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Sample records for rapidly decomposes swine

  1. Decomposable quantum-dots/DNA nanosphere for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of extracellular respiring bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Junlin; Zhou, Shungui; Yu, Zhen; Chen, Junhua; Yang, Guiqin; Tang, Jia

    2018-02-15

    Extracellular respiring bacteria (ERB) are a group of bacteria capable of transferring electrons to extracellular acceptors and have important application in environmental remediation. In this study, a decomposable quantum-dots (QDs)/DNA nanosphere probe was developed for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of ERB. The QDs/DNA nanosphere was self-assembled from QDs-streptavidin conjugate (QDs-SA) and Y-shaped DNA nanostructure that is constructed based on toehold-mediated strand displacement. It can release numerous fluorescent QDs-SA in immunomagnetic separation (IMS)-based immunoassay via simple biotin displacement, which remarkably amplifies the signal of antigen-antibody recognizing event. This QDs/DNA-nanosphere-based IMS-fluorescent immunoassay is ultrasensitive for model ERB Shewanella oneidensis, showing a wide detection range between 1.0 cfu/mL and 1.0 × 108 cfu/mL with a low detection limit of 1.37 cfu/mL. Moreover, the proposed IMS-fluorescent immunoassay exhibits high specificity, acceptable reproducibility and stability. Furthermore, the proposed method shows acceptable recovery (92.4-101.4%) for detection of S. oneidensis spiked in river water samples. The proposed IMS-fluorescent immunoassay advances an intelligent strategy for rapid and ultrasensitive quantitation of low-abundance analyte and thus holds promising potential in food, medical and environmental applications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Development of a Rapid and Sensitive Method for Detection of African Swine Fever Virus Using Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification

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    Xulong Wu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay was developed for rapid, sensitive and specific detection of African swine fever virus (ASFV. A set of LAMP primers was designed based on the sequence of the ASFV gene K205R. Reaction temperature and time were optimized to 64 oC and 60 min, respectively. LAMP products were detected by agarose gel electrophoresis or visually with the addition of fluorescent dye. The detection limit of the LAMP assay was approximately 6 copies of the target gene per microliter, 100 times more sensitive than conventional PCR. LAMP is a simple and inexpensive molecular assay format for ASFV detection. To date, African swine fever has not been reported in China. LAMP can be used to monitor ASFV spread into China, thereby reducing the threat of ASF.

  3. Head-up tilt rapidly compromises hemodynamics in healthy anesthetized swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlcek, M; Belohlavek, J; Huptych, M; Boucek, T; Belza, T; Lacko, S; Krupickova, P; Hrachovina, M; Popkova, M; Neuzil, P; Kittnar, O

    2015-01-01

    The aims were to explore the effect of head-up tilt (HUT) to 30 and 60 degrees on hemodynamics and tissue oxygenation in anesthetized healthy swine. The data serve as a reference for a study of resuscitation efficacy at HUT such as during transport. Nine healthy swine (49+/-4 kg) were anesthetized and multiple sensors including myocardial pressure-volume loops catheter, carotid flow probe, blood pressure catheters, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) tissue oximetry and mixed venous oximetry (SVO2) catheter were introduced and parameters continuously recorded. Experimental protocol consisted of baseline in supine position (15 min), 30 degrees HUT (15 min), recovery at supine position (15 min) and 60 degrees HUT (5 min). Vacuum mattress was used for body fixation during tilts. We found that 30 and 60 degrees inclination led to significant immediate reduction in hemodynamic and oximetry parameters. Mean arterial pressure (mm Hg) decreased from 98 at baseline to 53 and 39, respectively. Carotid blood flow dropped to 47 % and 22 % of baseline values, end diastolic volume to 49 % and 53 % and stroke volume to 47 % and 45 % of baseline. SVO2 and tissue oximetry decreased by 17 and 21 percentage points. The values are means. In conclusions, within minutes, both 30 and 60 degrees head-up tilting is poorly tolerated in anesthetized swine. Significant differences among individual animals exist.

  4. Transthoracic impedance does not decrease with rapidly repeated countershocks in a swine cardiac arrest model.

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    Niemann, James T; Garner, Daniel; Lewis, Roger J

    2003-01-01

    Successful defibrillation is dependent upon the delivery of adequate electrical current to the myocardium. One of the major determinant of current flow is transthoracic impedance. Prior work has suggested that impedance falls with repeated shocks during sinus rhythm. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in transthoracic impedance with repeated defibrillation shocks in an animal model of cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation (VF). VF was electrically induced in anesthetized swine. After 5 min of untreated VF, monophasic or biphasic waveform defibrillation was attempted using a standard sequence of 'stacked shocks' (200, 300, then 360 J, if necessary) administered via adhesive electrodes. If one of the first three shocks failed to convert VF, conventional CPR was initiated and defibrillation (360 J) attempted 1 min later. Strength-duration curves for delivered voltage and current were measured during each shock and transthoracic impedance calculated. Animals requiring a minimum of four shocks were selected for study inclusion. Impedance data from sequential shocks were analyzed using mixed linear models to account for the repeated-measures design and the variability of the initial impedance of individual animals. Thirteen animals (monophasic waveform, n=7, biphasic waveform, n=6) required at least four shocks to terminate VF (range 4-6). Transthoracic impedance did not change from the first shock in the 13 animals (46+/-8 Omega) to the fourth shock (46+/-9 Omega). In animals receiving more than four shocks, transthoracic impedance likewise did not change significantly from the first to the last shock, which terminated VF. The lack of a significant change in impedance was also observed when animals were analyzed according to defibrillation waveform. Transthoracic impedance does not change significantly with repeated shocks in a VF cardiac arrest model. This is likely due to the lack of reactive skin and soft tissue hyperemia and edema observed in

  5. Swine Fecal Metagenomics

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    Metagenomic approaches are providing rapid and more robust means to investigate the composition and functional genetic potential of complex microbial communities. In this study, we utilized a metagenomic approach to further understand the functional diversity of the swine gut. To...

  6. Rapid Detection of Yersinia Pestis Antigen from Decomposed Rodent Viscera Using An Up-Converting Phosphor Technology-Based Lateral-Flow Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingping Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dear Editor, Plague, a seriously infectious zoonotic disease caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis, has claimed millions of lives during three major historic pandemics. Y. pestis, with a minimum infectious dose for mammals of less than 100 organisms (even less than 10 by the subcutaneous route, can proliferate in mammalian macrophages and migrate to internal organs within days. To date, with rodents as reservoirs and fleas as vectors, Y. pestis is widely and persistently distributed in natural foci on most continents (except Australia and poses a high risk to humans. Therefore, surveillance and control of local plague hosts, including decomposed ones, are important in plague-endemic regions. Furthermore, inexpensive, convenient, and reliable point-of-care testing (POCT is essential in resource-limited areas.

  7. Development of a colloidal gold-based lateral-flow immunoassay for the rapid simultaneous detection of clenbuterol and ractopamine in swine urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Zhou; Wang, Min-Zi; Chen, Zong-Lun; Fang, Jie-Hong; Fang, Mei-Ming; Liu, Jun; Yu, Xiao-Ping

    2009-12-01

    A multianalyte lateral-flow immunochromatographic technique using colloidal gold-labeled polyclonal antibodies was developed for the rapid simultaneous detection of clenbuterol and ractopamine. The assay procedure could be accomplished within 5 min, and the results of this qualitative one-step assay were evaluated visually according to whether test lines appeared or not. When applied to the swine urines, the detection limit and the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of the test strip under an optical density scanner were calculated to be 0.1 +/- 0.01 ng mL(-1) and 0.1 +/- 0.01 ng mL(-1), 0.56 +/- 0.08 ng mL(-1), and 0.71 +/- 0.06 ng mL(-1), respectively, the cut-off levels with the naked eye of 1 ng mL(-1) and 1 ng mL(-1) for clenbuterol and ractopamine were observed. Parallel analysis of swine urine samples with clenbuterol and ractopamine showed comparable results obtained from the multianalyte lateral-flow test strip and GC-MS. Therefore, the described multianalyte lateral-flow test strip can be used as a reliable, rapid, and cost-effective on-site screening technique for the simultaneous determination of clenbuterol and ractopamine residues in swine urine.

  8. Swine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plain, Ronald L; Lawrence, John D

    2003-07-01

    The US swine industry is large and growing. The quantity of pork desired by consumers of US pork is growing at the rate of 1.5%/y. New production systems and new technology have enabled production per sow to grow at a rate of 4% annually in recent years. Consequently, the number of sows in the United States is declining. Because productivity growth is outpacing demand growth, the deflated price of hogs and pork is declining. Hog production and prices continue to exhibit strong seasonal and cyclic patterns. Pork production is usually lowest in the summer and highest in the fall. Production and prices tend to follow 4-year patterns. The US swine industry continues to evolve toward fewer and larger producers who rely on contracts for both hog production and marketing. In 2000, over half of the hogs marketed were from approximately 156 firms marketing more than 50,000 head annually. These producers finished 60% of their production in contract facilities. Over 90% of their marketings were under contract or were owned by a packer. These producers expressed a high level of satisfaction with hog production. Both they and their contract growers were satisfied with production contracts. These large producers were satisfied with their marketing contracts and planned to continue them in the future. The hog industry has changed a great deal in the last decade. There is little reason to believe this rapid rate of change will not continue. This swine industry is highly competitive and profit driven. Profit margins are too small to allow producers the luxury of ignoring new technology and innovative production systems. Consequently, hog production will continue its rapid evolution from traditional agriculture to typical industry.

  9. Winthrop-University Hospital Infectious Disease Division's swine influenza (H1N1) pneumonia diagnostic weighted point score system for hospitalized adults with influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) and negative rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs).

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    Cunha, Burke A; Syed, Uzma; Stroll, Stephanie; Mickail, Nardeen; Laguerre, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In spring 2009, a novel strain of influenza A originating in Veracruz, Mexico, quickly spread to the United States and throughout the world. This influenza A virus was the product of gene reassortment of 4 different genetic elements: human influenza, swine influenza, avian influenza, and Eurasian swine influenza. In the United States, New York was the epicenter of the swine influenza (H1N1) pandemic. Hospital emergency departments (EDs) were inundated with patients with influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) requesting screening for H1N1. Our ED screening, as well as many others, used a rapid screening test for influenza A (QuickVue A/B) because H1N1 was a variant of influenza A. The definitive laboratory test i.e., RT-PCR for H1N1 was developed by the Centers for Disease Control (Atlanta, GA) and subsequently distributed to health departments. Because of the extraordinary volume of test requests, health authorities restricted reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing. Hence most EDs, including our own, were dependent on rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) for swine influenza. A positive rapid influenza A test was usually predictive of RT-PCR H1N1 positivity, but the rapid influenza A screening test (QuickVue A/B) was associated with 30% false negatives. The inability to rely on RIDTs for H1N1 diagnosis resulted in underdiagnosing H1N1. Confronted with adults admitted with ILIs, negative RIDTs, and restricted RT-PCR testing, there was a critical need to develop clinical criteria to diagnose probable swine influenza H1N1 pneumonia. During the pandemic, the Infectious Disease Division at Winthrop-University Hospital developed clinical criteria for adult admitted patients with ILIs and negative RIDTs. Similar to the one developed for the clinical diagnosis of legionnaire's disease. The Winthrop-University Hospital Infectious Disease Division's diagnostic weighted point score system for swine influenza H1N1 pneumonia is based on key clinical and

  10. Decomposing Multifractal Crossovers

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    Zoltan Nagy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Physiological processes—such as, the brain's resting-state electrical activity or hemodynamic fluctuations—exhibit scale-free temporal structuring. However, impacts common in biological systems such as, noise, multiple signal generators, or filtering by transport function, result in multimodal scaling that cannot be reliably assessed by standard analytical tools that assume unimodal scaling. Here, we present two methods to identify breakpoints or crossovers in multimodal multifractal scaling functions. These methods incorporate the robust iterative fitting approach of the focus-based multifractal formalism (FMF. The first approach (moment-wise scaling range adaptivity allows for a breakpoint-based adaptive treatment that analyzes segregated scale-invariant ranges. The second method (scaling function decomposition method, SFD is a crossover-based design aimed at decomposing signal constituents from multimodal scaling functions resulting from signal addition or co-sampling, such as, contamination by uncorrelated fractals. We demonstrated that these methods could handle multimodal, mono- or multifractal, and exact or empirical signals alike. Their precision was numerically characterized on ideal signals, and a robust performance was demonstrated on exemplary empirical signals capturing resting-state brain dynamics by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, electroencephalography (EEG, and blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI-BOLD. The NIRS and fMRI-BOLD low-frequency fluctuations were dominated by a multifractal component over an underlying biologically relevant random noise, thus forming a bimodal signal. The crossover between the EEG signal components was found at the boundary between the δ and θ bands, suggesting an independent generator for the multifractal δ rhythm. The robust implementation of the SFD method should be regarded as essential in the seamless processing of large volumes of bimodal f

  11. Decomposing Multifractal Crossovers

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    Nagy, Zoltan; Mukli, Peter; Herman, Peter; Eke, Andras

    2017-01-01

    Physiological processes—such as, the brain's resting-state electrical activity or hemodynamic fluctuations—exhibit scale-free temporal structuring. However, impacts common in biological systems such as, noise, multiple signal generators, or filtering by transport function, result in multimodal scaling that cannot be reliably assessed by standard analytical tools that assume unimodal scaling. Here, we present two methods to identify breakpoints or crossovers in multimodal multifractal scaling functions. These methods incorporate the robust iterative fitting approach of the focus-based multifractal formalism (FMF). The first approach (moment-wise scaling range adaptivity) allows for a breakpoint-based adaptive treatment that analyzes segregated scale-invariant ranges. The second method (scaling function decomposition method, SFD) is a crossover-based design aimed at decomposing signal constituents from multimodal scaling functions resulting from signal addition or co-sampling, such as, contamination by uncorrelated fractals. We demonstrated that these methods could handle multimodal, mono- or multifractal, and exact or empirical signals alike. Their precision was numerically characterized on ideal signals, and a robust performance was demonstrated on exemplary empirical signals capturing resting-state brain dynamics by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), electroencephalography (EEG), and blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI-BOLD). The NIRS and fMRI-BOLD low-frequency fluctuations were dominated by a multifractal component over an underlying biologically relevant random noise, thus forming a bimodal signal. The crossover between the EEG signal components was found at the boundary between the δ and θ bands, suggesting an independent generator for the multifractal δ rhythm. The robust implementation of the SFD method should be regarded as essential in the seamless processing of large volumes of bimodal fMRI-BOLD imaging data for

  12. Decomposable log-linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Poul Svante

    can be characterized by a structured set of conditional independencies between some variables given some other variables. We term the new model class decomposable log-linear models, which is illustrated to be a much richer class than decomposable graphical models.It covers a wide range of non...

  13. Development of a rapid, simple, and specific real-time PCR assay for detection of pseudorabies viral DNA in domestic swine herds.

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    Sayler, Katherine A; Bigelow, Troy; Koster, Leo G; Swenson, Sabrina; Bounds, Courtney; Hernández, Felipe; Wisely, Samantha M

    2017-07-01

    Despite successful eradication of pseudorabies virus (PRV) from the commercial pig industry in the United States in 2004, large populations of feral swine in certain regions act as wildlife reservoirs for the virus. Given the threat of reintroduction of the virus into domestic herds, a rapid, reliable, easily implemented assay is needed for detection of PRV. Although a real-time PCR (rtPCR) assay exists, improvements in rtPCR technology and a greater understanding of the diversity of PRV strains worldwide require an assay that would be easier to implement, more cost effective, and more specific. We developed a single-tube, rapid rtPCR that is capable of detecting 10 copies of PRV glycoprotein B ( gB) DNA per 20-µL total volume reaction. The assay did not produce a false-positive in samples known to be negative for the virus. The assay was negative for genetically similar herpesviruses and other porcine viruses. Our assay is a highly specific and sensitive assay that is also highly repeatable and reproducible. The assay should be a useful tool for early detection of PRV in pigs in the case of a suspected introduction or outbreak situation.

  14. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

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    ... Variant Other Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Language: English (US) Español Recommend on ... similar to outbreaks in humans. How many swine flu viruses are there? Like influenza viruses in humans ...

  15. Challenge of Pigs with Classical Swine Fever Viruses after C-Strain Vaccination Reveals Remarkably Rapid Protection and Insights into Early Immunity

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    Haines, Felicity J.; Johns, Helen L.; Sosan, Olubukola A.; Salguero, Francisco J.; Clifford, Derek J.; Steinbach, Falko; Drew, Trevor W.; Crooke, Helen R.

    2012-01-01

    Pre-emptive culling is becoming increasingly questioned as a means of controlling animal diseases, including classical swine fever (CSF). This has prompted discussions on the use of emergency vaccination to control future CSF outbreaks in domestic pigs. Despite a long history of safe use in endemic areas, there is a paucity of data on aspects important to emergency strategies, such as how rapidly CSFV vaccines would protect against transmission, and if this protection is equivalent for all viral genotypes, including highly divergent genotype 3 strains. To evaluate these questions, pigs were vaccinated with the Riemser® C-strain vaccine at 1, 3 and 5 days prior to challenge with genotype 2.1 and 3.3 challenge strains. The vaccine provided equivalent protection against clinical disease caused by for the two challenge strains and, as expected, protection was complete at 5 days post-vaccination. Substantial protection was achieved after 3 days, which was sufficient to prevent transmission of the 3.3 strain to animals in direct contact. Even by one day post-vaccination approximately half the animals were partially protected, and were able to control the infection, indicating that a reduction of the infectious potential is achieved very rapidly after vaccination. There was a close temporal correlation between T cell IFN-γ responses and protection. Interestingly, compared to responses of animals challenged 5 days after vaccination, challenge of animals 3 or 1 days post-vaccination resulted in impaired vaccine-induced T cell responses. This, together with the failure to detect a T cell IFN-γ response in unprotected and unvaccinated animals, indicates that virulent CSFV can inhibit the potent antiviral host defences primed by C-strain in the early period post vaccination. PMID:22235283

  16. Forensic entomology of decomposing humans and their decomposing pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R

    2015-02-01

    Domestic pets are commonly found in the homes of decedents whose deaths are investigated by a medical examiner or coroner. When these pets become trapped with a decomposing decedent they may resort to feeding on the body or succumb to starvation and/or dehydration and begin to decompose as well. In this case report photographic documentation of cases involving pets and decedents were examined from 2009 through the beginning of 2014. This photo review indicated that in many cases the pets were cats and dogs that were trapped with the decedent, died and were discovered in a moderate (bloat to active decay) state of decomposition. In addition three cases involving decomposing humans and their decomposing pets are described as they were processed for time of insect colonization by forensic entomological approach. Differences in timing and species colonizing the human and animal bodies were noted as was the potential for the human or animal derived specimens to contaminate one another at the scene. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Decomposing change in life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W.; Canudas Romo, Vladimir

    2003-01-01

    at all ages, and the second term captures the effect of heterogeneity in the pace of improvement in mortality at different ages. We extend the formula to decompose change in life expectancy into age-specific and cause-specific components, and apply the methods to analyze changes in life expectancy......We extend Nathan Keyfitz's research on continuous change in life expectancy over time by presenting and proving a new formula for decomposing such change. The formula separates change in life expectancy over time into two terms. The first term captures the general effect of reduction in death rates...

  18. Evaluation of culture methods for rapid screening of swine faecal samples for Yersinia enterocolitica O : 3 biotype 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Holmvig, C.B.F.

    1999-01-01

    In two studies, seven different culture protocols were compared to test naturally contaminated faecal samples from pigs for isolation of Y. enterocolitica serotype O; 3/biotype 4( n = 70 and n = 79). Four of the protocols were based on the Nordic Committee on Food Analysis (NMKL protocols), while...... three protocols were based on a rapid and selective method (here called ITC protocols). The protocols differed mainly in time of pre-enrichment (1, 10 and 24 d) and enrichment (2, 10, 24 d) and the type of selective enrichment media (ITC vs. MRB). The sensitivity of the rapid ITC protocol (24% and 9...... indicate possibilities of shortening the culture methods by replacing most of the biochemical tests with an agglutination test based on a monoclonal antibody....

  19. Rapid detection and subtyping of European swine influenza viruses in porcine clinical samples by haemagglutinin- and neuraminidase-specific tetra- and triplex real-time RT-PCRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henritzi, Dinah; Zhao, Na; Starick, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Background A diversifying pool of mammalian-adapted influenza A viruses (IAV) with largely unknown zoonotic potential is maintained in domestic swine populations worldwide. The most recent human influenza pandemic in 2009 was caused by a virus with genes originating from IAV isolated from swine....... Swine influenza viruses (SIV) are widespread in European domestic pig populations and evolve dynamically. Knowledge regarding occurrence, spread and evolution of potentially zoonotic SIV in Europe is poorly understood. Objectives Efficient SIV surveillance programmes depend on sensitive and specific...... algorithm is proposed for the combined detection in clinical samples and subtyping of SIV strains currently circulating in Europe that is based on a generic, M-gene-specific influenza A virus RT-qPCR. In a second step, positive samples are examined by tetraplex HA- and triplex NA-specific RT...

  20. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

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    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  1. Composing and decomposing data types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    data types and to define extensible functions on data types in an ad hoc manner. The implementation makes essential use of closed type families in Haskell. The use of closed type families instead of type classes comes with a set of trade-offs, which we review in detail. Finally, we show that our......Wouter Swierstra's data types à la carte is a technique to modularise data type definitions in Haskell. We give an alternative implementation of data types à la carte that offers more flexibility in composing and decomposing data types. To achieve this, we refine the subtyping constraint, which...... is at the centre of data types à la carte. On the one hand this refinement is more general, allowing subtypings that intuitively should hold but were not derivable beforehand. This aspect of our implementation removes previous restrictions on how data types can be combined. On the other hand our refinement is more...

  2. Decomposing global crop yield variability

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    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Makowski, David

    2014-11-01

    Recent food crises have highlighted the need to better understand the between-year variability of agricultural production. Although increasing future production seems necessary, the globalization of commodity markets suggests that the food system would also benefit from enhanced supplies stability through a reduction in the year-to-year variability. Here, we develop an analytical expression decomposing global crop yield interannual variability into three informative components that quantify how evenly are croplands distributed in the world, the proportion of cultivated areas allocated to regions of above or below average variability and the covariation between yields in distinct world regions. This decomposition is used to identify drivers of interannual yield variations for four major crops (i.e., maize, rice, soybean and wheat) over the period 1961-2012. We show that maize production is fairly spread but marked by one prominent region with high levels of crop yield interannual variability (which encompasses the North American corn belt in the USA, and Canada). In contrast, global rice yields have a small variability because, although spatially concentrated, much of the production is located in regions of below-average variability (i.e., South, Eastern and South Eastern Asia). Because of these contrasted land use allocations, an even cultivated land distribution across regions would reduce global maize yield variance, but increase the variance of global yield rice. Intermediate results are obtained for soybean and wheat for which croplands are mainly located in regions with close-to-average variability. At the scale of large world regions, we find that covariances of regional yields have a negligible contribution to global yield variance. The proposed decomposition could be applied at any spatial and time scales, including the yearly time step. By addressing global crop production stability (or lack thereof) our results contribute to the understanding of a key

  3. Rapid determination of five antibiotic residues in swine wastewater by online solid-phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagiri-Endo, Misako; Suzuki, Shigeru; Nakamura, Tomoyuki; Hatakeyama, Takashi; Kawamukai, Kazuo

    2009-02-01

    A simple and quick online solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled to liquid chromatography (LC)/tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for the determination of the five antibiotics (florfenicol, FF; lincomycin, LCM; oxytetracyclin, OTC; tylosin, TS; valnemulin, VLM) in swine wastewater has been developed. After filtration, aliquots (100 microl) of wastewater samples were directly injected to a column-switching LC system. Some matrix interference was removed by washing up SPE column with 0.2% formic acid solution and acetonitrile. Antibiotics eluted from SPE column were separated on analytical column by converting switching valve and were detected by MS/MS. Calibration curves using the method of standard addition had very good correlation coefficients (r > 0.99) in the range of 0.1 to 2 ng/ml. The intra-day precision of the method was less than 12% and the inter-day precision was between 6 to 17%. The detection limits were 0.01-0.1 ng/ml. When this method was applied to wastewater samples in swine facilities, four compounds (LCM, OTC, TS, and VLM) were detected.

  4. Tomographic Reconstruction Methods for Decomposing Directional Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongskov, Rasmus Dalgas; Dong, Yiqiu

    X-ray computed tomography technique has many different practical applications. In this paper, we propose two new reconstruction methods that can decompose objects at the same time. By incorporating direction information, the proposed methods can decompose objects into various directional components...

  5. Decomposability queueing and computer system applications

    CERN Document Server

    Courtois, P J

    1977-01-01

    Decomposability: Queueing and Computer System Applications presents a set of powerful methods for systems analysis. This 10-chapter text covers the theory of nearly completely decomposable systems upon which specific analytic methods are based.The first chapters deal with some of the basic elements of a theory of nearly completely decomposable stochastic matrices, including the Simon-Ando theorems and the perturbation theory. The succeeding chapters are devoted to the analysis of stochastic queuing networks that appear as a type of key model. These chapters also discuss congestion problems in

  6. Experimental evidence that the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model best describes the evolution of leaf litter decomposability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xu; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Zhao, Wei-Wei; Liu, Guo-Fang; Hu, Yu-Kun; Prinzing, Andreas; Dong, Ming; Cornwell, William K

    2014-09-01

    Leaf litter decomposability is an important effect trait for ecosystem functioning. However, it is unknown how this effect trait evolved through plant history as a leaf 'afterlife' integrator of the evolution of multiple underlying traits upon which adaptive selection must have acted. Did decomposability evolve in a Brownian fashion without any constraints? Was evolution rapid at first and then slowed? Or was there an underlying mean-reverting process that makes the evolution of extreme trait values unlikely? Here, we test the hypothesis that the evolution of decomposability has undergone certain mean-reverting forces due to strong constraints and trade-offs in the leaf traits that have afterlife effects on litter quality to decomposers. In order to test this, we examined the leaf litter decomposability and seven key leaf traits of 48 tree species in the temperate area of China and fitted them to three evolutionary models: Brownian motion model (BM), Early burst model (EB), and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model (OU). The OU model, which does not allow unlimited trait divergence through time, was the best fit model for leaf litter decomposability and all seven leaf traits. These results support the hypothesis that neither decomposability nor the underlying traits has been able to diverge toward progressively extreme values through evolutionary time. These results have reinforced our understanding of the relationships between leaf litter decomposability and leaf traits in an evolutionary perspective and may be a helpful step toward reconstructing deep-time carbon cycling based on taxonomic composition with more confidence.

  7. Safely coupling livestock and crop production systems: how rapidly do antibiotic resistance genes dissipate in soil following a commercial application of swine or dairy manure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Romain; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Murray, Roger; Scott, Andrew; Sabourin, Lyne; Topp, Edward

    2014-05-01

    Animal manures recycled onto crop production land carry antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The present study evaluated the fate in soil of selected genes associated with antibiotic resistance or genetic mobility in field plots cropped to vegetables and managed according to normal farming practice. Referenced to unmanured soil, fertilization with swine or dairy manure increased the relative abundance of the gene targets sul1, erm(B), str(B), int1, and IncW repA. Following manure application in the spring of 2012, gene copy number decayed exponentially, reaching background levels by the fall of 2012. In contrast, gene copy number following manure application in the fall of 2012 or spring of 2013 increased significantly in the weeks following application and then declined. In both cases, the relative abundance of gene copy numbers had not returned to background levels by the fall of 2013. Overall, these results suggest that under conditions characteristic of agriculture in a humid continental climate, a 1-year period following a commercial application of raw manure is sufficient to ensure that an additional soil burden of antibiotic resistance genes approaches background. The relative abundance of several gene targets exceeded background during the growing season following a spring application or an application done the previous fall. Results from the present study reinforce the advisability of treating manure prior to use in crop production systems.

  8. Decomposed and non-decomposed bodies retrieved from water: a comparative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambade, Vipul Namdeorao; Kukde, Hemant Ghanshyam; Malani, Ajit; Tumram, Nilesh Keshav; Borkar, Jaydeo Laxman; Batra, Anil Krishnaram; Meshram, Satin Kalidas

    2013-01-01

    The cause and manner of death in submersion cases are a routine challenge for forensic pathologists as they present considerable diagnostic difficulties. The present study was undertaken with a view to determine the characteristic pattern in bodies retrieved from water. From a total of 6779 medicolegal deaths reported at an Apex Medical Centre, Yeotmal, a rural district of Maharashtra over a 10-year study period, only 110 cases (1.6%) were decomposed and 243 cases (3.6%) were non-decomposed bodies retrieved from water with a rate of 0.6 decomposed body as compared with 1.4 non-decomposed bodies per 100,000 population per year. However, out of total 353 bodies retrieved from water, 31.2% were decomposed and 68.8% non-decomposed. Male predominance was seen in both groups with peak at 31-40 years. The cause and manner of death were ascertained as 89.9% and 82.7%, respectively, in decomposed bodies as compared with 100% and 96.3%, respectively, in non-decomposed bodies. Drowning was the commonest cause of death in both groups with suicide as the commonest manner of death in decomposed bodies in contrast to accidental in non-decomposed bodies. Excessive amount of pleural fluid, aquatic animal activity and mud/vegetation in lower respiratory tract was more commonly encountered in decomposed bodies. However, fine white froth was not seen in any of the cases in contrast to 81% non-decomposed bodies. Bodies were commonly recovered from wells in both groups. Most of the bodies were retrieved in the rainy season followed by summer and winter seasons in both groups.

  9. Fungal community on decomposing leaf litter undergoes rapid successional changes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Voříšková, Jana; Baldrian, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2013), s. 477-486 ISSN 1751-7362 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10152; GA MŠk LD12050; GA ČR GAP504/12/0709 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : fungi * litter decomposition * cellulose Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 9.267, year: 2013

  10. On decomposing languages defined by parallel devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven

    1975-01-01

    In this paper we give a method for decomposing subclasses of different families of languages, into other possibly smaller families. This method can be used to produce languages not in a family by using known examples of languages not belonging to other families....

  11. Creating and decomposing vector Bessel beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available -1 58th Annual SAIP Conference, Richards Bay, 8-12 July 2013 Creating and decomposing vector Bessel beams Angela Dudley1,*, Yanming Li2, Thandeka Mhlanga1, Michael Escuti2 and Andrew Forbes1 1 CSIR National Laser Centre, Pretoria, South...

  12. Scalable Domain Decomposed Monte Carlo Particle Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Matthew Joseph [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-12-05

    In this dissertation, we present the parallel algorithms necessary to run domain decomposed Monte Carlo particle transport on large numbers of processors (millions of processors). Previous algorithms were not scalable, and the parallel overhead became more computationally costly than the numerical simulation.

  13. A note on arbitrarily vertex decomposable graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Marczyk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A graph \\(G\\ of order \\(n\\ is said to be arbitrarily vertex decomposable if for each sequence \\((n_{1},\\ldots,n_k\\ of positive integers such that \\(n_{1}+\\ldots+n_{k}=n\\ there exists a partition \\((V_{1},\\ldots,V_{k}\\ of the vertex set of \\(G\\ such that for each \\(i \\in \\{1,\\ldots,k\\}\\, \\(V_{i}\\ induces a connected subgraph of \\(G\\ on \\(n_i\\ vertices. In this paper we show that if \\(G\\ is a two-connected graph on \\(n\\ vertices with the independence number at most \\(\\lceil n/2\\rceil\\ and such that the degree sum of any pair of non-adjacent vertices is at least \\(n-3\\, then \\(G\\ is arbitrarily vertex decomposable. We present another result for connected graphs satisfying a similar condition, where the bound \\(n-3\\ is replaced by \\(n-2\\.

  14. Catalytic cartridge SO/sub 3/ decomposer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1980-11-18

    A catalytic cartridge surrounding a heat pipe driven by a heat source is utilized as a SO/sub 3/ decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a cross-flow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube surrounding the heat pipe. In the axial-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and surrounding the heat pipe. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety. A fusion reactor may be used as the heat source.

  15. Optimal decomposable witnesses without the spanning property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusiak, Remigiusz [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Sarbicki, Gniewomir [Insitute of Physics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudzicdzka 5, PL-87-100 Torun (Poland); Lewenstein, Maciej [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); ICREA-Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, Lluis Companys 23, E-08010 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    One of the unsolved problems in the characterization of the optimal entanglement witnesses is the existence of optimal witnesses acting on bipartite Hilbert spaces H{sub m,n}=C{sup m} x C{sup n} such that the product vectors obeying =0 do not span H{sub m,n}. So far, the only known examples of such witnesses were found among indecomposable witnesses, one of them being the witness corresponding to the Choi map. However, it remains an open question whether decomposable witnesses exist without the property of spanning. Here we answer this question affirmatively, providing systematic examples of such witnesses. Then, we generalize some of the recently obtained results on the characterization of 2 x n optimal decomposable witnesses [R. Augusiak et al., J. Phys. A 44, 212001 (2011)] to finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces H{sub m,n} with m,n{>=}3.

  16. Multiple decomposability of probabilities on contractible locally ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Definition 3.1). As mentioned before, μ is n-times τ-decomposable iff μ has a representation as (n + 1)-times iterated convolution product. To be allowed to ..... Then the classical version of the equivalence theorem holds: If νi , i ≥ 0, ν, are probabilities and Xi ,i ≥ 0, Y are independent G-valued random variables with ...

  17. Signature wood modifications reveal decomposer community history.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S Schilling

    Full Text Available Correlating plant litter decay rates with initial tissue traits (e.g. C, N contents is common practice, but in woody litter, predictive relationships are often weak. Variability in predicting wood decomposition is partially due to territorial competition among fungal decomposers that, in turn, have a range of nutritional strategies (rot types and consequences on residues. Given this biotic influence, researchers are increasingly using culture-independent tools in an attempt to link variability more directly to decomposer groups. Our goal was to complement these tools by using certain wood modifications as 'signatures' that provide more functional information about decomposer dominance than density loss. Specifically, we used dilute alkali solubility (DAS; higher for brown rot and lignin:density loss (L:D; higher for white rot to infer rot type (binary and fungal nutritional mode (gradient, respectively. We first determined strength of pattern among 29 fungi of known rot type by correlating DAS and L:D with mass loss in birch and pine. Having shown robust relationships for both techniques above a density loss threshold, we then demonstrated and resolved two issues relevant to species consortia and field trials, 1 spatial patchiness creating gravimetric bias (density bias, and 2 brown rot imprints prior or subsequent to white rot replacement (legacy effects. Finally, we field-tested our methods in a New Zealand Pinus radiata plantation in a paired-plot comparison. Overall, results validate these low-cost techniques that measure the collective histories of decomposer dominance in wood. The L:D measure also showed clear potential in classifying 'rot type' along a spectrum rather than as a traditional binary type (brown versus white rot, as it places the nutritional strategies of wood-degrading fungi on a scale (L:D=0-5, in this case. These information-rich measures of consequence can provide insight into their biological causes, strengthening the

  18. Decomposed Implicit Models of Piecewise - Linear Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brzobohaty

    1992-05-01

    Full Text Available The general matrix form of the implicit description of a piecewise-linear (PWL network and the symbolic block diagram of the corresponding circuit model are proposed. Their decomposed forms enable us to determine quite separately the existence of the individual breakpoints of the resultant PWL characteristic and their coordinates using independent network parameters. For the two-diode and three-diode cases all the attainable types of the PWL characteristic are introduced.

  19. [Effect of cellulose-decomposing strain on microbial community of cow manure compost].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Li, Wan; Xu, Xiu-Hong; Li, Hong-Tao

    2011-10-01

    Taking the cow dung and straw as composting raw materials, effect of cellulose-decomposing strain on microbial community of cow manure compost was investigated with the traditional culture method and PCR-DGGE technique. The results showed that the microbiological inocula showed a more rapid rate of temperature elevation at the start of composting and prolonged the time of high-temperature process and increased the number of microbial. The DGGE map of cellulose-decomposing strain compost was different from natural compost, the succession of microbial community in cellulose-decomposing strain was faster than natural compost. Sequence comparison revealed that the Pseudomonas sp. of bacterial appeared at the initial stage and Acinetobacter sp., Flavobacteria were existed at the high-temperature process in natural compost; while Arthrobacter sp. was appeared at the high-temperature process in cellulose-decomposing strain compost. Bacillus sp. was dominant species at middle and later stage in natural compost and cellulose-decomposing strain compost. Eimeriidae of fungal appeared in compost materials, Aspergillus and thermophilic fungi were dominant species at the high-temperature process in natural compost and cellulose-decomposing strain compost. Ascomycota appeared at middle and later stage in natural compost; while Basidiomycetes in cellulose-decomposing strain compost. Aspergillus was found throughout the process. This result suggested that the microbiological inocula were able to facilitate the bacterial microbial diversity of the compost; reduced the fungal microbial diversity of the compost. The aims of this study were to provide a scientific basis to the diversity of microbial community by monitoring the dynamics of microbial community in cellulose-decomposing strain compost and represent an important step towards the understanding of microbiological inocula and its function in the degradation process of compost.

  20. Functional diversity of terrestrial microbial decomposers and their substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Fromin, Nathalie; Barantal, Sandra

    2011-05-01

    The relationship between biodiversity and biogeochemical processes gained much interest in light of the rapidly decreasing biodiversity worldwide. In this article, we discuss the current status, challenges and prospects of functional concepts to plant litter diversity and microbial decomposer diversity. We also evaluate whether these concepts permit a better understanding of how biodiversity is linked to litter decomposition as a key ecosystem process influencing carbon and nutrient cycles. Based on a literature survey, we show that plant litter and microbial diversity matters for decomposition, but that considering numbers of taxonomic units appears overall as little relevant and less useful than functional diversity. However, despite easily available functional litter traits and the well-established theoretical framework for functional litter diversity, the impact of functional litter diversity on decomposition is not yet well enough explored. Defining functional diversity of microorganisms remains one of the biggest challenges for functional approaches to microbial diversity. Recent developments in microarray and metagenomics technology offer promising possibilities in the assessment of the functional structure of microbial communities. This might allow significant progress in measuring functional microbial diversity and ultimately in our ability to predict consequences of biodiversity loss in the decomposer system for biogeochemical processes. Copyright © 2011 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Decomposing Cross-Country Differences in Skills:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Rosdahl, Anders

    2017-01-01

    among Finns with high school and less than high school education. The Finnish average score is pulled substantially downwards as a consequence of the low numeracy skill level among older Finns, which is consistent with an increase in the quantity or quality of Finnish education over time, relative......This paper performs multivariate analysis of skill differences in the Nordic countries as assessed by OECD’s PIACC survey of adults aged 16-65. We decompose the differences in average skills between Finland and each of the three Scandinavian countries into a component that is due to different skill...

  2. Bacterial succession on decomposing leaf litter exhibits a specific occurrence pattern of cellulolytic taxa and potential decomposers of fungal mycelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tláskal, Vojtěch; Voříšková, Jana; Baldrian, Petr

    2016-11-01

    The decomposition of dead plant biomass contributes to the carbon cycle and is one of the key processes in temperate forests. While fungi in litter decomposition drive the chemical changes occurring in litter, the bacterial community appears to be important as well, especially later in the decomposition process when its abundance increases. In this paper, we describe the bacterial community composition in live Quercus petraea leaves and during the subsequent two years of litter decomposition. Members of the classes Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria and the phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria were dominant throughout the experiment. Bacteria present in the oak phyllosphere were rapidly replaced by other taxa after leaf senescence. There were dynamic successive changes in community composition, in which the early-stage (months 2-4), mid-stage (months 6-8) and late-stage (months 10-24) decomposer communities could be distinguished, and the diversity increased with time. Bacteria associated with dead fungal mycelium were important during initial decomposition, with sequence relative abundances of up to 40% of the total bacterial community in months 2 and 4 when the highest fungal biomass was observed. Cellulose-decomposing bacteria were less frequent, with abundance ranging from 4% to 15%. The bacterial community dynamics reflects changes in the availability of possible resources either of the plant or microbial origin. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Parvoviral Infections in Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Došen Radoslav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral infections hold an important place among factors which can cause disorders in swine reproduction. Infections with the porcine parvovirus (PPV are present in all herds. In the past four years, 70-77% seropositive animals have been registered in herds of the industrial type. There are increasing reports about disorders in swine reproduction, both from individual breeders and mini farmers, caused by parvoviral infections. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the latest knowledge on epizootiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics, and prophylaxis of this diseases.

  4. Supporting Knowledge Transfer through Decomposable Reasoning Artifacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, William A.; May, Richard A.; Turner, Alan E.

    2007-01-03

    Technology to support knowledge transfer and cooperative inquiry must offer its users the ability to effectively interpret knowledge structures produced by collaborators. Communicating the reasoning processes that underlie a finding is one method for enhancing interpretation, and can result in more effective evaluation and application of shared knowledge. In knowledge management tools, interpretation is aided by creating knowledge artifacts that can expose their provenance to scrutiny and that can be transformed into diverse representations that suit their consumers’ perspectives and preferences. We outline the information management needs of inquiring communities characterized by hypothesis generation tasks, and propose a model for communication, based in theories of hermeneutics, semiotics, and abduction, in which knowledge structures can be decomposed into the lower-level reasoning artifacts that produced them. We then present a proof-of-concept implementation for an environment to support the capture and communication of analytic products, with emphasis on the domain of intelligence analysis.

  5. Decomposability and mental representation of French verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estivalet, Gustavo L; Meunier, Fanny E

    2015-01-01

    In French, regardless of stem regularity, inflectional verbal suffixes are extremely regular and paradigmatic. Considering the complexity of the French verbal system, we argue that all French verbs are polymorphemic forms that are decomposed during visual recognition independently of their stem regularity. We conducted a behavioral experiment in which we manipulated the surface and cumulative frequencies of verbal inflected forms and asked participants to perform a visual lexical decision task. We tested four types of verbs with respect to their stem variants: a. fully regular (parler "to speak," [parl-]); b. phonological change e/E verbs with orthographic markers (répéter "to repeat," [répét-] and [répèt-]); c. phonological change o/O verbs without orthographic markers (adorer "to adore," [ador-] and [adOr-]); and d. idiosyncratic (boire "to drink," [boi-] and [buv-]). For each type of verb, we contrasted four conditions, forms with high and low surface frequencies and forms with high and low cumulative frequencies. Our results showed a significant cumulative frequency effect for the fully regular and idiosyncratic verbs, indicating that different stems within idiosyncratic verbs (such as [boi-] and [buv-]) have distinct representations in the mental lexicon as different fully regular verbs. For the phonological change verbs, we found a significant cumulative frequency effect only when considering the two forms of the stem together ([répét-] and [répèt-]), suggesting that they share a single abstract and under specified phonological representation. Our results also revealed a significant surface frequency effect for all types of verbs, which may reflect the recombination of the stem lexical representation with the functional information of the suffixes. Overall, these results indicate that all inflected verbal forms in French are decomposed during visual recognition and that this process could be due to the regularities of the French inflectional verbal

  6. Decomposability and mental representation of French verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Lopez Estivalet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In French, regardless of stem regularity, inflectional verbal suffixes are extremely regular and paradigmatic. Considering the complexity of the French verbal system, we argue that all French verbs are polymorphemic forms that are decomposed during visual recognition independently of their stem regularity. We conducted a behavioural experiment in which we manipulated the surface and cumulative frequencies of verbal inflected forms and asked participants to perform a visual lexical decision task. We tested four types of verbs with respect to their stem variants: a. fully regular (parler ‘to speak’, [parl-]; b. phonological change e/E verbs with orthographic markers (répéter ‘to repeat’, [répét-] and [répèt-]; c. phonological change o/O verbs without orthographic markers (adorer ‘to adore’, [ador-] and [adOr-]; and d. idiosyncratic (boire ‘to drink’, [boi-] and [buv-]. For each type of verb, we contrasted four conditions, forms with high and low surface frequencies and forms with high and low cumulative frequencies. Our results showed a significant cumulative frequency effect for the fully regular and idiosyncratic verbs, indicating that different stems within idiosyncratic verbs (such as [boi-] and [buv-] have distinct representations in the mental lexicon as different fully regular verbs. For the phonological change verbs, we found a significant cumulative frequency effect only when considering the two forms of the stem together ([répét-] and [répèt-], suggesting that they share a single abstract and underspecified phonological representation. Our results also revealed a significant surface frequency effect for all types of verbs, which may reflect the recombination of the stem lexical representation with the functional information of the suffixes. Overall, these results indicate that all inflected verbal forms in French are decomposed during visual recognition and that this process could be due to the regularities of

  7. DCMDSM: a DICOM decomposed storage model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaris, Alexandre; Härder, Theo; von Wangenheim, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    To design, build, and evaluate a storage model able to manage heterogeneous digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) images. The model must be simple, but flexible enough to accommodate variable content without structural modifications; must be effective on answering query/retrieval operations according to the DICOM standard; and must provide performance gains on querying/retrieving content to justify its adoption by image-related projects. The proposal adapts the original decomposed storage model, incorporating structural and organizational characteristics present in DICOM image files. Tag values are stored according to their data types/domains, in a schema built on top of a standard relational database management system (RDBMS). Evaluation includes storing heterogeneous DICOM images, querying metadata using a variable number of predicates, and retrieving full-content images for different hierarchical levels. When compared to a well established DICOM image archive, the proposal is 0.6-7.2 times slower in storing content; however, in querying individual tags, it is about 48.0% faster. In querying groups of tags, DICOM decomposed storage model (DCMDSM) is outperformed in scenarios with a large number of tags and low selectivity (being 66.5% slower); however, when the number of tags is balanced with better selectivity predicates, the performance gains are up to 79.1%. In executing full-content retrieval, in turn, the proposal is about 48.3% faster. DCMDSM is a model built for the storage of heterogeneous DICOM content, based on a straightforward database design. The results obtained through its evaluation attest its suitability as a storage layer for projects where DICOM images are stored once, and queried/retrieved whenever necessary. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Swine Brucellosis: Current Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucella suis is a significant zoonosis that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human to human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic liv...

  9. Spatial Dynamics of Human-Origin H1 Influenza A Virus in North American Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Martha I.; Lemey, Philippe; Tan, Yi; Vincent, Amy; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Detmer, Susan; Viboud, Cécile; Suchard, Marc A.; Rambaut, Andrew; Holmes, Edward C.; Gramer, Marie

    2011-01-01

    The emergence and rapid global spread of the swine-origin H1N1/09 pandemic influenza A virus in humans underscores the importance of swine populations as reservoirs for genetically diverse influenza viruses with the potential to infect humans. However, despite their significance for animal and human health, relatively little is known about the phylogeography of swine influenza viruses in the United States. This study utilizes an expansive data set of hemagglutinin (HA1) sequences (n = 1516) from swine influenza viruses collected in North America during the period 2003–2010. With these data we investigate the spatial dissemination of a novel influenza virus of the H1 subtype that was introduced into the North American swine population via two separate human-to-swine transmission events around 2003. Bayesian phylogeographic analysis reveals that the spatial dissemination of this influenza virus in the US swine population follows long-distance swine movements from the Southern US to the Midwest, a corn-rich commercial center that imports millions of swine annually. Hence, multiple genetically diverse influenza viruses are introduced and co-circulate in the Midwest, providing the opportunity for genomic reassortment. Overall, the Midwest serves primarily as an ecological sink for swine influenza in the US, with sources of virus genetic diversity instead located in the Southeast (mainly North Carolina) and South-central (mainly Oklahoma) regions. Understanding the importance of long-distance pig transportation in the evolution and spatial dissemination of the influenza virus in swine may inform future strategies for the surveillance and control of influenza, and perhaps other swine pathogens. PMID:21695237

  10. A Study of Decomposer and Related Functions on Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Hooshmand

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Decomposer functions in algebraic structures are studied in many recent papers. They have close relations to factorization by two subsets. Also, idempotent endomorphisms form a class of (strong decomposer functions in groups. Now, if the algebraic structure is a group, then by introducing a type of local homomorphisms we obtain several properties and equivalent conditions for many classes of decomposer functions and get a new result regarding to factorization of a group by its two subsets. Moreover, we prove existence of (two-sided decomposer type functions in non-simple groups

  11. Decomposing the misery index: A dynamic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan K. Cohen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The misery index (the unweighted sum of unemployment and inflation rates was probably the first attempt to develop a single statistic to measure the level of a population’s economic malaise. In this letter, we develop a dynamic approach to decompose the misery index using two basic relations of modern macroeconomics: the expectations-augmented Phillips curve and Okun’s law. Our reformulation of the misery index is closer in spirit to Okun’s idea. However, we are able to offer an improved version of the index, mainly based on output and unemployment. Specifically, this new Okun’s index measures the level of economic discomfort as a function of three key factors: (1 the misery index in the previous period; (2 the output gap in growth rate terms; and (3 cyclical unemployment. This dynamic approach differs substantially from the standard one utilised to develop the misery index, and allow us to obtain an index with five main interesting features: (1 it focuses on output, unemployment and inflation; (2 it considers only objective variables; (3 it allows a distinction between short-run and long-run phenomena; (4 it places more importance on output and unemployment rather than inflation; and (5 it weights recessions more than expansions.

  12. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  13. Integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer for sulfuric acid decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robert [Edgewood, NM; Pickard, Paul S [Albuquerque, NM; Parma, Jr., Edward J.; Vernon, Milton E [Albuquerque, NM; Gelbard, Fred [Albuquerque, NM; Lenard, Roger X [Edgewood, NM

    2010-01-12

    A method and apparatus, constructed of ceramics and other corrosion resistant materials, for decomposing sulfuric acid into sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water using an integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer unit comprising a bayonet-type, dual-tube, counter-flow heat exchanger with a catalytic insert and a central baffle to increase recuperation efficiency.

  14. Global change effects on a mechanistic decomposer food web model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, L.D.J.; Berg, M.P.; Morrien, E.; Kooi, B.W.; Verhoef, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Global change may affect the structure and functioning of decomposer food webs through qualitative changes in freshly fallen litter. We analyzed the predicted effects of a changing environment on a dynamic model of a donor-controlled natural decomposer ecosystem near Wekerom, the Netherlands. This

  15. Screening of Cultivatable Indigenous Fungi which Responsible for Decomposing of Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to screen potentials indigenous fungi for rapid decomposing of rice straw. Sevenisolates of dominant fungi were isolated from the burying rice straw on the 2.5 cm soil depth after 30 days incubationon the paddy fields. Five dominant isolates were tested for their potential to decompose rice straw by assessingtheir value of decreasing C/N ratio and dry weight of rice straw. Fungal inoculums treatments were arranged in aCompletely Randomized Design with four replications. The results showed that the dominant cultivable fungi thatisolated from decomposed rice straw were Trichoderma sp., Fusarium sp., Mucor sp., Aspergillus sp., and Penicilliumsp. Among the tested fungi, Trichoderma sp. had the biggest ability to decompose rice straw compared to othersindigenous fungi. The C/N ratio was reduced to 39.47 from an initial value of 73.33 of control treatment in 10 days ofbiodegradation process in laboratory scale, thus showing the potential of indigenous Trichoderma sp. for use inlarge-scale composting of rice straw.

  16. Microbiome overview in swine lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; P?rez-Wohlfeil, Esteban; de Carvalho, Fab?ola Marques; Trelles, Oswaldo; Schrank, Irene Silveira; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro de; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiologic agent of swine enzootic pneumonia. However other mycoplasma species and secondary bacteria are found as inhabitants of the swine respiratory tract, which can be also related to disease. In the present study we have performed a total DNA metagenomic analysis from the lungs of pigs kept in a field condition, with suggestive signals of enzootic pneumonia and without any infection signals to evaluate the bacteria variability of the lungs microbiota. Libra...

  17. Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Other Information on Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Virus Language: English (US) Español Recommend ...

  18. Different pathways but same result? Comparing chemistry and biological effects of burned and decomposed litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, Stefano; Bonanomi, Giuliano; Incerti, Guido; El-Gawad, Ahmed M. Abd; Sarker, Tushar Chandra; Cesarano, Gaspare; Saulino, Luigi; Saracino, Antonio; Castro Rego, Francisco

    2017-04-01

    Litter burning and biological decomposition are oxidative processes co-occurring in many terrestrial ecosystems, producing organic matter with different chemical properties and differently affecting plant growth and soil microbial activity. Here, we tested the chemical convergence hypothesis (i.e. materials with different initial chemistry tend to converge towards a common profile, with similar biological effects, as the oxidative process advances) for burning and decomposition. We compared the molecular composition of 63 organic materials - 7 litter types either fresh, decomposed for 30, 90, 180 days, or heated at 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 °C - as assessed by 13C NMR. We used litter water extracts (5% dw) as treatments in bioassays on plant (Lepidium sativum) and fungal (Aspergillus niger) growth, and a washed quartz sand amended with litter materials (0.5 % dw) to assess heterotrophic respiration by CO2 flux chamber. We observed different molecular variations for materials either burning (i.e. a sharp increase of aromatic C and a decrease of most other fractions above 200 °C) or decomposing (i.e. early increase of alkyl, methoxyl and N-alkyl C and decrease of O-alkyl and di-O-alkyl C fractions). Soil respiration and fungal growth progressively decreased with litter age and temperature. Plant growth underwent an inhibitory effect by untreated litter, more and less rapidly released over decomposing and burning materials, respectively. Correlation analysis between NMR and bioassay data showed that opposite responses for soil respiration and fungi, compared to plants, are related to essentially the same C molecular types. Our findings suggest a functional convergence of decomposed and burnt organic substrates, emerging from the balance between the bioavailability of labile C sources and the presence of recalcitrant and pyrogenic compounds, oppositely affecting different trophic levels.

  19. Decomposing Oriented Graphs into Six Locally Irregular Oriented Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensmail, Julien; Renault, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    An undirected graph G is locally irregular if every two of its adjacent vertices have distinct degrees. We say that G is decomposable into k locally irregular graphs if there exists a partition E1∪E2∪⋯∪Ek of the edge set E(G) such that each Ei induces a locally irregular graph. It was recently...... conjectured by Baudon et al. that every undirected graph admits a decomposition into at most three locally irregular graphs, except for a well-characterized set of indecomposable graphs. We herein consider an oriented version of this conjecture. Namely, can every oriented graph be decomposed into at most...... three locally irregular oriented graphs, i.e. whose adjacent vertices have distinct outdegrees? We start by supporting this conjecture by verifying it for several classes of oriented graphs. We then prove a weaker version of this conjecture. Namely, we prove that every oriented graph can be decomposed...

  20. Decomposing demographic change into direct vs. compositional components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W.; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    We present and prove a formula for decomposing change in a population average into two components. One component captures the effect of direct change in the characteristic of interest, and the other captures the effect of compositional change. The decomposition is applied to time derivatives of a...... is also presented. Other examples concern global life expectancy and the growth rate of the population of the world.......We present and prove a formula for decomposing change in a population average into two components. One component captures the effect of direct change in the characteristic of interest, and the other captures the effect of compositional change. The decomposition is applied to time derivatives...

  1. Feed quality in swine diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Branislav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper will demonstrate the quality of some feed used in swine diet. The emphasis will be on feed whose incorporation into mixes could result in unfavorable effects on production, health and economic production of swine. Data will be presented on maize and its possible negative effects, having in mind toxins. Soybean meal, or genetically modified soybean meal, will also be observed. The next feed which will be discussed will be soybean whey obtained by different procedures and the potential dangers of its use in swine diet rations. Sunflower meal, feed of animal origin, with emphasis on fish flour and meat-bone flour will also be covered in the work. A feed which has been attracting particular attention lately is yeast imported from Italy. Its quality characteristics will be discussed, the so-called non-protein nitrogen. Analyses of mineral feed will include sources of phosphorus, phosphates (monocalciumphosphate, dicalcium phosphate phytases and resolving the problem of phosphorus in swine rations. Finally, an inevitable segment are synthetic amino acids, especially lysine and its role in swine diet.

  2. Movement patterns of exhibition swine and associations of influenza A virus infection with swine management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Nola; Stull, Jason W; Moeller, Steven J; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi J; Bowman, Andrew S

    2017-09-15

    OBJECTIVE To identify the geographic distribution of exhibition swine in the Midwestern United States, characterize management practices used for exhibition swine, and identify associations between those practices and influenza A virus (IAV) detection in exhibition swine arriving at county or state agricultural fairs. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. SAMPLE 480 swine exhibitors and 641 exhibition swine. PROCEDURES Inventories of swine exhibited at fairs in 6 selected Midwestern states during 2013 and of the total swine population (including commercial swine) in these regions in 2012 were obtained and mapped. In 2014, snout wipe samples were collected from swine on arrival at 9 selected fairs in Indiana (n = 5) and Ohio (4) and tested for the presence of IAV. Also at fair arrival, swine exhibitors completed a survey regarding swine management practices. RESULTS Contrary to the total swine population, the exhibition swine population was heavily concentrated in Indiana and Ohio. Many swine exhibitors reported attending multiple exhibitions within a season (median number, 2; range, 0 to 50), with exhibited swine often returned to their farm of origin. Rearing of commercial and exhibition swine on the same premises was reported by 13.3% (56/422) of exhibitors. Hosting an on-farm open house or sale was associated with an increased odds of IAV detection in snout wipe samples. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The exhibition swine population was highly variable and differed from the commercial swine population in terms of pig density across geographic locations, population integrity, and on-farm management practices. Exhibition swine may be important in IAV transmission, and identified biosecurity deficiencies may have important public and animal health consequences.

  3. Control of African swine fever epidemics in industrialized swine populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Bøtner, Anette; Mortensen, Sten

    2016-01-01

    and national strategy (Basic), the basic strategy plus pre-emptive depopulation of neighboring swine herds, and intensive surveillance of herds in the control zones, including testing live or dead animals. Virus spread via wild boar was not modelled. Under the basic control strategy, the median epidemic...... resulted in marginal improvements to the control of the epidemics. However, adding testing of dead animals in the protection and surveillance zones was predicted to be the optimal control scenario for an ASF epidemic in industrialized swine populations without contact to wild boar. This optimal scenario...

  4. Decomposing changes in life expectancy: Compression versus shifting mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergeron Boucher, Marie-Pier; Ebeling, Marcus; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Shifting and compression of mortality have been studied through two components of mortality: modal age at death and variability of the age at death. These two components inform us about the timing and age patterns of mortality respectively. The aim of this study is to decompose changes in life...

  5. Decomposing graphs into a constant number of locally irregular subgraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensmail, Julien; Merker, Martin; Thomassen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    A graph is locally irregular if no two adjacent vertices have the same degree. The irregular chromatic index χirr′(G) of a graph G is the smallest number of locally irregular subgraphs needed to edge-decompose G. Not all graphs have such a decomposition, but Baudon, Bensmail, Przybyło, and Woźnia...

  6. Natural manganese deposits as catalyst for decomposing hydrogen peroxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, A.H.; Lekkerkerker-Teunissen, K.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Drinking water companies (are intending to) implement advanced oxidation processes (AOP) in their treatment schemes to increase the barrier against organic micropollutants (OMPs). It is necessary to decompose the excessive hydrogen peroxide after applying AOP to avoid negative effects in the

  7. Allelopathic effects of Juglone and decomposed walnut leaf juice on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, effects of juglone and decomposed walnut leaf juice on muskmelon (Cucumis melo cv. Galia) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Beith Alpha) seed germination percentage and postgermination seedling growth were investigated. Decomposition was carried out by keeping the leaves in distilled water.

  8. A (de)composable theory of rhythm perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desain, P.

    1992-01-01

    A definition is given of expectancy of events projected into the future by a complex temporal sequence. The definition can be decomposed into basic expectancy components projected by each time interval implicit in the sequence. A preliminary formulation of these basic curves is proposed and the

  9. Decomposing preference shifts for meat and fish in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangen, M.J.J.; Burrell, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The changing preferences of Dutch consumers for meat and fish are investigated using a switching almost ideal demand system. Structural change in demand between January 1994 and May 1998 is decomposed into underlying trends, temporarily irreversible preference shifts triggered by the BSE crisis of

  10. Catalytic activities of zeolite compounds for decomposing aqueous ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuda, Ai; Kitayama, Mikito; Ohta, Yoshio

    2013-12-01

    The advanced oxidation process (AOP), chemical oxidation using aqueous ozone in the presence of appropriate catalysts to generate highly reactive oxygen species, offers an attractive option for removing poorly biodegradable pollutants. Using the commercial zeolite powders with various Si/Al ratios and crystal structures, their catalytic activities for decomposing aqueous ozone were evaluated by continuously flowing ozone to water containing the zeolite powders. The hydrophilic zeolites (low Si/Al ratio) with alkali cations in the crystal structures were found to possess high catalytic activity for decomposing aqueous ozone. The hydrophobic zeolite compounds (high Si/Al ratio) were found to absorb ozone very well, but to have no catalytic activity for decomposing aqueous ozone. Their catalytic activities were also evaluated by using the fixed bed column method. When alkali cations were removed by acid rinsing or substituted by alkali-earth cations, the catalytic activities was significantly deteriorated. These results suggest that the metal cations on the crystal surface of the hydrophilic zeolite would play a key role for catalytic activity for decomposing aqueous ozone. Copyright © 2013 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Antimicrobial use in Chinese swine and broiler poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnasamy, Vikram; Otte, Joachim; Silbergeld, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial use for growth promotion in food animal production is now widespread. A major concern is the rise of antimicrobial resistance and the subsequent impact on human health. The antimicrobials of concern are used in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) which are responsible for almost all meat production including swine and poultry in the US. With global meat consumption rising, the CAFO model has been adopted elsewhere to meet this demand. One such country where this has occurred is China, and evidence suggests 70% of poultry production now occurs outside of traditional small farms. Moreover, China is now the largest aggregate consumer of meat products in the world. With this rapid rise in consumption, the Chinese production model has changed along with the use of antimicrobials in feeds. However, the specific antibiotic use in the Chinese food animal production sector is unclear. Additionally, we are aware of high quantities of antimicrobial use because of reports of high concentrations of antimicrobials in animal waste and surface waters surrounding animal feeding operations. In this report, we estimate the volume of antibiotics used for swine and poultry production as these are the two meat sources with the highest levels of production and consumption in China. We adopt a model developed by Mellon et al. in the US for estimating drug use in feed for poultry and swine production to estimate overall antimicrobial use as well as antimicrobial use by class. We calculate that 38.5 million kg [84.9 million lbs] were used in 2012 in China's production of swine and poultry. By antibiotic class, the highest weights are tetracyclines in swine and coccidiostats in poultry. The volume of antimicrobial use is alarming. Although there are limitations to these data, we hope our report will stimulate further analysis and a sense of urgency in assessing the consequences of such high levels of utilization in terms of antibiotic resistance in the food supply

  12. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...

  13. 9 CFR 85.6 - Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be..., except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be infected with or exposed to pseudorabies. Pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered...

  14. PANDEMIC SWINE INFLUENZA VIRUS: PREPAREDNESS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zamzar

    pandemic planning. Keywords: Pandemic, swine, influenza, virus, preparedness. INTRODUCTION. Effective pandemic preparedness and response should involve .... disaster. Academy of Emerging Medicine 2006;. 13: 1118-1129. 11. Coker R.J, Mounier-Jack S. Pandemic influenza preparedness in the Asia- pacific region.

  15. Microbiome overview in swine lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Pérez-Wohlfeil, Esteban; Carvalho, Fabíola Marques; Trelles, Oswaldo; Schrank, Irene Silveira; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiologic agent of swine enzootic pneumonia. However other mycoplasma species and secondary bacteria are found as inhabitants of the swine respiratory tract, which can be also related to disease. In the present study we have performed a total DNA metagenomic analysis from the lungs of pigs kept in a field condition, with suggestive signals of enzootic pneumonia and without any infection signals to evaluate the bacteria variability of the lungs microbiota. Libraries from metagenomic DNA were prepared and sequenced using total DNA shotgun metagenomic pyrosequencing. The metagenomic distribution showed a great abundance of bacteria. The most common microbial families identified from pneumonic swine's lungs were Mycoplasmataceae, Flavobacteriaceae and Pasteurellaceae, whereas in the carrier swine's lungs the most common families were Mycoplasmataceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae and Flavobacteriaceae. Analysis of community composition in both samples confirmed the high prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae. Moreover, the carrier lungs had more diverse family population, which should be related to the lungs normal flora. In summary, we provide a wide view of the bacterial population from lungs with signals of enzootic pneumonia and lungs without signals of enzootic pneumonia in a field situation. These bacteria patterns provide information that may be important for the establishment of disease control measures and to give insights for further studies.

  16. Antibody Repertoire Development in Swine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Butler, J. E.; Wertz, N.; Šinkora, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, FEB 17 (2017), s. 255-279 ISSN 2165-8102 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-02274S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09296S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : swine * pre-immune antibody repertoire * ileal Peyer's patches Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.708, year: 2016

  17. Stem Cells from Deciduous Tooth Repair Mandibular Defect in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, C.M.; Zhang, H.Y.; Li, W.H.; Shi, S.; Le, A.D.; Wang, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth have been identified as a new post-natal stem cell population with multipotential differentiation capabilities, including regeneration of mineralized tissues in vivo. To examine the efficacy of utilizing these stem cells in regenerating orofacial bone defects, we isolated stem cells from miniature pig deciduous teeth and engrafted the critical-size bone defects generated in swine mandible models. Our results indicated that stem cells from miniature pig deciduous teeth, an autologous and easily accessible stem cell source, were able to engraft and regenerate bone to repair critical-size mandibular defects at 6 months post-surgical reconstruction. This pre-clinical study in a large-animal model, specifically swine, allows for testing of a stem cells/scaffold construct in the restoration of orofacial skeletal defects and provides rapid translation of stem-cell-based therapy in orofacial reconstruction in human clinical trials. PMID:19329459

  18. Stem cells from deciduous tooth repair mandibular defect in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y; Liu, Y; Zhang, C M; Zhang, H Y; Li, W H; Shi, S; Le, A D; Wang, S L

    2009-03-01

    Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth have been identified as a new post-natal stem cell population with multipotential differentiation capabilities, including regeneration of mineralized tissues in vivo. To examine the efficacy of utilizing these stem cells in regenerating orofacial bone defects, we isolated stem cells from miniature pig deciduous teeth and engrafted the critical-size bone defects generated in swine mandible models. Our results indicated that stem cells from miniature pig deciduous teeth, an autologous and easily accessible stem cell source, were able to engraft and regenerate bone to repair critical-size mandibular defects at 6 months post-surgical reconstruction. This pre-clinical study in a large-animal model, specifically swine, allows for testing of a stem cells/scaffold construct in the restoration of orofacial skeletal defects and provides rapid translation of stem-cell-based therapy in orofacial reconstruction in human clinical trials.

  19. Characteristics of Three Decomposer Accelerators on Maize Straw Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUANG En-jun

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to make sure the effect of straw decomposer accelerators on the maize straws in Northeast of China, mesh bag method was used to determine the decomposition characteristics of maize straw biomass amount and nutrition release regularity in one year. The results showed that after 100 days, decomposition rates of maize straws biomass amount were between 57.1%-64.1%. The highest decomposition rate of 64.1% was the treatment with the 3rd decomposer accelerator. The nutrition release rates of N, P and K were 35.1%-57.2%, 44.2%-59.6%,and 77.4%-89.7% at the end of period, respectively. And the 3rd decomposer accelerator treatment had a better effect on the release rate of P and K. All treatments had the same trend of organic C mineralization rate which increased with the time extending, at last the organic C min-eralization rate was between 65.3% and 69.1%. The results showed the 3rd decomposition accelerator had better effect than others.

  20. [Effects of grape seed addition in swine manure-wheat straw composting on the compost microbial community and carbon and nitrogen contents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Mei; Liu, Xue-Ling; Jiang, Ji-Shao; Huang, Hua; Liu, Dong

    2012-08-01

    Taking substrates swine manure and wheat straw (fresh mass ratio 10.5:1) as the control (PMW), a composting experiment was conducted in a self-made aerated static composting bin to study the effects of adding 8% grape seed (treatment PMW + G) on the succession of microbial community and the transformation of carbon and nitrogen in the substrates during the composting. Seven samples were collected from each treatment, according to the temperature of the compost during the 30 d composting period. The microbial population and physiological groups were determined, and the NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, organic N, and organic C concentrations in the compost were measured. Grape seed addition induced a slight increase of bacterial count and a significant increase of actinomycetes count, but decreased the fungal count significantly. Grape seed addition also decreased the ratio of bacteria to actinomycetes and the counts of ammonifiers and denitrifiers, but increased the counts of nitrifiers, N-fixing bacteria, and cellulose-decomposing microorganisms. The contents of NH4(+)-N and organic C decreased, while that of NO3(-)-N increased obviously. The NO3(-)-N content in the compost was positively correlated with the actinomycetes count. During composting, the compost temperature in treatment PMW + G increased more rapidly, and remained steady in thermophilic phase, while the water content changed little, which provided a stable and higher population of actinomycetes and nitrifiers in thermophilic phase, being beneficial to the increase of compost nitrate N.

  1. Estimation of the transmission dynamics of African swine fever virus within a swine house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. P.; Larsen, T. S.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2017-01-01

    The spread of African swine fever virus (ASFV) threatens to reach further parts of Europe. In countries with a large swine production, an outbreak of ASF may result in devastating economic consequences for the swine industry. Simulation models can assist decision makers setting up contingency plans...

  2. Crude glycerin in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the rapid expansion of the bio-diesel industry, there will be substantial amounts of crude glycerol (the principal co-product of bio-diesel production) that will become available for use as a livestock feedstuff. Because glycerol is a precursor to glucose via gluconeogenesis, is a backbone of f...

  3. Antibody repertoire development in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, John E; Sun, Jishan; Wertz, Nancy; Sinkora, Marek

    2006-01-01

    Swine belong to the Order Artiodactyla and like mice and humans, express IgM, IgD, IgG, IgE and IgA antibodies but a larger number of IgG subclasses. Like rabbits and chickens, expressed V(H) genes belong to the ancestral V(H)3 family and only 5 comprise >80% of the pre-immune repertoire. Since they use primarily two D(H) segments and have a single J(H) like chickens, junctional diversity plays a relatively greater role in repertoire formation than in humans and mice. Proportional light chain usage surprisingly resembles that in humans and is therefore distinctly different from the predominant kappa chain usage (>90%) of lab rodents and predominant lambda chain usage in other ungulates (>90%). The pre-immune V(kappa) repertoire also appears restricted since >95% of V(kappa)J(kappa) rearrangements use only a few members of the IGKV2 family and only J(kappa)2. Two V(lambda) families (IGLV3 and IGLV8) are used in forming the pre-immune repertoire. Antibodies that do not utilize light chains as in camelids, or the lengthy CDR3 regions seen in cattle that use V(H)4 family genes, have not been reported in swine. B cell lymphogenesis first occurs in the yolk sac but early VDJ rearrangements differ from mice and humans in that nearly 100% are in-frame and N-region additions are already present. Swine possess ileal Peyers patches like sheep which may be important for antigen-independent B cell repertoire diversification. The presence of pro B-like cells in interlobular areas of thymus and mature B cells in the thymic medulla that have switched to especially IgA in early gestation, is so far unique among mammals. The offspring of swine are believed to receive no passive immunity in utero and are precosial. Thus, they are a useful model for studies on fetal-neonatal immunological development. The model has already shown that: (a) colonization of the gut is required for responsiveness to TD and TI-2 antigens, (b) responsiveness due to colonization depends on bacterial PAMPs

  4. Swine in biomedical research. V. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumbleson, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents information on the following topics: the history of pigs; conceptual and operational history of the development of miniature swine; breeding program and population standards of the Gottingen miniature swine; moral, social and scientific aspects of the use of swine in research; fertility in gilts inseminated with frozen boar semen stored at -196 C for eight years; ultrastructure of piglet liver; porcine models in surgical research; anesthesia in swine; pulse monitoring, intravascular and instramuscular injection sites in pigs; collagen biosynthesis and collagen content as a measure of dermal healing in experimental wounds in domestic swine; methods for hair removal; swine as a cardiac surgical model; bone marrow transplantation in miniature swine; technical aspects of small intestinal transplantation in young pigs; models; the pig in studies of diarrhea pathophysiology; use of swine to validate airflow perturbation device for airways resistance measurements in humans; swine as a model for human diabetes; and the weanling Yorkshire pig as an animal model for measuring percutaneous penetration.

  5. Functional diversity of microbial decomposers facilitates plant coexistence in a plant–microbe–soil feedback model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Takeshi Miki; Masayuki Ushio; Shin Fukui; Michio Kondoh; Simon A. Levin

    2010-01-01

    .... However, the role of microbial decomposers in PSF function is often overlooked, and it remains unclear whether decomposers reinforce or weaken litter-mediated plant control over nutrient cycling...

  6. Materials study supporting thermochemical hydrogen cycle sulfuric acid decomposer design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Michael S.

    Increasing global climate change has been driven by greenhouse gases emissions originating from the combustion of fossil fuels. Clean burning hydrogen has the potential to replace much of the fossil fuels used today reducing the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere. The sulfur iodine and hybrid sulfur thermochemical cycles coupled with high temperature heat from advanced nuclear reactors have shown promise for economical large-scale hydrogen fuel stock production. Both of these cycles employ a step to decompose sulfuric acid to sulfur dioxide. This decomposition step occurs at high temperatures in the range of 825°C to 926°C dependent on the catalysis used. Successful commercial implementation of these technologies is dependent upon the development of suitable materials for use in the highly corrosive environments created by the decomposition products. Boron treated diamond film was a potential candidate for use in decomposer process equipment based on earlier studies concluding good oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures. However, little information was available relating the interactions of diamond and diamond films with sulfuric acid at temperatures greater than 350°C. A laboratory scale sulfuric acid decomposer simulator was constructed at the Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute at the University of Missouri-Columbia. The simulator was capable of producing the temperatures and corrosive environments that process equipment would be exposed to for industrialization of the sulfur iodide or hybrid sulfur thermochemical cycles. A series of boron treated synthetic diamonds were tested in the simulator to determine corrosion resistances and suitability for use in thermochemical process equipment. These studies were performed at twenty four hour durations at temperatures between 600°C to 926°C. Other materials, including natural diamond, synthetic diamond treated with titanium, silicon carbide, quartz, aluminum nitride, and Inconel

  7. Evaluation of Endografts in the Setting of Noncompressible Torso Hemorrhage in Swine (Sus Scrofa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-06

    Title: Evaluation of Endografts in the Setting of Noncompressible Torso Hemorrhage in swine (Sus Scrofa) 4. Principal Investigator (PI): Name...technology is rapid and feasible in the emergent setting . 7. How may your findings benefit the Air Force? Noncompressible torso hemorrhage

  8. Decomposing Borel functions using the Shore-Slaman join theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Kihara, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    Jayne and Rogers proved that every function from an analytic space into a separable metric space is decomposable into countably many continuous functions with closed domains if and only if the preimage of each $F_\\sigma$ set under it is again $F_\\sigma$. Many researchers conjectured that the Jayne-Rogers theorem can be generalized to all finite levels of Borel functions. In this paper, by using the Shore-Slaman join theorem on the Turing degrees, we show the following variant of the Jayne-Rog...

  9. Towards using the chordal graph polytope in learning decomposable models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Studený, Milan; Cussens, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 1 (2017), s. 259-281 ISSN 0888-613X. [8th International Conference of Probabilistic Graphical Models. Lugano, 06.09.2016-09.09.2016] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-12010S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : learning decomposable models * integer linear programming * characteristic imset * chordal graph polytope * clutter inequalities * separation problem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.845, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/MTR/studeny-0475614.pdf

  10. Microbiological aspects of aerobic thermophilic treatment of swine waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudet, R; Gagnon, C; Bisaillon, J G; Ishaque, M

    1990-04-01

    A thermophilic strain (D2) identified as a Bacillus sp. was isolated from an aerobic digestor of swine waste after several months of operation at 55 degrees C. Aerobic thermophilic batch treatment of swine waste inoculated with strain D2 was studied in a 4-liter fixed-bed reactor. Stabilization of the waste was achieved in less than 30 h when the original chemical oxygen demand (COD) was between 15 and 20 g/liter or in less than 48 h when the COD was around 35 g/liter. When the COD was higher than 30 g/liter, the pH of the waste reached 9.2 to 9.5 during the treatment, and periodic adjustment of the pH to 8.5 was necessary to maintain the activity of the biofilm. In this reactor, ammoniacal nitrogen was completely eliminated by desorption in less than 72 h of incubation. The different packing materials used resulted in similar rates of degradation of organic matter. The thermophilic treatment was also efficient in the 75-liter digestor, and stabilization was achieved in approximately 50 h. A bank of 22 thermophilic bacterial strains originating from different environments and adapted to the thermophilic treatment of swine waste was established. This thermophilic treatment allows, in one step, rapid stabilization of the waste, elimination of the bad smell, and complete elimination of ammonia nitrogen by stripping.

  11. The pharmacokinetics of intraosseous atropine in hypovolemic swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Jonathan; Baldwin, Phillip; Bellenger, Sarah; Bradshaw, Freida; Causapin, Edna; Demotica, Richelle; Livingston, Michael; Lee, Cynthia; Gegel, Brian; Burgert, James; Claessens, Adam; Johnson, Don; Loughren, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Compare the pharmacokinetics of atropine administered via the intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), and intraosseous (IO) routes in a normovolemic and hypovolemic swine model. Prospective, between subjects, experimental study. Vivarium. Yorkshire-cross swine (N = 36). Atropine was administered via IV, IM, or IO routes to normovolemic and hypovolemic swine. Blood samples were drawn at regular intervals after atropine administration and analyzed for plasma atropine concentration. Pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained from modeling the plasma concentrations. Pharmacokinetic parameters, maximum concentration (Cmax) and time to maximum concentration (Tmax). The IV and IO groups in both the normovolemic and hypovolemic models reached peak plasma concentration immediately and had a very rapid distribution phase with no apparent absorption phase for the IO groups. Peak plasma concentration and time to reach peak concentration were both significantly lower for the IM groups. There was a significant increase in absorption time with IM administration in the hypovolemic model compared to the normovolemic model. The IO route is an effective method of administering atropine and is comparable to the IV route even under conditions of significant hemorrhage. Therapeutic levels of atropine may be delayed and possibly difficult to obtain via IM injection in the presence of hypovolemic shock.

  12. Development of a rapid automated influenza A, influenza B, and respiratory syncytial virus A/B multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay and its use during the 2009 H1N1 swine-origin influenza virus epidemic in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Eric T; Jurgens, Lisa A; Kehl, Sue C; Bose, Michael E; Patitucci, Teresa; LaGue, Elizabeth; Darga, Patrick; Wilkinson, Kimberly; Witt, Lorraine M; Fan, Jiang; He, Jie; Kumar, Swati; Henrickson, Kelly J

    2010-01-01

    Rapid, semiautomated, and fully automated multiplex real-time RT-PCR assays were developed and validated for the detection of influenza (Flu) A, Flu B, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) from nasopharyngeal specimens. The assays can detect human H1N1, H3N2, and swine-origin (S-OIV) H1N1 Flu A viruses and were effectively used to distinguish Flu A infections (of all subtypes) from Flu B and RSV infections during the current S-OIV outbreak in Milwaukee, WI. The analytical limits of detection were 10(-2) to 10(1) TCID(50)/ml depending on the platform and analyte and showed only one minor cross-reaction among 23 common respiratory pathogens (intermittent cross-reaction to adenovirus at >10(7) TCID(50)/ml). A total of 100 clinical samples were tested by tissue culture, both automated assays, and the US Food and Drug Administration-approved ProFlu+ assay. Both the semiautomated and fully automated assays exhibited greater overall (Flu A, Flu B, and RSV combined) clinical sensitivities (93 and 96%, respectively) and individual Flu A sensitivities (100%) than the Food and Drug Administration-approved test (89% overall sensitivity and 93% Flu A sensitivity). All assays were 99% specific. During the S-OIV outbreak in Milwaukee, WI, the fully automated assay was used to test 1232 samples in 2 weeks. Flu A was detected in 134 clinical samples (126 H1N1 S-OIV, 5 H1N1 [human], and 1 untyped) with 100% positive agreement compared with other "in-house" validated molecular assays, with only 2 false-positive results. Such accurate testing using automated high-throughput molecule systems should allow clinicians and public health officials to react quickly and effectively during viral outbreaks.

  13. Development of Inverse Raman Spectroscopy for Probing Rapidly Decomposing Explosives and Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    spectrometer and optical multichannel analyzer are described. Results on benzaldehyde (neat and in mixtures with toluene ) yield information on the...reasonable estimate of n . For many organic liquids (e.g., benzene, toluene , benzaldehyde ) the value of the refractive index is close to 1.50. 4. p(w,) at... toluene 522 788 13.80 benzyl alcohol 814 benzaldehyde 1701 benzoic acid 1292 1605 anthranil 1450 1500 Raman frequencies of unnitrated analogs of compounds

  14. 75 FR 16641 - Swine Contract Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... and Stockyards Administration 9 CFR Part 206 RIN 0580-AB06 Swine Contract Library AGENCY: Grain... (1999 Act) by establishing the Swine Contract Library (SCL). The statutory authority for the library... creation and maintenance of a library of marketing contracts offered by certain packers to producers for...

  15. 9 CFR 206.2 - Swine contract library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine contract library. 206.2 Section... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.2 Swine contract library. (a) Do... swine contract library will be made available to the public? GIPSA will summarize the information it has...

  16. Improved culture methods for isolation of Salmonella organisms from swine feces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Mortensen, Alicja

    2000-01-01

    Objective-To compare 3 alternative culture techniques for the detection of Salmonella organisms in swine feces with a modification of the international Standard Organization (ISO) 6579 standard protocol. Sample Population-Fecal samples from swine herds suspected of having Salmonella infections....... Procedure-4 experiments were performed to evaluate the following: 1) diagnostic sensitivity of the selective preenrichment and rapid isolation novel technology (SPRINT) protocol, compared with that of the modified ISO protocol; 2) detection limit of the SPRINT protocol for Salmonella organisms; 3) use....... Results-Comparing the Salmonella culture results of 183 swine fecal samples, the diagnostic sensitivity of the SPRINT protocol (0.86) was not significantly different than the diagnostic sensitivity of the modified ISO protocol (0.80), although it was 24 hours faster. The SPRINT protocol could detect 5...

  17. UK newspapers' representations of the 2009-10 outbreak of swine flu: one health scare not over-hyped by the media?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Shona; Hunt, Kate

    2011-10-01

    A/H1N1, more commonly referred to as swine flu, emerged in Mexico in spring 2009. It rapidly spread across the world and was classed as a global pandemic on 11 June 2009. To analyse UK newsprint coverage of the swine flu pandemic. Content analysis of 2374 newsprint articles published in eight UK national newspapers between 1 March 2009 and 28 February 2010. Newsprint coverage of the swine flu epidemic was immense. The threat from swine flu was portrayed as greatest in the spring and summer of 2009 when scientific uncertainties about the impact on the UK and global population were at their height and when swine flu cases in the UK first peaked. Thereafter the number of news articles waned, failing to mirror the October peak in flu cases as the virus failed to be as virulent as first feared. Content analysis found little evidence of the media 'over-hyping' the swine flu pandemic. The news media's role as a disseminator of scientific information is particularly important in areas of risk perception. Despite a succession of health scares in recent years in which the media has been accused of exaggerating the risks and contributing to public misunderstandings of the issues, this analysis suggests that the UK newsprint reporting of swine flu in the 2009-10 outbreak was largely measured. The news media's role as disseminators of factual health information on swine flu is to be welcomed, particularly in relation to their handling and responsible reporting on scientific uncertainty.

  18. Decomposing the Differences in Cancer Mortality between Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergeron Boucher, Marie-Pier; Wensink, Maarten Jan; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune

    mortality. Preliminary results suggest that diagnosis at a later stage could be the only reason why Danes suffer higher mortality from breast cancer. Later stage diagnosis explains 37% of the difference in mortality from lung cancer. Higher mortality from lung cancer is observed at each stage in Denmark......Cancer survival tends to be lower in Denmark than in comparable countries like Sweden. It has been suggested that this difference can be partly explained by higher tobacco use by Danes than Swedes and a more adverse stage at diagnosis distribution. In this paper, we aim to decompose the difference...... in cancer mortality between Denmark and Sweden by their differences in 1) age composition at diagnosis, 2) stage composition at diagnosis and 3) the force of mortality by age and stage. This procedure allows quantification of the contribution of each of these factors to the overall difference in cancer...

  19. Comparison of bacterial communities in leachate from decomposing bovine carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hak Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective Burial is associated with environmental effects such as the contamination of ground or surface water with biological materials generated during the decomposition process. Therefore, bacterial communities in leachates originating from the decomposing bovine carcasses were investigated. Methods To understand the process of bovine (Hanwoo carcass decomposition, we simulated burial using a lab-scale reactor with a volume of 5.15 m3. Leachate samples from 3 carcasses were collected using a peristaltic pump once a month for a period of 5 months, and bacterial communities in samples were identified by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Results We obtained a total of 110,442 reads from the triplicate samples of various sampling time points (total of 15 samples, and found that the phylum Firmicutes was dominant at most sampling times. Differences in the bacterial communities at the various time points were observed among the triplicate samples. The bacterial communities sampled at 4 months showed the most different compositions. The genera Pseudomonas and Psychrobacter in the phylum Proteobacteria were dominant in all of the samples obtained after 3 months. Bacillaceae, Clostridium, and Clostridiales were found to be predominant after 4 months in the leachate from one carcass, whereas Planococcaceae was found to be a dominant in samples obtained at the first and second months from the other two carcasses. The results showed that potentially pathogenic microbes such as Clostridium derived from bovine leachate could dominate the soil environment of a burial site. Conclusion Our results indicated that the composition of bacterial communities in leachates of a decomposing bovine shifted continuously during the experimental period, with significant changes detected after 4 months of burial.

  20. Thermally decomposed ricebran oil as a diesel fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megahed, O. A.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Ricebran oil; a non edible oil, was thermally decomposed using different loads of calcium oxide as catalyst. The fuel properties of the cracked product were evaluated as compared to those of diesel fuel. The considered properties included the calorific value, flash point, viscosity, pour point, distillation characteristics, cetane number in addition to some other fuel properties. The results had shown that the fuel properties of the decomposed oil were quite similar to those of standard diesel fuel. The calorific value was 80-90% that of diesel fuel and the viscosity was sligthy higher. The prepared fuel was advantageous over diesel fuel as the former was completely free from sulfur, which on fuel combustion produces corrosive gases of sulfur oxides.

    Aceite de germen de arroz, un aceite no comestible, fue descompuesto térmicamente usando diferentes cantidades de óxido cálcico como catalizador. Las propiedades combustibles del producto craqueado fueron evaluadas comparándolas con las del gasóleo. Las propiedades consideradas incluyeron el poder calorífico, punto de inflamación, viscosidad, temperatura de fluidez crítica, características de destilación, número de cetano y otras propiedades de los combustibles. Los resultados han mostrado que las propiedades combustibles del aceite descompuesto fueron bastantes similares a la de los gasóleos estándar. El poder calorífico fue del 80-90% de la del gasóleo y la viscosidad ligeramente mayor. El combustible preparado fue ventajoso sobre el gasóleo ya que el primero estaba completamente libre de sulfuro, el cual produce en la combustión del carburante gases corrosivos de óxido de azufre.

  1. Completion of the swine genome will simplify the production of swine as a large animal biomedical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walters Eric M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anatomic and physiological similarities to the human make swine an excellent large animal model for human health and disease. Methods Cloning from a modified somatic cell, which can be determined in cells prior to making the animal, is the only method available for the production of targeted modifications in swine. Results Since some strains of swine are similar in size to humans, technologies that have been developed for swine can be readily adapted to humans and vice versa. Here the importance of swine as a biomedical model, current technologies to produce genetically enhanced swine, current biomedical models, and how the completion of the swine genome will promote swine as a biomedical model are discussed. Conclusions The completion of the swine genome will enhance the continued use and development of swine as models of human health, syndromes and conditions.

  2. Peat decomposability in managed organic soils in relation to land use, organic matter composition and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bader

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic soils comprise a large yet fragile carbon (C store in the global C cycle. Drainage, necessary for agriculture and forestry, triggers rapid decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM, typically increasing in the order forest < grassland < cropland. However, there is also large variation in decomposition due to differences in hydrological conditions, climate and specific management. Here we studied the role of SOM composition on peat decomposability in a variety of differently managed drained organic soils. We collected a total of 560 samples from 21 organic cropland, grassland and forest soils in Switzerland, monitored their CO2 emission rates in lab incubation experiments over 6 months at two temperatures (10 and 20 °C and related them to various soil characteristics, including bulk density, pH, soil organic carbon (SOC content and elemental ratios (C / N, H / C and O / C. CO2 release ranged from 6 to 195 mg CO2-C g−1 SOC at 10 °C and from 12 to 423 mg g−1 at 20 °C. This variation occurring under controlled conditions suggests that besides soil water regime, weather and management, SOM composition may be an underestimated factor that determines CO2 fluxes measured in field experiments. However, correlations between the investigated chemical SOM characteristics and CO2 emissions were weak. The latter also did not show a dependence on land-use type, although peat under forest was decomposed the least. High CO2 emissions in some topsoils were probably related to the accrual of labile crop residues. A comparison with published CO2 rates from incubated mineral soils indicated no difference in SOM decomposability between these soil classes, suggesting that accumulation of recent, labile plant materials that presumably account for most of the evolved CO2 is not systematically different between mineral and organic soils. In our data set, temperature sensitivity of decomposition (Q10 on average 2.57

  3. Swine flu - A pandemic outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jini George

    Full Text Available Hippocrates had described influenza like outbreak in 412 B.C. and since then repeated influenza like epidemics and pandemics have been recorded in recent times. One of the greatest killers of all time was the pandemic of swine flu (Spanish flu of 1918-1919, when 230 million people died. Annual influenza epidemics are estimated to affect 5–15% of the global population, resulting in severe illness in 3–5 million patients causing 250,000–500,000 deaths worldwide. Severe illness and deaths occur mainly in the high-risk populations of infants, the elderly and chronically ill patients. The 2009 outbreak of swine flu is thought to be a mutation more specifically a reassortment of four known strains of influenza A virus subtype H1N1; one endemic in humans, one endemic in birds, and two endemic in pigs. WHO officially declared the outbreak to be a pandemic on June 11, 2009, but stressed that the new designation was a result of the global "spread of the virus," not its severity. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 472-474

  4. Decomposing ability of filamentous fungi on litter is involved in a subtropical mixed forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fuqiang; Tian, Xingjun; Fan, Xiaoxu; He, Xingbing

    2010-01-01

    The abilities of 10 filamentous fungi, isolated from Pinus massoniana-Liquidambar formasana mixed forest (PLF), to decompose fresh, fallen needle and leaf litter were studied with pure-culture tests. The results showed that all fungi except Mucor sp. and Chaetomium bostrychodes could drive mass loss of L. formasana leaf litter significantly more than that of P. massoniasa. Mass loss of litter in the first 5 wk of the study was higher than that in the last 5 wk. The decomposition rate was negatively correlated to the original lignin/nitrogen (L/N) and carbohydrate/nitrogen (C/N) ratios. Based on the mass loss of litter (W), carbohydrate (C) and lignin (L), and the mutual relationship between L/W and L/C ratio, we concluded that Mucor sp. had the lowest decomposing ability on P. Massoniana and L. formasana litter and that it could not use lignin. The Chaetomium bostrychodes were lignin and carbohydrate decomposers but preferred lignin. Trichoderma sp. 1 and Cladosporium herbarum were carbohydrate-decomposing fungi. Trichoderma sp. 2, Aspergillus fumigatus, Alternaria sp. and Penicillium sp. 2 were able to decompose lignin and carbohydrate but preferred carbohydrate and had high ability to decompose litter. Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. 1 were able to decompose lignin and carbohydrate only in the early phase of the study. The decomposing ability of fungi varied even within genus. No direct relationship was found between the frequency of isolation and the decomposing ability of fungi.

  5. Transformation rules for decomposing heterogeneous data into triples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrityunjay Singh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to fulfill the vision of a dataspace system, it requires a flexible, powerful and versatile data model that is able to represent a highly heterogeneous mix of data such as databases, web pages, XML, deep web, and files. In literature, the triple model was found a suitable candidate for a dataspace system, and able to represent structured, semi-structured and unstructured data into a single model. A triple model is based on the decomposition theory, and represents variety of data into a collection of triples. In this paper, we have proposed a decomposition algorithm for expressing various heterogeneous data models into the triple model. This algorithm is based on the decomposition theory of the triple model. By applying the decomposition algorithm, we have proposed a set of transformation rules for the existing data models. The transformation rules have been categorized for structured, semi-structured, and unstructured data models. These rules are able to decompose most of the existing data models into the triple model. We have empirically verified the algorithm as well as the transformation rules on different data sets having different data models.

  6. Decomposing socioeconomic inequality in child vaccination: results from Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Edel; Walsh, Brendan; O'Neill, Ciaran

    2014-06-05

    There is limited knowledge of the extent of or factors underlying inequalities in uptake of childhood vaccination in Ireland. This paper aims to measure and decompose socioeconomic inequalities in childhood vaccination in the Republic of Ireland. The analysis was performed using data from the first wave of the Growing Up in Ireland survey, a nationally representative survey of the carers of over 11,000 nine-month old babies collected in 2008 and 2009. Multivariate analysis was conducted to explore the child and parental factors, including socioeconomic factors that were associated with non-vaccination of children. A concentration index was calculated to measure inequality in childhood vaccination. Subsequent decomposition analysis identified key factors underpinning observed inequalities. Overall the results confirm a strong socioeconomic gradient in childhood vaccination in the Republic of Ireland. Concentration indices of vaccination (CI=-0.19) show a substantial pro-rich gradient. Results from the decomposition analysis suggest that a substantial proportion of the inequality is explained by household level variables such as socioeconomic status, household structure, income and entitlement to publicly funded care (29.9%, 24% 30.6% and 12.9% respectively). Substantial differences are also observed between children of Irish mothers and immigrant mothers from developing countries. Vaccination was less likely in lower than in higher income households. Access to publicly funded services was an important factor in explaining inequalities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Decomposing socioeconomic inequalities in childhood obesity: evidence from Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Brendan; Cullinan, John

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to quantify and decompose the socioeconomic gradient in childhood obesity in the Republic of Ireland. The analysis is performed using data from the first wave of the Growing Up in Ireland survey, a nationally representative survey of 8568 nine-year-old children conducted in 2007 and 2008. We estimate concentration indices to quantify the extent of the socioeconomic gradient in childhood obesity and undertake a subsequent decomposition analysis to pinpoint the key factors underpinning the observed inequalities. Overall the results confirm a strong socioeconomic gradient in childhood obesity in the Republic of Ireland. Concentration indices of obesity (CI=-0.168) and overweight/obese (CI=-0.057) show that the gradient is more pronounced in obese children, while results from the decomposition analysis suggest that the majority of the inequality in childhood obesity is explained by parental level variables. Our findings suggest that addressing childhood obesity inequalities requires coordinated policy responses at both the child and parental level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Decomposing phylogenetic entropy into α, β and γ components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchet, Maud A; Mouillot, David

    2011-04-23

    Measuring the phylogenetic diversity of communities has become a key issue for biogeography and conservation. However, most diversity indices that rely on interspecies phylogenetic distances may increase with species loss and thus violate the principle of weak monotonicity. Moreover, most published phylogenetic diversity indices ignore the abundance distribution along phylogenetic trees, even though lineage abundances are crucial components of biodiversity. The recently introduced concept of phylogenetic entropy overcomes these limitations, but has not been decomposed across scales, i.e. into α, β and γ components. A full understanding of mechanisms sustaining biological diversity within and between communities needs such decomposition. Here, we propose an additive decomposition framework for estimating α, β and γ components of phylogenetic entropy. Based on simulated trees, we demonstrate its robustness to phylogenetic tree shape and species richness. Our decomposition fulfils the requirements of both independence between components and weak monotonicity. Finally, our decomposition can also be adapted to the partitioning of functional diversity across different scales with the same desirable properties.

  9. Nonmonotone systems decomposable into monotone systems with negative feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciso, G. A.; Smith, H. L.; Sontag, E. D.

    Motivated by the work of Angeli and Sontag [Monotone control systems, IEEE Trans. Automat. Control 48 (2003) 1684-1698] and Enciso and Sontag [On the global attractivity of abstract dynamical systems satisfying a small gain hypothesis, with applications to biological delay systems, Discrete Continuous Dynamical Systems, to appear] in control theory, we show that certain finite and infinite dimensional semi-dynamical systems with "negative feedback" can be decomposed into a monotone "open-loop" system with "inputs" and a decreasing "output" function. The original system is reconstituted by "plugging the output into the input". Employing a technique of Gouzé [A criterion of global convergence to equilibrium for differential systems with an application to Lotka-Volterra systems, Rapport de Recherche 894, INRIA] and Cosner [Comparison principles for systems that embed in cooperative systems, with applications to diffusive Lotka-Volterra models, Dynam. Cont., Discrete Impulsive Systems 3 (1997) 283-303] of imbedding the system into a larger symmetric monotone system, we are able to obtain information on the asymptotic behavior of solutions, including existence of positively invariant sets and global convergence.

  10. Communities of fungi in decomposed wood of oak and pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwaśna Hanna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and diversity of wood decomposing fungi were investigated by isolating and cultivating filamentous fungi from wood and by detection of fruit bodies of ascomycetous and basidiomycetous fungi. The objective was to study the impact of forest management on fungi in 100-year-old oak and 87-year-old Scots pine forests in Northern Poland. Fungi were found on coarse woody debris of decayed stumps and fallen logs, boughs and branches in each of the three (managed and unmanaged examined stands. In total, 226 species of Oomycota and fungi were recorded. Oak wood was colonized by one species of Oomycota and 141 species of fungi including Zygomycota (19 species, Ascomycota (103 species and Basidiomycota (19 species. Scots pine wood was also colonized by one species of Oomycota and 138 species of fungi including Zygomycota (19 species, Ascomycota (90 species and Basidiomycota (29 species. In the first, second and third stages of decomposition, the oak wood was colonized by 101, 89 and 56 species of fungi respectively and pine wood was colonized by 82, 103 and 47 species respectively. Eighty three of the observed species (37% occurred on both types of wood, while the other species displayed nutritional preferences. A decrease in the number of species with advancing decay indicates the necessity for a continuous supply of dead wood to the forest ecosystem.

  11. Public views of the uk media and government reaction to the 2009 swine flu pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Emily

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first cases of influenza A/H1N1 (swine flu were confirmed in the UK on 27th April 2009, after a novel virus first identified in Mexico rapidly evolved into a pandemic. The swine flu outbreak was the first pandemic in more than 40 years and for many, their first encounter with a major influenza outbreak. This study examines public understandings of the pandemic, exploring how people deciphered the threat and perceived they could control the risks. Methods Purposive sampling was used to recruit seventy three people (61 women and 12 men to take part in 14 focus group discussions around the time of the second wave in swine flu cases. Results These discussions showed that there was little evidence of the public over-reacting, that people believed the threat of contracting swine flu was inevitable, and that they assessed their own self-efficacy for protecting against it to be low. Respondents assessed a greater risk to their health from the vaccine than from the disease. Such findings could have led to apathy about following the UK Governments recommended health protective behaviours, and a sub-optimal level of vaccine uptake. More generally, people were confused about the difference between seasonal influenza and swine flu and their vaccines. Conclusions This research suggests a gap in public understandings which could hinder attempts to communicate about novel flu viruses in the future. There was general support for the government's handling of the pandemic, although its public awareness campaign was deemed ineffectual as few people changed their current hand hygiene practices. There was less support for the media who were deemed to have over-reported the swine flu pandemic.

  12. Solar heated swine farrowing shed. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    A swine farrowing shed that uses energy for heat is described. The design of the shed incorporates solar collector glazing, a rock bed storage, and two ventilation fans. The results of solar calculations are presented.

  13. Zeolites in poultry and swine production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aline Félix Schneider; Otavio Fernando Zimmermann; Clóvis Eliseu Gewehr

    .... Due to their chemical characteristics, zeolites have great potential for use in animal production, especially in poultry and swine farms, as food additives, litter amendment and treatment of residues...

  14. Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at Commercial Swine Farms Fair Organizers & Exhibitors In Humans Key Facts about Human Infections with Variant Viruses Interim Guidance for Clinicians on Human Infections Background, Risk Assessment & Reporting Reported Infections with ...

  15. Geochemical fate of arsenic in swine litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quazi, S.; Makris, K.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Punamiya, P.

    2007-12-01

    Swine diet is often supplemented by organoarsenicals, such as roxarsone to treat diseases and to promote growth. Recent data reported roxarsone degradation under anaerobic conditions in poultry litter, but no such data exist for swine wastes typically stored in unprotected lagoons in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). However, serious environmental health risk may arise upon significant arsenic (As) release into solution. The problem may be exacerbated under certain environmental conditions where organoarsenicals, such as roxarsone transform into the more toxic inorganic As, posing serious health risk to the surrounding ecosystem. The objective of this study were to analyze swine wastes collected from 19 randomly selected CAFOs in the USA for As concentrations, and to determine the geochemical fate of As in the swine waste suspensions. Swine wastes were analyzed for total-recoverable, total soluble, and water-extractable As, which were measured by ICP-MS. Speciation of As was performed following a well-established hyphenated technique using HPLC- ICPMS. Swine waste suspensions differed in solids contents; thus, the particulate matters with varying As concentrations were spiked with roxarsone and incubated under dark/light and aerobic/anaerobic conditions. Findings show the prevalence of inorganic As [As(V)] in swine waste suspension solutions. Roxarsone underwent degradation to both organoarsenicals, such as p-ASA, as well as inorganic arsenate and to a number of unidentified metabolites. Roxarsone degradation kinetics was influenced by the solids content and the air conditions (anaerobic/aerobic) of the swine waste suspensions. Maximum degradation rates were observed under anaerobic conditions, in suspensions which were low in solids content. Roxarsone degradation was primarily microbially-mediated, but in certain cases abiotic degradation was also observed, which were significantly slower.

  16. Efficient k-NN search on vertically decomposed data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P. de Vries (Arjen); N. Mamoulis; N.J. Nes (Niels); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractApplications like multimedia retrieval require efficient support for similarity search on large data collections. Yet, nearest neighbor search is a difficult problem in high dimensional spaces, rendering efficient applications hard to realize: index structures degrade rapidly with

  17. Decomposer diversity and identity influence plant diversity effects on ecosystem functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Reich, Peter B; Isbell, Forest

    2012-10-01

    Plant productivity and other ecosystem functions often increase with plant diversity at a local scale. Alongside various plant-centered explanations for this pattern, there is accumulating evidence that multi-trophic interactions shape this relationship. Here, we investigated for the first time if plant diversity effects on ecosystem functioning are mediated or driven by decomposer animal diversity and identity using a double-diversity microcosm experiment. We show that many ecosystem processes and ecosystem multifunctionality (herbaceous shoot biomass production, litter removal, and N uptake) were affected by both plant and decomposer diversity, with ecosystem process rates often being maximal at intermediate to high plant and decomposer diversity and minimal at both low plant and decomposer diversity. Decomposers relaxed interspecific plant competition by enlarging chemical (increased N uptake and surface-litter decomposition) and spatial (increasing deep-root biomass) habitat space and by promoting plant complementarity. Anecic earthworms and isopods functioned as key decomposers; although decomposer diversity effects did not solely rely on these two decomposer species, positive plant net biodiversity and complementarity effects only occurred in the absence of isopods and the presence of anecic earthworms. Using a structural equation model, we explained 76% of the variance in plant complementarity, identified direct and indirect effect paths, and showed that the presence of key decomposers accounted for approximately three-quarters of the explained variance. We conclude that decomposer animals have been underappreciated as contributing agents of plant diversity-ecosystem functioning relationships. Elevated decomposer performance at high plant diversity found in previous experiments likely positively feeds back to plant performance, thus contributing to the positive relationship between plant diversity and ecosystem functioning.

  18. Antimicrobial use in swine production and its effect on the swine gut microbiota and antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B; Chénier, Martin R

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobials have been used in swine production at subtherapeutic levels since the early 1950s to increase feed efficiency and promote growth. In North America, a number of antimicrobials are available for use in swine. However, the continuous administration of subtherapeutic, low concentrations of antimicrobials to pigs also provides selective pressure for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants. For this reason, subtherapeutic antimicrobial use in livestock remains a source of controversy and concern. The swine gut microbiota demonstrates a number of changes in response to antimicrobial administration depending on the dosage, duration of treatment, age of the pigs, and gut location that is sampled. Both culture-independent and -dependent studies have also shown that the swine gut microbiota contains a large number of antimicrobial resistance determinants even in the absence of antimicrobial exposure. Heavy metals, such as zinc and copper, which are often added at relatively high doses to swine feed, may also play a role in maintaining antimicrobial resistance and in the stability of the swine gut microbiota. This review focuses on the use of antimicrobials in swine production, with an emphasis on the North American regulatory context, and their effect on the swine gut microbiota and on antimicrobial resistance determinants in the gut microbiota.

  19. Nematophagous fungi from decomposing cattle faeces in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saumell, Carlos Alfredo; Fernández, Alicia Silvina; Fusé, Luis Alberto; Rodríguez, Manuela; Sagüés, María Federica; Iglesias, Lucía Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Biological control of gastrointestinal nematodes of ruminants by use of nematophagous fungi would become part of any livestock parasite integral control system. Identifying autochthonous species that could then be selected for mass production is an important phase in the practical use of biological control. To search for nematophagous fungi with potential use as biological control agents against gastrointestinal nematodes in Argentina. Decomposing cattle faeces sampled in different locations were incubated in water agar 2% with Panagrellus sp. The developed nematophagous fungi were transferred to new water agar 2% plates and then to corn meal agar plates in order to carry out their identification. Fungal diversity and richness were also assessed. Seventeen species from nine genera of nematophagous fungi were found. Twelve species were nematode-trapping fungi and three species plus two fungi identified to genus level corresponded to endoparasitic fungi. Arthrobotrys conoides, Arthrobotrys oligospora, Duddingtonia flagrans, Monacrosporium doedycoides, Arthrobotrys robusta and Drechmeria coniospora were the most frequently isolated species overall in the whole study (6.6%, 5.7%, 5.7%, 5.7%, 4.7% and 4.7%, respectively) although other species were more frequently recorded at local levels such as Arthrobotrys pyriformis (18.8%). Only A. conoides has been previously isolated from ruminant faecal samples in Argentina. Five nematode-trapping fungal species are mentioned for the first time in the Americas D. flagrans and A. conoides, both identified in the present study, are among the most promising ones as biological control agents against gastrointestinal nematodes of ruminants. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Limited transfer of nitrogen between wood decomposing and ectomycorrhizal mycelia when studied in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallander, Håkan; Lindahl, Björn D.; Nilsson, Lars Ola

    2006-01-01

    Transfer of 15N between interacting mycelia of a wood-decomposing fungus (Hypholoma fasciculare) and an ectomycorrhizal fungus (Tomentellopsis submollis) was studied in a mature beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest. The amount of 15N transferred from the wood decomposer to the ectomycorrhizal fungus...

  1. Inconsistent impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability of aboveground and belowground ecosystem functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Schädler, Martin

    2011-02-01

    The intensive discussion on the importance of biodiversity for the stability of essential processes in ecosystems has prompted a multitude of studies since the middle of the last century. Nevertheless, research has been extremely biased by focusing on the producer level, while studies on the impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability of ecosystem functions are lacking. Here, we investigate the impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability (reliability) of three important aboveground and belowground ecosystem functions: primary productivity (shoot and root biomass), litter decomposition, and herbivore infestation. For this, we analyzed the results of three laboratory experiments manipulating decomposer diversity (1-3 species) in comparison to decomposer-free treatments in terms of variability of the measured variables. Decomposer diversity often significantly but inconsistently affected the stability of all aboveground and belowground ecosystem functions investigated in the present study. While primary productivity was mainly destabilized, litter decomposition and aphid infestation were essentially stabilized by increasing decomposer diversity. However, impacts of decomposer diversity varied between plant community and fertility treatments. There was no general effect of the presence of decomposers on stability and no trend toward weaker effects in fertilized communities and legume communities. This indicates that impacts of decomposers are based on more than effects on nutrient availability. Although inconsistent impacts complicate the estimation of consequences of belowground diversity loss, underpinning mechanisms of the observed patterns are discussed. Impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability of essential ecosystem functions differed between plant communities of varying composition and fertility, implicating that human-induced changes of biodiversity and land-use management might have unpredictable effects on the processes mankind relies on

  2. Real-time disease surveillance tools for the swine industry in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Peter R; Wayne, Spencer R; Torrison, Jerry L; Peele, Brandon; de Groot, Bradley D; Wray, David

    2007-01-01

    The ultimate challenge for integrating geographic information systems (GIS) into swine veterinary activities in the United States is to develop systems that deliver effective decision support to practising veterinarians seeking to control hyper-endemic viral diseases such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). Through collaboration with specialist swine veterinarians and state agencies we have developed two tools designed to enable real-time surveillance for swine diseases, based on capture of veterinary clinical data via the internet. The first is an ArcIMS-based Web-mapping application that enables authorised veterinarians to explore high resolution maps of swine premises throughout the state of Minnesota. This is coupled with a database that enables veterinarians to edit or update farm attribute data, including disease status via the internet. The system is generic so that novel or emerging disease syndromes can be incorporated. The second application is an extension to the Rapid Syndrome Validation Project-Animals which was developed for beef cattle to detect changes in disease incidence through recording of patterns of symptoms. The rationale behind these initiatives is that recent technological advances in relevant disciplines provide opportunities for innovation in surveillance that can enhance the capacity of the industry to combat its most pressing disease challenges in a more efficient manner. The acceptance of these novel tools by industry will assist veterinarians and producers in managing common disease problems, and hopefully serve to diminish the historic reluctance of producers to share information about disease status.

  3. A domain-decomposed multi-model plasma simulation of collisionless magnetic reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, I. A. M.; Shumlak, U.; Ho, A.; Miller, S. T.

    2017-10-01

    Collisionless magnetic reconnection is a process relevant to many areas of plasma physics in which energy stored in magnetic fields within highly conductive plasmas is rapidly converted into kinetic and thermal energy. Both in natural phenomena such as solar flares and terrestrial aurora as well as in magnetic confinement fusion experiments, the reconnection process is observed on timescales much shorter than those predicted by a resistive MHD model. As a result, this topic is an active area of research in which plasma models with varying fidelity have been tested in order to understand the proper physics explaining the reconnection process. In this research, a hybrid multi-model simulation employing the Hall-MHD and two-fluid plasma models on a decomposed domain is used to study this problem. The simulation is set up using the WARPXM code developed at the University of Washington, which uses a discontinuous Galerkin Runge-Kutta finite element algorithm and implements boundary conditions between models in the domain to couple their variable sets. The goal of the current work is to determine the parameter regimes most appropriate for each model to maintain sufficient physical fidelity over the whole domain while minimizing computational expense. This work is supported by a Grant from US AFOSR.

  4. Use of a DNA-based test for the mutation associated with porcine stress syndrome (malignant hyperthermia) in 10,000 breeding swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, P J; Shen, H; Cory, C R; Zhang, X

    1993-09-15

    To test the hypothesis that the mutation associated with porcine stress syndrome (PSS; malignant hyperthermia) was present in a large proportion of North American and English swine, a simple and rapid laboratory protocol was used for cost-effective, large-scale diagnosis of susceptibility to PSS. This PSS test was applied to 10,245 breeding swine of various breeds from 129 farms in the United States, Canada, and England. Approximately 1 of 5 swine was a heterozygous carrier of the PSS mutation, with approximately 1% being homozygotes. Prevalence of the PSS mutation was 97% for 58 Pietrain, 35% for 1,962 Landrace, 15% for 718 Duroc, 19% for 720 Large White, 14% for 496 Hampshire, 19% for 1,727 Yorkshire, and 16% for 3,446 crossbred swine. The PPS gene frequencies for these breeds were 0.72, 0.19, 0.08, 0.10, 0.07, 0.10, and 0.09, respectively. In addition to these breeds, we have identified the PSS mutation in Poland China and Berkshire breeds. These gene frequencies were 30 to 75% lower in Canadian swine than in US swine, with the exception of Yorkshires, for which the gene frequency was threefold higher in Canadian swine. English swine were similarly, or more so, affected than were US swine. Accuracy was estimated at > 99%. Cost to perform the test was < $20/animal. Depending on the perceived net balance of deleterious and beneficial effects of the mutation, the PSS test could be used to eradicate the PSS mutation from herds, or for controlled expression of the mutation.

  5. Towards an improved understanding of African swine fever virus transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso de Carvalho Ferreira, H.

    2013-01-01

    African swine fever is a haemorrhagic disease of swine caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV). Estimates of virus transmission (direct or indirect) parameters for ASFV are necessary in order to model the spread of the virus, and to design more efficient control measures. Results presented on

  6. 9 CFR 93.513 - Milk from quarantined swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk from quarantined swine. 93.513 Section 93.513 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.513 Milk from quarantined swine. Milk or...

  7. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508 Section 93.508 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No litter...

  8. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine. (a...

  9. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a...

  10. New biotechnological procedures in swine reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrujkić Tihomir

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available New biotechnological procedures and the use of hormones in swine breeding are aimed at increasing the number of piglets in the litter. In small herds and groups, selected sows with 16 mammary complexes (tits can yield up to 32 piglets, or porkers, per year per sow. In order to achieve such reproduction results, special, individual stalls for sow deliveries are used, in addition to biotechnological methods, with a warm core and floor heating, phased diet and clean facilities. The ovulation value in swine is determined by their genetic and paragenetic effects, and it is often provoked and increased with injections and preparations for superovulation. However, the results vary, since any administration of hormone injecions can reduce the reproductive cycle, shorten the duration of estrus, or disrupt the work of ovaries and create cystic follicles. The use of follicle-stimulating hormones in quantities up to 1000 IU per animal for the induction and synchronization of estrus has become customary for sows and gilts, as well as the use of prostaglandins, the use of GnRH for increasing ovulation in swine and increasing the number of follicles >4 mm in diameter in the implementation of new biotechnologies in swine breeding, increases the number of ovulations and fertility in swine. In this way, reproduction is raised to the highest possible level, and artificial insemination of sows has 12 separate rules which enable better and more successful artificial insemination of sows.

  11. Effect of turning frequency and season on composting materials from swine high-rise facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, K L; Ritchey, E L; Loughrin, J H; Haley, M; Sistani, K R; Bolster, C H

    2015-05-01

    Composting swine slurries has several advantages, liquid slurries are converted to solids at lower moisture, the total volume and weight of material is reduced and the stabilized product is more easily transported off-site. Despite this, swine waste is generally stored, treated and applied in its liquid form. High-rise finishing facilities (HRFF) permit liquid slurries to be converted to solids which are partially decomposed underneath the HRFF and then finished in compost windrows. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of turning frequency and ambient weather conditions on biological, physical and chemical properties of composted slurry-woodchip mixtures from HRFF. Compost trials were conducted in either fall (FT) or spring (ST) and piles were turned once or three times per week or upon compost temperature reaching 65°C. Physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics were measured over the course of 112 (FT) or 143 (ST) days of composting. Total carbon, total nitrogen (N) and inorganic N decreased in all piles. Ammonium decreased while nitrate increased in all piles (including unturned), but total N losses were greatest in piles turned more frequently during the ST. Microbial populations of nitrifiers were dominated by ammonia-oxidizing archaea (3.0×10(3)-4.2×10(6)cellsg(-1) compost) but ammonia oxidizing bacteria (below detection to 6.0×10(5)cellsg(-1) compost) varied in response to turning and compost temperature; denitrifiers were present in high concentrations throughout the process. Swine HRFF materials composted well in windrows regardless of turning frequency and despite significant differences in starting materials and low initial C/N. Volume reduction, low moisture and low readily degradable organic matter suggest that the finished compost would have lower transportation costs and should provide value as a soil conditioner. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Premedication with meloxicam exacerbates intracranial hemorrhage in an immature swine model of non-impact inertial head injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friess, SH; Naim, MY; Kilbaugh, TJ; Ralston, J; Margulies, SS

    2014-01-01

    Meloxicam is a cyclo-oxgenase-2 preferential non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug with very effective analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in swine. Previous reports in piglets have demonstrated that meloxicam also inhibits cyclo-oxgenase-1 and reduces production of thromboxane significantly. We use pre-injury analgesia in our immature swine (3–5 day old piglets) model of brain injury using rapid head rotations without impact. In 23 consecutive subjects we found that premedication with meloxicam (N=6) produced a significantly higher mortality rate (5/6 or 83%) than buprenorphine (N =17, 1/17 or 6%, p meloxicam-treated swine, we observed massive subdural and subarachnoid bleeding which were not present in buprenorphine-premedicated animals. To our knowledge there are no previous reports in swine of increased bleeding or platelet inhibition associated with meloxicam administration and further research is needed to define mechanisms of action in piglets. We caution the use of meloxicam in swine when inhibition of platelet aggregation might adversely affect refinement of experimental research protocols, such as in stroke, trauma, and cardiac arrest models. PMID:22238292

  13. Simulation of a Heat Transfer between Gases in SO3 Decomposer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. H.; Lee, T.H.; Lee, K.Y.; Kim, Y. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is developing hydrogen production process called thermochemical SI(Sulfur Iodine) cycle utilizing the heat from the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) with outlet coolant temperature up to 950 .deg. C, which is considered as an efficient reactor for the hydrogen production. The sulfur trioxide decomposer is one of the key components in SI cycle, because the sulfur trioxide is decomposed into sulfur dioxide and oxygen by a heat transferred from the helium gas. In this paper, the sulfur-trioxide decomposer was simulated with a chemical process simulator. A standard shell-and-tube heat exchanger model in the simulator was chosen for the simulation

  14. Reassortment patterns in Swine influenza viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Khiabanian

    Full Text Available Three human influenza pandemics occurred in the twentieth century, in 1918, 1957, and 1968. Influenza pandemic strains are the results of emerging viruses from non-human reservoirs to which humans have little or no immunity. At least two of these pandemic strains, in 1957 and in 1968, were the results of reassortments between human and avian viruses. Also, many cases of swine influenza viruses have reportedly infected humans, in particular, the recent H1N1 influenza virus of swine origin, isolated in Mexico and the United States. Pigs are documented to allow productive replication of human, avian, and swine influenza viruses. Thus it has been conjectured that pigs are the "mixing vessel" that create the avian-human reassortant strains, causing the human pandemics. Hence, studying the process and patterns of viral reassortment, especially in pigs, is a key to better understanding of human influenza pandemics. In the last few years, databases containing sequences of influenza A viruses, including swine viruses, collected since 1918 from diverse geographical locations, have been developed and made publicly available. In this paper, we study an ensemble of swine influenza viruses to analyze the reassortment phenomena through several statistical techniques. The reassortment patterns in swine viruses prove to be similar to the previous results found in human viruses, both in vitro and in vivo, that the surface glycoprotein coding segments reassort most often. Moreover, we find that one of the polymerase segments (PB1, reassorted in the strains responsible for the last two human pandemics, also reassorts frequently.

  15. Anesthesia in swine : optimizing a laboratory model to optimize translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehböck, D; Dietrich, H; Klima, G; Paal, P; Lindner, K H; Wenzel, V

    2015-01-01

    In order to extrapolate novel therapies from the bench to the bedside (translational research), animal experiments are scientifically necessary. Swine are popular laboratory animals as their cardiorespiratory physiology is very similar to humans. Every study has to be approved by the local and/or national animal ethical committees. As swine are extremely sensitive to stress the primary goal is therefore to provide a calm, stress-free environment in both housing and experimental facilities. Swine should be properly sedated for transport and normothermia needs to be ensured. It is recommended to commence anesthesia by injecting ketamine and propofol followed by endotracheal intubation during spontaneous breathing. After intubation, anesthesia maintenance is performed with morphine or piritramide, propofol and rocuronium and routine monitoring is applied analogue to a clinical operating theater for humans. Normothermia (38.5 °C) needs to be ensured. While surgical procedures can be readily extrapolated from a human operating theater to swine, non-anesthesiologist scientists may lose the animal rapidly due to airway management problems. Vascular access can be secured by cut-downs or ultrasound-guided techniques in the inguinal and the neck region. For humane euthanasia of pigs, morphine, followed by propofol, rocuronium and potassium chloride are recommended. As radical animal right groups may threaten scientists, it is prudent that animal laboratories have unmarked entrance doors, are located in buildings that are not accessible to the public and strictly controlled access of laboratory staff is enforced. In conclusion, swine are an excellent laboratory animal for bench to bedside research and can be managed properly when basic knowledge and adequate skills on careful handling, anesthesia and surgical considerations are present.

  16. Decomposing developmental differences in probabilistic feedback learning: A combined performance and heart-rate analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijvenvoorde, A.C.K.; Jansen, B.R.J.; Griffioen, E.S.; van der Molen, M.W.; Huizenga, H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Learning on the basis of outcome feedback shows pronounced developmental changes, however, much is still unknown about its underlying processes. In the current study, we aimed at decomposing how value updating, feedback monitoring and executing behavioral control contribute to children's

  17. Conversion efficiency in the shrimp, Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius), fed on decomposed mangrove leaves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Ramadhas, V.

    Feeding experiments were carried out with Metapenaeus monoceros using mangrove leaves at different stages of decomposition, in combination with rice bran. Maximum conversion efficiency was found in shrimps fed completely decomposed mangrove leaves...

  18. Decomposing a planar graph into an independent set and a 3-degenerate graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2001-01-01

    We prove the conjecture made by O. V. Borodin in 1976 that the vertex set of every planar graph can be decomposed into an independent set and a set inducing a 3-degenerate graph. (C) 2001 Academic Press.......We prove the conjecture made by O. V. Borodin in 1976 that the vertex set of every planar graph can be decomposed into an independent set and a set inducing a 3-degenerate graph. (C) 2001 Academic Press....

  19. Decomposing a planar graph into an independent set and a 3-degenerate graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2000-01-01

    We prove the conjecture made by O.V.Borodin in 1976 that the vertex set of every planar graph can be decomposed into an independent set and aset inducing a $3$-degenerate graph.......We prove the conjecture made by O.V.Borodin in 1976 that the vertex set of every planar graph can be decomposed into an independent set and aset inducing a $3$-degenerate graph....

  20. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings of swine with spontaneous influenza A infection in Brazil, 2009-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane T.N. Watanabe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Swine influenza (SI is caused by the type A swine influenza virus (SIV. It is a highly contagious disease with a rapid course and recovery. The major clinical signs and symptoms are cough, fever, anorexia and poor performance. The disease has been associated with other co-infections in many countries, but not in Brazil, where, however, the first outbreak has been reported in 2011. The main aim of this study was to characterize the histological features in association with the immunohistochemical (IHC results for influenza A (IA, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV in lung samples from 60 pigs submitted to Setor de Patologia Veterinária at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (SPV-UFRGS, Brazil, during 2009-2010. All of these lung samples had changes characterized by interstitial pneumonia with necrotizing bronchiolitis, never observed previously in the evaluation of swine lungs in our laboratory routine. Pigs in this study had showed clinical signs of a respiratory infection. Swine samples originated from Rio Grande do Sul 31 (52%, Santa Catarina 14 (23%, Paraná 11 (18%, and Mato Grosso do Sul 4 (7%. Positive anti-IA IHC labelling was observed in 45% of the cases, which were associated with necrotizing bronchiolitis, atelectasis, purulent bronchopneumonia and hyperemia. Moreover, type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, alveolar and bronchiolar polyp-like structures, bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT hyperplasia and pleuritis were the significant features in negative anti-IA IHC, which were also associated with chronic lesions. There were only two cases with positive anti-PCV2 IHC and none to PRRSV. Therefore, SIV was the predominant infectious agent in the lung samples studied. The viral antigen is often absent due to the rapid progress of SI, which may explain the negative IHC results for IA (55%; therefore, IHC should be performed at the beginning of the disease. This study

  1. Swine MRSA isolates form robust biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization of livestock animals is common and prevalence rates for pigs have been reported to be as high as 49%. Measures to prevent, control, or eliminate MRSA in swine is of considerable public health concern. Bacterial colonization ...

  2. H1N1 influenza (Swine flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swine flu; H1N1 type A influenza ... The H1N1 virus is now considered a regular flu virus. It is one of the three viruses included in the regular (seasonal) flu vaccine . You cannot get H1N1 flu virus from ...

  3. Computerized management support for swine breeding farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huirne, R.B.M.

    1990-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTION

    The investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and

  4. Pandemic swine influenza virus: Preparedness planning | Ojogba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The novel H1N1 influenza virus that emerged in humans in Mexico in early 2009 and transmitted efficiently in the human population with global spread was declared a pandemic strain. The introduction of different avian and human influenza virus genes into swine influenza viruses often result in viruses of increased fitness ...

  5. USMARC update on swine reproduction research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swine research at USMARC has continued to focus on meat quality, improvement of genomic resources and reproduction, specifically estrus traits, sow longevity and lifetime productivity. This report will focus on research in behavioral anestrus in gilts. Gilts that reach puberty at an earlier age are ...

  6. Prospects for use of the ELA test in control of trichinellosis in swine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clinard, E.H.; Saunders, G.C.; Leighty, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    A practicable system for examining food animals at the time of slaughter to detect the presence of humoral antibodies against diseases of significance to human or animal health would be a valuable adjunct to meat inspection. Trichinosis, which has the characteristics of many of the disease problems that are of interest to the Meat and Poultry Inspection Program, was selected as a model for this purpose. Preliminary work indicated that the enzyme-labeled antibody test (ELA) could be used for detection of antibodies to Trichinella spiralis in swine. Other characteristics of the ELA test, such as its low cost, sensitivity, specificity, and potential for automation, supported its further development. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide a rapid, economical, automated test which will identify all swine constituting a human health hazard due to presence of infective T. spiralis larvae at the time of slaughter and identify all animals which have been infected by this parasite.

  7. Simple and rapid field tests for brucellosis in livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdoel, Theresia; Dias, Isabel Travassos; Cardoso, Regina; Smits, Henk L.

    2008-01-01

    Four simple and rapid field tests for the serodiagnosis of brucellosis in cattle, goat, sheep and swine were developed. The performance of the assays was investigated using serum samples collected in Portugal from animals originating from herds with a defined sanitary status with respect to the

  8. The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Nicola S; Russell, Colin A; Langat, Pinky

    2016-01-01

    Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled...... with geographic segregation of global swine populations. Much of this diversity is characterized genetically but the antigenic diversity of these viruses is poorly understood. Critically, the antigenic diversity shapes the risk profile of swine influenza viruses in terms of their epizootic and pandemic potential....... Here, using the most comprehensive set of swine influenza virus antigenic data compiled to date, we quantify the antigenic diversity of swine influenza viruses on a multi-continental scale. The substantial antigenic diversity of recently circulating viruses in different parts of the world adds...

  9. MicroCT detection of gunshot residue in fresh and decomposed firearm wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchetto, Giovanni; Amagliani, Alessandro; Giraudo, Chiara; Fais, Paolo; Cavarzeran, Fabiano; Montisci, Massimo; Feltrin, Giampietro; Viel, Guido; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2012-05-01

    Gunshot residue (GSR) evidence may be altered or obscured by after-death events such as putrefaction, autolysis, and/or damage by animals. The present study aimed at evaluating and comparing the amount and differential distribution of GSR utilizing microcomputed tomography (microCT) analysis of fresh and decomposed gunshot wounds. A total of 60 experimental shootings at three different firing distances (5, 15, and 30 cm) were performed on human calves surgically amputated for medical reasons. Thirty specimens (10 for each tested distance) were immediately formalin-fixed, while the other 30 specimens were enclosed in a cowshed for 15 days, before formalin fixation (air temperature ranging from 11°C to 38°C). MicroCT analysis with three-dimensional image reconstruction detected GSR particles in all the investigated entrance wounds. In fresh specimens, GSR was concentrated on the skin surface around the entrance hole and in the epidermis and dermis layers around the cavity, while in decomposed specimens, the high density particles were detected only in the dermis layer. No GSR was detected in exit wounds of both fresh and decomposed specimens regardless of the tested firing distance. Statistical analysis demonstrated that also in decomposed wounds the amount of GSR roughly correlated with the distance from which the gun was fired, exhibiting, however, a higher variability than in fresh samples. The obtained results suggest that microCT analysis can be a valid screening tool for differentiating decomposed entrance and exit gunshot wounds.

  10. Carbon and nitrogen status of decomposing roots in three adjacent coniferous plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyeob Jeong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the carbon (C and nitrogen (N status of decomposing roots in three adjacent plantations consisting of one deciduous (larch: Larix leptolepis and two evergreen (red pine: Pinus densiflora; rigitaeda pine: P. rigitaeda species planted in the same year (1963 under similar site conditions. The mass loss rates and C and N status of three diameter classes of roots (UF < 2 mm, F 2-5 mm, CF 5-10 mm in diameter were examined in the upper 15 cm of the mineral soil using in situ buried root bags for 496 days.The remaining mass of decomposing roots was significantly higher for larch (69.0% than for red pine (59.6% or rigitaeda pine (59.1% over 496 days. The mass loss rates of decomposing roots did not differ significantly among the three root diameter classes, but the C and N status of decomposing roots was affected by the tree species. The larch roots showed low C concentrations but high N concentrations, C and N remaining compared to the pine roots over the study period. The results indicate that the substrate quality indicators of roots were not attributed to the mass loss rates, C and N status of decomposing roots in three coniferous tree species grown under similar environmental conditions.

  11. History of ‘swine fever’ in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Louise Penrith

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The histories of the two swine fevers in southern Africa differ widely. Classical swine fever (hog cholera has been known in the northern hemisphere since 1830 and it is probable that early cases of ‘swine fever’ in European settlers’ pigs in southern Africa were accepted to be that disease. It was only in 1921 that the first description of African swine fever as an entity different from classical swine fever was published after the disease had been studied in settlers’ pigs in Kenya. Shortly after that, reports of African swine fever in settlers’ pigs emerged from South Africa and Angola. In South Africa, the report related to pigs in the north-eastern part of the country. Previously (in 1905 or earlier a disease assumed to be classical swine fever caused high mortality among pigs in the Western Cape and was only eradicated in 1918. African swine fever was found over the following years to be endemic in most southern African countries. Classical swine fever, however, apart from an introduction with subsequent endemic establishment in Madagascar and a number of introductions into Mauritius, the last one in 2000, had apparently remained absent from the region until it was diagnosed in the Western and subsequently the Eastern Cape of South Africa in 2005. It was eradicated by 2007. The history of these diseases in the southern African region demonstrates their importance and their potential for spread over long distances, emphasising the need for improved management of both diseases wherever they occur.

  12. Into the decomposed body-forensic digital autopsy using multislice-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thali, M J; Yen, K; Schweitzer, W; Vock, P; Ozdoba, C; Dirnhofer, R

    2003-07-08

    It is impossible to obtain a representative anatomical documentation of an entire body using classical X-ray methods, they subsume three-dimensional bodies into a two-dimensional level. We used the novel multislice-computed tomography (MSCT) technique in order to evaluate a case of homicide with putrefaction of the corpse before performing a classical forensic autopsy. This non-invasive method showed gaseous distension of the decomposing organs and tissues in detail as well as a complex fracture of the calvarium. MSCT also proved useful in screening for foreign matter in decomposing bodies, and full-body scanning took only a few minutes. In conclusion, we believe postmortem MSCT imaging is an excellent vizualisation tool with great potential for forensic documentation and evaluation of decomposed bodies.

  13. Short-term responses of decomposers and vegetation to stump removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataja-aho, S.

    2011-07-01

    Stump removal has become a common practice to produce raw material for bioenergy production. It was hypothesized that stump removal is an extensive and more intense disturbance for forest ecosystems (soil decomposer organisms and vegetation) compared to traditional site preparation after clear cutting. Therefore, the effects of stump harvesting on forest soil decomposers, vegetation and nutrient dynamics in undisturbed patches of the forest soil and in exposed mineral soil were compared to the effects of the traditional site preparation method, mounding. Nematodes and enchytraeids were the only decomposer groups that were directly affected (negatively) by the stump removal. Regardless of the treatment, the abundances of most of the decomposer groups were consistently lower in the exposed mineral soil than in the intact forest soil. There was 2-3 times more exposed mineral soil in stump removal sites compared to mounding sites. When this was taken into account, the decomposer community was negatively affected by the stump removal at the forest stand level. However, the greater soil disturbance at the stump harvesting sites enhanced CO{sub 2} production, net nitrogen mineralisation and nitrification. The increased N availability and the changes in microclimate due to the disturbance probably explained the vegetation increase at the stump harvested sites. Planted Norway spruce seedlings grew faster during the first two growing periods at the stump removal sites than at the mounding sites. The seedlings had high and similar ectomycorrhizal colonization rate in both treatments. In the short-term, it is probably not the resources removed in the stumps themselves, but the degree and amount of soil disturbance during the stump harvesting procedure that affects the decomposer community and its function in the clear-felled stands. (orig.)

  14. Fluorescence polarization immunoassay using IgY antibodies for detection of valnemulin in swine tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiyan; Mi, Tiejun; Khan, Oleg Yu; Sheng, Yajie; Eremin, Sergei A; Beier, Ross C; Zhang, Suxia; Shen, Jianzhong; Wang, Zhanhui

    2015-10-01

    Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is derived from egg yolk and has been identified as a cheap and high-yield immunoreagent. The application of IgY in immunoassays for the detection of chemical contaminants in food samples has rarely been reported. In this work, we describe a rapid and sensitive fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) for valnemulin (VAL) using IgY which was produced using a previously prepared immunogen. Three fluorophore-labeled VAL tracers were synthesized and the sensitivity of the best tracer (VAL-DTAF) in the optimized FPIA with antibody IgY100 demonstrated an IC50 value of 12 ng mL(-1) in buffer. After evaluation of several extraction procedures, acidified acetonitrile was selected to extract VAL from swine tissue. The recoveries of VAL in spiked swine tissue at three levels (50, 100, and 200 μg kg(-1)) were higher than 79% with coefficients of variation (CVs) lower than 12%. The limit of detection (LOD) of the FPIA in swine tissue was 26 μg kg(-1) and was lower than the maximum residue limit (MRL) of VAL set by the European Union. The study showed that IgY could be a good substitute for IgG when developing a high-throughput assay for chemical residues.

  15. Evaluation of granular anaerobic ammonium oxidation process for the disposal of pre-treated swine manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Qing Ni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With rising environmental concerns on potable water safety and eutrophication, increased media attention and tighter environmental regulations, managing animal waste in an environmentally responsible and economically feasible way can be a challenge. In this study, the possibility of using granular anammox process for ammonia removal from swine waste treatment water was investigated. A rapid decrease of NO2−–N and NH4+–N was observed during incubation with wastewater from an activated sludge deodorization reactor and anaerobic digestion-partial oxidation treatment process treating swine manure and its corresponding control artificial wastewaters. Ammonium removal dropped from 98.0 ± 0.6% to 66.9 ± 2.7% and nearly absent when the organic load in the feeding increased from 232 mg COD/L to 1160 mg COD/L and 2320 mg COD/L. The presence of organic carbon had limited effect on nitrite and total nitrogen removal. At a COD to N ratio of 0.9, COD inhibitory organic load threshold concentration was 727 mg COD/L. Mass balance indicated that denitrifiers played an important role in nitrite, nitrate and organic carbon removal. These results demonstrated that anammox system had the potential to effectively treat swine manure that can achieve high nitrogen standards at reduced costs.

  16. Identification of a New Genotype of African Swine Fever Virus in Domestic Pigs from Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achenbach, J E; Gallardo, C; Nieto-Pelegrín, E; Rivera-Arroyo, B; Degefa-Negi, T; Arias, M; Jenberie, S; Mulisa, D D; Gizaw, D; Gelaye, E; Chibssa, T R; Belaye, A; Loitsch, A; Forsa, M; Yami, M; Diallo, A; Soler, A; Lamien, C E; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2017-10-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is an important emerging transboundary animal disease (TAD), which currently has an impact on many countries in Africa, Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Russian Federation. The current situation in Europe shows the ability of the virus to rapidly spread, which stands to threaten the global swine industry. At present, there is no viable vaccine to minimize spread of the disease and stamping out is the main source of control. In February 2011, Ethiopia had reported its first suspected outbreaks of ASF. Genomic analyses of the collected ASF virus (ASFV) strains were undertaken using 23 tissue samples collected from domestic swine in Ethiopia from 2011 to 2014. The analysis of Ethiopian ASFVs partial p72 gene sequence showed the identification of a new genotype, genotype XXIII, that shares a common ancestor with genotypes IX and X, which comprise isolates circulating in Eastern African countries and the Republic of Congo. Analysis of the p54 gene also followed the p72 pattern and the deduced amino acid sequence of the central variable region (CVR) of the B602L gene showed novel tetramer repeats not previously characterized. © 2016 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Genetic monitoring in contemporary swine production

    OpenAIRE

    Savić Mila S.; Jovanović Slobodan J.; Trailović Ružica D.; Dimitrijević Vladimir M.

    2002-01-01

    The development of molecular techniques for genome studies has led to qualitative progress in the selection of domestic animals by enabling the use of genetic markers, in addition to phenotypic selection parameters in choosing an animal. Genetic montoring has a wide application in contemporary swine production. Namely, genetic control is in the basis of all procedures pertaining to the selection of parent couples. Genetic monitoring is thus used in the genetic characterization of breeds, line...

  18. Modelling the Growth of Swine Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The spread of swine flu has been a cause of great concern globally. With no vaccine developed as yet, (at time of writing in July 2009) and given the fact that modern-day humans can travel speedily across the world, there are fears that this disease may spread out of control. The worst-case scenario would be one of unfettered exponential growth.…

  19. Continuous selections of multivalued maps with non-convex non-closed decomposable values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstonogov, A. A.

    1996-06-01

    A class of multivalued maps with non-convex non-closed decomposable values is distinguished, and theorems are proved on the existence of continuous selections for such maps. This class contains multivalued maps whose values are extreme points of continuous multivalued maps with closed convex decomposable values in a Banach space of Bochner-integrable functions. The proofs are based on the Baire category theorem. It is known that the set of extreme points of a closed convex set is in general not closed. Hence the results or paper answer the question of the existence of continuous selections for multivalued maps with non-convex non-closed values.

  20. An initial study of insect succession on decomposing rabbit carrions in Harare, Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Mabika, Nyasha; Masendu, Ron; Mawera, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate insects visiting sun exposed and shaded decomposing rabbit carcasses and to establish the relationship between insects and carcasses which may be of forensic importance in Harare. Methods: Two rabbits weighing 2.3 kg and 2.5 kg were killed by sharp blows on the head. One was exposed to the sun while the other was placed under shade. The carcasses were allowed to decompose and insects were collected twice a day for the first week and thereafter once a day up to the...

  1. Mechanism and Application of Carbon Nanotube Sensors in SF6 Decomposed Production Detection: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Cui, Hao; Gui, Yingang; Tang, Ju

    2017-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have aroused extensive attentions as a new category of gas sensor materials owing to their outstanding performance for detecting specific gas among a variety of ones through diverse gas responses. This review summarizes the adsorption mechanism of CNTs and their properties related to the detection of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) decomposed gases that generated in gas insulation switchgear (GIS) of power system. Their performances as sensors of both experimental analysis and theoretical calculation for various kinds of decomposed gases are summarized, and the further research trend on CNTs in the detection of SF6 decomposition components is also put forward.

  2. Simulating the epidemiological and economic effects of an African swine fever epidemic in industrialized swine populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Bøtner, Anette; Mortensen, Sten

    2016-01-01

    to simulate the spread of ASF virus between domestic swine herds exemplified by the Danish swine population. ASF was simulated to spread via animal movement, low- or medium-risk contacts and local spread. Each epidemic was initiated in a randomly selected herd – either in a nucleus herd, a sow herd......, a randomly selected herd or in multiple herds simultaneously. A sensitivity analysis was conducted on input parameters. Given the inputs and assumptions of the model, epidemics of ASF in Denmark are predicted to be small, affecting about 14 herds in the worst-case scenario. The duration of an epidemic...

  3. Histopathological and immunohistochemical approaches for the diagnosis of Pasteurellosis in swine population of Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payal Bhat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Infectious porcine bronchopneumonia, caused by Pasteurella multocida, is a widespread disease of major economic significance. Thus, the aim of the present study was to diagnose swine Pasteurellosis using gross, histopathological, and immunopathological approaches in the swine population of Punjab and to compare the efficacy of immunohistochemical (IHC techniques with conventional diagnostic techniques. Materials and Methods: A total of 71 adult swine lung samples showing gross pneumonic changes were collected along with the associated lymph nodes to carry out the study. The collected samples were then processed for histopathological and IHC studies. Results: Out of the total 71 lung samples, 26 samples were found to be suspected for Pasteurellosis as per the microscopic changes observed, and out of these 26 samples, 16 cases were confirmed to be positive for Pasteurellosis by IHC. Varied macroscopic changes noted in lungs were pneumonic patches with consolidation of many lobes, congestion, and focal hemorrhages. Main lesions associated with lymph nodes were its enlargement and hemorrhages. Histologically, the lung showed fibrinous and suppurative bronchopneumonia, multifocal suppuration, thickening of septa with fibrin combined with cellular infiltration and edema. The higher IHC expression of P. multocida was seen in the bronchial epithelium besides in alveolar and bronchial exudate. Moreover, on comparing the histopathological and IHC scores which were calculated on the basis of characteristic microscopic lesions and number of antigen positive cells, respectively, a significant positive correlation (r=0.4234 was found. Conclusion: It was concluded that swine population of Punjab is having P. multocida infection. The gross and histopathological lesions can be helpful in the preliminary diagnosis of Pasteurellosis but needs to be supplemented by other immunodiagnostic tests. Moreover, IHC technique proved to be a specific, reliable, precise

  4. Screening of salbutamol residues in swine meat and animal feed by an enzyme immunoassay in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Shi-Yuan; Lei, Yi-Chih; Tai, Yung-Te; Chang, Tong-Hsuan; Kuo, Tzong-Fu

    2009-11-10

    An ELISA was developed for routine examination for extensive monitoring and screening programs for the residues of salbutamol in swine serum, animal feed, meat, and meat-related products destined for human consumption in Taiwan. Objectives of the study were to investigate the use of a new immunoassay for the detection of salbutamol residues in swine meat and animal feed samples, and to compare with a commercial kit in field test screens. A fast, simple and reliable sample preparation method for the determination of salbutamol was established. Field trials with 222 swine meat and 120 animal feed samples that were taken from local meat markets, auction markets and feed mills. The application and the results of two ELISA kits (a homemade and a commercial kit) for the screening of salbutamol were presented. Adopting 2microg kg(-1) salbutamol as a cut-off value for swine meat, the commercial beta-agonist ELISA had a sensitivity of 85.3% and a specificity of 95.2% versus GC-MS at a cut-off of 2microg kg(-1). The homemade salbutamol ELISA had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 90.9% and gave no false-negative rate results. Furthermore, adopting 20microg kg(-1) salbutamol as a cut-off value for animal feed, both the commercial and homemade ELISA showed 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity of the assays. In conclusion, a sensitive, specific salbutamol polyclonal antibody-based ELISA has been developed that could serve as a rapid screening assay, and the detection of positive samples at the place of sampling can result in more effective control of the illegal use of beta-agonists.

  5. Evaluation of bait traps as a means to predict initial blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) communities associated with decomposing swine remains in New Jersey, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Lauren M; Gemmellaro, M Denise; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Hamilton, George C

    2017-09-01

    Information about blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species distributions can be valuable for criminal investigations, with regards to determining movement of remains from one location to another and time of colonization estimates, making these data extremely useful. Past work has been conducted on initial species community structure across New Jersey, USA using traps baited with beef liver; however, if these same species frequent vertebrate carrion remains unclear. In order to evaluate these data, piglet carcasses were placed out once every two weeks for a year in New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA. The same methods were implemented as those used for traps baited with beef liver, with length of collections being based on ADD values. Seven calliphorid species, Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Lucilia coeruleiviridis (Macquart), Phormia regina (Meigen), Pollenia pediculata Macquart, Pollenia rudis (F.) and Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau-Desvoidy) were collected from the carcasses. During this experiment L. sericata, L. coeruleiviridis and P. regina were the dominant adult blow flies captured, totaling 38.2%, 29.2% and 29.2% respectively of all adults caught. All three species colonized the carcasses as well, although not all were dominant colonizers. C. vicina was recorded ovipositing in December, while the piglet was submerged in approximately 5cm of snow. All species that totaled at least 1% of the total collection (adults captured and larvae reared) were the same across baited traps and carcasses. This study supports the use of beef liver baits for surveying forensically important blow flies and the application of such information to forensic investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Oxygen radical-scavenging capacities of peptides from swine blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In China, about five hundred million swine are slaughtered yearly, which represents about 45% of the world´s production. Swine blood is generally discarded except for the small amount that is used in soybean curd and other food products. This not only wastes resources, but also contaminates the environment. In this study ...

  7. Global migration of influenza A viruses in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emergence of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic virus underscores the importance of understanding how influenza A viruses evolve in swine on a global scale. To reveal the frequency, patterns and drivers of the spread of swine influenza virus globally, we conducted the largest phylogenetic analysis of swin...

  8. Molecular characterization of African swine fever virus in apparently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African swine fever (ASF) is a highly lethal and economically significant disease of domestic pigs in Uganda where outbreaks regularly occur. There is neither a vaccine nor treatment available for ASF control. Twenty two African swine fever virus (ASFV) genotypes (I - XXII) have been identified based on partial sequencing ...

  9. Genotyping of African swine fever virus (ASFV) isolates associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples from infected domestic pigs associated with an outbreak of African swine fever (ASF) in three districts of central Uganda in 2007 were confirmed as being infected with African swine fever virus (ASFV) using a P72 gene-based polymerase chain reaction amplification (PCR) assay combined with restriction analysis.

  10. Economic losses to Iberian swine production from forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan Ramon Molina Martinez; Miguel Herrera Machuca; Ricardo Zamora Diaz; Fancisco Rodriguez y Silva; Armando Gonzalez-Caban

    2011-01-01

    Most forestry property in Andalusia is privately held. One of the most important possibilities for economic development of rural areas is the use of pasture lands (dehesa in Spanish). During the spring–summer season, swine grazing takes advantage of grasses between the trees, and during winter (harsher times), they use Quercus tree fruit. Swine production has a direct...

  11. Transmission rate of African swine fever virus under experimental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho Ferreira, de H.C.; Backer, J.A.; Weesendorp, E.; Klinkenberg, D.; Stegeman, J.A.; Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2013-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a highly lethal, viral disease of swine. No vaccine is available, so controlling an ASF outbreak is highly dependent on zoosanitary measures, such as stamping out infected herds and quarantining of affected areas. Information on ASF transmission parameters could allow

  12. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E in swine abattoir workers. | Ukuli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis E (HE) caused by Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging global public health threat. It has been identified as potentially zoonotic and swine act as main reservoirs. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with HEV in swine abattoir workers ...

  13. The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.S. Lewis (Nicola); C.A. Russell (Colin); P. Langat (Pinky); T.K. Anderson (Tavis); K. Berger (Kathryn); F. Bielejec (Filip); D.F. Burke (David); G. Dudas (Gytis); J.M. Fonville (Judith); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); P. Kellam (Paul); B.F. Koel (Björn); P. Lemey (Philippe); T. Nguyen (Tung); B. Nuansrichy (Bundit); J.S. Malik Peiris; T. Saito (Takehiko); G. Simon (Gaelle); E. Skepner (Eugene); N. Takemae (Nobuhiro); R.J. Webby (Richard J.); K. van Reeth; S.M. Brookes (Sharon M.); L. Larsen (Lars); S.J. Watson (Simon J.); I.H. Brown (Ian); A.L. Vincent (Amy L.); S. Reid (Scott); M.A. Garcia (Montserrat Auero); T.C. Harder (Timm); E. Foni (Emanuela); I. Markowska-Daniel (Iwona)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractSwine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds

  14. Population dynamics of swine influenza virus in finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2008-01-01

    Influenza virus infections in swine were first noticed in the US in 1918, during the human pandemic of the Spanish flu. In Europe, seroprevalences for the three most common swine influenza strains at the moment, H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2, range from 20-80% in finishing pigs at the end of the finishing

  15. Economic Analysis Of Private Sector Participation In Swine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the analysis of the economics of private sector participation in swine production in Ibadan metropolis, Oyo State, was conducted. Data were collected from sixty private operators of swine farms, who were randomly selected from the study area between March and October, 2002. Descriptive statistics and ...

  16. Production system dynamism and parasitic interac- tion of swine in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jimma University, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 307 ... they are prone to number of diseases and also various internal and external ... Ethiop. Vet. J., 2010, 14 (1), 71-81 identify the major internal and external parasite of swine in Holetta, which is the main swine production area of the country.

  17. 78 FR 9028 - Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies Proposed Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies... approach to managing swine brucellosis and pseudorabies available for public review and comment. Swine brucellosis and pseudorabies have been eliminated from commercial swine herds within the United States, but...

  18. DC Analysis of an Ideal Diode Network Using Its Decomposed Piecevise-Linear Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kolka

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available A new method of finding the operating points in circuits containing ideal diodes which utilizes the decomposed form of the state model of an one-dimensional piecewise-linear (PWL system is developed. The universal procedure shown gives all the existing solutions quite automatically.

  19. The chemical convergence and decomposer control hypotheses explain solid cattle manure decomposition in production grasslands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz; Lantinga, Egbert A.; Brussaard, Lijbert; Goede, de Ron G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, we reported for the first time that home field advantage (HFA) of litter decomposition also exists in agricultural production systems, in addition to earlier reports from natural ecosystems. Here, we provide evidence that adaptation of the soil decomposer community to differences in the

  20. Food Preference of Fresh-Water Invertebrates - Comparing Fresh and Decomposed Angiosperm and a Filamentous Alga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornijow, R.; Gulati, R.D.; Ozimek, T.

    1995-01-01

    1. Fresh and decomposed Mougeotia sp. (a filamentous green alga) and Elodea nuttallii (a vascular plant) were offered as food to three species of aquatic macroinvertebrates (Lymnnea peregra, Asellus meridianus and Endochironomus albipennis) to test: (i) if filamentous algae are preferred to aquatic

  1. Natural manganese deposits as catalyst for decomposing hydrogen peroxide (discussion paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, A.H.; Lekkerkerker-Teunissen, K.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Drinking water companies more and more implement Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP) in their treatment schemes to increase the barrier against organic micropollutants (OMPs). It is necessary to decompose the excessive hydrogen peroxide after applying AOP to avoid negative effects in the following,

  2. Experimental evidence that the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model best describes the evolution of leaf litter decomposability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pan, Xu; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Zhao, W.; Liu, Guo-Fang; Hu, Yu-Kun; Prinzing, A.; Dong, Ming; Cornwell, W.K.

    2014-01-01

    Leaf litter decomposability is an important effect trait for ecosystem functioning. However, it is unknown how this effect trait evolved through plant history as a leaf 'afterlife' integrator of the evolution of multiple underlying traits upon which adaptive selection must have acted. Did

  3. Effects of different levels of decomposed poultry manure on yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-20

    Aug 20, 2007 ... the Vegetable Evaluation and Research Station, Anse Boileau,. Mahe, Seychelles on soil classified as sandy to evaluate the effects of different levels of decomposed poultry manure on yield of musk- melon. The variety of muskmelon used was Hales Best. It is com- monly grown by farmers and shows good ...

  4. The plant cell wall--decomposing machinery underlies the functional diversity of forest fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Eastwood; Dimitrios Floudas; Manfred Binder; Andrzej Majcherczyk; Patrick Schneider; Andrea Aerts; Fred O. Asiegbu; Scott E. Baker; Kerrie Barry; Mika Bendiksby; Melanie Blumentritt; Pedro M. Coutinho; Dan Cullen; Ronald P. de Vries; Allen Gathman; Barry Goodell; Bernard Henrissat; Katarina Ihrmark; Havard Kauserud; Annegret Kohler; Kurt LaButti; Alla Lapidus; Jose L. Lavin; Yong-Hwan Lee; Erika Lindquist; Walt Lilly; Susan Lucas; Emmanuelle Morin; Claude Murat; Jose A. Oguiza; Jongsun Park; Antonio G. Pisabarro; Robert Riley; Anna Rosling; Asaf Salamov; Olaf Schmidt; Jeremy Schmutz; Inger Skrede; Jan Stenlid; Ad Wiebenga; Xinfeng Xie; Ursula Kues; David S. Hibbett; Dirk Hoffmeister; Nils Hogberg; Francis Martin; Igor V. Grigoriev; Sarah C. Watkinson

    2011-01-01

    Brown rot decay removes cellulose and hemicelluloses from wood, residual lignin contributing up to 30% of forest soil carbon, and is derived from an ancestral white rot saprotrophy where both lignin and cellulose are decomposed. Comparative and functional genomics of the “dry rot” fungus Serpula lacrymans, derived from forest ancestors, demonstrated that the evolution...

  5. Novel view on predicting acute toxicity: Decomposing toxicity data in species vulnerability and chemical potency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, D.T.; Posthuma, L.; Zwart, D.D.; van de Meent, D.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical risk assessment usually applies empirical methods to predict toxicant effects on different species. We propose a more mechanism-oriented approach, and introduce a method to decompose toxicity data in a contribution from the chemical (potency) and from the exposed species (vulnerability). We

  6. Effects of decomposing Rhizophora apiculata leaves on larvae of the shrimp Penaeus monodon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roijackers, R.M.M.; Nghia, T.T.; Ut, V.N.; Scheffer, M.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the effects of different concentrations of decomposing Rhizophora apiculata leaves and their leachates on larvae of the shrimp Penaeus monodon under laboratory conditions. Shrimp mortality was highly dependent on the concentration of oxygen in the water, which in turn was strongly

  7. FLORA: A framework for decomposing software architecture to introduce local recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sözer, Hasan; Tekinerdogan, B.; Aksit, Mehmet

    The decomposition of software architecture into modular units is usually driven by the required quality concerns. In this paper we focus on the impact of local recovery concern on the decomposition of the software system. For achieving local recovery, the system needs to be decomposed into separate

  8. Gaze Fluctuations Are Not Additively Decomposable: Reply to Bogartz and Staub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelty-Stephen, Damian G.; Mirman, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Our previous work interpreted single-lognormal fits to inter-gaze distance (i.e., "gaze steps") histograms as evidence of multiplicativity and hence interactions across scales in visual cognition. Bogartz and Staub (2012) proposed that gaze steps are additively decomposable into fixations and saccades, matching the histograms better and…

  9. Burn or rot: leaf traits explain why flammability and decomposability are decoupled across species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootemaat, S.; Wright, I.J.; van Bodegom, P.M.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Cornwell, W.K.

    2015-01-01

    In fireprone ecosystems, two important alternative fates for leaves are burning in a wildfire (when alive or as litter) or they get consumed (as litter) by decomposers. The influence of leaf traits on litter decomposition rate is reasonably well understood. In contrast, less is known about the

  10. An innovative wood-chip-framework soil infiltrator for treating anaerobic digested swine wastewater and analysis of the microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bowei; Li, Jianzheng; Leu, Shao-Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Combined anaerobic-aerobic processes are efficacious and economic approaches in treating swine wastewater. Nitrogen removal efficiency of these processes, however, is usually limited due to the low carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio of the wastewater. An innovative wood-chip-framework soil infiltrator (WFSI) was developed and its performance in treating anaerobic digested swine wastewater was investigated. The WFSI showed comparable removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and amongst the highest efficiency of nitrogen removal in treating low C/N wastewater. At a COD volume loading rate of 98.6 g/m3 d the WFSI could remove up to 47.7 g/m3 d of COD. Removal rates of NH4+-N and total nitrogen, also reached 69.1 and 30.4 g/m3 d, respectively, when NH4+-N loading rate was 88.4 g/m3 d. Biological analysis indicated that aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic microbiota occurred throughout the WFSI. Abundant cellulose and lignin decomposing bacteria could degrade the wood chips and provided extra carbon source to enhance denitrification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An optimality framework to predict decomposer carbon-use efficiency trends along stoichiometric gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, S.; Capek, P.; Mooshammer, M.; Lindahl, B.; Richter, A.; Santruckova, H.

    2016-12-01

    Litter and soil organic matter decomposers feed on substrates with much wider C:N and C:P ratios then their own cellular composition, raising the question as to how they can adapt their metabolism to such a chronic stoichiometric imbalance. Here we propose an optimality framework to address this question, based on the hypothesis that carbon-use efficiency (CUE) can be optimally adjusted to maximize the decomposer growth rate. When nutrients are abundant, increasing CUE improves decomposer growth rate, at the expense of higher nutrient demand. However, when nutrients are scarce, increased nutrient demand driven by high CUE can trigger nutrient limitation and inhibit growth. An intermediate, `optimal' CUE ensures balanced growth at the verge of nutrient limitation. We derive a simple analytical equation that links this optimal CUE to organic substrate and decomposer biomass C:N and C:P ratios, and to the rate of inorganic nutrient supply (e.g., fertilization). This equation allows formulating two specific hypotheses: i) decomposer CUE should increase with widening organic substrate C:N and C:P ratios with a scaling exponent between 0 (with abundant inorganic nutrients) and -1 (scarce inorganic nutrients), and ii) CUE should increase with increasing inorganic nutrient supply, for a given organic substrate stoichiometry. These hypotheses are tested using a new database encompassing nearly 2000 estimates of CUE from about 160 studies, spanning aquatic and terrestrial decomposers of litter and more stabilized organic matter. The theoretical predictions are largely confirmed by our data analysis, except for the lack of fertilization effects on terrestrial decomposer CUE. While stoichiometric drivers constrain the general trends in CUE, the relatively large variability in CUE estimates suggests that other factors could be at play as well. For example, temperature is often cited as a potential driver of CUE, but we only found limited evidence of temperature effects

  12. Colimitation of decomposition by substrate and decomposers – a comparison of model formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Reichstein

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM is limited by both the available substrate and the active decomposer community. The understanding of this colimitation strongly affects the understanding of feedbacks of soil carbon to global warming and its consequences. This study compares different formulations of soil organic matter (SOM decomposition. We compiled formulations from literature into groups according to the representation of decomposer biomass on the SOM decomposition rate a non-explicit (substrate only, b linear, and c non-linear. By varying the SOM decomposition equation in a basic simplified decomposition model, we analyzed the following questions. Is the priming effect represented? Under which conditions is SOM accumulation limited? And, how does steady state SOM stocks scale with amount of fresh organic matter (FOM litter inputs? While formulations (a did not represent the priming effect, with formulations (b steady state SOM stocks were independent of amount of litter input. Further, with several formulations (c there was an offset of SOM that was not decomposed when no fresh OM was supplied. The finding that a part of the SOM is not decomposed on exhaust of FOM supply supports the hypothesis of carbon stabilization in deep soil by the absence of energy-rich fresh organic matter. Different representations of colimitation of decomposition by substrate and decomposers in SOM decomposition models resulted in qualitatively different long-term behaviour. A collaborative effort by modellers and experimentalists is required to identify formulations that are more or less suitable to represent the most important drivers of long term carbon storage.

  13. Analyses of swine tissue samples for evidence of African swine fever ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the current situation of African swine fever (ASF) that devastated the pig production enterprise of Nigeria. The disease was confirmed through laboratory tests in 18 States of Nigeria covering of the southeast, southwest, southsouth and central states of the country. The samples were derived from the ...

  14. 9 CFR 93.504 - Import permits for swine and for swine specimens for diagnostic purposes; and reservation fees...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; individual swine identification which includes a description of the swine, name, age, markings, if any, registration number, if any, and tattoo or eartag; the region of origin; the name and address of the exporter... (including but not limited to procedures for animal identification, record keeping, and veterinary care) that...

  15. Swine Outbreak of Pandemic Influenza A Virus on a Canadian Research Farm Supports Human-to-Swine Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenliside, Julia; Wilkinson, Craig; Webby, Richard; Lu, Patricia; Sorensen, Ole; Fonseca, Kevin; Barman, Subrata; Rubrum, Adam; Stigger, Evelyn; Marrie, Thomas J.; Marshall, Frank; Spady, Donald W.; Hu, Jia; Loeb, Mark; Russell, Margaret L.; Babiuk, Lorne A.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Swine outbreaks of pandemic influenza A (pH1N1) suggest human introduction of the virus into herds. This study investigates a pH1N1 outbreak occurring on a swine research farm with 37 humans and 1300 swine in Alberta, Canada, from 12 June through 4 July 2009. Methods. The staff was surveyed about symptoms, vaccinations, and livestock exposures. Clinical findings were recorded, and viral testing and molecular characterization of isolates from humans and swine were performed. Human serological testing and performance of the human influenza-like illness (ILI) case definition were also studied. Results. Humans were infected before swine. Seven of 37 humans developed ILI, and 2 (including the index case) were positive for pH1N1 by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Swine were positive for pH1N1 by RT-PCR 6 days after contact with the human index case and developed symptoms within 24 h of their positive viral test results. Molecular characterization of the entire viral genomes from both species showed minor nucleotide heterogeneity, with 1 amino acid change each in the hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein genes. Sixty-seven percent of humans with positive serological test results and 94% of swine with positive swab specimens had few or no symptoms. Compared with serological testing, the human ILI case definition had a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 33.3%. The only factor associated with seropositivity was working in the swine nursery. Conclusions. Epidemiologic data support human-to-swine transmission, and molecular characterization confirms that virtually identical viruses infected humans and swine in this outbreak. Both species had mild illness and recovered without sequelae. PMID:21148514

  16. Quantitative approach for the risk assessment of African swine fever and Classical swine fever introduction into the United States through legal imports of pigs and swine products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Ibatá, Diana María; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Quijada, Darla; Burton, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    The US livestock safety strongly depends on its capacity to prevent the introduction of Transboundary Animal Diseases (TADs). Therefore, accurate and updated information on the location and origin of those potential TADs risks is essential, so preventive measures as market restrictions can be put on place. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the current risk of African swine fever (ASF) and Classical swine fever (CSF) introduction into the US through the legal importations of live pigs and swine products using a quantitative approach that could be later applied to other risks. Four quantitative stochastic risk assessment models were developed to estimate the monthly probabilities of ASF and CSF release into the US, and the exposure of susceptible populations (domestic and feral swine) to these introductions at state level. The results suggest a low annual probability of either ASF or CSF introduction into the US, by any of the analyzed pathways (5.5*10−3). Being the probability of introduction through legal imports of live pigs (1.8*10−3 for ASF, and 2.5*10−3 for CSF) higher than the risk of legally imported swine products (8.90*10−4 for ASF, and 1.56*10−3 for CSF). This could be caused due to the low probability of exposure associated with this type of commodity (products). The risk of feral pigs accessing to swine products discarded in landfills was slightly higher than the potential exposure of domestic pigs through swill feeding. The identification of the months at highest risk, the origin of the higher risk imports, and the location of the US states most vulnerable to those introductions (Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin for live swine and California, Florida and Texas for swine products), is valuable information that would help to design prevention, risk-mitigation and early-detection strategies that would help to minimize the catastrophic consequences of potential ASF/CSF introductions into the US. PMID:28797058

  17. Zeolites in poultry and swine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Félix Schneider

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Zeolites are minerals that have intriguing properties such as water absorption, ion adsorption and cation exchange capacity. There are approximately 80 species of natural zeolites recognized and hundreds of artificial zeolites, which have been researched in several fields. Due to their chemical characteristics, zeolites have great potential for use in animal production, especially in poultry and swine farms, as food additives, litter amendment and treatment of residues, with direct and indirect effects on performance, yield and quality of carcass, ambience of farm sheds and reduction of environmental pollution.

  18. (Asynchronous availabilities of N and P regulate the activity and structure of the microbial decomposer community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eFanin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P availability both control microbial decomposers and litter decomposition. However, these two key nutrients show distinct release patterns from decomposing litter and are unlikely available at the same time in most ecosystems. Little is known about how temporal differences in N and P availability affect decomposers and litter decomposition, which may be particularly critical for tropical rainforests growing on old and nutrient-impoverished soils. Here we used three chemically contrasted leaf litter substrates and cellulose paper as a widely accessible substrate containing no nutrients to test the effects of temporal differences in N and P availability in a microcosm experiment under fully controlled conditions. We measured substrate mass loss, microbial activity (by substrate induced respiration, SIR as well as microbial community structure (using phospholipid fatty acids, PLFAs in the litter and the underlying soil throughout the initial stages of decomposition. We generally found a stronger stimulation of substrate mass loss and microbial respiration, especially for cellulose, with simultaneous NP addition compared to a temporally separated N and P addition. However, litter types with a relatively high N to P availability responded more to initial P than N addition and vice versa. A third litter species showed no response to fertilization regardless of the sequence of addition, likely due to strong C limitation. Microbial community structure in the litter was strongly influenced by the fertilization sequence. In particular, the fungi to bacteria ratio increased following N addition alone, a shift that was reversed with complementary P addition. Opposite to the litter layer microorganisms, the soil microbial community structure was more strongly influenced by the identity of the decomposing substrate than by fertilization treatments, reinforcing the idea that C availability can strongly constrain decomposer

  19. Propranolol Effects on Decompression Sickness in a Simulated DISSUB Rescue in Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Angela S; Regis, David P; Hall, Aaron A; Mahon, Richard T; Cronin, William A

    2017-04-01

    Disabled submarine (DISSUB) survivors may face elevated CO2 levels and inert gas saturation, putting them at risk for CO2 toxicity and decompression sickness (DCS). Propranolol was shown to reduce CO2 production in an experimental DISSUB model in humans but its effects on DCS in a DISSUB rescue scenario are unknown. A 100% oxygen prebreathe (OPB) reduces DCS incidence and severity and is incorporated into some DISSUB rescue protocols. We used a swine model of DISSUB rescue to study the effect of propranolol on DCS incidence and mortality with and without an OPB. In Experiment 1, male Yorkshire Swine (70 kg) were pressurized to 2.8 ATA for 22 h. Propranolol 1.0 mg · kg-1 (IV) was administered at 21.25 h. At 22 h, the animal was rapidly decompressed and observed for DCS type, onset time, and mortality. Experimental animals (N = 21; 69 ± 4.1 kg), PROP1.0, were compared to PROP1.0-OPB45 (N = 8; 69 ± 2.8 kg) with the same dive profile, except for a 45 min OPB prior to decompression. In Experiment 2, the same methodology was used with the following changes: swine pressurized to 2.8 ATA for 28 h; experimental group (N = 25; 67 ± 3.3 kg), PROP0.5 bis, propranolol 0.5 mg · kg-1 bis (twice) (IV) was administered at 22 h and 26 h. Control animals (N = 25; 67 ± 3.9 kg) received normal saline. OPB reduced mortality in PROP1.0-OBP45 compared to PROP1.0 (0% vs. 71%). PROP0.5 bis had increased mortality compared to CONTROL (60-% vs. 4%). Administration of beta blockers prior to saturation decompression appears to increase DCS and worsen mortality in a swine model; however, their effects in bounce diving remain unknown.Forbes AS, Regis DP, HallAA, Mahon RT, Cronin WA. Propranolol effects on decompression sickness in a simulated DISSUB rescue in swine. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(4):385-391.

  20. Biliverdin protects against liver ischemia reperfusion injury in swine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Andria

    Full Text Available Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI in organ transplantation remains a serious and unsolved problem. Organs that undergo significant damage during IRI, function less well immediately after reperfusion and tend to have more problems at later times when rejection can occur. Biliverdin has emerged as an agent that potently suppress IRI in rodent models. Since the use of biliverdin is being developed as a potential therapeutic modality for humans, we tested the efficacy for its effects on IRI of the liver in swine, an accepted and relevant pre-clinical animal model. Administration of biliverdin resulted in rapid appearance of bilirubin in the serum and significantly suppressed IRI-induced liver dysfunction as measured by multiple parameters including urea and ammonia clearance, neutrophil infiltration and tissue histopathology including hepatocyte cell death. Taken together, our findings, in a large animal model, provide strong support for the continued evaluation of biliverdin as a potential therapeutic in the clinical setting of transplantation of the liver and perhaps other organs.

  1. Biliverdin protects against liver ischemia reperfusion injury in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andria, Barbara; Bracco, Adele; Attanasio, Chiara; Castaldo, Sigismondo; Cerrito, Maria Grazia; Cozzolino, Santolo; Di Napoli, Daniele; Giovannoni, Roberto; Mancini, Antonio; Musumeci, Antonino; Mezza, Ernesto; Nasti, Mario; Scuderi, Vincenzo; Staibano, Stefania; Lavitrano, Marialuisa; Otterbein, Leo E; Calise, Fulvio

    2013-01-01

    Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) in organ transplantation remains a serious and unsolved problem. Organs that undergo significant damage during IRI, function less well immediately after reperfusion and tend to have more problems at later times when rejection can occur. Biliverdin has emerged as an agent that potently suppress IRI in rodent models. Since the use of biliverdin is being developed as a potential therapeutic modality for humans, we tested the efficacy for its effects on IRI of the liver in swine, an accepted and relevant pre-clinical animal model. Administration of biliverdin resulted in rapid appearance of bilirubin in the serum and significantly suppressed IRI-induced liver dysfunction as measured by multiple parameters including urea and ammonia clearance, neutrophil infiltration and tissue histopathology including hepatocyte cell death. Taken together, our findings, in a large animal model, provide strong support for the continued evaluation of biliverdin as a potential therapeutic in the clinical setting of transplantation of the liver and perhaps other organs.

  2. In-situ pyrogenic production of biodiesel from swine fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jechan; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Jung, Jong-Min; Oh, Jeong-Ik; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2016-11-01

    In-situ production of fatty acid methyl esters from swine fat via thermally induced pseudo-catalytic transesterification on silica was investigated in this study. Instead of methanol, dimethyl carbonate (DMC) was used as acyl acceptor to achieve environmental benefits and economic viability. Thermo-gravimetric analysis of swine fat reveals that swine fat contains 19.57wt.% of water and impurities. Moreover, the fatty acid profiles obtained under various conditions (extracted swine oil+methanol+NaOH, extracted swine oil+DMC+pseudo-catalytic, and swine fat+DMC+pseudo-catalytic) were compared. These profiles were identical, showing that the introduced in-situ transesterification is technically feasible. This also suggests that in-situ pseudo-catalytic transesterification has a high tolerance against impurities. This study also shows that FAME yield via in-situ pseudo-catalytic transesterification of swine fat reached up to 97.2% at 380°C. Therefore, in-situ pseudo-catalytic transesterification can be applicable to biodiesel production of other oil-bearing biomass feedstocks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Root-induced decomposer growth and plant N uptake are not positively associated among a set of grassland plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saj, S.; Mikola, J.; Ekelund, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    It is known that plant species can induce development of different soil decomposer communities and that they differ in their influence on organic matter decomposition and N mineralization in soil. However, no study has so far assessed whether these two observations are related to each other. Based...... on the hypothesis that root-induced growth of soil decomposers leads to accelerated decomposition of SOM and increased plant N availability in soil, we predicted that (1) among a set of grassland plants the abundance of soil decomposers in the plant rhizosphere is positively associated with plant N uptake from soil...... organic matter. To test this, we established grassland microcosms consisting of two plant individuals, a natural soil decomposer community and 15N-labelled plant litter as organic N source, and compared the rhizosphere decomposer communities and litter-N uptake of a grass Holcus lanatus, an herb Plantago...

  4. Influence of mycotoxin zearalenone on the swine reproductive failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanov-Radulović Jasna Z.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive failure in swine is often a difficult diagnostic problem. If diagnoses of infectious disease or management related problems are not obtained, feed quality and safety may be questioned. Mycotoxins are often present in swine feed in the amount that can have detrimental impact on production and reproduction. Problems are expressed only as alterations of the reproductive cycle, reduced feed intake, slow growth or impaired feed efficiency. In Serbia, generally speaking, high concentrations of mycotoxins were noticed, especially mycotoxin zearalenone. High presence of zearalenone in swine feed is probably due to climatic influence and should be monitored constantly. This paper includes field observations regarding the influence of moldy feed containing mycotoxin zearalenone on the occurrence of the reproductive failure in swine breeding categories (sows, gilts and boars. The material for this research was obtained from four swine farms where certain reproductive disorders and health problems in breeding animals were detected. Depending on the specificity of each evaluated case and available material, the applied research methods included: anamnestic and clinical evaluation, pathomorphological examination, standard laboratory testing for detection of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and microbiological feed testing, in order to examine the presence of fungi and mycotoxins by applying the method of thin layer chromatography. On the basis of the obtained results, it could be concluded that mycotoxin zearalenone was detected in all examined feed samples. The presence of mycotoxin in feed was directly related to the reproductive failures in the examined swine categories (vulvovaginitis, endometritis, rebreeding, infertility. Swine reproduction represents the base for intensive swine production. The presence of mycotoxins in swine feed have influence on the reproduction and health status of pigs and under certain conditions may significantly

  5. Modeling of the Sulfuric Acid and Sulfur Trioxide Decomposer using Aspen Plus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Dong Un; Park, G. C. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, C. S.; Yoo, T. H.; Hong, S. D.; Kim, Y. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    A hydrogen production system using VHTR, which was combined with a Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermochemical cycle, is a good candidate for massive hydrogen production. It is being investigated for Nuclear Hydrogen Development and Demonstration (NHDD) project in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The SI thermo-chemical cycle is a good promise for the economical and eco-friendly hydrogen production. In SI cycle, the decomposition of a sulfuric acid is main concern for the material corrosion and mechanical stress on high temperature and pressure operation condition. KAERI has designed and constructed a small-scale gas loop that included sulfuric acid experimental facilities as a secondary loop. The main objectives of the loop are to monitor and validate the performances of NHDD component such as the Process Heat Exchanger (PHE) and sulfuric acid decomposer. In this paper, we discussed the results of the modeling of the sulfuric acid and sulfur trioxide decomposer using Aspen plus process simulator

  6. HOW DO DEGRADABLE/BIODEGRADABLE PLASTIC MATERIALS DECOMPOSE IN HOME COMPOSTING ENVIRONMENT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Vaverková

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides information about biodegradability of polymeric (biodegradable/degradable materials advertised as 100%-degradable or certified as compostable, which may be a part of biodegradable waste, in home composting conditions. It describes an experiment that took place in home wooden compost bins and contained 9 samples that are commonly available in retail chains in the Czech Republic and Poland. The experiment lasted for the period of 12 weeks. Based on the results thereof it can be concluded that polyethylene samples with additive (samples 2, 4, 7 have not decomposed, their color has not changed and that no degradation or physical changes have occurred. Samples 1, 3 and 5 certified as compostable have not decomposed. Sample 6 exhibited the highest decomposition rate. Samples 8, 9 (tableware exhibited high degree of decomposition. The main conclusion from this study is that degradable/biodegradable plastics or plastics certified as compostable are not suitable for home composting.

  7. Decomposing series-parallel graphs into paths of length 3 and triangles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merker, Martin

    2015-01-01

    An old conjecture by Jünger, Reinelt and Pulleyblank states that every 2-edge-connected planar graph can be decomposed into paths of length 3 and triangles, provided its size is divisible by 3. We prove the conjecture for a class of planar graphs including all 2-edge-connected series-parallel gra......An old conjecture by Jünger, Reinelt and Pulleyblank states that every 2-edge-connected planar graph can be decomposed into paths of length 3 and triangles, provided its size is divisible by 3. We prove the conjecture for a class of planar graphs including all 2-edge-connected series......-parallel graphs. We also present a 2-edge-connected non-planar graph that can be embedded on the torus and admits no decomposition into paths of length 3 and triangles....

  8. Kill the song—steal the show: what does distinguish predicative metaphors from decomposable idioms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillies, Stéphanie; Declercq, Christelle

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the semantic processing difference between decomposable idioms and novel predicative metaphors. It was hypothesized that idiom comprehension results from the retrieval of a figurative meaning stored in memory, that metaphor comprehension requires a sense creation process and that this process difference affects the processing time of idiomatic and metaphoric expressions. In the first experiment, participants read sentences containing decomposable idioms, predicative metaphors or control expressions and performed a lexical decision task on figurative targets presented 0, 350, and 500 ms, or 750 after reading. Results demonstrated that idiomatic expressions were processed sooner than metaphoric ones. In the second experiment, participants were asked to assess the meaningfulness of idiomatic, metaphoric and literal expressions after reading a verb prime that belongs to the target phrase (identity priming). The results showed that verb identity priming was stronger for idiomatic expressions than for metaphor ones, indicating different mental representations.

  9. A domain decomposed finite element method for solving Darcian velocity in heterogeneous porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yifan; Wu, Jichun; Xue, Yuqun; Xie, Chunhong; Ji, Haifeng

    2017-11-01

    This paper proposes a domain decomposed finite element method (DDFEM) for groundwater flow velocity simulation, which can effectively and efficiently deal with arbitrarily oriented or intersected material interfaces in heterogeneous porous media. The main idea of this problem is to employ domain decompose technique to break the velocity problem down to subproblems by material interfaces, thereby achieving high accuracy at interface nodes and improving the velocity computation efficiency. By solving the global flow field by FEM before velocity computation, this method can capture the global information of the whole study region so as to ensure the subproblem solution accuracy by Yeh's model. After one subproblem has been solved, the DDFEM employs refraction law to obtain the Dirichlet boundary velocities of the adjacent subdomains. Numerical examples have been done to demonstrate the applicability and accuracy of the proposed method. Comparison between the DDFEM and two classical methods shows that the DDFEM can indeed save much computational cost, while achieving high accuracy.

  10. Decomposed energy management of a multi-source fuel cell vehicle using Energetic Macroscopic Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Castaings, Ali; Lhomme, Walter; Trigui, Rochdi; Bouscayrol, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Energy management of multi-sources vehicles is a complex task. The higher the number of sources becomes, the higher the complexity is. In this study, a decomposed energy management strategy is used for a vehicle fed by three energy sources: a fuel-cell, a battery and Supercapacitors (SCs). The decomposition allows simplifying the synthesis of the Energy Management Strategy. A comparison with a fuel cell (alone) vehicle is performed by simulation. By imposing a constant current to the fuel-cel...

  11. Approach to calculate normal modes by decomposing the dyadic Green's function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenhai; Yue, Wencheng; Yao, Peijun; Lu, Yonghua; Liu, Wen

    2014-11-03

    Normal mode is a very fundamental notion in quantum and classical optics. In this paper, we present a method to calculate normal modes by decomposing dyadic Green's function, where the modes are excited by dipoles. The modes obtained by our method can be directly normalized and their degeneracies can be easily removed. This method can be applied to many theoretical descriptions of cavity electrodynamics and is of interest to nanophotonics.

  12. Mechanism and Application of Carbon Nanotube Sensors in SF6 Decomposed Production Detection: a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Cui, Hao; Gui, Yingang; Tang, Ju

    2017-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have aroused extensive attentions as a new category of gas sensor materials owing to their outstanding performance for detecting specific gas among a variety of ones through diverse gas responses. This review summarizes the adsorption mechanism of CNTs and their properties related to the detection of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) decomposed gases that generated in gas insulation switchgear (GIS) of power system. Their performances as sensors of both experimental analysis a...

  13. Swine manure digestate treatment using electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia Mores

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anaerobic biodigestion is an appropriate alternative for the treatment of swine wastewater due to its biogas generation properties and the possibility of its application as a source of energy for heating or electricity. However, digestate can still contain high levels of turbidity, organic carbon and nutrients and must be correctly managed as a biofertilizer, or treated to avoid any impact on the environment. Considering this, electrocoagulation (EC shows promise as a technology because of its ease of handling and high efficiency in effluent remediation. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of EC in a batch system in the treatment of swine wastewater digestate. The wastewater used in the treatment was sampled from a 10 m3 biodigestor effluent (digestate located at Concórdia, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A batch-scale experiment was carried out to evaluate the following two variables: electrode distance (ED and voltage applied (V. The removal efficiency levels (% for the best operational condition (2 cm, 5 V after 30 min were: 97 %, 98 %, 77 % and 10 % for color, turbidity, total organic carbon (TOC and total nitrogen (TN, respectively. The EC batch system produced efficient results, underlining its promise as an alternative to be applied in the treatment of digestate.

  14. Coagulation in Treatment of Swine Slaughterhouse Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Bui Manh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, wastewater taken from the Nam Phong swine slaughterhouse, Ho Chi Minh City, was used to evaluate the treatment efficiency of common coagulants, including Alum (Aluminum Sulfate - Al2(SO43.18H2O, Poly-Aluminum Chloride (PAC, and Ferrous Sulfate (FeSO4.7H2O, using a jar-test system. The experiments were conducted using the one-factor-at-a-time method to examine three variables which are pH, stirring speed, and coagulant dosage. The results showed that both Alum and PAC perform over 90% removal of colour, turbidity, COD, and total phosphorus (TP from slaughterhouse wastewater at pH 7 with a stirring speed of 75 revolutions per minute (RPM and average coagulant dosages of 450 mg/L for Alum and 550 mg/L for PAC. Meanwhile, under the appropriate conditions of pH equal to 10 and 75 RPM with a chemical dosage of 350 mg/L, COD and TP removal efficiencies by Ferrous Sulfate exceed 87%, but those of turbidity and colour only reach 25%. This finding could be a promising coagulation method as a pre-treatment for the swine slaughterhouse wastewater.

  15. Metabolic disposition of ivermectin in swine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Shuething Lee; Sestokas, E.; Taub, R.; Green, M.L.; Baylis, F.P.; Jacob, T.A.; Lu, A.Y.H. (Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Tissue residue distribution and metabolism of tritium-labeled ivermectin have been studied in swine dosed subcutaneously at 0.4 mg/kg of body weight. The residue distribution pattern among edible tissues (liver, kidney, muscle, and fat) was similar to those found in cattle, sheep, and rats, with highest levels in fat and liver tissues ranging between 78 and 654 ppb within ppb within 7 days after dosing. The parent drug was the major radioactive residue in liver and fat, accounting for >50% of total radioactivity up to 7 days and {approximately}30% after 14 days. The major liver metabolites were identified as 3{double prime}-O-desmethyl-H{sub 2}B{sub 1a} and 3{double prime}-O-desmethyl-H{sub 2}B{sub 1b} by chemical derivatization and mixed-sample HPLC cochromatography with in vitro metabolites from swine liver microsomal incubations. As in other species studied, good correlation has been observed between in vitro and in vivo metabolism. The drug was essentially eliminated by fecal and biliary excretion.

  16. Binding characteristics of swine erythrocyte insulin receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieberg, G.; Bryan, G.S.; Sartin, J.L.; Williams, J.C.; Prince, T.J.; Kemppainen, R.J.

    1985-09-01

    Crossbred gilts had 8.8 +/- 1.1% maximum binding of ( SVI)insulin to insulin receptors on erythrocytes. The number of insulin-binding sites per cell was 137 +/- 19, with a binding affinity ranging from 7.4 X 10(7)M-1 to 11.2 X 10(7)M-1 and mean of 8.8 X 10(7)M-1. Pregnant sows had a significant increase in maximum binding due to an increase in number of receptor sites per cell. Lactating sows fed a high-fiber diet and a low-fiber diet did not develop a significant difference in maximum binding of insulin. Sows fed the low-fiber diet had a significantly higher number of binding sites and a significantly lower binding affinity than did sows fed a high-fiber diet. Receptor-binding affinity was lower in the low-fiber diet group than in cycling gilts, whereas data from sows fed the high-fiber diet did not differ from data for cycling gilts. Data from this study indicated that insulin receptors of swine erythrocytes have binding characteristics similar to those in other species. Pregnancy and diet will alter insulin receptor binding in swine.

  17. Classical Swine Fever Virus-Rluc Replicons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Peter Christian; Belsham, Graham J.; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the etiologic agent of the severe porcine disease, classical swine fever. Unraveling the molecular determinants of efficient replication is crucial for gaining proper knowledge of the pathogenic traits of this virus. Monitoring the replication competence with...... type CSFV-Paderborn strain, as judged by qRT-PCR, was picked as the candidate and could potentially be useful as a tool for further downstream applications including investigation of CSFV non-structural proteins involvement in viral replication....... cells can be achieved using autonomously replicating genome constructs (replicons) containing a reporter gene that expresses a readily quantifiable enzyme. Here, a newly implemented cloning technique was applied to genome modification of the full-length CSFV cDNA previously inserted into a single......-copy bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). This technique, the Red/ET counter-selection method, is based upon homologous recombination, thus obviating the need for internal restriction sites. Several CSFV replicons with deletions in regions encoding structural viral proteins considered non-essential for RNA...

  18. Classical Swine Fever-An Updated Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Sandra; Staubach, Christoph; Henke, Julia; Carlson, Jolene; Beer, Martin

    2017-04-21

    Classical swine fever (CSF) remains one of the most important transboundary viral diseases of swine worldwide. The causative agent is CSF virus, a small, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Pestivirus. Based on partial sequences, three genotypes can be distinguished that do not, however, directly correlate with virulence. Depending on both virus and host factors, a wide range of clinical syndromes can be observed and thus, laboratory confirmation is mandatory. To this means, both direct and indirect methods are utilized with an increasing degree of commercialization. Both infections in domestic pigs and wild boar are of great relevance; and wild boars are a reservoir host transmitting the virus sporadically also to pig farms. Control strategies for epidemic outbreaks in free countries are mainly based on classical intervention measures; i.e., quarantine and strict culling of affected herds. In these countries, vaccination is only an emergency option. However, live vaccines are used for controlling the disease in endemically infected regions in Asia, Eastern Europe, the Americas, and some African countries. Here, we will provide a concise, updated review on virus properties, clinical signs and pathology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and immune responses, diagnosis and vaccination possibilities.

  19. An initial study of insect succession on decomposing rabbit carrions in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabika, Nyasha; Masendu, Ron; Mawera, Gilbert

    2014-07-01

    To investigate insects visiting sun exposed and shaded decomposing rabbit carcasses and to establish the relationship between insects and carcasses which may be of forensic importance in Harare. Two rabbits weighing 2.3 kg and 2.5 kg were killed by sharp blows on the head. One was exposed to the sun while the other was placed under shade. The carcasses were allowed to decompose and insects were collected twice a day for the first week and thereafter once a day up to the end of the 7 weeks. Maggots were also collected from the decomposing carcasses and reared. Five dipteran families (Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae, Phoridae and Drosophilidae) were identified from the sun-exposed carcass. Species collected included Lucilia cuprina (L. cuprina), Chrysomya albiceps (C. albiceps), Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp. and Drosophila sp. Four families (Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Phoridae, Anthomyiidae) were identified from the shaded carcass. Representatives of these families included L. cuprina, C. albiceps, Musca domestica, and Hydrotaea sp. Three Coleopteran families (Histeridae, Cleridae and Dermestidae) were identified from both carcasses. The observed species were Saprinus sp., Necrobia rufipes and Dermestes sp. Formicidae (Hymenoptera) was represented by only one species (Pheidole sp.). Flies which emerged from the rearing units were L. cuprina, Lucilia sp., C. albiceps, Sarcophaga sp. and Sepsis sp.). Of the dipteran species collected during the study, L. cuprina and C. albiceps could be important for further forensic studies since they were collected from the carcasses and also observed from the rearing units.

  20. Estimating biological elementary flux modes that decompose a flux distribution by the minimal branching property

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Siu Hung Joshua; Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2014-01-01

    MOTIVATION: Elementary flux mode (EFM) is a useful tool in constraint-based modeling of metabolic networks. The property that every flux distribution can be decomposed as a weighted sum of EFMs allows certain applications of EFMs to studying flux distributions. The existence of biologically infea...... knowledge, which facilitates interpretation. Comparison of the methods applied to a complex flux distribution in Lactococcus lactis similarly showed the advantages of MBD. The minimal branching EFM concept underlying MBD should be useful in other applications.......MOTIVATION: Elementary flux mode (EFM) is a useful tool in constraint-based modeling of metabolic networks. The property that every flux distribution can be decomposed as a weighted sum of EFMs allows certain applications of EFMs to studying flux distributions. The existence of biologically......, i.e. minimal branching. RESULTS: We developed the concept of minimal branching EFM and derived the minimal branching decomposition (MBD) to decompose flux distributions. Testing in the core Escherichia coli metabolic network indicated that MBD can distinguish branches at branch points and greatly...

  1. Ecotoxicological impact of the fungicide tebuconazole on an aquatic decomposer-detritivore system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrod, Jochen P; Bundschuh, Mirco; Feckler, Alexander; Englert, Dominic; Schulz, Ralf

    2011-12-01

    Leaf litter breakdown is a fundamental process in aquatic ecosystems that is realized by microbial decomposers and invertebrate detritivores. Although this process may be adversely affected by fungicides, among other factors, no test design exists to assess combined effects on such decomposer-detritivore systems. Hence, the present study assessed effects of the model fungicide tebuconazole (65 µg/L) on the conditioning of leaf material (by characterizing the associated microbial community) as well as the combined effects (i.e., direct toxicity and food quality-related effects (=indirect)) on the energy processing of the leaf-shredding amphipod Gammarus fossarum using a five-week semistatic test design. Gammarids exposed to tebuconazole produced significantly less feces (≈ 20%), which in turn significantly increased their assimilation (≈ 30%). Moreover, a significantly reduced lipid content (≈ 20%) indicated lower physiological fitness. The conditioning process was altered as well, which was indicated by a significantly reduced fungal biomass (≈ 40%) and sporulation (≈ 30%) associated with the leaf material. These results suggest that tebuconazole affects both components of the investigated decomposer-detritivore system. However, adverse effects on the level of detritivores cannot be explicitly attributed to direct or indirect pathways. Nevertheless, as the endpoints assessed are directly related to leaf litter breakdown and associated energy transfer processes, the protectiveness of environmental risk assessment for this ecosystem function may be more realistically assessed in future studies by using this or comparable test designs. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  2. 9 CFR 94.17 - Dry-cured pork products from regions where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine fever, classical swine fever, or swine vesicular... RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER... § 94.17 Dry-cured pork products from regions where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine...

  3. A pig growth model for assessment of environmental footprint from swine operations: Effect of dietary energy and lysine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Danfær, Allan Christian; Jørgensen, Henry

    2011-01-01

    In swine operations, greenhouse gas emissions are mostly from stored manure. Accurate prediction of manure composition is required to estimate environmental footprint from swine operations. Pig growth models are often used to optimize profitability of swine production facilities; however, their a......In swine operations, greenhouse gas emissions are mostly from stored manure. Accurate prediction of manure composition is required to estimate environmental footprint from swine operations. Pig growth models are often used to optimize profitability of swine production facilities; however...

  4. Analysis of Swine Movements in a Province in Northern Vietnam and Application in the Design of Surveillance Strategies for Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudon, E; Fournié, G; Hiep, D T; Pham, T T H; Duboz, R; Gély, M; Peiris, M; Cowling, B J; Ton, V D; Peyre, M

    2017-04-01

    While swine production is rapidly growing in South-East Asia, the structure of the swine industry and the dynamic of pig movements have not been well-studied. However, this knowledge is a prerequisite for understanding the dynamic of disease transmission in swine populations and designing cost-effective surveillance strategies for infectious diseases. In this study, we assessed the farming and trading practices in the Vietnamese swine familial farming sector, which accounts for most pigs in Vietnam, and for which disease surveillance is a major challenge. Farmers from two communes of a Red River Delta Province (northern Vietnam) were interviewed, along with traders involved in pig transactions. Major differences in the trade structure were observed between the two communes. One commune had mainly transversal trades, that is between farms of equivalent sizes, whereas the other had pyramidal trades, that is from larger to smaller farms. Companies and large familial farrow-to-finish farms were likely to act as major sources of disease spread through pig sales, demonstrating their importance for disease control. Familial fattening farms with high pig purchases were at greater risk of disease introduction and should be targeted for disease detection as part of a risk-based surveillance. In contrast, many other familial farms were isolated or weakly connected to the swine trade network limiting their relevance for surveillance activities. However, some of these farms used boar hiring for breeding, increasing the risk of disease spread. Most familial farms were slaughtering pigs at the farm or in small local slaughterhouses, making the surveillance at the slaughterhouse inefficient. In terms of spatial distribution of the trades, the results suggested that northern provinces were highly connected and showed some connection with central and southern provinces. These results are useful to develop risk-based surveillance protocols for disease detection in the swine familial

  5. Nutrient removal from swine lagoon effluent by duckweed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, B.A.; Cheng, J.; Classen, J.; Stomp, A.M.

    2000-04-01

    Three duckweed geographic isolates were grown on varying concentrations of swine lagoon effluent in a greenhouse to determine their ability to remove nutrients from the effluent. Duckweed biomass was harvested every other day over a 12-day period. Duckweed biomass production, nutrient loss from the swine lagoon effluent, and nutrient content of duckweed biomass were used to identify effluent concentrations/geographic isolate combinations that are effective in terms of nutrient utilization from swine lagoon effluent and production of healthy duckweed biomass. When Lemna minor geographic isolate 8627 was grown on 50% swine lagoon effluent, respective losses of TKN, NH{sub 3}-N, TP, OPO{sub 4}-P, TOC, K, Cu, and Zn were 83, 100, 49, 31, 68, 21, 28 and 67%.

  6. Genetic diversity of Escherichia coli isolated from commercial swine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PCR) for the analysis of genetic diversity among Escherichia coli strains isolated from commercial swine farms in Sichuan province of China. Thirty four strains of E. coli were selected by selective medium and conventional biochemical test from ...

  7. Mitochondrial adaptations within chronically ischemic swine myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFalls, Edward O; Sluiter, Wim; Schoonderwoerd, Kees; Manintveld, Olivier C; Lamers, Jos M J; Bezstarosti, Karel; van Beusekom, Heleen M; Sikora, Joseph; Ward, Herbert B; Merkus, Daphne; Duncker, Dirk J

    2006-12-01

    Experimental evidence has emerged that myocardial ischemic preconditioning can prime the mitochondria into a "stress-resistant state", so that cell death is reduced following prolonged severe ischemia and reperfusion. Using a swine model of chronically ischemic myocardium, we tested the hypothesis that mitochondria within the ischemic territory have also acquired a protective phenotype. Eleven swine underwent a left thoracotomy with placement of an external constrictor around the proximal left anterior descending (LAD) artery. By 10 weeks, a severe stenosis of the LAD artery was documented by quantitative coronary angiography (92 +/- 2%). Animals were sacrificed and myocardium was extracted from the LAD and remote regions. Mitochondria were isolated from subendocardium and subepicardium from LAD and remote regions and state 2 (substrate alone) and state 3 (+ADP) respiration were assessed with a Clark electrode. Within the LAD subendocardium, the respiratory control index was 2.68 +/- 0.17 and was lower than the remote subendocardium (3.64 +/- 0.08; P < 0.05). When exposed to 20 min anoxia with reoxygenation, the LAD region demonstrated a more preserved state 3 respiration compared with the remote region (99 +/- 14 versus 65 +/- 9 nmol O2/mg, respectively; P < 0.05). In parallel mitochondrial experiments, chemiluminescence was detected with the probe coelenterazine and superoxide generation in the LAD region in the presence of antimycin A was 574 +/- 108 RLU/30 s/microg and was nearly 50% lower than the remote region (979 +/- 175 RLU/30 s/microg; P < 0.05). Within the mitochondria, the expression of uncoupling protein (UCP) 2 by western gels was 20% higher in the LAD region compared with the remote region (P < 0.05) with no differences noted in UCP-3. In this swine model of chronic myocardial ischemia, isolated mitochondria from the ischemic tissue demonstrate preserved state 3 respiration following anoxia/reoxygenation, consistent with a stress-resistant state

  8. Cardiac Ischemia Model for +Gz Using Miniature Swine and Baboons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    held closed by two radio- paque tantalum clips. The nylon tubing was bored to various diameters to achieve an approximate 30 – 40% constriction of...and posterior left ventricular wall ischemia. Apical ischemia was masked by apical thinning, seen in both control and diseased swine and, therefore...interpretations of apical ischemia. The thorax of the baboon is smaller than the human or the swine thorax. Thus, the gall bladder, which collects

  9. Experimental infection of pregnant gilts with swine hepatitis E virus

    OpenAIRE

    Kasorndorkbua, Chaiyan; Thacker, Brad J.; Halbur, Patrick G.; Guenette, Denis K.; Buitenwerf, Ryan M.; Royer, Ryan L.; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2003-01-01

    To determine the effect of swine hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection on pregnant gilts, their fetuses, and offspring, 12 gilts were intravenously inoculated with swine HEV. Six gilts, who were not inoculated, served as controls. All inoculated gilts became actively infected and shed HEV in feces, but vertical transmission was not detected in the fetuses. There was no evidence of clinical disease in the gilts or their offspring. Mild multifocal lymphohistiocytic hepatitis was observed in 4 of 12...

  10. Recent advances in canola meal utilization in swine nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Mejicanos, G.; Sanjayan, N.; Kim, I. H.; Nyachoti, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Canola meal is derived from the crushing of canola seed for oil extraction. Although it has been used in swine diets for a long time, its inclusion levels have been limited due to concerns regarding its nutritive value primarily arising from results of early studies showing negative effects of dietary canola meal inclusion in swine diets. Such effects were attributable to the presence of anti-nutritional factors (ANF; notably glucosinolates) in canola meal. However, due to advances i...

  11. Genetic parameters in a Swine Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Popa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of the variance-covariance components is a very important step in animal breeding because these components are necessary for: estimation of the genetic parameters, prediction of the breeding value and design of animal breeding programs. The estimation of genetic parameters is the first step in the development of a swine breeding program, using artificial insemination. Various procedures exist for estimation of heritability. There are three major procedures used for estimating heritability: analysis of variance (ANOVA, parents-offspring regression and restricted maximum likelihood (REML. By using ANOVA methodology or regression method it is possible to obtain aberrant values of genetic parameters (negative or over unit value of heritability coefficient, for example which can not be interpreting because is out of biological limits.

  12. Treatment of Edema Disease of Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, I. C.; Chen, H. C.; Morter, R. L.

    1970-01-01

    Antihistamine (Allermin) was used sucessfully in the treatment of naturally occurring edema disease of swine under the field and laboratory conditions. A high recovery rate (88.8%) was obtained in the group of pigs with mild clinical signs. The intravenous route of Allermin administration had definite beneficial value. The release of histamine induced by circulating immune-complexes may be responsible for the clinical signs characteristic of edema disease. Three pigs that recovered clinically following the Allermin treatment were examined histologically. Fibrinoid persisted in the vascular walls at least 30 days after the initiation of the treatment. The fibrinoid vasculitis, generalized eosinophilia at the tissue level, and favorable response of pigs to antihistamine treatment suggest that edema disease may be caused by allergy. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9. PMID:4392719

  13. Enzyme immunoassay for swine trichinellosis using antigens purified by immunoaffinity chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seawright, G.L.; Despommier, D.; Zimmermann, W.; Isenstein, R.S.

    1983-11-01

    Various preparations of crude and a purified preparation of Trichinella spiralis antigens were compared in a rapid, micro-enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for detecting trichinellosis in swine. The crude antigen preparations (XM-300 or S/sub 3/ fraction) were lipid-free, cell-free fractions of muscle larvae, and the purified antigen was prepared by immunoaffinity chromatography of the soluble fraction of stichocyte secretory granules from rat muscle larvae. The antigens were tested against normal and immune swine sera for sensitivity and specificity, and for their ability to detect seroconversions early in the immune response. Tests of sequential sera from experimentally-infected pigs showed that the column antigen produced lower absorbances with pre-infection sera and, from 18 days post-infection, higher absorbances with positive sera. From 21-28 days post-infection, absorbances and S/N ratios with column antigen were nearly twice those with XM-300. Column antigen detected antibodies more often than XM-300 antigen in sera collected prior to the appearance of larvae. Crude antigen did not distinguish all true negatives from weakly positives in a study involving 100 sera from muscle digestion-negative pigs and 75 sera from experimentally infected pigs, whereas the column antigen distinguished all negatives from positives. In a larger scale test of the column antigen, 1130 pigs from Puerto Rico were tested in the micro-EIA test. Puerto Rico has no endogenous trichinellosis, and all 1130 pigs were shown to be muscle digestion negative. These results show that the column antigen out-performs the crude antigens in sensitivity, specificity, and early detection. The column antigen is therefore a major improvement in the EIA for swine trichinellosis.

  14. Decomposing certain equipartite graphs into sunlet graphs of length 2p

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolape D. Akwu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For any integer r≥3, we define the sunlet graph of order 2r, denoted L2r, as the graph consisting of a cycle of length r together with r pendant vertices, each adjacent to exactly one vertex of the cycle. In this paper, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for decomposing the lexicographic product of the complete graph and the complete graph minus a 1-factor, with complement of the complete graph Km, (that is Kn⊗K̄m and Kn−I⊗K̄m, respectively into sunlet graphs of order twice a prime.

  15. Design of the Decomposed State Model of an One-Dimensional Piecewise-Linear System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kolka

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available Present paper deals with the problem of automatic design of the implicit state model (in its decomposed parametric form of any one-dimensional piecewise-linear (PWL system. This model consists of the internal and the external parts which provides the possibility to find the model parameters, i.e. to solve separately the two main problems of an one-dimensional PWL model design: (i existence of the individual breakpoints of the resultant PWL characteristic (determined by the internal block; (ii setting of the breakpoint co-ordinates (determined by the external block.

  16. Burden of pediatric influenza A virus infection post swine-flu H1N1 pandemic in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Adel; Shaheen, Malak; Kamel, Terez; El Faramay, Amel; El Rahman, Safaa Abd; Nabil, Dalia; Gouda, Mohamed

    2013-09-01

    To screen children with influenza like illness or with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infections for influenza A virus infection - post swine flu pandemic era - using rapid influenza diagnostic tests. During two years (2010 & 2011), 1 200 children with influenza like illness or acute respiratory tract infections (according to World Health Organization criteria) were recruited. Their ages ranged from 2-60 months. Nasopharyngeal aspirates specimens were collected from all children for rapid influenza A diagnostic test. Influenza A virus rapid test was positive in 47.5% of the children; the majority (89.6%) were presented with lower respiratory tract infections. Respiratory rate and temperature were significantly higher among positive rapid influenza test patients. Influenza A virus infection is still a major cause of respiratory tract infections in Egyptian children. It should be considered in all cases with cough and febrile episodes and influenza like symptoms even post swine flu pandemic. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Contribution of the Bordetella Bps Polysaccharide to Biofilm Formation and Respiratory Disease in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica is pervasive in swine populations and plays multiple roles in respiratory disease. Additionally, B. bronchiseptica is capable of establishing long-term or chronic infections in swine. Bacterial biofilms are increasingly recognized as important contributors to chronic bacter...

  18. Molecular Characterization of Swine Manure Lagoon Microbial and Antibiotic Resistant Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The differences in swine manure lagoon effluent based on differing management styles or approaches such as different stages of swine rearing determines the presence of variable antibiotic resistance determinants and functional microbial populations. These concerns determine the suitabil...

  19. Saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima Invasion Alters Decomposer Fauna and Plant Litter Decomposition in a Temperate Xerophytic Deciduous Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Camilo Bedano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant invasions may alter the soil system by changing litter quality and quantity, thereby affecting soil community and ecosystem processes. We investigated the effect of Tamarix ramosissima invasion on the decomposer fauna and litter decomposition process, as well as the importance of litter quality in decomposition. Litter decomposition and decomposer communities were evaluated in two monospecific saltcedar forests and two native forests in Argentina, in litterbags containing either local litter (saltcedar or dominant native species or a control litter. Saltcedar invasion produced an increase in Collembola, Acari, and total mesofauna abundance, regardless of the litter type. Control litter decomposition was higher in the native forest than in the saltcedar forest, showing that increased abundance of decomposer fauna does not necessarily accelerate decomposition processes. Local litter decomposition was not different between forests, suggesting that decomposer fauna of both ecosystems is adapted to efficiently decompose the autochthonous litter. Our results suggest that the introduction of a resource with higher quality than the local one has a negative effect on decomposition in both ecosystems, which is more pronounced in the invaded forest than in the native forest. This finding stresses the low plasticity of saltcedar decomposer community to adapt to short-term environmental changes.

  20. Vesicular exanthema of swine virus: isolation and serotyping of field samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, J F; Yedloutschnig, R J; Dardiri, A H; Callis, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    Virus isolation was attempted from 262 field samples of vesicular material collected during the outbreaks of vesicular exanthema of swine in the U.S.A. from 1952-54. Using primary swine kidney culture, viral cytopathogenic agents were isolated from 76.3% of the samples. However, an overall recovery rate of 82.1% was obtained after samples negative in tissue culture were inoculated intradermally in susceptible swine. All vesicular exanthema of swine virus isolates were identified as serotype B...

  1. Numerical Analysis on Thermochemical Characteristics of a Hydrogen Iodine Decomposer in Sulfur-Iodine cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T. H.; Lee, K. Y.; Shin, Y. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, J. S.; Choi, J. H. [Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In this study, to develop optimum decomposition reactor of HI to apply hydrogen process in thermochemical VHTR-SI cycle, operating characteristics of the HI decomposition reaction were investigated using the CFD code as a commercial program. Several factors, such as hydrogen production, heat of reaction, and temperature distribution, were studied to compare the device performance with that expected for device development. The CFD analysis for HI decomposition simulation was performed by applying the actual operation conditions and HI decomposer design. The hydrogen production depended on the STV ratio. In this study, predicted hydrogen production was 1.12, 1.99, and 3.10 mol/h for STV ratios of 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5, respectively. The hydrogen production at an STV ratio of 0.5 was higher than that at 0.3 by 2 mol/h. The inner temperature of the HI decomposer was studied in the form of contour images at ITC 1-5.

  2. Self-assembly of Silver Nanoparticles and Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes on Decomposed GaAs Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harthi, S. H.; Revathy, K. P.; Gard, F.; Mesli, A.; George, A. K.; Bartringer, J.; Mamor, M.; Unnikrishnan, N. V.

    2010-11-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy complemented by Photoluminescence and Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction has been used to study self-assembly of silver nanoparticles and multiwall carbon nanotubes on thermally decomposed GaAs (100) surfaces. It has been shown that the decomposition leads to the formation of arsenic plate-like structures. Multiwall carbon nanotubes spin coated on the decomposed surfaces were mostly found to occupy the depressions between the plates and formed boundaries. While direct casting of silver nanoparticles is found to induce microdroplets. Annealing at 300°C was observed to contract the microdroplets into combined structures consisting of silver spots surrounded by silver rings. Moreover, casting of colloidal suspension consists of multiwall carbon nanotubes and silver nanoparticles is observed to cause the formation of 2D compact islands. Depending on the multiwall carbon nanotubes diameter, GaAs/multiwall carbon nanotubes/silver system exhibited photoluminescence with varying strength. Such assembly provides a possible bottom up facile way of roughness controlled fabrication of plasmonic systems on GaAs surfaces.

  3. Experimentally simulated global warming and nitrogen enrichment effects on microbial litter decomposers in a marsh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flury, Sabine; Gessner, Mark O

    2011-02-01

    Atmospheric warming and increased nitrogen deposition can lead to changes of microbial communities with possible consequences for biogeochemical processes. We used an enclosure facility in a freshwater marsh to assess the effects on microbes associated with decomposing plant litter under conditions of simulated climate warming and pulsed nitrogen supply. Standard batches of litter were placed in coarse-mesh and fine-mesh bags and submerged in a series of heated, nitrogen-enriched, and control enclosures. They were retrieved later and analyzed for a range of microbial parameters. Fingerprinting profiles obtained by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) indicated that simulated global warming induced a shift in bacterial community structure. In addition, warming reduced fungal biomass, whereas bacterial biomass was unaffected. The mesh size of the litter bags and sampling date also had an influence on bacterial community structure, with the apparent number of dominant genotypes increasing from spring to summer. Microbial respiration was unaffected by any treatment, and nitrogen enrichment had no clear effect on any of the microbial parameters considered. Overall, these results suggest that microbes associated with decomposing plant litter in nutrient-rich freshwater marshes are resistant to extra nitrogen supplies but are likely to respond to temperature increases projected for this century.

  4. Shared processing of perception and imagery of music in decomposed EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Rebecca S; Desain, Peter; Farquhar, Jason

    2013-04-15

    The current work investigates the brain activation shared between perception and imagery of music as measured with electroencephalography (EEG). Meta-analyses of four separate EEG experiments are presented, each focusing on perception and imagination of musical sound, with differing levels of stimulus complexity. Imagination and perception of simple accented metronome trains, as manifested in the clock illusion, as well as monophonic melodies are discussed, as well as more complex rhythmic patterns and ecologically natural music stimuli. By decomposing the data with principal component analysis (PCA), similar component distributions are found to explain most of the variance in each experiment. All data sets show a fronto-central and a more central component as the largest sources of variance, fitting with projections seen for the network of areas contributing to the N1/P2 complex. We expanded on these results using tensor decomposition. This allows us to add in the tasks to find shared activation, but does not make assumptions of independence or orthogonality and calculates the relative strengths of these components for each task. The components found in the PCA were shown to be further decomposable into parts that load primarily on to the perception or imagery task, or both, thereby adding more detail. It is shown that the frontal and central components have multiple parts that are differentially active during perception and imagination. A number of possible interpretations of these results are discussed, taking into account the different stimulus materials and measurement conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Decomposing Socioeconomic Inequality Determinants in Suicide Deaths in Iran: A Concentration Index Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veisani, Yousef; Delpisheh, Ali; Sayehmiri, Kourosh; Moradi, Ghobad; Hassanzadeh, Jafar

    2017-05-01

    It is recognized that socioeconomic status (SES) has a significant impact on health and wellbeing; however, the effect of SES on suicide is contested. This study explored the effect of SES in suicide deaths and decomposed inequality into its determinants to calculate relative contributions. Through a cross-sectional study, 546 suicide deaths and 6,818 suicide attempts from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2014 in Ilam Province, Western Iran were explored. Inequality was measured by the absolute concentration index (ACI) and decomposed contributions were identified. All analyses were performed using STATA ver. 11.2 (Stata Corp., College Station, TX, USA). The overall ACI for suicide deaths was -0.352 (95% confidence interval, -0.389 to -0.301). According to the results, 9.8% of socioeconomic inequality in suicide deaths was due to addiction in attempters. ACI ranged from -0.34 to -0.03 in 2010-2014, showing that inequality in suicide deaths declined over time. Findings showed suicide deaths were distributed among the study population unequally, and our results confirmed a gap between advantaged and disadvantaged attempters in terms of death. Socioeconomic inequalities in suicide deaths tended to diminish over time, as suicide attempts progressed in Ilam Province.

  6. Mycorrhiza-mediated competition between plants and decomposers drives soil carbon storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, Colin; Turner, Benjamin L; Finzi, Adrien C

    2014-01-23

    Soil contains more carbon than the atmosphere and vegetation combined. Understanding the mechanisms controlling the accumulation and stability of soil carbon is critical to predicting the Earth's future climate. Recent studies suggest that decomposition of soil organic matter is often limited by nitrogen availability to microbes and that plants, via their fungal symbionts, compete directly with free-living decomposers for nitrogen. Ectomycorrhizal and ericoid mycorrhizal (EEM) fungi produce nitrogen-degrading enzymes, allowing them greater access to organic nitrogen sources than arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. This leads to the theoretical prediction that soil carbon storage is greater in ecosystems dominated by EEM fungi than in those dominated by AM fungi. Using global data sets, we show that soil in ecosystems dominated by EEM-associated plants contains 70% more carbon per unit nitrogen than soil in ecosystems dominated by AM-associated plants. The effect of mycorrhizal type on soil carbon is independent of, and of far larger consequence than, the effects of net primary production, temperature, precipitation and soil clay content. Hence the effect of mycorrhizal type on soil carbon content holds at the global scale. This finding links the functional traits of mycorrhizal fungi to carbon storage at ecosystem-to-global scales, suggesting that plant-decomposer competition for nutrients exerts a fundamental control over the terrestrial carbon cycle.

  7. [Determination of polymorphic DNA sequences STR-PCR in decomposed human tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecka-Pazik, Dorota; Szczerkowska, Zofia

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the possibility of DNA profiling obtained from soft tissues influenced by the decomposition process: heart, kidney, liver collected during autopsy. As a control DNA, profile from blood was determined. DNA was extracted by the phenol-chloroform method. Amplification was performed with the use of the GenePrintSTR Multiplex (CSF1PO, TPOX, TH01) system, Promega and AmpF[symbol: see text]STR Identifier, Applied Biosystems. PCR products of the CTT system were separated by electrophoresis on denaturing polyacrylamide gels and visualized by silver staining. The 16 loci of AmpF[symbol: see text]STR Identifier products were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis on an ABI PRISM 310 sequencer. The results from both methods were compared. Electrophoresis of the CTT products showed clear results for DNA extracted from blood and decomposed tissues, particularly from the heart and kidney. The capillary electrophoresis method gave a positive signal for all 16 loci of AmpF[symbol: see text]STR Identifier for DNA extracted from heart, kidney and blood. Worse results similar to the manual method were obtained for DNA extracted from the liver. The soft tissues, also decomposed by putrefaction can be a useful source of genomic DNA in personal identification and paternity testing.

  8. Dynamics of bacterial metabolic profile and community structure during the mineralization of organic carbon in intensive swine farm wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Ma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Land application of intensive swine farm wastewater has raised serious environmental concerns due to the accumulation and microbially mediated transformation of large amounts of swine wastewater organic C (SWOC. Therefore, the study of SWOC mineralization and dynamics of wastewater microorganisms is essential to understand the environmental impacts of swine wastewater application. We measured the C mineralization of incubated swine wastewaters with high (wastewater H and low (wastewater L organic C concentrations. The dynamics of bacteria metabolic profile and community structure were also investigated. The results showed that SWOC mineralization was properly fitted by the two-simultaneous reactions model. The initial potential rate of labile C mineralization of wastewater H was 46% higher than that of wastewater L, whereas the initial potential rates of recalcitrant C mineralization of wastewaters H and L were both around 23 mg L-1 d-1. The bacterial functional and structural diversities significantly decreased for both the wastewaters during SWOC mineralization, and were all negatively correlated to specific UV absorbance (SUVA254; P < 0.01. The bacteria in the raw wastewaters exhibited functional similarity, and both metabolic profile and community structure changed with the mineralization of SWOC, mainly under the influence of SUVA254 (P < 0.001. These results suggested that SWOC mineralization was characterized by rapid mineralization of labile C and subsequent slow decomposition of recalcitrant C pool, and the quality of SWOC varied between the wastewaters with different amounts of organic C. The decreased bio-availability of dissolved organic matter affected the dynamics of wastewater bacteria during SWOC mineralization.

  9. Using full-scale duckweed ponds as the finish stage for swine waste treatment with a focus on organic matter degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohedano, R A; Costa, R H R; Hofmann, S M; Belli Filho, P

    2014-01-01

    The rapid increase in the number of swine has caused pronounced environmental impacts worldwide, especially on water resources. As an aggregate, smallholdings have an important role in South American pork production, contributing to the net diffusion of pollution. Thus, duckweed ponds have been successfully used for swine waste polishing, mainly for nutrient removal. Few studies have been carried out to assess organic matter degradation in duckweed ponds. Hence, the present study evaluated the efficiency of two full-scale duckweed ponds for organic matter reduction of swine waste on small pig farms. Duckweed ponds, in series, received the effluent after an anaerobic biodigester and storage pond, with a flow rate of 1 m(3) day(-1). After 1 year of monitoring, an improvement in effluent quality was observed, with a reduction in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD), respectively, of 94.8 and 96.7%, operating at a loading rate of approximately 27 kgBOD ha(-1) day(-1) and 131 kgCOD ha(-1) day(-1). Algae inhibition due to duckweed coverage was strongly observed in the pond effluent, where chlorophyll a and turbidity remained below 25 μg L(-1) and 10 NTU. Using the study conditions described herein, duckweed ponds were shown to be a suitable technology for swine waste treatment, contributing to the environmental sustainability of rural areas.

  10. Swine flu- a serious pandeMic threat | Rachna | IMTU Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current review focuses on pathogenesis, transmission, role of pigs as reservoirs, diagnosis, symptoms and compares swine fl u with common cold. The outbreak of swine fl u in India, its possible impact in other countries as well as pandemic preparedness plans, vaccines as a preventive measure of swine flu infection ...

  11. Draft genome sequence of the Bordetella bronchiseptica swine isolate KM22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica swine isolate KM22 has been used in experimental infections of swine as a model of clinical B. bronchiseptica infections within swine herds and to study host-to-host transmission. Here we report the draft genome sequence of KM22....

  12. 76 FR 29991 - Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 91 RIN 0579-AD18 Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing... brucellosis testing of goats and breeding swine intended for export to countries that do not require such tests. This action will facilitate the exportation of goats and breeding swine by eliminating the need...

  13. Changes in the use of antimicrobials and the effects on productivity of swine farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe

    2010-01-01

    Objective-To evaluate changes in antimicrobial consumption and productivity by Danish swine farms during 1992 to 2008. Sample Population-All Danish swine farms for antimicrobial consumption data and a representative sample of Danish swine herds for productivity data. Procedures-Antimicrobial cons...

  14. Swine flu-have we learnt any lesson from the past ? | Yadav | Pan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The world has suffered the pandemics due to swine flu in the past. The present epidemic in India has claimed many lives. Even, after the first outbreak of swine flu in 2009 no concrete efforts are done to prevent this infection. There is an urgent need to take radical steps to prevent such epidemics. Key words: Swine ...

  15. Surveillance programs in Denmark has revealed the circulation of novel reassortant influenza A viruses in swine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Trebbien, Ramona

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza is a respiratory disease caused by multiple subtypes of influenza A virus. Swine influenza virus (SIV) is enzootic in swine populations in Europe, Asia, North and South America. The influenza A virus genome consist of eight distinct gene segments and SIV subtypes are defined by th...

  16. 9 CFR 309.5 - Swine; disposal because of hog cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine; disposal because of hog cholera... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.5 Swine; disposal because of hog cholera. (a) All swine found by an inspector to be affected with hog cholera shall be identified as U.S. Condemned and...

  17. Development of a fluorescent ASFV strain that retains the ability to cause disease in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    African swine fever is a contagious and often lethal disease for domestic pigs with a significant economic impact for the swine industry. The etiological agent, African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a highly structurally complex double strain DNA virus. No effective vaccines or antiviral treatment ar...

  18. 78 FR 23740 - Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies Proposed Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies... swine brucellosis and pseudorabies available for public review and comment. This action will allow... a potential new approach to managing swine brucellosis and pseudorabies available for public review...

  19. Novel reassortant swine influenza viruses are circulating in Danish pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Trebbien, Ramona

    The Danish surveillance program for influenza A virus in pigs has revealed that two novel reassortant swine influenza viruses may now be circulating in the Danish swine population, since they each have been detected in at least two submissions from different herds in 2011 as well as in 2012. One...... of the reassortant viruses comprised a HA gene similar to H1 of H1N1 avian-like swine influenza virus (SIV) and a NA gene most closely related to N2 gene of human H3N2 influenza virus that circulated in humans in the mid 1990s. The internal genes of this reassortant virus with the subtype H1avN2hu all belonged......1pdm09 influenza virus lineage. Swine influenza virus with a similar subtype to H1pdm09N2sw has previously been found in pigs in Italy and Germany. Detailed analyses of viral genes will further elucidate the relationship between these new swine influenza viruses found in the different countries...

  20. The perfused swine uterus model: long-term perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geisler Klaudija

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has previously been shown that the viability of swine uteri can be maintained within the physiological range in an open perfusion model for up to 8 hours. The aim of this study was to assess medium- to long-term perfusion of swine uteri using a modified Krebs–Ringer bicarbonate buffer solution (KRBB in the established open perfusion model. Methods In an experimental study at an infertility institute, 30 swine uteri were perfused: group 1: n = 11, KRBB; group 2: n = 8, modified KRBB with drainage of perfusate supernatant; group 3: n = 11, modified KRBB with drainage of perfusate every 2 h and substitution with fresh medium. Modified and conventional KRBB were compared with regard to survival and contraction parameters: intrauterine pressure (IUP, area under the curve (AUC, and frequency of contractions (F. Results Modified KRBB showed significantly higher IUP, AUC, and F values than perfusion with conventional KRBB. In group 3, the organ survival time of up to 17 h, with a 98% rate of effective contraction time, differed significantly from group 1 (P  Conclusions Using modified KRBB in combination with perfusate substitution improves the open model for perfusion of swine uteri with regard to survival time and quality of contraction parameters. This model can be used for medium- to long-term perfusion of swine uteri, allowing further metabolic ex vivo studies in a cost-effective way and with little logistic effort.

  1. Influenza A Viruses of Human Origin in Swine, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Rejane; Gava, Danielle; Cantão, Maurício Egídio; Ciacci-Zanella, Janice Reis

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary origins of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus that caused the first outbreak of the 2009 pandemic in Mexico remain unclear, highlighting the lack of swine surveillance in Latin American countries. Although Brazil has one of the largest swine populations in the world, influenza was not thought to be endemic in Brazil’s swine until the major outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in 2009. Through phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome sequences of influenza viruses of the H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtypes collected in swine in Brazil during 2009–2012, we identified multiple previously uncharacterized influenza viruses of human seasonal H1N2 and H3N2 virus origin that have circulated undetected in swine for more than a decade. Viral diversity has further increased in Brazil through reassortment between co-circulating viruses, including A(H1N1)pdm09. The circulation of multiple divergent hemagglutinin lineages challenges the design of effective cross-protective vaccines and highlights the need for additional surveillance. PMID:26196759

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of swine influenza viruses recently isolated in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C S; Kang, B K; Kim, H K; Park, S J; Park, B K; Jung, K; Song, D S

    2008-10-01

    Several influenza A viral subtypes were isolated from pigs during a severe outbreak of respiratory disease in Korea during 2005 and 2006. They included a classical swine H1N1 subtype, two swine-human-avian triple-recombinant H1N2 subtypes, and a swine-human-avian triple-recombinant H3N2 subtype. In the current study, genetic characterization to determine the probable origin of these recent isolates was carried out for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that all the recent Korean isolates of H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 influenza are closely related to viruses from the United States. Serologic and genetic analysis indicated that the Korean H1N2 viral subtypes were introduced directly from the United States, and did not arise from recombination between Korean H1N1 and H3N2. We suggest that the H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 viral subtypes that were isolated from the Korean swine population originated in North America, and that these viruses are currently circulating in the Korean swine population.

  3. Swine farm wastewater and mineral fertilization in corn cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela A. M. Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the long run, swine wastewater can provide benefits to the soil-plant relationship, when its use is planned and the potential environmental impacts are monitored. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous application of swine wastewater, associated with mineral fertilization, after six years of management in no-tillage and crop rotation (14 production cycles, on the chemical conditions of the soil and the corn crop. The doses of wastewater were 0, 100, 200, 300 m3 ha-1 during the cycle. The effects of the association between mineral fertilization at sowing and swine wastewater were evaluated simultaneously. Swine wastewater at the dose of 100 m3 ha-1 promoted availability and absorption of P, K+, Mg2+ and Zn2+ without causing toxicity to plants or damage to the soil, constituting a viable, low-cost alternative of water reuse and fertilization for farmers. The nutrients N, P, K+ and B must be complemented with mineral fertilization. Special attention should be directed to the accumulation of Zn2+ in the soil along the time of swine wastewater application.

  4. Molecular diagnostics of swine infection caused by Mycoplasma suis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potkonjak Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of two types of haemoplasm can be established in the swine population. Pathogenic haemoplasm, named Mycoplasma suis (previously called Eperythrozoon suis is the cause of swine eperythrozoonosis or swine ichtheroanaemia. The cause of this disease can also infect humans. The disease has spread all over the world. The most frequent form is latent infection of swine caused by M. suis. The disease is clinically manifest following action by the stress factor. The acute course of the disease is characterized by the occurrence of a febrile condition and ichtheroanaemia. The disease is usually diagnosed based on an epizootiological poll, a clinical examination, and a microscopic examination of a blood smear stained most often according to Giemsa. Contemporary methods of molecular biology have been developed, such as PCR, which are more sensitive and specific in making a diagnosis of swine infection caused by M. suis. In these investigations, the presence of M. suis on pig farms in the Republic of Serbia has been determined using the PCR test. .

  5. 9 CFR 94.25 - Restrictions on the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) and the regulations in § 327.2 of this title; (2) The pork... live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free of classical swine fever. 94.25 Section 94... the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free of classical swine...

  6. Operation HARDTACK. Project 4.2. Effects of Very-Low-Yield Bursts on Biological Specimens (Swine and Mice)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    noted in both rodents and subhuman primates radiated with similar doses (Reference 39). It is interesting that, as a group, the larger swine...i. iMiiMiiii. n.i.imiyiiiiii.n J^W^W^Pf^ ’.,•■. ’. •’. If •’. !■ "•I1 " V V1’.-’ . pa.i^ ain ■;! w i^ i ■■ i « Chapter 6 SUMMARY The less-than...Pickering; "The Effect of Rapid Massive Doses of Gamma Radiation on the Behavior of Sub-human Primates " (Title Unclassified), SAM, Pr.:. • i 21-3501

  7. Comparing chemistry and bioactivity of burned versus decomposed plant litter: different pathways but same result?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanomi, Giuliano; Incerti, Guido; Abd El-Gawad, Ahmed M; Cesarano, Gaspare; Sarker, Tushar C; Saulino, Luigi; Lanzotti, Virginia; Saracino, Antonio; Rego, Francisco C; Mazzoleni, Stefano

    2017-10-24

    Litter burning and biological decomposition are oxidative processes co-occurring in many terrestrial ecosystems, producing organic matter with different chemical properties and differently affecting plant growth and soil microbial activity. We tested the chemical convergence hypothesis i.e. materials with different initial chemistry converge towards a common profile, with similar biological effects, as the oxidative process advances, for burning and decomposition. We compared the molecular composition, assessed by (13) C NMR, of 7 plant litter types either fresh, decomposed for 30, 90, 180 days in a microcosms incubation experiment, or heated at 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 °C for thirty minutes. We used litter water extracts (5% dw) as treatments in bioassays on plant (Lepidium sativum) and fungal (Aspergillus niger) growth, and a washed quartz sand amended with litter (0.5% dw) to assess heterotrophic respiration by flux chamber (i.e. μg of CO2 released per g of added litter per day). We observed different molecular variations for materials either burning (i.e. a sharp increase of aromatic C and a decrease of other fractions above 200 °C) or decomposing (i.e. early increase of alkyl, methoxyl and N-alkyl C and decrease of O-alkyl and di-O-alkyl C fractions). Soil respiration and fungal growth decreased with litter age and heating severity, down to 20% relative to fresh litter. Plant was inhibited on fresh litter (on average 13% of the control), but recovered on aged (180 days) and heated (30 minutes at 500°C) materials, up to 126% and 63% of the control, respectively. Correlation between the intensity of (13) C NMR signals in litter spectra and bioassay results showed that O-alkyl, methoxyl, and aromatic C fractions are crucial to understand organic matter effects, with plant response negatively affected by labile C but positively associated to lignification and pyrogenic C. The pattern of association of soil respiration and fungal growth to these C fractions was

  8. Double decomposition: decomposing the variance in subcomponents of male extra-pair reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losdat, Sylvain; Arcese, Peter; Reid, Jane M

    2015-09-01

    1. Extra-pair reproductive success (EPRS) is a key component of male fitness in socially monogamous systems and could cause selection on female extra-pair reproduction if extra-pair offspring (EPO) inherit high value for EPRS from their successful extra-pair fathers. However, EPRS is itself a composite trait that can be fully decomposed into subcomponents of variation, each of which can be further decomposed into genetic and environmental variances. However, such decompositions have not been implemented in wild populations, impeding evolutionary inference. 2. We first show that EPRS can be decomposed into the product of three life-history subcomponents: the number of broods available to a focal male to sire EPO, the male's probability of siring an EPO in an available brood and the number of offspring in available broods. This decomposition of EPRS facilitates estimation from field data because all subcomponents can be quantified from paternity data without need to quantify extra-pair matings. Our decomposition also highlights that the number of available broods, and hence population structure and demography, might contribute substantially to variance in male EPRS and fitness. 3. We then used 20 years of complete genetic paternity and pedigree data from wild song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) to partition variance in each of the three subcomponents of EPRS, and thereby estimate their additive genetic variance and heritability conditioned on effects of male coefficient of inbreeding, age and social status. 4. All three subcomponents of EPRS showed some degree of within-male repeatability, reflecting combined permanent environmental and genetic effects. Number of available broods and offspring per brood showed low additive genetic variances. The estimated additive genetic variance in extra-pair siring probability was larger, although the 95% credible interval still converged towards zero. Siring probability also showed inbreeding depression and increased with male age

  9. Mutation rate at swine microsatellite loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Gen Hua; Beeckmann, Petra; Geldermann, Hermann

    2002-03-01

    During genotyping of 38 microsatellites for QTL (quantitative trait loci) mapping in three F2 swine populations, five mutant alleles were detected in a total of 66,436 parent-offspring transfers of microsatellite alleles, which gives an overall mutation rate of 7.52 x 10(-5) per locus per generation. No significant (P > 0.05) association between mutation rates and other factors (i.e., GC contents in the flanking regions, heterozygosity, and repeat number) was revealed. Detailed sequencing showed that four out of five mutant alleles were caused by insertions of one to five repeats, respectively. The other mutant allele was produced by either an insertion of three repeats or a change of 30 base pairs (a deletion of 16 CT repeats and an insertion of one CA repeat). An insertion of one base pair in the flanking region of a microsatellite was also detected. Together, these data indicate that expansions are more common than contractions among microsatellites and that the mutation processes are very complicated, do not fit with the strict stepwise mutation model and may vary from locus to locus.

  10. Small intestinal absorption during endotoxemia in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, S; Emil, S; Kosi, M; Monforte-Munoz, H; Atkinson, J

    1996-10-01

    We studied the effects of systemic endotoxemia on small intestinal absorption in an in vivo animal model. Seven adolescent Yorkshire swine underwent creation of 25 cm distal ileal Thiry-Vella fistulae. After 1 week recovery, the fistulae were perfused with a solution of glucose and electrolytes labeled with 14C-PEG, and net absorption of water, Na+, Cl-, and glucose was calculated. Animals were studied under three different conditions: (1) Basal fasting state, (2) immediately after intravenous injection of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 250 micrograms/kg), and (3) 24 hours after LPS. Water, Na+, and Cl- absorption was significantly reduced 2 hours after LPS, but recovered to baseline values by the third hour after LPS. Twenty-four hours after LPS water, Na+, and Cl- absorption was significantly decreased below baseline values. Glucose absorption after LPS paralleled that of water and electrolytes, except that the transient early recovery was not observed. Histological studies of the ileum after LPS showed marked epithelial inflammation at 6 hours, villous atrophy at 24 hours, and signs of recovery at 7 days. Intestinal absorption of water, electrolytes, and glucose is adversely affected in the immediate and early periods after an endotoxemic episode, but the histological epithelial injury secondary to endotoxemia is reversible.

  11. Swine wastewater treatment by media filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szögi, A A; Humenik, F J; Rice, J M; Hunt, P G

    1997-09-01

    A media filter was constructed to treat swine wastewater after anaerobic lagoon treatment. The media filter consisted of a tank (1.5-m-diameter x 0.6-m-height) filled with marl gravel. The marl gravel had a carbonate content of 300 g kg-1. Gravel particle size distributions were 85 and 14% in the 4.7- to 12.7-mm and 12.7- to 19-mm size classes, respectively. Pore space of the filtration unit was 57%. Wastewater flow rate was 606 L m-2 d-1, and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) load was 198 g m-2 d-1. The media filter removed 54% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) content after one cycle, but increased cycling did not produce additional COD reduction. Total suspended solids (TSS) removal after one cycle was 50% of initial levels, and additional cycling reduced TSS levels at a much lower rate of 7% per cycle. Removal efficiencies for total phosphorus (TP) ranged from 37% to 52% (one to four cycles), but long-term phosphorus removal would be limited by the sorption capacity of the gravel. Up to 24% of TKN was converted to nitrate-plus-nitrite-N (NO3+NO2-N). Effluents with high NO3+NO2-N levels can be treated further for denitrification with constructed wetlands or anaerobic lagoon. This is important in cases where land is limited for wastewater application.

  12. Recent advances in canola meal utilization in swine nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejicanos, G; Sanjayan, N; Kim, I H; Nyachoti, C M

    2016-01-01

    Canola meal is derived from the crushing of canola seed for oil extraction. Although it has been used in swine diets for a long time, its inclusion levels have been limited due to concerns regarding its nutritive value primarily arising from results of early studies showing negative effects of dietary canola meal inclusion in swine diets. Such effects were attributable to the presence of anti-nutritional factors (ANF; notably glucosinolates) in canola meal. However, due to advances in genetic improvements of canola that have led to production of cultivars with significantly lower ANF content and improved processing procedures, canola meal with a superior nutritive value for non-ruminant animals is now available. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review the recent studies in the use of canola meal as feedstuff for swine, the factors influencing its use and the strategies to overcome them. First a historical overview of the development of canola is provided.

  13. Recent advances in canola meal utilization in swine nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mejicanos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canola meal is derived from the crushing of canola seed for oil extraction. Although it has been used in swine diets for a long time, its inclusion levels have been limited due to concerns regarding its nutritive value primarily arising from results of early studies showing negative effects of dietary canola meal inclusion in swine diets. Such effects were attributable to the presence of anti-nutritional factors (ANF; notably glucosinolates in canola meal. However, due to advances in genetic improvements of canola that have led to production of cultivars with significantly lower ANF content and improved processing procedures, canola meal with a superior nutritive value for non-ruminant animals is now available. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review the recent studies in the use of canola meal as feedstuff for swine, the factors influencing its use and the strategies to overcome them. First a historical overview of the development of canola is provided.

  14. The plant cell wall-decomposing machinery underlies the functional diversity of forest fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Daniel C; Floudas, Dimitrios; Binder, Manfred; Majcherczyk, Andrzej; Schneider, Patrick; Aerts, Andrea; Asiegbu, Fred O; Baker, Scott E; Barry, Kerrie; Bendiksby, Mika; Blumentritt, Melanie; Coutinho, Pedro M; Cullen, Dan; de Vries, Ronald P; Gathman, Allen; Goodell, Barry; Henrissat, Bernard; Ihrmark, Katarina; Kauserud, Hävard; Kohler, Annegret; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Lavin, José L; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Lindquist, Erika; Lilly, Walt; Lucas, Susan; Morin, Emmanuelle; Murat, Claude; Oguiza, José A; Park, Jongsun; Pisabarro, Antonio G; Riley, Robert; Rosling, Anna; Salamov, Asaf; Schmidt, Olaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Skrede, Inger; Stenlid, Jan; Wiebenga, Ad; Xie, Xinfeng; Kües, Ursula; Hibbett, David S; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Högberg, Nils; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor V; Watkinson, Sarah C

    2011-08-05

    Brown rot decay removes cellulose and hemicellulose from wood--residual lignin contributing up to 30% of forest soil carbon--and is derived from an ancestral white rot saprotrophy in which both lignin and cellulose are decomposed. Comparative and functional genomics of the "dry rot" fungus Serpula lacrymans, derived from forest ancestors, demonstrated that the evolution of both ectomycorrhizal biotrophy and brown rot saprotrophy were accompanied by reductions and losses in specific protein families, suggesting adaptation to an intercellular interaction with plant tissue. Transcriptome and proteome analysis also identified differences in wood decomposition in S. lacrymans relative to the brown rot Postia placenta. Furthermore, fungal nutritional mode diversification suggests that the boreal forest biome originated via genetic coevolution of above- and below-ground biota.

  15. Diversity and dynamics of the microbial community on decomposing wheat straw during mushroom compost production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Zhong, Yaohua; Yang, Shida; Zhang, Weixin; Xu, Meiqing; Ma, Anzhou; Zhuang, Guoqiang; Chen, Guanjun; Liu, Weifeng

    2014-10-01

    The development of communities of three important composting players including actinobacteria, fungi and clostridia was explored during the composting of wheat straw for mushroom production. The results revealed the presence of highly diversified actinobacteria and fungal communities during the composting process. The diversity of the fungal community, however, sharply decreased in the mature compost. Furthermore, an apparent succession of both actinobacteria and fungi with intensive changes in the composition of communities was demonstrated during composting. Notably, cellulolytic actinomycetal and fungal genera represented by Thermopolyspora, Microbispora and Humicola were highly enriched in the mature compost. Analysis of the key cellulolytic genes revealed their prevalence at different composting stages including several novel glycoside hydrolase family 48 exocellulase lineages. The community of cellulolytic microbiota also changed substantially over time. The prevalence of the diversified cellulolytic microorganisms holds the great potential of mining novel lignocellulose decomposing enzymes from this specific ecosystem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The plant cell wall decomposing machinery underlies the functional diversity of forest fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastwood, Daniel C.; Floudas, Dimitrios; Binder, Manfred; Majcherczyk, Andrzej; Schneider, Patrick; Aerts, Andrea; Asiegbu, Fred O.; Baker, Scott E.; Barry, Kerrie; Bendiksby, Mika; Blumentritt, Melanie; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Cullen, Dan; Vries, Ronald P. de; Gathman, Allen; Goodell, Barry; Henrissat, Bernard; Ihrmark, Katarina; Kauserud, Hä; vard,; Kohler, Annegret; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Lavin, José; L.; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Lindquist, Erika; Lilly, Walt; Lucas, Susan; Morin, Emmanuelle; Murat, Claude; Oguiza, José; A.; Park, Jongsun; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Riley, Robert; Rosling, Anna; Salamov, Asaf; Schmidt, Olaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Skrede, Inger; Stenlid, Jan; Wiebenga, Ad; Xie, Xinfeng; Kü; es, Ursula; Hibbett, David S.; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Hö; gberg, Nils; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Watkinson, Sarah C.

    2011-05-01

    Brown rot decay removes cellulose and hemicellulose from wood?residual lignin contributing up to 30percent of forest soil carbon?and is derived from an ancestral white rot saprotrophy in which both lignin and cellulose are decomposed. Comparative and functional genomics of the ?dry rot? fungus Serpula lacrymans, derived from forest ancestors, demonstrated that the evolution of both ectomycorrhizal biotrophy and brown rot saprotrophy were accompanied by reductions and losses in specific protein families, suggesting adaptation to an intercellular interaction with plant tissue. Transcriptome and proteome analysis also identified differences in wood decomposition in S. lacrymans relative to the brown rot Postia placenta. Furthermore, fungal nutritional mode diversification suggests that the boreal forest biome originated via genetic coevolution of above- and below-ground biota

  17. Long-term stabilization of organic solar cells using hydroperoxide decomposers as additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkovic, Vida; Engmann, Sebastian; Tsierkezos, Nikos; Hoppe, Harald; Madsen, Morten; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Ritter, Uwe; Gobsch, Gerhard

    2016-03-01

    Stability of organic solar cells (OPV) remains a big problem on the way to their commercialization. Different approaches are being investigated: development of intrinsically more photochemically stable materials, optimization of encapsulation, and implementation of getter and UV blocking layers. In this study, we investigate stabilization of OPV devices using hydroperoxide decomposers as stabilizing additives. A set of five commercially available additives of organophosphorus, organosulfur, Ni chelate, and blocked thiol type are compared, ternary blended into the active layer, under exposure to aging under ISOS-3 degradation conditions. Improvements in long-term performance of OPV devices were observed upon stabilization with Advapak NEO-1120, lifetime was prolonged by a factor of 1.7, and accumulated power generation increased by a factor of 1.4. The stabilizing mechanisms are discussed using spectroscopic and microscopic measurements.

  18. Decomposing highly edge-connected graphs into homomorphic copies of a fixed tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merker, Martin

    2016-01-01

    far this conjecture has only been verified for paths, stars, and a family of bistars. We prove a weaker version of the Tree Decomposition Conjecture, where we require the subgraphs in the decomposition to be isomorphic to graphs that can be obtained from T by vertex-identifications. We call......The Tree Decomposition Conjecture by Barát and Thomassen states that for every tree T there exists a natural number k(T) such that the following holds: If G is a k(T)-edge-connected simple graph with size divisible by the size of T, then G can be edge-decomposed into subgraphs isomorphic to T. So...... such a subgraph a homomorphic copy of T. This implies the Tree Decomposition Conjecture under the additional constraint that the girth of G is greater than the diameter of T. As an application, we verify the Tree Decomposition Conjecture for all trees of diameter at most 4....

  19. Trend Prediction and Decomposed Driving Factors of Carbon Emissions in Jiangsu Province during 2015–2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decai Tang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available According to the economic and energy consumption statistics in Jiangsu Province, we combined the GM (1, 1 grey model and polynomial regression to forecast carbon emissions. Historical and projected emissions were decomposed using the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI approach to assess the relative contribution of different factors to emission variability. The results showed that carbon emissions will continue to increase in Jiangsu province during 2015–2020 period and cumulative carbon emissions will increase by 39.5487 million tons within the forecast period. The growth of gross domestic product (GDP per capita plays the greatest positive role in driving carbon emission growth. Furthermore, the improvement of energy usage efficiency is the primary factor responsible for reducing carbon emissions. Factors of population, industry structure adjustment and the optimization of fuel mix also help to reduce carbon emissions. Based on the LMDI analysis, we provide some advice for policy-makers in Jiangsu and other provinces in China.

  20. Decomposing race and gender differences in underweight and obesity in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averett, Susan L; Stacey, Nicholas; Wang, Yang

    2014-12-01

    Using data from the National Income Dynamics Study, we document differentials in both underweight and obesity across race and gender in post-Apartheid South Africa. Using a nonlinear decomposition method, we decompose these differences across gender within race and then across race within gender. Less than one third of the differences in obesity and underweight across gender are explained by differences in covariates. In contrast, at least 70% of the obesity differences across race are explained by differences in covariates. Behavioral variables such as smoking and exercise explain the largest part of the bodyweight differentials across gender. For bodyweight differentials across race within gender, however, socioeconomic status and background variables have the largest explanatory power for obesity differentials, while background variables play the key role in explaining the underweight differentials. These results indicate that eradicating obesity and underweight differentials will require targeting policies to specific groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Novel view on predicting acute toxicity: decomposing toxicity data in species vulnerability and chemical potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Tjalling; Posthuma, Leo; de Zwart, Dick; van de Meent, Dik

    2007-07-01

    Chemical risk assessment usually applies empirical methods to predict toxicant effects on different species. We propose a more mechanism-oriented approach, and introduce a method to decompose toxicity data in a contribution from the chemical (potency) and from the exposed species (vulnerability). We use a database for acute aquatic toxicity, and focus on some well-defined chemical classes. Potency is strongly related to hydrophobicity and vulnerability differences between species are small for narcotic compounds. Potencies show less relation with hydrophobicity and interspecies differences are larger for organophosphate- and carbamate insecticides. Photosynthesis inhibitors generally act narcotic to animals, but were more potent for algae. Using these potencies and vulnerabilities, acute toxicity values were well predicted by the proposed approach (within a factor of 3-6). The proposed approach has potential for predicting toxicity for untested species-compound combinations; however, there is a need for a better definition of 'mode of action' in ecotoxicology.

  2. Synthesis of Graphene-Based Sensors and Application on Detecting SF6 Decomposing Products: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxing Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Graphene-based materials have aroused enormous focus on a wide range of engineering fields because of their unique structure. One of the most promising applications is gas adsorption and sensing. In electrical engineering, graphene-based sensors are also employed as detecting devices to estimate the operation status of gas insulated switchgear (GIS. This paper reviews the main synthesis methods of graphene, gas adsorption, and sensing mechanism of its based sensors, as well as their applications in detecting SF6 decomposing products, such as SO2, H2S, SO2F2, and SOF2, in GIS. Both theoretical and experimental researches on gas response of graphene-based sensors to these typical gases are summarized. Finally, the future research trend about graphene synthesis technique and relevant perspective are also given.

  3. Bacteria in decomposing wood and their interactions with wood-decay fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Sarah R; Boddy, Lynne; Weightman, Andrew J

    2016-11-01

    The fungal community within dead wood has received considerable study, but far less attention has been paid to bacteria in the same habitat. Bacteria have long been known to inhabit decomposing wood, but much remains underexplored about their identity and ecology. Bacteria within the dead wood environment must interact with wood-decay fungi, but again, very little is known about the form this takes; there are indications of both antagonistic and beneficial interactions within this fungal microbiome. Fungi are hypothesised to play an important role in shaping bacterial communities in wood, and conversely, bacteria may affect wood-decay fungi in a variety of ways. This minireview considers what is currently known about bacteria in wood and their interactions with fungi, and proposes possible associations based on examples from other habitats. It aims to identify key knowledge gaps and pressing questions for future research. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Decomposed Sliding Mode Control of the Drive with Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor and Flexible Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vittek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A decomposed sliding mode control of the drive with an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor and flexible coupling is presented. Decomposition exploits principles of vector control to divide motor into channel for control of magnetic flux and channel for control of torque separately. Sliding mode control principles are exploited to keep demanded value of magnetic flux and to control load angle in the presence of vibration modes and external disturbances. To obtain continues voltage as a control variable a smoothing integrator follows signum function in both channels. As a modification the switching governed by signum function is replaced by the high gain including rearrangement of the control system block diagram. The simulations indicate that the control system yields the desired robustness and further investigations are recommended.

  5. The applications of a higher-dimensional Lie algebra and its decomposed subalgebras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhang; Zhang, Yufeng

    2009-01-15

    With the help of invertible linear transformations and the known Lie algebras, a higher-dimensional 6 x 6 matrix Lie algebra smu(6) is constructed. It follows a type of new loop algebra is presented. By using a (2 + 1)-dimensional partial-differential equation hierarchy we obtain the integrable coupling of the (2 + 1)-dimensional KN integrable hierarchy, then its corresponding Hamiltonian structure is worked out by employing the quadratic-form identity. Furthermore, a higher-dimensional Lie algebra denoted by E, is given by decomposing the Lie algebra smu(6), then a discrete lattice integrable coupling system is produced. A remarkable feature of the Lie algebras smu(6) and E is used to directly construct integrable couplings.

  6. May Ingestion of Leachate from Decomposed Corpses Cause Appendicitis? A Case Report

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    Maurício Domingues-Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The general consensus is that appendicitis is basically provoked by fecaliths or lymphoid hyperplasic obstruction. Several studies based on histological diagnosis have not confirmed this hypothesis. On the contrary, obstruction has been proved in only a minority of cases. Diverse infections by parasites, bacteria, fungus, and noninfective agents have been associated with appendicitis in the medical literature. We describe a firefighter, who ingested a small quantity of leachate from decomposing corpses while working and developed enteritis a few hours later, which lasted several days and evolved to appendicitis. This case raises the possibility that the high quantity of bacteria concentration present in the leachate could have provoked enteritis and the subsequent appendicitis due to a direct effect of the bacteria on the appendix.

  7. Contrasting patterns of litterfall seasonality and seasonal changes in litter decomposability in a tropical rainforest region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, S. A.; Valdez-Ramirez, V.; Congdon, R. A.; Williams, S. E.

    2014-09-01

    The seasonality of litter inputs in forests has important implications for understanding ecosystem processes and biogeochemical cycles. We quantified the drivers of seasonality in litterfall and leaf decomposability using plots throughout the Australian wet tropical region. Litter fell mostly in the summer (wet, warm) months in the region, but other peaks occurred throughout the year. Litterfall seasonality was modelled well with the level of deciduousness of the site (plots with more deciduous species had lower seasonality than evergreen plots), temperature (higher seasonality in the uplands), disturbance (lower seasonality with more early secondary species) and soil fertility (higher seasonality with higher N : P/P limitation) (SL total litterfall model 1 = deciduousness + soil N : P + early secondary sp.: r2 = 0.63, n = 30; model 2 = temperature + early secondary sp. + soil N : P: r2 = 0.54, n = 30; SL leaf = temperature + early secondary sp. + rainfall seasonality: r2 = 0.39, n = 30). Leaf litter decomposability was lower in the dry season than in the wet season, driven by higher phenolic concentrations in the dry, with the difference exacerbated particularly by lower dry season moisture. Our results are contrary to the global trend for tropical rainforests; in that seasonality of litterfall input was generally higher in wetter, cooler, evergreen forests, compared to generally drier, warmer, semi-deciduous sites that had more uniform monthly inputs. We consider this due to more diverse litter shedding patterns in semi-deciduous and raingreen rainforest sites, and an important consideration for ecosystem modellers. Seasonal changes in litter quality are likely to have impacts on decomposition and biogeochemical cycles in these forests due to the litter that falls in the dry season being more recalcitrant to decay.

  8. Drivers of inter-year variability of plant production and decomposers across contrasting island ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, David A; Jonsson, Micael; Kalela-Brundin, Maarit; Lagerström, Anna; Bardgett, Richard D; Yeates, Gregor W; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte

    2012-03-01

    Despite the likely importance of inter-year dynamics of plant production and consumer biota for driving community- and ecosystem-level processes, very few studies have explored how and why these dynamics vary across contrasting ecosystems. We utilized a well-characterized system of 30 lake islands in the boreal forest zone of northern Sweden across which soil fertility and productivity vary considerably, with larger islands being more fertile and productive than smaller ones. In this system we assessed the inter-year dynamics of several measures of plant production and the soil microbial community (primary consumers in the decomposer food web) for each of nine years, and soil microfaunal groups (secondary and tertiary consumers) for each of six of those years. We found that, for measures of plant production and each of the three consumer trophic levels, inter-year dynamics were strongly affected by island size. Further, many variables were strongly affected by island size (and thus bottom-up regulation by soil fertility and resources) in some years, but not in other years, most likely due to inter-year variation in climatic conditions. For each of the plant and microbial variables for which we had nine years of data, we also determined the inter-year coefficient of variation (CV), an inverse measure of stability. We found that CVs of some measures of plant productivity were greater on large islands, whereas those of other measures were greater on smaller islands; CVs of microbial variables were unresponsive to island size. We also found that the effects of island size on the temporal dynamics of some variables were related to inter-year variability of macroclimatic variables. As such, our results show that the inter-year dynamics of both plant productivity and decomposer biota across each of three trophic levels, as well as the inter-year stability of plant productivity, differ greatly across contrasting ecosystems, with potentially important but largely overlooked

  9. Climatic effects on decomposing litter and substrate chemistry along climatological gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, B.

    2009-04-01

    Climatic effects on decomposing litter and substrate chemistry along climatological gradients. B. Berg, Dipartimento Biologia Strutturale e Funzionale, Complesso Universitario, Monte San Angelo, via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli, Italy and Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014, Helsinki, Finland. Studies of several processes, using climatic gradients do provide new information as compared with studies at e.g. a single site. Decomposition of plant litter in such gradients give response in decomposition rates to natural climate conditions. Thus Scots pine needle litter incubated in a climate gradient with annual average temperature (AVGT) ranging from -0.5 to 6.8oC had a highly significant increase in initial mass-loss rate with R2 = 0.591 (p<0.001) and a 5o increase in temperature doubled the mass-loss rate. As a contrast - needle litter of Norway spruce incubated in the same transect had no significant response to climate and for initial litter a 5o increase increased mass-loss rate c. 6%. For more decomposed Scots pine litter we could see that the effect of temperature on mass-loss rate gradually decreased until it disappeared. Long-term decomposition studies revealed differences in litter decomposition patterns along a gradient, even for the same type of litter. This could be followed by using an asymptotic function that gave, (i) a measure a maximum level of decomposition, (ii) the initial decomposition rate. Over a gradient the calculated maximum level of decomposition decreased with increasing AVGT. Other gradient studies revealed an effect of AVGT on litter chemical composition. Pine needle litter from stands under different climate conditions had nutrient concentrations related to AVGT. Thus N, P, K, and S were positively related to AVGT and Mn negatively, all of them significantly. This information may be used to explain the changing pattern in decomposition over the gradient.

  10. Using probiotics to improve swine gut health and nutrient utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengfa F. Liao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To maintain a healthy gut is definitely key for a pig to digest and absorb dietary nutrients efficiently. A balanced microbiota (i.e., a healthy micro-ecosystem is an indispensable constituent of a healthy gut. Probiotics, the live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer good health benefits onto the host, are a category of feed additives that can be used to replenish the gut microbial population while recuperating the host immune system. Besides their antitoxin and diarrhea reduction effects, dietary supplementation of probiotics can improve gut health, nutrient digestibilities and, therefore, benefit nutrient utilization and growth performance of pigs. Current knowledge in the literature pertinent to the beneficial effects of utilizing various probiotics for swine production has been comprehensively reviewed, and the safety and the risk issues related to probiotic usage have also been discussed in this paper. Considering that the foremost cost in a swine operation is feed cost, feed efficiency holds a very special, if not the paramount, significance in commercial swine production. Globally, the swine industry along with other animal industries is moving towards restricting and eventually a total ban on the usage of antibiotic growth promoters. Therefore, selection of an ideal alternative to the in-feed antibiotics to compensate for the lost benefits due to the ban on the antibiotic usage is urgently needed to support the industry for profitable and sustainable swine production. As is understood, a decision on this selection is not easy to make. Thus, this review paper aims to provide some much needed up-to-date knowledge and comprehensive references for swine nutritionists and producers to refer to before making prudent decisions and for scientists and researchers to develop better commercial products.

  11. Design and performance of the CDC real-time reverse transcriptase PCR swine flu panel for detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Bo; Wu, Kai-Hui; Emery, Shannon; Villanueva, Julie; Johnson, Roy; Guthrie, Erica; Berman, LaShondra; Warnes, Christine; Barnes, Nathelia; Klimov, Alexander; Lindstrom, Stephen

    2011-07-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIV) have been shown to sporadically infect humans and are infrequently identified by the Influenza Division of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after being received as unsubtypeable influenza A virus samples. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) procedures for detection and characterization of North American lineage (N. Am) SIV were developed and implemented at CDC for rapid identification of specimens from cases of suspected infections with SIV. These procedures were utilized in April 2009 for detection of human cases of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic (pdm) influenza virus infection. Based on genetic sequence data derived from the first two viruses investigated, the previously developed rRT-PCR procedures were optimized to create the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel for detection of the 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza virus. The analytical sensitivity of the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was shown to be 5 copies of RNA per reaction and 10(-1.3 - -0.7) 50% infectious doses (ID(50)) per reaction for cultured viruses. Cross-reactivity was not observed when testing human clinical specimens or cultured viruses that were positive for human seasonal A (H1N1, H3N2) and B influenza viruses. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was distributed to public health laboratories in the United States and internationally from April 2009 until June 2010. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel served as an effective tool for timely and specific detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza viruses and facilitated subsequent public health response implementation.

  12. Eurotium spp. and echinulin in feed refused by swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesonder, R F; Lambert, R; Wicklow, D T; Biehl, M L

    1988-03-01

    Feed refused by swine contained a high-propagule density of Eurotium chevalieri Mangin (anamorph, Aspergillus chevalieri (Mangin) Thom and Church), Eurotium amstelodami Mangin (anamorph, Aspergillus amstelodami (Mangin Thom and Church), and Aspergillus candidus Link. Echinulin (8 micrograms/g of feed) was detected in the feed. Isolates of E. chevalieri and E. amstelodami but not A. candidus produced echinulin on rice or cracked corn. Mice refused to drink water containing 90 micrograms of echinulin per ml. This is the first report of the alkaloid echinulin in feed refused by swine.

  13. Pork and Carcasses Quality in Swine Exploited in Family Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Loredana Heber; Cornelia Petroman; Ioan Petroman; Ioana Bălan; Diana Marin; Gabriela Ivaşcu; Călin Popovici

    2010-01-01

    Maximum values of dry matter and fat (% of the carcass weight) is achieved in swine exploited on small private family farms at 137 kg of dry matter and 115 kg of protein. Slaughtering swine at higher weight results in an increase of the dry matter and of the caloric value because of the increase of the amount of fat in the muscular fibber; thus, pork is of low quality because of the massive accumulation fat substance and the economic efficiency of producing pork is improper, with supplementar...

  14. Lumbricidae as transitory hosts in Metastrongylus infection in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastrongylidosis or lungworm disease in swine is a disease caused by several types of nematodes of the genus Metastrongylus. Metastrongylidae are biohelminths whose causes use transitory hosts for their development and maintaining their biological cycle, and in this case they are numerous species of Lumbricidae (earthworms. Depending on the geographic environment, numerous representatives of Lumbricidae persist as transitory hosts. In our environment, these are dominant earthworm species of the genus Eisenia spp, Dandreobena spp, Allopbophora spp, Lubricus spp, Octoiasium spp, Bimastus spp, and rarely those from the genus Heledrillus spp. Swine are infected perorally with Metastrongylidae when they ingest infected earthworms.

  15. Nitrous oxide emission from an agricultural field fertilized with liquid lagoonal swine effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, S. C.; Phillips, R. L.; Fischer, E. N.

    2000-06-01

    Contemporary agriculture is characterized by the intensive production of livestock in confined facilities and land application of stored waste as an organic fertilizer. Emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) from receiving soils is an important but poorly constrained term in the atmospheric N2O budget. In particular, there are few data for N2O emissions from spray fields associated with industrial scale swine production facilities that have rapidly expanded in the southeastern United States. In an intensive, 24-day investigation over three spray cycles, we followed the time course for changes in N2O emission and soil physicochemical variables in an agricultural field irrigated with liquid lagoonal swine effluent. The total N (535 mg L-1) of the liquid waste was almost entirely NH4+-N (>90%) and thus had a low mineralization potential. Soil profiles for nitrification and denitrification indicated that >90% of potential activity was localized in the surface 20 cm. Application of this liquid fertilizer to warm (19° to 28°C) soils in a form that is both readily volatilized and immediately utilizable by the endogenous N-cycling microbial community resulted in a sharp decline in soil NH4+-N and supported a rapid but short-lived (i.e., days) burst of nitrification, denitrification, and N2O emission. Nitrous oxide fluxes as high as 9200 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1 were observed shortly after fertilization, but emissions decreased to prefertilization levels within a few days. Poor correlations between N2O efflux and soil physicochemical variables (temperature, moisture, NO3--N, NH4+-N) and fertilizer loading rate point to the complexity of interacting factors affecting N2O production and emission. Total fertilizer N applied and N2O-N emitted were 29.7 g m-2 (297 kg N ha-1) and 395 mg m-2, respectively. The fractional loss of applied N to N2O (corrected for background emission) was 1.4%, in agreement with the mean of 1.25% reported for mineral fertilizers. The direct effects of fertilizer

  16. Swine flu (H1N1 influenza): awareness profile of visitors of swine flu screening booths in Belgaum city, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveki, R G; Halappanavar, A B; Patil, M S; Joshi, A V; Gunagi, Praveena; Halki, Sunanda B

    2012-06-01

    The 2009 flu pandemic was a global outbreak of a new strain of H1N1 influenza virus often referred colloquially as "swine flu". The objectives of the study were: (1) To know the sociodemographic and awareness profile of visitors attending swine flu screening booths. (2) To reveal sources of information. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken among the visitors (18 years and above) attending swine flu screening booths organised within the Belgaum city during Ganesh festival from 28-08-2009 to 03-09-2009 by interviewing them using predesigned, pretested structured questionnaire on swine flu. The data was collected and analysed using SPSS software programme for windows (version 16). Chi-square test was applied. Out of 206 visitors, 132 (64.1%) were males and 107 (51.9%) were in the age group of 30-49 years; 183 (88.8%) had heard about swine flu. More than a third of the visitors (38.3%) disclosed that there was a vaccine to prevent swine flu. Majority responded that it could be transmitted by being in close proximity to pigs (49.0%) and by eating pork (51.5%). Newspaper/magazine (64.6%), television (61.7%), and public posters/pamphlets (44.2%) were common sources of information. The present study revealed that doctors/public health workers have played little role in creating awareness in the community. The improved communication between doctors and the community would help to spread correct information about the disease and the role that the community can play in controlling the spread of the disease.

  17. Leaf traits capture the effects of land use changes and climate on litter decomposability of grasslands across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunel, Claire; Garnier, Eric; Joffre, Richard; Kazakou, Elena; Quested, Helen; Grigulis, Karl; Lavorel, Sandra; Ansquer, Pauline; Castro, Helena; Cruz, Pablo; Dolezal, Jirí; Eriksson, Ove; Freitas, Helena; Golodets, Carly; Jouany, Claire; Kigel, Jaime; Kleyer, Michael; Lehsten, Veiko; Leps, Jan; Meier, Tonia; Pakeman, Robin; Papadimitriou, Maria; Papanastasis, Vasilios P; Quétier, Fabien; Robson, Matt; Sternberg, Marcelo; Theau, Jean-Pierre; Thébault, Aurélie; Zarovali, Maria

    2009-03-01

    Land use and climate changes induce shifts in plant functional diversity and community structure, thereby modifying ecosystem processes. This is particularly true for litter decomposition, an essential process in the biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nutrients. In this study, we asked whether changes in functional traits of living leaves in response to changes in land use and climate were related to rates of litter potential decomposition, hereafter denoted litter decomposability, across a range of 10 contrasting sites. To disentangle the different control factors on litter decomposition, we conducted a microcosm experiment to determine the decomposability under standard conditions of litters collected in herbaceous communities from Europe and Israel. We tested how environmental factors (disturbance and climate) affected functional traits of living leaves and how these traits then modified litter quality and subsequent litter decomposability. Litter decomposability appeared proximately linked to initial litter quality, with particularly clear negative correlations with lignin-dependent indices (litter lignin concentr tion, lignin:nitrogen ratio, and fiber component). Litter quality was directly related to community-weighted mean traits. Lignin-dependent indices of litter quality were positively correlated with community-weighted mean leaf dry matter content (LDMC), and negatively correlated with community-weighted mean leaf nitrogen concentration (LNC). Consequently, litter decomposability was correlated negatively with community-weighted mean LDMC, and positively with community-weighted mean LNC. Environmental factors (disturbance and climate) influenced community-weighted mean traits. Plant communities experiencing less frequent or less intense disturbance exhibited higher community-weighted mean LDMC, and therefore higher litter lignin content and slower litter decomposability. LDMC therefore appears as a powerful marker of both changes in land use and of the

  18. African swine fever virus replication and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Linda K; Chapman, David A G; Netherton, Christopher L; Upton, Chris

    2013-04-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a large icosahedral DNA virus which replicates predominantly in the cytoplasm of infected cells. The ASFV double-stranded DNA genome varies in length from about 170 to 193 kbp depending on the isolate and contains between 150 and 167 open reading frames. These are closely spaced and read from both DNA strands. The virus genome termini are covalently closed by imperfectly base-paired hairpin loops that are present in two forms that are complimentary and inverted with respect to each other. Adjacent to the termini are inverted arrays of different tandem repeats. Head to head concatemeric genome replication intermediates have been described. A similar mechanism of replication to Poxviruses has been proposed for ASFV. Virus genome transcription occurs independently of the host RNA polymerase II and virus particles contain all of the enzymes and factors required for early gene transcription. DNA replication begins in perinuclear factory areas about 6h post-infection although an earlier stage of nuclear DNA synthesis has been reported. The virus genome encodes enzymes required for transcription and replication of the virus genome and virion structural proteins. Enzymes that are involved in a base excision repair pathway may be an adaptation to enable virus replication in the oxidative environment of the macrophage cytoplasm. Other ASFV genes encode factors involved in evading host defence systems and modulating host cell function. Variation between the genomes of different ASFV isolates is most commonly due to gain or loss of members of multigene families, MGFs 100, 110, 300, 360, 505/530 and family p22. These are located within the left terminal 40kbp and right terminal 20kbp. ASFV is the only member of the Asfarviridae, which is one of the families within the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus superfamily. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular sexing of tucuxi dolphins (Sotalia guianensis and Sotalia fluviatilis using samples from biopsy darting and decomposed carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydée A. Cunha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the zinc-finger sex chromosome-linked genes Zfx/Zfy and the sex-determining region Y (Sry genes for gender determination of biopsy samples from marine and riverine tucuxi dolphins (Sotalia guianensis and S. fluviatilis. We also evaluated the performance of these genes with decomposed carcasses, for which sexing cannot rely on the direct examination of the reproductive tract. Both systems proved reliable for sexing 46 fresh and decomposed samples, making them especially useful when biopsy darting is coupled with photo-identification studies.

  20. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  1. Presence of gastrointestinal parasites in swine and human of four swine production farms in Cundinamarca- Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F Mendoza-Gómez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Determine the presence and the type of endoparasites with zoonotic potential in swine and human of two technified and two semi-technified farms in the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. Materials and methods. Three serial samplings of feces were taken in a pen row within intervals of 15 days, in two technified and two semi-technified farms in different age groups distributed as follows: pregnant-sows, nursing-females, boars, weaners, suckling-piglets, and growing-pig. By means of informed consent thirty-three people agreed to enter the study. Thirty-three samples from men and women of different ages were received. The pool and individual samples of fecal were evaluated by direct analysis, qualitative flotation and sedimentation techniques and modified ZiehlNeelsen stain. Results. For the porcine population, on the average, the results obtained from both technified farms showed that Balantidium coli (42%, Endolimax nana (21.9% and Iodamoeba bütschlii (7.8% were the most common parasites. In semi-technified farms they were: Entamoeba coli (40%, Endolimax nana (35%, Iodamoeba bütschlii (25% and Balantidium coli (5%. By means of the test chi2 it is possible to conclude that there is a significant difference between the parasites species and the type of farm. The results obtained in human showed the presence of parasites as: E. coli (42.2%, Entamoeba hystolitica/dispar (12.1%, E. nana (9.1%, B. coli (9.1%, I. bütschlii (3.0% and Blastocystis hominis (3.0%. Conclusions. The presence of parasites such as Balantidium coli, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba bütschlii and Entamoeba coli in swine and human suggests a possible rotation of parasitic species between hosts.

  2. A Review of Swine Influenza: An Emerging Pandemic | Adeola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An unprecedented epizootic swine Influenza A (H1N1) virus that is highly pathogenic has crossed the species barrier in Mexico to cause many human fatalities and poses an increasing pandemic threat. This summary describes the aetiopathogenesis of human infection with Influenza A (H1N1) and reviews ...

  3. 78 FR 27937 - Environmental Impact Statement; Feral Swine Damage Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Environmental Impact Statement; Feral Swine Damage Management... environmental impact statement and notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: We are advising the public that the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service plans to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) to...

  4. Solids and nutrient removal from flushed swine manure using polyacrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Sangrador, M. P.; Garcia Gonzalez, M. C.; Leon Cofreces, M. C.; Acitores Benavente, M.

    2009-07-01

    Most of the organic nutrient elements (nitrogen and phosphorus) and carbon compounds (COD) in liquid swine manure are contained in fine suspended particles. Flocculation treatment with polyacrylamide (PAM) followed by screening if on the best methods to separate the liquid fraction.

  5. 78 FR 51658 - Weighing, Feed, and Swine Contractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration 9 CFR Part 201 RIN 0580-AA99 Weighing, Feed, and Swine Contractors AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards...

  6. Heat Stress Effects on Growing-Finishing Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the factors that create heat stress, the response of the animals while under heat stress, and the signs of heat-stressed swine are essential to making rational decisions for the selection, design, and management of their environments. Heat stressors include combinations of environment...

  7. Cultivation of soybean with swine wastewater | Frigo | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates the cultivation of soybean under the use of swine wastewater (SWW). The SWW used was diluted in water at 0, 25, 50 and 75%. At 15, 30 and 45 days after sowing, plant height, fresh weight, dry weight, leaf area, concentrations of NPK on leaf and productivity were determined. The results show that ...

  8. Composting swine slurry to reduce indicators and antibiotic resistance genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the last twenty years there have been considerable increases in the incidence of human infections with bacteria that are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. This has precipitated concerns about the use of antibiotics in livestock production. Composting of swine manure has several advantages...

  9. Vaccinology of classical swine fever: from lab to field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.

    2003-01-01

    There are two types of classical swine fever vaccines available: the classical live and the recently developed E2 subunit vaccines. The live Chinese strain vaccine is the most widely used. After a single vaccination, it confers solid immunity within a few days that appears to persist lifelong. The

  10. Molecular characterization of African swine fever virus in apparently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular characterization of African swine fever virus in apparently healthy domestic pigs in Uganda. ... If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your ...

  11. Mathematical epidemiology and the control of classical swine fever virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinkenberg, Dieudonné

    2003-01-01

    The thesis describes epidemiological research carried out to improve the control of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) epidemics. First, control measures and strategies are investigated in order to enable quick and adequate action upon CSFV detection. CSFV transmission experiments are described, as

  12. Variability of production characteristics of swine in farms in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Milica

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Work on pig enhancement will continue to deal with improving reproduction characteristics, growth characteristics, feed utilization, trunk and meat quality, and management confidence. On the one hand, adequate methods of quantitative and mollecular genetics will be used, and on the other there will be efforts to increase probability that genetic potential of the animal is exhibited in practical conditions. The objective of this work was to see how and to what extent genetic potential in swine is exhibited in practical conditions. The variability of production characteristics of swine in farms in the Republic of Serbia was examined during a period of 10 years (1991-2000. Reproductive, fattening and trunk quality characteristics varied among farms, genotypes and year of investigation. The average revealed analyzed characteristics in swine are not satisfactory. There is a wide range in the variation of all characteristics among the farms. There are differences between the characteristics of the same swine genotype with regard to the tendency they exhibit per year or farm. Some of them have not shown a clear tendency to increase or reduce, but varied from year to year. The effects of selection and cross-breeding differed considerably.

  13. Establishment of swine-penetrating craniocerebral gunshot wound model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huchen; Wang, Lian; Zhong, Wuzhao; Qi, Rongfeng; Li, Ning; You, Wanchun; Su, Xingfeng; Zhuang, Zong; Cheng, Huilin; Shi, Jixin

    2015-12-01

    Bullet-induced brain wounds are common among military personnel in war zones and among civilians with gun accidents or crime-related gun injuries. The goal of this study was to develop a nonfatal porcine model of penetrating craniocerebral gunshot wound (PCGW) by firing a projectile in live swine to induce PCGW in such a realistic manner as to reconstruct their physical characteristics. We established a nonfatal porcine model of PCGW based on a custom-designed experimental gun that emulates the shooting of a 5.56-mm NATO standard rifle at 800 m (317 m/s; 200.9 J). Commercial swine (n = 20) were subjected to a ballistic wound to the bilateral frontal lobe, and four swine were used as controls. Surviving swine were used in subsequent first-aid, management, and monitoring experiments for neurosurgeons. Various physiological variables were measured continuously. After computed tomography (CT) scanning and three-dimensional CT reconstructions, all pigs underwent primary lifesaving emergency interventions, including emergency decompressive craniotomies and hemorrhage control. In our nonfatal porcine model of PCGW, injuries were comparable in their morphology to real gunshot wounds, as evidenced by analysis of wound characteristics and CT scan images. The survival rates of the pigs were 100% within 2 h, 95% within 6 h, 85% within 12 h, and 85% within 24 h (P pigs. This model makes possible the laboratory reproduction of real ballistic wounds in a live large animal model that is close to humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantification of airborne African Swine Fever virus after experimental infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho Ferreira, de H.C.; Weesendorp, E.; Quak, S.; Stegeman, J.A.; Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge on African Swine Fever (ASF) transmission routes can be useful when designing control measures against the spread of ASF virus (ASFV). Few studies have focused on the airborne transmission route, and until now no data has been available on quantities of ASF virus (ASFV) in the air. Our aim

  15. Composting swine manure from high rise finishing facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the last twenty years there have been considerable increases in the incidence of human infections with bacteria that are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. This has precipitated concerns about the use of antibiotics in livestock production. Composting of swine manure has several advantages...

  16. Genetic diversity of Escherichia coli isolated from commercial swine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-07

    Sep 7, 2011 ... strains of E. coli were selected by selective medium and conventional biochemical test from fresh stool samples of swines in ... extragenic palindrome PCR (REP-PCR), 34 E. coli isolates were clustered to 19 ERIC-PCR genotypes ..... genetic diversity of Clostridium perfringens from chicken by REP-. PCR.

  17. Treatment of swine wastewater with subsurface-flow constructed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates the capability of horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (SSF CWs) for treating pretreated swine wastewater as a function of contact time (CT) and type of macrophyte under the local conditions of Yucatán, Mexico. Experiments were conducted from July 2004 to November 2005 on a ...

  18. Oxygen radical-scavenging capacities of peptides from swine blood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... process of the organism and may induce cancer, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease (Gutteridge. 1994 and Tabatabaie et al. 2003). Oxidative ... E-mail: fangjun1973@yahoo.com.cn. Abbreviations: PSB, Peptides of swine blood; DM, diabetes mellitus; BHA, butylated hydroxyanisole; BHT, butylated.

  19. Profitability analysis of sustainable swine production in Abia State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profitability analysis of sustainable swine production in Abia State, Nigeria. NC Ehirim, SUO Onyeagocha, CA Emenyonu, SC Onyemauwa, OG Ugochukwu. Abstract. No Abstract. Animal Production Research Advances Vol. 4 (1) 2008: pp. 63-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/apra.v4i1.36430 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  20. Anaerobic digestion of swine manure: Inhibition by ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kaare Hvid; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1998-01-01

    A stable anaerobic degradation of swine manure with ammonia concentration of 6 g-N/litre was obtained in continuously stirred tank reactors with a hydraulic retention time of 15 days, at Four different temperatures. Methane yields of 188, 141, 67 and 22 ml-CH4/g-VS were obtained at 37, 45, 55...

  1. Optimal Resource Allocation In Swine Production For Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated optimal resource allocation in swine production and its implication for rural development in Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria. Data was collected with the aid of interview form 50 randomly selected respondents. The study revealed that pig production in Umuahia, Abia State is mainly carried out by young ...

  2. Influenza A virus infections in swine: pathogenesis and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, B H

    2014-03-01

    Influenza has been recognized as a respiratory disease in swine since its first appearance concurrent with the 1918 "Spanish flu" human pandemic. All influenza viruses of significance in swine are type A, subtype H1N1, H1N2, or H3N2 viruses. Influenza viruses infect epithelial cells lining the surface of the respiratory tract, inducing prominent necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis and variable interstitial pneumonia. Cell death is due to direct virus infection and to insult directed by leukocytes and cytokines of the innate immune system. The most virulent viruses consistently express the following characteristics of infection: (1) higher or more prolonged virus replication, (2) excessive cytokine induction, and (3) replication in the lower respiratory tract. Nearly all the viral proteins contribute to virulence. Pigs are susceptible to infection with both human and avian viruses, which often results in gene reassortment between these viruses and endemic swine viruses. The receptors on the epithelial cells lining the respiratory tract are major determinants of infection by influenza viruses from other hosts. The polymerases, especially PB2, also influence cross-species infection. Methods of diagnosis and characterization of influenza viruses that infect swine have improved over the years, driven both by the availability of new technologies and by the necessity of keeping up with changes in the virus. Testing of oral fluids from pigs for virus and antibody is a recent development that allows efficient sampling of large numbers of animals.

  3. Production system dynamism and parasitic interaction of swine in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings were Ascaris suum (13.9%), Eimeria species (5.6%), Oesophagostomum species (6.7%) and Sarcoptes scabiei (16.2%). Mixed infection was observed on 13 swine, among them 2% were positive for Ascaris suum and Eimeria species, where as 1.14% were positive for Ascaris suum and Oesophagostomum ...

  4. Odor control in swine buildings: recycle flush vs. automated scraper

    Science.gov (United States)

    A research project was conducted to compare odor concentrations in exhaust of traditional flush barns and barns equipped with automated scrapers. The study was conducted at commercial tunnel-ventilated swine barns in northwest Missouri. Odor samples were collected from the barn exhaust in polyvinyl ...

  5. Screening of cellular proteins that interact with the classical swine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the current study, aiming to find more clues in understanding the molecular mechanisms of CSFV NS5A's function, the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system was adopted to screen for CSFV NS5A interactive proteins in the cDNA library of the swine umbilical vein endothelial cell (SUVEC). Alignment with the NCBI database ...

  6. Accelerating vaccine development for African swine fever virus ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-12

    Jan 12, 2018 ... Expected results. By adopting this cutting-edge approach to the development of African swine fever vaccines, the overall expected result is the generation of a vaccine candidate that will undergo further testing and if successful, be produced as a new vaccine for ASF.

  7. Deciphering the Swine-Flu Pandemics of 1918 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Richard; Dos Reis, Mario; Tamuri, Asif; Hay, Alan

    The devastating "Spanish flu" of 1918 killed an estimated 50 million people worldwide, ranking it as the deadliest pandemic in recorded human history. It is generally believed that the virus transferred from birds directly to humans shortly before the start of the pandemic, subsequently jumping from humans to swine. By developing 'non-homogeneous' substitution models that consider that substitution patterns may be different in human, avian, and swine hosts, we can determine the timing of the host shift to mammals. We find it likely that the Spanish flu of 1918, like the current 2009 pandemic, was a 'swine-origin' influenza virus. Now that we are faced with a new pandemic, can we understand how influenza is able to change hosts? Again by modelling the evolutionary process, considering the different selective constraints for viruses in the different hosts, we can identify locations that seem to be under different selective constraints in humans and avian hosts. This allows us to identify changes that may have facilitated the establishment of the 2009 swine-origin flu in humans.

  8. The future of influenza A virus vaccines for swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economic losses due to influenza A virus (IAV) infections are substantial and a global problem, ranking among the top three major health challenges in the swine industry. Currently, H1 and H3 subtypes circulate in pigs globally associated with different combinations of N1 and N2 subtypes; however, t...

  9. Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 in Humans and Swine, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Annalisa; Gonzales, José Luis; Bonelli, Sara Irene; Valda, Ybar; Pieri, Angela; Segundo, Higinio; Ibañez, Ramón; Mantella, Antonia; Bartalesi, Filippo; Tolari, Francesco; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    We determined the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in persons in 2 rural communities in southeastern Bolivia and the presence of HEV in human and swine fecal samples. HEV seroprevalence was 6.3%, and HEV genotype 3 strains with high sequence homology were detected. PMID:21801630

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Pseudomonas spp. Strains That Efficiently Decompose Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa M. Furmanczyk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to their particular properties, detergents are widely used in household cleaning products, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and in agriculture as adjuvants tailoring the features of pesticides or other crop protection agents. The continuously growing use of these various products means that water soluble detergents have become one of the most problematic groups of pollutants for the aquatic and terrestrial environments. Thus it is important to identify bacteria having the ability to survive in the presence of large quantities of detergent and efficiently decompose it to non-surface active compounds. In this study, we used peaty soil sampled from a surface flow constructed wetland in a wastewater treatment plant to isolate bacteria that degrade sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS. We identified and initially characterized 36 Pseudomonas spp. strains that varied significantly in their ability to use SDS as their sole carbon source. Five isolates having the closest taxonomic relationship to the Pseudomonas jessenii subgroup appeared to be the most efficient SDS degraders, decomposing from 80 to 100% of the SDS present in an initial concentration 1 g/L in less than 24 h. These isolates exhibited significant differences in degree of SDS degradation, their resistance to high detergent concentration (ranging from 2.5 g/L up to 10 g/L or higher, and in chemotaxis toward SDS on a plate test. Mass spectrometry revealed several SDS degradation products, 1-dodecanol being dominant; however, traces of dodecanal, 2-dodecanol, and 3-dodecanol were also observed, but no dodecanoic acid. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis zymography revealed that all of the selected isolates possessed alkylsulfatase-like activity. Three isolates, AP3_10, AP3_20, and AP3_22, showed a single band on native PAGE zymography, that could be the result of alkylsulfatase activity, whereas for isolates AP3_16 and AP3_19 two bands were observed. Moreover, the AP3_22 strain exhibited a band

  11. African Swine Fever Virus Georgia 2007 with a Deletion of Virulence-Associated Gene 9GL (B119L), when Administered at Low Doses, Leads to Virus Attenuation in Swine and Induces an Effective Protection against Homologous Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Vivian; Holinka, Lauren G; Krug, Peter W; Gladue, Douglas P; Carlson, Jolene; Sanford, Brenton; Alfano, Marialexia; Kramer, Edward; Lu, Zhiqiang; Arzt, Jonathan; Reese, Bo; Carrillo, Consuelo; Risatti, Guillermo R; Borca, Manuel V

    2015-08-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of an often lethal disease of domestic pigs. Disease control strategies have been hampered by the unavailability of vaccines against ASFV. Since its introduction in the Republic of Georgia, a highly virulent virus, ASFV Georgia 2007 (ASFV-G), has caused an epizootic that spread rapidly into Eastern European countries. Currently no vaccines are available or under development to control ASFV-G. In the past, genetically modified ASFVs harboring deletions of virulence-associated genes have proven attenuated in swine, inducing protective immunity against challenge with homologous parental viruses. Deletion of the gene 9GL (open reading frame [ORF] B119L) in highly virulent ASFV Malawi-Lil-20/1 produced an attenuated phenotype even when administered to pigs at 10(6) 50% hemadsorption doses (HAD50). Here we report the construction of a genetically modified ASFV-G strain (ASFV-G-Δ9GLv) harboring a deletion of the 9GL (B119L) gene. Like Malawi-Lil-20/1-Δ9GL, ASFV-G-Δ9GL showed limited replication in primary swine macrophages. However, intramuscular inoculation of swine with 10(4) HAD50 of ASFV-G-Δ9GL produced a virulent phenotype that, unlike Malawi-Lil-20/1-Δ9GL, induced a lethal disease in swine like parental ASFV-G. Interestingly, lower doses (10(2) to 10(3) HAD50) of ASFV-G-Δ9GL did not induce a virulent phenotype in swine and when challenged protected pigs against disease. A dose of 10(2) HAD50 of ASFV-G-Δ9GLv conferred partial protection when pigs were challenged at either 21 or 28 days postinfection (dpi). An ASFV-G-Δ9GL HAD50 of 10(3) conferred partial and complete protection at 21 and 28 dpi, respectively. The information provided here adds to our recent report on the first attempts toward experimental vaccines against ASFV-G. The main problem for controlling ASF is the lack of vaccines. Studies on ASFV virulence lead to the production of genetically modified attenuated viruses that induce protection

  12. Comparative Prevalence of Immune Evasion Complex Genes Associated with β-Hemolysin Converting Bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 Isolates from Swine, Swine Facilities, Humans with Swine Contact, and Humans with No Swine Contact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J Hau

    Full Text Available Livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA draws concern from the public health community because in some countries these organisms may represent the largest reservoir of MRSA outside hospital settings. Recent studies indicate LA-MRSA strains from swine are more genetically diverse than the first reported sequence type ST398. In the US, a diverse population of LA-MRSA is found including organisms of the ST398, ST9, and ST5 lineages. Occurrence of ST5 MRSA in swine is of particular concern since ST5 is among the most prevalent lineages causing clinical infections in humans. The prominence of ST5 in clinical disease is believed to result from acquisition of bacteriophages containing virulence or host-adapted genes including the immune-evasion cluster (IEC genes carried by β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages, whose absence in LA-MRSA ST398 is thought to contribute to reduced rates of human infection and transmission associated with this lineage. The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of IEC genes associated with β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 isolates obtained from agricultural sources, including swine, swine facilities, and humans with short- or long-term swine exposure. To gain a broader perspective, the prevalence of these genes in LA-MRSA ST5 strains was compared to the prevalence in clinical MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no known exposure to swine. IEC genes were not present in any of the tested MRSA ST5 strains from agricultural sources and the β-hemolysin gene was intact in these strains, indicating the bacteriophage's absence. In contrast, the prevalence of the β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no exposure to swine was 90.4%. The absence of β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in LA-MRSA ST5 isolates is consistent with previous reports evaluating ST398 strains and provides genetic evidence indicating LA-MRSA ST5 isolates

  13. Comparative Prevalence of Immune Evasion Complex Genes Associated with β-Hemolysin Converting Bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 Isolates from Swine, Swine Facilities, Humans with Swine Contact, and Humans with No Swine Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, Samantha J; Sun, Jisun; Davies, Peter R; Frana, Timothy S; Nicholson, Tracy L

    2015-01-01

    Livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) draws concern from the public health community because in some countries these organisms may represent the largest reservoir of MRSA outside hospital settings. Recent studies indicate LA-MRSA strains from swine are more genetically diverse than the first reported sequence type ST398. In the US, a diverse population of LA-MRSA is found including organisms of the ST398, ST9, and ST5 lineages. Occurrence of ST5 MRSA in swine is of particular concern since ST5 is among the most prevalent lineages causing clinical infections in humans. The prominence of ST5 in clinical disease is believed to result from acquisition of bacteriophages containing virulence or host-adapted genes including the immune-evasion cluster (IEC) genes carried by β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages, whose absence in LA-MRSA ST398 is thought to contribute to reduced rates of human infection and transmission associated with this lineage. The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of IEC genes associated with β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 isolates obtained from agricultural sources, including swine, swine facilities, and humans with short- or long-term swine exposure. To gain a broader perspective, the prevalence of these genes in LA-MRSA ST5 strains was compared to the prevalence in clinical MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no known exposure to swine. IEC genes were not present in any of the tested MRSA ST5 strains from agricultural sources and the β-hemolysin gene was intact in these strains, indicating the bacteriophage's absence. In contrast, the prevalence of the β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no exposure to swine was 90.4%. The absence of β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in LA-MRSA ST5 isolates is consistent with previous reports evaluating ST398 strains and provides genetic evidence indicating LA-MRSA ST5 isolates may harbor a reduced

  14. Role of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli in the swine production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ercoli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC can cause severe clinical diseases in humans, such as haemorrhagic colitis (HC and haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS. Although ruminants, primarily cattle, have been suggested as typical reservoirs of STEC, many food products of other origins, including pork products, have been confirmed as vehicles for STEC transmission. Only in rare cases, pork consumption is associated with severe clinical symptoms caused by high pathogenic STEC strains. However, in these outbreaks, it is unknown whether the contamination of food products occurs during swine processing or via cross-contamination from foodstuffs of different sources. In swine, STEC plays an important role in the pathogenesis of oedema disease. In particular a Shiga toxin subtype, named stx2e, it is considered as a key factor involved in the damage of swine endothelial cells. On the contrary, stx2e-producing Escherichia coli has rarely been isolated in humans, and usually only from asymptomatic carriers or from patients with mild symptoms, such as uncomplicated diarrhoea. In fact, the presence of gene stx2e, encoding for stx2e, has rarely been reported in STEC strains that cause HUS. Moreover, stx2e-producing STEC isolated from humans and pigs were found to differ in serogroup, their virulence profile and interaction with intestinal epithelial cells. Because of the limited epidemiologic data of STEC in swine and the increasing role of non-O157 STEC in human illnesses, the relationship between swine STEC and human disease needs to be further investigated.

  15. Assessment of Phosphorus Recovery from Swine Wastewater in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiming Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The nutrient management of phosphorus (P contained in swine wastewater is an important challenge to enhance P use efficiency. In the present study, assessment of P recovery from swine wastewater in Beijing was performed. P amounts of swine wastewater increased from 11,687 tons in 1980 to 16,237 tons in 2014. Without treatment of swine wastewater, P concentration will reach a maximum 1.20 mg/L. The maximum P recovery was 99.36% under the condition of crystallization coupled BPR (biological phosphorus removal when the operating conditions were 60.6 mg/L for Cp (initial P concentration (mg/L, 1.2 for Mg/P (magnesium-to-P molar ratio, 9.7 for pH of crystallization process, and 8.0 for pH, 1.6 h for anaerobic stage time, 15 days for sludge retention time of BPR. The P concentration for water quality was 0.03 mg/L to meet the water regulation standard. Under this situation, if the target P concentration were set as Grade II and III, pig breeding numbers reached 42.07 and 95.90 million heads. Construction investments for the crystallization, BRP, and coupled methods are 411 (104 Yuan, 604,307 USD, 301 (104 Yuan, 442,580 USD, and 551 (104 Yuan, 810,170 USD, respectively. The running costs are 15.205 (104 Yuan/year, 22,360 USD/year, 28.907 (104 Yuan/year, 42,500 USD/year and 44.112 (104 Yuan/year, 64,860 USD/year. To manage non-point pollution, swine wastewater treatment facilities should be used and pig breeding numbers should be managed within reasonable ranges.

  16. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices regarding Swine Flu among adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harjot Kaur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevention is the most appropriate measure to control H1N1 flu pandemic and awareness of H1N1 flu is ranked very high in preventive measures. Keeping this in view, study was designed to assess the awareness level and to compare it among urban and rural participants. Aims and objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding swine flu among adult population, to assess whether there is any difference among rural and urban population and to assess the response generated by the media coverage and the Government efforts.Methods: This cross-sectional study was done from April to July 2015 on 300 houses from the urban area and 150 houses from rural area, chosen from study population by random sampling. Mean and standard deviation for continuous variables and percentages for categorical were calculated. Results: 94% of urban and 91.3% of the rural participants had previously heard about swine flu, main source being TV. 46% of urban and 74% of rural participants had myth about spread of swine flu by eating pork. 41.3% of urban and 8.7% of rural population thought that government measures are sufficient for controlling swine flu. Conclusion: Knowledge regarding swine flu pandemic is good among study participants but role of health care providers is minimal and requires more dedicated effort. Lack of awareness among study population regarding some key focus areas like health promoting habits, vaccination and myths regarding the spread is of serious concern and needs to be addressed by the media, health workers and the Government efforts

  17. Species-specific effects of live roots and shoot litter on soil decomposer abundances do not forecast plant litter-nitrogen uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saj, Stéphane; Mikola, Juha; Ekelund, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    Plant species produce litter of varying quality and differ in the quality and quantity of compounds they release from live roots, which both can induce different decomposer growth in the soil. To test whether differences in decomposer growth can forecast the amount of N species acquire from plant...... microbes and their protozoan and nematode feeders, and to link decomposer growth and plant nutrient uptake, we measured the amount of N taken up by plants from the added litter. We hypothesised that those species that induce the highest growth of microbes, and especially that of microbial feeders......-specific ability of plants to induce decomposer growth....

  18. Decomposing the time-frequency representation of EEG using non-negative matrix and multi-way factorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai; Parnas, Josef

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate how non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) can be used to decompose the inter trial phase coherence (ITPC) of multi-channel EEG to yield a unique decomposition of time-frequency signatures present in various degrees in the recording channels. The NMF optimization is easily...

  19. Decomposing the Triple-Helix synergy into the regional innovation systems of Norway: Firm data and patent networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strand, Ø.; Ivanova, I.; Leydesdorff, L.

    The Triple Helix model of university-industry-government relations allows us to use mutual information among geographical, sectorial, and size distribution of firms to measure synergy at various geographical scales in a nation. In this paper we decompose the synergy in Triple Helix relations and

  20. Understanding E-Learning Adoption among Brazilian Universities: An Application of the Decomposed Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Luiz Miguel Renda; Okazaki, Shintaro

    2013-01-01

    This study sheds light on the organizational dimensions underlying e-learning adoption among Brazilian universities. We propose an organizational e-learning adoption model based on the decomposed theory of planned behavior (TPB). A series of hypotheses are posited with regard to the relationships among the proposed constructs. The model is…

  1. Leaf traits capture the effects of land use changes and climate on litter decomposability of grasslands across Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fortunel, C.; Garnier, E.; Joffre, R.; Kazakou, E.; Quested, H.; Grigulis, K.; Lavorel, S.; Ansquer, P.; Castro, H.; Cruz, P.; Doležal, Jiří; Eriksson, O.; Freitas, H.; Golodets, C.; Jouany, C.; Kigel, J.; Kleyer, M.; Lehsten, V.; Lepš, J.; Meier, T.; Pakeman, R.; Papadimitriou, M.; Papanastasis, V. P.; Quétier, F.; Robson, M.; Sternberg, M.; Theau, J.-P.; Thébault, A.; Zarovali, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 3 (2009), s. 598-611 ISSN 0012-9658 Grant - others:EU(XE) EVK2-2001-000356 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : litter decomposability * disturbance * leaf traits Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.411, year: 2009

  2. Decomposing change in life expectancy : A bouquet of formulas in honor of Nathan Keyfitz's 90th birthday

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaupel, JW; Romo, VC

    We extend Nathan Keyfitz research on continuous change in life expectancy over time by presenting and proving a new formula for decomposing such change. The formula separates change in life expectancy over time into two terms. The first term captures the general effect of reduction in death rates at

  3. Using Mid Infrared Spectroscopy to Predict the Decomposability of Soil Organic Matter Stored in Arctic Tundra Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The large amounts of organic matter stored in permafrost-region soils are preserved in a relatively undecomposed state by the cold and wet environmental conditions limiting decomposer activity. With pending climate changes and the potential for warming of Arctic soils, there is a need to better unde...

  4. Contrasting effects of elevated temperature and invertebrate grazing regulate multispecies interactions between decomposer fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Donald A'Bear

    Full Text Available Predicting the influence of biotic and abiotic factors on species interactions and ecosystem processes is among the primary aims of community ecologists. The composition of saprotrophic fungal communities is a consequence of competitive mycelial interactions, and a major determinant of woodland decomposition and nutrient cycling rates. Elevation of atmospheric temperature is predicted to drive changes in fungal community development. Top-down regulation of mycelial growth is an important determinant of, and moderator of temperature-driven changes to, two-species interaction outcomes. This study explores the interactive effects of a 4 °C temperature increase and soil invertebrate (collembola or woodlice grazing on multispecies interactions between cord-forming basidiomycete fungi emerging from colonised beech (Fagus sylvatica wood blocks. The fungal dominance hierarchy at ambient temperature (16 °C; Phanerochaete velutina > Resinicium bicolor > Hypholoma fasciculare was altered by elevated temperature (20 °C; R. bicolor > P. velutina > H. fasciculare in ungrazed systems. Warming promoted the competitive ability of the fungal species (R. bicolor that was preferentially grazed by all invertebrate species. As a consequence, grazing prevented the effect of temperature on fungal community development and maintained a multispecies assemblage. Decomposition of fungal-colonised wood was stimulated by warming, with implications for increased CO2 efflux from woodland soil. Analogous to aboveground plant communities, increasing complexity of biotic and abiotic interactions appears to be important in buffering climate change effects on soil decomposers.

  5. Cellulose utilization in forest litter and soil: identification of bacterial and fungal decomposers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stursová, Martina; Zifčáková, Lucia; Leigh, Mary Beth; Burgess, Robert; Baldrian, Petr

    2012-06-01

    Organic matter decomposition in the globally widespread coniferous forests has an important role in the carbon cycle, and cellulose decomposition is especially important in this respect because cellulose is the most abundant polysaccharide in plant litter. Cellulose decomposition was 10 times faster in the fungi-dominated litter of Picea abies forest than in the bacteria-dominated soil. In the soil, the added (13)C-labelled cellulose was the main source of microbial respiration and was preferentially accumulated in the fungal biomass and cellulose induced fungal proliferation. In contrast, in the litter, bacterial biomass showed higher labelling after (13)C-cellulose addition and bacterial biomass increased. While 80% of the total community was represented by 104-106 bacterial and 33-59 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs), 80% of the cellulolytic communities of bacteria and fungi were only composed of 8-18 highly abundant OTUs. Both the total and (13)C-labelled communities differed substantially between the litter and soil. Cellulolytic bacteria in the acidic topsoil included Betaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria, whereas these typically found in neutral soils were absent. Most fungal cellulose decomposers belonged to Ascomycota; cellulolytic Basidiomycota were mainly represented by the yeasts Trichosporon and Cryptococcus. Several bacteria and fungi demonstrated here to derive their carbon from cellulose were previously not recognized as cellulolytic. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bacteria associated with decomposing dead wood in a natural temperate forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tláskal, Vojtech; Zrustová, Petra; Vrška, Tomáš; Baldrian, Petr

    2017-11-08

    Dead wood represents an important pool of organic matter in forests and is one of the sources of soil formation. It has been shown to harbour diverse communities of bacteria, but their roles in this habitat are still poorly understood. Here, we describe the bacterial communities in the dead wood of Abies alba, Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica in a temperate natural forest in Central Europe. An analysis of environmental factors showed that decomposing time along with pH and water content were the strongest drivers of community composition. Bacterial biomass positively correlated with N content and increased with decomposition along with the concurrent decrease in the fungal/bacterial biomass ratio. Rhizobiales and Acidobacteriales were abundant bacterial orders throughout the whole decay process, but many bacterial taxa were specific either for young ( decomposition, bacterial genera able to fix N2 and to use simple C1 compounds (e.g. Yersinia and Methylomonas) were frequent, while wood in advanced decay was rich in taxa typical of forest soils (e.g. Bradyrhizobium and Rhodoplanes). Although the bacterial contribution to dead wood turnover remains unclear, the community composition appears to reflect the changing conditions of the substrate and suggests broad metabolic capacities of its members. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Decomposing the space of protein quaternary structures with the interface fragment pair library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhong-Ru; Chen, Jiawen; Zhao, Yilin; Wu, Yinghao

    2015-01-16

    The physical interactions between proteins constitute the basis of protein quaternary structures. They dominate many biological processes in living cells. Deciphering the structural features of interacting proteins is essential to understand their cellular functions. Similar to the space of protein tertiary structures in which discrete patterns are clearly observed on fold or sub-fold motif levels, it has been found that the space of protein quaternary structures is highly degenerate due to the packing of compact secondary structure elements at interfaces. Therefore, it is necessary to further decompose the protein quaternary structural space into a more local representation. Here we constructed an interface fragment pair library from the current structure database of protein complexes. After structural-based clustering, we found that more than 90% of these interface fragment pairs can be represented by a limited number of highly abundant motifs. These motifs were further used to guide complex assembly. A large-scale benchmark test shows that the native-like binding is highly likely in the structural ensemble of modeled protein complexes that were built through the library. Our study therefore presents supportive evidences that the space of protein quaternary structures can be represented by the combination of a small set of secondary-structure-based packing at binding interfaces. Finally, after future improvements such as adding sequence profiles, we expect this new library will be useful to predict structures of unknown protein-protein interactions.

  8. High-throughput nucleotide sequence analysis of diverse bacterial communities in leachates of decomposing pig carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hak Yang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The leachate generated by the decomposition of animal carcass has been implicated as an environmental contaminant surrounding the burial site. High-throughput nucleotide sequencing was conducted to investigate the bacterial communities in leachates from the decomposition of pig carcasses. We acquired 51,230 reads from six different samples (1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 14 week-old carcasses and found that sequences representing the phylum Firmicutes predominated. The diversity of bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences in the leachate was the highest at 6 weeks, in contrast to those at 2 and 14 weeks. The relative abundance of Firmicutes was reduced, while the proportion of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria increased from 3–6 weeks. The representation of phyla was restored after 14 weeks. However, the community structures between the samples taken at 1–2 and 14 weeks differed at the bacterial classification level. The trend in pH was similar to the changes seen in bacterial communities, indicating that the pH of the leachate could be related to the shift in the microbial community. The results indicate that the composition of bacterial communities in leachates of decomposing pig carcasses shifted continuously during the study period and might be influenced by the burial site.

  9. Peroxynitrite does not decompose to singlet oxygen (1ΔgO2) and nitroxyl (NO−)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Glaucia R.; Di Mascio, Paolo; Bonini, Marcelo G.; Augusto, Ohara; Briviba, Karlis; Sies, Helmut; Maurer, Patrick; Röthlisberger, Ursula; Herold, Susanna; Koppenol, Willem H.

    2000-01-01

    According to Khan et al. [Khan, A. U., Kovacic, D., Kolbanovskiy, A., Desai, M., Frenkel, K. & Geacintov, N. E. (2000) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 2984–2989], peroxynitrite (ONOO−) decomposes after protonation to singlet oxygen (1ΔgO2) and singlet oxonitrate (nitroxyl, 1NO−) in high yield. They claimed to have observed nitrosyl hemoglobin from the reaction of NO− with methemoglobin; however, contamination with hydrogen peroxide gave rise to ferryl hemoglobin, the spectrum of which was mistakenly assigned to nitrosyl hemoglobin. We have carried out UV–visible and EPR experiments with methemoglobin and hydrogen peroxide-free peroxynitrite and find that no NO− is formed. With this peroxynitrite preparation, no light emission from singlet oxygen at 1270 nm is observed, nor is singlet oxygen chemically trapped; however, singlet oxygen was trapped when hydrogen peroxide was also present, as previously described [Di Mascio, P., Bechara, E. J. H., Medeiros, M. H. G., Briviba, K. & Sies, H. (1994) FEBS Lett. 355, 287–289]. Quantum mechanical and thermodynamic calculations show that formation of the postulated intermediate, a cyclic form of peroxynitrous acid (trioxazetidine), and the products 1NO− and 1ΔgO2 requires Gibbs energies of ca. +415 kJ⋅mol−1 and ca. +180 kJ⋅mol−1, respectively. Our results show that the results of Khan et al. are best explained by interference from contaminating hydrogen peroxide left from the synthesis of peroxynitrite. PMID:10973492

  10. Annual Production of Decomposer Fungi Associated With Standing-Dead Litter of Typha angustifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsowski, B. M.; Collins, M. D.; Tarry, D.; Francoeur, S. N.; Neely, R. K.; Kuehn, K. A.

    2005-05-01

    Microbial decomposition of standing-dead plant litter is an important process in wetlands dominated by emergent macrophytes. We determined the annual fungal biomass (ergosterol) and production (14C-acetate incorporation) associated with decaying standing litter (leaves and shoots) of the emergent macrophyte Typha angustifolia in small lake littoral wetland in southeastern Michigan. Mean annual detrital mass of standing-dead leaf and shoot litter was 656±238 g/m2 (range 284-873) and 1184±280 g/m2 (range 522-1525), respectively, during study period. Mean annual fungal biomass associated with decaying standing litter was 46 and 15 g/m2 for leaves and shoots, respectively. Annual fungal biomass production associated with leaves and shoots was 168 and 78 g/m2, respectively, with maximum production /m2 occurring during the summer season. These production estimates account for diel periodicity in water availability and the consequent periodicity in microbial activities that are characteristic of the standing litter environment. A partial organic matter budget constructed for this littoral wetland indicates that 9.4% of the annual aboveground production of T. angustifolia went into the production of fungal biomass. These results provide additional evidence indicating considerable carbon flow from emergent plant matter to fungal decomposers while in the standing-decay phase.

  11. Litter decomposing fungi in sal (Shorea robusta forests of central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAM KEERTI VERMA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Soni KK, Pyasi A, Verma RK. 2011. Litter decomposing fungi in sal (Shorea robusta forests of central India. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 136-144. The present study aim on isolation and identification of fungi associated with decomposition of litter of sal forest in central India. Season wise successional changes in litter mycoflora were determined for four main seasons of the year namely, March-May, June-August, September-November and December-February. Fungi like Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and Rhizopus stolonifer were associated with litter decomposition throughout the year, while Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. oxysporum, Curvularia indica, and C. lunata were recorded in three seasons. Some fungi including ectomycorrhiza forming occur only in the rainy season (June-August these are Astraeus hygrometricus, Boletus fallax, Calvatia elata, Colletotrichum dematium, Corticium rolfsii, Mycena roseus, Periconia minutissima, Russula emetica, Scleroderma bovista, S. geaster, S. verrucosum, Scopulariopsis alba and four sterile fungi. Fungi like Alternaria citri, Gleocladium virens, Helicosporium phragmitis and Pithomyces cortarum were rarely recorded only in one season.

  12. Profiler - A Fast and Versatile New Program for Decomposing Galaxy Light Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciambur, Bogdan C.

    2016-12-01

    I introduce Profiler, a user-friendly program designed to analyse the radial surface brightness profiles of galaxies. With an intuitive graphical user interface, Profiler can accurately model galaxies of a broad range of morphological types, with various parametric functions routinely employed in the field (Sérsic, core-Sérsic, exponential, Gaussian, Moffat, and Ferrers). In addition to these, Profiler can employ the broken exponential model for disc truncations or anti-truncations, and two special cases of the edge-on disc model: along the disc's major or minor axis. The convolution of (circular or elliptical) models with the point spread function is performed in 2D, and offers a choice between Gaussian, Moffat or a user-provided profile for the point spread function. Profiler is optimised to work with galaxy light profiles obtained from isophotal measurements, which allow for radial gradients in the geometric parameters of the isophotes, and are thus often better at capturing the total light than 2D image-fitting programs. Additionally, the 1D approach is generally less computationally expensive and more stable. I demonstrate Profiler's features by decomposing three case-study galaxies: the cored elliptical galaxy NGC 3348, the nucleated dwarf Seyfert I galaxy Pox 52, and NGC 2549, a double-barred galaxy with an edge-on, truncated disc.

  13. High-quality AlN grown on a thermally decomposed sapphire surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, S.; Knauer, A.; Brunner, F.; Mogilatenko, A.; Zeimer, U.; Weyers, M.

    2017-12-01

    In this study we show how to realize a self-assembled nano-patterned sapphire surface on 2 inch diameter epi-ready wafer and the subsequent AlN overgrowth both in the same metal-organic vapor phase epitaxial process. For this purpose in-situ annealing in H2 environment was applied prior to AlN growth to thermally decompose the c-plane oriented sapphire surface. By proper AlN overgrowth management misoriented grains that start to grow on non c-plane oriented facets of the roughened sapphire surface could be overcome. We achieved crack-free, atomically flat AlN layers of 3.5 μm thickness. The layers show excellent material quality homogeneously over the whole wafer as proved by the full width at half maximum of X-ray measured ω-rocking curves of 120 arcsec to 160 arcsec for the 002 reflection and 440 arcsec to 550 arcsec for the 302 reflection. The threading dislocation density is 2 ∗ 109 cm-2 which shows that the annealing and overgrowth process investigated in this work leads to cost-efficient AlN templates for UV LED devices.

  14. Adsorption performance of Rh decorated SWCNT upon SF6 decomposed components based on DFT method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Cui, Hao; Dong, Xingchen; Chen, Dachang; Tang, Ju

    2017-10-01

    Transition metal decorated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) applied in the field of gas adsorption and storage have in recent years accepted considerable attentions because of their superior adsorbing performance. In electrical engineering, they are employed as adsorbents to remove the decomposed products of SF6 caused by partial discharge, for guaranteeing the insulation status of gas insulation switchgear (GIS). In this paper, Rh doped SWCNT is introduced to investigate its adsorption properties towards typical gases of SF6 based on density functional theory (DFT) method. Both single and double molecules adsorbing systems were performed to investigate the adsorption ability of proposed material. Results indicate that Rh-CNT, which has strong interaction with defined gas molecules, is a promising material for SF6 decompositions adsorption especially SO2 and SOF2 that exhibit topmost sensitivity to the modified surface. Therefore, we suggest the Rh-CNT to be an adsorbent to be applied in GIS for guaranteeing the operation state of such devices and even to be exploited as gas sensor to evaluate the insulation state of the power system. Our calculations would provide experimentalist with a first insight into physicochemical properties of this material.

  15. Particle Communication and Domain Neighbor Coupling: Scalable Domain Decomposed Algorithms for Monte Carlo Particle Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, M. J.; Brantley, P. S.

    2015-01-20

    In order to run Monte Carlo particle transport calculations on new supercomputers with hundreds of thousands or millions of processors, care must be taken to implement scalable algorithms. This means that the algorithms must continue to perform well as the processor count increases. In this paper, we examine the scalability of:(1) globally resolving the particle locations on the correct processor, (2) deciding that particle streaming communication has finished, and (3) efficiently coupling neighbor domains together with different replication levels. We have run domain decomposed Monte Carlo particle transport on up to 221 = 2,097,152 MPI processes on the IBM BG/Q Sequoia supercomputer and observed scalable results that agree with our theoretical predictions. These calculations were carefully constructed to have the same amount of work on every processor, i.e. the calculation is already load balanced. We also examine load imbalanced calculations where each domain’s replication level is proportional to its particle workload. In this case we show how to efficiently couple together adjacent domains to maintain within workgroup load balance and minimize memory usage.

  16. The Effect of Visual and Etymological Treatments on Learning Decomposable Idioms among EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Golaghaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study endeavors to investigate the impact of visual and etymological treatments on learning idioms among English language learners. Seventy-nine intermediate students at Rooz Academy Language School in Babol were selected from among a total number of 116 learners based on their performances on the Longman complete course for the TOEFL test to fulfill the purpose of the study. The students were then assigned into three experimental groups. Initially, a pre-test of idiomatic expressions including 48 idiomatic items was administered to the participants in all groups. During the instructional period, the groups were taught a group of abnormally decomposable idioms through different treatments, namely, visual, etymological, and a combination of visual-etymological elaboration. At the end of the instructional period, the participants in all groups were given a posttest which was the same as the pretest. The design of this study is quasi-experimental. The data obtained was analyzed using one-way ANOVA analysis. The results of data analysis revealed that the etymological treatment was more effective than visual aids on learning idioms among intermediate English language learners. However, the visual-etymological treatment was the most effective one. The findings of this study have implications for EFL teachers, students, and materials developers.

  17. A decomposable silica-based antibacterial coating for percutaneous titanium implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Wu, Guofeng; Liu, Xiangwei; Sun, Guanyang; Li, Dehua; Wei, Hongbo

    2017-01-01

    Although percutaneous titanium implants have become one of the best choices as retainers in the facial defects, peri-implantitis still occurs at a significant rate. This unwanted complication occurs due to adhesion of bacteria and subsequent biofilm formation. To solve this problem, we have developed a novel antibiotic nanodelivery system based on self-decomposable silica nanoparticles. In this study, silica-gentamycin (SG) nanoparticles were successfully fabricated using an innovative one-pot solution. The nanoparticles were incorporated within a gelatin matrix and cross-linked on microarc-oxidized titanium. To characterize the SG nanoparticles, their particle size, zeta potential, surface morphology, in vitro drug release, and decomposition process were sequentially evaluated. The antibacterial properties against the gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, including bacterial viability, antibacterial rate, and bacteria morphology, were analyzed using SG-loaded titanium specimens. Any possible influence of released gentamycin on the viability of human fibroblasts, which are the main component of soft tissues, was investigated. SG nanoparticles from the antibacterial titanium coating continuously released gentamycin and inhibited S. aureus growth. In vitro investigation showed that the obtained nanodelivery system has good biocompatibility. Therefore, this design can be further investigated as a method to prevent infection around percutaneous implants.

  18. Utility of forensic detection of rabies virus in decomposed exhumed dog carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Markotter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This report describes four suspected rabies cases in domestic dogs that were involved inhuman exposures. In all these cases, the animals were buried for substantial times beforerabies testing was performed. Animal rabies is endemic in South Africa and domestic dogsare the main vector for transmission to humans. Diagnosis of rabies in humans is complicated,and diagnosis in the animal vector can provide circumstantial evidence to support clinicaldiagnosis of rabies in humans. The gold standard diagnostic method, fluorescent antibodytest (FAT, only delivers reliable results when performed on fresh brain material and thereforedecomposed samples are rarely submitted for diagnostic testing. Severely decomposed brainmaterial was tested for the presence of rabies virus genomic material using a quantitativereal-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (q-real-time RT-PCR assaywhen conventional molecular methods were unsuccessful. This may be a useful tool in theinvestigation of cases where the opportunity to sample the suspected animals post mortem wasforfeited and which would not be possible with conventional testing methodologies becauseof the decomposition of the material.

  19. 76 FR 70037 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products From Liechtenstein and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Rhodes, Regionalization Evaluation Services, Import, Sanitary Trade Issues Team, National Center for... and Liechtenstein indicated those countries rely on passive surveillance and a small amount of serological surveillance in domestic swine and wild boar to detect an outbreak. One commenter urged APHIS to...

  20. Steroids in a typical swine farm and their release into the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhou, Li-Jun; Zhang, Rui-Quan; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Lai, Hua-Jie

    2012-08-01

    The occurrence and fate of fourteen androgens, four estrogens, five glucocorticoids and five progestagens were investigated by rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS) in a typical swine farm with lagoon waste disposal systems, in south China. Nineteen, 22 and 8 of 28 steroids were detected at concentrations ranging from 2.2 ± 0.1 ng/g (androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione) to 14,400 ± 394 ng/g (progesterone) in the feces samples, from 6.1 ± 2.3 ng/L (17β-boldenone) to 10,800 ± 3190 ng/L (norgestrel) in the flush water samples, and from 5.0 ± 0.2 ng/g (progesterone) to 225 ± 79.4 ng/g (5α-dihydrotestosterone) in the suspended particles, respectively. By comparing the types and concentrations of steroids in different treatment stages of the lagoon systems, it demonstrated that the lagoon systems used in the farm were not effective method to reduce various steroids in wastewater. Among the thirteen synthetic steroids detected in the swine feces and flush water, only seven (methyl testosterone, 17α-trenbolone, 17β-trenbolone, 17α-ethynyl estradiol, dexamethasone, medroxyprogesterone, and norgestrel) were regarded as the parent/metabolite compounds of animal exogenous usage. According to the estimated masses of steroids from feces and flush water, the excretion of steroids for sows were mainly from feces, but for piglets or barrows, most excreted steroids were through flush water rather than feces. The total daily excreted masses of androgens, estrogens, glucocortcoids and progestagens in the sow feces were in the range of 90.7-6310 μg/d, which were up to a thousand fold of those in the feces of other growth stages indicating that the proportion of sow number in the swine farm directly influenced the total excretion mass of steroids. In addition, two natural steroids 4-androstene-3,17-dione and progesterone were worth notice due to their relatively high concentrations per sow excretion, 277 μg/d and 6380

  1. Using SF6 Decomposed Component Analysis for the Diagnosis of Partial Discharge Severity Initiated by Free Metal Particle Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Tang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition characteristics of a SF6 gas-insulated medium were used to diagnose the partial discharge (PD severity in DC gas-insulated equipment (DC-GIE. First, the PD characteristics of the whole process were studied from the initial PD to the breakdown initiated by a free metal particle defect. The average discharge magnitude in a second was used to characterize the PD severity and the PD was divided into three levels: mild PD, medium PD, and dangerous PD. Second, two kinds of voltage in each of the above PD levels were selected for the decomposition experiments of SF6. Results show that the negative DC-PD in these six experiments decomposes the SF6 gas and generates five stable decomposed components, namely, CF4, CO2, SO2F2, SOF2, and SO2. The concentrations and concentration ratios of the SF6 decomposed components can be associated with the PD severity. A minimum-redundancy-maximum-relevance (mRMR-based feature selection algorithm was used to sort the concentrations and concentration ratios of the SF6 decomposed components. Back propagation neural network (BPNN and support vector machine (SVM algorithms were used to diagnose the PD severity. The use of C(CO2/CT1, C(CF4/C(SO2, C(CO2/C(SOF2, and C(CF4/C(CO2 shows good performance in diagnosing PD severity. This finding serves as a foundation in using the SF6 decomposed component analysis (DCA method to diagnose the insulation faults in DC-GIE and assess its insulation status.

  2. Ventricular Effective Refraction Period and Ventricular Repolarization Analysis in Experimental Tachycardiomyopathy in Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noszczyk-Nowak, Agnieszka; Pasławska, Urszula; Gajek, Jacek; Janiszewski, Adrian; Pasławski, Robert; Zyśko, Dorota; Nicpoń, Józef

    2016-01-01

    Swine are recognized animal models of human cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known on the CHF-associated changes in the electrophysiological ventricular parameters of humans and animals. The aim of this study was to analyze changes in the durations of ventricular effective refraction period (VERP), QT and QTc intervals of pigs with chronic tachycardia-induced tachycardiomyopathy (TIC). The study was comprised of 28 adult pigs (8 females and 20 males) of the Polish Large White breed. A one-chamber pacemaker was implanted in each of the 28 pigs. Electrocardiographic, echocardiographic and electrophysiological studies were carried out prior to the pacemaker implantation and at subsequent 4-week intervals. All electrocardiographic, echocardiographic and short electrophysiological study measurements in all swine were done under general anesthesia (propofol) after premedication with midazolam, medetomidine, and ketamine. No significant changes in the duration of QT interval and corrected QT interval (QTc) were observed during consecutive weeks of the experiment. The duration of the QTc interval of female pigs was shown to be significantly longer than that of the males throughout the whole study period. Beginning from the 12th week of rapid ventricular pacing, a significant increase in duration of VERP was observed in both male and female pigs. Males and females did not differ significantly in terms of VERP duration determined throughout the whole study period. Ventricular pacing, stimulation with 2 and 3 premature impulses at progressively shorter coupling intervals and an imposed rhythm of 130 bpm or 150 bpm induced transient ventricular tachycardia in one female pig and four male pigs. One episode of permanent ventricular tachycardia was observed. The number of induced arrhythmias increased proportionally to the severity of heart failure and duration of the experiment. However, relatively aggressive protocols of stimulation were required in order to induce

  3. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Brachyspira Species Isolated from Swine Herds in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Mirajkar, Nandita S.; Davies, Peter R.; Gebhart, Connie J.

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of swine dysentery, caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and the recently discovered “Brachyspira hampsonii,” have reoccurred in North American swine herds since the late 2000s. Additionally, multiple Brachyspira species have been increasingly isolated by North American diagnostic laboratories. In Europe, the reliance on antimicrobial therapy for control of swine dysentery has been followed by reports of antimicrobial resistance over time. The objectives of our study were to determi...

  4. [Antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in swine in Costa Rica: epidemiologic importance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A L; Chinchilla, M; Reyes, L

    1991-01-01

    On a three hundred swine sera sample collected from a Municipal Slaughter house and a Research Laboratory at the Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería a 26% of positivity against T. gondii was found using the carbon immunoassay. A relationship between the age and swine race are made. The epidemiological significance of this findings are discussed focused mainly on the role of swine meat as a source of human infection in Costa Rica.

  5. Decomposing variation in dairy profitability: the impact of output, inputs, prices, labour and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P

    2011-08-01

    The UK dairy sector has undergone considerable structural change in recent years, with a decrease in the number of producers accompanied by an increased average herd size and increased concentrate use and milk yields. One of the key drivers to producers remaining in the industry is the profitability of their herds. The current paper adopts a holistic approach to decomposing the variation in dairy profitability through an analysis of net margin data explained by physical input-output measures, milk price variation, labour utilization and managerial behaviours and characteristics. Data are drawn from the Farm Business Survey (FBS) for England in 2007/08 for 228 dairy enterprises. Average yields are 7100 litres/cow/yr, from a herd size of 110 cows that use 0·56 forage ha/cow/yr and 43·2 labour h/cow/yr. An average milk price of 22·57 pence per litre (ppl) produced milk output of £1602/cow/yr, which after accounting for calf sales, herd replacements and quota leasing costs, gave an average dairy output of £1516/cow/yr. After total costs of £1464/cow/yr this left an economic return of £52/cow/yr (0·73 ppl) net margin profit. There is wide variation in performance, with the most profitable (as measured by net margin per cow) quartile of producers achieving 2000 litres/cow/yr more than the least profitable quartile, returning a net margin of £335/cow/yr compared to a loss of £361/cow/yr for the least profitable. The most profitable producers operate larger, higher yielding herds and achieve a greater milk price for their output. In addition, a significantly greater number of the most profitable producers undertake financial benchmarking within their businesses and operate specialist dairy farms. When examining the full data set, the most profitable enterprises included significantly greater numbers of organic producers. The most profitable tend to have a greater reliance on independent technical advice, but this finding is not statistically significant

  6. Decomposing variation in dairy profitability: the impact of output, inputs, prices, labour and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    WILSON, P.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The UK dairy sector has undergone considerable structural change in recent years, with a decrease in the number of producers accompanied by an increased average herd size and increased concentrate use and milk yields. One of the key drivers to producers remaining in the industry is the profitability of their herds. The current paper adopts a holistic approach to decomposing the variation in dairy profitability through an analysis of net margin data explained by physical input–output measures, milk price variation, labour utilization and managerial behaviours and characteristics. Data are drawn from the Farm Business Survey (FBS) for England in 2007/08 for 228 dairy enterprises. Average yields are 7100 litres/cow/yr, from a herd size of 110 cows that use 0·56 forage ha/cow/yr and 43·2 labour h/cow/yr. An average milk price of 22·57 pence per litre (ppl) produced milk output of £1602/cow/yr, which after accounting for calf sales, herd replacements and quota leasing costs, gave an average dairy output of £1516/cow/yr. After total costs of £1464/cow/yr this left an economic return of £52/cow/yr (0·73 ppl) net margin profit. There is wide variation in performance, with the most profitable (as measured by net margin per cow) quartile of producers achieving 2000 litres/cow/yr more than the least profitable quartile, returning a net margin of £335/cow/yr compared to a loss of £361/cow/yr for the least profitable. The most profitable producers operate larger, higher yielding herds and achieve a greater milk price for their output. In addition, a significantly greater number of the most profitable producers undertake financial benchmarking within their businesses and operate specialist dairy farms. When examining the full data set, the most profitable enterprises included significantly greater numbers of organic producers. The most profitable tend to have a greater reliance on independent technical advice, but this finding is not statistically significant

  7. Prohibition of antibiotic growth promoters has affected the genomic profiles of Lactobacillus salivarius inhabiting the swine intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Yeong; Han, Geon Goo; Lee, Ho-Bin; Lee, Sang-Mok; Kang, Sang-Kee; Jin, Gwi-Deuk; Park, Jongbin; Chae, Byung Jo; Choi, Yo Han; Kim, Eun Bae; Choi, Yun-Jaie

    2017-01-01

    After the introduction of a ban on the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) for livestock, the feeding environment, including the composition of animal intestinal microbiota, has changed rapidly. We hypothesized that the microbial genomes have also been affected by this legal prohibition, and investigated an important member of the swine gut microbiota, Lactobacillus salivarius, with a pan-genomic approach. Here, we isolated 21 L. salivarius strains composed of 6 strains isolated before the AGP prohibition (SBPs) and 15 strains isolated after the AGP prohibition (SAPs) at an interval of a decade, and the draft genomes were generated de novo. Several genomic differences between SBPs and SAPs were identified, although the number and function of antibiotic resistance genes were not different. SBPs showed larger genome size and a higher number of orthologs, as well as lower genetic diversity, than SAPs. SBPs had genes associated with the utilization of L-rhamnose and D-tagatose for energy production. Because these sugars are also used in exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis, we tried to identify differences in biofilm formation-associated genes. The genes for the production of EPSs and extracellular proteins were different in terms of amino acid sequences. Indeed, SAPs formed dense biofilm and survived better than SBPs in the swine intestinal environment. These results suggest that SAPs have evolved and adapted to protect themselves from new selection pressure of the swine intestinal microenvironment by forming dense biofilms, adopting a distinct antibiotic resistance strategy. This finding is particularly important to understand the evolutionary changes in host-microbe interaction and provide detailed insight for the development of effective probiotics for livestock.

  8. Decomposing metaphor processing at the cognitive and neural level through functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambini, Valentina; Gentili, Claudio; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Bertinetto, Pier Marco; Pietrini, Pietro

    2011-10-10

    Prior neuroimaging studies on metaphor comprehension have tended to focus on the role of the right hemisphere, without reaching consensus and leaving aside the functional architecture of this process. The present work aimed to break down metaphor comprehension into its functional components. The study rationale is two-fold: on the one hand, the large-scale network model as emerging in cognitive neuroscience led us to a consideration of metaphor as supported by a distributed and bilateral network; on the other hand, we based on the accounts of figurative language put forward in pragmatics and cognitive science to postulate a decomposition of such a network into multiple sub-systems. During scanning, participants implicitly processed metaphorical (familiar and unfamiliar) and non-metaphorical passages, while being explicitly involved in an adjective matching task to be performed after reading the target passages. Several regions showed greater activity to metaphors as compared to non-metaphors, including left and right inferior frontal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, left angular gyrus, and anterior cingulate. This pattern of activations, markedly bilateral, can be decomposed into circumscribed functional sub-systems mediating different aspects of metaphor resolution, as foreseen in the pragmatic and cognitive literature: (a) the conceptual/pragmatic machinery in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and in the left angular gyrus, which supports the integration of linguistic material and world knowledge in context; (b) the attentional component in the anterior cingulate and prefrontal areas, which is set to monitor and filter for the relevant aspects of context and for the appropriate meanings; (c) the Theory of Mind system along the right superior temporal sulcus, which deals with the recognition of speakers' communicative intentions and is more extensively activated by unfamiliar metaphors. The results have several implications for the field of neuropragmatics

  9. Ecological Dynamics of Two Distinct Viruses Infecting Marine Eukaryotic Decomposer Thraustochytrids (Labyrinthulomycetes, Stramenopiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitake Takao

    Full Text Available Thraustochytrids are cosmopolitan osmotrophic or heterotrophic microorganisms that are considered as important decomposers in coastal ecosystems. However, because of a lack of estimation method for each genus or systematic group of them, relatively little is known about their ecology in situ. Previously, we reported two distinct types of virus infecting thraustochytrids (AuRNAV: reported as SssRNAV, and SmDNAV suggesting they have wide distributions in the host-virus systems of coastal environments. Here we conducted a field survey from 2004 through 2005 to show the fluctuation pattern of thraustochytrids and their viruses in Hiroshima Bay, Japan. During the field survey, we monitored the dynamics of the two types of thraustochytrid-infecting virus: small viruses causing lysis of Aurantiochytrium sp. NIBH N1-27 (identified as AuRNAV and the large viruses of Sicyoidochytrium minutum NBRC 102975 (similar to SmDNAV in physiology and morphology. Fluctuation patterns of the two distinct types of virus were different from each other. This may reflect the difference in the preference of organic substrates; i.e., it may be likely the host of AuRNAV (Aurantiochytrium sp. increases utilizing algal dead bodies or feeble cells as the virus shows a large increase in abundance following raphidophyte blooms; whereas, the trophic nutrient supply for S. minutum may primarily depend on other constantly-supplied organic compounds because it did not show any significant change in abundance throughout the survey. Further study concerning the population composition of thraustochytrids and their viruses may demonstrate the microbial ecology (especially concerning the detrital food web of marine environments.

  10. Sensitivity of laccase activity to the fungicide tebuconazole in decomposing litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artigas, J; Rossi, F; Gerphagnon, M; Mallet, C

    2017-04-15

    The present study investigates the sensitivity of laccase activity to the fungicide tebuconazole (TBZ) in order to seek for new functional toxicity descriptors in aquatic microbial communities associated to decomposing litter. With this aim, we analyzed the sensitivity of laccase from the different microbial components (fungi and bacteria growing separately and in co-existence), as well as that of their corresponding enzyme fractions (cell bound and diffusible), forming microbial communities in Alnus glutinosa leaves. Results show that fungi are pivotal for laccase activity in leaves and that their activity is repressed when they co-exist with bacteria. The sensitivity of laccase activity to the TBZ was only detectable in leaves colonized by fungi separately (Alatospora acuminata populations), but absent in those colonized by bacteria separately and/or mixed fungi plus bacteria. Specifically, the increase of TBZ concentration enhances laccase activity in Alatospora acuminata populations but decreases ergosterol concentration as well as the amount of 18S RNA gene copies. This activity response suggests a detoxification mechanism employed by the fungus in order to reduce TBZ toxicity. Besides, enzyme fractioning showed that laccase activity in the cell bound fraction (76% of the total activity) was sensitive to the fungicide, but not that in the diffusible fraction (24% of total activity). Hence, TBZ would influence laccase activity in the presence of fungal cells but not in enzymes already synthesized in the extracellular space. The present study highlights the importance of the biological complexity level (i. e. population, community, ecosystem) when seeking for appropriate functional ecotoxicity descriptors in aquatic microbial communities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ecological Dynamics of Two Distinct Viruses Infecting Marine Eukaryotic Decomposer Thraustochytrids (Labyrinthulomycetes, Stramenopiles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Yoshitake; Tomaru, Yuji; Nagasaki, Keizo; Honda, Daiske

    2015-01-01

    Thraustochytrids are cosmopolitan osmotrophic or heterotrophic microorganisms that are considered as important decomposers in coastal ecosystems. However, because of a lack of estimation method for each genus or systematic group of them, relatively little is known about their ecology in situ. Previously, we reported two distinct types of virus infecting thraustochytrids (AuRNAV: reported as SssRNAV, and SmDNAV) suggesting they have wide distributions in the host-virus systems of coastal environments. Here we conducted a field survey from 2004 through 2005 to show the fluctuation pattern of thraustochytrids and their viruses in Hiroshima Bay, Japan. During the field survey, we monitored the dynamics of the two types of thraustochytrid-infecting virus: small viruses causing lysis of Aurantiochytrium sp. NIBH N1-27 (identified as AuRNAV) and the large viruses of Sicyoidochytrium minutum NBRC 102975 (similar to SmDNAV in physiology and morphology). Fluctuation patterns of the two distinct types of virus were different from each other. This may reflect the difference in the preference of organic substrates; i.e., it may be likely the host of AuRNAV (Aurantiochytrium sp.) increases utilizing algal dead bodies or feeble cells as the virus shows a large increase in abundance following raphidophyte blooms; whereas, the trophic nutrient supply for S. minutum may primarily depend on other constantly-supplied organic compounds because it did not show any significant change in abundance throughout the survey. Further study concerning the population composition of thraustochytrids and their viruses may demonstrate the microbial ecology (especially concerning the detrital food web) of marine environments.

  12. Decomposing the land-use specific response of plant functional traits along environmental gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Veronika; Kohler, Marina; Niedrist, Georg; Bahn, Michael; Tappeiner, Ulrike; Frenck, Georg

    2017-12-01

    Environmental conditions affect functional trait variability within communities and thus shape ecosystem properties. With the ability of plants to adapt morphologically and physiologically to changing abiotic conditions, gradient analysis was shown to be a suitable tool to identify the drivers which determine trait values. Apart from direct environmental drivers and indirect gradients such as elevation, also anthropogenic effects (e.g. irrigation, grazing) can influence trait variability. Our aim was to assess the interactive effects of different environmental drivers on major plant traits and to investigate how these are modulated within two different land-use types (hay meadow vs. pasture). An elevational gradient spanning 1000m was decomposed into its underlying direct components (temperature, water input, length of growing season) for the investigation of gradual responses of five prominent functional traits (aboveground dry weight (AGDW), vegetative height (VegHt), specific leaf area (SLA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), leaf nitrogen concentration (LNC)) for key species from two functional groups (grasses, forbs) in the two land-use/management regimes. The present study revealed that the detailed analysis of single direct gradients provides substantial additional information on trait response which remains hidden or is even reversed if only indirect gradients such as elevation are analysed. However, trait response to the combination of the three direct gradients aligned surprisingly well with trait response to the indirect gradient underpinning the adequate representation of temperature, water input and length of growing season by elevation. The response of traits significantly depended on the management regime and corresponding intensity which was shown to play an overriding role and constrained and attenuated response ranges of traits to climatic gradients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional and Structural Succession of Soil Microbial Communities below Decomposing Human Cadavers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L Cobaugh

    Full Text Available The ecological succession of microbes during cadaver decomposition has garnered interest in both basic and applied research contexts (e.g. community assembly and dynamics; forensic indicator of time since death. Yet current understanding of microbial ecology during decomposition is almost entirely based on plant litter. We know very little about microbes recycling carcass-derived organic matter despite the unique decomposition processes. Our objective was to quantify the taxonomic and functional succession of microbial populations in soils below decomposing cadavers, testing the hypotheses that a periods of increased activity during decomposition are associated with particular taxa; and b human-associated taxa are introduced to soils, but do not persist outside their host. We collected soils from beneath four cadavers throughout decomposition, and analyzed soil chemistry, microbial activity and bacterial community structure. As expected, decomposition resulted in pulses of soil C and nutrients (particularly ammonia and stimulated microbial activity. There was no change in total bacterial abundances, however we observed distinct changes in both function and community composition. During active decay (7 - 12 days postmortem, respiration and biomass production rates were high: the community was dominated by Proteobacteria (increased from 15.0 to 26.1% relative abundance and Firmicutes (increased from 1.0 to 29.0%, with reduced Acidobacteria abundances (decreased from 30.4 to 9.8%. Once decay rates slowed (10 - 23 d postmortem, respiration was elevated, but biomass production rates dropped dramatically; this community with low growth efficiency was dominated by Firmicutes (increased to 50.9% and other anaerobic taxa. Human-associated bacteria, including the obligately anaerobic Bacteroides, were detected at high concentrations in soil throughout decomposition, up to 198 d postmortem. Our results revealed the pattern of functional and compositional

  14. Treatment of post harvest residues with cellulose decomposing preparations I. Effect on grain yield from wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Milev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. During 2010 – 2013 an experiment was carried out in the trial field of Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute with the aim to find out what is the effect of stubble cellulose decomposition products (microbial-based or other on the grain yield from winter wheat. The crop was grown in a stationary field trial in crop rotation with three spring crops – bean, maize and sunflower. Three cellulose decomposition products, Bactofil С, Nutri-Life Accelerate (NLA and Amalgerol premium were tested against the background of plots without mineral fertilizers treatment. The post harvest residue was chopped with the equipment of the harvester combine to suitable pieces and evenly spread on the soil surface. The above cellulose decomposition products were applied by sprinkling the area of the stubble in autumn, one month before sowing of wheat. The norm of the working solution was 400 l/ha, and the doses of the respective products were according to the recommendations of the manufacturers. Immediately after sprinkling the post harvest residue from the previous crops, it was incorporated in soil using disking soil tillage machines. On the basis of the averaged 4-year results, the following conclusions were drawn: the cellulose decomposition products Bactopfil C and NLA had well expressed positive effect on grain yield (relatively expressed, the increase varied from 7.0 to 18.0%; the structural components of yield and 1000 grain weight; the conditions of application of the cellulose decomposition products; the initial soil moisture and the moisture of the plant residues themselves in particular, were very important for the efficiency of the preparations; the nature of the tested cellulose decomposers makes them suitable for organic agriculture where the short-term immobilization of nutrients (especially the nitrogen-containing ones is a common and typical process.

  15. EVIDENCE OF PSEUDORABIES VIRUS SHEDDING IN FERAL SWINE ( SUS SCROFA) POPULATIONS OF FLORIDA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Felipe A; Sayler, Katherine A; Bounds, Courtney; Milleson, Michael P; Carr, Amanda N; Wisely, Samantha M

    2018-01-01

    :  Feral swine ( Sus scrofa) are a pathogen reservoir for pseudorabies virus (PrV). The virus can be fatal to wildlife and contributes to economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. National surveillance efforts in the US use serology to detect PrV-specific antibodies in feral swine populations, but PrV exposure is not a direct indicator of pathogen transmission among conspecifics or to non-suid wildlife species. We measured antibody production and the presence of PrV DNA in four tissue types from feral swine populations of Florida, US. We sampled blood, nasal, oral, and genital swabs from 551 individuals at 39 sites during 2014-16. Of the animals tested for antibody production, 224 of 436 (51%) feral swine were antibody positive while 38 of 549 feral swine (7%) tested for viral shedding were quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-positive for PrV. The detection of PrV DNA across all the collected sample types (blood, nasal, oral, and genital [vaginal] swabs) suggested viral shedding via direct (oronasal or venereal), and potentially indirect (through carcass consumption), routes of transmission among infected and susceptible animals. Fourteen of 212 seronegative feral swine were qPCR-positive, indicating 7% false negatives in the serologic assay. Our findings suggest that serology may underestimate the actual infection risk posed by feral swine to other species and that feral swine populations in Florida are capable of shedding the virus through multiple routes.

  16. Prevention of gastric ulcers in swine by feeding of sodium polyacrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, M; Takemoto, T; Sakamoto, K; Asano, T; Uchimura, M; Masuda, I

    1981-06-01

    Five experiments involving 169 swine were conducted to determine the effects of 0.1% to 0.5% sodium polyacrylate (PANa) in rations of growing swine on weight gain, feed conversion, and occurrence of esophagogastric lesions. Seemingly, PANa prevented swine from developing esophagogastric ulcers. Esophagogastric ulcers or erosions occurred in 42.9% of the swine fed a PANa-free diet, but occurred in only 9.8% of those fed a diet containing PANa. Addition of PANa (0.1% to 0.5%) to the growing ration increased weight gain and feed conversion. The anti-ulcer effect of PANa was discussed.

  17. Methane digester effluent from swine excreta as a nutrient and water source for growing and finishing swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veum, T L; Saenz, C A; Iannotti, E L

    2015-01-01

    The experimental objective was to evaluate swine methane digester effluent (SMDE) as a water and nutrient source for swine. The mesophilic methane digester was loaded daily with manure from finishing swine fed a corn-soybean meal diet. Dry diet was mixed with SMDE (3.7% DM) and fed twice daily in troughs. Tap water was provided and consumption measured. Barrows were group fed (3 pigs/pen) and adapted to SMDE by increasing SMDE for 7 d, with the full amount fed from d 8 to the end of the feeding phase (d 21, 14, 23, or 37 for Exp. 1 to 4, respectively). Blood samples were collected on d 0, 10, 21, and 31 to determine plasma concentrations of glucose and plasma urea N (PUN). Barrows were placed in individual metabolism cages for a 5-d acclimation and a 5-d fecal and urine collection to determine apparent N and energy utilization. For Exp. 1, 18 pigs averaging 75 kg BW were allotted to diets with 0, 48.6, or 63.7% SMDE, as-fed basis. For Exp. 2 and 3, 12 pigs/experiment averaged 117 and 70 kg, respectively, and were allotted to diets with 0 or 63.7% SMDE, as-fed basis. At the end of Exp. 2 and 3, pigs were sacrificed and liver samples were collected to determine urea cycle enzyme activity, and loin was saved for taste panel evaluation. For Exp. 4, pigs averaged 40 kg and were allotted to diets with 0 or 57.5% SMDE, as-fed basis. The ADFI, ADG, and G:F of finishing swine (Exp. 1 to 3) were not reduced by feeding diets containing 63.7% SMDE (as-fed basis), whereas ADG and G:F of growing swine (Exp. 4) were reduced (P < 0.01) by feeding a diet containing 57.5% SMDE. Pigs fed diets containing SMDE consumed 31 to 56% less (P < 0.05) water and had greater (P < 0.01) PUN concentrations than pigs fed control diets. Pigs fed diets containing SMDE excreted more (g, P < 0.05) fecal N and absorbed and retained less N (%; P < 0.01) and energy (DE and ME) than pigs fed control diets. Treatment had no effect on urea cycle enzyme activity. In conclusion, finishing swine adapted to

  18. Swine trichinellosis in slaughterhouses of the metropolitan area of Toluca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monroy H.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the prevalence of Trichinella spiralis infections in abattoirs of the metropolitan area of Toluca where pigs from commercial farms as well as backyard pigs are slaughtered, 539 swine diaphragm tissue samples were collected and examined by trichinoscopy and artificial digestion. Serum samples from the same animals were analyzed by ELISA using somatic and excretory/secretory antigens, and by Western blot analysis. T. spiralis muscle larvae were not found by trichinoscopy or artificial digestion. However, specific antibodies were detected by ELISA and confirmed by Western blotting in 12.4 % of the serum samples examined. Analysis of risk factors showed no association of seropositive results with sex. However, significant higher risk was observed in swine seven to 12 months old and in backyard pigs, compared with pigs from commercial farms.

  19. [Alkaline phosphatase activity and properties in the organs of swine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, S

    1980-01-01

    The activity and the physico-chemical properties of alkaline phosphatase in the liver, lung, spleen, kidney, intestine, bone and placenta of a total of 24 clinically healthy swine was investigated. Liver, spleen, kidney, lung, bone and placental alkaline phosphatase proved to be thermostable, not sensitive to 1-phenylalanine, but sensitive to 1-arginine, 1-homoarginine and imidazol. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase is thermostable, sensitive to 1-phenylalanine, 1-arginine, 1-homoarginine and imidazol resistant. Urea inhibits more bone alkaline phosphatase and less alkaline phosphatase of the remaining organs. Following electrophoresis on agarose gel alkaline phosphatase of swine liver and kidney is divided into two fractions, while alkaline phosphatase of the remaining organs has only one fraction. Liver alkaline phosphatase is fastest, while kidney alkaline phosphatase is the slowest.

  20. Zeolite and swine inoculum effect on poultry manure biomethanation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Fotidis, Ioannis; Zaganas, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate that inhibits methanogenesis, causing severe problems to the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, the effect of different natural zeolite concentrations on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry waste inoculated with well-digested swine...... manure was investigated. A significant increase in methane production was observed in treatments where zeolite was added, compared to the treatment without zeolite.Methane production in the treatment with 10 g dm-3 of natural zeolite was found to be 109.75% higher compared to the treatment without...... zeolite addition. The results appear to be influenced by the addition of zeolite, which reduces ammonia toxicity in anaerobic digestion and by the ammonia-tolerant swine inoculum....

  1. The Bordetella Bps polysaccharide is required for biofilm formation and persistence in the lower respiratory tract of swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica is pervasive in swine populations and plays multiple roles in respiratory disease. Additionally, B. bronchiseptica is capable of establishing long-term or chronic infections in swine. Bacterial biofilms are increasingly recognized as important contributors to chronic bacter...

  2. Screening of cellular proteins that interact with the classical swine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-27

    Jan 27, 2014 ... to screen for CSFV NS5A interactive proteins in the cDNA library of the swine umbilical vein endothelial cell. (SUVEC). Alignment with the NCBI database revealed 16 interactive proteins: DDX5, PSMC3, NAV1, PHF5A,. GNB2L1, CSDE1, HSPA8, BRMS1, PPP2R3C, AIP, TMED10, POLR1C, TMEM70, ...

  3. Antimicrobial use in Chinese swine and broiler poultry production

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnasamy, Vikram; Otte, Joachim; Silbergeld, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial use for growth promotion in food animal production is now widespread. A major concern is the rise of antimicrobial resistance and the subsequent impact on human health. The antimicrobials of concern are used in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) which are responsible for almost all meat production including swine and poultry in the US. With global meat consumption rising, the CAFO model has been adopted elsewhere to meet this demand. One such country where...

  4. A Laparoscopic Swine Model of Noncompressible Torso Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    2014;77: S77 S82. Copyright * 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins) KEY WORDS: Noncompressible torso hemorrhage; splenectomy; swine. Hemorrhage remains...Base San Antonio-Lackland, San Antonio, Texas; email: james.ross.43@us.af.mil. DOI: 10.1097/TA.0000000000000385 Copyright © 2014 Lippincott Williams...laparoscopic liver injury on animal physiology, biochemistry , and mortality. The study con- sisted of two groups as follows: swinewith spleen (spleen

  5. Swine flu panic shows how little we really care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckford-Ball, Jason

    I have to confess that when the first reports of swine flu started circulating, I did have a strong sense of déjà vu - after all, we've been here before. Back in 2003, the world was under threat from another potentially lethal virus that began in an economically deprived part of the world among animal stocks and briefly (according to some anyway) threatened to turn into a global pandemic--Avian flu.

  6. Investigations of eugenol efficacy in treatment of mange in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jezdimirović Milanka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The acaricide efficacy, tolerability and safety of the active ingredient of the etheric oil of cloves eugenol was investigated in the treatment of mange in swine, and the obtained results were compared with the results of acaricide efficacy of the synthetic acaricide permethrin, which has been in use for quite a some time. A single application of permethrin in the form of a 1% solution showed maximum efficacy of 62.5%, and after three applications of 75.0% in the treatment of sarcoptes in swine mange. A single application of eugenol in the form of a 10% solution had maximum efficacy of 75.0%, and applied three times an efficacy of 100% in curbing Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis. A single administration of 20% eugenol solution showed maximum efficacy of 87.5%, and applied three times it was 100% efficient in curbing Sarcoptes scabeiei var. suis. The best efficacy in the treatment of sarcoptes mange in swine was achieved with three applications of eugenol in a concentration of 20%. This maximum effect (100% was obtained already after the second treatment. Eugenol in a concentration of 10% was safe for local application on skin because it does not cause any undesired reactions, while a 20% concentration caused irritation followed by a passing redness and disquiet in a smaller number of treated animals. The results of comparative investigations of acaricide efficacy of permethrin and eugenol demonstrate that there is resistence in Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis to permethrin. The biocide eugenol can safely be recommended for the treatment of sarcoptes mange in swine.

  7. Eurotium spp. and echinulin in feed refused by swine.

    OpenAIRE

    Vesonder, R F; Lambert, R; Wicklow, D T; Biehl, M L

    1988-01-01

    Feed refused by swine contained a high-propagule density of Eurotium chevalieri Mangin (anamorph, Aspergillus chevalieri (Mangin) Thom and Church), Eurotium amstelodami Mangin (anamorph, Aspergillus amstelodami (Mangin Thom and Church), and Aspergillus candidus Link. Echinulin (8 micrograms/g of feed) was detected in the feed. Isolates of E. chevalieri and E. amstelodami but not A. candidus produced echinulin on rice or cracked corn. Mice refused to drink water containing 90 micrograms of ech...

  8. Distribution and enzymatic activity of heterotrophic bacteria decomposing selected macromolecular compounds in a Baltic Sea sandy beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgórska, B.; Mudryk, Z. J.

    2003-03-01

    The potential capability to decompose macromolecular compounds, and the level of extracellular enzyme activities were determined in heterotrophic bacteria isolated from a sandy beach in Sopot on the Southern Baltic Sea coast. Individual isolates were capable of hydrolysing a wide spectrum of organic macromolecular compounds. Lipids, gelatine, and DNA were hydrolyzed most efficiently. Only a very small percentage of strains were able to decompose cellulose, and no pectinolytic bacteria were found. Except for starch-hydrolysis, no significant differences in the intensity of organic compound decomposition were recorded between horizontal and vertical profiles of the studied beach. Of all the studied extracellular enzymes, alkaline phosphatase, esterase lipase, and leucine acrylaminidase were most active; in contrast, the activity α-fucosidase, α-galactosidase and β-glucouronidase was the weakest. The level of extracellular enzyme activity was similar in both sand layers.

  9. Highly concentrated synthesis of copper-zinc-tin-sulfide nanocrystals with easily decomposable capping molecules for printed photovoltaic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngwoo; Woo, Kyoohee; Kim, Inhyuk; Cho, Yong Soo; Jeong, Sunho; Moon, Jooho

    2013-11-07

    Among various candidate materials, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a promising earth-abundant semiconductor for low-cost thin film solar cells. We report a facile, less toxic, highly concentrated synthetic method utilizing the heretofore unrecognized, easily decomposable capping ligand of triphenylphosphate, where phase-pure, single-crystalline, and well-dispersed colloidal CZTS nanocrystals were obtained. The favorable influence of the easily decomposable capping ligand on the microstructural evolution of device-quality CZTS absorber layers was clarified based on a comparative study with commonly used oleylamine-capped CZTS nanoparticles. The resulting CZTS nanoparticles enabled us to produce a dense and crack-free absorbing layer through annealing under a N2 + H2S (4%) atmosphere, demonstrating a solar cell with an efficiency of 3.6% under AM 1.5 illumination.

  10. Progressive adaptation of a Georgian isolate of African swine fever virus to vero cells leads to a gradual attenuation of virulence in swine corresponding to major changes of the viral genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a contagious and often lethal disease of feral and domestic swine. Experimental vaccines derived from naturally occurring, genetically modified or cell culture-adapted ASFV have been evaluated but no commercial vaccine is available to control African Swine Fev...

  11. Decellularized Swine Dental Pulp as a Bioscaffold for Pulp Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lei; Gao, Zhenhua; Zhu, Zhao; Zhang, Chunmei; Wang, Jinsong

    2017-01-01

    Endodontic regeneration shows promise in treating dental pulp diseases; however, no suitable scaffolds exist for pulp regeneration. Acellular natural extracellular matrix (ECM) is a favorable scaffold for tissue regeneration since the anatomical structure and ECM of the natural tissues or organs are well-preserved. Xenogeneic ECM is superior to autologous or allogeneic ECM in tissue engineering for its unlimited resources. This study investigated the characteristics of decellularized dental pulp ECM from swine and evaluated whether it could mediate pulp regeneration. Dental pulps were acquired from the mandible anterior teeth of swine 12 months of age and decellularized with 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) combined with Triton X-100. Pulp regeneration was conducted by seeding human dental pulp stem cells into decellularized pulp and transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice for 8 weeks. The decellularized pulp demonstrated preserved natural shape and structure without any cellular components. Histological analysis showed excellent ECM preservation and pulp-like tissue, and newly formed mineralized tissues were regenerated after being transplanted in vivo. In conclusion, decellularized swine dental pulp maintains ECM components favoring stem cell proliferation and differentiation, thus representing a suitable scaffold for improving clinical outcomes and functions of teeth with dental pulp diseases. PMID:29387727

  12. Ankistrodesmus gracilis (Chlorophyta fertilized in swine manure in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Sipaúba-Tavares

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to investigate the influence of swine manure media on the growth, total length, dry weight, and nutritional value of Ankistrodesmus gracilis microalgae. Two media were measured: “in natura” and biodigested. The growth rate peak for A. gracilis was highest with biodigester treatment (6.2 x 107 cells.mL-1 on the 5th day, at a volume of 2L. The highest percentage of lipids was verifi ed for “in natura” media. Protein was highest (p > 0.05 for the biodigested media at 2L. Biovolume, ash rate, and total length were different (p 0.05. Light demand was also different between media, with lesser intensity being required for biodigested media (13.5μE.cm-2.s-1. In fact, the biodigested media proved to be cheaper in terms of cost and benefit. Generally, the medium containing swine manure, both “in natura” and biodigested, showed better results in A. gracilis development, with water quality adequate for culture systems. Swine manure in both forms may also be used in high-density cultures in the laboratory.

  13. Pork and Carcasses Quality in Swine Exploited in Family Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Heber

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Maximum values of dry matter and fat (% of the carcass weight is achieved in swine exploited on small private family farms at 137 kg of dry matter and 115 kg of protein. Slaughtering swine at higher weight results in an increase of the dry matter and of the caloric value because of the increase of the amount of fat in the muscular fibber; thus, pork is of low quality because of the massive accumulation fat substance and the economic efficiency of producing pork is improper, with supplementary expenses on feed. Fattening swine on small family exploitations up to over 11 kg results in changes of the meat /fat ratio, detrimental to pork meat because of both thickening of lard on the animals' back and of fat depositions in the muscular fibber; though this improves pork quality, it is done with high expenses of energy, resulting in inefficient exploitation on private family farms that in most cases only supply for their families and rarely sell extra production.

  14. A quantification method for heat-decomposable methylglyoxal oligomers and its application on 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene SOA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodigast, Maria; Mutzel, Anke; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2017-03-01

    Methylglyoxal forms oligomeric compounds in the atmospheric aqueous particle phase, which could establish a significant contribution to the formation of aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA). Thus far, no suitable method for the quantification of methylglyoxal oligomers is available despite the great effort spent for structure elucidation. In the present study a simplified method was developed to quantify heat-decomposable methylglyoxal oligomers as a sum parameter. The method is based on the thermal decomposition of oligomers into methylglyoxal monomers. Formed methylglyoxal monomers were detected using PFBHA (o-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride) derivatisation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. The method development was focused on the heating time (varied between 15 and 48 h), pH during the heating process (pH = 1-7), and heating temperature (50, 100 °C). The optimised values of these method parameters are presented. The developed method was applied to quantify heat-decomposable methylglyoxal oligomers formed during the OH-radical oxidation of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (TMB) in the Leipzig aerosol chamber (LEipziger AerosolKammer, LEAK). Oligomer formation was investigated as a function of seed particle acidity and relative humidity. A fraction of heat-decomposable methylglyoxal oligomers of up to 8 % in the produced organic particle mass was found, highlighting the importance of those oligomers formed solely by methylglyoxal for SOA formation. Overall, the present study provides a new and suitable method for quantification of heat-decomposable methylglyoxal oligomers in the aqueous particle phase.

  15. A method to decompose spectral changes in Synechocystis PCC 6803 during light-induced state transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acuña, A.M.; Kana, R.; Gwizdala, M.S.; Snellenburg, J.J.; van Alphen, P.; van Oort, B.F.; Kirilovsky, D.; van Grondelle, R.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Cyanobacteria have developed responses to maintain the balance between the energy absorbed and the energy used in different pigment-protein complexes. One of the relatively rapid (a few minutes) responses is activated when the cells are exposed to high light intensities. This mechanism thermally

  16. Modelling the dissipation and leaching of two herbicides in decomposing mulch of crop residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Sohaib; Iqbal, Akhtar; Lafolie, François; Recous, Sylvie; Benoit, Pierre; Garnier, Patricia

    2013-04-01

    greater leaching from mulch than S-metolachlor because of its lower adsorption coefficients to organic mulch. Moreover, simulated results showed a much faster degradation of glyphosate but greater non-extractable residue formation for S-metolachlor. Keywords: Mulch; Pesticides; Transport; Degradation; Modeling; Pastis-mulch References Findeling, A., Garnier, P., Coppens, F., Lafolie, F., Recous, S., 2007. Modelling water, carbon and nitrogen dynamics in soil covered with decomposing mulch. European Journal of Soil Science 58, 196-206. Lashermes, G., Zhang, Y., Houot, S., Barriuso, E., Steyer, J.P., Patureau, D., Garnier, P., 2013. A model coupling organic carbon and organic pollutant dynamics during composting. Journal of Environmental Quality. In Press.

  17. Self-decomposable Fibrous Bridging Additives for Temporary Cementitious Fracture Sealers in EGS Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Gill, S.; Kisslinger, K.; Iverson, B.; Bour, D.

    2012-11-01

    potential as a self-decomposable bridging additive in the SSASC cement sealer.

  18. Measuring and decomposing inequity in self-reported morbidity and self-assessed health in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorenko Alexandra

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, interest in the study of inequalities in health has not stopped at quantifying their magnitude; explaining the sources of inequalities has also become of great importance. This paper measures socioeconomic inequalities in self-reported morbidity and self-assessed health in Thailand, and the contributions of different population subgroups to those inequalities. Methods The Health and Welfare Survey 2003 conducted by the Thai National Statistical Office with 37,202 adult respondents is used for the analysis. The health outcomes of interest derive from three self-reported morbidity and two self-assessed health questions. Socioeconomic status is measured by adult-equivalent monthly income per household member. The concentration index (CI of ill health is used as a measure of socioeconomic health inequalities, and is subsequently decomposed into contributing factors. Results The CIs reveal inequality gradients disadvantageous to the poor for both self-reported morbidity and self-assessed health in Thailand. The magnitudes of these inequalities were higher for the self-assessed health outcomes than for the self-reported morbidity outcomes. Age and sex played significant roles in accounting for the inequality in reported chronic illness (33.7 percent of the total inequality observed, hospital admission (27.8 percent, and self-assessed deterioration of health compared to a year ago (31.9 percent. The effect of being female and aged 60 years or older was by far the strongest demographic determinant of inequality across all five types of health outcome. Having a low socioeconomic status as measured by income quintile, education and work status were the main contributors disadvantaging the poor in self-rated health compared to a year ago (47.1 percent and self-assessed health compared to peers (47.4 percent. Residence in the rural Northeast and rural North were the main regional contributors to inequality in self

  19. Genetic correlation between current circulating H1N1 swine and human influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Yin, Yanbo; Sun, Zhongsheng; Gao, Lei; Gao, George F; Liu, Sidang; Sun, Lei; Liu, Wenjun

    2010-11-01

    H1N1 is the main subtype influenza A virus circulating in human and swine population, and has long been a threat to economy and public health. To explore the genetic correlation between current circulating H1N1 swine and human influenza viruses. Three new H1N1 swine influenza viruses (SIVs) were isolated and genomes sequencing were conducted followed by phylogenetic and molecular analysis of all swine and human H1N1 influenza viruses isolated in China in the past five years. Homology and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the three isolates possessed different characteristics: the genome of A/Swine/Shandong/1112/2008 was closely related to that of classical H1N1 SIV, while A/Swine/Shandong/1123/2008 was a reassortant with NS gene from the human-like H3N2 influenza virus and other genes from the classical H1N1 SIV, and A/Swine/Fujian/0325/2008 fell into a lineage of seasonal human H1N1 influenza viruses. Genetically, 2009 H1N1 influenza A viruses (2009 H1N1) in China were contiguous to the SIV lineages rather than the seasonal H1N1 human influenza virus's lineage. Furthermore, molecular analysis among human and swine influenza viruses provided more detail information for understanding their genetic correlation. These results suggested that in China in the past five years, the classical, avian-like and human-like H1N1 SIV existed in swine herds and the reassortment between H1N1 swine and H3N2 human influenza viruses was identified. In addition, the present data showed no evidence to support a strong correlation between the 2009 H1N1 and the swine influenza virus circulating in China. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Attenuation of veterinary antibiotics in full-scale vermicomposting of swine manure via the housefly larvae (Musca domestica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, ZhiJian; Shen, JianGuo; Wang, Hang; Liu, Meng; Wu, LongHua; Ping, Fan; He, Qiang; Li, HongYi; Zheng, ChangFeng; Xu, XinHua

    2014-01-01

    Animal waste from concentrated swine farms is widely considered to be a source of environmental pollution, and the introduction of veterinary antibiotics in animal manure to ecosystems is rapidly becoming a major public health concern. A housefly larvae (Musca domestica) vermireactor has been increasingly adopted for swine manure value-added bioconversion and pollution control, but few studies have investigated its efficiency on antibiotic attenuation during manure vermicomposting. In this study we explored the capacity and related attenuation mechanisms of antibiotic degradation and its linkage with waste reduction by field sampling during a typical cycle (6 days) of full-scale larvae manure vermicomposting. Nine antibiotics were dramatically removed during the 6-day vermicomposting process, including tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and fluoroquinolones. Of these, oxytetracycline and ciprofloxacin exhibited the greater reduction rate of 23.8 and 32.9 mg m−2, respectively. Environmental temperature, pH, and total phosphorus were negatively linked to the level of residual antibiotics, while organic matter, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, microbial respiration intensity, and moisture exhibited a positive effect. Pyrosequencing data revealed that the dominant phyla related to Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria accelerated manure biodegradation likely through enzyme catalytic reactions, which may enhance antibiotic attenuation during vermicomposting. PMID:25354896

  1. Attenuation of veterinary antibiotics in full-scale vermicomposting of swine manure via the housefly larvae (Musca domestica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijian; Shen, Jianguo; Wang, Hang; Liu, Meng; Wu, Longhua; Ping, Fan; He, Qiang; Li, Hongyi; Zheng, Changfeng; Xu, Xinhua

    2014-10-01

    Animal waste from concentrated swine farms is widely considered to be a source of environmental pollution, and the introduction of veterinary antibiotics in animal manure to ecosystems is rapidly becoming a major public health concern. A housefly larvae (Musca domestica) vermireactor has been increasingly adopted for swine manure value-added bioconversion and pollution control, but few studies have investigated its efficiency on antibiotic attenuation during manure vermicomposting. In this study we explored the capacity and related attenuation mechanisms of antibiotic degradation and its linkage with waste reduction by field sampling during a typical cycle (6 days) of full-scale larvae manure vermicomposting. Nine antibiotics were dramatically removed during the 6-day vermicomposting process, including tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and fluoroquinolones. Of these, oxytetracycline and ciprofloxacin exhibited the greater reduction rate of 23.8 and 32.9 mg m-2, respectively. Environmental temperature, pH, and total phosphorus were negatively linked to the level of residual antibiotics, while organic matter, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, microbial respiration intensity, and moisture exhibited a positive effect. Pyrosequencing data revealed that the dominant phyla related to Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria accelerated manure biodegradation likely through enzyme catalytic reactions, which may enhance antibiotic attenuation during vermicomposting.

  2. Familiarity breeds dissent: Reliability analyses for British-English idioms on measures of familiarity, meaning, literality, and decomposability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmann, Emily; Cleland, Alexandra A; Bull, Rebecca

    2014-06-01

    To date, there have been several attempts made to build a database of normative data for English idiomatic expressions (e.g., Libben & Titone, 2008; Titone & Connine, 1994), however, there has been some discussion in the literature as to the validity and reliability of the data obtained, particularly for decomposability ratings. Our work aimed to address these issues by looking at ratings from native and non-native speakers and to extend the deeper investigation and analysis of decomposability to other aspects of idiomatic expressions, namely familiarly, meaning and literality. Poor reliability was observed on all types of ratings, suggesting that rather than decomposability being a special case, individual variability plays a large role in how participants rate idiomatic phrases in general. Ratings from native and non-native speakers were positively correlated and an analysis of covariance found that once familiarity with an idiom was accounted for, most of the differences between native and non-native ratings were not significant. Overall, the results suggest that individual experience with idioms plays an important role in how they are perceived and this should be taken into account when selecting stimuli for experimental studies. Furthermore, the results are suggestive of the inability of speakers to inhibit the figurative meanings for idioms that they are highly familiar with. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Classification for dimethylarsenate-decomposing bacteria using a restrict fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S rRNA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Teruya; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Watarai, Hiroshi; Ueda, Kazumasa

    2004-01-01

    A new monitoring system for bacterial communities involving dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA) decomposition was provided by combining the MPN (Most Probable Number) method and RFLP (restriction-fragment-length polymorphism analysis). The abundance of DMAA decomposing bacteria was estimated by the MPN method using a bacterial culture medium, which included DMAA as the sole carbon source, indicating bacterial cell densities of 1700 cells/ml in Lake Kahokugata and 330 cells/ml in Lake Kibagata. After isolating the dominant bacteria using agar plates, the isolates were classified into some genotype groups by RFLP analysis using 16S rDNA sequences. Classification of the RFLP analysis indicated that 14 isolates of Lake Kahokugata were classified into 6 types, which included 2 dominant types related to genus Pseudomonas, while 8 isolates of Lake Kibagata displayed 6 types including one or two isolates. Moreover, the RFLP types were unique for each lake, suggesting that DMAA decomposing bacteria were specific for the aquatic environment related to the arsenic cycle. The activities of DMAA decomposition mostly matched with the RFLP type category of the isolates. Accordingly, combining the MPN method with the RFLP analysis will play an important role in elucidating the distributions and dynamics of the DMAA-decomposing bacterial community.

  4. CRISPR-Cas9, a tool to efficiently increase the development of recombinant African swine fever viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    African swine fever is a contagious and often lethal disease for domestic pigs with a significant economic impact on the swine industry. The etiological agent, African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a highly structurally complex double stranded DNA virus. No effective vaccines or antiviral treatment ...

  5. Three-phase foam analysis and development of a lab-scale foaming capacity and stability test for swine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foam accumulation on the manure slurry at deep pit swine facilities has been linked to flash fire incidents, making it a serious safety concern for pork producers. In order to investigate this phenomenon, samples of swine manure were collected from over 50 swine production facilities in Iowa with va...

  6. Swine influenza virus co-infection with Bordetella bronchiseptica enhances bacterial colonization and host immune responses exacerbating pulmonary lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swine influenza virus (SIV) is one of the most important disease causing agents for the U.S. swine industry, not only as a primary pathogen but as a predisposing agent to secondary bacterial infection. Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb) is often isolated from swine and has been shown to contribute to th...

  7. Longitudinal study of antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli isolated from integrated multi-site cohorts of humans and swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the relationship between the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant (AR) E. coli isolated from human wastewater and swine fecal samples and the risk factors: (host species, production type (swine), vocation (human swine workers, non-workers, and slaughter-plant workers), and season) in a ...

  8. 9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. 312.2 Section 312.2 Animals and Animal... cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. (a) The official inspection legend required by part 316 of this subchapter to be applied to inspected and passed carcasses and parts of carcasses of cattle, sheep, swine and...

  9. Genes indicative of zoonotic and swine pathogens are persistent in stream water and sediment following a swine manure spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Duris, Joseph W.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Johnson, Heather E.; Gibson, Kristen E.; Focazio, Michael J.; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Hubbard, Laura E.; Foreman, William T.

    2015-01-01

    Manure spills to streams are relatively frequent, but no studies have characterized stream contamination with zoonotic and veterinary pathogens, or fecal chemicals, following a spill. We tested stream water and sediment over 25 days and downstream for 7.6 km for: fecal indicator bacteria (FIB); the fecal indicator chemicals cholesterol and coprostanol; 20 genes for zoonotic and swine-specific bacterial pathogens by presence/absence polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for viable cells; one swine-specific Escherichia coli toxin gene (STII) by quantitative PCR (qPCR); and nine human and animal viruses by qPCR, or reverse-transcriptase qPCR. Twelve days post-spill, and 4.2 km downstream, water concentrations of FIB, cholesterol, and coprostanol were 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than those detected before, or above, the spill, and genes indicating viable zoonotic or swine-infectious Escherichia coli, were detected in water or sediment. STII increased from undetectable before, or above the spill, to 105 copies/100 mL water 12 days post-spill. Thirteen of 14 water (8/9 sediment) samples had viable STII-carrying cells post-spill. Eighteen days post-spill porcine adenovirus and teschovirus were detected 5.6 km downstream. Sediment FIB concentrations (per gram wet weight) were greater than in water, and sediment was a continuous reservoir of genes and chemicals post-spill. Constituent concentrations were much lower, and detections less frequent, in a runoff event (200 days post-spill) following manure application, although the swine-associated STII and stx2e genes were detected. Manure spills are an underappreciated pathway for livestock-derived contaminants to enter streams, with persistent environmental outcomes, and the potential for human and veterinary health consequences.

  10. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Liu, Gang–Jin [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Bioprocess Control AB, Scheelevägen 22, 223 63 Lund (Sweden); Deng, Liang–Wei, E-mail: dengliangwei@caas.cn [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Laboratory of Development and Application of Rural Renewable Energy, Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Southwest Collaborative Innovation Center of Swine for Quality & Safety, Chengdu 611130 (China); Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan–Hui [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production is feasible. • The feedstock TS concentration exerted a significant impact on biogas production. • Influences of ammonia and digestate liquidity were investigated in this study. • The results showed that the feedstock TS of swine manure should not exceed 30%. - Abstract: A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644 L·(L d){sup −1} and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g{sup −1}VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L{sup −1}. Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L{sup −1}. The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L·(L d){sup −1} and biogas yield of 0.649 L g{sup −1}VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25 °C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s{sup −1} when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield.

  11. New influenza A virus reassortments have been found in Danish swine in 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Trebbien, Ramona

    2012-01-01

    In 2011 a passive surveillance for influenza A virus was conducted in Danish swine. Tested samples were clinical samples from affected pigs submitted to the Danish National Veterinary Institute for swine influenza virus detection. In total 713 samples from 276 herds were analysed and about 24% of...... the pandemic H1N1 virus. This study contribute significantly to our knowledge of the epidemiology of swine influenza A virus circulating in Danish swine and the potential role of swine in the emergence of novel reassortant viruses.......In 2011 a passive surveillance for influenza A virus was conducted in Danish swine. Tested samples were clinical samples from affected pigs submitted to the Danish National Veterinary Institute for swine influenza virus detection. In total 713 samples from 276 herds were analysed and about 24......% of the samples were positive for swine influenza virus. All influenza positive samples were tested for the H1N1pdm09 virus by a real time RT-PCR assay specific for the pandemic HA gene and 26% of the samples were positive. Subtyping of 90 samples by sequencing revealed the presence of; i) H1N1 “avian like...

  12. Effects of oxytocin administration in early life on the behavioral and physiological stress response of swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The swine industry is moving toward the group-housing of sows. However, group-housing can result in increased aggression and social stress, with detrimental effects on swine health and productivity. In contrast, positive social relationships can reduce the adverse effects of social stress. This migh...

  13. No evidence of African swine fever virus replication in hard ticks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Carvalho Ferreira, Helena C; Tudela Zúquete, Sara; Wijnveld, Michiel; Weesendorp, Eefke; Jongejan, Frans; Stegeman, Arjan; Loeffen, Willie L A

    African swine fever (ASF) is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), a tick-borne DNA virus. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are the only biological vectors of ASFV recognized so far. Although other hard ticks have been tested for vector competence, two commonly found tick species in

  14. No evidence of African swine fever virus replication in hard ticks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho Ferreira, de H.C.; Zúquete, S.T.; Wijnveld, M.; Weesendorp, E.; Jongejan, F.; Stegeman, J.A.; Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2014-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), a tick-borne DNA virus. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are the only biological vectors of ASFV recognized so far. Although other hard ticks have been tested for vector competence, two commonly found tick species in

  15. 75 FR 56912 - Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 91 RIN 0579-AD18 Live Goats and Swine for Export... requirement for pre-export tuberculosis and brucellosis testing of goats and breeding swine intended for export to countries that do not require such tests. This action would facilitate the exportation of goats...

  16. Effect of turning frequency and season on composting materials from swine high-rise facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composting of swine manure has several advantages, liquid slurries are converted to solid, the total volume of material is reduced and the stabilized product is more easily transported off-site. Despite this, swine waste is generally stored, treated and applied in its liquid form. The high-rise fini...

  17. 9 CFR 93.520 - Import permit and declaration for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Import permit and declaration for... IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS... Import permit and declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from countries of Central...

  18. 76 FR 79203 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Veterinary Biological Products for Swine Influenza Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Biological Products for Swine Influenza Vaccines AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service... methods of use as Veterinary Influenza Vaccines. Sustained outbreaks of highly pathogenic influenza in... mechanism. These veterinary influenza vaccines are specifically designed for poultry, swine and equine...

  19. Antigenic and genetic evolution of swine influenza A (H3N2) viruses in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. de Jong (Jan); D.J. Smith (Derek James); A.S. Lapedes (Alan); I. Donatelli; L. Campitelli; G. Barigazzi; K. van Reeth; T.C. Jones (Terry); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn the early 1970s, a human influenza A/Port Chalmers/1/73 (H3N2)-like virus colonized the European swine population. Analyses of swine influenza A (H3N2) viruses isolated in The Netherlands and Belgium revealed that in the early 1990s, antigenic drift had occurred, away from A/Port

  20. 9 CFR 71.19 - Identification of swine in interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... commerce. 71.19 Section 71.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.19 Identification of swine in interstate commerce. (a)(1) Except as provided in... offered for sale or transportation, in interstate commerce, unless each swine is identified at whichever...

  1. Microbial Ecology of Stored Swine Manure and Reduction of Emissions Using Condensed Tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management practices from large-scale swine production facilities have resulted in the increased collection and storage of manure for off-season fertilization use. Stored swine manure serves as a habitat for billions of microorganisms and is associated with the generation of odorous compounds and g...

  2. 9 CFR 149.5 - Offsite identification and segregation of certified swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offsite identification and segregation of certified swine. 149.5 Section 149.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... otherwise maintain their identity as certified swine in such a way that they could be readily traced back to...

  3. 9 CFR 93.518 - Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter. 93.518 Section 93.518 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... immediate slaughter. Swine imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port of...

  4. Meta-analysis to define a core microbiota in the swine gut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background The swine gut microbiota encompasses a large and diverse population of bacteria that play a significant role in pig health. As such, a number of recent studies have utilized high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize the composition and structure of the swine gut micr...

  5. Prevalence, serotype, virulence characteristics, clonality and antibiotic susceptibility of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica from swine feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Swine are the only known animal reservoir of Yersinia enterocolitica (YE), a human pathogen. Since YE is a fecal organism of swine, the primary goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, serotype, virulence plasmid (pYV)-associated characteristics, clonality, and antibiotic su...

  6. 76 FR 28885 - Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis-Free States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 78 Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis- Free... comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the brucellosis regulations concerning the interstate movement of swine by adding Texas to the list of validated brucellosis-free States. We have determined that Texas meets...

  7. 76 FR 65935 - Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis-Free States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 78 Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis- Free States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... interim rule that amended the brucellosis regulations concerning the interstate movement of swine by...

  8. Vesicular exanthema of swine virus: isolation and serotyping of field samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J F; Yedloutschnig, R J; Dardiri, A H; Callis, J J

    1987-01-01

    Virus isolation was attempted from 262 field samples of vesicular material collected during the outbreaks of vesicular exanthema of swine in the U.S.A. from 1952-54. Using primary swine kidney culture, viral cytopathogenic agents were isolated from 76.3% of the samples. However, an overall recovery rate of 82.1% was obtained after samples negative in tissue culture were inoculated intradermally in susceptible swine. All vesicular exanthema of swine virus isolates were identified as serotype B51 using complement fixation and serum neutralization tests. Two isolates did not react with antisera to known vesicular agents of swine and failed to produce vesicles or clinical signs of disease upon inoculation in swine. One vesicular exanthema of swine virus isolate from tissue of equine origin was pathogenic for swine but produced limited vesiculation at the site of intradermalingual inoculation in the tongue of a pony infected experimentally. Type B51 virus was reisolated from lesions produced in the pony and the pony became seropositive for virus type B51. PMID:3651889

  9. A method to decompose spectral changes in Synechocystis PCC 6803 during light-induced state transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Acu?a, Alonso M.; Ka?a, Radek; Gwizdala, Michal; Snellenburg, Joris J.; van Alphen, Pascal; van Oort, Bart; Kirilovsky, Diana; van Grondelle, Rienk; van Stokkum, Ivo H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Cyanobacteria have developed responses to maintain the balance between the energy absorbed and the energy used in different pigment-protein complexes. One of the relatively rapid (a few minutes) responses is activated when the cells are exposed to high light intensities. This mechanism thermally dissipates excitation energy at the level of the phycobilisome (PB) antenna before it reaches the reaction center. When exposed to low intensities of light that modify the redox state of the plastoqui...

  10. Bait Preference of Free-Ranging Feral Swine for Delivery of a Novel Toxicant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan P Snow

    Full Text Available Invasive feral swine (Sus scrofa cause extensive damage to agricultural and wildlife resources throughout the United States. Development of sodium nitrite as a new, orally delivered toxicant is underway to provide an additional tool to curtail growth and expansion of feral swine populations. A micro-encapsulation coating around sodium nitrite is used to minimize detection by feral swine and maximize stability for the reactive molecule. To maximize uptake of this toxicant by feral swine, development a bait matrix is needed to 1 protect the micro-encapsulation coating so that sodium nitrite remains undetectable to feral swine, 2 achieve a high degree of acceptance by feral swine, and 3 be minimally appealing to non-target species. With these purposes, a field evaluation at 88 sites in south-central Texas was conducted using remote cameras to evaluate preferences by feral swine for several oil-based bait matrices including uncolored peanut paste, black-colored peanut paste, and peanut-based slurry mixed onto whole-kernel corn. These placebo baits were compared to a reference food, whole-kernel corn, known to be readily taken by feral swine (i.e., control. The amount of bait consumed by feral swine was also estimated using remote cameras and grid boards at 5 additional sites. On initial exposure, feral swine showed reduced visitations to the uncolored peanut paste and peanut slurry treatments. This reduced visitation subsided by the end of the treatment period, suggesting that feral swine needed time to accept these bait types. The black-colored peanut paste was visited equally to the control throughout the study, and enough of this matrix was consumed to deliver lethal doses of micro-encapsulated sodium nitrite to most feral swine during 1-2 feeding events. None of the treatment matrices reduced visitations by nontarget species, but feral swine dominated visitations for all matrices. It was concluded that black-colored peanut paste achieved

  11. Cholesky decomposed density matrices in Laplace transform Moeller-Plesset perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clin, Lucien Cyril

    2012-06-04

    The evaluation of correlation energies in the canonical formulation of second order Moeller-Plesset Perturbation Theory (MP2) is limited to systems of about 100 atoms, due to the method's steep O(N{sup 5}) scaling. In order to extend the method's applicability to larger systems, it is therefore imperative to develop alternative formulations that allow for efficient scaling reduction. One such approach is the Laplace transform formalism introduced by Almloef and Haeser, with which MP2 can be expressed in the basis of atom-centered orbitals (AO-MP2), whose local character allows to take advantage of the short range of correlation effects. The overall scaling can thus be reduced through the application of integral pre-selection schemes to discard all numerically irrelevant contributions to the energy. This dissertation is concerned with the study of Cholesky decomposed pseudo-density (CDD) matrices within this AO-MP2 scheme. For technical reasons, namely, the AO-MP2 implementation of Doser et al. is restricted to the evaluation of the opposite spin component of MP2, and is thus bound to the empirical scaled opposite spin parametrization procedure. Applying a Cholesky decomposition to the occurring pseudo-density matrices, the same spin component required for full MP2 energies is naturally included in the resulting CDD-MP2 method, whereby the ab initio character is restored. The investigation of the CDD-approach was further motivated by the fact that the orbitals generated by the decomposition are localized (for electronically non-delocalized systems), and thus allow for the pre-selection of only numerically significant integrals. However, although it could be shown on simple systems that the method does in principle scale linearly, its application to even moderately sized systems with large basis sets is yet hampered by severe technical and numerical difficulties, which are analysed and discussed in detail. Another closely related project has been to extend

  12. The Miniature Swine as a Model in Experimental and Translational Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker-Krongrad, Alain; Shoemake, Catherine R; Bouchard, Guy F

    2016-06-01

    The use of the miniature swine as a nonrodent species in research has continued to expand for over a decade, and they are becoming routinely used both in experimental pharmacology and as a therapeutic model for human diseases. Miniature swine models are regularly used for studies designed to assess efficacy and safety of new therapeutic compounds given through different routes of exposure and are used as an alternative model to rodents, canines, or nonhuman primates. Translational preclinical swine study data presented here support the current understanding that miniature swine are the animal model of choice for the assessment of drugs targeting endocrine, dermal, and ocular disorders. Because research investigators need to be familiar with some of the important features of the models developed in the miniature swine in order to place clinical and experimental findings in their proper perspective, relevant references and data from these models will be presented, compared, and partially illustrated. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Comparative fecal metagenomics unveils unique functional capacity of the swine gut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinson John

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uncovering the taxonomic composition and functional capacity within the swine gut microbial consortia is of great importance to animal physiology and health as well as to food and water safety due to the presence of human pathogens in pig feces. Nonetheless, limited information on the functional diversity of the swine gut microbiome is available. Results Analysis of 637, 722 pyrosequencing reads (130 megabases generated from Yorkshire pig fecal DNA extracts was performed to help better understand the microbial diversity and largely unknown functional capacity of the swine gut microbiome. Swine fecal metagenomic sequences were annotated using both MG-RAST and JGI IMG/M-ER pipelines. Taxonomic analysis of metagenomic reads indicated that swine fecal microbiomes were dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. At a finer phylogenetic resolution, Prevotella spp. dominated the swine fecal metagenome, while some genes associated with Treponema and Anareovibrio species were found to be exclusively within the pig fecal metagenomic sequences analyzed. Functional analysis revealed that carbohydrate metabolism was the most abundant SEED subsystem, representing 13% of the swine metagenome. Genes associated with stress, virulence, cell wall and cell capsule were also abundant. Virulence factors associated with antibiotic resistance genes with highest sequence homology to genes in Bacteroidetes, Clostridia, and Methanosarcina were numerous within the gene families unique to the swine fecal metagenomes. Other abundant proteins unique to the distal swine gut shared high sequence homology to putative carbohydrate membrane transporters. Conclusions The results from this metagenomic survey demonstrated the presence of genes associated with resistance to antibiotics and carbohydrate metabolism suggesting that the swine gut microbiome may be shaped by husbandry practices.

  14. Poly I:C adjuvanted inactivated swine influenza vaccine induces heterologous protective immunity in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Milton; Wang, Zhao; Sreenivasan, Chithra C; Hause, Ben M; Gourapura J Renukaradhya; Li, Feng; Francis, David H; Kaushik, Radhey S; Khatri, Mahesh

    2015-01-15

    Swine influenza is widely prevalent in swine herds in North America and Europe causing enormous economic losses and a public health threat. Pigs can be infected by both avian and mammalian influenza viruses and are sources of generation of reassortant influenza viruses capable of causing pandemics in humans. Current commercial vaccines provide satisfactory immunity against homologous viruses; however, protection against heterologous viruses is not adequate. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of an intranasal Poly I:C adjuvanted UV inactivated bivalent swine influenza vaccine consisting of Swine/OH/24366/07 H1N1 and Swine/CO/99 H3N2, referred as PAV, in maternal antibody positive pigs against an antigenic variant and a heterologous swine influenza virus challenge. Groups of three-week-old commercial-grade pigs were immunized intranasally with PAV or a commercial vaccine (CV) twice at 2 weeks intervals. Three weeks after the second immunization, pigs were challenged with the antigenic variant Swine/MN/08 H1N1 (MN08) and the heterologous Swine/NC/10 H1N2 (NC10) influenza virus. Antibodies in serum and respiratory tract, lung lesions, virus shedding in nasal secretions and virus load in lungs were assessed. Intranasal administration of PAV induced challenge viruses specific-hemagglutination inhibition- and IgG antibodies in the serum and IgA and IgG antibodies in the respiratory tract. Importantly, intranasal administration of PAV provided protection against the antigenic variant MN08 and the heterologous NC10 swine influenza viruses as evidenced by significant reductions in lung virus load, gross lung lesions and significantly reduced shedding of challenge viruses in nasal secretions. These results indicate that Poly I:C or its homologues may be effective as vaccine adjuvants capable of generating cross-protective immunity against antigenic variants/heterologous swine influenza viruses in pigs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Novel Human-like Influenza A Viruses Circulate in Swine in Mexico and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Martha; Culhane, Marie R.; Rovira, Albert; Torremorell, Montserrat; Guerrero, Pedro; Norambuena, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Further understanding of the genetic diversity and evolution of influenza A viruses circulating in swine (IAV-S) is important for the development of effective vaccines and our knowledge of pandemic threats. Until recently, very little was known of IAV-S diversity in Latin America, owing to a lack of surveillance. Methods: To address this gap, we sequenced and conducted a phylogenetic analysis of 69 hemagglutinin (HA) sequences from IAV-S isolates collected in swine in Mexico and Chile during 2010-2014, including the H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtypes. Results: Our analysis identified multiple IAV-S lineages that appear to have been circulating undetected in swine for decades, including four novel IAV-S lineages of human seasonal virus origin that have not been previously identified in any swine populations globally. We also found evidence of repeated introductions of pandemic H1N1 viruses from humans into swine in Mexico and Chile since 2009, and incursions of H1 and H3 viruses from North American swine into Mexico. Discussion: Overall, our findings indicate that at least 12 genetically distinct HA lineages circulate in Latin American swine herds, only two of which have been found in North American swine herds. Human-to-swine transmission, spatial migration via swine movements, and genomic reassortment are the key evolutionary mechanisms that generate this viral diversity. Additional antigenic characterization and whole-genome sequencing is greatly needed to understand the diversity and independent evolution of IAV-S in Latin America.  PMID:26345598

  16. Design and Performance of the CDC Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase PCR Swine Flu Panel for Detection of 2009 A (H1N1) Pandemic Influenza Virus▿†‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Bo; Wu, Kai-Hui; Emery, Shannon; Villanueva, Julie; Johnson, Roy; Guthrie, Erica; Berman, LaShondra; Warnes, Christine; Barnes, Nathelia; Klimov, Alexander; Lindstrom, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIV) have been shown to sporadically infect humans and are infrequently identified by the Influenza Division of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after being received as unsubtypeable influenza A virus samples. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) procedures for detection and characterization of North American lineage (N. Am) SIV were developed and implemented at CDC for rapid identification of specimens from cases of suspected infections with SIV. These procedures were utilized in April 2009 for detection of human cases of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic (pdm) influenza virus infection. Based on genetic sequence data derived from the first two viruses investigated, the previously developed rRT-PCR procedures were optimized to create the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel for detection of the 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza virus. The analytical sensitivity of the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was shown to be 5 copies of RNA per reaction and 10−1.3∼−0.7 50% infectious doses (ID50) per reaction for cultured viruses. Cross-reactivity was not observed when testing human clinical specimens or cultured viruses that were positive for human seasonal A (H1N1, H3N2) and B influenza viruses. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was distributed to public health laboratories in the United States and internationally from April 2009 until June 2010. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel served as an effective tool for timely and specific detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza viruses and facilitated subsequent public health response implementation. PMID:21593260

  17. STR analysis of human DNA from maggots fed on decomposing bodies: Assessment of the time period for successful analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gachuiri Njau

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Frequently, forensic entomology is applied in the use of insect maggots for the identification of specimens or remains of humans. Maggot crop analysis could be valuable in criminal investigations when maggots are found at a crime scene and a corpse is absent. Human short tandem repeat (STR has previously been used to support the association of maggots to a specific corpse but not in the period at which the body has been decomposing. The aim of this research was to assess the time period for successful STR analyses of human DNA from third instar maggots (Protophormia terraenovae obtained from decomposing human corpses as well as to investigate the human DNA turnover and degradation in the maggot crop after they are removed from food and/or are fed on a beef (a new/different food source. Results showed that the amount of human DNA recovered from maggots decreased with time in all cases. For maggots fed on beef, the human DNA could only be recovered up to day two and up to day four for the starved maggots. STR analyses of human DNA from maggots’ crop content using 16 loci generated profiles that matched those of reference samples although some of the alleles were not amplifiable therefore generating partial profiles for the samples starved for 4 days and those fed on beef. This may be due to nuclease activity present in the gut of larvae that may have caused degradation of DNA and consequently reduction in DNA yield. It was possible to identify the decomposing body using STRs as markers.

  18. Intravascular sonotherapy decreases neointimal hyperplasia after stent implantation in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, P J; Takagi, A; Moore, M P; Hayase, M; Kolodgie, F D; Corl, D; Nassi, M; Virmani, R; Yock, P G

    2001-04-10

    Intimal hyperplasia and subsequent in-stent restenosis remain a major limitation after stent implantation. In vitro cell culture studies show that low-frequency, noncavitational ultrasound energy may impact smooth muscle cell proliferation. Accordingly, we assessed the efficacy of intravascular sonotherapy treatment on intimal hyperplasia in a swine stent model. After balloon injury, biliary stents (Johnson & Johnson) were implanted in the femoral arteries of 14 swine. A total of 48 stented sites were randomized to sonotherapy or sham treatment using a custom-built, 8-French catheter intravascular sonotherapy system (URX, PharmaSonics Inc). After stent deployment, ultrasound energy (700 KHz) was applied to the treatment group for up to 5 minutes. Smooth muscle cell proliferation was assessed using bromodeoxyuridine histology preparation (BrdU) at 7 days in 28 stented sites. At 28 days, the neointimal thickness and the ratio of neointimal/stent area (percent stenosis) was calculated by histomorphometric quantification in 20 stented sites. At 7 days, percent of BrdU staining was significantly reduced in the sonotherapy group compared with the sham group (24.1+/-7.0% versus 31.2+/-3.0%, Psonotherapy group than in the sham group (36+/-24% versus 44+/-27%, Psonotherapy group was less than in the sham group (417+/-461 micrometer versus 643+/-869 micrometer, P=0.06). In this swine peripheral model, intravascular sonotherapy seemed to decelerate cellular proliferation and decrease in-stent hyperplasia. Therefore, intravascular sonotherapy may be an effective form of nonionizing energy to reduce in-stent restenosis.

  19. Electricity generation from swine wastewater using microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Booki; Kim, Jungrae; Oh, Sangeun; Regan, John M; Logan, Bruce E

    2005-12-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) represent a new method for treating animal wastewaters and simultaneously producing electricity. Preliminary tests using a two-chambered MFC with an aqueous cathode indicated that electricity could be generated from swine wastewater containing 8320 +/- 190 mg/L of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) (maximum power density of 45 mW/m2). More extensive tests with a single-chambered air cathode MFC produced a maximum power density with the animal wastewater of 261 mW/m2 (200 omega resistor), which was 79% larger than that previously obtained with the same system using domestic wastewater (146 +/- 8 mW/m2) due to the higher concentration of organic matter in the swine wastewater. Power generation as a function of substrate concentration was modeled according to saturation kinetics, with a maximum power density of P(max) = 225 mW/m2 (fixed 1000 omega resistor) and half-saturation concentration of K(s) = 1512 mg/L (total COD). Ammonia was removed from 198 +/- 1 to 34 +/- 1 mg/L (83% removal). In order to try to increase power output and overall treatment efficiency, diluted (1:10) wastewater was sonicated and autoclaved. This pretreated wastewater generated 16% more power after treatment (110 +/- 4 mW/m2) than before treatment (96 +/- 4 mW/m2). SCOD removal was increased from 88% to 92% by stirring diluted wastewater, although power output slightly decreased. These results demonstrate that animal wastewaters such as this swine wastewater can be used for power generation in MFCs while at the same time achieving wastewater treatment.

  20. Piglet preweaning mortality in a commercial swine herd in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuntapaitoon, Morakot; Tummaruk, Padet

    2015-12-01

    In the modern swine industry, the number of piglets born alive per litter is dramatically increasing due to genetic improvement of litter traits. However, knowledge on post-partum management is inadequate to reduce piglet preweaning mortality. The present study aimed to investigate piglet preweaning mortality in a commercial swine herd in Thailand in relation to the number of littermate pigs and piglet birth weight. Data included 11,154 litters from 3574 sows farrowed from January 2009 to December 2012. Littermate pig was defined as the number of piglets after cross-fostering. Number of littermate pigs was classified as 1-7, 8-10, 11-12, and 13-15 piglets per litter. Mean birth weight of the piglets was classified as low (Piglet preweaning mortality was calculated, logged transformed, and analyzed by general linear mixed models. On average, piglet preweaning mortality was 14.5 % (median = 10.0 %). Piglet preweaning mortality in the litter with 13-15 littermate pigs (24.1 %) was significantly higher than the litter with 1-7 (11.9 %, P piglet birth weight had a higher piglet preweaning mortality rate (18.8 %) than the litters with a medium (15.7 %, P piglet birth weight (12.1 %, P piglet preweaning mortality in commercial swine herds, special care needs to be taken in litters with more than 13 littermate pigs and with piglets with birth weight below 1.30 kg.

  1. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Gang-Jin; Deng, Liang-Wei; Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan-Hui

    2015-04-01

    A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644L · (Ld)(-1) and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g(-)(1)VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L(-1). Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L(-1). The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L ·(Ld)(-1) and biogas yield of 0.649 L g(-1)VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25°C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s(-1) when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biological and chemical phosphorus fractionalization in swine manure under aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao; Yao, Wanying; Zhu, Jun; Miller, Curtis

    2010-05-01

    In this work, the dynamic responses of different phosphorous factions in swine manure to aeration treatment were investigated and profiled to provide insight on potential ways to improve the biological phosphorus removal process. Batch reactors fabricated from clear acrylic columns were filled with fresh swine manure containing a 4.6 % solids content, which was aerated continuously for 15 days at an airflow rate of 2 L/min. The results indicate that the treatment can reduce soluble phosphorus (P) by about 78 % after only one-day aeration due largely to chemical precipitations. At the end of the experiment, the average soluble inorganic P level was reduced by 12 % (from 91 down to 79 %), while the average soluble organic P was increased by 13 % (from 9 to 22 %). The biomass P (DNA/RNA/poly-P) was increased by 24 % in the first three days, but only by 14 % in the rest 12 days of aeration. Also increased by aeration was the lipid P (47 %) but not the protein P. The data reveal that the current aeration rate cannot maintain a stable oxygen level [represented by the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP)] in the treated manure, evidenced by the decrease in ORP from 250 mV at the beginning to almost zero at the conclusion of the experiment, which is considered the major factor hindering the growth of aerobes, including the phosphorus-accumulating organisms (PAOs). Therefore, it may be concluded that continuous aeration of swine manure at a constant rate will not guarantee the supply of sufficient oxygen to the growth of PAOs. On another front, it was observed that too much aeration might negatively impact the overall P removal by increasing the release of soluble organic P from dead cells.

  3. An Extended Decomposed Theory of Planned Behaviour to Predict the Usage Intention of the Electric Car: A Multi-Group Comparison

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ingrid Moons; Patrick De Pelsmacker

    2015-01-01

      An Extended Decomposed Theory of Planned Behaviour (DTPB) is developed that integrates emotions towards car driving and electric cars as well as car driving habits of the DTPB, and is empirically validated in a Belgian sample (n = 1023...

  4. Pathology of arylmercurial poisoning in swine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tryphonas, L.; Nielsen, N.O.

    1980-07-01

    To produce arylmercurial poisoning, phenyl-mercuric chloride (PMC) was administered daily to 30 healthy five week-old piglets for periods of up to 90 days. The dosage used ranged from 0.19 to 4.56 mg of mercury (Hg)/kg. Levels exceeding 2.28 mg Hg/kg daily were moderately toxic. The disease occurring in this intoxication resulted from injury to the kidneys and large intestine. Fetid diarrhea and failure to gain weight were consistent clinical signs. The primary gross lesions were necrotic typhlitis and colitis, and nephrosis. Degeneration and necrosis were found in affected organs. Regeneration was prominent in the proximal convoluted tubules. Tissue analysis for mercury suggested that only certain target organs, such as kidney and colon, accumulated significantly high levels of mercury. This, presumably, resulted from rapid metabolism of the compound and excretion of mercuric ion in the kidney and colon. The net effect was to spare other tissues, and to injure the excretory organs when the dose level was sufficiently high. 12 references, 9 figures, 5 tables.

  5. How does litter quality and site heterogeneity interact on decomposer food webs of a semi-natural forest?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandmark, Lisa Bjørnlund; Christensen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    in gaps. Taxonomic diversity of nematodes increased during decomposition and functional diversity of nematodes followed a pattern often encountered, i.e. opportunistic bacterial-feeders were gradually replaced by fungal-feeders and slower growing bacterial-feeders while predators and omnivors peaked......The relative importance of litter quality and site heterogeneity on population dynamics of decomposer food webs was investigated in a semi-natural mixed deciduous forest in Denmark. Litterbags containing beech or ash leaves were placed in four plots. Plots were located within gaps and under closed...

  6. Enzymatic Strategies and Carbon Use Efficiency of a Litter-Decomposing Fungus Grown on Maize Leaves, Stems, and Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashermes, Gwenaëlle; Gainvors-Claisse, Angélique; Recous, Sylvie; Bertrand, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Soil microorganisms can control the soil cycles of carbon (C), and depending on their C-use efficiency (CUE), these microorganisms either contribute to C stabilization in soil or produce CO2 when decomposing organic matter. However, little is known regarding the enzyme investment of microbial decomposers and the effects on their CUE. Our objective was to elucidate the strategies of litter-decomposing fungi as a function of litter quality. Fungal biosynthesis and respiration were accounted for by quantifying the investment in enzyme synthesis and enzyme efficiency. The basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium was grown on the leaves, stems, and roots of maize over 126 days in controlled conditions. We periodically measured the fungal biomass, enzyme activity, and chemical composition of the remaining litter and continuously measured the evolved C-CO2. The CUE observed for the maize litter was highest in the leaves (0.63), intermediate in the roots (0.40), and lowest in the stems (0.38). However, the enzyme efficiency and investment in enzyme synthesis did not follow the same pattern. The amount of litter C decomposed per mole of C-acquiring hydrolase activity was 354 μg C in the leaves, 246 μg C in the roots, and 1541 μg C in the stems (enzyme efficiency: stems > leaves > roots). The fungus exhibited the highest investment in C-acquiring enzyme when grown on the roots and produced 40-80% less enzyme activity when grown on the stems and leaves (investment in enzymes: roots > leaves > stems). The CUE was dependent on the initial availability and replenishment of the soluble substrate fraction with the degradation products. The production of these compounds was either limited because of the low enzyme efficiency, which occurred in the roots, or because of the low investments in enzyme synthesis, which occurred in the stems. Fungal biosynthesis relied on the ability of the fungus to invest in enzyme synthesis and the efficient interactions between the enzymes and

  7. Enzymatic strategies and carbon use efficiency of a litter-decomposing fungus grown on maize leaves, stems and roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenaëlle Lashermes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil microorganisms can control the soil cycles of carbon (C, and depending on their C-use efficiency (CUE, these microorganisms either contribute to C stabilization in soil or produce CO2 when decomposing organic matter. However, little is known regarding the enzyme investment of microbial decomposers and the effects on their CUE. Our objective was to elucidate the strategies of litter-decomposing fungi as a function of litter quality. Fungal biosynthesis and respiration were accounted for by quantifying the investment in enzyme synthesis and enzyme efficiency. The basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium was grown on the leaves, stems and roots of maize over 126 days in controlled conditions. We periodically measured the fungal biomass, enzyme activity, and chemical composition of the remaining litter and continuously measured the evolved C-CO2. The CUE observed for the maize litter was highest in the leaves (0.63, intermediate in the roots (0.40, and lowest in the stems (0.38. However, the enzyme efficiency and investment in enzyme synthesis did not follow the same pattern. The amount of litter C decomposed per mole of C-acquiring hydrolase activity was 354 µg C in the leaves, 246 µg C in the roots, and 1541 µg C in the stems (enzyme efficiency: stems > leaves > roots. The fungus exhibited the highest investment in C-acquiring enzyme when grown on the roots and produced 40-80% less enzyme activity when grown on the stems and leaves (investment in enzymes: roots > leaves > stems. The CUE was dependent on the initial availability and replenishment of the soluble substrate fraction with the degradation products. The production of these compounds was either limited because of the low enzyme efficiency, which occurred in the roots, or because of the low investments in enzyme synthesis, which occurred in the stems. Fungal biosynthesis relied on the ability of the fungus to invest in enzyme synthesis and the efficient interactions between the

  8. Multi-Temporal Decomposed Wind and Load Power Models for Electric Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Karim, Noha

    electricity market rules capable of providing the right incentives to manage uncertainties and of differentiating various technologies according to the rate at which they can respond to ever changing conditions. Given the overall need for modeling uncertainties in electric energy systems, we consider in this thesis the problem of multi-temporal modeling of wind and demand power, in particular. Historic data is used to derive prediction models for several future time horizons. Short-term prediction models derived can be used for look-ahead economic dispatch and unit commitment, while the long-term annual predictive models can be used for investment planning. As expected, the accuracy of such predictive models depends on the time horizons over which the predictions are made, as well as on the nature of uncertain signals. It is shown that predictive models obtained using the same general modeling approaches result in different accuracy for wind than for demand power. In what follows, we introduce several models which have qualitatively different patterns, ranging from hourly to annual. We first transform historic time-stamped data into the Fourier Transform (Fr) representation. The frequency domain data representation is used to decompose the wind and load power signals and to derive predictive models relevant for short-term and long-term predictions using extracted spectral techniques. The short-term results are interpreted next as a Linear Prediction Coding Model (LPC) and its accuracy is analyzed. Next, a new Markov-Based Sensitivity Model (MBSM) for short term prediction has been proposed and the dispatched costs of uncertainties for different predictive models with comparisons have been developed. Moreover, the Discrete Markov Process (DMP) representation is applied to help assess probabilities of most likely short-, medium- and long-term states and the related multi-temporal risks. In addition, this thesis discusses operational impacts of wind power integration in

  9. Characterization of bacteria from a swine manure digester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iannotti, E.L. (Univ. of Missouri, Columbia); Fischer, J.R.; Sievers, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    One-hundred thirty bacteria isolated from a swine manure digester were predominately gram-positive anaerobes which were tentatively classified into the following genera: Peptostreptococcus, Eubacterium, Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, Peptococcus, Clostridiu, and Streptococcus plus two unidentified groups. The major fermentation products formed by these organisms included acetate, propionate, succinate, lactate, and ethanol, singly or in various combinations. Acetate was the sole end product of several groups. Few of the isolates (14%) reduced the pH below 6.0. The predominate bacteria appear to differ from the predominate organisms isolated from other anaerobic ecosystems.

  10. Pathogens gone wild? Medical anthropology and the "swine flu" pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Merrill

    2009-07-01

    Beginning in April 2009, global attention began focusing on the emergence in Mexico of a potentially highly lethal new influenza strain of porcine origin that has successfully jumped species barriers and is now being transmitted around the world. Reported on extensively by the mass media, commented on by public health and government officials across the globe, and focused on with nervous attention by the general public, the so-called swine flu pandemic raises important questions, addressed here, concerning the capacity of medical anthropology to respond usefully to such disease outbreaks and their health and social consequences.

  11. Two-wave propagation in in vitro swine distal ulna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Isao; Horii, Kaoru; Matsukawa, Mami; Otani, Takahiko

    2015-07-01

    Ultrasonic transmitted waves were obtained in an in vitro swine distal ulna specimen, which mimics a human distal radius, that consists of interconnected cortical bone and cancellous bone. The transmitted waveforms appeared similar to the fast waves, slow waves, and overlapping fast and slow waves measured in the specimen after removing the surface cortical bone (only cancellous bone). In addition, the circumferential waves in the cortical bone and water did not affect the fast and slow waves. This suggests that the fast-and-slow-wave phenomenon can be observed in an in vivo human distal radius.

  12. Investigations of eugenol efficacy in treatment of mange in swine

    OpenAIRE

    Jezdimirović Milanka; Kulišić Zoran; Aleksić Nevenka; Bjelić Nebojša; Ivanović Saša

    2006-01-01

    The acaricide efficacy, tolerability and safety of the active ingredient of the etheric oil of cloves eugenol was investigated in the treatment of mange in swine, and the obtained results were compared with the results of acaricide efficacy of the synthetic acaricide permethrin, which has been in use for quite a some time. A single application of permethrin in the form of a 1% solution showed maximum efficacy of 62.5%, and after three applications of 75.0% in the treatment of sarcoptes in swi...

  13. Influence of obesity gene in quantitative traits of swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciele Segantini do Nascimento Borges

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotype data of 477 animals of several swine races (Landrace - LD, Large White - LW, Pietrain - PI, LWXLDXPI, Piau, Monteiro, and unknown race were obtained to determine the allele frequency of the obesity gene. Genotype data of 174 crossbred swine (LWXLDXPI were also obtained, in order to assess its correlation with carcass evaluation data (lean meat percentage, backfat thickness at P2, loin eye area, adjacent fat area, total fat and meat. Finally, genotype data of 96 pure swine (Landrace, Large White and Pietrain were collected, to establish its relation with meat quality (drip loss, meat color, texture analysis and intramuscular fat and carcass evaluation data (lean meat percentage; ham, loin, shoulder and belly weights; and backfat thickness at P2. This work also aimed associating EPDs (expected progeny differences for litter size, daily weight gain and backfat thickness with genotype data of 49 Large White males and 54 Landrace females. Genotyping was done on animal blood by PCR-RFLP, based on Stratil et al. (1997. Statistical analysis was done by using SAS software for variance analysis between genotypes and data for each cited class. For purebred animals, a mixed model was used, with sire within race as random effect. The allelic frequencies of alleles T and C were, respectively: 0.8142; 0.1857 (Landrace; 0.9125; 0.0875 (Large White; 0.9433; 0.0566 (Pietrain; 0.8333; 0.1666 (LWXLDXPI; 0.2500; 0.7500 (Piau; 0.8750; 0.1250 (Monteiro, and 0.8870; 0.1130 (unknown race. Since the highest allele C frequency occurred in Piau, we suggest that this allele could be associated with fat accumulation. In the Landrace race, a study was done separating the frequencies of 2 generations (great-grandfather and grandfather, and the differences confirmed by a Chi-square test, a higher frequency of allele C having been found in the grandparental generation. This suggests that this allele could be eliminated by selection from the great

  14. Wet explosion og wheat straw and codigestion with swine manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guangtao; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

    2009-01-01

    feedstock but their economical profitable operation relies on the addition of other biomass products with a high biogas yield. Wheat straw is the major crop residue in Europe and the second largest agricultural residue in the world. So far it has been used in several applications, i.e. pulp and paper making......, production of regenerated cellulose fibers as an alternative to wood for cellulose-based materials and ethanol production. The advantage of exploiting wheat straw for various applications is that it is available in considerable quantity and at low-cost. In the present study, the codigestion of swine manure...

  15. THE MATERNAL TRANSMISSION OF VACCINIAL IMMUNITY IN SWINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, John B.

    1932-01-01

    The introduction of vaccinia virus into the skin of swine calls forth a typical vesicular reaction which may be followed by a solid immunity. This acquired state of resistance was utilized in determining the route of immunity transmission from sow to young. The suckling young of immune sows, vaccinated on the 7th day or earlier, showed no reaction to the virus. Their hand-fed litter mates, however, were susceptible and reacted with the formation of vesicles. These observations indicate that the porcine placenta is largely impermeable to protective substances and establish the fact that colostrum functions as the vehicle for their transmission as it does for antibodies. PMID:19870106

  16. Crystallization and precipitation of phosphate from swine wastewater by magnesium metal corrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiming; Liu, Jiahui; Jiang, Yang

    2015-11-12

    This paper presents a unique approach for magnesium dosage in struvite precipitation by Mg metal corrosion. The experimental results showed that using an air bubbling column filled with Mg metal and graphite pellets for the magnesium dosage was the optimal operation mode, which could significantly accelerate the corrosion of the Mg metal pellets due to the presence of graphite granules. The reaction mechanism experiments revealed that the solution pH could be used as the indicator for struvite crystallization by the process. Increases in the Mg metal dosage, mass ratio of graphite and magnesium metal (G:M) and airflow rate could rapidly increase the solution pH. When all three conditions were at 10 g L(-1), 1:1 and 1 L min(-1), respectively, the phosphate recovery efficiency reached 97.5%. To achieve a high level of automation for the phosphate recovery process, a continuous-flow reactor immersed with the graphite-magnesium air bubbling column was designed to harvest the phosphate from actual swine wastewater. Under conditions of intermittently supplementing small amounts of Mg metal pellets, approximately 95% of the phosphate could be stably recovered as struvite of 95.8% (±0.5) purity. An economic analysis indicated that the process proposed was technically simple and economically feasible.

  17. Lateral flow immunoassay for quantitative detection of ractopamine in swine urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Mei Ling; Chen, Xue Lan; Li, Chao Hui; Xu, Bo; Liu, Wen Juan; Xu, Heng Yi; Xiong, Yong Hua

    2014-02-01

    A strip reader based lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) was established for the rapid and quantitative detection of ractopamine (RAC) in swine urine. The ratio of the optical densities (ODs) of the test line (AT) to that of the control line (AC) was used to effectively minimize interference among strips and sample variations. The linear range for the quantitative detection of RAC was 0.2 ng/mL to 3.5 ng/mL with a median inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.59 ± 0.06 ng/mL. The limit of detection (LOD) of the LFIA was 0.13 ng/mL. The intra-assay recovery rates were 92.97%, 97.25%, and 107.41%, whereas the inter-assay rates were 80.07%, 108.17%, and 93.7%, respectively. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of Swine Leukocyte Antigen Haplotypes in Yucatan Miniature Pigs Used as Biomedical Model Animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Nu-Ri; Seo, Dong-Won; Choi, Ki-Myung; Ko, Na-Young; Kim, Ji-Ho; Kim, Hyun-Il; Jung, Woo-Young; Lee, Jun-Heon

    2016-03-01

    The porcine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is called swine leukocyte antigen (SLA), which controls immune responses and transplantation reactions. The SLA is mapped on pig chromosome 7 (SSC7) near the centromere. In this study, 3 class I (SLA-1, SLA-3, and SLA-2) and 3 class II (DRB1, DQB1, and DQA) genes were used for investigation of SLA haplotypes in Yucatan miniature pigs in Korea. This pig breed is a well-known model organism for biomedical research worldwide. The current study indicated that Korean Yucatan pig population had 3 Class I haplotypes (Lr-4.0, Lr-6.0, and Lr-25.0) and 3 class II haplotypes (Lr-0.5, Lr-0.7, and Lr-0.25). The combinations of SLA class I and II haplotype together, 2 homozygous (Lr-4.5/4.5 and Lr-6.7/6.7) and 3 heterozygous (Lr-4.5/6.7, Lr-4.5/25.25, and Lr-6.7/25.25) haplotypes were identified, including previously unidentified new heterozygous haplotypes (Lr-4.5/4.7). In addition, a new SLA allele typing method using Agilent 2100 bioanalyzer was developed that permitted more rapid identification of SLA haplotypes. These results will facilitate the breeding of SLA homozygous Yucatan pigs and will expedite the possible use of these pigs for the biomedical research, especially xenotransplantation research.

  19. Assessing the Risk of African Swine Fever Introduction into the European Union by Wild Boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Torre, A; Bosch, J; Iglesias, I; Muñoz, M J; Mur, L; Martínez-López, B; Martínez, M; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2015-06-01

    The presence of African swine fever (ASF) in the Caucasus region and Russian Federation has increased concerns that wild boars may introduce the ASF virus into the European Union (EU). This study describes a semi-quantitative approach for evaluating the risk of ASF introduction into the EU by wild boar movements based on the following risk estimators: the susceptible population of (1) wild boars and (2) domestic pigs in the country of origin; the outbreak density in (3) wild boars and (4) domestic pigs in the countries of origin, the (5) suitable habitat for wild boars along the EU border; and the distance between the EU border and the nearest ASF outbreak in (6) wild boars or (7) domestic pigs. Sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the most influential risk estimators. The highest risk was found to be concentrated in Finland, Romania, Latvia and Poland, and wild boar habitat and outbreak density were the two most important risk estimators. Animal health authorities in at-risk countries should be aware of these risk estimators and should communicate closely with wild boar hunters and pig farmers to rapidly detect and control ASF. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Evaluation of a Commercial Field Test to Detect African Swine Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappai, Stefano; Loi, Federica; Coccollone, Annamaria; Cocco, Manuele; Falconi, Caterina; Dettori, Giovanna; Feliziani, Francesco; Sanna, Maria Luisa; Oggiano, Annalisa; Rolesu, Sandro

    2017-07-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most important and complex infectious diseases affecting pigs ( Sus scrofa ). The disease has been present in Sardinia, Italy, since 1978. Factors influencing the presence of the disease on the island are the presence of illegally bred pigs, uncontrolled movements of animals, and local traditions. Implementation of public health programs is essential for controlling ASF. The use of new diagnostic techniques on both wild boar (WB) and illegally bred pigs would provide tools for faster and more inexpensive control of the disease. We evaluated a commercial serological test kit (Pen-side [PS]) for use in the field. We sampled 113 hunter-harvested WB during the 2014-15 season, collecting blood and lung samples to conduct serological analyses and to screen for the ASF virus. Although the sensitivity (81.8%) and specificity (95.9%) of tests performed in the field were reduced compared to the same test in laboratory, they nevertheless allowed for rapid diagnosis and reduced unnecessary carcass destruction. The test, conducted in the field, was less expensive than in the laboratory and required less manpower. Therefore, we conclude that the combined use of antibody PS test and antigen PS test may be a valuable emergency management method during an outbreak as well as a useful tool for conducting regular monitoring activities as a preventive policy.

  1. Serological study of influenza viruses in veterinarians working with swine in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra-Montañez, Manuel; Castillo-Juárez, Héctor; Sánchez-Betancourt, Iván; Rivera-Benitez, José Francisco; Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto

    2017-06-01

    Humans and swine are both affected by influenza viruses, and swine are considered a potential source of new influenza viruses. Transmission of influenza viruses across species is well documented. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of different influenza virus subtypes in veterinarians working for the Mexican swine industry, using a hemagglutination inhibition test. All sera tested were collected in July 2011. The data were analysed using a generalized linear model and a linear model to study the possible association of seroprevalence with the age of the veterinarian, vaccination status, and biosecurity level of the farm where they work. The observed seroprevalence was 12.3%, 76.5%, 46.9%, and 11.1% for the human subtypes of pandemic influenza virus (pH1N1), seasonal human influenza virus (hH1N1), the swine subtypes of classical swine influenza virus (swH1N1), and triple-reassortant swine influenza virus (swH3N2), respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that age was associated with hH1N1 seroprevalence (P virus; hence, they would have been at risk for infection with this virus if this subtype had been circulating in swine in Mexico prior to 2011.

  2. Effect of various husbandry conditions on the production parameters of swine herds in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dors, A; Czyzewska, E; Pomorska-Mól, M; Kolacz, R; Pejsak, Z

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to collect production data of Polish swine herds, with special emphasis on the production parameters in farrow to finish pig herds. Another goal was to determine differences in the production performance of swine herds with different sizes, various status with regard to biosecurity, and with different veterinary expenditure. For this purpose, questionnaire surveys were carried out in 96 polish farrow to finish pig herds. The data concerning production parameters (e.g. the number of pigs born per sow per year, litters per sow per year, pre- and post-weaning mortality), farm size (small, medium, large), management (all in-all out by room or building), veterinary expenditure (including medication) and the percentage of pigs under medical treatment, were collected. The data obtained in the present study indicate that in general, the efficiency of swine production in evaluated farms was relatively low. It was also found that in large swine farms the efficiency was better than that in small ones and that the proper biosecurity positively influenced the performance of the swine farms. However, only in 10.4% facilities, the biosecurity rules and methods, including the principle "all-in all-out", were implemented and kept. It seems that inefficient swine production on the majority of Polish farms results from poor basic knowledge on pig production and understanding of fundamental economic rules of swine breeding.

  3. Tetracycline resistance in semi-arid agricultural soils under long-term swine effluent application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Inna E; Josue, Rosemarie D R; Deng, Shiping; Hattey, Jeffory A

    2017-05-04

    Annually, millions pounds of antibiotics are released unmetabolized into environment along with animal wastes. Accumulation of antibiotics in soils could potentially induce the persistence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Antibiotics such as tetracyclines and tetracycline-resistant bacteria have been previously detected in fields fertilized with animal manure. However, little is known about the accumulation of tetracyclines and the development of tetracycline resistance in semi-arid soils. Here we demonstrate that continuous land application with swine effluent, containing trace amounts of chlortetracycline, does not necessarily induce tetracycline resistance in soil bacteria. Based on the testing of more than 3,000 bacteria isolated from the amended soils, we found no significant increase in the occurrence and level of chlortetracycline resistant bacteria in soils after 15 years of continuous swine effluent fertilization. To account for a possible transfer of tetracycline-resistant bacteria originated from the swine effluent to soils, we analyzed two commonly found tetracycline resistant genes, tet(O) and tet(M), in the swine effluent and fertilized soils. Both genes were present in the swine effluent, however, they were not detectable in soils applied with swine effluent. Our data demonstrate that agronomic application of manure from antibiotic treated swine effluent does not necessarily result in the development of antibiotic bacterial resistance in soils. Apparently, concentrations of chlortetracycline present in manure are not significant enough to induce the development of antibiotic bacterial resistance.

  4. Awareness, perception and myths towards swine flu in school children of Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Varsha; Singh, R K; Agrawal, V K; Agarwal, Ashok; Kumar, Rajeev; Sharma, Mahendra

    2010-01-01

    The deadly disease swine flu is, without a speck of doubt, causing a massive havoc among the common people of India and has created fear across the various strata of the society. The objective was to find out the awareness, perception, and myths of school going children of class 9 th to 12 th toward swine flu. The present cross-sectional study was carried out in two randomly selected (using random number table) senior secondary schools of Bareilly among 400 students of class 9 th to 12 th . A total of 200 students were selected from each school. Chi-square test was applied for statistical analysis. Almost all the students (97.75%) have heard about of swine flu and are aware of it as a disease entity. Fever was found to be the main symptom while coughing and sneezing were main way of spread of swine flu known to them. About 97% of the students mention use of mask as most effective way to prevent them from swine flu. Knowledge of availability of medicine was present in less than half of the students. TV was found to be the main source from which they get knowledge (79%), and they are trying to get knowledge (53.2%) of swine flu. Among them, 74% students were taking precaution against swine flu.

  5. Variations in abundance, diversity and community composition of airborne fungi in swine houses across seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Priyanka; Woo, Cheolwoon; Yamamoto, Naomichi; Choi, Hong-Lim

    2016-11-28

    We examined the abundance, diversity and community composition of airborne fungi in swine houses during winter and summer seasons by using quantitative PCR and Illumina HiSeq sequencing of ITS1 region. The abundance of airborne fungi varied significantly only between seasons, while fungal diversity varied significantly both within and between seasons, with both abundance and diversity peaked in winter. The fungal OTU composition was largely structured by the swine house unit and season as well as by their interactions. Of the measured microclimate variables, relative humidity, particulate matters (PMs), ammonia, and stocking density were significantly correlated with fungal OTU composition. The variation in beta diversity was higher within swine houses during summer, which indicates that the airborne fungal community composition was more heterogeneous in summer compared to winter. We also identified several potential allergen/pathogen related fungal genera in swine houses. The total relative abundance of potential allergen/pathogen related fungal genera varied between swine houses in both seasons, and showed positive correlation with PM2.5. Overall, our findings show that the abundance, diversity and composition of airborne fungi are highly variable in swine houses and to a large extent structured by indoor microclimate variables of swine houses.

  6. Development of a novel lateral flow assay for detection of African swine fever in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, P; Gallardo, C; Monedero, A; Ruiz, T; Arias, M; Sanz, A; Rueda, P

    2016-09-15

    African swine fever (ASF) is a viral infectious disease of domestic and wild suids of all breeds and ages, causing a wide range of hemorrhagic syndromes and frequently characterized by high mortality. The disease is endemic in Sub-Saharan Africa and Sardinia. Since 2007, it has also been present in different countries of Eastern Europe, where control measures have not been effective so far. The continued spread poses a serious threat to the swine industry worldwide. In the absence of vaccine, early detection of infected animals is of paramount importance for control of the outbreak, to prevent the transmission of the virus to healthy animals and subsequent spreading of the disease. Current laboratory diagnosis is mainly based on virological methods (antigen and genome detection) and serodiagnosis. In the present work, a Lateral Flow Assay (LFA) for antigen detection has been developed and evaluated. The test is based on the use of a MAb against VP72 protein of ASFV, the major viral capsid protein and highly immunogenic. First experiments using VP72 viral and recombinant protein or inactivated culture virus showed promising results with a sensitivity similar to that of a commercially available Antigen-ELISA. Moreover, these strips were tested with blood from experimentally infected pigs and field animals and the results compared with those of PCR and Antigen-ELISA. For the experimentally infected samples, there was an excellent correlation between the LFA and the ELISA, while the PCR always showed to be more sensitive (38 % positive samples by PCR versus 27 % by LFA). The LFA was demonstrated to be positive for animals with circulating virus levels exceeding 10(4) HAU. With the field samples, once again, the PCR detected more positives than either the Antigen-ELISA or LFA, although here the number of positive samples scored by the LFA exceeded the values obtained with the Antigen-ELISA, showing 60 % positivity vs 48 % for the ELISA. For the two groups of sera

  7. Effects of Residue Management on Decomposition in Irrigated Rice Fields Are Not Related to Changes in the Decomposer Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Anja; John, Katharina; Arida, Gertrudo; Auge, Harald; Brandl, Roland; Horgan, Finbarr G.; Hotes, Stefan; Marquez, Leonardo; Radermacher, Nico; Settele, Josef; Wolters, Volkmar; Schädler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Decomposers provide an essential ecosystem service that contributes to sustainable production in rice ecosystems by driving the release of nutrients from organic crop residues. During a single rice crop cycle we examined the effects of four different crop residue management practices (rice straw or ash of burned straw scattered on the soil surface or incorporated into the soil) on rice straw decomposition and on the abundance of aquatic and soil-dwelling invertebrates. Mass loss of rice straw in litterbags of two different mesh sizes that either prevented or allowed access of meso- and macro-invertebrates was used as a proxy for decomposition rates. Invertebrates significantly increased total loss of litter mass by up to 30%. Initially, the contribution of invertebrates to decomposition was significantly smaller in plots with rice straw scattered on the soil surface; however, this effect disappeared later in the season. We found no significant responses in microbial decomposition rates to management practices. The abundance of aquatic fauna was higher in fields with rice straw amendment, whereas the abundance of soil fauna fluctuated considerably. There was a clear separation between the overall invertebrate community structure in response to the ash and straw treatments. However, we found no correlation between litter mass loss and abundances of various lineages of invertebrates. Our results indicate that invertebrates can contribute to soil fertility in irrigated paddy fields by decomposing rice straw, and that their abundance as well as efficiency in decomposition may be promoted by crop residue management practices. PMID:26225556

  8. Effects of Residue Management on Decomposition in Irrigated Rice Fields Are Not Related to Changes in the Decomposer Community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Schmidt

    Full Text Available Decomposers provide an essential ecosystem service that contributes to sustainable production in rice ecosystems by driving the release of nutrients from organic crop residues. During a single rice crop cycle we examined the effects of four different crop residue management practices (rice straw or ash of burned straw scattered on the soil surface or incorporated into the soil on rice straw decomposition and on the abundance of aquatic and soil-dwelling invertebrates. Mass loss of rice straw in litterbags of two different mesh sizes that either prevented or allowed access of meso- and macro-invertebrates was used as a proxy for decomposition rates. Invertebrates significantly increased total loss of litter mass by up to 30%. Initially, the contribution of invertebrates to decomposition was significantly smaller in plots with rice straw scattered on the soil surface; however, this effect disappeared later in the season. We found no significant responses in microbial decomposition rates to management practices. The abundance of aquatic fauna was higher in fields with rice straw amendment, whereas the abundance of soil fauna fluctuated considerably. There was a clear separation between the overall invertebrate community structure in response to the ash and straw treatments. However, we found no correlation between litter mass loss and abundances of various lineages of invertebrates. Our results indicate that invertebrates can contribute to soil fertility in irrigated paddy fields by decomposing rice straw, and that their abundance as well as efficiency in decomposition may be promoted by crop residue management practices.

  9. Application of supercritical water to decompose brominated epoxy resin and environmental friendly recovery of metals from waste memory module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kuo; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-02-03

    Waste Memory Modules (WMMs), a particular kind of waste printed circuit board (WPCB), contain a high amount of brominated epoxy resin (BER), which may bring a series of environmental and health problems. On the other hand, metals like gold and copper are very valuable and are important to recover from WMMs. In the present study, an effective and environmental friendly method using supercritical water (SCW) to decompose BER and recover metals from WMMs was developed instead of hydrometallurgy or pyrometallurgy simultaneously. Experiments were conducted under external-catalyst-free conditions with temperatures ranging from 350 to 550 °C, pressures from 25 to 40 MPa, and reaction times from 120 to 360 min in a semibatch-type reactor. The results showed that BER could be quickly and efficiently decomposed under SCW condition, and the mechanism was possibly free radical reaction. After the SCW treatments, the glass fibers and metal foils in the solid residue could be easily liberated and recovered, respectively. The metal recovery rate reached 99.80%. The optimal parameters were determined as 495 °C, 33 MPa, and 305 min on the basis of response surface methodology (RSM). This study provides an efficient and environmental friendly approach for WMMs recycling compared with electrolysis, pyrometallurgy, and hydrometallurgy.

  10. Physicians' acceptance of electronic medical records exchange: an extension of the decomposed TPB model with institutional trust and perceived risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Pi-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Electronic medical records (EMRs) exchange improves clinical quality and reduces medical costs. However, few studies address the antecedent factors of physicians' intentions to use EMR exchange. Based on institutional trust and perceived risk integrated with the decomposed theory of planned behavior (TPB) model, we propose a theoretical model to explain the intention of physicians to use an EMR exchange system. We conducted a field survey in Taiwan to collect data from physicians who had experience using the EMR exchange systems. A valid sample of 191 responses was collected for data analysis. To test the proposed research model, we employed structural equation modeling using the partial least squares method. The study findings show that the following five factors have a significant influence on the physicians' intentions to use EMR exchange systems: (a) attitude; (b) subjective norm; (c) perceived behavior control; (d) institutional trust; and (e) perceived risk. These five factors are predictable by perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and compatibility, interpersonal and governmental influence, facilitating conditions and self-efficacy, situational normality and structural assurance, and institutional trust, respectively. The results also indicate that institutional trust and perceived risk integrated with the decomposed TPB model improve the prediction of physician's intentions to use EMR exchange. The results of this study indicate that our research model effectively predicts the intention of physicians to use EMR exchange, and provides valuable implications for academics and practitioners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Understanding physicians' acceptance of the Medline system for practicing evidence-based medicine: a decomposed TPB model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Shin-Yuan; Ku, Yi-Cheng; Chien, Jui-Chi

    2012-02-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) supports physicians in their improvement of clinical quality and enhances hospitals' improvement of patient safety. Many health care institutions implement information systems to support physicians practicing EBM. However, studies exploring the antecedent factors of physicians' usage intention of information systems facilitating EBM practice are rare. Hence this study proposed a research model based on the decomposed theory of the planned behavior model (decomposed TPB) to investigate the factors influencing physicians' acceptance of the Medline system. A field survey was conducted in Taiwan to collect data from physicians with experience in using the Medline system. A valid sample of 224 physicians was collected for data analysis. Structural equation modeling using the partial least squares (PLS) method with bootstrap estimate was used to test the research model. The findings of this study show that a physician's usage intention is significantly influenced by three factors, i.e. attitude, the subjective norm, and perceived behavior control. Furthermore, these three factors can be predicted by perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, interpersonal influence, personal innovativeness in IT and self-efficacy, respectively. The results of this study indicate that our research model provides an effective prediction of the intention of physicians to use the Medline system and provides valuable implications for academics and practitioners. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Can organic matter hide from decomposers in the labyrinth of soil aggregates? Micro-engineered Soil Chips challenging foraging fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Edith C.; Aleklett, Kristin; Arellano Caicedo, Carlos G.; Bengtsson, Martin; Micaela Mafla Endara, Paola; Ohlsson, Pelle

    2017-04-01

    From the point of view of microorganisms, the soil environment is an enormously complex labyrinth with paths and dead-end streets, where resources and shelters are unevenly distributed. We study foraging strategies of soil organisms, especially fungi, and the possibility of physio-spatial stabilization of organic matter by "hiding" in occluded soil spaces. We manipulate growth habitat microstructure with lab-on-a-chip techniques, where we designed complex environments with channels and obstacle at dimensions of the size of hyphae, and construct them in the transparent, gas-permeable polymer PDMS. We fill those with different nutrient solutions or combine with mineral nutrient gradients, and inoculate them with soil organisms. We analyze organisms and substrates with microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and analytical chemistry. We compared different soil litter decomposers and an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus for their ability to forage through complex air-gap structures and attempt to classify them into functional traits concerning their mycelium directionality, space-exploring approach and ability to grow through acute angles and narrow constrictions. We identified structures which are very difficult to penetrate for most species, and compounds located behind such features may thus be spatially unavailable for decomposers. We discuss our approach in comparison to soil pore space tomographic analyses and findings we made in the pore space of colonized wood biochar.

  13. There's no place like home? An exploration of the mechanisms behind plant litter-decomposer affinity in terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Amy T; Vivanco, Lucía; González-Arzac, Adelia; Pérez, Luis I

    2014-08-08

    Litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems is an important first step for carbon and nutrient cycling, as senescent plant material is degraded and consequently incorporated, along with microbial products, into soil organic matter. The identification of litter affinity effects, whereby decomposition is accelerated in its home environment (home-field advantage, HFA), highlights the importance of plant-soil interactions that have consequences for biogeochemical cycling. While not universal, these affinity effects have been identified in a range of ecosystems, particularly in forests without disturbance. The optimization of the local decomposer community to degrade a particular combination of litter traits is the most oft-cited explanation for HFA effects, but the ways in which this specialized community can develop are only beginning to be understood. We explore ways in which HFA, or more broadly litter affinity effects, could arise in terrestrial ecosystems. Plant-herbivore interactions, microbial symbiosis, legacies from phyllosphere communities and attractors of specific soil fauna could contribute to spatially defined affinity effects for litter decomposition. Pyrosequencing soil communities and functional linkages of soil fauna provide great promise in advancing our mechanistic understanding of these interactions, and could lead to a greater appreciation of the role of litter-decomposer affinity in the maintenance of soil functional diversity. © 2014 The Authors New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Decomposing of Socioeconomic Inequality in Mental Health: A Cross-Sectional Study into Female-Headed Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veisani, Yousef; Delpisheh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Connection between socioeconomic statuses and mental health has been reported already. Accordingly, mental health asymmetrically is distributed in society; therefore, people with disadvantaged condition suffer from inconsistent burden of mental disorders. In this study, we aimed to understand the determinants of socioeconomic inequality of mental health in the female-headed households and decomposed contributions of socioeconomic determinants in mental health. In this cross-sectional study, 787 female-headed households were enrolled using systematic random sampling in 2014. Data were taken from the household assets survey and a self-administered 28 item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) as a screening tool for detection of possible cases of mental disorders. Inequality was measured by concentration index (CI) and as decomposing contribution in inequality. All analyses were performed by standard statistical software Stata 11.2. The overall CI for mental health in the female-headed households was -0.049 (95% CI: -0.072, 0.025). The highly positive contributors for inequality in mental health in the female-headed households were age (34%) and poor household economic status (22%). Socioeconomic inequalities exist in mental health into female-headed households and mental health problems more prevalent in women with lower socioeconomic status.

  15. Decomposing economic disparities in risky sexual behaviors among people who inject drugs in Tehran: Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozi, Mehdi; Sharifi, Hamid; Noroozi, Alireza; Rezaei, Fatemah; Bazrafshan, Mohammad Rafi; Armoon, Bahram

    2017-01-01

    To our knowledge, no previous study has systematically assessed the role of economic status in risky sexual behavior among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Iran. In this study, we used Blinder-Oaxaca (BO) decomposition to explore the contribution of economic status to inequality in unprotected sex among PWID in Tehran and to decompose it into its determinants. Behavioral surveys among PWID were conducted in Tehran, the capital city of Iran, from November 2016 to April 2017. We employed a cross-sectional design and snowball sampling methodology. We constructed the asset index (weighted by the first principal component analysis factor) using socioeconomic data and then divided the variable into 3 tertiles. We used the BO method to decompose the economic inequality in unprotected sex. Of the 520 recruited individuals, 20 were missing data for variables used to define their economic status, and were therefore excluded from the analysis. Not having access to harm reduction programs was the largest factor contributing to the economic disparity in unprotected sex, accounting for 5.5 percentage points of the 21.4% discrepancy. Of the unadjusted total economic disparity in unprotected sex, 52% was unexplained by observable characteristics included in the regression model. The difference in the prevalence of unprotected sex between the high-income and low-income groups was 25%. Increasing needle syringe program coverage and improving human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) knowledge are essential for efforts to eliminate inequalities in HIV risk behaviors among PWID.

  16. Polymerase discordance in novel swine influenza H3N2v constellations is tolerated in swine but not human respiratory epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D Powell

    Full Text Available Swine-origin H3N2v, a variant of H3N2 influenza virus, is a concern for novel reassortment with circulating pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (H1N1pdm09 in swine because this can lead to the emergence of a novel pandemic virus. In this study, the reassortment prevalence of H3N2v with H1N1pdm09 was determined in swine cells. Reassortants evaluated showed that the H1N1pdm09 polymerase (PA segment occurred within swine H3N2 with ∼ 80% frequency. The swine H3N2-human H1N1pdm09 PA reassortant (swH3N2-huPA showed enhanced replication in swine cells, and was the dominant gene constellation. Ferrets infected with swH3N2-huPA had increased lung pathogenicity compared to parent viruses; however, swH3N2-huPA replication in normal human bronchoepithelial cells was attenuated - a feature linked to expression of IFN-β and IFN-λ genes in human but not swine cells. These findings indicate that emergence of novel H3N2v influenza constellations require more than changes in the viral polymerase complex to overcome barriers to cross-species transmission. Additionally, these findings reveal that while the ferret model is highly informative for influenza studies, slight differences in pathogenicity may not necessarily be indicative of human outcomes after infection.

  17. DETECTION OF CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS BY RT-PCR IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Chowdhury

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever is a deadly disease of swine, caused by a RNA virus. The present study has identified presence of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV in pigs of West Bengal by one step reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR performed using 5’ NTR specific primers. Internal organs from clinically affected pigs were examined from three districts of West Bengal. RT-PCT has identified presence of CSFV in all the tissues examined confirming presence of CSFV in different parts of the state.

  18. Endothelial cell proliferation in swine experimental aneurysm after coil embolization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Mitome-Mishima

    Full Text Available After coil embolization, recanalization in cerebral aneurysms adversely influences long-term prognosis. Proliferation of endothelial cells on the coil surface may reduce the incidence of recanalization and further improve outcomes after coil embolization. We aimed to map the expression of proliferating tissue over the aneurysmal orifice and define the temporal profile of tissue growth in a swine experimental aneurysm model. We compared the outcomes after spontaneous thrombosis with those of coil embolization using histological and morphological techniques. In aneurysms that we not coiled, spontaneous thrombosis was observed, and weak, easily detachable proliferating tissue was evident in the aneurysmal neck. In contrast, in the coil embolization group, histological analysis showed endothelial-like cells lining the aneurysmal opening. Moreover, immunohistochemical and morphological analysis suggested that these cells were immature endothelial cells. Our results indicated the existence of endothelial cell proliferation 1 week after coil embolization and showed immature endothelial cells in septal tissue between the systemic circulation and the aneurysm. These findings suggest that endothelial cells are lead to and proliferate in the former aneurysmal orifice. This is the first examination to evaluate the temporal change of proliferating tissue in a swine experimental aneurysm model.

  19. Rheumatoid Arthritis and Swine Influenza Vaccine: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurjot Basra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is the most common chronic inflammatory joint disease. Multiple scientific articles have documented that vaccinations for influenza, MMR, and HBV, to name a few, could be triggers of RA in genetically predisposed individuals. However, there is limited data regarding the association of swine flu vaccine (H1N1 and RA. We report the case of a Mexican American female who developed RA right after vaccination with H1N1 vaccine. Genetically, RA has consistently been associated with an epitope in the third hypervariable region of the HLA-DR chains, known as the “shared epitope”, which is found primarily in DR4 and DR1 regions. The presence of HLA-DRB1 alleles is associated with susceptibility to RA in Mexican Americans. Hence, certain individuals with the presence of the “shared epitope” may develop RA following specific vaccinations. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of RA following vaccination with the swine flu vaccine.

  20. The failure of the 1976 swine influenza immunization program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begley, S L

    1977-01-01

    The program to immunize 210 million Americans against swine flu failed. It set back the Federal government's relations with state health agencies, private physicians, pharmaceutical manufacturers, and the insurance industry. It increased mistrust of immunization programs and of government health programs in general.The well-intentioned plan had far-reaching consequences because its scope and the speed with which it was implemented were overreactions to the threat. Its size magnified every one of its faults, legal, medical and political. Organizational and scientific capacity were less than expected. Local health agencies could not administer the program with the inadequate funds from HEW and pharmaceutical companies could not produce a safe, effective children's vaccine.Because of the urgency given the program, Congress neglected the opposition of consumer advocates and state health officials, and did not spend time trying to include immunization against childhood disease in the swine flu program.The failure illustrates the dangers of hasty decisions, of considering only direct medical costs and benefits and not social and political effects on health policy, of launching a public health program whose scientific basis is weak and whose administrative requirements are untested.

  1. Residue depletion of valnemulin in swine tissues after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiushi; Li, Jiancheng; Xia, Lijun; Xia, Xi; Duan, Peng; Shen, Jianzhong; Ding, Shuangyang

    2010-04-01

    The depletion profile of valnemulin (VLM) was studied in healthy piglets after oral administration of a premix. Thirty pigs were given doses of 7.5 mg/kg body weight/day in the feed for 21 days. One control and five medicated piglets were randomly selected for sacrifice at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 days post-treatment. The residue concentrations of VLM in swine muscle, liver and kidney were detected using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The highest residue concentrations of VLM were attained in 0.25 day, and all of the samples were below the maximum residue limit (MRL) recommended by the European Medical Evaluation Agency (EMEA) at 0.5 day post-treatment. The residue concentrations of swine liver were significantly higher than those of kidney and muscle, which indicated liver to be the target tissue for VLM. The withdrawal period of VLM with oral administration was 24 hours. 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Development of a minor groove binder assay for real-time one-step RT-PCR detection of swine vesicular disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMenamy, M J; McKillen, J; Reid, S M; Hjertner, B; King, D P; Adair, B; Allan, G

    2011-01-01

    The design and development of a 5' conjugated minor groove binder (MGB) probe real-time RT-PCR assay are described for rapid, sensitive and specific detection of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) RNA. The assay is designed to target the 2C gene of the SVDV genome and is capable of detecting 2×10(2) copies of an RNA standard per reaction. It does not detect any of the other RNA viruses that cause vesicular disease in pigs, or the human enterovirus, Coxsackie B5 virus (CVB5) which is closely related antigenically to SVDV. The linear range of this test was from 2×10(2) to 2×10(8) copies/μl. The assay is rapid and can detect SVDV RNA in just over 3.5 h including the time required for nucleic acid extraction. The development of this assay provides a useful tool for the differential diagnosis of SVD or for the detection of SVDV in research applications. This study demonstrates the suitability of MGB probes as a real-time PCR chemistry for the diagnosis of swine vesicular disease. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Screening procedures for clenbuterol residue determination in raw swine livers using lateral-flow assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wei H; Fung, Daniel Y C; Xu, Yang; Xiong, Yong H

    2008-04-01

    Clenbuterol, which may cause symptoms of increased heart rate, muscular tremors, headache, nausea, and muscular cramps in patients, has been prohibited for consumption in many countries including the European Union, the United States, and China. A rapid lateral-flow strip assay was developed in our laboratory, and results obtained with this assay were compared with those obtained with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit for the screening of clenbuterol in raw swine liver. A total of 128 swine livers were acquired from five local markets and prepared for analysis by the lateral-flow strip assay and ELISA. Analysis was completed in 10 min with the lateral-flow strip assay and in 90 min with the ELISA. In parallel with the ELISA, the rapid detection strip produced no false-negative results but had a false-positive rate of 6.3%. Cross-reactivity of the strip was assessed and was negative after tests with clenbuterol analogues such as terbutaline, salbutamol, ractopamine, ritodrine, and fenoterol. These data suggest that a lateral-flow strip assay can be used safely as a screening method as part of a clenbuterol residue surveillance program and should be a valuable tool in the food safety field, especially in developing countries.

  4. A Mathematical Model that Simulates Control Options for African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike B Barongo

    Full Text Available A stochastic model designed to simulate transmission dynamics of African swine fever virus (ASFV in a free-ranging pig population under various intervention scenarios is presented. The model was used to assess the relative impact of the timing of the implementation of different control strategies on disease-related mortality. The implementation of biosecurity measures was simulated through incorporation of a decay function on the transmission rate. The model predicts that biosecurity measures implemented within 14 days of the onset of an epidemic can avert up to 74% of pig deaths due to ASF while hypothetical vaccines that confer 70% immunity when deployed prior to day 14 of the epidemic could avert 65% of pig deaths. When the two control measures are combined, the model predicts that 91% of the pigs that would have otherwise succumbed to the disease if no intervention was implemented would be saved. However, if the combined interventions are delayed (defined as implementation from > 60 days only 30% of ASF-related deaths would be averted. In the absence of vaccines against ASF, we recommend early implementation of enhanced biosecurity measures. Active surveillance and use of pen-side diagnostic assays, preferably linked to rapid dissemination of this data to veterinary authorities through mobile phone technology platforms are essential for rapid detection and confirmation of ASF outbreaks. This prediction, although it may seem intuitive, rationally confirms the importance of early intervention in managing ASF epidemics. The modelling approach is particularly valuable in that it determines an optimal timing for implementation of interventions in controlling ASF outbreaks.

  5. Multicriteria Evaluation of Classical Swine Fever Control Strategies Using the Choquet Integral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosig, J; Traulsen, I; Krieter, J

    2016-02-01

    An outbreak of the highly contagious animal disease classical swine fever (CSF) requires the selection of an optimal control strategy. The choice of a control strategy is a decision process depending on different aspects. Besides epidemiology, economic and ethical/social aspects must be taken into account. In this study, multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) was used to evaluate six control strategies for two regions with different farm densities. A strategy including only the minimum EU control measures and the traditional control strategy based on preventive culling were compared to alternative control strategies using emergency vaccination and/or rapid PCR testing ('emergency vaccination', 'test to slaughter', 'test to control' and 'vaccination in conjunction with rapid testing'). The MACBETH approach was used in order to assess the three main criteria (epidemiology, economics and ethical/social aspects). Subcriteria with both quantitative and qualitative performance levels were translated into a normalized scale. The Choquet integral approach was adopted to obtain a ranking of the six CSF control strategies based on the three main criteria, taking interactions into account. Three different rankings of the importance of the main criteria, which were to reflect the potential perceptions of stakeholders, were examined. Both the region under investigation and the ranking of the main criteria had an influence on the 'best' choice. Alternative control strategies were favourable to the minimum EU control and the traditional control measures independent of the farm density. Because the choice of the 'best' control strategy does not solely depend on the epidemiological efficiency, MCDM can help to find the best solution. Both MACBETH and the Choquet integral approach are feasible MCDM approaches. MACBETH only needs a qualitative evaluation and is therefore a comparatively intuitive approach. The Choquet integral does not only take the importance of the criteria into

  6. A Review of the Current Status of Relevant Zoonotic Pathogens in Wild Swine (Sus scrofa) Populations: Changes Modulating the Risk of Transmission to Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Fons, F

    2017-02-01

    Many wild swine populations in different parts of the World have experienced an unprecedented demographic explosion that may result in increased exposure of humans to wild swine zoonotic pathogens. Interactions between humans and wild swine leading to pathogen transmission could come from different ways, being hunters and game professionals the most exposed to acquiring infections from wild swine. However, increasing human settlements in semi-natural areas, outdoor activities, socio-economic changes and food habits may increase the rate of exposure to wild swine zoonotic pathogens and to potentially emerging pathogens from wild swine. Frequent and increasing contact rate between humans and wild swine points to an increasing chance of zoonotic pathogens arising from wild swine to be transmitted to humans. Whether this frequent contact could lead to new zoonotic pathogens emerging from wild swine to cause human epidemics or emerging disease outbreaks is difficult to predict, and assessment should be based on thorough epidemiologic surveillance. Additionally, several gaps in knowledge on wild swine global population dynamics trends and wild swine-zoonotic pathogen interactions should be addressed to correctly assess the potential role of wild swine in the emergence of diseases in humans. In this work, viruses such as hepatitis E virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Influenza virus and Nipah virus, and bacteria such as Salmonella spp., Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp. and Leptospira spp. have been identified as the most prone to be transmitted from wild swine to humans on the basis of geographic spread in wild swine populations worldwide, pathogen circulation rates in wild swine populations, wild swine population trends in endemic areas, susceptibility of humans to infection, transmissibility from wild swine to humans and existing evidence of wild swine-human transmission events. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Classical Swine Fever Virus Genotype 2.2 Strain Bergen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Ulrik; Lohse, Louise; Becher, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of the genotype 2.2 classical swine fever virus strain Bergen has been determined; this strain was originally isolated from persistently infected domestic pigs in the Netherlands and is characterized to be of low virulence....

  8. Passive immunity to pandemic H1N1 2009 by swine flu parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Nitish; Aggarwal, Pushkar

    2009-12-15

    The general population is concerned about the probable devastating effects of pandemic H1N1 2009. Based upon the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic, scientific publications and theories, the idea of swine flu parties to achieve passive immunity against pandemic H1N1 2009 has been proposed. Public health officials have asked the general public not to resort to this method. However, no concrete evidence of the reasoning behind the recommendation has been given. In this paper, we have dynamically modeled the effect of swine flu parties on the immunity achieved and associated mortality for a period of two years. The simulations show that the public should not organize or participate in swine flu parties as they will likely increase swine flu-associated mortality.

  9. Vaccine development for protection against systemic infections with Streptococcus suis and Haemophilus parasuis in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both Streptococcus suis and Haemophilus parasuis are important invasive bacterial pathogens of swine, commonly causing meningitis, arthritis, polyserositis, and septicemia. Due to the presence of many serotypes and high genotypic variability, efficacious vaccines are not readily available. We are us...

  10. Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of Influenza Viruses Circulating within European Swine between 2009 and 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J. Watson, Simon; Langat, Pinky; M. Reid, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The emergence in humans of the A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus, a complex reassortant virus of swine origin, highlighted the importance of worldwide influenza virus surveillance in swine. To date, large-scale surveillance studies have been reported for southern China and North America, but such data...... have not yet been described for Europe. We report the first large-scale genomic characterization of 290 swine influenza viruses collected from 14 European countries between 2009 and 2013. A total of 23 distinct genotypes were identified, with the 7 most common comprising 82% of the incidence...... in swine differ at the global level. IMPORTANCE The influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus contains a reassortant genome with segments derived from separate virus lineages that evolved in different regions of the world. In particular, its neuraminidase and matrix segments were derived from the Eurasian avian virus...

  11. Solid waste from Swine wastewater as a fuel source for heat production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Park, Myung-Ho; Kumar, Sanjay; Ra, ChangSix

    2012-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the feasibility of recycling the solids separated from swine wastewater treatment process as a fuel source for heat production and to provide a data set on the gas emissions...

  12. The application of antimicrobial peptides as growth and health promoters for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hao; Shao, Fangyuan; Wu, Miaomiao; Ren, Wenkai; Xiong, Xia; Tan, Bie; Yin, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    With the widespread ban on the use of antibiotics in swine feed, alternative measures need to be sought to maintain swine health and performance. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are part of the nonspecific defense system and are natural antibiotics produced by plants, insects, mammalians, and micro-organisms as well as by chemical synthesis. Due to their broad microbicidal activity against various fungi, bacteria and enveloped viruses, AMPs are a potential alternative to conventional antibiotics for use in swine production. This review focuses on the structure and mechanism of action of AMPs, as well as their effects on performance, immune function and intestinal health in pigs. The aim is to provide support for the application of AMPs as feed additives replacing antibiotics in swine nutrition.

  13. Gene expression profiling of valvular interstitial cells in Rapacz familial hypercholesterolemic swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Porras

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapacz familial hypercholesterolemic (RFH swine is a well-established model of human FH, a highly prevalent hereditary disease associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease and calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD. However, while these animals have been used extensively for the study of atherosclerosis, the heart valves from RFH swine have not previously been examined. We report the analysis of valvular interstitial cell gene expression in adult (two year old and juvenile (three months old RFH and WT swine by microarray analysis via the Affymetrix Porcine Genome Array (GEO #: GSE53997. Principal component and hierarchical clustering analysis revealed grouping and almost no variability between the RFH juvenile and WT juvenile groups. Additionally, only 21 genes were found differentially expressed between these two experimental groups whereas over 900 genes were differentially expressed when comparing either RFH or WT juvenile swine to RFH adults.

  14. Economic welfare analysis of simulated control strategies for Classical Swine Fever epidemics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangen, M.J.J.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: Classical swine fever; contagious disease; epidemiological model; sector-level market and trade model; simulation; economic welfare analysis; densely

  15. High efficiency DNA delivery into swine oocytes and embryos by electronic pulse delivery (EPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Huang, S H; Zhao, X

    1997-06-01

    The production of transgenic swine for xenotransplantation has been proposed as an optimal option to overcome the chronic shortage of human organ donors. Generation of genetically engineered swine has been elusive due to the difficulties in gene transfer. In order to achieve effective gene delivery, a key step for the genetic modification, we applied electronic pulse delivery (EPD) technology to introduce H2Kb-DC DNA construct into swine eggs. Using the developed EPD Protocols, we have achieved good viability of the EPD treated oocytes, satisfactory embryonic development of the EPD treated embryos, and stable DNA transfer into the swine embryos with high efficiency. Thus, application of the EPD technology promises to effectively facilitate the generation of large transgenic mammals.

  16. Tumefactive acute disseminated encephalomyelitis complicating human swine influenza (H1N1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Amanda C Y; Ng, S H

    2014-10-01

    This report illustrates an adult patient presenting with tumefactive acute disseminated encephalomyelitis complicating human swine influenza. Its presentation, diagnosis, investigation findings, course, and response to treatment are discussed herein.

  17. Bioinformatics prediction of swine MHC class I epitopes from Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welner, Simon; Nielsen, Morten; Lund, Ole

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) causes one of the most important diseases in all swine producing countries. The infection has a high impact on animal welfare, food safety and production economics. PRRSV possesses multiple immunoevasive strategies, from suppression...

  18. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Ji-Lu, E-mail: triace@163.com; Zhu, Ming-Qiang; Wu, Hai-tang

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Swine carcasses can be converted to bio-oil by alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction. • It seems that the use of the bio-oil for heat or CHP is technically suitable. • Some valuable chemicals were found in the bio-oils. • The bio-oil and the solid residue constituted an energy efficiency of 93.63% for the feedstock. • The solid residue can be used as a soil amendment, to sequester C and for preparing activated carbon. - Abstract: It is imperative that swine carcasses are disposed of safely, practically and economically. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil was performed. Firstly, the effects of temperature, reaction time and pH value on the yield of each liquefaction product were determined. Secondly, liquefaction products, including bio-oil and solid residue, were characterized. Finally, the energy recovery ratio (ERR), which was defined as the energy of the resultant products compared to the energy input of the material, was investigated. Our experiment shows that reaction time had certain influence on the yield of liquefaction products, but temperature and pH value had bigger influence on the yield of liquefaction products. Yields of 62.2 wt% bio-oil, having a high heating value of 32.35 MJ/kg and a viscosity of 305cp, and 22 wt% solid residue were realized at a liquefaction temperature of 250 °C, a reaction time of 60 min and a pH value of 9.0. The bio-oil contained up to hundreds of different chemical components that may be classified according to functional groups. Typical compound classes in the bio-oil were hydrocarbons, organic acids, esters, ketones and heterocyclics. The energy recovery ratio (ERR) reached 93.63%. The bio-oil is expected to contribute to fossil fuel replacement in stationary applications, including boilers and furnaces, and upgrading processes for the bio-oil may be used to obtain liquid transport fuels.

  19. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in swine matrices in Nova Mutum and Diamantino, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, Lívia Saab; Caramori Júnior, João Garcia; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis; Pereira, Joyce Alves; Filho, João Xavier de Oliveira; Vicente, Regiane Trigueiro; Neves, Leandro Batista; Nicolau, José Leonardo; Igarashi, Michelle; Moura, Saulo Teixeira

    2010-01-01

    This report aimed to assess the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 708 swine matrices in Nova Mutum and Diamantino in the state of Mato Grosso, Central-West Brazil. Serum samples were examined by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). It was found a seroprevalence of 12.8%, considering titers ≥ 64. Therefore, the data reinforce the need for appropriate management of swine raising to minimize the risk of infection of pigs with T. gondii.

  20. Decline of phosphorus, copper, and zinc in anaerobic swine lagoon columns receiving pretreated influent

    OpenAIRE

    Szögi,Ariel A.; Matias B. Vanotti

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Land application of both anaerobic lagoon liquid and sludge can increase nutrient accumulation beyond the soil’s assimilative capacity and become a threat to water quality in regions with intensive, confined swine production. In a 15-month meso-scale column study, we evaluated the effect of manure pretreatment on the reduction of total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (TP), soluble reactive P (SRP), and total copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in swine lagoons using (i) enhanced...