii) confined hillslope flow experiments and iii) a laboratory flume, we demonstrate how erosion on burnt hillslopes primarily takes place in a distinct layer of non-cohesive soil with erosion properties that are very different to the underlying soil matrix. Shear vane measurements were taken at 5 soil depths at more than 50 points along transects in order to quantify the depth and spatial distribution of non-cohesive soil in two small (0.5 ha) and steep (30 deg) convergent basins (SE Australia) that were burnt at high severity. The measurements showed that the recently burnt hillslopes were mantled with non-cohesive soil to an average depth of 18mm and 20mm at the two sites which were situated in different geologic terrain but in similar eucalyptus dominated forests. In the hillslope flow experiments, the rapid entrainment of non-cohesive material resulted in very high sediment concentration (50-60% by volume) in the initial surge from the test area. During the flow experiments the sediment concentration decreased exponentially with time until the erosion rate reached a steady state reflecting the erodibility of the underlying cohesive soil. The formation of shallow rills and the presence of large clasts (>16cm) within the test area resulted in incomplete removal of the non-cohesive material at shear stress 50 Ncm-2 all material was removed, and the erosion depth at

  3. About microfauna Miocene of Pereddobruzhinska depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova T.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available On the base revision of core samples from the Research Institute of Geology Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University the micropaleontological characteristic of Dobrudja Foredeep Miocene (Odessa region and the first monographic describes of foraminifera and ostracods of these deposits are given: Discorbis figuratus Konenkova, Discorbis ukrainicus Satanovskaja, Ammonia maschanliensis (Pronina, Ammonia subbeccarii (Pronina, Ammonia simplex (d’Orbigny, Ammonia nativa Konenkova, Cytherois aff. gracilis Schneider, Pseudobythocythere dromas (Schneider, Falunia ex gr. plicatulla (Reuss. Deposits of the Konkian and Chokrakian Regiostages are set. The Majachkian Suite is characteristic. For the first time an endemic foraminifera Ammonia subbeccarii (Pronina, Ammonia nativa Konenkova are found in this suite. It is helped to define Tarkchanian age of the Majachkian Suite. It sets a different age the "Comrat layers" in the sections of two wells in which this straton was established. This was the basis for the recognition of invalidity the "Comrat layers" and the inability to synchronize them with the Chornobaivka Suite of the Northern Black Sea region.

  4. Scales of water retention dynamics observed in eroded Luvisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Horst H.; Herbrich, Marcus

    2017-04-01

    Soil pore structure is known to change dynamically due to swelling and shrinkage, wetting and drying or tillage operations. For erosion-affected soils with truncated profiles and due to soil management changes, the water retention dynamics could be even more complex. The objective was to separate shorter-term hysteretic from longer-term seasonal dynamics in field-measured water retention data of eroded Luvisols. Tensiometers and TDR sensors were installed in 10, 30, and 50 cm depths of six lysimeter soil monoliths from two field sites. The water content and suction data of three years (2012-2014) allowed identifying drying and wetting periods for which separate parameters of the van Genuchten (VG) retention function were fitted. The water retention curves of the initial or main drying in spring were generally steeper than those obtained in the lab. During intra-seasonal wet/dry cycles, steepness increased and the saturated VG parameter successively decreased; these data indicated a limitation in re-wetting with dry/wet cycles. The water retention of an annual maximum drying curve increased in the three years with the pH-values due to changes in the soil management. When dealing with soils of cultivated arable landscapes, water flow modelling should consider management-induced gradual changes in hydraulic properties in addition to hysteresis and seasonal dynamics. The disentangling of dry/wet cycles from highly-resolved time series' may help identifying processes responsible for retention dynamics.

  5. The abrasive effect of commercial whitening toothpastes on eroded enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquim, Victor; Martines Souza, Beatriz; Foratori Junior, Gerson Aparecido; Wang, Linda; Magalhães, Ana Carolina

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the in vitro abrasive effect of commercial whitening toothpastes on eroded bovine enamel samples in respect to erosive tooth wear. 72 bovine crowns were embedded, polished and subjected to the baseline profile analysis. The samples were then protected in 2/3 of the enamel surface and were randomly assigned to six groups (n= 12/group): G1: Oral-B 3D White, G2: Close-up Diamond Attraction Power White, G3: Sorriso Xtreme White 4D, G4: Colgate Luminous White, G5: Crest (conventional toothpaste), G6:erosion only (control). All samples were submitted to an erosive pH cycling (4 x 90 seconds in 0.1% citric acid, pH 2.5, per day) and abrasive challenges (2 x 15 seconds, per day) for 7 days. After the first and the last daily cycles, the samples were subjected to abrasive challenges, using a toothbrushing machine, soft toothbrushes and slurry of the tested toothpastes (1.5 N). Between the challenges, the samples were immersed in artificial saliva. The final profile was obtained and overlaid to the baseline profile for the calculation of the erosive tooth wear (μm). The data were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn tests (Ptoothpastes, especially those containing pyrophosphate associated with hydrated silica, enhanced enamel erosive wear.

  6. Does perceived burdensomeness erode meaning in life among older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, Kimberly A; Bamonti, Patricia M; King, Deborah A; Duberstein, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    Identification of risk factors for the loss of meaning in life among older adults is needed. In this article, we test hypotheses derived from the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide concerning the role of perceptions that one is a burden on others as a risk factor for lower meaning in life. A prospective design was used to examine the temporal associations between perceptions of burdensomeness on others and perceived meaning in life among older adults (n=65) seeking mental health treatment (primarily for depression and/or anxiety) at an outpatient geriatric mental health clinic. Participants completed self-report questionnaires within a month following intake. Follow-up questionnaires were completed over the phone two months later. Perceived burdensomeness predicted lack of meaning in life two months later, while accounting for depression severity. In contrast, baseline levels of meaning in life did not significantly predict the levels of burdensomeness at two months. The findings suggest that burdensomeness may contribute to suicide morbidity and mortality in late-life by eroding meaning in life. Empirically supported treatments for late-life depression could be adapted to focus on perceptions of burdensomeness and its connections with meaning in life.

  7. Eroding students' rural motivation: first do no harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Samia

    2014-01-01

    Migration of health professionals is one of the drivers of vast inequalities in access to healthcare, as medical graduates tend to move away from both poorer countries and rural areas. One of the central ethical problems raised in attempting to alleviate these inequalities is the tension between the healthcare needs of under-served patients and the rights of medical graduates to choose their place of work and specialty. If medical graduates had greater motivation to work in under-served rural areas, this tension would decrease accordingly. Medical schools have a duty to avoid eroding existing motivation for such training and practice. This duty has practical implications. Medical students' motivation regarding their choice of specialty changes during medical training, turning them away from choices such as primary care and rural practice towards more highly specialised, more hospital based specialties. Although students may be victims of a number of biases in the initial assessment, this is unlikely to be the whole story. Students' priorities are likely to change based on their admiration for specialist role models and the visibility of the financial and non-financial rewards attached to these specialties. Students may also have a false expectation upon admission that they will be proficient in rural medicine on graduation, and change their mind once they realise the limits of their skills in that area. Although the measures required to reverse this effect currently lack a solid evidence base, they are plausible and supported by the available data.

  8. Effects of Sorghum Residues and Farmyard Manure Applications on Soil Erodibility Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Turgut

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil structural properties and resistance to erosion might be increased by adding organic residues into soils. Farmyard manure and legume crops are among the most important organic residues. The main purpose of this experimental work was to investigate the effects of some organic residues, such as, manure and sorghum residues on the structural stability and erodibility of some surface soils. In this laboratory research, three soil samples with different textures were treated with two various kinds of organic residues at different rates. At the end of 13 week of incubation period, structural stability and erodibility of controls and mixtures were determined by means of structural stability index, dispersion ratio, erosion ratio, permeability ratio, aggregate stability and soil erodibility factor (K. As a result, the organic residues applied into the soils improved the structural stability and to some extent decreased the erodibility of soils studied. Keywords: Organic matter, erosion, erodibility factor, aggregate stability, dispersion ratio.

  9. Aggregate Stability and Erodibility of Purple Soil on Sloping Farmland as affected by different Soil Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinjun; Zhang, Qingwen; Chen, Shanghong; Dong, Yuequn; Xiao, Meijia; Hamed, Lamy Mamdoh Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    Soil thickness is basic limiting condition for purple soil, not only due to its effect on crop production, but also its effect on soil structure. Steady-state of soil thickness will be achieved over time, as result the soil aggregate which the key factor of soil erodibility can be enhanced as well. However, the effect of soil thickness on aggregates stability and the characteristics of soil erodibility in sloping land have not yet fully understood.A field survey was conducted in hilly area of Sichuan region located in southeast China to study the relationship between soil aggregate stability and soil erodibility on sloping farmland under different four thickness (100cm, 80cm, 60cm, 30cm) of purple soil. Based on two different sieving methods (Dry and Wet sieving), we analyzed soil aggregate stability and its effect on soil erodibility within depth of 0-30cm soil layers. The results indicated that: Water stable aggregate on sloping farmland was ranged between 37.9% to 58.6%, where it increased with increasing the soil thickness. Moreover, fractal dimension calculated from dry-sieving and wet-sieving was 2.06-2.49 and 2.70-2.85 respectively, where it decreased with decreasing the soil thickness. The overall soil erodibility was 0.05-1.00 and a negative significant correlation was found between soil aggregate stability and erodibility(Psoil profile tended to be high in soil erodibility within the top soil layer (0-30cm). The results reveal that soil thickness can affect soil aggregate stability as well as erodibility. As soil thickness increased, the top soil became more stable and less erodible. Keywords:purple soil; soil thickness; soil aggregate;soil erodibility

  10. A Comparison of Thresholds: Shields and Erodibility Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, R. P.; Annandale, G. W.; Rock, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The threshold between stasis and mobility, and the forms and processes associated with the interfacial instabilities it defines, is a fundamental component of most morphodynamic systems. Scientists and engineers who focus on the interface of the earth's dynamic surface and the turbulent fluids of the atmosphere and hydrosphere, have approached this interface from a diversity of perspectives. In the field of sediment transport, Shield's 1936 paper stands as a benchmark for the theoretical understanding of the threshold of incipient motion of non-cohesive granular transport. However, in processes such as the erosion of cohesive material or bedrock erosion, consensus has yet to be reached among researchers, as to which method most aptly encompasses these processes. The lack of consensus is reasonable, considering the diversity of the applications, and implications, of interface dynamics. When thresholds may depend on the sequence of antecedent conditions, as in cohesive sediment entrainment, or the time scale of perception ranges from many Hertz to geologic eras, as in the processes of rock scour, a diversity of conceptual models is to be anticipated. In Scour Technology (Annandale 2006), the Erodibility Index Method (EIM) is presented as a threshold paradigm that spans the breadth of all earth materials that may experiences erosion by fluid forces. The authors present a comparison of the modern expression of the benchmark theoretical understanding of the threshold of incipient motion of non-cohesive granular material with the EIM. Results illustrate that each threshold can provide insight into the other and that the Shields parameter can be expressed within the vocabulary of the EIM.

  11. Early to mid-Miocene palaeoclimate of Antarctica based on terrestrial records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Allan; Lewis, Adam

    2017-04-01

    Paleontological and stratigraphic studies of sites in the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) are advancing knowledge of the landscape, vegetation and climate that existed immediately before the growth of the modern East Antarctic Ice Sheet. The sites are located in the Friis Hills and the western Olympus Range in the McMurdo Dry Valleys. In both localities, parts of ancient landscapes are preserved on upland surfaces high above modern valley floors. The early to mid-Miocene interval is bracketed by 40Ar/39Ar ages on volcanic ashes of 19.76 ± 0.11 Ma to 13.85 ± 0.03 Ma. Like all glacial records it is discontinuous but even so several trends can be detected. The record is one of an evolving glacial system during which ice caps coalesced to form an ice sheet. Initially, small alpine glaciers flowed southwestward toward the continental interior eroding shallow troughs into granitic bedrock. By the close of the interval, large glaciers flowed eastward from the continental interior to the Ross Sea. The interval was marked by numerous glacial advances and retreats. Tills are matrix-rich, and outwash sands and gravels ripple-laminated and cross-bedded, typical of those associated with wet-based glaciation. The vegetation during the interval was in a dynamic flux retreating downslope during glacial advances and recolonizing valleys after retreats. Fossils accumulated in peat beds and organic silts representing lacustrine, fluvial and paludal environments. Fossils include diatoms, fungal ascomycetes, pollen and spores, lycopod megaspores, mosses, wood and leaves of Nothofagus (southern beech), fruits of vascular plants, and insect skeletal parts of Diptera (flies) and Coleoptera (beetles). The vegetation was a tundra, initially shrub- and later moss-dominated. During the interval there was a marked decline in biodiversity. Initially, there were 4 species of Nothofagus represented by different leaf types and at least 9 species of vascular plants by their seeds. At the close of

  12. Relationship between soil erodibility and modeled infiltration rate in different soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqiang; Fang, Qingqing; Wu, Binbin; Yang, Huicai; Xu, Zongxue

    2015-09-01

    The relationship between soil erodibility, which is hard to measure, and modeled infiltration rate were rarely researched. Here, the soil erodibility factors (K and Ke in the USLE, Ki and K1 in the WEPP) were calculated and the infiltration rates were modeled based on the designed laboratory simulation experiments and proposed infiltration model, in order to build their relationship. The impacts of compost amendment on the soil erosion characteristics and relationship were also studied. Two contrasting agricultural soils (bare and cultivated fluvo-aquic soils) were used, and different poultry compost contents (control, low and high) were applied to both soils. The results indicated that the runoff rate, sediment yield rate and soil erodibility of the bare soil treatments were generally higher than those of the corresponding cultivated soil treatments. The application of composts generally decreased sediment yield and soil erodibility but did not always decrease runoff. The comparison of measured and modeled infiltration rates indicated that the model represented the infiltration processes well with an N-S coefficient of 0.84 for overall treatments. Significant negative logarithmic correlations have been found between final infiltration rate (FIR) and the four soil erodibility factors, and the relationship between USLE-K and FIR demonstrated the best correlation. The application of poultry composts would not influence the logarithmic relationship between FIR and soil erodibility. Our study provided a useful tool to estimate soil erodibility.

  13. Rainfall pattern effects on crusting, infiltration and erodibility in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-12

    Feb 12, 2013 ... of quartz promotes rapid soil organic matter (SOM) mineralisa- tion resulting in poor ... by primary minerals such as quartz (Mandiringana et al., 2005; ... the exact effects of these climatic changes on surface sealing, crusting ...

  14. The Late Miocene climate response to a modern Sahara desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheels, Arne; Eronen, Jussi; Mosbrugger, Volker

    2009-06-01

    The climate cooling and vegetation changes in the Miocene/Pliocene are generally well documented by various proxy data. Some important ecosystem changes occurred at that time. Palaeobotanical evidence suggests that the Sahara desert first appeared in the Pliocene, whereas in the Miocene North Africa was green. In the present study, we investigate the Late Miocene climate response to the appearance of the Sahara desert from a climate modelling sensitivity experiment. We compare a model experiment, which includes a full set of Late Miocene boundary conditions, with another one using the same boundary conditions except that the North African vegetation refers to the present-day situation. Our sensitivity study demonstrates that the introduction of the Sahara desert leads to a cooling and an aridification in Africa. In addition, we observe teleconnection patterns related to the North African desertification at around the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. From our sensitivity experiment, we observe that the Sahara contributes to a cooling in Central Asia and in North America. As compared to hypsodonty data for Central Asia, an increased aridity is underestimated in the Sahara experiment. Finally, we observe that the introduction of the Sahara leads to a cooling in the northern high latitudes. Hence, our sensitivity experiment indicates that the appearance of the Sahara desert is one piece to better understand Late Cenozoic climate cooling being most pronounced in the high latitudes.

  15. Miocene burial and exhumation of the India-Asia collision zone in southern Tibet: response to slab dynamics and erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrapa, Barbara; Orme, D.A.; DeCelles, Peter G.; Kapp, Paul; Cosca, Michael A.; Waldrip, R.

    2014-01-01

    The India-Asia collision zone in southern Tibet preserves a record of geodynamic and erosional processes following intercontinental collision. Apatite fission-track and zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He data from the Oligocene–Miocene Kailas Formation, within the India-Asia collision zone, show a synchronous cooling signal at 17 ± 1 Ma, which is younger than the ca. 26–21 Ma depositional age of the Kailas Formation, constrained by U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, and requires heating (burial) after ca. 21 Ma and subsequent rapid exhumation. Data from the Gangdese batholith underlying the Kailas Formation also indicate Miocene exhumation. The thermal history of the Kailas Formation is consistent with rapid subsidence during a short-lived phase of early Miocene extension followed by uplift and exhumation driven by rollback and northward underthrusting of the Indian plate, respectively. Significant removal of material from the India-Asia collision zone was likely facilitated by efficient incision of the paleo–Indus River and paleo–Yarlung River in response to drainage reorganization and/or intensification of the Asian monsoon.

  16. Late Oligocene to Late Miocene Antarctic Climate Reconstructions Using Molecular and Isotopic Biomarker Proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, B.; Mckay, R. M.; Bendle, J. A.; Naish, T.; Levy, R. H.; Ventura, G. T.; Moossen, H. M.; Krishnan, S.; Pagani, M.

    2015-12-01

    Major climate and environmental changes occurred during late Oligocene to the late Miocene when atmospheric CO2 ranged between 500 and 300ppm, indicating threshold response of Antarctic ice sheets and climate to relatively modest CO2 variations. This implies that the southern high latitudes are highly sensitive to feedbacks associated with changes in global ice sheet and sea-ice extent, as well as terrestrial and marine ecosystems. This study focuses on two key intervals during the evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet: (1) The Late Oligocene and the Oligocene/Miocene boundary, when the East Antarctic Ice Sheet expanded close to present day volume following an extended period of inferred warmth. (2) The Mid-Miocene Climate Optimum (MMCO ~17-15 Ma), a period of global warmth and moderately elevated CO2 (350->500 ppm) which was subsequently followed by rapid cooling at 14-13.5 Ma. Reconstructions of climate and ice sheet variability, and thus an understanding of the various feedbacks that occurred during these intervals, are hampered by a lack of temperature and hydroclimate proxy data from the southern high latitudes. We present proxy climate reconstructions using terrestrial and marine organic biomarkers that provide new insights into Antarctica's climate evolution, using Antarctic drill cores and outcrop samples from a range of depositional settings. Bacterial ether-lipids have been analysed to determine terrestrial mean annual temperatures and soil pH (via the methylation and cyclisation indexes of branched tetraethers - MBT and CBT, respectively). Tetraether-lipids of crenarchaeota found in marine sediments sampled from continental shelves around Antarctica have been used to derive sea surface temperatures using the TEX86 index. Compound specific stable isotopes on n-alkanes sourced from terrestrial plants have been analysed to investigate changes in the hydrological and carbon cycles.

  17. Effect of Vegetation on the Late Miocene Ocean Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Lohmann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We examine the role of the vegetation cover and the associated hydrological cycle on the deep ocean circulation during the Late Miocene (~10 million years ago. In our simulations, an open Central American gateway and exchange with fresh Pacific waters leads to a weak and shallow thermohaline circulation in the North Atlantic Ocean which is consistent with most other modeling studies for this time period. Here, we estimate the effect of a changed vegetation cover on the ocean general circulation using atmospheric circulation model simulations for the late Miocene climate with 353 ppmv CO2 level. The Late Miocene land surface cover reduces the albedo, the net evaporation in the North Atlantic catchment is affected and the North Atlantic water becomes more saline leading to a more vigorous North Atlantic Deep Water circulation. These effects reveal potentially important feedbacks between the ocean circulation, the hydrological cycle and the land surface cover for Cenozoic climate evolution.

  18. Interpretation of Samburupithecus, an upper Miocene hominoid from Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickford, Martin; Ishida, Hidemi

    1998-02-01

    Samburupithecus, an extinct great ape from upper Miocene (9.5 Ma) deposits in Kenya, is compared with other fossil and extant hominoids. It possesses features which are derived in comparison with Proconsul and other Lower and Middle Miocene hominoids, but it has none of the derived features which characterize the Eurasian large apes. It possesses characters which indicate that its closest relationships lie with the AAH clade (extant African apes and man). Within this clade it is closest dentally to primitive hominids such as Praeanthropus.

  19. Lightweight High Temperature Non-Eroding Throat Materials for Propulsion Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation in this proposed effort is the development of lightweight, non-eroding nozzle materials for use in propulsion systems. Lightweight structures are...

  20. Harlequin duck capture and EROD activity data from Prince William Sound, Alaska, 2011, 2013, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This data set includes capture information and ethoxyresorufin­O­deethylase (EROD) activity results for harlequin ducks sampled during March 2011, 2013, and 2014 in...

  1. Biomass to biochar: opportunities and constraints of the use of biochar for rehabilitating eroded soils

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der walt, L

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available -1 Biomass to biochar: opportunities and constraints of the use of biochar for rehabilitating eroded soils Luanita van der Walt Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Abstract The purpose of this study was to review biochar research...

  2. Endoscopic Management of Eroded Bands Following Banded-Gastric Bypass (with Video).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehab, Hany; Gawdat, Khaled

    2017-07-01

    Banded-gastric bypass is a highly effective bariatric procedure, yet the possibility of band erosion remains a significant drawback. Surgical removal of eroded bands may be associated with significant morbidity. In this study, we assess the efficacy and safety of a solely peroral endoscopic approach for the management of eroded bands in patients with a banded-gastric bypass. Starting January 2012, all patients with banded-gastric bypass and an eroded band were subjected to an attempt at peroral endoscopic removal using endoscopic scissors and/or argon plasma coagulation (APC), regardless of the circumference of band eroding inside the lumen. Sixteen patients presented with eroded bands, 2 were deemed not amenable to endoscopic removal as only part of the thickness was eroded. Of the 14 patients where endoscopic attempts were performed, 12 (86%) were completely removed successfully, while 2 (14%) were cut but could not be extracted and only the intraluminal portion was trimmed. Complete resolution of symptoms occurred in 13 (93%) while in 1 patient (7%) there was partial improvement. Only one endoscopic session was performed per patient with a median time of 37.5 min per session (22-55 min). No complications were encountered. Endoscopic removal of eroded gastric bands in patients with banded-gastric bypass is effective and safe in the majority of patients. When bands are adherent to the gastric wall, removal of the intraluminal portion of the band may lead to full or partial improvement of symptoms. Endoscopic band removal can be attempted even when a small part of band circumference has eroded.

  3. Soil erodibility in Europe: a high-resolution dataset based on LUCAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagos, Panos; Meusburger, Katrin; Ballabio, Cristiano; Borrelli, Pasqualle; Alewell, Christine

    2014-05-01

    The greatest obstacle to soil erosion modelling at larger spatial scales is the lack of data on soil characteristics. One key parameter for modelling soil erosion is the soil erodibility, expressed as the K-factor in the widely used soil erosion model, the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and its revised version (RUSLE). The K-factor, which expresses the susceptibility of a soil to erode, is related to soil properties such as organic matter content, soil texture, soil structure and permeability. With the Land Use/Cover Area frame Survey (LUCAS) soil survey in 2009 a pan-European soil dataset is available for the first time, consisting of around 20,000 points across 25 Member States of the European Union. The aim of this study is the generation of a harmonised high-resolution soil erodibility map (with a grid cell size of 500 m) for the 25 EU Member States. Soil erodibility was calculated for the LUCAS survey points using the nomograph of Wischmeier and Smith (1978). A Cubist regression model was applied to correlate spatial data such as latitude, longitude, remotely sensed and terrain features in order to develop a high-resolution soil erodibility map. The mean K-factor for Europe was estimated at 0.032 thahha(-1)MJ(-1)mm(-1) with a standard deviation of 0.009 thahha(-1)MJ(-1)mm(-1). The yielded soil erodibility dataset compared well with the published local and regional soil erodibility data. However, the incorporation of the protective effect of surface stone cover, which is usually not considered for the soil erodibility calculations, resulted in an average 15% decrease of the K-factor. The exclusion of this effect in K-factor calculations is likely to result in an overestimation of soil erosion, particularly for the Mediterranean countries, where highest percentages of surface stone cover were observed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. An iso-erodent map Imo state of Nigeria | Madubuike | International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among inputs/resources often needed for erosion risk assessment of a region is the iso-erodent map of the region. This is a map showing areas of equal erosion potentials in the region. As Imo and Abia states of Nigeria lie in a high erosion region of the country, it was decided in this work to produce an iso-erodent map of ...

  5. The effects of WAF and CEWAF on EROD activity in juvenile Atlantic cod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burridge, L.; Lyons, M.; Wong, D.; Li, Z.; Lee, K. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The affects of dispersed oil and hydrocarbons on Atlantic cod were examined in this study in which water accommodated fractions (WAF) of two types of oil were generated in a wave tank or in a baffled flask. Oil droplet sizes of the two systems were comparable. Chemically enhanced water accommodated fractions (CEWAF) of combinations of two oils and two dispersants were prepared in a similar manner. Juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were exposed to a broad range of concentrations of either WAF or CEWAF before being transferred to clean seawater. Periodic sampling of 5 fish confirmed the liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylas (EROD) activity. At the end of a 4 hour exposure, EROD activity was no different from the controls, but it was much higher after 20 hours at CEWAF concentrations above 2 percent v/v regardless of oil or dispersant type. Over the next 48 hours, EROD activity declined and did not return to control or pre-treatment levels even after 72 hours. EROD in livers from cod exposed to WAF was much higher after 24 hours at concentrations of 12 percent v/v or higher, reaching a maximum of 8 picomoles/mg protein/min. After 72 hours, EROD activity in WAF-exposed livers decreased to pre-treatment levels. The study showed that a brief 4 hour exposure to WAF and CEWAF can induce EROD activity in livers of juvenile cod and that the surge in enzyme activity can continue for 24-48 hours.

  6. A Physically—Based Geometry Model for Transport Distance Estimation of Rainfall-Eroded Soil Sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Gui Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimations of rainfall-induced soil erosion are mostly derived from the weight of sediment measured in natural runoff. The transport distance of eroded soil is important for evaluating landscape evolution but is difficult to estimate, mainly because it cannot be linked directly to the eroded sediment weight. The volume of eroded soil is easier to calculate visually using popular imaging tools, which can aid in estimating the transport distance of eroded soil through geometry relationships. In this study, we present a straightforward geometry model to predict the maximum sediment transport distance incurred by rainfall events of various intensity and duration. In order to verify our geometry prediction model, a series of experiments are reported in the form of a sediment volume. The results show that cumulative rainfall has a linear relationship with the total volume of eroded soil. The geometry model can accurately estimate the maximum transport distance of eroded soil by cumulative rainfall, with a low root-mean-square error (4.7–4.8 and a strong linear correlation (0.74–0.86.

  7. Erodibility of waste (Loess) soils from construction sites under water and wind erosional forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Smadar; Katra, Itzhak; Argaman, Eli; Ben-Hur, Meni

    2017-10-21

    Excess soils from construction sites (waste soils) become a problem when exposed to soil erosion by water or wind. Understanding waste soil erodibility can contribute to its proper reuse for various surface applications. The general objective of the study was to provide a better understanding of the effects of soil properties on erodibility of waste soils excavated from various depths in a semiarid region under rainfall and wind erosive forces. Soil samples excavated from the topsoil (0-0.3m) and subsoil layers (0.3-0.9 and >1m depths) were subjected to simulated rainfall and wind. Under rainfall erosive forces, the subsoils were more erodible than the topsoil, in contrast to the results obtained under wind erosive forces. Exchangeable sodium percentage was the main factor controlling soil erodibility (Ki) under rainfall, and a significant logarithmic regression line was found between these two parameters. In addition, a significant, linear regression was found between Ki and slaking values for the studied soil samples, suggesting that the former can be predicted from the latter. Soil erodibility under wind erosion force was controlled mainly by the dry aggregate characteristics (mean weight diameter and aggregate density): their higher values in the subsoil layers resulted in lower soil erodibility compared to the topsoil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimating eroded soil and predicting further erosion in Daisetsuzan National Park in Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yusuke; Watanabe, Teiji

    2017-04-01

    This study has three objectives: (1) to estimate changes of the eroded volume of mountain trails from 2014 to 2016 by making DSMs, (2) to understand a relationship between the trail erosion and micro-topography, and (3) to predict the volume of soil that can be eroded in future. Trail erosion has been investigated near Mt. Hokkai-dake in Daisetzuzan National Park, Hokkaido, northern Japan, with a drone (UAV) from 2014 to 2016. Seven segments with the soil erosion from starting sites to ending sites were selected to make DSMs and Orthophotographs by Agisoft, which is one of the Structure from Motion (SfM) software. Then, at fourteen points in each of the seven segments were selected to estimate the volume of soil that can be eroded in the future by PANDA2, a soil compaction penetrometer. The eroded volume in the segment with the largest eroded value attained 274.67 m3 for the two-year period although extremely heavy rain hit this area in the 2016 summer. The result obtained by PANDA2 shows that soil more than 100 cm in depth will be potentially eroded at four points in three years to one hundred years.

  9. Climate aberrations during the middle Miocene: evidence from the eastern North Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaijtaal, W.; Donders, T.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290469872; Schouten, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/137124929; Louwye, S.

    2013-01-01

    During the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO; 17-14.5 Ma) the relatively warm climate of the Miocene reached peak temperatures. After the MMCO, the global climate started cooling through several short-lived cooling events, represented by positive oxygen isotope excursions: the Mi-events (Miocene

  10. Sedimentary breccia formed atop a Miocene crevasse-splay succession in central Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widera, Marek

    2017-10-01

    This paper focuses on the poorly lithified and strongly deformed debris-flow deposits of mid-Miocene age referred to as sedimentary breccia. They are situated between two benches of the first Mid-Polish lignite seam (MPLS-1), which is currently exploited in the Tomisławice opencast (Konin Lignite Mine) in central Poland. The examined breccia consists of fine-grained sandy or silty-sandy blocks with a coaly-silty sand matrix, and ranges from matrix- to clast-supported. The brecciated deposits are chaotic, folded to thrust-faulted with noticeable shear surfaces. These structures, which correspond to plastic and/or brittle deformation, are interpreted to be typical of laminar and low cohesive debris flows. The studied sedimentary breccia developed during initial stages of overbank flooding after the formation of the crevasse splay. In this case, it is possible that gravity-driven mass transport (debris flow) was triggered by saturation of the natural levee deposits with rapidly increasing in-channel water. The first identification of the breccia at the top of the mid-Miocene crevasse-splay body in central Poland can contribute to a further understanding of sedimentary processes that occurred during this breccia deposition and processes associated with present crevasse splay deposition.

  11. Cooling Mediterranean Sea surface temperatures during the Late Miocene provide a climate context for evolutionary transitions in Africa and Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanova, Alexandrina; Herbert, Timothy D.; Peterson, Laura

    2015-06-01

    In the Late Miocene, grasslands proliferated, succulent plants diversified in the mid-latitudes, and the desert-like conditions appeared in the Sahara. Despite this major environmental change on land, the coeval deep-sea oxygen isotope record does not provide evidence for significant high latitude cooling or continental ice growth, making it difficult to relate widespread terrestrial environmental change to global climatic changes. A U37K‧ -derived sea surface temperature (SST) reconstruction spanning 13 to 6 Ma from uplifted hemipelagic sediments in Northern Italy provides the first continuous mid-latitude temperature record with which to compare the evolution of aridity and biotic events at similar latitudes in Northern Africa and Pakistan. Between 13 and 8.8 Ma, Mediterranean SST lay near the upper limit of the alkenone temperature proxy (∼28 °C), exceeding modern SST at the site by as much as 10 °C. Throughout the record, sapropel layers correspond to local SST maxima, suggesting that Late Miocene hydrological conditions in the Mediterranean responded to insolation forcing via mechanisms similar to those documented for the Plio-Pleistocene. Mediterranean SST cooled rapidly beginning at ∼8 Ma, with an episode of intense cooling to ∼19 °C between 7.2 Ma and 6.6 Ma, followed by a rebound to ∼25 °C preceding the Messinian Salinity Crisis at 5.9 Ma. These observations establish, for the first time, a direct relationship between increasing aridity in the Northern hemisphere mid-latitudes and significant cooling. Evidently, this cooling was not accompanied by significant growth in continental ice volume. The extreme warmth and subsequent cooling of the Mediterranean Sea are not well-represented in current Late Miocene climate models, which our results suggest underestimate regional warmth prior to the Late Miocene cooling. Evidence of secular cooling during the Late Miocene gives new support to the much-debated link between a possible decline in

  12. Petrography and geochemistry of the Middle Miocene Gebel El ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 7. Petrography and geochemistry of the Middle Miocene Gebel El Rusas sandstones, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Implications for provenance and tectonic setting. Samir M Zaid. Volume 126 Issue 7 October 2017 Article ID 103 ...

  13. Chemical composition and palaeobotanical origin of Miocene resins ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The terpenoid composition of resins from the Miocene lignite horizons from the Kerala –Konkan Coast,western India was analyzed by Curie-point pyrolysis –gas chromatography –mass spectrometry (Cupy –GC –MS).The major pyrolysates were cadalene-based bicyclic sesquiterpenoids including some C30-C31 ...

  14. Petrography and geochemistry of the Middle Miocene Gebel El ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samir M Zaid

    2017-10-09

    Oct 9, 2017 ... Petrography and bulk rock geochemistry of the Middle Miocene sandstones of the lower and upper members of Gebel El Rusas ... felsic-granitic source rocks and deposited in a passive margin of a synrift basin. The inferred tectonic ... tian Red Sea coastal plain in Central Eastern. Desert (figure 1). The plain ...

  15. Chemical composition and palaeobotanical origin of Miocene resins ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion varies with resin type which together with a structural resistance to diagenetic ... ionization energy of 70eV and a source tempera- ture of 260. ◦. C. Full scan mass ... fossil resin sample from Sindhudurg Formation, Konkan Coast, western India; (b) Miocene fossil resin sample from Warkallai. Group, Kerala Coast, western ...

  16. Avian fossils from the Early Miocene Moghra Formation of Egypt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avian remains from the Early Miocene (~17 Ma) Moghra Formation of Egypt include new records of 'waterbirds' (storks, herons, pelicans and allies) and a ratite. Only a single avian fossil has been previously reported from Wadi Moghra and, thus, additional knowledge of the avifauna complements previously documented ...

  17. A Transitional Gundi (Rodentia: Ctenodactylidae from the Miocene of Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel López-Antoñanzas

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of gundi (Rodentia: Ctenodactylidae: Ctenodactylinae, Sayimys negevensis, on the basis of cheek teeth from the Early Miocene of the Rotem Basin, southern Israel. The Rotem ctenodactylid differs from all known ctenodactylid species, including Sayimys intermedius, which was first described from the Middle Miocene of Saudi Arabia. Instead, it most resembles Sayimys baskini from the Early Miocene of Pakistan in characters of the m1-2 (e.g., the mesoflexid shorter than the metaflexid, the obliquely orientated hypolophid, and the presence of a strong posterolabial ledge and the upper molars (e.g., the paraflexus that is longer than the metaflexus. However, morphological (e.g., presence of a well-developed paraflexus on unworn upper molars and dimensional (regarding, in particular, the DP4 and M1 or M2 differences between the Rotem gundi and Sayimys baskini distinguish them and testify to the novelty and endemicity of the former. In its dental morphology, Sayimys negevensis sp. nov. shows a combination of both the ultimate apparition of key-characters and incipient features that would be maintained and strengthened in latter ctenodactylines. Thus, it is a pivotal species that bridges the gap between an array of primitive ctenodactylines and the most derived, Early Miocene and later, gundis.

  18. A Transitional Gundi (Rodentia: Ctenodactylidae) from the Miocene of Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Antoñanzas, Raquel; Gutkin, Vitaly; Rabinovich, Rivka; Calvo, Ran; Grossman, Aryeh

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of gundi (Rodentia: Ctenodactylidae: Ctenodactylinae), Sayimys negevensis, on the basis of cheek teeth from the Early Miocene of the Rotem Basin, southern Israel. The Rotem ctenodactylid differs from all known ctenodactylid species, including Sayimys intermedius, which was first described from the Middle Miocene of Saudi Arabia. Instead, it most resembles Sayimys baskini from the Early Miocene of Pakistan in characters of the m1-2 (e.g., the mesoflexid shorter than the metaflexid, the obliquely orientated hypolophid, and the presence of a strong posterolabial ledge) and the upper molars (e.g., the paraflexus that is longer than the metaflexus). However, morphological (e.g., presence of a well-developed paraflexus on unworn upper molars) and dimensional (regarding, in particular, the DP4 and M1 or M2) differences between the Rotem gundi and Sayimys baskini distinguish them and testify to the novelty and endemicity of the former. In its dental morphology, Sayimys negevensis sp. nov. shows a combination of both the ultimate apparition of key-characters and incipient features that would be maintained and strengthened in latter ctenodactylines. Thus, it is a pivotal species that bridges the gap between an array of primitive ctenodactylines and the most derived, Early Miocene and later, gundis. PMID:27049960

  19. Revised Miocene splice, astronomical tuning and calcareous plankton biochronology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeden, C.; Hilgen, F.; Westerwold, T.; Lourens, L.; Röhl, Ursula; Bickert, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    The distinctly cyclic sediments recovered during ODP Leg 154 played an important role in constructing the astronomical time scale and associated astro(bio)chronology for the Miocene, and in deciphering ocean–climate history. The accuracy of the timescale critically depends on the reliability of

  20. Two New Mylagaulid Rodents from the Early Miocene of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Lu

    Full Text Available Mylagaulid fossorial rodents are a common component of North American Miocene fossil faunas. However outside of North America, only three species are known from Asia. Here we report two new mylagaulids, Irtyshogaulus minor gen. et sp. nov. and Irtyshogaulus major gen. et sp. nov., recovered from early Miocene sediments in the Junggar Basin in northwestern China. The two new taxa are small-sized, high-crowned promylagauline rodents. Their lower molars possess high metastylid crests, small mesostylids, broad and posterolingually expanded labial inflections, and transversely extending metalophid IIs. The mesoconid is absent in both species. The anterior and posterior fossettids are large and equally developed. Their upper M1-2s possess a square occlusal surface with five deep fossettes. The two new taxa are distinguished from each other mainly by their size, the morphology of fossettes and fossettids, development of mesial and distal lophs, posterior reduction of M3, and the orientation of m2 hypolophid. Our phylogenetic analysis indicates that Irtyshogaulus and Lamugaulus (another early Miocene Asian mylagaulid are sister taxa. The two genera are nested among the North American promylagaulines, and share a common ancestor from North America, indicating early Miocene intercontinental dispersal within this clade of rodents.

  1. Dynamics of ~100-kyr glacial cycles during the early Miocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebrand, D.; Lourens, L.J.; Boer, B. de; Wal, R.S.W. van de

    2010-01-01

    Here, we present high-resolution stable isotope records from ODP Site 1264 in the South-Eastern Atlantic Ocean, which resolve the latest Oligocene to early Miocene (23.7–18.9 Ma) climate changes. Using an inverse modelling technique, we decom- posed the oxygen isotope record into temperature and

  2. Lithostratigraphy of the Upper Oligocene - Miocene succession of Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piasecki, Stefan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a revised lithostratigraphic scheme for the uppermost Upper Oligocene – Miocene succession of Denmark. The marine Oligocene Brejning Clay Member is upgraded to formation status and includes the Sydklint Member and the Øksenrade Member (new. The shallow marine and deltaic deposits of mainly Early Miocene age are included in the Ribe Group (new while the fully marine Middle and Upper Miocene clay-rich deposits are referred to the Måde Group (new. The Ribe Group is subdivided into 6 formations: the Vejle Fjord Formation is revised and includes the Skansebakke Member,the Billund Formation (new includes the Addit and Hvidbjerg Members (new, the Klintinghoved Formation is redefined formally and includes the Koldingfjord Member (new, the Bastrup Formation(new includes the Resen Member (new, the Vandel Member is a new member in the Arnum Formation (revised, the Odderup Formation is redefined and includes the Stauning Member (new and the coalbearing Fasterholt Member. The Måde Group is subdivided into the Hodde, Ørnhøj (new, Gram and Marbæk (new Formations. Subdivision of the Upper Oligocene – Miocene succession into two groups, the Ribe and Måde Groups, is compatible with the North Sea lithostratigraphic framework where they correlate with the upper part of the Hordaland Group and the Nordland Group, respectively. The revised lithostratigraphic framework correlated in three dimensions provides rigorous constraints on the palaeogeographic interpretation of the Late Oligocene – Miocene period. Three major deltaic units (Billund, Bastrup and Odderup Formations prograded from the north and north-east into the North Sea Basin during the Early – early Middle Miocene. Delta progradation was punctuated by deposition of marine clay and silt associated with minor transgressive events (Vejle Fjord, Klintinghoved and Arnum Formations. During the Middle–Late Miocene, marine depositional conditions dominated (Hodde, Ørnhøj and

  3. A major reorganization of Asian climate by the early Miocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. T. Guo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The global climate system experienced a series of drastic changes during the Cenozoic. In Asia, these include the climate transformation from a zonal pattern to a monsoon-dominated pattern, the disappearance of typical subtropical aridity, and the onset of inland deserts. Despite major advances in the last two decades in characterizing and understanding these climate phenomena, disagreements persist relative to the timing, behaviors and underlying causes.

    This paper addresses these issues mainly based on two lines of evidence. First, we compiled newly collected data from geological indicators of the Cenozoic environment in China as paleoenvironmental maps of ten intervals. In confirming the earlier observation that a zonal climate pattern was transformed into a monsoonal one, the maps within the Miocene indicate that this change was achieved by the early Miocene, roughly consistent with the onset of loess deposition in China. Although a monsoon-like regime would have existed in the Eocene, it was restricted to tropical-subtropical regions. The latitudinal oscillations of the climate zones during the Paleogene are likely attributable to the imbalance in evolution of polar ice-sheets between the two hemispheres.

    Secondly, we examine the relevant depositional and soil forming processes of the Miocene loess-soil sequences to determine the circulation characteristics with emphasis on the early Miocene. Continuous eolian deposition in the middle reaches of the Yellow River since the early Miocene firmly indicates the formation of inland deserts, which have been constantly maintained during the past 22 Ma. Grain-size gradients between loess sections indicate northerly dust-carrying winds from northern sources, a clear indication of an Asian winter monsoon system. Meanwhile, well-developed Luvisols show evidence that moisture from the oceans reached northern China. This evidence shows the coexistence of two kinds of

  4. Cretaceous to Miocene fault zone evolution in the Eastern Alps constrained by multi-system thermochronometry and structural data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfler, Andreas; Frisch, Wolfgang; Danišík, Martin; Fritz, Harald; Wölfler, Anke

    2015-04-01

    Fault zones that display both, ductile and brittle deformation stages offer perfect sites to study the evolution of the earth's crust over a wide range of temperatures and possibly over long time spans. This study combines structural- geo- and thermochronologcial data to evaluate the tectonic evolution of a fault zone to the southeast of the Tauern Window in the Eastern Alps. This fault zone comprises a mylonitic part, the so-called "Main Mylonitic Zone" (MMZ) that has been reworked by brittle faulting, the so-called "Ragga-Teuchl fault" (RTF). Structural data of the MMZ demonstrate ductile deformation with top-to-the NW transport in the Late Cretaceous under greenschist facies conditions. Subsequent SE-directed extension occurred under semi-brittle to brittle conditions during the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene. The Polinik Block to the north of the RTF revealed Late Cretaceous Ar/Ar ages, which reflect cooling subsequent to the thermal peak of Eo-alpine metamorphism. In contrast, the Kreuzeck Block to the south of the RTF shows early Permian Ar/Ar ages that reflect cooling related to both, late Variscan collapse in the late Carboniferous and post-Variscan extension in the Permian. Zircon and apatite fission track ages and thermal history modeling results suggest that the Polinik Block cooled rapidly to near surface temperatures in the middle Miocene. The Kreuzeck Block, in contrast, cooled and exhumed to near surface conditions already in the Oligocene and early Miocene. Thermal history modeling and apatite fission track ages of 23.3±0.8 and 11.5±1.0 suggest that brittle deformation along the RTF occurred in the middle- and late Miocene. Our results demonstrate that one single fault zone may comprise information about the evolution of the Eastern Alps from Late Cretaceous to Miocene time and that low-temperature thermochronology is a viable tool to resolve the timing of brittle faulting and accompanied fluid activity.

  5. Petrographic study of the Miocene-Pleistocene sandstone in the Western Foothills, northern Taiwan: implication for the unroofing history of Taiwan orogenic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia-Jhih, Yeh; Wen-Shan, Chen

    2017-04-01

    The Taiwan orogeny belt developed due to the arc-continental collision since about 6 Ma. Plio-Pleistocene foreland basin deposits are eroded from adjacent orogenic belt that provides much information about orogenic tectonics. In this study, sandstone petrography is enabled to trace orogenic exhumation history of the northern Taiwan. It indicates that late Miocene-early Pliocene strata were composed dominantly of monocrystalline quartz and feldspar deriving from the Eurasia continent. Late Pliocene-early Pleistocene sandstone (3.6-2Ma) contains lithic fragments which consist dominantly of sandstone fragments. It suggests that the sediments were derived from sedimentary province (Miocene strata) of the orogenic belt. The middle Pleistocene sandstone (1.5Ma) consists of argillite and metasandstone fragments (Oligocene strata) deriving from low-grade metamorphic province (the Hsuehshan Range). The late Pleistocene sandstone consists of quartzite fragments (Eocene strata) which were derived from metamorphic province (the Hsuehshan Range). The exhumation history of orogenic belt is revealed significant changes from sedimentary to metamorphic provinces during the middle Pleistocene. It suggests that the Hsuehshan Range exposed since middle Pleistocene. Lithic fragments derived from the Taiwan orogenic belt that corresponded with the unroofing history of the northern Hsuehshan Range by apatite and zircon fission track dating (1.2-2.6Ma and 4.6-6.4Ma).

  6. Water and dissolved carbon transport in an eroding soil landscape using column experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieckh, Helene; Gerke, Horst; Glæsner, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    boundary. Breakthrough curves for a pre-applied tracer (Br-) on the soil surface and a tracer applied with irrigation water (3H2O) were modeled analytically using CXTFIT. The heterogeneity of the Luvisol horizons was generally higher than that of the Regosol horizons, which relates to the higher......In the hummocky ground moraine soil landscape, a spatial continuum of more or less eroded soils developed from till under intensive agricultural cultivation. Water flow and solute transport are affected by the variable soil structural and pedological developments, which are posing a challenge...... for flux estimation. The objective of this study was to investigate transport of water, dissolved organic (DOC), and particulate carbon (PC) through soil profiles of an eroded Haplic Luvisol and a heavily eroded Haplic Regosol. We studied 5 soil horizons in three replicates each: Ap (0-20 cm) and E (20...

  7. The DNA damage response at eroded telomeres and tethering to the nuclear pore complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khadaroo, Basheer; Teixeira, M Teresa; Luciano, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    to induce the recruitment of checkpoint and recombination proteins. Notably, a DNA damage response at eroded telomeres starts many generations before senescence and is characterized by the recruitment of Cdc13 (cell division cycle 13), replication protein A, DNA damage checkpoint proteins and the DNA repair......The ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes are protected by telomeres, which serve to ensure proper chromosome replication and to prevent spurious recombination at chromosome ends. In this study, we show by single cell analysis that in the absence of telomerase, a single short telomere is sufficient...... protein Rad52 into a single focus. Moreover, we show that eroded telomeres, although remaining at the nuclear periphery, move to the nuclear pore complex. Our results link the DNA damage response at eroded telomeres to changes in subnuclear localization and suggest the existence of collapsed replication...

  8. Erode/dilate analysis of micro-CT images of porcine myocardial microvasculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Timothy L.; Dong, Yue; Zamir, Mair; Ritman, Erik L.

    2010-03-01

    Analysis of 3D images of vascular trees presents a major logistic and multi-scale imaging challenge. One approach that greatly reduces the image analysis difficulty is to apply an 'erode/dilate' approach to a binarized, segmented, image so as to progressively eliminate branches of increasing diameter. Although this provides useful data for detecting some changes in branching geometry, it eliminates information about the hierarchical structure of the vascular tree. To quantify the impact of this loss of branching hierarchy information we analyzed 3D micro-CT images (4μm and 20μm isotropic voxels) of porcine myocardial "biopsies" obtained in control animals and in animals after 100μm diameter microspheres were injected into the coronary artery perfusing the site of subsequent biopsy. After the in vivo embolization, the vascular tree was injected with radiopaque Microfil and "biopsies" of the myocardium harvested. The analysis of the micro-CT images of the biopsies involved erode/dilate analysis of the opacified vessels in the entire biopsy and also of isolated vascular trees (isolated via a 'connect' function) within the biopsy. The isolated trees were also analyzed by dimensional measurement of the individual interbranch segment lengths and volumes, results that were then put into the same form as those produced by the erode/dilate method. In the embolized specimens the volume-loss of vessels below 60μm diameter closely matched for (i) erode/dilate of entire biopsy, (ii) erode/dilate of isolated tree, and (iii) direct measurement of isolated tree. The erode/dilate method quantifies the effects of a microsphere embolization, indicating what diameter interbranch segments trap a microsphere of a given size.

  9. MAPPING ERODED AREAS ON MOUNTAIN GRASSLAND WITH TERRESTRIAL PHOTOGRAMMETRY AND OBJECT-BASED IMAGE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mayr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Alps as well as in other mountain regions steep grassland is frequently affected by shallow erosion. Often small landslides or snow movements displace the vegetation together with soil and/or unconsolidated material. This results in bare earth surface patches within the grass covered slope. Close-range and remote sensing techniques are promising for both mapping and monitoring these eroded areas. This is essential for a better geomorphological process understanding, to assess past and recent developments, and to plan mitigation measures. Recent developments in image matching techniques make it feasible to produce high resolution orthophotos and digital elevation models from terrestrial oblique images. In this paper we propose to delineate the boundary of eroded areas for selected scenes of a study area, using close-range photogrammetric data. Striving for an efficient, objective and reproducible workflow for this task, we developed an approach for automated classification of the scenes into the classes grass and eroded. We propose an object-based image analysis (OBIA workflow which consists of image segmentation and automated threshold selection for classification using the Excess Green Vegetation Index (ExG. The automated workflow is tested with ten different scenes. Compared to a manual classification, grass and eroded areas are classified with an overall accuracy between 90.7% and 95.5%, depending on the scene. The methods proved to be insensitive to differences in illumination of the scenes and greenness of the grass. The proposed workflow reduces user interaction and is transferable to other study areas. We conclude that close-range photogrammetry is a valuable low-cost tool for mapping this type of eroded areas in the field with a high level of detail and quality. In future, the output will be used as ground truth for an area-wide mapping of eroded areas in coarser resolution aerial orthophotos acquired at the same time.

  10. A Middle Miocene hominoid from Thailand and orangutan origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Jolly, Dominique; Benammi, Mouloud; Tafforeau, Paul; Duzer, Danielle; Moussa, Issam; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2003-03-06

    The origin of orangutans has long been debated. Sivapithecus is considered to be the closest ancestor of orangutans because of its facial-palatal similarities, but its dental characteristics and postcranial skeleton do not confirm this phylogenetic position. Here we report a new Middle Miocene hominoid, cf. Lufengpithecus chiangmuanensis n. sp. from northern Thailand. Its dental morphology relates it to the Pongo clade, which includes Lufengpithecus, Sivapithecus, Gigantopithecus, Ankarapithecus and possibly Griphopithecus. Our new species displays striking dental resemblances with living orangutans and appears as a more likely candidate to represent an ancestor of this ape. In addition, it originates from the geographic area of Pleistocene orangutans. But surprisingly, the associated flora shows strong African affinities, demonstrating the existence of a temporary floral and faunal dispersal corridor between southeast Asia and Africa during the Middle Miocene, which may have played a critical role in hominoid dispersion.

  11. Upper Miocene reef complex of Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomar, L.

    1988-02-01

    The late Tortonian-Messinian coral reef platform of south Mallorca onlaps a folded middle late Miocene carbonate platform on which progradation of up to 20 km occurs. Vertical sea cliffs (up to 100 m high) superbly show the last 5 km of this progradation and complement the numerous water-well cores from the island interior. The Mallorca reef presents the most complete facies zonation of the Miocene reefs of the western Mediterranean. The reef wall framework is up to 20 m thick and shows (1) erosional reef flat with reef breccia and small corals; (2) spur-and-grove zone with large, massive corals; (3) deep buttresses and pinnacles with terraces of branching corals; and (4) deep reef wall with flat, laminar coral colonies, branching red algae, and Halimeda sands.

  12. Miocene to quaternary volcanism in eastern Kenya: Sequence and geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotzu, P.; Morbidelli, L.; Nicoletti, M.; Piccirillo, E. M.; Traversa, G.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the first systematic geochronological study of widespread volcanic sequences in the region east of the Kenya Rift Valley between the Nyambeni Hills near the equator and the Hurri Hills-Dukana area close to the Ethiopian border. Volcanic activity in this area developed from Upper Miocene to Quaternary. Miocene activity (12-5 m.y.) was of fissure-type while the Plio-Quaternary volcanism was mainly of central type. This last volcanism occurred from early Pliocene (4.5 m.y.) to Recent (0.5 m.y.). The products of the two volcanic phases can be distinguished also from a compositional point of view. Previous stratigraphical interpretations are discussed on the basis of field and laboratory evidence.

  13. Exceptional preservation of Miocene pollen: plasmolysis captured in salt?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durska, W.

    2016-07-01

    Exceptionally well-preserved Miocene pollen from the Bochnia salt mine of southern Poland is reported herein. The halite deposits within the salt mine belonging to Late Badenian (Miocene) marine evaporites originated in the Paratethys. Rounded and angular structures are present inside pollen grains. On the basis of the similarity with plasmolyzed pollen grains of modern plants, these structures are considered to represent cytoplasms plasmolyzed in the condensed brine prior to fossilization. Two forms of plasmolyzed cytoplasms (concave and convex) can be observed in modern pollen. Both are distinguished in the investigated fossil material. In porate and colporate grains the shape of the plasmolyzed cellular content is concave while in inaperturate it is convex. The plasmolysis form depends on the type of apertures and pollen shape. The percentage of pollen with fossilized cytoplasms within individual taxa is a valuable environmental indicator, as it depends on the proximity of the pollen-producing plant assemblages to the depositional setting. (Author)

  14. Fish vertebra from Miocene beds at Govce, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasja Mikuž

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses a vertebra and a small shark tooth found in the Miocene Govce sandstone near Govce west of Laško in central Slovenia. The vertebra belongs to a shark of the superorder Galeomorphii but we could not determine it with greater precision. The small tooth was assigned to Carcharias cf. taurus Rafinesque, 1810. The nannofossils in the sample are scarce and did not allow dating at biozone precision.

  15. Across the Pacific: Climate Evolution in the Middle Miocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Lyndsey; Wade, Bridget; Holbourn, Ann; Leng, Melanie

    2014-05-01

    We present the first high-resolution (3 kyr) astronomically-tuned record of δ18O and δ13C from planktonic foraminifera for the equatorial Pacific Ocean (16.5-13.5 Myr). Our data provides exciting new information on sea surface temperatures and primary productivity changes at the tropics during the middle Miocene at a resolution not achieved in any previous study, which sheds new light on the middle Miocene climatic transition (MMCT) and associated carbon-isotope excursion. Reliable sea surface temperature estimates are crucial to any reconstruction and modelling of past ocean salinity and density, water column stratification, thermohaline circulation, and ice volume. Despite extensive studies of benthic foraminifera, existing planktonic foraminiferal records of this interval are extremely scarce and of low resolution, with samples representing time intervals of 2x105and 5x105 years. Previous studies have been hindered by the absence of biogenic carbonate (e.g., Leg 199). Consequently the impact of global warming and cooling on tropical surface waters and the propagation of orbital cycles in the Earth System are unknown. In 2009 Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 320/321 recovered lower-middle Miocene sediments with high sedimentation rates (30m/myr), continuous recovery, and orbital cyclicity from the east equatorial Pacific Ocean. At Site U1338 planktonic foraminifera are abundant and diverse in the lower and middle Miocene sediments and exceptionally well preserved. Scanning electron microscope studies revealed open pore spaces, little evidence of calcitic overgrowth on the wall surface and in many cases preserved spines (Fox and Wade, 2013). We compare our data from Site U1338 to Site 1146 in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean, to reconstruct bottom and surface water conditions and changes in ocean dynamics across the equatorial Pacific during this highly complex interval of climate history.

  16. Miocene progressive forearc extension in the Central Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milia, A.; Valente, A.; Cavuoto, G.; Torrente, M. M.

    2017-07-01

    Miocene extensional sedimentary basins are being increasingly recognized in Central Mediterranean. However the paleogeographic reconstruction of the Paleo-Tyrrhenian during this time span results a difficult task because the subsequent Pliocene-Quaternary backarc opening moved away these older sedimentary basins. Our study outlines principal deformation events recorded by sediments that were deposited within minor basins of the Tyrrhenian Sea region and provides constraints on the duration of these events. The interpretation of seismic profiles, wells, and outcrops data together with a review of the middle-upper Miocene successions permitted us to recognize Miocene third order depositional sequences, reconstruct the fault pattern, and furnish a detailed evolution of the sedimentary basins that preceded the Pliocene-Quaternary Tyrrhenian high stretching. Based on the stratigraphic and tectonic constraints together with the age migration of the depocenters, we reconstructed a detailed paleogeographic evolution of central Mediterranean. Sedimentary basins architecture and fault pattern indicate a system of approximately N-S oriented normal faults and approximately E-W transform faults that were active since the Late Oligocene. Two period of extensional/transtensional tectonics (late Oligocene-Lower Burdigalian and Upper Langhian-Tortonian) were interrupted by a compressional event (late Burdigalian-Lower Langhian). Tacking in account the position of the Miocene volcanic arc (Sardinia), we propose that the coeval sedimentary basins developed in the central Mediterranean as forearc extensional/transtensional basins during the progressive collision with the African plate and before the Tyrrhenian backarc opening. Unlike published late Oligocene-Tortonian reconstructions of the western-central Mediterranean realm that report a linear migration of backarc extension, our results support a geodynamic model characterized by a progressive deformation of the forearc extension

  17. Annelids in the Miocene lithothamnion limestone from Zgornja Pohanca, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasja Mikuž

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Presented and discussed are remains of Middle Miocene – Badenian annelids in limestone fragments that consistmostly of tubular-rodlike annelids and lithothamnions. Segmented limestone tubules are largely fragmented andfilled with calcite. By their morphology and size they are comparable to polychaetes of the Serpulidae family. Tubularremains could be attributed to genera Protula, Hydroides or Vermiliopsis? The samples of annelidic limestonewith polychaetes were found in environs of Zgornja Pohanca near Kr{ko in eastern part of central Slovenia.

  18. Lower Miocene uncoiled Agglutinated Foraminifera From Dobaradar Section, southeast Qom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    لیلا رمضانی دانا

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Miocene deposits in the Middle East such as Iran are famous and significance because of good oil reservoirs and a lot of studies has been carried out for precise exploring. Iran in this region, especially in Central Iran zone, in comparison with neighbor countries is a lack of exact and comprehensive information and need more investigation. In this way, study of foraminiferal assemblages for ascertain paleoenvironment characteristics and age determination is one of the researchers aims. Complicate and various characteristics of the Qom Formation in Central Iran such as depositional environments, faunal assemblage, age and lithology has caused that the information from its investigation be utilized and noticed for understanding connection of Indian Ocean and Mediterranean sea as a part of Tethyan Sea way in Oligo- Early Miocene. Agglutinated smaller foraminifera are one of the faunal groups which present in the Qom Formation in Dobaradar section. However, comparison with other forams with hyaline and porcelaneous tests, have less diversity and abundance. In this research, for the first time the early Miocene uncoiled agglutinated foraminifera from the Qom Formation in type area has been studied. Investigation of foraminifera in southeast of Qom, led to recognition a new species and report of 4 genera and 6 species for the first time from Iran. Among these Agglutinated forams, 2 species belong to Aquitanian and 2 present in Burdigalin, and the rest of them belong to Aquitanian- Burdigalian.

  19. Connectivity controls on the late Miocene eastern Mediterranean fish fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agiadi, Konstantina; Antonarakou, Assimina; Kontakiotis, George; Kafousia, Nefeli; Moissette, Pierre; Cornée, Jean-Jacques; Manoutsoglou, Emmanouil; Karakitsios, Vasileios

    2017-04-01

    Environmental change significantly affects the production of fish resources and their dependent societies. The paleontological record offers unique insight into the effects of long-term paleoenvironmental variability on the fish species' distributions and abundances. In the present study, we investigate the late Miocene (7.5-6.5 Ma) fish assemblages of the Potamida section in western Crete (eastern Mediterranean). The determined fish taxa are examined in a paleobiogeographic context, with regard to their geographic and stratigraphic distribution from the early Miocene ( 13 Ma) through today. In addition, present-day ecological data are used to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental conditions in the study area. Planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphy significantly improves the earlier dating of the studied sequence. The late Miocene fish fauna of Potamida includes 35 taxa (seven in open nomenclature) from 13 teleost families. The eastern Mediterranean biostratigraphic and geographic distribution of 32 taxa is significantly expanded into the Tortonian, whereas 13 species are recorded for the first time from the Messinian. Four stages are distinguished in the area's paleoenvironmental evolution. (1) The Potamida area was an open marine environment with depths exceeding 150 m between 7.5-7.45 Ma. (2) Between 7.45-7.36 Ma, the results suggest depths between 300-400 m. (3) The depositional depth increases between 7.36-7.28 Ma to 400-550 m. (4) Later on, approximately between 6.8-6.6 Ma, the depth is again estimated around 100-150 m.

  20. Updated chronology for the Miocene hominoid radiation in Western Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanovas-Vilar, Isaac; Alba, David M.; Garcés, Miguel; Robles, Josep M.; Moyà-Solà, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    Extant apes (Primates: Hominoidea) are the relics of a group that was much more diverse in the past. They originated in Africa around the Oligocene/Miocene boundary, but by the beginning of the Middle Miocene they expanded their range into Eurasia, where they experienced a far-reaching evolutionary radiation. A Eurasian origin of the great ape and human clade (Hominidae) has been favored by several authors, but the assessment of this hypothesis has been hampered by the lack of accurate datings for many Western Eurasian hominoids. Here we provide an updated chronology that incorporates recently discovered Iberian taxa and further reevaluates the age of many previously known sites on the basis of local biostratigraphic scales and magnetostratigraphic data. Our results show that identifiable Eurasian kenyapithecins (Griphopithecus and Kenyapithecus) are much younger than previously thought (ca. 14 Ma instead of 16 Ma), which casts serious doubts on the attribution of the hominoid tooth from Engelswies (16.3–16.5 Ma) to cf. Griphopithecus. This evidence is further consistent with an alternative scenario, according to which the Eurasian pongines and African hominines might have independently evolved in their respective continents from similar kenyapithecin ancestors, resulting from an early Middle Miocene intercontinental range extension followed by vicariance. This hypothesis, which would imply an independent origin of orthogrady in pongines and hominines, deserves further testing by accurately inferring the phylogenetic position of European dryopithecins, which might be stem pongines rather than stem hominines. PMID:21436034

  1. New Miocene Fossils and the History of Penguins in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Travis; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Gallagher, Stephen J; Tomkins, Ellyn; Allan, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Australia has a fossil record of penguins reaching back to the Eocene, yet today is inhabited by just one breeding species, the little penguin Eudyptula minor. The description of recently collected penguin fossils from the re-dated upper Miocene Port Campbell Limestone of Portland (Victoria), in addition to reanalysis of previously described material, has allowed the Cenozoic history of penguins in Australia to be placed into a global context for the first time. Australian pre-Quaternary fossil penguins represent stem taxa phylogenetically disparate from each other and E. minor, implying multiple dispersals and extinctions. Late Eocene penguins from Australia are closest to contemporaneous taxa in Antarctica, New Zealand and South America. Given current material, the Miocene Australian fossil penguin fauna is apparently unique in harbouring 'giant penguins' after they went extinct elsewhere; and including stem taxa until at least 6 Ma, by which time crown penguins dominated elsewhere in the southern hemisphere. Separation of Australia from Antarctica during the Palaeogene, and its subsequent drift north, appears to have been a major event in Australian penguin biogeography. Increasing isolation through the Cenozoic may have limited penguin dispersal to Australia from outside the Australasian region, until intensification of the eastwards-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the mid-Miocene established a potential new dispersal vector to Australia.

  2. Australian shelf sediments reveal shifts in Miocene Southern Hemisphere westerlies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeneveld, Jeroen; Henderiks, Jorijntje; Renema, Willem; McHugh, Cecilia M.; De Vleeschouwer, David; Christensen, Beth A.; Fulthorpe, Craig S.; Reuning, Lars; Gallagher, Stephen J.; Bogus, Kara; Auer, Gerald; Ishiwa, Takeshige

    2017-01-01

    Global climate underwent a major reorganization when the Antarctic ice sheet expanded ~14 million years ago (Ma) (1). This event affected global atmospheric circulation, including the strength and position of the westerlies and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), and, therefore, precipitation patterns (2–5). We present new shallow-marine sediment records from the continental shelf of Australia (International Ocean Discovery Program Sites U1459 and U1464) providing the first empirical evidence linking high-latitude cooling around Antarctica to climate change in the (sub)tropics during the Miocene. We show that Western Australia was arid during most of the Middle Miocene. Southwest Australia became wetter during the Late Miocene, creating a climate gradient with the arid interior, whereas northwest Australia remained arid throughout. Precipitation and river runoff in southwest Australia gradually increased from 12 to 8 Ma, which we relate to a northward migration or intensification of the westerlies possibly due to increased sea ice in the Southern Ocean (5). Abrupt aridification indicates that the westerlies shifted back to a position south of Australia after 8 Ma. Our midlatitude Southern Hemisphere data are consistent with the inference that expansion of sea ice around Antarctica resulted in a northward movement of the westerlies. In turn, this may have pushed tropical atmospheric circulation and the ITCZ northward, shifting the main precipitation belt over large parts of Southeast Asia (4). PMID:28508066

  3. Eroders on a Plane with Three States at a Point. Part I: Deterministic

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santana, L. H.; Ramos, A. D.; Toom, A.

    2015-06-01

    Imagine a huge (in theory, infinite) space, whose elements are called components. We say that we have a configuration, if for every component we have specified its state. All components have one and the same finite set of possible states and one of the elements of is called zero. If all the components of a configuration are zeros, we call it "all zeros". We are especially interested in those configurations, in which only a bounded set of components are in a state different from zero; such a configuration is called an island. Our time is discrete and we may imagine that, due to the forces of nature, at every time step the whole configuration (landscape) is subject to a deterministic uniform local rule such that non-zero components may appear only in the vicinity of already existing non-zero components (like in percolation or contact processes). We say that an operator erodes an island if there is a natural such that "all zeros", that is iterative applications of turn into "all zeros". We call an eroder if it erodes all islands. We look for an algorithm which decides for any whether it is an eroder or not and does it make islands grow or not. In general this problem is algorithmically unsolvable, so we need to restrict our scope; in addition to the afore-mentioned conditions we assume that is monotonic. Studying such processes one has to decide whether time and space are discrete or continuous and in this study we choose discrete time and continuous space just because this case is underrepresented in the literature. But especially important is the set of possible states of every single component. Years ago one of us (A. Toom) presented a rule to decide whether is an eroder for the case when every component has only two possible states. A. Toom also showed that if is an eroder, then it erodes any island in time, which is linear in the diameter of the island. In this work every component has three possible states. It turned out that the difference between two and three

  4. The Brahmaputra tale of tectonics and erosion: Early Miocene river capture in the Eastern Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracciali, Laura; Najman, Yani; Parrish, Randall R.; Akhter, Syed H.; Millar, Ian

    2015-04-01

    provide further support to this interpretation. River capture may have been caused by a change in relative base level due to uplift of the Tibetan plateau. Assuming such river capture occurred via the Siang River in the Early Miocene, we refute the "tectonic aneurysm" model of tectonic-erosion coupling between river capture and rapid exhumation of the eastern syntaxis, since a time interval of at least 10 Ma between these two events is now demonstrated. This work is also the first to highlight U-Pb dating on detrital rutile as a powerful approach in provenance studies in the Himalaya in combination with zircon U-Pb chronology.

  5. Geospatial approach in mapping soil erodibility using CartoDEM – A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soil erodibility is one of the most important factors used in spatial soil erosion risk assessment. Soil information derived .... management. Availability of DEM at varying spa- tial resolution (10–90 m) facilitated the characteri- zation of terrain parameters at various scales. The ... is 805 ha. The climate is characterized as humid.

  6. Impacts of land use conversion on soil properties and soil erodibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkanc, Selma Yasar; Ozyuvaci, Necdet; Hizal, Ahmet

    2008-05-01

    Land use conversion can affect natural ecological processes such as surface runoff and erosion. Therefore, it has potential to change soil stability To investigate this process in depth, Iskalan creek catchment in the Black sea region, where excessive land use applications and erosion events have often occured, was selected as the study area. The objective was to determine the effects of land use conversion on soil properties, soil erodibility and the relationships among soil properties and some erodibility indices. Duplicate topsoil samples were taken by using steel cylinders at 100 different sampling points from three different land use types; 34 of them are in farmlands, 34 in rangelands and 32 in forestlands. Soil particle size distribution, loss of ignition, pH, electrical conductivity skeleton percentage and three erodibility indices were determined. Data were analysed by using Pearson correlation analysis (at 95% and 99% significance level), ANOVA and Tukey's test at 95 % significance level. According to study results, land use conversion affects some properties of soils significantly Loss of ignition of soils in forests was significantly higher than soils in farmlands and rangelands. Soil skeleton percentage in rangelands and farmlands were significantly different. The study results showed that there was significant difference between pH of soils in forests and farmlands (p properties such as clay and sand fraction of soils (p Topsoils of the study area were sensitive to erosion according to all three erodibility indices. The most sensitive soils were in farmlands.

  7. Glyphosate and AMPA distribution in wind-eroded sediment derived from loess soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins Bento, Celia; Goossens, Dirk; Rezaei, Mahrooz; Riksen, M.J.P.M.; Mol, J.G.J.; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.

    2017-01-01

    Glyphosate is one of the most used herbicides in agricultural lands worldwide. Wind-eroded sediment and dust, as an environmental transport pathway of glyphosate and of its main metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), can result in environmental- and human exposure far beyond the agricultural

  8. Eroded dentin does not jeopardize the bond strength of adhesive restorative materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Barros Cruz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study evaluated the bond strength of adhesive restorative materials to sound and eroded dentin. Thirty-six bovine incisors were embedded in acrylic resin and ground to obtain flat buccal dentin surfaces. Specimens were randomly allocated in 2 groups: sound dentin (immersion in artificial saliva and eroded dentin (pH cycling model - 3× / cola drink for 7 days. Specimens were then reassigned according to restorative material: glass ionomer cement (KetacTM Molar Easy Mix, resin-modified glass ionomer cement (VitremerTM or adhesive system with resin composite (Adper Single Bond 2 + Filtek Z250. Polyethylene tubes with an internal diameter of 0.76 mm were placed over the dentin and filled with the material. The microshear bond test was performed after 24 h of water storage at 37ºC. The failure mode was evaluated using a stereomicroscope (400×. Bond strength data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests (α = 0.05. Eroded dentin showed bond strength values similar to those for sound dentin for all materials. The adhesive system showed the highest bond strength values, regardless of the substrate (p < 0.0001. For all groups, the adhesive/mixed failure prevailed. In conclusion, adhesive materials may be used in eroded dentin without jeopardizing the bonding quality. It is preferable to use an etch-and-rinse adhesive system because it shows the highest bond strength values compared with the glass ionomer cements tested.

  9. Turbidity current hydraulics and sediment deposition in erodible sinuous channels: Laboratory experiments and numerical simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janocko, M.; Cartigny, M.J.B.; Nemec, W.; Hansen, E.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between the hydraulics of turbidity currents in erodible sinuous channels and the resulting intra-channel sediment depocentres (channel bars). Four factors are considered to exert critical control on sedimentation in sinuous submarine channels: (1) the

  10. High resolution satellite derived erodibility factors for WRF/Chem windblown dust simulations in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremades, Pablo Gabriel; Fernandez, Rafael Pedro; Allend, David; Mulena, Celeste; Puliafito, Salvador Enrique

    2017-04-01

    A proper representation of dust sources is critical to accurately predict atmospheric particle concentrations in regional windblown dust simulations. The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF/Chem) includes a topographic-based erodibility map originally conceived for global scale modeling, which fails to identify the geographical location of dust sources in many regions of Argentina. Therefore, this study aims at developing a method to obtain a high-resolution erodibility map suitable for regional or local scale modeling using WRF/Chem. We present two independent approaches based on global methods to estimate soil erodibility using satellite retrievals, i.e. topography from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and surface reflectance from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Simulation results of a severe Zonda wind episode in the arid central-west Argentina serve as bases for the analysis of these methods. Simulated dust concentration at surface level is compared with particulate matter measurements at one site in Mendoza city. In addition, we use satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals to investigate model performance in reproducing spatial distribution of dust emissions. The erodibility map based on surface reflectance from MODIS improves the representation of small scale features, and increases the overall dust aerosol loading with respect to the standard map included by default. Simulated concentrations are in good agreement with measurements as well as satellite derived dust spatial distribution.

  11. Assessment of Soil erodibility Indices and Soil wash in a miniature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil erodibility indices show mean values of 2.29% for critical level of soil organic matter content, 2.26 for clay ratio, 2.10 for modified clay ratio and 78.79% for dispersion ratio. These results imply that there was a great loss of soil structure and high susceptibility of the soils to erosion during a single rainy season.

  12. Tracking Arabia-India motion from Miocene to Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamot-Rooke, N. R.; Fournier, M.

    2009-12-01

    Although small, the present-day Arabia-India motion has been captured by several global and regional geodetic surveys that consistently show dextral motion of a few mm/yr, either transpressive or transtensive (Fournier et al., 2008). This motion is accommodated along the Owen Fracture Zone, an active strike-slip boundary that runs for more than 700 km from the Somalia-India-Arabia triple junction in the south to the Dalrymple trough in the north. Two recent marine cruises conducted along this fault aboard the BHO Beautemps-Beaupré (AOC 2006 and OWEN 2009) using a high resolution multibeam sounder (Simrad EM120, 10 m vertical resolution) provided a complete map of the active fault and confirmed a present-day pure dextral motion. The surface breaks closely follow a small circle of the Arabia-India motion, with several pull-part basins at the junctions between the main segments of the fault. Geomorphologic offsets reach 10 km, suggesting that the mapped fault has been active with the same style for past several million years. When did this motion start? The difficulty in tracking the past Arabia-India motion is that there is no direct kinematic indicator available, since the boundary has been strike-slip and/or convergent during the Tertiary. Motion was most probably sinistral during the rapid northward travelling of India towards Eurasia in the early Tertiary, Arabia being rigidly attached to Africa until the opening of the Gulf of Aden. However, the nature and location of the Arabia-India boundary at that time remain speculative. Throughout the Miocene, the relative motion between India and Arabia has been indirectly recorded at the Sheba and Carslberg ridges, the former recording Arabia-Somalia motion (opening of the Gulf of Aden) and the latter India-Somalia motion (Indian Ocean opening). Both ridges have been studied with some details recently, using up to date magnetic lineations identification (Merkouriev and DeMets, 2006; Fournier et al., 2009). We combine

  13. Erodibility of a mixed mudflat dominated by microphytobenthos and Cerastoderma edule, East Frisian Wadden Sea, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, T. J.; Lanuru, M.; van Bernem, C.; Pejrup, M.; Riethmueller, R.

    2010-04-01

    Sediment erodibility and a range of physical and biological parameters were measured at an intertidal site in the German Wadden Sea area in June, September and November 2002 and February and April 2003 in order to examine the influence of macrozoobenthos and microphytobenthos on sediment erodibility and the temporal variation. The study site was a mixed mudflat situated in the mesotidal Baltrum-Langeoog tidal basin at the East Frisian barrier coast. The mud content at the site was about 35% and the filter-feeding cockle Cerastoderma edule was the dominating macrozoobenthic species (by biomass). The erodibility of the sediment showed strong temporal variation with high erosion thresholds in spring and late summer and significantly lower thresholds during the rest of the study period. The erosion thresholds were strongly dependent on the contents of chlorophyll a (chl a) and colloidal carbohydrates, both indicators of the content of microphytobenthos, in this environment primarily benthic diatoms. The content of microphytobenthos was high in September 2002 and April 2003, and regression analysis indicated that this was the only likely reason for the low erodibility found at these times. A biostabilisation index of about 4.5 was found for a situation with both abundant biofilms and cockles. A direct influence of Cerastoderma edule on erodibility was not observed, in contrast to other recent studies. The presence of C. edule at the site results in biodeposition of fine-grained material and the presence of C. edule will therefore probably increase the content of fine-grained sediments at the surface compared to an abiotic situation. Increasing the amount of fine-grained material in mixed sediments has previously been shown to reduce the erodibility of the sediments and C. edule will therefore in this way indirectly stabilize the bed. However, although C. edule may constitute the main part of the biomass at some intertidal sites, other and more vigorous bioturbators and

  14. Miocene vegetation shift and climate change: Evidence from the Siwalik of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Gaurav; Paudayal, Khum N.; Utescher, Torsten; Mehrotra, R. C.

    2018-02-01

    We reconstruct climate and vegetation applying the Coexistence Approach (CA) methodology on two palaeofloras recovered from the Lower (middle Miocene; 13-11 Ma) and Middle Siwalik (late Miocene; 9.5-6.8 Ma) sediments of Surai Khola section, Nepal. The reconstructed mean annual temperature (MAT) and cold month mean temperature (CMT) show an increasing trend, while warm month mean temperature (WMT) remains nearly the same during the period. The reconstructed precipitation data indicates that the summer monsoon precipitation was nearly the same during the middle and late Miocene, while the winter season precipitation significantly decreased in the late Miocene. The overall precipitation infers increased rainfall seasonality during the late Miocene. The vegetation during the middle Miocene was dominated by wet evergreen taxa, whereas deciduous ones increased significantly during the late Miocene. The reconstructed climate data indicates that high temperature and significantly low precipitation during the winter season (dry season) in the late Miocene might have enhanced forest fire which favoured the expansion of C4 plants over C3 plants during the period. This idea gets further support not only from a recent forest fire in northern India that was caused by the weakening of winter precipitation, but also from the burnt wood recovered from the late Miocene Siwalik sediments of northern India.

  15. Mass Estimation of Santacrucian Sloths from the Early Miocene Santa Cruz Formation of Patagonia, Argentina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Néstor Toledo; Guillermo Hernán Cassini; Sergio Fabián Vizcaíno; M. Susana Bargo

    Miocene deposits of the Santa Cruz Formation, Patagonia, comprise a diverse and excellently preserved vertebrate fauna, allowing detailed paleobiological and paleoecological studies based on three ecological parameters...

  16. Eroding vs. Depositional Sites: Varying Sensitivity of CO2 Emissions to Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Du, Lanlan; Hu, Yaxian; Guo, Shengli

    2017-04-01

    Erosion induced lateral transport of soil particles not only geographically redistributes soil organic carbon (SOC) across landscapes, but also relocate them to different microclimate conditions, potentially experiencing distinctive biochemical processes. To fully understand the impacts of soil erosion to atmospheric CO2, it requires to identify individual contributions from different geographic positions. Apart from differentiated CO2 emission potentials on eroding and depositional sites, previous reports have also recognized that the extents of SOC mineralization during transport can shift erosion induced effects from net sink to net source. However, most of the research or modeling has been carried out under current climate conditions. With more variable temperature patterns in the future, it is essential to understand the varying sensitivity of CO2 emissions to temperature changes on eroding and depositional sites. To systematically investigate the potential effects of temperature changes to erosion-induced CO2 emissions, four erosion plots were set up on the Chinese Loess Plateau. Each of the four plots had an eroding slope (1 m * 5 m, inclined at 20) filled with dark loess soil, and a depositional site (water tank by 1 m * 1 m) at the lower end. Soil temperature, soil moisture and CO2 emissions from surface at upper, middle and lower positions on each plot were continuously monitored from July 2014 to September 2015 under natural precipitation. Our results show that: 1) The depositional sites had up to 31% greater CO2 emission rates than the eroding slopes (1.38 vs. 1.05 µmol m-2 s-1 on average). This was probably because the mineralization of the enriched SOC at the depositional sites (6% greater than the original soil of 6.83 g kg-1 ) was enhanced by the more favorable soil moisture contents (0.25 m3 m-3 vs. 0.21 m3 m-3 at the eroding slopes). 2) The CO2 emissions from the depositional sites were much more sensitive to seasonal temperature changes

  17. Middle Miocene carnivorans from the Monarch Mill Formation, Nevada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent Smith

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available he lowest part of the Monarch Mill Formation in the Middlegate basin, west-central Nevada, has yielded a middle Miocene (Barstovian Land Mammal Age vertebrate assemblage, the Eastgate local fauna. Paleobotanical evidence from nearby, nearly contemporaneous fossil leaf assemblages indicates that the Middle Miocene vegetation in the area was mixed coniferous and hardwood forest and chaparral-sclerophyllous shrubland, and suggests that the area had been uplifted to 2700–2800 m paleoaltitude before dropping later to near its present elevation of 1600 m. Thus, the local fauna provides a rare glimpse at a medium- to high-altitude vertebrate community in the intermountain western interior of North America. The local fauna includes the remains of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and 25 families of mammals. Carnivorans, the focus of this study, include six taxa (three of which are new belonging to four families. Canidae are represented by the borophagine Tomarctus brevirostris and the canine Leptocyon sp. indet. The earliest record and second North American occurrence of the simocyonine ailurid Actiocyon is represented by A. parverratis sp. nov. Two new mustelids, Brevimalictis chikasha gen. et sp. nov. and Negodiaetictis rugatrulleum gen. et sp. nov., may represent Galictinae but are of uncertain subfamilial and tribal affinity. The fourth family is represented by the felid Pseudaelurus sp. indet. Tomarctus brevirostris is limited biochronologically to the Barstovian land mammal age and thus is consistent with the age indicated by other members of the Eastgate local fauna as well as by indirect tephrochronological dates previously associated with the Monarch Mill Formation. Actiocyon parverratis sp. nov. extends the temporal range of the genus Actiocyon from late Clarendonian back to the Barstovian. The Eastgate local fauna improves our understanding of mammalian successions and evolution, during and subsequent to the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum

  18. Miocene Vetigastropoda and Neritimorpha (Mollusca, Gastropoda) of central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Sven N.; Frassinetti, Daniel; Bandel, Klaus

    2004-09-01

    Species of Vetigastropoda (Fissurellidae, Turbinidae, Trochidae) and one species of Neritimorpha (Neritidae) from the Navidad area, south of Valparaı´so, and the Arauco Peninsula, south of Concepción, are described. Among these, the Fissurellidae comprise Diodora fragilis n. sp., Diodora pupuyana n. sp., two additional unnamed species of Diodora, and a species resembling Fissurellidea. Turbinidae are represented by Cantrainea sp., and Trochidae include Tegula (Chlorostoma) austropacifica n. sp., Tegula (Chlorostoma) chilena n. sp., Tegula (Chlorostoma) matanzensis n. sp., Tegula (Agathistoma) antiqua n. sp., Bathybembix mcleani n. sp., Gibbula poeppigii [Philippi, 1887] n. comb., Diloma miocenica n. sp., Fagnastesia venefica [Philippi, 1887] n. gen. n. comb., Fagnastesia matanzana n. gen. n. sp., Calliostoma mapucherum n. sp., Calliostoma kleppi n. sp., Calliostoma covacevichi n. sp., Astele laevis [Sowerby, 1846] n. comb., and Monilea riorapelensis n. sp. The Neritidae are represented by Nerita (Heminerita) chilensis [Philippi, 1887]. The new genus Fagnastesia is introduced to represent low-spired trochoideans with a sculpture of nodes below the suture, angulated whorls, and a wide umbilicus. This Miocene Chilean fauna includes genera that have lived at the coast and in shallow, relatively warm water or deeper, much cooler water. This composition therefore suggests that many of the Miocene formations along the central Chilean coast consist of displaced sediments. A comparison with different fossil and Recent faunas from around the Pacific and South America indicates that the vetigastropod and neritid fauna from the Miocene of Chile has only minor affinities with taxa living near New Zealand, Argentina, and the tropical eastern Pacific at that time.

  19. Incorporation of Fine-Grained Sediment Erodibility Measurements into Sediment Transport Modeling, Capitol Lake, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Andrew W.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Elias, Edwin; Jones, Craig

    2008-01-01

    Capitol Lake was created in 1951 with the construction of a concrete dam and control gate that prevented salt-water intrusion into the newly formed lake and regulated flow of the Deschutes River into southern Puget Sound. Physical processes associated with the former tidally dominated estuary were altered, and the dam structure itself likely caused an increase in retention of sediment flowing into the lake from the Deschutes River. Several efforts to manage sediment accumulation in the lake, including dredging and the construction of sediment traps upriver, failed to stop the lake from filling with sediment. The Deschutes Estuary Feasibility Study (DEFS) was carried out to evaluate the possibility of removing the dam and restoring estuarine processes as an alternative ongoing lake management. An important component of DEFS was the creation of a hydrodynamic and sediment transport model of the restored Deschutes Estuary. Results from model simulations indicated that estuarine processes would be restored under each of four restoration alternatives, and that over time, the restored estuary would have morphological features similar to the predam estuary. The model also predicted that after dam-removal, a large portion of the sediment eroded from the lake bottom would be deposited near the Port of Olympia and a marina located in lower Budd Inlet seaward of the present dam. The volume of sediment transported downstream was a critical piece of information that managers needed to estimate the total cost of the proposed restoration project. However, the ability of the model to predict the magnitude of sediment transport in general and, in particular, the volume of sediment deposition in the port and marina was limited by a lack of information on the erodibility of fine-grained sediments in Capitol Lake. Cores at several sites throughout Capitol Lake were collected between October 31 and November 1, 2007. The erodibility of sediments in the cores was later determined in the

  20. Tracing peatland geomorphology: sediment and contaminant movements in eroding and restored systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttleworth, Emma; Evans, Martin; Hutchinson, Simon; Rothwell, James

    2015-04-01

    Peatlands are an important store of soil carbon, play a vital role in global carbon cycling, and can also act as sinks of atmospherically deposited heavy metals. However, large areas of blanket peat are significantly degraded and actively eroding as a direct result of anthropogenic pressures, which negatively impacts carbon and pollutant storage. The restoration of eroding UK peatlands is a major conservation concern, and over the last decade measures have been taken to control erosion and restore large areas of degraded peat. In severely eroded peatlands, topography is highly variable, and an appreciation of geomorphological form and process is key in understanding the controls on peatland function, and in mitigating the negative impacts of peatland erosion. The blanket peats of the Peak District, Southern Pennines, UK embody many problems and pressures faced by peatlands globally, and are amongst the most heavily eroded and contaminated in the world. The near-surface layer of the peat is contaminated by high concentrations of anthropogenically derived, atmospherically deposited heavy metals which are released into the fluvial system as a consequence of widespread erosion. Whilst not desirable, this legacy of lead pollution and its release offer a unique opportunity to trace peatland sediment movements and thus investigate the controls on sediment and contaminant mobility. A suite of established field, analytical and modelling techniques have been modified and adapted for use in peatland environments and these have been successfully employed in combination to address issues of sediment and contaminant release at a range of scales, including: (i) the development of field portable XRF to assess in situ lead concentrations in wet organic sediments; (ii) adaptation of time integrated mass flux samplers to explore spatial and temporal sediment dynamics in peatland streams; and (iii) the application of sediment source fingerprinting and numerical mixing models to

  1. The influence of biochar on substrate erodibility: An experimental approach with simulated rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Steffen; Geißler, Christian; Goebes, Philipp; Teuber, Sandra; Scholten, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Biochar is charcoal made from biomass by pyrolysis and used as a soil amendment. The addition of biochar to topsoils can lead to significant changes in soil characteristics. Nevertheless, the impact of biochar on soil functions is a controversial subject. It generally results from specific influences of substrates and biochar on the equilibrium between release (e.g. desorption) and fixation (e.g. adsorption) mechanisms. Furthermore, physical effects between soil and biochar are reported, which affect soil texture and thus mostly the transport and storage of water in substrates. It seems likely that while biochar influences biochemical and -physical processes, it can also affect soil erodibility. To investigate this assumption, an experimental rainfall simulation with splash cups was conducted. Different types ("HTC", "Pyrochar"; Delinat, Switzerland), sizes (biochar (2 %, 6 %, 10 %) were used in two substrates (sand and silt). Rainfall was induced with a single-nozzle rainfall simulator (Tübingen Rainfall Simulator) under a portable light frame tent (16 m3). The simulator was equipped with a Lechler 460.788.30 nozzle and adjusted to a drop falling height of 3.5 m (pressure at nozzle: 150 hPa). The sprinkle area was 1 m2 and rainfall was applied for 10 min with an intensity of 50 mm h-1 for all simulation runs (KE=5.13 J m-2 mm-1). The drop size spectrum and intensity of the simulator were calibrated and continuously checked using a "Laser Precipitation Monitor" (Thies GmbH) to ensure homogeneous rain characteristics. Results showed that the erodibility of both sand (p=0.006) and silt (p=0.094) decreased with biochar addition compared to treatments without biochar addition. The erodibility of sand was lower with HTC-char than with Pyrochar, but in silt it was lower with Pyrochar than with HTC-char. Nevertheless, the biochar type did not affect erodibility significantly. Sediment detachment was three-times higher in silt than in sand, both with and without biochar

  2. Large-eddy simulation of the flow over a hydrokinetic turbine mounted on an erodible bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolei; Khosronejad, Ali; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2013-11-01

    Marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy comprises an important source of clean and renewable energy. The beds of natural waterways are usually erodible. The hydrokinetic turbines affect the sediment transport, which, on the other hand, also influences the performance of hydrokinetic turbines. A powerful computational framework for simulating marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) turbine arrays mounted in complex river bathymetry with sediment transport has been developed and validated by our group. In this work we apply this method to simulate the turbulent flow over a hydrokinetic turbine mounted in an open channel with erodible bed. Preliminary results show qualitatively good agreement with the experiment. Detailed comparison with measurements and analysis of the simulation results will be presented in the conference. This work was supported by the University of Minnesota Initiative for Renewable Energy and the Environment IREE (grant no RO-0004-12). Computational resources were provided by the University of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.

  3. Two new dragonflies (Odonata: Anisoptera) from the Miocene of Carinthia (Austria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädel, Mario; Lechner, Thomas S

    2017-03-13

    Two new species of fossil dragonflies from the Middle Miocene fossil site Schaßbach (Carinthia, Austria) are described. The presence of Gomphaeschna carinthiae sp. nov. and Ictinogomphus hassleri sp. nov. in the fossil record of Central Europe confirms the scenario of a more widespread distribution of the represented genera in the Miocene in contrast to their Recent distribution.

  4. A fruit wing of Shorea Roxb. from the Early Miocene sediments of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 121; Issue 1. A fruit wing of Shorea Roxb. from the Early Miocene ... A new fossil fruit wing of Shorea Roxb. belonging to the family Dipterocarpaceae is described from the Early Miocene sediments of Kachchh, Gujarat. It resembles best the extant species Shorea ...

  5. Paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental records of the Oligocene-Miocene transition, central Jylland, Denmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sliwinska, K.K.; Dybkjær, K.; Schoon, P.L.; Beyer, C.; King, C.; Schouten, S.; Nielsen, O.B.

    2014-01-01

    A multidisciplinary study of the Oligocene/Miocene (O/M) transition was carried in two boreholes (Harre-1 and Horn-1) from the Danish land area in order to improve the understanding of the paleodimatological and environmental changes across the Mi-1, the earliest Miocene cooling event.

  6. The erodibility of upland soils and the design of preafforestation drainage networks in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carling, Paul A.; Glaister, Mark S.; Flintham, Tim P.

    1997-12-01

    Hydraulic thresholds for erosion of fourteen upland mineral and organic soils were determined in a hydraulic flume. These soils are from areas to be afforested in the United Kingdom. Some of the group are erosion resistant but others are susceptible to erosion once denuded of vegetation; for example, by preafforestation ploughing. These threshold data were required to calibrate a hydraulic model for effective design of preafforestation drainage networks on a variety of soils. However, simple field measures of soil properties indicative of erosion potential would be of value to the forestry industry for management purposes. Consequently, hydraulic threshold data were related by linear regression methods to basic soil properties, including organic content, grain size, bulk density, compression strength and penetration resistance.The investigation concluded that four peat soils are not eroded by clear water velocities up to 5·7 m s-1, although a mineral bedload might induce erosion at lesser current speeds. Penetration resistance is a good field indicator of the degree of humification of the peat soils. Although selected physical parameters contribute resistance to water erosion, an increased organic content is pre-eminent in reducing erosion susceptibility in both organic and mineral soils. Although compressive strength was not indicative of soil erodibility, field measurements of penetration resistance on a variety of soils could be related to hydraulic thresholds of erosion; albeit through the construction of discriminant functions interpolated by eye. Consequently, organic content (laboratory) or penetration resistance (field) might form the basis of classifying upland soils in terms of erodibility.Mineral soils differ widely in terms of their erodibility, so that subject to further consideration, the use of ploughing for forestry cultivation might be appropriate in wider circumstances than presently recommended by the Forests and Water Guidelines. Ploughing

  7. A conservative treatment approach using direct composite resins for anterior teeth eroded by lemon sucking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Vanara Florencio; de Souza, Andre Mattos Brito; Rodrigues, Lidiany Karla Azevedo; Bombonatti, Juliana Campos Fraga Soares; Santiago, Sergio Lima

    2013-08-01

    An excessively acidic diet results in the progressive deterioration of dental health, with functional, esthetic, and biological consequences. Previously, rehabilitation required placing numerous full crowns and root canal treatments; however, with improved adhesive techniques, a more conservative approach may be utilized to preserve tooth structure. This article describes 2 cases that utilized conservative dental treatments (involving direct composite resins with minimal preparation of the tooth structure) to treat eroded dentition induced by lemon sucking.

  8. Experimental Investigation of process parameters influence on machining Inconel 800 in the Electrical Spark Eroding Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, K.; Chandrasekaran, M.

    2016-11-01

    The Electrical Spark Eroding Machining is an entrenched sophisticated machining process for producing complex geometry with close tolerances in hard materials like super alloy which are extremely difficult-to-machine by using conventional machining processes. It is sometimes offered as a better alternative or sometimes as an only alternative for generating accurate 3D complex shapes of macro, micro and nano-features in such difficult-to-machine materials among other advanced machining processes. The accomplishment of such challenging task by use of Electrical Spark Eroding Machining or Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is depending upon selection of apt process parameters. This paper is about analyzing the influencing of parameter in electrical eroding machining for Inconel 800 with electrolytic copper as a tool. The experimental runs were performed with various input conditions to process Inconel 800 nickel based super alloy for analyzing the response of material removal rate, surface roughness and tool wear rate. These are the measures of performance of individual experimental value of parameters such as pulse on time, Pulse off time, peak current. Taguchi full factorial Design by using Minitab release 14 software was employed to meet the manufacture requirements of preparing process parameter selection card for Inconel 800 jobs. The individual parameter's contribution towards surface roughness was observed from 13.68% to 64.66%.

  9. Sorption and dissipation of aged metolachlor residues in eroded and rehabilitated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Alegría; Papiernik, Sharon K; Koskinen, William C; Rice, Pamela J

    2012-09-01

    Sorption and dissipation of aged metolachlor were characterized in rehabilitated and eroded prairie soils using sequential batch slurry (conventional) and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). In spite of an almost twofold difference in soil organic carbon (OC) content, S-metolachlor sorption coefficients (K(d)) and dissipation rates (DT(50)) were the same in soils from different landscape positions within an eroded landform. Soil was moved within the landform to increase productivity. In areas receiving topsoil addition, S-metolachlor K(d) was higher and DT(50) was longer than in eroded areas. The efficiency of extraction was higher for ASE than for conventional extractions. No consistent aging effect on K(d) was observed. Mineralization in 8 weeks accounted for properties, including OC concentrations. Altering soil properties by adding topsoil increased metolachlor sorption and persistence. The method of extraction (conventional versus ASE) affected calculated sorption coefficients and dissipation rates. In all cases, groundwater ubiquity scores (GUSs) categorized metolachlor as having intermediate mobility. Published 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Numerical modeling of submarine turbidity currents over erodible beds using unstructured grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Infante Sedano, Julio Ángel; Mohammadian, Abdolmajid

    2017-05-01

    Second-order central-upwind schemes proposed by Bryson et al. (2011) for the Saint-Venant system have two very attractive properties: well-balanced and positivity preserving, which are originally designed for constant fluid density and fixed beds in Bryson et al. (2011). For the turbidity current system with variable density over erodible beds, such desired properties can be obtained by developing a well-balanced and positivity preserving central-upwind scheme following the ideas in Bryson et al. (2011). To this end, in this paper, a coupled numerical model for two-dimensional depth-averaged turbidity current system over erodible beds is developed using finite volume method on triangular grids. The proposed numerical model is second-order accurate in space using piecewise linear reconstruction and third-order accurate in time using a strong stability preserving Runge-Kutta method. Applying the central-upwind method to estimate numerical fluxes through cell interfaces, the model can successfully deal with sharp gradients in turbidity flows. The developed numerical model can preserve the well-balanced property over irregular bottom, guarantee the non-negative turbidity current depth over erodible beds, and preserving the positivity of suspended sediment. These features of the developed numerical model and its robustness and accuracy are demonstrated in several numerical tests.

  11. The Influence of Eroded Blades on Wind Turbine Performance Using Numerical Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schramm

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available During their operation, wind turbine blades are eroded due to rain and hail, or they are contaminated with insects. Since the relative inflow velocity is higher at the outer than at the inner part of the blades, erosion occurs mostly at the outer blade region. In order to prevent strong erosion, it is possible to install a leading edge protection, which can be applied to the blades after the initial installation, but changes the shape of the initial airfoil sections. It is unclear how this modification influences the aerodynamic performance of the turbine. Hence, it is investigated in this work. The NREL 5 MW turbine is simulated with clean and eroded blades, which are compared to coated blades equipped with leading edge protection. Aerodynamic polars are generated by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics, and load calculations are conducted using the blade element momentum theory. The analysis in this work shows that, compared to clean rotor blades, the worse aerodynamic behaviour of strongly eroded blades can lead to power losses of 9 % . In contrast, coated blades only have a small impact on the turbine power of less than 1 % .

  12. A macroecological glance at the structure of late Miocene rodent assemblages from Southwest Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Ana Rosa Gómez; Cantalapiedra, Juan L.; Álvarez-Sierra, M. Ángeles; Fernández, Manuel Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Deep-time perspectives in macroecology are essential with regard to understanding the impact of climate forcing on faunal communities. Using late Miocene rodent faunas (12 to 5 Ma) from two different biogeographical provinces from southwestern Europe, we asked whether the waxing and waning of faunas with dissimilar ecological affinities tracked climate in different ways. The latest middle Miocene featured a fauna dominated by dormice with forest and mixed-habitat affinities. This group declined towards the Upper Miocene. Rodent taxa with the highest values of richness at the beginning of the Upper Miocene are generalists in the southern province and specialists of forested habitats in the northern province. Finally, we identified a third, increasingly significant group of rodents linked to open landscapes towards the end of the Miocene. These three broad ecological groups showed differential responses to a complex set of interconnected circumstances, including the biogeographic structure of the study area and climatic changes throughout time. PMID:25297009

  13. Late Cretaceous to Miocene cooling patterns in the Eastern Alps reflecting tectonic interactions of the Alps-Adria-Carpathian system

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelder, Inge; Willingshofer, Ernst; Schuster, Ralf; Andriessen, Paul; Sokoutis, Dimitrios

    2017-04-01

    New structural and thermochronological (Rb-Sr biotite and zircon and apatite fission track) data constrain the deformation and exhumation history of the eastern most Alps and highlight distinct differences compared to the western Eastern Alps, including the Tauern Window. The new data has been collected along and in the surroundings of the Mur-Mürz fault (MMF), an area that hitherto had a scarce availability of low and medium temperature thermochronological data but is a key area to understand and quantify the influence of processes, such as Pannonian back-arc extension, on the Eastern Alps evolution. The obtained cooling ages document rapid (ca. 15°C/Ma) and diachronous exhumation during the Late Cretaceous to Paleocene with an eastward youngening of cooling ages across a greenschist facies normal shear zone. We interpret this cooling pattern as a post-metamorphic exhumation occurring during Campanian-Maastrichtian synorogenic extension that is characterized by an east directed migration. We suggest that oblique subduction of the Alpine Tethys or slab roll-back driven processes during final closure of the Neotethys could both be mechanisms that drive this eastward migration. Subsequently, the eastern most Alps reflect Eocene to Oligocene slow cooling (ca. 2°C/Ma) suggesting that the region was unaffected by significant crustal thickening or erosion which strongly contrasts with the units exposed in the Tauern Window and surrounding Austroalpine units. The slow cooling continued far into the Miocene and is contemporaneous with early Miocene kinematics that reflect a pre-extrusion NW-SE contraction followed by syn-extrusion NE-SW to NNE-SSW contraction recorded by middle Miocene strike-slip faulting. Field kinematics and cooling ages located on opposite sides of the MMF suggest that lateral extrusion in the eastern most Alps is not associated with significant vertical motions but is rather restricted to lateral motions along dispersed strike-slip faults. This

  14. Paleoclimatic and paleoecological reconstruction of early Miocene terrestrial equatorial deposits, Rusinga and Mfangano Islands, Lake Victoria, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, L. A.; Peppe, D. J.; McNulty, K. P.; Driese, S. G.; Lutz, J.; Nightingale, S.; Maxbauer, D. P.; Horner, W. H.; DiPietro, L. M.; Lehmann, T.; Dunsworth, H. M.; Harcourt-Smith, W. E.; Ogondo, J.

    2012-12-01

    Biological responses to climatic shifts are often studied to inform us on future anthropogenic-driven climate change. However, few of these climatic shifts occur over time scales appropriate to modern change and few occur with biota similar to modern. The Miocene Climatic Optimum is an ideal interval to study because of its rapid duration and because it occurred during the rise and proliferation of apes. The sediments on Rusinga and Mfangano Islands, Lake Victoria, Kenya were deposited between 18 and 20 Ma and record a changing equatorial climate just prior to the Miocene Climate Optimum. This location also offers an opportunity to use multiple proxies to constrain climate and landscape, including paleosol geochemistry, paleobotany and paleontology. Additionally, due to the rich fossil preservation on the islands, climatic shifts are framed within the context of early caterrhine evolution. Here, we report a climate shift recorded through three time slices spanning two formations over ~2 myr. The oldest unit, the Wayando Formation, records an arid, probably open ecosystem with pedogenic calcite rhizoliths, a high groundwater table, poorly-formed paleosols and permineralized sedges. The middle time slice, the Grit Member-Fossil Bed Member contact of the Hiwegi Formation, shows evidence of a local saline lake, with desiccation features, satin-spar after gypsum deposits and salt hoppers. Paleobotanical and sedimentological data from roughly contemporaneous strata indicate a warm, highly seasonal environment that supported a mixture of woodland and forested elements across the landscape. The youngest unit, which is within the Kibanga Member of the Hiwegi Formation, displays demonstrable evidence for a closed-canopy multistoried forest with the presence of tree-stump casts and permineralized root systems within a red-brown paleosol. Within the same paleosol horizon, the dental remains of the catarrhines Proconsul and Dendropithecus have been discovered in situ. This

  15. Risk assessment of PCDD/Fs levels in human tissues related to major food items based on chemical analyses and micro-EROD assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, H L; Wu, S C; Wong, C K C; Leung, C K M; Tao, S; Wong, M H

    2009-10-01

    Nine groups of food items (freshwater fish, marine fish, pork, chicken, chicken eggs, leafy, non-leafy vegetables, rice and flour) and three types of human samples (human milk, maternal serum and cord serum) were collected for the analysis of PCDD/Fs. Results of chemical analysis revealed PCDD/Fs concentrations (pg g(-1) fat) in the following ascending order: pork (0.289 pg g(-1) fat), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) (freshwater fish) (0.407), golden thread (Nemipterus virgatus) (marine fish) (0.511), chicken (0.529), mandarin fish (Siniperca kneri) (marine fish) (0.535), chicken egg (0.552), and snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) (marine fish) (1.219). The results of micro-EROD assay showed relatively higher PCDD/Fs levels in fish (2.65 pg g(-1) fat) when compared with pork (0.47), eggs (0.33), chicken (0.13), flour (0.07), vegetables (0.05 pg g(-1) wet wt) and rice (0.05). The estimated average daily intake of PCDD/Fs of 3.51 pg EROD-TEQ/kg bw/day was within the range of WHO Tolerable Daily Intake (1-4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day) and was higher than the Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PMTL) (70 pg for dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs) recommended by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) [Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), Summary and conclusions of the fifty-seventh meeting, JECFA, 2001.]. Nevertheless, the current findings were significantly lower than the TDI (14 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/bw/day) recommended by the Scientific Committee on Food of the Europe Commission [European Scientific Committee on Food (EU SCF), Opinions on the SCF on the risk assessment of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in food, 2000.]. However, it should be noted that micro-EROD assay overestimates the PCDD/Fs levels by 2 to 7 folds which may also amplify the PCDD/Fs levels accordingly. Although the levels of PCDD/Fs obtained from micro-EROD assay were much higher than those obtained by chemical analysis by 2 to 7 folds, it provides a cost-effective and

  16. Late Miocene diversification and phylogenetic relationships of the huge toads in the Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758) species group (Anura: Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Natan Medeiros; Collevatti, Rosane Garcia; Colli, Guarino Rinaldi; Schwartz, Elisabeth Ferroni

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the phylogeny and biogeography of the Rhinella marina group, using molecular, morphological, and skin-secretion data, contributing to an understanding of Neotropical faunal diversification. The maximum-parsimony and Bayesian analyzes of the combined data recovered a monophyletic R. marina group. Molecular dating based on Bayesian inferences and fossil calibration placed the earliest phylogenetic split within the R. marina group at ∼ 10.47 MYA, in the late Miocene. Two rapid major diversifications occurred from Central Brazil, first northward (∼ 8.08 MYA) in late Miocene and later southward (∼ 5.17 MYA) in early Pliocene. These results suggest that barriers and dispersal routes created by the uplift of Brazilian Central Shield and climatic changes explain the diversification and current species distributions of the R. marina group. Dispersal-vicariance analyzes (DIVA) indicated that the two major diversifications of the R. marina group were due to vicariance, although eleven dispersals subsequently occurred. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A major Early Miocene thermal pulse due to subduction segmentation and rollback in the western Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spakman, W.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J.; Vissers, R.

    2012-12-01

    Geological studies have shown that Eo-Oligocene subduction related high-pressure, low-temperature metasediments and peridotites of the Alboran region (Spain, Morocco) and the Kabylides (Algeria) experienced a major Early Miocene (~21 Ma) thermal pulse requiring asthenospheric temperatures at ~60 km depth. Despite earlier propositions, the cause of this thermal pulse is still controversial while also the paleogeographic origin of the Alboran and Kabylides units is debated. Here, we relate the thermal pulse to segmentation of the West Alpine-Tethyan slab under the SE Iberian margin (Baleares-Sardinia). We restore the Alboran rocks farther east than previously assumed, to close to the Balearic Islands, adjacent to Sardinia. We identify three major lithosphere faults, the NW-SE trending North Balearic Transform Zone (NBTZ) and the ~W-E trending Emile Baudot and North African transforms that accommodated the Miocene subduction evolution of slab segmentation, rollback, and migration of Alboran and Kabylides rocks to their current positions. The heat pulse occurred S-SE of the Baleares where slab segmentation along the NBTZ triggered radially outgrowing S-SW rollback opening a slab window that facilitated local ascent of asthenosphere below the rapidly extending Alboran-Kabylides accretionary prism. Subsequent slab rollback carried the Kabylides and Alboran domains to their present positions. Our new reconstruction is in line with tomographically imaged mantle structure and focuses attention on the crucial role of evolving subduction segmentation driving HT-metamorphism and subsequent extension, fragmentation, and dispersion of geological terrains.

  18. Evaluation of Soil Erodibility Factor (k forLoess Derived Landforms of Kechik Watershedin Golestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanifeh khormai1

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Globally, Soil erosion is a principal degradation process resulting in negative impacts on different soil functions (food and other biomass production, water storing, filtering and transformation, habitat and gene pool, physical and cultural environment for mankind, and source of raw materials which ultimately causes irreversible effect on the poorly renewable soil resource. Determination of the soil erodibility factor (K-factor is a cumbersome and expensive undertaking in the effort to predict the soil loss rates. Soil erodibility (K-value is a key parameter in erosion prediction and is important for conservation planning in the face of a rising need for protecting the limited land resources. The technique proposed by Wischmeier& Smith for estimating the soil erodibility factor is among the most important methods in this regard. Materials and Methods: Given the high amounts of silt and lime content in loess soils of eastern parts of Golestan province, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of Wischmeier& Smith index to estimate the soil erodibility of this region. In this study, soil erodibility was obtained by Wischmeier’s nomograph and then was compared with the actual values obtained by selecting three plots and then performing physical and chemical tests on these samples. The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE developed by Wischmeier and Smith (1978 is the most frequently used empirical soil erosion model worldwide. Soil erodibility is one of six factors affecting soil erosion in the USLE that reflects the ease with which soil is detached by splash during rainfall, surface flow or both. To check soil erosion,three plots of 15 meters long and three meters wide with a slope of 16 percentwere selected in the next sites of the station. The plots were separated by metal fences to a height of 30 cm,.To measure the soil profile parameters, the sampling was performedin one stage from depth of0-30 cm in the middle of

  19. Paleosols and paleoenvironments of the middle Miocene, Maboko Formation, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retallack, Gregory J; Wynn, Jonathan G; Benefit, Brenda R; Mccrossin, Monte L

    2002-06-01

    The middle Miocene (15 Ma) Maboko Formation of Maboko Island and Majiwa Bluffs, southwestern Kenya, has yielded abundant fossils of the earliest known cercopithecoid monkey (Victoriapithecus macinnesi), and of a kenyapithecine hominoid (Kenyapithecus africanus), as well as rare proconsuline (Simiolus leakeyorum, cf. Limnopithecus evansi) and oreopithecine apes (Mabokopithecus clarki, M. pickfordi), and galagids (Komba winamensis). Specific habitat preferences can be interpreted from large collections of primate fossils in different kinds of paleosols (pedotypes). Fossiliferous drab-colored paleosols with iron-manganese nodules (Yom pedotype) are like modern soils of seasonally waterlogged depressions (dambo). Their crumb structure and abundant fine root-traces, as well as scattered large calcareous rhizoconcretions indicate former vegetation of seasonally wet, wooded grassland. Other fossiliferous paleosols are evidence of nyika bushland (Ratong), and early-successional riparian woodland (Dhero). No fossils were found in Mogo paleosols interpreted as saline scrub soils. Very shallow calcic horizons (in Yom, Ratong, and Mogo paleosols) and Na-montmorillonite (in Mogo) are evidence of dry paleoclimate (300-500 mm MAP=mean annual precipitation). This is the driest paleoclimate and most open vegetation yet inferred as a habitat for any Kenyan Miocene apes or monkeys. Victoriapithecus was abundant in dambo wooded grassland (Yom) and riparian woodland (Dhero), a distribution like that of modern vervet monkeys. Kenyapithecus ranged through all these paleosols, but was the most common primate in nyika bushland paleosols (Ratong), comparable to baboons and macaques today. Mabokopithecus was virtually restricted to riparian woodland paleosols (Dhero), and Simiolus had a similar, but marginally wider, distribution. Habitat preferences of Mabokopithecus and Simiolus were like those of modern colobus monkeys and mangabeys. A single specimen of Komba was found in dambo wooded

  20. Comments to Middle Miocene closure of the Central American Seaway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, A.G.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper proposing an early (mid-Miocene) closure of the Central American Seaway (CAS), Montes et al. 2015 (1) disregard existing paleogeographic data that invalidate Panama as a source for zircons, and inappropriately ignore the evidence for trans-isthmian marine connections until 4-3 Ma. They also fail to cite previous work (2, 3), that had reconstructed the Central American arc already docked with South America by 12 Ma. Montes et al. 2015 (1) (Fig. 1) disregard the Atrato-San Juan sedimentary basin (3), a shallowing Oligocene to Pliocene, Pacific to Caribbean seaway (3, 4, 5). This deep graben (6) is filled with thousands of meters of Pre-Pliocene marine sediments (3, 5, 6) that now occupy a lowland between the Baudo uplift to the west and the Western Cordillera to the east. The Mande Batholith and numerous Eocene and younger volcanic rocks (4), the most proximal source of the zircons, are situated to the east of this seaway and would have shed zircons eastward towards the Cordillera Central. There is no evidence for any rivers crossing the seaway (3, 5), and thus no Panamanian source of zircons. Instead this seaway is evidence of a significant marine connection between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans into the Pliocene. The authors assume that the middle Miocene closure of the CAS effectively creates a continuous land bridge connecting North and South America and separating the Atlantic from the Pacific. They acknowledge, but then discount, marine connections across the Isthmus until 4-3 Ma even though these satisfactorily explain (Coates and Stallard, 2014 (6)) the oceanographic, molecular and Great American Biological Interchange events ignore unexplained by Montes et al. 2015. Only by conspicuously ignoring these events can they imply that the Isthmus was formed at 15-13 Ma. References 1. C. Montes et al., Middle Miocene closure of the Central American Seaway. Science 348, 226-229 (2015). 2. A. G. Coates, R. F. Stallard, How old is the Isthmus of

  1. The Miocene Sommières basin, SE France: Bioclastic carbonates in a tide-dominated depositional system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Jean-Yves; James, Noël P.

    2012-12-01

    The Miocene Sommières Basin in SE France is a semi-enclosed depression that was connected to the Mediterranean Sea by a flooded paleo-incised valley and then filled by a suite of sediments comprising carbonate grains coming from temperate factories that were largely deposited in tidal-dominated paleoenvironments. The strata are partitioned into two sequences that reflect repeated flooding of the incised valley system, one of several similar situations in this region of France. The carbonate grains are mostly bioclasts, namely from barnacles, bryozoans, coralline algae (encrusting, branching, and rhodoliths), echinoids, and benthic foraminifers (large and small) with ostracods, sponge spicules and planktic foraminifers prominent in muddy facies. Particles were produced by shallow water carbonate factories on hard substrates (valley walls in particular), associated with subaqueous dunes, and in deeper water basinal settings. Each depositional sequence is underlain by an eroded and bored hard surface that is progressively overlain by TST subaqueous tidal dunes or storm deposits that grade up, in one case, into HST marls (the HST of the upper sequence has been removed by erosion). The lower sequence is ebb tide dominated whereas the upper sequence is flood tide dominated. The succession is interpreted to represent a TST whose tidal currents were focused by the narrow valley and a HST that reflected flooding of the overbanks. This stratigraphic and depositional motif is comparable to that in other spatially separated Neogene paleovalleys that are filled with tide-dominated clastic carbonates in the region. Together with other recently documented similar systems, these limestones constitute an important new group of carbonate sand bodies in the carbonate depositional realm.

  2. Miocene amber inclusions from the Bitterfeld area. [German Democratic Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthel, M.; Hetzer, H.

    1982-07-01

    This paper presents color and black and white photographs enlarged from 1:10 to 1:100 of insect inclusions in amber from a new amber field located in a sandy-silty layer between two brown coal seams, the main Bitterfeld brown coal seam and the Breitenfeld brown coal seam. The amber is 22 million years old, which is 12 million years younger than Baltic amber. The brown coal seams are Miocene formations. The origin of the amber is resin from the Mesozoic conifer Cupressospermum saxonicum Mai. Insect inclusions are well preserved, 55 photographs are provided, showing samples of mosquitoes, spiders, beetles, flies and other insects, from insect groups Arachnida, Myriapoda, and Hexapoda. Each insect sample from the inclusions is described in detail by scientists from the Museum of Natural History in Berlin. Infrared spectrograms of different amber pieces are also analyzed and aspects of amber genesis in the Bitterfeld area are discussed.

  3. Impact of toothpaste slurry abrasivity and toothbrush filament stiffness on abrasion of eroded enamel - an in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegand, Annette; Schwerzmann, Martina; Sener, Beatrice; Magalhães, Ana C.; Roos, Malgorzata; Ziebolz, Dirk; Imfeld, Thomas; Attin, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Toothbrush abrasion is significant in the development of tooth wear, particularly when combined with erosion. This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the impact of toothpaste slurry abrasivity and toothbrush filament stiffness on abrasion of eroded enamel. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eroded enamel samples (hydrochloric acid, pH: 2.6, 15 s) were brushed with 40 strokes in an automatic brushing machine using manual toothbrushes with different filament stiffness (filament diameter: 0.15, 0.20...

  4. Constant Chinese Loess Plateau dust source since the Late Miocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Anna; Millar, Ian; Stevens, Thomas; Rodenburg, Tanja; Rittner, Martin; Vermeesch, Pieter; Lu, Huayu

    2017-04-01

    The dramatic deepening of northern hemisphere glaciation at the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary is accompanied by major changes in global climate. The role of the global atmospheric dust cycle in this event is not clear; in particular, whether, changes in the dust cycle influenced climates change, or resulted from it. Miocene and Quaternary wind-blown Chinese loess records past dust-cycle history, influences of aridification and monsoon circulation. Previous work on the vast Chinese Loess Plateau is in conflict over whether changes in dust source occur at the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary (2.59 Ma), or at 1.2 Ma, despite these intervals marking major shifts in monsoon dynamics (Sun 2005; Nie et al. 2014a). Here we present Sr, Nd and Hf isotopic data from multiple sites and show that the dust source remains the same across these boundaries. The use of isotope tracers from multiple sites allows us to demonstrate that shifts in sediment geochemistry can be explained by grain-size and weathering changes. Nd and Hf isotopes show that the dust was dominantly sourced from the Tibetan Plateau, with some input from bedrock underlying the Badain Jaran/Tengger deserts. This shows that a major established and constant dust source on the northern Tibetan Plateau has been active and unchanged since the late Miocene, despite dramatically changing climate conditions. Changes in loess accumulation are therefore a function of climate change in the Tibetan Plateau source regions rather than due to expanding source areas controlled by aridification over a widening area over the Pliocene and Quaternary.

  5. Insights from heavy minerals and zircon U-Pb ages into the middle Miocene-Pliocene provenance evolution of the Yinggehai Basin, northwestern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Cao, Licheng; Xie, Xinong; Wang, Zhenfeng; Li, Xushen; Zhang, Yingzhao; Zhang, Daojun; Sun, Hui

    2015-08-01

    The well-preserved Cenozoic sedimentary record in the Yinggehai Basin, South China Sea, is suitable to explore the tectonic and climatic evolution of SE Asia. Red River, a large-scale fluvial system in this region, was previously regarded as the major sediment source for the basin. Here we combine heavy mineral analysis and detrital zircon U-Pb dating to shed new light on the middle Miocene-Pliocene provenance evolution at a basin scale. The results clearly reveal potential source areas additional to the Red River. Sediments have been delivered to the proximal areas from Hainan Island, as indicated by the high zircon content and the Yanshanian U-Pb ages in the southern segment of the Yingdong Slope. A provenance from Central Vietnam is explicitly discerned in the upper Miocene of the Central Depression, where sediments are characterized by few metamorphic heavy minerals and the U-Pb age pattern peaking at around 250 Ma and 440 Ma. Coeval large-scale relative sea-level fall and rapid exhumation along the Vietnamese margin together may have facilitated this long-distance sediment transport. Provenance of sediments from the Red River seems to change over time. Song Lo River, on the north side of the main stream, probably flowed from the NE and carried Neoproterozoic-early Paleozoic zircons to the Yinggehai Basin during the middle Miocene. Since the late Miocene, rocks along the Red River Fault Zone have become the dominant source. Subsequently, widespread metamorphic minerals in the Central Depression of the Yinggehai Basin, combined with the strong river incision and high offshore sedimentation rates, indicate an increased sediment supply from the Red River in the Pliocene.

  6. Gulf of Mexico miocene CO₂ site characterization mega transect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meckel, Timothy [Univ. of Austin, Austin, TX (United Staes); Trevino, Ramon [Univ. of Austin, Austin, TX (United Staes)

    2014-12-01

    This project characterized the Miocene-age sub-seafloor stratigraphy in the near-offshore portion of the Gulf of Mexico adjacent to the Texas coast. The large number of industrial sources of carbon dioxide (CO₂) in coastal counties and the high density of onshore urbanization and environmentally sensitive areas make this offshore region extremely attractive for long-term storage of carbon dioxide emissions from industrial sources (CCS). The study leverages dense existing geologic data from decades of hydrocarbon exploration in and around the study area to characterize the regional geology for suitability and storage capacity. Primary products of the study include: regional static storage capacity estimates, sequestration “leads” and prospects with associated dynamic capacity estimates, experimental studies of CO₂-brine-rock interaction, best practices for site characterization, a large-format ‘Atlas’ of sequestration for the study area, and characterization of potential fluid migration pathways for reducing storage risks utilizing novel high-resolution 3D (HR3D) seismic surveys. In addition, three subcontracted studies address source-to-sink matching optimization, offshore well bore management and environmental aspects. The various geologic data and interpretations are integrated and summarized in a series of cross-sections and maps, which represent a primary resource for any near-term commercial deployment of CCS in the area. The regional study characterized and mapped important geologic features (e.g., Clemente-Tomas fault zone, the regionally extensive Marginulina A and Amphistegina B confining systems, etc.) that provided an important context for regional static capacity estimates and specific sequestration prospects of the study. A static capacity estimate of the majority of the Study area (14,467 mi2) was estimated at 86 metric Gigatonnes. While local capacity estimates are likely to be lower due to reservoir-scale characteristics, the

  7. POLYPLACOPHORA FROM THE MIOCENE OF NORTH ITALY. PART 2: CALLOCHITONIDAE, CHITONIDAE, LEPIDOCHITONIDAE, ACANTHOCHITONIDAE AND CRYPTOPLACIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRUNO DELL’ ANGELO

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study completes the description of the chiton fauna (Mollusca, Polyplacophora from deposits of the Miocene marine sequence of North Italy, located in Piedmont and Emilia Romagna regions. This second and final part describes chitons belonging to five families: Callochitonidae, Chitonidae, Lepidochitonidae, Acanthochitonidae and Cryptoplacidae. Nineteen species were identified, of which two are described as new (Chiton sulcomarginatus sp. n. and Craspedochiton brunettii sp. n., and 17 were already known. Craspedochiton mutinocrassus is the new name attributed to the species previously known as Acanthochiton costatus or A. costatus var. mutinocrassa; Chiton sulcomarginatus sp. n., Lepidochitona monterosatoi, L. pliocinerea, and Acanthochitona oblonga, previously known only up to Pliocene, are reported for the first time from the Miocene of Italy. The stratigraphic distribution of numerous species thought to first appear in the Late Miocene (Callochiton doriae, Chiton olivaceus, C. corallinus, Acanthochitona fascicularis, A. crinita, and Craspedochiton altavillensis is here extended to the Early Miocene. The distribution of Cryptoplax weinlandi is extended to the Middle Miocene (Serravallian. In total 35 chiton species (with 3.003 valves were identified in the Italian Miocene (including both parts of this series. Ten species became extinct at the end of the Miocene, six in the Pliocene, two in the Pleistocene, and 17 are extant. Of the extant species nine occur both in the Atlantic and Mediterranean, two exclusively in the Atlantic and six only in the Mediterranean. The number of species reported from the Torino Hill assemblages (Burdigalian? is increased from three listed by Sacco (1897 to nine. Thirty-four of the 35 species (excluding only Lepidopleurus benoisti occur in the Tortonian-Messinian Po Basin. Thirteen (37% of the species are also found in the Miocene Paratethys (Austria, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania and Ukraine, which

  8. Monitoring contaminants from oil production at sea by measuring gill EROD activity in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamson, Alexandra [Uppsala University, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Norbyvaegen 18A, SE-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: alexandra.abrahamson@ebc.uu.se; Brandt, Ingvar [Uppsala University, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Norbyvaegen 18A, SE-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: ingvar.brandt@ebc.uu.se; Brunstroem, Bjoern [Uppsala University, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Norbyvaegen 18A, SE-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: bjorn.brunstrom@ebc.uu.se; Sundt, Rolf C. [International Research Institute of Stavanger (IRIS), Akvamiljo, P.O. Box 8046, N-4068 Stavanger (Norway)], E-mail: rolf.sundt@irisresearch.no; Jorgensen, Even H. [Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of Tromso, N-9037 Tromso (Norway); Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Polar Environmental Centre, N-9296 Tromso (Norway)], E-mail: even.jorgensen@nfh.uit.no

    2008-05-15

    An ex vivo gill EROD assay was applied in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) as a biomarker for waterborne CYP1A-inducing compounds derived from oil production at sea. Exposure to nominal concentrations of 1 ppm or 10 ppm North Sea crude oil in a static water system for 24 h caused a concentration-dependent gill EROD induction. Further, exposure of cod for 14 days to environmentally relevant concentrations of produced water (PW, diluted 1:200 or 1:1000) from a platform in the North Sea using a flow-through system resulted in a concentration-dependent induction of gill EROD. Crude oil (0.2 ppm) from the same oil field also proved to induce EROD. Finally, gill EROD activity in cod caged for 6 weeks at 500-10 000 m from two platforms outside Norway was measured. The activities in these fish were very low and did not differ from those in fish caged at reference sites. - Gill EROD activity is a sensitive biomarker for CYP1A-inducing pollutants in cod.

  9. Induction of EROD and BFCOD activities in tissues of barbel (Barbus callensis) from a water reservoir in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habila, Safia; Leghouchi, Essaid; Valdehita, Ana; Bermejo-Nogales, Azucena; Khelili, Smail; Navas, José M

    2017-08-01

    EROD and BFCOD activities were measured in liver and gills of barbel (Barbus callensis, a native North African species) captured at Beni Haroun lake, the most important water reservoir in Algeria. This lake receives wastewater from different origins. Thus, we assessed the level of pollution through the induction of detoxification activities in tissues of barbel, evaluating simultaneously the suitability of this species to be used as a sentinel. Fish were collected between March 2015 and January 2016 at three locations taking into account the pollution sources and accessibility. In liver, EROD and BFCOD showed the highest induction in October specially in the location of the dam that received pollutants. In gills, only EROD, but not BFCOD, activity was detected. Maximal EROD induction was noted in samples from January. Fish cell lines (RTG-2 and PLHC-1) were exposed to sediments extracts collected at Beni Haroun lake and enzyme activities (EROD and BFCOD, respectively) were measured. Sediment extracts did not induce BFCOD activity. The EROD induction observed in RTG-2 cells was in line with the results observed in fish tissues. Our results suggest that the lake is at risk from pollution and that Barbus callensis is a good sentinel species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Predicting the particle size distribution of eroded sediment using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos-Avid, María Paz; Bonilla, Carlos A

    2017-03-01

    Water erosion causes soil degradation and nonpoint pollution. Pollutants are primarily transported on the surfaces of fine soil and sediment particles. Several soil loss models and empirical equations have been developed for the size distribution estimation of the sediment leaving the field, including the physically-based models and empirical equations. Usually, physically-based models require a large amount of data, sometimes exceeding the amount of available data in the modeled area. Conversely, empirical equations do not always predict the sediment composition associated with individual events and may require data that are not always available. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a model to predict the particle size distribution (PSD) of eroded soil. A total of 41 erosion events from 21 soils were used. These data were compiled from previous studies. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to identify the main variables controlling sediment PSD. These variables were the particle size distribution in the soil matrix, the antecedent soil moisture condition, soil erodibility, and hillslope geometry. With these variables, an artificial neural network was calibrated using data from 29 events (r2=0.98, 0.97, and 0.86; for sand, silt, and clay in the sediment, respectively) and then validated and tested on 12 events (r2=0.74, 0.85, and 0.75; for sand, silt, and clay in the sediment, respectively). The artificial neural network was compared with three empirical models. The network presented better performance in predicting sediment PSD and differentiating rain-runoff events in the same soil. In addition to the quality of the particle distribution estimates, this model requires a small number of easily obtained variables, providing a convenient routine for predicting PSD in eroded sediment in other pollutant transport models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of biochar and terra preta substrates on wettability and erodibility of soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetanova, A.; Dotterweich, M.; Diehl, D.; Ulrich, U.; Fohrer, N.

    2012-04-01

    Biochar (BC) and terra preta substrates (TPS) have recently been promoted as soil amendments suitable for soil stabilization, soil amelioration and long-term carbon sequestration. BC is a carbon-enriched substance produced by thermal decomposition of organic material. TPS is composed of liquid and solid organic matter, including BC, altered by acid-lactic fermentation. Their effect on wettability, soil erodibility and nutrient discharge through overland flow was studied by laboratory experiments. At water contents between 0 and 100% BC is water repellent, while TPS changes from a wettable into a repellent state. The 5 and 10 vol % mixtures of BC and 10 and 20 vol% mixtures of TPS with sand remain mainly wettable during drying but repellency maxima are shifted to higher water contents with respect to pure sand and are mainly of subcritical nature. The runoff response was dominated by infiltration properties of the substrates rather than their wettability.Only one mixtures (20% TPS) produced more runoff than sandy-loamy soil on a 15% slope at an intensity of 25 mm•h-1. The 10% BC decreased runoff by up to 40%. At higher rainfall intensities (45 and 55 mm•h-1) the 10% TPS7 was up to 35% less erodible than 10% BC. Despite the TPS containing more nutrients, nutrient discharge varied between types of nutrients, slopes, rainfall intensities and mixtures. The application of a 1 cm layer onto the soil surface instead of 10% mixtures is not recommended due to high nutrient concentrations in the runoff and the wettability of pure substrates. The usage of 10% BC in lowland areas with low frequency and low-intensity precipitation and 10% TPS7 in areas with higher rainfall intensities appears to be appropriate and commendable according to current results. However, together with reversibility of repellency, it needs to undergo further examination in the field under different environmental and land use conditions Key words: biochar, terra preta substrate, wettability

  12. Natural succession on abandoned cropland effectively decreases the soil erodibility and improves the fungal diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Liu, Guobin; Song, Zilin; Qu, Dong; Fang, Linchuan; Deng, Lei

    2017-10-01

    Changes in plants and soils during natural succession have been evaluated, but little is known about the effects of succession on the activities of soil microbes and their interactions with soil erodibility. We conducted a field study on the Chinese Loess Plateau, typical of this semiarid area, to determine the effect of secondary succession on the stability of soil structure against erosion and on the composition of soil fungal communities. Characteristics of plant, soil, and fungal communities were assessed across a 30-yr chronosequence of grassland developed from abandoned cropland. The diversity and composition of the fungal communities were determined using high-throughput sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer. Six grasslands were selected to represent different successional age classes: 0 (cropland), 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 yr. Short-term decreases (initial 5 yr) in the amounts of soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and fungal biomass and in fungal diversity had returned to original levels (i.e., cropland) within 15 yr and were much higher after continued succession. Abandoning cropland for succession caused the soil erodibility (K) decrease and the aboveground coverage, soil nutrient levels, content of larger (>5 mm) water-stable aggregate, mean aggregate weight diameter, and diversity of the fungal communities improvement including arbuscular mycorrhizas (AMF), ectomycorrhizas (EMF), and saprotrophs. The fungal communities were dominated by Ascomycota, Zygomycota, Basidiomycota, and Glomeromycota during the succession. The successional patterns of the plant and fungal communities were similar, although distinct fungal communities were not observed in the two initial stages, suggesting that fungal succession may develop more slowly than plant succession. Plant root biomass, EMF, and soil organic carbon content accounted for most of the variation of soil erodibility (28.6%, 19.5%, and 11.8%, respectively), indicating their

  13. Photospheric magnetic field of an eroded-by-solar-wind coronal mass ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, J.; Cid, C.; Saiz, E.; Guerrero, A.

    2017-10-01

    We have investigated the case of a coronal mass ejection that was eroded by the fast wind of a coronal hole in the interplanetary medium. When a solar ejection takes place close to a coronal hole, the flux rope magnetic topology of the coronal mass ejection (CME) may become misshapen at 1 AU as a result of the interaction. Detailed analysis of this event reveals erosion of the interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) magnetic field. In this communication, we study the photospheric magnetic roots of the coronal hole and the coronal mass ejection area with HMI/SDO magnetograms to define their magnetic characteristics.

  14. Terrestrial photography as method to identify sediment sources in eroding rills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Stefan; Remke, Alexander; Wengel, René; Seeger, Manuel; Ries, Johannes B.

    2013-04-01

    One weak point in available studies on erosion processes in eroding rills is the lack of information about the real source of transported sediment. So far, such sources can only be identified by observation during the event or the experiment. Quantification is not possible by this way, additionally only large and clear visible changes are considered. In this study we present a method to quantify even small topographical changes in eroding rills during experiments or real rainfall events. We tested the suitability of DEMs created from terrestrial stereo photographies before and after application of artificial runoff to quantify eroded, transported and sedimented material in the rill. In 1 m intervals, pairs of photos are taken along the tested rills. The setup ensures that both cameras are moved with a constant parallax. The height of only about 1 m above ground level ensures that even low quantities of moved material can be identified. Based on technical data of the camera and the shot level, the theoretical accuracy of the images is below 1 mm horizontal ground resolution. The camera carrier bases on a rotating tower crane which has been developed from a customary survey tripod. The stereo images are combined with free-hand photographies from different angles of view to reach overhangs in rill sidewalls and ensure a fully 3D representation of the rill. In the analyses of the photographies 2 different kinds of software are used: The standard software Leica Photogrammetry Suite requires stereo images and ground control points whereas the open source software package is able to handle either stereo images as well as free-hand photographies. Ground control points are not needed, the software identifies point clusters which are to find in overlapping images. Using these feature-points, spatial marks are positioned which are used to match and rectify the single images to get an apposite panorama. By this way images from very different angles of view can be combined. The

  15. Soft-sediment deformation structures in seismically affected deep-sea Miocene turbidites (Cilento Basin, southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente Alessio

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS are widespread in the upper part of the S. Mauro Formation (Cilento Group, Middle-Late Miocene. The succession is represented mainly by thick and very thick, massive, coarse-grained sandstones, deposited by rapid sedimentation of high-density turbidity currents. The most common SSDS are short pillars, dishes, sedimentary sills and convolutions. They occur mostly in the upper parts of sandstone beds. Vertical tubes of 4-5 cm in diameter and up to 50 cm long constitute the most striking structures. They begin in the middle part of sandstone beds, which are basically massive or contain faint dish structures. These tubes can bifurcate upwards and/ or pass into bedding-parallel veins or dikes. The vertical tubes sometimes form sand volcanoes on the then sedimentary surface.

  16. Permeability of eroded enamel following application of different fluoride gels and CO2 laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepri, Taísa Penazzo; Colucci, Vivian; Turssi, Cecília Pedroso; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the combined effect of fluoride compounds and CO(2) laser in controlling the permeability of eroded enamel. Bovine enamel slabs (3 × 2 mm) were cycled twice through an alternating erosion and remineralization regimen. Slabs were immersed in 20 ml of orange juice (pH 3.84) for 5 min under agitation, rinsed with deionized water, and stored in artificial saliva for 4 h to form erosive lesions. Specimens were then divided into four groups (n = 10), which were treated for 1 min with either a control or with one of the following gels: amine fluoride (AmF), titanium tetrafluoride (TiF(4)), or sodium fluoride (NaF). Half of the specimens were irradiated with a CO(2) laser (λ = 10.6 μm; 2.0 W). Specimens were cycled two more times through the aforementioned erosion-remineralization regimen and were subjected to permeability assessment. ANOVA demonstrated a significant interaction between fluoride and laser treatment (p = 0.0152). Tukey's test showed that when fluoride was applied alone, TiF(4) resulted in lower enamel permeability than that observed after application of the placebo gel. Intermediate permeability values were noted after NaF and AmF had been used. A significant reduction in enamel permeability was obtained when fluoride was combined with CO(2) laser treatment, with no difference between fluoride gels. Permeability of eroded enamel may be reduced by combining the application of fluoride gels with CO(2) laser irradiation.

  17. The first known fossil Masoninae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Miocene Dominican amber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    2001-01-01

    The first fossil species of the genus Masona van Achterberg, 1995, of the subfamily Masoninae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is described and illustrated. It originates from approximately 15-20 millions years old (= Miocene) Dominican amber.

  18. Oil and Gas Wells in Southern Louisiana that Penetrated the Lower Miocene 2 Sequence

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The drilling history documents oil and gas wells in the Lower Miocene 2 sequence as a whole and in 10-year intervals. The wells included in this interval are...

  19. Oil and Gas Wells in Southern Louisiana that Penetrated the Middle Miocene Sequence

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The drilling history documents oil and gas wells in the Middle Miocene sequence as a whole and in 10-year intervals. The wells included in this interval are...

  20. Late Miocene radiolarian biostratigraphy and paleoceanography of Sawai Bay formation, Neill Island, Andamans, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, S.M.; Srinivasan, M.S.

    Late Miocene radiolarian zones are encountered from mudstone strata of Sawai Bay Formation, Neill Island, Andamans. Percentage data of forty-five coarser taxonomic groups of radiolarians were subjected to Q-mode cluster analysis. Based...

  1. Oil and Gas Wells in Southern Louisiana that Penetrated the Upper Miocene Sequence

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The drilling history documents oil and gas wells in the Upper Miocene sequence as a whole and in 10-year intervals. The wells included in this interval are...

  2. Oil and Gas Wells in Southern Louisiana that Penetrated the Lower Miocene 1 Sequence

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The drilling history documents oil and gas wells in the Lower Miocene 1 sequence as a whole and in 10-year intervals. The wells included in this interval are...

  3. A new species of Sphenotrochus (Scleractinia: Turbinoliidae) from the Late Miocene (Tortonian) of Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cairns, S.D.

    2003-01-01

    A new species of azooxanthellate Scleractinia, Sphenotrochus denhartogi, is described from the Late Miocene (Tortonian, Navidad Formation) of Chile. Comparisons are made to three other closely related species which, based on their distinctive costal morphology, form a species complex: S.

  4. Late Miocene uplift and doming of Madagascar: topographic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaunay, Antoine; Robin, Cecile; Guillocheau, François; Dall'Asta, Massimo; Calves, Gérôme

    2016-04-01

    Madagascar is an Archean to Neoproterozoic continental crust surrounded by transform, oblique and divergent margins: the oblique Morondava Basin to the west, pounded by the Davie Fracture Zone, and to the north, the divergent Mahajanga (Majunga) Basin connected to the Somali Oceanic Basin. This 1600 km long island is a high axial plateau with elevations from 1200 to 1800m. The top of the plateau corresponds to weathered planation surfaces (etchplains), bounded by more or less high scarps. We here present geological arguments for the age and the timing of the Madagascar Plateau. This analysis is based on a double, coupled analysis of the onshore geomorphology (stepped planation surfaces) and the offshore margin stratigraphy (seismic stratigraphy and wells). The geomorphological analysis is based on a characterization, a mapping and dating of stepped planation surfaces (mantled to stripped etchplains, pediments to pediplains). The dating is based on their geometrical relationships with dated magmatic rocks. The difference of elevation between two planation surfaces (corresponding to local base level) provides a proxy of the uplift. The sequence stratigraphic analysis is based on a biostratigraphic reevaluation of 4 industrial wells (foraminifers and nannofossils on cuttings). Uplift periods are characterized by (1) seaward tiltings of the margins overlain by planar reflectors, (2) forced regression wedges and (3) upstream erosions of older sediments recorded by fauna/flora reworking. (1) During Paleocene to Middle Miocene times (66 to 13 Ma), Madagascar is a quite flat low elevation domain with remnants of an oldest pre-Madagascar Trap (90 Ma) surface. This low relief is highly weathered with growth of numerous lateritic profiles and surrounded by large carbonate platforms with no siliciclastic sands influx. (2) The Late Miocene is the paroxysm of uplift with (1) a tilting of the margin (Morondova), (2) an increase of the siliciclastic sand flux since middle Miocene

  5. Deformation of the late Miocene to Pliocene Inyo Surface, eastern Sierra region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayko, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    A middle and late Miocene erosion surface, the Inyo Surface, underlies late Miocene mafic flows in the White Mountains and late Miocene and (or) early Pliocene flows elsewhere in the eastern Sierra region. The Inyo Surface is correlated with an erosion surface that underlies late Miocene mafic flows in the central and northern Sierra Nevada. The mafic flows had outpourings similar to flood basalts, although of smaller volume, providing paleohorizontal and paleolowland indicators. The flows filed and locally topped the existing landscape forming broad plateau-like flats. Topographic relief in the region was characterized by weathered and rounded slopesp rior to late Miocene mafic magmatism. Relicts of the older landscape lie adjacent to late Miocene and early Pliocene basalt-covered lowlands that now occur within the crests of ranges that have 2500-3000 m relief and dramatically steep escarpments. Late Miocene mafic flows that lie on the crest of the Sierra Nevada adjacent to the White Mountains predate significant activity on the Sierra Nevada frontal fault zone. These deposits and accompanying erosion surfaces provide excellent strain markers for reconstructing part of the Walker Lane north of the Garlock fault and west of the Amargosa drainage, here referred to as the eastern Sierra region. The Inyo Surface is a compound erosional surface that records at least four major erosion events during the Cenozoic. These four surfaces were first recognized on the Kern Plateau and named from oldest to youngest, the Summit Upland, the Subsummit Plateau, the Chagoopa Plateau, and the Canyon. The three older surfaces have also been subsequently modifi ed by Pleistocene glaciation. The compound erosion surface, which is locally overlain by late Miocene mafic flows in the northern and central Sierra Nevada, is here referred to as the Lindgren Surface. Correlatives in the eastern Sierra region are found in the White Mountains, Inyo Mountains, Darwin Plateau, Coso Range, and

  6. Late Miocene Molluscan Stage of Jawa Insight from New Field Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswan; Sufiati, Elina; Kistiani, Desty; Yudi Abdurrahman, Irman; Dwijo Santoso, Wahyu; Rudyawan, Alfend; Zin Oo, Thaw

    2017-06-01

    Neogene stratigraphic stages of Jawa based on molluscan index fossils firstly compiled by Oostingh in 1938. This concept is widely used by palaeontologists, both for application in and outside Jawa. Based on the estimated ages of previous researchers the Neogene stages from old to young are: Rembangian stage considered equivalent to Early Miocene, Preangerian stage (Middle Miocene), Odengian stage (Upper Miocene), Cheribonian stage (Early Pliocene), Sondian stage (Late Pliocene) and Bantamian stage (Early Pleistocene). Further studies to determine a more precise age of each stage are often difficult due to lack of planktonic foraminifera fossils and other age index fossils within the sedimentary deposits that are mostly shallow marine sediments. This study focuses to re-examine the age of sediments of Preangerian and Odengian Stages on new field studies. The type locality and rock units that are correlated with these stages are part of the well-exposed Nyalindung formation around Sukabumi area. The studies were carried out in four main fosill-rich sedimentary sequences that are exposed along Cijarian, Citalahab, Ciangsana and Ciodeng rivers. More detailed ages were obtained from the sediments. The exposed sequences along the Ciangsana and Citalahab rivers are Middle Miocene (N9-N14) while the Cijarian and Ciodeng rivers sequences were deposited between Middle to early Late Miocene (N9-N16). The Nyalindung formation in the Cijarian river also contain Vicarya sp, an index fossil that marks a rise in sea level in the Miocene (12 Ma), which previously only been reported from the Ciangsana river sediments.

  7. Andean tectonics as a cause for changing drainage patterns in Miocene northern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorn, Carina; Guerrero, Javier; Sarmiento, Gustavo A.; Lorente, Maria A.

    1995-03-01

    New data from Neogene strata in northern South America suggest that Miocene tectonism in the northeastern Andes was responsible for the genesis of the Amazon River and changes in the drainage patterns of other major rivers such as the Magdalena and the Orinoco. Here we present a new model for the paleogeographic evolution of northern South America during the Miocene. In the early Miocene, a large part of the drainage of northwest Amazonia was directed northward along the paleo Orinoco river system to a delta in Lake Maracaibo. Uplift of the Eastern Cordillera in the late middle Miocene caused the first development of the Amazon River; however, no connection with the Atlantic was established, and the Amazon fed the paleo Orinoco river system, which drained toward the Caribbean. Substantial Andean uplift in the late Miocene resulted in major changes in paleogeography: the Orinoco changed its course, the Amazon established a connection to the Atlantic, causing the drowning of carbonate platforms, and the Amazon Caribbean connection was closed. Thus the drainage and paleogeography of northern South America in the Miocene were strongly controlled by tectonic movements in the northeastern Andes.

  8. Physico-chemical properties and fertility status of water eroded soils of Sharkul area of district Mansehra, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmanullah Khan, A. Iqbal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil degradation is the major threat to agricultural sustainability because it affects the soil productivity. Present study was conducted in 2008 to evaluate physico-chemical properties and fertility status of some eroded soil series of Sharkul area district Manshera, Hazara division, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Six soil series including slightly eroded (Dosera and Girari, moderately eroded (Nakholi and Sharkul and severely eroded (Ahl and Banser were selected. Soil samples were collected from surface (0-15 cm, subsurface (30-45 cm and substrata soil (60-75cm depths and were analyzed for various soil properties. Due to severity of erosion, bulk density increased, while total porosity, saturation percentage and organic matter decreased significantly. AB-DTPA extractable P, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn concentrations were decreased due to the severity of erosion in surface and sub surface soils, whereas in the substrata soils (60-75 cm depth, the effect of erosion was almost non significant. Sub-surface and sub-strata soils were found deficient in available P ( Zn > Fe > Mn. The physical and chemical properties of eroded soils varied significantly and the increasing severity of erosion resulted in corresponding deterioration of soil quality.

  9. Determination of interrill soil erodibility coefficient based on Fuzzy and Fuzzy-Genetic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Palizvan Zand

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the fuzzy logic science has been used successfully in various sudies of hydrology and soil erosion, but in literature review no article was found about its performance for estimating of interrill erodibility. On the other hand, studies indicate that genetic algorithm techniques can be used in fuzzy models and finding the appropriate membership functions for linguistic variables and fuzzy rules. So this study was conducted to develop the fuzzy and fuzzy–genetics models and investigation of their performance in the estimation of soil interrill erodibility factor (Ki. Materials and Methods: For this reason 36 soil samples with different physical and chemical properties were collected from west of Azerbaijan province . soilsamples were also taken from the Ap or A horizon of each soil profile. The samples were air-dried , sieved and Some soil characteristics such as soil texture, organic matter (OM, cation exchange capacity (CEC, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, EC and pH were determined by the standard laboratory methods. Aggregates size distributions (ASD were determined by the wet-sieving method and fractal dimension of soil aggregates (Dn was also calculated. In order to determination of soil interrill erodibility, the flume experiment performed by packing soil a depth of 0.09-m in 0.5 × 1.0 m. soil was saturated from the base and adjusted to 9% slope and was subjected to at least 90 min rainfall . Rainfall intensity treatments were 20, 37 and 47 mm h-1. During each rainfall event, runoff was collected manually in different time intervals, being less than 60 s at the beginning, up to 15 min near the end of the test. At the end of the experiment, the volumes of runoff samples and the mass of sediment load at each time interval were measured. Finally interrill erodibility values were calculated using Kinnell (11 Equation. Then by statistical analyses Dn and sand percent of the soils were selected as input variables and Ki as

  10. Shelf gradients of echinoid assemblages from the Miocene of Sardinia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebelsick, James; Andrea, Mancosu

    2017-04-01

    Well exposed Miocene echinoid assemblages from Sardinia representing various environmental settings including both siliciclastics and carbonates have been studied with respect to reconstructing palaeoenvironmental conditions along a shelf gradient. The basis of this study includes 1) detailed logging of sedimentary facies in the field, 2) interpreting their behavior and life habits of the preserved echinoids by applying functional morphological reconstructions of the echinoid skeletons and comparing them to related Recent echinoid taxa, 3) quantifying taphonomic features of test preservation including predation, abrasion, fragmentation, encrustation and bioerosion, and finally 4) analyzing accompanying fauna and flora as well as trace fossils. The assemblages included clypeasteroid dominated assemblages in shallow water settings where often mass accumulations of sand dollars are present. Spatangoid dominated assemblages are found in more offshore settings where diversity is determined by varying burrowing depths, feeding strategies and resource partitioning accompanied by varying rates of bioturbation and episodes of sediment deposition by storms. Mixed assemblages also occur ranging from shallow to deeper water with varying substrates including sea grass, as well as coarser and finer sediments. Finally, deeper water monotypic assemblages are present in storm-dominated siliciclastic shelf environments including both regular and irregular echinoids. In general, echinoid presence is determined by the ecological preferences of the taxa involved, their propensities for gregarious behavior, the differential preservation potentials of the varied skeletal architectures present as well as sedimentary environment in which they occur.

  11. Late Oligocene-early Miocene birth of the Taklimakan Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongbo; Wei, Xiaochun; Tada, Ryuji; Clift, Peter D; Wang, Bin; Jourdan, Fred; Wang, Ping; He, Mengying

    2015-06-23

    As the world's second largest sand sea and one of the most important dust sources to the global aerosol system, the formation of the Taklimakan Desert marks a major environmental event in central Asia during the Cenozoic. Determining when and how the desert formed holds the key to better understanding the tectonic-climatic linkage in this critical region. However, the age of the Taklimakan remains controversial, with the dominant view being from ∼ 3.4 Ma to ∼ 7 Ma based on magnetostratigraphy of sedimentary sequences within and along the margins of the desert. In this study, we applied radioisotopic methods to precisely date a volcanic tuff preserved in the stratigraphy. We constrained the initial desertification to be late Oligocene to early Miocene, between ∼ 26.7 Ma and 22.6 Ma. We suggest that the Taklimakan Desert was formed as a response to a combination of widespread regional aridification and increased erosion in the surrounding mountain fronts, both of which are closely linked to the tectonic uplift of the Tibetan-Pamir Plateau and Tian Shan, which had reached a climatically sensitive threshold at this time.

  12. Peatmoss (Sphagnum) diversification associated with Miocene Northern Hemisphere climatic cooling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A Jonathan; Devos, Nicolas; Cox, Cymon J; Boles, Sandra B; Shaw, Blanka; Buchanan, Alex M; Cave, Lynette; Seppelt, Rodney

    2010-06-01

    Global climate changes sometimes spark biological radiations that can feed back to effect significant ecological impacts. Northern Hemisphere peatlands dominated by living and dead peatmosses (Sphagnum) harbor almost 30% of the global soil carbon pool and have functioned as a net carbon sink throughout the Holocene, and probably since the late Tertiary. Before that time, northern latitudes were dominated by tropical and temperate plant groups and ecosystems. Phylogenetic analyses of mosses (phylum Bryophyta) based on nucleotide sequences from the plastid, mitochondrial, and nuclear genomes indicate that most species of Sphagnum are of recent origin (ca. Sphagnum species are not only well-adapted to boreal peatlands, they create the conditions that promote development of peatlands. The recent radiation that gave rise to extant diversity of peatmosses is temporally associated with Miocene climatic cooling in the Northern Hemisphere. The evolution of Sphagnum has had profound influences on global biogeochemistry because of the unique biochemical, physiological, and morphological features of these plants, both while alive and after death. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ecological tolerances of Miocene larger benthic foraminifera from Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Vibor; Renema, Willem

    2018-01-01

    To provide a comprehensive palaeoenvironmental reconstruction based on larger benthic foraminifera (LBF), a quantitative analysis of their assemblage composition is needed. Besides microfacies analysis which includes environmental preferences of foraminiferal taxa, statistical analyses should also be employed. Therefore, detrended correspondence analysis and cluster analysis were performed on relative abundance data of identified LBF assemblages deposited in mixed carbonate-siliciclastic (MCS) systems and blue-water (BW) settings. Studied MCS system localities include ten sections from the central part of the Kutai Basin in East Kalimantan, ranging from late Burdigalian to Serravallian age. The BW samples were collected from eleven sections of the Bulu Formation on Central Java, dated as Serravallian. Results from detrended correspondence analysis reveal significant differences between these two environmental settings. Cluster analysis produced five clusters of samples; clusters 1 and 2 comprise dominantly MCS samples, clusters 3 and 4 with dominance of BW samples, and cluster 5 showing a mixed composition with both MCS and BW samples. The results of cluster analysis were afterwards subjected to indicator species analysis resulting in the interpretation that generated three groups among LBF taxa: typical assemblage indicators, regularly occurring taxa and rare taxa. By interpreting the results of detrended correspondence analysis, cluster analysis and indicator species analysis, along with environmental preferences of identified LBF taxa, a palaeoenvironmental model is proposed for the distribution of LBF in Miocene MCS systems and adjacent BW settings of Indonesia.

  14. Manure and tillage use in remediation of eroded land and impacts on soil chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikha, Maysoon M; Benjamin, Joseph G; Vigil, Merle F; Poss, David J

    2017-01-01

    Soil loss through wind and water erosion is an ongoing problem in semiarid regions. A thin layer of top soil loss over a hectare of cropland could be corresponding to tons of productive soil loss per hectare. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of beef feedlot manure, tillage and legume grass mixtures on changes in soil quality and nutrient components. The study was initiated in 2006 on an eroded site near Akron, Colorado, on a Norka-Colby very-fine sandy loam (fine-silty, mixed, mesic, Aridic, Argiustolls). Tillage treatments were no-tillage, shallow tillage (sweeps operations with V-blade) and deep tillage (DT; moldboard plow operations). In one set of plots, DT was implemented biannually (DT-2); and in another set the DT was done once at the initiation of the experiment in 2006. Amendments consisted of beef manure and urea (46-0-0), N fertilizer. Both amendments were added at low and high rates. A control treatment, with no fertilizer or manure added, was included with no-tillage and shallow tillage only. Six years of manure addition and tillage significantly altered soil chemical properties compared with fertilizer and grass legume mixtures. Across all the tillage treatments, at the 0-30 cm depth, soil pH from 2006 to 2012, was reduced 1.8 fold with high-manure compared with high-fertilizer treatment. Soil EC, Na, and SAR increased by 2.7 fold while soil P increase by 3.5 fold with high-manure treatment compared with low-manure from 2006 to 2012 across all the tillage treatments at the surface 0-30 cm. Soil organic carbon associated with high-manure was 71% higher than low-manure and 230% higher than high-fertilizer treatments in the 0-60 cm depth. Similar patterns were observed with soil total N. Overall, manure amendments greatly improved the soil nutrient status on this eroded site. However, the legume grass mixtures showed little effect on improving soils chemical properties. The micronutrients supplied by manure improved the soil

  15. Análise da erodibilidade de saprolitos de gnaisse Erodibility analysis of gneiss saprolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Morais

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available As voçorocas são freqüentes em áreas com rochas do embasamento cristalino. A evolução destas feições é sempre fortemente condicionada pelos processos de erosão hídrica subsuperficial, embora os processos superficiais também sejam importantes. Este trabalho objetivou investigar os processos erosivos subsuperficiais atuantes nas voçorocas e compreender que fatores mineralógicos e texturais poderiam influenciar a erodibilidade dos saprolitos. Para tanto, foram realizados ensaios de caracterização e de avaliação da erodibilidade em amostras representativas, sendo o principal destes o ensaio de furo de agulha. Os resultados indicam que a erosão por carreamento não ocorre e que os saprolitos apresentam susceptibilidade variável à erosão por piping, mesmo quando derivados de uma mesma unidade litológica, mas superior à do horizonte B latossólico. Dados preliminares indicam que os saprolitos mais susceptíveis à erosão por piping são os de textura siltosa (determinados em ensaios granulométricos sem defloculante e agitação e pobres em minerais agregadores, como os argilominerais.Gully erosion are very common in areas with gneiss basement rocks. Their development is strongly influenced by subsuperficial processes, although the surface ones are also important. This study aimed to investigate the subsuperficial erosion mechanisms of these gullies and to understand how mineralogy and texture could influence the saprolite erodibility. Some basic trials and erodibility tests were carried out in representative samples, with imphasis to especially the pin-hole test. The results showed that seepage erosion does not occur and that saprolite present variable susceptibility to piping erosion, even if they are in the same geologic unit. The data confirm that soils with Bw horizon (Oxisols are less erodible than any of the tested saprolites. Preliminary data suggest that saprolites with a silty texture (determined without dispersant

  16. EROD activity and stable isotopes in seabirds to disentangle marine food web contamination after the Prestige oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velando, Alberto; Munilla, Ignacio; López-Alonso, Marta; Freire, Juan; Pérez, Cristobal

    2010-05-01

    In this study, we measured via surgical sampling hepatic EROD activity in yellow-legged gulls from oiled and unoiled colonies, 17 months after the Prestige oil spill. We also analyzed stable isotope composition in feathers of the biopsied gulls, in an attempt to monitor oil incorporation into marine food web. We found that yellow-legged gulls in oiled colonies were being exposed to remnant oil as shown by hepatic EROD activity levels. EROD activity was related to feeding habits of individual gulls with apparent consequences on delayed lethality. Capture-recapture analysis of biopsied gulls suggests that the surgery technique did not affect gull survival, giving support to this technique as a monitoring tool for oil exposure assessment. Our study highlights the combination of different veterinary, toxicological and ecological methodologies as a useful approach for the monitoring of exposure to remnant oil after a large oil spill. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Natural geo-composites for grassing of eroded and degraded lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroumov Victor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Original, natural grass geocomposites (sods were developed on the basis of combination from unstuffy, needle-drive textile material, geo-net and soil-manure-peat or peat with grass cover from grass mixtures. The natural grass geocomposites have the next priorities: quickly grassing and reinforcing of eroded and degraded terrains; large uniformity and compactness of grass cove; long exploiting period; grassing of terrains with big slopes where the mechanization is difficult to use; the articles are with low mass, small thickness and high stability; they limit the growing of weed. The natural grass geocomposites are intend for control of soil erosion and reconstruction of natural landshaft. They can to reinforce ditches, grass collectors, side of the road slopes, as well as lay out lawn, parks, stadiums, ski racing tourist's beauty spot, etc.

  18. Turnover of eroded soil organic carbon after deposition in terrestrial and aquatic environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkels, Frédérique; Cammeraat, Erik; Kalbitz, Karsten

    The fate of eroded soil organic carbon (SOC) after deposition is a large uncertainty in assessing the impact of soil erosion on C budgets. Globally, large amounts of SOC are transported by erosion and a substantial part is transferred into adjacent inland waters, linking terrestrial and aquatic C...... (soils vs. inland waters) play a crucial role in determining C turnover. Erosion measures preventing deposition in aquatic environments could therefore be an important carbon saving strategy. We envisage that these quantitative results can be used to parameterize biogeochemical models and contribute...... to better estimates of the impact of soil erosion on C budgets and reduce uncertainties in the link between terrestrial and aquatic C cycling....

  19. Testing the effect of a microbial-based soil amendment on aggregate stability and erodibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malozo, Mponda; Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    aggregate stability and erodibility. Two commercial products, gypsum and a microbial-based solution were used for the experiment and were tested on two Danish sandy loamy soils as well on a sandy soil from Tanzania. The carrier of the microbial-based product, a glycerol solution, was tested as well....... In the laboratory, soils were treated with the soil amendments in a two-step procedure at controlled water contents following aerobic incubation in closed containers. Water-aggregate stability and clay dispersion were measured on soil aggregates less than 8 mm in diameter. Aggregate stability was measured...... simulation. Here only the microbial-based product was tested together with a control. Results showed that in general the microbial-based product, its carrier, as well as the gypsum product increased aggregate stability compared to the control soil. Most pronounced effects were seen in relation...

  20. Stabilisation of erodible soil by fly ash and blast furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indraratna, B.; Salim, W. [Civil Engineering Division, University of Wollongong, N.S.W., Wollongong (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    Residual soils are found on large terrains which are often subjected to considerable erosion. This paper presents a detailed laboratory evaluation of the effect of fly ash and blast furnace slag on two different soils: (a) culluvium (sandy loam) from New South Wales, Australia and (b) erodible dispersive clay from northeast Thailand. Geotechnical tests were conducted to determine the compaction characteristics and the compressive and shear strength properties of the blended and natural soil specimens. The effect of the above mentioned industrial wastes on the rate of erosion and on the associated pH levels is also investigated. Fine grained fly ash is found to be useful as a void filler if used in substantial quantities, whereas selfhardening milled slag is more effective in terms of improving the internal friction angle of the treated soil. 18 refs.

  1. Assessment of Ground Water Quality in and around Gobichettipalayam Town Erode District, Tamilnadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Palanisamy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground water samples collected from different localities in and around Gobichettipalayam town, Erode District, Tamil Nadu were analyzed for their physico- chemical characteristics. This analysis result was compared with the WHO & ICMR standards of drinking water quality parameters with the following water quality parameters namely pH, Electrical conductivity, CN-, Cl-, SO42-, Na+, K+, Ca & Mg in CaCO3 equivalents, phenolphthalein alkalinity, hydroxide alkalinity, carbonate alkalinity, bicarbonate alkalinity, total alkalinity, total dissolved solids, total solids, total suspended solids, calcium, magnesium, total hardness, dissolved oxygen, fluoride etc., The usefulness of these parameters in predicting ground water quality characteristics were discussed. Thus an attempt has been made to find the quality of ground water in and around Gobichettipalayam town, suitable for drinking purposes or not.

  2. Molecular weight-dependent degradation and drug release of surface-eroding poly(ethylene carbonate)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Adam; Wang, Yingya; Harmankaya, Necati

    2017-01-01

    .7 macrophages) and in vivo (subcutaneous implantation in rats). All investigated samples degraded by means of surface erosion (mass loss, but constant molecular weight), which was accompanied by a predictable, erosion-controlled drug release pattern. Accordingly, the obtained in vitro degradation half......Poly(ethylene carbonate) (PEC) is a unique biomaterial showing significant potential for controlled drug delivery applications. The current study investigated the impact of the molecular weight on the biological performance of drug-loaded PEC films. Following the preparation and thorough...... incubations with cholesterol esterase. Interestingly, SEM analysis indicated a distinct surface erosion process for enzyme-, macrophage- and in vivo-treated polymer films in a molecular weight-dependent manner. Overall, the molecular weight of surface-eroding PEC was identified as an essential parameter...

  3. Characterizing the height profile of the flux of wind-eroded sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhibao; Qian, Guangqiang

    2007-01-01

    Wind erosion causes severe environmental problems, such as aeolian desertification and dust storms, in arid and semiarid regions. Reliable prediction of the height profile of the wind-eroded sediment flux is crucial for estimation of transport rates, verification of computer models, understanding of particle-modified wind flows, and control of drifting sand. This study defined the basic height profile for the flux of wind-eroded sediment and the coefficients that characterize its equation. Nine grain-size populations of natural sand at different wind velocities were tested in a wind tunnel to measure the flux of sediment at different heights. The resulting flux profiles resemble a golf club with a small back-turn where the flux increases with increasing height within 20 mm above the surface. If the small back-turns are neglected, the flux profiles can be expressed by an exponential-decay function q_{{text{r}}} (z) = a{text{e}}^{{ - bzr }} , where q r( z) is the dimensionless relative flux of sediment at height z, which follows the exponential-decay law proposed by previous researchers for aeolian saltation. Three coefficients (a creep proportion, a relative decay rate, and an average saltation height) are proposed to characterize the height profile. Coefficients a and b in the above equation represent the creep proportion and relative decay rate as a function of height, respectively. Coefficient a varies widely, depending on grain size and wind velocity, but averages 0.09. It is suggested that the grain size and wind velocity must be specified when discussing creep proportion. Coefficients a and b are nearly linearly correlated and decrease as grain size and wind velocity increase. The average saltation height (the average height sediment particles can reach) was a function of grain size and wind velocity, and was well correlated with coefficients a and b.

  4. [Application of atomic force microscopy in evaluation of three-dimensional morphology of eroded human enamel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan-yong; Jiang, Li; Lan, Jing; Zhang, Jian; Li, Wei

    2012-06-01

    To compare the three dimensional morphology and surface roughness changes of enamel eroded for different etching time. Fifteen freshly extracted sound human pre-molars for orthodontic purpose were collected. The buccal surface of teeth were prepared into smooth enamel slices, and then were randomly divided into 5 groups based on their etching time 0 s (control group), 5 s, 10 s, 20 s, 30 s, respectively by 37% phosphoric acid. The three dimensional morphology was observed under atomic force microscope (AFM). The profile was analyzed, and the value of Ra, Rq, Rz and the surface area and volume were measured. The AFM photograph showed that with the etching time from 0 s to 20 s the enamel surface demineralised gradually, the top structure of enamel rod and the fish scaled structure became obvious. But the morphology only changed a bit after 20 s. The surrounding inter-rod enamel eroded first, the depth increased to 2.8 µm at 20 s but decreased to 1.8 µm at 30 s. The value of Ra increased from (19.69 ± 3.42) nm to (359.51 ± 75.79) nm, and Rq from (22.02 ± 5.57) nm to (431.02 ± 83.09) nm, Rz from (0.24 ± 0.08) µm to (2.38 ± 0.26) µm. Except for groups 20 s and 30 s, the difference among other groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The surface area expanded from (406.77 ± 3.88) µm(2) to (546.69 ± 84.02) µm(2), and surface volume from (65.73 ± 14.46) µm(3) to (474.63 ± 52.50) µm(3). The depth, surface roughness, surface area and volume caused by erosion increased with etching time. The three dimensional morphology greatly changed by acid-etching process.

  5. Glyphosate and AMPA distribution in wind-eroded sediment derived from loess soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Célia P M; Goossens, Dirk; Rezaei, Mahrooz; Riksen, Michel; Mol, Hans G J; Ritsema, Coen J; Geissen, Violette

    2017-01-01

    Glyphosate is one of the most used herbicides in agricultural lands worldwide. Wind-eroded sediment and dust, as an environmental transport pathway of glyphosate and of its main metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), can result in environmental- and human exposure far beyond the agricultural areas where it has been applied. Therefore, special attention is required to the airborne transport of glyphosate and AMPA. In this study, we investigated the behavior of glyphosate and AMPA in wind-eroded sediment by measuring their content in different size fractions (median diameters between 715 and 8 μm) of a loess soil, during a period of 28 days after glyphosate application. Granulometrical extraction was done using a wind tunnel and a Soil Fine Particle Extractor. Extractions were conducted on days 0, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 after glyphosate application. Results indicated that glyphosate and AMPA contents were significantly higher in the finest particle fractions (median diameters between 8 and 18 μm), and lowered significantly with the increase in particle size. However, their content remained constant when aggregates were present in the sample. Glyphosate and AMPA contents correlated positively with clay, organic matter, and silt content. The dissipation of glyphosate over time was very low, which was most probably due to the low soil moisture content of the sediment. Consequently, the formation of AMPA was also very low. The low dissipation of glyphosate in our study indicates that the risk of glyphosate transport in dry sediment to off-target areas by wind can be very high. The highest glyphosate and AMPA contents were found in the smallest soil fractions (PM10 and less), which are easily inhaled and, therefore, contribute to human exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The transient response for different types of erodable surface thermocouples using finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hussein

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient response of erodable surface thermocouples has been numerically assessed by using a two dimensional finite element analysis. Four types of base metal erodable surface thermocouples have been examined in this study, included type-K (alumel-chromel, type-E (chromel-constantan, type-T (copper-constantan, and type-J (iron-constantan with 50 mm thick- ness for each. The practical importance of these types of thermocouples is to be used in internal combustion engine studies and aerodynamics experiments. The step heat flux was applied at the surface of the thermocouple model. The heat flux from the measurements of the surface temperature can be commonly identified by assuming that the heat transfer within these devices is one-dimensional. The surface temperature histories at different positions along the thermocouple are presented. The normalized surface temperature histories at the center of the thermocouple for different types at different response time are also depicted. The thermocouple response to different heat flux variations were considered by using a square heat flux with 2 ms width, a sinusoidal surface heat flux variation width 10 ms period and repeated heat flux variation with 2 ms width. The present results demonstrate that the two dimensional transient heat conduction effects have a significant influence on the surface temperature history measurements made with these devices. It was observed that the surface temperature history and the transient response for thermocouple type-E are higher than that for other types due to the thermal properties of this thermocouple. It was concluded that the thermal properties of the surrounding material do have an impact, but the properties of the thermocouple and the insulation materials also make an important contribution to the net response.

  7. POLYPLACOPHORA FROM THE MIOCENE OF NORTH ITALY. PART 1: LEPTOCHITONIDAE, HANLEYIDAE, ISCHNOCHITONIDAE AND CALLISTOPLACIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRUNO DELL’ANGELO

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the chiton fauna (Mollusca, Polyplacophora from deposits of the Miocene marine sequence of North Italy, located in Piedmont and Emilia Romagna regions. This first part of the work describes the chitons pertaining to four families: Leptochitonidae, Hanleyidae, Ischnochitonidae and Callistoplacidae. The studied fossils consist of 377 valves from 13 sites (Sciolze, Valle Ceppi, Rocco di Passerano, Albugnano, Monchio di Sarzano Casina, Villa Monti, Rio di Bocca d’Asino, Sant’Agata Fossili, Vargo, Vigoleno, Montegibbio, Borelli, and Moncucco Torinese ranging from the Early Miocene (Burdigalian to the Late Miocene (Messinian. We identified 16 species, 12 of which were already known, two are identified only at generic level (Stenosemus sp. A & sp. B, and two are described as new: Parachiton statianus sp. n., and Callistochiton borellianus sp. n. Some species found are particularly noteworthy; Lepidopleurus benoisti is the new name attributed to the species previously known as Middendorffia subcajetana or Gymnoplax orbignyi, based on the study of the type material; Leptochiton salicensis, previously known only from the Early Pleistocene of Salice (Messina, Sicily; Hanleya mediterranea is reported for the first time from the Miocene of Italy; Ischnochiton ligusticus, previously known only from the Early Pliocene of Western Liguria; the distribution of Stenoplax paviai, recently described from the Late Miocene (Rio di Bocca d’Asino, is extended to the Early Miocene (Langhian. A complete discussion on the chiton fauna from the North Italian Miocene, consisting of all the species treated in both parts, will be given in the second part of this work.

  8. Facies architecture of basin-margin units in time and space: Lower to Middle Miocene Sivas Basin, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiner, A.; Kosun, E.

    2003-04-01

    The Miocene Sivas Basin is located within a collision zone, forming one of the largest basins in Central Turkey that developed unconformably on a foundered Paleozoic-Mesozoic basement and Eocene-Oligocene deposits. The time and space relationships of sedimentary environments and depositional evolution of Lower to Middle Miocene rocks exposed between Zara and Hafik towns is studied. A 4 km thick continuous section is subdivided into the Agilkaya and Egribucak Formations. Each formation shows an overall fining upward trend and contains three members. Although a complete section is present at the western part (near Hafik) of the basin, to the east the uppermost two members (near Zara) are absent. The lower members of both formations are composed of fluvial sheet-sandstone and red mudstone that migrate laterally on a flood basin within a semi-arid fan system. In the Agilkaya Formation that crops out near Zara, alluvial fans composed of red-pink volcanic pebbles are also present. The middle members are composed of bedded to massive gypsum and red-green mudstone of a coastal and/or continental sabkha environment. While the massive gypsum beds reach several 10’s of m in Hafik area, near Zara, they are only few m thick and alternate with green mudstones. In Hafik, bedded gypsums are intercalated with lagoonal dolomitic limestone and bituminous shale in the Agilkaya Formation and with fluvial red-pink sandstone-red mudstone in the Egribucak Formation. The upper members are made up of fossiliferous mudstone and discontinuous sandy limestone beds with gutter casts, HCS, and 3-D ripples. They indicate storm-induced sedimentation in a shallow marine setting. The disorganized accumulations of ostreid and cerithiid shells, interpreted as coquina bars, are the products of storm generated reworking processes in brackish environments. Rapid vertical and horizontal facies changes and the facies associations in both formations reflect the locally subsiding nature of this molassic

  9. Milankovitch cycles in an equatorial delta from the Miocene of Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Nathan; Zeeden, Christian; Hilgen, Frederik; Krijgsman, Wout

    2017-08-01

    The factors controlling sedimentary cyclicity in deltaic systems are a subject of intense debate, and more research, in different deltaic environments and time periods, is needed to better understand the possible mechanisms. Offshore and Pleistocene case studies are more common than proximal and more ancient, greenhouse-climate examples. Furthermore, many studies lack a (statistical) cyclostratigraphic element. The paleo-Mahakam delta of Eastern Kalimantan, Borneo developed during the globally warm middle Miocene, in an equatorial setting, making it of interest to comprehend cyclic sedimentation in a period of warmer yet rapidly changing climate. In this study, statistical analysis of lithological changes shows that regular sandstone/shale alternations occur in a distinct pattern of cycles with thicknesses of ∼90, ∼30, and ∼17 m. Using independent dating, these thicknesses translate into periods of about 100, 40, and 20 kyr, matching the known periods of Earth's orbital eccentricity, obliquity and precession. The obliquity dominance in the middle interval is markedly similar to that observed in the global marine isotope (benthic δ18O) and other cyclic proxy records for this time interval. Despite a mismatch in the number of 40 kyr cycles compared to the global record that can be plausibly linked to the major sea-level drop at ∼13.8 Ma and facies shifts, it appears that the proximal setting of the paleo-Mahakam's sedimentation was dominantly controlled by allogenic orbital forcing, probably as a consequence of glacioeustasy. In particular, the observed obliquity dominance at paleo-equatorial latitudes, as seen in other records, highlights the dominance of orbital forcing, and potentially glacioeustatic sea level change, during this crucial period of warmer climate.

  10. Slanic Tuff and associated Miocene evaporite deposits, Eastern Carpathians, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojar, Ana-Voica; Halas, Stanislaw; Barbu, Victor; Bojar, Hans-Peter; Wojtowicz, Artur; Duliu, Octavian

    2017-04-01

    Miocene tuffs of calcalkaline composition are widespread in the Carpathians, Pannonian and Eastern Alpine realm. Their occurrences are described in outcrops as well as in the subsurface. The presence of such tuffs may offer important criteria for stratigraphic correlations and help to establish the absolute age of deposits and associated climatic and environmental changes. The Green Stone Hill (Muntele Piatra Verde) is situated to the north of Slanic-Prahova salt mine, in the bend region of the Eastern Carpathians, Romania. From bottom to top the section is composed of: marls with Globigerina followed by the so called Slanic tuff, gypsum and salt breccia and, on the top, radiolarian bearing shales. The stratigraphic age of the section is Middle to Upper Badenian (nannoplankton zones NN5 to NN6). XRD investigations of the green Slanic tuff show that the main mineralogical component is clinoptilolite (zeolite) followed by quartz and plagioclase. For this type of tuff there is no crystalline phase, which may be used for radiometric dating. In the middle part of the green tuff interval, we found discrete layers of a much coarser white tuff, with mineralogy consisting of quartz, plagioclase, biotite and clinoptilolite. The white tuff forming distinct layers within the green tuff, has an andesitic composition. 40Ar/39Ar dating of biotite concentrates from the white tuff gives an age of 13.6±0.2Ma, the dated layer being situated below the gypsum and salt breccia. We consider that the age is well constraining the time when the green tuffs were formed at the border of the basin. From this level upwards discrete gypsum layers occurs within the green tuffs, the age may be considered as indicating the base of the evaporitic sequence. To the south-east, from this level upwards evaporites, mainly salt formed. The age suggests that evaporitic deposits formed after the Mid Badenian climatic optimum, evaporitic formation being related to restricted circulation due the drop of sea

  11. Sequence stratigraphy, basin dynamics, and petroleum geology of the Miocene from eastern Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedir, M. [Campus Universitaire, Tunis (Tunisia)]|[Unite des Ressources Naturelles et Environnement, Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Tlig, S. [Campus Universitaire, Tunis (Tunisia); Bobier, C. [Universite Bordeaux, Talence (France)] [and others

    1996-01-01

    On the eastern margin of Tunisia, Miocene limestones, marl, and siliciclastic deposits crop out poorly and are lacking in age-diagnostic faunal content. The biostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic subdivisions of these series are not clearly defined. A regional study of subsurface sequences of this margin (Cap Bon, Gulf of Hammamet, and Sahel) by means of sequence stratigraphy and subsurface structural analyses permits the identification of seven third-order sedimentary sequences of inferred Langhian to Messinian age, the boundaries of which are characterized by downlap and onlap/toplap relationships. These sequences include turbidites, sands, and sandstones deposited in connection with eustatic sea level changes and tectonic movements of east-west and south-north deep-seated faults due to the Alpine and Atlassic paroxysm. Stratal sequences are organized around Miocene syndepositional grabens, half-grabens, platforms, and folds occurring inside and outside of regional tectonic corridors. The geodynamic evolution of Miocene basins has led to the deposition of turbiditic black argillaceous source rocks, and sandstone and carbonate reservoirs that present new Miocene petroleum targets. The basin subsidence in response to the Alpine/Atlassic orogeny has permitted the maturation of Miocene source rocks, oil generation, and the formation of oil traps, stratigraphic pinch-outs, and structural enclosures on the flanks of folds and on the borders of grabens.

  12. Tracing the source of soil organic matter eroded from temperate forest catchments using carbon and nitrogen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emma P. McCorkle; Asmeret Asefaw Berhe; Carolyn T. Hunsaker; Dale W. Johnson; Karis J. McFarlane; Marilyn L. Fogel; Stephen C. Hart

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion continuously redistributes soil and associated soil organic matter (SOM) on the Earth's surface, with important implications for biogeochemical cycling of essential elements and terrestrial carbon sequestration. Despite the importance of soil erosion, surprisingly few studies have evaluated the sources of eroded carbon (C). We used natural abundance...

  13. Mulching as a strategy to improve soil properties and reduce soil erodibility in coffee farming systems of Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nzeyimana, I.; Hartemink, A.E.; Ritsema, C.J.; Stroosnijder, L.; Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Geissen, V.

    2017-01-01

    In Rwanda, mulch is applied in coffee fields to control soil erosion. The objective of this paper is to quantify the effects of different types of mulch on soil properties and soil erodibility in coffee farming systems in three different agro-ecological zones of the highlands of Rwanda. The

  14. Effect of soil crusting on the emission and transport of wind-eroded sediment: field measurements on loamy sandy soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, D.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Field data are reported for the horizontal and vertical flux of wind-eroded sediment on an agricultural field in northern Germany. Measurements were made during a windstorm that hit the region on 18 May 1999. The magnitude of both fluxes was significantly affected by the presence of a

  15. Effect of water potential and antecedent soil moisture on soil erodibility for coarse and fine-grained agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil erodibility has confounded researchers for decades. Difficulties arise with initiation of motion, pore-water status, physical, and perhaps biological, material properties and type of applied energy (i.e. rainfall, runoff, freeze/thaw, wind). Though specific tests have been developed to determin...

  16. 7 CFR Exhibit M to Subpart G of... - Implementation Procedures for the Conservation of Wetlands and Highly Erodible Land Affecting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... B, Highly Erodible Land Conservation, and Subtitle C, Wetland Conservation, of Title XII of the Food... technical guide and properly approved by the appropriate SCS conservation district or the SCS. To apply this... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Implementation Procedures for the Conservation of...

  17. Effect of hydraulic parameters on sediment transport capacity in overland flow over erodible beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ali

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sediment transport is an important component of the soil erosion process, which depends on several hydraulic parameters like unit discharge, mean flow velocity, and slope gradient. In most of the previous studies, the impact of these hydraulic parameters on transport capacity was studied for non-erodible bed conditions. Hence, this study aimed to examine the influence of unit discharge, mean flow velocity and slope gradient on sediment transport capacity for erodible beds and also to investigate the relationship between transport capacity and composite force predictors, i.e. shear stress, stream power, unit stream power and effective stream power. In order to accomplish the objectives, experiments were carried out in a 3.0 m long and 0.5 m wide flume using four well sorted sands (0.230, 0.536, 0.719, 1.022 mm. Unit discharges ranging from 0.07 to 2.07 × 10−3 m2 s−1 were simulated inside the flume at four slopes (5.2, 8.7, 13.2 and 17.6% to analyze their impact on sediment transport rate. The sediment transport rate measured at the bottom end of the flume by taking water and sediment samples was considered equal to sediment transport capacity, because the selected flume length of 3.0 m was found sufficient to reach the transport capacity. The experimental result reveals that the slope gradient has a stronger impact on transport capacity than unit discharge and mean flow velocity due to the fact that the tangential component of gravity force increases with slope gradient. Our results show that unit stream power is an optimal composite force predictor for estimating transport capacity. Stream power and effective stream power can also be successfully related to the transport capacity, however the relations are strongly dependent on grain size. Shear stress showed poor performance, because part of shear stress is dissipated by bed irregularities, bed form evolution and sediment detachment. An empirical transport

  18. Vegetation and climatic changes during the Middle Miocene in the Wushan Basin, northeastern Tibetan Plateau: Evidence from a high-resolution palynological record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Zhengchuang; Li, Jijun; Song, Chunhui; Chang, Jing; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Jia; Liu, Shanpin; Peng, Tingjiang

    2017-10-01

    There remains no detailed record of the Middle Miocene vegetation and climatic changes which occurred in central Asia and their possible driving mechanisms. This is because there is still a lack of high resolution records. Here, we present a sporopollen record from the Wushan Basin on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, central Asia, spanning the period ∼16.1-13.6 Ma. The sporopollen record shows that a dense mixed forest growing in rather warm and humid climatic conditions was affected by a general drying trend during the period ∼16.1-15 Ma. It demonstrates that although the climate was generally warm and humid during the Middle Miocene Climate Optimum (MMCO), it was also a time of climatic instability. The dense forest gave way to an open forest in response to a less humid climate between ∼15 and 14.4 Ma. Dense mixed forest made a return with an increasingly humid climate during ∼14.4-13.8 Ma. This vegetation and climatic succession could be associated with global cooling, or more particularly, a higher temperature rebound set against the background of a long-term cooling trend. A more open forest appearing in response to drier and colder climatic conditions dominated the study area during the ∼13.8-13.6 Ma period. This could be compared to the rapid global cooling event Mi-3b. This significant global cooling event exerted a major impact on terrestrial vegetation, climate and biota. Our high resolution sporopollen record demonstrates that global climate changes could have been the first order driving force for the Middle Miocene vegetation and climate changes seen in the Wushan Basin in central continental Asia, with the tectonic uplift of the Tibetan Plateau probably playing a subordinate role.

  19. Effect of Various Organic Matter stimulates Bacteria and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Plantations on Eroded Slopes in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha Vaidya, G.; Shrestha, K.; Wallander, H.

    2009-04-01

    Erosion resulting from landslides is a serious problem in mountainous countries such as Nepal. To restore such sites it is essential to establish plant cover that protects the soil and reduces erosion. Trees and shrubs on the lower hillsides in Nepal form symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and these fungi are important for the uptake of mineral nutrients from the soil. In addition, the mycelia formed by these fungi have an important function in stabilizing the soil. The success of plantations of these eroded slopes is therefore highly dependent on the extent of mycorrhizal colonization of the plants. Mycorrhizal fungi growing in symbiosis with plants are essential in this respect because they improve both plant and nutrient uptake and soil structure. We investigated the influence of organic matter and P amendment on recently produced biomass of bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in eroded slopes in Nepal. Eroded soil mixed with different types of organic matter was placed in mesh bags which were buried around the trees of Bauhinia purpurea and Leucaena diversifolia .This experiment were done in two seasons ( (the wet and the dry season). Signature fatty acids were used to determine bacterial and AM fungal biomass after the six month intervals. The amount and composition of AM fungal spores were analyzed in the mesh bags from the wet and dry seasons. More microbial biomass was produced during wet season than during dry season. Further more, organic matter addition enhanced the production of AM fungal and bacterial biomass during both seasons. The positive influence of organic matter addition on AM fungi could be an important contribution to plant survival, growth and nutrient composition in the soil in plantations on eroded slopes. Different AM spore communities and bacterial profiles were obtained with different organic amendments and this suggests a possible way of selecting for specific microbial communities in the management of eroded

  20. Millennial-scale vegetation dynamics in an estuary at the onset of the Miocene Climate Optimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Andrea; Harzhauser, Mathias; Mandic, Oleg; Roetzel, Reinhard; Corić, Stjepan; Bruch, Angela A; Zuschin, Martin

    2011-05-01

    Pollen analyses have been proven to possess the possibility to decipher rapid vegetational and climate shifts in Neogene sedimentary records. Herein, a c. 21-kyr-long transgression-regression cycle from the Lower Austrian locality Stetten is analysed in detail to evaluate climatic benchmarks for the early phase of the Middle Miocene Climate Optimum and to estimate the pace of environmental change.Based on the Coexistence Approach, a very clear signal of seasonality can be reconstructed. A warm and wet summer season with c. 204-236 mm precipitation during the wettest month was opposed by a rather dry winter season with precipitation of c. 9-24 mm during the driest month. The mean annual temperature ranged between 15.7 and 20.8 °C, with about 9.6-13.3 °C during the cold season and 24.7-27.9 °C during the warmest month. In contrast, today's climate of this area, with an annual temperature of 9.8 °C and 660 mm rainfall, is characterized by the winter season (mean temperature: -1.4 °C, mean precipitation: 39 mm) and a summer mean temperature of 19.9 °C (mean precipitation: 84 mm).Different modes of environmental shifts shaped the composition of the vegetation. Within few millennia, marshes and salt marshes with abundant Cyperaceae rapidly graded into Taxodiaceae swamps. This quick but gradual process was interrupted by swift marine ingressions which took place on a decadal to centennial scale. The transgression is accompanied by blooms of dinoflagellates and of the green alga Prasinophyta and an increase in Abies and Picea. Afterwards, the retreat of the sea and the progradation of estuarine and wetland settings were a gradual progress again.Despite a clear sedimentological cyclicity, which is related to the 21-kyr precessional forcing, the climate data show little variation. This missing pattern might be due to the buffering of the precessional-related climate signal by the subtropical vegetation. Another explanation could be the method-inherent broad range of

  1. Carbonate pseudotachylite? from a Miocene extensional detachment, W. Cyclades, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, A. Hugh N.; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Most pseudotachylites, both impact- and fault-related, occur in silicate-rich rocks, typically with 'granitoid' compositions. Examples of melting in carbonate rocks, excluding magmatic sources, are restricted to impact-events, except for a carbonate pseudotachylite in the Canalone Fault, S. Italy (Viganò et al. 2011). Another potential example of carbonate pseudotachylite, shown here, comes from the Miocene-aged W. Cycladic Detachment System, in Greece. Top-SSE ductile to brittle movement on this detachment, with a maximum displacement estimated at tens of kilometers, exhumed of HP-rocks. The carbonate pseudotachylite occurs within an 43 mm thick), consists of dark (hematitic) red, ultra-fine grained unlayered carbonate with up to 40x10 mm rather rounded clasts of earlier generations of cataclasite, many with a quartzite composition. These clasts are fractured and partially separated, with a fine red carbonate matrix. No layering of the matrix or clasts is apparent. The clasts become finer and more abundant towards the boundary with Layer B. Layers B and D (~57 & ~20 mm thick) dominantly comprises protocataclasite with greyish quartz fragments separated by a carbonate matrix along narrow fractures. Zone C and E (~23 m & >15 mm thick) comprise pale pink carbonate-dominated rocks with abundant clasts (+/- quartz fragments) of earlier cataclasite generations. These elongate clasts lie parallel to the overall banding, which is parallel to the ultramylonitic foliation (detachment surface). Smaller clasts are markedly more rounded and comprise carbonate and quartzite material and may have darker (?reaction) rims. No layering is seen in the pale pink groundmass although this is present in some elongate clasts. All layer boundaries are irregular and no principle slip surfaces have been seen. Injection veins from 1 to 9 mm wide and up to at least 100 mm long derive from the central layer (C), cutting the overall layering at a high angle and branching in several places

  2. METAXYTHERIUM MEDIUM (MAMMALIA: SIRENIA FROM UPPER MIOCENE SEDIMENTS OF THE ARENARIA DI PONSANO FORMATION (TUSCANY, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIOVANNI BIANUCCI

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Records of Metaxytherium medium (Mammalia: Sirenia from Tononian (Late Miocene sediments from che Arenaria di Ponsano Formation (Tuscany, Italy are described. They consist of fragmentary specimens, including several partial cranial elements representing at least three skulls, two humeri, fragments of venebrae and some incomplete ribs. The new Tuscan records confirm che wide diffusion of Metaxytherium in the Mediterranean during the Miocene. This sirenian's occurrence in the Arenaria di Ponsano sediments is in accordance with the shelf environment indicated by other fossils. The low sea bottom was at least partially covered by segrass meadows, the food source of this dugongid. 

  3. Amber from western Amazonia reveals Neotropical diversity during the middle Miocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; De Franceschi, Dario; Flynn, John J.; Nel, André; Baby, Patrice; Benammi, Mouloud; Calderón, Ysabel; Espurt, Nicolas; Goswami, Anjali; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo

    2006-01-01

    Tertiary insects and arachnids have been virtually unknown from the vast western Amazonian basin. We report here the discovery of amber from this region containing a diverse fossil arthropod fauna (13 hexapod families and 3 arachnid species) and abundant microfossil inclusions (pollen, spores, algae, and cyanophyceae). This unique fossil assemblage, recovered from middle Miocene deposits of northeastern Peru, greatly increases the known diversity of Cenozoic tropical–equatorial arthropods and microorganisms and provides insights into the biogeography and evolutionary history of modern Neotropical biota. It also strengthens evidence for the presence of more modern, high-diversity tropical rainforest ecosystems during the middle Miocene in western Amazonia. PMID:16950875

  4. An age for Kajong, a Miocene fossil site east of Lake Turkana, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Francis H.; Jicha, Brian R.; Leakey, R. E.

    2016-02-01

    The Kajong Formation in Marsabit District, northern Kenya has yielded a Miocene mammalian fauna consisting of nine taxa. It is capped by a basalt 40Ar/39Ar dated at 19.1 ± 0.1 Ma, and a volcanic clast from a conglomerate within the formation yielded an age of 20.3 Ma, only slightly older. The entire fauna from this site thus lies close to the base of the Miocene Epoch and is older than 19.2 Ma. The site has yielded some of the oldest examples of Archaeobelodon filholi, Prodeinotherium hobleyi, and Gomphotherium sp. in east Africa.

  5. A radiolarian dated sponge microsclere assemblage from the Miocene Dos Bocas Formation of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P. D.; Haslett, S. K.

    1995-04-01

    An assemblage of siliceous sponge microscleres, previously unknown in the fossil record, are described from the Miocene Dos Bocas Formation of coastal Ecuador. The fauna includes several species previously known only from Holocene faunas, and a new taxa Conciliaspongia rarus Gen. et sp. nov. The microsclere assemblage is interpreted as being deposited in close proximity to a shallow (Radiolaria occurring in association with the microsclere assemblage indicate a mid-Early Miocene age ( Stichocorys delmontensis zone), and illustrate their biostratigraphic usefulness in enigmatic/exotic facies.

  6. Palynology and stratigraphy of the Upper Miocene Chad Formation, Bornu Basin, northeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Olatunji Ola-Buraimo

    2017-04-01

    One main palynological zone, i.e., the Echitricolporites spinosus assemblage zone, has been established. The base of the studied section at 385 m is characterized by the last up-hole occurrence of Grimsdalea magnaclavata suggestive of Eocene boundary while the overlying sediments are characterized by Late Miocene marker species such as E. spinosus, Elaeis guineensis, Anthocerus sp., Nymphaea lotus, and Retistephanocolpites gracilis. The Chad Formation is dated as Late Miocene age unconformably overlying the Eocene Kerri-Kerri Formation which indicated that the Chad Formation was probably deposited during an alternation of lacustrine and continental settings, due to climatic change.

  7. Laser induced fluorescence measurements on W- and Ba atoms eroded from fluorescent lamp electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlbeck, J.; Rackow, K.; Sigeneger, F.; Uhrlandt, D.; Weltmann, K.-D.; Hadrath, S.; Lieder, G.

    2010-05-01

    The method of laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is applied to fluorescent lamps (FL) in order to investigate processes of electrode erosion in the vicinity of the electrodes. The life time of FLs which are ignited by instant start is mainly limited by sputtering of the coil electrodes and in final breaking. This sputtering of tungsten mainly occurs during the ignition in the glow discharge phase. Therefore, the density of W atoms is measured in the electrode region during ignition. Temporal and spatial resolved profiles were measured by LIF which has been combined with fast imaging. The life time of FLs which are started with preheated coils is also caused mainly by electrode failures. But the reason differs from the instant start case because here the loss is caused mainly by evaporation. End-of-lamp life is reached if the emitter material which is deposited at the coil to reduce the work function of the coil is lost completely. LIF is used to measure the density of the eroded emitter material, namely Barium atoms. First result of phase resolved absolute Ba atoms densities are presented.

  8. Molecular weight-dependent degradation and drug release of surface-eroding poly(ethylene carbonate)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Adam; Wang, Yingya; Harmankaya, Necati

    2017-01-01

    Poly(ethylene carbonate) (PEC) is a unique biomaterial showing significant potential for controlled drug delivery applications. The current study investigated the impact of the molecular weight on the biological performance of drug-loaded PEC films. Following the preparation and thorough physicoc......Poly(ethylene carbonate) (PEC) is a unique biomaterial showing significant potential for controlled drug delivery applications. The current study investigated the impact of the molecular weight on the biological performance of drug-loaded PEC films. Following the preparation and thorough.......7 macrophages) and in vivo (subcutaneous implantation in rats). All investigated samples degraded by means of surface erosion (mass loss, but constant molecular weight), which was accompanied by a predictable, erosion-controlled drug release pattern. Accordingly, the obtained in vitro degradation half...... incubations with cholesterol esterase. Interestingly, SEM analysis indicated a distinct surface erosion process for enzyme-, macrophage- and in vivo-treated polymer films in a molecular weight-dependent manner. Overall, the molecular weight of surface-eroding PEC was identified as an essential parameter...

  9. Sex-ratio control erodes sexual selection, revealing evolutionary feedback from adaptive plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Tim W; Kuijper, Bram; Weissing, Franz J; Pen, Ido

    2011-09-20

    Female choice is a powerful selective force, driving the elaboration of conspicuous male ornaments. This process of sexual selection has profound implications for many life-history decisions, including sex allocation. For example, females with attractive partners should produce more sons, because these sons will inherit their father's attractiveness and enjoy high mating success, thereby yielding greater fitness returns than daughters. However, previous research has overlooked the fact that there is a reciprocal feedback from life-history strategies to sexual selection. Here, using a simple mathematical model, we show that if mothers adaptively control offspring sex in relation to their partner's attractiveness, sexual selection is weakened and male ornamentation declines. This weakening occurs because the ability to determine offspring sex reduces the fitness difference between females with attractive and unattractive partners. We use individual-based, evolutionary simulations to show that this result holds under more biologically realistic conditions. Sexual selection and sex allocation thus interact in a dynamic fashion: The evolution of conspicuous male ornaments favors sex-ratio adjustment, but this conditional strategy then undermines the very same process that generated it, eroding sexual selection. We predict that, all else being equal, the most elaborate sexual displays should be seen in species with little or no control over offspring sex. The feedback process we have described points to a more general evolutionary principle, in which a conditional strategy weakens directional selection on another trait by reducing fitness differences.

  10. Wind-eroded silicate as a source of hydrogen peroxide on Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Ebbe Norskov; Merrison, Jonathan P.; Jensen, Svend Knak

    Introduction: Investigations of Mars as a potential habitat for past or present life depend on understand-ing the chemistry of the Martian soil as it affects the preservation of organic compounds and thus the risk of forward contamination as well as the suitability of organic compounds as biomark......Introduction: Investigations of Mars as a potential habitat for past or present life depend on understand-ing the chemistry of the Martian soil as it affects the preservation of organic compounds and thus the risk of forward contamination as well as the suitability of organic compounds...... soil. Methods: We simulated wind-erosion of silicates by tumbling quartz sand in sealed quartz ampoules with defined atmospheres. The eroded sand was suspended in water and the hydrogen peroxide concentration was followed using a sco-poletin/horseradish peroxidase assay. Results: The simulated wind...... silicate could further affect the degradation of organic com-pounds on Mars, be a stress factor for past and present life as well as pose a danger to future Mars explorers. [1] Levin G. V. and Straat P.A. (1977) JGR, 82, 4663-4667. [2] Oyama V. I. and Berdahl B. J. (1977) JGR, 82, 4669-4676. [3] Zent A. P...

  11. Local and non-local effects of spanwise finite perturbations in erodible river bathymetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Mirko; Hill, Craig; Guala, Michele

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to study the effect of axial-flow hydrokinetic turbine models on an erodible river bed under live-bed conditions. Results indicate that the presence of an operating turbine rotor creates a blockage in the mean flow which produces a remarkable geomorphic signature in the migrating bedforms. These impacts affect a local area downstream of the turbines when placed symmetrically with respect to the cross section of the channel. On the other hand, more interesting results are observed with an asymmetric installation of the turbines. This configuration demonstrates a stronger effect on the mean flow, resulting in a larger plan-wise distortion of the mean topography and differential migration patterns of bedforms. Different turbine installation arrangements and hub heights above the mean bed were investigated, focusing mainly on the perturbation of sediment transport characteristics influenced by the turbine wake. Additional results with spanwise modulated submerged walls explore the possibility to control river topography harvesting this type of geomorphic destabilization.

  12. Interaction between an axial-flow model hydrokinetic turbine and an erodible channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Craig; Musa, Mirko; Chamorro, Leonardo P.; Guala, Michele

    2013-11-01

    Laboratory experiments were carried out to examine the effect of relatively large-scale bedforms on the performance of a model axial-flow hydrokinetic turbine. The turbine rotor, dT = 0 . 15 m, was attached to a miniature DC motor, and allowed for voltage data acquisition at 200 Hz along with 3D hub-height inflow velocity, Uhub, approximately 7dT upstream of the turbine. Spatio-temporal bed elevations were acquired along three longitudinal sections and at least one transverse transect within the flume providing the temporally-averaged scour and deposition patterns characterizing the turbine near-field region. Turbine-turbine interaction was investigated under aligned configurations in the streamwise direction with variable spacing both in clear water scour and live bed transport conditions. Effects from both migrating bedforms and the upstream turbine were observed in the long-term and short-term voltage fluctuations of the downstream turbine. Combined measurements of inflow velocity, bed topography and turbine voltage were used to obtain joint statistics and correlations, which provided an indication of the variability in environmental exposure and performance that hydrokinetic turbines will encounter in natural erodible rivers.

  13. SOIL ERODIBILITY IN THE BRAZILIAN COASTAL PLAINS ERODIBILIDADE DO SOLO NOS TABULEIROS COSTEIROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Curi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    In order to determine soil losses caused by water erosion, in different situations, erosion prediction models, such as the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE, are used. Their application on agricultural and environmental planning depends on the determination of the USLE factors, including erodibility (K factor. The objective of this study was to determine erodibility for the main soil classes of the Brazilian Coastal Plains region, in Aracruz, Espírito Santo State. The experiment was established in the following soils: medium/clayey texture Yellow Argisol (PA1, Haplic Plinthosol (FX, and moderately rocky Yellow Argisol (PA2. For the calculation of soil erodibility, data of erosivity and soil losses, from November 1997 to May 2004, were used. Soil losses samplings were performed for each rainfall event regarded as erosive. The erodibility values were 0.007 Mg h MJ-1 mm-1

  14. PARP1 is a TRF2-associated poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and protects eroded telomeres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Marla V [ORNL; Wu, Jun [ORNL; Wang, Yisong [ORNL; Liu, Yie [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase 1 (PARP1) is well characterized for its role in base excision repair (BER), where it is activated by and binds to DNA breaks and catalyzes the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of several substrates involved in DNA damage repair. Here we demonstrate that PARP1 associates with telomere repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) and is capable of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of TRF2, which affects binding of TRF2 to telomeric DNA. Immunostaining of interphase cells or metaphase spreads shows that PARP1 is detected sporadically at normal telomeres, but it appears preferentially at eroded telomeres caused by telomerase deficiency or damaged telomeres induced by DNA-damaging reagents. Although PARP1 is dispensable in the capping of normal telomeres, Parp1 deficiency leads to an increase in chromosome end-to-end fusions or chromosome ends without detectable telomeric DNA in primary murine cells after induction of DNA damage. Our results suggest that upon DNA damage, PARP1 is recruited to damaged telomeres, where it can help protect telomeres against chromosome end-to-end fusions and genomic instability.

  15. PARP1 Is a TRF2-associated Poly(ADP-Ribose)Polymerase and Protects Eroded Telomeres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yie [ORNL; Wu, Jun [ORNL; Schreiber, Valerie [Universite Louis Pasteur, France; Dunlap, John [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Dantzer, Francoise [Universite Louis Pasteur, France; Wang, Yisong [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2006-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase 1 (PARP1) is well characterized for its role in base excision repair (BER), where it is activated by and binds to DNA breaks and catalyzes the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of several substrates involved in DNA damage repair. Here we demonstrate that PARP1 associates with telomere repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) and is capable of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of TRF2, which affects binding of TRF2 to telomeric DNA. Immunostaining of interphase cells or metaphase spreads shows that PARP1 is detected sporadically at normal telomeres, but it appears preferentially at eroded telomeres caused by telomerase deficiency or damaged telomeres induced by DNA-damaging reagents. Although PARP1 is dispensable in the capping of normal telomeres, Parp1 deficiency leads to an increase in chromosome end-to-end fusions or chromosome ends without detectable telomeric DNA in primary murine cells after induction of DNA damage. Our results suggest that upon DNA damage, PARP1 is recruited to damaged telomeres, where it can help protect telomeres against chromosome end-to-end fusions and genomic instability.

  16. Social perception of soil conservation benefits in Kondoa eroded area of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra P. Shrestha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A soil conservation project was implemented in Tanzania for over 30 years. This study applied a socio-economic approach to examine and analyse the benefits of soil conservation in the Kondoa eroded area of Tanzania by conducting a household survey of 240 households. The study findings show that 89% and 70% of respondents consider soil conservation activities have increased vegetation and soil fertility, respectively. Decreased soil erosion was perceived by 68% of respondents, increased firewood by 98%, increased fodder by 50%, high crop yields by 56%, and food sufficiency by 68%. These are the outcomes of conservation tillage, integrated farming and use of organic fertilizers, controlled stall feeding, agroforestry, construction of cut off drains, contour bunds and contour ridges cultivation, which are the main land use practices in the area. Access to extension services, household sizes, long term land ownership, crop incomes and awareness of soil conservation project were found to determine the level of participation in soil conservation. Major challenges are the lack of sustainability of those activities because of a recent policy decision to withdraw conservation investment. Despite the challenge, this study concluded that past government efforts on soil conservation activities initiated since the early 1970s through decentralization, institutional collaboration, socioeconomic support to farmers and continuous local community participation in restoring the degraded ecosystem of Kondoa have contributed to ensure environmental and socio-economic sustainability in the area.

  17. Effect of water accommodated fraction of 0# diesel oil and crude oil on EROD activity of liver of Sparus macrocephlus and its mRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Li; Shen, Xinqiang; Jiang, Mei

    2016-12-01

    We studied the effect of water accommodated fractions (WAF) of 0# diesel and crude oil on ethoxy resorufin o-deethylase (EROD) activity and CYP1A1 mRNA expression quantity in the liver of Sparus macrocephlus. We found that there were some differences in the EROD activity and CYP1A1 mRNA induction between these two petroleum hydrocarbons. Both the EROD activity and CYP1A1 mRNA expression of fish exposed to 0# diesel WAF were higher than those of crude oil WAF fish. The EROD activities and CYP1A1 mRNA expressions in the livers 0# diesel WAF exposed group declined faster than those of crude oil WAF and the recovery of EROD activity and CYP1A1 mRNA expression in the crude oil group was higher than that of 0# diesel group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evolution of the western East African Rift System reflected in provenance changes of Miocene to Pleistocene synrift sediments (Albertine Rift, Uganda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sandra; Hornung, Jens; Hinderer, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Miocene to Pleistocene synrift sediments in the Albertine Graben reflect the complex geodynamic evolution in the Western branch of the East African Rift System. In this study we focus on the provenance of these siliciclastic deposits to identify sediment sources and supply paths with the ultimate goal to reconstruct the exhumation history of different tectonic blocks during prolonged rifting, with specific focus on the uplift of the Rwenzori Mountains in Uganda. We present framework and heavy mineral petrographic data combined with varietal studies of detrital garnet and rutile, based on logged sediment sections on the Ugandan side of Lake Albert (Kisegi-Nyabusosi area). The analyzed sedimentary units have a feldspatho-quartzose composition and distinct variations in heavy mineral assemblages and mineral chemical composition indicating two provenance changes. The Miocene part of the stratigraphy is dominated by garnet, zircon, tourmaline and rutile, whereas Pliocene to Pleistocene sediment yields high amounts of less stable amphibole and epidote. An abrupt switch in heavy mineral assemblages occurs during the early Pliocene ( 5.5-5.0 Ma) and clearly postdates the formation of Palaeolake Obweruka at 8 Ma. Provenance signatures point to major sediment supply from the northeast and subsequently from the southeast. We interpret this first shift as transition from the pre-rift to the syn-rift stage. In this scenario, formation of Palaeolake Obweruka is due to higher humidity in the upper Miocene, rather than forced rifting. A second change of sediment composition is documented by mineral geochemistry and coincides with fragmentation of Palaeolake Obweruka starting at 2.5 Ma. Detrital garnet in sediment of Miocene to Pliocene age is rich in pyrope and almandine and calculated Zr-in-rutile temperatures range between 550 and 950 °C. In contrast, garnet occurring in Pleistocene sediment (Nyabusosi Formation) has a higher spessartine component and rutile thermometry is

  19. Structure and provenance of Late Cretaceous-Miocene sediments located near the NE Dinarides margin: Inferences from kinematics of orogenic building and subsequent extensional collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojadinovic, Uros; Matenco, Liviu; Andriessen, Paul; Toljić, Marinko; Rundić, Ljupko; Ducea, Mihai N.

    2017-07-01

    The NE part of the Dinarides Mountain chain, located near their junction with the Carpatho-Balkanides, is an area where sedimentary basins associated with the Neotethys subduction and collision are still exposed. We performed a provenance study, based on detrital fission track thermochronology combined with zircon Usbnd Pb magmatic geochronology, and existing studies of kinematics and exhumation. Our study shows rapid sedimentation in the trench and forearc basin overlying the upper European tectonic plate. A number of latest Cretaceous-Early Paleocene igneous provenance ages show a dominant magmatic source area, derived from a Late Cretaceous subduction-related arc. This arc shed short time lag sediments in the forearc and the trench system, possibly associated with focused exhumation in the Serbo-Macedonian margin. This was followed by burial of the trench sediments and a novel stage of Middle-Late Eocene exhumation driven by continued continental collision that had larger effects than previously thought. The collision was followed by Late Oligocene-Miocene exhumation of the former lower Adriatic plate along extensional detachments that reactivated the inherited collisional contact along the entire Dinarides margin. This event re-distributed sediments at short distances in the neighboring Miocene basins. Our study demonstrates that the Dinarides orogenic system is characterized by short lag times between exhumation and re-deposition, whereas the upper tectonic plate is significantly exhumed only during the final stages of collision. Such an exhumation pattern is not directly obvious from observing the overall geometry of the orogen.

  20. Otoliths in situ from Sarmatian (Middle Miocene) fishes of the Paratethys. Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzhans, Werner; Carnevale, Giorgio; Bannikov, Alexandre F.

    2017-01-01

    Several well-preserved otoliths were extracted from four slabs containing fish specimens of Atherina suchovi. Atherina suchovi is one of the five Atherina species recorded from the Middle Miocene of the Central and Eastern Paratethys established on articulated skeletal remains. This corresponds t...

  1. Middle Miocene E-W tectonic horst structure of Crete through extensional detachment faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, D.; Vassilakis, E.

    2008-07-01

    Two east-west trending extensional detachment faults have been recognized in Crete, one with top-to-the-north motion of the hanging wall toward the Cretan Sea and one with top-to-the-south motion of the hanging wall toward the Libyan Sea. The east-west trending zone between these two detachment faults, which forms their common footwall, comprises a tectonic horst formed during Middle Miocene slip on the detachment faults. The detachment faults disrupt the overall tectono-stratigraphic succession of Crete and are localized along pre-existing thrust faults and along particular portions of the stratigraphic sequence, including the transition between the Permo-Triassic Tyros Beds and the base of the Upper Triassic-Eocene carbonate platform of the Tripolis nappe. By recognizing several different tectono-stratigraphic formations within what is generally termed the 'phyllite-quartzite', it is possible to distinguish these extensional detachment faults from thrust faults and minor discontinuities in the sequence. The deformation history of units within Crete can be summarized as: (i) compressional deformation producing arc-parallel east-west trending south-directed thrust faults in Oligocene to Early Miocene time (ii) extensional deformation along arc-parallel, east-west trending detachment faults in Middle Miocene time, with hanging wall motion to the north and south; (iii) Late Miocene-Quaternary extensional deformation along high-angle normal and oblique normal faults that disrupt the older arc-parallel structures.

  2. Middle Miocene E-W tectonic horst structure of Crete through extensional detachment faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanikolaou, D [Professor of Dynamics and Tectonics, School of Geology and Geoenvironment, Department of Dynamics, Tectonics and Applied Geology, National and Kapodestrian University of Athens, 15784 (Greece); Vassilakis, E [Research Scientist, School of Geology and Geoenvironment, Department of Dynamics, Tectonics and Applied Geology, National and Kapodestrian University of Athens, 15784 (Greece)], E-mail: dpapan@geol.uoa.gr, E-mail: evasilak@geol.uoa.gr

    2008-07-01

    Two east-west trending extensional detachment faults have been recognized in Crete, one with top-to-the-north motion of the hanging wall toward the Cretan Sea and one with top-to-the-south motion of the hanging wall toward the Libyan Sea. The east-west trending zone between these two detachment faults, which forms their common footwall, comprises a tectonic horst formed during Middle Miocene slip on the detachment faults. The detachment faults disrupt the overall tectono-stratigraphic succession of Crete and are localized along pre-existing thrust faults and along particular portions of the stratigraphic sequence, including the transition between the Permo-Triassic Tyros Beds and the base of the Upper Triassic-Eocene carbonate platform of the Tripolis nappe. By recognizing several different tectono-stratigraphic formations within what is generally termed the 'phyllite-quartzite', it is possible to distinguish these extensional detachment faults from thrust faults and minor discontinuities in the sequence. The deformation history of units within Crete can be summarized as: (i) compressional deformation producing arc-parallel east-west trending south-directed thrust faults in Oligocene to Early Miocene time (ii) extensional deformation along arc-parallel, east-west trending detachment faults in Middle Miocene time, with hanging wall motion to the north and south; (iii) Late Miocene-Quaternary extensional deformation along high-angle normal and oblique normal faults that disrupt the older arc-parallel structures.

  3. The development of the Amazonian mega-wetland (Miocene; Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, C.; Wesselingh, F.P.; Hovikoski, J.; Guerrero, J.; Hoorn, C.; Wesselingh, F.P.

    2010-01-01

    The scenery of Western Amazonia once consisted of fluvial systems that originated on the Amazonian Craton and were directed towards the sub-Andean zone and the Caribbean. In the course of the Early Miocene these fluvial systems were largely replaced by lakes, swamps, tidal channels and marginal

  4. Teredolites longissimus Kelly & Bromley from the Miocene Grand Bay Formation of Carriacou, the Grenadines, Lesser Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pickerill, R.K.; Donovan, S.K.; Portell, R.W.

    2003-01-01

    The ichnotaxon Teredolites Leymerie, 1842, represented by T. longissimus Kelly & Bromley, 1984, is documented for the first time from the Lesser Antilles. Its occurrence also represents the first record of the ichnotaxon from the Miocene of the Caribbean. Five specimens, each occurring in isolation

  5. A platyrrhine talus from the early Miocene of Peru (Amazonian Madre de Dios Subandean Zone)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marivaux, L.; Salas-Gismondi, R.; Tejada, J.; Billet, J.; Louterbach, M.; Vink, J.; Bailleul, J.; Roddaz, M.; Antoine, P.-O

    2012-01-01

    The earliest platyrrhines have been documented from the late Oligocene of Bolivia (Salla) and from the early and early middle Miocene of middle and high latitudes (central Chile and Argentinean Patagonia). Recent paleontological field expeditions in Peruvian Amazonia (Atalaya, Cusco; Upper Madre de

  6. The westernmost tarsier: A new genus and species from the Miocene of Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Jelle S.; Flynn, Lawrence J.; Wessels, Wilma

    2013-01-01

    As the closest living sister group of anthropoids, tarsiers (Family Tarsiidae) are an important group in primate evolution. However, their fossil record is poor: only four species have been described, two from the Eocene of China and two from the Miocene of Thailand. All are from outside the range

  7. A unique Middle Miocene European hominoid and the origins of the great ape and human clade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyà-Solà, Salvador; Alba, David M.; Almécija, Sergio; Casanovas-Vilar, Isaac; Köhler, Meike; De Esteban-Trivigno, Soledad; Robles, Josep M.; Galindo, Jordi; Fortuny, Josep

    2009-01-01

    The great ape and human clade (Primates: Hominidae) currently includes orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos, and humans. When, where, and from which taxon hominids evolved are among the most exciting questions yet to be resolved. Within the Afropithecidae, the Kenyapithecinae (Kenyapithecini + Equatorini) have been proposed as the sister taxon of hominids, but thus far the fragmentary and scarce Middle Miocene fossil record has hampered testing this hypothesis. Here we describe a male partial face with mandible of a previously undescribed fossil hominid, Anoiapithecus brevirostris gen. et sp. nov., from the Middle Miocene (11.9 Ma) of Spain, which enables testing this hypothesis. Morphological and geometric morphometrics analyses of this material show a unique facial pattern for hominoids. This taxon combines autapomorphic features—such as a strongly reduced facial prognathism—with kenyapithecine (more specifically, kenyapithecin) and hominid synapomorphies. This combination supports a sister-group relationship between kenyapithecins (Griphopithecus + Kenyapithecus) and hominids. The presence of both groups in Eurasia during the Middle Miocene and the retention in kenyapithecins of a primitive hominoid postcranial body plan support a Eurasian origin of the Hominidae. Alternatively, the two extant hominid clades (Homininae and Ponginae) might have independently evolved in Africa and Eurasia from an ancestral, Middle Miocene stock, so that the supposed crown-hominid synapomorphies might be homoplastic. PMID:19487676

  8. Cricetidae and Gliridae (Rodentia, Mammalia) from the Miocene and Pliocene of southern Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García-Alix, A.; Minwer-Barakat, R.; Martín-Suárez, E.; Freudenthal, M.

    2008-01-01

    Several Miocene and Pliocene continental fossiliferous localities in the Granada and Guadix basins have yielded fossil micromammals. Cricetids and glirids are known from most of these localities. This paper deals with the genera Apocricetus, Ruscinomys, Blancomys and Eliomys. The Cricetidae are

  9. Miocene volcanism in the central Chilean Andes (31°30'S 34°35'S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, M.; Charrier, R.; Munizaga, F.; Rivano, S.; Sepulveda, P.; Thiele, R.; Drake, R.

    The name Farellones Formation is currently used to designate continental Miocene volcanic and volcaniclastic deposits that form a 400 km long and 26-65 km wide, N/S-oriented belt of outcrops located along the central Chilean Andes. These deposits are mainly located east of an Oligocene-Miocene volcanic belt and west of the present volcanic arc. The lava flows and pyroclastics of the Farellones Formation vary in composition from andesitic to rhyolitic and, in lesser proportion, from dacitic to basaltic. Major element geochemistry and some trace elements confirm a typical calc-alkaline nature of the continental margin. The Miocene volcanic activity that formed the Farellones Formation occurred between 19.3 and 7.4 Ma, according to available K/Ar data, but this activity was not totally synchronous along the belt. It is estimated that 15.000 km 3 of effusive material was extruded during this volcanic episode. The main Miocene volcanic activity can be related to an increase in the normal convergence rate between the Nazca and South American plates, which occurred between 26 and 9.6 Ma. The Farellones volcanic belt is not related to the present segmentation of the Nazca plate and thus represents an older Andean segment with a continuous and compositionally homogeneous volcanism possibly related to segmentation of the paleo-subduction zone.

  10. An early seal (Mammalia, Pinnipedia) from the Middle Miocene (Langhian) of Miste (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, S.; Heissig, K.

    2005-01-01

    A single, upper premolar tooth of a seal from the Miste mollusc bed (Miocene, middle Langhian: The Netherlands) is determined as an upper P3 of Miophoca cf. vetusta Zapfe. Fossils of this species and genus have to date only been reported from the Late Badenian (uppermost Langhian) of the Central

  11. A new short-rostrum odontocete (Mammalia: Cetacea) from the middle Miocene of the Eastern Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bianucci, G.; Landini, W.

    2002-01-01

    An incomplete odontocete (Mammalia, Cetacea) skull from Middle Miocene Miste Bed (near Winterswijk in the eastern part of The Netherlands) is described as Vanbreenia trigonia, a new genus and species. The skull exhibits a short rostrum with only two maxillary teeth for each toothrow and with narrow

  12. Simulating a Dynamic Antarctic Ice Sheet in the Early to Middle Miocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasson, E.; DeConto, R.; Pollard, D.; Levy, R. H.

    2015-12-01

    There are a variety of sources of geological data that suggest major variations in the volume and extent of the Antarctic ice sheet during the early to middle Miocene. Simulating such variability using coupled climate-ice sheet models is problematic due to a strong hysteresis effect caused by height-mass balance feedback and albedo feedback. This results in limited retreat of the ice sheet once it has reached the continental size, as likely occurred prior to the Miocene. Proxy records suggest a relatively narrow range of atmospheric CO2 during the early to middle Miocene, which exacerbates this problem. We use a new climate forcing which accounts for ice sheet-climate feedbacks through an asynchronous GCM-RCM coupling, which is able to better resolve the narrow Antarctic ablation zone in warm climate simulations. When combined with recently suggested mechanisms for retreat into subglacial basins due to ice shelf hydrofracture and ice cliff failure, we are able to simulate large-scale variability of the Antarctic ice sheet in the Miocene. This variability is equivalent to a seawater oxygen isotope signal of ~0.5 ‰, or a sea level equivalent change of ~35 m, for a range of atmospheric CO2 between 280 - 500 ppm.

  13. A liana from the lower Miocene of Panama and the fossil record of Connaraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jud, Nathan A; Nelson, Chris W

    2017-05-01

    Permineralized wood is common in the Miocene beds exposed during the expansion of the Panama Canal. We describe a stem with the distinctive anatomy of a liana and evaluate the evolutionary, biogeographic, and ecological significance of this discovery. The object of the study was obtained from a collection of fossil woods and fruits from a locality in the lower Miocene Cucaracha Formation, where the formation is exposed by the Culebra Cut of the Panama Canal. Thin sections were prepared using the cellulose acetate peel technique and examined using transmitted light microscopy. We described the anatomy and compared it with that of extant and fossil species. We also reviewed and evaluated published reports of fossils attributed to Connaraceae. The anatomy of this fossil wood matches the genus Rourea (Connaraceae). The stem is only 1 cm in diameter, but vessels >200 μm in diameter also occur, indicating the perennial climbing habit. We evaluated 12 other pre-Quaternary occurrences attributed to Connaraceae. Four are accepted, three are rejected, and we consider five unknown or uncertain. The discovery of this Rourea stem confirms the presence of Connaraceae in the Neotropics by the early Miocene, provides the oldest evidence of the climbing habit in the family, and contributes to our understanding of the flora of Panama 19 mya. Although the fossil record of Connaraceae is sparse, reliable occurrences span three continents and indicate that the family originated as early as the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene and was widespread by the early Miocene. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  14. Integrated Chronology, Flora and Faunas, and Paleoecology of the Alajuela Formation, Late Miocene of Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFadden, Bruce J; Jones, Douglas S; Jud, Nathan A; Moreno-Bernal, Jorge W; Morgan, Gary S; Portell, Roger W; Perez, Victor J; Moran, Sean M; Wood, Aaron R

    2017-01-01

    The late Miocene was an important time to understand the geological, climatic, and biotic evolution of the ancient New World tropics and the context for the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). Despite this importance, upper Miocene deposits containing diverse faunas and floras and their associated geological context are rare in Central America. We present an integrated study of the geological and paleontological context and age of a new locality from Lago Alajuela in northern Panama (Caribbean side) containing late Miocene marine and terrestrial fossils (plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates) from the Alajuela Formation. These taxa indicate predominantly estuarine and shallow marine paleoenvironments, along with terrestrial influences based on the occurrence of land mammals. Sr-isotope ratio analyses of in situ scallop shells indicate an age for the Alajuela Formation of 9.77 ± 0.22 Ma, which also equates to a latest Clarendonian (Cl3) North American Land Mammal Age. Along with the roughly contemporaneous late Miocene Gatun and Lago Bayano faunas in Panama, we now have the opportunity to reconstruct the dynamics of the Central America seaway that existed before final closure coincident with formation of the Isthmus of Panama.

  15. Whiting–related sediment export along the Middle Miocene carbonate ramp of Great Bahama Bank.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turpin, M.; Emmanuel, L.; Reijmer, J.J.G.; Renard, M.

    2011-01-01

    Modern aragonite needles are present all along the modern leeward margin of Great Bahama Bank (ODP Leg 166), while Middle Miocene sediments contain needles only in more distal areas (Sites 1006 and 1007). In contrast to the rimmed, flat-topped platform topography during the Plio-Pleistocene, the

  16. Do stable carbon isotopes of brown coal woods record changes in Lower Miocene palaeoecology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poole, I.J.; Dolezych, M.; Kool, J.; Burgh, J. van der; Bergen, P.F. van

    2006-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios of fossil wood from the Miocene brown coal deposits in former East Germany are compared with palaeobotanical and sedimentological data to test the use of stable isotopes in determining palaeoenvironment. Significant differences in the chemical composition of samples

  17. Recurrent phases of drought in the upper Miocene of the Black Sea region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasiliev, I.; Reichart, G.-J.; Grothe, A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Krijgsman, W.; Sangiorgi, F.; Weijers, J.W.H; van Róij, L.

    2015-01-01

    Since the Miocene the Black Sea proved to be highly sensitive to fluctuations in the hydrological cycle because of its recurrent restricted connections with the open ocean and the location between the dry Mediterranean and more humid higher northern latitudes. Although the Black Sea formed one of

  18. Testing sequence stratigraphic models by drilling Miocene foresets on the New Jersey shallow shelf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Kenneth G.; Mountain, Gregory S.; Browning, James V.

    2013-01-01

    We present seismic, core, log, and chronologic data on three early to middle Miocene sequences (m5.8, m5.4, and m5.2; ca. 20-14.6 Ma) sampled across a transect of seismic clinothems (prograding sigmoidal sequences) in topset, foreset, and bottomset locations beneath the New Jersey shallow contine...

  19. Miocene Bryozoa from East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Part II: ‘Ascophoran’ Cheilostomata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martino, Di E.; Taylor, P.D.

    2015-01-01

    We describe 72 ascophoran-grade cheilostomes, ranging in age from Early to Late Miocene (late Burdigalian to Messinian), collected from 17 sections in the vicinities of Samarinda, Bontang and Sangkulirang in East Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. Two genera (Oviexechonella gen. nov. and Sendinopora

  20. Simulated bat populations erode when exposed to climate change projections for western North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Hayes

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated that temperature and precipitation conditions correlate with successful reproduction in some insectivorous bat species that live in arid and semiarid regions, and that hot and dry conditions correlate with reduced lactation and reproductive output by females of some species. However, the potential long-term impacts of climate-induced reproductive declines on bat populations in western North America are not well understood. We combined results from long-term field monitoring and experiments in our study area with information on vital rates to develop stochastic age-structured population dynamics models and analyzed how simulated fringed myotis (Myotis thysanodes populations changed under projected future climate conditions in our study area near Boulder, Colorado (Boulder Models and throughout western North America (General Models. Each simulation consisted of an initial population of 2,000 females and an approximately stable age distribution at the beginning of the simulation. We allowed each population to be influenced by the mean annual temperature and annual precipitation for our study area and a generalized range-wide model projected through year 2086, for each of four carbon emission scenarios (representative concentration pathways RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, RCP8.5. Each population simulation was repeated 10,000 times. Of the 8 Boulder Model simulations, 1 increased (+29.10%, 3 stayed approximately stable (+2.45%, +0.05%, -0.03%, and 4 simulations decreased substantially (-44.10%, -44.70%, -44.95%, -78.85%. All General Model simulations for western North America decreased by >90% (-93.75%, -96.70%, -96.70%, -98.75%. These results suggest that a changing climate in western North America has the potential to quickly erode some forest bat populations including species of conservation concern, such as fringed myotis.

  1. The fate of residual carbon in floodplain sediments, originating from eroding peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, Danielle; Evans, Martin; Rothwell, James; Boult, Stephen; Rhodes, Edward

    2016-04-01

    Fluvial systems and their associated sediments have been overlooked as part of global carbon budgets until recently. In the UK, large stores of organic carbon in peatlands are dynamically eroding, with the eventual result being 'off-site' greenhouse gas emissions, which must be incorporated into carbon budgets for management strategies. Evans et al. (2013) concluded peatland fluvial systems are active cyclers of carbon, with 50-90% of particulate organic carbon (POC) exported from peatlands eventually emitted as CO2. Floodplains, although commonly regarded as zones of carbon storage, have been identified as potential hotspots of carbon cycling in the fluvial system with a key process being decomposition of POC. Only 20% of POC may escape mineralisation on floodplains within a peatland catchment (Evans et al., 2013), but studying the composition of the residual carbon has the potential to add to understanding of the drivers of storage versus mineralisation. In this research we have examined stratigraphic records of carbon cycling by focusing on organic matter preserved in a floodplain environment downstream of the Bleaklow Plateau in the Peak District. An OSL date of 640 +/- 90 years BP and a radiocarbon date of 500-310 cal years BP from the sediment cores collected, together with an assessment of the valley morphology using high resolution LiDAR DEM's, indicate potential interaction of post glacial landslide features with the onset of substantial peat erosion, conditioning the landscape to interrupt the transport of carbon down the fluvial network. Floodplain cores have been correlated on the basis of both visual stratigraphy and geochemistry obtained by Itrax core scanning. This data is supported by targeted gas flux data from boreholes using a Gasclam. We present a rudimentary carbon budget for the floodplain of study.

  2. [Effect of topical iron, fluoride application on eroded enamel in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Chong, Yan; Huang, Rui-zhe

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of supplementation containing iron and/or fluoride on eroded enamel in vitro. Eighty enamel specimens collected in orthodontic treatments were randomly allocated into 4 groups of 20 samples each: C (control,deionized water); Fe(2+)(15 mmol/L FeSO(4)); F(-)(1.23% NaF) and Fe(2+)+ F(-)(15 mmol/L FeSO(4) and 1.23% NaF ). Before all samples submitted to 6 alternating demineralization and remineralization cycles, they were pre-treated with one of the experimental solutions for 1 minute. One complete cycle consisted of the following steps: ①demineralization in 5 mL beverage (Coca-Cola, pH=2.58) for 5 minutes under gentle agitation; ②remineralization in 5 mL artificial saliva for 1 hour at 37°C. The effect of erosion was observed by enamel surface morphology and measured by superficial micro-hardness (SMH). One-way ANOVA was performed using SPSS18.0 software package for analysis of the data. The SMH of enamel after erosion by carbonated drinks was significantly lower than the SMH before erosion. When ferrous sulfate with or without fluoride was tested for the prevention of enamel demineralization, there was statistically significant increase in the SMH of enamel in comparison with the control (Pfluorine treatment ,and the damage degree of the enamel surface were reduced compared with the control. Iron and/or fluoride was shown to be effective to enhance the acid resistance of enamel,while the combined use of fluoride and iron in group Fe(2+)+F(-)had no cumulative effects.

  3. Soil C recovery on eroded land: progress towards representing erosion processes in UNFCC reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisden, W. T.; Tate, K. R.; Wilde, R. H.; Lambie, S. M.

    2006-05-01

    New Zealand's tectonic activity and mountainous landscape present unique problems for quantifying the terrestrial C cycle. Recent work has shown that New Zealand's riverine flux of particulate organic carbon to the oceans is approximately 30 percent of the nation's carbon dioxide emissions, and evidence exists to suggest that a similar or greater quantity of soil C is eroded and redeposited in the terrestrial landscape. These results motivated our work to understand the rate of soil C recovery from erosion and estimate the uncertainty related to the fate of C in depositional zones on national land-atmosphere carbon dioxide exchange. Because landslides occur at a known time, they present a unique opportunity for studying erosion and recovery. We measured soil organic C stocks on chronosequences of landslides under grazed pastures and regenerating forests, and compared them to soil C stocks in unslipped pastures and forests. Soil C stocks in landslides were measured to the lesser of approximate depth of the soil contact with unweathered rock, or to 1 m depth. Results suggest that uneroded soils under regenerating forest recover to approximately 40 percent and 55 percent of unslipped C stocks during 18 and 77 years, respectively. Pasture soils recovered to 40 percent and 70 percent of unslipped C stocks during 23 and 37 years. Thus, initial rates of recovery are similar under pasture and forest, but after several decades recovery under pasture may be faster, presumably due to higher rates of N fixation. These rates of soil C recovery, combined with rates of riverine transport following major storms, suggest that the fate of C in the depositional zone remains the largest source of uncertainty in estimates of the effect of erosion on the C cycle in New Zealand's landscapes. Nevertheless, quantifying rates of soil C recovery from erosion and riverine particulate organic C transport make it possible to calculate robust uncertainties which could potentially be included in

  4. An integrated methodology to forecast the efficiency of nourishment strategies in eroding deltas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergillos, Rafael J; López-Ruiz, Alejandro; Principal-Gómez, Daniel; Ortega-Sánchez, Miguel

    2018-02-01

    Many deltas across the globe are retreating, and nearby beaches are undergoing strong erosion as a result. Among soft and prompt solutions, nourishments are the most heavily used. This paper presents an integrated methodology to forecast the efficiency of nourishment strategies by means of wave climate simulations, wave propagations with downscaling techniques, computation of longshore sediment transport rates and application of the one-line model. It was applied to an eroding deltaic beach (Guadalfeo, southern Spain), where different scenarios as a function of the nourished coastline morphology, input volume and grain size were tested. For that, the evolution of six scenarios of coastline geometry over a two-year period (lifetime of nourishment projects at the study site) was modelled and the uncertainty of the predictions was also quantified through Monte Carlo techniques. For the most efficient coastline shape in terms of gained dry beach area, eight sub-scenarios with different nourished volumes were defined and modelled. The results indicate that an input volume around 460,000m(3) is the best strategy since nourished morphologies with higher volumes are more exposed to the prevailing storm directions, inducing less efficient responses. After setting the optimum coastline morphology and input sediment volume, eleven different nourished grain sizes were modelled; the most efficient coastline responses were obtained for sediment sizes greater than 0.01m. The availability of these sizes in the sediment accumulated upstream of a dam in the Guadalfeo River basin allows for the conclusion that this alternative would not only mitigate coastal erosion problems but also sedimentation issues in the reservoir. The methodology proposed in this work is extensible to other coastal areas across the world and can be helpful to support the decision-making process of artificial nourishment projects and other environmental management strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  5. Predicting the spatial distribution of soil erodibility factor using USLE nomograph in an agricultural watershed, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailu Kendie Addis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion in the northwestern Amhara region, Ethiopia has been a subject of anxiety, resulting in a major environmental threat to the sustainability and productive capacity of agricultural areas. This study tried to estimate soil erodibility factor (K-factor using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE nomograph, and evaluate the spatial distribution of the predicted K-factor in a mountainous agricultural watershed. To investigate the K-factor, the 54 km2 study watershed was divided into a 500 m by 500 m square grid and approximately at the center of each grid, topsoil samples (roughly 10 to 20 cm depth were collected over 234 locations. Sand, silt, clay and organic matter (OM percentage were analyzed, while soil permeability and structure class codes were obtained using the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA document. The resulting coefficient of variation (CV of the estimated K-factor was 0.31, suggesting a moderate variability. Meanwhile, the value of nugget to sill ratio of K-factor was 0.32, which categorized as moderate spatial autocorrelation. Prediction accuracy and model fitting effect of the Gaussian semivariogram approach was best, suggesting that the Gaussian ordinary Kriging model was more appropriate for predicting K-factor. The resulting value of the mean error (ME was 0 and the mean squared deviation ratio (MSDR was nearly 1, which indicates the Gaussian model was unbiased and reproduced the experimental variance sufficiently. The values of K-factor were smaller (0.0217 to 0.0188 in the northern part and gradually increased (0.0273 to 0.033 Mg h MJ−1 mm−1 towards the central and south of the study watershed.

  6. Soil profile dynamics in an eroding soil landscape - a catena through a kettle hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Horst H.; Kaczorek, Danuta; Hierold, Wilfried; Deumlich, Detlef; Koszinski, Sylvia; Ellerbrock, Ruth H.; Sommer, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The arable hummocky ground moraine soil landscapes are characterized by a spatial continuum of more or less eroded soils at hilltops and slopes, and by colluviated soils in topographic depressions. After removal of forest in the middle ages, colluvium started covering the pre-existing Histosols and Gleysols within and Luvisols in the vicinity of kettle holes. A catena through originally peat-filled kettle-hole has hardly been described with respect to ongoing pedological modifications according to changes in landscape and hydrology. The objective was to derive the lateral continuum of soil horizons by identifying the location of the lateral boundaries between regions of clay mobilization/migration and gleisation (gleyic conditions), peat accumulation, and secondary carbonate accumulation. Data from an intensively-sampled field in northeastern Germany are presented. The start of colluviation could be dated by tree ring analyses of a buried stem. The location of the fossil topsoil A and peat horizons was determined from a dense grid of auger holes and geophysical explorations. In addition to older processes in the landscape, also younger redoximorphic processes were indicating changes in soil hydraulic properties and a modified hydrology of the arable soil landscape. We found in micromorphological analyses of soil thin sections that clay migration is an ongoing process; samples indicated vertical gradients in C-contents and secondary carbonate accumulation. The clay mobilization in the colluvium and the migration into the fossil horizons seemed to depend on the direction of soil water movement; anisotropic hydraulic conductivity indicated a potential for lateral water movement. The catena data suggest that the soil landscape development was relatively dynamic; the results may allow the reconstruction of former land surfaces, soil distributions, and erosion rates and may help predicting future developments.

  7. Molecular weight-dependent degradation and drug release of surface-eroding poly(ethylene carbonate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohr, Adam; Wang, Yingya; Harmankaya, Necati; Water, Jorrit J; Baldursdottír, Stefania; Almdal, Kristoffer; Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz

    2017-06-01

    Poly(ethylene carbonate) (PEC) is a unique biomaterial showing significant potential for controlled drug delivery applications. The current study investigated the impact of the molecular weight on the biological performance of drug-loaded PEC films. Following the preparation and thorough physicochemical characterization of diverse PEC (molecular weights: 85, 110, 133, 174 and 196kDa), the degradation and drug release behavior of rifampicin- and bovine serum albumin-loaded PEC films was investigated in vitro (in the presence and absence of cholesterol esterase), in cell culture (RAW264.7 macrophages) and in vivo (subcutaneous implantation in rats). All investigated samples degraded by means of surface erosion (mass loss, but constant molecular weight), which was accompanied by a predictable, erosion-controlled drug release pattern. Accordingly, the obtained in vitro degradation half-lives correlated well with the observed in vitro half-times of drug delivery (R(2)=0.96). Here, the PEC of the highest molecular weight resulted in the fastest degradation/drug release. When incubated with macrophages or implanted in animals, the degradation rate of PEC films superimposed the results of in vitro incubations with cholesterol esterase. Interestingly, SEM analysis indicated a distinct surface erosion process for enzyme-, macrophage- and in vivo-treated polymer films in a molecular weight-dependent manner. Overall, the molecular weight of surface-eroding PEC was identified as an essential parameter to control the spatial and temporal on-demand degradation and drug release from the employed delivery system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Gravity modeling reveals that the "Miocene Pyrenean peneplain" developed at high elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Gemma V.; Van Den Driessche, Jean; Robert, Alexandra; Babault, Julien; Le Carlier, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Geodynamics that shaped the present morphology of the western Mediterranean are mostly linked to the African-Eurasia collision and the extension related to the Mediterranean opening. The Pyrenean chain formed by the collision between the Iberian microplate and the Eurasian plate from the Eocene to the late Oligocene. This resulted in lithosphere thickening especially below the Central Pyrenees that becomes thinner eastwards. Whether the later thinning of the lithosphere in the easternmost Pyrenees involves the removal of the lithospheric mantle or not is debated. This issue joins the problematics about the origin of the high-elevation of the "Miocene Pyrenean peneplain" remnants. Indeed the most striking feature of the Pyrenean morphology is the occurrence of high-elevation, low relief erosional surfaces that are interpreted as the remnants of a Miocene single planation surface, dissected and reworked by Quaternary fluvial and glacial erosion. Two end-member interpretations have proposed to explain the high elevation of this original surface. The first considers that the Miocene Pyrenean peneplain develops near sea-level and was later uplifted, the second claims that the planation surface developed at high elevation in response to the inhibition of erosion consecutively to the progressive rise of the base-level of the Pyrenean drainage network. The first interpretation implies the return to normal crustal thickness by erosion and later uplift by removal of the lithospheric mantle. The second interpretation considers that the mean elevation of the original planation surface matches the thickness of the lithosphere below the chain, taking into account some hundred meters of isostatic rebound due to Quaternary erosion. To test these interpretations, we first restore the Miocene original planation surface by mapping and interpolating the high-elevation, low relief surfaces across the Pyrenees. We then performed 1D and 2D gravity models that we compare with recent

  9. The fate of eroded soil organic carbon along a European transect – controls after deposition in terrestrial and aquatic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkels, Frédérique; Cammeraat, Erik; Kalbitz, Karsten

    The potential fate of eroded soil organic carbon (SOC) after deposition is key to understand carbon cycling in eroding landscapes. Globally, large quantities of sediments and SOC are redistributed by soil erosion on agricul-tural land, particularly after heavy precipitation events. Deposition...... relationships will contribute to obtain better estimates of the impact of soil erosion on carbon budgets and reduce uncertainties in the linkage between terrestrial and aquatic carbon cycling......., aggregation, C content, etc.). Turnover of SOC was determined for terrestrial and aquatic depositional conditions in a 10-week incubation study. Moreover, we studied the impact of labile carbon inputs (‘priming’) on SOC stability using 13C labelled cellulose. We evaluated potentially important controls...

  10. Distributional patterns of decapod crustaceans in the circum-Mediterranean area during the Oligo-Miocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyžný, Matúš

    2015-04-01

    During the Oligocene and Miocene, the circum-Mediterranean area was a complex network of (mostly) shallow marine basins. Significant biogeographic differentiation of this area has been documented (Harzhauser et al. 2007), mainly during the Miocene, when connections between Proto-Mediterranean, Paratethys and Proto-Indo-West Pacific were intermittently opening and closing. These seaways allowed migration of marine faunas. Distributional patterns has so far been discussed for several different animal groups, especially for molluscs (e.g. Studencka et al. 1998; Harzhauser et al. 2002, 2003, 2007). To test these patterns with decapod crustaceans, a database has been compiled including all previously published Oligocene and Miocene decapod occurrences and newly gathered data from examined material deposited in the institutional collections. Decapod associations have been significant components of marine habitats since the Mesozoic times with ever-increasing importance throughout the Cenozoic. Müller (1979) argued that brachyuran decapods are among the best zoogeographical indicators. Although decapods were used as such indicators before (e.g. Schweitzer 2001; Feldmann & Schweitzer 2006), no detailed analysis of the circum-Mediterranean taxa has been conducted so far. Based on proposed anti-estuarine circulation pattern, decapods originated in the Proto-Mediterranean, and migrated both into the North Sea and the Paratethys. Moreover, during the Early Miocene the Rhine Graben served as a connection between the North Sea and the Paratethys which enabled faunal exchange. The Middle Miocene Proto-Mediterranean and Paratethys decapod assemblages as taken together were relatively homogeneous, although distinct due to increasing rate of endemites in the Paratethys during the Miocene. The research has been supported by FWF: Lise Meitner Program M 1544-B25. References Feldmann R.M. & Schweitzer C.E. 2006: Paleobiogeography of Southern Hemisphere decapod Crustacea. J. Paleontol

  11. LAISSEZ-FAIRE LEADERS AND ORGANIZATIONS: HOW DOES LAISSEZ-FAIRE LEADER ERODE THE TRUST IN ORGANIZATIONS?

    OpenAIRE

    Tosunoglu, Hande; Ekmekci, Ozge

    2017-01-01

    Supervisors are known to play significant role in instilling trust within the organizations. Following this corollary, the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of laissez-faire leadership on employees’ trust in their organizations. Known as “absence of leadership”, laissez-faire leadership is one of the ineffective and destructive leadership styles, which is assumed to erode the trust both in supervisors and organizations. Data were collected mostly from engineers (sample size =129)...

  12. Impact of toothpaste slurry abrasivity and toothbrush filament stiffness on abrasion of eroded enamel - an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Annette; Schwerzmann, Martina; Sener, Beatrice; Magalhaes, Ana Carolina; Roos, Malgorzata; Ziebolz, Dirk; Imfeld, Thomas; Attin, Thomas

    2008-08-01

    Toothbrush abrasion is significant in the development of tooth wear, particularly when combined with erosion. This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the impact of toothpaste slurry abrasivity and toothbrush filament stiffness on abrasion of eroded enamel. Eroded enamel samples (hydrochloric acid, pH: 2.6, 15 s) were brushed with 40 strokes in an automatic brushing machine using manual toothbrushes with different filament stiffness (filament diameter: 0.15, 0.20, or 0.25 mm). A paste-free control slurry (relative enamel abrasion (REA) value 2) and toothpaste slurries with different abrasivity (REA values 6 or 9) were used for brushing. Erosion and abrasion were followed by storing the enamel samples in artificial saliva for 3 h. After each 4th cycle, the samples were stored in artificial saliva for 15 h. After 60 cycles, enamel loss was measured by profilometry and statistically analyzed by two-way and one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni/Dunn post-hoc tests. Loss of enamel (mean, microm) was influenced mainly by the abrasivity of the slurry and increased along with REA value (REA 2: 0.0-0.2, REA 6: 2.1-3.3, REA 9: 2.9-3.7). Abrasion of eroded enamel was also affected by filament stiffness of the toothbrush, but only groups brushed with toothpaste slurry of REA 6 showed any significant difference between the different toothbrushes. Thereby, toothbrushes with 0.2 mm filament diameter caused higher enamel loss than 0.15 and 0.25 mm filaments. Toothbrush abrasion of eroded enamel is influenced mainly by the abrasivity of the toothpaste slurry, but is also modified by toothbrush filament stiffness.

  13. Impact of toothpaste on abrasion of sound and eroded enamel: An in vitro white light interferometer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Maria; Kitasako, Yuichi; Nakashima, Syozi; Sadr, Alireza; Tagami, Junji

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the influence of brushing using toothpastes marketed under different categories on abrasion of sound and eroded enamel in vitro at nanometer scale using a white light interferometer (WLI). Enamel surface of resin-embedded bovine incisors were fine polished with diamond slurry and divided into testing area (approximately 2 mm x 4 mm) and reference area using a nail varnish. The enamel specimens were randomly assigned to 10 groups (n = 10 each); six of which were subjected to erosive challenge. The testing area in these eroded groups was exposed to 10 ml of Coca-Cola for 90 seconds and then rinsed for 10 seconds in deionized water (DW). Enamel specimens, except for those in one eroded group, were brushed by an automatic brushing machine with 120 linear motion strokes in 60 seconds under load of 250 g with/without toothpaste slurry. After the toothbrushing abrasion, each specimen was rinsed for 10 seconds with DW followed by immersion in artificial saliva for 2 hours. Toothpaste slurries were prepared containing one of the four toothpastes used and DW in a ratio of 1:2. The erosion-abrasion cycle was repeated three times. Then, the nail varnish was removed and enamel surface loss (SL) was measured by the WLI. Data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's correction at significance level of 0.05. For eroded specimens, the mean SL values of groups not brushed and brushed with no toothpaste were not significantly different, but were significantly lower than those of whitening, anti-erosion and anti-caries toothpaste groups (P whitening toothpaste group showed significantly higher SL than all other groups (P whitening toothpaste group.

  14. Spray Formation from Spark-Eroded and Laser-Drilled Injectors for DISI Engines with Gasoline and Alcohol Fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Behringer, M.; Aleiferis, P; OudeNijeweme, D; Freeland, P

    2014-01-01

    Copyright ? 2014 SAE International.One of the latest advancements in injector technology is laser drilling of the nozzle holes. In this context, the spray formation and atomisation characteristics of gasoline, ethanol and 1-butanol were investigated for a 7-hole spark eroded (SE) injector and its ?direct replacement? Laser-drilled (LD) injector using optical techniques. In the first step of the optical investigation, high-speed spray imaging was performed in a quiescent injection chamber with...

  15. Effects of Benzo (a Pyrene on Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD Activity and Genomic Damage in Java Medaka (Oryzias Javanicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara Bagheri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Benzo[a] pyrene (BaP is a high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH that have high carcinogenic effects. So, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of benzo [a] pyrene (BaP on liver EROD enzyme activity induction and liver DNA breakage in Java Medaka. Materials and Methods: twenty three Java Medaka were transferred to 10 L glass aquarium and exposed to benzo [a] pyrene concentrations of 0.5 µg/L (Low concentration, 1.5 µg/L (median concentration, 5 µg/L and 0 µg/L (DMSO solvent control, with semi-static renewal technique during 7 days. Fish liver biopsy was performed in seventh day and a part of the samples was immediately homogenized and were used to measure EROD enzyme activity. Another part of the liver samples were transferred to -20 °C to use for DNA integrity assay.  Data were analyzed by using ANOVA and Duncan tests. The p value ≤ 0.05 was considered as a level of statistical significance. Results: A significant increase in EROD anzyme activity was observed between the experimental treatments compared to the control group. Although the fishes that exposed to the highest concentration (5 micrograms per liter of Benzo[a] pyrene had higher DNA breakage. Nevertheless, there was no significant difference between the treatment groups compared to the control group. Conclusion: benzo[a]pyrene combination increased hepatic EROD activity, the enzyme in the initial phase of PAH detoxification, in Java Medaka. However, it seems that Java Medaka fish have a DNA repair and preventive mechanisms from liver DNA breakage.

  16. Controls on the quality of Miocene reservoirs, southern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Paredes, Hilda Clarisa; Catuneanu, Octavian; Hernández Romano, Ulises

    2018-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the main controls on the reservoir quality of the middle and upper Miocene sandstones in the southern Gulf of Mexico based on core descriptions, thin section petrography and petrophysical data; as well as to explore the possible link between the sequence stratigraphic framework, depositional facies and diagenetic alterations. The Miocene deep marine sandstones are attributed to the falling-stage, lowstand, and transgressive systems tracts. The middle Miocene falling-stage systems tract includes medium-to very fine-grained, and structureless sandstones deposited in channels and frontal splays, and muddy sandstones, deposited in lobes of debrites. The lowstand and transgressive systems tracts consist of medium-to very fine-grained massive and normally graded sandstones deposited in channel systems within frontal splay complexes. The upper Miocene falling-stage systems tract includes medium-to coarse-grained, structureless sandstones deposited in channel systems and frontal splay, as well as lobes of debrites formed by grain flows and hybrid-flow deposits. The lowstand and transgressive systems tracts include fine-grained sandstones deposited in overbank deposits. The results reveal that the depositional elements with the best reservoir quality are the frontal splays deposited during the falling-stage system tracts. The reservoir quality of the Miocene sandstones was controlled by a combination of depositional facies, sand composition and diagenetic factors (mainly compaction and calcite cementation). Sandstone texture, controlled primarily by depositional facies appears more important than sandstone composition in determining reservoir quality; and compaction was more important than cementation in porosity destruction. Compaction was stopped, when complete calcite cementation occurred.

  17. The giant bite of a new raptorial sperm whale from the Miocene epoch of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Olivier; Bianucci, Giovanni; Post, Klaas; de Muizon, Christian; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Urbina, Mario; Reumer, Jelle

    2010-07-01

    The modern giant sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus, one of the largest known predators, preys upon cephalopods at great depths. Lacking a functional upper dentition, it relies on suction for catching its prey; in contrast, several smaller Miocene sperm whales (Physeteroidea) have been interpreted as raptorial (versus suction) feeders, analogous to the modern killer whale Orcinus orca. Whereas very large physeteroid teeth have been discovered in various Miocene localities, associated diagnostic cranial remains have not been found so far. Here we report the discovery of a new giant sperm whale from the Middle Miocene of Peru (approximately 12-13 million years ago), Leviathan melvillei, described on the basis of a skull with teeth and mandible. With a 3-m-long head, very large upper and lower teeth (maximum diameter and length of 12 cm and greater than 36 cm, respectively), robust jaws and a temporal fossa considerably larger than in Physeter, this stem physeteroid represents one of the largest raptorial predators and, to our knowledge, the biggest tetrapod bite ever found. The appearance of gigantic raptorial sperm whales in the fossil record coincides with a phase of diversification and size-range increase of the baleen-bearing mysticetes in the Miocene. We propose that Leviathan fed mostly on high-energy content medium-size baleen whales. As a top predator, together with the contemporaneous giant shark Carcharocles megalodon, it probably had a profound impact on the structuring of Miocene marine communities. The development of a vast supracranial basin in Leviathan, extending on the rostrum as in Physeter, might indicate the presence of an enlarged spermaceti organ in the former that is not associated with deep diving or obligatory suction feeding.

  18. New sedimentological and palynological data from surface Miocene strata in the central Amazonas Basin area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emílio Alberto Amaral Soares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The scarcity of stratigraphic data has hindered the demarcation of the outcropping area of Miocene deposits of the Amazon Basin, represented informally by the Novo Remanso Formation. Moreover, this unit is characterized by a sparse and irregular geographic distribution due to its sedimentological features and rare fossil content. Miocene deposits cropping out in central Amazonas Basin area were described in sedimentological terms and analyzed palynologically. All analyses were undertaken in samples collected at the Uatumã River banks (Itapiranga and São Sebastião do Uatumã cities. Lithostratigraphic data shows that Novo Remanso Formation consists of sandstones, with subordinate conglomerates and pelites, characteristic of a meandering fluvial paleosystem, with fluvial channel, point bar, floodplain and crevasse splay facies. The palynoflora retrieved from five samples consists exclusively of continental-origin palynomorphs dominated by angiosperms species. Trilete spores are well represented, while gymnosperms pollen grains are minor components. The presence of Psilastephanoporites tesseroporus, Syncolporites poricostatus, Jandufouria seamrogiformis and Polypodiaceoisporites potoniei ensure these deposits fits into the Grimsdalea magnaclavata palynozone (Regali et al. 1974a, b, and the Grimsdalea magnaclavata/Crassoretitriletes vanraadshooveni palynozones of Jaramillo et al. (2011 considered Middle Miocene age. This age is confirmed by the zonation of Jaramillo et al. (2011, based on the LADs of Bombacacidites baumfalki (11.57Ma and Crototricolpites annemariae (12.91Ma; and the FAD of Psilastephanoporites tesseroporus (14.00Ma. With these new data presented herein, it is possible to assume that the Miocene strata represented by the Novo Remanso Formation covers a larger area in the basin than previously considered, and that it may be extended for about 300 km until the Manacapuru village, indicating a Miocene subsidence phase.

  19. The formation placement and palaeoenvironment of the Middle Miocene Los Atajos Member, Trinidad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Brent; Farfan, Philip; Hughes, Chantelle

    2017-07-01

    The age, palaeoenvironment and formation placement of the conglomeratic Los Atajos Member of central Trinidad have long been unclear. Seven samples (four from calcareous silts near the member's base exposed by building work at the Los Atajos Community Centre, and three from the underlying calcareous claystones of the Brasso Formation) were examined for calcareous microfossils. These indicate a conformable succession encompassing an overall regression. The oldest of the claystone samples, of uppermost early Middle Miocene Globorotalia fohsi fohsi Zone age (N11), contained an upper bathyal benthic foraminiferal assemblage, while the younger claystone samples yielded abundant, shallow neritic Hanzawaia carstensi. The recovery of the planktonic foraminifera Globorotalia mayeri but absence of Globigerinoides subquadratus suggest a Middle Miocene age (Globorotalia mayeri planktonic foraminiferal Zone; N14) for both the uppermost Brasso claystone sample and the Los Atajos Member. The benthic foraminiferal fauna in the Los Atajos is dominated by Rosalina subaraucana, with subdominant Cibicides ex gr. aknerianus and C. floridanus sensu Galloway and Heminway, and common Elphidium spp. This faunal succession has a close affinity with that of parts of the Lower to Middle Miocene Brasso Formation, especially the N10 Guaracara Limestone Member and the clays on which it sits. However, the Los Atajos Member assemblage differs markedly from that of the overlying Late Miocene San José Calcareous Silt Member of the Manzanilla Formation, from which the Los Atajos is separated by an unconformity of Globorotalia menardii (N15) Zone age. On these grounds, the Los Atajos Member is here placed within the Brasso Formation. The low diversity, high dominance benthic foraminiferal fauna and the associated ostracod assemblage in the Los Atajos are indicative of inner to shallower middle neritic palaeodepths in a carbonate-prone palaeoenvironment with marine vegetation and strong current action

  20. The early Miocene balaenid Morenocetus parvus from Patagonia (Argentina and the evolution of right whales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica R. Buono

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Balaenidae (right and bowhead whales are a key group in understanding baleen whale evolution, because they are the oldest surviving lineage of crown Mysticeti, with a fossil record that dates back ∼20 million years. However, this record is mostly Pliocene and younger, with most of the Miocene history of the clade remaining practically unknown. The earliest recognized balaenid is the early Miocene Morenocetus parvus Cabrera, 1926 from Argentina. M. parvus was originally briefly described from two incomplete crania, a mandible and some cervical vertebrae collected from the lower Miocene Gaiman Formation of Patagonia. Since then it has not been revised, thus remaining a frequently cited yet enigmatic fossil cetacean with great potential for shedding light on the early history of crown Mysticeti. Here we provide a detailed morphological description of this taxon and revisit its phylogenetic position. The phylogenetic analysis recovered the middle Miocene Peripolocetus as the earliest diverging balaenid, and Morenocetus as the sister taxon of all other balaenids. The analysis of cranial and periotic morphology of Morenocetus suggest that some of the specialized morphological traits of modern balaenids were acquired by the early Miocene and have remained essentially unchanged up to the present. Throughout balaenid evolution, morphological changes in skull arching and ventral displacement of the orbits appear to be coupled and functionally linked to mitigating a reduction of the field of vision. The body length of Morenocetus and other extinct balaenids was estimated and the evolution of body size in Balaenidae was reconstructed. Optimization of body length on our phylogeny of Balaenidae suggests that the primitive condition was a relatively small body length represented by Morenocetus, and that gigantism has been acquired independently at least twice (in Balaena mysticetus and Eubalaena spp., with the earliest occurrence of this trait in the late

  1. Changes in the Indonesian Throughflow and southeast Asian hydroclimate during the Middle-Miocene Climate Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigola Boix, Amanda; Prange, Matthias; Schulz, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The present-day Indonesian Throughflow (ITF), a key component in the global ocean circulation, transports relatively cold low-salinity water from the Pacific to the Indian oceans. This ocean current is of course not a constant system, meaning that its characteristics have changed throughout its history, both due to local forcings, such as changes in the geometry of the passages, and changes in the global climate system, such as the Middle-Miocene Climate Transition. The Middle-Miocene Climate Transition leads from the warm Middle-Miocene Climatic Optimum into the subsequent "icehouse world". The transition is associated with an increase in Antarctic glaciation at ~13.9 Ma. The aim of this study is to investigate the differences in atmospheric and ocean circulation between the warm and cold climate states in the Middle Miocene, specifically on changes in the characteristics of the ITF and shifts in the tropical rainbelt. We test whether there was a northward movement of the tropical rainbelt in southeast Asia as has been suggested on the basis of palaeoclimatic proxy records. We employ the comprehensive Community Climate System Model (CCSM) version 3.0 in a medium resolution. All the experiments used Miocene boundary conditions, including topography, bathymetry and vegetation. Two simulations were carried out, representing the time before and after the climate transition. Different boundary conditions take into account changes in ice-sheet geometry, sea-level and atmospheric CO2 concentration. The state prior to the transition is characterized by Antarctica being partially glaciated, with one ice cap covering the Transantarctic Mountains and another over East Antarctica. The second simulation corresponds to a fully glaciated Antarctica with one single merged ice-sheet covering the whole continent. We will present initial analyses of hydrological fields and ocean circulation to assess the role of Antarctic glaciation on tropical climate.

  2. Abrasion of eroded dentin caused by toothpaste slurries of different abrasivity and toothbrushes of different filament diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Annette; Kuhn, Mirjam; Sener, Beatrice; Roos, Malgorzata; Attin, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of toothpaste slurry abrasivity and toothbrush filament diameter on abrasion of eroded dentin in vitro. Eroded dentin samples (hydrochloric acid, pH 2.6, 15s) were brushed with 40 strokes in an automatic brushing machine using manual toothbrushes with different filament diameter (0.15, 0.20 or 0.25 mm). The toothbrushes were applied with a control slurry free of abrasive particles (RDA-value 10) or toothpastes slurries with different abrasivity (RDA-values 20, 50 or 100). Each erosive-abrasive cycle was followed by storage of the dentin samples in artificial saliva for 3h. After each 4 cycles, the samples were stored in artificial saliva for 15 h. After 60 cycles, dentin loss was measured by profilometry and statistically analysed by ANOVA and linear regression analysis. Dentin loss increased along with the RDA-value of the toothpaste slurries. The impact of the filament diameter on dentin loss was less evident compared to the RDA-value. However, toothbrushes with smaller filament stiffness caused higher dentin wear in all toothpaste slurry groups (RDA 20, 50 and 100) except for the paste-free control group (RDA 10). Abrasion of eroded dentin increased along with the RDA-value of the toothpaste slurry and with decreasing filament diameter of the toothbrush.

  3. Effects of land conversion from native shrub to pistachio orchard on soil erodibility in an arid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakupoglu, Tugrul; Gundogan, Recep; Dindaroglu, Turgay; Kara, Zekeriya

    2017-10-29

    Land-use change through degrading natural vegetation for agricultural production adversely affects many of soil properties particularly organic carbon content of soils. The native shrub land and grassland of Gaziantep-Adiyaman plateau that is an important pistachio growing eco-region have been cleared to convert into pistachio orchard for the last 50 to 60 years. In this study, the effects of conversion of natural vegetation into agricultural uses on soil erodibility have been investigated. Soil samples were collected from surface of agricultural fields and adjacent natural vegetation areas, and samples were analyzed for some soil erodibility indices such as dispersion ratio (DR), erosion ratio (ER), structural stability index (SSI), Henin's instability index (I s ), and aggregate size distribution after wet sieving (AggSD). According to the statistical evaluation, these two areas were found as different from each other in terms of erosion indices except for I s index (P aggregate size groups. As a contrary to expectations, correlation tests showed that there were no any interaction between soil organic carbon and measured erodibility indices in two areas. In addition, significant relationships were determined between measured variables and soil textural fractions as statistical. These obtaining findings were attributed to changing of textural component distribution and initial aggregate size distribution results from land-use change in the study area. Study results were explained about hierarchical aggregate formation mechanism.

  4. EROD activity and stable isotopes in seabirds to disentangle marine food web contamination after the Prestige oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velando, Alberto, E-mail: avelando@uvigo.e [Departamento de Ecoloxia e Bioloxia Animal, Facultade de Ciencias, Universidade de Vigo, Campus As Lagoas, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Munilla, Ignacio [Departamento de Botanica, Facultade de Farmacia, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Lopez-Alonso, Marta [Departamento de Patoloxia Animal, Facultade de Veterinaria, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Lugo (Spain); Freire, Juan [Grupo de Recursos Marinos y Pesquerias Universidade da Coruna, A Coruna (Spain); Perez, Cristobal [Departamento de Ecoloxia e Bioloxia Animal, Facultade de Ciencias, Universidade de Vigo, Campus As Lagoas, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    In this study, we measured via surgical sampling hepatic EROD activity in yellow-legged gulls from oiled and unoiled colonies, 17 months after the Prestige oil spill. We also analyzed stable isotope composition in feathers of the biopsied gulls, in an attempt to monitor oil incorporation into marine food web. We found that yellow-legged gulls in oiled colonies were being exposed to remnant oil as shown by hepatic EROD activity levels. EROD activity was related to feeding habits of individual gulls with apparent consequences on delayed lethality. Capture-recapture analysis of biopsied gulls suggests that the surgery technique did not affect gull survival, giving support to this technique as a monitoring tool for oil exposure assessment. Our study highlights the combination of different veterinary, toxicological and ecological methodologies as a useful approach for the monitoring of exposure to remnant oil after a large oil spill. - Two years after Prestige oil spill, seabirds were exposed to remnant oil related to their feeding habits with consequences on delayed lethality.

  5. Restoration of eroded stratal thickness in key periods of tectonic change in a multi-stage superimposed Tarim Basin in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available With an area of 56×104 km2, the Tarim Basin is the largest inland basin in China and is also generally acknowledged as one of the most important areas for potential oil and gas exploration. On the basis of data from 22 regional seismic profiles and 40 drilling wells, 15 important first-order and second-order regional unconformities were defined. Almost all the main unconformities are superimposed unconfomities. Since the Cambrian, 5 key periods of tectonic change have occurred during the evolution of the Tarim Basin. The total eroded stratal thickness of the above-mentioned unconformities was calculated by using the method of virtual extrapolation of seismic reflection. The results indicate that the total eroded stratal thickness of different periods is quite different in different locations of the basin. Taking the Upper-Middle Ordovician as an example, its thickness restoration of eroded strata was calculated into individual stages i.e. its thickness restoration of eroded strata was calculated to different tectonic periods. Otherwise, as for the specific period of tectonic change, the underlying strata were, respectively eroded and thus the thickness restoration of eroded strata was calculated into individual intervals. Taking the Early Hercynian period as an example, the eroded stratal thickness was calculated into individual intervals to calculate the ratio of intervals of various ages occupying the total eroded thickness. The results show that for the same stratum, its degree of erosion is quite different in different periods and at different locations, due to the varying influence of tectonic movement. The unconformities of some key periods of tectonic change have different controls on the degree of erosion and the eroded range of the individual period of the underlying strata which are the typical characteristics of multi-stage superimposition of unconformities in the Tarim Basin.

  6. Repeated mass strandings of Miocene marine mammals from Atacama Region of Chile point to sudden death at sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyenson, Nicholas D.; Gutstein, Carolina S.; Parham, James F.; Le Roux, Jacobus P.; Chavarría, Catalina Carreño; Little, Holly; Metallo, Adam; Rossi, Vincent; Valenzuela-Toro, Ana M.; Velez-Juarbe, Jorge; Santelli, Cara M.; Rogers, David Rubilar; Cozzuol, Mario A.; Suárez, Mario E.

    2014-01-01

    Marine mammal mass strandings have occurred for millions of years, but their origins defy singular explanations. Beyond human causes, mass strandings have been attributed to herding behaviour, large-scale oceanographic fronts and harmful algal blooms (HABs). Because algal toxins cause organ failure in marine mammals, HABs are the most common mass stranding agent with broad geographical and widespread taxonomic impact. Toxin-mediated mortalities in marine food webs have the potential to occur over geological timescales, but direct evidence for their antiquity has been lacking. Here, we describe an unusually dense accumulation of fossil marine vertebrates from Cerro Ballena, a Late Miocene locality in Atacama Region of Chile, preserving over 40 skeletons of rorqual whales, sperm whales, seals, aquatic sloths, walrus-whales and predatory bony fish. Marine mammal skeletons are distributed in four discrete horizons at the site, representing a recurring accumulation mechanism. Taphonomic analysis points to strong spatial focusing with a rapid death mechanism at sea, before being buried on a barrier-protected supratidal flat. In modern settings, HABs are the only known natural cause for such repeated, multispecies accumulations. This proposed agent suggests that upwelling zones elsewhere in the world should preserve fossil marine vertebrate accumulations in similar modes and densities. PMID:24573855

  7. Repeated mass strandings of Miocene marine mammals from Atacama Region of Chile point to sudden death at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyenson, Nicholas D; Gutstein, Carolina S; Parham, James F; Le Roux, Jacobus P; Chavarría, Catalina Carreño; Little, Holly; Metallo, Adam; Rossi, Vincent; Valenzuela-Toro, Ana M; Velez-Juarbe, Jorge; Santelli, Cara M; Rogers, David Rubilar; Cozzuol, Mario A; Suárez, Mario E

    2014-04-22

    Marine mammal mass strandings have occurred for millions of years, but their origins defy singular explanations. Beyond human causes, mass strandings have been attributed to herding behaviour, large-scale oceanographic fronts and harmful algal blooms (HABs). Because algal toxins cause organ failure in marine mammals, HABs are the most common mass stranding agent with broad geographical and widespread taxonomic impact. Toxin-mediated mortalities in marine food webs have the potential to occur over geological timescales, but direct evidence for their antiquity has been lacking. Here, we describe an unusually dense accumulation of fossil marine vertebrates from Cerro Ballena, a Late Miocene locality in Atacama Region of Chile, preserving over 40 skeletons of rorqual whales, sperm whales, seals, aquatic sloths, walrus-whales and predatory bony fish. Marine mammal skeletons are distributed in four discrete horizons at the site, representing a recurring accumulation mechanism. Taphonomic analysis points to strong spatial focusing with a rapid death mechanism at sea, before being buried on a barrier-protected supratidal flat. In modern settings, HABs are the only known natural cause for such repeated, multispecies accumulations. This proposed agent suggests that upwelling zones elsewhere in the world should preserve fossil marine vertebrate accumulations in similar modes and densities.

  8. Miocene thrusting in the eastern Sila Massif: Implication for the evolution of the Calabria-Peloritani orogenic wedge (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignaroli, G.; Minelli, L.; Rossetti, F.; Balestrieri, M. L.; Faccenna, C.

    2012-05-01

    Alpine orogens in the central Mediterranean region have revealed the concomitance of crustal extension in back-arc domain and crustal shortening in frontal domain. Quantitative data of deformation in the frontal orogenic wedges are necessary to understand how the shortening-extension pair evolves in terms of structures, orogenic transport, timing, and exhumation rate. This paper deals with kinematics and ages of the frontal thrust systems of the Calabria-Peloritani Arc (Italy) exposed in the eastern Sila Massif. We first present structural fieldwork, onshore and offshore well log data, and new apatite fission-track (AFT) thermochronology. Then, we describe the structural architecture of the studied area as an ENE-verging stacking of thrust sheets involving basement units and syn-orogenic sediments. The AFT study documents that thrust sheets entered the partial annealing zone from 18 Ma to 13 Ma. This Early-Middle Miocene thrusting phase was coeval with exhumation of high-pressure/low temperature metamorphic rocks in the hinterland of the orogen (Coastal Chain area), mainly driven by top-to-the-W extensional tectonics. Opposite kinematic shear senses (contractional top-to-the-E and extensional top-to-the-W) and different exhumation rates (slow in the frontal, more rapid in the hinterland) are framed in a tectonic scenario of a critically tapered orogenic wedge during the eastward retreating of the Apennine slab.

  9. Soil aggregates, organic matter turnover and carbon balance in a Mediterranean eroded vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Agata; Lo Papa, Giuseppe; Dazzi, Carmelo; Gristina, Luciano; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    The carbon cycle is being affected by the human impacts (Novara et al., 2011; Yan-Gui et al., 2013), and one of those is the intensification in the soil erosion in agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009; García Orenes et al., 2009). Vineyards also are affected by the human activities (Fernández Calviño, 2012). Vineyards in Sicily are cultivated on 110.000 ha, 10% of which on >10% slope. Deficiencies of soil organic matter are typical of the semi arid Mediterranean environment especially where traditional intensive cropping practices are adopted (Novara et al., 2012; 2013). These practices in vineyards could lead soil to intensive erosion processes (Novara et al., 2011). The fate of SOC under erosion processes is difficult to understand because of the influence of the erosion impact on SOC pathway, which depends on the different features of the process involved (detachment, transport and/or deposition). Soil erosion must be considered a net C source (Lal, 2003), as eroded soils have lower net primary productivity (NPP) (Dick and Gregorich, 2004) caused by reduction in the effective rooting depth and all in all determining decline in soil quality. Breakdown of aggregates and soil dispersion expose SOM to microbial/enzymatic processes and chemical soil properties (Dimoyiannis, 2012; Kocyigit and Demirci, 2012). Moreover the light fraction, transported by runoff, is labile and easily mineralized determining CO2 emission in the atmosphere (Jacinthe and Lal, 2004). Therefore, the carbon pool is lower in eroded than in un-eroded soil scapes and the rate of mineralization of soil organic matter is higher in sediments than in original soil. In this survey we show a research conducted on a slope sequence of three soil profiles in an irrigated vineyard located in Sambuca di Sicilia, Italy (UTM33-WGS84: 4169367N; 325011E). The SOC content was measured at depth intervals of 10 cm up to a depth of 60 cm in each pedon. Wet aggregate-size fractions with no prior chemical

  10. Latest Miocene transtensional rifting of northeast Isla Tiburón, eastern margin of the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Scott E. K.; Oskin, Michael E.; Iriondo, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    Details about the timing and kinematics of rifting are crucial to understand the conditions that led to strain localization, continental rupture, and formation of the Gulf of California ocean basin. We integrate detailed geologic and structural mapping, basin analysis, and geochronology to characterize transtensional rifting on northeastern Isla Tiburón, a proximal onshore exposure of the rifted North America margin, adjacent to the axis of the Gulf of California. Slip on the Kunkaak normal fault tilted its hanging wall down-to-the-east 70° and formed the non-marine Tecomate basin, deposited across a 20° angular unconformity. From 7.1-6.4 Ma, the hanging wall tilted at 35 ± 5°/Myr, while non-marine sandstone and conglomerate accumulated at 1.4 ± 0.2 mm/yr. At least 1.8 ± 0.1 km of sediments and pyroclastic deposits accumulated in the Tecomate basin concurrent with clockwise vertical-axis block rotation and 2.8 km of total dip-slip motion on the Kunkaak fault. Linear extrapolation of tilting and sedimentation rates suggests that faulting and basin deposition initiated 7.6-7.4 Ma, but an older history involving initially slower rates is permissible. The Kunkaak fault and Tecomate basin are truncated by NW-striking, dextral-oblique structures, including the Yawassag fault, which accrued > 8 km of post-6.4 Ma dextral displacement. The Coastal Sonora fault zone on mainland Sonora, which accrued several tens of kilometers of late Miocene dextral offset, continues to the northwest, across northeastern Isla Tiburón and offshore into the Gulf of California. The establishment of rapid, latest Miocene transtension in the Coastal Sonora fault zone was synchronous with the 8-7 Ma onset of transform faulting and basin formation along the nascent Pacific-North America plate boundary throughout northwestern Mexico and southern California. Plate boundary strain localized into this Gulf of California shear zone, a narrow transtensional belt that subsequently hosted the

  11. Notes on Chameleons IV. A New Chameleon, from the Miocene of Fort Ternan, Kenya (Chamaeleonidae, Reptilia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillenius, D.

    1978-01-01

    A new, fossil chameleon is described, † Chamaeleo intermedius, found on the surface at Fort Ternan, Kenya. Most probably it eroded from a layer of fossilized lahar, close to 14 million years old. † Chamaeleo intermedius possesses characters which still occur in recent chameleons, in fact it combines

  12. Monitoring Topographic Change In Highly Erodible Landscapes By Means Of Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vericat, D.; Smith, M.; López-Tarazón, J. A.; Tena, A.; Brasington, J.; Batalla, R. J.

    2012-04-01

    controlling the magnitude of the topographic change. These results show that TLS data sets provide new opportunities in the study of topographic change in highly erodible landscapes where the use of conventional 'invasive' topographic technologies is limited. TLS-derived morphometric sediment budgets offer distributed estimations of topographic change, permitting evaluation of the main factors controlling erosion processes. This is relevant for predictions of sediment production and, consequently, for landscape evolution modeling.

  13. Effect of slope position on physico-chemical properties of eroded soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmanullah Khan, Zubair Hayat, Waqar Ahmad,

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The research work was conducted on eroded soil (Missa Series in Samarbagh, District Lower Dir to determine the effect of slope position on soil physico-chemical properties. Soil samples were collected from top-slope, mid-slope and bottom slope positions at horizon-A, B and C. Results showed a significant difference among the physico-chemical properties of top, mid and bottom slope soils. Bulk density of the top-slope (1.51 g cm-3 was the highest followed by mid (1.39 g cm-3 and bottom slopes (1.32 g cm-3. Conversely, electrical conductivity EC-2.47 dS m-1, phosphorus (3.40 mg kg-1, Potassium (118.8 mg kg-1, Organic matter content (1.52 %, clay content (20.39 % and silt content (49.17% were the highest at bottom slope followed by mid and top-slopes, respectively. Soil A, B and C horizons were also significantly (p<0.05 different in their physico-chemical properties. Mean values showed that horizon Ap had the highest bulk density (1.43 g cm-3 and lower electrical conductivity (1.74 dS m-1, phosphorus (2.29 mg kg-1, potassium (84.86 mg kg-1, organic matter (1.08%, clay (12.83% and silt content (40.49% than both the B and C horizons. The deterioration in physico-chemical properties of top slope as compared to mid and bottom slopes and that of Ap horizon as compared to B and C horizons were presumed to be due to past soil erosion effect that removed the finer soil particles including soil organic matter and other plant nutrients. This study concluded that increasing extent of erosion due to slope effect can further deteriorate soil properties. The control of such damaging effects would require soil conservation strategies such as proper land levelling, afforestation, terracing and inclusion of restorative crops in cropping systems on these lands.

  14. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  15. Pierolapithecus and the functional morphology of Miocene ape hand phalanges: paleobiological and evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almécija, Sergio; Alba, David M; Moyà-Solà, Salvador

    2009-09-01

    The partial skeleton of Pierolapithecus, which provides the oldest unequivocal evidence of orthogrady, together with the recently described phalanges from Paşalar most likely attributable to Griphopithecus, provide a unique opportunity for understanding the changes in hand anatomy during the pronogrady/orthogrady transition in hominoid evolution. In this paper, we describe the Pierolapithecus hand phalanges and compare their morphology and proportions with those of other Miocene apes in order to make paleobiological inferences about locomotor evolution. In particular, we investigate the orthograde/pronograde evolutionary transition in order to test whether the acquisition of vertical climbing and suspension were decoupled during evolution. Our results indicate that the manual phalanges of Miocene apes are much more similar to one another than to living apes. In particular, Miocene apes retain primitive features related to powerful-grasping palmigrady on the basal portion, the shaft, and the trochlea of the proximal phalanges. These features suggest that above-branch quadrupedalism, inherited from stem hominoids, constituted a significant component of the locomotor repertories of different hominoid lineages at least until the late Miocene. Nonetheless, despite their striking morphological similarities, several Miocene apes do significantly differ in phalangeal curvature and/or elongation. Hispanopithecus most clearly departs by displaying markedly-curved and elongated phalanges, similar to those in the most suspensory of the extant apes (hylobatids and orangutans). This feature agrees with several others that indicate orang-like suspensory capabilities. The remaining Miocene apes, on the contrary, display low to moderate phalangeal curvature, and short to moderately-elongated phalanges, which are indicative of the lack of suspensory adaptations. As such, the transition from a pronograde towards an orthograde body plan, as far as this particular anatomical region is

  16. A new fossil mustelid from the Miocene of South Dakota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jong-Deock; Martin, L D

    2002-06-01

    A skull from the Barstovian of South Dakota has typical leptarctine characteristics, including robust zygomatic arches, double sagittal crests, grooves on the lingual side of the lower canines, and bony projections from the tympanic bullae. The robust mandibles and expanded masseteric fossa of this specimen indicate that it had large jaw muscles. Dental morphology and other characters lead us to agree with earlier suggestions that Hypsoparia is a valid genus. The morphology of Hypsoparia suggests that leptarctines were more herbivorous than most other Carnivora. Mustelids vary greatly in size and include 67 extant species in 25 genera. These species occupy many habitats, including fresh and salt water, and all land areas of the world except the West Indies, Madagascar, Sulawesi, Antarctica, and most oceanic islands (Nowak 1999). Qiu and Schmidt-Kittler (1982) considered Leptarctinae to be a subfamily of mustelids including Craterogale (North America, Middle Miocene), Trocharion (Europe, Middle Miocene), Hypsoparia (North America, Upper Miocene), and Leptarctus (North America and Asia, Lower to Upper Miocene). Leptarctus ranges from basal Hemingfordian strata to the Early Hemphillian (Lim 1999). The characters diagnosing Leptarctus as a mustelid include absence of M2, absence of a notch between the paracone and the metacone of the upper carnassial, and a reduced dentition with loss of P1 and p1. Among mustelids, Leptarctus also has many unique characters, including prominent double sagittal crests, a well-developed hypocone on P4, grooved lower canines, heavy zygomatic arches, and bony projections on the tympanic bullae (Lim 1999). Dorr (1954) erected a new genus and species of leptarctine mustelid from the Late Miocene of Montana, USA: Hypsoparia bozemanensis. Qiu and Schmidt-Kittler (1982) confirmed it as a taxon separate from Leptarctus. However, McKenna and Bell (1997) and Baskin (1998) synonymized H. bozemanensis with Leptarctus primus. The new specimen from

  17. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: Soil Erodibility (KFFACT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the adjusted soil erodibility factor within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds. Attributes of the...

  18. Evolutionary history of the thicket rats (genus Grammomys) mirrors the evolution of African forests since late Miocene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bryja, J.; Šumbera, R.; Kerbis Peterhans, J. C.; Aghová, T.; Bryjová, A.; Mikula, Ondřej; Nicolas, V.; Denys, C.; Verheyen, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2017), s. 182-194 ISSN 0305-0270 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Arvicanthini * coastal forests * late Miocene Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.248, year: 2016

  19. Heterogeneities of hydrocarbon compositions in mudstones of a turbiditic sequence of the Miocene Kawabata Formation in Yubari, central Hokkaido, Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    OKANO, KAZUKI; SAWADA, KEN

    2008-01-01

    Biomarker analyses of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were conducted on the upper and lower parts of individual mudstones in a turbiditic sequence of the Miocene Kawabata Formation, Yubari, central Hokkaido, Japan...

  20. Balanoid barnacles from the miocene of the Alaska Peninsula, and their relevance to the extant boreal barnacle fauna

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The barnacle fauna of the Miocene Bear Lake Formation of the Alaska Peninsula includes Chirona (Chirona) alaskana n. sp., and three species of Balanus Da Costa...

  1. AChE and EROD activities in two echinoderms, Holothuria leucospilota and Holoturia atra (Holothuroidea), in a coral reef (Reunion Island, South-western Indian Ocean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasinski, Joanna; Taddei, Dorothée; Cuet, Pascale; Frouin, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    AChE and EROD activities were investigated in two holothurian species, Holothuria leucospilota and Holoturia atra, from a tropical coral reef. These organisms were collected from 3 back-reef stations, where temperature and salinity were homogeneous. The activity levels of both AChE and EROD varied significantly between the two species, but were in the range of values determined in other echinoderm species. AChE activity levels were higher in the longitudinal muscle than in the tentacle tegument. Among the several tissues tested, the digestive tract wall exhibited higher EROD activity levels. Sex did not influence AChE and EROD activity levels in both species. Animal biomass and EROD activity levels were only correlated in the tegument tissue of H. atra, and we hypothesize a possible influence of age. EROD activity did not show intraspecific variability. A significant relationship was found between AChE activity and Cuvierian tubules time of expulsion in Holothuria leucospilota. Individuals collected at the southern site presented both lower AChE activity levels and Cuvierian tubules time of expulsion, indicating possible neural disturbance. More information on holothurians biology and physiology is needed to further assess biomarkers in these key species. This study is the first of its kind performed in the coastal waters of Reunion Island and data obtained represent reference values.

  2. A NEW SPORADOTRAGUS (BOVIDAE, MAMMALIA FROM THE LATE MIOCENE OF BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DENIS GERAADS

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We provide a systematic revision of the late Miocene caprine genus Sporadotragus Kretzoi, 1968, the type-species of which was described from Samos under the specific epithet schafferi. It is distinct from the poorly known Pseudotragus. Some specimens from Samos are rather distinctive, but the whole morphological variation there encompasses that of Palaeoryx parvidens from Pikermi, and we follow earlier authors in considering the two names as synonymous. New material from two late Miocene localities of south-western Bulgaria, Kalimantsi and Strumyani, is referred to a new species, S. vasili, which is more primitive than the Greek one in some skull features, but not in the horn-core morphology. 

  3. A new South American Miocene species of 'one-holed' sand dollar (Echinoidea: Clypeasteroida: Monophorasteridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooi, Rich; Martínez, Sergio A; Río, Claudia J Del

    2016-10-02

    A new species of monophorasterid sand dollar, Monophoraster telfordi n. sp., is described from the Early Miocene basal horizons of the Chenque Formation of Patagonia, Santa Cruz Province, in southern Argentina. The new taxon raises the number of known species in the family to six, and represents first unequivocal record of the genus for the Early Miocene of South America. It is therefore also the oldest member of the genus. M. telfordi is characterized by its test width to length ratio, which is much higher than for the other two described species in the genus, but less than that known for the extremely wide members of the sister taxon, Amplaster. M. telfordi is also unusual among monophorasterids in lacking broad continuity between basicoronal and post-basicoronal plates in the oral interambulacra. A key is provided to all the known species of Monophorasteridae.

  4. A new Mammutidae (Proboscidea, Mammalia from the Late Miocene of Gansu Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIMILA MOTHÉ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The "Yanghecun specimen", a proboscidean specimen represented by a mandible from Miocene of China and previously described as Gomphotheriidae, is here reviewed and described as a new genus and species of Mammutidae: Sinomammut tobieni. This taxon is a longirostrine mastodon, lacking lower tusks, and bearing a wide last molar with oblique and non-inflated lophids, broad transverse interlophids, and yoke-like wear figures. Phylogenetic analysis of Mammutidae based on dental and mandibular features recovered S. tobieni as sister group of the mastodon Mammut. The longirostrine condition and the well-developed lower incisors seem to be primitive for Mammutidae, while the brevirostry is the derived condition, probably emerged during the middle Miocene (12-11 Mya. However, two derived conditions are recognized to the lower tusks: the absence of lower tusks (S. tobieni and the occasional presence of vestigial lower tusks (Mammut.

  5. A new Mammutidae (Proboscidea, Mammalia) from the Late Miocene of Gansu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothé, Dimila; Avilla, Leonardo S; Zhao, Desi; Xie, Guangpu; Sun, Boyang

    2016-03-01

    The "Yanghecun specimen", a proboscidean specimen represented by a mandible from Miocene of China and previously described as Gomphotheriidae, is here reviewed and described as a new genus and species of Mammutidae: Sinomammut tobieni. This taxon is a longirostrine mastodon, lacking lower tusks, and bearing a wide last molar with oblique and non-inflated lophids, broad transverse interlophids, and yoke-like wear figures. Phylogenetic analysis of Mammutidae based on dental and mandibular features recovered S. tobieni as sister group of the mastodon Mammut. The longirostrine condition and the well-developed lower incisors seem to be primitive for Mammutidae, while the brevirostry is the derived condition, probably emerged during the middle Miocene (12-11 Mya). However, two derived conditions are recognized to the lower tusks: the absence of lower tusks (S. tobieni) and the occasional presence of vestigial lower tusks (Mammut).

  6. Miocene Shark and Batoid Fauna from Nosy Makamby (Mahajanga Basin, Northwestern Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsiory H Andrianavalona

    Full Text Available Madagascar is well known for producing exceptional fossils. However, the record for selachians remains relatively poorly known. Paleontological reconnaissance on the island of Nosy Makamby, off northwest Madagascar, has produced a previously undescribed assemblage of Miocene fossils. Based on isolated teeth, ten taxonomic groups are identified: Otodus, Carcharhinus, Galeocerdo, Rhizoprionodon, Sphyrna, Hemipristis, Squatina, Rostroraja, Himantura and Myliobatidae. Six are newly described from Madagascar for the Cenozoic (Galeocerdo, Rhizoprionodon, Sphyrna, Squatina, Rostroraja and Himantura. In association with these specimens, remains of both invertebrates (e.g., corals, gastropods, bivalves and vertebrates (e.g., bony fish, turtles, crocodylians, and sirenian mammals were also recovered. The sedimentary facies are highly suggestive of a near-shore/coastal plain depositional environment. This faunal association shares similarities to contemporaneous sites reported from North America and Europe and gives a glimpse into the paleoenvironment of Madagascar's Miocene, suggesting that this region was warm, tropical shallow-water marine.

  7. Miocene Shark and Batoid Fauna from Nosy Makamby (Mahajanga Basin, Northwestern Madagascar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianavalona, Tsiory H; Ramihangihajason, Tolotra N; Rasoamiaramanana, Armand; Ward, David J; Ali, Jason R; Samonds, Karen E

    2015-01-01

    Madagascar is well known for producing exceptional fossils. However, the record for selachians remains relatively poorly known. Paleontological reconnaissance on the island of Nosy Makamby, off northwest Madagascar, has produced a previously undescribed assemblage of Miocene fossils. Based on isolated teeth, ten taxonomic groups are identified: Otodus, Carcharhinus, Galeocerdo, Rhizoprionodon, Sphyrna, Hemipristis, Squatina, Rostroraja, Himantura and Myliobatidae. Six are newly described from Madagascar for the Cenozoic (Galeocerdo, Rhizoprionodon, Sphyrna, Squatina, Rostroraja and Himantura). In association with these specimens, remains of both invertebrates (e.g., corals, gastropods, bivalves) and vertebrates (e.g., bony fish, turtles, crocodylians, and sirenian mammals) were also recovered. The sedimentary facies are highly suggestive of a near-shore/coastal plain depositional environment. This faunal association shares similarities to contemporaneous sites reported from North America and Europe and gives a glimpse into the paleoenvironment of Madagascar's Miocene, suggesting that this region was warm, tropical shallow-water marine.

  8. Differential responses of Miocene rodent metacommunities to global climatic changes were mediated by environmental context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Fernando; Gómez Cano, Ana Rosa; Cantalapiedra, Juan L; Domingo, M Soledad; Domingo, Laura; Menéndez, Iris; Flynn, Lawrence J; Hernández Fernández, Manuel

    2018-02-06

    The study of how long-term changes affect metacommunities is a relevant topic, that involves the evaluation of connections among biological assemblages across different spatio-temporal scales, in order to fully understand links between global changes and macroevolutionary patterns. We applied multivariate statistical analyses and diversity tests using a large data matrix of rodent fossil sites in order to analyse long-term faunal changes. Late Miocene rodent faunas from southwestern Europe were classified into metacommunities, presumably sharing ecological affinities, which followed temporal and environmental non-random assembly and disassembly patterns. Metacommunity dynamics of these faunas were driven by environmental changes associated with temperature variability, but there was also some influence from the aridity shifts described for this region during the late Miocene. Additionally, while variations in the structure of rodent assemblages were directly influenced by global climatic changes in the southern province, the northern sites showed a pattern of climatic influence mediated by diversity-dependent processes.

  9. Cretaceous to miocene palaeogegraphic evolution of Turkey: implications for hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorur, N. [Tubitak Mam, Gebze (Turkey)

    2001-04-01

    The Cretaceous to Miocene palaeogeographic development of Turkey in general reflects the evolution of the various oceanic branches of Neo-Tethys together with interactions between the Laurasian and Gondwanan margins. At the beginning of the Cretaceous, the first-order palacotectonic units which make up present-day Turkey either formed parts of these supercontinents or were isolated continental blocks within the Neo-Tethys. In Aptian to Albian times, north-dipping subduction commenced along the southern margins of these units and resulted in the development of magmatic arcs and arc-related sedimentary basins. Coeval with the start of subduction, large-scale ophiolite abduction occurred on the units' passive margins. Terminal closure of the oceans' branches took place between the latest Cretaceous and the Miocene, forming the Anatolian orogenic collage whose outline defines present-day Turkey. Post-collisional intra-continental convergence continued until the late Miocene and resulted in north-south shortening of the collage. This shortening led to internal imbrication, thrusting and crustal thickening. It forced the Anatolian landmass westwards, away from east Anatolia where there has been continuous north-south compression since the Miocene between Laurasia and the Arabian Platform. Both the continental and the oceanic palaeotectonic units pose significant problems regarding their original geometry, size, depth, extent, contact relations, motion paths, subduction polarity, stratigraphy and timing of formation. Clarification of these issues is essential if the units' original paleogeographic relationships with respect to Neo-Tethys are to be reconstructed. This paper reviews some of these problems with the aid of a number of palinspastic and non-palinspastic maps. These maps are intended to provide a basis for evaluating the hydrocarbon potential of Turkey. (author)

  10. The first fossil brown lacewing from the Miocene of the Tibetan Plateau (Neuroptera, Hemerobiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Hemerobiidae, Wesmaelius makarkini Yang, Pang & Ren, sp. n. is described from the Lower Miocene, Garang Formation of Zeku County, Qinghai Province (northeastern Tibetan Plateau, China. The species is assigned to the widely distributed extant genus Wesmaelius Krüger (Hemerobiinae. The species represents the first named fossil of this family from China, which sheds light on the historical distribution of Wesmaelius and early divergences within Hemerobiinae.

  11. The presence of Lower Miocene (Eggenburgian in borehole 575 Cetea (East of Borod Basin, NW Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Petrescu

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The microfloral record evidenced in borehole 575 Cetea is very rich, consisting of 114 taxa, some of them being new species for the Tertiary of Romania. At the same time, it includes species of Eggenburgian age of the host rocks. The whole microflora assemblage suggests a forest-type vegetation developed in a warm, subtropical climate, characteristic for the Eggenburgian age of the Early Miocene. The Eggenburgian of Romania shows the same microfloral features as the Eggenburgian of Central Paratethys.

  12. Shell micro-structure of the Late Miocene freshwater unionid Parreysia binaiensis (Mollusca : Bivalvia) from Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Gurung, Damayanti; Kobayashi, Iwao

    1998-01-01

    A Late Miocene freshwater bivalvian shell of Parreysia binaiensis Takayasu, Gurung & Matsuoka, 1995, is examined to assess its state of preservation as well as to determine its shell structure and mineral composition. The characters of shell micro-structure are valuable for their systematics, phylogeny and environmental analysis. It is found that the shell is well preserved with most of the shell layers intact. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the mineral species of the shell is whol...

  13. Measured sections of the Browns Park Formation (Miocene) in Moffat County, Colorado, 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, Stanley J.; Thoen, William L.

    1981-01-01

    Eight partial sections of the Browns Park Formation of Miocene age were measured in Moffat County, northwestern Colorado, during the 1980 field season, as part of a study of the stratigraphy and depositional environments of the formation. These newly measured sections are intended to complement other surface sections of the Browns Park Formation measured (Hansen, 1965) to the west in Uintah County, Utah, and measured (Buffler, 1967) or diagrammed (Kucera, 1968) to the east in, respectively, Routt and Rio Blanco Counties, Colorado.

  14. Phylogenetic evidence for a Miocene origin of Mediterranean lineages: species diversity, reproductive traits and geographical isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, P; Fernández-Mazuecos, M; Heleno, R

    2018-01-01

    A review of 27 angiosperm clades (26 genera) of species-rich and species-poor plant groups of the Mediterranean floristic region was performed with phylogenetic and biological trait data. The emergent pattern is that a majority of Mediterranean plant clades split from their sister groups between the Miocene (23-5 Ma) and the Oligocene (34-23 Ma), far earlier than the onset of the Mediterranean climate (ca. 3.2 Ma). In addition, 12 of 14 clades of the species-poor group have stem ages inferred for each clade in the Miocene or older, and six of 13 clades within the species-rich group show divergence of each stem clade within the Oligocene and/or Miocene. High levels of species diversity are related to an ancient (Paleocene-Miocene) origin and also to recent origin (Pliocene-Pleistocene) followed by active speciation and even explosive radiations: some species and lineages diversified over a short period (Aquilegia, Cistus, Dianthus, Linaria sect. Supinae, Reseda). In the species-rich group, key reproductive characters were found to be significantly more important for species recognition than key vegetative characters in eight clades, but no difference was found in four clades, and vegetative characters were predominant in one clade (Saxifraga). Geographical differentiation is proposed as predominant over divergence driven by pollination ecology. We hypothesise an evolutionary process in which lineages adapted to pre-Mediterranean (pre-Pliocene) conditions in relatively small, xeric areas became strongly competitive and expanded as the Mediterranean climate became dominant (Pliocene-Quaternary) across the Mediterranean Basin. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  15. Functional anatomy of the limbs of erethizontidae (Rodentia, Caviomorpha): Indicators of locomotor behavior in Miocene porcupines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Adriana M; Picasso, Mariana B J

    2008-05-01

    Functional analysis of the limb bones of the erethizontid Steiromys duplicatus, one of the most abundant Miocene porcupines from Patagonia, provides evidence to infer their locomotor behavior. Remains of the giant Neosteiromys pattoni (Late Miocene of Northeast Argentina) are also analyzed. Osteological and myological features of extant porcupines were evaluated and used as a model to interpret the functional significance of Miocene species' limbs. Several features in erethizontids are compatible with the ability to climb: the low humeral tuberosities indicate a mobile gleno-humeral joint; the prominent and distally extended deltopectoral crest indicates a powerful pectoral muscle, which is particularly active when climbing; the humero-ulnar and humero-radial joints are indicative of pronation-supination movements; the well-developed lateral epicondylar ridge and the medially protruding entepicondyle are in agreement with an important development of the brachioradialis, supinator, flexor digitorum profundus, and pronator teres muscles, acting in climbing and grasping functions; the mechanical advantage of the biceps brachii would be emphasized because of its distal attachment on the bicipital tuberosity. As with extant porcupines, in Miocene species, the large femoral head would have permitted a broad range of abduction of the femur, and the medially protruding lesser trochanter would have emphasized the abduction and outward rotation of the femur by the action of the ilio-psoas complex. In S. duplicatus, the shape of the hip, knee, and cruro-astragalar, calcaneo-astragalar, and astragalo-navicular joints would have allowed lateral and rotational movements, although probably to a lesser degree than in extant porcupines. Foot features of S. duplicatus (e.g., great medial sesamoid bone, medial astragalar head, complete hallux) indicate that this species would have had grasping ability, but would not have achieved the high degree of specialization of Coendou

  16. Paleomagnetic full vector record of four consecutive Mid Miocene geomagnetic reversals

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Seventy Mid Miocene lava flows from flood basalt piles near Neskaupstadur (East Iceland) were sampled, which provide a quasi-continuous record of geomagnetic field variations. Samples were collected along the Profile B of Watkins and Walker (1977), which was extended about 250 m farther down in a neighboring stream bed. Published radiometric age determinations (Harrison et al., 1979) range from 12.2 to 12.8 Ma for the sampled sequence. Four reversals were recorded in this ...

  17. Etisus evamuellerae, a new xanthid crab (Decapoda, Brachyura) from the Middle Miocene of Austria and Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyžný, M.; van Bakel, B.W.M.; Guinot, D.

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of several carapaces, a new species of xanthid crab, Etisus evamuellerae, is described from the Middle Miocene of the Vienna (Austria) and Great Hungarian basins. It differs from the coeval xanthids, Xantho moldavicus and Pilodius vulgaris, in having a distinctly protruding front and comparatively longer carapace. Contrary to those two species, the new one makes up for just a small percentage in the decapod crustacean assemblages studied. PMID:25983383

  18. Seasonal ocean upwelling recorded by the late Miocene Pisco Formation diatomites of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariboldi, Karen; Pike, Jennifer; Di Celma, Claudio; Malinverno, Elisa; Gioncada, Anna; Bianucci, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    A 25-cm-thick sample of diatomaceous mudstone was collected in the whale fossil-bearing late Miocene Pisco Formation at Cerro Los Quesos in Peru. This macroscopically-laminated sample was divided into blocks and embedded in epoxy resin for light and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. In only a few cases are laminae well preserved and, hence, useful for paleoenvironmental studies. In these few cases, a terrigenous lamina - Coscinodiscus ooze lamina - mixed lamina (Chaetoceros resting spores, Thalassionema, terrigenous material) sequence is observed. By comparison with Holocene sediment laminations from the Gulf of California, the late Miocene Peruvian triplet laminations are interpreted as an annual depositional cycle. The terrigenous lamina was deposited in the wet season (summer). Coscinodiscus ooze was the product of: (1) initial high summer primary production which took place at the thermocline during water column stratification; and (2) a subsequent 'Fall dump', or sedimentation, of the diatoms due to autumn storm-related mixing of the water column. Finally, the mixed lamina was deposited during/following the spring bloom. The frequent disruption or homogenisation of laminae observed in the slides was attributed to bioturbation by microbenthic organisms. This bioturbation was accompanied by a general absence of macrobenthos in the late Miocene diatomites of the Pisco Formation; such conditions are commonly interpreted as the consequence of a suboxic sea floor environment. In this presentation we will demonstrate the seasonal nature of the Late Miocene Pisco Formation diatomites and show novel SEM microelemental maps that help interpreting the paleonvironmental conditions at the sea floor at the time of diatomites deposition.

  19. Paleomagnetic evidence for Late Miocene counterclockwise rotation of north coast carbonate sequence, Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, J.A.; Plumley, P.W. (Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)); Schellekens, J.H. (Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico))

    1991-03-01

    A paleomagnetic study of the essentially undeformed middle Tertiary carbonate sequence along the north coast of Puerto Rico reveals statistically significant pre-Pliocene discordance of characteristic component directions against those expected from cratonic North America for much of the section. Despite generally weak to moderately weak magnetic intensities, confirmation of the magnetization as primary in origin comes from the presence of two distinct components of magnetization, intrasite bipolarity, and/or the reproducibility of measurements. The mean geographic direction for the upper Oligocene to middle Miocene strata is 335.2{degree}/32.9{degree} and the corrected mean paleomagnetic pole is 207.6{degree}/66.5{degree}, (N = 3, {alpha}95 = 4.3{degree}). This suggests a counter-clockwise (CCW) block rotation of Puerto Rico and its microplate of 24.5{degrees} ({plus minus} 5.8{degrees}) during the late Miocene. Using a width of 250 km for the Northern Caribbean Plate Boundary Zone (NCPBZ) between the North American Plate and Caribbean Plate, the mean left lateral displacement implied is 1.8 to 2.4 cm/yr, which agrees fairly well with published relative motion rates for the two plates. Average rotation rate for 50 Ma to 20 Ma was 0.7{degree}/my but perhaps as great as 4{degree}/my in the Miocene. Resolution of mean paleolatitude indicates northward motion of a degree or less during the period of rotation. Causes of this short-lived rotation may include (1) tectonic escape from the inhibiting presence of the Bahama Banks and Beata Ridge during eastward motion of Puerto Rico along the sinistral transpressive Puerto Rico Trench and Muertos Trough fault systems or (2) changes in relative plate motions of the Caribbean and North American Plate during the late Miocene.

  20. The Middle Miocene Yallourn coal seam - The last coal in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdgate, G.R.; Wallace, M.W.; Gallagher, S.J.; Wagstaff, B.E.; Chung, Li [School of Earth Sciences, University of Melbourne (Australia); Cartwright, I. [Earth Sciences Department, Monash University, Clayton (Australia); Blackburn, D.T. [David Blackburn Environmental Pty. Ltd. 4 Egmont Terrace Erindale SA 5066 (Australia)

    2007-04-02

    The 100-m thick Middle Miocene Yallourn brown coal seam was the last of the major Latrobe Valley Group seams to form in the Gippsland Basin (southeastern Australia) and the final major coal to form in Australia. Coal deposition coincided with the Middle Miocene climatic optimum. During this warm period of relatively high sea-levels, high water tables and relatively high subsidence rates, a 565 km{sup 2} area of alternating eutrophic and ombrogenous peat swamp developed at the western end of the Latrobe Valley to form the Yallourn Seam. Stratigraphic units of the seam contain a high sclerophyll plant component and abundant charcoal, suggesting seasonal dry periods alternated with wet warm conditions characterised by abundant rushes and dense kauri forests. Iron content in parts of the Yallourn Seam is relatively high, and a strong correlation exists between the iron distribution and the abundance of proteoid roots (mainly Proteaceae) - an indicator of seasonal dry periods. The contemporaneous carbonates of the Wuk Wuk Marl were deposited in a high-productivity, upwelling, warmer water (subtropical) environment. A new carbon isotope profile at 1 m intervals through the Yallourn Seam shows a poor relationship between {delta}{sup 13}C isotopes and coal colour, but some correlation with Gymnosperm abundance. The {delta}{sup 13}C record also correlates well with long-term secular changes in climate, the presence of global carbon maxima CM2-CM4, and with the deep-sea {delta}{sup 13}C marine organic record. Thick coal seam development ended near the end of the Middle Miocene climatic optimum. The termination of coal seam deposition in Latrobe Valley was primarily the result of tectonic compression, uplift and development of adjacent highland relief, and erosion at the end of the Miocene. (author)

  1. Nutrient Level Change Based on Calcareous Nannofossil Assemblages During Late Miocene in Banyumas Subbasin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marfasran Hendrizan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.3.3.183-194Hydrographic situation on surface waters is more challenging to be understood, related to global and regional climate change in tropical regions. In addition, records from these tropical areas are limited compared to other areas of subtropical and polar regions. The aim of this study is to reconstruct Cenozoic paleoceanography, in particular nutrient level, using outcrop samples from Kali Pasir, Banyumas, Indonesia. This study is focused on the relationships of the relative abundance of Discoaster, coccolith size of Reticulofenestra, and lithofacies characteristics. Nutrient level is reconstructed using quantitative analysis of calcareous nannofossil by counting calcareous nannofossils on 400 fields of View (FOV for each sample. The abundance of Discoaster and the large Reticulofenestra represent a deep thermocline and nutricline, which is a typical of oligotrophic condition. This condition also associated with the muddy facies in the early stages of Late Miocene (NN8-NN10a. Conversely, decreasing Discoaster abundance and the abundance of small Reticulofenestra indicate a shallow thermocline and nutricline, resulting strong eutrophication of surface waters in the later stage of Late Miocene (NN10b-NN11. A high nutrient content in this stage is related to classical turbidite deposits. A change in a sea surface resulted in strong eutrophication, which is in this section similar to the eastern Indian Ocean micropaleontology records during the Late Miocene (NN10. This finding shows that strong eutrophication in Kali Pasir section is probably driven by nutrient-rich terrestrial material related to the onset of Indian monsoon during the Late Miocene.

  2. Post-obduction carbonate system development in New Caledonia (Nepoui, Lower Miocene)

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizot, P.; Cabioch, Guy; Fournier, F.; Leonide, P.; Sebih, S.; Rouillard, P.; Montaggioni, L; Collot, J; Martin-Garin, B.; Chaproniere, G.; Braga, J. C.; Sevin, B.

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, depositional models of Lower Miocene carbonate systems from New Caledonia (Southwest Pacific) are proposed, on the basis of a sedimentological and paleoenvironmental study of both cores and outcrops. In the Nepoui area, two distinct stages of carbonate ramp development (Aquitanian Lower Nepoui and Burdigalian Upper Nepoui carbonate systems), separated by a phase of siliciclastic deltaic deposition, are evidenced. The post-obduction marine transgression of the Western New C...

  3. [Characteristics of Soil Respiration along Eroded Sloping Land with Different SOC Background on the Hilly Loess Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gai; Xu, Ming-xiang; Zhang, Ya-feng; Wang, Chao-hua; Fan, Hui-min; Wang, Shan-shan

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to characterize soil respiration along eroded sloping land at erosion and deposition area under different soil organic carbon(SOC) levels, and linked the relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature, soil moisture, SOC and slope position. Experiments were carried out in the plots of S type slopes include five different soil organic carbon levels in the Loess Hilly Region. The S type slopes were divided into control area at the top of the slope, erosion area at the middle of the slope and deposition area at the toe of the slope. We found that soil temperature had a greater impact on soil respiration in the deposition area, whereas soil moisture had a greater impact on soil respiration in the erosion area compared among control area, erosion area and deposition area. In addition, SOC was the most important factor affecting soil respiration, which can explain soil respiration variation 54. 72%, followed by soil moisture, slope position and soil temperature, which explain soil respiration variation 18. 86% , 16. 13% and 10. 29%, respectively. Soil respiration response to erosion showed obvious on-site and off-site effects along the eroded sloping land. Soil respiration in the erosion area was reduced by 21. 14% compared with control area, and soil respiration in the deposition area was increased by 21. 93% compared with control area. Erosion effect on source and sink of carbon emission was correlated with SOC content of the eroded sloping land. When SOC content was higher than 6. 82 g.kg-1, the slope. erosion tended to be a carbon sequestration process, and when SOC content was lower than 3.03 g.kg-1, the slope erosion tended to be a process of the carbon emission source. The model could reflect the relationship between soil respiration and independent variables of soil organic carbon content, soil temperature and moisture.

  4. Activity of phosphomonoesterases and the content of phosphorus in the eroded Luvisols of orchard and arable soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Kobierski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An irrevocable effect of the process of tillage erosion is truncation of the surface horizon and the translocation and accumulation of the eroded soil material at the foot of the slope. It concerns mostly fine soil fractions, humus and nutrients (C, N, P. The rate of that process depends on the original morphology of soil profiles and the susceptibility to erosion, the amount and intensity of precipitation, but mostly on the method and period of soil use. The aim of the paper was to determine the effect of the use of eroded Luvisols on the content of available phosphorus and the activity of phosphomonoesterases against the physico-chemical properties selected. Based on the analysis of variance, there was found a significant effect of the use of soils on the activity of phosphatases in the surface horizons of the analysed soils. There was found a significantly higher activity of alkaline phosphatase (0.094–1.896 mM pNP·kg–1·h–1 and acid phosphatase (0.152–2.905 mM pNP·kg–1·h–1 in the soil material sampled from the herbicide strips of 30-year apple tree orchards, as compared with the activity of those enzymes in arable soils, with a similar soil profile morphology (without Et horizon, grain size composition and the properties of the parent material. Activity of phosphatases in the soil surface horizon of the herbicide strips was positively and significantly correlated with organic matter. There was reported no significant effect of the use of the eroded Luvisols on the content of available phosphorus in surface horizons.

  5. Highly erodible terrain in agriculture land against chipped pruned branches. Or how to stop the soil erosion with low investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, A.

    2009-04-01

    The session on "Soil erosion and sediment control with vegetation and bioengineering on severely eroded terrain" pays special attention to the severe soil erosion suffered on steep slopes and erodible parent materials and soils. Within the last 20 years, in the Mediterranean lands, the citrus orchards were reallocated on steep slopes due to the urban development and better climatic and management conditions of the new plantations. The lack of vegetation cover on the new slope plantations of citrus resulted in high erosion rates. Those non-sustainable soil losses were measured by means of rainfall simulation experiments, Gerlach collectors, geomorphological transect and topographical measurements. The October 2007 and October 2008 rainy periods resulted in sheet, rill and gully erosion. Some recently planted orchards (2005) had the first pruning season in 2008. The pruned chipped branches reduced the soil losses to 50 % of the expected, although the litter (pruned branches) covered 4.67 % of the soil. This is why a research was developed by means of simulated rainfall experiments to determine the vegetation cover (litter, mainly leaves) to protect the soil to reach a sustainable erosion rate. Rainfall simulation experiments at 43 mm h-1 where performed on 1 m2 plots covered with 0, 3, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 80 and 100 % litter cover (pruned chipped branches) to determine the sustainable litter cover to avoid the soil losses. The results show that more that 45 % litter cover almost reduces the soil losses to negligible rates. The results confirm that 4 % of vegetation cover reduces the soil losses to 50 %. Key words: Agriculture land, erodible terrain, land management, citrus, erosion, Spain, Valencia, herbicides. Acknowledgements, We thanks the financial support of the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación by means of the project CGL2008-02879/BTE, "PERDIDA DE SUELO EN NUEVAS EXPLOTACIONES CITRICOLAS EN PENDIENTE. ESTRATEGIAS PARA EL CONTROL DE LA EROSION HIDRICA"

  6. Clay mineralogy indicates a mildly warm and humid living environment for the Miocene hominoid from the Zhaotong Basin, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunxia; Guo, Zhengtang; Deng, Chenglong; Ji, Xueping; Wu, Haibin; Paterson, Greig A.; Chang, Lin; Li, Qin; Wu, Bailing; Zhu, Rixiang

    2016-01-01

    Global and regional environmental changes have influenced the evolutionary processes of hominoid primates, particularly during the Miocene. Recently, a new Lufengpithecus cf. lufengensis hominoid fossil with a late Miocene age of ~6.2 Ma was discovered in the Shuitangba (STB) section of the Zhaotong Basin in Yunnan on the southeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau. To understand the relationship between paleoclimate and hominoid evolution, we have studied sedimentary, clay mineralogy and geochemical proxies for the late Miocene STB section (~16 m thick; ca. 6.7–6.0 Ma). Our results show that Lufengpithecus cf. lufengensis lived in a mildly warm and humid climate in a lacustrine or swamp environment. Comparing mid to late Miocene records from hominoid sites in Yunnan, Siwalik in Pakistan, and tropical Africa we find that ecological shifts from forest to grassland in Siwalik are much later than in tropical Africa, consistent with the disappearance of hominoid fossils. However, no significant vegetation changes are found in Yunnan during the late Miocene, which we suggest is the result of uplift of the Tibetan plateau combined with the Asian monsoon geographically and climatically isolating these regions. The resultant warm and humid conditions in southeastern China offered an important refuge for Miocene hominoids. PMID:26829756

  7. Clay mineralogy indicates a mildly warm and humid living environment for the Miocene hominoid from the Zhaotong Basin, Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunxia; Guo, Zhengtang; Deng, Chenglong; Ji, Xueping; Wu, Haibin; Paterson, Greig A; Chang, Lin; Li, Qin; Wu, Bailing; Zhu, Rixiang

    2016-02-01

    Global and regional environmental changes have influenced the evolutionary processes of hominoid primates, particularly during the Miocene. Recently, a new Lufengpithecus cf. lufengensis hominoid fossil with a late Miocene age of ~6.2 Ma was discovered in the Shuitangba (STB) section of the Zhaotong Basin in Yunnan on the southeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau. To understand the relationship between paleoclimate and hominoid evolution, we have studied sedimentary, clay mineralogy and geochemical proxies for the late Miocene STB section (~16 m thick; ca. 6.7-6.0 Ma). Our results show that Lufengpithecus cf. lufengensis lived in a mildly warm and humid climate in a lacustrine or swamp environment. Comparing mid to late Miocene records from hominoid sites in Yunnan, Siwalik in Pakistan, and tropical Africa we find that ecological shifts from forest to grassland in Siwalik are much later than in tropical Africa, consistent with the disappearance of hominoid fossils. However, no significant vegetation changes are found in Yunnan during the late Miocene, which we suggest is the result of uplift of the Tibetan plateau combined with the Asian monsoon geographically and climatically isolating these regions. The resultant warm and humid conditions in southeastern China offered an important refuge for Miocene hominoids.

  8. Miocene Fossils Reveal Ancient Roots for New Zealand's Endemic Mystacina (Chiroptera and Its Rainforest Habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne J Hand

    Full Text Available The New Zealand endemic bat family Mystacinidae comprises just two Recent species referred to a single genus, Mystacina. The family was once more diverse and widespread, with an additional six extinct taxa recorded from Australia and New Zealand. Here, a new mystacinid is described from the early Miocene (19-16 Ma St Bathans Fauna of Central Otago, South Island, New Zealand. It is the first pre-Pleistocene record of the modern genus and it extends the evolutionary history of Mystacina back at least 16 million years. Extant Mystacina species occupy old-growth rainforest and are semi-terrestrial with an exceptionally broad omnivorous diet. The majority of the plants inhabited, pollinated, dispersed or eaten by modern Mystacina were well-established in southern New Zealand in the early Miocene, based on the fossil record from sites at or near where the bat fossils are found. Similarly, many of the arthropod prey of living Mystacina are recorded as fossils in the same area. Although none of the Miocene plant and arthropod species is extant, most are closely related to modern taxa, demonstrating potentially long-standing ecological associations with Mystacina.

  9. Miocene Fossils Reveal Ancient Roots for New Zealand's Endemic Mystacina (Chiroptera) and Its Rainforest Habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Suzanne J; Lee, Daphne E; Worthy, Trevor H; Archer, Michael; Worthy, Jennifer P; Tennyson, Alan J D; Salisbury, Steven W; Scofield, R Paul; Mildenhall, Dallas C; Kennedy, Elizabeth M; Lindqvist, Jon K

    2015-01-01

    The New Zealand endemic bat family Mystacinidae comprises just two Recent species referred to a single genus, Mystacina. The family was once more diverse and widespread, with an additional six extinct taxa recorded from Australia and New Zealand. Here, a new mystacinid is described from the early Miocene (19-16 Ma) St Bathans Fauna of Central Otago, South Island, New Zealand. It is the first pre-Pleistocene record of the modern genus and it extends the evolutionary history of Mystacina back at least 16 million years. Extant Mystacina species occupy old-growth rainforest and are semi-terrestrial with an exceptionally broad omnivorous diet. The majority of the plants inhabited, pollinated, dispersed or eaten by modern Mystacina were well-established in southern New Zealand in the early Miocene, based on the fossil record from sites at or near where the bat fossils are found. Similarly, many of the arthropod prey of living Mystacina are recorded as fossils in the same area. Although none of the Miocene plant and arthropod species is extant, most are closely related to modern taxa, demonstrating potentially long-standing ecological associations with Mystacina.

  10. Badenian (Middle Miocene) echinoids and starfish from western Ukraine, and their biogeographic and stratigraphic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwański, Andrzej; Górka, Marcin; Wysocka, Anna

    2014-06-01

    Echinoderms from the Badenian (Middle Miocene) of the Fore-Carpathian Basin of western Ukraine are facies restricted. The Mykolaiv Beds, stratigraphically older, yielded the starfish Astropecten forbesi (complete skeletons), two genera of sand dollars (Parascutella, Parmulechinus), and numerous other echinoids of the genera Psammechinus , Echinocyamus, Spatangus, Hemipatagus, Echinocardium, Clypeaster, Echinolampas, and Conolampas. The stratigraphically younger, calcareous Ternopil Beds yielded Eucidaris (complete coronae, isolated spines), Arbacina , Brissus, and Rhabdobrissus. Sixteen species of echinoids are distinguished and/or commented. A new brissid, Rhabdobrissus tarnopolensis sp. nov., is established. A mass occurrence of some species (Psammechinus dubius and Hemipatagus ocellatus) contrasts with that of mass aggregations (sand dollars and Echinocardium leopolitanum) by dynamic events in selected layers of proximal tempestites. Of special note is the occurrence of very small specimens, interpreted as juveniles (`babies') having been swept out of their restricted biotopes (`nurseries'). Some species hitherto regarded as of Early Miocene age, and the problem of their persistence beyond the Fore-Carpathian Basin and/or migration into that basin during the Middle Miocene transgression are discussed.

  11. Miocene structural features of north and south Padre Island and OCS areas, offshore south Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ghamdi, A.M.; Watkins, J.S. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

    1996-01-01

    Integration of 2-D seismic reflection data, paleontological reports, velocity analysis, and well logs has provided a new structural model for North and South Padre Island OCS areas. The Clemente-Tomas fault system (Late Oligocene-Early Miocene) is located above overpressured shale ridges. Sediment loading initiated the faulting over the compacted shale. The Corsair fault system (Early-Middle Miocene) is located seaward of Clemente-Tomas and was formed due to a huge sediment influx that forced the salt to withdraw basinward. The Wanda fault system formed during the Late Miocene because of the further salt withdrawal. Study area is dominated by shale ridges and the salt are only formed beneath the present shelf edge as salt diapirs. Overpressured shale was mapped throughout the study area. Well logs show overpressured shale between 8,800 to 12,000 feet. Berg and Avery suggested that growth faults can seal the faults sheared zones which may cause a structural hydrocarbon trap. We examined most of the responses of the dip logs in the study area and we found that the seal general trend is the drag (non seal) type.

  12. Miocene structural features of north and south Padre Island and OCS areas, offshore south Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ghamdi, A.M.; Watkins, J.S. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Integration of 2-D seismic reflection data, paleontological reports, velocity analysis, and well logs has provided a new structural model for North and South Padre Island OCS areas. The Clemente-Tomas fault system (Late Oligocene-Early Miocene) is located above overpressured shale ridges. Sediment loading initiated the faulting over the compacted shale. The Corsair fault system (Early-Middle Miocene) is located seaward of Clemente-Tomas and was formed due to a huge sediment influx that forced the salt to withdraw basinward. The Wanda fault system formed during the Late Miocene because of the further salt withdrawal. Study area is dominated by shale ridges and the salt are only formed beneath the present shelf edge as salt diapirs. Overpressured shale was mapped throughout the study area. Well logs show overpressured shale between 8,800 to 12,000 feet. Berg and Avery suggested that growth faults can seal the faults sheared zones which may cause a structural hydrocarbon trap. We examined most of the responses of the dip logs in the study area and we found that the seal general trend is the drag (non seal) type.

  13. Terpenoid compositions and botanical origins of Late Cretaceous and Miocene amber from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Gongle; Dutta, Suryendu; Paul, Swagata; Wang, Bo; Jacques, Frédéric M B

    2014-01-01

    The terpenoid compositions of the Late Cretaceous Xixia amber from Central China and the middle Miocene Zhangpu amber from Southeast China were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to elucidate their botanical origins. The Xixia amber is characterized by sesquiterpenoids, abietane and phyllocladane type diterpenoids, but lacks phenolic abietanes and labdane derivatives. The molecular compositions indicate that the Xixia amber is most likely contributed by the conifer family Araucariaceae, which is today distributed primarily in the Southern Hemisphere, but widely occurred in the Northern Hemisphere during the Mesozoic according to paleobotanical evidence. The middle Miocene Zhangpu amber is characterized by amyrin and amyrone-based triterpenoids and cadalene-based sesquiterpenoids. It is considered derived from the tropical angiosperm family Dipterocarpaceae based on these compounds and the co-occurring fossil winged fruits of the family in Zhangpu. This provides new evidence for the occurrence of a dipterocarp forest in the middle Miocene of Southeast China. It is the first detailed biomarker study for amber from East Asia.

  14. Variations in Miocene phytoplankton growth rates in the southwest Atlantic: Evidence for changes in ocean circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Mark; Arthur, Michael A.; Freeman, Katherine H.

    2000-10-01

    Changes in ocean circulation are often credited as the primary control on large-scale climate change during the Miocene. This study investigates the latest Oligocene to middle Miocene evolution of Southern Ocean circulation by evaluating stable isotopic trends of shallow- and deep-dwelling planktonic foraminifera, as well as ɛp records reconstructed from the carbon isotopic composition of diunsaturated alkenones in the southwestern Altantic Ocean (Deep Sea Drilling Project site 516). Changes in ɛp at site 516 closely paralleled the opening and deepening of the Drake Passage as inferred from seafloor magnetic anomalies. A large negative shift in ɛp at ˜20.3 Ma is interpreted to reflect an increase in upper water column nutrient concentrations, caused by the onset or strengthening of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Measurable alkenone concentrations disappear by ˜17 Ma, prior to a collapse in surface-to-thermocline δ18O and δ13C gradients. This is interpreted as reflecting a severe decrease in mixed layer nutrient concentrations and reduced proto-Antarctic Intermediate Water influence. The δ18O gradient was reestablished by 14.5 Ma, coincident with the hypothesized East Antarctic ice sheet expansion, suggesting a direct relationship between increased strength of the ACC and the largest climate shift of the middle Miocene.

  15. Late Miocene sedimentary environments in south-western Amazonia (Solimões Formation; Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Martin; Piller, Werner E; Ramos, Maria Ines; Douglas da Silva Paz, Jackson

    2011-08-01

    In Miocene times a vast wetland existed in Western Amazonia. Whereas the general development of this amazing ecosystem is well established, many questions remain open on sedimentary environments, stratigraphical correlations as well as its palaeogeographical configuration. Several outcrops located in a barely studied region around Eirunepé (SW Amazonas state, Brazil) were investigated to obtain basic sedimentological data. The observed deposits belong to the upper part of the Solimões Formation and are biostratigraphically dated to the Late Miocene. Vertically as well as laterally highly variable fine-grained clastic successions were recorded. Based on the lithofacies assemblages, these sediments represent fluvial deposits, possibly of an anastomosing river system. Sand bodies formed within active channels and dominant overbank fines are described (levees, crevasse splays/channels/deltas, abandoned channels, backswamps, floodplain paleosols). Lacustrine environments are restricted to local floodplain ponds/lakes. The mollusc and ostracod content as well as very light δ(18)O and δ(13)C values, measured on ostracod valves, refer to exclusively freshwater conditions. Based on palaeontological and geological results the existence of a long-lived lake ("Lake Pebas") or any influx of marine waters can be excluded for that region during the Late Miocene.

  16. Evidence for early miocene wrench faulting in the Marlborough fault system, New Zealand: structural implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audru, Jean-Christophe; Delteil, Jean

    1998-10-01

    In New Zealand, the Marlborough strike-slip faults link the Hikurangi subduction zone to the Alpine fault collision zone. Stratigraphic and structural analysis in the Marlborough region constrain the inception of the current strike-slip tectonics. Six major Neogene basins are investigated. Their infill is composed of marine and freshwater sediments up to 3 km thick; they are characterised by coarse facies derived from the basins bounding relief, high sedimentation rates and asymmetric geometries. Proposed factors that controlled the basins' generation are the initial geometry of the strike-slip faults and the progressive strike-slip motion. Two groups of basins are presented: the early Miocene (23 My) basins were generated under wrench tectonics above releasing-jogs between basement faults. The late Miocene (11 My) basins were initiated by halfgrabens tilted along straighter faults during a transtensive stage. Development of faults during Cretaceous to Oligocene times facilitated the following propagation of wrench tectonics. The Pliocene (5 My) to current increasing convergence has shortened the basins and distorted the Miocene array of faults. This study indicates that the Marlborough Fault System is an old feature that connected part of the Hikurangi margin to the Alpine fault since the subduction and collision initiation.

  17. Global warming and South Indian monsoon rainfall-lessons from the Mid-Miocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Markus; Kern, Andrea K; Harzhauser, Mathias; Kroh, Andreas; Piller, Werner E

    2013-04-01

    Precipitation over India is driven by the Indian monsoon. Although changes in this atmospheric circulation are caused by the differential seasonal diabatic heating of Asia and the Indo-Pacific Ocean, it is so far unknown how global warming influences the monsoon rainfalls regionally. Herein, we present a Miocene pollen flora as the first direct proxy for monsoon over southern India during the Middle Miocene Climate Optimum. To identify climatic key parameters, such as mean annual temperature, warmest month temperature, coldest month temperature, mean annual precipitation, mean precipitation during the driest month, mean precipitation during the wettest month and mean precipitation during the warmest month the Coexistence Approach is applied. Irrespective of a ~ 3-4 °C higher global temperature during the Middle Miocene Climate Optimum, the results indicate a modern-like monsoonal precipitation pattern contrasting marine proxies which point to a strong decline of Indian monsoon in the Himalaya at this time. Therefore, the strength of monsoon rainfall in tropical India appears neither to be related to global warming nor to be linked with the atmospheric conditions over the Tibetan Plateau. For the future it implies that increased global warming does not necessarily entail changes in the South Indian monsoon rainfall.

  18. Fossil wood from the Miocene and Oligocene epoch: chemistry and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardet, Michel; Pournou, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Fossil wood is the naturally preserved remain of the secondary xylem of plants that lived before the Holocene epoch. Typically, fossil wood is preserved as coalified or petrified and rarely as mummified tissue. The process of fossilization is very complex and it is still unknown why in the same fossil record, wood can be found in different fossilisation forms. In 2007, a fossil forest was found in the Bükkábrány open-pit coal mine in Hungary. The non-petrified forest is estimated to be 7 million years old (Miocene epoch) and its trees were found standing in an upright position. This fossil assemblage is exceptionally rare because wood has been preserved as soft waterlogged tissue. This study aimed to investigate this remarkable way of fossil wood preservation, by examining its chemistry with (13)C CPMAS NMR and its morphology with light and electron microscopy. For comparison reasons, a petrified wood trunk from the Oligocene epoch (30 Myr) found in 2001 at Porrentruy region in Switzerland and two fresh wood samples of the modern equivalents of the Miocene sample were also examined. The results obtained showed that the outstanding preservation state of the Miocene fossil is not owed to petrification or coalification. Mummification is a potential mechanism that could explain Bükkábrány trunks' condition, however this fossilisation process is not well studied and therefore this hypothesis needs to be further investigated. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Southern Ocean warming and Wilkes Land ice sheet retreat during the mid-Miocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangiorgi, Francesca; Bijl, Peter K; Passchier, Sandra; Salzmann, Ulrich; Schouten, Stefan; McKay, Robert; Cody, Rosemary D; Pross, Jörg; van de Flierdt, Tina; Bohaty, Steven M; Levy, Richard; Williams, Trevor; Escutia, Carlota; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2018-01-22

    Observations and model experiments highlight the importance of ocean heat in forcing ice sheet retreat during the present and geological past, but past ocean temperature data are virtually missing in ice sheet proximal locations. Here we document paleoceanographic conditions and the (in)stability of the Wilkes Land subglacial basin (East Antarctica) during the mid-Miocene (~17-13.4 million years ago) by studying sediment cores from offshore Adélie Coast. Inland retreat of the ice sheet, temperate vegetation, and warm oligotrophic waters characterise the mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (MCO; 17-14.8 Ma). After the MCO, expansion of a marine-based ice sheet occurs, but remains sensitive to melting upon episodic warm water incursions. Our results suggest that the mid-Miocene latitudinal temperature gradient across the Southern Ocean never resembled that of the present day. We demonstrate that a strong coupling of oceanic climate and Antarctic continental conditions existed and that the East Antarctic subglacial basins were highly sensitive to ocean warming.

  20. Reduced statherin in acquired enamel pellicle on eroded teeth compared to healthy teeth in the same subjects: An in-vivo study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Mutahar

    Full Text Available The aim of this in-vivo study was to compare total protein and four key salivary proteins present in the acquired enamel pellicle (AEP on eroded and non-eroded surfaces in participants with erosive tooth wear. Participants with erosive tooth wear of dietary non-intrinsic origin, present on the occlusal surfaces of the lower first molars and an unaffected posterior occlusal surface in the same quadrant were recruited from restorative dental clinics at King's College London Dental Institute (n = 29, REC ref 14/EM/1171. Following removal of the salivary film, AEP samples were collected from the eroded occlusal surfaces (EP, n = 29 and the non-eroded occlusal surfaces (NP, n = 29 using 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS soaked filter papers. Total protein concentration was analysed using bicinchoninic acid assay (BCA. Protein fractions were separated using SDS-PAGE and immunoblotted against: mucin5b, albumin, carbonic anhydrase VI (CA VI and statherin antibodies. Amounts were quantified using ImageLab software against purified protein standards of known concentration. ANOVA followed by paired t-test and Wilcoxon's matched-pair signed-rank test were used to test statistical significance. The difference was considered to be significant at a P value < 0.05. The total protein on eroded surfaces was significantly lower compared to the total protein on non-eroded surfaces [0.41mg/mL (0.04 and 0.61 mg/mL (0.11] respectively (p< 0.05. The median (min, max amount of statherin was also significantly lower on eroded occlusal surfaces [84.1 (20.0, 221.8 ng] compared to AEP from non-eroded teeth in the same subjects [97.1(30.0, 755.6 ng] (p = 0.002. No statistical differences were observed for mucin 5b, albumin or CA VI. The total protein and statherin in the in-vivo AEP were different between eroded and non-eroded tooth surfaces of the same patient.

  1. Rapidly Moving Divertor Plates In A Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Zweben

    2011-05-16

    It may be possible to replace conventional actively cooled tokamak divertor plates with a set of rapidly moving, passively cooled divertor plates on rails. These plates would absorb the plasma heat flux with their thermal inertia for ~10-30 sec, and would then be removed from the vessel for processing. When outside the tokamak, these plates could be cooled, cleaned, recoated, inspected, and then returned to the vessel in an automated loop. This scheme could provide nearoptimal divertor surfaces at all times, and avoid the need to stop machine operation for repair of damaged or eroded plates. We describe various possible divertor plate designs and access geometries, and discuss an initial design for a movable and removable divertor module for NSTX-U.

  2. Southeast Atlantic upwelling intensity changes influencing late Miocene C4 plant expansion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommerskirchen, F.; Condon, T.; Mollenhauer, G.; Schefuß, E.

    2009-04-01

    The Late Miocene epoch (about 15 to 5 Myrs BP) is characterised by fundamental changes in Earth's climate system: turnovers in marine and terrestrial biota, sea-level variability, changes in surface- und deep-water circulations, and increase in upwelling intensities along the coasts [1,2]. During the transition period the Antarctic ice sheets expanded and were permanently established, while additionally ice volumes began to fluctuate [1]. Plants acting with the C4 concentrating mechanism of CO2 fixation for photosynthesis expanded nearly simultaneous at different places in the world, whereas the global CO2 levels exhibit no corresponding change [1,3]. However, C4 plants are also known to have a competitive advantage in habitats of higher temperature, light and fire intensities as well as of limited water supply, compared to the almost ubiquitous C3 plants. This study tries to give insights to Miocene climatic conditions in Southwest Africa and how these conditions may be linked to the C4 plant expansion. We focused on data from a sediment core of the Ocean Drilling Program (Leg 175, ODP 1085A), which span about 10 Myrs of the late Miocene. The core is situated in the Cape basin at the south-western African continental margin in the upwelling zone of the Benguela coastal current. The current brings cold, nutrient-rich waters from South Atlantic and the Antarctic circumpolar current to the surface water along the coast of Southwest Africa. Miocene sea surface temperatures (SST) were reconstructed by two indices, tetraether index (TEX86) and an alkenone based index (U37K'). Both trends exhibit a shift to cooler temperatures from around 27 to 18˚ C, but are different in rate and timing. Especially by TEX86 reconstructed SSTs exhibit a similar trend as found for ice volume changes shown by the δ18O curve [4]. These findings may reflect an intensification of the Benguela upwelling current during the late Miocene, probably in association with the formation of West

  3. Palaeoecological construction from the Oligo-Miocene coal deposits of Gelibolu Peninsula, NW Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirtaş, Ferdi; Koşun, Erdal; Serkan Akkiraz, Mehmet; Bozcu, Mustafa; Koç, Koray

    2015-04-01

    The palynomorph composition of the Upper Oligocene and Miocene coal deposits from Gelibolu peninsula, NW Turkey, was analyzed to determine the palaeoclimate conditions. The samples were collected from two different abandoned coal mines. Also two different palynological assemblages were reported. The first one belongs to the Late Oligocene (Osmancik Formation). The other one is the Miocene (Gazhanedere Formation). The Late Oligocene palynological assemblage consist mainly of Alnus, Myricaceae, Cyrillaceae-Clethraceae, Calamus and Castanea. Riparian vegetation or wetland forest community incorporate high amounts of Alnus, and low percentages of deciduous Salix, Pterocarya and Carya. Calamus, which is a stratigraphical marker for the Late Oligocene of the Thrace Basin, was also recorded in high quantities. The content of the Miocene palynological assemblage is different from the Late Oligocene assemblage, and is mainly made up of Polypodiaceae, Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Myricaceae, Oleaceae, Cyrillaceae-Clethraceae and Sapotaceae. Calamus and Alnus totally disappear here. In contrast, open vegetation elements such Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae occur frequently. The palaeoclimate calculations were made by the help of coexistence approach method. The late Oligocene association contains a total of 18 taxa, 11 of which were used for calculating the coexistence intervals. The values obtained 15.6 to 21.1 ° C for annual temperature, 5.0 to 13.3 ° C for winter temperature, 24.7 to 28.1 ° C for summer temperature and, 1096 to 1355 mm annual rainfall. In the Miocene palynological assemblage 23 taxa were identified. The palaeoclimate calculation is based on the 21 taxa. Quantitative data indicate the values for the mean annual temperature 15.6-21.3 ° C, for the winter temperature 5.0 to 13.3 ° C, 24.7- 27.9 ° C for summer temperature and 823-1520 mm for the annual rainfall. The palaeoclimate was warm and contained dry seasons due to lower boundary of annual precipitation

  4. Thrust faults and extensional detachment faults in Cretan tectono-stratigraphy: Implications for Middle Miocene extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Vassilakis, Emmanuel

    2010-06-01

    The revised tectono-stratigraphy of Crete and especially of the "Phyllites-Quartzites" complex demonstrated the distinction of the probable Paleozoic low-medium grade metamorphic rocks of the Arna unit from the underlying Permo-Triassic phyllites and associated carbonate sediments (Trypali facies) of Western Crete unit as well as the overlying Permo-Triassic phyllites and associated sediments of the Tyros/Ravdoucha Beds at the base of the Tripolis unit. The pre-existing mixture of the above tectono-stratigaphic units in a single complex created a number of misinterpretations as far as stratigraphy, metamorphism and interpretation of low angle faults as thrusts or detachments. Especially in cases where the inferred tectonic contact concerns the transition between the Tyros Beds and the base of the Tripolis carbonate platform there is no structural omission and therefore the contact represents a minor disharmonic sliding surface and not a detachment. Based on the revised tectono-stratigraphic analysis the determination of the structural omission for each tectonic contact was possible and several detachments were described for the first time. Footwall rocks of the detachments comprised several tectonic units usually from the lower nappes and hanging wall rocks comprised several tectonic units usually from the upper nappes. The detachment may separate not only metamorphosed units in the footwall (Mani, Western Crete, Arna) from non metamorphosed units in the hanging wall (Tripolis, Pindos and higher nappes) but also all other possible combinations from the Cretan nappe pile. Extension in Crete started in the Middle-Late Miocene with the formation of extensional detachment faults. The reported extensional structures of Oligocene to Early Miocene age do not correspond to crustal extension of Crete but to localized shear zones related to nappe stacking and the exhumation of metamorphic rocks. Extensional detachments in Crete form a tectonic horst through two oppositely

  5. Impact of fencing on the recovery of the ground flora on heavily eroded slopes of a deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godefroid, Sandrine; Massant, Wim; Weyembergh, Gisele; Koedam, Nico

    2003-07-01

    This paper seeks to outline early stages in the recovery of forest ground flora on eroded slopes impacted by recreation activities and to suggest how these data might be applied in the formulation of management policies for forest recreation areas. Based on a fencing experiment in the Sonian Forest near Brussels, we investigated whether, over a 6-year period, the vegetation was able to recover after having been destroyed by recreation use. Short-term trends in overall species composition were already observable during this 6-year study. Species recovery on eroded hills was related to slope, aspect, and soil type. During the considered time scale, the proportion of hemicryptophytes and the number of ancient forest species increased significantly. A downward trend was detected for Ellenberg's nitrogen and temperature indexes and for the proportion of therophytes and pioneer plants of disturbed places. Changes in species' frequencies suggest six recovery strategies: early, late, expanding, disappearing, transient, and fluctuating species. Aside from seedling reproduction from overstory influences, Luzula sylvatica appeared to be the most resilient of the species identified in the study since this species has the highest global frequency in our sampling plots and has increased its cover during the study period. Study results indicate that (1) protection from recreation has initiated the recovery of species in the herb layer, but (2) it may take a long time before vegetation previously present in the ground flora may recover in both density and species composition.

  6. Nodular fasciitis in the masticator space eroding into the mandible: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider AboSharkh, BSc, DMD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nodular fasciitis is a benign soft tissue neoplasm of mesenchymal origin. It is usually characterized by rapid growth, infiltrative behavior, and heterogeneous histopathology, which can make diagnosis difficult and lead to delayed management. It has a 15%-20% occurrence rate in the head and neck and occurs rarely intraorally. In this report, we discuss an unusual case of nodular fasciitis originating in the masticator space and destroying the ascending ramus of the mandible. The treatment involved complete resection of the lesion and reconstruction with a temporomandibular joint prosthesis. At 24 months after surgery, the patient showed a return to normal function with no signs of recurrence.

  7. Oligocene - modern paleoenvironmental change in of the Peruvian central Andes: Implications for late Miocene uplift and aridification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundell, K. E.; Saylor, J. E.; Lapen, T. J.; Villarreal, D. P.; Styron, R. H.; Usnayo Perales, W. P.; Cárdenas, J.

    2016-12-01

    Elevation and development of rainshadows play a first-order control on the paleoenvironment of hinterland basins. Understanding which of several factors may be driving paleoenvironmental changes is therefore central to understanding the interplay between topography and climate of orogenic plateaus. Late Cenozoic basins in the Peruvian Western Cordillera, situated deep in the rainshadow of the modern Andean plateau, are valuable yet largely unexplored archives of past environments. The Tincopalca-Huacochullo Basin in this region is a rare example of well-preserved, largely undeformed, Oligocene - Miocene stratigraphy that spans a critical time in the development of the Andean plateau. We present results from stable isotopic analysis of ancient water preserved in rhyolitic glass in the context of newly logged stratigraphy, temporally controlled by new zircon U-Pb ages, and compare these results to the stable isotopic signatures of modern stream water samples. Results show a decrease in δD values from -90 to -100‰ synchronous with a change from a dominantly fluvial to evaporitic lacustrine depositional environment in the late Oligocene - early Miocene. This is followed by an abrupt middle - late Miocene change in δD values between -160 and -170‰ coincident with deposition of voluminous volcanic stratigraphy. Finally, late Miocene - modern δD values increase to -105 - -120‰ during slowed arc volcanism. Modern waters feature relatively high d excess (δD - 8*δ18O) of 1 to 9‰. These findings are consistent with 1) slow late Oligocene - Miocene uplift between moderate (2 - 3 km) elevations, 2) either a middle - late Miocene change in moisture source, or increased rate of surface uplift; the latter is our preferred hypothesis, and 3) increasing aridity from late Miocene - present as uplift of the Altiplano, Eastern Cordillera and Subandes pushes this region deeper into the orogenic rainshadow.

  8. Effects of the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum and the Eruption of the Columbia River Basalt on Paleo-sedimentation Processes in Clarkia Lake, Idaho: Evidence from Tephrochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, C. S.; Wolff, J.; Gaylord, D.; Neill, O. K.

    2015-12-01

    Miocene Lake Clarkia formed when lava flows of the Priest Rapids Member of the Columbia River Basalt dammed the ancestral St. Maries River, in northern Idaho. The lake deposits are well known for their exceptional preservation of leaf fossils. Chemically correlating lacustrine tephra layers to volcanic centers, of known compositions and ages, can be used to help better constrain the timing and rate of deposition in the lake. Early work attempted to constrain Clarkia Lake's depositional age from index fossil flora correlations. More recently, electron microprobe analyses of Clarkia Lake's ash deposits demonstrate that several ash layers may correlate with Nevada's Yellowstone hot spot Cold Springs Tuff of the Santa-Rosa Calico volcanic field (15.5-15.9 Ma; Ladderud et al., in press). In the present study, further microprobe analysis has uncovered additional ash layers with the same range of chemical compositions. The apparent identical compositions of multiple tephra layers at different stratigraphic positions may be attributed to the eruption of multiple, chemically similar magmas, perhaps mapped as a single unit in the source area, or to post-emplacement re-working of these layers by sedimentary processes. The latter is considered less likely because many of the ashes contain little detrital material. Despite the ambiguity, these chemically identical tephra layers have the potential to provide information about the unique tephra composition and eruptive frequency in the source area, and/or unusual hydrological reworking processes associated with the mid-Miocene lacustrine environment. Reference: Ladderud et al., Northwest Science, in press, 2015.

  9. Late Miocene-Pliocene geomorphological evolution of the Xiaoshuizi peneplain in the Maxian Mountains and its tectonic significance for the northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jijun; Ma, Zhenhua; Li, Xiaomiao; Peng, Tingjiang; Guo, Benhong; Zhang, Jun; Song, Chunhui; Liu, Jia; Hui, Zhengchuang; Yu, Hao; Ye, Xiyan; Liu, Shanpin; Wang, Xiuxi

    2017-10-01

    aridification occurred in the Late Miocene and was principally triggered by the rapid uplift of TP.

  10. Mitochondrial genomes reveal an explosive radiation of extinct and extant bears near the Miocene-Pliocene boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabeder Gernot

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite being one of the most studied families within the Carnivora, the phylogenetic relationships among the members of the bear family (Ursidae have long remained unclear. Widely divergent topologies have been suggested based on various data sets and methods. Results We present a fully resolved phylogeny for ursids based on ten complete mitochondrial genome sequences from all eight living and two recently extinct bear species, the European cave bear (Ursus spelaeus and the American giant short-faced bear (Arctodus simus. The mitogenomic data yield a well-resolved topology for ursids, with the sloth bear at the basal position within the genus Ursus. The sun bear is the sister taxon to both the American and Asian black bears, and this clade is the sister clade of cave bear, brown bear and polar bear confirming a recent study on bear mitochondrial genomes. Conclusion Sequences from extinct bears represent the third and fourth Pleistocene species for which complete mitochondrial genomes have been sequenced. Moreover, the cave bear specimen demonstrates that mitogenomic studies can be applied to Pleistocene fossils that have not been preserved in permafrost, and therefore have a broad application within ancient DNA research. Molecular dating of the mtDNA divergence times suggests a rapid radiation of bears in both the Old and New Worlds around 5 million years ago, at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. This coincides with major global changes, such as the Messinian crisis and the first opening of the Bering Strait, and suggests a global influence of such events on species radiations.

  11. Study On The Effects Of Heavy Metals Pollution On The Activity Of 7-Ethoxyresorufin-O-Diethylase EROD In Two Freshwater Fish Species Of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Kusuma Dewi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the effect of heavy metal pollution on 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-diethylase EROD enzyme activity in carp Cyprinus carpio and tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. The samples were taken by purposive random sampling technique. The treatment site was the downstream part of the Kaligarang River Semarang Indonesia which contaminated byheavy metals concentration of Cd 0.007 ppm Pb 0.010 ppm and Hg 0.0006 ppm. A clean reference site in Nyatnyono Village Ungaran was used as the control site with the heavy metal content of 0 ppm. The EROD activities in carp and tilapia were significantly decreased after Cd Pb and Hg exposure. The results showed that the average value of liver EROD activity in carp fish control group amounted to 1.77 0.23molminmg protein and the treatment group was 0.49 0.24molminmg protein. Whereas in control group of tilapia fish EROD activity was equal to 2.08 0.47molminmg protein and the treatment group was 0.49 0.40molminmg protein. The results demonstrated that metallothionein was a specific heavy metals biomarker whereas EROD activity ishighly sensitive to extremely low concentrations of theselected pollutants.In conclusion the use of multiple biomarkers is recommended to monitor the heavy metal pollutants in the river environment.

  12. Relationship between persistent halogenated organic contaminants and TCDD-toxic equivalents on EROD activity and retinoid and thyroid hormone status in northern fulmars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgason, Lisa B; Verreault, Jonathan; Braune, Birgit M; Borgå, Katrine; Primicerio, Raul; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Gabrielsen, Geir W

    2010-11-15

    We investigated whether the hepatic cytochrome P450 1A activity (measured as 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD)) and plasma thyroid hormone and liver retinoid concentrations were explained by liver and blood levels of halogenated organic contaminants (HOCs) in free-ranging breeding northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) from Bjørnøya in the Norwegian Arctic. Hepatic EROD activity and liver levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) were positively correlated, suggesting that hepatic EROD activity is a good indicator for dioxin and dioxin-like HOC exposure in breeding northern fulmars. There were not found other strong relationships between HOC concentrations and hepatic EROD activity, plasma thyroid or liver retinoid concentrations in the breeding northern fulmars. It is suggested that the HOC levels found in the breeding northern fulmars sampled on Bjørnøya were too low to affect plasma concentrations of thyroid hormones and liver levels of retinol and retinyl palmitate, and that hepatic EROD activity is a poor indicator of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and pesticide exposure. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-Term Bond Strength of Self-Etch Adhesives to Normal and Artificially Eroded Dentin: Effect of Relative Humidity and Saliva Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsler, Fabienne; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Lussi, Adrian; Flury, Simon

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effect of relative humidity and saliva contamination on short- and long-term bond strength of two self-etch adhesives to normal and artificially eroded dentin. A total of 480 dentin specimens were produced from extracted human molars. Half of the specimens (n = 240) were left untreated (normal dentin) whereas the other half (n = 240) were artificially eroded. The specimens were treated with Clearfil SE Bond (CSE) or Scotchbond Universal (SBU), and composite (Filtek Z250) was applied to the treated dentin surface under four experimental conditions: at a relative humidity of 45% or 85% without/with human saliva contamination. Shear bond strength (SBS) was measured after storage for 24 h (100% humidity; 37°C) or 1 year (tap water; 37°C). SBS results were statistically analyzed with a nonparametric ANOVA followed by Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests (significance level: α = 0.05). SBS was significantly influenced by the dentin substrate (normal or artificially eroded dentin) and adhesive (p  CSE on normal dentin (19.2) > SBU on artificially eroded dentin (17.1) > CSE on artificially eroded dentin (10.9). On normal dentin, the two self-etch adhesives showed stable bond strength over time even under adverse conditions such as high relative humidity and saliva contamination. However, erosively altered dentin had a detrimental effect on the bond strength of both the adhesives investigated.

  14. The Fate of Soil OC in the Marine Environment: Examples from the Rapidly Eroding Landscapes of Two New Zealand North Island Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, N. E.; Leithold, E. L.; Thompson, C. E.; Childress, L. B.; Fournillier, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 10% of the OC lost from soils as a result of land use has been argued to be delivered to the ocean (Lal 2003). The fate of this OC is highly dependent on the organic geochemical composition of the soil pool and the nature of the marine environment that receives it. The conversion of bush to pastureland via burning in the Waipaoa and Waiapu watersheds increased erosion rates by an order of magnitude. Surface and bank erosion, coupled with landsliding and gullying deliver OC to the rivers. Visual observations, sediment budgets, C-isotope (12C, 13C, 14C) mass balances and biomarker analyses all indicate that the OC is a mixture of recent plant debris, charcoal, aged soil C (soil C are transported primarily as fines to deeper water. Marine OC is added to the fine-grained sediments as they encounter zones of primary production. Dissolved inorganic C (DIC) within the interstitial (pore) waters of the marine sediments is a mixture of seawater DIC and benthic respired C. The C-isotopic composition of the DIC reflects its source. Stable isotope and radiocarbon measurements indicate that contemporary terrestrial C3 plant OC oxidation dominates respiration on the Waiapu shelf nearshore (~60 m). Marine OC is preferentially oxidized at water depths >80 m. The rock-derived C does not seem to be oxidized on the shelf or upper slope. A comparison of riverine particulate organic C (POC) with shelf depocenter OC concentrations suggest the Waipaoa and Waiapu soil C burial efficiencies are ~50 and 85% respectively. This does not consider the fate of soil C dispersed beyond the depocenter where preservation efficiencies are expected to be lower because of greater exposure times to O2 at the sediment-water interface. Nevertheless, these small rivers are more efficient at the sequestration of soil C than some tropical counterparts (e.g. Amazon and Fly) in which extensive oxidation of the terrestrial OC has been documented.

  15. Potential of surface-eroding poly(ethylene carbonate) for drug delivery to macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Adam; Water, Jorrit J; Wang, Yingya

    2016-01-01

    Films composed of poly(ethylene carbonate) (PEC), a biodegradable polymer, were compared with poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) films loaded with and without the tuberculosis drug rifampicin to study the characteristics and performance of PEC as a potential carrier for controlled drug delivery...... to macrophages. All drug-loaded PLGA and PEC films were amorphous indicating good miscibility of the drug in the polymers, even at high drug loading (up to 50wt.%). Polymer degradation studies showed that PLGA degraded slowly via bulk erosion while PEC degraded more rapidly and near-linearly via enzyme mediated...... surface erosion (by cholesterol esterase). Drug release studies performed with polymer films indicated a diffusion/erosion dependent delivery behavior for PLGA while an almost zero-order drug release profile was observed from PEC due to the controlled polymer degradation process. When exposed to polymer...

  16. Ancient nursery area for the extinct giant shark megalodon from the Miocene of Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimiento, Catalina; Ehret, Dana J; Macfadden, Bruce J; Hubbell, Gordon

    2010-05-10

    As we know from modern species, nursery areas are essential shark habitats for vulnerable young. Nurseries are typically highly productive, shallow-water habitats that are characterized by the presence of juveniles and neonates. It has been suggested that in these areas, sharks can find ample food resources and protection from predators. Based on the fossil record, we know that the extinct Carcharocles megalodon was the biggest shark that ever lived. Previous proposed paleo-nursery areas for this species were based on the anecdotal presence of juvenile fossil teeth accompanied by fossil marine mammals. We now present the first definitive evidence of ancient nurseries for C. megalodon from the late Miocene of Panama, about 10 million years ago. We collected and measured fossil shark teeth of C. megalodon, within the highly productive, shallow marine Gatun Formation from the Miocene of Panama. Surprisingly, and in contrast to other fossil accumulations, the majority of the teeth from Gatun are very small. Here we compare the tooth sizes from the Gatun with specimens from different, but analogous localities. In addition we calculate the total length of the individuals found in Gatun. These comparisons and estimates suggest that the small size of Gatun's C. megalodon is neither related to a small population of this species nor the tooth position within the jaw. Thus, the individuals from Gatun were mostly juveniles and neonates, with estimated body lengths between 2 and 10.5 meters. We propose that the Miocene Gatun Formation represents the first documented paleo-nursery area for C. megalodon from the Neotropics, and one of the few recorded in the fossil record for an extinct selachian. We therefore show that sharks have used nursery areas at least for 10 millions of years as an adaptive strategy during their life histories.

  17. Ancient nursery area for the extinct giant shark megalodon from the Miocene of Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Pimiento

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As we know from modern species, nursery areas are essential shark habitats for vulnerable young. Nurseries are typically highly productive, shallow-water habitats that are characterized by the presence of juveniles and neonates. It has been suggested that in these areas, sharks can find ample food resources and protection from predators. Based on the fossil record, we know that the extinct Carcharocles megalodon was the biggest shark that ever lived. Previous proposed paleo-nursery areas for this species were based on the anecdotal presence of juvenile fossil teeth accompanied by fossil marine mammals. We now present the first definitive evidence of ancient nurseries for C. megalodon from the late Miocene of Panama, about 10 million years ago. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We collected and measured fossil shark teeth of C. megalodon, within the highly productive, shallow marine Gatun Formation from the Miocene of Panama. Surprisingly, and in contrast to other fossil accumulations, the majority of the teeth from Gatun are very small. Here we compare the tooth sizes from the Gatun with specimens from different, but analogous localities. In addition we calculate the total length of the individuals found in Gatun. These comparisons and estimates suggest that the small size of Gatun's C. megalodon is neither related to a small population of this species nor the tooth position within the jaw. Thus, the individuals from Gatun were mostly juveniles and neonates, with estimated body lengths between 2 and 10.5 meters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that the Miocene Gatun Formation represents the first documented paleo-nursery area for C. megalodon from the Neotropics, and one of the few recorded in the fossil record for an extinct selachian. We therefore show that sharks have used nursery areas at least for 10 millions of years as an adaptive strategy during their life histories.

  18. The Superimposed Paleocene-Miocene Tectonics of the middle part of the Nallihan Wedge (NW Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Murat; Yaltirak, Cenk

    2015-04-01

    In the NW Turkey, the area between the suture zones of the Rhodope-Pontide Ocean and Izmir-Ankara Ocean, and North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) and Thrace-Eskişehir Fault Zone (TEFZ) is known as the Nallıhan Wedge. The shape of Nallıhan Wedge is a 90 degree counter-clockwise rotated isosceles triangle. The northwestern boundary is a part of NAFZ and the southwestern boundary is a part of TEFZ. The 160 km-long eastern boundary is located at around Beypazarı and western corner is on the Bursa Plain. Nallıhan is situated at the centre of this isosceles triangle. While all the thrusts and folds shrink towards to the west and show an imbricate-like structure, the characteristics of the folds turn into to the open folds. Thrusts faults are locally observed as blind and almost perpendicular thrusts at the fold limbs towards to the east. The rocks of the study area show different characteristics according to their types and basins of formation. On the other hand the structural properties of these rocks display the effects of the closure of the Intra-Pontide and Izmir-Ankara Oceans in between Paleocene and Early Oligocene. During Miocene, the thrust faults reactivated and a deformation formed the NEE-SWW left lateral strike-slip faults parallel to these thrust faults. Whereas the first events are related to the closure of the branches of Neo-Tethys, the Miocene deformation is probably based on the Miocene tectonics of the Western Anatolia by the reason of equivalent age of the TEFZ. In this framework, the deformation of the Nallıhan Wedge presents significant information about the period between the evolution of Paleotectonic and Neotectonic of Turkey.

  19. Systematics and Evolution of the Miocene Three-Horned Palaeomerycid Ruminants (Mammalia, Cetartiodactyla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Israel M; Cantalapiedra, Juan L; Ríos, María; Quiralte, Victoria; Morales, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Palaeomerycids were strange three-horned Eurasian Miocene ruminants known through fossils from Spain to China. We here study their systematics, offering the first cladistic phylogeny of the best-known species of the group, and also reassess their phylogenetic position among ruminants, which is currently disputed. The beautifully preserved remains of a new palaeomerycid from middle Miocene deposits of Spain, Xenokeryx amidalae gen. et sp. nov., helps us to better understand palaeomerycid anatomy, especially that of the nuchal region in the skull, significantly improving our current knowledge on these enigmatic ruminants. Our results show two main lineages of palaeomerycids, one containing the genus Ampelomeryx diagnosed by a characteristic type of cranium / cranial appendages and some dental derived traits, and another one that clusters those forms more closely related to Triceromeryx than to Ampelomeryx, characterized by a more derived dentition and a set of apomorphic cranial features. Xenokeryx branches as a basal offshoot of this clade. Also, we find that Eurasian palaeomerycids are not closely related to North American dromomerycids, thus rejecting the currently more accepted view of palaeomerycids as the Eurasian part of the dromomerycid lineage. Instead of this, palaeomerycids are nested with the African Miocene pecoran Propalaeoryx and with giraffoids. On the other hand, dromomerycids are closely related to cervids. We define a clade Giraffomorpha that includes palaeomerycids and giraffids, and propose an emended diagnosis of the Palaeomerycidae based on cranial and postcranial characters, including several features of the cranium not described so far. We also define the Palaeomerycidae as the least inclusive clade of pecorans containing Triceromeryx and Ampelomeryx. Finally, we reassess the taxonomy of several palaeomerycid taxa.

  20. Ancient Nursery Area for the Extinct Giant Shark Megalodon from the Miocene of Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimiento, Catalina; Ehret, Dana J.; MacFadden, Bruce J.; Hubbell, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    Background As we know from modern species, nursery areas are essential shark habitats for vulnerable young. Nurseries are typically highly productive, shallow-water habitats that are characterized by the presence of juveniles and neonates. It has been suggested that in these areas, sharks can find ample food resources and protection from predators. Based on the fossil record, we know that the extinct Carcharocles megalodon was the biggest shark that ever lived. Previous proposed paleo-nursery areas for this species were based on the anecdotal presence of juvenile fossil teeth accompanied by fossil marine mammals. We now present the first definitive evidence of ancient nurseries for C. megalodon from the late Miocene of Panama, about 10 million years ago. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected and measured fossil shark teeth of C. megalodon, within the highly productive, shallow marine Gatun Formation from the Miocene of Panama. Surprisingly, and in contrast to other fossil accumulations, the majority of the teeth from Gatun are very small. Here we compare the tooth sizes from the Gatun with specimens from different, but analogous localities. In addition we calculate the total length of the individuals found in Gatun. These comparisons and estimates suggest that the small size of Gatun's C. megalodon is neither related to a small population of this species nor the tooth position within the jaw. Thus, the individuals from Gatun were mostly juveniles and neonates, with estimated body lengths between 2 and 10.5 meters. Conclusions/Significance We propose that the Miocene Gatun Formation represents the first documented paleo-nursery area for C. megalodon from the Neotropics, and one of the few recorded in the fossil record for an extinct selachian. We therefore show that sharks have used nursery areas at least for 10 millions of years as an adaptive strategy during their life histories. PMID:20479893

  1. A partial skeleton of a new lamniform mackerel shark from the Miocene of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Kriwet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cenozoic lamniform sharks are mostly represented by isolated teeth and vertebrae, whereas articulated skeletal remains are usually very scarce. Here, we describe a partial skeleton of an extinct lamniform shark consisting of 42 slightly disarticulated teeth, 49 vertebrae, and additional unidentifiable cranial and postcranial remains. The specimen originates from the Miocene mica-clay of Groß Pampau (North Germany, which is of late Langenfeldian age (= Serravallian-Tortonian boundary; middle–late Miocene. A total of 13 measurements of each tooth, as well as morphological features, were used to reconstruct the dentition of this specimen and to provide detailed taxonomic information. Additionally, the total body size and age at death were established using methodologies based on vertebral and tooth measurements and vertebral centra growth ring counts, respectively. The specimen undoubtedly represents the most complete individual of “Carcharodon (= Isurus escheri”, previously known only from a few isolated teeth. The dental pattern (e.g., marked dignathic and monognathic heterodonty patterns; only slightly labio-lingually compressed upper teeth; upper teeth slender with distally inclined or curved main cusps; massive, hook-like upper intermediate tooth; main cusps with crenulated cutting edges; lateral cusplets in teeth of all ontogenetic stages clearly separates this shark from all hitherto known Cenozoic and Recent lamnids and a new genus, Carcharomodus, consequently is introduced. Carcharomodus escheri comb. nov. is a characteristic element of late early Miocene to the Pliocene Western and Central European fish faunas. All previously identified Pacific occurrences represent a different taxon. We estimate that the specimen had a total body length of about 4 m and that it was older than 10 years and thus might have reached maturity before death, as indicated by all available evidence.

  2. A semi-aquatic Arctic mammalian carnivore from the Miocene epoch and origin of Pinnipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybczynski, Natalia; Dawson, Mary R; Tedford, Richard H

    2009-04-23

    Modern pinnipeds (seals, sea lions and the walrus) are semi-aquatic, generally marine carnivores the limbs of which have been modified into flippers. Recent phylogenetic studies using morphological and molecular evidence support pinniped monophyly, and suggest a sister relationship with ursoids (for example bears) or musteloids (the clade that includes skunks, badgers, weasels and otters). Although the position of pinnipeds within modern carnivores appears moderately well resolved, fossil evidence of the morphological steps leading from a terrestrial ancestor to the modern marine forms has been weak or contentious. The earliest well-represented fossil pinniped is Enaliarctos, a marine form with flippers, which had appeared on the northwestern shores of North America by the early Miocene epoch. Here we report the discovery of a nearly complete skeleton of a new semi-aquatic carnivore from an early Miocene lake deposit in Nunavut, Canada, that represents a morphological link in early pinniped evolution. The new taxon retains a long tail and the proportions of its fore- and hindlimbs are more similar to those of modern terrestrial carnivores than to modern pinnipeds. Morphological traits indicative of semi-aquatic adaptation include a forelimb with a prominent deltopectoral ridge on the humerus, a posterodorsally expanded scapula, a pelvis with relatively short ilium, a shortened femur and flattened phalanges, suggestive of webbing. The new fossil shows evidence of pinniped affinities and similarities to the early Oligocene Amphicticeps from Asia and the late Oligocene and Miocene Potamotherium from Europe. The discovery suggests that the evolution of pinnipeds included a freshwater transitional phase, and may support the hypothesis that the Arctic was an early centre of pinniped evolution.

  3. A model study of the first ventilated regime of the Arctic Ocean during the early Miocene

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    Bijoy Thompson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The tectonic opening of Fram Strait during the Neogene was a significant geological event that transferred the Arctic Ocean from a poorly ventilated enclosed basin, with weak exchange with the North Atlantic, to a fully ventilated “ocean stage”. Previous tectonic and physical oceanographic analyses suggest that the early Miocene Fram Strait was likely several times narrower and less than half as deep as the present-day 400 km wide and 2550 m deep strait. Here we use an ocean general circulation model with a passive age tracer included to further address the effect of the Fram Strait opening on the early Miocene Arctic Ocean circulation. The model tracer age exhibits strong spatial gradient between the two major Arctic Ocean deep basins: the Eurasian and Amerasian basins. There is a two-layer stratification and the exchange flow through Fram Strait shows a bi-layer structure with a low salinity outflow from the Arctic confined to a relatively thin upper layer and a saline inflow from the North Atlantic below. Our study suggests that although Fram Strait was significantly narrower and shallower during early Miocene, and the ventilation mechanism quite different in our model, the estimated ventilation rates are comparable to the chemical tracer estimates in the present-day Arctic Ocean. Since we achieved ventilation of the Arctic Ocean with a prescribed Fram Strait width of 100 km and sill depth of 1000 m, ventilation may have preceded the timing of a full ocean depth connection between the Arctic Ocean and North Atlantic established through seafloor spreading and the development of the Lena Trough.

  4. New fossil records of Ceratozamia (Zamiaceae, Cycadales from the European Oligocene and lower Miocene

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    Kvaček Zlatko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available New compression leaf material of Ceratozamia (Zamiaceae has been recognised in the European Cenozoic. A leaflet of Ceratozamia floersheimensis (Engelhardt Kvaček was recovered among unidentified material from the Oligocene of Trbovlje, former Trifail, Slovenia, housed in old collections of the Austrian Geological Survey, Vienna. It is similar in morphology and epidermal anatomy to other specimens previously studied from the lower Oligocene of Flörsheim, Germany and Budapest, Hungary. A fragmentary leaflet assigned to C. hofmannii Ettingsh. was recovered in the uppermost part of the Most Formation (Most Basin in North Bohemia, Czech Republic and dated by magnetostratigraphy and cyclostratigraphy to CHRON C5Cn.3n, that is, the latest early Miocene. It yielded excellently preserved epidermal structures, permitting confirmation of the generic affinity and a more precise comparison with this lower Miocene species previously known from Austria (Münzenberg, Leoben Basin and re-investigated earlier. Both the Oligocene and Miocene populations of Ceratozamia are based on isolated disarticulated leaflets matching some living representatives in the size and slender form of the leaflets. Such ceratozamias thrive today in extratropical areas near the present limits of distribution of the genus along the Sierra Madre Orientale in north-eastern Mexico, in particular C. microstrobila Vovides & J.D. Rees and others of the C. latifolia complex, as well as C. hildae G.P. Landry & M.C. Wilson (“bamboo cycad”. The occurrence of Ceratozamia suggests subtropical to warm-temperate, almost frostless climate and a high amount of precipitation. The accompanied fossil vegetation of both species corresponds well with the temperature regime. While the Oligocene species in Hungary probably thrived under sub-humid conditions, the remaining occurrences of fossil Ceratozamia were connected with humid evergreen to mixed-mesophytic forests.

  5. Correlating Mediterranean shallow water deposits with global Oligocene-Miocene stratigraphy and oceanic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Markus; Piller, Werner E; Brandano, Marco; Harzhauser, Mathias

    2013-12-01

    Shallow-marine sediment records have the strong potential to display sensitive environmental changes in sedimentary geometries and skeletal content. However, the time resolution of most neritic carbonate records is not high enough to be compared with climatic events as recorded in the deep-sea sediment archives. In order to resolve the paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic changes during the Oligocene-Miocene transition in the Mediterranean shallow water carbonate systems with the best possible time resolution, we re-evaluated the Decontra section on the Maiella Platform (central Apennines, Italy), which acts as a reference for the correlation of Oligocene-Miocene shallow water deposits in the Mediterranean region. The 120-m-thick late Oligocene-late Miocene carbonate succession is composed of larger foraminiferal, bryozoan and corallinacean limestones interlayered with distinct planktonic foraminiferal carbonates representing a mostly outer neritic setting. Integrated multi-proxy and facies analyses indicate that CaCO3 and total organic carbon contents as well as gamma-ray display only local to regional processes on the carbonate platform and are not suited for stratigraphic correlation on a wider scale. In contrast, new biostratigraphic data correlate the Decontra stable carbon isotope record to the global deep-sea carbon isotope record. This links relative sea level fluctuations, which are reflected by facies and magnetic susceptibility changes, to third-order eustatic cycles. The new integrated bio-, chemo-, and sequence stratigraphic framework enables a more precise timing of environmental changes within the studied time interval and identifies Decontra as an important locality for correlating not only shallow and deep water sediments of the Mediterranean region but also on a global scale.

  6. Correlating Mediterranean shallow water deposits with global Oligocene–Miocene stratigraphy and oceanic events☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Markus; Piller, Werner E.; Brandano, Marco; Harzhauser, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    Shallow-marine sediment records have the strong potential to display sensitive environmental changes in sedimentary geometries and skeletal content. However, the time resolution of most neritic carbonate records is not high enough to be compared with climatic events as recorded in the deep-sea sediment archives. In order to resolve the paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic changes during the Oligocene–Miocene transition in the Mediterranean shallow water carbonate systems with the best possible time resolution, we re-evaluated the Decontra section on the Maiella Platform (central Apennines, Italy), which acts as a reference for the correlation of Oligocene–Miocene shallow water deposits in the Mediterranean region. The 120-m-thick late Oligocene–late Miocene carbonate succession is composed of larger foraminiferal, bryozoan and corallinacean limestones interlayered with distinct planktonic foraminiferal carbonates representing a mostly outer neritic setting. Integrated multi-proxy and facies analyses indicate that CaCO3 and total organic carbon contents as well as gamma-ray display only local to regional processes on the carbonate platform and are not suited for stratigraphic correlation on a wider scale. In contrast, new biostratigraphic data correlate the Decontra stable carbon isotope record to the global deep-sea carbon isotope record. This links relative sea level fluctuations, which are reflected by facies and magnetic susceptibility changes, to third-order eustatic cycles. The new integrated bio-, chemo-, and sequence stratigraphic framework enables a more precise timing of environmental changes within the studied time interval and identifies Decontra as an important locality for correlating not only shallow and deep water sediments of the Mediterranean region but also on a global scale. PMID:25844021

  7. Systematics and Evolution of the Miocene Three-Horned Palaeomerycid Ruminants (Mammalia, Cetartiodactyla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel M Sánchez

    Full Text Available Palaeomerycids were strange three-horned Eurasian Miocene ruminants known through fossils from Spain to China. We here study their systematics, offering the first cladistic phylogeny of the best-known species of the group, and also reassess their phylogenetic position among ruminants, which is currently disputed. The beautifully preserved remains of a new palaeomerycid from middle Miocene deposits of Spain, Xenokeryx amidalae gen. et sp. nov., helps us to better understand palaeomerycid anatomy, especially that of the nuchal region in the skull, significantly improving our current knowledge on these enigmatic ruminants. Our results show two main lineages of palaeomerycids, one containing the genus Ampelomeryx diagnosed by a characteristic type of cranium / cranial appendages and some dental derived traits, and another one that clusters those forms more closely related to Triceromeryx than to Ampelomeryx, characterized by a more derived dentition and a set of apomorphic cranial features. Xenokeryx branches as a basal offshoot of this clade. Also, we find that Eurasian palaeomerycids are not closely related to North American dromomerycids, thus rejecting the currently more accepted view of palaeomerycids as the Eurasian part of the dromomerycid lineage. Instead of this, palaeomerycids are nested with the African Miocene pecoran Propalaeoryx and with giraffoids. On the other hand, dromomerycids are closely related to cervids. We define a clade Giraffomorpha that includes palaeomerycids and giraffids, and propose an emended diagnosis of the Palaeomerycidae based on cranial and postcranial characters, including several features of the cranium not described so far. We also define the Palaeomerycidae as the least inclusive clade of pecorans containing Triceromeryx and Ampelomeryx. Finally, we reassess the taxonomy of several palaeomerycid taxa.

  8. Miocene to Quaternary volcanism in NW Iran Azerbaijan: new geochemical and geochronological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechmann, Anna; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Faridi, Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    The Mesozoic to Present geology of Iran has been shaped by the northward subduction of the Neo-Tethys Ocean during convergence and subsequent collision between Arabia and Eurasia, leading to the generation of magmatic arcs and seeding the conditions for the formation of the Turkish-Iranian Plateau. Over this Plateau, Miocene to Quaternary magmatic rocks cover vast areas. Processes, such as lithospheric delamination or slab break-off, which led to this widespread magmatism are still debated. We present major and trace element analyses together with LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon ages of domes and lavas from NW Iran Azerbaijan, with the goal to shed light on the generation and evolution of these recent magmatic rocks and compare them with previously published information. We focused on morphologically prominent domes scattered over the region. The sampled domes, dominantly dacitic to rhyolitic in composition, and the lavas, showing a wide range from basaltic to dacitic and few alkaline compositions, have tholeiitic to calc-alkaline and shoshonitic chemical features. REE patterns are steep and flatten towards the HREE. Plots of primitive mantle normalized trace elements systematically show a negative Nb-Ta anomaly indicating a subduction-modified component in the mantle source and/or crustal contamination. U-Pb zircon ages on one lava, two tuffs and 12 dacitic domes yield two distinct age distributions: (1) middle Miocene (ca. 10-12 Ma) and (2) latest Miocene - late Pleistocene (ca. 2-5.5 Ma). Ascribing these two age clusters to trace element compositions reveals that REE patterns became more depleted from middle Miocene to late Pleistocene. On a plot of Rb/Sr vs Ba/Rb the samples follow a low Rb/Sr trend typical for an amphibole-bearing mantle source. First Sr-Nd isotope results lie within or near the mantle array, making crustal contamination enigmatic. Coeval lavas in neighbouring regions (e.g. Ararat) show similar major/trace element and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions and the

  9. A Middle-Upper Miocene fluvial-lacustrine rift sequence in the Song Ba Rift, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lars H., Nielsen; Henrik I., Petersen; Nguyen D., Dau

    2007-01-01

    The small Neogene Krong Pa graben is situated within the continental Song Ba Rift, which is bounded by strike-slip faults that were reactivated as extensional faults in Middle Miocene time. The 500 m thick graben-fill shows an overall depositional development reflecting the structural evolution...... development sedimentation rate outpaced the formation of accommodation space and fluvial activity increased again. During periods when the general sedimentation rate was in balance with the creation of accommodation space the environment changed frequently between lake deposition and intermittent vigorous...

  10. Miophasianus and Palaeoperdix (Galliformes, Aves from three Miocene localities of Spain

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    Sánchez Marco, A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of two genus of phasianids in some Miocene localities of Spain are reported. The fossil remains from two of the outcrops, Can Mas and Hostalets, were studied long time ago, and it seemed suitable to reconsider their corresponding taxonomical identifications.Este trabajo trata sobre la aparición de dos géneros de Phasianidae en localidades españolas del Mioceno. Los restos fósiles de dos de los yacimientos, Can Mas y Hostalets, fueron estudiados hace mucho tiempo y, en consecuencia, parecía conveniente reconsiderar sus identificaciones taxonómicas.

  11. C4 expansion in the central Inner Mongolia during the latest Miocene and early Pliocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunfu; Wang, Yang; Deng, Tao; Wang, Xiaoming; Biasatti, Dana; Xu, Yingfeng; Li, Qiang

    2009-10-01

    The emergence of C4 photosynthesis in plants as a significant component of terrestrial ecosystems is thought to be an adaptive response to changes in atmospheric CO 2 concentration and/or climate during Neogene times and has had a profound effect on the global terrestrial biosphere. Although expansion of C4 grasses in the latest Miocene and Pliocene has been widely documented around the world, the spatial and temporal variations in the C4 expansion are still not well understood and its driving mechanisms remain a contentious issue. Here we present the results of carbon and oxygen isotope analyses of fossil and modern mammalian tooth enamel samples from the central Inner Mongolia. Our samples represent a diverse group of herbivorous mammals including deer, elephants, rhinos, horses and giraffes, ranging in age from the late Oligocene to modern. The δ13C values of 91 tooth enamel samples of early late-Miocene age or older, with the exception of two 13 Ma rhino samples (- 7.8 and - 7.6‰) and one 8.5 Ma suspected rhino sample (- 7.6‰), were all less than - 8.0‰ (VPDB), indicating that there were no C4 grasses present in their diets and thus probably few or no C4 grasses in the ecosystems of the central Inner Mongolia prior to ~ 8 Ma. However, 12 out of 26 tooth enamel samples of younger ages (~ 7.5 Ma to ~ 3.9 Ma) have δ13C values higher than - 8.0‰ (up to - 2.4‰), indicating that herbivores in the area had variable diets ranging from pure C3 to mixed C3-C4 vegetation during that time interval. The presence of C4 grasses in herbivores' diets (up to ~ 76% C4) suggests that C4 grasses were a significant component of the local ecosystems in the latest Miocene and early Pliocene, consistent with the hypothesis of a global factor as the driving mechanism of the late Miocene C4 expansion. Today, C3 grasses dominate grasslands in the central Inner Mongolia area. The retreat of C4 grasses from this area after the early Pliocene may have been driven by regional

  12. Late Miocene Pacific plate kinematic change explained with coupled global models of mantle and lithosphere dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stotz, Ingo Leonardo; Iaffaldano, Giampiero; Davies, DR

    2017-01-01

    and the consequent subduction polarity reversal. The uncertainties associated with the timing of this event, however, make it difficult to quantitatively demonstrate a dynamical association. Here, we first reconstruct the Pacific plate's absolute motion since the mid-Miocene (15 Ma), at high-temporal resolution......, building on previous efforts to mitigate the impact of finite-rotation data noise. We find that the largest change in Pacific plate-motion direction occurred between 10 and 5 Ma, with the plate rotating clockwise. We subsequently develop and use coupled global numerical models of the mantle...

  13. Finding Eroding Areas and Patterns with GIS, Caesium-137 Tracers, and Community Knowledge in the Ethiopian Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, C. D.; Tilahun, S. A.; Zegeye, A. D.; Yitaferu, B.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2012-12-01

    While soil erosion has been reducing agricultural productivity in developing countries for decades, its effects and seriousness are gaining more attention, especially with respect to shortening the life of reservoirs for hydroelectric power generation. This has urged policy makers to develop comprehensive sustainable strategies for environmental conservation. To develop such strategies, however, assumptions made within the different areas of knowledge that concurrently study soil conservation must be challenged and verified. A central aim of this study on soil erosion and conservation is to bridge between social science and engineering disciplines by comparing and contrasting estimates and identification of eroding areas and patterns. In Debre Mewi, Ethiopia, we examine spatial and temporal variations in erosion from an agricultural watershed and its subsequent soil nutrient changes using GIS-based erosion prediction tools, the soil-adsorbed radionuclide caesium-137 as a sediment tracer, and community knowledge. We plan to reconcile differences between theoretical formulations, actual measurements, and community perceptions and insight. Sixteen sites are monitored in this small watershed 50 km south of Lake Tana, with characteristic semi-monsoonal rains, during the long (kremt) rainy season for topsoil depth change, water table height, soil nutrients (N, P, K, Mg, Ca), and ceasium-137 inventory. While focus group discussions and transect walks with the community describe spring flow paths, saturated areas, degraded areas and active gullies as primary zones of erosion, GIS-based prediction tools treat steep slopes and cropped land as areas vulnerable to erosion. Cs-137 tracers map the upland mildly sloping areas to be eroding at a greater average rate than any of the mid-slope or toe-slope areas. Finally, from these comparisons, we draw information helpful in understanding why and how sediment concentration and erosion decreases and what impact we can expect to see

  14. Bioindicator beetles and plants in desertified and eroded lands in Turkey

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    Boris A. Korotyaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The xerophilous vegetation with characteristic insect assemblages is described in the main agricultural regions and native landscapes of Turkey. Long term intensive investigations documented vast biotic degradation of soil and vegetation (commonly referred to as desertification by overgrazing, construction, recreation etc. Two main types of xeric landscape are under investigation: 1 natural highly specific deserts, semi-deserts, dry mountain slopes and screes; and 2 anthropogenic, newly emerged, floristically impoverished desertified areas. The presence of a multi-species insect assemblage on a xerophilous plant in certain area testifies its indigenous nature, whereas the absence of the specific consortium suggests recent plant invasion. The examples of the first case are the consortia of 3–6 species of Coleoptera, mainly Buprestidae, Chrysomelidae, and Curculionoidea, on some Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Ephedraceae (Ephedra spp. and Polygonaceae (Calligonum polygonoides L.. Extreme examples of anthropogenic vegetation are overgrazed wormwood steppe and semidesert which lack usually diversified coleopterous consortia, including the most characteristic of this landscape, e.g., tenebrionids, and orthopterans. Rapid disappearance of the xerophilous complexes from the extraordinarily diversified and largely uninventoried Turkish biota makes preservation of the endangered plant and animal assemblages in different climatic zones of Turkey an urgent task.

  15. Paediatric Over-the-Counter (OTC Oral Liquids Can Soften and Erode Enamel

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    Dan Zhao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the softening and erosive effects of various paediatric over-the-counter (OTC oral liquids on deciduous teeth. Twenty sectioned and polished deciduous enamel blocks were ground on the buccal surface (2 × 2 mm2 and randomly divided into five groups, immersed into four commercially-available paediatric OTC oral liquids (two for paracetamol, both sugared; and two for chlorpheniramine, one sugared and one sugar-free, with deionized water as control. The pH of the oral liquids ranged from 2.50 to 5.77. Each block was immersed into the test or control groups for 15 s, rinsed with deionized water, and Vickers micro-hardness (n = 5 was measured. After twenty cycles of immersion and hardness measurements, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS were used to evaluate the surface morphology and chemistry of the tooth blocks, respectively. The pH values of the liquids were also recorded. Rapidly descending trends in the micro-hardness ratios of the four test groups were observed that were statistically different from the control group (p < 0.001. EDS showed an increase of Ca/C ratio after drug immersion, whereas SEM showed an enamel loss in all the test groups. Paediatric OTC oral liquids could significantly soften the enamel and render them more susceptible to caries, such that the formulation of the oral liquids is the major factor.

  16. Miocene woods from the Qaidam Basin on northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with implications for paleoenvironmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ye-Ming; Yang, Xiao-Nan

    2016-02-01

    The Qaidam Basin with the most complete Cenozoic sedimentary preservation in northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is a key area for studying uplift and environmental change of the plateau. Three types of woods, Ulmus (Ulmaceae), Leguminosae (?) (angiosperm) and Cupressaceae (gymnosperm) were recognized from the large-scale preservation of fossil woods in late Miocene Shang Youshashan Formation in northern Qaidam Basin on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Both investigations of their Nearest Living Relatives (NLRs) and previous grassland mammal evidences suggest that there have been temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest and needle-leaved forest with grass in northern Qaidam Basin during the late Miocene in contrast to the desert vegetation found there nowadays. The presence of the ancient forest steppe further implies that the southern part of the plateau used to be adequately low, so that the Indian and East Asian monsoons could approach the northern area and to accommodate the vegetation in late Miocene.

  17. Oligocene-Miocene Transition in the North Atlantic Interrupted by Warming: New Records from the Newfoundland Margin, IODP Expedition 342

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.; Liebrand, D.; van Peer, T. E.; Bohaty, S. M.; Friedrich, O.; Bornemann, A.; Blum, P.; Wilson, P. A.

    2016-12-01

    The beginning and end of the Oligocene epoch were marked by major Antarctic glaciation events. While the Eocene-Oligocene transition is known to have initiated sustained major ice sheets on Antarctica, the intensification of glaciation associated with the Oligocene-Miocene Transition (OMT) 23 Ma appears to have been ephemeral. The inference of rapid growth and then retreat of large Antarctic ice sheets on orbital time scales is difficult to reconcile with the strong hysteresis seen in the results of numerical ice sheet model experiments and the modest variability seen in published records of atmospheric CO2. A number of benthic foraminiferal proxy records have been generated at orbital resolution across the OMT, but high-resolution sea-surface records are sparse, particularly in the mid to high latitudes of the northern hemisphere, with none yet produced in the Atlantic Ocean. IODP Site 1406 (40°N, 3799 m water depth, Expedition 342: Newfoundland Sediment Drifts) recovered an interval spanning the OMT in the North Atlantic. We present planktic foraminiferal stable isotope data from this interval (23.5-22.5 Ma) with an average sample spacing of 2 kyrs. Our high-fidelity sea surface record benefits from exceptional `glassy' preservation of clay-hosted foraminifera. Variability in our record shows prominent 100 kyr eccentricity pacing (cycle amplitude typically >1.0 ‰ in δ18O and >0.6‰ in δ13C) and a strong precessional influence. Intriguingly, while the rise in δ18O associated with the OMT is fairly smooth in benthic records, our planktic data show that after over two-thirds of the total 1.6‰ rise in δ18O had already taken place, a 50 kyr recovery to pre-OMT δ18O values occured, preceeding a rapid transition to the OMT δ18O maximum. Our results demonstrate for the first time the North Atlantic sea surface response to OMT events. The structure in our new planktic stable isotope record differs markedly from that seen in published benthic records

  18. Subtropical forest expansion in the middle Miocene Europe: pCO2, Antarctic ice volume and oceanic changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon, N.; Sepulchre, P.; Donnadieu, Y.; Ramstein, G.

    2012-04-01

    The middle Miocene is a crucial period for ape's evolution and corresponds to their appearance in Europe. The dispersion of apes was made possible by tectonic changes and the expansion of their habitat, which is tropical to subtropical forest, in Europe. The context in which the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum occurred still lacks constraints in terms of atmospheric pCO2 and Antarctic ice sheet volume and extent. Using the coupled atmosphere - ocean GCM FOAM and the dynamic vegetation model CARAIB, we investigate the sensitivity of Miocene climate and vegetation to pCO2 levels and Antarctic ice sheet configurations. We performed sensitivity experiments to test the impact of varying pCO2 (280 ppmv, 560 ppmv and 700 ppmv) and Antarctic albedo (ice and tundra) on the European vegetation during the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum. Our results indicate that higher than present pCO2 is necessary to simulate subtropical forest in Western and Central Europe during the middle Miocene. However, a threshold between 560 and 700 ppmv makes subtropical forest partly collapse, which is due to colder and slightly dryer conditions in Europe. This can be explained by the fact that CO2-induced warming of the high latitudes strongly reduces North Atlantic Deep Water formation, therefore reducing the heat transport in this region. Moreover, the albedo change over Antarctica, which is directly linked to the ice surface, leads to further warming in Europe, and the expansion of subtropical forest. These results suggest that a small East Antarctic Ice Sheet (25% of present-day ice volume) together with higher than present pCO2 are in better agreement with available European middle Miocene data.

  19. Tectono-stratigraphy of the Çankiri Basin: Late Cretaceous to early Miocene evolution of the Neotethyan Suture Zone in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaymakçi, N.; Özçelik, Y.; White, S.H.; Dijk, P.M. van

    2009-01-01

    The Çankırı Basin straddles the İzmir–Ankara–Erzincan Suture Zone which demarcates the former position of the northern branch of the Neotethys. It includes more than 3 km of pre-Middle Miocene in-fill related to late Cretaceous to pre-Middle Miocene evolution of the region. The basin has developed

  20. Paleoweathering condition in middle Miocene to early Pliocene period in Japanese Islands: From paleopedology and chemistry of muddy sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, N.; Yoshida, K.; Sasao, E.; Adachi, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The middle Miocene to Pliocene is recognized as a period that has changed the East Asian monsoon. In Japanese Islands, the middle Miocene to Pliocene fluvial formations include aluminous clayey horizons with well-preserved pedogenic features and are known as pottery material. These formations, therefore, can be a useful to reconstruct of weathering conditions. Description of paleosols and geochemical research were carried out in the middle Miocene (10-11 Ma) and the early Pliocene (3-4 Ma) sediments in central Japan in order to illuminate the weathering condition in far east Asian margin. Each of the formations was mainly deposited in lacustrine environment. Paleosols can be divided into 11 pedotypes. In the middle Miocene, the main pedotypes are mature paleosols characterized by thick soil horizons with Bt horizons and rich illuviated clay. In the early Pliocene, the pedotypes are divided into weakly developed paleosols characterized by thinner soil horizons, prominent relict beds and rarely illuviated clay, and hydromorphic paleosols characterized by glay clay with mottled reddish color and siderite nodules. The major elemental geochemistry of the lake sediments shows that the Miocene sediments were supplied from severe weathered sources with CIA values of 80-94. The Pliocene sediments show the CIA values of 72-90 showing the relatively weak weathering condition. Behavior of major and REE elements within paleosol profiles shows a marked loss of Na2O without leaching of REE, which should inherit the composition of source rocks, in the middle Miocene. In the early Pliocene, eluviation of Na2O are less reconstructing the weakly developed aleosols. The weathering condition in the middle Miocene to Pliocene in Japanese Islands may be affected by the influence of warm water current and initiation of the Eastern Asian monsoon. The middle Miocene period (10-11 Ma) is considered to have been under the intenser weathering condition than one in the early Pliocene period (3

  1. Climatic implications of fruit and seed assemblage from Miocene of Yunnan, southwestern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, L.C.; Wang, Y.F.; Liu, C.J.; Li, C.S. [Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China). Inst. of Botany

    2004-07-01

    A Miocene assemblage of fruits and seeds from Mangdan coal mine, Longchuan County, Yunnan Province, southwestern China is reported in this paper. This carpoflora consists of 11 taxa of angiosperms, Corylopsis, Ficus, Hypericum, Lauraceae, Lithoearpus, Magnolia, Myrica, Nyssa, Sabia, Symplocos and Zanthoxylum. The investigation of the nearest living relatives (NLRs) of the 11 taxa suggests that an evergreen broad-leaved forest was growing in Mangdan region in the Miocene. Based on the climatic preferences of the NLRs, the climate at that time was a warm and humid subtropical climate, with the mean annual temperature of 18.8-20.5{sup o}C, the mean temperature of the coldest month was 7.9-11.3{sup o}C, the mean temperature of the warmest month was 27.6-28.0{sup o}C, the difference of temperature of coldest and warmest month was 15.2-17.9{sup o}C, the mean annual precipitation was 1170-1300mm and the relative humidity 70-74%.

  2. Lower Miocene plant assemblage with coastal-marsh herbaceous monocots from the Vienna Basin (Slovakia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaček, Zlatko; Teodoridis, Vasilis; Kováčová, Marianna; Schlögl, Ján; Sitár, Viliam

    2014-06-01

    A new plant assemblage of Cerová-Lieskové from Lower Miocene (Karpatian) deposits in the Vienna Basin (western Slovakia) is preserved in a relatively deep, upper-slope marine environment. Depositional conditions with high sedimentation rates allowed exceptional preservation of plant remains. The plant assemblage consists of (1) conifers represented by foliage of Pinus hepios and Tetraclinis salicornioides, a seed cone of Pinus cf. ornata, and by pollen of the Cupressaceae, Pinaceae, Pinus sp. and Cathaya sp., and (2) angiosperms represented by Cinnamomum polymorphum, Platanus neptuni, Potamogeton sp. and lauroid foliage, by pollen of Liquidambar sp., Engelhardia sp. and Craigia sp., and in particular by infructescences (so far interpreted as belonging to cereal ears). We validate genus and species assignments of the infructescences: they belong to Palaeotriticum Sitár, including P. mockii Sitár and P. carpaticum Sitár, and probably represent herbaceous monocots that inhabited coastal marshes, similar to the living grass Spartina. Similar infructescences occur in the Lower and Middle Miocene deposits of the Carpathian Foredeep (Slup in Moravia), Tunjice Hills (Žale in Slovenia), and probably also in the Swiss Molasse (Lausanne). This plant assemblage demonstrates that the paleovegetation was represented by evergreen woodland with pines and grasses in undergrowth, similar to vegetation inhabiting coastal brackish marshes today. It also indicates subtropical climatic conditions in the Vienna Basin (central Paratethys), similar to those implied by other coeval plant assemblages from Central Europe

  3. Lower Miocene plant assemblage with coastal-marsh herbaceous monocots from the Vienna Basin (Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvaček Zlatko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new plant assemblage of Cerová-Lieskové from Lower Miocene (Karpatian deposits in the Vienna Basin (western Slovakia is preserved in a relatively deep, upper-slope marine environment. Depositional conditions with high sedimentation rates allowed exceptional preservation of plant remains. The plant assemblage consists of (1 conifers represented by foliage of Pinus hepios and Tetraclinis salicornioides, a seed cone of Pinus cf. ornata, and by pollen of the Cupressaceae, Pinaceae, Pinus sp. and Cathaya sp., and (2 angiosperms represented by Cinnamomum polymorphum, Platanus neptuni, Potamogeton sp. and lauroid foliage, by pollen of Liquidambar sp., Engelhardia sp. and Craigia sp., and in particular by infructescences (so far interpreted as belonging to cereal ears. We validate genus and species assignments of the infructescences: they belong to Palaeotriticum Sitár, including P. mockii Sitár and P. carpaticum Sitár, and probably represent herbaceous monocots that inhabited coastal marshes, similar to the living grass Spartina. Similar infructescences occur in the Lower and Middle Miocene deposits of the Carpathian Foredeep (Slup in Moravia, Tunjice Hills (Žale in Slovenia, and probably also in the Swiss Molasse (Lausanne. This plant assemblage demonstrates that the paleovegetation was represented by evergreen woodland with pines and grasses in undergrowth, similar to vegetation inhabiting coastal brackish marshes today. It also indicates subtropical climatic conditions in the Vienna Basin (central Paratethys, similar to those implied by other coeval plant assemblages from Central Europe

  4. Late Miocene-Pliocene Asian monsoon intensification linked to Antarctic ice-sheet growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, H.; Roberts, A. P.; Dekkers, M. J.; Liu, X.; Rohling, E. J.; Shi, Z.; An, Z.; Zhao, X.

    2016-12-01

    Environmental conditions in one of Earth's most densely populated regions, East Asia, are dominated by the monsoon. While Quaternary monsoon variability is reasonably well understood, pre-Quaternary monsoon variability and dynamics remain enigmatic. In particular, little is known about potential relationships between northern hemispheric monsoon response and major Cenozoic changes in Antarctic ice cover. Here we document long-term East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) intensification through the Late Miocene-Pliocene (˜8.2 to 2.6 Ma), and attribute this to progressive Antarctic glaciation. Our new high-resolution magnetic records of long-term EASM intensification come from the Late Miocene-Pliocene Red Clay sequence on the Chinese Loess Plateau; we identify underlying mechanisms using a numerical climate-model simulation of EASM response to an idealized stepwise increase in Antarctic ice volume. We infer that progressive Antarctic glaciation caused intensification of the cross-equatorial pressure gradient between an atmospheric high-pressure cell over Australia and a low-pressure cell over mid-latitude East Asia, as well as intensification of the cross-equatorial sea-surface temperature (SST) gradient. These combined atmospheric and oceanic adjustments led to EASM intensification. Our findings offer a new and more global perspective on the controls behind long-term Asian monsoon evolution.

  5. Amazonian amphibian diversity is primarily derived from late Miocene Andean lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C Santos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropics contains half of remaining rainforests and Earth's largest reservoir of amphibian biodiversity. However, determinants of Neotropical biodiversity (i.e., vicariance, dispersals, extinctions, and radiations earlier than the Quaternary are largely unstudied. Using a novel method of ancestral area reconstruction and relaxed Bayesian clock analyses, we reconstructed the biogeography of the poison frog clade (Dendrobatidae. We rejected an Amazonian center-of-origin in favor of a complex connectivity model expanding over the Neotropics. We inferred 14 dispersals into and 18 out of Amazonia to adjacent regions; the Andes were the major source of dispersals into Amazonia. We found three episodes of lineage dispersal with two interleaved periods of vicariant events between South and Central America. During the late Miocene, Amazonian, and Central American-Chocoan lineages significantly increased their diversity compared to the Andean and Guianan-Venezuelan-Brazilian Shield counterparts. Significant percentage of dendrobatid diversity in Amazonia and Chocó resulted from repeated immigrations, with radiations at <10.0 million years ago (MYA, rather than in situ diversification. In contrast, the Andes, Venezuelan Highlands, and Guiana Shield have undergone extended in situ diversification at near constant rate since the Oligocene. The effects of Miocene paleogeographic events on Neotropical diversification dynamics provided the framework under which Quaternary patterns of endemism evolved.

  6. Sedimentology and diagenesis of Miocene Lirio Limestone, Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, H.; Gonzalez, L.A.; Budd, A.F. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States))

    1991-03-01

    Isla de Mona is a carbonate plateau, 50 mi west of Puerto Rico. The island lies on the southern portion of the Mona Platform. It is composed mostly of two Miocene carbonate units: Isla de Mona Dolomite overlain by Lirio Limestone. The Lirio Limestone was deposited on a sloping erosional surface over the Isla de Mona Dolomite. The Miocene Lirio Limestone consists mostly of backreef sands (packstones) with a reefal sequence (boundstones and grainstones) present in the southwestern portion of the island. The reefal sequence is made up mostly of Stylophora, Porites, and Millepora. Thin, discreet pockets of carbonate mud, rich in planktonic foraminifera and radiolarians and mixed with shallow benthic fauna/flora (foraminifera, echinoderms, red algae, and corals) interpreted as storm deposits, are found throughout the unit. An extensive reefal zone can be inferred to be present throughout the southwestern to southern portions of the Mona Platform. The Lirio Limestone is heavily karstified and is riddled with sinkholes on the plateau surfaces and caves around the periphery of the island. Caves are exposed around the periphery of the island, radiating from a depression in the central portions of the Lirio Limestone, near contacts with the Isla de Mona Dolomite, are partially dolomitized. The southwestern outcrops exhibit partial dolomitization throughout. The distribution of sinkholes, seaward caverns, and partial dolomitization of the lowermost Lirio Limestone suggests diagenetic modifications by meteoric fluids in central exposed portions of the island and by marine-meteoric fluids in the lowermost portions of the phreatic lens.

  7. Late Miocene episodic lakes in the arid Tarim Basin, western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiguo; Liu, Zhonghui; An, Zhisheng; Sun, Jimin; Chang, Hong; Wang, Ning; Dong, Jibao; Wang, Huanye

    2014-11-18

    The Tibetan Plateau uplift and Cenozoic global cooling are thought to induce enhanced aridification in the Asian interior. Although the onset of Asian desertification is proposed to have started in the earliest Miocene, prevailing desert environment in the Tarim Basin, currently providing much of the Asian eolian dust sources, is only a geologically recent phenomenon. Here we report episodic occurrences of lacustrine environments during the Late Miocene and investigate how the episodic lakes vanished in the basin. Our oxygen isotopic (δ(18)O) record demonstrates that before the prevailing desert environment, episodic changes frequently alternating between lacustrine and fluvial-eolian environments can be linked to orbital variations. Wetter lacustrine phases generally corresponded to periods of high eccentricity and possibly high obliquity, and vice versa, suggesting a temperature control on the regional moisture level on orbital timescales. Boron isotopic (δ(11)B) and δ(18)O records, together with other geochemical indicators, consistently show that the episodic lakes finally dried up at ∼4.9 million years ago (Ma), permanently and irreversibly. Although the episodic occurrences of lakes appear to be linked to orbitally induced global climatic changes, the plateau (Tibetan, Pamir, and Tianshan) uplift was primarily responsible for the final vanishing of the episodic lakes in the Tarim Basin, occurring at a relatively warm, stable climate period.

  8. Enamel thickness in the Middle Miocene great apes Anoiapithecus, Pierolapithecus and Dryopithecus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, D. M.; Fortuny, J.; Moyà-Solà, S.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of industrial computed tomography, relative enamel thickness (RET) is computed in three Middle Miocene (ca 11.9–11.8 Ma) hominoids from Abocador de Can Mata (Vallès-Penedès Basin, Catalonia, Spain): Pierolapithecus catalaunicus from BCV1 and Anoiapithecus brevirostris from C3-Aj, interpreted as stem hominids; and Dryopithecus fontani from C3-Ae of uncertain phylogenetic affinities. Pierolapithecus displays an average RET value of 19.5, Anoiapithecus of 18.6 and Dryopithecus of 10.6. The thick-enamelled condition of Pierolapithecus and Anoiapithecus is also characteristic of afropithecids, including the more derived kenyapithecins from the early Middle Miocene of Eurasia (Griphopithecus and Kenyapithecus). Given the presence of other dentognathic and craniofacial similarities, thick enamel may be interpreted as a symplesiomorphy of the Hominidae (the great ape and human clade), which would have been later independently modified along several lineages. Given the correlation between thick enamel and hard-object feeding, our results suggest that thick enamel might have been the fundamental adaptation that enabled the out-of-Africa dispersal of great-ape ancestors and their subsequent initial radiation throughout Eurasia. The much thinner enamel of Dryopithecus is difficult to interpret given phylogenetic uncertainties, being either a hominine synapomorphy or a convergently developed feature. PMID:20335211

  9. Rock Magnetic Record of the Middle Miocene Climatic Transition at ODP Site 747, Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrajevitch, A.; Roberts, A. P.; Kodama, K.

    2013-12-01

    ODP Site 747, located on the central Kerguelen Plateau, contains a compete record of the Middle Miocene Climatic Transition (MMCT) - a major cooling event that followed the warm mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum and culminated in an 'icehouse' climate regime. Because of its unusually well preserved and rich foraminiferal assemblages, the MMCT interval at Site 747 has been a focus of several high-resolution paleoclimatic studies that have effectively established this sequence as a reference for the Southern Ocean. Major changes in species abundances across the MMCT are conventionally interpreted to reflect changes in water temperature and salinity. Our XRF and rock magnetic study reveals a good correlation between terrigenous input (likely from local volcanic sources) and the abundances of the dominant planktonic foraminiferal species. Such a correlation suggests that nutrient flux (iron fertilization) played a significant role in controlling microplankton communities during the MMCT at Site 747. Concentration-dependent rock magnetic parameters appear to be a useful proxy for nutrient flux in this pelagic marine environment.

  10. A Miocene breeding ground of an extinct baleen whale (Cetacea: Mysticeti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hsiu Tsai

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Locating breeding sites is definitely a key to understanding the ecological requirements and maintaining the sustainability of populations/species. Here I re-examined published specimens of an extinct baleen whale, Parietobalaena yamaokai, from the lower part of Itahashi Formation (16.1–15.6 Ma, Middle Miocene in Shobara, Hiroshima, Japan. A critical and previously unnoticed feature, the open suture between the supraoccipital and exoccipital, in one specimen indicates the preservation of a very young individual–under six months old and even close to a new-born calf. Given the occurrence of a new-born whale and relatively abundant assemblage of Parietobalaena yamaokai, I propose a previously hidden and unknown breeding ground for the extinct baleen whale, P. yamaokai, in the Middle Miocene of Shobara (16.1–15.6 Ma, Hiroshima. Discovery of paleo-breeding sites of extinct populations/species should further help us to understand biological extinctions from a long-term perspective as conservation paleobiology aims to offer new insights into policy making for conserving endangered populations/species.

  11. Amelioration physical and chemical parameters of marl miocene doped with the pozzolan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesrar Laila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the increasing exploitation of clay in Morocco for ceramic industry and for the purpose of the benefit reuse of this resource, a study is conducted in order to carry out the identification and characterization of Miocene marl after doping with pozzolan. The objective of this work is to improve the physicochemical characteristics of Miocene marl of Fez region, by doping it pozzolan at different contents: 5, 10, 15 and 20%. Physical and chemical characterization of this material was carried out before and after doping with pozzolan following various analytical technics, such as the X- ray fluorescence and geotechnical investigation. The result of geochemical analysis showed a higher rate of aluminum oxide (Al2O3, iron oxide (Fe2O3 and titanium oxide (TiO2. Further characterization of Atterberg limits have shown that the plasticity of doped materials increases. Similarly the mechanical behaviour of marls doped with pozzolan have significantly improved, providing a mechanical strength of obtained materials up to 670N when firing at 1000 ° C, compared to the raw marl.

  12. A Miocene breeding ground of an extinct baleen whale (Cetacea: Mysticeti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu

    2017-01-01

    Locating breeding sites is definitely a key to understanding the ecological requirements and maintaining the sustainability of populations/species. Here I re-examined published specimens of an extinct baleen whale, Parietobalaena yamaokai, from the lower part of Itahashi Formation (16.1-15.6 Ma, Middle Miocene) in Shobara, Hiroshima, Japan. A critical and previously unnoticed feature, the open suture between the supraoccipital and exoccipital, in one specimen indicates the preservation of a very young individual-under six months old and even close to a new-born calf. Given the occurrence of a new-born whale and relatively abundant assemblage of Parietobalaena yamaokai, I propose a previously hidden and unknown breeding ground for the extinct baleen whale, P. yamaokai, in the Middle Miocene of Shobara (16.1-15.6 Ma), Hiroshima. Discovery of paleo-breeding sites of extinct populations/species should further help us to understand biological extinctions from a long-term perspective as conservation paleobiology aims to offer new insights into policy making for conserving endangered populations/species.

  13. IODP Expeditions 303 and 306 Monitor Miocene- Quaternary Climate in the North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alvarez-Zarikian

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The IODP Expeditions 303 and 306 drilling sites were chosen for two reasons: (1 to capture Miocene-Quaternary millennial-scale climate variability in sensitive regions at the mouth of the Labrador Sea and in the North Atlantic icerafted debris (IRD belt (Ruddiman et al., 1977, and (2 to provide the sedimentary and paleomagnetic attributes, including adequate sedimentation rates, for constructinghigh-resolution isotopic and magnetic stratigraphies.High accumulation rates, reaching 20 cm ky-1, permit the study of millennial-scale variations in climate and in the Earth's magnetic fi eld over the past several million years, when the amplitude and frequency of climate variability changed substantially. Shipboard logging and scanning data (magnetic susceptibility and remanence, density, natural gamma radiation, digital images and color refl ectance and post-expedition x-ray fl uorescence (XRF scanning datahave revealed that the sediment cores recovered on Expeditions 303 and 306 contain detailed histories of millennial-scale climate and geomagnetic fi eld variability throughout the late Miocene to Quaternary epochs. The climate proxies will be integrated with paleomagnetic data to place the records of millennial-scale climate change into a high resolution stratigraphy based on oxygen isotope andrelative paleomagnetic intensity (RPI. The paleomagnetic record of polarity reversals, excursions and RPI in these cores is central to the construction of the stratigraphic template and will provide detailed documentation of geomagnetic fi eld behavior.

  14. Late Miocene episodic lakes in the arid Tarim Basin, western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiguo; Liu, Zhonghui; An, Zhisheng; Sun, Jimin; Chang, Hong; Wang, Ning; Dong, Jibao; Wang, Huanye

    2014-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau uplift and Cenozoic global cooling are thought to induce enhanced aridification in the Asian interior. Although the onset of Asian desertification is proposed to have started in the earliest Miocene, prevailing desert environment in the Tarim Basin, currently providing much of the Asian eolian dust sources, is only a geologically recent phenomenon. Here we report episodic occurrences of lacustrine environments during the Late Miocene and investigate how the episodic lakes vanished in the basin. Our oxygen isotopic (δ18O) record demonstrates that before the prevailing desert environment, episodic changes frequently alternating between lacustrine and fluvial-eolian environments can be linked to orbital variations. Wetter lacustrine phases generally corresponded to periods of high eccentricity and possibly high obliquity, and vice versa, suggesting a temperature control on the regional moisture level on orbital timescales. Boron isotopic (δ11B) and δ18O records, together with other geochemical indicators, consistently show that the episodic lakes finally dried up at ∼4.9 million years ago (Ma), permanently and irreversibly. Although the episodic occurrences of lakes appear to be linked to orbitally induced global climatic changes, the plateau (Tibetan, Pamir, and Tianshan) uplift was primarily responsible for the final vanishing of the episodic lakes in the Tarim Basin, occurring at a relatively warm, stable climate period. PMID:25368156

  15. Occlusal enamel complexity in middle miocene to holocene equids (Equidae: Perissodactyla of North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Famoso

    Full Text Available Four groups of equids, "Anchitheriinae," Merychippine-grade Equinae, Hipparionini, and Equini, coexisted in the middle Miocene, but only the Equini remains after 16 Myr of evolution and extinction. Each group is distinct in its occlusal enamel pattern. These patterns have been compared qualitatively but rarely quantitatively. The processes influencing the evolution of these occlusal patterns have not been thoroughly investigated with respect to phylogeny, tooth position, and climate through geologic time. We investigated Occlusal Enamel Index, a quantitative method for the analysis of the complexity of occlusal patterns. We used analyses of variance and an analysis of co-variance to test whether equid teeth increase resistive cutting area for food processing during mastication, as expressed in occlusal enamel complexity, in response to increased abrasion in their diet. Results suggest that occlusal enamel complexity was influenced by climate, phylogeny, and tooth position through time. Occlusal enamel complexity in middle Miocene to Modern horses increased as the animals experienced increased tooth abrasion and a cooling climate.

  16. Himalayan uplift shaped biomes in Miocene temperate Asia: evidence from leguminous Caragana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Li; Xiang, Xiao-Guo; Xue, Juan-Juan; Sanderson, Stewart C; Fritsch, Peter W

    2016-11-09

    Caragana, with distinctive variation in leaf and rachis characters, exhibits three centers of geographic distribution, i.e., Central Asia, the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), and East Asia, corresponding to distinct biomes. Because Caragana species are often ecologically dominant components of the vegetation in these regions, it is regarded as a key taxon for the study of floristic evolution in the dry regions of temperate Asia. Based on an expanded data set of taxa and gene regions from those previously generated, we employed molecular clock and biogeographical analyses to infer the evolutionary history of Caragana and link it to floristic patterns, paleovegetation, and paleoclimate. Results indicate that Caragana is of arid origin from the Junggar steppe. Diversification of crown group Caragana, dated to the early Miocene ca. 18 Ma and onwards, can be linked to the Himalayan Motion stage of QTP uplift. Diversification of the major clades in the genus corresponding to taxonomic sections and morphological variation is inferred to have been driven by the uplift, as well as Asian interior aridification and East Asian monsoon formation, in the middle to late Miocene ca. 12~6 Ma. These findings demonstrate a synchronous evolution among floristics, vegetation and climate change in arid Central Asia, cold arid alpine QTP, and mesophytic East Asia.

  17. Miocene benthic foraminifera from Nosy Makamby and Amparafaka, Mahajanga Basin, northwestern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramihangihajason, Tolotra N.; Andrianavalona, Tsiory H.; Razafimbelo, Rachel; Rahantarisoa, Lydia; Ali, Jason R.; Samonds, Karen E.

    2014-12-01

    Madagascar is well known for its fossil deposits and hosts one of the world's most important Upper Cretaceous terrestrial faunal sites (in the Mahajanga and Morondava Basins in the west and northwest of the island). Cenozoic marine fossils are also described from Madagascar, but these have received far less attention from the paleontological community, with most of this work dating from the 19th and early 20th centuries. Our study reports a new comprehensive microfossil assemblage from a Miocene sequence on the island of Nosy Makamby. After washing, sieving and sorting (∼30 kg), twenty-five genera of foraminifera were identified including Alveolina, Ammodiscus, Ammonia, Archaias, Bolivina, Borelis, Cassidulina, Cyclammina, Cycloforina, Dentalina, Elphidium, Hauerina, Lagena, Lepidocyclina, Nodosaria, Nonion, Nonionella, Peneroplis, Pyrgo, Quinqueloculina, Rhabdammina, Spirillina, Spirolina, Spiroloculina and Triloculina. Ostracods are found in association with the foraminifera, as well as many other macroinvertebrate fossils (including bivalves, gastropods, and echinoids) in addition to vertebrate fossils. Together, the assemblage indicates that during the late Miocene, Nosy Makamby was a tropical, near-shore environment, probably similar to that seen today. Furthermore, the existence of epiphytic foraminiferans (e.g., Elphidium) suggests that sea-grass beds were likely present.

  18. Miocene to Present evolution of the Calabria Tyrrhenian continental margin (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, F.; Sulli, A.; Bertotti, G.; Cella, F.

    2009-04-01

    The Miocene to Present evolution of the Calabria Tyrrhenian Continental Margin (CTCM, Southern Tyrrhenian Sea) are reconstructed using two ENE-WSW oriented, near-vertical seismic profiles (CROP-M27 and SISTER 11 lines). The interpreted profiles were time-to-depth converted, merged and translated in a geological section, which was also extended to the Tyrrhenian bathial plain and the Calabrian arc using wide-angle seismic data [Scarascia et al., 1994], and tested with gravity modelling. Across the CTCM, top of KCU is laterally variable in depth forming basins filled by Oligo-Miocene clastic to terrigenous deposits up to 1500m thick. Basins are separated by major structures with contractional or transcurrent kinematics, where faults are arranged in a positive flower structure fashion, affecting the KCU as well as lower Oligocene to Miocene deposits. The Messinian evaporites display essentially a constant thickness of ~-400m with the exception of the Paola Basin where deep-water Messinian evaporites are up to 1000 m thick. Plio-Quaternary deposits display a remarkable variation in thickness from ~-4.5 km in the Paola Basin to less then 400m in the central sector of the margin. Plio-Quaternary sediments are internally sub-divisible into four sub-units separated by tectonics enhanced angular unconformities. W-ward vergent reverse faults with limited vertical displacement offset the top of KCU as well as the Oligo-Miocene sedimentary and evaporitic units in the eastern side of the Paola basin and in the distal part of the CTCM where a number of closely spaced, W-vergent thrust faults are also observed in the Plio-Pleistocene deposits. Along the CTCM, the only significant normal fault which was identified is located around its central sector, dips to the W and has a displacement of ~-580m. Across the margin, the Moho was inferred at ~-35 km beneath the Calabria Arc and shallows up to 24 km in correspondence with the coastline. Moho deepens again to a depth of ~-28 km in

  19. Combined use of PAH levels and EROD activities in the determination of PAH pollution in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozcaarmutlu, Azra; Sapmaz, Canan; Kaleli, Gizem; Turna, Sema; Yenisoy-Karakaş, Serpil

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution by measuring PAH levels and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) samples caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey. The fish samples were caught in August 2008-2011. The levels of 13 PAHs were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the liver of fish. Most of the measured PAHs had three rings (low molecular weight). The frequencies of detection of PAHs were higher in fish samples caught from Zonguldak Harbour and Gülüç Stream Mouth than those from Sakarya River Mouth, Amasra and Kefken. EROD activities and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein level were also measured in the fish liver microsomes. Highly elevated EROD activities and CYP1A levels were measured in the mullet samples caught from Zonguldak Harbour and Gülüç Stream than those from Amasra and Kefken. The detection of PAHs in the liver of fish samples shows recent exposure to PAHs. The chemical analyses of PAHs and EROD activity results together reflected the extent of PAH pollution in the livers of fish caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey. The results indicate that Zonguldak Harbour is the most polluted site in the West Black Sea coast of Turkey.

  20. The effects of Herba Andrographitis hedgerows on soil erodibility and fractal features on sloping cropland in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingjing; He, Binghui; Wang, Xiaoyan; Ma, Yun; Xi, Weimin

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate if hedgerows could improve the soil physicochemical properties and enhance the soil anti-scouring and anti-shearing capabilities, the effects of Herba Andrographitis hedgerows on soil erodibility and fractal features on sloping cropland in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area were investigated. Results showed that: (1) the clay particle accumulation around the hedgerows was significantly affected by the hedgerows; (2) the fractal dimension of soil particles was positively correlated with both silt and clay contents and had a negative linear correlation with sand content; (3) fine-grained content significantly influenced fractal dimension of the soil particles; (4) soil erodibility K was significantly and positively correlated with the sand content (correlation coefficient r=0.870), but significantly and negatively correlated with the silt content (r=-0.538), clay content (r=-0.739), organic carbon content (r=-0.603), the aggregation degree (r=-0.486), and soil fractal dimension (r=-0.538); and (5) the contents of organic matter and clay particles in the soil were found to be the effective indicators for soil erodibility at the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The hedgerows may improve soil fractal features and decrease soil erodibility. The effective distance between hedgerows on a slope of 10° was less than 6 m.

  1. Phylogenetics and molecular clocks reveal the repeated evolution of ant-plants after the late Miocene in Africa and the early Miocene in Australasia and the Neotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomicki, Guillaume; Renner, Susanne S

    2015-07-01

    Ant-plant symbioses involve over 110 ant species in five subfamilies that are facultative or obligate occupants of stem, leaf or root domatia formed by hundreds of ant-plant species. The phylogenetic distribution and geological ages of these associations, and the frequency of gains or losses of domatium, are largely unknown. We compiled an up-to-date list of ant domatium-bearing plants, estimated their probable true number from model-based statistical inference, generated dated phylogenies that include c. 50% of ant-plant lineages, and traced the occurrence of domatia and extrafloral nectaries on a 1181-species tree, using likelihood and Bayesian methods. We found 681 vascular plants with domatia (159 genera in 50 families) resulting from minimally 158 inferred domatium origins and 43 secondary losses over the last 19 Myr. The oldest African ant-plant symbioses are younger than those in Australasia and the Neotropics. The best statistical model suggests that the true number of myrmecophytes may approach 1140 species. The phylogenetic distribution of ant-plants shows that domatia evolved from a range of pre-adapted morphological structures and have been lost frequently, suggesting that domatia have no generalizable effect on diversification. The Miocene origin of ant-plant symbioses is consistent with inferred changes in diet and behaviour during ant evolution. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Incidence of the soil erodibility in the soil organic carbon sequestration along a pluviometric gradient. South of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Sinoga, J. D.; Martinez Murillo, J. F.; Gabarron Galeote, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    Climatic conditions, biomass and its vegetation cover, and the land use are the main factors which influence the generation processes of organic matter and the organic carbon sequestration by the soil, which, together with their different types of soil protection, become the key factors when determining the intensity of soil erosion and degradation. Southern Spain is a mountainous area which was abandoned, as far as agriculture was concerned, in the mid-twentieth century. It has a different ecogeomorphological resilience depending on the impact of the aforementioned key factors. This has led to different levels of protection and soil degradation which fit into the pluviometric gradient have been established, the wettest areas being those where the recovery levels are highest, in contrast to the driest areas where the system shows evident signs of degradation. Soil erodibility reduces the quantity of organic carbon retained, moving it towards the lower areas and so contributing directly to soil degradation. In this study was analyzed abandoned fields which may or may not have been affected by non-intensive grazing, along a pluviometric gradient: i) the degree of vulnerablility of the abandoned fields when faced with hydric erosion, and ii) the effects of erosion on the retention of organic carbon in the soil. In total, 543 disturbed and undisturbed samples were taken from the soil surface (10 cm deep) spread over the field sites. Various soil properties implicated in the vulnerability because of erosion and in the carbon cycle were analysed: organic carbon, texture, aggregate stability, and permeability. Bio-diversity was established by drawing up an inventory of vegetable species, in each area under study to determine the degree of recovery of the ecogeomorphological system after the abandonment of agricultural activity. And the erosion of the soil was established by calculating the K factor of the USLE. The results obtained show that: i) the soil properties

  3. Effect of farmyard manure, mineral fertilizers and mung bean residues on some microbiological properties of eroded soil in district Swat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Naeem

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of organic and inorganic fertilizers and mung bean residues on improving microbiological properties of eroded lands of District Swat, North West Frontier Province (NWFP Pakistan under wheat-mung bean-wheat cropping system during 2006 to 2008. The experiment was laid out in RCBD split-plot arrangement. Mung bean was grown and a basal dose of 25-60 kg N-P2O5 ha-1 was applied. After mung bean harvest, three residues management practices, i.e., R+ (mung bean residues incorporated into soil, R- (mung bean residues removed and F (fallow were performed in the main-plots. Sub-plot factor consisted of six fertilizer treatments for wheat crop i.e., T1 (control, T2 (120 kg N ha-1, T3 (120-90-0 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1, T4 (120-90-60 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1, T5 (90-90-60 kg N-P2O5-K2O + 10 t FYM ha-1 and T6 (60-90-60 kg N-P2O5- K2O + 20 t FYM ha-1. The results showed that microbial activity, microbial biomass-C and-N, mineralizable C and N were highest with T6 as well as with the incorporation of mung bean residues (R+. Compared with control, T6 increased microbial biomass C, N, mineralizable C and N by 33.8, 164.1, 35.5 and 110.6% at surface and 38.4, 237.5, 38.7 and 124.1% at sub-surface soil, respectively, while R+ compared with fallow increased these properties by 33.7, 47.4, 21.4 and 32.2% at surface and 36.8, 51, 21.9 and 35.4% at sub-surface soil, respectively. Inclusion of mung bean with its residues incorporated and application of 20 t FYM ha-1 and reducing inorganic N fertilizer to 60 kg N ha-1 for wheat is recommended for improving microbiological properties of slightly eroded lands

  4. Quantifying the eroded volume of mercury-contaminated sediment using terrestrial laser scanning at Stocking Flat, Deer Creek, Nevada County, California, 2010–13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howle, James F.; Alpers, Charles N.; Bawden, Gerald W.; Bond, Sandra

    2016-07-28

    High-resolution ground-based light detection and ranging (lidar), also known as terrestrial laser scanning, was used to quantify the volume of mercury-contaminated sediment eroded from a stream cutbank at Stocking Flat along Deer Creek in the Sierra Nevada foothills, about 3 kilometers west of Nevada City, California. Terrestrial laser scanning was used to collect sub-centimeter, three-dimensional images of the complex cutbank surface, which could not be mapped non-destructively or in sufficient detail with traditional surveying techniques.The stream cutbank, which is approximately 50 meters long and 8 meters high, was surveyed on four occasions: December 1, 2010; January 20, 2011; May 12, 2011; and February 4, 2013. Volumetric changes were determined between the sequential, three-dimensional lidar surveys. Volume was calculated by two methods, and the average value is reported. Between the first and second surveys (December 1, 2010, to January 20, 2011), a volume of 143 plus or minus 15 cubic meters of sediment was eroded from the cutbank and mobilized by Deer Creek. Between the second and third surveys (January 20, 2011, to May 12, 2011), a volume of 207 plus or minus 24 cubic meters of sediment was eroded from the cutbank and mobilized by the stream. Total volumetric change during the winter and spring of 2010–11 was 350 plus or minus 28 cubic meters. Between the third and fourth surveys (May 12, 2011, to February 4, 2013), the differencing of the three-dimensional lidar data indicated that a volume of 18 plus or minus 10 cubic meters of sediment was eroded from the cutbank. The total volume of sediment eroded from the cutbank between the first and fourth surveys was 368 plus or minus 30 cubic meters.

  5. Structural features of cytochrome P450 1A associated with the absence of EROD activity in liver of the of the loricariid catfish Pterygoplichthys sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, T.E.M.; Rebelo, M.F.; da-Silva, M.L.; Woodin, B.R.; Goldstone, J. V.; Bisch, P.M.; Paumgartten, F.J.R.; Stegeman, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Amazon catfish genus Pterygoplichthys (Loricariidae, Siluriformes) is closely related to the loricariid genus Hypostomus, in which at least two species lack detectable ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, typically catalyzed by cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) enzymes. Pterygoplichthys sp. liver microsomes also lacked EROD, as well as activity with other substituted resorufins, but aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists induced hepatic CYP1A mRNA and protein suggesting structural/functional differences in Pterygoplichthys CYP1s from those in other vertebrates. Comparing the sequences of CYP1As of Pterygoplichthys sp. and of two phylogenetically-related siluriform species that do catalyze EROD (Ancistrus sp., Loricariidae and Corydoras sp., Callichthyidae) showed that these three proteins share amino acids at 17 positions that are not shared by any fish in a set of 24 other species. Pterygoplichthys and Ancistrus (the loricariids) have an additional 22 amino acid substitutions in common that are not shared by Corydoras or by other fish species. Pterygoplichthys has six exclusive amino acid substitutions. Molecular docking and dynamics simulations indicate that Pterygoplichthys CYP1A has a weak affinity for ER, which binds infrequently in a productive orientation, and in a less stable conformation than in CYP1As of species that catalyze EROD. ER also binds with the carbonyl moiety proximal to the heme iron. Pterygoplichthys CYP1A has amino acids substitutions that reduce the frequency of correctly oriented ER in the AS preventing the detection of EROD activity. The results indicate that loricariid CYP1As may have a peculiar substrate selectivity that differs from CYP1As of most vertebrates. PMID:21840383

  6. New primate carpal bones from Rudabánya (late Miocene, Hungary): taxonomic and functional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivell, Tracy L; Begun, David R

    2009-12-01

    We describe a scaphoid and two capitates from the late Miocene site of Rudabánya, Hungary using qualitative and quantitative comparisons to a large sample of hominoid, cercopithecoid, and platyrrhine primates. The scaphoid (RUD 202) is not fused to the os centrale and in this way is like most primates other than African apes and humans (hominines). Qualitatively, its morphology is most similar to Pongo, and univariate analyses generally confirm an ape-like morphology with an increased range of mobility. One capitate (RUD 167) is compatible in size to the scaphoid, and its morphology suggests a combination of monkey-like generalized arboreality and ape-like enhanced mobility. RUD 203 is a smaller, fragmentary capitate, about half the size of RUD 167, and preserves only the distal portion of the body with the third metacarpal articular surface. Its morphology is virtually identical to that of RUD 167, and an exact randomization test revealed that it is statistically likely to find two carpal bones of such disparate sizes within one taxon. However, due to morphological similarities with other Miocene hominoids as well as implications for size variation within one taxon and sex, we consider the taxonomic affiliation of RUD 203 to be unresolved. We attribute the scaphoid and RUD 167 capitate to the hominine Rudapithecus hungaricus (formerly Dryopithecus brancoi; see Begun et al., 2008) based on overall morphological similarity to extant apes, particularly Pongo, and not to the pliopithecoid Anapithecus hernyaki, the only other primate known from Rudabánya. The similarities in carpal morphology to suspensory taxa are consistent with previous interpretations of Rudapithecus positional behavior. The scaphoid and the RUD 167 capitate are consistent in size with a partial skeleton including associated postcranial and craniodental specimens from the same level at the locality and may be from the same individual. These are the first carpal bones described from Rudabánya and

  7. Intracontinental Miocene: Reconstruction of hydrology and paleoclimate change in the Forez Basin, France (Part II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renac, Christophe; Bodergat, Anne-Marie; Gerbe, Marie-Christine; Gal, Fréderick

    2013-04-01

    Sedimentary successions of palustrine deposits from the Forez Graben recorded changes in depositional and hydrological conditions throughout the Middle to Late Miocene of France. Paleontological, mineralogical and geochemical data combined with mass-balance calculation allowed the identification of modern, diagenetic and eogenetic stages of authigenic precipitation within the sedimentary pile. Stratigraphic log contains six clay- and sand-rich sequences, some associated with freshwater ostracods. δ13C, δ18O values and Sr isotopic ratios of whole-rock samples and ostracods indicate that the Montrond-les-Bains upper sequence (8 to 175 mbs) is a continental lake system that recorded continental weather condition (15 to 25 °C) during the upper Miocene time. Geochemical changes permit the estimation of variations of evaporation-inflow changes (E/I: 8 to 75% and δ18Orainfall - 6 to - 8‰) associated with two sequences. δ18O and E/I progressive changes were related to runoff to colder climate conditions. Large E/I values in below 100 mbs are associated with the appearance of authigenic calcite and dolomite precipitation. Euhedral dolomite seems to be related to desiccation period that induced capillary pumping of water undersaturated with respect to calcite but saturated for dolomite. The lower part of the Middle Miocene sedimentary series (175 to 300 mbs) hosts continental deposits with scarce fossil, a larger proportion of dolomite and massive pyrite levels related to mixed eogenetic and diagenetic precipitation. Scarce preserved "eogenetic levels" with unrealistic E/I ratios suggest either δ18O values similar to the upper section but with temperature lower than 15 °C, or a similar temperature but very low δ18Orainfall. Calculated δ18OH2O values have to be as low as - 15‰. δ18OH2O values are similar to present-day melted snow. This stable isotope suggests episodes of regional warming melting surrounding snow, and able to mobilize as well as deposit thick

  8. Palynostratigraphy and sedimentary facies of Middle Miocene fluvial deposits of the Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dino, Rodolfo; Soares, Emílio Alberto Amaral; Antonioli, Luzia; Riccomini, Claudio; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues

    2012-03-01

    Palynostratigraphic and sedimentary facies analyses were made on sedimentary deposits from the left bank of the Solimões River, southwest of Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil. These provided the age-dating and subdivision of a post-Cretaceous stratigraphic succession in the Amazonas Basin. The Novo Remanso Formation is subdivided into upper and lower units, and delineated by discontinuous surfaces at its top and bottom. The formation consists primarily of sandstones and minor mudstones and conglomerates, reflecting fluvial channel, point bar and floodplain facies of a fluvial meandering paleosystem. Fairly well-preserved palynoflora was recovered from four palynologically productive samples collected in a local irregular concentration of gray clay deposits, rich in organic material and fossilized wood, at the top of the Novo Remanso Formation upper unit. The palynoflora is dominated by terrestrial spores and pollen grains, and is characterized by abundant angiosperm pollen grains ( Tricolpites, Grimsdalea, Perisyncolporites, Tricolporites and Malvacearumpollis). Trilete spores are almost as abundant as the angiosperm pollen, and are represented mainly by the genera Deltoidospora, Verrutriletes, and Hamulatisporis. Gymnosperm pollen is scarce. The presence of the index species Grimsdalea magnaclavata Germeraad et al. (1968) indicates that these deposits belong to the Middle Miocene homonymous palynozone (Lorente, 1986; Hoorn, 1993; Jaramillo et al., 2011). Sedimentological characteristics (poorly sorted, angular to sub-angular, fine to very-coarse quartz sands facies) are typical of the Novo Remanso Formation upper part. These are associated with a paleoflow to the NE-E and SE-E, and with an entirely lowland-derived palinofloristic content with no Andean ferns and gymnosperms representatives. All together, this suggests a cratonic origin for this Middle Miocene fluvial paleosystem, which was probably born in the Purus Arch eastern flank and areas surrounding the

  9. The Biomarker Properties and Comparisons of Şahinali, Beypazari and Karapinar (Turkey) Coaly Plio-Miocene Depositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Neslihan; Hokerek, Selin; Altunsoy, Mehmet; Ozcelik, Orhan; Yalcin Erik, Nazan

    2014-05-01

    The distribution values of m/z 191 triterpane and m/z 217 sterane of coaly Plio-Miocene units determined by GC-MS were used to compare biomarker properties of Şahinali, Beypazarı and Karapınar areas located in Aydın, Ankara and Konya (Turkey) regions within this study. In the Şahinali (Aydın) region the Miocene units consist of conglomerate, coal, clayey coal, sandstone, siltstone, claystone, clayey limestone and silicified limestone. Middle-Upper Miocene units of the Beypazarı (Ankara) Basin are represented by conglomerate, agglomerate, sandstone, siltstone, claystone, coal, bituminous shale, limestone, and tuff. The Pliocene Karapınar (Konya) area of interest, which is characterized by sandstone, siltstone, claystone, mudstone, lake and river bed coal deposits. When all the biomarker values are considered, it can be concluded that the organic matter is not mature. In two areas - except Şahinali - gammacerane is present indicating salinity. According to the C27, C28 ve C29 sterane distribution, it can be observed that the dominant organic matter is terrestrial based and accompanied by simple herbaceous and alg. The deposition conditions are seen to be anoxic even though some oxic depositions are found in areas. All the areas had oleananes indicating angiosperm presence. C29/C30 hophane ratio and decrease in C31-C35 peak height indicated detrial facies in all the areas. Key Words: Plio-Miocene, Coal, Biomarker, Turkey

  10. Re-interpreting the biochronology of the La Celia and Los Gargantones mammal sites (Late Miocene, Murcia, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, J.A. van; Furió, M.; Balen, R.T. van

    2014-01-01

    The biochronological age of the small-mammal populations of Los Gargantones 1, 2 and La Celia (upper Miocene, La Celia sub-basin, Murcia, Spain) is re-interpreted. The presence in Los Gargantones of Occitanomys adroveri, Parapodemus barbarae, Parapodemus cf. gaudryi, Huerzelerimys turoliensis,

  11. Evolutionary history of the thicket rats (genus Grammomys) mirrors the evolution of African forests since late Miocene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bryja, Josef; Šumbera, R.; Kerbis Peterhans, J. C.; Aghová, Tatiana; Bryjová, Anna; Mikula, Ondřej; Nicolas, V.; Denys, C.; Verheyen, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2017), s. 182-194 ISSN 0305-0270 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Arvicanthini * coastal forests * late Miocene * lowland forests * mountain forests * phylogeography * Plio-Pleistocene climate changes * Rodentia * tropical Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.248, year: 2016

  12. Genetic diversity and seed production in Santa Lucia fir (Abies bracteata),a relict of the Miocene broadleaved evergreen forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Thomas Ledig; Paul D. Hodgskiss; David R. Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Santa Lucia fir (Abies bracteata), is a unique fir, the sole member of the subgenus Pseudotorreya. It is a relict of the Miocene broadleaved evergreen sclerophyll forest, and is now restricted to a highly fragmented range in the Santa Lucia Mountains of central coastal California. Expected heterozygosity for 30 isozyme loci in 18 enzyme systems...

  13. Changing seas in the Early-Middle Miocene of Central Europe : a Mediterranean approach to Paratethyan stratigraphy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sant, Karin; V. Palcu, Dan; Mandic, Oleg; Krijgsman, Wout

    2017-01-01

    The Miocene palaeogeographic evolution of the Paratethys Sea is still poorly constrained. Here, we use modern Mediterranean biochronology to provide an up-to-date overview of changing seas in Central Europe. Instead of a Paratethys that waxed and waned with fluctuating global sea levels, we show

  14. The small mammals from the upper Miocene of the Teruel-Alfambra region (Spain): paleobiology and paleoclimatic reconstructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, J.A. van

    1997-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis is to unravel in greatest possible detail trends and events in fauna, environment and climate in NE Spain during the late Miocene (Vallesian and Turolian). The Teruel-Alfambra region in the Teruel basin has been chosen as the study area, because earlier studies in the

  15. The small mammals from the upper Miocene of the Teruel-Alfambra region (Spain) : paleobiology and paleoclimatic reconstructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Jan

    1997-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis is to unravel in greatest possible detail trends and events in fauna, environment and climate in NE Spain during the late Miocene (Vallesian and Turolian). The Teruel-Alfambra region in the Teruel basin has been chosen as the study area, because earlier studies in the

  16. The Miocene fish Marosichthys, a putative tetraodontiform, actually a perciform surgeon fish (Acanthuridae) related to the recent Naso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyler, James C.

    1997-01-01

    Marosichthys huismani (de Beaufort, 1926), a fish from the Miocene of the Celebes, was described in the tripod fish family Triacanthidae, Tetraodontiformes. It is shown here to be a valid genus of the surgeon fish family Acanthuridae, Perciformes, and closely related to the Recent genus Naso.

  17. The Middle Aragonian (Middle Miocene) Micromammals from La Retama (Intermediate Depression, Tagus Basin) Province of Cuenca, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Álvarez Sierra, M.A.; García Paredes, I.; Hoek Ostende, van den L.W.; Meulen, van der A.J.; Peláez-Campomanes, P.; Sevilla, P.

    2006-01-01

    The micromammal fauna from the Middle Miocene (Middle Aragonian) of La Retama, eastern central Spain, is described. It is a relatively poor rodent fauna composed by ten species only, associated to a highly diverse bat fauna, which includes five genera. The insectivores are represented by two

  18. A Miocene molluscan faunule from Caucagua (Miranda State, Venezuela), with the description of a new species of Tryonia (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Macsotay, O.

    2006-01-01

    A molluscan faunule from the Miocene Cumaca Formation of the western margin of the Tuy Basin (Venezuela) is described. The fauna yields two species of freshwater snails and a single terrestrial snail species. Tryonia vivasi nov. spec. is described from the fauna, and its biogeographical significance

  19. Model analysis of the role of marine gateways in the palaeoceanography of the Miocene Mediterranean basin and Paratethys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De La Vara Fernandez, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370820657

    2015-01-01

    In the Early Miocene (23–16 Ma) the Mediterranean region was different from that at present. The Mediterranean Sea was more extensive than today and it was opened to the Indo-Pacific Ocean, to the Atlantic Ocean, and to the Paratethys—the predecessor of the Black, Caspian and Aral seas—to the north.

  20. Eocene-Miocene carbon-isotope and floral record from brown coal seams in the Gippsland Basin of southeast Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdgate, Guy R.; McGowran, Brian; Fromhold, Tom; Wagstaff, Barbara E.; Gallagher, Stephen J.; Wallace, Malcolm W.; Sluiter, Ian R. K.; Whitelaw, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The carbon-isotope and palynological record through 580 m thick almost continuous brown coal in southeast Australia's Gippsland Basin is a relatively comprehensive southern hemisphere Middle Eocene to Middle Miocene record for terrestrial change. The carbon isotope δ 13C coal values of these coals range from - 27.7‰ to - 23.2. This isotopic variability follows gymnosperm/angiosperm fluctuations, where higher ratios coincide with heavier δ13C values. There is also long-term variability in carbon isotopes through time. From the Eocene greenhouse world of high gymnosperm-heavier δ13C coal values, there is a progressive shift to lighter δ13C coal values that follows the earliest (Oi1?) glacial events around 33 Ma (Early Oligocene). The overlying Oligocene-Early Miocene brown coals have lower gymnosperm abundance, associated with increased % Nothofagus (angiosperm), and lightening of isotopes during Oligocene cooler conditions. The Miocene palynological and carbon-isotope record supports a continuation to the Oligocene trends until around the late Early Miocene (circa 19 Ma) when a warming commenced, followed by an even stronger isotope shift around 16 Ma that peaked in the Middle Miocene when higher gymnosperm abundance and heavier isotopes prevailed. The cycle between the two major warm peaks of Middle Eocene and Middle Miocene was circa 30 Ma long. This change corresponds to a fall in inferred pCO 2 levels for the same period. The Gippsland data suggest a link between gymnosperm abundance, long-term plant δ13C composition, climatic change, and atmospheric pCO 2. Climatic deterioration in the Late Miocene terminated peat accumulation in the Gippsland Basin and no further significant coals formed in southeast Australia. The poor correspondence between this terrestrial isotope data and the marine isotope record is explained by the dominant control on δ13C by the gymnosperm/angiosperm abundance, although in turn this poor correspondence may reflect palaeoclimate

  1. Sedimentology and paleoenvironments of a new fossiliferous late Miocene-Pliocene sedimentary succession in the Rukwa Rift Basin, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtelela, Cassy; Roberts, Eric M.; Hilbert-Wolf, Hannah L.; Downie, Robert; Hendrix, Marc S.; O'Connor, Patrick M.; Stevens, Nancy J.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a detailed sedimentologic investigation of a newly identified, fossiliferous Late Neogene sedimentary succession in the Rukwa Rift Basin, southwestern Tanzania. This synrift deposit is a rare and significant new example of a fossiliferous succession of this age in the Western Branch of East Africa Rift System. The unit, informally termed the lower Lake Beds succession, is late Miocene to Pliocene in age based on cross-cutting relationships, preliminary biostratigraphy, and U-Pb geochronology. An angular unconformity separates the lower Lake Beds from underlying Cretaceous and Oligocene strata. Deposition was controlled by rapid generation of accommodation space and increased sediment supply associated with late Cenozoic tectonic reactivation of the Rukwa Rift and synchronous initiation of the Rungwe Volcanic Centre. The lower Lake Beds, which have thus far only been identified in three localities throughout the Rukwa Rift Basin, are characterized by two discrete lithologic members (herein A and B). The lower Member A is a volcanic-rich succession composed mostly of devitrified volcanic tuffs, and volcaniclastic mudstones and sandstones with minor conglomerates. The upper Member B is a siliciclastic-dominated succession of conglomerates, sandstones, mudstones and minor volcanic tuffs. Detailed facies analysis of the lower Lake Beds reveals various distinctive depositional environments that can be grouped into three categories: 1) alluvial fan; 2) fluvial channel; and 3) flood basin environments, characterized by volcanoclastic-filled lakes and ponds, abandoned channel-fills and pedogenically modified floodplains. Member A represents a shallow lacustrine setting filled by tuffaceous sediments, which grade up into a system of alluvial fans and high-energy, proximal gravel-bed braided rivers. An unconformity marks the contact between the two members. Member B shows an upward transition from a high-energy, gravel-bed braided river system to a sandy

  2. Field sampling of loose erodible material: A new system to consider the full particle-size spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Martina; Gill, Thomas E.; Webb, Nicholas P.; Van Zee, Justin W.

    2017-10-01

    A new system is presented to sample and enable the characterization of loose erodible material (LEM) present on a soil surface, which may be susceptible for entrainment by wind. The system uses a modified MWAC (Modified Wilson and Cooke) sediment sampler connected to a corded hand-held vacuum cleaner. Performance and accuracy of the system was tested in the laboratory using five reference soil samples with different textures. Sampling was most effective for sandy soils, while effectiveness decreases were found for soils with high silt and clay contents in dry dispersion. This effectiveness decrease can be attributed to loose silt and clay-sized particles and particle aggregates adhering to and clogging a filter attached to the MWAC outlet. Overall, the system was found to be effective in collecting sediment for most soil textures and theoretical interpretation of the measured flow speeds suggests that LEM can be sampled for a wide range of particle sizes, including dust particles. Particle-size analysis revealed that the new system is able to accurately capture the particle-size distribution (PSD) of a given sample. Only small discrepancies (maximum cumulative difference vacuuming for all test soils. Despite limitations of the system, it is an advance toward sampling the full particle-size spectrum of loose sediment available for entrainment with the overall goal to better understand the mechanisms of dust emission and their variability.

  3. Numerical modelling of suffusion by discrete element method: a new internal stability criterion based on mechanical behaviour of eroded soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye Hama Nadjibou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-cohesive soils subjected to a flow may have a behavior in which fine particles migrate through the interstices of the solid skeleton formed by the large particles. This phenomenon is termed internal instability, internal erosion or suffusion, and can occur both in natural soil deposits and also in geotechnical structures such as dams, dikes or barrages. Internal instability of a granular material is its inability to prevent the loss of its fine particles under flow effect. It is geometrically possible if the fine particles can migrate through the pores of the coarse soil matrix and results in a change in its mechanical properties. In this work, we uses the three-dimensional Particle Flow Code (PFC3D/DEM to study the stability/instability of granular materials and their mechanical behavior. Kenney and Lau criterion sets a safe boundary for engineering design. However, it tends to identify stable soils as unstable ones. The effects of instability and erosion, simulated by clipping fine particles from the grading distribution, on the mechanical behaviour of glass ball samples were analysed. The mechanical properties of eroded samples, in which erosion is simulated and gives a new approach for internal stability. A proposal for a new internal stability criterion is established, it is deduced from the analysis of relations between the mechanical behaviour and internal stability, including material contractance.

  4. Does market integration buffer risk, erode traditional sharing practices and increase inequality? A test among Bolivian forager-farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurven, Michael; Jaeggi, Adrian V.; von Rueden, Chris; Hooper, Paul L.; Kaplan, Hillard

    2015-01-01

    Sharing and exchange are common practices for minimizing food insecurity in rural populations. The advent of markets and monetization in egalitarian indigenous populations presents an alternative means of managing risk, with the potential impact of eroding traditional networks. We test whether market involvement buffers several types of risk and reduces traditional sharing behavior among Tsimane Amerindians of the Bolivian Amazon. Results vary based on type of market integration and scale of analysis (household vs. village), consistent with the notion that local culture and ecology shape risk management strategies. Greater wealth and income were unassociated with the reliance on others for food, or on reciprocity, but wealth was associated with a greater proportion of food given to others (i.e., giving intensity) and a greater number of sharing partners (i.e., sharing breadth). Across villages, greater mean income was negatively associated with reciprocity, but economic inequality was positively associated with giving intensity and sharing breadth. Incipient market integration does not necessarily replace traditional buffering strategies but instead can often enhance social capital. PMID:26526638

  5. Prediction of Experimental Rainfall-Eroded Soil Area Based on S-Shaped Growth Curve Model Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Nie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall-induced soil erosion of a mountain area plays a significant role in supplying sediment and shaping the landscape. The related area of soil erosion, as an index of the changed landscape, is easier to calculate visually using some popular imaging tools. By image analysis, our work shows that the changing of the soil erosion area admits the structure of an S-growth curve. Therefore, we propose to establish an S-curve model, based on incremental learning, to predict the soil erosion area. In the process of incremental learning, we dynamically update the accumulative rainfall and rainfall intensity to train the parameters of our S-curve model. In order to verify our prediction model, the index of area is utilized to express the output of eroded soil in a series of experiments. The results show that the proposed S-growth curve model can be used to estimate the growth of the soil erosion area (average relative error 3%–9.7% according to variable soil material and rainfall intensity. The original S-growth curve model can calculate the erosion areas of just one soil material and one rainfall condition whose average relative error is 7.5%–12.2%; compared to the simple time series analysis-moving average method (average relative error 5.7%–12.1%, our proposed S-growth curve model can reveal the physical mechanism and evolution of the research object.

  6. Flow and transport through a damaged buffer - exploration of the impact of a cemented and an eroded buffer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neretnieks, Ivars [Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    The compacted bentonite buffer that surrounds the canister with spent fuel is designed not to allow water to flow through it in any appreciable quantities. Should the buffer be severely damaged water could flow to the canister and bring with it corrosive agent such as sulphide. This could speed up the rate of copper corrosion. Should the canister have a damage or be corroded so that the spent fuel inside the canister comes in contact with the water radionuclides could dissolve in the water and be carried away. Two modes of canister damage and their consequences for solute transport are explored in this report. In one case the buffer can potentially be eroded by the water seeping in the fractures in the surrounding rock and attain a high hydraulic conductivity allowing water to flow through it, at least locally. In another case it is conjectured that the buffer is cemented and becomes brittle. Then a crack could conceivably form in the cemented buffer allowing water to flow through it directly to the canister surface. Both cases are hypothetical although in the erosion case the erosion rate could possibly be quantified. The cases studied are to be seen as exploratory calculations for 'what if' cases. Some worst case assumptions have been used to explore bounding scenarios. Thus for the erosion case it is assumed that the hydraulic conductivity is so high that the buffer exerts negligible resistance to water flow. This implies that all the water that can flow through the fractures intersecting the deposition hole can reach the canister. Similarly for the cemented buffer case it is assumed that the crack in the buffer directly connects the rock fracture to the canister surface. For these circumstances it is found that the flowrate that can enter the deposition hole will be approximately two times as large as the water flow that would pass a projected area equal to that of the deposition hole. Thus if the flux in the rock some distance from the deposition

  7. Does market integration buffer risk, erode traditional sharing practices and increase inequality? A test among Bolivian forager-farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurven, Michael; Jaeggi, Adrian V; von Rueden, Chris; Hooper, Paul L; Kaplan, Hillard

    2015-08-01

    Sharing and exchange are common practices for minimizing food insecurity in rural populations. The advent of markets and monetization in egalitarian indigenous populations presents an alternative means of managing risk, with the potential impact of eroding traditional networks. We test whether market involvement buffers several types of risk and reduces traditional sharing behavior among Tsimane Amerindians of the Bolivian Amazon. Results vary based on type of market integration and scale of analysis (household vs. village), consistent with the notion that local culture and ecology shape risk management strategies. Greater wealth and income were unassociated with the reliance on others for food, or on reciprocity, but wealth was associated with a greater proportion of food given to others (i.e., giving intensity) and a greater number of sharing partners (i.e., sharing breadth). Across villages, greater mean income was negatively associated with reciprocity, but economic inequality was positively associated with giving intensity and sharing breadth. Incipient market integration does not necessarily replace traditional buffering strategies but instead can often enhance social capital.

  8. Oligocene-miocene mammalian fossils from Hongyazi Basin and its bearing on tectonics of Danghe Nanshan in northern Tibetan plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoming; Xie, Guangpu; Yin, An

    2013-01-01

    A shortage of Cenozoic vertebrate fossils in the Tibetan Plateau has been an obstacle in our understanding of biological evolution in response to changes in tectonism, topography, and environment. This is especially true for Paleogene records, so far known by only two sites along the northern rim of the Plateau. We report a Hongyazi Basin in northern Tibetan Plateau that produces at least three mammalian faunas that span Oligocene through late Miocene. Located at the foothills of the Danghe Nanshan and presently connected to the northern margin of the Suganhu Basin through the Greater Haltang River, the intermountain basin is controlled by the tectonics of the Danghe Nanshan to the north and Chahan'ebotu Mountain to the south, making the basin sediments well suited for inferring the evolutionary history of these two mountain ranges. At the bottom of the local section, the Oligocene Haltang Fauna is best compared to the early Oligocene Desmatolagus-Karakoromys decessus assemblage in the Dingdanggou Fauna in Tabenbuluk Basin. The Middle Miocene Ebotu Fauna from the middle Hongyazi section shares many taxa with the late Middle Miocene Tunggur mammal assemblage in Inner Mongolia, such as Heterosminthus orientalis, Megacricetodon sinensis, Democricetodon lindsayi, and Alloptox gobiensis. Toward the top of the section, the Hongyazi Fauna includes late Miocene elements typical of Hipparion faunas of North China. All three faunas are of typical North China-Central Asian characteristics, suggesting a lack of geographic barriers for faunal differentiation through the late Miocene. Sedimentary packages producing these faunas are arrayed from north to south in progressively younger strata, consistent with a compressive regime to accommodate shortening between Danghe Nanshan and Chahan'ebotu Mountain by thrust faults and folds. With additional constraints from vertebrate fossils along the northern flanks of the Danghe Nanshan, an eastward propagation of the Danghe Nanshan is

  9. Tephra Deposits in Lake Mead Miocene Sediments: Characteristics, Chronology, and Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, N. W.; McIntosh, W. C.; Umhoefer, P. J.; Lamb, M. A.; Hickson, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Lake Mead extensional domain, in the east central Basin and Range Province, contains Miocene basin sediments that have undergone complex faulting and deformation. A rich tephra record in the basin sediments provides a chronological and correlation framework that can help understand the depositional and deformational processes during Miocene and post-Miocene time. The tephra layers, up to 10s of cm thick, range from white deposits containing glassy shards to bright green layers in which all original glass has been altered to the zeolite mordenite. The tephra layers range from aphyric to extremely crystal rich. Many appear to be primary ashfall deposits based on depositional geometry, uniform crystal size, and good preservation of glass or relict glass shard structures. However, some layers show evidence of reworking as evidenced by variable crystal size, and the presence of plutonic feldspar and rock fragments. Electron microprobe analyses of preserved glass reveal that compositions of almost all of the tephra layers are high silica rhyolite, typically with FeO and CaO contents of 1wt% or lower. Where present, the glass in the tephra layers is invariably hydrated, consistent with their age, but although the alkali concentrations in the glass are likely to have been modified by the hydration process, other elements, particularly Fe, Ca, Ti, and Cl appear to yield robust concentrations. The compositions of individual layers with respect to these elements are very homogeneous, based on analysis of 20-30 glass shards per sample, and can be used to correlate individual tephra layers between different parts of the sedimentary basin, although a number of layers have very similar compositions. Some higher Fe rhyolites/dacites (up to 4 wt.% FeO) are also observed. Crystal-bearing tephra layers contain some combination of quartz, one or two feldspars (typically a chemically uniform sanidine and a range of plagioclase compositions), biotite, amphibole, and magnetite

  10. Paleomagnetic data bearing on style of Miocene deformation in the Lake Mead area, southern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzyniec, Tim F.; Geissman, John W.; Anderson, R. Ernest; Harlan, Steve S.; Faulds, James

    2001-08-01

    Paleomagnetic and structural data from intermediate to mafic composition lava flows and related dikes in all major blocks of the late Miocene Hamblin-Cleopatra Volcano, which was structurally dismembered during the development of the Lake Mead Fault System (LMFS), provide limits on the magnitude and sense of tilting and vertical axis rotation of crust during extension of this part of the Basin and Range province. Sinistral separation along the fault system dissected the volcano into three major blocks. The eastern, Cleopatra Lobe of the volcano is structurally the most intact section of the volcano. Normal and reverse polarity data from paleomagnetic sites collected along traverses in the Cleopatra Lobe yield an in situ grand mean of Declination (D)=339°, Inclination (I)=+54°, α95=3.1°, k=27.2, N=81 sites. The rocks of the central core of the volcano yield an in situ grand mean of D=3°, I=+59°, α95=6.8°, k=42.5, N=11 sites (six normal, five reverse polarity). Sites collected within the western Hamblin Lobe of the volcano are exclusively of reverse polarity and yield an overall in situ mean of D=168°, I=-58°, α95=6.5°, k=28.9, N=18 sites. Interpretation of the paleomagnetic data in the context of the structural history of the volcano and surrounding area, considers the possibility of two different types of structural corrections. A stratigraphic tilt correction involves restoring flows to the horizontal using the present strike. This correction assumes no initial, possibly radial, dip of flows of the volcano and is considered invalid. A structural tilt correction to the data assumes that dikes of the radiating swarm associated with the volcano were originally vertical and results in block mean directions of D=9°, I=+53°, α95=3.1°, k=27.2, and D=58°, I=+78°, α95=6.8°, k=42.5, for the Cleopatra Lobe and the central intrusive core, respectively. The data from the Cleopatra Lobe are slightly discordant, in a clockwise sense, from expected middle- to

  11. Early Miocene benthic foraminifera and biostratigraphy of the Qom Formation, Deh Namak, Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshian, Jahanbakhsh; Dana, Leila Ramezani

    2007-03-01

    A total of 165 samples were collected from the Qom Formation investigated in a stratigraphic section north of Deh Namak, in Central Iran. From these, 35 genera and 47 species of benthic foraminifera were identified. The age of the studied section is Early Miocene (Aquitanian to Early Burdigalian) based on the occurrence of Borelis melo curdica, Meandropsina anahensis, Meandropsina iranica, Elphidium sp. 14, Peneroplis farsensis, and Triloculina tricarinata. The thickness of the Qom Formation is 401 m of which 161.2 m is early Burdigalian in age. Foraminiferal assemblages in the Deh Namak section are referable to the Borelis melo group- Meandropsina iranica Assemblage Zone and Miogypsinoides- Archaias-Valvulinid Assemblage Zone of [Adams, T.D., Bourgeois, F., 1967. Asmari biostratigraphy. Iranian Oil Operating Companies, Geological and Exploration Division, Report1074 (unpublished) 1-37.] described originally from the Asmari Formation.

  12. The aerodynamics of Argentavis, the world's largest flying bird from the Miocene of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sankar; Templin, R Jack; Campbell, Kenneth E

    2007-07-24

    We calculate the flight performance of the gigantic volant bird Argentavis magnificens from the upper Miocene ( approximately 6 million years ago) of Argentina using a computer simulation model. Argentavis was probably too large (mass approximately 70 kg) to be capable of continuous flapping flight or standing takeoff under its own muscle power. Like extant condors and vultures, Argentavis would have extracted energy from the atmosphere for flight, relying on thermals present on the Argentinean pampas to provide power for soaring, and it probably used slope soaring over the windward slopes of the Andes. It was an excellent glider, with a gliding angle close to 3 degrees and a cruising speed of 67 kph. Argentavis could take off by running downhill, or by launching from a perch to pick up flight speed. Other means of takeoff remain problematic.

  13. MIDDLE EOCENE TO EARLY MIOCENE FORAMINIFERAL BIOSTRATIGRAPHY IN THE EPILIGURIAN SUCCESSION (NORTHERN APENNINES, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETTA MANCIN

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative biostratigraphical study was performed on the foraminiferal assemblages from 15 stratigraphic sections of the Epiligurian Succession (Middle Eocene-Early Miocene, Northern Apennines, Italy. This study enabled us to identify the presence of some of the standard bioevents and to note that other bioevents are absent or show a different chronostratigraphic range. Other additional bioevents, identified throughout the area, have therefore been utilised to improve the biostratigraphical resolution of the Epiligurian sediments. These bioevents include the massive extinction of the muricate species at the Bartonian/Priabonian boundary; the increasing abundance of Paragloborotalia opima opima near Subzone P21a/P21b and the Rupelian/Chattian boundaries; and the FO of Globoquadrina dehiscens at the Subzone N4a/N4b boundary. 

  14. PROPOTAMOCHOERUS SP. (SUIDAE, MAMMALIA FROM THE LATE MIOCENE OF GRAVITELLI (MESSINA, SICILY, ITALY REDISCOVERED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIANNI GALLAI

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes two casts of a suid from the Late Miocene of Gravitelli (Messina, Sicily, originally described by Seguenza in 1902. The entire Gravitelli faunal collection was lost in the early 1900¡¦s. The recent rediscovery of two casts in the collections of the Museo di Storia Naturale of the University of Florence represent the only available material from this locality (in addition to the original description and illustration by Seguenza. The study of these casts allow a revision of the Gravitelli suid and its attribution to the genus Propotamochoerus. Although a specific determination is not possible, we suggest probable affinities with the species P. hysudricus or P. provincialis.

  15. Spirochete and protist symbionts of a termite (Mastotermes electrodominicus) in Miocene amber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wier, Andrew; Dolan, Michael; Grimaldi, David; Guerrero, Ricardo; Wagensberg, Jorge; Margulis, Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Extraordinary preservation in amber of the Miocene termite Mastotermes electrodominicus has led to the discovery of fossil symbiotic microbes. Spirochete bacteria and wood-digesting protists were identified in the intestinal tissue of the insect. Fossil wood (xylem: developing vessel-element cells, fibers, pit connections), protists (most likely xylophagic amitochondriates), an endospore (probably of the filamentous intestinal bacterium Arthromitus = Bacillus), and large spirochetes were seen in thin section by light and transmission electron microscopy. The intestinal microbiota of the living termite Mastotermes darwiniensis, a genus now restricted to northern Australia, markedly resembles that preserved in amber. This is a direct observation of a 20-million-year-old xylophagus termite fossil microbial community. PMID:11818534

  16. Molecular indicators for coal-forming vegetation of the Miocene Chukurovo lignite, Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maya Stefanova; Kalinka Markova; Stefan Marinov; Bernd R.T. Simoneit [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Institute of Organic Chemistry

    2005-10-01

    The main coal forming element in the peat paleoswamp of the Middle Miocene 'Chukurovo' lignite is Taxodiaceae (paleobotanical observation). The great preponderance of diterpenoids in the resinite is a chemical confirmation for the presence of coniferous vegetation in the paleoplant taxa. Subordinate quantities of the sesquiterpenoids cuparene, valencene and cadalene types and longifolane are present. Molecular indicators for angiosperm vegetation are also recognized in the bulk coal. The presence of olean-12-ene, urs-12-ene, 24,25-dinoroleana-1,3,5(10)12-tetraene, and 24,25-dinorursa-1,3,5(10)12-tetraene all indicate flowering trees and provide the possibility to further assess the paleoplant community. The triterpenoid data indicate oxic diagenetic transformation of plant detritus had been proceeded by aromatization of ring A-E. 33 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs., 1 append.

  17. Middle Miocene benthic foraminifera from the Al Khums area, northwestern Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Baz, Sherif M.; Al Furjany, Ahmed

    2018-02-01

    The present study deals with the benthic foraminifera from three sections cropping out in the Al Khums area, northwestern Libya. Lithostratigraphically, these outcrops belong to the Al Khums Formation, which is locally subdivided into two informal members: An Naggazah and Ras Al Mannubiyah. Detailed investigation of the foraminiferal content led to the recognition of 27 species belonging to 16 genera and 13 families. The absence of index planktonic foraminifera does not enable the recognition of any planktonic biozone within the Al Khums Formation. The presence of the larger benthic foraminifera Borelis melo melo enables the assignment of a Middle Miocene age to this rock unit. The studied sections characterized by the common occurrence of benthic foraminiferal species living in a shallow neritic environment. This conclusion is corroborated by the co-occurrence of large oysters, corals and algae.

  18. A Middle Miocene rhinoceros find in Transylvania: 19th century forgotten correspondence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad A. Codrea

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The single report in Romania of the Middle Miocene rhinoceros Brachypotherium brachypus, a rare species in our country or elsewhere in Europe, is from Petros locality in Hațeg basin. This find is an old one, nearly a century and half ago. A fragmentary letter written by the Hațeg naturalist Ádám Buda to Prof. Antal Koch retrieved in the Paleontological Museum of Babeș-Bolyai University Cluj-Napoca brings some light about this find. The letter was probably written around 1881-1882 and reveals the active exchanges of scientific data between the professor from Cluj and country people interested in natural sciences.

  19. Miocene Lonchocarpus (Papilionoideae) in San Esteban Tizatlán, Tlaxcala, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Damián, Ana Lilia; Calvillo-Canadell, Laura; Cevallos-Ferriz, Sergio R. S.; Sousa, Mario

    2016-03-01

    New leaflets from San Esteban Tizatlán, Tlaxcala, Mexico, are described and identified based on their leaf architecture. They have elliptic leaflets with pulvinate petiolule, entire margin, convex apex and base, well developed primary and craspedodromous secondary venation, with decurrent secondary veins with fused the mid-vein, a pair of obtuse basal veins, weak intersecundary veins, mixed percurrent tertiary venation dominated by the opposite type with sinuous course, alternate percurrent fourth-order venation, regular reticulate with few non ramified veinlets. All these characteristics are closely compared with members of sections Obtusifolii and Standleyi of Lonchocarpus (Leguminosae, Papillionoideae, Millettieae), but the mosaic of characters found in the fossil material granted recognition of a new species Lonchocarpus miocenicus sp. nov. This new record of Lonchocarpus from central Mexico further supports the presence of an evergreen tropical forest during the Miocene in the area, a plant community that developed from the Boreotropical Flora and contributed latter to the Neotropical Flora.

  20. The Early Miocene Cape Melville Formation fossil assemblage and the evolution of modern Antarctic marine communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Rowan J.; Quaglio, Fernanda; Griffiths, Huw J.; Linse, Katrin; Crame, J. Alistair

    2014-01-01

    The fossil community from the Early Miocene Cape Melville Formation (King George Island, Antarctica) does not show the archaic retrograde nature of modern Antarctic marine communities, despite evidence, such as the presence of dropstones, diamictites and striated rocks, that it was deposited in a glacial environment. Unlike modern Antarctic settings, and the upper units of the Eocene La Meseta Formation on Seymour Island, Antarctica, which are 10 million years older, the Cape Melville Formation community is not dominated by sessile suspension feeding ophiuroids, crinoids or brachiopods. Instead, it is dominated by infaunal bivalves, with a significant component of decapods, similar to present day South American settings. It is possible that the archaic retrograde structure of the modern community did not fully evolve until relatively recently, maybe due to factors such as further cooling and isolation of the continent leading to glaciations, which resulted in a loss of shallow shelf habitats.

  1. A new Miocene baleen whale from Peru deciphers the dawn of cetotheriids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Felix G.; Lambert, Olivier; de Muizon, Christian

    2017-09-01

    Cetotheriidae are an iconic, nearly extinct family of baleen whales (Mysticeti) with a highly distinct cranial morphology. Their origins remain a mystery, with even the most archaic species showing a variety of characteristic features. Here, we describe a new species of archaic cetotheriid, Tiucetus rosae, from the Miocene of Peru. The new material represents the first mysticete from the poorly explored lowest portion of the highly fossiliferous Pisco Formation (allomember P0), and appears to form part of a more archaic assemblage than observed at the well-known localities of Cerro Colorado, Cerro los Quesos, Sud-Sacaco and Aguada de Lomas. Tiucetus resembles basal plicogulans (crown Mysticeti excluding right whales), such as Diorocetus and Parietobalaena, but shares with cetotheriids a distinct morphology of the auditory region, including the presence of an enlarged paroccipital concavity. The distinctive morphology of Tiucetus firmly places Cetotheriidae in the context of the poorly understood `cetotheres' sensu lato, and helps to resolve basal relationships within crown Mysticeti.

  2. Paleomagnetic record of a geomagnetic field reversal from late miocene mafic intrusions, southern nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, C D; Geissman, J W; Perry, F V; Crowe, B M; Zeitler, P K

    1994-10-21

    Late Miocene (about 8.65 million years ago) mafic intrusions and lava flows along with remagnetized host rocks from Paiute Ridge, southern Nevada, provide a high-quality paleomagnetic record of a geomagnetic field reversal. These rocks yield thermoremanent magnetizations with declinations of 227 degrees to 310 degrees and inclinations of -7 degrees to 49 degrees , defining a reasonably continuous virtual geomagnetic pole path over west-central Pacific longitudes. Conductive cooling estimates for the intrusions suggest that this field transition, and mafic magmatism, lasted only a few hundred years. Because this record comes principally from intrusive rocks, rather than sediments or lavas, it is important in demonstrating the longitudinal confinement of the geomagnetic field during a reversal.

  3. Oligo-Miocene peatland ecosystems of the Gippsland Basin and modern analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korasidis, Vera A.; Wallace, Malcolm W.; Wagstaff, Barbara E.; Holdgate, Guy R.

    2017-02-01

    A detailed examination of the brown coal facies preserved in the Latrobe Valley Morwell 1B seam indicates that the type of peat-forming environment and the associated hydrological regime are the main factors influencing the development of lithotypes in brown coal deposits. New palynological data from the Morwell 1B seam suggests that each respective lithotype in the lightening-upwards lithotype cycles was deposited in a particular depositional environment that was characterised by a distinct floral community. The laminated dark lithotype represents a fire-prone emergent marsh that grew on the margins of a coastal lagoon and/or freshwater swamp. This facies grades into the dark lithotype, representing the transition from a meadow marsh to a periodically flooded ombrogenous forested bog. The medium and lighter lithotypes are interpreted as being deposited in an angiosperm-dominated ombrogenous forest bog that was intolerant of fire. These peat-forming environments are interpreted as being largely controlled by moisture and relative depth to water table. Each environment produces distinct lithotypes and lightening-upwards cycles are interpreted as terrestrialization cycles. As the peat grew upwards and above the water table, less moist conditions prevailed and lighter lithotypes were produced. The observed change in colour, from darker to lighter lithotypes, results from the environment evolving from anaerobic/inundated to less anaerobic/less moist settings via terrestrialization. The thin and laterally extensive light and pale lithotypes that top the cycles are interpreted to represent a residual layer of concentrated, oxidation resistant peat-forming elements that result from intense weathering and aerobic degradation of the peats. At a generic level, modern lowland bogs of South Westland in New Zealand have remarkably similar floral/ecological gradients to those of the Oligo-Miocene Morwell 1B brown coal cycles in Australia. This suggests that modern New Zealand

  4. Friis Hills glacial history: an international collaboration to examine Miocene climate in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberstadt, A. R. W.; Kowalewski, D. E.

    2016-12-01

    The Friis Hills, Antarctica (western McMurdo Dry Valleys) contain unique, well-preserved records of Miocene climate. These terrestrial deposits hold geomorphic clues for deciphering the glacial history in a region directly adjacent to the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Stacked till sheets, interbedded with lake sediments and non-glacial deposits, reveal a complex history of ice flow and erosion throughout multiple glacial-interglacial cycles (Lewis and Ashworth, 2015). Fossiliferous beds containing Nothofagus, diatoms, algal cells, pollen, insects, and mosses provide past climatological constraints. The Friis Hills sustained multiple alpine glaciations as well as full ice-sheet development, recording glacial drainage reorganization and evidence of previous ice configurations that possibly overrode the Transantarctic Mountains (Lewis and Ashworth, 2015) exposing only scattered nunataks (i.e. a portion of Friis Hills). Lack of chronological control has previously hindered efforts to link the Friis Hills glacial history with regional context; a tephra deposit at the base of the glacial drifts currently provides a single age constraint within the drift deposits. To build upon previous studies, an international collaboration between the USAP, Antarctic New Zealand, and the Italian Antarctic community proposes to core a paleo-lake in the center of the Friis Hills in November 2016, thereby acquiring one of the oldest continuous sedimentological records within the McMurdo Dry Valleys. Here we report discoveries from this year's fieldwork, and reconstruct paleoenvironment at the periphery of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet for the mid-early Miocene, a critical time when marine isotopic records indicate dramatic ice fluctuations. Ash within the sediment core stratigraphy will provide a more robust chronology for the region, and will also suggest possible outcrop locations of corresponding ash deposits to pursue while in the field. We anticipate that the Friis Hills stratigraphy will

  5. Life-history traits of the Miocene Hipparion concudense (Spain inferred from bone histological structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cayetana Martinez-Maza

    Full Text Available Histological analyses of fossil bones have provided clues on the growth patterns and life history traits of several extinct vertebrates that would be unavailable for classical morphological studies. We analyzed the bone histology of Hipparion to infer features of its life history traits and growth pattern. Microscope analysis of thin sections of a large sample of humeri, femora, tibiae and metapodials of Hipparion concudense from the upper Miocene site of Los Valles de Fuentidueña (Segovia, Spain has shown that the number of growth marks is similar among the different limb bones, suggesting that equivalent skeletochronological inferences for this Hipparion population might be achieved by means of any of the elements studied. Considering their abundance, we conducted a skeletechronological study based on the large sample of third metapodials from Los Valles de Fuentidueña together with another large sample from the Upper Miocene locality of Concud (Teruel, Spain. The data obtained enabled us to distinguish four age groups in both samples and to determine that Hipparion concudense tended to reach skeletal maturity during its third year of life. Integration of bone microstructure and skeletochronological data allowed us to identify ontogenetic changes in bone structure and growth rate and to distinguish three histologic ontogenetic stages corresponding to immature, subadult and adult individuals. Data on secondary osteon density revealed an increase in bone remodeling throughout the ontogenetic stages and a lesser degree thereof in the Concud population, which indicates different biomechanical stresses in the two populations, likely due to environmental differences. Several individuals showed atypical growth patterns in the Concud sample, which may also reflect environmental differences between the two localities. Finally, classification of the specimens' age within groups enabled us to characterize the age structure of both samples, which is

  6. Peltephilidae and Mesotheriidae (Mammalia) from late Miocene strata of Northern Chilean Andes, Caragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Sanhueza, Germán; Moreno, Karen; Bobe, René; Carrano, Matthew T.; García, Marcelo; Corgne, Alexandre

    2017-04-01

    Until now, only one Cenozoic fossil mammal from the Chilean Precordillera (Arica and Parinacota Region) has been reported, Caraguatypotherium munozi (Mesotheriidae: Notoungulata). In this study, we describe a fourth specimen of C. munozi and a new armadillo species, Epipeltephilus caraguensis (Peltephilidae: Cingulata), both collected from a new site closer to the fossiliferous outcrops of the Caragua area (Serravallian - Tortonian). E. caraguensis differs from other members of the family in having: two sulci in the articular surface of the mobile osteoderm; having a tubular, rough and raised anterior edge; a conspicuous transverse depression; and four widely spaced foramina. This taxon represents the youngest known peltephilid from intermediate latitudes and indicates a wide geographic distribution (Patagonia to Central Andes) of the family just prior to its extinction. The new mesothere specimen is 19% larger than previous records. The revision of the dental features of C. munozi allowed the identification of an ambiguous trait in its original diagnosis, i.e. an enamel fracture was misinterpreted with the presence of a posterior sulcus on the talonid of the m3, suggesting that further taxonomic and systematic revision for the Caragua mesothere is necessary. Although the fossil record from the Caragua area is still scarce, mesotheriines seem to be abundant at this latitude, just as has been observed at several early to late Miocene sites such as Chucal (Chile), Cerdas and Nazareno (Bolivia), as well as in southern regions such as Arroyo Chasicó and Mendoza (Argentina). The presence of a new peltephilid species in Caragua sustains the hypothesis of provincialism during the Miocene in intermediate latitudes. Our findings also provide further support for probable faunal movements between intermediate and higher latitudes rather than to lower ones.

  7. Late Miocene to Pliocene carbon isotope record of differential diet change among East African herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Kevin T.; Cerling, Thure E.; Harris, John M.; Kunimatsu, Yutaka; Leakey, Meave G.; Nakatsukasa, Masato; Nakaya, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    Stable isotope and molecular data suggest that C4 grasses first appeared globally in the Oligocene. In East Africa, stable isotope data from pedogenic carbonate and fossil tooth enamel suggest a first appearance between 15–10 Ma and subsequent expansion during the Plio-Pleistocene. The fossil enamel record has the potential to provide detailed information about the rates of dietary adaptation to this new resource among different herbivore lineages. We present carbon isotope data from 452 fossil teeth that record differential rates of diet change from C3 to mixed C3/C4 or C4 diets among East African herbivore families at seven different time periods during the Late Miocene to the Pliocene (9.9–3.2 Ma). Significant amounts of C4 grasses were present in equid diets beginning at 9.9 Ma and in rhinocerotid diets by 9.6 Ma, although there is no isotopic evidence for expansive C4 grasslands in this part of the Late Miocene. Bovids and hippopotamids followed suit with individuals that had C4-dominated (>65%) diets by 7.4 Ma. Suids adopted C4-dominated diets between 6.5 and 4.2 Ma. Gomphotheriids and elephantids had mostly C3-dominated diets through 9.3 Ma, but became dedicated C4 grazers by 6.5 Ma. Deinotheriids and giraffids maintained a predominantly C3 diet throughout the record. The sequence of differential diet change among herbivore lineages provides ecological insight into a key period of hominid evolution and valuable information for future studies that focus on morphological changes associated with diet change. PMID:21464327

  8. Evolution of the Climate Continuum from the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum to the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswasereelert, W.; Meyers, S. R.; Hinnov, L. A.; Kelly, D.

    2011-12-01

    The recognition of orbital rhythms in paleoclimate data has led to a rich understanding of climate evolution during the Neogene and Quaternary. In contrast, changes in stochastic variability associated with the transition from unipolar to bipolar glaciation have received less attention, although the stochastic component likely preserves key insights about climate. In this study, we seek to evaluate the dominance and character of stochastic climate energy since the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum (~17 Ma). These analyses extend a previous study that suggested diagnostic stochastic responses associated with Northern Hemisphere ice sheet development during the Plio-Pleistocene (Meyers and Hinnov, 2010). A critical and challenging step necessary to conduct the work is the conversion of depth data to time data. We investigate climate proxy datasets using multiple time scale hypotheses, including depth-derived time scales, sedimentologic/geochemical "tuning", minimal orbital tuning, and comprehensive orbital tuning. To extract the stochastic component of climate, and also explore potential relationships between the orbital parameters and paleoclimate response, a number of approaches rooted in Thomson's (1982) multi-taper spectral method (MTM) are applied. Importantly, the MTM technique is capable of separating the spectral "continuum" - a measure of stochastic variability - from the deterministic periodic orbital signals (spectral "lines") preserved in proxy data. Time series analysis of the proxy records using different chronologic approaches allows us to evaluate the sensitivity of our conclusion about stochastic and deterministic orbital processes during the Middle Miocene to present. Moreover, comparison of individual records permits examination of the spatial dependence of the identified climate responses. Meyers, S.R., and Hinnov, L.A. (2010), Northern Hemisphere glaciation and the evolution of Plio-Pleistocene climate noise: Paleoceanography, 25, PA3207, doi:10

  9. Carnivores from the Middle Miocene Ngorora Formation (13-12 Ma, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickford, M.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The late Middle Miocene Ngorora Formation has yielded several interesting carnivore fossils. Among these are a huge creodont, Megistotherium osteothlastes, at 12 Ma, possibly the youngest record of the species, an amphicyonid, two species of mustelids (an otter and a honey badger, two kinds of viverrids (one about the size of a civet, one the size of a genet and an extremely small herpestid the size of a dwarf mongoose. It has also yielded remains of a moderate sized percrocutid. Perhaps the most interesting carnivore is a new genus and species of bundont viverrid that is intermediate in size and morphology between Early Miocene Orangictis on the one hand and Plio-Pleistocene Pseudocivetta on the other. This lineage of bundont viverrids appears to have been restricted to Africa.La Formación Mioceno medio final de Ngorora (Kenia ha suministrado carnívoros muy interesantes. Entre los que se encuentran un enorme creodonto, Megistotherium osteothlastes, de 12 Ma, que posiblemente es el registro más moderno de la especie, un amphicyonido, dos especies de mustélidos (una nutria y un melivorino, dos diferentes tipos de vivérridos (uno de la talla de una civeta y el otro de la de una jineta y un herpéstido diminuto de la talla de una mangosta enana. También hay fósiles de un percrocútido de talla moderada. Tal vez el carnívoro más interesante es un nuevo género y especie de vivérrido bunodonto que presenta una talla y morfología intermedia entre Oragictis del Mioceno inferior y Pseudocivetta del Plio-Pleistoceno. Esta línea de vivérridos bunodontos parece estar restringida a Africa.

  10. Deep Ocean Circulation and Climate During the Miocene: Data vs. Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickert, T.; Butzin, M.; Lohmann, G.

    2005-12-01

    A series of configurations for Neogene ocean circulation sensitivity experiments, i.e. different stages in the shoaling of the Central American Isthmus and of the eastern Tethys as well as different sea-ice coverage scenarios were used as input for a marine carbon cycle model (HAMOCC2s). Using d13C and sedimentary carbonate as model output variables, the geochemical experiments provided a new framework to interpret Neogene paleoenvironmental data. Assuming the Isthmus of Panama to be open and no sea-ice coverage in the southern hemisphere, deep water is formed in the North Atlantic as well as in the sub-Antarctic realm, in agreement with Neogene carbon isotope pattern. However, the formation rate of NADW is reduced by about 75o/o compared to the control experiment, consistent with very low d13C gradients between the North Atlantic and Southern Ocean. The sill depth greater than 1000 m allows for the passage of NADW into the Pacific ocean, forming a deep boundary current along the western Pacific margin. The export of NADW is compensated by an influx of low-salinity Pacific Intermediate water, which enters the Caribbean with a maximum strength of 3 Sv at a depth of about 500 m. Forming of sea-ice related to the Middle Miocene build-up of a permanent Antarctic ice sheet intensifies the sub-Antarctic deep water production while NADW formation is suppressed. This scenario is corroborated by the convergence of Atlantic and Pacific benthic d13C values between 15 and 11 Ma. Finally, the re-establishment of the formation of NADW in the late Miocene and the evolution of the modern ocean conveyor is predicted in the model experiments assuming further shoaling of the Central American Isthmus and evolution of sea-ice in the Artic Ocean.

  11. Phylogenetic relationships of the Australian Oligo-Miocene ratite Emuarius gidju Casuariidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Trevor H; Hand, Suzanne J; Archer, Michael

    2014-03-01

    In Australia, ratites (Aves: Palaeognathae) are represented in the extant fauna by the family Casuariidae with 1 species of emu Dromaius novaehollandiae and 1 cassowary Casuarius casuarius. The Australian fossil record reveals no other extinct ratite families but there are a number of other casuariid species. Most significant of these, due to its Oligo-Miocene age and because it is known from abundant material, is Emuarius gidju. Here, we describe additional material and confirm that the taxon had a temporal range of Late Oligocene to Middle Miocene (approximately 24-15 Ma). We reveal new morphological details, including notably that the species had relatively much smaller eyes than D. novaehollandiae, in addition to a less well-developed cursorial ability, as inferred from its pelvic limb. In these respects, Emuarius is similar to Casuarius and suggest that it was adapted to denser vegetation than the open woodlands and grasslands that characterise much of Australia today and to which D. novaehollandiae, with its large eyes and enhanced cursorial ability, is strongly adapted. Emuarius was compared to and found to be distinct from the poorly provenanced Australian fossil species C. lydekkeri. We conducted a phylogenetic analysis of morphological data that robustly shows that E. gidju is the sister taxon of Dromaius and together these taxa form a clade that is sister to Casuarius. This indicates that the evolution towards enhanced cursorality that characterises Dromaius took place after the divergence of the emu-cassowary lineages and was likely not the driving mechanism of this divergence. Comparisons between D. novaehollandiae and D. baudinianus revealed no qualitative skeletal differences and we suggest that the latter taxon is best considered to be an island dwarf that should be taxonomically recognized at a subspecific level only. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty

  12. Oligocene stratigraphy across the Eocene and Miocene boundaries in the Valley of Lakes (Mongolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daxner-Höck, Gudrun; Badamgarav, Demchig; Barsbold, Rinchen; Bayarmaa, Baatarjav; Erbajeva, Margarita; Göhlich, Ursula Bettina; Harzhauser, Mathias; Höck, Eva; Höck, Volker; Ichinnorov, Niiden; Khand, Yondon; López-Guerrero, Paloma; Maridet, Olivier; Neubauer, Thomas; Oliver, Adriana; Piller, Werner; Tsogtbaatar, Khishigjav; Ziegler, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    Cenozoic sediments of the Taatsiin Gol and TaatsiinTsagaan Nuur area are rich in fossils that provide unique evidence of mammal evolution in Mongolia. The strata are intercalated with basalt flows. 40Ar/39Ar data of the basalts frame the time of sediment deposition and mammal evolution and enable a composite age chronology for the studied area. We investigated 20 geological sections and 6 fossil localities of Oligocene and early Miocene deposits from this region. Seventy fossil beds yielded more than 19,000 mammal fossils. This huge collection encompasses 175 mammal species: 50% Rodentia, 13% Eulipotyphla and Didelphomorphia, and 12% Lagomorpha. The remaining 25% of species are distributed among herbivorous and carnivorous large mammals. The representation of lower vertebrates and gastropods is comparatively poor. Several hundred SEM images illustrate the diversity of Marsupialia, Eulipotyphla, and Rodentia dentition and give insight into small mammal evolution in Mongolia during the Oligocene and early Miocene. This dataset, the radiometric ages of basalt I (∼31.5 Ma) and basalt II (∼27 Ma), and the magnetostratigraphic data provide ages of mammal assemblages and time ranges of the Mongolian biozones: letter zone A ranges from ∼33 to ∼31.5 Ma, letter zone B from ∼31.5 to ∼28 Ma, letter zone C from ∼28 to 25.6 Ma, letter zone C1 from 25.6 to 24 Ma, letter zone C1-D from 24 to ∼23 Ma, and letter zone D from ∼23 to ∼21 Ma.

  13. Life-History Traits of the Miocene Hipparion concudense (Spain) Inferred from Bone Histological Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Maza, Cayetana; Alberdi, Maria Teresa; Nieto-Diaz, Manuel; Prado, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Histological analyses of fossil bones have provided clues on the growth patterns and life history traits of several extinct vertebrates that would be unavailable for classical morphological studies. We analyzed the bone histology of Hipparion to infer features of its life history traits and growth pattern. Microscope analysis of thin sections of a large sample of humeri, femora, tibiae and metapodials of Hipparion concudense from the upper Miocene site of Los Valles de Fuentidueña (Segovia, Spain) has shown that the number of growth marks is similar among the different limb bones, suggesting that equivalent skeletochronological inferences for this Hipparion population might be achieved by means of any of the elements studied. Considering their abundance, we conducted a skeletechronological study based on the large sample of third metapodials from Los Valles de Fuentidueña together with another large sample from the Upper Miocene locality of Concud (Teruel, Spain). The data obtained enabled us to distinguish four age groups in both samples and to determine that Hipparion concudense tended to reach skeletal maturity during its third year of life. Integration of bone microstructure and skeletochronological data allowed us to identify ontogenetic changes in bone structure and growth rate and to distinguish three histologic ontogenetic stages corresponding to immature, subadult and adult individuals. Data on secondary osteon density revealed an increase in bone remodeling throughout the ontogenetic stages and a lesser degree thereof in the Concud population, which indicates different biomechanical stresses in the two populations, likely due to environmental differences. Several individuals showed atypical growth patterns in the Concud sample, which may also reflect environmental differences between the two localities. Finally, classification of the specimens’ age within groups enabled us to characterize the age structure of both samples, which is typical of

  14. Late Miocene-Recent evolution of the Finike Basin and its linkages with the Beydağlari complex and the Anaximander Mountains, eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu, A. E.; Hall, J.; Yaltırak, C.; Çınar, E.; Küçük, M.; Çifçi, G.

    2014-11-01

    Interpretation of ~ 2500 km of high-resolution multi-channel seismic reflection profiles shows that the Finike Basin evolved during the Pliocene-Quaternary as the result of dramatic subsidence associated with loading of large imbricate thrust panels that carry the western Tauride Mountains in the north in the Late Miocene. The stacked, seaward prograded Quaternary deltas presently resting at 1000-1500 m water depths corroborate the rapid subsidence of the region. The ubiquitous presence of evaporites in the 2000-2400 m-deep Antalya Basin and their absence in the 3000-3200 m deep Finike Basin suggest that the morphology of the Finike Basin and environs must have been considerably different during the Messinian and that this region must have remained above the depositional base of evaporites during this time. The transition from the Messinian to the Pliocene-Quaternary is marked by partitioning of stress into several discrete spatial domains. A dextral strike-slip fault zone developed along the western Antalya Basin, extending from the apex of the Isparta Angle southward into the Anaximander Mountains. This fault zone, referred to as the Antalya Fault zone, transected the Anaximander Mountains (sensu lato) separating the Anaxagoras Mountain from the Anaximander and Anaximenes Mountains. Hence, the Finike Basin, Sırrı Erinç Plateau and the Anaximander and Anaximenes Mountains remained part of the onland Beydağları Block and experienced ~ 20° counterclockwise rotation during the Late Miocene. We envisage the boundaries of the Beydağları Block as the Burdur-Fethiye Fault zone in the west, the newly delineated Antalya Fault zone in the east and the east-west trending sector of the Sırrı Erinç Plateau in the southwest. Kinematic evaluation of the structural elements mapped across the Finike Basin and the Sırrı Erinç Plateau suggest that two additional strike-slip zones developed during the Pliocene-Quaternary relaying the stress between the Antalya Fault

  15. Erodibility of cemented materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gass, BG

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available with the two durability tests currently used in South Africa. Based on information currently available, new criteria for the Erosion Test are proposed for flexible and rigid pavements. The use of the new Department of Transport Erosion database created...

  16. Influence of Bristle Stiffness of Manual Toothbrushes on Eroded and Sound Human Dentin--An In Vitro Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Bizhang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the influence of manual toothbrushes with different bristle stiffness on the abrasivity on eroded and sound human dentin.Dentin specimens were made from impacted third molars and attributed to three groups: erosion-abrasion (EA, abrasion (A and erosion (E. The specimens from EA and E were treated with 1% citric acid (pH 2.3 for 1 min rinsed, and neutralized with artificial saliva for 15 min. This cycle was repeated five times. Thereafter, specimens from EA and A were treated with three toothbrushes types with different bristle stiffness (soft, medium, and hard in a custom-made toothbrushing machine. The brushing was performed at a load of 3 N with a toothpaste slurry for 630 s. This procedure was repeated five times, in group EA after each erosion cycle. EA and A groups passed through five cycles with a total of 6300 strokes. The abrasivity was analyzed by contact-free profilometry. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were performed for statistical analysis.With respect to bristle stiffness there was no statistically significant difference in dentin loss within the EA group. In group A, a statistically significantly higher dentin loss was found for the soft in comparison to the hard bristles. No statistically significant differences were measured between soft/medium and medium/hard toothbrushes. The amount of dentin loss from specimens in the EA group was significantly higher than in the A group.Within the limitations of this study, the dentin loss in the Abrasion group was higher with soft bristles than with hard ones. This result might have an influence on the toothbrush recommendations for patients with non-carious cervical lesions.

  17. Influence of Bristle Stiffness of Manual Toothbrushes on Eroded and Sound Human Dentin--An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizhang, Mozhgan; Riemer, Katharina; Arnold, Wolfgang H; Domin, Julia; Zimmer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of manual toothbrushes with different bristle stiffness on the abrasivity on eroded and sound human dentin. Dentin specimens were made from impacted third molars and attributed to three groups: erosion-abrasion (EA), abrasion (A) and erosion (E). The specimens from EA and E were treated with 1% citric acid (pH 2.3) for 1 min rinsed, and neutralized with artificial saliva for 15 min. This cycle was repeated five times. Thereafter, specimens from EA and A were treated with three toothbrushes types with different bristle stiffness (soft, medium, and hard) in a custom-made toothbrushing machine. The brushing was performed at a load of 3 N with a toothpaste slurry for 630 s. This procedure was repeated five times, in group EA after each erosion cycle. EA and A groups passed through five cycles with a total of 6300 strokes. The abrasivity was analyzed by contact-free profilometry. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were performed for statistical analysis. With respect to bristle stiffness there was no statistically significant difference in dentin loss within the EA group. In group A, a statistically significantly higher dentin loss was found for the soft in comparison to the hard bristles. No statistically significant differences were measured between soft/medium and medium/hard toothbrushes. The amount of dentin loss from specimens in the EA group was significantly higher than in the A group. Within the limitations of this study, the dentin loss in the Abrasion group was higher with soft bristles than with hard ones. This result might have an influence on the toothbrush recommendations for patients with non-carious cervical lesions.

  18. Influence of Bristle Stiffness of Manual Toothbrushes on Eroded and Sound Human Dentin – An In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Wolfgang H.; Domin, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to determine the influence of manual toothbrushes with different bristle stiffness on the abrasivity on eroded and sound human dentin. Materials and Methods Dentin specimens were made from impacted third molars and attributed to three groups: erosion-abrasion (EA), abrasion (A) and erosion (E). The specimens from EA and E were treated with 1% citric acid (pH 2.3) for 1 min rinsed, and neutralized with artificial saliva for 15 min. This cycle was repeated five times. Thereafter, specimens from EA and A were treated with three toothbrushes types with different bristle stiffness (soft, medium, and hard) in a custom-made toothbrushing machine. The brushing was performed at a load of 3 N with a toothpaste slurry for 630 s. This procedure was repeated five times, in group EA after each erosion cycle. EA and A groups passed through five cycles with a total of 6300 strokes. The abrasivity was analyzed by contact-free profilometry. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were performed for statistical analysis. Results With respect to bristle stiffness there was no statistically significant difference in dentin loss within the EA group. In group A, a statistically significantly higher dentin loss was found for the soft in comparison to the hard bristles. No statistically significant differences were measured between soft/medium and medium/hard toothbrushes. The amount of dentin loss from specimens in the EA group was significantly higher than in the A group. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, the dentin loss in the Abrasion group was higher with soft bristles than with hard ones. This result might have an influence on the toothbrush recommendations for patients with non-carious cervical lesions. PMID:27070901

  19. Concerns about eroding the ethical barrier to in vitro eugenics: lessons from the hESC debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    In his discussion of in vitrogametogenesis, Rob Sparrow claims that an ethical barrier to development of this technology is that many jurisdictions currently prohibit the practice of creating embryos solely for the purpose of research. However, he suggests that this ethical barrier will soon be eroded, in view of the fact that in vitro gametogenesis could serve as a powerful new technology to overcome infertility. In this commentary, I argue that Sparrow is being overly optimistic in his analysis here. I claim that the debate over so-called compromise positions in the human embryonic stem cell debate suggests that the purpose of the research for which a research embryo is created is unlikely to be considered as having any significant bearing on the moral permissibility of the practice for those who oppose it. Even though in vitro gametogenesis could serve as a powerful new technology to overcome infertility, I argue that opponents of the practice of creating embryos solely for research purposes would still view the creation of research embryos that the development of in vitro gametogenesis would require, as being incompatible with affording the embryo proper moral respect. I conclude by suggesting that Sparrow's analysis of the potential benefits of in vitro gametogenesis provides us with further reasons to scrutinise the unconvincing arguments that are often cited in favour of prohibiting the practice of creating embryos solely for research purposes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Influence of removing excess of resin-based materials applied to eroded enamel on the resistance to erosive challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereza, Guida Paola Genovez; de Oliveira, Gabriela Cristina; de Andrade Moreira Machado, Maria Aparecida; de Oliveira, Thais Marchine; da Silva, Thiago Cruvinel; Rios, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of removing excess of resin-based materials applied to eroded enamel, subjected to erosive challenge. Bovine enamel blocks were immersed in HCl 0.01M, pH 2.3, for 30s under agitation at 50 rpm in room temperature, in order to form a softened erosion lesion. The blocks were then randomly divided into eight groups (n=12) and treated as follows: Cn- and Ce-control without treatment, Hn- and He-fissure resin sealant (Helioseal Clear(®)), An- and Ae-self-etch adhesive (Adhese(®)), In- and Ie-infiltrant (Icon(®)); being n-with excess removal and e-without excess removal of the material. After application of the materials, the blocks were immersed in HCl for 2 min, followed by immersion in artificial saliva for 120 min. This cycle was repeated four times a day for five days. Material thickness and enamel wear were assessed using profilometry. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (Pmaterial over enamel, being similar effective in inhibiting erosion progression (P>0.05). Groups Hn, An, and In (with excess removal) were similar to controls (Cn, Ce) and resulted in near enamel loss after application and after erosive challenge (P>0.05). Resin-based materials are able to protect enamel against erosion only when they are present over enamel, as a physical barrier. The resin-based materials demonstrated potential to prevent the progression of erosion lesions when the material remains on the dental surface. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Topography reconstruction of eroding landscapes - A case study from a hummocky ground moraine (CarboZALF-D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, W. M.; Temme, A. J. A. M.; Wallinga, J.; Hierold, W.; Sommer, M.

    2017-10-01

    Erosion processes, aggravated by human activity, have a large impact on the spatial variation of soil and topographic properties. Knowledge of the topography prior to human-induced erosion (paleotopography) in naturally stable landscapes is valuable for identifying vulnerable landscape positions and is required as starting point for erosion modelling exercises. However, developing accurate reconstructions of paleotopography provide a major challenge for geomorphologists. Here, we present a set of paleotopographies for a closed kettle hole catchment in north-east Germany (4 ha), obtained through different reconstruction approaches. Current soil and colluvium thickness, estimated from a dataset of 264 soil descriptions using Ordinary Kriging, were used as input for a mass balance, or were compared with a set of undisturbed soil thicknesses to estimate the amount of erosion. The performance of the different approaches was assessed with cross-validation and the count of mispredicted eroded, depositional or stable landscape positions. The paleotopographic reconstruction approach based on the average thickness of undisturbed soils in the study area showed the best performance. This thickness (1.00 m) is comparable to the average undisturbed soil thickness in the region and in line with global correlations of soil thickness as a function of rainfall and initial CaCO3 content. The performance of the different approaches depended more on mispredictions of landscape position due to the assumption of a spatially constant initial soil depth than on small variations in this depth. To conclude, we mention several methodological and practical points of attention for future topography reconstruction studies, concerning data quality and availability, spatial configuration of data and other processes affecting topography.

  2. Time constraints on the evolution of southern Palawan Island, Philippines from onshore and offshore correlation of Miocene limestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuer, Stephan; Franke, Dieter; Meresse, Florian; Savva, Dimitri; Pubellier, Manuel; Auxietre, Jean-Luc; Aurelio, Mario

    2013-10-01

    The link between the deformation of southern and central Palawan Island, Philippines and the deformation of the adjacent offshore wedge is investigated. The wedge is a continuation of the Palawan fold and thrust belt and bounds the Borneo-Palawan Trough to the Dangerous Grounds and to Palawan Island. Key parameters for the understanding of the formation and development of this wedge are two limestone formations: The Oligocene to Middle Miocene Nido limestone and the Upper Miocene to Lower Pliocene Tabon limestone. The initiation of the thrust belt formation is constrained by the Nido limestone, which was deposited from shortly before the breakup of the eastern South China Sea (˜35 Ma) until the Early Miocene. Age data available from wells offshore central Palawan gives an age of Early Miocene close to the base of the Nido limestone. While cropping out onshore north Palawan, these limestones were overthrusted by the wedge in southern and central Palawan. Seismic images show gently east dipping carbonates below the wedge. The seismic data show that these limestones are only mildly affected by the wedge formation. The end of the wedge development can be constrained by the Tabon limestone. With an age of ˜9 to ˜4 Ma, this limestone sequence overlies unconformably the offshore wedge. A detailed biostratigraphic correlation of the Tabon limestone along the southwest Palawan shelf, using well data, combined with multichannel seismic data and investigations onshore southern and central Palawan, shows a time- and space-transgressive development of these limestones. They are progressively younging towards the west. We propose that the formation of the Tabon limestone is directly linked with the development of the wedge that tectonically controls the formation of this carbonate platform. This constrains the time for the final phase of the formation of the Palawan thrust belt. After the final compressional phase and wedge formation in the lower Early Pliocene the wedge

  3. Proposição de modelos para estimativa da erodibilidade de latossolos brasileiros Proposition of models for erodibility estimation of brazilian oxisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marx Leandro Naves Silva

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Os métodos existentes para determinação indireta da erodibilidade não têm se mostrado adequados quando aplicados aos solos tropicais, particularmente no tocante aos latossolos brasileiros. Sendo assim, objetivou-se, com este estudo, desenvolver modelos para a estimativa da erodibilidade desse grupamento de solos, a partir de variáveis morfológicas, físicas, químicas e mineralógicas do solo. Foram feitas em 19 latossolos das várias regiões geográficas brasileiras, 129 determinações (variáveis independentes, cujos resultados foram submetidos à análise de regressão linear múltipla em "backward" utilizando o programa SAS, relacionando-se com a erodibilidade obtida diretamente no campo através de parcelas de perdas de solo (variável dependente. Foi possível desenvolver cinco modelos, com graus crescentes de complexidade e precisão para a estimativa da erodibilidade dos latossolos brasileiros, englobando 37 determinações que apresentam significância.The existent methods for indirect determination of erodibility have not been adequate when applied to tropical soils, mainly in relation to Brazilian (Oxisols. So, this study aimed to develop models for determination of erodibility of this soils group, from morphological, physical, chemical and mineralogical variables of the soil. In this way, using 19 latosols from the various Brazilian geographical regions, 129 determinations (independent variables were made, whose results were submitted to multiple linear regression analyses in backward using the SAS program, correlating them with the erodibility directly obtained in the field through soil losses plots (dependent variable. It was possible to develop five models, with increasing degrees of complexity and precision, for the estimation of the erodibility of Brazilian latosols, involving 37 determinations that presented significance.

  4. In situ investigation of the effect of TiF4 and CO2 laser irradiation on the permeability of eroded enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepri, Taísa Penazzo; Colucci, Vivian; Turssi, Cecília Pedroso; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori

    2015-06-01

    Interest in erosion and its role in tooth wear has increased considerably. Due to the limited contribution of patients in modifying their dietary habits, therapeutic resources aiming to reduce the progression of erosion-like lesions have been discussed. This study sought to evaluate the effect of TiF4 and CO2 laser in controlling the permeability of in situ eroded enamel. Ten volunteers wore an intraoral palatal device containing two enamel slabs, treated with TiF4 gel and TiF4 gel + CO2 or placebo gel and placebo gel + CO2. After the washout period, volunteers were crossed over to the other treatment. During both phases, specimens were submitted to erosive challenges and then evaluated for permeability measured as the percentage of copper ion penetration over the total enamel thickness. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that there was a significant interaction between the factors under study (p = 0.0002). Tukey's test showed that TiF4 significantly reduced the enamel permeability of eroded enamel specimens, regardless of whether CO2 laser irradiation was performed. It may be concluded that when the placebo gel was applied, CO2 laser was able to reduce enamel permeability; however, when TiF4 was applied, laser irradiation did not imply a reduction in permeability. TiF4 provided a lower permeability of eroded enamel, regardless of whether the CO2 laser was used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Morphology and distribution of Oligocene and Miocene pockmarks in the Danish North Sea -implications for bottom current activity and fluid migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Katrine Juul; Huuse, Mads; Clausen, O.R.

    2008-01-01

    This study gives the first description of 33 mid-Oligocene and 646 late Miocene pockmarks mapped in the Danish part of the central North Sea. The pockmarks are all highly elongated, with average long- and short axes of 2.5 km and 700 m, and average internal depth of 30 m. The Miocene pockmarks...... strike 140-160° while the Oligocene pockmarks strike 100-105° paralleling the strike of the major Miocene and Oligocene clinoforms on which they occur. In cross-sections, the pockmarks appear as U-, V- and W-shaped or tabular depressions. Based on their geometry and degree of symmetry, three distinct...... the timing and location of the pockmarks. The pockmarks thus tell a story of thermogenic gas venting to the surface and paleo-current scour of the seabed in the eastern part of the central North Sea during the mid Oligocene and late Miocene....

  6. Rapid post-rift tectonic subsidence events in the Pearl River Mouth Basin, northern South China Sea margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Min; Zhong, Guangfa; Liu, Xuefeng; Liu, Lihua; Shen, Xinping; Wu, Zhe; Huang, Ke

    2017-10-01

    Data from 26 drill wells and 27 regional seismic profiles were integrated to investigate the timing, phase and origin of the post-rift subsidence in the middle to eastern Pearl River Mouth Basin (PRMB) of the northern South China Sea using the traditional 1-D backstripping technique. Different from previous research of backstripped tectonic subsidence in the basin, we calculated the tectonic subsidence using the newly built local porosity-depth relationships for decompaction and updated sedimentological and paleontological data for paleobathymetry reconstruction. Well-data based subsidence curves reveal a roughly decaying pattern in both the magnitude and rate of the post-rift subsidence in the PRMB, which is in accordance with the general decreasing trend of the thermal subsidence typical of a passive margin. Two events of rapid post-rift tectonic subsidence were identified, which occurred in the Early to early Middle Miocene and the Pliocene. The timing of the first rapid post-rift subsidence event varies and is earlier in the southern rather than northern part of the basin. Additionally, the amplitude of contemporaneous tectonic subsidence is greater in the southern part of the basin. The second rapid tectonic subsidence event occurred simultaneously in both the southern and northern parts of the basin, with the amplitude of subsidence being much greater in the southern part. We associate the first rapid subsidence event with the southward jump of the South China Sea spreading ridge, which occurred between the Oligocene and Early Miocene, while the second event with the arc-continent collision at Taiwan since the latest Late Miocene. The southern PRMB in the deep-water slope area shows a much higher magnitude of tectonic subsidence in both events than its northern counterpart in the shelf area, which could be associated with its much thinner lithosphere. The latter could cause upswelling of denser lower crust and upper mantle material, resulting in more rapid

  7. New Miocene sulid birds from Peru and considerations on their Neogene fossil record in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Stucchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Boobies and gannets (family Sulidae are the most specialized plunge divers among seabirds. Their fossil record along the Pacific coast of South America extends to the early Middle Miocene. Here we describe three new species of sulids: Sula brandi sp. nov., Sula figueroae sp. nov., and Ramphastosula aguirrei sp. nov., from the early Late Miocene of the Pisco Formation (Peru. Two of them are relatives of the living genus Sula, which represents medium and large-sized boobies. A new species of the extinct genus Ramphastosula is also described, adding to the discussion of possible alternative feeding strategies among sulids. The fossil record suggests that sympatric sulids exhibit different body sizes at least since the Oligocene epoch, a strategy related with resource partitioning. Furthermore, we find current analysis and knowledge of the fossil record unsuitable to evaluate properly seabird diversity changes through time.

  8. Geoconservation evaluation of the sites of Miocene sedimentary rocks in the quarries of north-eastern Slovenia

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    Mojca Planjšek

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the sites of Miocene sedimentary rocks in north-eastern Slovenia. Due to dense vegetation cover and consequently rare rock outcrops mostly abandoned quarries were elaborated. According to evaluation criteria defined by Nature Conservation Act and Decree on the categories of valuable natural features, out of 28 examined locations 6 were selected as important from the nature conservation point of view. These sites contain mainly the fossilferous lithothamnian limestone and they are proposed to be listed as valuable geological natural features. The quarries Osek – oolite limestone and sandstone site and Zgornji Duplek 1 –lithothamnian limestone siteare proposed as geological natural values of national importance. The lithothamnian rocks used to be importantbuilding stone. Nowadays we find it in some of important cultural monuments like castles, churches and other cultural monuments. In this respect some of the sites of Miocene sedimentary rocks have significant cultural value as well.

  9. Laboratory studies of Miocene limestone for the use of construction industry in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva Jayawardena, Upali

    2016-04-01

    Geologically ten percent of Sri Lanka is made up of Miocene limestone which covers northern and north-western coastal belt of the Island. It is used as a raw material for various industries but only cement and lime are being used for the construction industry. Except its chemical composition there is no available literature to study about other properties. Therefore the author carried out a series of laboratory tests to find out the mechanical properties of limestone in Sri Lanka. The objective of this paper is to make a note on the various properties of Miocene limestone and describe its suitability to use as an aggregate for the construction industry in Sri Lanka. Borehole samples (NX size) of limestone were obtained from various drilling sites in Northern Province of Sri Lanka and selected samples were prepared for different laboratory tests after visual observations. The tests were carried out according to ASTM Standards at the geotechnical and materials testing laboratories. The number of samples per each test was different. The range (and average result) for each property can be mentioned here as bulk density 2213-2643 (2452) kg/m3, water absorption 2.2-4.5 (1.91)%, porosity 1-15 (6.5)%, specific gravity 2.58-2.68(2.62), ultrasonic pulse velocity P wave 4480-6338 (5668) m/s and S wave 2688-3802 (3400) m/s, uniaxial compressive strength 11-92 (35)MPa, point load strength 1.2-7.1 (3.7)MPa, aggregate impact value, AIV 25-30 (28)%, LAAV 35-38 (36)%, and Brazilian tensile strength 2.1-4.4 (3.2)MPa. Poisson's ratio 0.12-0.68 (0.22) and modulus of elasticity 42-85 (62) GPa were obtained by using P and S ultrasonic wave velocity values. According to LAAV and AIV this limestone may be suitable as the base course material for road construction but may not be suitable for surface material of highways and rail road ballasts. Ultrasonic velocity waves indicate that limestone is highly compacted and solid. According to the compressive strength of solid limestone rock a few

  10. Late Miocene climate and time scale reconciliation: Accurate orbital calibration from a deep-sea perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Anna Joy; Westerhold, Thomas; Frederichs, Thomas; Tian, Jun; Wilkens, Roy; Channell, James E. T.; Evans, Helen; John, Cédric M.; Lyle, Mitch; Röhl, Ursula

    2017-10-01

    Accurate age control of the late Tortonian to early Messinian (8.3-6.0 Ma) is essential to ascertain the origin of benthic foraminiferal δ18O trends and the late Miocene carbon isotope shift (LMCIS), and to examine temporal relationships between the deep-sea, terrasphere and cryosphere. The current Tortonian-Messinian Geological Time Scale (GTS2012) is based on astronomically calibrated Mediterranean sections; however, no comparable non-Mediterranean stratigraphies exist for 8-6 Ma suitable for testing the GTS2012. Here, we present the first high-resolution, astronomically tuned benthic stable isotope stratigraphy (1.5 kyr resolution) and magnetostratigraphy from a single deep-sea location (IODP Site U1337, equatorial Pacific Ocean), which provides unprecedented insight into climate evolution from 8.3-6.0 Ma. The astronomically calibrated magnetostratigraphy provides robust ages, which differ by 2-50 kyr relative to the GTS2012 for polarity Chrons C3An.1n to C4r.1r, and eliminates the exceptionally high South Atlantic spreading rates based on the GTS2012 during Chron C3Bn. We show that the LMCIS was globally synchronous within 2 kyr, and provide astronomically calibrated ages anchored to the GPTS for its onset (7.537 Ma; 50% from base Chron C4n.1n) and termination (6.727 Ma; 11% from base Chron C3An.2n), confirming that the terrestrial C3:C4 shift could not have driven the LMCIS. The benthic records show that the transition into the 41-kyr world, when obliquity strongly influenced climate variability, already occurred at 7.7 Ma and further strengthened at 6.4 Ma. Previously unseen, distinctive, asymmetric saw-tooth patterns in benthic δ18O imply that high-latitude forcing played an important role in late Miocene climate dynamics from 7.7-6.9 Ma. This new integrated deep-sea stratigraphy from Site U1337 can act as a new stable isotope and magnetic polarity reference section for the 8.3-6.0 Ma interval.

  11. Lower Miocene stratigraphy along the Panama Canal and its bearing on the Central American Peninsula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Xavier Kirby

    Full Text Available Before the formation of the Central American Isthmus, there was a Central American Peninsula. Here we show that southern Central America existed as a peninsula as early as 19 Ma, based on new lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and strontium chemostratigraphic analyses of the formations exposed along the Gaillard Cut of the Panama Canal. Land mammals found in the Miocene Cucaracha Formation have similar body sizes to conspecific taxa in North America, indicating that there existed a terrestrial connection with North America that allowed gene flow between populations during this time. How long did this peninsula last? The answer hinges on the outcome of a stratigraphic dispute: To wit, is the terrestrial Cucaracha Formation older or younger than the marine La Boca Formation? Previous stratigraphic studies of the Panama Canal Basin have suggested that the Cucaracha Formation lies stratigraphically between the shallow-marine Culebra Formation and the shallow-to-upper-bathyal La Boca Formation, the latter containing the Emperador Limestone. If the La Boca Formation is younger than the Cucaracha Formation, as many think, then the peninsula was short-lived (1-2 m.y., having been submerged in part by the transgression represented by the overlying La Boca Formation. On the other hand, our data support the view that the La Boca Formation is older than the Cucaracha Formation. Strontium dating shows that the La Boca Formation is older (23.07 to 20.62 Ma than both the Culebra (19.83-19.12 Ma and Cucaracha (Hemingfordian to Barstovian North American Land Mammal Ages; 19-14 Ma formations. The Emperador Limestone is also older (21.24-20.99 Ma than the Culebra and Cucaracha formations. What has been called the "La Boca Formation" (with the Emperador Limestone, is re-interpreted here as being the lower part of the Culebra Formation. Our new data sets demonstrate that the main axis of the volcanic arc in southern Central America more than likely existed as a

  12. Paleomagnetic Evidence for 'Oroclinal' Rotation in the Central Japan Arc from Early Miocene Sedimentary Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, H.; Sako, K.; Namikawa, T.; Ando, Y.

    2013-12-01

    In this study we focus on the general curvilinear trend of geologic zones (mainly accretionary complexes) in the central Japan arc. This feature is best represented by the Median Tectonic Line (MTL), a major boundary fault between the Sanbagawa high-P/T and Ryoke low-P/T metamorphic belts. Previous paleomagnetic data imply that the curvature is of 'oroclinal' origin, that is, the curved system was originally straight and formed after the accretionary processes and metamorphism. In order to quantitatively assess this possibility, we have carried out a paleomagnetic study for Early Miocene sedimentary rocks from two areas (Morozaki in Aichi Prefecture and Tomikusa in Nagano Prefecture) in central Japan. In Morozaki, oriented cores were collected at 22 sites from felsic tuff and siltstone beds of the Himaka Formation, which is the lowermost formation of the sedimentary sequence in this area. In Tomikusa, cores were taken at 24 sites from various lithologies of the Tomikusa Group. Rock specimens were subjected to stepwise alternating-field or thermal demagnetization in order to extract characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) components. Rock magnetic experiments suggest that ChRMs are carried primarily by magnetite. The Himaka Formation sites have reverse-polarity ChRM directions, and we consider this formation to be correlative to Chronozone C5Dr (18.056-17.533 Ma). The Tomikusa Group indicates both normal and reverse polarities and can be correlated to Chronozone C5D (18.056-17.235 Ma). Mean paleomagnetic directions for the two areas were determined and, together with existing paleomagnetic data from other areas, they were used for a paleomagnetic orocline test with a declination-strike diagram. Our result strongly suggests that the geologic zones and boundary faults (including the MTL) in the central Japan arc was straight before 18 Ma. We suggest that the oroclinal rotation results from a combination of the clockwise rotation of the southwestern Japan arc and

  13. Petrologic evaluation of Late Miocene Mecitli granitoid in Eastern Anatolian region, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyan, Vural

    2017-04-01

    Eastern Anatolian is a High Plateau which occurred as a result of continent-continent collision between Arabian and Eurasian plates in the Middle Miocene. Following the collision, volcanism observed along the region initiated 15 Ma ago. Most of the studies about the Eastern Anatolian magmatism were concerned with the petrology of collision related volcanics, however, granitic intrusions within the East Anatolia Acceretionary Complex (EAAC) have not been investigated in detail. The present study aims to construct geochemical and magmatic evolution of the Mecitli granitoid (north of Lake Van) within the EAAC. Mecitli granitoids located in the northeast of Lake Van covers an area about 80 km2 and is one of the most important igneous intrusions that observed in limited areas within EAAC and shaped slab. Our new Ar/Ar data indicate that Mecitli granitoid is aged 23 Ma and occurred in Miocene in contrast to known Cretaceous age. The Mecitli granitoid cutting serpantinites and schists is covered by youngest volcanic rocks. MELTS modeling suggest that magmas of the Mecitli granitoid were exposed to fractional crystallization under a crustal pressure of 3-4 kbar with H2O content between 1-1.5 %. EC-AFC model calculation revealed that Mafic Microgranular enclaves(MME) and granites includes to 2% and 6 % crustal assimilation rates, respectively. MORB and primitive mantle normalized pattern and Sr, Nd, Pb isotopic composition as well as trace-REE element compositions of the mafic microgrannular enclav imply that they could have been derived from a mixture between lower crust and lithospheric mantle source that had previously been enriched by a distinct subduction component. The partial melting model calculations obtained by using the REEs suggest that source (SC) that can produce MMEs and granites in this part of the region could have been produced by melting of a bulk mixing between lower crust and upper mantle source with 33 % partial melting degree. To examine the relative

  14. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Oligocene-Miocene deposits of the Tethyan Seaway, Qom Formation, Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabaghi Sadr, Fatemeh; Schmiedl, Gerhard

    2017-04-01

    The Cenozoic climate transition from greenhouse to icehouse conditions was associated with major paleogeographic changes in the Tethyan realm. The closure of the Tethyan Seaway and its Iranian gateways during the terminal Paleogene and early Neogene, between approximately 28 and 18 million years, influenced the latitudinal exchange of water masses and energy and is documented in sediment successions of the Qom formation in central Iran. Little is known on the spatial expression and the exact depositional histories of the Qom Formation on orbital time-scales, including a lack of quantitative sea-level reconstructions and studies on the impact of climatic and tectonic changes on marine ecosystems and sedimentation processes. The PhD project focuses on the investigation of lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, paleoecology and paleoenvironmental evolution of the Iranian gateways based on late Oligocene to early Miocene foraminiferal faunas and carbonate facies from selected sediment sections of the Qom Basin. The Qom Formation was deposited in the Central Iranian back-arc basin during the Oligocene-Miocene. In this study foraminiferal faunas and carbonate microfacies were studied based on total 191 samples of two section of Qom Formation. One of them is Molkabad section, which is located northwest of Molkabad mountains, southeast of Garmsar. The section mainly consists of limestones, calcareous marls, marls, and gypsum-bearing marls with a total thickness of 760 meters. The Qom Formation at Molkabad section overlies Eocene rocks with an unconformity and consists of the following lithostratigraphic units (from the lower to upper part): Lithothamnium Limestone, Lower Marl Limestone, Bryozoa Limestone, and Upper Marl Group. The Molkabad fault separates the Qom Formation from the overlying Upper Red Formation. The other section is located at Navab anticline in Qom Formation .The section mainly consist of limestone, marl, and gypsum with a total thickness of 318 meters Navab

  15. Late Miocene climate and orbital time scale reconciliation from a deep-sea perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Anna Joy; Westerhold, Thomas; Frederichs, Thomas; Tian, Jun; Wilkens, Roy; Channell, James E. T.; Evans, Helen; John, Cédric M.; Lyle, Mitch; Röhl, Ursula

    2017-04-01

    The late Tortonian to early Messinian (8-6 Ma) is characterised by a long-term reduction in benthic foraminiferal δ18O, with distinctive short-term δ18O cycles superimposed. Coevally, a permanent -1‰ change in oceanic δ13CDIC, the late Miocene carbon isotope shift (LMCIS), marks the last major permanent shift in the carbon cycle expressed in all oceanic basins, after which near-modern δ13C gradients are established around 6.7 Ma. Accurate age control is crucial to ascertain the origin of the δ18O cyclicity and the LMCIS, as constraining the precise timing of such events can allow temporal and causal relationships to be established between the deep-sea, terrestrial and cryosphere records. Here, we present the first independent high-resolution chemo-, magneto-, and cyclostratigraphy for the interval between 8.3-6.0 Ma from a single deep-sea site. Generated at equatorial Pacific Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1337, our integrated astronomically tuned benthic stable isotope stratigraphy (1.5 kyr resolution) and magnetostratigraphy is suitable to test the current Tortonian-Messinian Geological Time Scale (GTS2012), currently based on astronomically calibrated Mediterranean sections. Between 7.7-6.9 Ma, the new benthic δ18O and δ13C data from IODP U1337 show distinctive obliquity-driven saw-tooth patterns suggesting that high-latitude forcing dominated late Miocene climate dynamics. For the first time, the LMCIS is astronomically calibrated and anchored to the GPTS between Chrons C4n.1n and C3An.2n. Anchoring the LMCIS facilitates comparison with terrestrial records of the C3/C4 vegetation shift, which has been linked to the LMCIS. The astronomically calibrated Site U1337 magnetostratigraphy additionally provides robust ages for polarity Chrons C3An.1n to C4r.1r, with ages changing by 2-50 kyr relative to the GTS2012. The new integrated deep-sea stratigraphy from Site U1337 has potential as a new stable isotope and magnetic polarity reference

  16. Lower Miocene stratigraphy along the Panama Canal and its bearing on the Central American Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Michael Xavier; Jones, Douglas S; MacFadden, Bruce J

    2008-07-30

    Before the formation of the Central American Isthmus, there was a Central American Peninsula. Here we show that southern Central America existed as a peninsula as early as 19 Ma, based on new lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and strontium chemostratigraphic analyses of the formations exposed along the Gaillard Cut of the Panama Canal. Land mammals found in the Miocene Cucaracha Formation have similar body sizes to conspecific taxa in North America, indicating that there existed a terrestrial connection with North America that allowed gene flow between populations during this time. How long did this peninsula last? The answer hinges on the outcome of a stratigraphic dispute: To wit, is the terrestrial Cucaracha Formation older or younger than the marine La Boca Formation? Previous stratigraphic studies of the Panama Canal Basin have suggested that the Cucaracha Formation lies stratigraphically between the shallow-marine Culebra Formation and the shallow-to-upper-bathyal La Boca Formation, the latter containing the Emperador Limestone. If the La Boca Formation is younger than the Cucaracha Formation, as many think, then the peninsula was short-lived (1-2 m.y.), having been submerged in part by the transgression represented by the overlying La Boca Formation. On the other hand, our data support the view that the La Boca Formation is older than the Cucaracha Formation. Strontium dating shows that the La Boca Formation is older (23.07 to 20.62 Ma) than both the Culebra (19.83-19.12 Ma) and Cucaracha (Hemingfordian to Barstovian North American Land Mammal Ages; 19-14 Ma) formations. The Emperador Limestone is also older (21.24-20.99 Ma) than the Culebra and Cucaracha formations. What has been called the "La Boca Formation" (with the Emperador Limestone), is re-interpreted here as being the lower part of the Culebra Formation. Our new data sets demonstrate that the main axis of the volcanic arc in southern Central America more than likely existed as a peninsula

  17. Post-obduction carbonate system development in New Caledonia (Népoui, Lower Miocene)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurizot, Pierre; Cabioch, Guy; Fournier, François; Leonide, Philippe; Sebih, Salim; Rouillard, Pierrick; Montaggioni, Lucien; Collot, Julien; Martin-Garin, Bertrand; Chaproniere, George; Braga, Juan C.; Sevin, Brice

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, depositional models of Lower Miocene carbonate systems from New Caledonia (Southwest Pacific) are proposed, on the basis of a sedimentological and paleoenvironmental study of both cores and outcrops. In the Népoui area, two distinct stages of carbonate ramp development (Aquitanian Lower Népoui and Burdigalian Upper Népoui carbonate systems), separated by a phase of siliciclastic deltaic deposition, are evidenced. The post-obduction marine transgression of the Western New Caledonian margin occurred at approximately 24 Ma and is characterized by the development of an aggrading foraminiferal-coralline algal-scleractinian ramp system ("Chapeau Chinois Limestone") during the early Aquitanian (24-23 Ma). A retrogradational event is evidenced at approximately 23 Ma followed by the development of a shallowing upward carbonate unit (Operculina "Green Sands" and Xuudhen Limestone) during the late Aquitanian. This unit is topped by a major erosional unconformity overlain by conglomeratic deposits ("Pindaï conglomerates"), and interpreted to record a significant uplift at around 21-19 Ma. During the Burdigalian, a marine transgression occurred at around 19 Ma, followed by the development of a low-angle carbonate ramp or open platform ("Népü Limestone") up to the late Burdigalian (19-17 Ma). In both Aquitanian and Burdigalian carbonate ramps, extensive sea-grass meadows are shown to have colonized the proximal ramp environments within the euphotic zone. In the Aquitanian carbonate ramp (Lower Népoui Formation), carbonate production within sea-grass meadows is dominated by large benthic foraminifera, together with red algae and sparse scleractinians. Mesophotic environments are characterized by large and flat lepidocyclinids, rhodoliths and platy corals whereas in deeper oligophotic settings significant carbonate producers consist mainly of large and flat benthic foraminifera. In the Burdigalian carbonate ramp (Upper Népoui Formation), porcellaneous

  18. Threshold in North Atlantic-Arctic circulation controlled by the Oligocene-Miocene subsidence of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge

    OpenAIRE

    Stärz, Michael; Jokat, Wilfried; Knorr, Gregor; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Changes in high latitude ocean gateways are thought to be main drivers of Cenozoic climate evolution. However, the link between global climate changes and the early ocean gateway formation between the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean (incl. the Greenland and Norwegian Seas) controlled by the subsidence of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge is poorly understood. Here, we use a coupled ocean–atmosphere general circulation model for Oligocene-Miocene boundary conditions to address the ventilation h...

  19. The Early Miocene Critical Zone at Karungu, Western Kenya: An Equatorial, Open Habitat with Few Primate Remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Lukens

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Early Miocene outcrops near Karungu, Western Kenya, preserve a range of fluvio-lacustrine, lowland landscapes that contain abundant fossils of terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates. Primates are notably rare among these remains, although nearby early Miocene strata on Rusinga Island contain a rich assemblage of fossilized catarrhines and strepsirrhines. To explore possible environmental controls on the occurrence of early Miocene primates, we performed a deep-time Critical Zone (DTCZ reconstruction focused on floodplain paleosols at the Ngira locality in Karungu. We specifically focused on a single stratigraphic unit (NG15, which preserves moderately developed paleosols that contain a microvertebrate fossil assemblage. Although similarities between deposits at Karungu and Rusinga Island are commonly assumed, physical sedimentary processes, vegetative cover, soil hydrology, and some aspects of climate state are notably different between the two areas. Estimates of paleoclimate parameters using paleosol B horizon elemental chemistry and morphologic properties are consistent with seasonal, dry subhumid conditions, occasional waterlogging, and herbaceous vegetation. The reconstructed small mammal community indicates periodic waterlogging and open-canopy conditions. Based on the presence of herbaceous root traces, abundant microcharcoal, and pedogenic carbonates with high stable carbon isotope ratios, we interpret NG15 to have formed under a warm, seasonally dry, open riparian woodland to wooded grassland, in which at least a subset of the vegetation was likely C4 biomass. Our results, coupled with previous paleoenvironmental interpretations for deposits on Rusinga Island, demonstrate that there was considerable environmental heterogeneity ranging from open to closed habitats in the early Miocene. We hypothesize that the relative paucity of primates at Karungu was driven by their environmental preference for locally abundant closed canopy vegetation

  20. Fossil amphibians and reptiles from Plakias, Crete: A glimpse into the earliest late Miocene herpetofaunas of southeastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Georgalis, Georgios L.; Villa, Andrea; Vlachos, Evangelos; Delfino, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Fossil amphibians and reptiles from the earliest late Miocene (early Tortonian, MN 9) of Plakias (Crete, Greece) are described in this paper. Most of the material is fragmentary, precluding precise taxonomic assignment. Nevertheless, the herpetofauna of Plakias is here shown to be diverse, comprising at least six different taxa: an alytid anuran, a crocodilian, two turtles (a pan-trionychid and a geoemydid) and two squamates (an amphisbaenian and a colubroid snake). The crocodilian material r...

  1. Quantifying the Mediterranean freshwater budget throughout the late Miocene: New implications for sapropel formation and the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Dirk; Marzocchi, Alice; Flecker, Rachel; Lunt, Daniel J.; Hilgen, Frits J.; Meijer, Paul Th.

    2017-08-01

    The cyclic sedimentary record of the late Miocene Mediterranean shows a clear transition from open marine to restricted conditions and finally to evaporitic environments associated with the Messinian Salinity Crisis. This evolution has been attributed to changes in Mediterranean-Atlantic connectivity and regional climate, which has a strong precessional pulse. 31 Coupled climate simulations with different orbital configurations have been combined in a regression model that estimates the evolution of the freshwater budget of the Mediterranean throughout the late Miocene. The study suggests that wetter conditions occur at precession minima and are enhanced at eccentricity maxima. We use the wetter peaks to predict synthetic sapropel records. Using these to retune two Mediterranean sediment successions indicates that the overall net freshwater budget is the most likely mechanism driving sapropel formation in the late Miocene. Our sapropel timing is offset from precession minima and boreal summer insolation maxima during low eccentricity if the present-day drainage configuration across North Africa is used. This phase offset is removed if at least 50% more water drained into the Mediterranean during the late Miocene, capturing additional North African monsoon precipitation, for example via the Chad-Eosahabi catchment in Libya. In contrast with the clear expression of precession and eccentricity in the model results, obliquity, which is visible in the sapropel record during minimum eccentricity, does not have a strong signal in our model. By exploring the freshwater evolution curve in a box model that also includes Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange, we are able, for the first time, to estimate the Mediterranean's salinity evolution, which is quantitatively consistent with precessional control. Additionally, we separate and quantify the distinct contributions regional climate and tectonic restriction make to the lithological changes associated with the Messinian Salinity

  2. Late Miocene extensional systems in northern Tunisia and their relation with SE directed delamination of the African subcontinental mantle lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Gaidi, Seif; Melki, Fetheddine; Pérez-Peña, Vicente; Marzougui, Wissem; Azañón, Jose Miguel; Galve, Jorge Pedro

    2017-04-01

    Recent work has proposed the delamination of the subcontinental mantle lithosphere under northern Tunisia during the late Miocene. This process is required to explain the present location of the Tunisian segment of the African slab, imaged by seismic tomography, hanging under the Gulf of Gabes to the south of Tunisia. Thus, having retreated towards the SE several hundred km from its original position under the Tellian-Atlas nappe contact that crops out along the north of Tunisia. However, no tectonic structures have been described which could be related to this mechanism of lithospheric mantle peeling. Here we describe for the first time extensional fault systems in northern Tunisia that strongly thinned the Tellian nappes, exhuming rocks from the Tunisian Atlas in the core of folded extensional detachments. Two normal fault systems with sub-orthogonal extensional transport occur. These were active during the late Miocene associated to the extrusion of 13 Ma granodiorite and 9 Ma rhyodacite in the footwall of the Nefza detachment. We have differentiated an extensional system formed by low-angle normal faults with NE- and SW-directed transport cutting through the Early to Middle Miocene Tellian nappen stack and a later system of low and high-angle normal faults that cuts down into the underlying Tunisian Atlas units with SE-directed transport, which root in the Nefza detachment. Both normal fault systems have been later folded and cut by thrusts during Plio-Quaternary NW-SE directed compression. These findings change the interpretation of the tectonic evolution of Tunisia that has always been framed in a transpressive to compressive setting, manifesting the extensional effects of Late Miocene lithospheric mantle delamination under northern Tunisia.

  3. Kangaroo morphometrics: how Miocene kangaroos can inform us about palaeoenvironments and how giant Pleistocene kangaroos managed to locomote

    OpenAIRE

    Janis, Christine Marie

    2015-01-01

    Kangaroos are known today for their spectacular hopping locomotion, but kangaroo diversity in the past tells a different story. Some kinds of extinct kangaroos (sthenurines) grew so large that hopping would seem to be unlikely. Analysis of their bones shows that it is likely that they used walking on two legs as a means of getting around. The diversity of small kangaroos in the Miocene can inform us about palaeoenvironments, and how the higher levels of both temperature and atmospheric carbo...

  4. A new Middle Miocene selachian assemblage (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from the Central Paratethys (Nyirád, Hungary): implications for temporal turnover and biogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Márton; Kocsis, László

    2016-12-01

    A new Middle Miocene (Langhian - early Serravallian) assemblage with shark and ray teeth from Nyirád (Hungary, Transdanubia, Veszprém County) consists of nine families, with 15 different species. The assemblage shares many common genera with other Middle Miocene assemblages in the Paratethys (Notorynchus, Carcharias, Otodus, Cosmopolitodus, Hemipristis, Galeocerdo, Carcharhinus, and Aetobatus), and reflects a subtropical climate and a close connection with the Mediterranean Sea. However, a detailed faunal compilation of Miocene selachians reveals that several taxa that were still present in the Mediterranean or lived in the Paratethys during the Lower Miocene disappeared or became very rare by the Middle Miocene in the Central Paratethys (e.g., Isistius, Centrophorus, Mitsukurina, Carcharoides, Parotodus, Alopias). The taxa that went locally extinct in the Paratethys are mainly represented by deep-water or pelagic forms. Their disappearance is most probably related to the gradual separation of the Paratethys from the Mediterranean. The common presence of some large, rather pelagic sharks (e.g., Otodus, Cosmopolitodus) in the Central Paratethys during the Middle Miocene is explained here by the widespread occurrence of their potential prey represented by marine mammals (e.g., whales and dolphins).

  5. Petrography and geochemistry of the Middle Miocene Gebel El Rusas sandstones, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Implications for provenance and tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Samir M.

    2017-10-01

    Petrography and bulk rock geochemistry of the Middle Miocene sandstones of the lower and upper members of Gebel El Rusas Formation along the Egyptian Red Sea Coastal plain, have been investigated to determine the provenance, tectonic setting, and weathering condition of this formation. The Lower Member is formed mainly of sandstones and conglomerates with clay interbeds. The Upper Member is more calcareous and formed mainly of sandstones and limestones with marls and clays intercalations. Petrographically, the Lower Member sandstones are mostly immature and classified as arkoses with an average framework composition of Q_{66}F_{29}R5, and the Upper Member sandstones are partly submature (more quartzose, less feldspathic) and classified as subarkoses with an average framework composition of Q_{80}F_{17}R3. The Gebel El Rusas sandstones are enriched in Sr, Ba, Zr and Rb and depleted in Co and U, as compared to UCC. The chemical index of alteration (CIA) values suggest moderate weathering conditions. The geochemistry results revealed that the Gebel El Rusas sandstones were derived from felsic-granitic source rocks and deposited in a passive margin of a synrift basin. The inferred tectonic setting for Middle Miocene Gebel El Rusas sandstones in the study area is consistent with the regional geology of the Eastern Desert of Egypt during Middle Miocene.

  6. Ostracods (Crustacea) and their palaeoenvironmental implication for the Solimões Formation (Late Miocene; Western Amazonia/Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Martin; Ramos, Maria Ines; Caporaletti, Marco; Piller, Werner E.

    2013-03-01

    Western Amazonia's landscape and biota were shaped by an enormous wetland during the Miocene epoch. Among the most discussed topics of this ecosystem range the question on the transitory influx of marine waters. Inter alia the occurrence of typically brackish water associated ostracods is repeatedly consulted to infer elevated salinities or even marine ingressions. The taxonomical investigation of ostracod faunas derived from the upper part of the Solimões Formation (Eirunepé; W-Brazil) documents a moderately diverse assemblage (19 species). A wealth of freshwater ostracods (mainly Cytheridella, Penthesilenula) was found co-occurring with taxa (chiefly Cyprideis) usually related to marginal marine settings today. The observed faunal compositions as well as constantly very light δ18O- and δ13C-values obtained by measuring both, the freshwater and brackish water ostracod group, refer to entirely freshwater conditions. These results corroborate with previous sedimentological and palaeontological observations, which proposed a fluvial depositional system for this part of western Amazonia during the Late Miocene. We demonstrate that some endemic, “brackish” water ostracods (i.e., Cyprideis) have been effectively adapted to freshwater conditions. Thus, their occurrence is no univocal evidence for the influence of brackish or marine waters in western Amazonia during the Miocene.

  7. A new Late Miocene great ape from Kenya and its implications for the origins of African great apes and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimatsu, Yutaka; Nakatsukasa, Masato; Sawada, Yoshihiro; Sakai, Tetsuya; Hyodo, Masayuki; Hyodo, Hironobu; Itaya, Tetsumaru; Nakaya, Hideo; Saegusa, Haruo; Mazurier, Arnaud; Saneyoshi, Mototaka; Tsujikawa, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Ayumi; Mbua, Emma

    2007-12-04

    Extant African great apes and humans are thought to have diverged from each other in the Late Miocene. However, few hominoid fossils are known from Africa during this period. Here we describe a new genus of great ape (Nakalipithecus nakayamai gen. et sp. nov.) recently discovered from the early Late Miocene of Nakali, Kenya. The new genus resembles Ouranopithecus macedoniensis (9.6-8.7 Ma, Greece) in size and some features but retains less specialized characters, such as less inflated cusps and better-developed cingula on cheek teeth, and it was recovered from a slightly older age (9.9-9.8 Ma). Although the affinity of Ouranopithecus to the extant African apes and humans has often been inferred, the former is known only from southeastern Europe. The discovery of N. nakayamai in East Africa, therefore, provides new evidence on the origins of African great apes and humans. N. nakayamai could be close to the last common ancestor of the extant African apes and humans. In addition, the associated primate fauna from Nakali shows that hominoids and other non-cercopithecoid catarrhines retained higher diversity into the early Late Miocene in East Africa than previously recognized.

  8. A southern species of the tropical catfish genus Phractocephalus (Teleostei: Siluriformes) in the Miocene of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azpelicueta, María de las Mercedes; Cione, Alberto Luis

    2016-04-01

    Catfish bones from Tortonian (Miocene) freshwater beds of central Argentina are here identified as pertaining to a new species of the tropical pimelodid genus Phractocephalus. The new species differs from the other recent and fossil species of the genus in skull, pectoral girdle and spine characters. The material was found in different localities near the city of Paraná, Entre Ríos Province. The bearing horizon is the so-called "Conglomerado osífero" which constitutes the lowermost beds of the fluvial Ituzaingó Formation. The aquatic vertebrate fauna occurring in the bearing bed shows a similar generic composition to several northern South American Miocene units where Phractocephalus remains were found. This report extends the range of Phractocephalus more than 2000 km to the South. The record is in agreement with higher global temperatures and putative ample hydrographic connections of the river basins in the Paraná area with the Amazon basin until at least the early late Miocene.

  9. Two fossil species ofMetrosideros(Myrtaceae) from the Oligo-Miocene Golden Fleece locality in Tasmania, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarran, Myall; Wilson, Peter G; Macphail, Michael K; Jordan, Greg J; Hill, Robert S

    2017-06-01

    The capsular-fruited genus Metrosideros (Myrtaceae) is one of the most widely distributed flowering plant genera in the Pacific but is extinct in Australia today. The center of geographic origin for the genus and the reason for and timing of its extinction in Australia remain uncertain. We identify fossil Metrosideros fruits from the newly discovered Golden Fleece fossil flora in the Oligo-Miocene of Tasmania, Australia, shedding further light on these problems. Standard paleopalynological techniques were used to date the fossil-bearing sediments. Scanning electron microscopy and an auto-montage camera system were used to take high-resolution images of fossil and extant fruits taken from herbarium specimens. Fossils are identified using a nearest-living-relative approach. The fossil-bearing sediments are palynostratigraphically dated as being Proteacidites tuberculatus Zone Equivalent (ca. 33-16 Ma) in age and provide a confident Oligo-Miocene age for the macrofossils. Two new fossil species of Metrosideros are described and are here named Metrosideros dawsonii sp. nov. and Metrosideros wrightii sp. nov. These newly described fossil species of Metrosideros provide a second record of the genus in the Cenozoic of Australia, placing them in the late Early Oligocene to late Early Miocene. It is now apparent not only that Metrosideros was present in Australia, where the genus is now extinct, but that at least several Metrosideros species were present during the Cenozoic. These fossils further strengthen the case for an Australian origin of the genus. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  10. Chemical changes and carbon isotope variations in a cross-section of a large Miocene gymnospermous log

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, A.L.; Spiker, E. C.

    1992-01-01

    The cross-sectional radius of a 3-m (diam.) brown coal gymnospermous log of Miocene age, previously analyzed for carbohydrate and lignin methoxyl content by solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, was examined using stable carbon isotopic ratios in order to determine if the isotopic composition could be related to chemical changes or to radial position. This study found a possible relationship between ??13C-values and radial position; however, these changes cannot be linked to carbohydrate content and are probably attributable to changing growth conditions during the lifetime of the tree. An apparent linear relationship between the changes in carbohydrate content after sodium para-periodate treatment and corresponding changes in the ??13C-values indicates constant isotopic fractionation between lignin and carbohydrates along the cross-sectional radius. This result indicates that diagenesis has not produced any significant change in the lignin-carbohydrate carbon isotopic fractionation or, alternatively, that diagenesis has erased any fractionation pattern that once existed. A sample of fresh wood from another gymnospermous species was analyzed by the same methods and found to have lignin-carbohydrate carbon isotopic fractionation significantly different from that of the Miocene log section samples, suggesting that differences may be species-related or that the complex mixture of carbohydrates in the fresh wood was isotopically different from that of the degraded wood, and the whole Miocene log was uniformly altered. ?? 1992.

  11. First fossil occurrence of a filefish (Tetraodontiformes; Monacanthidae) in Asia, from the Middle Miocene in Nagano Prefecture, central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Yusuke; Koike, Hakuichi; Matsuoka, Hiroshige

    2014-04-10