WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapidly changing field

  1. Rapid changes in the geomagnetic field: from global to regional scales

    OpenAIRE

    Mandea, M.; Olsen, N; Monika Korte; Verbanac, G.; Y. Yahiat

    2008-01-01

    A large part of the Earth's magnetic field is generated by fluid motion in the molten outer core. Its temporal change, called secular variation, is characterized by occasional rapid changes known as geomagnetic jerks, sudden change in the second time derivative of the magnetic field. For a while, detailed studies of these phenomena suffered from the sparse distribution of geomagnetic observatories over many parts of the Earth. Recent studies on magnetic data provided by magnetic satellites, w...

  2. Modeling cavitation in a rapidly changing pressure field - application to a small ultrasonic horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žnidarčič, Anton; Mettin, Robert; Dular, Matevž

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic horn transducers are frequently used in applications of acoustic cavitation in liquids. It has been observed that if the horn tip is sufficiently small and driven at high amplitude, cavitation is very strong, and the tip can be covered entirely by the gas/vapor phase for longer time intervals. A peculiar dynamics of the attached cavity can emerge with expansion and collapse at a self-generated frequency in the subharmonic range, i.e. below the acoustic driving frequency. The term "acoustic supercavitation" was proposed for this type of cavitation Žnidarčič et al. (2014) [1]. We tested several established hydrodynamic cavitation models on this problem, but none of them was able to correctly predict the flow features. As a specific characteristic of such acoustic cavitation problems lies in the rapidly changing driving pressures, we present an improved approach to cavitation modeling, which does not neglect the second derivatives in the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. Comparison with measurements of acoustic supercavitation at an ultrasonic horn of 20kHz frequency revealed a good agreement in terms of cavity dynamics, cavity volume and emitted pressure pulsations. The newly developed cavitation model is particularly suited for simulation of cavitating flow in highly fluctuating driving pressure fields. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A replicated climate change field experiment reveals rapid evolutionary response in an ecologically important soil invertebrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bataillon, Thomas; Galtier, Nicolas; Bernard, Aurelien

    2016-01-01

    associated to changes in soil temperature and soil moisture. This shows an evolutionaryresponse to realistic climate change happening over short-time scale, and calls for incorporating evolution into modelspredicting future response of species to climate change. It also shows that designed climate change...... experiments coupled with genome sequencing offer great potential to test for the occurrence (or lack) of an evolutionary response.......Whether species can respond evolutionarily to current climate change is crucial for the persistence of many species. Yet, very few studies have examined genetic responses to climate change in manipulated experiments carried out innatural field conditions. We examined the evolutionary response...

  4. Rapid changes in corticospinal excitability during force field adaptation of human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthélemy, Dorothy; Alain, S; Grey, Michael James

    2012-01-01

    Force field adaptation of locomotor muscle activity is one way of studying the ability of the motor control networks in the brain and spinal cord to adapt in a flexible way to changes in the environment. Here, we investigate whether the corticospinal tract is involved in this adaptation. We...... measured changes in motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle before, during, and after subjects adapted to a force field applied to the ankle joint during treadmill walking. When the force field assisted dorsiflexion during...... the swing phase of the step cycle, subjects adapted by decreasing TA EMG activity. In contrast, when the force field resisted dorsiflexion, they increased TA EMG activity. After the force field was removed, normal EMG activity gradually returned over the next 5 min of walking. TA MEPs elicited in the early...

  5. Rapidly increasing collimation and magnetic field changes of a protostellar H2O maser outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surcis, G.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; van Langevelde, H. J.; Goddi, C.; Torrelles, J. M.; Cantó, J.; Curiel, S.; Kim, S.-W.; Kim, J.-S.

    2014-05-01

    Context. W75N(B) is a massive star-forming region that contains three radio continuum sources (VLA 1, VLA 2, and VLA 3), which are thought to be three massive young stellar objects at three different evolutionary stages. VLA 1 is the most evolved and VLA 2 the least evolved source. The 22 GHz H2O masers associated with VLA 1 and VLA 2 have been mapped at several epochs over eight years. While the H2O masers in VLA 1 show a persistent linear distribution along a radio jet, those in VLA 2 are distributed around an expanding shell. Furthermore, H2O maser polarimetric measurements revealed magnetic fields aligned with the two structures. Aims: Using new polarimetric observations of H2O masers, we aim to confirm the elliptical expansion of the shell-like structure around VLA 2 and, at the same time, to determine if the magnetic fields around the two sources have changed. Methods: The NRAO Very Long Baseline Array was used to measure the linear polarization and the Zeeman-splitting of the 22 GHz H2O masers towards the massive star-forming region W75N(B). Results: The H2O maser distribution around VLA 1 is unchanged from that previously observed. We made an elliptical fit of the H2O masers around VLA 2. We find that the shell-like structure is still expanding along the direction parallel to the thermal radio jet of VLA 1. While the magnetic field around VLA 1 has not changed in the past ~7 years, the magnetic field around VLA 2 has changed its orientation according to the new direction of the major-axis of the shell-like structure and it is now aligned with the magnetic field in VLA 1. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  6. Rapid microbiome changes in freshly deposited cow feces under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin eWong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although development of next generation sequencing (NGS has substantially improved our understanding of the microbial ecology of animal feces, previous studies have mostly focused on freshly excreted feces. There is still limited understanding of the aging process dynamics of fecal microbiomes in intact cowpats exposed to natural environments. Fresh cowpats were sampled at multiple time points for 57 days under field conditions; half the samples were exposed to sunlight (unshaded while the other half was protected from sunlight (shaded. The 16SRNA hypervariable region 4 was amplified from each sample and sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq Platform. While Clostridia, Bacteroidia and Sphingobacteria were dominant classes of bacteria in fresh cowpats, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacilli were the dominant classes by the end of the study, indicating a general shift from anaerobic to aerobic bacterial populations. This change was most likely influenced by the shift from cattle gut (anaerobic to pasture ground (aerobic. Reduced moisture in cowpats may also contribute to the community shift since air can penetrate the dryer cowpat more easily. Twelve genera consisting pathogenic bacteria were detected, with Mycobacterium, Bacillus, and Clostridium being the most abundant; their combined abundance accounts for 90% of the total pathogenic genera. Taxonomic richness and diversity increased throughout the study for most samples, which could be due to bacteria regrowth and colonization of bacteria from the environment. In contrast to the high taxonomic diversity, the changes of PICRUSt inferred function profile were minimal for all cowpats throughout the study, which suggest that core functions predicted by PICRUSt may be too conserved to distinguish differences between aerobe and anaerobe. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that cowpat exposure to air and sunlight can cause drastic microbiome

  7. A replicated climate change field experiment reveals rapid evolutionary response in an ecologically important soil invertebrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bataillon, Thomas; Galtier, Nicolas; Bernard, Aurelien

    2016-01-01

    to climate change in a common annelid worm using a controlled replicated experiment where climatic conditions were manipulated in a natural setting. Analyzing the transcribed genome of 15 local populations, we found that about 12% of the genetic polymorphisms exhibit differences in allele frequencies...

  8. The human genome and sport, including epigenetics and athleticogenomics: a brief look at a rapidly changing field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, N C Craig

    2008-09-01

    Since Hugh Montgomery discovered the first of what are now nearly 200 "fitness genes", together with rapid advances in human gene therapy, there is now a real prospect of the use of genes, genetic elements, and/or cells that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance (to paraphrase the World Anti-Doping Agency's definition of gene doping). This overview covers the main areas of interface between genetics and sport, attempts to provide a context against which gene doping may be viewed, and suggests a futuristic legitimate use of genomic (and possibly epigenetic) information in sport.

  9. Rapid change of AM fungal community in a rain-fed wheat field with short-term plastic film mulching practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongjun; Mao, Lin; He, Xinhua; Cheng, Gang; Ma, Xiaojun; An, Lizhe; Feng, Huyuan

    2012-01-01

    Plastic film mulching (PFM) is a widely used agricultural practice in the temperate semi-arid Loess Plateau of China. However, how beneficial soil microbes, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in particular, respond to the PFM practice is not known. Here, a field experiment was performed to study the effects of a 3-month short-term PFM practice on AM fungi in plots planted with spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Dingxi-2) in the Loess Plateau. AM colonization, spore density, wheat spike weight, and grain phosphorus (P) content were significantly increased in the PFM treatments, and these changes were mainly attributable to changes in soil properties such as available P and soil moisture. Alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly higher in PFM soils, but levels of AM fungal-related glomalin were similar between treatments. A total of nine AM fungal phylotypes were detected in root samples based on AM fungal SSU rDNA analyses, with six and five phylotypes in PFM and no-PFM plots, respectively. Although AM fungal phylotype richness was not statistically different between treatments, the community compositions were different, with four and three specific phylotypes in the PFM and no-PFM plots, respectively. A significant and rapid change in AM fungal, wheat, and soil variables following PFM suggested that the functioning of the AM symbiosis had been changed in the wheat field under PFM. Future studies are needed to investigate whether PFM applied over a longer term has a similar effect on the AM fungal community and their functioning in an agricultural ecosystem.

  10. Measurement of Rapid Amiloride-Dependent pH Changes at the Cell Surface Using a Proton-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser, Daniel; Fine, Michael; Tabata, Miyuki; Goda, Tatsuro; Miyahara, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel method for the rapid measurement of pH fluxes at close proximity to the surface of the plasma membrane in mammalian cells using an ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET). In conjuction with an efficient continuous superfusion system, the ISFET sensor was capable of recording rapid changes in pH at the cells’ surface induced by intervals of ammonia loading and unloading, even when using highly buffered solutions. Furthermore, the system was able to isolate physiologically relevant signals by not only detecting the transients caused by ammonia loading and unloading, but display steady-state signals as would be expected by a proton transport-mediated influence on the extracellular proton-gradient. Proof of concept was demonstrated through the use of 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride (EIPA), a small molecule inhibitor of sodium/hydrogen exchangers (NHE). As the primary transporter responsible for proton balance during cellular regulation of pH, non-electrogenic NHE transport is notoriously difficult to detect with traditional methods. Using the NHE positive cell lines, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and NHE3-reconstituted mouse skin fibroblasts (MSF), the sensor exhibited a significant response to EIPA inhibition, whereas NHE-deficient MSF cells were unaffected by application of the inhibitor. PMID:27043644

  11. Indigenous people's detection of rapid ecological change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswani, Shankar; Lauer, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    When sudden catastrophic events occur, it becomes critical for coastal communities to detect and respond to environmental transformations because failure to do so may undermine overall ecosystem resilience and threaten people's livelihoods. We therefore asked how capable of detecting rapid ecological change following massive environmental disruptions local, indigenous people are. We assessed the direction and periodicity of experimental learning of people in the Western Solomon Islands after a tsunami in 2007. We compared the results of marine science surveys with local ecological knowledge of the benthos across 3 affected villages and 3 periods before and after the tsunami. We sought to determine how people recognize biophysical changes in the environment before and after catastrophic events such as earthquakes and tsunamis and whether people have the ability to detect ecological changes over short time scales or need longer time scales to recognize changes. Indigenous people were able to detect changes in the benthos over time. Detection levels differed between marine science surveys and local ecological knowledge sources over time, but overall patterns of statistically significant detection of change were evident for various habitats. Our findings have implications for marine conservation, coastal management policies, and disaster-relief efforts because when people are able to detect ecological changes, this, in turn, affects how they exploit and manage their marine resources. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Electric Field Measurements During the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) Field Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Monte G.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Mach, Douglas M.

    2010-01-01

    During the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) field program, a system of 6 electric field mills was flown on one of NASA's Global Hawk aircraft. We placed several mills on the aircraft to enable us to measure the vector electric field. We created a distributed, ethernet-connected system so that each sensor has its own embedded Linux system, complete with web server. This makes our current generation system fully "sensor web enabled." The Global Hawk has several unique qualities, but relevant to quality storm electric field measurements are high altitude (20 km) and long duration (20-30 hours) flights. There are several aircraft participating in the GRIP program, and coordinated measurements are happening. Lightning and electric field measurements will be used to study the relationships between lightning and other storm characteristics. It has been long understood that lightning can be used as a marker for strong convective activity. Past research and field programs suggest that lightning flash rate may serve as an indicator and precursor for rapid intensification change in tropical cyclones and hurricanes. We have the opportunity to sample hurricanes for many hours at a time and observe intensification (or de-intensification) periods. The electrical properties of hurricanes during such periods are not well known. American

  13. A field technique for rapid lithological discrimination and ore mineral ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work illustrates the efficiency of field spectroscopy for rapid identification of minerals in ore body, alteration zone and host rocks. The adopted procedure involves collection of field spectra, their pro- cessing for noise, spectral matching and spectral un-mixing with selected library end-members. Average weighted ...

  14. A field technique for rapid lithological discrimination and ore mineral ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work illustrates the efficiency of field spectroscopy for rapid identification of minerals in ore body, alteration zone and host rocks. The adopted procedure involves collection of field spectra, their processing for noise, spectral matching and spectral un-mixing with selected library end-members. Average weighted spectral ...

  15. Public health in a rapidly changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I. Andreeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several months in 2013 and 2014 have been a hardly predictable time in Ukraine, and the situation is still far from being stable. This made the editorial team of TCPHEE based in Ukraine postpone publishing consecutive issues. However, while the situation still requires practical steps, many aspects including those related to public health require analysis and debate. Thus we invite opinion pieces and studies addressing all different spheres of how public health should function under changing social circumstances. There might be a wide range of such related topics. The most obvious ones are those linked to changing living conditions. Many studies have been undertaken and published with regard to health threats to refugees, people involved in natural or technical disasters (Noji, 2005. Along with environmental health threats, there might be mental health disturbances (World Health Organization, 1992 resulting from long-term strain, losses et cetera. Another important focus is related to changes in health services provision. Crimea, which is a former Ukrainian territory now occupied by the Russian Federation, was among those in Ukraine highly affected with HIV (Dehne, Khodakevich, Hamers, & Schwartlander, 1999. This was responded by several NGOs actively providing harm reduction services to high-risk groups along with methadone substitution therapy to opiate users and antiretroviral medicines to those HIV-infected (Curtis, 2010. However, there are news reports that Russia is going to stop provision of methadone (kommersant.ru, 2014. As opiate substitution programs have been shown an effective approach towards preventing HIV transmission among people who inject drugs (MacArthur et al., 2012, such change in public health policies might affect not only most at risk populations but their partners and population as a whole as well resulting in a rapid spread of HIV. Yet another related topic is that of how health services can be organized at times of

  16. NASA's Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Scott A.; Kakar, Ramesh; Zipser, Edward; Heymsfield, Gerald; Albers, Cerese; Brown, Shannon; Durden, Stephen; Guimond, Stephen; Halverson, Jeffery; Heymsfield, Andrew; hide

    2013-01-01

    In August–September 2010, NASA, NOAA, and the National Science Foundation (NSF) conducted separate but closely coordinated hurricane field campaigns, bringing to bear a combined seven aircraft with both new and mature observing technologies. NASA's Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiment, the subject of this article, along with NOAA's Intensity Forecasting Experiment (IFEX) and NSF's Pre-Depression Investigation of Cloud-Systems in the Tropics (PREDICT) experiment, obtained unprecedented observations of the formation and intensification of tropical cyclones. The major goal of GRIP was to better understand the physical processes that control hurricane formation and intensity change, specifically the relative roles of environmental and inner-core processes. A key focus of GRIP was the application of new technologies to address this important scientific goal, including the first ever use of the unmanned Global Hawk aircraft for hurricane science operations. NASA and NOAA conducted coordinated flights to thoroughly sample the rapid intensification (RI) of Hurricanes Earl and Karl. The tri-agency aircraft teamed up to perform coordinated flights for the genesis of Hurricane Karl and Tropical Storm Matthew and the non-redevelopment of the remnants of Tropical Storm Gaston. The combined GRIP–IFEX–PREDICT datasets, along with remote sensing data from a variety of satellite platforms [Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Aqua, Terra, CloudSat, and Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO)], will contribute to advancing understanding of hurricane formation and intensification. This article summarizes the GRIP experiment, the missions flown, and some preliminary findings.

  17. Field evaluation of a malaria rapid diagnostic test (ICT Pf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field evaluation of a malaria rapid diagnostic test (ICT Pf) ... province to determine the accuracy of the MRDT currently used in public sector clinics and hospitals. ... The positive predictive value of the test was 98.48 (99% CI 98.41 - 100%), and the negative predictive value was 99.52% (95% CI 96.47 – 100%). Conclusions.

  18. Simple and rapid field tests for brucellosis in livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdoel, Theresia; Dias, Isabel Travassos; Cardoso, Regina; Smits, Henk L.

    2008-01-01

    Four simple and rapid field tests for the serodiagnosis of brucellosis in cattle, goat, sheep and swine were developed. The performance of the assays was investigated using serum samples collected in Portugal from animals originating from herds with a defined sanitary status with respect to the

  19. Nucleation of superconductivity under rapid cycling of an electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Malay

    2008-10-01

    The effect of an externally applied high-frequency oscillating electric field on the critical nucleation field of superconductivity in the bulk as well as at the surface of a superconductor is investigated in detail in this work. Starting from the linearized time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDLG) theory, and using the variational principle, I have shown the analogy between a quantum harmonic oscillator with that of the nucleation of superconductivity in the bulk and a quantum double oscillator with that of the nucleation at the surface of a finite sample. The effective Hamiltonian approach of Cook et al (1985 Phys. Rev. A 31 564) is employed to incorporate the effect of an externally applied highly oscillating electric field. The critical nucleation field ratio is also calculated from the ground state energy method. The results obtained from these two approximate theories agree very well with the exact results for the case of an undriven system, which establishes the validity of these two approximate theories. It is observed that the highly oscillating electric field actually increases the bulk critical nucleation field (Hc2) as well as the surface critical nucleation field (Hc3) of superconductivity as compared to the case of absent electric field (ɛ0 = 0). But the externally applied rapidly oscillating electric field accentuates the surface critical nucleation field more than the bulk critical nucleation field, i.e. the increase of Hc3 is 1.6592 times larger than that of Hc2.

  20. Environmental Field Surveys, EMF Rapid Program, Engineering Project No.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enertech Consultants

    1996-04-01

    The EMF Research and Public Information Dissemination Program (RAPID) includes several engineering research in the area of exposure assessment and source characterization. RAPID engineering project No. 3: ''Environmental Field Surveys'' was performed to obtain information on the levels and characteristics of different environments, for which only limited data were available, especially in comparison to magnetic field data for the residential environment and for electric utility facilities, such as power lines and substations. This project was also to provide information on the contribution of various field sources in the surveyed environments. Magnetic field surveys were performed at four sites for each of five environments: schools, hospitals, office buildings, machine shops, and grocery stores. Of the twenty sites surveyed, 11 were located in the San Francisco Bay Area and 9 in Massachusetts. The surveys used a protocol based on magnetic field measurements and observation of activity patterns, designed to provide estimates of magnetic field exposure by type of people and by type of sources. The magnetic field surveys conducted by this project produced a large amount of data which will form a part of the EMF measurement database Field and exposure data were obtained separately for ''area exposure'' and ''at exposure points''. An exposure point is a location where persons engage in fixed, site specific activities near a local source that creates a significant increase in the area field. The area field is produced by ''area sources'', whose location and field distribution is in general not related to the location of the people in the area.

  1. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Rapid Land Cover Change

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Rapid Land Cover Change provides data and information on global and regional land cover change in raster format for...

  2. Rapid climate change: lessons from the recent geological past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jonathan; Lowe, John; Wolff, Eric; Srokosz, Meric

    2011-12-01

    Rapid, or abrupt, climate change is regarded as a change in the climate system to a new state following the crossing of a threshold. It generally occurs at a rate exceeding that of the change in the underlying cause. Episodes of rapid climate change abound in the recent geological past (defined here as the interval between the last glacial maximum, dated to approximately 20,000 years ago, and the present). Rapid climate changes are known to have occurred over time periods equal to or even less than a human lifespan: moreover, their effects on the global system are sufficiently large to have had significant societal impacts. The potential for similar events to occur in the future provides an important impetus for investigating the nature and causes of rapid climate change. This paper provides a brief overview of rapid climate change and an introduction to this special issue, which presents results generated by the palaeoclimatic component of the UK Natural Environment Research Council's rapid climate change programme, called RAPID. The papers in the special issue employ palaeoclimatic proxy data-sets obtained from marine, ice core and terrestrial archives to reconstruct rapid climate change during the last glacial cycle, its subsequent termination and the ensuing Holocene interglacial; some papers also report new attempts to match the palaeoclimate data to hypothesised causes through numerical modelling. The results confirm the importance of freshwater forcing in triggering changes in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC) and the close links between MOC and rapid climate change. While advancing our understanding of these linkages, the RAPID research has highlighted the need for further research in order to elucidate more specific details of the mechanisms involved.

  3. Are rapid changes in brain elasticity possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, K. J.

    2017-09-01

    Elastography of the brain is a topic of clinical and preclinical research, motivated by the potential for viscoelastic measures of the brain to provide sensitive indicators of pathological processes, and to assist in early diagnosis. To date, studies of the normal brain and of those with confirmed neurological disorders have reported a wide range of shear stiffness and shear wave speeds, even within similar categories. A range of factors including the shear wave frequency, and the age of the individual are thought to have a possible influence. However, it may be that short term dynamics within the brain may have an influence on the measured stiffness. This hypothesis is addressed quantitatively using the framework of the microchannel flow model, which derives the tissue stiffness, complex modulus, and shear wave speed as a function of the vascular and fluid network in combination with the elastic matrix that comprise the brain. Transformation rules are applied so that any changes in the fluid channels or the elastic matrix can be mapped to changes in observed elastic properties on a macroscopic scale. The results are preliminary but demonstrate that measureable, time varying changes in brain stiffness are possible simply by accounting for vasodynamic or electrochemical changes in the state of any region of the brain. The value of this preliminary exploration is to identify possible mechanisms and order-of-magnitude changes that may be testable in vivo by specialized protocols.

  4. Rapidly changing flows in the Earth's core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Mandea, M.

    2008-01-01

    recently been used to investigate small-scale core flow(3,4), but no advantage has yet been taken of the improved temporal resolution, partly because the filtering effect of the electrically conducting mantle was assumed to mask short-period magnetic variations(5). Here we show that changes in the magnetic...

  5. Social psychiatry in a rapidly changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K. J. Craig

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many societies around the world are experiencing a period of unprecedented change in traditional social roles and customs. Globalisation has contributed to materialism and a me-first individualism that heightens awareness of income inequality that itself is one of the most robust markers of unhappiness in society. Ever increasing urbanisation has driven an erosion of large ‘joint’ family arrangements to be replaced by smaller and relatively isolated nuclear families and single parent living. Mass migration has unmasked deep seated fear and prejudice towards the outsider in society. These global changes are fertile ground for the social conditions that have long been known to be risks for mental illness – poverty, poor quality child care, social isolation and the active discrimination and exclusion of the alien, the physically disabled and mentally ill. While there is little we can do to reverse global change, there is much a social psychiatrist can do to mitigate the effect, ensuring his/her voice is added to other calls for reducing discriminatory practice, promoting evidence-based social interventions such as parenting advice and peer support and ensuring that the success of a treatment is measured not just in terms of symptomatic improvement but in whether it results in an outcome that is valued by the patient.

  6. Rethinking species’ ability to cope with rapid climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hof, Christian; Levinsky, Irina; Bastos Araujo, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing climate change is assumed to be exceptional because of its unprecedented velocity. However, new geophysical research suggests that dramatic climatic changes during the Late Pleistocene occurred extremely rapid, over just a few years. These abrupt climatic changes may have been even faster...... species' ability to cope with climate change, and that lessons must be learned for modelling future impacts of climate change on species....

  7. Ecosystem stewardship: sustainability strategies for a rapidly changing planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Stuart Chapin; Stephen R. Carpenter; Gary P. Kofinas; Carl Folke; Nick Abel; William C. Clark; Per Olsson; D. Mark Stafford Smith; Brian Walker; Oran R. Young; Fikret Berkes; Reinette Biggs; J. Morgan Grove; Rosamond L. Naylor; Evelyn Pinkerton; Will Steffen; Frederick J. Swanson

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystem stewardship is an action-oriented framework intended to foster the social-ecological sustainability of a rapidly changing planet. Recent developments identify three strategies that make optimal use of current understanding in an environment of inevitable uncertainty and abrupt change: reducing the magnitude of, and exposure and sensitivity to, known stresses...

  8. Managing in the rapidly changing context of higher education: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Higher education is one of the most rapidly changing sectors of our society. Besides the rate of change in the sector there are also, as seen from the continuous media coverage, a number of universities and technikons in some form of financial or leadership crisis. Over the past years one of the main reasons given for these ...

  9. Rapid imaging of free radicals in vivo using field cycled PEDRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puwanich, P; Lurie, D J; Foster, M A

    1999-12-01

    Imaging of free radicals in vivo using an interleaved field-cycled proton-electron double-resonance imaging (FC-PEDRI) pulse sequence has recently been investigated. In this work, in order to reduce the EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) irradiation power required and the imaging time, a centric reordered snapshot FC-PEDRI pulse sequence has been implemented. This is based on the FLASH pulse sequence with a very short repetition time and the use of centric reordering of the phase-encoding gradient, allowing the most significant free induction decay (FID) signals to be collected before the signal enhancement decays significantly. A new technique of signal phaseshift correction was required to eliminate ghost artefacts caused by the instability of the main magnetic field after field cycling. An FID amplitude correction scheme has also been implemented to reduce edge enhancement artefacts caused by the rapid change of magnetization population before reaching the steady state. Using the rapid pulse sequence, the time required for acquisition of a 64 x 64 pixel FC-PEDRI image was reduced to 6 s per image compared with about 2.5 min with the conventional pulse sequence. The EPR irradiation power applied to the sample was reduced by a factor of approximately 64. Although the resulting images obtained by the rapid pulse sequence have a lower signal to noise than those obtained by a normal interleaved FC-PEDRI pulse sequence, the results show that rapid imaging of free radicals in vivo using snapshot FC-PEDRI is possible.

  10. Rapid Communication: v= 2 seniority changing transitions in yrast 3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 89; Issue 5. Rapid Communication: Δ υ = 2 seniority changing transitions in yrast 3 − states and B ( E 3 ) systematics of Sn isotopes. BHOOMIKA MAHESHWARI SWATI GARG ASHOK KUMAR JAIN. Research Article Volume 89 Issue 5 November 2017 Article ID 75 ...

  11. Rapid Communication: seniority changing transitions in yrast states ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhoomika Maheshwari

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... Rapid Communication: v = 2 seniority changing transitions in yrast 3− states and B(E3) systematics of Sn isotopes. BHOOMIKA MAHESHWARI1,∗. , SWATI GARG2 and ASHOK KUMAR JAIN2. 1Department of Physics, Banasthali University, Banasthali 304 022, India. 2Department of Physics, IIT Roorkee, ...

  12. Rapid response to changing environments during biological invasions: DNA methylation perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuena; Li, Shiguo; Ni, Ping; Gao, Yangchun; Jiang, Bei; Zhou, Zunchun; Zhan, Aibin

    2017-12-01

    Dissecting complex interactions between species and their environments has long been a research hot spot in the fields of ecology and evolutionary biology. The well-recognized Darwinian evolution has well-explained long-term adaptation scenarios; however, "rapid" processes of biological responses to environmental changes remain largely unexplored, particularly molecular mechanisms such as DNA methylation that have recently been proposed to play crucial roles in rapid environmental adaptation. Invasive species, which have capacities to successfully survive rapidly changing environments during biological invasions, provide great opportunities to study molecular mechanisms of rapid environmental adaptation. Here, we used the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique in an invasive model ascidian, Ciona savignyi, to investigate how species interact with rapidly changing environments at the whole-genome level. We detected quite rapid DNA methylation response: significant changes of DNA methylation frequency and epigenetic differentiation between treatment and control groups occurred only after 1 hr of high-temperature exposure or after 3 hr of low-salinity challenge. In addition, we detected time-dependent hemimethylation changes and increased intragroup epigenetic divergence induced by environmental stresses. Interestingly, we found evidence of DNA methylation resilience, as most stress-induced DNA methylation variation maintained shortly (~48 hr) and quickly returned back to the control levels. Our findings clearly showed that invasive species could rapidly respond to acute environmental changes through DNA methylation modifications, and rapid environmental changes left significant epigenetic signatures at the whole-genome level. All these results provide fundamental background to deeply investigate the contribution of DNA methylation mechanisms to rapid contemporary environmental adaptation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Geoengineering and the Risk of Rapid Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, A. J.; Matthews, D.

    2008-12-01

    Many scientists have proposed that geoengineering could be used to artificially cool the planet as a means of reducing CO2-induced climate warming. However, several recent studies have shown some of the potential risks of geoengineering, including negative impacts on stratospheric ozone, the hydrologic cycle and the possibility of rapid climate change in the case of abrupt failure, or rapid decommissioning of geoengineering technology. In this study, we have emulated a geoengineering scenario in the MAGICC climate model, by counteracting the radiative forcing from greenhouse gases. We have used a hypothetical scenario of business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions, in which geoengineering is implemented at the year 2020, and is removed abruptly after 40 years. By varying the climate sensitivity of the MAGICC model, and using previously published estimates of climate sensitivity likelihoods, we are able to derive a probabilistic prediction of the rate of temperature change following the removal of geoengineering. In a simulation without geoengineering (considering only the A1B AIM emissions scenario) the maximum annual rate of temperature change (in the highest climate sensitivity simulation) was 0.5° C per decade. In the geoengineering simulations the maximum annual rate of temperature change, occurring in the year after geoengineering was stopped, varied from 0.22° C per decade for a climate sensitivity of 0.5° C to nearly 8° C per decade for a climate sensitivity of 10° C. The most likely maximum rate of change (corresponding to a climate sensitivity of 2.5° C) was just over 5° C per decade. There is a 99.8 percent probability that the rate of temperature change following the stoppage of geoengineering in this scenario would exceed 3° C per decade. This risk of rapid climate change associated with the use of planetary-scale geoengineering is highly relevant to discussion of climate policies aimed at avoiding "dangerous anthropogenic interference" in the

  14. Statistical measurements of fast changing electromagnetic fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, Ramiro; Serra, Ramiro; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2010-01-01

    The present works aims at describing important statistical indexes such as the field uniformity, the field inhomogeneity and the statistics near the cavity walls for a special case of fast changing random electromagnetic fields. We generate this kind of electromagnetic environment by means of a

  15. Major rapid weight loss induces changes in cardiac repolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Larsen, Esben; Iepsen, Eva Pers Winning; Lundgren, Julie

    2016-01-01

    analysis has been suggested as a more sensitive method to identify changes in cardiac repolarization. We examined the effect of a major and rapid weight loss on T-wave morphology. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-six individuals had electrocardiograms (ECG) taken before and after eight weeks of weight loss...... intervention along with plasma measurements of fasting glucose, HbA1c, and potassium. For assessment of cardiac repolarization changes, T-wave Morphology Combination Score (MCS) and ECG intervals: RR, PR, QT, QTcF (Fridericia-corrected QT-interval), and QRS duration were derived. The participants lost......A1c (pMonitoring of MCS during calorie restriction makes it possible to detect repolarization changes with higher discriminative power than the QT-interval during major rapid weight...

  16. Rapid climate change and society: assessing responses and thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Simon; Petts, Judith; Hobson, Kersty

    2005-12-01

    Assessing the social risks associated with climate change requires an understanding of how humans will respond because it affects how well societies will adapt. In the case of rapid or dangerous climate change, of particular interest is the potential for these responses to cross thresholds beyond which they become maladaptive. To explore the possibility of such thresholds, a series of climate change scenarios were presented to U.K. participants whose subjective responses were recorded via interviews and surveyed using Q methodology. The results indicate an initially adaptive response to climate warming followed by a shift to maladaptation as the magnitude of change increases. Beyond this threshold, trust in collective action and institutions was diminished, negatively impacting adaptive capacity. Climate cooling invoked a qualitatively different response, although this may be a product of individuals being primed for warming because it has dominated public discourse. The climate change scenarios used in this research are severe by climatological standards. In reality, the observed responses might occur at a lower rate of change. Whatever the case, analysis of subjectivity has revealed potential for maladaptive human responses, constituting a dangerous or rapid climate threshold within the social sphere.

  17. The Chinese experience of rapid modernization: sociocultural changes, psychological consequences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahong eSun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mainland China has undergone profound changes dating back to the nineteenth century, including a contemporary period of rapid modernization that began in the 1980s. The result has been dramatic social, cultural, and economic shifts impacting the daily lives of Chinese people. In this paper, we explore the psychological implications of sociocultural transformation in China, emphasizing two central themes. First, rising individualism: findings from social and developmental psychology suggest that China’s rapid development has been accompanied by ever-increasing adherence to individualistic values. Second, rising rates of depression: findings from psychiatric epidemiology point to increasing prevalence of depression over this same time period, particularly in rural settings. We argue that links between sociocultural and psychological shifts in China can be usefully studied through a cultural psychology lens, emphasizing the mutual constitution of culture, mind, and brain. In particular, we note that the link between social change, individualism, and rising mental illness deserves careful attention. Our review suggests that shifting values and socialization practices shape emotion norms of concealment and display, with implications for depressive symptom presentation. The challenge comes with interpretation. Increasing prevalence rates of depression may indeed be a general response to the rapidity of sociocultural change, or a specific consequence of rising individualism—but may also result from increasingly ‘Western’ patterns of symptom presentation, or improvements in diagnostic practice. We conclude by considering the challenges posed to standard universal models of psychological phenomena.

  18. The Chinese Experience of Rapid Modernization: Sociocultural Changes, Psychological Consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiahong; Ryder, Andrew G.

    2016-01-01

    Mainland China has undergone profound changes dating back to the nineteenth century, including a contemporary period of rapid modernization that began in the 1980s. The result has been dramatic social, cultural, and economic shifts impacting the daily lives of Chinese people. In this paper, we explore the psychological implications of sociocultural transformation in China, emphasizing two central themes. First, rising individualism: findings from social and developmental psychology suggest that China’s rapid development has been accompanied by ever-increasing adherence to individualistic values. Second, rising rates of depression: findings from psychiatric epidemiology point to increasing prevalence of depression over this same time period, particularly in rural settings. We argue that links between sociocultural and psychological shifts in China can be usefully studied through a cultural psychology lens, emphasizing the mutual constitution of culture, mind, and brain. In particular, we note that the link between social change, individualism, and rising mental illness deserves careful attention. Our review suggests that shifting values and socialization practices shape emotion norms of concealment and display, with implications for depressive symptom presentation. The challenge comes with interpretation. Increasing prevalence rates of depression may indeed be a general response to the rapidity of sociocultural change, or a specific consequence of rising individualism—but may also result from increasingly ‘Western’ patterns of symptom presentation, or improvements in diagnostic practice. We conclude by considering the challenges posed to standard universal models of psychological phenomena. PMID:27092093

  19. Standing helicon induced by a rapidly bent magnetic field in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Takayama, Sho; Komuro, Atsushi; Ando, Akira; Plasma physics Team

    2016-09-01

    An electron energy probability function and an rf magnetic field are measured in an rf hydrogen helicon source, where axial and transverse static magnetic fields are applied to the source by solenoids and to the diffusion chamber by filter magnets, respectively. It is demonstrated that the helicon wave is reflected by the rapidly bent magnetic field and the resultant standing wave heats the electrons between the source and the magnetic filter, while the electron cooling effect by the magnetic filter is maintained. It is interpreted that the standing wave is generated by the presence of spatially localized change of a refractive index. The application to the hydrogen negative ion source used for the neutral beam injection system for fusion plasma heating is discussed. This work is partially supported by grant-in-aid for scientific research (16H04084 and 26247096) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

  20. Women in Physics in a Rapidly Changing China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ling-An

    2008-03-01

    Despite the upheavals of the 20th century, physics managed to survive quite well in China, where the first woman president of the American Physical Society was born and bred. During the 1950s as a result of policies that emphasized science and engineering, declared equal rights and equal pay for men and women, and assigned jobs to college graduates irrespective of sex, the number of women in physics increased rapidly, many of whom made notable achievements. Since China's opening up over the last thirty years tremendous changes have taken place, and women now face new opportunities as well as challenges in all aspects of society. Whereas physics used to be regarded as the most elite of the sciences, new fields such as computer science, biotechnology and business are now competing for the best students. Compared with other countries the statistics are not bad; in schools and many physics departments the ratio of women teachers may be 30% or higher, but the numbers drop drastically with rank. Moreover, in some research institutions the ratio of female physicists is actually declining, due to retirement of the older generation and fewer successors. Compulsory retirement for women at an earlier age than for men is also a new factor. Conversely, in recent years the ratio of female graduate students enrolling in physics has increased, even reaching 40% in some universities. However, the reasons for this do not bode well: men are not performing so well as women in entrance exams, while the latter are facing increasing discrimination in employment so they have to seek higher degree qualifications. With the further development of China's economy there will be abundant demand for qualified personnel including women with a physics background. It is imperative to actively support the upcoming generation of women physicists and not lose them in the leaky pipeline. The Chinese Physical Society has taken certain positive steps, such as the recent establishment of the Xie Xi

  1. Methodology for Computer-aided, Interactive Rapid Assessment of Local or Regional Stress Fields on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, S. L.; Ferrill, D. A.; Sims, D. W.; Wyrick, D. Y.; Franklin, N. M.

    2003-03-01

    We present a method for rapid assessment of stress fields on Mars: (i) mapping geologic structures, (ii) calculating stress fields, and (iii) determining resolved stresses on faults. Preliminary results are presented for northern Utopia Planitia.

  2. Changing fields of rationality - a policy for change?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strumse, Einar; Westskog, Hege; Winther, Tanja

    2010-07-01

    Work objective: To analyze effective strategies for changing households' energy consumption based on an interdisciplinary model for understanding change. Methodology: In this paper we develop a conceptual model for understanding individuals' energy consumption. We synthesize insights from anthropology, social psychology and economics grasping perspectives from behaviour to practice and from the Bourdieu's fields to rationality thinking in economics. We use this insight to analyze strategies for change. Abstract: In this paper we analyze effective strategies for changing households' energy consumption based on an interdisciplinary model for understanding change. The model focuses on four main categories for understanding individual consumption: a. Material constraints b. Values and identity c. Norms d. Ability These are the main influencing factors of the individual's consumption level, but in interaction with the corresponding group and the societal levels for the same factors. The model can be illustrated. One combination of factors on all levels constitutes a field of rationality. We claim that an important strategy for changing energy consumption towards sustainability is changing the field of rationality of the individual. Changing of rationality fields would from our point of view initiate reflection which is an important condition for changed behavior. One example of changing of fields is information measures that relates energy consumption to the 'citizen' field rather than the 'consumer' field. Hence, according to our conceptual framework - how policy should be framed (information measures for instance ) would be an important knowledge area for design of effective policy measures. (Author)

  3. RAPID CHANGES IN SOCIETY, TECHNOLOGY ,ECONOMY AND PUBLIC SERVICE INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirthendu Bagchi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Current paper has the purpose to analyze the statement by Drucker (1985 that rapid changes in today’s society, technology, and economy in general are simultaneously a great threat to public-service institutions and even greater opportunity. The statement by Drucker will be analyzed  particularly with context of post offices that what are they going through these days or have gone through. Finally, some recommendations will be made for USPS based on the findings of the analysis..

  4. Rapid confrontation screening for peripheral visual field defects and extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Andrew J; Shuey, Neil H; Wall, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Screening for unsuspected visual field defects should form a part of all routine eye examinations. Here, we review a procedure for finger-counting confrontation screening that tests the periphery of all visual field quadrants of each eye, yet requires a total of only four responses from the patient. In addition, the test simultaneously screens for the extinction phenomenon that can accompany unilateral brain damage. Due to its efficiency, we recommend that this procedure form the standard way that screening finger-counting confrontation be performed, with abnormal findings prompting a more detailed assessment of visual fields and further neurological examination as necessary. Our paper is not intended to suggest that finger-counting confrontation is superior to other forms of visual field screening and indeed the literature suggests its sensitivity is limited.

  5. Direct observation of f-pair magnetic field effects and time-dependence of radical pair composition using rapidly switched magnetic fields and time-resolved infrared methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Jonathan R; Foster, Timothy J; Salaoru, Adrian T; Vink, Claire B

    2008-07-21

    A rapidly switched (magnetic field was employed to directly observe magnetic fields from f-pair reactions of radical pairs in homogeneous solution. Geminate radical pairs from the photoabstraction reaction of benzophenone from cyclohexanol were observed directly using a pump-probe pulsed magnetic field method to determine their existence time. No magnetic field effects from geminate pairs were observed at times greater than 100 ns after initial photoexcitation. By measuring magnetic field effects for fields applied continuously only after this initial geminate period, f-pair effects could be directly observed. Measurement of the time-dependence of the field effect for the photolysis of 2-hydroxy-4-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-2-methylpropiophenone in cyclohexanol using time-resolved infrared spectroscopy revealed not only the presence of f-pair magnetic field effects but also the ability of the time dependence of the MARY spectra to observe the changing composition of the randomly encountering pairs throughout the second order reaction period.

  6. Framework for Rapid Situational Awareness in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Press. Lustig, M., & Koester, J. (2010). Intercultural competence : Interpersonal communication across cultures (6th edition). Boston, MA: Allyn...counterparts while identifying and countering threats, intercultural competence has been a military priority for some time. As reflected in Army field manuals...and DoD strategic documents, intercultural competence is now seen as critical at every level of military operations (Blascovich & Hartel, 2008

  7. Developing and evaluating rapid field methods to estimate peat carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney A. Chimner; Cassandra A. Ott; Charles H. Perry; Randall K. Kolka

    2014-01-01

    Many international protocols (e.g., REDD+) are developing inventories of ecosystem carbon stocks and fluxes at country and regional scales, which can include peatlands. As the only nationally implemented field inventory and remeasurement of forest soils in the US, the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (FIA) samples the top 20 cm of organic soils...

  8. Rapid treatment-induced brain changes in pediatric CRPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erpelding, Nathalie; Simons, Laura; Lebel, Alyssa; Serrano, Paul; Pielech, Melissa; Prabhu, Sanjay; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2016-03-01

    To date, brain structure and function changes in children with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) as a result of disease and treatment remain unknown. Here, we investigated (a) gray matter (GM) differences between patients with CRPS and healthy controls and (b) GM and functional connectivity (FC) changes in patients following intensive interdisciplinary psychophysical pain treatment. Twenty-three patients (13 females, 9 males; average age ± SD = 13.3 ± 2.5 years) and 21 healthy sex- and age-matched controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to controls, patients had reduced GM in the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, midcingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, basal ganglia, thalamus, and hippocampus. Following treatment, patients had increased GM in the dlPFC, thalamus, basal ganglia, amygdala, and hippocampus, and enhanced FC between the dlPFC and the periaqueductal gray, two regions involved in descending pain modulation. Accordingly, our results provide novel evidence for GM abnormalities in sensory, motor, emotional, cognitive, and pain modulatory regions in children with CRPS. Furthermore, this is the first study to demonstrate rapid treatment-induced GM and FC changes in areas implicated in sensation, emotion, cognition, and pain modulation.

  9. Rapid Treatment-Induced Brain Changes in Pediatric CRPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erpelding, Nathalie; Simons, Laura; Lebel, Alyssa; Serrano, Paul; Pielech, Melissa; Prabhu, Sanjay; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2014-01-01

    To date, brain structure and function changes in children with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) as a result of disease and treatment remain unknown. Here, we investigated (a) gray matter (GM) differences between patients with CRPS and healthy controls and (b) GM and functional connectivity (FC) changes in patients following intensive interdisciplinary psychophysical pain treatment. Twenty-three patients (13 females, 9 males; average age ± SD = 13.3 ± 2.5 years) and 21 healthy sex-and age-matched controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to controls, patients had reduced GM in the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, midcingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, basal ganglia, thalamus, and hippocampus. Following treatment, patients had increased GM in the dlPFC, thalamus, basal ganglia, amygdala, and hippocampus, and enhanced FC between the dlPFC and the periaqueductal gray (PAG), two regions involved in descending pain modulation. Accordingly, our results provide novel evidence for GM abnormalities in sensory, motor, emotional, cognitive, and pain modulatory regions in children with CRPS. Furthermore, this is the first study to demonstrate rapid treatment-induced GM and FC changes in areas implicated in sensation, emotion, cognition, and pain modulation. PMID:25515312

  10. Mobile work: Ergonomics in a rapidly changing work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honan, Meg

    2015-01-01

    Places of work have been completely transformed by innovations in mobile work tools and ever-present access to internet data. This article characterizes use patterns and provides preliminary considerations for productive and comfortable use of common mobile devices. Two surveys described trends in mobile work. In the first, ergonomics professionals who oversee programs reported common mobile devices, their users and what data is accessed. The second, an end user survey, explored common activities performed on mobile devices, duration of use and locations where mobile work is common. The survey results provide a baseline data point for the status of mobile work in early 2014. Research indicates that additional risks have been introduced to the neck, thumbs and hands when using mobile devices. Possible trends regarding device use and work locations emerge. Intervention studies provide some direction for the practitioner. Practical strategies are outlined to reduce exposure intensity and duration. Contemporary mobile work presents tremendous change and opportunity for ergonomists and researchers to keep pace with fitting the changing models of work to the person. Continued research is needed on current mobile device use patterns to better understand ergonomic risk exposure in this rapidly changing realm.

  11. Effects of rapid changes in temperature on two estuarine crustaceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, D.T.; Capizzi, T.P.; Margrey, S.L.; Wakefield, W.W.

    1981-01-01

    Weight specific oxygen consumption (Q/sub O/sub 2// patterns of the amphipod, Gammarus sp. (acclimated to 5/sup 0/, 15/sup 0/ and 25/sup 0/ C) and of juvenile blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus (15/sup 0/ and 25/sup 0/ C) were used to evaluate the potential effect of exposure to rapid temperature changes simulating once-through power plant pumped entrainment. Amphipods at all acclimation temperatures and blue crabs at 15/sup 0/ C responded to the temperature changes by increasing Q/sub O/sub 2// above pre-exposure levels after the thermal increase and then returning to pre-exposure levels. The response was judged to be a normal physiological compensation response, not a thermal stress response, as suggested by some investigators. Significant differences were found among seasonal Q/sub O/sub 2// patterns in both species; Q/sub O/sub 2// increased with increasing acclimation temperature. However, no seasonal stress effects were found as a result of exposure to the temperature changes. This implies that the effects of ..delta..T's up to 10(/sup 0/C) from power plants of this design should have no significant impact on these organisms.

  12. Rapid genomic DNA changes in allotetraploid fish hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Ye, L H; Liu, Q Z; Peng, L Y; Liu, W; Yi, X G; Wang, Y D; Xiao, J; Xu, K; Hu, F Z; Ren, L; Tao, M; Zhang, C; Liu, Y; Hong, Y H; Liu, S J

    2015-06-01

    Rapid genomic change has been demonstrated in several allopolyploid plant systems; however, few studies focused on animals. We addressed this issue using an allotetraploid lineage (4nAT) of freshwater fish originally derived from the interspecific hybridization of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var., ♀, 2n=100) × common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., ♂, 2n=100). We constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library from allotetraploid hybrids in the 20th generation (F20) and sequenced 14 BAC clones representing a total of 592.126 kb, identified 11 functional genes and estimated the guanine-cytosine content (37.10%) and the proportion of repetitive elements (17.46%). The analysis of intron evolution using nine orthologous genes across a number of selected fish species detected a gain of 39 introns and a loss of 30 introns in the 4nAT lineage. A comparative study based on seven functional genes among 4nAT, diploid F1 hybrids (2nF1) (first generation of hybrids) and their original parents revealed that both hybrid types (2nF1 and 4nAT) not only inherited genomic DNA from their parents, but also demonstrated rapid genomic DNA changes (homoeologous recombination, parental DNA fragments loss and formation of novel genes). However, 4nAT presented more genomic variations compared with their parents than 2nF1. Interestingly, novel gene fragments were found for the iqca1 gene in both hybrid types. This study provided a preliminary genomic characterization of allotetraploid F20 hybrids and revealed evolutionary and functional genomic significance of allopolyploid animals.

  13. A rapid estimation of near field tsunami run-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riqueime, Sebastian; Fuentes, Mauricio; Hayes, Gavin; Campos, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Many efforts have been made to quickly estimate the maximum run-up height of tsunamis associated with large earthquakes. This is a difficult task, because of the time it takes to construct a tsunami model using real time data from the source. It is possible to construct a database of potential seismic sources and their corresponding tsunami a priori.However, such models are generally based on uniform slip distributions and thus oversimplify the knowledge of the earthquake source. Here, we show how to predict tsunami run-up from any seismic source model using an analytic solution, that was specifically designed for subduction zones with a well defined geometry, i.e., Chile, Japan, Nicaragua, Alaska. The main idea of this work is to provide a tool for emergency response, trading off accuracy for speed. The solutions we present for large earthquakes appear promising. Here, run-up models are computed for: The 1992 Mw 7.7 Nicaragua Earthquake, the 2001 Mw 8.4 Perú Earthquake, the 2003Mw 8.3 Hokkaido Earthquake, the 2007 Mw 8.1 Perú Earthquake, the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule Earthquake, the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku Earthquake and the recent 2014 Mw 8.2 Iquique Earthquake. The maximum run-up estimations are consistent with measurements made inland after each event, with a peak of 9 m for Nicaragua, 8 m for Perú (2001), 32 m for Maule, 41 m for Tohoku, and 4.1 m for Iquique. Considering recent advances made in the analysis of real time GPS data and the ability to rapidly resolve the finiteness of a large earthquake close to existing GPS networks, it will be possible in the near future to perform these calculations within the first minutes after the occurrence of similar events. Thus, such calculations will provide faster run-up information than is available from existing uniform-slip seismic source databases or past events of pre-modeled seismic sources.

  14. RAPID ARSENITE OXIDATION BY THERMUS AQUATICUS AND THERMUS THERMOPHILUS: FIELD AND LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS. (R826189)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermus aquaticus and Thermus thermophilus, common inhabitants of terrestrial hot springs and thermally polluted domestic and industrial waters, have been found to rapidly oxidize arsenite to arsenate. Field investigations at a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park revealed ...

  15. Pheromones-based sexual selection in a rapidly changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneken, Jessica; Jones, Therésa M

    2017-12-01

    Insects utilise chemical cues for a range of different purposes and the complexity and degree of specificity of these signals is arguably unparalleled in the animal kingdom. Chemical signals are particularly important for insect reproduction and the selective pressures driving their evolution and maintenance have been the subject of previous reviews. However, the world in which chemical cues evolved and are maintained is changing at an unprecedented rate. How (or indeed whether) chemical signals used in sexual selection will respond is largely unknown. Here, we explore how recent increases in urbanisation and associated anthropogenic impacts may affect how chemical signals are produced and perceived. We focus on four anthropomorphic influences which have the potential to interact with pheromone-mediated sexual selection processes; climatic temperature shifts, exposure to chemical pollutants, the presence of artificial light at night and nutrient availability. Our aim is to provide a broad overview of key areas where the rapidly changing environment of the future might specifically affect pheromones utilised in sexual selection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Field-Usable Lateral Flow Immunoassay for the Rapid Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV)

    OpenAIRE

    Kulabhusan, Prabir Kumar; Rajwade, Jyutika M.; Sugumar, Vimal; Taju, Gani; Sahul Hameed, A. S.; Paknikar, Kishore M.

    2017-01-01

    Background White spot disease (WSD), a major threat to sustainable aquaculture worldwide, is caused by White spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The diagnosis of WSD relies heavily on molecular detection of the virus by one-step PCR. These procedures are neither field-usable nor rapid enough considering the speed at which the virus spreads. Thus, development of a rapid, reliable and field-usable diagnostic method for the detection of WSSV infection is imperative to prevent huge economic losses. Metho...

  17. Rapid Middle Eocene temperature change in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methner, Katharina; Mulch, Andreas; Fiebig, Jens; Wacker, Ulrike; Gerdes, Axel; Graham, Stephan A.; Chamberlain, C. Page

    2016-09-01

    Eocene hyperthermals are among the most enigmatic phenomena of Cenozoic climate dynamics. These hyperthermals represent temperature extremes superimposed on an already warm Eocene climate and dramatically affected the marine and terrestrial biosphere, yet our knowledge of temperature and rainfall in continental interiors is still rather limited. We present stable isotope (δ18O) and clumped isotope temperature (Δ47) records from a middle Eocene (41 to 40 Ma) high-elevation mammal fossil locality in the North American continental interior (Montana, USA). Δ47 paleotemperatures of soil carbonates delineate a rapid +9/-11 °C temperature excursion in the paleosol record. Δ47 temperatures progressively increase from 23 °C ± 3 °C to peak temperatures of 32 °C ± 3 °C and subsequently drop by 11 °C. This hyperthermal event in the middle Eocene is accompanied by low δ18O values and reduced pedogenic carbonate concentrations in paleosols. Based on laser ablation U/Pb geochronology of paleosol carbonates in combination with magnetostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, stable isotope, and Δ47 evidence, we suggest that this pronounced warming event reflects the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) in western North America. The terrestrial expression of northern hemisphere MECO in western North America appears to be characterized by warmer and wetter (sub-humid) conditions, compared to the post-MECO phase. Large and rapid shifts in δ18O values of precipitation and pedogenic CaCO3 contents parallel temperature changes, indicating the profound impact of the MECO on atmospheric circulation and rainfall patterns in the western North American continental interior during this transient warming event.

  18. Evaluation of immediate soft tissue changes after rapid maxillary expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Beom Kim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate immediate soft tissue changes following rapid maxillary expansion (RME in growing patients, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT. METHODS: Twenty-three consecutive patients (10 male, 13 female treated by RME were selected. Patients were scanned using CBCT prior to placement of the rapid maxillary expander (T0, then immediately following full activation of the appliance (T1. Defined landmarks were then located on the pre- and post-treatment orientated images. Change in landmark position from pre- to post-treatment was then measured. In addition to landmarks, 10 direct measures were made to determine distance change without regard to direction to measure soft tissue change of the lips. RESULTS: Significant transverse expansion was measured on most soft tissue landmark locations. All the measures made showed significant change in the lip position with a lengthening of the vertical dimension of the upper lip, and a generalized decrease of anterior-posterior thickness of both the upper and lower lips. CONCLUSIONS: Significant changes in the soft tissue do occur with RME treatment. There is a transverse widening of the midface, and a thinning of the lips.OBJETIVO: avaliar as mudanças imediatas no tecido mole após a expansão rápida da maxila (ERM em pacientes em fase de crescimento, usando tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico (TCFC. MÉTODOS: vinte e três pacientes (10 do sexo masculino e 13 do feminino tratados com ERM foram selecionados. Os pacientes foram escaneados por TCFC antes da implantação do expansor maxilar (T0 e imediatamente após a completa ativação do aparelho (T1. Pontos cefalométricos definidos foram localizados nas imagens pré- e pós-tratamento. As mudanças de posição desses pontos do pré- para o pós-tratamento foram, então, analisadas. Adicionalmente aos pontos, 10 medições diretas foram realizadas para determinar a mudança nas distâncias - independentemente da direção - nos

  19. Human relations with soil are changing rapidly: SSSA's new Work Group on Soil Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humanity has rapidly become Earth’s chief agent of soil change, and geologists have named the epoch in which we live the Anthropocene, due to the global scale of human impact on the environment, including soil. In response to the increasing influence of humans on soil processes, the disciplines of ...

  20. Electric field changes and cloud electrical structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krider, E. Philip

    1989-09-01

    The NASA Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station are currently operating a large network of electric field mills to detect lightning and electrified clouds that might present hazards to ground operations, launches, and landings. Here we summarize recent results of least squares analyses of multistation measurements of field changes that were produced by cloud-to-ground (Q model) and intracloud (P model) lightning. The values of the optimum parameters of 113 lightning events that occurred in one small storm on July 11, 1978, and a portion of a large storm on July 6, 1978, are tabulated and graphed. We note that, in both storms, there is considerable symmetry in the direction of P vectors around the Q region and that this pattern is consistent with the classic double-dipole model of thundercloud charges. We note also that the vertical separation of the Q and P regions depends on the storm intensity.

  1. Rapid core field variations during the satellite era: Investigations using stochastic process based field models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Olsen, Nils; Gillet, Nicolas

    . We report spherical harmonic spectra, comparisons to observatory monthly means, and maps of the radial field at the core-mantle boundary, from the resulting ensemble of core field models. We find that inter-annual fluctuations in the external field (for example related to high solar-driven activity...

  2. Optical Defocus Rapidly Changes Choroidal Thickness in Schoolchildren.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyang Wang

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to examine the short-term choroidal response to optical defocus in schoolchildren. Myopic schoolchildren aged 8-16 were randomly allocated to control group (CG, myopic defocus group (MDG and hyperopic defocus group (HDG (n = 17 per group. Children in MDG and HDG received additional +3D and -3D lenses, respectively, to their full corrections on the right eyes. Full correction was given to their left eyes, and on both eyes in the CG. Axial length (AXL and subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFChT were then measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Children wore their group-specific correction for 2 hours after which any existing optical defocus was removed, and subjects wore full corrections for another 2 hours. Both the AXL and SFChT were recorded hourly for 4 hours. The mean refraction of all subjects was -3.41 ± 0.37D (± SEM. SFChT thinned when exposed to hyperopic defocus for 2 hours but less thinning was observed in response to myopic defocus compared to the control group (p < 0.05, two-way ANOVA. Removal of optical defocus significantly decreased SFChT in the MDG and significantly increased SFChT in the HDG after 1 and 2 hours (mean percentage change at 2-hour; control vs. hyperopic defocus vs. myopic defocus; -0.33 ± 0.59% vs. 3.04 ± 0.60% vs. -1.34 ± 0.74%, p < 0.01. Our results showed short-term exposure to myopic defocus induced relative choroidal thickening while hyperopic defocus led to choroidal thinning in children. This rapid and reversible choroidal response may be an important clinical parameter in gauging retinal response to optical defocus in human myopia.

  3. Hydrothermal iron flux variability following rapid sea level changes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Middleton, Jennifer L; Langmuir, Charles H; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy; McManus, Jerry F; Mitrovica, Jerry X

    2016-01-01

    .... Mir sediments reveal sixfold to eightfold increases in hydrothermal iron and copper deposition during the Last Glacial Maximum, followed by a rapid decline during the sea level rise associated with deglaciation...

  4. Rapid Concentration of Nanoparticles with DC Dielectrophoresis in Focused Electric Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Dafeng

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report a microfluidic device for rapid and efficient concentration of micro/nanoparticles with direct current dielectrophoresis (DC DEP. The concentrator is composed of a series of microchannels constructed with PDMS-insulating microstructures for efficiently focusing the electric field in the flow direction to provide high field strength and gradient. The location of the trapped and concentrated particles depends on the strength of the electric field applied. Both ‘streaming DEP’ and ‘trapping DEP’ simultaneously take place within the concentrator at different regions. The former occurs upstream and is responsible for continuous transport of the particles, whereas the latter occurs downstream and rapidly traps the particles delivered from upstream. The performance of the device is demonstrated by successfully concentrating fluorescent nanoparticles. The described microfluidic concentrator can be implemented in applications where rapid concentration of targets is needed such as concentrating cells for sample preparation and concentrating molecular biomarkers for detection.

  5. Rapid method to estimate temperature changes in electronics elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oborskii G. A., Savel’eva O. S., Shikhireva Yu. V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal behavior of electronic equipment is the determining factor for performing rapid assessment of the effectiveness of design and operation of the equipment. The assessment method proposed in this article consists in fixation of an infrared video stream from the surface of the device and converting it into a visible flow by means of a thermal imager, splitting it into component colors and their further processing using parabolic transformation. The result of the transformation is the number used as a rapid criterion for estimation of distribution stability of heat in the equipment.

  6. The electric and magnetic fields research and public information dissemination (EMF-RAPID) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulder, J E

    2000-05-01

    In the United States, public concern that exposure to power-line fields was linked to cancer led to the establishment of a Congressionally mandated program, the Electric and Magnetic Fields Research and Public Information Dissemination (EMF-RAPID) Program. A major goal of the program was to "determine whether or not exposures to electric and magnetic fields produced by the generation, transmission, and use of electrical energy affect human health". Between 1994 and 1998, the EMF-RAPID program spent approximately $41 million on biological research. Much of the work funded by the EMF-RAPID program has not yet been published in the peer-reviewed literature. The U.S. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) asked that Radiation Research publish this special issue in an attempt to remedy this publication gap. The issue includes reviews of studies that were done to assess the biological plausibility of claims that power-frequency fields caused leukemia and breast cancer. The issue continues with two teratology studies and one immunology study. The section of the issue covering in vitro studies begins with an overview of the efforts NIEHS made to replicate a wide range of reported effects of power-frequency fields and continues with four papers reporting the absence of effects of power-frequency fields on the expression of stress-response genes and oncogenes. Other reports of in vitro studies and studies of mechanisms cover cytotoxicity, gap junction intracellular communication, calcium ion transport across the plasma membrane, and intracellular electric fields.

  7. Total dural irradiation: RapidArc versus static-field IMRT: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Paul J., E-mail: paulj.kelly@hse.ie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Mannarino, Edward; Lewis, John Henry; Baldini, Elizabeth H.; Hacker, Fred L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare conventional fixed-gantry angle intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with RapidArc for total dural irradiation. We also hypothesize that target volume-individualized collimator angles may produce substantial normal tissue sparing when planning with RapidArc. Five-, 7-, and 9-field fixed-gantry angle sliding-window IMRT plans were generated for comparison with RapidArc plans. Optimization and normal tissue constraints were constant for all plans. All plans were normalized so that 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) received at least 100% of the dose. RapidArc was delivered using 350 Degree-Sign clockwise and counterclockwise arcs. Conventional collimator angles of 45 Degree-Sign and 315 Degree-Sign were compared with 90 Degree-Sign on both arcs. Dose prescription was 59.4 Gy in 33 fractions. PTV metrics used for comparison were coverage, V{sub 107}%, D1%, conformality index (CI{sub 95}%), and heterogeneity index (D{sub 5}%-D{sub 95}%). Brain dose, the main challenge of this case, was compared using D{sub 1}%, Dmean, and V{sub 5} Gy. Dose to optic chiasm, optic nerves, globes, and lenses was also compared. The use of unconventional collimator angles (90 Degree-Sign on both arcs) substantially reduced dose to normal brain. All plans achieved acceptable target coverage. Homogeneity was similar for RapidArc and 9-field IMRT plans. However, heterogeneity increased with decreasing number of IMRT fields, resulting in unacceptable hotspots within the brain. Conformality was marginally better with RapidArc relative to IMRT. Low dose to brain, as indicated by V5Gy, was comparable in all plans. Doses to organs at risk (OARs) showed no clinically meaningful differences. The number of monitor units was lower and delivery time was reduced with RapidArc. The case-individualized RapidArc plan compared favorably with the 9-field conventional IMRT plan. In view of lower monitor unit requirements and shorter delivery time, Rapid

  8. A rapid mitochondrial toxicity assay utilizing rapidly changing cell energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanuki, Yosuke; Araki, Tetsuro; Nakazono, Osamu; Tsurui, Kazuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury is a major cause of safety-related drug-marketing withdrawals. Several drugs have been reported to disrupt mitochondrial function, resulting in hepatotoxicity. The development of a simple and effective in vitro assay to identify the potential for mitochondrial toxicity is thus desired to minimize the risk of causing hepatotoxicity and subsequent drug withdrawal. An in vitro test method called the "glucose-galactose" assay is often used in drug development but requires prior-culture of cells over several passages for mitochondrial adaptation, thereby restricting use of the assay. Here, we report a rapid version of this method with the same predictability as the original method. We found that replacing the glucose in the medium with galactose resulted in HepG2 cells immediately shifting their energy metabolism from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation due to drastic energy starvation; in addition, the intracellular concentration of ATP was reduced by mitotoxicants when glucose in the medium was replaced with galactose. Using our proposed rapid method, mitochondrial dysfunction in HepG2 cells can be evaluated by drug exposure for one hour without a pre-culture step. This rapid assay for mitochondrial toxicity may be more suitable for high-throughput screening than the original method at an early stage of drug development.

  9. Rapid socio-cultural change and health in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P

    2001-01-01

    health and survival have improved but at the expense of mental health. The incidence of tuberculosis and the infant mortality rate have decreased because of improved socioeconomic conditions and health care. Mental health has deteriorated parallel to the rapid modernization of Greenlandic society...

  10. A cosmogenic radionuclide perspective on Holocene geomagnetic field changes in comparison to new geomagnetic field reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscheler, Raimund; Nilsson, Andreas; Suttie, Neil

    2017-04-01

    The solar and geomagnetic shielding modulates the spectrum of galactic cosmic rays reaching Earth. In the Earth's atmosphere galactic cosmic rays produce cosmogenic radionuclides that, therefore, provide the possibility to reconstruct the geomagnetic field intensity back into the past. Cosmogenic radionuclide records offer a complementary view on the history of the geomagnetic field since the cosmic ray shielding is mainly sensitive to the dipolar component of the Earth magnetic field. In addition, cosmogenic radionuclides records for the Holocene have a very high temporal resolution potentially allowing us to investigate rapid changes in the Earth's magnetic field. However, the solar influence and the geochemical behavior of cosmogenic radionuclides have to be accounted for when interpreting such records in terms of geomagnetic field changes. The solar component is usually expected to act on shorter time scales and, therefore, assumed to be of minor importance for the longer-term variations in cosmogenic radionuclide records. The geochemical component can be investigated by joint analysis of 10Be and 14C records that have a completely different geochemical behavior. The reliability of these approaches and the impact on the radionuclide-based geomagnetic field reconstructions will be discussed. In addition, we will compare cosmogenic radionuclide-based reconstructions to the output of state-of-the-art reconstructions of the geomagnetic dipole field based on lake sediments and archaeomagnetic data. The dipole moment in these models remains poorly constrained, but in combination with radionuclides, they allow us to put realistic bounds on the amplitude of Holocene dipole variations. We will show the agreements and disagreements and will discuss possible reasons for the observed differences.

  11. Assessment of changes in smile after rapid maxillary expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Morales Cobra de Carvalho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated changes in the smile characteristics of patients with maxillary constriction submitted to rapid maxillary expansion (RME. METHODS: The sample consisted of 81 extraoral photographs of maximum smile of 27 patients with mean age of 10 years, before expansion and 3 and 6 months after fixation of the expanding screw. The photographs were analyzed on the software Cef X 2001, with achievement of the following measurements: Transverse smile area, buccal corridors, exposure of maxillary incisors, gingival exposure of maxillary incisors, smile height, upper and lower lip thickness, smile symmetry and smile arch. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA, at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: RME promoted statistically significant increase in the transverse smile dimension and exposure of maxillary central and lateral incisors; maintenance of right and left side smile symmetry and of the lack of parallelism between the curvature of the maxillary incisal edges and lower lip border. CONCLUSIONS: RME was beneficial for the smile esthetics with the increase of the transverse smile dimension and exposure of maxillary central and lateral incisors.INTRODUÇÃO: esse estudo avaliou as alterações das características do sorriso de pacientes com atresia maxilar submetidos à expansão rápida da maxila (ERM. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 81 fotografias extrabucais do sorriso máximo de 27 pacientes, com idade média de 10 anos, antes da expansão e aos três e seis meses após a fixação do parafuso expansor. As análises das fotografias foram realizadas por meio do programa Cef X 2001, e as seguintes medidas foram analisadas: dimensão transversal do sorriso, corredores bucais, quantidade de exposição dos incisivos superiores, exposição gengival dos incisivos superiores, altura do sorriso, espessuras dos lábios superior e inferior, simetria e arco do sorriso. As alterações no sorriso durante

  12. Validation of the Puumala virus rapid field test for bank voles in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reil, D; Imholt, C; Rosenfeld, U M; Drewes, S; Fischer, S; Heuser, E; Petraityte-Burneikiene, R; Ulrich, R G; Jacob, J

    2017-02-01

    Puumala virus (PUUV) causes many human infections in large parts of Europe and can lead to mild to moderate disease. The bank vole (Myodes glareolus) is the only reservoir of PUUV in Central Europe. A commercial PUUV rapid field test for rodents was validated for bank-vole blood samples collected in two PUUV-endemic regions in Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia and Baden-Württemberg). A comparison of the results of the rapid field test and standard ELISAs indicated a test efficacy of 93-95%, largely independent of the origin of the antigens used in the ELISA. In ELISAs, reactivity for the German PUUV strain was higher compared to the Swedish strain but not compared to the Finnish strain, which was used for the rapid field test. In conclusion, the use of the rapid field test can facilitate short-term estimation of PUUV seroprevalence in bank-vole populations in Germany and can aid in assessing human PUUV infection risk.

  13. Weakened magnetic braking as the origin of anomalously rapid rotation in old field stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Saders, Jennifer L; Ceillier, Tugdual; Metcalfe, Travis S; Aguirre, Victor Silva; Pinsonneault, Marc H; García, Rafael A; Mathur, Savita; Davies, Guy R

    2016-01-14

    A knowledge of stellar ages is crucial for our understanding of many astrophysical phenomena, and yet ages can be difficult to determine. As they become older, stars lose mass and angular momentum, resulting in an observed slowdown in surface rotation. The technique of 'gyrochronology' uses the rotation period of a star to calculate its age. However, stars of known age must be used for calibration, and, until recently, the approach was untested for old stars (older than 1 gigayear, Gyr). Rotation periods are now known for stars in an open cluster of intermediate age (NGC 6819; 2.5 Gyr old), and for old field stars whose ages have been determined with asteroseismology. The data for the cluster agree with previous period-age relations, but these relations fail to describe the asteroseismic sample. Here we report stellar evolutionary modelling, and confirm the presence of unexpectedly rapid rotation in stars that are more evolved than the Sun. We demonstrate that models that incorporate dramatically weakened magnetic braking for old stars can--unlike existing models--reproduce both the asteroseismic and the cluster data. Our findings might suggest a fundamental change in the nature of ageing stellar dynamos, with the Sun being close to the critical transition to much weaker magnetized winds. This weakened braking limits the diagnostic power of gyrochronology for those stars that are more than halfway through their main-sequence lifetimes.

  14. Far field velocity potential induced by a rapidly decaying vorticity distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Rupert; Ting, LU

    1990-01-01

    The velocity field induced by a vorticity distribution decaying rapidly in the distance from the origin is investigated. It is shown that the sum of vector potentials for the velocity field can be expressed as a linear combination of Mn values, where Mn denotes the number of linearly independent vector functions of nth order. It is then shown that only the linear combinations 2n + 1 of these Mn vector functions contribute to the far field velocity which is irrotational, and that the corresponding scalar potential is then represented by a linear combination of 2n + 1 spherical harmonics of nth order whose coefficients are linear combinations of nth moments of vorticity.

  15. Policy options to respond to rapid climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, R.J.; Marinova, N.A.; Bakker, S.; Tilburg, van X.

    2009-01-01

    Ongoing research on climate change indicates that we cannot rule out the possibility of extreme climatic changes, beyond current IPCC scenarios. The thinking about policy responses to address these risks is still in its infancy. This study explores the possibilities for responding to extreme

  16. Rapid progressive visual decline and visual field defects in two patients with the Heidenhain variant of Creutzfeld-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Janine; Engellandt, Kay; Terai, Naim; Bottesi, Antonia; Matthé, Egbert

    2018-02-08

    Heidenhain variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob (HvCJD) is a rare disease, patients presenting with loss of visual acuity and a decline in visual fields. Two patients with rapid loss of visual acuity and declining visual fields presented with homonymic hemianopsia over several weeks. Cranial MRI showed neither stroke nor other morphological changes explaining the severe visual field defects. Neurological examination revealed no pathologies. However, lumbar puncture showed an increase in total protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Visual field testing revealed further deterioration during follow-up. Several weeks later, patients' behaviour changed markedly, exhibiting aggression, declining memory function and physical degeneration. The suspected diagnosis was the Heidenhain variant of Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (HvCJD). CSF analysis showed evidence of PrP Sc and 14-3-3 protein. Both patients died within 8 weeks of the CJD diagnosis. Loss of visual acuity and a decline in visual fields without corresponding MRI findings and marked changes in behaviour should lead to a diagnosis of HvCJD. Corresponding diagnostic tests should be performed for confirmation. The prognosis for survival is poor and should be immediately communicated to affected patients and their relatives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in Sensory Evoked Responses Coincide with Rapid Improvement in Speech Identification Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alain, Claude; Campeanu, Sandra; Tremblay, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Perceptual learning is sometimes characterized by rapid improvements in performance within the first hour of training (fast perceptual learning), which may be accompanied by changes in sensory and/or response pathways. Here, we report rapid physiological changes in the human auditory system that coincide with learning during a 1-hour test session…

  18. Rapid high temperature field test method for evaluation of geothermal calcite scale inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, R.G.

    1982-08-01

    A test method is described which allows the rapid field testing of calcite scale inhibitors in high- temperature geothermal brines. Five commercial formulations, chosen on the basis of laboratory screening tests, were tested in brines with low total dissolved solids at ca 500 F. Four were found to be effective; of these, 2 were found to be capable of removing recently deposited scale. One chemical was tested in the full-flow brine line for 6 wks. It was shown to stop a severe surface scaling problem at the well's control valve, thus proving the viability of the rapid test method. (12 refs.)

  19. Rapid Prototyping of Field Programmable Gate Array-Based Discrete Cosine Transform Approximations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor W. Fox

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available A method for the rapid design of field programmable gate array (FPGA-based discrete cosine transform (DCT approximations is presented that can be used to control the coding gain, mean square error (MSE, quantization noise, hardware cost, and power consumption by optimizing the coefficient values and datapath wordlengths. Previous DCT design methods can only control the quality of the DCT approximation and estimates of the hardware cost by optimizing the coefficient values. It is shown that it is possible to rapidly prototype FPGA-based DCT approximations with near optimal coding gains that satisfy the MSE, hardware cost, quantization noise, and power consumption specifications.

  20. Changes in nasal volume of patients undergoing rapid maxillary expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Muniz, Renata Da Fonseca Lacerda E; Mario Cappellette Jr.; Daniela Carlini

    2008-01-01

    Os efeitos da disjunção maxilar na resistência nasal e fluxo aéreo têm sido amplamente discutidos na literatura, com controvérsias. Suas indicações esqueléticas e dentárias parecem estar bem claras. Porém, aquelas puramente rinológicas não são justificadas, porque nem sempre resultados positivos são encontrados. Este estudo teve por finalidade avaliar a repercussão da disjunção maxilar ortopédica no aspecto respiratório e rinológico dos pacientes submetidos a esse procedimento.Rapid maxillary...

  1. Rapidly Rotating, X-Ray Bright Stars in the Kepler Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Steve B.; Mason, Elena; Boyd, Patricia; Smith, Krista Lynne; Gelino, Dawn M.

    2016-01-01

    We present Kepler light curves and optical spectroscopy of twenty X-ray bright stars located in the Kepler field of view. The stars, spectral type F-K, show evidence for rapid rotation including chromospheric activity 100 times or more above the Sun at maximum and flaring behavior in their light curves. Eighteen of our objects appear to be (sub)giants and may belong to the class of FK Com variables, which are evolved rapidly spinning single stars with no excretion disk and high levels of chromospheric activity. Such stars are rare and are likely the result of W UMa binary mergers, a process believed to produce the FK Com class of variable and their descendants. The FK Com stage, including the presence of an excretion disk, is short lived but leads to longer-lived stages consisting of single, rapidly rotating evolved (sub)giants with high levels of stellar activity.

  2. Rapid response to climate change in a marginal sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, K; Chiggiato, J; Josey, S A; Borghini, M; Aracri, S; Sparnocchia, S

    2017-06-22

    The Mediterranean Sea is a mid-latitude marginal sea, particularly responsive to climate change as reported by recent studies. The Sicily Channel is a choke point separating the sea in two main basins, the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and the Western Mediterranean Sea. Here, we report and analyse a long-term record (1993-2016) of the thermohaline properties of the Intermediate Water that crosses the Sicily Channel, showing increasing temperature and salinity trends much stronger than those observed at intermediate depths in the global ocean. We investigate the causes of the observed trends and in particular determine the role of a changing climate over the Eastern Mediterranean, where the Intermediate Water is formed. The long-term Sicily record reveals how fast the response to climate change can be in a marginal sea like the Mediterranean Sea compared to the global ocean, and demonstrates the essential role of long time series in the ocean.

  3. Recent changes in phytoplankton communities associated with rapid regional climate change along the western Antarctic Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Hugo, Martin; Doney, Scott C; Ducklow, Hugh W; Fraser, William; Martinson, Douglas; Stammerjohn, Sharon E; Schofield, Oscar

    2009-03-13

    The climate of the western shelf of the Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is undergoing a transition from a cold-dry polar-type climate to a warm-humid sub-Antarctic-type climate. Using three decades of satellite and field data, we document that ocean biological productivity, inferred from chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a), has significantly changed along the WAP shelf. Summertime surface Chl a (summer integrated Chl a approximately 63% of annually integrated Chl a) declined by 12% along the WAP over the past 30 years, with the largest decreases equatorward of 63 degrees S and with substantial increases in Chl a occurring farther south. The latitudinal variation in Chl a trends reflects shifting patterns of ice cover, cloud formation, and windiness affecting water-column mixing. Regional changes in phytoplankton coincide with observed changes in krill (Euphausia superba) and penguin populations.

  4. Rapid millennial-scale vegetation changes in the tropical Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urrego, D.H.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Rama-Corredor, O.; Martrat, B.; Grimalt, J.O.; Thompson, L.

    2015-01-01

    We compare eight pollen records reflecting climatic and environmental change from the tropical Andes. Our analysis focuses on the last 50 ka, with particular emphasis on the Pleistocene to Holocene transition. We explore ecological grouping and downcore ordination results as two approaches for

  5. Planetary health: protecting human health on a rapidly changing planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Samuel S

    2018-12-23

    The impact of human activities on our planet's natural systems has been intensifying rapidly in the past several decades, leading to disruption and transformation of most natural systems. These disruptions in the atmosphere, oceans, and across the terrestrial land surface are not only driving species to extinction, they pose serious threats to human health and wellbeing. Characterising and addressing these threats requires a paradigm shift. In a lecture delivered to the Academy of Medical Sciences on Nov 13, 2017, I describe the scale of human impacts on natural systems and the extensive associated health effects across nearly every dimension of human health. I highlight several overarching themes that emerge from planetary health and suggest advances in the way we train, reward, promote, and fund the generation of health scientists who will be tasked with breaking out of their disciplinary silos to address this urgent constellation of health threats. I propose that protecting the health of future generations requires taking better care of Earth's natural systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Alveolar bone changes after asymmetric rapid maxillary expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Mehmet; Baka, Zeliha Muge; Ileri, Zehra; Basciftci, Faruk Ayhan

    2015-09-01

    To quantitatively evaluate the effects of asymmetric rapid maxillary expansion (ARME) on cortical bone thickness and buccal alveolar bone height (BABH), and to determine the formation of dehiscence and fenestration in the alveolar bone surrounding the posterior teeth, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The CBCT records of 23 patients with true unilateral posterior skeletal crossbite (10 boys, 14.06 ± 1.08 years old, and 13 girls, 13.64 ± 1.32 years old) who had undergone ARME were selected from our clinic archives. The bonded acrylic ARME appliance, including an occlusal stopper, was used on all patients. CBCT records had been taken before ARME (T1) and after the 3-month retention period (T2). Axial slices of the CBCT images at 3 vertical levels were used to evaluate the buccal and palatal aspects of the canines, first and second premolars, and first molars. Paired samples and independent sample t-tests were used for statistical comparison. The results suggest that buccal cortical bone thickness of the affected side was significantly more affected by the expansion than was the unaffected side (P ARME significantly reduced the BABH of the canines (P ARME also increased the incidence of dehiscence and fenestration on the affected side. ARME may quantitatively decrease buccal cortical bone thickness and height on the affected side.

  7. Dual-energy synchrotron X ray measurements of rapid soil density and water content changes in swelling soils during infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Patricia; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael; DiCarlo, David A.; Bauters, Tim W. J.; Darnault, Christophe J. G.; Steenhuis, Tammo S.; Parlange, J.-Yves; Baveye, Philippe

    1998-11-01

    Understanding soil swelling is hampered by the difficulty of simultaneously measuring water content and bulk density. A number of studies have used dual-energy gamma rays to investigate soil swelling. The long counting time of this technique makes it impracticable for studying the rapid changes in moisture content and soil swelling shortly after infiltration is initiated. In this paper, we use the dual-energy synchrotron X ray to measure, for the first time, the water content and bulk density changes during the fast, initial phase of the swelling process. Ponded infiltration experiments were performed with two soils: a bentonite-sand mixture and a vertisol. Swelling curves and hydraulic diffusivity were determined. Deformation was very rapid immediately after water application and then became progressively slower. The hydraulic diffusivity decreased with time, which can partially explain the very rapid decrease in infiltration rates observed in the field.

  8. Field accuracy of fourth-generation rapid diagnostic tests for acute HIV-1: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Joseph M; MacPherson, Peter; Adams, Emily R.; Ochodo, Eleanor; Sands, Anita; Taegtmeyer, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fourth-generation HIV-1 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) detect HIV-1 p24 antigen to screen for acute HIV-1. However, diagnostic accuracy during clinical use may be suboptimal. Methods: Clinical sensitivity and specificity of fourth-generation RDTs for acute HIV-1 were collated from field evaluation studies in adults identified by a systematic literature search. Results: Four studies with 17?381 participants from Australia, Swaziland, the United Kingdom and Malawi were identified. ...

  9. Field-Usable Lateral Flow Immunoassay for the Rapid Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulabhusan, Prabir Kumar; Rajwade, Jyutika M; Sugumar, Vimal; Taju, Gani; Sahul Hameed, A S; Paknikar, Kishore M

    2017-01-01

    White spot disease (WSD), a major threat to sustainable aquaculture worldwide, is caused by White spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The diagnosis of WSD relies heavily on molecular detection of the virus by one-step PCR. These procedures are neither field-usable nor rapid enough considering the speed at which the virus spreads. Thus, development of a rapid, reliable and field-usable diagnostic method for the detection of WSSV infection is imperative to prevent huge economic losses. Here, we report on the development of a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) employing gold nanoparticles conjugated to a polyclonal antibody against VP28 (envelope protein of WSSV). The LFIA detected WSSV in ~20 min and showed no cross-reactivity with other shrimp viruses, viz. Monodon Baculovirus (MBV), Hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) and Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis virus (IHHNV). The limit of detection (LOD) of the assay, as determined by real-time PCR, was 103 copies of WSSV. In a time course infectivity experiment, ~104 WSSV particles were injected in Litopenaeus vannamei. The LFIA could rapidly (~ 20 min) detect the virus in different tissues after 3 h (hemolymph), 6 h (gill tissue) and 12 h (head soft tissue, eye stalk, and pleopod) of infection. Based on these findings, a validation study was performed using 75 field samples collected from different geographical locations in India. The LFIA results obtained were compared with the conventional "gold standard test", viz. one-step PCR. The analysis of results in 2x2 matrix indicated very high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (96.77%) of LFIA. Similarly, Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0.983 suggested "very good agreement" between the developed LFIA and the conventional one-step PCR. The LFIA developed for the rapid detection of WSSV has an excellent potential for use in the field and could prove to be a boon to the aquaculture industry.

  10. A closer look at RapidArc (registered) radiosurgery plans using very small fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fog, Lotte S; Rasmussen, Jens F B; Aznar, Marianne; Kjaer-Kristoffersen, Flemming; Vogelius, Ivan R; Engelholm, Svend Aage; Bangsgaard, Jens Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, 3994, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2011-03-21

    RapidArc (registered) has become the treatment of choice for an increasing number of treatment sites in many clinics. The extensive use of multiple subfields in RapidArc (registered) treatments presents unique challenges, especially for small targets treated in few fractions. In this work, very small static fields and subsequently RapidArc (registered) and conventional plans for two targets (0.4 and 9.9 cm{sup 3}) were investigated. Doses from static fields 1-4 MLC leaves (0.25-1.00 cm) wide, and larger fields with 1-4 MLC leaves closed in their centres, were measured using the portal dosimeter-based QA system EPIQA (v 1.3) and gafchromic film. RapidArc and conventional plans for two tumours were then measured using EPIQA, gafchromic EBT2 film and the phantom-based QA system Delta4. Eclipse 8.6 and 8.9, grid spacings of 1.25 and 2.50 mm and a Varian HD linac were used. For static fields one MLC leaf wide, the dose was underestimated by Eclipse by as much as 53% (v 8.6, 2.5 mm grid). Eclipse underestimated the dose downstream from a few MLC leaves closed in the centre of a large MLC field by as much as 30%. Eclipse consistently overestimated the width of the penumbra by about 100%. For the conventional plans, there was good agreement between the calculated and measured dose for the 9.9 cm{sup 3} PTV, but a 10% underdose was observed for the 0.4 cm{sup 3} PTV. For the RapidArc (registered) plans, the measured dose for the 9.9 cm{sup 3} PTV was in good agreement with the calculated one. However, for the 0.4 cm{sup 3} PTV about 10% overdosing was detected (Eclipse v 8.6, 2.5 mm grid spacing). EPIQA data indicated that the measured dose profiles were overmodulated compared to the calculated one. The use of small subfields, typically a few MLC leaves wide, or larger fields with one or a few MLC leaves closed in its centre can result in significant errors in the dose calculation. The detector systems used vary in their ability to detect the discrepancies. Using a smaller

  11. Dynamic changes at the rapidly advancing Yahtse Glacier, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, William J.; Bartholomaus, Timothy C.; Willis, Michael J.; Pritchard, Matthew E.

    2017-03-01

    Since 1990, Yahtse Glacier in southern Alaska has advanced at an average rate of ˜100 m/yr despite of a negative mass balance, widespread thinning in its accumulation area, and a low accumulation-area ratio. To better understand the interannual and seasonal changes at Yahtse and the processes driving these changes, we construct velocity and ice surface elevation time series spanning the years 1985-2014 and 2000-2014, respectively, using satellite optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) observations. In terms of seasonal changes, we find contrasting dynamics above and below a steep (up to 18% slope) icefall located approximately 6 km from the terminus. Above the icefall, speeds peak in May and reach minima in October synchronous with the development of a calving embayment at the terminus. This may be caused by an efficient, channelized subglacial drainage system that focuses subglacial discharge into a plume, resulting in a local increase in calving and submarine melting. However, velocities near the terminus are fastest in the winter, following terminus retreat, possibly off of a terminal moraine resulting in decreased backstress. Between 1996-2014 the terminus decelerated by ˜40% at an average rate of ˜0.4 m/day/yr , transitioned from tensile to compressive longitudinal strain rates, and dynamically thickened at rates of 1-6 m/yr , which we hypothesize is in response to the development and advance of a terminal moraine. The described interannual changes decay significantly upstream of the icefall, indicating that the icefall may inhibit the upstream transmission of stress perturbations. We suggest that diminished stress transmission across the icefall could allow Yahtse’s upper basin to remain in a state of mass drawdown despite of moraine-enabled terminus advance. Our work highlights the importance of glacier geometry in controlling tidewater glacier re-advance, particularly in a climate favoring increasing equilibrium line altitudes.

  12. Rapid changes in the gut microbiome during human evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Moeller, Andrew H.; Li, Yingying; Mpoudi Ngole, Eitel; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.; Pusey, Anne E.; Peeters, Martine; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Ochman, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Humans are ecosystems containing trillions of microorganisms, but the evolutionary history of this microbiome is obscured by a lack of knowledge about microbiomes of African apes. We sequenced the gut communities of hundreds of chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas and developed a phylogenetic approach to reconstruct how present-day human microbiomes have diverged from those of ancestral populations. Compositional change in the microbiome was slow and clock-like during African ape diversificatio...

  13. Rapid isotopic changes in groundwater, upper Rio Guanajuato catchment, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes, Alejandra; Durazo, Jaime [Departamento de recursos naturales, Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Kralisch, Stefanie [Posgrado en Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-01-15

    Significant changes in the isotopic composition of groundwater in the upper catchment of Rio Guanajuato, Mexico, were detected in two independent sets of samplers for 3 % of the 1600 high-production wells in the area. Sampling was done in December 1998 (53 samples), and in July - August 2003 (41 samples). Average deuterium concentration did not change between 1998 and 2003 but the average oxygen-18 concentration suggested a generalized dilution from deep water from infiltrated local precipitation. This regional change occurred within 56 months, indicating a highly dynamic hydrogeologic system. Fast replenishment of aquifer storage, or non sustainable over-pumping of old aquifer reserves, are possible explanations. [Spanish] Cambios isotopicos significativos en el agua subterranea de la cuenca alta del Rio Guanajuato, Mexico, fueron detectados en dos conjuntos independientes de muestras que incluyeron al 3% de los 1600 pozos de alta produccion del area. Los muestreos se realizaron en diciembre de 1998 (53 muestras) y en julio - agosto del 2003 (41 muestras). La concentracion promedio del deuterio no cambio entre 1998 y 2003, pero la del oxigeno-18 sugiere una dilucion generalizada del agua profunda por infiltracion de la precipitacion local. Este cambio regional ocurrio dentro de 56 meses, indicando un sistema hidrogeologico muy dinamico. La rapida recuperacion del almacenamiento acuifero o el bombeo insostenible de reservas acuiferas viejas son explicaciones posibles.

  14. Rapid changes in gene expression direct rapid shifts in intestinal form and function in the Burmese python after feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Audra L; Card, Daren C; Ruggiero, Robert P; Schield, Drew R; Adams, Richard H; Pollock, David D; Secor, Stephen M; Castoe, Todd A

    2015-05-01

    Snakes provide a unique and valuable model system for studying the extremes of physiological remodeling because of the ability of some species to rapidly upregulate organ form and function upon feeding. The predominant model species used to study such extreme responses has been the Burmese python because of the extreme nature of postfeeding response in this species. We analyzed the Burmese python intestine across a time series, before, during, and after feeding to understand the patterns and timing of changes in gene expression and their relationship to changes in intestinal form and function upon feeding. Our results indicate that >2,000 genes show significant changes in expression in the small intestine following feeding, including genes involved in intestinal morphology and function (e.g., hydrolases, microvillus proteins, trafficking and transport proteins), as well as genes involved in cell division and apoptosis. Extensive changes in gene expression occur surprisingly rapidly, within the first 6 h of feeding, coincide with changes in intestinal morphology, and effectively return to prefeeding levels within 10 days. Collectively, our results provide an unprecedented portrait of parallel changes in gene expression and intestinal morphology and physiology on a scale that is extreme both in the magnitude of changes, as well as in the incredibly short time frame of these changes, with up- and downregulation of expression and function occurring in the span of 10 days. Our results also identify conserved vertebrate signaling pathways that modulate these responses, which may suggest pathways for therapeutic modulation of intestinal function in humans. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Simulation of rapid ecological change in Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, James E.; Chalupnicki, Marc; Dittman, Dawn E.; Watkins, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Lower trophic level processes are integral to proper functioning of large aquatic ecosystems and have been disturbed in Lake Ontario by various stressors including exotic species. The invasion of benthic habitats by dreissenid mussels has led to systemic changes and native faunal declines. Size-dependent physiological rates, spatial differences and connectivity, competition, and differential population dynamics among invertebrate groups contributed to the change and system complexity. We developed a spatially explicit, individual-based mechanistic model of the benthic ecosystem in Lake Ontario, with coupling to the pelagic system, to examine ecosystem dynamics and effects of dreissenid mussel invasion and native fauna losses. Benthic organisms were represented by functional groups; filter-feeders (i.e., dreissenid mussels), surface deposit-feeders (e.g., native amphipod Diporeia spp.), and deposit-feeders (e.g., oligochaetes and other burrowers). The model was stable, represented ecological structure and function effectively, and reproduced observed effects of the mussel invasion. Two hypotheses for causes of Diporeia loss, competition or disease-like mortality, were tested. Simple competition for food did not explain observed declines in native surface deposit-feeders during the filter-feeder invasion. However, the elevated mortality scenario supports a disease-like cause for loss of the native amphipod, with population changes in various lake areas and altered benthic biomass transfers. Stabilization of mussel populations and possible recovery of the native, surface-deposit feeding amphipod were predicted. Although further research is required on forcing functions, model parameters, and natural conditions, the model provides a valuable tool to help managers understand the benthic system and plan for response to future disruptions.

  16. Visualization of a changing dose field.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, T. M (Terry M.); Kornreich, D. E. (Drew E.)

    2002-01-01

    To help visualize the results of dose modeling for nuclear materials processing opcrations, we have developed an integrated model that uses a simple dosc calculation tool to obtain estimates of the dose field in a complex geomctry and then post-process the data to produce a video of the now time-dependent data. We generate two-dimensional radiation fields within an existing physical cnvironment and then analyze them using three-dimensional visualization techniques. The radiation fields are generated for both neutrons and photons. Standard monoenergetic diffusion theory is used to estimate the neutron dosc fields. The photon dose is estimated using a point-kernel formalism, with photon shielding effects and buildup taken into account. The radiation field dynamics are analyzed by interleaving individual 3D graphic 'snapshots' into a smoothed, lime dependent, video-based display. In-the-room workers are 'seen' in the radiation fields via a graphical, 3D fly-through rendering of the room. Worker dose levels can reveal surprising dependencies on operational source placement, source types, worker alignment, shielding alignments, and indirect operations from external workers.

  17. Managing marine disease emergencies in an era of rapid change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groner, Maya L; Maynard, Jeffrey; Breyta, Rachel; Carnegie, Ryan B; Dobson, Andy; Friedman, Carolyn S; Froelich, Brett; Garren, Melissa; Gulland, Frances M D; Heron, Scott F; Noble, Rachel T; Revie, Crawford W; Shields, Jeffrey D; Vanderstichel, Raphaël; Weil, Ernesto; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Harvell, C Drew

    2016-03-05

    Infectious marine diseases can decimate populations and are increasing among some taxa due to global change and our increasing reliance on marine environments. Marine diseases become emergencies when significant ecological, economic or social impacts occur. We can prepare for and manage these emergencies through improved surveillance, and the development and iterative refinement of approaches to mitigate disease and its impacts. Improving surveillance requires fast, accurate diagnoses, forecasting disease risk and real-time monitoring of disease-promoting environmental conditions. Diversifying impact mitigation involves increasing host resilience to disease, reducing pathogen abundance and managing environmental factors that facilitate disease. Disease surveillance and mitigation can be adaptive if informed by research advances and catalysed by communication among observers, researchers and decision-makers using information-sharing platforms. Recent increases in the awareness of the threats posed by marine diseases may lead to policy frameworks that facilitate the responses and management that marine disease emergencies require. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Rapid adaptive responses to climate change in corals

    KAUST Repository

    Torda, Gergely

    2017-09-01

    Pivotal to projecting the fate of coral reefs is the capacity of reef-building corals to acclimatize and adapt to climate change. Transgenerational plasticity may enable some marine organisms to acclimatize over several generations and it has been hypothesized that epigenetic processes and microbial associations might facilitate adaptive responses. However, current evidence is equivocal and understanding of the underlying processes is limited. Here, we discuss prospects for observing transgenerational plasticity in corals and the mechanisms that could enable adaptive plasticity in the coral holobiont, including the potential role of epigenetics and coral-associated microbes. Well-designed and strictly controlled experiments are needed to distinguish transgenerational plasticity from other forms of plasticity, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and their relative importance compared with genetic adaptation.

  19. Rapid changes in the gut microbiome during human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Andrew H; Li, Yingying; Mpoudi Ngole, Eitel; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Pusey, Anne E; Peeters, Martine; Hahn, Beatrice H; Ochman, Howard

    2014-11-18

    Humans are ecosystems containing trillions of microorganisms, but the evolutionary history of this microbiome is obscured by a lack of knowledge about microbiomes of African apes. We sequenced the gut communities of hundreds of chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas and developed a phylogenetic approach to reconstruct how present-day human microbiomes have diverged from those of ancestral populations. Compositional change in the microbiome was slow and clock-like during African ape diversification, but human microbiomes have deviated from the ancestral state at an accelerated rate. Relative to the microbiomes of wild apes, human microbiomes have lost ancestral microbial diversity while becoming specialized for animal-based diets. Individual wild apes cultivate more phyla, classes, orders, families, genera, and species of bacteria than do individual humans across a range of societies. These results indicate that humanity has experienced a depletion of the gut flora since diverging from Pan.

  20. Complex interactions in Lake Michigan’s rapidly changing ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderploeg, Henry A.; Bunnell, David B.; Carrick, Hunter J.; Hook, Tomas O.

    2015-01-01

    For over 30 years, Lake Michigan’s food web has been in a constant state of transition from reductions in nutrient loading and proliferation of invasive species at multiple trophic levels. In particular, there has been concern about impacts from the invasive predatory cercopagids (Bythotrephes longimanus and Cercopagis pengoi) and expanding dreissenid mussel and round goby populations. This special issue brings together papers that explore the status of the Lake Michigan food web and the factors responsible for these changes, and suggests research paths that must be taken for understanding and predicting system behavior. This introductory paper describes the special issue origin, presents an overview of the papers, and draws overarching conclusions from the papers.

  1. Rapid assessment of rice seed availability for wildlife in harvested fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, B.J.; Miller, M.R.; Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, P.S.; Farinha, M.A.; Benjamin, Gustafson K.; Yee, J.L.; Fleskes, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Rice seed remaining in commercial fields after harvest (waste rice) is a critical food resource for wintering waterfowl in rice-growing regions of North America. Accurate and precise estimates of the seed mass density of waste rice are essential for planning waterfowl wintering habitat extents and management. In the Sacramento Valley of California, USA, the existing method for obtaining estimates of availability of waste rice in harvested fields produces relatively precise estimates, but the labor-, time-, and machineryintensive process is not practical for routine assessments needed to examine long-term trends in waste rice availability. We tested several experimental methods designed to rapidly derive estimates that would not be burdened with disadvantages of the existing method. We first conducted a simulation study of the efficiency of each method and then conducted field tests. For each approach, methods did not vary in root mean squared error, although some methods did exhibit bias for both simulations and field tests. Methods also varied substantially in the time to conduct each sample and in the number of samples required to detect a standard trend. Overall, modified line-intercept methods performed well for estimating the density of rice seeds. Waste rice in the straw, although not measured directly, can be accounted for by a positive relationship with density of rice on the ground. Rapid assessment of food availability is a useful tool to help waterfowl managers establish and implement wetland restoration and agricultural habitat-enhancement goals for wintering waterfowl. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  2. Rapid maxillary expansion treatment could produce long-term dental arch changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yijin

    2005-01-01

    : Data Sources: Medline, Medline In-Process, LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature), PUBMED, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library were searched. Search terms were rapid palatal expansion or rapid maxillary expansion (RME) and tooth or dental changes. Reference

  3. Coral Reefs Under Rapid Climate Change and Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Mumby, P. J.; Hooten, A. J.; Steneck, R. S.; Greenfield, P.; Gomez, E.; Harvell, C. D.; Sale, P. F.; Edwards, A. J.; Caldeira, K.; Knowlton, N.; Eakin, C. M.; Iglesias-Prieto, R.; Muthiga, N.; Bradbury, R. H.; Dubi, A.; Hatziolos, M. E.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is expected to exceed 500 parts per million and global temperatures to rise by at least 2°C by 2050 to 2100, values that significantly exceed those of at least the past 420,000 years during which most extant marine organisms evolved. Under conditions expected in the 21st century, global warming and ocean acidification will compromise carbonate accretion, with corals becoming increasingly rare on reef systems. The result will be less diverse reef communities and carbonate reef structures that fail to be maintained. Climate change also exacerbates local stresses from declining water quality and overexploitation of key species, driving reefs increasingly toward the tipping point for functional collapse. This review presents future scenarios for coral reefs that predict increasingly serious consequences for reef-associated fisheries, tourism, coastal protection, and people. As the International Year of the Reef 2008 begins, scaled-up management intervention and decisive action on global emissions are required if the loss of coral-dominated ecosystems is to be avoided.

  4. Ethnobiology 5: Interdisciplinarity in an Era of Rapid Environmental Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Wolverton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnobiology 5 stems from Eugene Hunn’s four phases of the history of ethnobiology and focuses on the relevance of ethnobiological research in the context of environmental and cultural change.  It refers to a contemporary phase of the field’s historical development.  In this paper, I argue that ethnobiology is preadapted to be a scholarly umbrella for a number of disciplines that concern human-environment interactions, suggesting that one goal of Ethnobiology 5 is to bridge traditional academic boundaries in order to broaden the community of ethnobiologists. Another goal of Ethnobiology 5 is to capitalize on and communicate the relevance of ethnobiological scholarship for solving problems related to contemporary environmental and cultural crises.  Indeed, ethnobiology is not a subfield of any traditional discipline and by the nature of its name bridges humanities, social science, and science.  Ethnobiology has always been interdisciplinary in terms of its subject matter, yet its community of scholars is relatively small compared to mission-driven disciplines, such as conservation biology.  Venues for publication and presentation of ethnobiological research, as well as how ethnobiologists portray their research, are critical to growing ethnobiology.

  5. Rapid calculations of susceptibility-induced magnetostatic field perturbations for in vivo magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Kevin M; Papademetris, Xenophon; Rothman, Douglas L; Graaf, Robin A de [Yale University, Magnetic Resonance Research Center, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2006-12-21

    Static magnetic field perturbations generated by variations of magnetic susceptibility within samples reduce the quality and integrity of magnetic resonance measurements. These perturbations are difficult to predict in vivo where wide variations of internal magnetic susceptibility distributions are common. Recent developments have provided rapid computational means of estimating static field inhomogeneity within the small susceptibility limits of materials typically studied using magnetic resonance. Such a predictive mechanism could be a valuable tool for sequence simulation, field shimming and post-acquisition image correction. Here, we explore this calculation protocol and demonstrate its predictive power in estimating in vivo inhomogeneity within the human brain. Furthermore, we quantitatively explore the predictive limits of the computation. For in vivo comparison, a method of magnetic susceptibility registration using MRI and CT data is presented and utilized to carry out subject-specific inhomogeneity estimation. Using this algorithm, direct comparisons in human brain and phantoms are made between field map acquisitions and calculated inhomogeneity. Distortion correction in echo-planar images due to static field inhomogeneity is also demonstrated using the computed field maps.

  6. Rapid arsenite oxidation by Thermus aquaticus and Thermus thermophilus: Field and laboratory investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gihring, T.M.; Druschel, G.K.; McCleskey, R.B.; Hamers, R.J.; Banfield, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    Thermus aquaticus and Thermus thermophilus, common inhabitants of terrestrial hot springs and thermally polluted domestic and industrial waters, have been found to rapidly oxidize arsenite to arsenate. Field investigations at a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park revealed conserved total arsenic transport and rapid arsenite oxidation occurring within the drainage channel. This environment was heavily colonized by Thermus aquaticus. In laboratory experiments, arsenite oxidation by cultures of Thermus aquaticus YT1 (previously isolated from Yellowstone National Park) and Thermus thermophilus HB8 was accelerated by a factor of over 100 relative to abiotic controls. Thermus aquaticus and Thermus thermophilus may therefore play a large and previously unrecognized role in determining arsenic speciation and bioavailability in thermal environments.

  7. Rapid imaging of free radicals in vivo using hybrid FISP field-cycled PEDRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngdee, Wiwat; Lurie, David J.; Foster, Margaret A.

    2002-04-01

    A new pulse sequence for rapid imaging of free radicals is presented which combines snapshot imaging methods and conventional field-cycled proton electron double resonance imaging (FC-PEDRI). The new sequence allows the number of EPR irradiation periods to be optimized to obtain an acceptable SNR and spatial resolution of free radical distribution in the final image while reducing the RF power deposition and increasing the temporal resolution. Centric reordered phase encoding has been employed to counter the problem of rapid decay of the Overhauser-enhanced signal. A phase-correction scheme has also been used to correct problems arising from instability of the magnetic field following field-cycling. In vivo experiments were carried out using triaryl methyl free radical contrast agent, injected at a dose of 0.214 mmol kg-1 body weight in anaesthetized adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Transaxial images through the abdomen were collected using 1, 2, 4 and 8 EPR irradiation periods. Using 4 EPR irradiation periods it was possible to generate free radical distributions of acceptable SNR and resolution. The EPR power deposition is reduced by a factor of 16 and the acquisition time is reduced by a factor of 4 compared to an acquisition using the conventional FC-PEDRI pulse sequence.

  8. Phase-field investigation on the non-equilibrium interface dynamics of rapid alloy solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jeong [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The research program reported here is focused on critical issues that represent conspicuous gaps in current understanding of rapid solidification, limiting our ability to predict and control microstructural evolution (i.e. morphological dynamics and microsegregation) at high undercooling, where conditions depart significantly from local equilibrium. More specifically, through careful application of phase-field modeling, using appropriate thin-interface and anti-trapping corrections and addressing important details such as transient effects and a velocity-dependent (i.e. adaptive) numerics, the current analysis provides a reasonable simulation-based picture of non-equilibrium solute partitioning and the corresponding oscillatory dynamics associated with single-phase rapid solidification and show that this method is a suitable means for a self-consistent simulation of transient behavior and operating point selection under rapid growth conditions. Moving beyond the limitations of conventional theoretical/analytical treatments of non-equilibrium solute partitioning, these results serve to substantiate recent experimental findings and analytical treatments for single-phase rapid solidification. The departure from the equilibrium solid concentration at the solid-liquid interface was often observed during rapid solidification, and the energetic associated non-equilibrium solute partitioning has been treated in detail, providing possible ranges of interface concentrations for a given growth condition. Use of these treatments for analytical description of specific single-phase dendritic and cellular operating point selection, however, requires a model for solute partitioning under a given set of growth conditions. Therefore, analytical solute trapping models which describe the chemical partitioning as a function of steady state interface velocities have been developed and widely utilized in most of the theoretical investigations of rapid solidification. However, these

  9. Changing Struggles for Relevance in Eight Fields of Natural Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessels, Laurens K.; van Lente, Harro; Grin, John; Smits, Ruud E. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the consequences of institutional changes on academic research practices in eight fields of natural science in the Netherlands. The authors analyse the similarities and differences among the dynamics of these different fields and reflect on possible explanations for the changes observed. The study shows that the increasing…

  10. Integrated Ocean Management as a Strategy to Meet Rapid Climate Change: The Norwegian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Hoel, Alf Håkon; Olsen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The prospects of rapid climate change and the potential existence of tipping points in marine ecosystems where nonlinear change may result from them being overstepped, raises the question of strategies for coping with ecosystem change. There is broad agreement that the combined forces of climate change, pollution and increasing economic activities necessitates more comprehensive approaches to oceans management, centering on the concept of ecosystem-based oceans management. This article addres...

  11. Extremely rapid directional change during Matuyama-Brunhes geomagnetic polarity reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnotti, Leonardo; Scardia, Giancarlo; Giaccio, Biagio; Liddicoat, Joseph C.; Nomade, Sebastien; Renne, Paul R.; Sprain, Courtney J.

    2014-11-01

    We report a palaeomagnetic investigation of the last full geomagnetic field reversal, the Matuyama-Brunhes (M-B) transition, as preserved in a continuous sequence of exposed lacustrine sediments in the Apennines of Central Italy. The palaeomagnetic record provides the most direct evidence for the tempo of transitional field behaviour yet obtained for the M-B transition. 40Ar/39Ar dating of tephra layers bracketing the M-B transition provides high-accuracy age constraints and indicates a mean sediment accumulation rate of about 0.2 mm yr-1 during the transition. Two relative palaeointensity (RPI) minima are present in the M-B transition. During the terminus of the upper RPI minimum, a directional change of about 180 ° occurred at an extremely fast rate, estimated to be less than 2 ° per year, with no intermediate virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) documented during the transit from the southern to northern hemisphere. Thus, the entry into the Brunhes Normal Chron as represented by the palaeomagnetic directions and VGPs developed in a time interval comparable to the duration of an average human life, which is an order of magnitude more rapid than suggested by current models. The reported investigation therefore provides high-resolution integrated palaeomagnetic and radioisotopic data that document the fine details of the anatomy and tempo of the M-B transition in Central Italy that in turn are crucial for a better understanding of Earth's magnetic field, and for the development of more sophisticated models that are able to describe its global structure and behaviour.

  12. Propulsion Physics Under the Changing Density Field Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    2011-01-01

    To grow as a space faring race, future spaceflight systems will requires new propulsion physics. Specifically a propulsion physics model that does not require mass ejection without limiting the high thrust necessary to accelerate within or beyond our solar system and return within a normal work period or lifetime. In 2004 Khoury and Weltman produced a density dependent cosmology theory they called Chameleon Cosmology, as at its nature, it is hidden within known physics. This theory represents a scalar field within and about an object, even in the vacuum. Whereby, these scalar fields can be viewed as vacuum energy fields with definable densities that permeate all matter; having implications to dark matter/energy with universe acceleration properties; implying a new force mechanism for propulsion physics. Using Chameleon Cosmology, the author has developed a new propulsion physics model, called the Changing Density Field (CDF) Model. This model relates to density changes in these density fields, where the density field density changes are related to the acceleration of matter within an object. These density changes in turn change how an object couples to the surrounding density fields. Whereby, thrust is achieved by causing a differential in the coupling to these density fields about an object. Since the model indicates that the density of the density field in an object can be changed by internal mass acceleration, even without exhausting mass, the CDF model implies a new propellant-less propulsion physics model

  13. Use of refractometry and colorimetry as field methods to rapidly assess antimalarial drug quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael D; Nettey, Henry; Villalva Rojas, Ofelia; Pamanivong, Chansapha; Khounsaknalath, Lamphet; Grande Ortiz, Miguel; Newton, Paul N; Fernández, Facundo M; Vongsack, Latsamy; Manolin, Ot

    2007-01-04

    The proliferation of counterfeit and poor-quality drugs is a major public health problem; especially in developing countries lacking adequate resources to effectively monitor their prevalence. Simple and affordable field methods provide a practical means of rapidly monitoring drug quality in circumstances where more advanced techniques are not available. Therefore, we have evaluated refractometry, colorimetry and a technique combining both processes as simple and accurate field assays to rapidly test the quality of the commonly available antimalarial drugs; artesunate, chloroquine, quinine, and sulfadoxine. Method bias, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy relative to high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of drugs collected in the Lao PDR were assessed for each technique. The HPLC method for each drug was evaluated in terms of assay variability and accuracy. The accuracy of the combined method ranged from 0.96 to 1.00 for artesunate tablets, chloroquine injectables, quinine capsules, and sulfadoxine tablets while the accuracy was 0.78 for enterically coated chloroquine tablets. These techniques provide a generally accurate, yet simple and affordable means to assess drug quality in resource-poor settings.

  14. Curioser and Curioser: New Concepts in the Rapidly Changing Landscape of Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Frances C.

    1999-01-01

    The new "Handbook" assumes that society is changing rapidly and educational administration must change with it. This article critiques chapters on four concepts: ideology, the new consumerism, social capital, and the new institutionalism. Consumerism is pure 19th-century liberalism/individualism; social capital theory and…

  15. Rapid climate change did not cause population collapse at the end of the European Bronze Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armit, Ian; Swindles, Graeme T; Becker, Katharina; Plunkett, Gill; Blaauw, Maarten

    2014-12-02

    The impact of rapid climate change on contemporary human populations is of global concern. To contextualize our understanding of human responses to rapid climate change it is necessary to examine the archeological record during past climate transitions. One episode of abrupt climate change has been correlated with societal collapse at the end of the northwestern European Bronze Age. We apply new methods to interrogate archeological and paleoclimate data for this transition in Ireland at a higher level of precision than has previously been possible. We analyze archeological (14)C dates to demonstrate dramatic population collapse and present high-precision proxy climate data, analyzed through Bayesian methods, to provide evidence for a rapid climatic transition at ca. 750 calibrated years B.C. Our results demonstrate that this climatic downturn did not initiate population collapse and highlight the nondeterministic nature of human responses to past climate change.

  16. Recommendations for Guidelines for Environment-Specific Magnetic-Field Measurements, Rapid Program Engineering Project #2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Electric Research and Management, Inc.; IIT Research Institute; Magnetic Measurements; Survey Research Center, University of California; T. Dan Bracken, Inc.

    1997-03-11

    The purpose of this project was to document widely applicable methods for characterizing the magnetic fields in a given environment, recognizing the many sources co-existing within that space. The guidelines are designed to allow the reader to follow an efficient process to (1) plan the goals and requirements of a magnetic-field study, (2) develop a study structure and protocol, and (3) document and carry out the plan. These guidelines take the reader first through the process of developing a basic study strategy, then through planning and performing the data collection. Last, the critical factors of data management, analysis reporting, and quality assurance are discussed. The guidelines are structured to allow the researcher to develop a protocol that responds to specific site and project needs. The Research and Public Information Dissemination Program (RAPID) is based on exposure to magnetic fields and the potential health effects. Therefore, the most important focus for these magnetic-field measurement guidelines is relevance to exposure. The assumed objective of an environment-specific measurement is to characterize the environment (given a set of occupants and magnetic-field sources) so that information about the exposure of the occupants may be inferred. Ideally, the researcher seeks to obtain complete or "perfect" information about these magnetic fields, so that personal exposure might also be modeled perfectly. However, complete data collection is not feasible. In fact, it has been made more difficult as the research field has moved to expand the list of field parameters measured, increasing the cost and complexity of performing a measurement and analyzing the data. The guidelines address this issue by guiding the user to design a measurement protocol that will gather the most exposure-relevant information based on the locations of people in relation to the sources. We suggest that the "microenvironment" become the base unit of area in a study, with

  17. Assessing surface albedo change and its induced radiation budget under rapid urbanization with Landsat and GLASS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yonghong; Jia, Gensuo; Pohl, Christine; Zhang, Xiaoxuan; van Genderen, John

    2016-02-01

    Radiative forcing (RF) induced by land use (mainly surface albedo) change is still not well understood in climate change science, especially the effects of changes in urban albedo due to rapid urbanization on the urban radiation budget. In this study, a modified RF derivation approach based on Landsat images was used to quantify changes in the solar radiation budget induced by variations in surface albedo in Beijing from 2001 to 2009. Field radiation records from a Beijing meteorological station were used to identify changes in RF at the local level. There has been rapid urban expansion over the last decade, with the urban land area increasing at about 3.3 % annually from 2001 to 2009. This has modified three-dimensional urban surface properties, resulting in lower albedo due to complex building configurations of urban centers and higher albedo on flat surfaces of suburban areas and cropland. There was greater solar radiation (6.93 × 108 W) in the urban center in 2009 than in 2001. However, large cropland and urban fringe areas caused less solar radiation absorption. RF increased with distance from the urban center (less than 14 km) and with greater urbanization, with the greatest value being 0.41 W/m2. The solar radiation budget in urban areas was believed to be mainly influenced by urban structural changes in the horizontal and vertical directions. Overall, the results presented herein indicate that cumulative urbanization impacts on the natural radiation budget could evolve into an important driver of local climate change.

  18. Strong-field dynamo action in rapidly rotating convection with no inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, David W; Cattaneo, Fausto

    2016-06-01

    The earth's magnetic field is generated by dynamo action driven by convection in the outer core. For numerical reasons, inertial and viscous forces play an important role in geodynamo models; however, the primary dynamical balance in the earth's core is believed to be between buoyancy, Coriolis, and magnetic forces. The hope has been that by setting the Ekman number to be as small as computationally feasible, an asymptotic regime would be reached in which the correct force balance is achieved. However, recent analyses of geodynamo models suggest that the desired balance has still not yet been attained. Here we adopt a complementary approach consisting of a model of rapidly rotating convection in which inertial forces are neglected from the outset. Within this framework we are able to construct a branch of solutions in which the dynamo generates a strong magnetic field that satisfies the expected force balance. The resulting strongly magnetized convection is dramatically different from the corresponding solutions in which the field is weak.

  19. Rapid, high-temperature, field test method for evaluation of geothermal calcium carbonate scale inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, R.G.

    1986-09-01

    A new test method is described that allows the rapid field testing of calcium carbonate scale inhibitors at 500/sup 0/F (260/sup 0/C). The method evolved from use of a full-flow test loop on a well with a mass flow rate of about 1 x 10/sup 6/ lbm/hr (126 kg/s). It is a simple, effective way to evaluate the effectiveness of inhibitors under field conditions. Five commercial formulations were chosen for field evaluation on the basis of nonflowing, laboratory screening tests at 500/sup 0/F (260/sup 0/C). Four of these formulations from different suppliers controlled calcium carbonate scale deposition as measured by the test method. Two of these could dislodge recently deposited scale that had not age-hardened. Performance-profile diagrams, which were measured for these four effective inhibitors, show the concentration interrelationship between brine calcium and inhibitor concentrations at which the formulations will and will not stop scale formation in the test apparatus. With these diagrams, one formulation was chosen for testing on the full-flow brine line. The composition was tested for 6 weeks and showed a dramatic decrease in the scaling occurring at the flow-control valve. This scaling was about to force a shutdown of a major, long-term flow test being done for reservoir economic evaluations. The inhibitor stopped the scaling, and the test was performed without interruption.

  20. Dynamic diagnostic relationism: a new diagnostic paradigm for complex rapidly changing clinical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Lawrence A

    2014-01-01

    Decades of large, apparently well-designed clinical trials have failed to generate reproducible results in the investigation of many complex rapidly evolving and changing conditions such as sepsis. One possibility for the failure is that 20th century threshold science may be too simplistic to apply to complex rapidly changing conditions, especially those with unknown times of onset. There is an acute need to reconsider the fundamental validity of the application of simple threshold science in the study of complex rapidly evolving and changing conditions. In this letter, four potential axioms are presented which define a new science which assesses the probability of disease as a function of motion images of all the available clinical data.

  1. Efficient Incorporation of Markov Random Fields in Change Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2009-01-01

    Many change detection algorithms work by calculating the probability of change on a pixel-wise basis. This is a disadvantage since one is usually looking for regions of change, and such information is not used in pixel-wise classification - per definition. This issue becomes apparent in the face...... of noise, implying that the pixel-wise classifier is also noisy. There is thus a need for incorporating local homogeneity constraints into such a change detection framework. For this modelling task Markov Random Fields are suitable. Markov Random Fields have, however, previously been plagued by lack...... of efficient optimization methods or numerical solvers. We here address the issue of efficient incorporation of local homogeneity constraints into change detection algorithms. We do this by exploiting recent advances in graph based algorithms for Markov Random Fields. This is combined with an IR-MAD change...

  2. [Field assessment of the new rapid diagnostic test Ebola eZYSCREEN®].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallais, F; Gay-Andrieu, F; Picot, V; Magassouba, N; Mély, S; Peyrefitte, C N; Bellanger, L

    2017-02-01

    During the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa in 2014, the World Health Organization has pointed out the need for rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) affordable, sensitive, specific, user-friendly, rapid, equipment-free, and deliverable. The rapid diagnostic test (Lateral Flow Assay) Ebola eZYSCREEN® was developed in this emergency frame using monoclonal antibodies against the envelope glycoprotein of the virus. Two distinct versions have been industrialized, one for whole-blood samples and the other for serum/plasma samples. Both versions have an analytical detection limit of 10 5 pfu/ml, the stability is at least 393 days at 30°C and 120 days at 45°C. The nonretrospective and independent validation study was carried out in the course of the outbreak in Conakry and at the Ebola Treatment Center of Coyah (Guinea) on 144 patients. In this study, the RDT showed a sensitivity of 65.3% and a specificity of 98.9% on whole blood, a sensitivity of 74.5% and a specificity of 100% on serum. Results from the whole-blood version must be analyzed with caution because of the delay between the blood collection and the completion of the tests, which was out of specification (3 days on average instead of 2 h). In contrast to laboratory tests, this easy to use field test does not require sophisticated instrumentation or even electricity and can contribute to the diagnostic chain of Ebola virus disease taking into account its benefits, high stability, and specificity but also its limit of sensitivity compared to laboratory techniques RT-qPCR (Real-Time reverse transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction), which remain the reference for the diagnosis of Ebola. The RDT Ebola eZYSCREEN® was granted EC IVD (IVD = In Vitro Diagnostic) marking.

  3. Field accuracy of fourth-generation rapid diagnostic tests for acute HIV-1: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Joseph M; Macpherson, Peter; Adams, Emily R; Ochodo, Eleanor; Sands, Anita; Taegtmeyer, Miriam

    2015-11-28

    Fourth-generation HIV-1 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) detect HIV-1 p24 antigen to screen for acute HIV-1. However, diagnostic accuracy during clinical use may be suboptimal. Clinical sensitivity and specificity of fourth-generation RDTs for acute HIV-1 were collated from field evaluation studies in adults identified by a systematic literature search. Four studies with 17 381 participants from Australia, Swaziland, the United Kingdom and Malawi were identified. All reported 0% sensitivity of the HIV-1 p24 component for acute HIV-1 diagnosis; 26 acute infections were missed. Specificity ranged from 98.3 to 99.9%. Fourth-generation RDTs are currently unsuitable for the detection of acute HIV-1.

  4. Field Testing of Rapid Electrokinetic Nanoparticle Treatment for Corrosion Control of Steel in Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Henry E.; Alexander, Joshua B.; Kupwade-Patil,Kunal; Calle, Luz Marina

    2009-01-01

    This work field tested the use of electrokinetics for delivery of concrete sealing nanoparticles concurrent with the extraction of chlorides. Several cylinders of concrete were batched and placed in immersion at the Kennedy Space Center Beach Corrosion Test Site. The specimens were batched with steel reinforcement and a 4.5 wt.% (weight percent) content of sodium chloride. Upon arrival at Kennedy Space Center, the specimens were placed in the saltwater immersion pool at the Beach Corrosion Test Site. Following 30 days of saltwater exposure, the specimens were subjected to rapid chloride extraction concurrent with electrokinetic nanoparticle treatment. The treatments were operated at up to eight times the typical current density in order to complete the treatment in 7 days. The findings indicated that the short-term corrosion resistance of the concrete specimens was significantly enhanced as was the strength of the concrete.

  5. Palliative care making a difference in rural Uganda, Kenya and Malawi: three rapid evaluation field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Liz; Brown, Judith; Leng, Mhoira; Bettega, Nadia; Murray, Scott A

    2011-05-12

    Many people live and die in pain in Africa. We set out to describe patient, family and local community perspectives on the impact of three community based palliative care interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. Three palliative care programmes in Uganda, Kenya and Malawi were studied using rapid evaluation field techniques in each country, triangulating data from three sources: interviews with key informants, observations of clinical encounters and the local health and social care context, and routine data from local reports and statistics. We interviewed 33 patients with advanced illness, 27 family carers, 36 staff, 25 volunteers, and 29 community leaders and observed clinical care of 12 patients. In each site, oral morphine was being used effectively. Patients valued being treated with dignity and respect. Being supported at home reduced physical, emotional and financial burden of travel to, and care at health facilities. Practical support and instruction in feeding and bathing patients facilitated good deaths at home.In each country mobile phones enabled rapid access to clinical and social support networks. Staff and volunteers generally reported that caring for the dying in the face of poverty was stressful, but also rewarding, with resilience fostered by having effective analgesia, and community support networks. Programmes were reported to be successful because they integrated symptom control with practical and emotional care, education, and spiritual care. Holistic palliative care can be delivered effectively in the face of poverty, but a public health approach is needed to ensure equitable provision.

  6. Advances in a rapidly emerging field of hair follicle stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokos, Zrinka Bukvić; Mosler, Elvira Lazić

    2014-03-01

    Human skin maintains the ability to regenerate during adulthood, as it constantly renews itself throughout adult life, and the hair follicle (HF) undergoes a perpetual cycle of growth and degeneration. The study of stem cells (SCs) in the epidermis and skin tissue engineering is a rapidly emerging field, where advances have been made in both basic and clinical research. Advances in basic science include the ability to assay SCs of the epidermis in vivo, identification of an independent interfollicular epidermal SC, and improved ability to analyze individual SCs divisions, as well as the recent hair organ regeneration via the bioengineered hair follicular unit transplantation (FUT) in mice. Advances in the clinic include recognition of the importance of SCs for wound repair and for gene therapy in inherited skin diseases, for example epidermolysis bullosa. The study of the HF stem cells (HFSCs) started by identification of epidermal SC in the HF bulge as quiescent "label retaining cells". The research of these cells emerged rapidly after the identification of bulge cell molecular markers, such as keratin 15 (K15) and CD34 in mice and CD200 in humans, which allowed the isolation and characterization of bulge cells from follicles. This paper provides an overview of the current knowledge on epidermal SCs in the HF describing their essential characteristics and the control of follicle SCs fate, their role in alopecia, as well as their use in tissue engineering.

  7. Palliative care making a difference in rural Uganda, Kenya and Malawi: three rapid evaluation field studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettega Nadia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people live and die in pain in Africa. We set out to describe patient, family and local community perspectives on the impact of three community based palliative care interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Three palliative care programmes in Uganda, Kenya and Malawi were studied using rapid evaluation field techniques in each country, triangulating data from three sources: interviews with key informants, observations of clinical encounters and the local health and social care context, and routine data from local reports and statistics. Results We interviewed 33 patients with advanced illness, 27 family carers, 36 staff, 25 volunteers, and 29 community leaders and observed clinical care of 12 patients. In each site, oral morphine was being used effectively. Patients valued being treated with dignity and respect. Being supported at home reduced physical, emotional and financial burden of travel to, and care at health facilities. Practical support and instruction in feeding and bathing patients facilitated good deaths at home. In each country mobile phones enabled rapid access to clinical and social support networks. Staff and volunteers generally reported that caring for the dying in the face of poverty was stressful, but also rewarding, with resilience fostered by having effective analgesia, and community support networks. Conclusions Programmes were reported to be successful because they integrated symptom control with practical and emotional care, education, and spiritual care. Holistic palliative care can be delivered effectively in the face of poverty, but a public health approach is needed to ensure equitable provision.

  8. Interactive terrain visualization enables virtual field work during rapid scientific response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowgill, Eric; Bernardin, Tony S.; Oskin, Michael E.; Bowles, Christopher; Yikilmaz, M. Burak; Kreylos, Oliver; Elliott, Austin J.; Bishop, Scott; Gold, Ryan D.; Morelan, Alexander; Bawden, Gerald W.; Hamann, Bernd; Kellogg, Louise

    2012-01-01

    The moment magnitude (Mw) 7.0 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake is the first major earthquake for which a large-footprint LiDAR (light detection and ranging) survey was acquired within several weeks of the event. Here, we describe the use of virtual reality data visualization to analyze massive amounts (67 GB on disk) of multiresolution terrain data during the rapid scientific response to a major natural disaster. In particular, we describe a method for conducting virtual field work using both desktop computers and a 4-sided, 22 m3 CAVE immersive virtual reality environment, along with KeckCAVES (Keck Center for Active Visualization in the Earth Sciences) software tools LiDAR Viewer, to analyze LiDAR point-cloud data, and Crusta, for 2.5 dimensional surficial geologic mapping on a bare-earth digital elevation model. This system enabled virtual field work that yielded remote observations of the topographic expression of active faulting within an ∼75-km-long section of the eastern Enriquillo–Plantain Garden fault spanning the 2010 epicenter. Virtual field observations indicated that the geomorphic evidence of active faulting and ancient surface rupture varies along strike. Landform offsets of 6–50 m along the Enriquillo–Plantain Garden fault east of the 2010 epicenter and closest to Port-au-Prince attest to repeated recent surface-rupturing earthquakes there. In the west, the fault trace is well defined by displaced landforms, but it is not as clear as in the east. The 2010 epicenter is within a transition zone between these sections that extends from Grand Goâve in the west to Fayette in the east. Within this transition, between L'Acul (lat 72°40′W) and the Rouillone River (lat 72°35′W), the Enriquillo–Plantain Garden fault is undefined along an embayed low-relief range front, with little evidence of recent surface rupture. Based on the geometry of the eastern and western faults that show evidence of recent surface rupture, we propose that the 2010

  9. Changing struggles for relevance in eight fields of natural science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessels, L.K.; van Lente, H.; Grin, J.; Smits, R.E.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the consequences of institutional changes on academic research practices in eight fields of natural science in the Netherlands. The authors analyse the similarities and differences among the dynamics of these different fields and reflect on possible explanations for the

  10. Monitoring changes in seismic velocity related to an ongoing rapid inflation event at Okmok volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennington, Ninfa; Haney, Matt; De Angelis, Silvio; Thurber, Clifford; Freymueller, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Okmok is one of the most active volcanoes in the Aleutian Arc. In an effort to improve our ability to detect precursory activity leading to eruption at Okmok, we monitor a recent, and possibly ongoing, GPS-inferred rapid inflation event at the volcano using ambient noise interferometry (ANI). Applying this method, we identify changes in seismic velocity outside of Okmok’s caldera, which are related to the hydrologic cycle. Within the caldera, we observe decreases in seismic velocity that are associated with the GPS-inferred rapid inflation event. We also determine temporal changes in waveform decorrelation and show a continual increase in decorrelation rate over the time associated with the rapid inflation event. Themagnitude of relative velocity decreases and decorrelation rate increases are comparable to previous studies at Piton de la Fournaise that associate such changes with increased production of volatiles and/ormagmatic intrusion within the magma reservoir and associated opening of fractures and/or fissures. Notably, the largest decrease in relative velocity occurs along the intrastation path passing nearest to the center of the caldera. This observation, along with equal amplitude relative velocity decreases revealed via analysis of intracaldera autocorrelations, suggests that the inflation sourcemay be located approximately within the center of the caldera and represent recharge of shallow magma storage in this location. Importantly, there is a relative absence of seismicity associated with this and previous rapid inflation events at Okmok. Thus, these ANI results are the first seismic evidence of such rapid inflation at the volcano.

  11. Streamwise-body-force-model for rapid simulation combining internal and external flow fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Rong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A streamwise-body-force-model (SBFM is developed and applied in the overall flow simulation for the distributed propulsion system, combining internal and external flow fields. In view of axial stage effects, fan or compressor effects could be simplified as body forces along the streamline. These body forces which are functions of local parameters could be added as source terms in Navier-Stokes equations to replace solid boundary conditions of blades and hubs. The validation of SBFM with uniform inlet and distortion inlet of compressors shows that pressure performance characteristics agree well with experimental data. A three-dimensional simulation of the integration configuration, via a blended wing body aircraft with a distributed propulsion system using the SBFM, has been completed. Lift coefficient and drag coefficient agree well with wind tunnel test results. Results show that to reach the goal of rapid integrated simulation combining internal and external flow fields, the computational fluid dynamics method based on SBFM is reasonable.

  12. Portable platform for rapid in-field identification of human fecal pollution in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu Sherry; Riedel, Timothy E; Popoola, Jessica A; Morrow, Barrett R; Cai, Sheng; Ellington, Andrew D; Bhadra, Sanchita

    2017-12-13

    Human fecal contamination of water is a public health risk. However, inadequate testing solutions frustrate timely, actionable monitoring. Bacterial culture-based methods are simple but typically cannot distinguish fecal host source. PCR assays can identify host sources but require expertise and infrastructure. To bridge this gap we have developed a field-ready nucleic acid diagnostic platform and rapid sample preparation methods that enable on-site identification of human fecal contamination within 80 min of sampling. Our platform relies on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of human-associated Bacteroides HF183 genetic markers from crude samples. Oligonucleotide strand exchange (OSD) probes reduce false positives by sequence specifically transducing LAMP amplicons into visible fluorescence that can be photographed by unmodified smartphones. Our assay can detect as few as 17 copies/ml of human-associated HF183 targets in sewage-contaminated water without cross-reaction with canine or feline feces. It performs robustly with a variety of environmental water sources and with raw sewage. We have also developed lyophilized assays and inexpensive 3D-printed devices to minimize cost and facilitate field application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Electric-field-assisted crystallisation in phase-change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohary, Krisztian; Diosdado, Jorge A.V.; Ashwin, Peter; Wright, C. David [College of Engineering, Mathematics, and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    Phase-change materials are of intense research interest due mainly to their use in phase-change memory (PCM) devices that are emerging as a promising technology for future non-volatile, solid-state, electrical storage. Electrically driven transitions from the amorphous to the crystalline phase in such devices exhibit characteristic threshold switching. Several alternative electronic explanations for the origins of this characteristic behaviour have been put forward, for example Poole-Frenkel effects, delocalisation of tail states, field emission processes and space charge limited currents [for a full discussion, see Radielli et al., J. Appl. Phys. 103, 111101 (2008) and Simon et al., MRS Proc. 1251, H01-H011 (2010)]. However, an alternative to these conventional electronic models of threshold switching is based on electric field induced lowering of the system free energy, leading to the field induced nucleation of conducting crystal filaments. In this paper we investigate this alternative view. We present a detailed kinetics study of crystallisation in the presence of an electric field for the phase-change material Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}. We derive quantitative crystallisation maps to show the effects of both temperature and electric field on crystallisation and we identify field ranges and parameter values where the electric field might play a significant role. Then we carry out physically realistic simulations of the threshold switching process in typical phase-change device structures, both with and without electric field dependent energy contributions to the system free energy. Our results show that threshold switching can be obtained by a mechanism driven purely by electric field induced nucleation, but the fields so required are large, of the order of 300 MV m{sup -1}, and significantly larger than the experimentally measured threshold fields. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Computed tomographic demonstration of rapid changes in fatty infiltration of the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashist, B. (Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, New York); Hecht, H.L.; Harely, W.D.

    1982-03-01

    Two alcoholic patients in whom computed tomography (CT) demonstrated reversal of fatty infiltration of the liver are described. The rapid reversibility of fatty infiltration can be useful in monitoring alcoholics with fatty livers. Focal fatty infiltration can mimic focal hepatic lesions and repeat scans can be utilized to assess changes in CT attenuation values when this condition is suspected.

  15. Rapidly changing mortality profiles in South Africa in its nine provinces

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    number from HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis combined by 2012.[1]. Cardiovascular ... diabetes and renal disease have increased.[1,7] Furthermore ... Creative Commons licence CC-BY-NC 4.0. Rapidly changing mortality profiles in South Africa in its nine provinces. Non-communicable disease. HIV/AIDS and TB. Other type 1.

  16. Engaging Chicago residents in climate change action: Results from Rapid Ethnographic Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynne M. Westphal; Jennifer. Hirsch

    2010-01-01

    Addressing climate change requires action at all levels of society, from neighborhood to international levels. Using Rapid Ethnography rooted in Asset Based Community Development theory, we investigated climate-friendly attitudes and behaviors in two Chicago neighborhoods in order to assist the City with implementation of its Climate Action Plan. Our research suggests...

  17. Duration-Related Variations in Archaeal Communities after a Change from Upland Fields to Paddy Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Wei, Kai; Chen, Lijun; Chen, Rui

    2016-05-28

    Archaea substantially contribute to global geochemical cycling and energy cycling and are impacted by land-use change. However, the response of archaeal communities to a change from upland field to paddy field has been poorly characterized. Here, soil samples were collected at two depths (0-20 cm and 20-40 cm) from one upland field and six paddy fields that were established on former upland fields at different times (1, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 years before the study). Barcoded pyrosequencing was employed to assess the archaeal communities from the samples at taxonomic resolutions from phylum to genus levels. The total archaeal operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness showed a significant positive correlation with the land-use change duration. Two phyla, Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota, were recorded throughout the study. Both the relative abundance and OTU richness of Euryarchaeota increased at both depths but increased more steadily at the subsurface rather than at the surface. However, these data of Crenarchaeota were the opposite. Additionally, the archaeal composition exhibited a significant relationship with C/N ratios, total phosphorus, soil pH, Olsen phosphorus, and the land-use change duration at several taxonomic resolutions. Our results emphasize that after a change from upland fields to paddy fields, the archaeal diversity and composition changed, and the duration is an important factor in addition to the soil chemical properties.

  18. Monitoring of rapid land cover changes in eastern Japan using Terra/MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, I.; Hara, K.; Park, J.; Asanuma, I.; Tomita, M.; Hasegawa, D.; Short, K.; Fujihara, M.,

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation and land cover in Japan are rapidly changing. Abandoned farmland in 2010, for example, was 396,000 ha, or triple that of 1985. Efficient monitoring of changes in land cover is vital to both conservation of biodiversity and sustainable regional development. The Ministry of Environment is currently producing 1/25,000 scale vegetation maps for all of Japan, but the work is not yet completed. Traditional research is time consuming, and has difficulty coping with the rapid nature of change in the modern world. In this situation, classification of various scale remotely sensed data can be of premier use for efficient and timely monitoring of changes in vegetation.. In this research Terra/MODIS data is utilized to classify land cover in all of eastern Japan. Emphasis is placed on the Tohoku area, where large scale and rapid changes in vegetation have occurred in the aftermath of the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake of 11 March 2011. Large sections of coastal forest and agricultural lands, for example, were directly damaged by the earthquake or inundated by subsequent tsunami. Agricultural land was also abandoned due to radioactive contamination from the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. The classification results are interpreted within the framework of a Landscape Transformation Sere model developed by Hara et al (2010), which presents a multi-staged pattern for tracking vegetation changes under successively heavy levels of human interference. The results of the research will be useful for balancing conservation of biodiversity and ecosystems with the needs for regional redevelopment.

  19. Patterns of visual field changes in thyroid eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Catherine J; Oropesa, Susel; Callahan, Alison B; Glass, Lora R; Teo, Livia; Cestari, Dean M; Kazim, Michael; Freitag, Suzanne K

    2017-08-01

    This article provides a systematic description of visual field changes in thyroid eye disease-compressive optic neuropathy (TED-CON). A retrospective, non-comparative chart review of patients with TED-CON and documented Humphrey Visual Field 24-2 or 30-2 testing was conducted with IRB approval. Ninety-six visual fields in 68 patients were classified into 7 broad categories (superior, inferior, diffuse, temporal, nasal, central/paracentral, enlarged blind spot) and 17 mutually exclusive patterns from the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS) or "other." Fifty-three of 96 visual fields (55%) showed an inferior defect using the broad categories, with the remaining 6 categories ranging from 2% to 14%. The five most common OHTS patterns were other (28%), partial arcuate (28%), partial peripheral rim (9%), arcuate (8%) and altitudinal (7%). Further sub-classification showed a predominance of inferior visual field defects, ranging from 33% to 93% of each category. Of the 78 visual fields in these five categories combined, 52 (67%) were inferior defects. Inferior defect is the most typical TED-CON-associated visual field change. While the OHTS categories are geared toward classification of glaucomatous patterns, the overall predominance of inferior field defects in TED-CON was clearly demonstrated. These "other" visual field changes showing central inferior defect up to but not crossing the horizontal meridian and not contiguous from blind spot to nasal meridian should be designated as "TED-CON pattern." The high proportion of visual fields falling under the "other" category, however, does demonstrate the need for a more specific and tailored visual field classification system for TED-CON.

  20. Development of field-based separations for the rapid identification of uranium and plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertz, Carol J.; Kaminski, Michael D.; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Kalensky, Michael; Sullivan, Vivian S.; Tsai, Yifen

    2015-05-08

    The development of rapid, radioanalytical techniques to separate uranium and plutonium from complex, field samples are needed for the timely and accurate determination of nuclear material origin, and processing activities. Widespread use of nuclear power and technology in the world has increased demands on analytical laboratories from the monitoring of numerous low-level, environmental samples with variable compositions. Environmental sampling has proven to be one of the strongest technical measures for detecting nuclear material and activities. With the increase in sampling demands, new technologies must offer improvements such as automation, high throughput, reproducible chemical separations, short analysis times, and reduced costs to be effective. We have been developing a portable, separations system for uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) separations based upon selective extraction of target elements using an extraction chromatographic resin which would allow for simple and fast identifcation when coupled with the appropriate sample digestor and detection systems. The microfluidic design minimizes elution volumes and concentrates the elements of interest in a purified stream. Flowsheet development and testing was demonstrated on a single, micro-column system with an acidified, iron, uranium, and plutonium nitrate stream. The recovery of Pu was optimized by examining various reducing agents at different concentrations for rapid, quantitative recovery from the flow-through design. Quantitative recovery and high selectivity of U and Pu was achieved in the appropriate stripping stages and provided purified and concentrated U and Pu streams. The microfluidic system suggests automation in a small, footprint unit while exploiting the in-line processing of extraction chromatographic resins as the primary means of concentrating the radionuclides from the raw acidic feed and separating the elements into purified streams.

  1. Field-deployable, quantitative, rapid identification of active Ebola virus infection in unprocessed blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kavit; Bentley, Emma; Tyler, Adam; Richards, Kevin S R; Wright, Edward; Easterbrook, Linda; Lee, Diane; Cleaver, Claire; Usher, Louise; Burton, Jane E; Pitman, James K; Bruce, Christine B; Edge, David; Lee, Martin; Nazareth, Nelson; Norwood, David A; Moschos, Sterghios A

    2017-11-01

    The West African Ebola virus outbreak underlined the importance of delivering mass diagnostic capability outside the clinical or primary care setting in effectively containing public health emergencies caused by infectious disease. Yet, to date, there is no solution for reliably deploying at the point of need the gold standard diagnostic method, real time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), in a laboratory infrastructure-free manner. In this proof of principle work, we demonstrate direct performance of RT-qPCR on fresh blood using far-red fluorophores to resolve fluorogenic signal inhibition and controlled, rapid freeze/thawing to achieve viral genome extraction in a single reaction chamber assay. The resulting process is entirely free of manual or automated sample pre-processing, requires no microfluidics or magnetic/mechanical sample handling and thus utilizes low cost consumables. This enables a fast, laboratory infrastructure-free, minimal risk and simple standard operating procedure suited to frontline, field use. Developing this novel approach on recombinant bacteriophage and recombinant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; Lentivirus), we demonstrate clinical utility in symptomatic EBOV patient screening using live, infectious Filoviruses and surrogate patient samples. Moreover, we evidence assay co-linearity independent of viral particle structure that may enable viral load quantification through pre-calibration, with no loss of specificity across an 8 log-linear maximum dynamic range. The resulting quantitative rapid identification (QuRapID) molecular diagnostic platform, openly accessible for assay development, meets the requirements of resource-limited countries and provides a fast response solution for mass public health screening against emerging biosecurity threats.

  2. Field evaluation of a dual rapid diagnostic test for HIV infection and syphilis in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Claire C; Leon, Segundo R; Huang, Emily; Brown, Brandon J; Ramos, Lourdes B; Vargas, Silver K; Flores, Juan A; Caceres, Carlos F; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2016-05-01

    Screening for HIV and syphilis in key populations is recommended by the WHO to reduce the morbidity, mortality and transmission associated with undiagnosed and untreated infections. Rapid point-of-care tests that can detect multiple infections with a single fingerprick whole blood specimen using a single device are gaining popularity. We evaluated the field performance of a rapid dual HIV and syphilis test in people at high risk of HIV and syphilis infections. Participants included men who have sex with men and transgender women recruited in Lima, Peru. Reference standard testing for detection of HIV and syphilis infections, conducted using blood samples from venipuncture, included Treponema pallidum particle agglutination and fourth-generation HIV enzyme immunoassay for which positive results had a confirmation HIV Western blot test. For the evaluation test, SD BIOLINE HIV/Syphilis Duo test (Standard Diagnostics, Korea), a fingerprick blood specimen was used. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated and the exact binomial method was used to determine 95% CIs. A total of 415 participants were recruited for the study. The dual test sensitivity for detection of T. pallidum infection was 89.2% (95% CI 83.5% to 93.5%) and specificity 98.8% (95% CI 96.5% to 99.8%). For detection of HIV infection, the sensitivity of the dual test was 99.1% (95% CI 94.8% to 100%) and specificity 99.4% (95% CI 97.7% to 99.9%). This high performing dual test should be considered for the use in clinical settings to increase uptake of simultaneous testing of HIV and syphilis and accelerate time to treatment for those who need it. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Integrated ocean management as a strategy to meet rapid climate change: the Norwegian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoel, Alf Håkon; Olsen, Erik

    2012-02-01

    The prospects of rapid climate change and the potential existence of tipping points in marine ecosystems where nonlinear change may result from them being overstepped, raises the question of strategies for coping with ecosystem change. There is broad agreement that the combined forces of climate change, pollution and increasing economic activities necessitates more comprehensive approaches to oceans management, centering on the concept of ecosystem-based oceans management. This article addresses the Norwegian experience in introducing integrated, ecosystem-based oceans management, emphasizing how climate change, seen as a major long-term driver of change in ecosystems, is addressed in management plans. Understanding the direct effects of climate variability and change on ecosystems and indirect effects on human activities is essential for adaptive planning to be useful in the long-term management of the marine environment.

  4. A simple and rapid method for detection of Goose Parvovirus in the field by loop-mediated isothermal amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MingShu Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Goose parvovirus (GPV is a Dependovirus associated with latent infection and mortality in geese. Currently, in a worldwide scale, GPV severely affects geese production. The objective of this study is to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP method for the sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive detection of GPV in the field. Results A set of six specific primers was designed by targeting the GPV VP3 DNA. With Bst DNA polymerase large fragment, the target DNA could be amplified at 65°C as early as 20 min of incubation in a simple water bath. A positive reaction was identified through the detection of the LAMP product by color change visible to the naked eye. The detection limit of the assay was 28 copies/μl of plasmid pVP3, and with equal sensitivity and specificity to fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR (FQ-PCR. Conclusions The high sensitivity, specificity, and simplicity, as well as the high throughput, make this method suitable for specific detection of GPV infection in both field conditions and laboratory settings. The utilization of complicated equipment and conduct of technical training on the GPV LAMP were not necessary.

  5. Stakeholder perspectives on triage in wildlife monitoring in a rapidly changing Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen C Wheeler

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring activities provide a core contribution to wildlife conservation in the Arctic. Effective monitoring which allows changes in population status to be detected early, provides opportunities to mitigate pressures driving declines. Monitoring triage involves decisions about how and where to prioritise activities in species and ecosystem based monitoring. In particular, monitoring triage examines whether to divert resources away from species where there is high likelihood of extinction in the near-future in favour of species where monitoring activities may produce greater conservation benefits. As a place facing both rapid change with a high likelihood of population extinctions, and serious logistic and financial challenges for field data acquisition, the Arctic provides a good context in which to examine attitudes toward triage in monitoring.For effective decision-making to emerge from monitoring, multiple stakeholders must be involved in defining aims and priorities. We conducted semi-structured interviews with stakeholders in arctic wildlife monitoring (either contributing to observation and recording of wildlife, using information from wildlife observation and recording, or using wildlife as a resource to elicit their perspectives on triage in wildlife monitoring in the Arctic.The majority (56% of our 23 participants were predominantly in opposition to triage, 26% were in support of triage and 17% were undecided. Representatives of Indigenous organisations were more likely to be opposed to triage than scientists and those involved in decision-making showed greatest support for triage amongst the scientist participants. Responses to the concept of triage included that: 1 The species-focussed approach associated with triage did not match their more systems-based view (5 participants, 2 Important information is generated through monitoring threatened species which advances understanding of the drivers of change, responses and ecosystem

  6. Frightening music triggers rapid changes in brain monoamine receptors: a pilot PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Chen, Qiaozhen; Du, Fenglei; Hu, Yanni; Chao, Fangfang; Tian, Mei; Zhang, Hong

    2012-10-01

    Frightening music can rapidly arouse emotions in listeners that mimic those from actual life-threatening experiences. However, studies of the underlying mechanism for perceiving danger created by music are limited. We investigated monoamine receptor changes induced by frightening music using (11)C-N-methyl-spiperone ((11)C-NMSP) PET. Ten healthy male volunteers were included, and their psychophysiologic changes were evaluated. Compared with the baseline condition, listening to frightening music caused a significant decrease in (11)C-NMSP in the right and left caudate nuclei, right limbic region, and right paralimbic region; a particularly significant decrease in the right anterior cingulate cortex; but an increase in the right frontal occipital and left temporal lobes of the cerebral cortex. Transient fright triggers rapid changes in monoamine receptors, which decrease in the limbic and paralimbic regions but increase in the cerebral cortex.

  7. Rapidly assessing changes in bone mineral balance using natural stable calcium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Skulan, Joseph L.; Gordon, Gwyneth W.; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Smith, Scott M.; Anbar, Ariel D.

    2012-06-01

    The ability to rapidly detect changes in bone mineral balance (BMB) would be of great value in the early diagnosis and evaluation of therapies for metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis and some cancers. However, measurements of BMB are hampered by difficulties with using biochemical markers to quantify the relative rates of bone resorption and formation and the need to wait months to years for altered BMB to produce changes in bone mineral density large enough to resolve by X-ray densitometry. We show here that, in humans, the natural abundances of Ca isotopes in urine change rapidly in response to changes in BMB. In a bed rest experiment, use of high-precision isotope ratio MS allowed the onset of bone loss to be detected in Ca isotope data after about 1 wk, long before bone mineral density has changed enough to be detectable with densitometry. The physiological basis of the relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB is sufficiently understood to allow quantitative translation of changes in Ca isotope abundances to changes in bone mineral density using a simple model. The rate of change of bone mineral density inferred from Ca isotopes is consistent with the rate observed by densitometry in long-term bed rest studies. Ca isotopic analysis provides a powerful way to monitor bone loss, potentially making it possible to diagnose metabolic bone disease and track the impact of treatments more effectively than is currently possible.

  8. Rapid full-field OCT assessment of clinical tissue specimens (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalimier, Eugénie; Harms, Fabrice; Brossollet, Charles; Benoit, Emilie; Martins, Franck; Boccara, Claude A.

    2016-03-01

    FFOCT (Full Field Optical Coherence Tomography) is a novel optical technology that gives access to very high resolution tomography images of biological tissues within minutes, non-invasively. This makes it an attractive tool to bridge the gap between medical imaging modalities (MRI, ultrasound, CT) used for cancer lesion identification or targeting and histological diagnosis. Clinical tissue specimens, such as surgical cancer margins or biopsies, can potentially be assessed rapidly, by the clinician, in the aim to help him decide on the course of action. A fast FFOCT prototype was built, that provides 1cm2 images with 1 µm resolution in 1 minute, and can accommodate samples up to 50mm diameter. Specific work was carried out to implement a large sample holder, high-speed image acquisition system, optimized scanning, and accelerated GPU tiles stitching. Results obtained on breast, urology, and digestive tissues show the efficiency of the technique for the detection of cancer on clinical tissue specimens, and reinforce the clinical relevance of the technique. The technical and clinical results show that the fast FFOCT system can successfully be used for a fast assessment of cancer excision margins or biopsies providing a very valuable tool in the clinical environment.

  9. Rapid Hip Osteoarthritis Development in a Patient with Anterior Acetabular Cyst with Sagittal Alignment Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Homma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly destructive coxarthrosis (RDC is rare and develops unusual clinical course. Recent studies suggest multiple possible mechanisms of the development of RDC. However the exact mechanism of RDC is still not clear. The difficulty of the study on RDC is attributed to its rareness and the fact that the data before the onset of RDC is normally unavailable. In this report, we presented the patient having the radiographic data before the onset who had rapid osteoarthritis (OA development after contralateral THA, which meets the current criteria of RDC. We thought that the increased posterior tilt of the pelvis after THA reinforced the stress concentration at pre-existed anterior acetabular cyst, thereby the destruction of the cyst was occurred. As a result the rapid OA was developed. We think that there is the case of rapid osteoarthritis developing due to alternating load concentration by posterior pelvic tilt on preexisting anterior acetabular cyst such as our patient among the cases diagnosed as RDC without any identifiable etiology. The recognition of sagittal alignment changes and anterior acetabular cyst may play important role in prediction and prevention of the rapid hip osteoarthritis development similar to RDC.

  10. CCD Photometry of Field RR Lyrae Stars. I. Period Changes of SV ERI and XX and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Myung Joo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available CCD time series photometry was performed for two Oosterhoff type II± field RR Lyrae stars, SV Eri and XX And, to construct light curves in B and V bands. The maximum light times from our observations were combined with those in the literature to construct phase shift diagrams, from which we determined the period change rates β. We obtained large positive period change rates for these stars, which are expected from current evolutionary models if these stars are evolving rapidly from blue to red toward the end of core helium burning phase.

  11. Effects of high latitude protected areas on bird communities under rapid climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangeli, Andrea; Rajasärkkä, Ari; Lehikoinen, Aleksi

    2017-06-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is rapidly becoming one of the main threats to biodiversity, along with other threats triggered by human-driven land-use change. Species are already responding to climate change by shifting their distributions polewards. This shift may create a spatial mismatch between dynamic species distributions and static protected areas (PAs). As protected areas represent one of the main pillars for preserving biodiversity today and in the future, it is important to assess their contribution in sheltering the biodiversity communities, they were designated to protect. A recent development to investigate climate-driven impacts on biological communities is represented by the community temperature index (CTI). CTI provides a measure of the relative temperature average of a community in a specific assemblage. CTI value will be higher for assemblages dominated by warm species compared with those dominated by cold-dwelling species. We here model changes in the CTI of Finnish bird assemblages, as well as changes in species densities, within and outside of PAs during the past four decades in a large boreal landscape under rapid change. We show that CTI has markedly increased over time across Finland, with this change being similar within and outside PAs and five to seven times slower than the temperature increase. Moreover, CTI has been constantly lower within than outside of PAs, and PAs still support communities, which show colder thermal index than those outside of PAs in the 1970s and 1980s. This result can be explained by the higher relative density of northern species within PAs than outside. Overall, our results provide some, albeit inconclusive, evidence that PAs may play a role in supporting the community of northern species. Results also suggest that communities are, however, shifting rapidly, both inside and outside of PAs, highlighting the need for adjusting conservation measures before it is too late. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Rapid assessment of large scale vegetation change based on multi-temporal phenological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Danlu; Guan, Yanning; Guo, Shan; Yan, Baoping; Xing, Zhi; Zhang, Chunyan; Piao, Yingchao; An, Xudong; Kang, Lihua

    2011-11-01

    Detecting vegetation change is critical for earth system and sustainability science. The existing methods, however, show several limitations, including inevitable selection of imagery acquisition dates, affection from vegetation related noise on temporal trajectory analysis, and assumptions due to vegetation classification model. This paper presents a multitemporal phenological frequency analysis over a relatively short period (MTPFA-SP) methodology to detect vegetation changes. This MTPFA-SP methodology bases on the amplitude components of fast Fourier transforming (FFT) and is implemented with two steps. First, NDVI time series over two periods are transformed with FFT into frequency domain, separately. Second, amplitude components with phenological information from Step 1 are selected for further change comparison. In this methodology, component selection shows physical meanings of natural vegetation process in frequency domain. Comparisons among those selected components help enhance the ability to rapidly detect vegetation changes. To validate this MTPFA-SP methodology, we detect changes between two periods (2001-2005 and 2006-2010) in the eastern Tibet Plateau area and make two kinds of assessments. The first is for a larger scale, including statistic analysis of altitudinal zonality and latitudinal zonality. The second assessment is for rapid detection of vegetation change location. Landsat TM image were employed to validate the result.

  13. Rapid climate changes in the tropical Atlantic region during the last deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughen, Konrad A.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Peterson, Larry C.; Trumbore, Susan

    1996-03-01

    THE climate system is capable of changing abruptly from one stable mode to another1-3. Rapid climate oscillations-in particular the Younger Dryas cold period during the last deglaciation-have long been recognized from records throughout the North Atlantic region4-14, and the distribution of these records at mostly high latitudes suggests that the changes were caused by rapid reorganizations of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation6,8,10,15. But events far from the North Atlantic region that are synchronous with the Younger Dryas16-19 raise the possibility that a more global forcing mechanism was responsible20. Here we present high-resolution records of laminated sediments of the last deglaciation from the Cariaco basin (tropical Atlantic Ocean) which show many abrupt sub-decade to century-scale oscillations in surface-ocean biological productivity that are synchronous with climate changes at high latitudes. We attribute these productivity variations to changes in or duration of up-welling rate (and hence nutrient supply) caused by changes in trade-wind strength, which is in turn influenced by the thermo-haline circulation through its effect on sea surface temperature6,21. Abrupt climate changes in the tropical Atlantic during the last deglaciation are thus consistent with a North Atlantic circulation forcing mechanism.

  14. Changes in nasal air flow and school grades after rapid maxillary expansion in oral breathing children

    OpenAIRE

    Torre, Hilda; Alarcón, Jose Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the changes in nasal air flow and school grades after rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in oral breathing children with maxillary constriction. Material and Methods: Forty-four oral breathing children (mean age 10.57 y) underwent orthodontic RME with a Hyrax screw. Forty-four age-matched children (mean age 10.64 y) with nasal physiological breathing and adequate transverse maxillary dimensions served as the control group. The maxillary widths, nasal air flow assessed via p...

  15. Environmental impacts of rapid water level changes; Miljoekonsekvenser av raske vannstandsendringer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnekleiv, Jo Vegar; Bakken, Tor Haakon; Bogen, Jim; Boensnes, Truls Erik; Elster, Margrethe; Harby, Atle; Kutznetsova, Yulia; Saltveit, Svein Jakob; Sauterleute, Julian; Stickler, Morten; Sundt, Haakon; Tjomsland, Torulv; Ugedal, Ola

    2012-07-01

    This report summarizes the state of knowledge of the environmental impacts of power driving and rapid water level changes and describes possible mitigation measures. The report assesses the environmental effects of possible increased power installation in Mauranger and Tonstad power plants, based on existing data and knowledge. At Straumsmo plants in Barduelva there are collected some physical data and the environmental impact of existing power driving is considered. (eb)

  16. Evaluation of rapid volume changes of substrate-adherent cells by conventional microscopy 3D imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreault, F; Grygorczyk, R

    2004-09-01

    Precise measurement of rapid volume changes of substrate-adherent cells is essential to understand many aspects of cell physiology, yet techniques to evaluate volume changes with sufficient precision and high temporal resolution are limited. Here, we describe a novel imaging method that surveys the rapid morphology modifications of living, substrate-adherent cells based on phase-contrast, digital video microscopy. Cells grown on a glass substrate are mounted in a custom-designed, side-viewing chamber and subjected to hypotonic swelling. Side-view images of the rapidly swelling cell, and at the end of the assay, an image of the same cell viewed from a perpendicular direction through the substrate, are acquired. Based on these images, off-line reconstruction of 3D cell morphology is performed, which precisely measures cell volume, height and surface at different points during cell volume changes. Volume evaluations are comparable to those obtained by confocal laser scanning microscopy (DeltaVolume microscopy without the need for cell staining or intense illumination to monitor cell volume make this system a promising new tool to investigate the fundamentals of cell volume physiology.

  17. RAPID PENUMBRA AND LORENTZ FORCE CHANGES IN AN X1.0 SOLAR FLARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhe; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayang; Yang, Bo; Bi, Yi, E-mail: xuzhe6249@ynao.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 110, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2016-03-20

    We present observations of the violent changes in photospheric magnetic structures associated with an X1.1 flare, which occurred in a compact δ-configuration region in the following part of AR 11890 on 2013 November 8. In both central and peripheral penumbra regions of the small δ sunspot, these changes took place abruptly and permanently in the reverse direction during the flare: the inner/outer penumbra darkened/disappeared, where the magnetic fields became more horizontal/vertical. Particularly, the Lorentz force (LF) changes in the central/peripheral region had a downward/upward and inward direction, meaning that the local pressure from the upper atmosphere was enhanced/released. It indicates that the LF changes might be responsible for the penumbra changes. These observations can be well explained as the photospheric response to the coronal field reconstruction within the framework of the magnetic implosion theory and the back reaction model of flares.

  18. Relation between substorm characteristics and rapid temporal variations of the ground magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Viljanen

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Auroral substorms are one of the major causes of large geomagnetically induced currents (GIC in technological systems. This study deals with different phases of the auroral substorm concerning their severity from the GIC viewpoint. Our database consists of 833 substorms observed by the IMAGE magnetometer network in 1997 (around sunspot minimum and 1999 (rising phase of the sunspot cycle, divided into two classes according to the Dst index: non-storm (Dst>-40 nT, 696 events and storm-time ones (Dst<-40 nT, 137 events. The key quantity concerning GIC is the time derivative of the horizontal magnetic field vector (dH/dt whose largest values during substorms occur most probably at about 5 min after the onset at stations with CGM latitude less than 72 deg. When looking at the median time of the occurrence of the maximum dH/dt after the expansion onset, it increases as a function of latitude from about 15 min at CGM lat=56 deg to about 45 min at CGM lat=75 deg for non-storm substorms. For storm-time events, these times are about 5 min longer. Based on calculated ionospheric equivalent currents, large dH/dt occur mostly during the substorm onset when the amplitude of the westward electrojet increases rapidly.

  19. Rapid development of cyanobacterial crust in the field for combating desertification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-Ho; Li, Xin Rong; Zhao, Yang; Jia, Rong Liang; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2017-01-01

    Desertification is currently a major concern, and vast regions have already been devastated in the arid zones of many countries. Combined application of cyanobacteria with soil fixing chemicals is a novel method of restoring desertified areas. Three cyanobacteria, Nostoc sp. Vaucher ex Bornet & Flahault, Phormidium sp. Kützing ex Gomont and Scytonema arcangeli Bornet ex Flahault were isolated and tested in this study. Tacki-SprayTM (TKS7), which consists of bio-polysaccharides and tackifiers, was used as a soil fixing agent. In addition, superabsorbent polymer (SAP) was applied to the soil as a water-holding material and nutrient supplement. Application of cyanobacteria with superabsorbent polymer and TKS7 (CST) remarkably improved macro-aggregate stability against water and erodibility against wind after 12 months of inoculation when compared to the control soil. The mean weight diameter and threshold friction velocity of the CST treated soil were found to be 75% and 88% of those of the approximately 20-year-old natural cyanobacterial crust (N-BSC), respectively, while these values were 68% and 73% of those of the N-BSC soil after a single treatment of cyanobacteria alone (CY). Interestingly, biological activities of CST were similar to those of CY. Total carbohydrate contents, cyanobacterial biomass, microbial biomass, soil respiration, carbon fixation and effective quantum yield of CST treated soil were enhanced by 50-100% of the N-BSC, while those of control soil were negligible. Our results suggest that combined application of cyanobacteria with soil fixing chemicals can rapidly develop cyanobacterial crust formation in the field within 12 months. The physical properties and biological activities of the inoculated cyanobacterial crust were stable during the study period. The novel method presented herein serves as another approach for combating desertification in arid regions.

  20. Real-Time Digital Bright Field Technology for Rapid Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canali, Chiara; Spillum, Erik; Valvik, Martin; Agersnap, Niels; Olesen, Tom

    2018-01-01

    Optical scanning through bacterial samples and image-based analysis may provide a robust method for bacterial identification, fast estimation of growth rates and their modulation due to the presence of antimicrobial agents. Here, we describe an automated digital, time-lapse, bright field imaging system (oCelloScope, BioSense Solutions ApS, Farum, Denmark) for rapid and higher throughput antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) of up to 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time. The imaging system consists of a digital camera, an illumination unit and a lens where the optical axis is tilted 6.25° relative to the horizontal plane of the stage. Such tilting grants more freedom of operation at both high and low concentrations of microorganisms. When considering a bacterial suspension in a microwell, the oCelloScope acquires a sequence of 6.25°-tilted images to form an image Z-stack. The stack contains the best-focus image, as well as the adjacent out-of-focus images (which contain progressively more out-of-focus bacteria, the further the distance from the best-focus position). The acquisition process is repeated over time, so that the time-lapse sequence of best-focus images is used to generate a video. The setting of the experiment, image analysis and generation of time-lapse videos can be performed through a dedicated software (UniExplorer, BioSense Solutions ApS). The acquired images can be processed for online and offline quantification of several morphological parameters, microbial growth, and inhibition over time.

  1. Period Changes of 23 Field RR Lyrae Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Chang Rey

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The secular period behavior of 23 field RR Lyrae stars is studied in order to determine if the observed period changes could be attributed, at least in the mean, to stellar evolution. The sample of stars is subdivided into two Oosterhoff groups based on the metallicity and period-shift. Despite the small sample size, we found a distinct bias toward positive period changes in the group variables. The period changes of the group variables in globular clusters. This provides yet another support for the Lee, Demarque, and Zinn(1990 evolutionary models of RR Lyrae stars and their explanation of the Sandage period-shift effect.

  2. Rapid and specific gray matter changes in M1 induced by balance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubert, Marco; Mehnert, Jan; Pleger, Burkhard; Villringer, Arno

    2016-06-01

    Training-induced changes in cortical structure can be observed non-invasively with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). While macroscopic changes were found mainly after weeks to several months of training in humans, imaging of motor cortical networks in animals revealed rapid microstructural alterations after a few hours of training. We used MRI to test the hypothesis of immediate and specific training-induced alterations in motor cortical gray matter in humans. We found localized increases in motor cortical thickness after 1h of practice in a complex balancing task. These changes were specific to motor cortical effector representations primarily responsible for balance control in our task (lower limb and trunk) and these effects could be confirmed in a replication study. Cortical thickness changes (i) linearly increased across the training session, (ii) occurred independent of alterations in resting cerebral blood flow and (iii) were not triggered by repetitive use of the lower limbs. Our findings show that motor learning triggers rapid and specific gray matter changes in M1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Method to Teach Age-Specific Demography with Field Grown Rapid Cycling "Brassica rapa" (Wisconsin Fast Plants)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Martin G.; Terrana, Sebastian

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that rapid cycling "Brassica rapa" (Wisconsin Fast Plants) can be used in inquiry-based, student ecological fieldwork. We are the first to describe age-specific survival for field-grown Fast Plants and identify life history traits associated with individual survival. This experiment can be adapted by educators as a…

  4. Rapid changes in brain structure predict improvements induced by perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditye, Thomas; Kanai, Ryota; Bahrami, Bahador; Muggleton, Neil G; Rees, Geraint; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-11-01

    Practice-dependent changes in brain structure can occur in task relevant brain regions as a result of extensive training in complex motor tasks and long-term cognitive training but little is known about the impact of visual perceptual learning on brain structure. Here we studied the effect of five days of visual perceptual learning in a motion-color conjunction search task using anatomical MRI. We found rapid changes in gray matter volume in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus, an area sensitive to coherently moving stimuli, that predicted the degree to which an individual's performance improved with training. Furthermore, behavioral improvements were also predicted by volumetric changes in an extended white matter region underlying the visual cortex. These findings point towards quick and efficient plastic neural mechanisms that enable the visual brain to deal effectively with changing environmental demands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Regional cosmic ray induced ionization and geomagnetic field changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Kovaltsov

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Cosmic ray induced ionization (CRII is an important factor of outer space influences on atmospheric properties. Variations of CRII are caused by two different processes – solar activity variations, which modulate the cosmic ray flux in interplanetary space, and changes of the geomagnetic field, which affects the cosmic ray access to Earth. Migration of the geomagnetic dipole axis may greatly alter CRII in some regions on a time scale of centuries and longer. Here we present a study of CRII regional effects of the geomagnetic field changes during the last millennium for two regions: Europe and the Far East. We show that regional effects of the migration of the geomagnetic dipole axis may overcome global changes due to solar activity variations.

  6. Lower corneal hysteresis is associated with more rapid glaucomatous visual field progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moraes, Carlos V Gustavo; Hill, Victoria; Tello, Celso; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Ritch, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the correlation between central corneal thickness (CCT) and corneal hysteresis (CH) and their relationship with the rate of visual field (VF) change. Glaucoma patients who underwent complete ophthalmic examination and tonometry using both the Goldmann applanation tonometer and the Ocular Response Analyzer were prospectively enrolled. Only eyes with ≥5 SITA Standard 24-2 VF tests were included. Automated pointwise linear regression analysis was used to determine VF progression. One hundred fifty-three eyes (153 patients; mean age, 61.3 ± 14.0 y; mean number of VF, 8.5 ± 3.4; mean follow-up time, 5.3 ± 2.0 y) met the enrollment criteria. The mean global rate of VF change was -0.34 ± 0.7 dB/y. Twenty-five eyes (16%) reached a progression endpoint. Progressing eyes had lower CCT (525.0 ± 34.2 vs 542.3 ± 3 8.5 μm, P=0.04) and lower CH (7.5 ± 1.4 vs 9.0 ± 1.8 mm Hg, PCorneal biomechanical and physical properties, such as CH and CCT, are highly correlated and associated with VF progression. As CH may describe corneal properties more completely than thickness alone, it may be a parameter that is better associated with progression.

  7. Ecological ethics in captivity: balancing values and responsibilities in zoo and aquarium research under rapid global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteer, Ben A; Collins, James P

    2013-01-01

    Ethical obligations to animals in conservation research and management are manifold and often conflicting. Animal welfare concerns often clash with the ethical imperative to understand and conserve a population or ecosystem through research and management intervention. The accelerating pace and impact of global environmental change, especially climate change, complicates our understanding of these obligations. One example is the blurring of the distinction between ex situ (zoo- and aquarium-based) conservation and in situ (field-based) approaches as zoos and aquariums become more active in field conservation work and as researchers and managers consider more intensive interventions in wild populations and ecosystems to meet key conservation goals. These shifts, in turn, have consequences for our traditional understanding of the ethics of wildlife research and management, including our relative weighting of animal welfare and conservation commitments across rapidly evolving ex situ and in situ contexts. Although this changing landscape in many ways supports the increased use of captive wildlife in conservation-relevant research, it raises significant ethical concerns about human intervention in populations and ecosystems, including the proper role of zoos and aquariums as centers for animal research and conservation in the coming decades. Working through these concerns requires a pragmatic approach to ethical analysis, one that is able to make trade-offs among the many goods at stake (e.g., animal welfare, species viability, and ecological integrity) as we strive to protect species from further decline and extinction in this century.

  8. Rapid wide-field Mueller matrix polarimetry imaging based on four photoelastic modulators with no moving parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, Sanaz; Gribble, Adam; Vitkin, I Alex

    2016-03-01

    A new polarimetry method is demonstrated to image the entire Mueller matrix of a turbid sample using four photoelastic modulators (PEMs) and a charge coupled device (CCD) camera, with no moving parts. Accurate wide-field imaging is enabled with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) optical gating technique and an evolutionary algorithm (EA) that optimizes imaging times. This technique accurately and rapidly measured the Mueller matrices of air, polarization elements, and turbid phantoms. The system should prove advantageous for Mueller matrix analysis of turbid samples (e.g., biological tissues) over large fields of view, in less than a second.

  9. Rapid emergence of climate change in environmental drivers of marine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Stephanie A.; Beaulieu, Claudie; Ilyina, Tatiana; John, Jasmin G.; Long, Matthew; Séférian, Roland; Tjiputra, Jerry; Sarmiento, Jorge L.

    2017-03-01

    Climate change is expected to modify ecological responses in the ocean, with the potential for important effects on the ecosystem services provided to humankind. Here we address the question of how rapidly multiple drivers of marine ecosystem change develop in the future ocean. By analysing an ensemble of models we find that, within the next 15 years, the climate change-driven trends in multiple ecosystem drivers emerge from the background of natural variability in 55% of the ocean and propagate rapidly to encompass 86% of the ocean by 2050 under a `business-as-usual' scenario. However, we also demonstrate that the exposure of marine ecosystems to climate change-induced stress can be drastically reduced via climate mitigation measures; with mitigation, the proportion of ocean susceptible to multiple drivers within the next 15 years is reduced to 34%. Mitigation slows the pace at which multiple drivers emerge, allowing an additional 20 years for adaptation in marine ecological and socio-economic systems alike.

  10. TransRapid TR-07 maglev-spectrum magnetic field effects on daily pineal indoleamine metabolic rhythms in rodents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groh, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    This study examined the effects on pineal function of magnetic field (MF) exposures (ac and dc components) similar to those produced by the TransRapid TR-07 and other electromagnetic maglev systems (EMS). Rats were entrained to a light-dark cycle and then exposed to a continuous, or to an inverted, intermittent (on = 45 s, off = 15 s, induced current = 267 G/s) simulated multifrequency ac and dc magnetic field (MF) at 1 or 7 times the TR-07 maglev vehicle MF intensity for 2 hr. Other groups of rats were exposed to only the ac or the dc-component of the maglev MF. For comparison, one group was exposed to an inverted, intermittent 60-Hz MF. Each group was compared to an unexposed group of rats for changes in pineal melatonin and serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (NAT). MF exposures at an intensity equivalent to that produced by the TR-07 vehicle had no effect on melatonin or NAT compared with sham-exposed animals under any of the conditions examined. However, 7X TR-07-level continuous 2-h MF exposures significantly depressed pineal NAT by 45%. Pineal melatonin was also depressed 33--43% by a continuous 7X TR-07 MF exposure and 28% by an intermittent 60-Hz 850-mG MF, but the results were not statically significant. This study demonstrates that intermittent, combined ac and dc MFs similar to those produced by the TR-07 EMS maglev vehicle alter the normal circadian rhythm of pineal indoleamine metabolism. The pineal regulatory enzyme NAT was more sensitive to MF exposure than melatonin and may be a more desirable measure of the biological effects of MF exposure.

  11. TransRapid TR-07 maglev-spectrum magnetic field effects on daily pineal indoleamine metabolic rhythms in rodents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groh, K.R.

    1993-06-01

    This study examined the effects on pineal function of magnetic field (MF) exposures (ac and dc components) similar to those produced by the TransRapid TR-07 and other electromagnetic maglev systems (EMS). Rats were entrained to a light-dark cycle and then exposed to a continuous, or to an inverted, intermittent (on = 45 s, off = 15 s, induced current = 267 G/s) simulated multifrequency ac and dc magnetic field (MF) at 1 or 7 times the TR-07 maglev vehicle MF intensity for 2 hr. Other groups of rats were exposed to only the ac or the dc-component of the maglev MF. For comparison, one group was exposed to an inverted, intermittent 60-Hz MF. Each group was compared to an unexposed group of rats for changes in pineal melatonin and serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (NAT). MF exposures at an intensity equivalent to that produced by the TR-07 vehicle had no effect on melatonin or NAT compared with sham-exposed animals under any of the conditions examined. However, 7X TR-07-level continuous 2-h MF exposures significantly depressed pineal NAT by 45%. Pineal melatonin was also depressed 33--43% by a continuous 7X TR-07 MF exposure and 28% by an intermittent 60-Hz 850-mG MF, but the results were not statically significant. This study demonstrates that intermittent, combined ac and dc MFs similar to those produced by the TR-07 EMS maglev vehicle alter the normal circadian rhythm of pineal indoleamine metabolism. The pineal regulatory enzyme NAT was more sensitive to MF exposure than melatonin and may be a more desirable measure of the biological effects of MF exposure.

  12. Rapid Detection of Land Cover Changes Using Crowdsourced Geographic Information: A Case Study of Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Meng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Land cover change (LCC detection is a significant component of sustainability research including ecological economics and climate change. Due to the rapid variability of natural environment, effective LCC detection is required to capture sufficient change-related information. Although such information has been available through remotely sensed images, the complicated image processing and classification make it time consuming and labour intensive. In contrast, the freely available crowdsourced geographic information (CGI contains easily interpreted textual information, and thus has the potential to be applied for capturing effective change-related information. Therefore, this paper presents and evaluates a method using CGI for rapid LCC detection. As a case study, Beijing is chosen as the study area, and CGI is applied to monitor LCC information. As one kind of CGI which is generated from commercial Internet maps, points of interest (POIs with detailed textual information are utilised to detect land cover in 2016. Those POIs are first classified into land cover nomenclature based on their textual information. Then, a kernel density approach is proposed to effectively generate land cover regions in 2016. Finally, with GlobeLand30 in 2010 as baseline map, LCC is detected using the post-classification method in the period of 2010–2016 in Beijing. The result shows that an accuracy of 89.20% is achieved with land cover regions generated by POIs, indicating that POIs are reliable for rapid LCC detection. Additionally, an LCC detection comparison is proposed between remotely sensed images and CGI, revealing the advantages of POIs in terms of LCC efficiency. However, due to the uneven distribution, remotely sensed images are still required in areas with few POIs.

  13. Automatic change detection in RapidEye data using the combined MAD and kernel MAF methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Hecheltjen, Antje; Thonfeld, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The IR-MAD components show changes for a large part of the entire subset. Especially phenological changes in the agricultural fields surrounding the open pit are predominant. As opposed to this, kMAF components focus more on changes in the open-cast mine (and changes due to the two clouds...... and their shadows, not visible in the zoom). Ground data were available from bucket-wheel excavators on the extraction side (to the northwest in the open pit) in terms of elevation data for both dates. No ground data were available for changes due to backfill (southeastern part of the open pit) or changes due...... to mining machines other than the bucket-wheels....

  14. Development of Middle Stone Age innovation linked to rapid climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Martin; Simon, Margit H; Hall, Ian R; Barker, Stephen; Stringer, Chris; Zahn, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    The development of modernity in early human populations has been linked to pulsed phases of technological and behavioural innovation within the Middle Stone Age of South Africa. However, the trigger for these intermittent pulses of technological innovation is an enigma. Here we show that, contrary to some previous studies, the occurrence of innovation was tightly linked to abrupt climate change. Major innovational pulses occurred at times when South African climate changed rapidly towards more humid conditions, while northern sub-Saharan Africa experienced widespread droughts, as the Northern Hemisphere entered phases of extreme cooling. These millennial-scale teleconnections resulted from the bipolar seesaw behaviour of the Atlantic Ocean related to changes in the ocean circulation. These conditions led to humid pulses in South Africa and potentially to the creation of favourable environmental conditions. This strongly implies that innovational pulses of early modern human behaviour were climatically influenced and linked to the adoption of refugia.

  15. Changing arctic ecosystems—What is causing the rapid increase of snow geese in northern Alaska?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Ward, David H.; Whalen, Mary E.; Pearce, John M.

    2015-09-10

    Through the Changing Arctic Ecosystems (CAE) initiative, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) informs key resource management decisions for Arctic Alaska by providing scientific information on current and future ecosystem response to a warming climate. The Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of northern Alaska is a key study area within the USGS CAE initiative. This region has experienced a warming trend over the past decades, leading to decreased sea ice, permafrost thaw, and an advancement of spring phenology. The number of birds on the ACP also is changing, marked by increased populations of the four species of geese that nest in the region. The Snow Goose (Chen caerulescens) is the most rapidly increasing of these species. USGS CAE research is quantifying these changes and their implications for management agencies.

  16. Large-timestep techniques for particle-in-cell simulation of systems with applied fields that vary rapidly in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.

    1996-10-01

    Under conditions which arise commonly in space-charge-dominated beam applications, the applied focusing, bending, and accelerating fields vary rapidly with axial position, while the self-fields (which are, on average, comparable in strength to the applied fields) vary smoothly. In such cases it is desirable to employ timesteps which advance the particles over distances greater than the characteristic scales over which the applied fields vary. Several related concepts are potentially applicable: sub-cycling of the particle advance relative to the field solution, a higher-order time-advance algorithm, force-averaging by integration along approximate orbits, and orbit-averaging. We report on our investigations into the utility of such techniques for systems typical of those encountered in accelerator studies for heavy-ion beam-driven inertial fusion.

  17. One-day pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocol for rapid determination of emetic Bacillus cereus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminska, Paulina S; Fiedoruk, Krzysztof; Jankowska, Dominika; Mahillon, Jacques; Nowosad, Karol; Drewicka, Ewa; Zambrzycka, Monika; Swiecicka, Izabela

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus cereus, the Gram-positive and spore-forming ubiquitous bacterium, may cause emesis as the result of food intoxication with cereulide, a heat-stable emetic toxin. Rapid determination of cereulide-positive B. cereus isolates is of highest importance due to consequences of this intoxication for human health and life. Here we present a 1-day pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for emetic B. cereus isolates, which allows rapid and efficient determination of their genomic relatedness and helps determining the source of intoxication in case of outbreaks caused by these bacilli. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Rapid Holocene coastal change revealed by high-resolution micropaleontological analysis, Pamlico Sound, North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, Pre C.; Culver, S.J.; Mallinson, D.J.; Farrell, K.M.; Corbett, D.R.; Horton, B.P.; Hillier, C.; Riggs, S.R.; Snyder, S.W.; Buzas, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Foraminiferal analyses of 404 contiguous samples, supported by diatom, lithologic, geochronologic and seismic data, reveal both rapid and gradual Holocene paleoenvironmental changes in an 8.21-m vibracore taken from southern Pamlico Sound, North Carolina. Data record initial flooding of a latest Pleistocene river drainage and the formation of an estuary 9000. yr ago. Estuarine conditions were punctuated by two intervals of marine influence from approximately 4100 to 3700 and 1150 to 500. cal. yr BP. Foraminiferal assemblages in the muddy sand facies that accumulated during these intervals contain many well-preserved benthic foraminiferal species, which occur today in open marine settings as deep as the mid shelf, and significant numbers of well-preserved planktonic foraminifera, some typical of Gulf Stream waters. We postulate that these marine-influenced units resulted from temporary destruction of the southern Outer Banks barrier islands by hurricanes. The second increase in marine influence is coeval with increased rate of sea-level rise and a peak in Atlantic tropical cyclone activity during the Medieval Climate Anomaly. This high-resolution analysis demonstrates the range of environmental variability and the rapidity of coastal change that can result from the interplay of changing climate, sea level and geomorphology in an estuarine setting. ?? 2011 University of Washington.

  19. Specific changes in rapidly transported proteins during regeneration of the goldfish optic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, L I; Shashoua, V E; Yoon, M G

    1981-03-01

    Double labeling methods were used to identify changes in the complement of proteins synthesized in the retinal ganglion cells and transported down the optic nerve during the process of axonal regeneration. Eight to 62 days after goldfish underwent a unilateral optic nerve crush, one eye was labeled with [3H]-, the other with [14C]proline. Control and regenerating optic nerves were dissected out and homogenized together after 5 hr, a time which allowed us to examine selectively membrane-bound components which migrate in the rapid phase of axoplasmic transport. Proteins from the two sides were so-purified and separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Analysis of the 3H and 14C incorporation patterns along the gels revealed a radical shift away from the normal labeling spectrum during regeneration, with selective changes in labeling at particular molecular weights varying over a 3-fold range. Eight days after crushing the optic nerve, the greatest increases in labeling were seen for material with apparent molecular weights of 24,000 to 27,000, 44,000, and 210,000 daltons. These peaks declined thereafter, and on days 29 to 39, the most prominent increases were at 110,000 to 140,000 daltons. These studies indicate a continuously changing pattern in the synthesis and/or degradation of proteins that are rapidly transported down the optic nerve during regeneration and point to molecular species potential significance in the establishment of the visual map upon the brain.

  20. Modulators of mercury risk to wildlife and humans in the context of rapid global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Basu, Niladri; Bustamante, Paco; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Hopkins, William A.; Kidd, Karen A.; Nyland, Jennifer F.

    2018-01-01

    Environmental mercury (Hg) contamination is an urgent global health threat. The complexity of Hg in the environment can hinder accurate determination of ecological and human health risks, particularly within the context of the rapid global changes that are altering many ecological processes, socioeconomic patterns, and other factors like infectious disease incidence, which can affect Hg exposures and health outcomes. However, the success of global Hg-reduction efforts depends on accurate assessments of their effectiveness in reducing health risks. In this paper, we examine the role that key extrinsic and intrinsic drivers play on several aspects of Hg risk to humans and organisms in the environment. We do so within three key domains of ecological and human health risk. First, we examine how extrinsic global change drivers influence pathways of Hg bioaccumulation and biomagnification through food webs. Next, we describe how extrinsic socioeconomic drivers at a global scale, and intrinsic individual-level drivers, influence human Hg exposure. Finally, we address how the adverse health effects of Hg in humans and wildlife are modulated by a range of extrinsic and intrinsic drivers within the context of rapid global change. Incorporating components of these three domains into research and monitoring will facilitate a more holistic understanding of how ecological and societal drivers interact to influence Hg health risks.

  1. Specific changes in rapidly transported proteins during regeneration of the goldfish optic nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benowitz, L.I.; Shashoua, V.E.; Yoon, M.G.

    1981-03-01

    Double labeling methods were used to identify changes in the complement of proteins synthesized in the retinal ganglion cells and transported down the optic nerve during the process of axonal regeneration. Eight to 62 days after goldfish underwent a unilateral optic nerve crush, one eye was labeled with (3H)-, the other with (14C)proline. Control and regenerating optic nerves were dissected out and homogenized together after 5 hr, a time which allowed us to examine selectively membrane-bound components which migrate in the rapid phase of axoplasmic transport. Proteins from the two sides were so-purified and separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Analysis of the 3H and 14C incorporation patterns along the gels revealed a radical shift away from the normal labeling spectrum during regeneration, with selective changes in labeling at particular molecular weights varying over a 3-fold range. Eight days after crushing the optic nerve, the greatest increases in labeling were seen for material with apparent molecular weights of 24,000 to 27,000, 44,000, and 210,000 daltons. These peaks declined thereafter, and on days 29 to 39, the most prominent increases were at 110,000 to 140,000 daltons. These studies indicate a continuously changing pattern in the synthesis and/or degradation of proteins that are rapidly transported down the optic nerve during regeneration and point to molecular species potential significance in the establishment of the visual map upon the brain.

  2. Rapid transgenerational acclimation of a tropical reef fish to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelson, J. M.; Munday, P. L.; McCormick, M. I.; Pitcher, C. R.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the capacity of species to acclimate and adapt to expected temperature increases is critical for making predictions about the biological impacts of global warming, yet it is one of the least certain aspects of climate change science. Tropical species are considered to be especially sensitive to climate change because they live close to their thermal maximum and exhibit limited capacity for acclimation. Here, we demonstrate that a tropical reef fish is highly sensitive to small increases in water temperature, but can rapidly acclimate over multiple generations. Acute exposure to elevated temperatures (+1.5°C and +3.0°C) predicted to occur this century caused a 15% and 30% respective decrease in individual's maximum ability to perform aerobic activities such as swimming or foraging, known as aerobic scope. However, complete compensation in aerobic scope occurred when both parents and offspring were reared throughout their lives at elevated temperature. Such acclimation could reduce the impact of warming temperatures and allow populations to persist across their current range. This study reveals the importance of transgenerational acclimation as a mechanism for coping with rapid climate change and highlights that single generation studies risk underestimating the potential of species to cope.

  3. Comparing records to understand past rapid climate change: An INTIMATE database update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Rebecca; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Staff, Richard A.; Albert, Paul G.

    2017-04-01

    Integrating multi-proxy records from ice, terrestrial and marine records enhances the understanding of the temporal and spatial variation of past rapid climatic changes globally. By handling these records on their own individual timescales and linking them through known chronological relationships (e.g. tephra, 10Be and 14C), regional comparisons can be made for these past climatic events. Furthermore, the use of time-transfer functions enables the chronological uncertainties between different archives to be quantified. The chronological database devised by the working group 1 (WG1) of INTIMATE, exclusively uses this methodology to provide a means to visualise and compare palaeoclimate records. Development of this database is ongoing, with numerous additional records being added to the database with a particular focus on European archives spanning the Late Glacial period. Here we present a new phase of data collection. Through selected cases study sites across Europe, we aim to illustrate the database as a novel tool in understanding spatial and temporal variations in rapid climatic change. Preliminary results allow questions such as time transgression and regional expressions of rapid climate change to be investigated. The development of this database will continue through additional input of raw climate proxy data, linking to other relevant databases (e.g. Fossil Pollen Database) and providing output data that can be analysed in the statistical programming language of R. A major goal of this work to is not only provide a detailed database, but allow researchers to integrate their own climate proxy data with that on the database.

  4. Neurogenomics and the role of a large mutational target on rapid behavioral change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Craig E; Kulathinal, Rob J

    2016-11-08

    Behavior, while complex and dynamic, is among the most diverse, derived, and rapidly evolving traits in animals. The highly labile nature of heritable behavioral change is observed in such evolutionary phenomena as the emergence of converged behaviors in domesticated animals, the rapid evolution of preferences, and the routine development of ethological isolation between diverging populations and species. In fact, it is believed that nervous system development and its potential to evolve a seemingly infinite array of behavioral innovations played a major role in the successful diversification of metazoans, including our own human lineage. However, unlike other rapidly evolving functional systems such as sperm-egg interactions and immune defense, the genetic basis of rapid behavioral change remains elusive. Here we propose that the rapid divergence and widespread novelty of innate and adaptive behavior is primarily a function of its genomic architecture. Specifically, we hypothesize that the broad diversity of behavioral phenotypes present at micro- and macroevolutionary scales is promoted by a disproportionately large mutational target of neurogenic genes. We present evidence that these large neuro-behavioral targets are significant and ubiquitous in animal genomes and suggest that behavior's novelty and rapid emergence are driven by a number of factors including more selection on a larger pool of variants, a greater role of phenotypic plasticity, and/or unique molecular features present in large genes. We briefly discuss the origins of these large neurogenic genes, as they relate to the remarkable diversity of metazoan behaviors, and highlight key consequences on both behavioral traits and neurogenic disease across, respectively, evolutionary and ontogenetic time scales. Current approaches to studying the genetic mechanisms underlying rapid phenotypic change primarily focus on identifying signatures of Darwinian selection in protein-coding regions. In contrast

  5. Wiki management a revolutionary new model for a rapidly changing and collaborative world

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Rod

    2013-01-01

    We now live in a "wiki" world where mass collaboration is not only possible-it's often the best solution. Conventional management thought assumes that command-and-control is the most effective way to organize the efforts of large numbers of people, but rapid change and increasing complexity have rendered that model obsolete. As a result, most managers today lack the skills and knowledge needed to succeed in an age when networks are proving smarter and faster than hierarchies. Designing organizations for mass collaboration demands a new and very different model-wiki management.

  6. Experiences of Families Transmitting Values in a Rapidly Changing Society: Implications for Family Therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyil, Yudum; Prouty, Anne; Blanchard, Amy; Lyness, Kevin

    2016-06-01

    Intergenerational value transmission affects parent-child relationships and necessitates constant negotiation in families. Families with adolescents from rapidly changing societies face unique challenges in balancing the traditional collectivistic family values that promote harmony with emerging values that promote autonomy. Using modern Turkey as an example of such a culture, the authors examine the transmission process in families that hold more traditional and collectivistic values than their adolescent children. Special consideration is given to generational and cultural differences in the autonomy and relatedness dimensions. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  7. Rapid gene expression changes in peripheral blood lymphocytes upon practice of a comprehensive yoga program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Su; Olafsrud, Solveig Mjelstad; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A; Saatcioglu, Fahri

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common integrative medicine (IM) modalities is yoga and related practices. Previous work has shown that yoga may improve wellness in healthy people and have benefits for patients. However, the mechanisms of how yoga may positively affect the mind-body system are largely unknown. Here we have assessed possible rapid changes in global gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in healthy people that practiced either a comprehensive yoga program or a control regimen. The experimental sessions included gentle yoga postures, breathing exercises, and meditation (Sudarshan Kriya and Related Practices--SK&P) compared with a control regimen of a nature walk and listening to relaxing music. We show that the SK&P program has a rapid and significantly greater effect on gene expression in PBMCs compared with the control regimen. These data suggest that yoga and related practices result in rapid gene expression alterations which may be the basis for their longer term cell biological and higher level health effects.

  8. Rapid gene expression changes in peripheral blood lymphocytes upon practice of a comprehensive yoga program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Qu

    Full Text Available One of the most common integrative medicine (IM modalities is yoga and related practices. Previous work has shown that yoga may improve wellness in healthy people and have benefits for patients. However, the mechanisms of how yoga may positively affect the mind-body system are largely unknown. Here we have assessed possible rapid changes in global gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs in healthy people that practiced either a comprehensive yoga program or a control regimen. The experimental sessions included gentle yoga postures, breathing exercises, and meditation (Sudarshan Kriya and Related Practices--SK&P compared with a control regimen of a nature walk and listening to relaxing music. We show that the SK&P program has a rapid and significantly greater effect on gene expression in PBMCs compared with the control regimen. These data suggest that yoga and related practices result in rapid gene expression alterations which may be the basis for their longer term cell biological and higher level health effects.

  9. Changes in head posture after rapid maxillary expansion in patients with nasopharyngeal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjurchieva-Chuchkova G

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nasopharyngeal obstruction is an important etiologic factor in the development of an extreme vertical growth facial pattern, and insufficient transversal growth of the maxilla. The treatment outcomes associated with rapid maxillary expansion in the literature are mainly discussed in terms of changes in dentofacial morphology, without special reference to changes in the pharyngeal airway, the position of the mandible, hyoid bone and the tongue. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME, on changes in head posture and airway dimension. Materials and methods: The cephalometric evaluation was conducted on thirty lateral cephalograms of patients with nasopharyngeal obstruction (mean age 9.11 years; standard deviation (SD ± 2.0; range 8-14 years treated with appliance for rapid maxillary expansion. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: 1 study group comprised of 15 patients treated with RME immediately after the first visit; 2 a control group comprised of 15 subjects monitored for approximately 12 months prior to commencing therapy, who became untreated controls. Lateral cephalograms, taken in the natural head position, were obtained at the first visit and 6 months later for all subjects. Six angular measurements were measured to describe craniocervical angulation, and five linear measurements were measured to describe airway dimension. Results: The investigated group treated with RME shows a statistically significant decrease in craniocervical angulation, especially at the angle of interaction between palatal plane and the tangent odontoid processus (4.07 degrees, for PP/OPT angle and angle interaction between palatal plane and the tangent of cervical vertebra (4.95 degrees for PP/CVT angle. Airway dimension in the treated group increased, especially at the levels PNS-ad1 (2.52 mm, ve-pve (2.97 mm, and uv-puv (2.88 mm. No significant changes were observed in the control group

  10. Rapid melting dynamics of the Morteratsch glacier (Swiss Alps) from UAV photogrammetry and field spectroscopy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mauro, Biagio; Garzonio, Roberto; Rossini, Micol; Baccolo, Giovanni; Julitta, Tommaso; Cavallini, Giuseppe; Mattavelli, Matteo; Colombo, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    The impact of atmospheric impurities on the optical properties of snow and ice has been largely acknowledged in the scientific literature. Beyond this, the evaluation of the effect of specific organic and inorganic particles on melting dynamics remains a major challenge. In this contribution, we examine the annual melting dynamics of a large valley glacier of the Swiss Alps using UAV photogrammetry. We then compare the melting patterns to the presence of surface impurities on the glacier surface. Two surveys (in July and September 2016) with a lightweight Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) were organized on the ablation zone of the Morteratsch glacier (Swiss Alps). The UAV (DJI, Phantom 4) was equipped with a high resolution digital camera, and flew at a constant altitude of 150 from the glacier surface. 30 ground control points were placed on the glacier, and their coordinates were determined with a differential GPS (dGPS) for georeferencing UAV images. Contemporary to the UAV surveys, field spectroscopy data were collected on the glacier surface with an Analytical Spectral Device (ASD Field spec.) spectrometer covering the visible and near infrared spectral ranges, and ice samples were collected to determine the abundance of microorganism and algae. From the UAV RGB data, two point clouds were created using Structure from Motion (SfM) algorithms. The point clouds (each consisting of about 15M points) were then converted in Digital Surface Models (DSM) and orthomosaics by interpolation. The difference between the two DSM was calculated and converted in Snow Water Equivalent (SWE), in order to assess the ice lost by the glacier during the ablation season. The point clouds were compared and the displacement vectors were estimated using different algorithms. The elevation changes estimated from UAV data were compared with the abundance of microorganisms and algae. The reflectance spectra of ice with microorganisms and algae show a chlorophyll absorption feature at 680 nm

  11. Two-gluon rapidity correlations of strong colour field in pp, pA and AA collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Ye-Yin, E-mail: yeyin.zhao@gmail.com; Xu, Ming-Mei; Zhang, Heng-Ying; Wu, Yuan-Fang, E-mail: wuyf@mail.ccnu.edu.cn

    2016-11-15

    Using the CGC formalism, we calculate the two-gluon rapidity correlations of strong colour fields in pp, pA and AA collisions, respectively. If one trigger gluon is fixed at central rapidity, a ridge-like correlation pattern is obtained in symmetry pp and AA collisions, and a huge bump-like correlation pattern is presented in asymmetry pA collisions. It is demonstrated that long-range ridge-like rapidity correlations are caused by the stronger correlation with the gluon of colour source. These features are independent of the azimuthal angular of two selected gluon. They are qualitatively consistent with current observed data at LHC. The transverse momentum and incident energy dependence of the ridge and bump-like correlations are also systematically studied. The ridge is more likely observed at higher incident energy and lower transverse momentum of trigger gluon.

  12. Changes of pulp-chamber dimensions 1 year after rapid maxillary expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratieri, Carolina; Alves, Matheus; Mattos, Cláudia Trindade; Souza, Margareth Maria Gomes de; Ruellas, Antônio Carlos de Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of orthopedic forces on maxillary first molars' and maxillary central incisors' pulp chambers in children having rapid maxillary expansion as the only intervention compared with children having no orthodontic intervention by using cone-beam computed tomography images. In this prospective controlled clinical study, we evaluated 60 maxillary first molars and 60 maxillary central incisors from 30 children (18 boys, 12 girls) in the mixed dentition and during the pubertal growth period. The treated group had rapid maxillary expansion with the Haas expander, followed by 6 months of retention and 6 months of follow-up out of retention; the control group had no intervention during the study. Cone-beam computed tomography scans were taken initially and 1 year after the rapid maxillary expansion active phase. Initially, a 3-dimensional scrolling in all pulp chambers of the evaluated teeth was performed with Dolphin Imaging software (version 11.0; Dolphin Imaging & Management Solutions, Chatsworth, Calif) to describe the incidence of pulp-chamber calcifications. The dimensions of the pulp chambers of the molars and incisors were also investigated. Cross-sectional and longitudinal slices were used for each molar (coronal and axial slices) and incisor (sagittal and axial slices). The area (mm(2)) was obtained from 3 slices of each kind (6 measurements for each tooth). The results suggest that rapid maxillary expansion did not induce new pulp-chamber calcification. Also, it did not interfere in normal pulp-chamber dimension changes of the anchorage molars. The pulp chamber of the central incisors can be expected to be minimally wider 1 year after the therapy. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Kinetic Phase Diagrams of Ternary Al-Cu-Li System during Rapid Solidification: A Phase-Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiong; Zhang, Lijun; Sobolev, Sergey; Du, Yong

    2018-02-08

    Kinetic phase diagrams in technical alloys at different solidification velocities during rapid solidification are of great importance for guiding the novel alloy preparation, but are usually absent due to extreme difficulty in performing experimental measurements. In this paper, a phase-field model with finite interface dissipation was employed to construct kinetic phase diagrams in the ternary Al-Cu-Li system for the first time. The time-elimination relaxation scheme was utilized. The solute trapping phenomenon during rapid solidification could be nicely described by the phase-field simulation, and the results obtained from the experiment measurement and/or the theoretical model were also well reproduced. Based on the predicted kinetic phase diagrams, it was found that with the increase of interface moving velocity and/or temperature, the gap between the liquidus and solidus gradually reduces, which illustrates the effect of solute trapping and tendency of diffusionless solidification.

  14. Ecological Pleiotropy Suppresses the Dynamic Feedback Generated by a Rapidly Changing Trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, John P

    2017-05-01

    Population dynamics may carry a signature of an ecology-evolution-ecology feedback, known as eco-evolutionary dynamics, when functionally important traits change. Given current theory, the absence of a feedback from a trait with strong links to species interactions should not occur. In a previous study with the Didinium-Paramecium predator-prey system, however, rapid and large-magnitude changes in predator cell volume occurred without any noticeable effect on the population dynamics. Here I resolve this theory-data conflict by showing that ecological pleiotropy-when a trait has more than one functional effect on an ecological process-suppresses shifts in dynamics that would arise, given the links between cell volume and the species interaction. Whether eco-evolutionary dynamics arise, therefore, depends not just on the ecology-evolution feedback but on the net effect that a trait has on different parts of the underlying interaction.

  15. Rapid directional change degrades GPS distance measurement validity during intermittent intensity running.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C Rawstorn

    Full Text Available Use of the Global Positioning System (GPS for quantifying athletic performance is common in many team sports. The effect of running velocity on measurement validity is well established, but the influence of rapid directional change is not well understood in team sport applications. This effect was systematically evaluated using multidirectional and curvilinear adaptations of a validated soccer simulation protocol that maintained identical velocity profiles. Team sport athletes completed 90 min trials of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle-running Test movement pattern on curvilinear, and multidirectional shuttle running tracks while wearing a 5 Hz (with interpolated 15 Hz output GPS device. Reference total distance (13 200 m was systematically over- and underestimated during curvilinear (2.61±0.80% and shuttle (-3.17±2.46% trials, respectively. Within-epoch measurement uncertainty dispersion was widest during the shuttle trial, particularly during the jog and run phases. Relative measurement reliability was excellent during both trials (Curvilinear r = 1.00, slope = 1.03, ICC = 1.00; Shuttle r = 0.99, slope = 0.97, ICC = 0.99. Absolute measurement reliability was superior during the curvilinear trial (Curvilinear SEM = 0 m, CV = 2.16%, LOA ± 223 m; Shuttle SEM = 119 m, CV = 2.44%, LOA ± 453 m. Rapid directional change degrades the accuracy and absolute reliability of GPS distance measurement, and caution is recommended when using GPS to quantify rapid multidirectional movement patterns.

  16. MRI evaluation of body composition changes in wrestlers undergoing rapid weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukidome, T; Shirai, K; Kubo, J; Matsushima, Y; Yanagisawa, O; Homma, T; Aizawa, K

    2008-10-01

    Changes in body composition of college wrestlers undergoing rapid weight reduction were evaluated over time using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study evaluated 12 wrestlers (male, 18-22 years of age) who participated in Japan's 2005 intercollegiate wrestling tournament. For this study, MRI (of the right femoral region and the trunk), as well as measurements of body weight, body fat percentage and body water content, were performed 1 month and 1 week prior to the weigh-in, on the day of the weigh-in, on the day of the match (after the match), and 1 week after the weigh-in. A survey of food and fluid intake was also conducted. Several variables were significantly lower on the day of the weigh-in than one month prior: body weight (pfat (pmuscle, and trunk fat; quadriceps muscle; lower subcutaneous; and food intake (pweight reduction reduced the wrestlers' cross-sectional areas of muscle and fat tissues, which tended to recover through rehydration after the weigh-in. These results suggest that rapid weight reduction of wrestlers induced changes in different regions of the body.

  17. Health Systems Research in a Complex and Rapidly Changing Context: Ethical Implications of Major Health Systems Change at Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Hayley; Bloom, Gerald

    2016-12-01

    This paper discusses health policy and systems research in complex and rapidly changing contexts. It focuses on ethical issues at stake for researchers working with government policy makers to provide evidence to inform major health systems change at scale, particularly when the dynamic nature of the context and ongoing challenges to the health system can result in unpredictable outcomes. We focus on situations where 'country ownership' of HSR is relatively well established and where there is significant involvement of local researchers and close ties and relationships with policy makers are often present. We frame our discussion around two country case studies with which we are familiar, namely China and South Africa and discuss the implications for conducting 'embedded' research. We suggest that reflexivity is an important concept for health system researchers who need to think carefully about positionality and their normative stance and to use such reflection to ensure that they can negotiate to retain autonomy, whilst also contributing evidence for health system change. A research process informed by the notion of reflexive practice and iterative learning will require a longitudinal review at key points in the research timeline. Such review should include the convening of a deliberative process and should involve a range of stakeholders, including those most likely to be affected by the intended and unintended consequences of change. © 2016 The Authors Developing World Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Palliative care making a difference in rural Uganda, Kenya and Malawi:three rapid evaluation field studies

    OpenAIRE

    Bettega Nadia; Leng Mhoira; Brown Judith; Grant Liz; Murray Scott A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Many people live and die in pain in Africa. We set out to describe patient, family and local community perspectives on the impact of three community based palliative care interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Three palliative care programmes in Uganda, Kenya and Malawi were studied using rapid evaluation field techniques in each country, triangulating data from three sources: interviews with key informants, observations of clinical encounters and the local health an...

  19. Rapid growth of zinc oxide nanobars in presence of electric field by physical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouya, Mehraban; Taromian, Fahime; Siami, Simin

    2018-01-01

    In this contribution, electric field has some effects to increase growth for specific time duration on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanobars. First, the zinc (Zn) thin film has been prepared by 235,000 V/m electric field assisted physical vapor deposition (PVD) at vacuum of 1.33 × 10-5 mbar. Second, strong electric field of 134,000 V/m has been used in ambient for growing ZnO nanobars in term of the time include 2.5 and 10 h. The performances of the ZnO nanostructure in absence and presence of electric field have been determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results of XRD analysis showed that ZnO has a hexagonal bars structure and a strongly preferred (101) orientation which is strongest than without applying electric field. SEM analysis revealed that physical vapored ZnO thin film in presence of electric field are densely packed with uniform morphological, thinner and denser in distribution. Electric field effect for ZnO growth in 2.5 h is better than it in the 2.5 h without electric field but by passing the time the media influence has good power almost as same as electric field. Through this electric field in PVD, the compact and uniform Zn film has been achieved which is less diameter than ordinary PVD method. Finally, we carry out a series of experiments to grow different-orientation ZnO nanobars with less than 100 nm in diameter, which are the time saving process in base of PVD ever reported. Therefore, the significant conclusion in usage electric field is reducing time of growth.

  20. EMF Rapid Program Engineering Projects, Project 1, Development of Recommendations for Guidelines for Field Source Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Electric Research and Management, Inc.

    1997-03-11

    The goal of this project is to develop a protocol for measuring the electric and magnetic fields around sources. Data from these measurements may help direct future biological effects research by better defining the complexity of magnetic and electric fields to which humanity is exposed, as well asprovide the basis for rigorous field exposure analysis and risk assessment once the relationship between field exposure and biological response. is better understood. The data base also should have sufficient spatial and temporal characteristics to guide electric and magnetic field management. The goal of Task A is to construct a set of characteristics that would be ideal to have for guiding and interpreting biological studies and for focusing any future effort at field management. This ideal set will then be quantified and reduced according to the availability (or possible development of) instrumentation to measure the desired characteristics. Factors that also will be used to define pragmatic data sets will be the cost of collecting the data, the cost of developing an adequate data base, and the needed precision in measuring specific characteristics. A field, electric or magnetic, will always be ,some function of time and space. The first step in this section of the protocol development will be to determine what span of time and what portion of space are required to quantify the electric and magnetic fields around sources such as appliances and electrical apparatus. Constraints on time will be set by examining measurement limitations and biological data requirements.

  1. Addressing the difficulty of changing fields in geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civilini, F.; Savage, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    Geophysics is a wonderfully diverse field of study, encompassing a variety of disciplines greatly different from one other. Even within the same discipline, various branches of study can have drastically different vocabulary and methodologies. The difficulty of breaking this "jargon" barrier is also an important reminder for scientists of how critical it is to clearly and concisely convey information. This presentation will focus on strategies that students can focus on to ease a transition between fields in geophysics. I believe that a student changing disciplines should proceed in the following steps: [1] Do a cursory literature review to find a review paper of the desired topic and work backwards through the details until a level of understanding or recognition is reached, [2] Obtain a clear physical understanding of the data and methods of the proposed study, and [3] Establish a support network through the research group or elsewhere which will recognize the areas in which the student is behind and offer remedies in a supportive and productive manner. These strategies are based on my own personal experience changing from music to geophysics in my undergrad and working on projects spanning various subdisciplines of geophysics during my Masters and PhD. It is worthwhile for research groups to spend the time to mentor students switching from other disciplines because those students will in time be able to observe the research in a different way than their peers, and easily adapt to changes of direction within the research.

  2. Wildlife health in a rapidly changing North: focus on avian disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Pearce, John M.; Handel, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Climate-related environmental changes have increasingly been linked to emerging infectious diseases in wildlife. The Arctic is facing a major ecological transition that is expected to substantially affect animal and human health. Changes in phenology or environmental conditions that result from climate warming may promote novel species assemblages as host and pathogen ranges expand to previously unoccupied areas. Recent evidence from the Arctic and subarctic suggests an increase in the spread and prevalence of some wildlife diseases, but baseline data necessary to detect and verify such changes are still lacking. Wild birds are undergoing rapid shifts in distribution and have been implicated in the spread of wildlife and zoonotic diseases. Here, we review evidence of current and projected changes in the abundance and distribution of avian diseases and outline strategies for future research. We discuss relevant climatic and environmental factors, emerging host–pathogen contact zones, the relationship between host condition and immune function, and potential wildlife and human health outcomes in northern regions.

  3. Bird mercury concentrations change rapidly as chicks age: Toxicological risk is highest at hatching and fledging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2011-01-01

    Toxicological risk of methylmercury exposure to juvenile birds is complex due to the highly transient nature of mercury concentrations as chicks age. We examined total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in blood, liver, kidney, muscle, and feathers of 111 Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri), 69 black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and 43 American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) chicks as they aged from hatching through postfledging at wetlands that had either low or high mercury contamination in San Francisco Bay, California. For each waterbird species, internal tissue, and wetland, total mercury and methylmercury concentrations changed rapidly as chicks aged and exhibited a quadratic, U-shaped pattern from hatching through postfledging. Mercury concentrations were highest immediately after hatching, due to maternally deposited mercury in eggs, then rapidly declined as chicks aged and diluted their mercury body burden through growth in size and mercury depuration into growing feathers. Mercury concentrations then increased during fledging when mass gain and feather growth slowed, while chicks continued to acquire dietary mercury. In contrast to mercury in internal tissues, mercury concentrations in chick feathers were highly variable and declined linearly with age. For 58 recaptured Forster's tern chicks, the proportional change in blood mercury concentration was negatively related to the proportional change in body mass, but not to the amount of feathers or wing length. Thus, mercury concentrations declined more in chicks that gained more mass between sampling events. The U-shaped pattern of mercury concentrations from hatching to fledging indicates that juvenile birds may be at highest risk to methylmercury toxicity shortly after hatching when maternally deposited mercury concentrations are still high and again after fledging when opportunities for mass dilution and mercury excretion into feathers are limited.

  4. Rapid Changes in Cortical and Subcortical Brain Regions after Early Bilateral Enucleation in the Mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga O Kozanian

    Full Text Available Functional sensory and motor areas in the developing mammalian neocortex are formed through a complex interaction of cortically intrinsic mechanisms, such as gene expression, and cortically extrinsic mechanisms such as those mediated by thalamic input from the senses. Both intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms are believed to be involved in cortical patterning and the establishment of areal boundaries in early development; however, the nature of the interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic processes is not well understood. In a previous study, we used a perinatal bilateral enucleation mouse model to test some aspects of this interaction by reweighting sensory input to the developing cortex. Visual deprivation at birth resulted in a shift of intraneocortical connections (INCs that aligned with ectopic ephrin A5 expression in the same location ten days later at postnatal day (P 10. A prevailing question remained: Does visual deprivation first induce a change in gene expression, followed by a shift in INCs, or vice versa? In the present study, we address this question by investigating the neuroanatomy and patterns of gene expression in post-natal day (P 1 and 4 mice following bilateral enucleation at birth. Our results demonstrate a rapid reduction in dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN size and ephrin A5 gene expression 24-hours post-enucleation, with more profound effects apparent at P4. The reduced nuclear size and diminished gene expression mirrors subtle changes in ephrin A5 expression evident in P1 and P4 enucleated neocortex, 11 and 8 days prior to natural eye opening, respectively. Somatosensory and visual INCs were indistinguishable between P1 and P4 mice bilaterally enucleated at birth, indicating that perinatal bilateral enucleation initiates a rapid change in gene expression (within one day followed by an alteration of sensory INCs later on (second postnatal week. With these results, we gain a deeper understanding of how gene

  5. Rapid variations in fluid chemistry constrain hydrothermal phase separation at the Main Endeavour Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Brooke; Lilley, Marvin; Butterfield, David; Olson, Eric; Larson, Benjamin

    2017-02-01

    Previous work at the Main Endeavour Field (MEF) has shown that chloride concentration in high-temperature vent fluids has not exceeded 510 mmol/kg (94% of seawater), which is consistent with brine condensation and loss at depth, followed by upward flow of a vapor phase toward the seafloor. Magmatic and seismic events have been shown to affect fluid temperature and composition and these effects help narrow the possibilities for sub-surface processes. However, chloride-temperature data alone are insufficient to determine details of phase separation in the upflow zone. Here we use variation in chloride and gas content in a set of fluid samples collected over several days from one sulfide chimney structure in the MEF to constrain processes of mixing and phase separation. The combination of gas (primarily magmatic CO2 and seawater-derived Ar) and chloride data, indicate that neither variation in the amount of brine lost, nor mixing of the vapor phase produced at depth with variable quantities of (i) brine or (ii) altered gas rich seawater that has not undergone phase separation, can explain the co-variation of gas and chloride content. The gas-chloride data require additional phase separation of the ascending vapor-like fluid. Mixing and gas partitioning calculations show that near-critical temperature and pressure conditions can produce the fluid compositions observed at Sully vent as a vapor-liquid conjugate pair or as vapor-liquid pair with some remixing, and that the gas partition coefficients implied agree with theoretically predicted values.Plain Language SummaryWhen the chemistry of fluids from deep sea hot springs changes over a short time span, it allows us to narrow down the conditions and processes that created those fluids. This gives us a better idea what is happening under the seafloor where the water is interacting with hot rocks and minerals, boiling, and taking on the character it will have when it emerges at the seafloor. Gasses like argon can be

  6. Is Sordac’s Rapid Acquisition Process Best Prepared To Field Solutions For Future Technological Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    views expressed in this academic research paper are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the US government, the...SORDAC) is the Department of Defense (DoD) leader in rapid acquisitions, and its culture and practices should be benchmarked by the other services. This...should be benchmarked by all other services. This essay first examines SORDAC’s acquisition environment and assesses SORDAC’s unique culture. This

  7. Rapid characterisation of vegetation structure to predict refugia and climate change impacts across a global biodiversity hotspot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, A.G.T.; Wardell-Johnson, G.W.; Yates, C.J.; Keppel, G.; Baran, I.; Franklin, S.E.; Hopper, S.D.; Niel, Van K.P.; Mucina, L.; Byrne, M.

    2014-01-01

    Identification of refugia is an increasingly important adaptation strategy in conservation planning under rapid anthropogenic climate change. Granite outcrops (GOs) provide extraordinary diversity, including a wide range of taxa, vegetation types and habitats in the Southwest Australian Floristic

  8. Rapid Land Cover Map Updates Using Change Detection and Robust Random Forest Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad J. Wessels

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluated the Landsat Automated Land Cover Update Mapping (LALCUM system designed to rapidly update a land cover map to a desired nominal year using a pre-existing reference land cover map. The system uses the Iteratively Reweighted Multivariate Alteration Detection (IRMAD to identify areas of change and no change. The system then automatically generates large amounts of training samples (n > 1 million in the no-change areas as input to an optimized Random Forest classifier. Experiments were conducted in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa using a reference land cover map from 2008, a change mask between 2008 and 2011 and Landsat ETM+ data for 2011. The entire system took 9.5 h to process. We expected that the use of the change mask would improve classification accuracy by reducing the number of mislabeled training data caused by land cover change between 2008 and 2011. However, this was not the case due to exceptional robustness of Random Forest classifier to mislabeled training samples. The system achieved an overall accuracy of 65%–67% using 22 detailed classes and 72%–74% using 12 aggregated national classes. “Water”, “Plantations”, “Plantations—clearfelled”, “Orchards—trees”, “Sugarcane”, “Built-up/dense settlement”, “Cultivation—Irrigated” and “Forest (indigenous” had user’s accuracies above 70%. Other detailed classes (e.g., “Low density settlements”, “Mines and Quarries”, and “Cultivation, subsistence, drylands” which are required for operational, provincial-scale land use planning and are usually mapped using manual image interpretation, could not be mapped using Landsat spectral data alone. However, the system was able to map the 12 national classes, at a sufficiently high level of accuracy for national scale land cover monitoring. This update approach and the highly automated, scalable LALCUM system can improve the efficiency and update rate of regional land

  9. Visual cortex in aging and Alzheimer's disease: changes in visual field maps and population receptive fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Alyssa A.; Barton, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have suggested that cortical alterations underlie such age-related visual deficits as decreased acuity, little is known about what changes actually occur in visual cortex during healthy aging. Two recent studies showed changes in primary visual cortex (V1) during normal aging; however, no studies have characterized the effects of aging on visual cortex beyond V1, important measurements both for understanding the aging process and for comparison to changes in age-related diseases. Similarly, there is almost no information about changes in visual cortex in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia. Because visual deficits are often reported as one of the first symptoms of AD, measurements of such changes in the visual cortex of AD patients might improve our understanding of how the visual system is affected by neurodegeneration as well as aid early detection, accurate diagnosis and timely treatment of AD. Here we use fMRI to first compare the visual field map (VFM) organization and population receptive fields (pRFs) between young adults and healthy aging subjects for occipital VFMs V1, V2, V3, and hV4. Healthy aging subjects do not show major VFM organizational deficits, but do have reduced surface area and increased pRF sizes in the foveal representations of V1, V2, and hV4 relative to healthy young control subjects. These measurements are consistent with behavioral deficits seen in healthy aging. We then demonstrate the feasibility and first characterization of these measurements in two patients with mild AD, which reveal potential changes in visual cortex as part of the pathophysiology of AD. Our data aid in our understanding of the changes in the visual processing pathways in normal aging and provide the foundation for future research into earlier and more definitive detection of AD. PMID:24570669

  10. Cone-beam computed tomography evaluation of dentoskeletal changes after asymmetric rapid maxillary expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baka, Zeliha Muge; Akin, Mehmet; Ucar, Faruk Izzet; Ileri, Zehra

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to quantitatively evaluate the changes in arch widths and buccolingual inclinations of the posterior teeth after asymmetric rapid maxillary expansion (ARME) and to compare the measurements between the crossbite and the noncrossbite sides with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). From our clinic archives, we selected the CBCT records of 30 patients with unilateral skeletal crossbite (13 boys, 14.2 ± 1.3 years old; 17 girls, 13.8 ± 1.3 years old) who underwent ARME treatment. A modified acrylic bonded rapid maxillary expansion appliance including an occlusal locking mechanism was used in all patients. CBCT records had been taken before ARME treatment and after a 3-month retention period. Fourteen angular and 80 linear measurements were taken for the maxilla and the mandible. Frontally clipped CBCT images were used for the evaluation. Paired sample and independent sample t tests were used for statistical comparisons. Comparisons of the before-treatment and after-retention measurements showed that the arch widths and buccolingual inclinations of the posterior teeth increased significantly on the crossbite side of the maxilla and on the noncrossbite side of the mandible (P ARME treatment, the crossbite side of the maxilla and the noncrossbite side of the mandible were more affected than were the opposite sides. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Rapid change in the ciprofloxacin resistance pattern among Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains in Nuuk, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjerbæk Rolskov, Anne; Bjorn-Mortensen, Karen; Mulvad, Gert

    2015-01-01

    ProbeTec). Monitoring of GC antibiotic susceptibility by culture was introduced in Nuuk in 2012. Until 2014, no cases of ciprofloxacin-resistant GC strains were reported. In this paper, we report the finding of ciprofloxacin-resistant GC and describe the most recent incidence of GC infections...... (9%) were positive, respectively. From January to August, 6 (15%) cultures from Nuuk were ciprofloxacin resistant while in September and October, 26 (59%) were ciprofloxacin resistant (presistance. GC incidence in Nuuk...... was 3,017 per 100,000 inhabitants per year, compared to 2,491 per 100,000 inhabitants per year in the rest of Greenland. CONCLUSION: Within a short period, a rapid and dramatic change in ciprofloxacin susceptibility among GC strains isolated in Nuuk was documented and recommendation for first line...

  12. Tracking Change in rapid and eXtreme Development: A Challenge to SCM-tools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2001-01-01

    Software configuration management (SCM) has proved to be an invaluable part of developing and maintaining high quality software. The benefits are not for free however: SCM tool operations often divert your attention from your development task, sometimes you have to endure a long waiting time while...... the tool does its job, change descriptions must be memorised until your next check-in, etc. This kind of overhead and disruption does not fit well with fast-paced development processes like rapid prototyping, explorative programming, and eXtreme Programming that favour creativity, speed, and communication...... more that managerial rigour. In the cost/benefit equation the balance may tip in favour of not using any SCM tool or only using a fraction of its potential. We think SCM has something to offer such projects, and present some proposals that may allow SCM tools to better suit the characteristics of fast...

  13. Comparison between rapid and mixed maxillary expansion through an assessment of arch changes on dental casts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassia, Vincenzo; d'Apuzzo, Fabrizia; Jamilian, Abdolreza; Femiano, Felice; Favero, Lorenzo; Perillo, Letizia

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this retrospective observational study was to compare upper and lower dental changes in patients treated with Rapid Maxillary Expansion (RME) and Mixed Maxillary Expansion (MME), assessed by dental cast analysis. Treatment groups consisted of 42 patients: the RME group (n = 21) consisted of 13 female and 8 male subjects with the mean age of 8.8 years ± 1.37 at T0 and 9.6 years ± 1.45 at T1; the MME group (n = 21) consisted of 12 female and 9 male patients with a mean age of 8.9 years ± 2.34 at T0 and 10.5 years ± 2.08 at T1. The upper and lower arch analysis was performed on four dental bilateral landmarks, on upper and lower casts; also upper and lower arch depths were measured. The groups were compared using independent sample t-test to estimate dental changes in upper and lower arches. Before expansion treatment (T0), the groups were similar for all examined variables (p>0.05). In both RME and MME group, significant increments in all the variables for maxillary and mandibular arch widths were observed after treatment. No significant differences in maxillary and mandibular arch depths were observed at the end of treatment in both groups. An evaluation of the changes after RME and MME (T1) showed statistically significant differences in mandibular arch depth (plip bumper effects" observed in the MME protocol.

  14. Morphologic changes of the palate after rapid maxillary expansion: a 3-dimensional computed tomography evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatouros, Andriana; Goonewardene, Mithran S

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to estimate the area change of the palate after rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in the early mixed dentition stage by using a 3-dimensional (3D) helical computed tomography (CT) scanning technique. In addition, linear changes in the maxillary arch were evaluated. The treated sample consisted of 43 children (mean age, 9 years 1 month) treated with a bonded RME appliance. The untreated control group consisted of 7 children (mean age, 9 years 3 months). Pretreatment and posttreatment dental casts were evaluated by using 3D helical CT scanning procedures. The Student t test was used to compare the linear, area, and angular differences between the treatment times. RME produced clinically significant increases in interdental widths across the canines, the deciduous first molars, and the permanent first molars in the maxillary arch. Significant increases in cross-sectional area were observed across the permanent first molars (15.3 mm(2)). There was marked variability in the buccal tipping of the permanent first molars. Three-dimensional helical CT scanning is an accurate and cost-effective method of assessing dental cast morphologic changes. It can also provide fast and accurate data acquisition and subsequent analysis.

  15. Field measurement of erosion rates: time-lapse monitoring of rapid stone flaking at Howden Minster, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehne, E.; Pinchin, S.

    2012-04-01

    The use of a solar-powered, field time-lapse camera and environmental monitoring system enabled measurements of the pattern and rate of loss of stone from the surface of Howden Minster, an abandoned monastery in Yorkshire dating to 1380 AD. Acquiring a photograph every 1-3 hours allowed the stone damage to be correlated with local environmental conditions. Image comparison techniques borrowed from observational astronomy, such as blink comparison, were used to determine what elements had changed from image to image. Results indicate that loss is episodic rather than continuous and in several cases is related to specific environmental conditions, such as condensation/dew formation or high winds. Damage was found also to be synchronous, with surface change (flaking, granular disintegration, and loss of flakes) occurring at the same time on different stone blocks. Crystallization pressure from magnesium sulfate phase transitions appear to be the main cause of the loss of stone surfaces. Significant variation in surface loss rates was observed and appears to be related to variations in salt concentration. An examination of stone texture by ESEM/EDS revealed signification variations and suggests that salt concentrations are controlled in part by stone micromorphology. Quantitative data on rates of surface loss are not available from most monuments. Time-lapse methods permit the relatively inexpensive acquisition of this type of data, which is needed to aid conservation decision-making and the evaluation of interventions. Such tools should also prove useful to geomorphologists studying honeycomb weathering, the moving rocks on Death Valley's Racetrack Playa, and other phenomena that are otherwise difficult to study. Context: The rapid deterioration of magnesian limestone structures in the north of England has been a serious problem for more than one hundred years. While air quality in England has improved during this period, the rate of stone loss in these carved stone

  16. New insights from coral growth band studies in an era of rapid environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, Janice M.; Cooper, Timothy F.

    2011-10-01

    The rapid formation of calcium carbonate coral skeletons (calcification) fuelled by the coral-algal symbiosis is the backbone of tropical coral reef ecosystems. However, the efficacy of calcification is measurably influenced by the sea's physico-chemical environment, which is changing rapidly. Warming oceans have already led to increased frequency and severity of coral bleaching, and ocean acidification has a demonstrable potential to cause reduced rates of calcification. There is now general agreement that ocean warming and acidification are attributable to human activities increasing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, and the large part of the extra carbon dioxide (the main greenhouse gas) that is absorbed by oceans. Certain massive corals provide historical perspectives on calcification through the presence of dateable annual density banding patterns. Each band is a page in an environmental archive that reveals past responses of growth (linear extension, skeletal density and calcification rate) and provides a basis for prediction of future of coral growth. A second major line of research focuses on the measurement of various geochemical tracers incorporated into the growth bands, allowing the reconstruction of past marine climate conditions (i.e. palaeoclimatology). Here, we focus on the structural properties of the annual density bands themselves (viz. density; linear extension), exploring their utility in providing both perspectives on the past and pointers to the future of calcification on coral reefs. We conclude that these types of coral growth records, though relatively neglected in recent years compared to the geochemical studies, remain immensely valuable aids to unravelling the consequences of anthropogenic climate change on coral reefs. Moreover, an understanding of coral growth processes is an essential pre-requisite for proper interpretation of studies of geochemical tracers in corals.

  17. Rapid change in articulatory lip movement induced by preceding auditory feedback during production of bilabial plosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochida, Takemi; Gomi, Hiroaki; Kashino, Makio

    2010-11-08

    There has been plentiful evidence of kinesthetically induced rapid compensation for unanticipated perturbation in speech articulatory movements. However, the role of auditory information in stabilizing articulation has been little studied except for the control of voice fundamental frequency, voice amplitude and vowel formant frequencies. Although the influence of auditory information on the articulatory control process is evident in unintended speech errors caused by delayed auditory feedback, the direct and immediate effect of auditory alteration on the movements of articulators has not been clarified. This work examined whether temporal changes in the auditory feedback of bilabial plosives immediately affects the subsequent lip movement. We conducted experiments with an auditory feedback alteration system that enabled us to replace or block speech sounds in real time. Participants were asked to produce the syllable /pa/ repeatedly at a constant rate. During the repetition, normal auditory feedback was interrupted, and one of three pre-recorded syllables /pa/, /Φa/, or /pi/, spoken by the same participant, was presented once at a different timing from the anticipated production onset, while no feedback was presented for subsequent repetitions. Comparisons of the labial distance trajectories under altered and normal feedback conditions indicated that the movement quickened during the short period immediately after the alteration onset, when /pa/ was presented 50 ms before the expected timing. Such change was not significant under other feedback conditions we tested. The earlier articulation rapidly induced by the progressive auditory input suggests that a compensatory mechanism helps to maintain a constant speech rate by detecting errors between the internally predicted and actually provided auditory information associated with self movement. The timing- and context-dependent effects of feedback alteration suggest that the sensory error detection works in a

  18. Rapid change in articulatory lip movement induced by preceding auditory feedback during production of bilabial plosives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takemi Mochida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There has been plentiful evidence of kinesthetically induced rapid compensation for unanticipated perturbation in speech articulatory movements. However, the role of auditory information in stabilizing articulation has been little studied except for the control of voice fundamental frequency, voice amplitude and vowel formant frequencies. Although the influence of auditory information on the articulatory control process is evident in unintended speech errors caused by delayed auditory feedback, the direct and immediate effect of auditory alteration on the movements of articulators has not been clarified. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This work examined whether temporal changes in the auditory feedback of bilabial plosives immediately affects the subsequent lip movement. We conducted experiments with an auditory feedback alteration system that enabled us to replace or block speech sounds in real time. Participants were asked to produce the syllable /pa/ repeatedly at a constant rate. During the repetition, normal auditory feedback was interrupted, and one of three pre-recorded syllables /pa/, /Φa/, or /pi/, spoken by the same participant, was presented once at a different timing from the anticipated production onset, while no feedback was presented for subsequent repetitions. Comparisons of the labial distance trajectories under altered and normal feedback conditions indicated that the movement quickened during the short period immediately after the alteration onset, when /pa/ was presented 50 ms before the expected timing. Such change was not significant under other feedback conditions we tested. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The earlier articulation rapidly induced by the progressive auditory input suggests that a compensatory mechanism helps to maintain a constant speech rate by detecting errors between the internally predicted and actually provided auditory information associated with self movement. The timing- and context

  19. Interannual Change Detection of Mediterranean Seagrasses Using RapidEye Image Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimosthenis Traganos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent research studies have highlighted the decrease in the coverage of Mediterranean seagrasses due to mainly anthropogenic activities. The lack of data on the distribution of these significant aquatic plants complicates the quantification of their decreasing tendency. While Mediterranean seagrasses are declining, satellite remote sensing technology is growing at an unprecedented pace, resulting in a wealth of spaceborne image time series. Here, we exploit recent advances in high spatial resolution sensors and machine learning to study Mediterranean seagrasses. We process a multispectral RapidEye time series between 2011 and 2016 to detect interannual seagrass dynamics in 888 submerged hectares of the Thermaikos Gulf, NW Aegean Sea, Greece (eastern Mediterranean Sea. We assess the extent change of two Mediterranean seagrass species, the dominant Posidonia oceanica and Cymodocea nodosa, following atmospheric and analytical water column correction, as well as machine learning classification, using Random Forests, of the RapidEye time series. Prior corrections are necessary to untangle the initially weak signal of the submerged seagrass habitats from satellite imagery. The central results of this study show that P. oceanica seagrass area has declined by 4.1%, with a trend of −11.2 ha/yr, while C. nodosa seagrass area has increased by 17.7% with a trend of +18 ha/yr throughout the 5-year study period. Trends of change in spatial distribution of seagrasses in the Thermaikos Gulf site are in line with reported trends in the Mediterranean. Our presented methodology could be a time- and cost-effective method toward the quantitative ecological assessment of seagrass dynamics elsewhere in the future. From small meadows to whole coastlines, knowledge of aquatic plant dynamics could resolve decline or growth trends and accurately highlight key units for future restoration, management, and conservation.

  20. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) changes in bariatric surgery patients undergoing rapid weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankford, D Alan; Proctor, Charles D; Richard, Robert

    2005-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common condition in morbidly obese patients, with the reported prevalence ranging from 12-78%. There is increasing recognition of the need to diagnose and treat/manage OSA both preoperatively and postoperatively. Nasal CPAP is the preferred treatment of OSA; however, weight loss is associated with a reduction in required pressures. We evaluated the CPAP pressure requirements in a group of patients undergoing rapid weight loss following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. 15 patients who had been diagnosed with OSA before surgery were retrospectively evaluated. All patients had demonstrated compliance on home CPAP therapy, were minimally 3 months post-surgery and had follow-up reports that their CPAP was less effective. We obtained data on age, sex, weight, BMI, and apnea/hypopnea index (AHI). Optimal CPAP pressure was obtained initially through attended in-laboratory complex polysomnography. Follow-up CPAP pressure was obtained using an auto-titrating PAP device at home. These data were used to evaluate the pressure changes that accompanied weight loss. This group of patients had lost an average of 44.5 +/- 19.4 kg. Four patients had achieved their goal weight. Their starting CPAP pressures averaged 11 +/- 3.0 cm H2O, with a range of 7-18 cm H2O. Follow-up CPAP pressures averaged 9 +/- 2.7 cm H2O, with a range of 4-12 cm H2O, representing an overall reduction of 18%. The subgroup of patients who had achieved goal weight had a pressure reduction of 22% (9 +/- 2.0 to 7 +/- 1.0 cm H2O). CPAP pressure requirements change considerably in bariatric surgery patients undergoing rapid weight loss. Auto-titrating PAP devices have promise for facilitating the management of CPAP therapy during this time. Consideration should also be given to the use of autotitrating PAP units as the treatment of choice in these patients.

  1. A Magnetic Resonance Measurement Technique for Rapidly Switched Gradient Magnetic Fields in a Magnetic Resonance Tomograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bartušek

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method for measuring of the gradient magnetic field in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR tomography, which is one of the modern medical diagnostic methods. A very important prerequisite for high quality imaging is a gradient magnetic field in the instrument with exactly defined properties. Nuclear magnetic resonance enables us to measure the pulse gradient magnetic field characteristics with high accuracy. These interesting precise methods were designed, realised, and tested at the Institute of Scientific Instruments (ISI of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. The first of them was the Instantaneous Frequency (IF method, which was developed into the Instantaneous Frequency of Spin Echo (IFSE and the Instantaneous Frequency of Spin Echo Series (IFSES methods. The above named methods are described in this paper and their a comparison is also presented.

  2. Change of Paradigm for the Reversed Field Pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escande, D. F.

    2010-11-01

    The reversed field pinch (RFP) is a magnetic configuration germane to the tokamak, but it produces most of its magnetic field by the currents flowing inside the plasma; external coils provide only a small edge toroidal field whose sign is reversed with respect to the central one, whence the name of the configuration. Because of the presence of magnetic turbulence and chaos, the RFP had been considered for a long period as a terrible confinement configuration. However, recently a change of paradigm occurred for this device. Indeed, when the toroidal current is increased in the RFX-mod RFP in Padua (Italy), a self-organized helical state with an internal transport barrier (ITB) develops, and a broad zone of the plasma becomes hot (above 1 keV for a magnetic field above 0.8 T). The present theoretical picture of the RFP mainly comes from three-dimensional nonlinear visco-resistive MHD simulations whose dynamics has strong similarities with the experimental one, and triggered the experimental search for RFP states with improved confinement. The RFP ohmic state involves a helical electrostatic potential generating, as an electric drift, the so-called dynamo velocity field. The magnetic topology can bifurcate from a magnetic island to kink-like magnetic surfaces with higher resilience to magnetic chaos. This theoretical scenario was found to be relevant when ITB's enclosing a broad hot domain were discovered. The ITBs occur in the vicinity of the maximum of the safety factor. The new paradigm for the RFP supports its reappraisal as a low-external field, non-disruptive, ohmically heated approach to magnetic fusion, exploiting both self-organization and technological simplicity. Furthermore the RFP has the same Greenwald density limit as the tokamak, and it is an excellent test bed for the efficient control of multiple resistive wall modes. Its helical magnetic structure makes it germane to the stellarator too. As a result the RFP is also useful to bring support to the

  3. A rapid method for measuring soil water content in the field with a areometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calbo Adonai Gimenez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability of a rapid method to evaluate the soil water content (U can be an important tool to determine the moment to irrigate. The soil areometer consists of an elongated hydrostatic balance with a weighing pan, a graduated neck, a float and a pynometric flask. In this work an areometer was adapted to rapidly measure soil water content without the need of drying the soil. The expression U = (M A - M AD/(M M -M A was used to calculate the soil water content. In this equation M M is the mass to level the areometer with the pycnometric flask filled with water, M A the mass to level the areometer with a mass M M of soil in the pycnometer, the volume being completed with water, and similarly M AD the mass added to the pan to level the areometer with a mass M M of dried soil in the pycnometric flask. The convenience of this method is that the values M M and M AD are known. Consequently, the decision on irrigation can be made after a measurement that takes, about, ten minutes. The procedure involves only stirring the soil with water for at least 2 minutes to remove the adhered air. The soil water content data obtained with the areometric method were similar to those obtained weighing the soil before and after drying to constant weight, in an oven at 105º C.

  4. An invasive species induces rapid adaptive change in a native predator: cane toads and black snakes in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Ben L; Shine, Richard

    2006-06-22

    Rapid environmental change due to human activities has increased rates of extinction, but some species may be able to adapt rapidly enough to deal with such changes. Our studies of feeding behaviour and physiological resistance to toxins reveal surprisingly rapid adaptive responses in Australian black snakes (Pseudechis porphyriacus) following the invasion of a lethally toxic prey item, the cane toad (Bufo marinus). Snakes from toad-exposed localities showed increased resistance to toad toxin and a decreased preference for toads as prey. Separate laboratory experiments suggest that these changes are not attributable to learning (we were unable to teach naive snakes to avoid toxic prey) or to acquired resistance (repeated sub-lethal doses did not enhance resistance). These results strongly suggest that black snake behaviour and physiology have evolved in response to the presence of toads, and have done so rapidly. Toads were brought to Australia in 1935, so these evolved responses have occurred in fewer than 23 snake generations.

  5. Rapid Cultural Change: A Case Study of Polyandry Marriage System among the Gurung Community from Upper Mustang, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juddha Bahadur Gurung

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nepal is multi ethnic, multi lingual and multi cultural country. In Upper Mustang polyandry is practiced by Loba communities. However, the condition of polyandry is dying out at present. The young are not in favor of this system. Socio-economic, political, seasonal migration, tourism and developmental factors have played crucial role in this regards. From conservation perspective polyandry played crucial role to manage local resources and in population dynamics in the past. This paper is based on field survey carried out in two different time periods (1998 and 2008 in order to compare or understand changing pattern of polyandry. In last couple of years, polyandry system has changed very rapidly in Loba communities of Upper Mustang. Rising community awareness, multiple economic opportunities, improve communication, foreign employment, modern education, open tourism, road access and other visual and in visual forces has lead society from close to open and more wider side or increase the horizon of young generation. Polyandry system is directly affected. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v6i0.8480 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 6, 2012 75-106

  6. Rapid calibration of a projection-type holographic light-field display using hierarchically upconverted binary sinusoidal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tomoya; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2017-12-01

    A projection-type holographic light-field (LF) display is a full-parallax, full-color, and glass-free three-dimensional (3D) display with a holographic optical element and a projector. The display has unique characteristics, including transparency; however, a rapid calibration method has not yet been established. In this paper, we propose a rapid calibration method for a holographic LF display without sacrificing its accuracy. The proposed method performs calibration via the projection of binary sinusoidal patterns whose frequencies are iteratively and hierarchically upconverted. Compared to the conventional method, in the proposed method, the required number of projections is reduced from linear to logarithmic with the projector's resolution. We confirm the successful reconstruction of the 3D image using the proposed method.

  7. The Intestinal Microbiome in Infectious Diseases: The Clinical Relevance of a Rapidly Emerging Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, Vanessa C.; Haak, Bastiaan W.; Boele van Hensbroek, Michaël; Wiersinga, Willem J.

    2017-01-01

    The field of infectious disease is undergoing a paradigm shift as the intestinal microbiome is becoming understood. The aim of this review is to inform infectious disease physicians of the potential relevance of the intestinal microbiome to their practice. We searched Medline using both index and

  8. MR Measurement Technique of Rapidly Switched Gradient Magnetic Fields in MR Tomography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartušek, Karel; Gescheidtová, E.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 4 (2005), s. 675-686 ISSN 0937-9347 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : MR tomography * gradiernt magnet ic field * IF method * IFSE method * IFSES method * spin echo Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.743, year: 2005

  9. A closer look at RapidArc® radiosurgery plans using very small fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog, Lotte S; Rasmussen, Jens F B; Aznar, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    v 8.6, 2.5 mm grid spacing). EPIQA data indicated that the measured dose profiles were overmodulated compared to the calculated one. The use of small subfields, typically a few MLC leaves wide, or larger fields with one or a few MLC leaves closed in its centre can result in significant errors...

  10. Field Evaluation of the Determine Rapid Human Immunodeficiency Virus Diagnostic Test in Honduras and the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Carol J.; Dubon, Jose M.; Koenig, Ellen; Perez, Eddy; Ager, Arba; Jayaweera, Dushyantha; Cuadrado, Raul R.; Rivera, Ada; Rubido, Alex; Palmer, Dennis A.

    1999-01-01

    Rapid detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can result in improved patient care and/or faster implementation of public health preventive measures. A new rapid test, Determine (Abbott, Abbott Park, Ill.), detects HIV type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 antibodies within 15 min by using 50 μl of serum or plasma. No specialized equipment or ancillary supplies are required, and results are read visually. A positive result is noted by the appearance of a red line. An operational control (red line) indicates proper test performance. We evaluated the Determine rapid HIV detection test with a group of well-characterized serum samples (CD4 counts and viral loads were known) and serum samples from HIV-positive individuals at field sites in Honduras and the Dominican Republic. In the field evaluations, the results obtained by the Determine assay were compared to those obtained by local in-country HIV screening procedures. We evaluated serum from 100 HIV-positive patients and 66 HIV-negative patients. All samples gave the expected results. In a companion study, 42 HIV-positive samples from a Miami, Fla., serum bank were tested by the Determine assay. The samples had been characterized in terms of CD4 counts and viral loads. Fifteen patients had CD4 counts 200 cells/mm3. Viral loads ranged from 630 to 873,746 log10 copies/ml. All samples from the Miami serum bank were positive by the Determine test. Combined results from the multicenter studies indicated that the correct results were obtained by the Determine assay for 100% (142 of 142) of the HIV-positive serum samples and 100% (66 of 66) of the HIV-negative serum samples. The Determine test was simple to perform and the results were easy to interpret. The Determine test provides a valuable new method for the rapid identification of HIV-positive individuals, especially in developing countries with limited laboratory infrastructures. PMID:10523577

  11. Rapid immunocytochemistry based on alternating current electric field using squash smear preparation of central nervous system tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Jun; Tanino, Mishie Ann; Takenami, Tomoko; Endoh, Tomoko; Urushido, Masana; Kato, Yasutaka; Wang, Lei; Kimura, Taichi; Tsuda, Masumi; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    The role of intraoperative pathological diagnosis for central nervous system (CNS) tumors is crucial for neurosurgery when determining the surgical procedure. Especially, treatment of carmustine (BCNU) wafers requires a conclusive diagnosis of high-grade glioma proven by intraoperative diagnosis. Recently, we demonstrated the usefulness of rapid immunohistochemistry (R-IHC) that facilitates antigen-antibody reaction under alternative current (AC) electric field in the intraoperative diagnosis of CNS tumors; however, a higher proportion of water and lipid in the brain parenchyma sometimes leads to freezing artifacts, resulting in poor quality of frozen sections. On the other hand, squash smear preparation of CNS tumors for cytology does not affect the frozen artifacts, and the importance of smear preparation is now being re-recognized as being better than that of the tissue sections. In this study, we established the rapid immunocytochemistry (R-ICC) protocol for squash smears of CNS tumors using AC electric field that takes only 22 min, and demonstrated its usefulness for semi-quantitative Ki-67/MIB-1 labeling index and CD 20 by R-ICC for intraoperative diagnosis. R-ICC by AC electric field may become a substantial tool for compensating R-IHC and will be applied for broad antibodies in the future.

  12. A decade of rapid change: Biocultural influences on child growth in highland Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oths, Kathryn S; Smith, Hannah N; Stein, Max J; Lazo Landivar, Rodrigo J

    2017-10-30

    In the past decade many areas of Peru have been undergoing extreme environmental, economic, and cultural change. In the highland hamlet of Chugurpampa, La Libertad, climate change has ruined harvests and led to frequent periods of migration to the coast in search of livelihood. This biocultural research examines how the changes could be affecting the growth of children who maintain residence in the highlands. Clinical records from the early 2000s were compared to those from the early 2010s. Charts were randomly selected to record anthropometric data, netting a sample of 75 children ages 0-60 months of age. Analysis of covariance was run to compare mean stature, weight, and BMI between cohorts. Percentage of children who fall below the -2 threshold for z-scores for height and weight were compared by age and cohort. A significant secular trend in growth was found, with children born more recently larger than those born a decade before. The effect is most notable in the first year of life, with the growth advantage attenuated by the age of 3 for height and age 4 for weight. While children were unlikely to be stunted from 0 to 3 years of age, 44% of the later cohort were stunted and 11% were underweight from 4 to 5 years of age. Three possible explanations for the rapid shift are entertained: more time spent on the coast during gestation and early childhood, which may attenuate the effect of hypoxia on child growth; dietary change; and increased use of biomedicine. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Rapid estimation of nutrients in chicken manure during plant-field composting using physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guangqun; Wang, Xiaoyan; Han, Lujia

    2011-01-01

    Regression equations which relate livestock and poultry manure nutrient content to its several physicochemical properties have been reported by previous researchers. This study explores the feasibility and efficiency to determine the nutrients (TN; TP; TK; Cu and Zn) in chicken manure during composting using physicochemical properties (pH, EC and DM), and compares the performances of regression equations in this study with those in the literature. The results show that DM is the best predictor to construct the single linear regressions for all the nutrients (R2≥0.84, p<0.001). In addition, the multiple linear regression equations based on DM and pH are all notable. These findings show the potential of physicochemical models for TN, TP, TK, Cu and Zn with more convenience and rapidness, but further research is needed to develop better models with higher accuracy for the above and other more nutrients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Late Quaternary Biosiliceous Laminated Marine Sediments From Antarctica: Seasonality During a Period of Rapid Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, J.; Stickley, C. E.; Maddison, E. J.; Leventer, A.; Brachfeld, S.; Domack, E. W.; Dunbar, R. B.; Manley, P. L.; McClennen, C.

    2004-12-01

    The Antarctic ice sheet plays a key role in global oceanic and atmosphere systems. One of the most dynamic regions of the continent is the Antarctic Peninsula (AP) where ecological and cryospheric systems respond rapidly to climate change, such as the last deglaciation ( ˜12-13 kyr BP). Here, deglacial laminated diatom-rich marine sediments are well known, e.g., Palmer Deep (64° S 64° W; ODP Hole 1098A) comprising a distinctive 3 m thick sequence of deglacial `couplet' laminations. The East Antarctic margin (EAM), however, has received less attention than the West Antarctic margin (WAM) in palaeoceanographic studies yet its role in deep ocean circulation and, therefore, the global ocean system is significant. Recent sediment cores recovered from EAM sites during NSF Polar Programs-funded cruise NBP0101 in February and March 2001 (e.g. Mertz Drift \\{66° S 143° E\\}, Svenner Channel \\{69° S 77° E\\} in Prydz Bay, Nielsen Basin \\{67° S 66° E\\} and Iceberg Alley \\{67° S 63° E\\}), reveal that a similar sedimentary facies was deposited along the EAM, in similar geomorphological settings to Palmer Deep, during the same timeframe. These rich sediment archives reveal clues about circum-Antarctic palaeoceanographic change during the last deglaciation, a time of both high silica flux and rapid climate change. Microfabrics and diatom assemblages from scanning electron microscope backscattered and secondary electron imagery analysis of coeval deglacial varves from Palmer Deep (WAM), Mertz-Ninnis Trough and Iceberg Alley (EAM) are presented and compared. The varves from these localities are characterised by laminae to thin beds of orange-brown diatom ooze up to ˜8cm thick alternating with blue-grey diatom-bearing terrigenous sediments up to ˜4cm thick. The orange-brown oozes are dominated by resting spores and vegetative valves of Hyalochaete Chaetoceros spp., resulting from spring sedimentation associated with stratified surface waters promoting exceptionally

  15. The Impact of Rapid Climate Change on Prehistoric Societies during the Holocene in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Weninger

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore the impact of Rapid Climate Change (RCC on prehistoric communities in the Eastern Mediterranean during the Early and Middle Holocene. Our focus is on the social implications of the four major climate cold anomalies that have recently been identified as key time-windows for global RCC (Mayewski et al. 2004. These cooling anomalies are well-dated, with Greenland ice-core resolution, due to synchronicity between warm/cold foraminifera ratios in Mediterranean core LC21 as a proxy for surface water temperature, and Greenland GISP2 non sea-salt (nss [K+] ions as a proxy for the intensification of the Siberian High and for polar air outbreaks in the northeast Mediterranean (Rohling et al. 2002. Building on these synchronisms, the GISP2 agemodel supplies the following precise time-intervals for archaeological RCC research: (i 8.6–8.0 ka, (ii 6.0–5.2 ka, (iii 4.2–4.0 ka and (iv 3.1–2.9 ka calBP. For each of these RCC time intervals, based on detailed 14C-based chronological studies, we investigate contemporaneous cultural developments. From our studies it follows that RCC-related climatic deterioration is a major factor underlying social change, although always at work within a wide spectrum of social, cultural, economic and religious factors.

  16. Rapid modelling of the redshift-space power spectrum multipoles for a masked density field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M. J.; Peacock, J. A.; Taylor, A. N.; de la Torre, S.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we reformulate the forward modelling of the redshift-space power spectrum multipole moments for a masked density field, as encountered in galaxy redshift surveys. Exploiting the symmetries of the redshift-space correlation function, we provide a masked-field generalization of the Hankel transform relation between the multipole moments in real and Fourier space. Using this result, we detail how a likelihood analysis requiring computation for a broad range of desired P(k) models may be executed 103-104 times faster than with other common approaches, together with significant gains in spectral resolution. We present a concrete application to the complex angular geometry of the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey PDR-1 release and discuss the validity of this technique for finite-angle surveys.

  17. Initial electric field changes of lightning flashes in two thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Ryan; Marshall, Thomas; Karunarathne, Sumedhe; Stolzenburg, Maribeth

    2017-04-01

    The beginning of all 75 lightning flashes in two small thunderstorms was investigated using an array of electric field change (E-change) meters and an array of VHF sensors with the goal of determining if an initial E-change (IEC) preceded the initial breakdown (IB) pulses in each flash. IECs were found at the beginning of all 62 flashes in Storm 1 and all 13 flashes in Storm 2. Hence, it is concluded that an IEC is a fundamental part of most or all lightning initiations and that an IEC is needed prior to the first IB pulse in a flash. IEC durations averaged 0.23 ms for cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes (range 0.08-0.54 ms) and averaged 2.7 ms for normal intracloud (IC) flashes (range 0.04-9.8 ms). IEC point dipole moments averaged 26 C m for CG flashes (range 4-86 C m) and averaged -140 C m for normal IC flashes (range -8 to -650 C m). IEC current moments averaged 120 kA m for CG flashes (range 41-410 kA m) and averaged -91 kA m for normal IC flashes (range -2 to -630 kA m). E-change data support the suggestion that weak narrow bipolar event type events initiate some lightning flashes, but 41 of the 75 flashes had no detectable initiating pulse > 0.04 V m-1 range normalized to 100 km. Two flashes had two IECs; the second IEC of each flash initiated a new lightning channel that propagated in a new direction and at a higher altitude than the original development after the first IEC.

  18. Directed transport of Brownian particles in a changing temperature field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillo, A [DMFCI, Facolta di Ingegneria, Universita di Catania. Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Jinha, A [HPL-Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Federico, S [HPL-Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Ait-Haddou, R [HPL-Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Herzog, W [HPL-Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Giaquinta, G [DMFCI, Facolta di Ingegneria, Universita di Catania. Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy)

    2008-01-11

    We study the interaction of Brownian particles with a changing temperature field in the presence of a one-dimensional periodic adiabatic potential. We show the existence of directed transport through the determination of the overall current of Brownian particles crossing the boundary of the system. With respect to the case of Brownian particles in a thermal bath, we determine a current which exhibits a contribution explicitly related to the presence of a thermal gradient. Beyond the self-consistent calculation of the temperature and probability density distribution of Brownian particles, we evaluate the energy consumption for directed transport to take place. Our description is based on Streater's model, and solutions are obtained by perturbing the system from its initial thermodynamic equilibrium state.

  19. RAPID COMMUNICATION: High performance superconducting wire in high applied magnetic fields via nanoscale defect engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Sung Hun; Goyal, Amit; Zuev, Yuri L.; Cantoni, Claudia

    2008-09-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) wires capable of carrying large critical currents with low dissipation levels in high applied magnetic fields are needed for a wide range of applications. In particular, for electric power applications involving rotating machinery, such as large-scale motors and generators, a high critical current, Ic, and a high engineering critical current density, JE, in applied magnetic fields in the range of 3-5 Tesla (T) at 65 K are required. In addition, exceeding the minimum performance requirements needed for these applications results in a lower fabrication cost, which is regarded as crucial to realize or enable many large-scale bulk applications of HTS materials. Here we report the fabrication of short segments of a potential superconducting wire comprised of a 4 µm thick YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) layer on a biaxially textured substrate with a 50% higher Ic and JE than the highest values reported previously. The YBCO film contained columns of self-assembled nanodots of BaZrO3 (BZO) roughly oriented along the c-axis of YBCO. Although the YBCO film was grown at a high deposition rate, three-dimensional self-assembly of the insulating BZO nanodots still occurred. For all magnetic field orientations, minimum Ic and JE at 65 K, 3 T for the wire were 353 A cm-1 and 65.4 kA cm-2, respectively.

  20. Rapid change in drift of the Australian plate records collision with Ontong Java plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knesel, Kurt M; Cohen, Benjamin E; Vasconcelos, Paulo M; Thiede, David S

    2008-08-07

    The subduction of oceanic plateaux, which contain extraordinarily thick basaltic crust and are the marine counterparts of continental flood-basalt provinces, is an important factor in many current models of plate motion and provides a potential mechanism for triggering plate reorganization. To evaluate such models, it is essential to decipher the history of the collision between the largest and thickest of the world's oceanic plateaux, the Ontong Java plateau, and the Australian plate, but this has been hindered by poor constraints for the arrival of the plateau at the Melanesian trench. Here we present (40)Ar-(39)Ar geochronological data on hotspot volcanoes in eastern Australian that reveal a strong link between collision of the Greenland-sized Ontong Java plateau with the Melanesian arc and motion of the Australian plate. The new ages define a short-lived period of reduced northward plate motion between 26 and 23 Myr ago, coincident with an eastward offset in the contemporaneous tracks of seamount chains in the Tasman Sea east of Australia. These features record a brief westward deflection of the Australian plate as the plateau entered and choked the Melanesian trench 26 Myr ago. From 23 Myr ago, Australia returned to a rapid northerly trajectory at roughly the same time that southwest-directed subduction began along the Trobriand trough. The timing and brevity of this collisional event correlate well with offsets in hotspot seamount tracks on the Pacific plate, including the archetypal Hawaiian chain, and thus provide strong evidence that immense oceanic plateaux, like the Ontong Java, can contribute to initiating rapid change in plate boundaries and motions on a global scale.

  1. Subchondral Bone Plate Changes More Rapidly than Trabecular Bone in Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaitunnatakhin Zamli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is the most common joint disorder, characterised by focal loss of cartilage and increased subchondral bone remodelling at early OA stages of the disease. We have investigated the temporal and the spatial relationship between bone remodelling in subchondral bone plate (Sbp and trabecular bone (Tb in Dunkin Hartley (DH, develop OA early and the Bristol Strain 2 (BS2, control which develop OA late guinea pigs. Right tibias were dissected from six male animals of each strain, at 10, 16, 24 and 30 weeks of age. Micro-computed tomography was used to quantify the growth plate thickness (GpTh, subchondral bone plate thickness (SbpTh and trabecular bone thickness (TbTh, and bone mineral density (BMD in both Sbp and Tb. The rate of change was calculated for 10–16 weeks, 16–24 weeks and 24–30 weeks. The rate of changes in Sbp and Tb thickness at the earliest time interval (10–16 weeks were significantly greater in DH guinea pigs than in the growth-matched control strain (BS2. The magnitude of these differences was greater in the medial side than the lateral side (DH: 22.7 and 14.75 µm/week, BS2: 5.63 and 6.67 µm/week, respectively. Similarly, changes in the BMD at the earliest time interval was greater in the DH strain than the BS2, again more pronounced in the disease prone medial compartment (DH: 0.0698 and 0.0372 g/cm3/week, BS2: 0.00457 and 0.00772 g/cm3/week, respectively. These changes observed preceded microscopic and cellular signs of disease as previously reported. The rapid early changes in SbpTh, TbTh, Sbp BMD and Tb BMD in the disease prone DH guinea pigs compared with the BS2 control strain suggest a link to early OA pathology. This is corroborated by the greater relative changes in subchondral bone in the medial compared with the lateral compartment.

  2. Rapid Environmental Change Drives Increased Land Use by an Arctic Marine Predator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd C Atwood

    Full Text Available In the Arctic Ocean's southern Beaufort Sea (SB, the length of the sea ice melt season (i.e., period between the onset of sea ice break-up in summer and freeze-up in fall has increased substantially since the late 1990s. Historically, polar bears (Ursus maritimus of the SB have mostly remained on the sea ice year-round (except for those that came ashore to den, but recent changes in the extent and phenology of sea ice habitat have coincided with evidence that use of terrestrial habitat is increasing. We characterized the spatial behavior of polar bears spending summer and fall on land along Alaska's north coast to better understand the nexus between rapid environmental change and increased use of terrestrial habitat. We found that the percentage of radiocollared adult females from the SB subpopulation coming ashore has tripled over 15 years. Moreover, we detected trends of earlier arrival on shore, increased length of stay, and later departure back to sea ice, all of which were related to declines in the availability of sea ice habitat over the continental shelf and changes to sea ice phenology. Since the late 1990s, the mean duration of the open-water season in the SB increased by 36 days, and the mean length of stay on shore increased by 31 days. While on shore, the distribution of polar bears was influenced by the availability of scavenge subsidies in the form of subsistence-harvested bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus remains aggregated at sites along the coast. The declining spatio-temporal availability of sea ice habitat and increased availability of human-provisioned resources are likely to result in increased use of land. Increased residency on land is cause for concern given that, while there, bears may be exposed to a greater array of risk factors including those associated with increased human activities.

  3. Rapid changes in cell physiology as a result of acute thermal stress house sparrows, Passer domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Ana G; Williams, Joseph B

    2014-12-01

    Given that our climate is rapidly changing, Physiological Ecologists have the critical task of identifying characteristics of species that make them either resilient or susceptible to changes in their natural air temperature regime. Because climate change models suggest that heat events will become more common, and in some places more extreme, it is important to consider how extreme heat events might affect the physiology of a species. The implications of more frequent heat wave events for birds have only recently begun to be addressed, however, the impact of these events on the cellular physiology of a species is difficult to assess. We have developed a novel approach using dermal fibroblasts to explore how short-term thermal stress at the whole animal level might affect cellular rates of metabolism. House sparrows, Passer domesticus were separated into a "control group" and a "heat shocked" group, the latter acclimated to 43°C for 24h. We determined the plasticity of cellular thermal responses by assigning a "recovery group" that was heat shocked as above, but then returned to room temperature for 24h. Primary dermal fibroblasts were grown from skin of all treatment groups and the pectoralis muscle was collected. We found that glycolysis (ECAR) and oxygen consumption rates (OCR), measured using a Seahorse XF 96 analyzer, were significantly higher in the fibroblasts from the heat shocked group of House sparrows compared with their control counterparts. Additionally, muscle fiber diameters decreased and, in turn, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase maximal activity in the muscle significantly increased in heat shocked sparrows compared with birds in the control group. All of these physiological alterations due to short-term heat exposure were reversible within 24h of recovery at room temperature. These results show that acute exposure to heat stress significantly alters the cellular physiology of sparrows, but that this species is plastic enough to recover from such a thermal

  4. Evidence for rapid climate change in the Mesozoic-Palaeogene greenhouse world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkyns, Hugh C

    2003-09-15

    The best-documented example of rapid climate change that characterized the so-called 'greenhouse world' took place at the time of the Palaeocene-Eocene boundary: introduction of isotopically light carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system, accompanied by global warming of 5-8 degrees C across a range of latitudes, took place over a few thousand years. Dissociation, release and oxidation of gas hydrates from continental-margin sites and the consequent rapid global warming from the input of greenhouses gases are generally credited with causing the abrupt negative excursions in carbon- and oxygen-isotope ratios. The isotopic anomalies, as recorded in foraminifera, propagated downwards from the shallowest levels of the ocean, implying that considerable quantities of methane survived upward transit through the water column to oxidize in the atmosphere. In the Mesozoic Era, a number of similar events have been recognized, of which those at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary, in the early Toarcian (Jurassic) and in the early Aptian (Cretaceous) currently carry the best documentation for dramatic rises in temperature. In these three examples, and in other less well-documented cases, the lack of a definitive time-scale for the intervals in question hinders calculation of the rate of environmental change. However, comparison with the Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) suggests that these older examples could have been similarly rapid. In both the early Toarcian and early Aptian cases, the negative carbon-isotope excursion precedes global excess carbon burial across a range of marine environments, a phenomenon that defines these intervals as oceanic anoxic events (OAEs). Osmium-isotope ratios ((187)Os/(188)Os) for both the early Toarcian OAE and the PETM show an excursion to more radiogenic values, demonstrating an increase in weathering and erosion of continental crust consonant with elevated temperatures. The more highly buffered strontium-isotope system ((87)Sr/(86)Sr

  5. Rapid Acquisition and Fielding for Information Assurance and Cyber Security in the Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Com- mand and Control (DJC2); Norman Beebe , IA contractor handling C&A for DJC2; Leo Martinez, Booz Allen Hamilton, PEO C4I and Space Support; Marianne... Leslie , Defense Acquisition University, “Contracting in a Changing Environment,” briefing, undated. Dillard, John T., and David N. Ford, From

  6. Three dimensional evaluation of alveolar bone changes in response to different rapid palatal expansion activation rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian LaBlonde

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The aim of this multi-center retrospective study was to quantify the changes in alveolar bone height and thickness after using two different rapid palatal expansion (RPE activation protocols, and to determine whether a more rapid rate of expansion is likely to cause more adverse effects, such as alveolar tipping, dental tipping, fenestration and dehiscence of anchorage teeth. Methods: The sample consisted of pre- and post-expansion records from 40 subjects (age 8-15 years who underwent RPE using a 4-banded Hyrax appliance as part of their orthodontic treatment to correct posterior buccal crossbites. Subjects were divided into two groups according to their RPE activation rates (0.5 mm/day and 0.8 mm/day; n = 20 each group. Three-dimensional images for all included subjects were evaluated using Dolphin Imaging Software 11.7 Premium. Maxillary base width, buccal and palatal cortical bone thickness, alveolar bone height, and root angulation and length were measured. Significance of the changes in the measurements was evaluated using Wilcoxon signed-rank test and comparisons between groups were done using ANOVA. Significance was defined at p ≤ 0.05. Results: RPE activation rates of 0.5 mm per day (Group 1 and 0.8 mm per day (Group 2 caused significant increase in arch width following treatment; however, Group 2 showed greater increases compared to Group 1 (p < 0.01. Buccal alveolar height and width decreased significantly in both groups. Both treatment protocols resulted in significant increases in buccal-lingual angulation of teeth; however, Group 2 showed greater increases compared to Group 1 (p < 0.01. Conclusion: Both activation rates are associated with significant increase in intra-arch widths. However, 0.8 mm/day resulted in greater increases. The 0.8 mm/day activation rate also resulted in more increased dental tipping and decreased buccal alveolar bone thickness over 0.5 mm/day.

  7. Rapid bacteriophage MS2 transport in an oxic sandy aquifer in cold climate: Field experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvitsand, Hanne M. L.; Ilyas, Aamir; Østerhus, Stein W.

    2015-12-01

    Virus removal during rapid transport in an unconfined, low-temperature (6°C) sand and gravel aquifer was investigated at a riverbank field site, 25 km south of Trondheim in central Norway. The data from bacteriophage MS2 inactivation and transport experiments were applied in a two-site kinetic transport model using HYDRUS-1D, to evaluate the mechanisms of virus removal and whether these mechanisms were sufficient to protect the groundwater supplies. The results demonstrated that inactivation was negligible to the overall removal and that irreversible MS2 attachment to aquifer grains, coated with iron precipitates, played a dominant role in the removal of MS2; 4.1 log units of MS2 were removed by attachment during 38 m travel distance and less than 2 days residence time. Although the total removal was high, pathways capable of allowing virus migration at rapid velocities were present in the aquifer. The risk of rapid transport of viable viruses should be recognized, particularly for water supplies without permanent disinfection.

  8. Dental arch changes associated with rapid maxillary expansion: A retrospective model analysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivor M D′Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Transverse deficiency of the maxilla is a common clinical problem in orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics. Transverse maxillary deficiency, isolated or associated with other dentofacial deformities, results in esthetic and functional impairment giving rise to several clinical manifestations such as asymmetrical facial growth, positional and functional mandibular deviations, altered dentofacial esthetics, adverse periodontal responses, unstable dental tipping, and other functional problems. Orthopedic maxillary expansion is the preferred treatment approach to increase the maxillary transverse dimension in young patients by splitting of the mid palatal suture. This orthopedic procedure has lately been subject of renewed interest in orthodontic treatment mechanics because of its potential for increasing arch perimeter to alleviate crowding in the maxillary arch without adversely affecting facial profile. Hence, the present investigation was conducted to establish a correlation between transverse expansion and changes in the arch perimeter, arch width and arch length. Methods: For this purpose, 10 subjects (five males, five females were selected who had been treated by rapid maxillary expansion (RME using hyrax rapid palatal expander followed by fixed mechanotherapy (PEA. Pretreatment (T1, postexpansion (T2, and posttreatment (T3 dental models were compared for dental changes brought about by RME treatment and its stability at the end of fixed mechanotherapy. After model measurements were made, the changes between T1-T2, T2-T3 and T1-T3 were determined for each patient. The mean difference between T1-T2, T2-T3 and T1-T3 were compared to assess the effects of RME on dental arch measurements. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation and are compared by repeated measures analysis of variance followed by a post-hoc test. Arch perimeter changes are correlated with changes in arch widths at the canine, premolar and molar

  9. AC electric field for rapid assembly of nanostructured polyaniline onto microsized gap for sensor devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Ferrara, Vera; Rametta, Gabriella; De Maria, Antonella

    2015-07-01

    Interconnected network of nanostructured polyaniline (PANI) is giving strong potential for enhancing device performances than bulk PANI counterparts. For nanostructured device processing, the main challenge is to get prototypes on large area by requiring precision, low cost and high rate assembly. Among processes meeting these requests, the alternate current electric fields are often used for nanostructure assembling. For the first time, we show the assembly of nanostructured PANI onto large electrode gaps (30-60 μm width) by applying alternate current electric fields, at low frequencies, to PANI particles dispersed in acetonitrile (ACN). An important advantage is the short assembly time, limited to 5-10 s, although electrode gaps are microsized. That encouraging result is due to a combination of forces, such as dielectrophoresis (DEP), induced-charge electrokinetic (ICEK) flow and alternate current electroosmotic (ACEO) flow, which speed up the assembly process when low frequencies and large electrode gaps are used. The main achievement of the present study is the development of ammonia sensors created by direct assembling of nanostructured PANI onto electrodes. Sensors exhibit high sensitivity to low gas concentrations as well as excellent reversibility at room temperature, even after storage in air. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Vegetation changes of sand fields in Northern China in response to climatic change, 1982-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W.; Wu, S. Y.; Hou, S.

    2016-12-01

    The semi-arid region in North China is one of the areas that has experienced expansion of sand fields in recent decades with serious consequences on the lives of hundreds of million people. How these sand fields respond to global warming is an important scientific question with great practical significance. This study focuses on the four major sand fields in this region, i.e. Hulunbeeir, Horqin, Otindag and Mu Us, and examines the past vegetation changes in response to climate change. Based on a comparison of common satellite datasets (SPOT, MODIS, GIMMS), the GIMMS NDVI product is selected for its relatively long time span and stability. We use both linear regression and nonparametric Greenness Rate of Change (GRC) index to calculate the trends, and both results are highly consistent with each other. Our results show that during the study period of 1982-2013, Mu Us, the southernmost sand field, experienced the largest amount of greening, whereas most of the other sand fields experienced little changes. NDVI showed most increase in the warm seasons (summer and fall), and generally decreased in winter. Spatial variations exists with such trends. For most of the sandy fields, NDVI increased in the South and East, and decreased in the North and West. These changes could be related to the decline of Eastern Asian Summer Monsoon in recent decades, which tends to increase precipitation in the South and decrease it in the North. Using ERA-Interim reanalysis data, we examine the relationship between NDVI and a variety of climate factors. We found that NDVI is most closely associated with temperature, evaporation, precipitation, surface sensible heat flux, and wind. A multiple linear regression model shows that these factors together could explain 76% of the total variance in NDVI. Using relative weights to assess the independent contribution of these variables, we found that the most important factor is temperature, followed by precipitation and evaporation, wind and

  11. Understanding the rapid summer warming and changes in temperature extremes since the mid-1990s over Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Buwen; Sutton, Rowan T.; Shaffrey, Len; Buwen Dong

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of observations indicates that there was a rapid increase in summer (June-August, JJA) mean surface air temperature (SAT) since the mid-1990s over Western Europe. Accompanying this rapid warming are significant increases in summer mean daily maximum temperature, daily minimum temperature, annual hottest day temperature and warmest night temperature, and an increase in frequency of summer days and tropical nights, while the change in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) is small. This ...

  12. Development of a lateral flow immunoassay for rapid field detection of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles, Steven M; Strong, Charles A; Callcott, Anne-Marie A

    2016-07-01

    The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is an aggressive, highly invasive pest ant species from South America that has been introduced into North America, Asia, and Australia. Quarantine efforts have been imposed in the USA to minimize further spread of the ant. To aid the quarantine efforts, there remains an acute need for a rapid, field portable method for the identification of these ants. In this report, we describe two novel monoclonal antibodies that specifically bind the S. invicta venom protein 2 produced by S. invicta. Using these monoclonal antibodies we developed a lateral flow immunoassay that provides a rapid and portable method for the identification of S. invicta ants. The lateral flow immunoassay was validated against purified S. invicta venom protein 2 and 33 unique ant species (representing 15 % of the total species and 42 % of the Myrmicinae genera found in Florida), and only S. invicta and the S. invicta/richteri hybrid produced a positive result. These monoclonal antibodies were selective to S. invicta venom protein 2 and did not bind to proteins from congeners (i.e., S. geminata or S. richteri) known to produce a S. invicta venom protein 2 ortholog. This S. invicta lateral flow immunoassay provides a new tool for regulatory agencies in the USA to enforce quarantine protocols and limit the spread of this invasive ant. Graphical Abstract Field method to detect and identify the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

  13. Field Evaluation of Red-Coloured Hot Mix Asphalt Pavements for Bus Rapid Transit Lanes in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfan Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Coloured pavements have been implemented by metropolitan areas to denote dedicated lanes for bus rapid transit to maintain a high level of safety. Transit benefits of these installations are well documented. However, field performance of various types of coloured pavement has not been investigated systematically, with questions not being answered. In collaboration with the Regional Municipality of York (ON, Canada where red pavement sections have been in operation for years for its bus rapid transit lanes, the Centre for Pavement and Transportation Technology at the University of Waterloo (Waterloo, ON, Canada assessed the performance of various types of red pavements including epoxy paint and red asphalt mixes. It was found that, with significant lower texture depth, epoxy paint surface has disadvantages to red asphalt pavement from a pavement texture and safety perspective. The red asphalt sections in this study were observed as lower yet compatible frictional levels to conventional black pavement. Various types of contamination onto the red pavement were observed during field survey. In addition, the ultraviolet radiation degraded the colour of red asphalt pavement over time and may make it less effective for lane designation. Long-term monitoring is recommended to evaluate the functional and structural performance of red asphalt pavement.

  14. A Survey of the Rapidly Emerging Field of Nanotechnology: Potential Applications for Scientific Instruments and Technologies for Atmospheric Entry Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, M.; Arnold, J. O.

    2005-01-01

    The field of Nanotechnology is well funded worldwide and innovations applicable to Solar System Exploration are emerging much more rapidly than thought possible just a few years ago. This presentation will survey recent innovations from nanotechnololgy with a focus on novel applications to atmospheric entry science and probe technology, in a fashion similar to that presented by Arnold and Venkatapathy at the previous workshop forum at Lisbon Portugal, October 6-9, 2003. Nanotechnology is a rapidly emerging field that builds systems, devices and materials from the bottom up, atom by atom, and in so doing provides them with novel and remarkable macro-scale performance. This technology has the potential to revolutionize space exploration by reducing mass and simultaneously increasing capability. Thermal, Radiation, Impact Protective Shields: Atmospheric probes and humans on long duration deep space missions involved in Solar System Exploration must safely endure 3 significant hazards: (i) atmospheric entry; (ii) radiation; and (iii) micrometeorite or debris impact. Nanostructured materials could be developed to address all three hazards with a single protective shield, which would involve much less mass than a traditional approach. The concept can be ready in time for incorporation into NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicle, and possible entry probes to fly on the Jupiter Icy Moons

  15. Rapid calculation of acoustic fields from arbitrary continuous-wave sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treeby, Bradley E; Budisky, Jakub; Wise, Elliott S; Jaros, Jiri; Cox, B T

    2018-01-01

    A Green's function solution is derived for calculating the acoustic field generated by phased array transducers of arbitrary shape when driven by a single frequency continuous wave excitation with spatially varying amplitude and phase. The solution is based on the Green's function for the homogeneous wave equation expressed in the spatial frequency domain or k-space. The temporal convolution integral is solved analytically, and the remaining integrals are expressed in the form of the spatial Fourier transform. This allows the acoustic pressure for all spatial positions to be calculated in a single step using two fast Fourier transforms. The model is demonstrated through several numerical examples, including single element rectangular and spherically focused bowl transducers, and multi-element linear and hemispherical arrays.

  16. Field-based high throughput phenotyping rapidly identifies genomic regions controlling yield components in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanger, Paul; Klassen, Stephen; Mojica, Julius P; Lovell, John T; Moyers, Brook T; Baraoidan, Marietta; Naredo, Maria Elizabeth B; McNally, Kenneth L; Poland, Jesse; Bush, Daniel R; Leung, Hei; Leach, Jan E; McKay, John K

    2017-02-21

    To ensure food security in the face of population growth, decreasing water and land for agriculture, and increasing climate variability, crop yields must increase faster than the current rates. Increased yields will require implementing novel approaches in genetic discovery and breeding. Here we demonstrate the potential of field-based high throughput phenotyping (HTP) on a large recombinant population of rice to identify genetic variation underlying important traits. We find that detecting quantitative trait loci (QTL) with HTP phenotyping is as accurate and effective as traditional labor-intensive measures of flowering time, height, biomass, grain yield, and harvest index. Genetic mapping in this population, derived from a cross of an modern cultivar (IR64) with a landrace (Aswina), identified four alleles with negative effect on grain yield that are fixed in IR64, demonstrating the potential for HTP of large populations as a strategy for the second green revolution.

  17. Continued Rapid Uplift at Laguna del Maule Volcanic Field (Chile) from 2007 through 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mével, H.; Feigl, K. L.; Cordova, L.; DeMets, C.; Lundgren, P.

    2014-12-01

    The current rate of uplift at Laguna del Maule (LdM) volcanic field in Chile is among the highest ever observed geodetically for a volcano that is not actively erupting. Using data from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and the Global Positioning System (GPS) recorded at five continuously operating stations, we measure the deformation field with dense sampling in time (1/day) and space (1/hectare). These data track the temporal evolution of the current unrest episode from its inception (sometime between 2004 and 2007) to vertical velocities faster than 200 mm/yr that continue through (at least) July 2014. Building on our previous work, we evaluate the temporal evolution by analyzing data from InSAR (ALOS, TerraSAR-X, TanDEM-X) and GPS [http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1093/gji/ggt438]. In addition, we consider InSAR data from (ERS, ENVISAT, COSMO-Skymed, and UAVSAR), as well as constraints from magneto-telluric (MT), seismic, and gravity surveys. The goal is to test the hypothesis that a recent magma intrusion is feeding a large, existing magma reservoir. What will happen next? To address this question, we analyze the temporal evolution of deformation at other large silicic systems such as Yellowstone, Long Valley, and Three Sisters, during well-studied episodes of unrest. We consider several parameterizations, including piecewise linear, parabolic, and Gaussian functions of time. By choosing the best-fitting model, we expect to constrain the time scales of such episodes and elucidate the processes driving them.

  18. A multiple-proxy approach to understanding rapid Holocene climate change in Southeast Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davin, S. H.; Bradley, R. S.; Balascio, N. L.; de Wet, G.

    2012-12-01

    The susceptibility of the Arctic to climate change has made it an excellent workshop for paleoclimatological research. Although there have been previous studies concerning climate variability carried out in the Arctic, there remains a critical dearth of knowledge due the limited number of high-resolution Holocene climate-proxy records available from this region. This gap skews our understanding of observed and predicted climate change, and fuels uncertainty both in the realms of science and policy. This study takes a comprehensive approach to tracking Holocene climate variability in the vicinity of Tasiilaq, Southeast Greenland using a ~5.6 m sediment core from Lower Sermilik Lake. An age-depth model for the core has been established using 8 radiocarbon dates, the oldest of which was taken at 4 m down core and has been been dated to approximately 6.2 kyr BP. The bottom meter of the core below the final radiocarbon date contains a transition from cobbles and coarse sand to organic-rich laminations, indicating the termination of direct glacial influence and therefore likely marking the end of the last glacial period in this region. The remainder of the core is similarly organic-rich, with light-to-dark brown laminations ranging from 0.5 -1 cm in thickness and riddled with turbidites. Using this core in tandem with findings from an on-site assessment of the geomorphic history of the locale we attempt to assess and infer the rapid climatic shifts associated with the Holocene on a sub-centennial scale. Such changes include the termination of the last glacial period, the Mid-Holocene Climatic Optimum, the Neoglacial Period, the Medieval Climatic Optimum, and the Little Ice Age. A multiple proxy approach including magnetic susceptibility, bulk organic geochemistry, elemental profiles acquired by XRF scanning, grain-size, and spectral data will be used to characterize the sediment and infer paleoclimate conditions. Additionally, percent biogenic silica by weight has been

  19. Development of a rapid soil water content detection technique using active infrared thermal methods for in-field applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Francesca; Pallottino, Federico; Costa, Corrado; Rimatori, Valentina; Giorgi, Stefano; Papetti, Patrizia; Menesatti, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of active infrared thermography and thermometry in combination with multivariate statistical partial least squares analysis as rapid soil water content detection techniques both in the laboratory and the field. Such techniques allow fast soil water content measurements helpful in both agricultural and environmental fields. These techniques, based on the theory of heat dissipation, were tested by directly measuring temperature dynamic variation of samples after heating. For the assessment of temperature dynamic variations data were collected during three intervals (3, 6 and 10 s). To account for the presence of specific heats differences between water and soil, the analyses were regulated using slopes to linearly describe their trends. For all analyses, the best model was achieved for a 10 s slope. Three different approaches were considered, two in the laboratory and one in the field. The first laboratory-based one was centred on active infrared thermography, considered measurement of temperature variation as independent variable and reported r = 0.74. The second laboratory-based one was focused on active infrared thermometry, added irradiation as independent variable and reported r = 0.76. The in-field experiment was performed by active infrared thermometry, heating bare soil by solar irradiance after exposure due to primary tillage. Some meteorological parameters were inserted as independent variables in the prediction model, which presented r = 0.61. In order to obtain more general and wide estimations in-field a Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis on three classes of percentage of soil water content was performed obtaining a high correct classification in the test (88.89%). The prediction error values were lower in the field with respect to laboratory analyses. Both techniques could be used in conjunction with a Geographic Information System for obtaining detailed information on soil heterogeneity.

  20. Development of a Rapid Soil Water Content Detection Technique Using Active Infrared Thermal Methods for In-Field Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Pallottino

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of active infrared thermography and thermometry in combination with multivariate statistical partial least squares analysis as rapid soil water content detection techniques both in the laboratory and the field. Such techniques allow fast soil water content measurements helpful in both agricultural and environmental fields. These techniques, based on the theory of heat dissipation, were tested by directly measuring temperature dynamic variation of samples after heating. For the assessment of temperature dynamic variations data were collected during three intervals (3, 6 and 10 s. To account for the presence of specific heats differences between water and soil, the analyses were regulated using slopes to linearly describe their trends. For all analyses, the best model was achieved for a 10 s slope. Three different approaches were considered, two in the laboratory and one in the field. The first laboratory-based one was centred on active infrared thermography, considered measurement of temperature variation as independent variable and reported r = 0.74. The second laboratory–based one was focused on active infrared thermometry, added irradiation as independent variable and reported r = 0.76. The in-field experiment was performed by active infrared thermometry, heating bare soil by solar irradiance after exposure due to primary tillage. Some meteorological parameters were inserted as independent variables in the prediction model, which presented r = 0.61. In order to obtain more general and wide estimations in-field a Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis on three classes of percentage of soil water content was performed obtaining a high correct classification in the test (88.89%. The prediction error values were lower in the field with respect to laboratory analyses. Both techniques could be used in conjunction with a Geographic Information System for obtaining detailed information

  1. Prevention and Control of Cardiovascular Disease in the Rapidly Changing Economy of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yangfeng; Benjamin, Emelia J; MacMahon, Stephen

    2016-06-14

    With one-fifth of the world's total population, China's prevention and control of cardiovascular disease (CVD) may affect the success of worldwide efforts to achieve sustainable CVD reduction. Understanding China's current cardiovascular epidemic requires awareness of the economic development in the past decades. The rapid economic transformations (industrialization, marketization, urbanization, globalization, and informationalization) contributed to the aging demography, unhealthy lifestyles, and environmental changes. The latter have predisposed to increasing cardiovascular risk factors and the CVD pandemic. Rising CVD rates have had a major economic impact, which has challenged the healthcare system and the whole society. With recognition of the importance of health, initial political steps and national actions have been taken to address the CVD epidemic. Looking to the future, we recommend that 4 priorities should be taken: pursue multisectorial government and nongovernment strategies targeting the underlying causes of CVD (the whole-of-government and whole-of-society policy); give priority to prevention; reform the healthcare system to fit the nature of noncommunicable diseases; and conduct research for evidence-based, low-cost, simple, sustainable, and scalable interventions. By pursuing the 4 priorities, the pandemic of CVD and other major noncommunicable diseases in China will be reversed and the global sustainable development goal achieved. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Dental and skeletal changes following surgically assisted rapid maxillary anterior-posterior expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Cheng-Ting; Lo, Lun-Jou; Liou, Eric J W; Huang, Chiung Shing

    2008-01-01

    Lengthening the maxillary dental arch as a treatment approach for patients with maxillary deficiency and dental crowding is seldom reported. The purpose of this study was to assess dental and skeletal changes in the maxilla in the correction of maxillary deficiency associated with a retruded maxillary arch using a surgically assisted rapid maxillary anterior-posterior expansion appliance. Predistraction and postraction lateral cephalometric and periapical radiographs and maxillary dental casts of six young adolescents (four boys, two girls, mean age 11 years, 2 months) were examined. These patients received a maxillary anterior segmental osteotomy and distraction osteogenesis with an anteroposteriorly oriented Hyrax expansion appliance based on the biological principles of bone distraction. The retruded dental arch and dental crowding were successfully corrected. Significant forward movement of the point anterior nasal spine, point A, central incisors and first premolars was noted. The maxillary dental arch depth increased an average of 4.2 mm while the arch width remained unchanged. In total, 11.5 mm of dental space was created in the maxillary arch which was sufficient to resolve dental crowding. New bone formation along the distraction site was observed three months after distraction. The use of maxillary anterior segmental osteotomy combined with a Hyrax expansion distraction appliance was effective in arch lengthening and creation of dental space. An overcorrection in this interdental distraction osteogenesis could be a good treatment option for children with maxillary deficiency combined with crowded maxillary dentition.

  3. Rapid changes in genetic architecture of behavioural syndromes following colonization of a novel environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson Green, K; Eroukhmanoff, F; Harris, S; Pettersson, L B; Svensson, E I

    2016-01-01

    Behavioural syndromes, that is correlated behaviours, may be a result from adaptive correlational selection, but in a new environmental setting, the trait correlation might act as an evolutionary constraint. However, knowledge about the quantitative genetic basis of behavioural syndromes, and the stability and evolvability of genetic correlations under different ecological conditions, is limited. We investigated the quantitative genetic basis of correlated behaviours in the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus. In some Swedish lakes, A. aquaticus has recently colonized a novel habitat and diverged into two ecotypes, presumably due to habitat-specific selection from predation. Using a common garden approach and animal model analyses, we estimated quantitative genetic parameters for behavioural traits and compared the genetic architecture between the ecotypes. We report that the genetic covariance structure of the behavioural traits has been altered in the novel ecotype, demonstrating divergence in behavioural correlations. Thus, our study confirms that genetic correlations behind behaviours can change rapidly in response to novel selective environments. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. Rapid morphological oscillation of mitochondrion-rich cell in estuarine mudskipper following salinity changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, T; Yokota, S; Ando, M

    2000-05-01

    Morphological changes in the chloride cells or mitochondrion-rich (MR) cells in the skin under the pectoral fin of the estuarine mudskipper (Periophthalmus modestus) were examined in relation to intertidal salinity oscillation in river mouth. MR cells were distinguished between those in contact with the water (cells labeled with both mitochondrial probe DASPEI and Concanavalin-A, an apical surface marker of MR cells) and those that are not (DASPEI-positive only). After transfer of the fish from seawater to freshwater, no difference in the total MR cell density was observed, but the subpopulation of MR cells that are Concanavalin-A-positive decreased dramatically within 30 min. After 6 hr in freshwater, the fish were returned to seawater; the number of Con-A-positive MR cells increased to the initial levels rapidly. Thus, in seawater, mudskippers seem to open the apical crypts of the MR cells to secrete salt; in freshwater, they close the crypt of the MR cells tentatively, and tolerate hypotonicity until the rising tide. This unique response of chloride cells may also be seen in gills of other estuarine species.

  5. Qualification Testing Versus Quantitative Reliability Testing of PV - Gaining Confidence in a Rapidly Changing Technology: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Repins, Ingrid L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hacke, Peter L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, Dirk [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kempe, Michael D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Whitfield, Kent [Underwriters Laboratories; Phillips, Nancy [DuPont; Sample, Tony [European Commission; Monokroussos, Christos [TUV Rheinland; Hsi, Edward [Swiss RE; Wohlgemuth, John [PowerMark Corporation; Seidel, Peter [First Solar; Jahn, Ulrike [TUV Rheinland; Tanahashi, Tadanori [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology; Chen, Yingnan [China General Certification Center; Jaeckel, Bengt [Underwriters Laboratories; Yamamichi, Masaaki [RTS Corporation

    2017-10-05

    Continued growth of PV system deployment would be enhanced by quantitative, low-uncertainty predictions of the degradation and failure rates of PV modules and systems. The intended product lifetime (decades) far exceeds the product development cycle (months), limiting our ability to reduce the uncertainty of the predictions for this rapidly changing technology. Yet, business decisions (setting insurance rates, analyzing return on investment, etc.) require quantitative risk assessment. Moving toward more quantitative assessments requires consideration of many factors, including the intended application, consequence of a possible failure, variability in the manufacturing, installation, and operation, as well as uncertainty in the measured acceleration factors, which provide the basis for predictions based on accelerated tests. As the industry matures, it is useful to periodically assess the overall strategy for standards development and prioritization of research to provide a technical basis both for the standards and the analysis related to the application of those. To this end, this paper suggests a tiered approach to creating risk assessments. Recent and planned potential improvements in international standards are also summarized.

  6. Volumetric upper airway changes after rapid maxillary expansion: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Lloyd M; Dalci, Oyku; Darendeliler, M Ali; Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Papadopoulou, Alexandra K

    2017-10-01

    Although Rapid Maxillary Expansion (RME) has been used for over a century, its effect on upper airways has not yet adequately been assessed in an evidence-based manner. To investigate the volumetric changes in the upper airway spaces following RME in growing subjects by means of acoustic rhinometry, three-dimensional radiography and digital photogrammetry. Literature search of electronic databases and additional manual searches up to February 2016. Randomized clinical trials, prospective or retrospective controlled clinical trials and cohort clinical studies of at least eight patients, where the RME appliance was left in place for retention, and a maximum follow-up of 8 months post-expansion. After duplicate data extraction and assessment of the risk of bias, the mean differences and 95 per cent confidence intervals (CIs) of upper airway volume changes were calculated with random-effects meta-analyses, followed by subgroup analyses, meta-regressions, and sensitivity analyses. Twenty studies were eligible for qualitative synthesis, of which 17 (3 controlled clinical studies and 14 cohort studies) were used in quantitative analysis. As far as total airway volume is concerned patients treated with RME showed a significant increase post-expansion (5 studies; increase from baseline: 1218.3mm3; 95 per cent CI: 702.0 to 1734.6mm3), which did not seem to considerably diminish after the retention period (11 studies; increase from baseline: 1143.9mm3; 95 per cent CI: 696.9 to 1590.9mm3). However, the overall quality of evidence was judged as very low, due to methodological limitations of the included studies, absence of untreated control groups, and inconsistency among studies. RME seems to be associated with an increase in the nasal cavity volume in the short and in the long term. However, additional well-conducted prospective controlled clinical studies are needed to confirm the present findings. None. Australian Society of Orthodontics Foundation for Research and

  7. Field application of a rapid spectrophotometric method for determination of persulfate in soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J Cunningham

    Full Text Available Remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils can be performed both in situ and ex situ using chemical oxidants such as sodium persulfate. Standard methods for quantifying persulfate require either centrifugation or prolonged settling times. An optimized soil extraction procedure was developed for persulfate involving simple water extraction using a modified disposable syringe. This allows considerable saving of time and removes the need for centrifugation. The extraction time was reduced to only 5 min compared to 15 min for the standard approach. A comparison of the two approaches demonstrated that each provides comparable results. Comparisons were made using high (93 g kg(-1 soil and low (9.3 g kg(-1 soil additions of sodium persulfate to a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, as well as sand spiked with diesel. Recoveries of 95±1% and 96±10% were observed with the higher application rate in the contaminated soil and spiked sand, respectively. Corresponding recoveries of 86±5% and 117±19% were measured for the lower application rate. Results were obtained in only 25 min and the method is well suited to batch analyses. In addition, it is suitable for application in a small field laboratory or even a mobile, vehicle-based system, as it requires minimal equipment and reagents.

  8. Rapid and sensitive microbial analysis by capillary isotachophoresis with continuous electrokinetic injection under field amplified conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Sui Ching; Nai, Yi Heng; Powell, Shane M; Macka, Mirek; Breadmore, Michael C

    2013-06-01

    A highly sensitive capillary isotachophoresis method with LIF detection for microbial analysis was developed. This allowed the reliable analysis of Escherichia coli bacteria with a LOD of 14 cells in a sample volume of 100 μL, or 1.35 × 10(2) cell/mL, which is 47 times lower than reported by CE-LIF and 148 times lower than CE-UV with on-line concentration. A leading electrolyte of 50 mM Tris-HCl was used while the cells were diluted in 5 mM Tris HEPES as the terminator. To facilitate detection, cells were stained with the universal nucleic acid fluorophore SYTO 9. Continuous electrokinetic injection of the cells from the terminator under field amplified conditions concentrated cells into a single peak at the leader/terminator boundary allowing quantitation by measurement of peak height. The method was applied to water collected from two local streams, with only filtration through a 5-μm syringe filter to remove large particulate matter followed by a ten times dilution in terminator, with total analysis time approximately 40 min. The detected cell numbers in the water samples by the isotachophoresis method were 3.70 × 10(5) cell/mL and 2.62 × 10(4) cell/mL, which were slightly higher than the 9.50 × 10(4) cell/mL and 1.96 × 10(4) cell/mL obtained by conventional microbiological plate counting. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Rapid mapping of compound eye visual sampling parameters with FACETS, a highly automated wide-field goniometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, John K; Wehling, Martin F

    2016-12-01

    A highly automated goniometer instrument (called FACETS) has been developed to facilitate rapid mapping of compound eye parameters for investigating regional visual field specializations. The instrument demonstrates the feasibility of analyzing the complete field of view of an insect eye in a fraction of the time required if using non-motorized, non-computerized methods. Faster eye mapping makes it practical for the first time to employ sample sizes appropriate for testing hypotheses about the visual significance of interspecific differences in regional specializations. Example maps of facet sizes are presented from four dipteran insects representing the Asilidae, Calliphoridae, and Stratiomyidae. These maps provide the first quantitative documentation of the frontal enlarged-facet zones (EFZs) that typify asilid eyes, which, together with the EFZs in male Calliphoridae, are likely to be correlated with high-spatial-resolution acute zones. The presence of EFZs contrasts sharply with the almost homogeneous distribution of facet sizes in the stratiomyid. Moreover, the shapes of EFZs differ among species, suggesting functional specializations that may reflect differences in visual ecology. Surveys of this nature can help identify species that should be targeted for additional studies, which will elucidate fundamental principles and constraints that govern visual field specializations and their evolution.

  10. Matching time and spatial scales of rapid solidification: dynamic TEM experiments coupled to CALPHAD-informed phase-field simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Aurelien; Roehling, John D.; Turchi, Patrice E. A.; Fattebert, Jean-Luc; McKeown, Joseph T.

    2018-01-01

    A combination of dynamic transmission electron microscopy (DTEM) experiments and CALPHAD-informed phase-field simulations was used to study rapid solidification in Cu–Ni thin-film alloys. Experiments—conducted in the DTEM—consisted of in situ laser melting and determination of the solidification kinetics by monitoring the solid–liquid interface and the overall microstructure evolution (time-resolved measurements) during the solidification process. Modelling of the Cu–Ni alloy microstructure evolution was based on a phase-field model that included realistic Gibbs energies and diffusion coefficients from the CALPHAD framework (thermodynamic and mobility databases). DTEM and post mortem experiments highlighted the formation of microsegregation-free columnar grains with interface velocities varying from ∼0.1 to ∼0.6 m s‑1. After an ‘incubation’ time, the velocity of the planar solid–liquid interface accelerated until solidification was complete. In addition, a decrease of the temperature gradient induced a decrease in the interface velocity. The modelling strategy permitted the simulation (in 1D and 2D) of the solidification process from the initially diffusion-controlled to the nearly partitionless regimes. Finally, results of DTEM experiments and phase-field simulations (grain morphology, solute distribution, and solid–liquid interface velocity) were consistent at similar time (μs) and spatial scales (μm).

  11. Diverse multi-decadal changes in streamflow within a rapidly urbanizing region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Jeremy E.; Hill, T. Chee; Milligan, Richard A.

    2018-01-01

    The impact of urbanization on streamflow depends on a variety of factors (e.g., climate, initial land cover, inter-basin transfers, water withdrawals, wastewater effluent, etc.). The purpose of this study is to examine trends in streamflow from 1986 to 2015 in a range of watersheds within the rapidly urbanizing Atlanta, GA metropolitan area. This study compares eight watersheds over three decades, while minimizing the influence of inter-annual precipitation variability. Population and land-cover data were used to analyze changes over approximately twenty years within the watersheds. Precipitation totals for the watersheds were estimated using precipitation totals at nearby weather stations. Multiple streamflow variables, such as annual streamflow, frequencies of high-flow days (HFDs), flashiness, and precipitation-adjusted streamflow, for the eight streams were calculated using daily streamflow data. Variables were tested for significant trends from 1986 to 2015 and significant differences between 1986-2000 and 2001-2015. Flashiness increased for all streams without municipal water withdrawals, and the four watersheds with the largest increase in developed land had significant increases in flashiness. Significant positive trends in precipitation-adjusted mean annual streamflow and HFDs occurred for the two watersheds (Big Creek and Suwanee Creek) that experienced the largest increases in development, and these were the only watersheds that went from majority forest land in 1986 to majority developed land in 2015. With a disproportionate increase in HFD occurrence during summer, Big Creek and Suwannee Creek also had a reduction in intra-annual variability of HFD occurrence. Watersheds that were already substantially developed at the beginning of the period and did not have wastewater discharge had declining streamflow. The most urbanized watershed (Peachtree Creek) had a significant decrease in streamflow, and a possible cause of the decrease was increasing

  12. Transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS Shapes the Processing of Rapidly Changing Auditory Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina S. Rufener

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neural oscillations in the gamma range are the dominant rhythmic activation pattern in the human auditory cortex. These gamma oscillations are functionally relevant for the processing of rapidly changing acoustic information in both speech and non-speech sounds. Accordingly, there is a tight link between the temporal resolution ability of the auditory system and inherent neural gamma oscillations. Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS has been demonstrated to specifically increase gamma oscillation in the human auditory cortex. However, neither the physiological mechanisms of tRNS nor the behavioral consequences of this intervention are completely understood. In the present study we stimulated the human auditory cortex bilaterally with tRNS while EEG was continuously measured. Modulations in the participants’ temporal and spectral resolution ability were investigated by means of a gap detection task and a pitch discrimination task. Compared to sham, auditory tRNS increased the detection rate for near-threshold stimuli in the temporal domain only, while no such effect was present for the discrimination of spectral features. Behavioral findings were paralleled by reduced peak latencies of the P50 and N1 component of the auditory event-related potentials (ERP indicating an impact on early sensory processing. The facilitating effect of tRNS was limited to the processing of near-threshold stimuli while stimuli clearly below and above the individual perception threshold were not affected by tRNS. This non-linear relationship between the signal-to-noise level of the presented stimuli and the effect of stimulation further qualifies stochastic resonance (SR as the underlying mechanism of tRNS on auditory processing. Our results demonstrate a tRNS related improvement in acoustic perception of time critical auditory information and, thus, provide further indices that auditory tRNS can amplify the resonance frequency of the auditory system.

  13. Traps as treats: a traditional sticky rice snack persisting in rapidly changing Asian kitchens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwallier, Rachel; de Boer, Hugo J; Visser, Natasja; van Vugt, Rogier R; Gravendeel, Barbara

    2015-03-24

    An accessory to modern developing economies includes a shift from traditional, laborious lifestyles and cuisine to more sedentary careers, recreation and convenience-based foodstuffs. Similar changes in the developed western world have led to harmful health consequences. Minimization of this effect in current transitional cultures could be met by placing value on the maintenance of heritage-rich food. Vitally important to this is the preservation and dissemination of knowledge of these traditional foods. Here, we investigate the history and functionality of a traditional rice snack cooked in Nepenthes pitchers, one of the most iconic and recognizable plants in the rapidly growing economic environment of Southeast Asia. Social media was combined with traditional ethnobotanical surveys to conduct investigations throughout Malaysian Borneo. Interviews were conducted with 25 market customers, vendors and participants from various ethnical groups with an in-depth knowledge of glutinous rice cooked in pitcher plants. The acidity of pitcher fluid was measured during experimental cooking to analyze possible chemical avenues that might contribute to rice stickiness. Participants identifying the snack were almost all (96%) from indigenous Bidayuh or Kadazandusun tribal decent. They prepare glutinous rice inside pitcher traps for tradition, vessel functionality and because they thought it added fragrance and taste to the rice. The pH and chemical activity of traps analyzed suggest there is no corresponding effect on rice consistency. Harvest of pitchers does not appear to decrease the number of plants in local populations. The tradition of cooking glutinous rice snacks in pitcher plants, or peruik kera in Malay, likely carries from a time when cooking vessels were more limited, and persists only faintly in tribal culture today because of value placed on maintaining cultural heritage. Social media proved a valuable tool in our research for locating research areas and in

  14. Rapid Changes in CB1 Receptor Availability in Cannabis Dependent Males after Abstinence from Cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Deepak Cyril; Cortes-Briones, Jose A; Ranganathan, Mohini; Thurnauer, Halle; Creatura, Gina; Surti, Toral; Planeta, Beata; Neumeister, Alexander; Pittman, Brian; Normandin, Marc; Kapinos, Michael; Ropchan, Jim; Huang, Yiyun; Carson, Richard E; Skosnik, Patrick D

    2016-01-01

    The widespread use of cannabis, the increasing legalization of "medical" cannabis, the increasing potency of cannabis and the growing recreational use of synthetic cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) full agonists underscores the importance of elucidating the effects of cannabinoids on the CB1R system. Exposure to cannabinoids is known to result in CB1R downregulation. However, the precise time course of changes in CB1R availability in cannabis dependent subjects (CDs) following short and intermediate term abstinence has not been determined. Using High Resolution Research Tomography (HRRT) and [(11)C]OMAR, CB1R availability as indexed by the volume of distribution (VT) [(11)C]OMAR was measured in male CDs (n=11) and matched healthy controls (HCs) (n=19). CDs were scanned at baseline (while they were neither intoxicated nor in withdrawal), and after 2 days and 28 days of monitored abstinence. HCs were scanned at baseline and a subset (n=4) was rescanned 28 days later. Compared to HCs, [(11)C]OMAR VT was 15% lower in CDs (effect size Cohen's d=-1.11) at baseline in almost all brain regions. However, these group differences in CB1R availability were no longer evident after just 2 days of monitored abstinence from cannabis. There was a robust negative correlation between CB1R availability and withdrawal symptoms after 2 days of abstinence. Finally, there were no significant group differences in CB1R availability in CDs after 28 days of abstinence. Cannabis dependence is associated with CB1R downregulation, which begins to reverse surprisingly rapidly upon termination of cannabis use and may continue to increase over time.

  15. Competition for cognitive resources during rapid serial processing: changes across childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eHeim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to direct cognitive resources to target objects despite distraction by competing information plays an important role for the development of mental aptitudes and skills. We examined developmental changes of this ability in a cross-sectional design, using the attentional blink (AB paradigm. The AB is a pronounced impairment of T2 report, which occurs when a first (T1 and second target (T2 embedded in a rapid stimulus sequence are separated by at least one distractor and occur within 500 ms of each other. Two groups of children (6 to 7 year-olds and 10 to 11 year-olds; ns = 21 and 24, respectively were asked to identify green targets in two AB tasks: one using non-linguistic symbols and the other letters or words. The temporal distance or stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA between T1 and T2 varied between no intervening distractor (Lag 1, 116-ms SOA and up to 7 intervening distractors (Lag 8, 928-ms SOA. In the symbol task, younger children linearly increased T2 identification with increasing lag. Older children, however, displayed a hook-shaped pattern as typically seen in adults, with lowest identification reports in T2 symbols at the critical blink interval (Lag 2, 232-ms SOA, and a slight performance gain for the Lag-1 condition. In the verbal task, the older group again exhibited a prominent drop in T2 identification at Lag 2, whereas the younger group showed a more alleviated and temporally diffuse AB impairment. Taken together, this pattern of results suggests that the control of attention allocation and/or working memory consolidation of targets among distractors represents a cognitive skill that emerges during primary school age.

  16. Mapping and correcting respiration-induced field changes in the brain using fluorine field probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads; Madsen, Kristoffer; Hanson, Lars G.

    2014-01-01

    the magnetic field by real-time updating of the shim fields, based on synchronous field measurements with external probes1,2. A thorough analysis of how accurate such field measurements at few (e.g. 16) positions outside the head can reflect the spatially varying dynamic fields inside the head is currently......Purpose. Breathing induced dynamic B0 field perturbations in the head can lead to artefacts in ultra-high field MR by causing line broadening in spectroscopy and signal dropout, ghosting, displacement artifacts and blurring in imaging. It has recently been proposed to continuously stabilize...... lacking. In this study a comparison between scanner-acquired field maps of the head, and corresponding field probe measurements is presented both during in- and expiration. In addition, the field probe measurements have been used to perform real-time updating of the linear shim- settings. Methods. Setup...

  17. Exploring MALDI-TOF MS approach for a rapid identification of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis field isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricchi, M; Mazzarelli, A; Piscini, A; Di Caro, A; Cannas, A; Leo, S; Russo, S; Arrigoni, N

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the suitability of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for a rapid and correct identification of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) field isolates. MALDI-TOF MS approach is becoming one of the most popular tests for the identification of intact bacterial cells which has been shown to be fast and reliable. For this purpose, 36 MAP field isolates were analysed through MALDI-TOF MS and the spectra compared with two different databases: one provided by the vendor of the system employed (Biotyper ver. 3·0; Bruker Daltonics) and a homemade database containing spectra from both tuberculous and nontuberculous Mycobacteria. Moreover, principal component analysis procedure was employed to confirm the ability of MALDI-TOF MS to discriminate between very closely related subspecies. Our results suggest MAP can be differentiated from other Mycobacterium species, both when the species are very close (M. intracellulare) and when belonging to different subspecies (M. avium ssp. avium and M. avium ssp. silvaticum). The procedure applied is fast, easy to perform, and achieves an earlier accurate species identification of MAP and nontuberculous Mycobacteria in comparison to other procedures. The gold standard test for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis is still isolation of MAP by cultural methods, but additional assays, such as qPCR and subculturing for determination of mycobactin dependency are required to confirm its identification. We have provided here evidence pertaining to the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS approach for a rapid identification of this mycobacterium among other members of M. avium complex. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Organizational Adaptation to the Rapidly Changing External Environment: A Case Study of Strategic Marketing at Notre Dame College in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shawn M.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examined the role of strategic marketing in organizational adaptation to a rapidly changing and competitive external environment among institutions of higher education. Colleges and universities adapt to external pressures as open systems operating within a broader external environment (Bess & Dee, 2008; Keller, 1983). How does…

  19. Mapping and correcting respiration-induced field changes in the brain using fluorine field probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Hanson, L.G.

    the magnetic field by real-time updating of the shim fields, based on synchronous field measurements with external probes1,2. A thorough analysis of how accurate such field measurements at few (e.g. 16) positions outside the head can reflect the spatially varying dynamic fields inside the head is currently...... strength values from signal phase by linear fitting. Ahead of imaging, the field probe positions were determined for each subject, by applying known gradients in all three dimensions while measuring with the field probes. Experiments: Measurements were performed in 4 male subjects instructed to hold......Purpose. Breathing induced dynamic B0 field perturbations in the head can lead to artefacts in ultra-high field MR by causing line broadening in spectroscopy and signal dropout, ghosting, displacement artifacts and blurring in imaging. It has recently been proposed to continuously stabilize...

  20. Long-Term Soil Experiments: A Key to Managing Earth's Rapidly Changing Critical Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, D., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    In a few decades, managers of Earth's Critical Zones (biota, humans, land, and water) will be challenged to double food and fiber production and diminish adverse effects of management on the wider environment. To meet these challenges, an array of scientific approaches is being used to increase understanding of Critical Zone functioning and evolution, and one amongst these approaches needs to be long-term soil field studies to move us beyond black boxing the belowground Critical Zone, i.e., to further understanding of processes driving changes in the soil environment. Long-term soil experiments (LTSEs) provide direct observations of soil change and functioning across time scales of decades, data critical for biological, biogeochemical, and environmental assessments of sustainability; for predictions of soil fertility, productivity, and soil-environment interactions; and for developing models at a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Unfortunately, LTSEs globally are not in a good state, and they take years to mature, are vulnerable to loss, and even today remain to be fully inventoried. Of the 250 LTSEs in a web-based network, results demonstrate that soils and belowground Critical Zones are highly dynamic and responsive to human management. The objective of this study is to review the contemporary state of LTSEs and consider how they contribute to three open questions: (1) can soils sustain a doubling of food production in the coming decades without further impinging on the wider environment, (2) how do soils interact with the global C cycle, and (3) how can soil management establish greater control over nutrient cycling. While LTSEs produce significant data and perspectives for all three questions, there is on-going need and opportunity for reviews of the long-term soil-research base, for establishment of an efficiently run network of LTSEs aimed at sustainability and improving management control over C and nutrient cycling, and for research teams that

  1. Method Development for Rapid Analysis of Natural Radioactive Nuclides Using Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, J.M.; Ji, Y.Y.; Lee, H.; Park, J.H.; Jang, M.; Chung, K.H.; Kang, M.J.; Choi, G.S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    sector field ICP-MS (SPECTRO MS) was used for a rapid determination of radionuclides concentration. For an evaluation of the accuracy and precision of the method, certified reference materials (CRMs) were analyzed using an established process. The analytical results of CRM samples were in agreement with the certified concentration values. Thus, one may conclude that the analytical results derived using fusion and ICP-MS are fairly reliable. Finally, the radioactivity concentration in raw materials (e.g., bauxite, bentonite, ceramic, clay, monazite, and zirconium sand) and by-products (e.g., coal fly and bottom ash) was determined. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  2. MR Diffusion Tensor Imaging Detects Rapid Microstructural Changes in Amygdala and Hippocampus Following Fear Conditioning in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Abby Y.; Li, Qi; Zhou, Iris Y.; Ma, Samantha J.; Tong, Gehua; McAlonan, Grainne M.; Wu, Ed X.

    2013-01-01

    Background Following fear conditioning (FC), ex vivo evidence suggests that early dynamics of cellular and molecular plasticity in amygdala and hippocampal circuits mediate responses to fear. Such altered dynamics in fear circuits are thought to be etiologically related to anxiety disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Consistent with this, neuroimaging studies of individuals with established PTSD in the months after trauma have revealed changes in brain regions responsible for processing fear. However, whether early changes in fear circuits can be captured in vivo is not known. Methods We hypothesized that in vivo magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) would be sensitive to rapid microstructural changes elicited by FC in an experimental mouse PTSD model. We employed a repeated measures paired design to compare in vivo DTI measurements before, one hour after, and one day after FC-exposed mice (n = 18). Results Using voxel-wise repeated measures analysis, fractional anisotropy (FA) significantly increased then decreased in amygdala, decreased then increased in hippocampus, and was increasing in cingulum and adjacent gray matter one hour and one day post-FC respectively. These findings demonstrate that DTI is sensitive to early changes in brain microstructure following FC, and that FC elicits distinct, rapid in vivo responses in amygdala and hippocampus. Conclusions Our results indicate that DTI can detect rapid microstructural changes in brain regions known to mediate fear conditioning in vivo. DTI indices could be explored as a translational tool to capture potential early biological changes in individuals at risk for developing PTSD. PMID:23382811

  3. Rapid and nondestructive measurement of labile Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and As in DGT by using field portable-XRF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng; Williams, Paul N; Zhang, Hao

    2013-09-01

    The technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) is often employed to quantify labile metals in situ; however, it is a challenge to perform the measurements in-field. This study evaluated the capability of field-portable X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) to swiftly generate elemental speciation information with DGT. Biologically available metal ions in environmental samples passively preconcentrate in the thin films of DGT devices, providing an ideal and uniform matrix for XRF nondestructive detection. Strong correlation coefficients (r > 0.992 for Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and As) were obtained for all elements during calibration. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) for the investigated elements of FP-XRF on DGT devices are 2.74 for Mn, 4.89 for Cu, 2.89 for Zn, 2.55 for Pb, and 0.48 for As (unit: μg cm(-2)). When Pb and As co-existed in the solution trials, As did not interfere with Pb detection when using Chelex-DGT. However, there was a significant enhancement of the Pb reading attributed to As when ferrihydrite binding gels were tested, consistent with Fe-oxyhydroxide surfaces absorbing large quantities of As. This study demonstrates the value of the FP-XRF technique to rapidly and nondestructively detect the metals accumulated in DGT devices, providing a new and simple diagnostic tool for on-site environmental monitoring of labile metals/metalloids.

  4. Resolution changes of MCP-PMTs in magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, J.; Belias, A.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Kalicy, G.; Krebs, M.; Lehmann, D.; Nerling, F.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Pfaffinger, M.; Uhlig, F.; Düren, M.; Etzelmüller, E.; Föhl, K.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kröck, B.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Schmidt, M.; Cowie, E.; Keri, T.; Achenbach, P.; Cardinali, M.; Hoek, M.; Lauth, W.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.

    2016-05-01

    Micro-channel plate photomultiplier tubes (MCP-PMTs) are chosen in many applications that have to cope with strong magnetic fields. The DIRC detectors of the PANDA experiment plan to employ them as they show excellent timing characteristics, radiation hardness, relatively low dark count rates and sufficient lifetime. This article mainly focuses on the performance of the position reconstruction of detected photons. Two different MCP-PMTs with segmented anode geometries have been tested in magnetic fields of different strengths. The variation of their performance has been studied. The measurements show improved position resolution and image shifts with increasing magnetic field strength.

  5. Use of field-portable XRF analyzers for rapid screening of toxic elements in FDA-regulated products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Peter T; Jacobs, Richard; Baker, Peter E; Ferguson, Kelly; Webber, Siri

    2009-04-08

    Analytical instrumentation continues its amazing evolution, especially in regard to generating ever more sensitive, faster, and reliable measurements. Perhaps the most difficult challenges are making these instruments small enough to use in the field, equipping them with well-designed software that facilitates and simplifies their use by nonexperts while preserving enough of their analytical capabilities to render them useful for a wide variety of applications. Perhaps the most impressive and underappreciated example of instruments that meet these criteria are field-portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzers. In the past, these analyzers have been routinely used for environmental applications (lead in paint and soil, metal particulates in air samples collected onto filters), geology studies (ore and soil analysis, precious metal identification), and recycling industries (alloy identification). However, their use in the analysis of toxic elements in food, food ingredients, dietary supplements, and medicinal and herbal products, especially within the FDA and regulatory environments, has been surprisingly limited to date. Although XRF will not replace atomic spectrometry techniques such as ICP-MS for sub-parts per million level analyses, it offers a number of significant advantages including minimal sample preparation, high sample throughputs, rapid and definitive identification of many toxic elements, and accurate quantitative results. As should be obvious from many recent news reports on elevated levels of toxic elements in children's lunchboxes, toys, and supplements, field-portable XRF analyzers can fill a very important niche and are becoming increasingly popular for a wide variety of elemental analysis applications. This perspective begins with a brief review of the theory of XRF to highlight the underlying principle, instrumentation, and spectra. It includes a discussion of various analytical figures of merit of XRF to illustrate its strengths and limitations

  6. Stimulating safety culture change in four field demonstration pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 10 years ago, FRA began investigating organizational culture. Subsequent reorganization of the Volpe Center and HF Program to include Org. Culture & Safety Performance program. This is a summary of FRA field evaluations on the impact of...

  7. Ecoregional-scale monitoring within conservation areas, in a rapidly changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, Erik A.; Woodward, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of ecological systems can prove invaluable for resource management and conservation. Such monitoring can: (1) detect instances of long-term trend (either improvement or deterioration) in monitored resources, thus providing an early-warning indication of system change to resource managers; (2) inform management decisions and help assess the effects of management actions, as well as anthropogenic and natural disturbances; and (3) provide the grist for supplemental research on mechanisms of system dynamics and cause-effect relationships (Fancy et al., 2009). Such monitoring additionally provides a snapshot of the status of monitored resources during each sampling cycle, and helps assess whether legal standards and regulations are being met. Until the last 1-2 decades, tracking and understanding changes in condition of natural resources across broad spatial extents have been infrequently attempted. Several factors, however, are facilitating the achievement of such broad-scale investigation and monitoring. These include increasing awareness of the importance of landscape context, greater prevalence of regional and global environmental stressors, and the rise of landscape-scale programs designed to manage and monitor biological systems. Such programs include the US Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program (Moser et al., 2008), Canada's National Forest Inventory, the 3Q Programme for monitoring agricultural landscapes of Norway (Dramstad et al., 2002), and the emerging (US) Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (USDOI Secretarial Order 3289, 2009; Anonymous, 2011). This Special Section explores the underlying design considerations, as well as many pragmatic aspects associated with program implementation and interpretation of results from broad-scale monitoring systems, particularly within the constraints of high-latitude contexts (e.g., low road density, short field season, dramatic fluctuations in temperature). Although Alaska is

  8. Environmental risk prioritization and management of petroleum retail facilities using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and rapid field investigation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, J.T.; Thomas, C.A.; Molloy, K.P. [Camp Dresser & McKee Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Environmental risk prioritization is a method of estimating the probability and severity of an environmental impact related to a petroleum facility. The risk analysis is directed at prioritizing environmental risks associated with each facility and so that capital expenditures can be directed toward mitigation at high risk sites and monitoring or stewardship at low risk locations. The expenditures or investments may include facility upgrades, waste disposal or containment, soil and water remediation, or facility monitoring activities. The risk analyses and petroleum retail facilities prioritization system presented in this paper includes a geographic information systems (GIS) and rapid field investigation techniques. This system was recently used in the prioritization of 150 petroleum facilities in Caracas, Venezuela and is currently being expanded to include additional facilities. The prioritization system used GIS and a data management system to quantify the Potential Impact Factors (PIF) and the Leak Likelihood Factors (LLF) associated with each facility. The PIF analysis used GIS to perform a proximity analysis; a radial search was performed for each site identifying proximal receptors including sensitive environmental receptors, water supply well locations, protected open spaces, water supply watersheds, areas of critical environmental concern, and residential populations. The LLF analysis assessed risk based on the age of the underground storage tanks, presence of leak protection devices, soils and groundwater conditions, tank and piping characteristics, sales volume and proximity to sources of high voltage. Prioritization weighting was placed on each of the LLF factors based on the risk associated with each. After the initial GIS site rankings, rapid site audits were completed selected the high risk sites. These audits included compilation of spill histories and soil vapor analyses using gas chromatography.

  9. Rapid land cover map updates using change detection and robust random forest classifiers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluated the Landsat Automated Land Cover Update Mapping (LALCUM) system designed to rapidly update a land cover map to a desired nominal year using a pre-existing reference land cover map. The system uses the Iteratively Reweighted...

  10. Tropical rodents change rapidly germinating seeds into long-term food supplies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.A.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2006-01-01

    Seed-hoarding vertebrates may survive yearly periods of food scarcity by storing seeds during the preceding fruiting season. It is poorly understood why rodents creating long-term reserves, especially those in the tropics, incorporate seeds from plant species that germinate rapidly and hence seem

  11. Mapping and correcting respiration-induced field changes in the brain using fluorine field probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Hanson, L.G.

    : The experiments were performed on a 7T MRI system (Philips Healthcare, Best, NL) using a 32-channel Nova Medical head coil. Fourteen fluorine T/R NMR field probes3 were firmly distributed around the transmit/receive head coil. A stand-alone spectrometer4 digitized the field probe signals, and calculated field...... strength values from signal phase by linear fitting. Ahead of imaging, the field probe positions were determined for each subject, by applying known gradients in all three dimensions while measuring with the field probes. Experiments: Measurements were performed in 4 male subjects instructed to hold...... order correction is significantly better than the first order correction. This is not the case for subject 2. The figure illustrates the stabilization. It is seen that the corrected B0 maps fluctuate less in intensity over time compared to the uncorrected ones, and the field correction in the back...

  12. Disciplines in the field of communication for development and social change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lie, R.; Servaes, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of subdisciplines in the field of Communication for Development and Social Change. Different subdisciplines of communication science are analyzed to assess their connection to the field. Building on these subdisciplines the article reviews health communication,

  13. The Application of Intensive Longitudinal Methods to Investigate Change: Stimulating the Field of Applied Family Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Katharine T.

    2015-01-01

    The use of intensive longitudinal methods (ILM)—rapid in situ assessment at micro timescales—can be overlaid on RCTs and other study designs in applied family research. Especially when done as part of a multiple timescale design—in bursts over macro timescales, ILM can advance the study of the mechanisms and effects of family interventions and processes of family change. ILM confers measurement benefits in accurately assessing momentary and variable experiences and captures fine-grained dynamic pictures of time-ordered processes. Thus, ILM allows opportunities to investigate new research questions about intervention effects on within-subject (i.e., within-person, within-family) variability (i.e., dynamic constructs) and about the time-ordered change process that interventions induce in families and family members beginning with the first intervention session. This paper discusses the need and rationale for applying ILM to intervention evaluation, new research questions that can be addressed with ILM, example research using ILM in the related fields of basic family research and the evaluation of individual-based (rather than family-based) interventions. Finally, the paper touches on practical challenges and considerations associated with ILM and points readers to resources for the application of ILM. PMID:26541560

  14. Systemic range shift lags among a pollinator species assemblage following rapid climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedford, Felicity E.; Whittaker, Robert J.; Kerr, Jeremy T.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary climate change is driving widespread geographical range shifts among many species. If species are tracking changing climate successfully, then leading populations should experience similar climatic conditions through time as new populations establish beyond historical range margins. ...

  15. Rapid transformation of two libraries using Kotter?s Eight Steps of Change

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Terrie R.; Holmes, Kristi L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Two new directors were each charged by their institutions to catalyze transformational change in their libraries and to develop dynamic and evolving information ecosystems ready for the information challenges of the future. The directors approached this transformational change using a strategic, forward-looking approach. Results This paper presents examples of actions that served as catalysts for change at the two libraries using Kotter?s Eight Steps of Change as a framework. Small...

  16. Systemic range shift lags among a pollinator species assemblage following rapid climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedford, Felicity E.; Whittaker, Robert J.; Kerr, Jeremy T.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary climate change is driving widespread geographical range shifts among many species. If species are tracking changing climate successfully, then leading populations should experience similar climatic conditions through time as new populations establish beyond historical range margins. ...... species assemblage in responses to recent climate change. Even among the most mobile species and without anthropogenic barriers to dispersal, these pollinators have been unable to extend their ranges as fast as required to keep pace with climate change....

  17. Molar changes with cervical headgear alone or in combination with rapid maxillary expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori Farret, Marcel; de Lima, Eduardo Martinelli S; Pereira Araújo, Vanessa; Deon Rizzatto, Susana Maria; Macedo de Menezes, Luciane; Lima Grossi, Marcio

    2008-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that there is no difference in the distal movement of the maxillary first permanent molars when cervical headgear is used alone or in combination with rapid maxillary expansion. The sample was composed of 36 subjects (aged 9 to 13 years), treated in the Faculty of Dentistry, Pontifícia Universidade Cat;aaolica, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The individuals were in good health and in their pubertal growth period. All had Class II division 1 malocclusion. The patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (22 subjects), Class II, with a normal transverse maxilla treated with cervical traction headgear (HG) 400 g 12 h/d, and group 2 (14 subjects), Class II maxillary transverse deficiency treated with rapid maxillary expansion plus cervical traction headgear (RME + HG). An additional group 3 (17 subjects) served as a control group and included individuals with the same characteristics. All subjects had two lateral cephalograms: initial (T1) and progress (T2), taken 6 months later. Differences between T1 and T2 were compared with the Student's t-test, and three groups were compared by the analysis of variance and Tukey multiple comparison test. Results showed greater distal tipping and greater distal movement of the first permanent molars in group 1 (HG) than in group 2 (RME + HG), P .05). The hypothesis was rejected. Cervical traction headgear alone produced greater distal movement effects in maxillary first permanent molars when compared with rapid maxillary expansion associated with cervical headgear.

  18. Field-usable lateral flow immunoassay for the rapid detection of a macluravirus, large cardamom chirke virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Yogita; Vijayanandraj, Selvaraj; Jain, Rakesh Kumar; Mandal, Bikash

    2018-03-01

    A simple and rapid lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) was developed by utilizing gold nanoparticles conjugated to a polyclonal antibody against coat protein of large cardamom chirke virus (LCCV). The LFIA based on the principle of sandwich immunoassay detected LCCV within ∼10 min and the result could be evaluated visually. The colloidal gold (CG) was made using 1% gold chloride solution. The LCCV IgG (1 μg/μl) and Mouse IgG (0.5 μg/μl) were conjugated with CG individually and coated onto a conjugate pad at 1:1 ratio. A sample extraction procedure was optimized in order to get adequate clear leaf sap of large cardamom leaf within few minutes. The sensitivity limit of the detection was 1:40 dilution of LCCV infected leaf sap. The diagnostic performance of LFIA was compared with ELISA using field samples. The LFIA was free from false positive as no visible test line was developed with healthy and potyviruses such as papaya ringspot virus and potato virus Y. The diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of LFIA was 100% and 90%, respectively. The Cohen's kappa coefficient (0.701) suggested a very good agreement between the ELISA and LFIA. Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated that LFIA was a robust method as the area under the curve (0.950) is significantly (P <0.0001) broader. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Superimposing various biophysical and social scales in a rapidly changing rural area (SW Niger)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Christian; Massuel, Sylvain; Favreau, Guillaume; Cappelaere, Bernard; Leblanc, Marc; Bachir, Salifou; Ousmane, Boureïma

    2014-05-01

    transboundary aquifer that extends far beyond the study area, over about 150 000 km2. It is also heterogeneous. Like surface flows, but at a different scale, groundwater flows are marked by a strong endorheism. For example the Dantiandou closed piezometric depression extends over about approximately 5000 km2. These natural closed depressions are explained only by evapotranspiration uptake, weak in absolute terms (a few mm.a-1) but with a very high impact on hydrodynamics because of poor permeability and porosity. Both density of observations and hydraulic continuity of the CT3 aquifer give a fine idea of groundwater changes in the whole area. Human activities, continuously adapting in this poor rural area, add another complexity to the hydrological diversity in surface and ground water. The replacement of the natural vegetation with millet fields and fallow increased the surface runoff, and consequently water accumulation in temporary pools and then CT3 recharge. In the SE part of the study area, the water table has risen up to outcropping in the lowest valley bottoms. These new permanent ponds reflect groundwater while temporary ponds still reflect surface dynamics. This new component of the hydrological landscape induces several consequences, in physical and human dimensions. Evaporation strongly affects the permanent water and increases its salinity while the natural mineralization of groundwater is very low. The easier access to water resources allows a significant development of local gardening, which modifies the social functioning of villages (e.g. land rights between villages and within a village, diversification of crops and sources of income, new sales channels). Different physically based models (for surface and ground water) were built, with a significant discrepancy between their respective quantification of water flows at the region scale. Extrapolation of surface fluxes from the few instrumented catchments to a much larger mosaic of non-instrumented catchments is

  20. Microelectrode array measurement of potassium ion channel remodeling on the field action potential duration in rapid atrial pacing rabbits model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Juan; Yan, Huang; Wugeti, Najina; Guo, Yujun; Zhang, Ling; Ma, Mei; Guo, Xingui; Jiao, Changan; Xu, Wenli; Li, Tianqi

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) arises from abnormalities in atrial structure and electrical activity. Microelectrode arrays (MEA) is a real-time, nondestructive measurement of the resting and action potential signal, from myocardial cells, to the peripheral circuit of electrophysiological activity. This study examined the field action potential duration (fAPD) of the right atrial appendage (RAA) by MEA in rapid atrial pacing (RAP) in the right atrium of rabbits. In addition, this study also investigated the effect of potassium ion channel blockers on fAPD. 40 New Zealand white rabbits of either sex were randomly divided into 3 groups: 1) the control, 2) potassium ion channel blocker (TEA, 4-Ap and BaCl2), and 3) amiodarone groups. The hearts were quickly removed and right atrial appendage sectioned (slice thickness 500 μm). Each slice was perfused with Tyrode's solution and continuously stimulated for 30 minutes. Sections from the control group were superfused with Tyrode's solution for 10 minutes, while the blocker groups and amiodarone were both treated with their respective compounds for 10 minutes each. The fAPD of RAA and action field action potential morphology were measured using MEA. In non-pace (control) groups, fAPD was 188.33 ± 18.29 ms after Tyrode's solution superfusion, and 173.91 ± 6.83 ms after RAP. In pace/potassium ion channel groups, TEA and BaCl2 superfusion prolonged atrial field action potential (fAPD) (control vs blocker: 176.67 ± 8.66 ms vs 196.11 ± 10.76 ms, 182.22 ± 12.87 ms vs 191.11 ± 13.09 ms with TEA and BaCl2 superfusion, respectively, P action potential in animal heart slices. After superfusing potassium ion channel blockers, fAPD was prolonged. These results suggest that Ito, IKur and IK1 remodel and mediate RAP-induced atrial electrical remodeling. Amiodarone alter potassium ion channel activity (Ito, IKur, IK1 and IKs), shortening fAPD.

  1. Rapid analysis of time series data to identify changes in electricity consumption patterns in UK secondary schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, Graeme; Fleming, Paul; Ferreira, Vasco [Institute of Energy and Sustainable Development, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Harris, Peter [Cheriton Technology Management Ltd., Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2007-04-15

    This paper presents a methodology for energy professionals to identify potential electricity saving opportunities in buildings from the analysis of half-hourly electricity consumption data. The technique recommended in UK government good practice guidance for use with monthly gas data has been applied to half-hourly electricity data from 37 secondary schools. The technique monitors consumption over time, identifying any changes in patterns and quantifying their effects. It has the advantage of being both high resolution and quick to employ. The analysis produces results that allow energy professionals to rapidly detect changes in electricity consumption. (author)

  2. Structure Changes of Soybean Protein Isolates by Pulsed Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-Qiu

    Effects of pulsed electric sfields (PEF) on the structure of soybean protein isolates (SPI) were studied by Raman spectra (RS). The secondary structure of SPI mainly consisted of α-helix and β-sheet. The changes of Raman characteristic peaks of amide I and amide III indicated that PEF induced the content of β-sheet and random coil to increase. The decrease of peak 921cm-1 showed the lower of α-helix content. The changes of S-S and C-C vibrational peaks indicated that PEF influenced the sulfhydryls and disulfide bonds. PEF influenced hydrophobicity by changes in tyrosine vibration frequency of RP and caused more hydrophobic groups and regions inside the molecules to expose outside. Too strong PEF conditions made hydrophobic groups interactions form and bury inside again.

  3. Effects of rapid temperature changes on HK, PK and HSP70 of Litopenaeus vannamei in different seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Biao; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Chunqiang

    2010-09-01

    Activities of hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK) and levels of HSP70 were measured to evaluate the response of Litopenaeus vannamei to rapid temperature changes under controlled laboratory conditions. Shrimps were subjected to a quick temperature change from 27°C to 17°C for the summer case (Cold temperature treatment), or from 17°C to 27°C for the winter case (Warm temperature treatment). After 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h of exposure time, shrimps were sampled and prepared for further analysis. The results showed that the effect of acute temperature changes on activities of HK was significant. Patterns of variations of the two glycolytic enzymes suggested that enzymes in the glycolysis cycle could adjust their activities to meet the acute temperature change. The HSP70 level increased in both cold and warm temperature treatments, suggesting that the rapid temperature changes activated the process of body’s self-protection. But the difference in expression peak of HSP70 might be related to the different body size and the higher thermal sensitivity to temperature increase than to temperature decrease of L. vannamei.

  4. Rapid transformation of two libraries using Kotter's Eight Steps of Change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Terrie R Wheeler; Kristi L Holmes

    2017-01-01

    Two new directors were each charged by their institutions to catalyze transformational change in their libraries and to develop dynamic and evolving information ecosystems ready for the information...

  5. Molar changes with cervical headgear alone or in combination with rapid maxillary expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Farret, Marcel Marchiori; Lima, Eduardo Martinelli Santayana de; Araújo, Vanessa Pereira de; Rizzatto, Susana Maria Deon; Menezes, Luciane Macedo de; Grossi, Márcio Lima

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that there is no difference in the distal movement of the maxillary first permanent molars when cervical headgear is used alone or in combination with rapid maxillary expansion. Materials and Methods: The sample was composed of 36 subjects (aged 9 to 13 years), treated in the Faculty of Dentistry, Pontifícia Universidade Católica, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The individuals were in good health and in their pubertal growth period. All had Class II division 1 ma...

  6. Rapid change in the defense of flightless young by a mourning dove parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdeen, James; Otis, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    We report that an adult-sized Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove), presumably a parent, rapidly decreased risk taken in defense of a juvenile as the likelihood of predation to the juvenile increased. We attribute this decrease in risk taken to (1) the parent's perception that the risk of predation had increased to the extent that a continuation of defensive behaviors would not prevent the death of the juvenile, and (2) its attempt to minimize its own risk of death. It may be that there is a threshold beyond which Mourning Dove parents will forgo the risk of additional defense of offspring in favor of making another reproductive attempt.

  7. Changes in DNA methylation fingerprint of Quercus ilex trees in response to experimental field drought simulating projected climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, L; Ogaya, R; Barbeta, A; Peñuelas, J

    2014-03-01

    Rapid genetic changes in plants have been reported in response to current climate change. We assessed the capacity of trees in a natural forest to produce rapid acclimation responses based on epigenetic modifications. We analysed natural populations of Quercus ilex, the dominant tree species of Mediterranean forests, using the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique to assess patterns and levels of methylation in individuals from unstressed forest plots and from plots experimentally exposed to drought for 12 years at levels projected for the coming decades. The percentage of hypermethylated loci increased, and the percentage of fully methylated loci clearly decreased in plants exposed to drought. Multivariate analyses exploring the status of methylation at MSAP loci also showed clear differentiation depending on stress. The PCA scores for the MSAP profiles clearly separated the genetic from the epigenetic structure, and also significantly separated the samples within each group in response to drought. Changes in DNA methylation highlight the large capacity of plants to rapidly acclimate to changing environmental conditions, including trees with long life spans, and our results demonstrate those changes. These changes, although unable to prevent the decreased growth and higher mortality associated with this experimental drought, occurred together with a dampening in such decreases as the long-term treatment progressed. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. Short-term stream water temperature observations permit rapid assessment of potential climate change impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Caldwell; Catalina Segura; Shelby Gull Laird; Ge Sun; Steven G. McNulty; Maria Sandercock; Johnny Boggs; James M. Vose

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of potential climate change impacts on stream water temperature (Ts) across large scales remains challenging for resource managers because energy exchange processes between the atmosphere and the stream environment are complex and uncertain, and few long-term datasets are available to evaluate changes over time. In this study, we...

  9. Rapid transformation of two libraries using Kotter's Eight Steps of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Terrie R; Holmes, Kristi L

    2017-07-01

    Two new directors were each charged by their institutions to catalyze transformational change in their libraries and to develop dynamic and evolving information ecosystems ready for the information challenges of the future. The directors approached this transformational change using a strategic, forward-looking approach. This paper presents examples of actions that served as catalysts for change at the two libraries using Kotter's Eight Steps of Change as a framework. Small and large changes are critical for successfully transforming library services, resources, and personnel. Libraries are faced with incredible pressure to adapt to meet emerging and intensifying information needs on today's academic medical campuses. These pressures offer an opportunity for libraries to accelerate their evolution at the micro and macro levels. This commentary reports the expansion of new services and areas of support, enhancement of professional visibility of the libraries on their campuses, and overall, a more positive and productive environment at the respective institutions.

  10. Microstructure Formation and Resistivity Change in CuCr during Rapid Solidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Hauf

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the surface-near microstructure after a current interruption of CuCr contact materials in a vacuum interrupter is characterized by a fast heating and subsequently rapid solidification process. In the present article, we reveal and analyse the formation of two distinct microstructural regions that result from the heat, which is generated and dissipated during interruption. In the topmost region, local and global texture, as well as the resulting microstructure, indicate that both Cu and Cr were melted during rapid heating and solidification whereas in the region underneath, only Cu was melted and elongated Cu-grains solidified with the <001>-direction perpendicularly aligned to the surface. By analysing the lattice parameter of the Cu solid solution, a supersaturation of the solid solution with about 2.25 at % Cr was found independent if Cu was melted solely or together with the Cr. The according reduction of electrical conductivity in the topmost region subsequent to current interruption and the resulting heat distribution are discussed based on these experimental results.

  11. Television, disordered eating, and young women in Fiji: negotiating body image and identity during rapid social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Anne E

    2004-12-01

    Although the relationship between media exposure and risk behavior among youth is established at a population level, the specific psychological and social mechanisms mediating the adverse effects of media on youth remain poorly understood. This study reports on an investigation of the impact of the introduction of television to a rural community in Western Fiji on adolescent ethnic Fijian girls in a setting of rapid social and economic change. Narrative data were collected from 30 purposively selected ethnic Fijian secondary school girls via semi-structured, open-ended interviews. Interviews were conducted in 1998, 3 years after television was first broadcast to this region of Fiji. Narrative data were analyzed for content relating to response to television and mechanisms that mediate self and body image in Fijian adolescents. Data in this sample suggest that media imagery is used in both creative and destructive ways by adolescent Fijian girls to navigate opportunities and conflicts posed by the rapidly changing social environment. Study respondents indicated their explicit modeling of the perceived positive attributes of characters presented in television dramas, but also the beginnings of weight and body shape preoccupation, purging behavior to control weight, and body disparagement. Response to television appeared to be shaped by a desire for competitive social positioning during a period of rapid social transition. Understanding vulnerability to images and values imported with media will be critical to preventing disordered eating and, potentially, other youth risk behaviors in this population, as well as other populations at risk.

  12. Understanding the rapid summer warming and changes in temperature extremes since the mid-1990s over Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Buwen; Sutton, Rowan T.; Shaffrey, Len

    2017-03-01

    Analysis of observations indicates that there was a rapid increase in summer (June-August) mean surface air temperature (SAT) since the mid-1990s over Western Europe. Accompanying this rapid warming are significant increases in summer mean daily maximum temperature, daily minimum temperature, annual hottest day temperature and warmest night temperature, and an increase in frequency of summer days and tropical nights, while the change in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) is small. This study focuses on understanding causes of the rapid summer warming and associated temperature extreme changes. A set of experiments using the atmospheric component of the state-of-the-art HadGEM3 global climate model have been carried out to quantify relative roles of changes in sea surface temperature (SST)/sea ice extent (SIE), anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs), and anthropogenic aerosols (AAer). Results indicate that the model forced by changes in all forcings reproduces many of the observed changes since the mid-1990s over Western Europe. Changes in SST/SIE explain 62.2 ± 13.0 % of the area averaged seasonal mean warming signal over Western Europe, with the remaining 37.8 ± 13.6 % of the warming explained by the direct impact of changes in GHGs and AAer. Results further indicate that the direct impact of the reduction of AAer precursor emissions over Europe, mainly through aerosol-radiation interaction with additional contributions from aerosol-cloud interaction and coupled atmosphere-land surface feedbacks, is a key factor for increases in annual hottest day temperature and in frequency of summer days. It explains 45.5 ± 17.6 % and 40.9 ± 18.4 % of area averaged signals for these temperature extremes. The direct impact of the reduction of AAer precursor emissions over Europe acts to increase DTR locally, but the change in DTR is countered by the direct impact of GHGs forcing. In the next few decades, greenhouse gas concentrations will continue to rise and AAer precursor

  13. [Field evaluation for diagnostic accuracy of the rapid test SD Bioline Malaria Antigen Pf/Pv® in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Nohora Marcela; Cucunubá, Zulma Milena; Aponte, Samanda; González, Nohora Elizabeth; Bernal, Sindy Durley

    2013-01-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) have been postulated as a way to ensure access to malaria diagnosis in remote areas. Despite its widespread use, there are no field studies to evaluate the accuracy of the SD Bioline Malaria Antigen Pf/Pv in Colombia RDT. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the SD Bioline Malaria Antigen Pf/Pv® RDT in two departments endemic for malaria, comparing diagnosis with thick film corrected with PCR. A retrospective study was carried out to evaluate sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), concordance and sensitivity limits according to parasitemia ranges for the SD Bioline Malaria Antigen Pf/Pv ® test in Cordoba and Choco. The results were compared with microscopy corrected by PCR. A total of 383 samples processed, 121 were positive (75 for P. vivax , 42 for P. falciparum and 4 for mixed infection) and 262 negative samples. P. vivax: sensitivity 92.0% (95% CI: 83.6-96.3), specificity 98.7% ( 95% CI: 96.7-99.5), PPV 94.5% (95% CI: 86.7-97.9), NPV 98.1% (95% CI: 95.8-99.1), Cohen's kappa coefficient was 0.90 (0.80-1.00). P. falciparum: sensitivity 88.1% (95% CI: 75.0-94.8), specificity 97.9% (95% CI: 95.8-99.0), PPV 84.1% (95% CI: 70.6-92.1), NPV 98.5% (95% IC: 96.6-99.4), Cohen's kappa coefficient 0.80 (95% CI: 0.70-0.90). The test performed well, being better for P. vivax as compared to P. falciparum. There are still difficulties of RDT to detect low parasitemias. The non amplification of Pfhrp2 and Pfhrp3 genes in two samples diagnosed as mixed infection, suggest a possible deletion of these two genes together.

  14. Rapid land-use change and its impacts on tropical biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurance, William F.

    Rates of forest conversion are extremely high in most tropical regions and these changes are known to have important impacts on biotas and ecosystems. I summarize available information on responses of wildlife and plant communities to habitat fragmentation, selective logging, surface fires, and hunting, which are four of the most widespread types of tropical land-use change. These changes alter forest ecosystems in complex ways and have varying impacts on different animal and plant species. In most human-dominated landscapes, forests are subjected to not one change but to two or more simultaneous alterations, the effects of which can be particularly destructive to tropical biotas. I illustrate this concept by describing the synergistic interactions between habitat fragmentation and surface fires, and between logging, fires, and hunting.

  15. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Terrestrial Intactness and Potential For Change

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows current and near-term terrestrial intactness, as well as long term potential for development and climate change. These datasets are the results of a...

  16. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Terrestrial Intactness and Potential For Change (HUC5)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows current and near-term terrestrial intactness, as well as long term potential for development and climate change. These datasets are the results of a...

  17. People On The Move: Some Thoughts On Human Dispersal In Relation To Rapid Climatic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, W.

    It is still generally assumed that the default situation for past humans must have been to be sedentary. That is to say, given a chance people would have settled in one area (with a good supply of resources) and established clearly-defined territories. Such concepts presuppose that much of human existence was conducted in climatic conditions sim- ilar to the relatively stable ones seen in the Holocene. What effects do rapid climatic fluctuations have upon environmental carrying capacity, and thus upon human mobil- ity and exploitation patterns? Such an approach could be called 'non-analogue', as it does not seek to impose [current] Holocene patterns upon the Pleistocene, in the same way that 'non-analogue' animal and plant communities are now routinely described for the same period. If one adopts non-analogue perspectives, perhaps one could also argue that in many cases mobility was the rule and not the exception. Turning the conventional wisdom around, we can ask why people should remain in an area. What are the characteristics of that area which could have encouraged people to become less mobile? I do not argue that all groups were mobile: some cannot have been, and not every member of other groups would have been equally mobile (differentiation on grounds of age and sex). In addition, mobility patterns must also have varied over time, although we should not necessarily expect a discernible linear trend either towards or away from greater mobility, because such behaviour operates within a climatic and environmental framework as well as a socio-economic one. If climate oscillated rapidly, it is feasible to suggest that such fluctuations affected environmental stability and thus carrying capacity. The resource species present and their availability would therefore affect the possibilities for human mobility. When discussing the possibilities for human dispersal into new regions, we essentially have a choice between two competing models: the Wave of Advance (sensu

  18. Evidence from phylogenetic and genome fingerprinting analyses suggests rapidly changing variation in Halorubrum and Haloarcula populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Mohan, Nikhil; Fullmer, Matthew S.; Makkay, Andrea M.; Wheeler, Ryan; Ventosa, Antonio; Naor, Adit; Gogarten, J. Peter; Papke, R. Thane

    2014-01-01

    Halobacteria require high NaCl concentrations for growth and are the dominant inhabitants of hypersaline environments above 15% NaCl. They are well-documented to be highly recombinogenic, both in frequency and in the range of exchange partners. In this study, we examine the genetic and genomic variation of cultured, naturally co-occurring environmental populations of Halobacteria. Sequence data from multiple loci (~2500 bp) identified many closely and more distantly related strains belonging to the genera Halorubrum and Haloarcula. Genome fingerprinting using a random priming PCR amplification method to analyze these isolates revealed diverse banding patterns across each of the genera and surprisingly even for isolates that are identical at the nucleotide level for five protein coding sequenced loci. This variance in genome structure even between identical multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) haplotypes indicates that accumulation of genomic variation is rapid: faster than the rate of third codon substitutions. PMID:24782838

  19. Evidence from phylogenetic and genome fingerprinting analyses suggests rapidly changing variation in Halorubrum and Haloarcula populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil eRam Mohan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Halobacteria require high NaCl concentrations for growth and are the dominant inhabitants of hypersaline environments above 15% NaCl. They are well documented to be highly recombinogenic, both in frequency and in the range of exchange partners. In this study, we examine the genetic and genomic variation of cultured, naturally co-occurring environmental populations of Halobacteria. Sequence data from multiple loci (~2500bp identified closely related strains belonging to the genera Halorubrum and Haloarcula. Genome fingerprinting using a random priming PCR amplification method to analyze these isolates revealed diverse banding patterns within and across each of the genera and surprisingly even for isolates that are identical at the nucleotide level for five protein coding sequenced loci. This variance in genome structure even between identical multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA haplotypes suggests that accumulation of variation is rapid, perhaps occurring every generation.

  20. Methodology for benzodiazepine receptor binding assays at physiological temperature. Rapid change in equilibrium with falling temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, R.M.

    1986-12-01

    Benzodiazepine receptors of rat cerebellum were assayed with (/sup 3/H)-labeled flunitrazepam at 37/sup 0/C, and assays were terminated by filtration in a cold room according to one of three protocols: keeping each sample at 37 degrees C until ready for filtration, taking the batch of samples (30) into the cold room and filtering sequentially in the order 1-30, and taking the batch of 30 samples into the cold room and filtering sequentially in the order 30-1. the results for each protocol were substantially different from each other, indicating that rapid disruption of equilibrium occurred as the samples cooled in the cold room while waiting to be filtered. Positive or negative cooperativity of binding was apparent, and misleading effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid on the affinity of diazepam were observed, unless each sample was kept at 37/sup 0/C until just prior to filtration.

  1. Integration of New Observation Techniques, Remote Sensing, and High Resolution Modelling for Improved Quantification of Rapid Environmental Change at a Canadian Arctic Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, P.; Toure, A.; Baltzer, J. L.; Sonnentag, O.; Berg, A. A.; Derksen, C.; Walker, B.; Wilcox, E.

    2016-12-01

    Multi-decade observations at a research watershed in the western Canadian Arctic has demonstrated rapid environmental change, but has also shown that our quantification of, and understanding of, these changes is greatly limited by both the large errors involved in many observation data sets and the limitations of standard models to operate at the extremely high resolution required. This paper will outline an expanding research program being developed at the Trail Valley Creek research watershed south of Tuktoyaktuk, NWT with the gaol to overcome these limitations. Although this watershed has existing high quality observations, the following example will illustrate the challenges faced in understanding the ongoing changes. As might be expected, the climate at this location is dramatically warming, but it is also drying, and the active layer is deepening, shrub patches are both infilling and expanding, the end of winter snow cover is expanding in shrub patches and possibly decreasing in slope drifts, and snowmelt rate is changing. However, the resulting decrease in streamflow and delayed melt runoff, is unexpected and hard to explain. Although we can postulate why these changes are occurring, the observations at this site, among the best in the Canadian Arctic, are not sufficient to allow us to fully explain the ongoing changes. Our experience at Trail Valley Creek suggests that in order to improve our understanding and predictive ability, we need enhanced field observations and models. This paper will outline how we are developing such a program at Trail Valley Creek with field observations across a range of scales (a network of cosmic ray sensors, eddy covariance measurements, and sap flow sensors for example); enhanced remote sensing using lidar, optical and radar methods from Unmanned Aerial Systems, aircraft and satellites; and high resolution, physics based, snow, permafrost and hydrologic models.

  2. Rapid spread of complex change: a case study in inpatient palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipski Marta I

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on positive findings from a randomized controlled trial, Kaiser Permanente's national executive leadership group set an expectation that all Kaiser Permanente and partner hospitals would implement a consultative model of interdisciplinary, inpatient-based palliative care (IPC. Within one year, the number of IPC consultations program-wide increased almost tenfold from baseline, and the number of teams nearly doubled. We report here results from a qualitative evaluation of the IPC initiative after a year of implementation; our purpose was to understand factors supporting or impeding the rapid and consistent spread of a complex program. Methods Quality improvement study using a case study design and qualitative analysis of in-depth semi-structured interviews with 36 national, regional, and local leaders. Results Compelling evidence of impacts on patient satisfaction and quality of care generated 'pull' among adopters, expressed as a remarkably high degree of conviction about the value of the model. Broad leadership agreement gave rise to sponsorship and support that permeated the organization. A robust social network promoted knowledge exchange and built on an existing network with a strong interest in palliative care. Resource constraints, pre-existing programs of a different model, and ambiguous accountability for implementation impeded spread. Conclusions A complex, hospital-based, interdisciplinary intervention in a large health care organization spread rapidly due to a synergy between organizational 'push' strategies and grassroots-level pull. The combination of push and pull may be especially important when the organizational context or the practice to be spread is complex.

  3. Multimodal imaging documentation of rapid evolution of retinal changes in handheld laser-induced maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhrami-Gavazi, Elona; Lee, Winston; Balaratnasingam, Chandrakumar; Kayserman, Larisa; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A; Freund, K Bailey

    2015-01-01

    To use multimodal imaging to document the relatively rapid clinical evolution of handheld laser-induced maculopathy (HLIM). To demonstrate that inadvertent ocular injury can result from devices mislabeled with respect to their power specifications. The clinical course of a 17-year-old male who sustained self-inflicted, central macular damage from a 20-25 s direct stare at a red-spectrum, handheld laser pointer ordered from an internet retailer is provided. Retrospective review of multimodal imaging that includes fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, MultiColor reflectance, eye-tracked spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), fundus autofluorescence, and microperimetry is used to describe the evolving clinical manifestations of HLIM in the first 3 months. Curvilinear bands of dense hyperreflectivity extending from the outer retina and following the Henle fibers were seen on SD-OCT immediately after injury. This characteristic appearance had largely resolved by 2 weeks. There was significant non-uniformity in the morphological characteristics of HLIM lesions between autofluorescence and reflectance images. The pattern of lesion evolution was also significantly different between imaging modalities. Analysis of the laser device showed its wavelength to be correctly listed, but the power was found to be 102.5-105 mW, as opposed to the laser -induced maculopathy, this finding can undergo rapid resolution in the span of several days. In the absence of this finding, other multimodal imaging clues and a careful history may aid in recognizing this diagnosis. A greater awareness regarding inaccurate labeling on some of these devices could help reduce the frequency of this preventable entity.

  4. High Order Accurate Algorithms for Shocks, Rapidly Changing Solutions and Multiscale Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-13

    convection boundary layer flow and heat transfer of non - Newtonian power law fluid over a cylinder. Different from most classical works, the temperature...dependent variable fluid viscosity and thermal conductivity are taken into account in highly coupled velocity and temperature fields. The motion of the...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Research has been performed on weighted essentially non -oscillatory schemes and discontinuous Galerkin methods, and other

  5. Human adaptation responses to a rapidly changing Arctic: A research context for building system resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, T.; Brinkman, T. J.

    2016-12-01

    Although human behavior accounts for more uncertainty in future trajectories in climate change than do biophysical processes, most climate-change research fails to include human actions in research design and implementation. This is well-illustrated in the Arctic. At the global scale, arctic processes strongly influence the strength of biophysical feedbacks between global human emissions and the rate of climate warming. However, most human actions in the arctic have little effect on these feedbacks, so research can contribute most effectively to reduction in arctic warming through improved understanding of the strength of arctic-global biophysical feedbacks, as in NASA's ABoVE program, and its effective communication to policy makers and the public. In contrast, at the local to regional scale within the arctic, human actions may influence the ecological and societal consequences of arctic warming, so research benefits from active stakeholder engagement in research design and implementation. Human communities and other stakeholders (government and NGOs) respond heterogeneously to socioeconomic and environmental change, so research that documents the range of historical and current adaptive responses to change provides insights on the resilience (flexibility of future options) of social-ecological processes in the arctic. Alaskan communities have attempted a range of adaptive responses to coastal erosion (e.g., seasonal migration, protection in place, relocation), wildfire (fire suppression to use of fire to manage wildlife habitat or landscape heterogeneity), declining sea ice (e.g., new hunting technology, sea ice observations and predictions), and changes in wildlife and fish availability (e.g., switch to harvest of alternative species, harvest times, or harvest locations). Research that draws on both traditional and western knowledge facilitates adaptation and predictions of the likely societal consequences of climate change in the Arctic. Effective inclusion of

  6. Rapid transformation of two libraries using Kotter’s Eight Steps of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Terrie R.; Holmes, Kristi L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Two new directors were each charged by their institutions to catalyze transformational change in their libraries and to develop dynamic and evolving information ecosystems ready for the information challenges of the future. The directors approached this transformational change using a strategic, forward-looking approach. Results This paper presents examples of actions that served as catalysts for change at the two libraries using Kotter’s Eight Steps of Change as a framework. Small and large changes are critical for successfully transforming library services, resources, and personnel. Conclusions Libraries are faced with incredible pressure to adapt to meet emerging and intensifying information needs on today’s academic medical campuses. These pressures offer an opportunity for libraries to accelerate their evolution at the micro and macro levels. This commentary reports the expansion of new services and areas of support, enhancement of professional visibility of the libraries on their campuses, and overall, a more positive and productive environment at the respective institutions. PMID:28670217

  7. Implications of rapid environmental change for polar bear behavior and sociality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Todd C.

    2017-01-01

    Historically, the Arctic sea ice has functioned as a structural barrier that has limited the nature and extent of interactions between humans and polar bears (Ursus maritimus). However, declining sea ice extent, brought about by global climate change, is increasing the potential for human-polar bear interactions. Loss of sea ice habitat is driving changes to both human and polar bear behavior—it is facilitating increases in human activities (e.g., offshore oil and gas exploration and extraction, trans-Arctic shipping, recreation), while also causing the displacement of bears from preferred foraging habitat (i.e., sea ice over biologically productive shallow) to land in some portions of their range. The end result of these changes is that polar bears are spending greater amounts of time in close proximity to people. Coexistence between humans and polar bears will require imposing mechanisms to manage further development, as well as mitigation strategies that reduce the burden to local communities.

  8. Unbounded boundaries and shifting baselines: Estuaries and coastal seas in a rapidly changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, S.; Spencer, K. L.; Schuttelaars, H. M.; Millward, G. E.; Elliott, M.

    2017-11-01

    This Special Issue of Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science presents contributions from ECSA 55; an international symposium organised by the Estuarine and Coastal Sciences Association (ECSA) and Elsevier on the broad theme of estuaries and coastal seas in times of intense change. The objectives of the SI are to synthesise, hypothesise and illustrate the impacts of global change on estuaries and coastal seas through learning lessons from the past, discussing the current and forecasting for the future. It is highlighted here that establishing impacts and assigning cause to the many pressures of global change is and will continue to be a formidable challenge in estuaries and coastal seas, due in part to: (1) their complexity and unbounded nature; (2) difficulties distinguishing between human-induced changes and natural variations and; (3) multiple pressures and effects. The contributing authors have explored a number of these issues over a range of disciplines. The complexity and connectivity of estuaries and coastal seas have been investigated through studies of physicochemical and ecological components, whilst the human imprint on the environment has been identified through a series of predictive, contemporary, historical and palaeo approaches. The impact of human activities has been shown to occur over a range of spatial and temporal scales, requiring the development of integrated management approaches. These 30 articles provide an important contribution to our understanding and assessment of the impacts of global change. The authors highlight methods for essential management/mitigation of the consequences of global change and provide a set of directions, ideas and observations for future work. These include the need to consider: (1) the cumulative, synergistic and antagonistic effects of multiple pressures; (2) the importance of unbounded boundaries and connectivity across the aquatic continuum; (3) the value of combining cross-disciplinary palaeo, contemporary and

  9. A rapid change in the low energy cut-off of Scorpius X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, W. E.; Cordova, F.; Garmire, G. P.

    1974-01-01

    Sco X-1 was observed on June 10, 1972 near 04 hr 33 min U.T. simultaneously in the optical (B) the soft X-ray (0.1 to 2.4 keV) and the X-ray (1.5 to 20 keV) bands of the spectrum. It is believed that a change of short duration in the absorbing medium associated with Sco X-1 was observed. The medium attenuating the low energy X-ray flux from Sco X-1 has apparently changed by more than 40% on a time scale of less than 45 sec.

  10. Rapid change of atmosphere on the Hadean Earth: Beyond Habitable Trinity on a tightrope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, T.; Maruyama, S.

    2014-12-01

    Surface environment of Hadean Earth is a key to bear life on the Earth. All of previous works assumed that high pCO2 has been decreased to a few bars in the first a few hundreds millions of years (e.g., Zhanle et al., 2011). However, this process is not easy because of material and process barriers as shown below. Four barriers are present. First, the ultra-acidic pH (<0.1) of 4.4Ga ocean prevented the precipitation of carbonates at mid-oceanic ridge through water-rock interaction after the birth of primordial ocean driven by plate tectonics or pseudo-plate tectonics system. To overcome this barrier, primordial (anorthosite + KREEP) continents must have been above sea-level to increase pH rapidly through hydrological process. Second, major cap rocks on the Hadean oceanic crust must have been komatiite with minor basaltic rocks to precipitate carbonates through water-rock interaction and transport them into mantle through subduction at higher than the intermediate P/T geotherm on the Benioff plane. If not, carbonate minerals are all decarbonated at shallower depths than the Moho plane. Komatiite production depends on mantle potential temperature which must have been rapidly decreased to yield only Fe-enriched MORB by 3.8Ga. Third, the primordial continents composed of anorthosite with subordinate amounts of KREEP basalts must have been annihilated by 4.0Ga to alter pH to be possible to precipitate carbonates by hydrothermal process. The value of pCO2 must have been decreased down to a few bars from c.a. 50 bars at TSI (total surface irradiance) = 75% under the restricted time limit. If failed, the Earth must have been Venus state which is impossible to bear life on the planet. Fourth is the role of tectonic erosion to destroy and transport the primordial continent of anorthosite into deep mantle by subduction. Anorthosite + KREEP was the mother's milk grow life on the Earth, but disappeared by 4.0Ga or even earlier, but alternatively granites were formed and

  11. The Effects of Opinion Leaders and Change Messages on Organization Member Change Attitudes: A Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    resistance, organizational commitment and change goal achievement. Journal of Change Management , 4(3): 193-215. Lynch, P., Eisenberger, R. & Armeli...Schraeder, M. (2007). Organizational change content, process and context: A simultaneous analysis of employee reactions. Journal of Change Management , 7

  12. Rapid evolution of phenology during range expansion with recent climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lustenhouwer, N.; Wilschut, R.A.; Williams, J.L.; van der Putten, W.H.; Levine, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Although climate warming is expected to make habitat beyond species’ current cold range edge suitable for future colonization, this new habitat may present an array of biotic or abiotic conditions not experienced within the current range. Species’ ability to shift their range with climate change may

  13. Rapid species responses to changes in climate require stringent climate protection targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van A.J.H.; Leemans, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change book consolidates the scientific findings of the Exeter conference and gives an account of the most recent developments on critical thresholds and key vulnerabilities of the climate system, impacts on human and natural systems, emission pathways and

  14. Extended Services in Schools: Developing Resources to Prepare Student Teachers for a Rapidly Changing Working Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Sue; Smith, Andy

    2011-01-01

    The role of schools in providing extended services to their communities continues to undergo change and development. This has raised issues regarding the training of student teachers who are increasingly likely to take up appointments in schools offering extended services. This research project investigated the development of resources to prepare…

  15. Evolution and behavioural responses to human-induced rapid environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sih, Andrew; Ferrari, Maud C O; Harris, David J

    2011-01-01

    Almost all organisms live in environments that have been altered, to some degree, by human activities. Because behaviour mediates interactions between an individual and its environment, the ability of organisms to behave appropriately under these new conditions is crucial for determining their immediate success or failure in these modified environments. While hundreds of species are suffering dramatically from these environmental changes, others, such as urbanized and pest species, are doing better than ever. Our goal is to provide insights into explaining such variation. We first summarize the responses of some species to novel situations, including novel risks and resources, habitat loss/fragmentation, pollutants and climate change. Using a sensory ecology approach, we present a mechanistic framework for predicting variation in behavioural responses to environmental change, drawing from models of decision-making processes and an understanding of the selective background against which they evolved. Where immediate behavioural responses are inadequate, learning or evolutionary adaptation may prove useful, although these mechanisms are also constrained by evolutionary history. Although predicting the responses of species to environmental change is difficult, we highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of evolutionary history in shaping individuals’ responses to their environment and provide suggestion for future work. PMID:25567979

  16. Challenge and Response, Strategies for Survival in a Rapidly Changing Forest Products Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Schuler; Craig Adair; Paul Winistorfer

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. has long been the world's largest market for wood and wood products, fueled by its demand for wood-frame housing. But forest product markets are changing, both in terns of where the products originate (domestically or abroad),and what products are being produced and consumed.

  17. Role of Western Hemisphere Warm Pool in Rapid Climate Changes over the Western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kug, Jong-Seong; Park, Jae-Heung; An, Soon-Il

    2017-04-01

    Oceanic states over the western North Pacific (WNP), which is surrounded by heavily populated countries, are closely tied to the lives of the people in East Asia in regards to both climate and socioeconomics. As global warming continues, remarkable increases in sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface height (SSH) have been observed in the WNP in recent decades. Here, we show that the SST increase in the western hemisphere warm pool (WHWP), which is the second largest warm pool on the globe, has contributed considerably to the rapid surface warming and sea level rise in the WNP via its remote teleconnection along the Pacific Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). State-of-the-art climate models strongly support the role of the WHWP not only on interannual time sales but also in long-term climate projections. We expect that understanding the processes initiated by the WHWP-SST could permit better forecasts of western North Pacific climate and the further development of the socioeconomics of East Asia.

  18. Rapid characterisation of vegetation structure to predict refugia and climate change impacts across a global biodiversity hotspot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius G T Schut

    Full Text Available Identification of refugia is an increasingly important adaptation strategy in conservation planning under rapid anthropogenic climate change. Granite outcrops (GOs provide extraordinary diversity, including a wide range of taxa, vegetation types and habitats in the Southwest Australian Floristic Region (SWAFR. However, poor characterization of GOs limits the capacity of conservation planning for refugia under climate change. A novel means for the rapid identification of potential refugia is presented, based on the assessment of local-scale environment and vegetation structure in a wider region. This approach was tested on GOs across the SWAFR. Airborne discrete return Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR data and Red Green and Blue (RGB imagery were acquired. Vertical vegetation profiles were used to derive 54 structural classes. Structural vegetation types were described in three areas for supervised classification of a further 13 GOs across the region. Habitat descriptions based on 494 vegetation plots on and around these GOs were used to quantify relationships between environmental variables, ground cover and canopy height. The vegetation surrounding GOs is strongly related to structural vegetation types (Kappa = 0.8 and to its spatial context. Water gaining sites around GOs are characterized by taller and denser vegetation in all areas. The strong relationship between rainfall, soil-depth, and vegetation structure (R(2 of 0.8-0.9 allowed comparisons of vegetation structure between current and future climate. Significant shifts in vegetation structural types were predicted and mapped for future climates. Water gaining areas below granite outcrops were identified as important putative refugia. A reduction in rainfall may be offset by the occurrence of deeper soil elsewhere on the outcrop. However, climate change interactions with fire and water table declines may render our conclusions conservative. The LiDAR-based mapping approach presented

  19. Debris Flows in a Changing Climate: Experimental and Field Investigations of the Influence of Changes in Moisture on Matrix Properties, Interparticle Interactions, and Subsequent Debris Flow Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, K. M.; Densmore, A.; Longjas, A.; Mullenbach, J.; Fouty, T.; Fei, M.; Zhou, G.; Sun, Q.

    2016-12-01

    Debris flows, rapid gravity-driven mixtures of sediment (boulders, gravels, sands, and mud) and water, are important geomorphological agents of landscape change and common natural hazards in mountainous regions. Worldwide, there is evidence that the frequency and magnitude of debris flows are increasing under recent changes in macro and micro climate. We investigate the influence of moisture differences associated with climate change on debris flow behaviors at the field and laboratory scales. Field measurements of debris flow fan deposits in Owens Valley during glacial and interglacial periods - likely corresponding to periods of higher and lower levels of water content in the soil and flows - show marked differences in avulsion frequencies, channel aspect ratios, sorting in the deposits and depositional geometries. These measurements suggest that differing moisture levels change the density and rheology of the matrix - the watery / muddy interstitial fluid - which, in turn, can significantly alter the dynamic behavior of the debris flow itself. This supports recent experimental results (Kaitna et al., 2014 & 2015) that changing the properties of the matrix of experimental flows appears to change the nature and relative importance of interparticle interactions compared to those associated with the fluid and subsequently influence the flow dynamics. We test these hypotheses using controlled laboratory experiments in flumes of two different sizes and where we systematically vary interstitial fluid properties and scale of the experiments. In both flumes we present high speed particle tracking and measurements of pore pressure and stress at the bed to show how the flow and entrainment behavior varies as the flow transitions from inertial to viscous, that is, as pore pressures and other fluid effects become increasingly dominant over inter-particle interactions, reflected in the Bagnold (1954) number. We also demonstrate that some effects, like bed fabric and fragility

  20. A Statistical Study of Photospheric Magnetic Field Changes During 75 Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos Durán, J. S.; Kleint, L.; Calvo-Mozo, B.

    2018-01-01

    Abrupt and permanent changes of photospheric magnetic fields have been observed during solar flares. The changes seem to be linked to the reconfiguration of magnetic fields, but their origin is still unclear. We carried out a statistical analysis of permanent line-of-sight magnetic field ({B}{LOS}) changes during 18 X-, 37 M-, 19 C-, and 1 B-class flares using data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager. We investigated the properties of permanent changes, such as frequency, areas, and locations. We detected changes of {B}{LOS} in 59/75 flares. We find that strong flares are more likely to show changes, with all flares ≥M1.6 exhibiting them. For weaker flares, permanent changes are observed in 6/17 C-flares. 34.3% of the permanent changes occurred in the penumbra and 18.9% in the umbra. Parts of the penumbra appeared or disappeared in 23/75 flares. The area where permanent changes occur is larger for stronger flares. Strong flares also show a larger change of flux, but there is no dependence of the magnetic flux change on the heliocentric angle. The mean rate of change of flare-related magnetic field changes is 20.7 Mx cm‑2 min‑1. The number of permanent changes decays exponentially with distance from the polarity inversion line. The frequency of the strength of permanent changes decreases exponentially, and permanent changes up to 750 Mx cm‑2 were observed. We conclude that permanent magnetic field changes are a common phenomenon during flares, and future studies will clarify their relation to accelerated electrons, white-light emission, and sunquakes to further investigate their origin.

  1. Rapid geochemical changes at Mawrth Vallis as observed through the mineralogical record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    The thick and widespread phyllosilicate outcrops observed in the Mawrth Vallis region indicate that abundant water was present here during the Noachian period. Factors shaping the formation and alteration of the observed phyllosilicates include aqueous processes, chemistry, and perhaps biology. The expansive phyllosilicate outcrops at Mawrth Vallis exhibit a consistent general trend of Al-phyllosilicates and amorphous Al/Si species at the top of the clay profile and Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates on the bottom. This implies either a change in water chemistry, a change in material being altered, or an alteration profile where the upper clays were leached and altered more significantly than those below. Localized variations in Al/Si-rich species [1,2] indicate pockets of acidic and neutral environments, likely formed through changes in the geochemical environment over a geologically short time period at the end of the Noachian. A change in iron in the phyllosilicate units is also observed such that an Fe2+-bearing unit is frequently observed between the Fe3+- and Mg-rich phyllosilicates below and the Al/Si-rich materials above [2]. Changes in oxidation state are often indicative of biogeochemical activity on Earth. CRISM spectra are shown in Figure 1 across a transect from an Al/Si-rich region to an Fe2+-bearing region to an Fe3+/Mg-phyllosilicate region. Phyllosilicate-bearing rocks may have been an ideal place on Mars for pre-biotic chemistry and possibly the development of life as well. Phyllosilicates, especially smectites, can serve as reaction surfaces that bind molecules and catalyze chemical reactions. Experiments have shown excellent survival of microbes in clay environments under extreme Mars-like temperature and humidity conditions. If microbes were present on Mars, the ancient Fe-smectite-bearing rocks could have been a favorable environment for them to evolve and possibly thrive. The Mawrth Vallis phyllosilicate outcrops are colored by changes in phyllosilicate

  2. Cone-beam computed tomography evaluation of dental, skeletal, and alveolar bone changes associated with bonded rapid maxillary expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Dogra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To evaluate skeletal changes in maxilla and its surrounding structures, changes in the maxillary dentition and maxillary alveolar bone changes produced by bonded rapid maxillary expansion (RME using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 10 patients (6 males and 4 females with age range 12 to 15 years treated with bonded RME. CBCT scans were performed at T1 (pretreatment and at T2 (immediately after expansion to evaluate the dental, skeletal, and alveolar bone changes. Results: RME treatment increased the overall skeletal parameters such as interorbital, zygomatic, nasal, and maxillary widths. Significant increases in buccal maxillary width was observed at first premolar, second premolar, and first molar level. There was a significant increase in arch width both on the palatal side and on the buccal side. Significant tipping of right and left maxillary first molars was seen. There were significant reductions in buccal bone plate thickness and increase in palatal bone plate thickness. Conclusions: Total expansion achieved with RME was a combination of dental, skeletal and alveolar bone changes. At the first molar level, 28.45% orthopedic, 16.03% alveolar bone bending, and 55.5% orthodontic changes were observed.

  3. Rapid language-related plasticity: microstructural changes in the cortex after a short session of new word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Shir; Friedmann, Naama; Assaf, Yaniv

    2017-04-01

    Human brain imaging revealed that the brain can undergo structural plasticity following new learning experiences. Most magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uncovered morphometric alternation in cortical density after the long-term training of weeks to months. A recent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study has found changes in diffusion indices after 2 h of training, primarily in the hippocampus. However, whether a short learning experience can induce microstructural changes in the neocortex is still unclear. Here, we used diffusion MRI, a method sensitive to tissue microstructure, to study cortical plasticity. To attain cortical involvement, we used a short language task (under 1 h) of introducing new lexical items (flower names) to the lexicon. We have found significant changes in diffusivity in cortical regions involved in language and reading (inferior frontal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, and inferior parietal lobule). In addition, the difference in the values of diffusivity correlated with the lexical learning rate in the task. Moreover, significant changes were found in white matter tracts near the cortex, and the extent of change correlated with behavioral measures of lexical learning rate. These findings provide first evidence of short-term cortical plasticity in the human brain after a short language learning task. It seems that short training of less than an hour of high cognitive demand can induce microstructural changes in the cortex, suggesting a rapid time scale of neuroplasticity and providing additional evidence of the power of MRI to investigate the temporal and spatial progressions of this process.

  4. Object-based change detection in rapid urbanization regions with remotely sensed observations: a case study of Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lihuang; Dong, Guihua; Wang, Wei-Min; Yang, Lijun; Liang, Hong

    2013-10-01

    China, the most populous country on Earth, has experienced rapid urbanization which is one of the main causes of many environmental and ecological problems. Therefore, the monitoring of rapid urbanization regions and the environment is of critical importance for their sustainable development. In this study, the object-based classification is employed to detect the change of land cover in Shenzhen, which is located in South China and has been urbanized rapidly in recent three decades. First, four Landsat TM images, which were acquired on 1990, 2000 and 2010, respectively, are selected from the image database. Atmospheric corrections are conducted on these images with improved dark-object subtraction technique and surface meteorological observations. Geometric correction is processed with ground control points derived from topographic maps. Second, a region growing multi-resolution segmentation and a soft nearest neighbour classifier are used to finish object-based classification. After analyzing the fraction of difference classes over time series, we conclude that the comparison of derived land cover classes with socio-economic statistics demonstrates the strong positive correlation between built-up classes and urban population as well as gross GDP and GDPs in second and tertiary industries. Two different mechanisms of urbanization, namely new land development and redevelopment, are revealed. Consequently, we found that, the districts of Shenzhen were urbanized through different mechanisms.

  5. Rapid behavioural gregarization in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria entails synchronous changes in both activity and attraction to conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Stephen M; Cullen, Darron A; Anstey, Michael L; Burrows, Malcolm; Despland, Emma; Dodgson, Tim; Matheson, Tom; Ott, Swidbert R; Stettin, Katja; Sword, Gregory A; Simpson, Stephen J

    2014-06-01

    Desert Locusts can change reversibly between solitarious and gregarious phases, which differ considerably in behaviour, morphology and physiology. The two phases show many behavioural differences including both overall levels of activity and the degree to which they are attracted or repulsed by conspecifics. Solitarious locusts perform infrequent bouts of locomotion characterised by a slow walking pace, groom infrequently and actively avoid other locusts. Gregarious locusts are highly active with a rapid walking pace, groom frequently and are attracted to conspecifics forming cohesive migratory bands as nymphs and/or flying swarms as adults. The sole factor driving the onset of gregarization is the presence of conspecifics. In several previous studies concerned with the mechanism underlying this transformation we have used an aggregate measure of behavioural phase state, Pgreg, derived from logistic regression analysis, which combines and weights several behavioural variables to characterise solitarious and gregarious behaviour. Using this approach we have analysed the time course of behavioural change, the stimuli that induce gregarization and the key role of serotonin in mediating the transformation. Following a recent critique that suggested that using Pgreg may confound changes in general activity with genuine gregarization we have performed a meta-analysis examining the time course of change in the individual behaviours that we use to generate Pgreg. We show that the forced crowding of solitarious locusts, tactile stimulation of the hind femora, and the short-term application of serotonin each induce concerted changes in not only locomotion-related variables but also grooming frequency and attraction to other locusts towards those characteristic of long-term gregarious locusts. This extensive meta-analysis supports and extends our previous conclusions that solitarious locusts undergo a rapid behavioural gregarization upon receiving appropriate stimulation for

  6. Rapid behavioural gregarization in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria entails synchronous changes in both activity and attraction to conspecifics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Stephen M.; Cullen, Darron A.; Anstey, Michael L.; Burrows, Malcolm; Despland, Emma; Dodgson, Tim; Matheson, Tom; Ott, Swidbert R.; Stettin, Katja; Sword, Gregory A.; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Desert Locusts can change reversibly between solitarious and gregarious phases, which differ considerably in behaviour, morphology and physiology. The two phases show many behavioural differences including both overall levels of activity and the degree to which they are attracted or repulsed by conspecifics. Solitarious locusts perform infrequent bouts of locomotion characterised by a slow walking pace, groom infrequently and actively avoid other locusts. Gregarious locusts are highly active with a rapid walking pace, groom frequently and are attracted to conspecifics forming cohesive migratory bands as nymphs and/or flying swarms as adults. The sole factor driving the onset of gregarization is the presence of conspecifics. In several previous studies concerned with the mechanism underlying this transformation we have used an aggregate measure of behavioural phase state, Pgreg, derived from logistic regression analysis, which combines and weights several behavioural variables to characterise solitarious and gregarious behaviour. Using this approach we have analysed the time course of behavioural change, the stimuli that induce gregarization and the key role of serotonin in mediating the transformation. Following a recent critique that suggested that using Pgreg may confound changes in general activity with genuine gregarization we have performed a meta-analysis examining the time course of change in the individual behaviours that we use to generate Pgreg. We show that the forced crowding of solitarious locusts, tactile stimulation of the hind femora, and the short-term application of serotonin each induce concerted changes in not only locomotion-related variables but also grooming frequency and attraction to other locusts towards those characteristic of long-term gregarious locusts. This extensive meta-analysis supports and extends our previous conclusions that solitarious locusts undergo a rapid behavioural gregarization upon receiving appropriate stimulation for

  7. Rapid change of multiplicity fluctuations in system size dependence at SPS energies arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Recent preliminary results on multiplicity fluctuations in p+p, Be+Be and Ar+Sc collisions from the NA61/SHINE collaboration are presented. The scaled variance of charged hadron multiplicity changes little when going from p+p to Be+Be collisions and drops dramatically from Be+Be to Ar+Sc interactions. The centrality selection procedure and the influence of volume fluctuations are discussed. Comparisons with the EPOS event generator are shown.

  8. Rapid response of a marine mammal species to holocene climate and habitat change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark de Bruyn

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental change drives demographic and evolutionary processes that determine diversity within and among species. Tracking these processes during periods of change reveals mechanisms for the establishment of populations and provides predictive data on response to potential future impacts, including those caused by anthropogenic climate change. Here we show how a highly mobile marine species responded to the gain and loss of new breeding habitat. Southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina, remains were found along the Victoria Land Coast (VLC in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, 2,500 km from the nearest extant breeding site on Macquarie Island (MQ. This habitat was released after retreat of the grounded ice sheet in the Ross Sea Embayment 7,500-8,000 cal YBP, and is within the range of modern foraging excursions from the MQ colony. Using ancient mtDNA and coalescent models, we tracked the population dynamics of the now extinct VLC colony and the connectivity between this and extant breeding sites. We found a clear expansion signal in the VLC population approximately 8,000 YBP, followed by directional migration away from VLC and the loss of diversity at approximately 1,000 YBP, when sea ice is thought to have expanded. Our data suggest that VLC seals came initially from MQ and that some returned there once the VLC habitat was lost, approximately 7,000 years later. We track the founder-extinction dynamics of a population from inception to extinction in the context of Holocene climate change and present evidence that an unexpectedly diverse, differentiated breeding population was founded from a distant source population soon after habitat became available.

  9. Sediment Processes on the Coral Reefs of Kahoolawe: A Rapid Field Assessment in 1993 (NODC Accession 0000883)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore coral ecosystems of Kahoolawe were rapidly assessed in 1993. Surveys were made of the coral coverage, fish communities, and sediment types from 19...

  10. Next Generation of Renewable Electricity Policy: How Rapid Change is Breaking Down Conventional Policy Categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, T. D. [E3 Analytics, Berlin (Germany); Jacobs, D. [International Energy Transition (IET), Boston, MA (United States); Rickerson, W. [Meister Consultants Group, Boston, MA (United States); Healey, V. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A number of policies have been used historically in order to stimulate the growth of the renewable electricity sector. This paper examines four of these policy instruments: competitive tendering, sometimes called renewable electricity auctions, feed-in tariffs, net metering and net billing, and tradable renewable energy certificates. In recent years, however, a number of changes to both market circumstances and to policy priorities have resulted in numerous policy innovations, including the emergence of policy hybrids. With no common language for these evolving policy mechanisms, policymakers have generally continued to use the same traditional policy labels, occasionally generating confusion as many of these new policies no longer look, or act, like their traditional predecessors. In reviewing these changes, this paper makes two separate but related claims: first, policy labels themselves are breaking down and evolving. As a result, policy comparisons that rely on the conventional labels may no longer be appropriate, or advisable. Second, as policymakers continue to adapt, we are in effect witnessing the emergence of the next generation of renewable electricity policies, a change that could have significant impacts on investment, as well as on market growth in both developed and developing countries.

  11. Experimental studies of instantaneous color constancy: dynamic color matching under rapid changes of illuminant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbur, John L.; de Cunha, Darryl; Williams, Cristyn B.; Plant, Gordon

    2002-06-01

    We have extended the experiments of McCann et al., (1976) by incorporating the Mondrian stimulus into a dynamic colour matching (DCM) technique that allows the subject to match accurately the colour of any test patch under sequential changes of illuminant. We have also studied how scattered light affects the measured instantaneous colour constancy (ICC) index. The results show that correction for forward light scatter in the eye can increase significantly the measured ICC index. The changes in the perceived colour of a central test stimulus as a result of surround illuminant changes was investigated in a number of successful binocular and dichoptic experiments. The contribution made by distant patches to ICC was found to be small with the immediate surround (i.e., less than 2 degree(s) separation) contributing over 50% of the constancy effect. A number of subjects with partial loss of ability to see and discriminate colours caused by damage to ventromedial pre-striate visual cortex were also investigated. In order to establish the site of ICC mechanisms, the dynamic colour matching technique was modified to make it suitable for studies in patients with unilateral damage to the primary visual cortex.

  12. Somatosensory Space Abridged: Rapid Change in Tactile Localization Using a Motion Stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seizova-Cajic, Tatjana; Taylor, Janet L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Organization of tactile input into somatotopic maps enables us to localize stimuli on the skin. Temporal relationships between stimuli are important in maintaining the maps and influence perceived locations of discrete stimuli. This points to the spatiotemporal stimulation sequences experienced as motion as a potential powerful organizing principle for spatial maps. We ask whether continuity of the motion determines perceived location of areas in the motion path using a novel tactile stimulus designed to ‘convince’ the brain that a patch of skin does not exist by rapidly skipping over it. Method Two brushes, fixed 9 cm apart, moved back and forth along the forearm (at 14.5 cm s−1), crossing a 10-cm long ‘occluder’, which prevented skin stimulation in the middle of the motion path. Crucially, only one brush contacted the skin at any one time, and the occluder was traversed almost instantaneously. Participants pointed with the other arm towards the felt location of the brush when it was briefly halted during repetitive motion, and also reported where they felt they had been brushed. Results Participants did not report the 10-cm gap in stimulation – the motion path was perceptually completed. Pointing results showed that brush path was ‘abridged’: locations immediately on either side of the occluder, as well as location at the ends of the brush path, were perceived to be >3 cm closer to each other than in the control condition (F(1,9) = 7.19; p = .025 and F(1,9) = 6.02, p = .037 respectively). This bias increased with prolonged stimulation. Conclusions An illusion of completion induced by our Abridging stimulus is accompanied by gross mislocalization, suggesting that motion determines perceived locations. The effect reveals the operation of Gestalt principles in touch and suggests the existence of dynamic maps that quickly adjust to the current input pattern. PMID:24603595

  13. Pleistocene climate change promoted rapid diversification of aquatic invertebrates in Southeast Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawlitschek Oliver

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pleistocene Ice Ages were the most recent geohistorical event of major global impact, but their consequences for most parts of the Southern hemisphere remain poorly known. We investigate a radiation of ten species of Sternopriscus, the most species-rich genus of epigean Australian diving beetles. These species are distinct based on genital morphology but cannot be distinguished readily by mtDNA and nDNA because of genotype sharing caused by incomplete lineage sorting. Their genetic similarity suggests a Pleistocene origin. Results We use a dataset of 3858 bp of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to reconstruct a phylogeny of Sternopriscus using gene and species trees. Diversification analyses support the finding of a recent rapid speciation event with estimated speciation rates of up to 2.40 species per MY, which is considerably higher than the proposed average rate of 0.16 species per MY for insects. Additionally, we use ecological niche modeling and analyze data on habitat preferences to test for niche divergence between species of the recent Sternopriscus radiation. These analyses show that the species can be characterized by a set of ecological variables referring to habitat, climate and altitude. Conclusions Our results suggest that the repeated isolation of populations in glacial refugia might have led to divergent ecological adaptations and the fixation of morphological traits supporting reproductive isolation and therefore may have promoted speciation. The recent Sternopriscus radiation fulfills many characteristics of a species flock and would be the first described example of an aquatic insect species flock. We argue that the species of this group may represent a stage in speciation past the species flock condition because of their mostly broad and often non-overlapping ranges and preferences for different habitat types.

  14. Pleistocene climate change promoted rapid diversification of aquatic invertebrates in Southeast Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawlitschek, Oliver; Hendrich, Lars; Espeland, Marianne; Toussaint, Emmanuel F A; Genner, Martin J; Balke, Michael

    2012-08-09

    The Pleistocene Ice Ages were the most recent geohistorical event of major global impact, but their consequences for most parts of the Southern hemisphere remain poorly known. We investigate a radiation of ten species of Sternopriscus, the most species-rich genus of epigean Australian diving beetles. These species are distinct based on genital morphology but cannot be distinguished readily by mtDNA and nDNA because of genotype sharing caused by incomplete lineage sorting. Their genetic similarity suggests a Pleistocene origin. We use a dataset of 3858 bp of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to reconstruct a phylogeny of Sternopriscus using gene and species trees. Diversification analyses support the finding of a recent rapid speciation event with estimated speciation rates of up to 2.40 species per MY, which is considerably higher than the proposed average rate of 0.16 species per MY for insects. Additionally, we use ecological niche modeling and analyze data on habitat preferences to test for niche divergence between species of the recent Sternopriscus radiation. These analyses show that the species can be characterized by a set of ecological variables referring to habitat, climate and altitude. Our results suggest that the repeated isolation of populations in glacial refugia might have led to divergent ecological adaptations and the fixation of morphological traits supporting reproductive isolation and therefore may have promoted speciation. The recent Sternopriscus radiation fulfills many characteristics of a species flock and would be the first described example of an aquatic insect species flock. We argue that the species of this group may represent a stage in speciation past the species flock condition because of their mostly broad and often non-overlapping ranges and preferences for different habitat types.

  15. Changes in pharyngeal aerobic microflora in oral breathers after palatal rapid expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripa Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate in oral breathing children the qualitative and quantitative effects on aerobic and facultatively anaerobic oropharyngeal microflora of respiratory function improved by rapid palatal expansion (RPE. Methods In an open clinical trial, we studied 50 oral breathers, aged 8 to 14 years and suffering from both maxillary constriction and posterior cross-bite. At baseline, patients were examined by a single otorhinolaryngologist (ENT, confirming nasal obstruction in all subjects by posterior rhino-manometric test. Patients were evaluated three times by oropharyngeal swabs:1 at baseline (T = 0; 2 after palatal spreading out (T = 1; and 3 at the end of RPE treatment (T = 2. With regard to the microbiological aspect, the most common and potentially pathogenic oral microrganisms (i.e. Streptococcus pyogenes, Diplococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus spp, Branhamella catarrhalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans were specifically detected in proper culture plates, isolated colonies were identified by means of biochemical tests and counted by calibrated loop. The data were analyzed by means of the following tests: Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and Wilcoxon's test. Results After the use of RME there was a statistically significant decrease of Staphylococcus aureus stock at CFU/mLat T1(P = 0.0005; Z = -3,455 by Wilcoxon Rank test and T2 (P Conclusion Our data suggest that RPE therapy in oral breathers may strongly reduce the pathogenic aerobic and facultatively anaerobic microflora in the oral pharynx after a normalization of the upper airways function, and may reduce the risk of respiratory infections.

  16. Utility of point of care test devices for infectious disease testing of blood and oral fluid and application to rapid testing in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephen R.; Kardos, Keith W.; Yearwood, Graham D.; Guillon, Geraldine B.; Kurtz, Lisa A.; Mokkapati, Vijaya K.

    2008-04-01

    Rapid, point of care (POC) testing has been increasingly deployed as an aid in the diagnosis of infectious disease, due to its ability to deliver rapid, actionable results. In the case of HIV, a number of rapid test devices have been FDA approved and CLIA-waived in order to enable diagnosis of HIV infection outside of traditional laboratory settings. These settings include STD clinics, community outreach centers and mobile testing units, as well as identifying HIV infection among pregnant women and managing occupational exposure to infection. The OraQuick ® rapid test platform has been widely used to identify HIV in POC settings, due to its simplicity, ease of use and the ability to utilize oral fluid as an alternative specimen to blood. More recently, a rapid test for antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been developed on the same test platform which uses serum, plasma, finger-stick blood, venous blood and oral fluid. Clinical testing using this POC test device has shown that performance is equivalent to state of the art, laboratory based tests. These devices may be suitable for rapid field testing of blood and other body fluids for the presence of infectious agents.

  17. Quantum field theory in topology changing spacetimes; Quantenfeldtheorie auf Raumzeiten mit Topologieaenderungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, W.

    2007-03-15

    The goal of this diploma thesis is to present an overview of how to reduce the problem of topology change of general spacetimes to the investigation of elementary cobordisms. In the following we investigate the possibility to construct quantum fields on elementary cobordisms, in particular we discuss the trousers topology. Trying to avoid the problems occuring at spacetimes with instant topology change we use a model for simulating topology change. We construct the algebra of observables for a free scalar field with the algebraic approach to quantum field theory. Therefore we determine a fundamental solution of the eld equation. (orig.)

  18. Coastal regime shifts: rapid responses of coastal wetlands to changes in mangrove cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongyu; Weaver, Carolyn; Charles, Sean P; Whitt, Ashley; Dastidar, Sayantani; D'Odorico, Paolo; Fuentes, Jose D; Kominoski, John S; Armitage, Anna R; Pennings, Steven C

    2017-03-01

    Global changes are causing broad-scale shifts in vegetation communities worldwide, including coastal habitats where the borders between mangroves and salt marsh are in flux. Coastal habitats provide numerous ecosystem services of high economic value, but the consequences of variation in mangrove cover are poorly known. We experimentally manipulated mangrove cover in large plots to test a set of linked hypotheses regarding the effects of changes in mangrove cover. We found that changes in mangrove cover had strong effects on microclimate, plant community, sediment accretion, soil organic content, and bird abundance within 2 yr. At higher mangrove cover, wind speed declined and light interception by vegetation increased. Air and soil temperatures had hump-shaped relationships with mangrove cover. The cover of salt marsh plants decreased at higher mangrove cover. Wrack cover, the distance that wrack was distributed from the water's edge, and sediment accretion decreased at higher mangrove cover. Soil organic content increased with mangrove cover. Wading bird abundance decreased at higher mangrove cover. Many of these relationships were non-linear, with the greatest effects when mangrove cover varied from zero to intermediate values, and lesser effects when mangrove cover varied from intermediate to high values. Temporal and spatial variation in measured variables often peaked at intermediate mangrove cover, with ecological consequences that are largely unexplored. Because different processes varied in different ways with mangrove cover, the "optimum" cover of mangroves from a societal point of view will depend on which ecosystem services are most desired. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  19. High Resolution Topography of Age-Related Changes in Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Electroencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprecher, Kate E.; Riedner, Brady A.; Smith, Richard F.; Tononi, Giulio; Davidson, Richard J.; Benca, Ruth M.

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping brain activity reflects brain anatomy and physiology. The aim of this study was to use high density (256 channel) electroencephalography (EEG) during sleep to characterize topographic changes in sleep EEG power across normal aging, with high spatial resolution. Sleep was evaluated in 92 healthy adults aged 18–65 years old using full polysomnography and high density EEG. After artifact removal, spectral power density was calculated for standard frequency bands for all channels, averaged across the NREM periods of the first 3 sleep cycles. To quantify topographic changes with age, maps were generated of the Pearson’s coefficient of the correlation between power and age at each electrode. Significant correlations were determined by statistical non-parametric mapping. Absolute slow wave power declined significantly with increasing age across the entire scalp, whereas declines in theta and sigma power were significant only in frontal regions. Power in fast spindle frequencies declined significantly with increasing age frontally, whereas absolute power of slow spindle frequencies showed no significant change with age. When EEG power was normalized across the scalp, a left centro-parietal region showed significantly less age-related decline in power than the rest of the scalp. This partial preservation was particularly significant in the slow wave and sigma bands. The effect of age on sleep EEG varies substantially by region and frequency band. This non-uniformity should inform the design of future investigations of aging and sleep. This study provides normative data on the effect of age on sleep EEG topography, and provides a basis from which to explore the mechanisms of normal aging as well as neurodegenerative disorders for which age is a risk factor. PMID:26901503

  20. High Resolution Topography of Age-Related Changes in Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Electroencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprecher, Kate E; Riedner, Brady A; Smith, Richard F; Tononi, Giulio; Davidson, Richard J; Benca, Ruth M

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping brain activity reflects brain anatomy and physiology. The aim of this study was to use high density (256 channel) electroencephalography (EEG) during sleep to characterize topographic changes in sleep EEG power across normal aging, with high spatial resolution. Sleep was evaluated in 92 healthy adults aged 18-65 years old using full polysomnography and high density EEG. After artifact removal, spectral power density was calculated for standard frequency bands for all channels, averaged across the NREM periods of the first 3 sleep cycles. To quantify topographic changes with age, maps were generated of the Pearson's coefficient of the correlation between power and age at each electrode. Significant correlations were determined by statistical non-parametric mapping. Absolute slow wave power declined significantly with increasing age across the entire scalp, whereas declines in theta and sigma power were significant only in frontal regions. Power in fast spindle frequencies declined significantly with increasing age frontally, whereas absolute power of slow spindle frequencies showed no significant change with age. When EEG power was normalized across the scalp, a left centro-parietal region showed significantly less age-related decline in power than the rest of the scalp. This partial preservation was particularly significant in the slow wave and sigma bands. The effect of age on sleep EEG varies substantially by region and frequency band. This non-uniformity should inform the design of future investigations of aging and sleep. This study provides normative data on the effect of age on sleep EEG topography, and provides a basis from which to explore the mechanisms of normal aging as well as neurodegenerative disorders for which age is a risk factor.

  1. High Resolution Topography of Age-Related Changes in Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Electroencephalography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate E Sprecher

    Full Text Available Sleeping brain activity reflects brain anatomy and physiology. The aim of this study was to use high density (256 channel electroencephalography (EEG during sleep to characterize topographic changes in sleep EEG power across normal aging, with high spatial resolution. Sleep was evaluated in 92 healthy adults aged 18-65 years old using full polysomnography and high density EEG. After artifact removal, spectral power density was calculated for standard frequency bands for all channels, averaged across the NREM periods of the first 3 sleep cycles. To quantify topographic changes with age, maps were generated of the Pearson's coefficient of the correlation between power and age at each electrode. Significant correlations were determined by statistical non-parametric mapping. Absolute slow wave power declined significantly with increasing age across the entire scalp, whereas declines in theta and sigma power were significant only in frontal regions. Power in fast spindle frequencies declined significantly with increasing age frontally, whereas absolute power of slow spindle frequencies showed no significant change with age. When EEG power was normalized across the scalp, a left centro-parietal region showed significantly less age-related decline in power than the rest of the scalp. This partial preservation was particularly significant in the slow wave and sigma bands. The effect of age on sleep EEG varies substantially by region and frequency band. This non-uniformity should inform the design of future investigations of aging and sleep. This study provides normative data on the effect of age on sleep EEG topography, and provides a basis from which to explore the mechanisms of normal aging as well as neurodegenerative disorders for which age is a risk factor.

  2. Rapid Small-Signal Stability Assessment and Enhancement Following Changes in Topology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saric, AT; Stankovic, AM

    2015-05-01

    The paper proposes a scalable and tractable algorithm for dynamic topology optimization of power systems involving changes in branch on/off status, while respecting small-signal stability (SSS) constraints. A procedure for fast updates of the system matrices (in descriptor form) and without additional full matrix inversions is proposed. To additionally reduce the computation time, only critical eigenvalues (right-most or those in a specified damping ratio and frequency range) are calculated. A quadratic optimization approach is proposed for optimized generation re-dispatch to satisfy SSS constraints. The approach is applied to two (medium- and large-scale) real-world test power systems.

  3. Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) RAPID Program Engineering Project 8: FINAL REPORT, Evaluation of Field Reduction Technologies, Volume 1 (Report) and Volume 2 (Appendices)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commonwealth Associates, Inc.; IIT Research Institute

    1997-08-01

    This draft report consists of two volumes. Volume 1, the main body, contains an introducto~ sectionj an overview of magnetic fields sectio~ and field reduction technology evaluation section. Magnetic field reduction methods are evalpated for transmission lines, distribution Iines,sulxtations, building wiring applkmd machinery, and transportation systems. The evaluation considers effectiveness, co% and other ftiors. Volume 2 contains five appendices, Append~ A presents magnetic field shielding information. Appendices B and C present design assumptions and magnetic field plots for transmission and distribution lines, respectively. Appendices D and E present cost estimate details for transmission and distribution limes, respectively.

  4. Changes to dryland rainfall result in rapid moss mortality and altered soil fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sasha C.; Coe, Kirsten K.; Sparks, Jed P.; Housman, David C.; Zelikova, Tamara J.; Belnap, Jayne

    2012-01-01

    Arid and semi-arid ecosystems cover ~40% of Earth’s terrestrial surface, but we know little about how climate change will affect these widespread landscapes. Like many drylands, the Colorado Plateau in southwestern United States is predicted to experience elevated temperatures and alterations to the timing and amount of annual precipitation. We used a factorial warming and supplemental rainfall experiment on the Colorado Plateau to show that altered precipitation resulted in pronounced mortality of the widespread moss Syntrichia caninervis. Increased frequency of 1.2 mm summer rainfall events reduced moss cover from ~25% of total surface cover to fertility. Mosses are important members in many dryland ecosystems and the community changes observed here reveal how subtle modifications to climate can affect ecosystem structure and function on unexpectedly short timescales. Moreover, mortality resulted from increased precipitation through smaller, more frequent events, underscoring the importance of precipitation event size and timing, and highlighting our inadequate understanding of relationships between climate and ecosystem function in drylands.

  5. The Boltysh crater record of rapid vegetation change during the Dan-C2 hyperthermal event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, D. W.; Daly, R.; Gilmour, I.; Gilmour, M.; Kelley, S. P.

    2012-04-01

    Analysis of a cored borehole drilled through the sedimentary fill of the 24km wide Boltysh meteorite crater, Ukraine has yielded a unique, high resolution record spanning gymnosperm - angiosperm - fern communities are replaced by precipitation limited (winterwet) plant communities within the negative CIE. Winterwet plant communities dominate the negative CIE, but are replaced within the isotope recovery stage by warm temperate floras. These in turn give way to cooler temperate floras in the post positive CIE section of the uppermost crater fill. The distribution of temperate taxa about the negative CIE represents the broadest scale of oscillatory variation in the palynofloras. Shorter frequency oscillations are evident from diversity and botanical group distributions reflecting changes in moisture availability over several thousand years. Detailed analysis of variability within one of these oscillations records plant community cyclicity across the inception of the negative CIE. This short term cyclicity provides evidence that the replacement of warm termperate by winterwet floras occurred in a stepwise manner at the negative CIE suggesting cumulative atmospheric forcing. At <1mm scale, lamination within the negative CIE showed no obvious lithological or colour differences, and are not seasonal couplets. However, palynofloral analysis of laminations from within the negative CIE has yielded evidence of annual variation identifying the potential for recoding changes in 'paleoweather' across a major hyperthermal event. [1] Jolley, D. W. et al. (2010) Geology 38, 835-838.

  6. Inspection times, the change task, and the rapid-response selection task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M J; Newton, E J

    2001-11-01

    Three experiments are reported, which are based upon the Wason four-card selection task inspection time paradigm, in which subjects solve computer-presented trials while using a mouse to indicate the card currently under consideration. Evans (1996) had shown that selected cards were inspected for longer than non-selected cards, and this was taken as support for the existence of pre-conscious heuristic processes that direct attention towards relevant aspects of a problem. However, Roberts (1998b) suggested that this inspection time effect is artefactual, due to task format induced biases. Experiment 1 utilized a "change" task: Cards were presented either as selected or not selected, and subjects changed these where necessary. This demonstrated an association between card selection and inspection time independently of one between the act of response and inspection time. Experiment 2 utilized a standard selection task, but subjects either responded within 2 s of each card presentation, or made selections with no time pressure. The curtailment of thinking time increased matching behaviour--more cards matching the terms in the rules were selected--and was replicated in Experiment 3 using a within-subjects design. Overall, the data support Evans' heuristic-analytic framework albeit with some caveats.

  7. The role of the Asian winter monsoon in the rapid propagation of abrupt climate changes during the last deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Guoqiang; Sun, Qing; Zhu, Qingzeng; Shan, Yabing; Shang, Wenyu; Ling, Yuan; Su, Youliang; Xie, Manman; Wang, Xishen; Liu, Jiaqi

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution temperature records spanning the last deglaciation from low latitudes are scarce; however, they are important for understanding the rapid propagation of abrupt climate events throughout the Northern Hemisphere and the tropics. Here, we present a branched GDGTs-based temperature reconstruction from the sediments of Maar Lake Huguangyan in tropical China. The record reveals that the mean temperature during the Oldest Dryas was 17.8 °C, which was followed by a two-step increase of 2-3 °C to the Bølling-Allerød, a decrease to 19.8 °C during the Younger Dryas, and a rapid warming at the onset of the Holocene. The Oldest Dryas was about 2 °C warmer than the Younger Dryas. The reconstructed temperature was weighted towards the wintertime since the lake is monomictic and the mixing process in winter supplies nutrients from the lake bottom to the entire water column, greatly promoting biological productivity. In addition, the winter-biased temperature changes observed in the study are more distinctive than the summer-biased temperature records from extra-tropical regions of East Asia. This implies that the temperature decreases during abrupt climatic events were mainly a winter phenomenon. Within the limits of the dating uncertainties, the broadly similar pattern of winter-weighted temperature change observed in both tropical Lake Huguangyan and in Greenland ice cores indicates the occurrence of tightly-coupled interactions between high latitude ice sheets and land areas in the tropics. We suggest that the winter monsoon (especially cold surges) could play an important role in the rapid transmission of the temperature signal from the Arctic to the tropics.

  8. Rapid breeding and varietal replacement are critical to adaptation of cropping systems in the developing world to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlin, Gary N; Cairns, Jill E; Das, Biswanath

    2017-03-01

    Plant breeding is a key mechanism for adaptation of cropping systems to climate change. Much discussion of breeding for climate change focuses on genes with large effects on heat and drought tolerance, but phenology and stress tolerance are highly polygenic. Adaptation will therefore mainly result from continually adjusting allele frequencies at many loci through rapid-cycle breeding that delivers a steady stream of incrementally improved cultivars. This will require access to elite germplasm from other regions, shortened breeding cycles, and multi-location testing systems that adequately sample the target population of environments. The objective of breeding and seed systems serving smallholder farmers should be to ensure that they use varieties developed in the last 10 years. Rapid varietal turnover must be supported by active dissemination of new varieties, and active withdrawal of obsolete ones. Commercial seed systems in temperate regions achieve this through competitive seed markets, but in the developing world, most crops are not served by competitive commercial seed systems, and many varieties date from the end of the Green Revolution (the late 1970s, when the second generation of modern rice and wheat varieties had been widely adopted). These obsolete varieties were developed in a climate different than today's, placing farmers at risk. To reduce this risk, a strengthened breeding system is needed, with freer international exchange of elite varieties, short breeding cycles, high selection intensity, wide-scale phenotyping, and accurate selection supported by genomic technology. Governments need to incentivize varietal release and dissemination systems to continuously replace obsolete varieties.

  9. Rapid realist review of the evidence: achieving lasting change when mental health rehabilitation staff undertake recovery-oriented training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Melanie; Bhanbhro, Sadiq; Cook, Sarah; Killaspy, Helen

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the factors contributing to lasting change in practice following a recovery-based training intervention for inpatient mental health rehabilitation staff. Staff training may help nurses and other staff groups in inpatient mental health rehabilitative settings to increase their recovery-oriented practice. There are no published reviews on the effectiveness of such training and few long-term evaluations. This review informed a realist evaluation of a specific intervention (GetREAL). Rapid realist review methodology was used to generate and prioritize programme theories. ASSIA, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Medline, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science and grey literature searches were performed in September 2014-March 2015 with no date restrictions. Stakeholders suggested further documents. GetREAL project documentation was consulted. Programme theory development took place iteratively with literature identification. Stakeholders validated and prioritized emerging programme theories and the prioritized theories were refined using literature case studies. Fifty-one relevant documents fed into 49 programme theories articulating seven mechanisms for lasting change. Prioritized mechanisms were: staff receptiveness to change; and staff feeling encouraged, motivated and supported by colleagues and management to change. Seven programme theories were prioritized and refined using data from four case studies. Lasting change can be facilitated by collaborative action planning, regular collaborative meetings, appointing a change agent, explicit management endorsement and prioritization and modifying organizational structures. Conversely, a challenging organizational climate, or a prevalence of 'change fatigue', may block change. Pre-intervention exploration may help identify any potential barriers to embedding recovery in the organizational culture. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Rapid environmental change over the past decade revealed by isotopic analysis of the California mussel in the northeast Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Pfister

    Full Text Available The anthropogenic input of fossil fuel carbon into the atmosphere results in increased carbon dioxide (CO(2 into the oceans, a process that lowers seawater pH, decreases alkalinity and can inhibit the production of shell material. Corrosive water has recently been documented in the northeast Pacific, along with a rapid decline in seawater pH over the past decade. A lack of instrumentation prior to the 1990s means that we have no indication whether these carbon cycle changes have precedence or are a response to recent anthropogenic CO(2 inputs. We analyzed stable carbon and oxygen isotopes (δ(13C, δ(18O of decade-old California mussel shells (Mytilus californianus in the context of an instrumental seawater record of the same length. We further compared modern shells to shells from 1000 to 1340 years BP and from the 1960s to the present and show declines in the δ(13C of modern shells that have no historical precedent. Our finding of decline in another shelled mollusk (limpet and our extensive environmental data show that these δ(13C declines are unexplained by changes to the coastal food web, upwelling regime, or local circulation. Our observed decline in shell δ(13C parallels other signs of rapid changes to the nearshore carbon cycle in the Pacific, including a decline in pH that is an order of magnitude greater than predicted by an equilibrium response to rising atmospheric CO(2, the presence of low pH water throughout the region, and a record of a similarly steep decline in δ(13C in algae in the Gulf of Alaska. These unprecedented changes and the lack of a clear causal variable underscores the need for better quantifying carbon dynamics in nearshore environments.

  11. Mobile Device Trends in Orthopedic Surgery: Rapid Change and Future Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrawis, John P; Muzykewicz, David A; Franko, Orrin I

    2016-01-01

    Mobile devices are increasingly becoming integral communication and clinical tools. Monitoring the prevalence and utilization characteristics of surgeons and trainees is critical to understanding how these new technologies can be best used in practice. The authors conducted a prospective Internet-based survey over 7 time points from August 2010 to August 2014 at all nationwide American Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited orthopedic programs. The survey questionnaire was designed to evaluate the use of devices and mobile applications (apps) among trainees and physicians in the clinical setting. Results were analyzed and summarized for orthopedic surgeons and trainees. During the 48-month period, there were 7 time points with 467, 622, 329, 223, 237, 111, and 134 responses. Mobile device use in the clinical setting increased across all fields and levels of training during the study period. Orthopedic trainees increased their use of Smartphone apps in the clinical setting from 60% to 84%, whereas attending use increased from 41% to 61%. During this time frame, use of Apple/Android platforms increased from 45%/13% to 85%/15%, respectively. At all time points, 70% of orthopedic surgeons believed their institution/hospital should support mobile device use. As measured over a 48-month period, mobile devices have become an ubiquitous tool in the clinical setting among orthopedic surgeons and trainees. The authors expect these trends to continue and encourage providers and trainees to be aware of the limitations and risks inherent with new technology. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. The impacts of climate change on poverty in 2030, and the potential from rapid, inclusive and climate-informed development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenberg, J.; Hallegatte, S.

    2016-12-01

    There is a consensus on the fact that poor people are more vulnerable to climate change than the rest of the population, but, until recently, few quantified estimates had been proposed and few frameworks existed to design policies for addressing the issue. In this paper, we analyze the impacts of climate change on poverty using micro-simulation approaches. We start from household surveys that describe the current distribution of income and occupations, we project these households into the future and we look at the impacts of climate change on people's income. To project households into the future, we explore a large range of assumptions on future demographic changes (including on education), technological changes, and socio-economic trends (including redistribution policies). This approach allows us to identify the main combination of factors that lead to fast poverty reduction, and the ones that lead to high climate change impacts on the poor. Identifying these factors is critical for designing efficient policies to protect the poorest from climate change impacts and making economic growth more inclusive. Conclusions are twofold. First, by 2030 climate change can have a large impact on poverty, with between 3 and 122 million more people in poverty, but climate change remains a secondary driver of poverty trends within this time horizon. Climate change impacts do not only affect the poorest: in 2030, the bottom 40 percent lose more than 4 percent of income in many countries. The regional hotspots are Sub-Saharan Africa and - to a lesser extent - India and the rest of South Asia. The most important channel through which climate change increases poverty is through agricultural income and food prices. Second, by 2030 and in the absence of surprises on climate impacts, inclusive climate-informed development can prevent most of (but not all) the impacts on poverty. In a scenario with rapid, inclusive and climate-proof development, climate change impact on poverty is

  13. ReEBOV Antigen Rapid Test kit for point-of-care and laboratory-based testing for Ebola virus disease: a field validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, Mara Jana; Kelly, John Daniel; Miller, Ann; Semper, Amanda; Bailey, Daniel; Groppelli, Elisabetta; Simpson, Andrew; Brooks, Tim; Hula, Susan; Nyoni, Wilfred; Sankoh, Alhaji B; Kanu, Santigi; Jalloh, Alhaji; Ton, Quy; Sarchet, Nicholas; George, Peter; Perkins, Mark D; Wonderly, Betsy; Murray, Megan; Pollock, Nira R

    2015-08-29

    At present, diagnosis of Ebola virus disease requires transport of venepuncture blood to field biocontainment laboratories for testing by real-time RT-PCR, resulting in delays that complicate patient care and infection control efforts. Therefore, an urgent need exists for a point-of-care rapid diagnostic test for this disease. In this Article, we report the results of a field validation of the Corgenix ReEBOV Antigen Rapid Test kit. We performed the rapid diagnostic test on fingerstick blood samples from 106 individuals with suspected Ebola virus disease presenting at two clinical centres in Sierra Leone. Adults and children who were able to provide verbal consent or assent were included; we excluded patients with haemodynamic instability and those who were unable to cooperate with fingerstick or venous blood draw. Two independent readers scored each rapid diagnostic test, with any disagreements resolved by a third. We compared point-of-care rapid diagnostic test results with clinical real-time RT-PCR results (RealStar Filovirus Screen RT-PCR kit 1·0; altona Diagnostics GmbH, Hamburg, Germany) for venepuncture plasma samples tested in a Public Health England field reference laboratory (Port Loko, Sierra Leone). Separately, we performed the rapid diagnostic test (on whole blood) and real-time RT-PCR (on plasma) on 284 specimens in the reference laboratory, which were submitted to the laboratory for testing from many clinical sites in Sierra Leone, including our two clinical centres. In point-of-care testing, all 28 patients who tested positive for Ebola virus disease by RT-PCR were also positive by fingerstick rapid diagnostic test (sensitivity 100% [95% CI 87·7-100]), and 71 of 77 patients who tested negative by RT-PCR were also negative by the rapid diagnostic test (specificity 92·2% [95% CI 83·8-97·1]). In laboratory testing, all 45 specimens that tested positive by RT-PCR were also positive by the rapid diagnostic test (sensitivity 100% [95% CI 92·1

  14. A humidity shock leads to rapid, temperature dependent changes in coffee leaf physiology and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thioune, El-Hadji; McCarthy, James; Gallagher, Thomas; Osborne, Bruce

    2017-03-01

    Climate change is expected to increase the frequency of above-normal atmospheric water deficits contemporaneous with periods of high temperatures. Here we explore alterations in physiology and gene expression in leaves of Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner caused by a sharp drop in relative humidity (RH) at three different temperatures. Both stomatal conductance (gs) and CO2 assimilation (A) measurements showed that gs and A values fell quickly at all temperatures after the transfer to low RH.  However, leaf relative water content measurements indicated that leaves nonetheless experienced substantial water losses, implying that stomatal closure and/or resupply of water was not fast enough to stop excessive evaporative losses.  At 27 and 35 °C, upper leaves showed significant decreases in Fv/Fm compared with lower leaves, suggesting a stronger impact on photosystem II for upper leaves, while at 42 °C, both upper and lower leaves were equally affected. Quantitative gene expression analysis of transcription factors associated with conventional dehydration stress, and genes involved with abscisic acid signalling, such as CcNCED3, indicated temperature-dependent, transcriptional changes during the Humidity Shock ('HuS') treatments.  No expression was seen at 27 °C for the heat-shock gene CcHSP90-7, but it was strongly induced during the 42 °C 'HuS' treatment. Consistent with a proposal that important cellular damage occurred during the 42 °C 'HuS' treatment, two genes implicated in senescence were induced by this treatment. Overall, the data show that C. canephora plants subjected to a sharp drop in RH exhibit major, temperature-dependent alterations in leaf physiology and important changes in the expression of genes associated with abiotic stress and senescence. The results presented suggest that more detailed studies on the combined effects of low RH and high temperature are warranted. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights

  15. Changes in field workability and drought risk from projected climate change drive spatially variable risks in Illinois cropping systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J Tomasek

    Full Text Available As weather patterns become more volatile and extreme, risks introduced by weather variability will become more critical to agricultural production. The availability of days suitable for field work is driven by soil temperature and moisture, both of which may be altered by climate change. We projected changes in Illinois season length, spring field workability, and summer drought risk under three different emissions scenarios (B1, A1B, and A2 down to the crop district scale. Across all scenarios, thermal time units increased in parallel with a longer frost-free season. An increase in late March and Early April field workability was consistent across scenarios, but a decline in overall April through May workable days was observed for many cases. In addition, summer drought metrics were projected to increase for most scenarios. These results highlight how the spatial and temporal variability in climate change may present unique challenges to mitigation and adaptation efforts.

  16. Changes in field workability and drought risk from projected climate change drive spatially variable risks in Illinois cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasek, Bradley J; Williams, Martin M; Davis, Adam S

    2017-01-01

    As weather patterns become more volatile and extreme, risks introduced by weather variability will become more critical to agricultural production. The availability of days suitable for field work is driven by soil temperature and moisture, both of which may be altered by climate change. We projected changes in Illinois season length, spring field workability, and summer drought risk under three different emissions scenarios (B1, A1B, and A2) down to the crop district scale. Across all scenarios, thermal time units increased in parallel with a longer frost-free season. An increase in late March and Early April field workability was consistent across scenarios, but a decline in overall April through May workable days was observed for many cases. In addition, summer drought metrics were projected to increase for most scenarios. These results highlight how the spatial and temporal variability in climate change may present unique challenges to mitigation and adaptation efforts.

  17. Post-bleaching coral community change on southern Maldivian reefs: is there potential for rapid recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, C. T.; Morgan, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    Given the severity of the 2016 global bleaching event, there are major questions about how quickly reef communities will recover. Here, we explore the ecological and physical structural changes that occurred across five atoll interior reefs in the southern Maldives using data collected at 6 and 12 months post-bleaching. Following initial severe coral mortality, further minor coral mortality had occurred by 12 months post-bleaching, and coral cover is now low (individuals m-2), well below those measured 9-12 months following the 1998 bleaching event, and below recovery thresholds identified on other Indian Ocean reefs. Our findings suggest that the physical structure of these reefs will need to decline further before effective recruitment and recovery can begin.

  18. Logarithmic superposition of force response with rapid length changes in relaxed porcine airway smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijpma, G; Al-Jumaily, A M; Cairns, S P; Sieck, G C

    2010-12-01

    We present a systematic quantitative analysis of power-law force relaxation and investigate logarithmic superposition of force response in relaxed porcine airway smooth muscle (ASM) strips in vitro. The term logarithmic superposition describes linear superposition on a logarithmic scale, which is equivalent to multiplication on a linear scale. Additionally, we examine whether the dynamic response of contracted and relaxed muscles is dominated by cross-bridge cycling or passive dynamics. The study shows the following main findings. For relaxed ASM, the force response to length steps of varying amplitude (0.25-4% of reference length, both lengthening and shortening) are well-fitted with power-law functions over several decades of time (10⁻² to 10³ s), and the force response after consecutive length changes is more accurately fitted assuming logarithmic superposition rather than linear superposition. Furthermore, for sinusoidal length oscillations in contracted and relaxed muscles, increasing the oscillation amplitude induces greater hysteresivity and asymmetry of force-length relationships, whereas increasing the frequency dampens hysteresivity but increases asymmetry. We conclude that logarithmic superposition is an important feature of relaxed ASM, which may facilitate a more accurate prediction of force responses in the continuous dynamic environment of the respiratory system. In addition, the single power-function response to length changes shows that the dynamics of cross-bridge cycling can be ignored in relaxed muscle. The similarity in response between relaxed and contracted states implies that the investigated passive dynamics play an important role in both states and should be taken into account.

  19. Quantifying past and present connectivity illuminates a rapidly changing landscape for the African elephant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Clinton W; Wasser, Samuel K; Keim, Jonah L; Mutayoba, Benezeth M; Brashares, Justin S

    2013-03-01

    There is widespread concern about impacts of land-use change on connectivity among animal and plant populations, but those impacts are difficult to quantify. Moreover, lack of knowledge regarding ecosystems before fragmentation may obscure appropriate conservation targets. We use occurrence and population genetic data to contrast connectivity for a long-lived mega-herbivore over historical and contemporary time frames. We test whether (i) historical gene flow is predicted by persistent landscape features rather than human settlement, (ii) contemporary connectivity is most affected by human settlement and (iii) recent gene flow estimates show the effects of both factors. We used 16 microsatellite loci to estimate historical and recent gene flow among African elephant (Loxodonta africana) populations in seven protected areas in Tanzania, East Africa. We used historical gene flow (FST and G'ST ) to test and optimize models of historical landscape resistance to movement. We inferred contemporary landscape resistance from elephant resource selection, assessed via walking surveys across ~15 400 km(2) of protected and unprotected lands. We used assignment-based recent gene flow estimates to optimize and test the contemporary resistance model, and to test a combined historical and contemporary model. We detected striking changes in connectivity. Historical connectivity among elephant populations was strongly influenced by slope but not human settlement, whereas contemporary connectivity was influenced most by human settlement. Recent gene flow was strongly influenced by slope but was also correlated with contemporary resistance. Inferences across multiple timescales can better inform conservation efforts on large and complex landscapes, while mitigating the fundamental problem of shifting baselines in conservation. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Fluvial response to the last Holocene rapid climate change in the Northwestern Mediterranean coastlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeai, Jean-Philippe; Devillers, Benoît; Blanchemanche, Philippe; Dezileau, Laurent; Oueslati, Hamza; Tillier, Margaux; Bohbot, Hervé

    2017-05-01

    The variability of fluvial activity in the Northwestern Mediterranean coastal lowlands and its relationship with modes of climate change were analysed from the late 9th to the 18th centuries CE. Geochemical analyses were undertaken from a lagoonal sequence and surrounding sediments in order to track the fluvial inputs into the lagoon. An index based on the K/S and Rb/S ratios was used to evidence the main periods of fluvial activity. This index reveals that the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) was a drier period characterized by a lower fluvial activity, while the Little Ice Age (LIA) was a wetter period with an increase of the river dynamics. Three periods of higher than average fluvial activity were evidenced at the end of the first millennium CE (ca. 900-950 cal yr CE), in the first half of the second millennium CE (ca. 1150-1550 cal yr CE), and during the 1600s-1700s CE (ca. 1650-1800 cal yr CE). The comparison of these fluvial periods with other records of riverine or lacustrine floods in Spain, Italy, and South of France seems to indicate a general increase in fluvial and flood patterns in the Northwestern Mediterranean in response to the climate change from the MCA to the LIA, although some episodes of flooding are not found in all records. Besides, the phases of higher than average fluvial dynamics are in good agreement with the North Atlantic cold events evidenced from records of ice-rafted debris. The evolution of fluvial activity in the Northwestern Mediterranean coastlands during the last millennium could have been driven by atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns.

  1. Multi-scale MHD analysis of LHD plasma with background field changing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiguchi, K.; Sakakibara, S.; Ohdachi, S.; Carreras, B. A.

    2015-04-01

    The mechanism of the partial collapse observed in the experiment with the background magnetic field changing in the Large Helical Device (LHD) is numerically investigated with a nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation. Since the different timescales of the perturbations and the background field changing have to be treated simultaneously for the analysis of this plasma, a multi-scale simulation scheme is developed. The effect of the perturbation dynamics on the equilibrium pressure and rotational transform is taken into account in this scheme. The result indicates that the collapse is caused by the destabilization of an infernal-like mode due to the magnetic hill enhanced by the change of the background field. The mechanism of the reduction of the central beta observed after the partial collapse in the experiment is also analysed in relation to the effect of the background field changing.

  2. Sex Differences in Knee Flexion Angle During a Rapid Change of Direction While Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Christopher L; Gray, Aaron M; Brown, David; Smith, Brian A

    2015-12-01

    Females experience greater overall rates of athletic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury than males. The specific mechanisms of the predisposition remain unclear. Modeling of knee kinematics has shown that the more extended the knee joint, the greater the strain on the ACL. The authors hypothesized that female athletes would have a lesser degree of knee flexion than male athletes at initial ground contact while performing change-of-direction cutting maneuvers. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty female and 20 male high school soccer athletes with at least 1 year of experience were recruited for the study. Athletes were excluded if they had a history of any major lower limb injury or current knee pain causing a reduction in training and/or competition. Reflective markers were attached at the greater trochanter of the femur, the lateral epicondyle of the knee, and the lateral malleolus of the ankle to enable motion capture. Each athlete performed 6 change-of-direction maneuvers in random order in front of 2 cameras. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine differences between the sexes from the motion data captured; P angles between male and female participants at the 90° and 135° cutting angles. At 90°, males and females showed initial contact knee flexion angles (mean ± SD) of 39.0° ± 6.8° and 29.3° ± 6.2°, respectively (P angles of 56.4° ± 6.9° and 49.7° ± 7.0°, respectively (P = .0036). At 135°, males and females showed mean initial contact knee flexion angles of 36.8° ± 7.9° and 29.7° ± 7.8°, respectively (P = .0053), and mean maximum flexion angles of 60.7° ± 8.1° and 51.6° ± 9.4°, respectively (P = .0017). The research conducted is intended to foster an awareness of injury disposition in female athletes and guide future endeavors to develop, test, and implement a proactive approach in lowering female noncontact athletic ACL injury rates. This project adds to the literature as wider side-cut maneuvers (≥90°) were

  3. SU-E-T-393: Evaluation of Large Field IMRT Versus RapidArc Planning for Carcinoma Cervix with Para-Aotic Node Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raman, S Kothanda; Girigesh, Y; MISHRA, M; Lalit, K [Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute & Research Centre, New Delhi (India)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The objective of this work is to evaluate and compare Large field IMRT and RapidArc planning for Carcinoma Cervix and Para-aotic node irradiation. Methods: In this study, ten patients of Cervix with para-aotic node have been selected with PTV length 35+2cm. All plans were generated in Eclipse TPS V10.0 with Dynamic IMRT and RapidArc technique using 6MV photon energy. In IMRT planning, 7 fields were chosen to get optimal plan and in RapidArc, double Full arc clockwise and counter clockwise were used for planning. All the plans were generated with single isocenter and calculated using AAA dose algorithm. For all the cases the prescribed dose to PTV was same and the plan acceptance criteria is; 95% of the PTV volume should receive 100% prescribed dose. The tolerance doses for the OAR’s is also taken in to account. The evaluation criteria used for analysis are; 1) Homogeneity Index, 2) Conformity Index, 3) Mean Dose to OAR’s, 4)Total monitor units delivered. Results: DVH analysis were performed for both IMRT and RapidArc planning. In both the plans, 95% of PTV volume receives prescribed dose and maximum dose are less than 107%. The conformity index are same in both the techniques. The mean Homogeneity index are 1.036 and 1.053 for IMRT and RapidArc plan. The mean (mean + SD) dose of bladder and rectum in IMRT is 44.2+1.55, 42.05+2.52 and RapidArc is 46.66+1.6, 44.2+2.75 respectively. There is no significant difference found in Right Femoral head, Left Femoral head and Kidney doses. It is found that total MU’s are more in IMRT compared with RapidArc planning. Conclusion: In the case of cervix with Para-arotic node single isocenter irradiation, IMRT planning in large-field is better compared to RapidArc planning in terms of Homogeneity Index and mean dose of Bladder and Rectum.

  4. Rapid Sampling of Escherichia coli After Changing Oxygen Conditions Reveals Transcriptional Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wulffen, Joachim; Ulmer, Andreas; Jäger, Günter; Sawodny, Oliver; Feuer, Ronny

    2017-02-28

    Escherichia coli is able to shift between anaerobic and aerobic metabolism by adapting its gene expression, e.g., of metabolic genes, to the new environment. The dynamics of gene expression that result from environmental shifts are limited, amongst others, by the time needed for regulation and transcription elongation. In this study, we examined gene expression dynamics after an anaerobic-to-aerobic shift on a short time scale (0.5, 1, 2, 5, and 10 min) by RNA sequencing with emphasis on delay times and transcriptional elongation rates (TER). Transient expression patterns and timing of differential expression, characterized by delay and elongation, were identified as key features of the dataset. Gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed early upregulation of respiratory and iron-related gene sets. We inferred specific TERs of 89 operons with a mean TER of 42.0 nt/s and mean delay time of 22.4 s. TERs correlate with sequence features, such as codon bias, whereas delay times correlate with the involvement of regulators. The presented data illustrate that at very short times after a shift in oxygenation, extensional changes of the transcriptome, such as temporary responses, can be observed. Besides regulation, TERs contribute to the dynamics of gene expression.

  5. Light, time, and the physiology of biotic response to rapid climate change in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, William E; Holzapfel, Christina M

    2010-01-01

    Examination of temperate and polar regions of Earth shows that the nonbiological world is exquisitely sensitive to the direct effects of temperature, whereas the biological world is largely organized by light. Herein, we discuss the use of day length by animals at physiological and genetic levels, beginning with a comparative experimental study that shows the preeminent role of light in determining fitness in seasonal environments. Typically, at seasonally appropriate times, light initiates a cascade of physiological events mediating the input and interpretation of day length to the output of specific hormones that ultimately determine whether animals prepare to develop, reproduce, hibernate, enter dormancy, or migrate. The mechanisms that form the basis of seasonal time keeping and their adjustment during climate change are reviewed at the physiological and genetic levels. Future avenues for research are proposed that span basic questions from how animals transition from dependency on tropical cues to temperate cues during range expansions, to more applied questions of species survival and conservation biology during periods of climatic stress.

  6. Long term changes in the visual fields of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy using vigabatrin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardus, P; Verduin, WM; Postma, G; Stilma, JS; Berendschot, TTJM; van Veelen, CWM

    Aim-To study the long term changes in the concentric contraction of the visual field in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy on vigabatrin medication. Methods-Repeated Goldmann visual field examinations were compared in 27 patients with drug resistant temporal lobe epilepsy and concentric

  7. Using Field Experiments to Change the Template of How We Teach Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, John A.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author explains why field experiments can improve what we teach and how we teach economics. Economists no longer operate as passive observers of economic phenomena. Instead, they participate actively in the research process by collecting data from field experiments to investigate the economics of everyday life. This change can…

  8. Extensive transcriptome analysis correlates the plasticity of Entamoeba histolytica pathogenesis to rapid phenotype changes depending on the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Christian; Koutero, Mikael; Dillies, Marie-Agnes; Varet, Hugo; Lopez-Camarillo, Cesar; Coppée, Jean Yves; Hon, Chung-Chau; Guillén, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Amoebiasis is a human infectious disease due to the amoeba parasite Entamoeba histolytica. The disease appears in only 20% of the infections. Diversity in phenotypes may occur within the same infectious strain in the gut; for instance, parasites can be commensal (in the intestinal lumen) or pathogenic (inside the tissue). The degree of pathogenesis of clinical isolates varies greatly. These findings raise the hypothesis that genetic derivation may account for amoebic diverse phenotypes. The main goal of this study was to analyse gene expression changes of a single virulent amoebic strain in different environmental contexts where it exhibit different degrees of virulence, namely isolated from humans and maintained through animal liver passages, in contact with the human colon and short or prolonged in vitro culture. The study reveals major transcriptome changes in virulent parasites upon contact with human colon explants, including genes related to sugar metabolism, cytoskeleton rearrangement, stress responses and DNA repair. Furthermore, in long-term cultured parasites, drastic changes in gene expression for proteins with functions for proteasome and tRNA activities were found. Globally we conclude that rapid changes in gene expression rather than genetic derivation can sustain the invasive phenotype of a single virulent isolate of E. histolytica. PMID:27767091

  9. Evidence that implicit assumptions of 'no evolution' of disease vectors in changing environments can be violated on a rapid timescale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egizi, Andrea; Fefferman, Nina H; Fonseca, Dina M

    2015-04-05

    Projected impacts of climate change on vector-borne disease dynamics must consider many variables relevant to hosts, vectors and pathogens, including how altered environmental characteristics might affect the spatial distributions of vector species. However, many predictive models for vector distributions consider their habitat requirements to be fixed over relevant time-scales, when they may actually be capable of rapid evolutionary change and even adaptation. We examine the genetic signature of a spatial expansion by an invasive vector into locations with novel temperature conditions compared to its native range as a proxy for how existing vector populations may respond to temporally changing habitat. Specifically, we compare invasions into different climate ranges and characterize the importance of selection from the invaded habitat. We demonstrate that vector species can exhibit evolutionary responses (altered allelic frequencies) to a temperature gradient in as little as 7-10 years even in the presence of high gene flow, and further, that this response varies depending on the strength of selection. We interpret these findings in the context of climate change predictions for vector populations and emphasize the importance of incorporating vector evolution into models of future vector-borne disease dynamics. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapid changes in the light/dark cycle disrupt memory of conditioned fear in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn H Loh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circadian rhythms govern many aspects of physiology and behavior including cognitive processes. Components of neural circuits involved in learning and memory, e.g., the amygdala and the hippocampus, exhibit circadian rhythms in gene expression and signaling pathways. The functional significance of these rhythms is still not understood. In the present study, we sought to determine the impact of transiently disrupting the circadian system by shifting the light/dark (LD cycle. Such "jet lag" treatments alter daily rhythms of gene expression that underlie circadian oscillations as well as disrupt the synchrony between the multiple oscillators found within the body. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We subjected adult male C57Bl/6 mice to a contextual fear conditioning protocol either before or after acute phase shifts of the LD cycle. As part of this study, we examined the impact of phase advances and phase delays, and the effects of different magnitudes of phase shifts. Under all conditions tested, we found that recall of fear conditioned behavior was specifically affected by the jet lag. We found that phase shifts potentiated the stress-evoked corticosterone response without altering baseline levels of this hormone. The jet lag treatment did not result in overall sleep deprivation, but altered the temporal distribution of sleep. Finally, we found that prior experience of jet lag helps to compensate for the reduced recall due to acute phase shifts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Acute changes to the LD cycle affect the recall of fear-conditioned behavior. This suggests that a synchronized circadian system may be broadly important for normal cognition and that the consolidation of memories may be particularly sensitive to disruptions of circadian timing.

  11. Theorizing change revisited : An amended process model of institutional innovations and changes in institutional fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Leeuw, T.; Gössling, T.

    2016-01-01

    The recent abandonment of old taxis and the introduction and diffusion of new taxis and car ride-sharing services of Uber and the sharing economy in general shows that institutional environments change. This paper provides a review on institutional change based on 29 previously published case

  12. Toward a mechanistic understanding of human-induced rapid environmental change: A case study linking energy development, avian nest predation, and predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hethcoat, Matthew G.; Chalfoun, Anna D.

    2015-01-01

    Demographic consequences of human-induced rapid environmental change (HIREC) have been widely documented for many populations. The mechanisms underlying such patterns, however, are rarely investigated and yet are critical to understand for effective conservation and management.

  13. Dynamic solid phase microextraction for sampling of airborne sarin with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for rapid field detection and quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Gary L; Jackson Lepage, Carmela; Miller, Stephen I; Smith, Philip A

    2004-08-01

    A portable dynamic air sampler and solid phase microextraction were used to simultaneously detect, identify, and quantify airborne sarin with immediate analysis of samples using a field portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system. A mathematical model was used with knowledge of the mass of sarin trapped, linear air velocity past the exposed sampling fiber, and sample duration allowing calculation of concentration estimates. For organizations with suitable field portable instrumentation, these methods are potentially useful for rapid onsite detection and quantification of high concern analytes, either through direct environmental sampling or through sampling of air collected in bags.

  14. Rapid quantitative assessment of land patterns change and erupted volumes by spaceborne SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, N.; Bianchi, M.; Cigna, F.; di Muro, A.; Fortunato, G.; Sedze, M.; Ferrucci, F.

    2013-12-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar observations do not apply frequently to the quantitative mapping of lava flows and of eruptive patterns, as multispectral mid-to-high spatial/temporal resolution observations are naturally best suited for high-temperature contouring and eruptive rate assessment. However, in case of urgent need for quantitative geographical information, high-spatial and high-temporal resolution SAR data may become essential or unique in providing timely information support to officials in charge of volcano emergencies. This was the case of the early weeks of the 2011-2012 Nyiamulagira eruption (DR Congo), whose fast and large lava flow developed in an area off-limited by the ongoing military unrest, and persistent cloud cover spoiled the ground view to electro-optical high-resolution payloads. A combination of two automated techniques - one non-interferometric and one interferometric - on very-high resolution X-band images acquired during less-than-weekly revisits by the Cosmo SkyMED constellation, allowed locating the eruption site, highlighting the inherent landscape modifications, mapping the progression of the ~22 km lava flow, and carrying out volume estimates by precise DEM subtractions. The interferometric technique is based on the application of the PS-InSAR derived SqueeSAR procedure (Ferretti et al., IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.,49-9, 3460-3470; 2011) to series of Cosmo-SkyMED tandem pairs for obtaining high-precision/high-resolution DEMs anywhere-anytime within a limited time framework. Validation against a recent LiDAR DEM of the summit areas of Piton de la Fournaise (Reunion Island) returned a typical accuracy of 0.4m × 2.3m in one-orbit geometry. The non-interferometric technique exploits amplitude and coherence changes to single out, map and measure newly appeared volcanic features of significant dimensions. The overall observation-and-processing strategy was developed in the framework and under the specifications of project EVOSS (European

  15. Relativistic Mass Change in the Fields of Gravitation, Non-Holonomity, and Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabounski, Dmitri

    2010-10-01

    This study targets solving the scalar geodesic equation (equation of energy) of a mass-bearing particle travelling in the gravitational field, the field of non-holonomity (rotation) of space, and the field of deformation of space, which are the only three external factors present in the equation. The obtained solutions manifest a change in the mass of the particle according to the distance travelled in the corresponding field. The mass defect due to the field of gravitation is known. The effects of the fields of space non-holonomity and space deformation have not been studied before. In contrast to the gravitational mass defect, registered in the gravitational field near the Earth, these two effects are much smaller: they reach the measurable limit 10-10 only in space travel within cosmological distances. A complete report of this study has been submitted to The Abraham Zelmanov Journal.

  16. Visual cortex in aging and Alzheimer’s disease: Changes in visual field maps and population receptive fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa A. Brewer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Although several studies have suggested that cortical alterations underlie such age-related visual deficits as decreased acuity, little is known about what changes actually occur in visual cortex during healthy aging. Two recent studies showed changes in primary visual cortex (V1 during normal aging; however, no studies have characterized the effects of aging on visual cortex beyond V1, important measurements both for understanding the aging process and for comparison to changes in age-related diseases. Similarly, there is almost no information about changes in visual cortex in Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the most common form of dementia. Because visual deficits are often reported as one of the first symptoms of AD, measurements of such changes in the visual cortex of AD patients might improve our understanding of how the visual system is affected by neurodegeneration as well as aid early detection, accurate diagnosis and timely treatment of AD. Here we use fMRI to first compare the visual field map (VFM organization and population receptive fields (pRFs between young adults and healthy aging subjects for occipital VFMs V1, V2, V3, and hV4. Healthy aging subjects do not show major VFM organizational deficits, but do have reduced surface area and increased pRF sizes in the foveal representations of V1, V2, and hV4 relative to healthy young control subjects. These measurements are consistent with behavioral deficits seen in healthy aging. We then demonstrate the feasibility and first characterization of these measurements in two patients with mild AD, which reveal potential changes in visual cortex as part of the pathophysiology of AD. Our data aid in our understanding of the changes in the visual processing pathways in normal aging and provide the foundation for future research into earlier and more definitive detection of AD.

  17. Magnetic field variation caused by rotational speed change in a magnetohydrodynamic dynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagoshi, Takehiro; Hamano, Yozo

    2013-09-20

    We have performed numerical magnetohydrodynamic dynamo simulations in a spherical shell with rotational speed or length-of-day (LOD) variation, which is motivated by correlations between geomagnetic field and climatic variations with ice and non-ice ages. The results show that LOD variation leads to magnetic field variation whose amplitude is considerably larger than that of LOD variation. The heat flux at the outer sphere and the zonal flow also change. The mechanism of the magnetic field variation due to LOD variation is also found. The keys are changes of dynamo activity and Joule heating.

  18. Toxicant induced changes on delayed fluorescence decay kinetics of cyanobacteria and green algae: a rapid and sensitive biotest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Leunert

    Full Text Available Algal tests have developed into routine tools for testing toxicity of pollutants in aquatic environments. Meanwhile, in addition to algal growth rates, an increasing number of fluorescence based methods are used for rapid and sensitive toxicity measures. The present study stresses the suitability of delayed fluorescence (DF as a promising parameter for biotests. DF is based on the recombination fluorescence at the reaction centre of photosystem II, which is emitted only by photosynthetically active cells. We analyzed the effects of three chemicals (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU, 3,5 Dichlorophenol (3,5 DCP and copper on the shape of the DF decay kinetics for potential use in phytoplankton toxicity tests. The short incubation tests were done with four phytoplankton species, with special emphasis on the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. All species exhibited a high sensitivity to DCMU, but cyanobacteria were more affected by copper and less by 3,5 DCP than the tested green algae. Analyses of changes in the DF decay curve in response to the added chemicals indicated the feasibility of the DF decay approach as a rapid and sensitive testing tool.

  19. Rapid Changes in Cell Wall Yielding of Elongating Begonia argenteo-guttata L. Leaves in Response to Changes in Plant Water Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpe, M D; Matthews, M A

    1992-12-01

    Elongation and epidermal cell turgor (P) of Begonia argenteoguttata L. leaves were simultaneously measured to determine the wall-yielding behavior of growing leaf cells in response to changes in plant water status. Rapid changes in plant water status were imposed by irrigating the rooting media with solutions of -0.20 and -0.30 MPa mannitol. These treatments caused decreases in P of 0.09 and 0.17 MPa, respectively. The decreases in P were complete within 10 min, and P did not change thereafter. Following treatments, leaf elongation was nil for periods of 25 to 38 min. Subsequently, elongation recovered to steady rates that were 45 or 75% lower than in the well-watered controls. Leaves of plants that were pretreated with -0.30 MPa of mannitol and rewatered showed an increase in P of 0.19 MPa, which was complete within 15 min; P did not change thereafter. Rewatering caused a several-fold increase in leaf elongation rates, which subsequently declined while P was increasing, to reach steady rates similar to that of the controls. Several estimates of elastic deformation indicated that most of the elongation responses to altered P were due to changes in irreversible deformation. The results showed that the initial effects of changes in P on leaf elongation were partially compensated for by changes in the cell wall-yielding properties. We conclude that linear relationships between P and adjusted growth rates are not necessarily indicative of constant wall-yielding properties. Instead, these relationships may reflect the effect of P on wall-loosening processes.

  20. Rapid Changes in Cell Wall Yielding of Elongating Begonia argenteo-guttata L. Leaves in Response to Changes in Plant Water Status 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpe, Marcelo D.; Matthews, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    Elongation and epidermal cell turgor (P) of Begonia argenteoguttata L. leaves were simultaneously measured to determine the wall-yielding behavior of growing leaf cells in response to changes in plant water status. Rapid changes in plant water status were imposed by irrigating the rooting media with solutions of −0.20 and −0.30 MPa mannitol. These treatments caused decreases in P of 0.09 and 0.17 MPa, respectively. The decreases in P were complete within 10 min, and P did not change thereafter. Following treatments, leaf elongation was nil for periods of 25 to 38 min. Subsequently, elongation recovered to steady rates that were 45 or 75% lower than in the well-watered controls. Leaves of plants that were pretreated with −0.30 MPa of mannitol and rewatered showed an increase in P of 0.19 MPa, which was complete within 15 min; P did not change thereafter. Rewatering caused a several-fold increase in leaf elongation rates, which subsequently declined while P was increasing, to reach steady rates similar to that of the controls. Several estimates of elastic deformation indicated that most of the elongation responses to altered P were due to changes in irreversible deformation. The results showed that the initial effects of changes in P on leaf elongation were partially compensated for by changes in the cell wall-yielding properties. We conclude that linear relationships between P and adjusted growth rates are not necessarily indicative of constant wall-yielding properties. Instead, these relationships may reflect the effect of P on wall-loosening processes. PMID:16653208

  1. Ultrafast Electric Field Pulse Control of Giant Temperature Change in Ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Y.; Liu, S.; Lindenberg, A. M.; Rappe, A. M.

    2018-01-01

    There is a surge of interest in developing environmentally friendly solid-state-based cooling technology. Here, we point out that a fast cooling rate (≈1011 K /s ) can be achieved by driving solid crystals to a high-temperature phase with a properly designed electric field pulse. Specifically, we predict that an ultrafast electric field pulse can cause a giant temperature decrease up to 32 K in PbTiO3 occurring on few picosecond time scales. We explain the underlying physics of this giant electric field pulse-induced temperature change with the concept of internal energy redistribution: the electric field does work on a ferroelectric crystal and redistributes its internal energy, and the way the kinetic energy is redistributed determines the temperature change and strongly depends on the electric field temporal profile. This concept is supported by our all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of PbTiO3 and BaTiO3 . Moreover, this internal energy redistribution concept can also be applied to understand electrocaloric effect. We further propose new strategies for inducing giant cooling effect with ultrafast electric field pulse. This Letter offers a general framework to understand electric-field-induced temperature change and highlights the opportunities of electric field engineering for controlled design of fast and efficient cooling technology.

  2. Detection of the change of a magnetic field in the environment by magnetic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyatkov, D.; Yurchenko, A.; Yurchenko, V.

    2017-08-01

    The experimental results of the magnetic field sensor based on various materials are presented. In article the possibility of use of magnetic fluid as a sensitive element of the magnetic field sensor is considered. The importance of current tasks deals with the search of the perspective magnetic substances susceptible to weak magnetic field. The operation principle of the sensor is based on change in the capacity of the condenser with magnetic active medium caused by the magnetic field. The complex organization of magnetic particles into chain aggregates was considered. The principle of measuring the condenser capacity is described. The experimental results are promising for future application.

  3. Monotonicity of the CABARET scheme approximating a hyperbolic equation with a sign-changing characteristic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovyrkina, O. A.; Ostapenko, V. V.

    2016-05-01

    The monotonicity of the CABARET scheme approximating a hyperbolic differential equation with a sign-changing characteristic field is analyzed. Monotonicity conditions for this scheme are obtained in domains where the characteristics have a sign-definite propagation velocity and near sonic lines, on which the propagation velocity changes its sign. These properties of the CABARET scheme are illustrated by test computations.

  4. Fields of influence of productivity change in EU intercountry input-output tables, 1970-80

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, JA; Oosterhaven, J; Cuello, FA; Hewings, GJD; Sonis, M

    The potential influence of changes in productivity is explored for each sector in each country on the intercountry Leontief-inverse of the European Union (EU) for two time periods, 1970 and 1980. The methodology employed is a weighted variant of the field of influence of column change; the empirical

  5. Field method to measure changes in percent body fat of young women: The TIGER Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body mass index (BMI), waist (W) and hip (H) circumference (C) are commonly used to assess changes in body composition for field research. We developed a model to estimate changes in dual energy X-ray absorption (DXA) percent fat (% fat) from these variables with a diverse sample of young women fro...

  6. Rapid shifts in Atta cephalotes fungus-garden enzyme activity after a change in fungal substrate (Attini, Formicidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kooij, P W; Schiøtt, M; Boomsma, J J

    2011-01-01

    Fungus gardens of the basidiomycete Leucocoprinus gongylophorus sustain large colonies of leaf-cutting ants by degrading the plant material collected by the ants. Recent studies have shown that enzyme activity in these gardens is primarily targeted toward starch, proteins and the pectin matrix...... associated with cell walls, rather than toward structural cell wall components such as cellulose and hemicelluloses. Substrate constituents are also known to be sequentially degraded in different sections of the fungus garden. To test the plasticity in the extracellular expression of fungus-garden enzymes......, we measured the changes in enzyme activity after a controlled shift in fungal substrate offered to six laboratory colonies of Atta cephalotes. An ant diet consisting exclusively of grains of parboiled rice rapidly increased the activity of endo-proteinases and some of the pectinases attacking...

  7. Rapid identification of molecular changes in tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) upon ageing using leaf spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Depanjan; Srimany, Amitava; Pradeep, T

    2012-10-07

    Tulsi or Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is a medicinally important plant. Ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) are among its major constituents which account for many medicinal activities of the plant. In the present work, we deployed a new ambient ionization method, leaf spray ionization, for rapid detection of UA, OA and their oxidation products from tulsi leaves. Tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) has been performed on tulsi leaf extracts in methanol to establish the identity of the compounds. We probed changes occurring in the relative amounts of the parent compounds (UA and OA) with their oxidized products and the latter show an increasing trend upon ageing. The findings are verified by ESI-MS analysis of tulsi leaf extracts, which shows the same trend proving the reliability of the leaf spray method.

  8. Habitat and indigenous gut microbes contribute to the plasticity of gut microbiome in oriental river prawn during rapid environmental change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yu Chen

    Full Text Available Growing evidence points out that the capacity of organisms to acclimate or adapt to new habitat conditions basically depends on their phenomic plasticity attributes, of which their gut commensal microbiota might be an essential impact factor. Especially in aquatic organisms, which are in direct and continual contact with the aquatic environment, the complex and dynamic microbiota have significant effects on health and development. However, an understanding of the relative contribution of internal sorting (host genetic and colonization (environmental processes is still unclear. To understand how microbial communities differ in response to rapid environmental change, we surveyed and studied the environmental and gut microbiota of native and habitat-exchanged shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponense using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Corresponding with microbial diversity of their living water areas, the divergence in gut microbes of lake-to-river shrimp (CK increased, while that of river-to-lake shrimp (KC decreased. Importantly, among the candidate environment specific gut microbes in habitat-exchanged shrimp, over half of reads were associated with the indigenous bacteria in native shrimp gut, yet more candidates presented in CK may reflect the complexity of new environment. Our results suggest that shrimp gut microbiota has high plasticity when its host faces environmental changes, even over short timescales. Further, the changes in external environment might influence the gut microbiome not just by providing environment-associated microbes directly, but also by interfering with the composition of indigenous gut bacteria indirectly.

  9. Dynamic changes in single unit activity and γ oscillations in a thalamocortical circuit during rapid instrumental learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiu Yu

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and mediodorsal thalamus (MD together form a thalamocortical circuit that has been implicated in the learning and production of goal-directed actions. In this study we measured neural activity in both regions simultaneously, as rats learned to press a lever to earn food rewards. In both MD and mPFC, instrumental learning was accompanied by dramatic changes in the firing patterns of the neurons, in particular the rapid emergence of single-unit neural activity reflecting the completion of the action and reward delivery. In addition, we observed distinct patterns of changes in the oscillatory LFP response in MD and mPFC. With learning, there was a significant increase in theta band oscillations (6-10 Hz in the MD, but not in the mPFC. By contrast, gamma band oscillations (40-55 Hz increased in the mPFC, but not in the MD. Coherence between these two regions also changed with learning: gamma coherence in relation to reward delivery increased, whereas theta coherence did not. Together these results suggest that, as rats learned the instrumental contingency between action and outcome, the emergence of task related neural activity is accompanied by enhanced functional interaction between MD and mPFC in response to the reward feedback.

  10. Multiple reciprocal adaptations and rapid genetic change upon experimental coevolution of an animal host and its microbial parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Rebecca D; Makus, Carsten; Hasert, Barbara; Michiels, Nico K; Schulenburg, Hinrich

    2010-04-20

    The coevolution between hosts and parasites is predicted to have complex evolutionary consequences for both antagonists, often within short time periods. To date, conclusive experimental support for the predictions is available mainly for microbial host systems, but for only a few multicellular host taxa. We here introduce a model system of experimental coevolution that consists of the multicellular nematode host Caenorhabditis elegans and the microbial parasite Bacillus thuringiensis. We demonstrate that 48 host generations of experimental coevolution under controlled laboratory conditions led to multiple changes in both parasite and host. These changes included increases in the traits of direct relevance to the interaction such as parasite virulence (i.e., host killing rate) and host resistance (i.e., the ability to survive pathogens). Importantly, our results provide evidence of reciprocal effects for several other central predictions of the coevolutionary dynamics, including (i) possible adaptation costs (i.e., reductions in traits related to the reproductive rate, measured in the absence of the antagonist), (ii) rapid genetic changes, and (iii) an overall increase in genetic diversity across time. Possible underlying mechanisms for the genetic effects were found to include increased rates of genetic exchange in the parasite and elevated mutation rates in the host. Taken together, our data provide comprehensive experimental evidence of the consequences of host-parasite coevolution, and thus emphasize the pace and complexity of reciprocal adaptations associated with these antagonistic interactions.

  11. Rapid structural and compositional change in an old-growth subtropical forest: using plant traits to identify probable drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malizia, Agustina; Easdale, Tomás A; Grau, H Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown directional changes in old-growth tropical forests, but changes are complex and diverse, and their drivers unclear. Here, we report rapid net structural and compositional changes in an old-growth subtropical forest and we assess the functional nature of these changes to test hypothetical drivers including recovery from past disturbances, reduction in ungulate browsing, CO2 fertilization, and increases in rainfall and temperature. The study relies on 15 years of demographic monitoring within 8 ha of subtropical montane forest in Argentina. Between 1992 and 2007, stem density markedly increased by 50% (12 stems ha(-1) y(-1)) and basal area by 6% (0.13 m(2) ha(-1) y(-1)). Increased stem density resulted from enhanced recruitment of understory treelets (Piper tucumanum, Eugenia uniflora, Allophylus edulis) into small size classes. Among 27 common tree species, net population growth was negatively correlated with maximum tree size and longevity, and positively correlated with leaf size and leaf nutrient content, especially so when initial population size was controlled for. Changes were inconsistent with predictions derived from past disturbances (no increase in shade-tolerant or long-lived late-succesional species), rainfall or temperature increase (no increase in evergreen or deciduous species, respectively). However, the increase in nutrient-rich soft-leaved species was consistent with exclusion of large herbivores two decades before monitoring started; and CO2 fertilization could help explain the disproportionate increase in small stems. Reductions in populations of large vertebrates have been observed in many otherwise undisturbed tropical forests, and our results suggest they can have important structural and functional repercussions in these forests.

  12. Environmental influences on the at-sea behaviour of a major consumer, Mirounga leonina, in a rapidly changing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor McIntyre

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the distribution and foraging ecology of major consumers within pelagic systems, specifically in relation to physical parameters, can be important for the management of bentho-pelagic systems undergoing rapid change associated with global climate change and other anthropogenic disturbances such as fishing (i.e., the Antarctic Peninsula and Scotia Sea. We tracked 11 adult male southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina, during their five-month post-moult foraging migrations from King George Island (Isla 25 de Mayo, northern Antarctic Peninsula, using tags capable of recording and transmitting behavioural data and in situ temperature and salinity data. Seals foraged mostly within the Weddell–Scotia Confluence, while a few foraged along the western Antarctic Peninsula shelf of the Bellingshausen Sea. Mixed model outputs suggest that the at-sea behaviour of seals was associated with a number of environmental parameters, especially seafloor depth, sea-ice concentrations and the temperature structure of the water column. Seals increased dive bottom times and travelled at slower speeds in shallower areas and areas with increased sea-ice concentrations. Changes in dive depth and durations, as well as relative amount of time spent during the bottom phases of dives, were observed in relation to differences in overall temperature gradient, likely as a response to vertical changes in prey distribution associated with temperature stratification in the water column. Our results illustrate the likely complex influences of bathymetry, hydrography and sea ice on the behaviour of male southern elephant seals in a changing environment and highlight the need for region-specific approaches to studying environmental influences on behaviour.

  13. Rapid structural and compositional change in an old-growth subtropical forest: using plant traits to identify probable drivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Malizia

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown directional changes in old-growth tropical forests, but changes are complex and diverse, and their drivers unclear. Here, we report rapid net structural and compositional changes in an old-growth subtropical forest and we assess the functional nature of these changes to test hypothetical drivers including recovery from past disturbances, reduction in ungulate browsing, CO2 fertilization, and increases in rainfall and temperature. The study relies on 15 years of demographic monitoring within 8 ha of subtropical montane forest in Argentina. Between 1992 and 2007, stem density markedly increased by 50% (12 stems ha(-1 y(-1 and basal area by 6% (0.13 m(2 ha(-1 y(-1. Increased stem density resulted from enhanced recruitment of understory treelets (Piper tucumanum, Eugenia uniflora, Allophylus edulis into small size classes. Among 27 common tree species, net population growth was negatively correlated with maximum tree size and longevity, and positively correlated with leaf size and leaf nutrient content, especially so when initial population size was controlled for. Changes were inconsistent with predictions derived from past disturbances (no increase in shade-tolerant or long-lived late-succesional species, rainfall or temperature increase (no increase in evergreen or deciduous species, respectively. However, the increase in nutrient-rich soft-leaved species was consistent with exclusion of large herbivores two decades before monitoring started; and CO2 fertilization could help explain the disproportionate increase in small stems. Reductions in populations of large vertebrates have been observed in many otherwise undisturbed tropical forests, and our results suggest they can have important structural and functional repercussions in these forests.

  14. Three-dimensional analysis of maxillary changes associated with facemask and rapid maxillary expansion compared with bone anchored maxillary protraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Claudia Toyama; Cevidanes, Lucia H S; Nguyen, Tung T; De Clerck, Hugo J; Franchi, Lorenzo; McNamara, James A

    2013-11-01

    Our objectives in this study were to evaluate in 3 dimensions the growth and treatment effects on the midface and the maxillary dentition produced by facemask therapy in association with rapid maxillary expansion (RME/FM) compared with bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP). Forty-six patients with Class III malocclusion were treated with either RME/FM (n = 21) or BAMP (n = 25). Three-dimensional models generated from cone-beam computed tomographic scans, taken before and after approximately 1 year of treatment, were registered on the anterior cranial base and measured using color-coded maps and semitransparent overlays. The skeletal changes in the maxilla and the right and left zygomas were on average 2.6 mm in the RME/FM group and 3.7 mm in the BAMP group; these were different statistically. Seven RME/FM patients and 4 BAMP patients had a predominantly vertical displacement of the maxilla. The dental changes at the maxillary incisors were on average 3.2 mm in the RME/FM group and 4.3 mm in the BAMP group. Ten RME/FM patients had greater dental compensations than skeletal changes. This 3-dimensional study shows that orthopedic changes can be obtained with both RME/FM and BAMP treatments, with protraction of the maxilla and the zygomas. Approximately half of the RME/FM patients had greater dental than skeletal changes, and a third of the RME/FM compared with 17% of the BAMP patients had a predominantly vertical maxillary displacement. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapid changes in magma storage beneath the Klyuchevskoy group of volcanoes inferred from time-dependent seismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulakov, Ivan; Gordeev, Evgeniy I.; Dobretsov, Nikolay L.; Vernikovsky, Valery A.; Senyukov, Sergey; Jakovlev, Andrey; Jaxybulatov, Kayrly

    2013-08-01

    We present the results of time-dependent local earthquake tomography for the Kluchevskoy group of volcanoes in Kamchatka, Russia. We consider the time period from 1999 to 2009, which covers several stages of activity of Kluchevskoy and Bezymianny volcanoes. The results are supported by synthetic tests that recover a common 3D model based on data corresponding to different time windows. Throughout the period, we observe a robust feature below 25 km depth with anomalously high Vp/Vs values (up to 2.2). We interpret this feature as a channel bringing deep mantle materials with high fluid and melt content to the bottom of the crust. This mantle channel directly or indirectly determines the activity of all volcanoes of the Kluchevskoy group. In the crust, we model complex structure that varies over time. During the pre-eruptive period, we detected two levels of potential magma storage: one in the middle crust at 10-12 km depth and one close to the surface just below Kluchevskoy volcano. In 2005, a year of powerful eruptions of Kluchevskoy and Besymiyanny volcanoes, we observe a general increase in Vp/Vs throughout the crust. In the relaxation period following the eruption, the Vp/Vs values are generally low, and no strong anomalous zones in the crust are observed. We propose that very rapid variations in Vp/Vs are most likely due to abrupt changes in the stress and deformation states, which cause fracturing and the active transport of fluids. These fluids drive more fracturing in a positive feedback system that ultimately leads to eruption. We envision the magma reservoirs beneath the Kluchevskoy group as sponge-structured volumes that may quickly change the content of the molten phases as fluids pulse rapidly through the system.

  16. Impact of the geomagnetic field and solar radiation on climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dergachev, V. A.; Vasiliev, S. S.; Raspopov, O. M.; Jungner, H.

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that, in addition to the role of solar variability, past climate changes may have been connected with variations in the Earth's magnetic field elements at various timescales. An analysis of variations in geomagnetic field elements, such as field intensity, reversals, and excursions, allowed us to establish a link between climate changes at various timescales over the last millennia. Of particular interest are sharp changes in the geomagnetic field intensity and short reversals of the magnetic poles (excursions). The beginning and termination of the examined geomagnetic excursions can be attributed to periods of climate change. In this study, we analyzed the possible link between short-term geomagnetic variability (jerks) and climate change, as well as the accelerated drift of the north magnetic pole and surface temperature variations. The results do not rule out the possibility that geomagnetic field variations which modulate the cosmic ray flux could have played a major role in climate change in addition to previously induced by solar radiation.

  17. Conditions for Emergence, Stability and Change in New Organizations in the Field of Citizens Climate Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria Josefina

    Climate change represents a crisis of tangible measure and the emergence of a field of action within which acting today needs to be motivated for what can contribute to benefit climate and transform society into a low carbon tomorrow. With the breadth and scope of citizen action on climate change...... expanding worldwide the weight of expectations can be boiled down to two: One refers to their potential for delivering specific mitigation/adaptation goals; the second refers to their organizational potential, stability and the manner in which they can ultimately affect societal transformational change....... This contribution is concerned with the latter. It proposes that using field analysis it is possible to understand conditions of emergence, stability and change in citizen engagement in climate action. The present contribution offers only a preliminary exploration of possibilities for how using field theory can...

  18. Changes in Earth's core-generated magnetic field, as observed by Swarm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Olsen, Nils; Gillet, Nicolas

    By far the largest part of the Earth's magnetic field is generated by motions taking place within our planet's liquid metal outer core. Variations of this core-generated field thus provide us with a unique means of probing the dynamics taking place in the deepest reaches of the Earth....... In this contribution, we will present the core-generated magnetic field, and its recent time changes, as seen by ESA's Earth explorer mission Swarm. We will present a new time-dependent geomagnetic field model, called CHAOS-6, derived from satellite data collected by the Swarm constellation, as well as data from...... the previous missions CHAMP and Oersted together with ground observatory data. Advantage is taken of the constellation aspect of the Swarm mission by ingesting field differences along track and across track between the lower pair of Swarm satellites. Evaluating the global field model at the outer boundary...

  19. Far-zone coherence changes of electromagnetic scattered field generated by an anisotropic particulate medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xinyu; Ye, Dong; Zhou, Munchun; Xin, Yu; Song, Minmin

    2017-08-01

    The far-zone scattered field generated by an anisotropic particulate medium with electromagnetic plane incident waves is discussed. The analytical expressions of the spectral density and spectral degree of coherence of the scattered field are derived, which show that the coherence properties of the scattered field depend on the characteristics of each particle and the distribution of particles. By simulations of two special cases, i.e., anisotropic random particles with isotropic determinate distribution and isotropic determinate particles with anisotropic random distribution, the properties of the medium and the polarization states of the incident wave play roles in the distribution of the spectral degree of coherence of the scattered field. Moreover, the general condition, anisotropic particles with anisotropic distribution, is briefly discussed. By comparing the results generated by different parameters, the coherence changes of scattered field are found in the scattered field.

  20. What and how should we teach so as to prepare the next generation of hydrologists for a rapidly changing world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenije, Hubert

    2010-05-01

    In principle, we can learn from history and from historical data how a hydrological system behaved in the past. But what can we learn about new situations? Can we predict with confidence how our natural systems will function under changing boundary conditions? If the answer to this question is negative, then how can we prepare future generation to deal with these issues? I think that we have to focus on understanding physical processes at scales where they demonstrate organised behaviour, or - to put it in other words - at scales were patterns emerge. In recent years we have seen how the reductionist approach is incapable of predicting uncertain situations. Instead, we will have to focus on recognising dominant behaviour and on modelling this behaviour in the simplest terms possible. This brings us to the question how we can identify and conceptualise dominant and secondary behaviour in connection to a changing environment and subject to changed forcing. What does this mean for education? I think we have to teach basic physics and basic physical principles and processes at plot scale, but also at the scale of hill slopes, watersheds and river basins. This has to be strongly intertwined with field work. Only in the field can students recognise the processes and the thresholds that need to be passed for certain processes to become active. Next, students should learn how to conceptualise the hydrological world within a rejectionist framework of hypothesis testing; how to develop and use diagnostics to test hypothesis; and, more importantly, how to develop and use creativity to generate new hypotheses, in dialogue with the experimentalist and field hydrologist. Finally there are issues related to process. Learning should consist largely of learning by doing: literature studies, field work, experiments, colloquia, exercises, presentations, paper writing, discussion groups. Lecturing should not be more than 50% of the contact time and should be interactive and meant to

  1. CN Jet Morphology and the Very Rapidly Changing Rotation Period of Comet 41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, David G.; Eisner, Nora; Knight, Matthew M.; Thirouin, Audrey

    2017-10-01

    In the first half of 2017, Comet 41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresak had its best apparition since its first discovery in 1858, remaining within 0.15 AU of Earth for three weeks and within 0.20 AU over a two month interval. These circumstances allowed us to study its coma morphology in search of possible jets, whose appearance and motion as a function of time would yield the rotation period and, with appropriate modeling, the pole orientation of the nucleus and source location(s). Imaging was obtained on a total of 45 nights between February 16 and July 2, using Lowell Observatory's 4.3-m Discovery Channel Telescope, the Hall 1.1-m telescope, and the robotic 0.8-m telescope. All narrowband CN images exhibit either one or two gas jets, and on most nights both jets appear as partial spirals with a clockwise rotation. Only a slow evolution of the jet morphology took place from mid-March to early June, presumably due to viewing geometry changes coupled with seasonal changes. Our coverage in late March was sufficient to rule out aliases of the rotation period, and further revealed a rapidly increasing period from about 24 hr to about 27 hr at the end of the month (Knight et al. 2017, CBET 4377). This rate of increase is roughly consistent with the solution of 19.9 hr found by Farnham et al. (2017, CBET 4375) in early March. Images from April 15 to May 4 yield an accelerating change in periods, passing 48 hr approximately on April 28. This is the fastest rate of change ever measured for a comet nucleus. These and other results, including those from Monte Carlo jet modeling just begun by us, will be presented.These studies were supported by NASA Planetary Astronomy grant NNX14AG81G and the Marcus Cometary Research Fund.

  2. Niche tracking and rapid establishment of distributional equilibrium in the house sparrow show potential responsiveness of species to climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B Monahan

    Full Text Available The ability of species to respond to novel future climates is determined in part by their physiological capacity to tolerate climate change and the degree to which they have reached and continue to maintain distributional equilibrium with the environment. While broad-scale correlative climatic measurements of a species' niche are often described as estimating the fundamental niche, it is unclear how well these occupied portions actually approximate the fundamental niche per se, versus the fundamental niche that exists in environmental space, and what fitness values bounding the niche are necessary to maintain distributional equilibrium. Here, we investigate these questions by comparing physiological and correlative estimates of the thermal niche in the introduced North American house sparrow (Passer domesticus. Our results indicate that occupied portions of the fundamental niche derived from temperature correlations closely approximate the centroid of the existing fundamental niche calculated on a fitness threshold of 50% population mortality. Using these niche measures, a 75-year time series analysis (1930-2004 further shows that: (i existing fundamental and occupied niche centroids did not undergo directional change, (ii interannual changes in the two niche centroids were correlated, (iii temperatures in North America moved through niche space in a net centripetal fashion, and consequently, (iv most areas throughout the range of the house sparrow tracked the existing fundamental niche centroid with respect to at least one temperature gradient. Following introduction to a new continent, the house sparrow rapidly tracked its thermal niche and established continent-wide distributional equilibrium with respect to major temperature gradients. These dynamics were mediated in large part by the species' broad thermal physiological tolerances, high dispersal potential, competitive advantage in human-dominated landscapes, and climatically induced

  3. The left visual-field advantage in rapid visual presentation is amplified rather than reduced by posterior-parietal rTMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verleger, Rolf; Möller, Friderike; Kuniecki, Michal

    2010-01-01

    In the present task, series of visual stimuli are rapidly presented left and right, containing two target stimuli, T1 and T2. In previous studies, T2 was better identified in the left than in the right visual field. This advantage of the left visual field might reflect dominance exerted...... by the right over the left hemisphere. If so, then repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the right parietal cortex might release the left hemisphere from right-hemispheric control, thereby improving T2 identification in the right visual field. Alternatively or additionally, the asymmetry in T2...... identification might reflect capacity limitations of the left hemisphere, which might be aggravated by rTMS to the left parietal cortex. Therefore, rTMS pulses were applied during each trial, beginning simultaneously with T1 presentation. rTMS was directed either to P4 or to P3 (right or left parietal cortex...

  4. Integrating Collaboration, Adaptive Management, and Scenario-Planning to Address Rapid Change: Experiences at Las Cienegas National Conservation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caves, J. K.; Bodner, G.; Simms, K.; Fisher, L.; Robertson, T.

    2012-12-01

    There is growing recognition that public lands cannot be managed as islands; rather, land management must address the ecological, social, and temporal complexity that often spans jurisdictions and traditional planning horizons. Collaborative decision-making and adaptive management (CAM) have been promoted as methods to reconcile competing societal demands and respond to complex ecosystem dynamics. We present the experiences of land managers and stakeholders in using CAM at Las Cienegas National Conservation Area (LCNCA), a highly valued site under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The CAM process at Las Cienegas is marked by strong stakeholder engagement, with four core elements: 1) shared watershed goals with measurable resource objectives; 2) mechanisms to incorporate new information into decision-making; 3) efforts to make information increasingly relevant and reliable; and 4) shared learning to improve both the process and management actions. The combination of stakeholder engagement and adaptive management has led to agreement on contentious issues, more innovative solutions, and more effective land management. Yet the region is now experiencing rapid changes outside managers' control—including climate change, human population growth, and reduced federal budgets—with large but unpredictable impacts on natural resources. While CAM experience provides a strong foundation for making the difficult and contentious management decisions that such changes are likely to require, neither collaboration nor adaptive management provides a sufficient structure for addressing uncontrollable and unpredictable change. As a result, LCNCA is exploring two specific modifications to CAM that may better address emerging challenges, including: 1) Creating nested resource objectives to distinguish between those objectives which may be crucial from those which may hinder a flexible response to climate change, and 2) Incorporating scenario planning into CAM

  5. Rapid and precise determination of zero-field splittings by terahertz time-domain electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian; Ozel, I Ozge; Belvin, Carina A; Li, Xian; Skorupskii, Grigorii; Sun, Lei; Ofori-Okai, Benjamin K; Dincă, Mircea; Gedik, Nuh; Nelson, Keith A

    2017-11-01

    Zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters are fundamentally tied to the geometries of metal ion complexes. Despite their critical importance for understanding the magnetism and spectroscopy of metal complexes, they are not routinely available through general laboratory-based techniques, and are often inferred from magnetism data. Here we demonstrate a simple tabletop experimental approach that enables direct and reliable determination of ZFS parameters in the terahertz (THz) regime. We report time-domain measurements of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signals associated with THz-frequency ZFSs in molecular complexes containing high-spin transition-metal ions. We measure the temporal profiles of the free-induction decays of spin resonances in the complexes at zero and nonzero external magnetic fields, and we derive the EPR spectra via numerical Fourier transformation of the time-domain signals. In most cases, absolute values of the ZFS parameters are extracted from the measured zero-field EPR frequencies, and the signs can be determined by zero-field measurements at two different temperatures. Field-dependent EPR measurements further allow refined determination of the ZFS parameters and access to the g -factor. The results show good agreement with those obtained by other methods. The simplicity of the method portends wide applicability in chemistry, biology and material science.

  6. Short-term evaluation of tegumentary changes of the nose in oral breathers undergoing rapid maxillary expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badreddine, Fauze Ramez; Fujita, Reginaldo Raimundo; Cappellette, Mario

    2017-06-26

    Rapid maxillary expansion is an orthodontic and orthopedic procedure that can change the form and function of the nose. The soft tissue of the nose and its changes can influence the esthetics and the stability of the results obtained by this procedure. The objective of this study was to assess the changes in nose dimensions after rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in oral breathers with maxillary atresia, using a reliable and reproducible methodology through computed tomography. A total of 30 mouth-breathing patients with maxillary atresia were analyzed and divided into a treatment group who underwent RME (20 patients, 10 of which were male and 10 female, with a MA of 8.9 years and a SD of 2.16, ranging from 6.5 to 12.5 years) and a Control Group (10 patients, 5 of which were male and 5 female, with a MA of 9.2 years, SD of 2.17, ranging from 6.11 to 13.7 years). In the treatment group, multislice computed tomography scans were obtained at the start of the treatment (T1) and 3 months after expansion (T2). The patients of the control group were submitted to the same exams at the same intervals of time. Four variables related to soft tissue structures of the nose were analyzed (alar base width, alar width, height of soft tissue of the nose and length of soft tissue of the nose), and the outcomes between T1 and T2 were compared using Osirix MD software. In the TG, the soft tissues of the nose exhibited significant increases in all variables studied (p0.05). In the treatment group, mean alar base width increased by 4.87% (p=0.004), mean alar width increased by 4.04% (p=0.004), mean height of the soft tissues of the nose increased by 4.84% (p=0.003) and mean length of the soft tissues of the nose increased by 4.29% (p=0.012). In short-term, RME provided a statistically significant increase in the dimensions of the soft tissues of the nose. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All

  7. The Arctic Report Card: Communicating the State of the Rapidly Changing Arctic to a Diverse Audience via the Worldwide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, M. O.; Richter-Menge, J.; Overland, J. E.; Soreide, N. N.

    2013-12-01

    Rapid change is occurring throughout the Arctic environmental system. The goal of the Arctic Report Card is to communicate the nature of the many changes to a diverse audience via the Worldwide Web. First published in 2006, the Arctic Report Card is a peer-reviewed publication containing clear, reliable and concise scientific information on the current state of the Arctic environment relative to observational records. Available only online, it is intended to be an authoritative source for scientists, teachers, students, decision-makers, policy-makers and the general public interested in the Arctic environment and science. The Arctic Report Card is organized into five sections: Atmosphere; Sea Ice & Ocean; Marine Ecosystem; Terrestrial Ecosystem; Terrestrial Cryosphere. Arctic Report Card 2012, the sixth annual update, comprised 20 essays on physical and biological topics prepared by an international team of 141 scientists from 15 different countries. For those who want a quick summary, the Arctic Report Card home page provides highlights of key events and findings, and a short video that is also available on YouTube. The release of the Report Card each autumn is preceded by a NOAA press release followed by a press conference, when the Web site is made public. The release of Arctic Report Card 2012 at an AGU Fall Meeting press conference on 5 December 2012 was subsequently reported by leading media organizations. The NOAA Arctic Web site, of which the Report Card is a part, is consistently at the top of Google search results for the keyword 'arctic', and the Arctic Report Card Web site tops search results for keyword "arctic report" - pragmatic indications of a Web site's importance and popularity. As another indication of the Web site's impact, in December 2012, the month when the 2012 update was released, the Arctic Report Card Web site was accessed by 19,851 unique sites in 105 countries, and 4765 Web site URLs referred to the Arctic Report Card. The 2012 Arctic

  8. Immediate periodontal bone plate changes induced by rapid maxillary expansion in the early mixed dentition: CT findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gamba Garib

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at evaluating buccal and lingual bone plate changes caused by rapid maxillary expansion (RME in the mixed dentition by means of computed tomography (CT. METHODS: The sample comprised spiral CT exams taken from 22 mixed dentition patients from 6 to 9 years of age (mean age of 8.1 years presenting constricted maxillary arch treated with Haas-type expanders. Patients were submitted to spiral CT scan before expansion and after the screw activation period with a 30-day interval between T1 and T2. Multiplanar reconstruction was used to measure buccal and lingual bone plate thickness and buccal bone crest level of maxillary posterior deciduous and permanent teeth. Changes induced by expansion were evaluated using paired t test (p < 0.05. RESULTS: Thickness of buccal and lingual bone plates of posterior teeth remained unchanged during the expansion period, except for deciduous second molars which showed a slight reduction in bone thickness at the distal region of its buccal aspect. Buccal bone dehiscences were not observed in the supporting teeth after expansion. CONCLUSION: RME performed in mixed dentition did not produce immediate undesirable effects on periodontal bone tissues.

  9. Hydrogen-induced changes in the crystalline structure and mechanical properties of a Zn-Al eutectoid alloy rapidly solidified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval Jimenez, Alberto; Iturbe Garcia, Jose Luis [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: alberto.sandoval@inin.gob.mx; asandovalj@correo.unam.mx; Negrete Sanchez, Jesus [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Torres Villasenor, Gabriel [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    Ribbon fractions of a zinc-aluminum eutectoid (Zn40.8Al%at.) alloy, obtained by rapid solidification using melt spinning technique, were submitted to a thermo-hydrogenation process by periods of 1, 6, 18, 24, 30, and 48 hours, to 200 degrees Celsius and 20 atmospheres. Thermo-hydrogenated samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Hydrogen-induced changes were produced, such as microstructure refining, development of crystalline defects, microhardness changes and modification of stable crystalline structures to {alpha}R meta-stable phase at room temperature. [Spanish] Fracciones de tiras de una aleacion eutectoide de zinc-aluminio (Zn40.8Al%at.), obtenidas mediante solidificacion rapida usando la tecnica de melt spinning, se sometieron a un proceso de termohidrogenacion por periodos de 1, 6, 18, 24, 30 y 48 horas, a 200 grados centigrados y 20 atmosferas. Las muestras termohidrogenadas se analizaron por microscopia electronica de transmision (MET). Se produjeron cambios inducidos por hidrogeno, tales como la refinacion de la microestructura, el desarrollo de defectos cristalinos, cambios de microdureza y modificacion de las estructuras cristalinas estables a fase metaestable {alpha}R a temperatura ambiente.

  10. Rapid Shifts in Soil and Forest Floor Microbial Communities with Changes in Vegetation during Secondary Tropical Forest Succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Balser, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    anaerobic gram-negative bacteria (c19:0) in the wet season, which suggests the presence of anaerobic microsites in these very clayey Oxisols. Enzymatic activity did not differ with succession but was highest in the dry season. We expect this may be due to decreased turnover of enzymes with low soil moisture. Interannual sampling has revealed a very rapid microbial response to changes in aboveground cover. Within a year following woody biomass encroachment, we detected a shift in the soil microbial community from a pasture-associated community to an early secondary forest community in one of our replicate pasture sites. This very rapid response in the belowground microbial community structure to changes in vegetation has not been strongly documented in the literature. This data supports a direct link between aboveground and belowground biotic community structures and highlights the importance of long-term repeated sampling of microbial communities in dynamic ecosystems. Our findings have implications for predicting rapid ecological responses to land-cover change.

  11. Intercellular communication in plants: evidence for two rapidly transmitted systemic signals generated in response to electromagnetic field stimulation in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaubois, Elisabeth; Girard, Sebastien; Lallechere, Sebastien; Davies, Eric; Paladian, Françoise; Bonnet, Pierre; Ledoigt, Gerard; Vian, Alain

    2007-07-01

    Exposing all of a wild-type tomato plant to electromagnetic radiation evoked rapid and substantial accumulation of basic leucine-zipper transcription factor (bZIP) mRNA in the terminal leaf (#4) with kinetics very similar to that seen in response to wounding, while in the abscisic acid (ABA) mutant (Sitiens), the response was more rapid, but transient. Submitting just the oldest leaf (#1) of a wild-type plant to irradiation evoked bZIP mRNA accumulation both locally in the exposed leaf and systemically in the unexposed (distant) leaf #4, although systemic accumulation was delayed somewhat. Accumulation of Pin2 mRNA was less than bZIP in both the exposed and distant leaves in wild type, but there was no delay in the systemic response. In Sitiens, bZIP mRNA accumulation was far less than in wild type in both local and distant leaves, while Pin2 mRNA accumulation was stronger in the exposed leaf, but totally prevented in the systemic leaf. In the jasmonic acid (JA) mutant (JL-5) and in wild-type plants treated with the ABA biosynthesis inhibitor, naproxen, responses were similar to those in the ABA mutant, while treatment of the exposed leaf with calcium antagonists totally abolished both local and systemic increases in bZIP transcript accumulation.

  12. A rapid review examining purchasing changes resulting from fiscal measures targeted at high sugar foods and sugar-sweetened drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Katharine E; Ells, Louisa J; McGowan, Victoria J; Machaira, Theodora; Targett, Victoria C; Allen, Rachel E; Tedstone, Alison E

    2017-12-15

    To aim of the review was to examine the most recent (2010 onwards) research evidence on the health and behavioural impacts, in adults and children, of fiscal strategies that target high sugar foods and sugar-sweetened drinks (SSDs). A pragmatic rapid review was undertaken using a systematic search strategy. The review was part of a programme of work to support policy development in relation to high sugar food and SSDs. A total of 11 primary research publications were included, describing evidence from France (n = 1), the Netherlands (n = 3), and the United States of America (n = 7), assessed through a variety of study designs, with the majority in adult populations (n = 10). The evidence reviewed focused on consumer behaviour outcomes and suggested that fiscal strategies can influence purchases of high sugar products. Although the majority of studies (n = 10), including three field studies, demonstrated that an increase in the price of high sugar foods and SSDs resulted in a decrease in purchases, eight studies were conducted in a laboratory or virtual setting which may not reflect real-life situations.Findings from this review support evidence from the broader literature that suggests that fiscal measures can be effective in influencing the purchasing of high sugar foods and SSDs.

  13. Rates of change of the earth's magnetic field measured by recent analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, C. G. A.; Huang, Qilin

    1990-01-01

    Typical rates of change of the earth's magnetic field are presented as a function of the earth's spherical harmonics. Harmonics up to the eight degree are analyzed. With the increase in the degree of the harmonics an increase in the relative rate of change can be observed. For higher degrees, the rate of change can be predicted. This enables a differentiation between harmonics originating in the core and harmonics caused by crustal magnetization. The westward drift of the magnetic field depends on the longitudinal gradient of the field. In order to determine the longitudinal motions, harmonics up to degree 20 can be utilized. The average rate of secular acceleration increases with the degree of harmonics from 0.001 deg/sq yr for a dipole term to an average of 0.05 deg/sq yr for degree eight harmonics.

  14. Rapid Change without Transformation: The Dominance of a National Policy Paradigm over International Influences on ECEC Development in Ireland 1995-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Toby; O'Donoghue-Hynes, Bernie; Hayes, Nóirín

    2013-01-01

    The rapidity of change in Irish early childhood policy over the last 20 years is clear to observers (OECD Thematic Review of Early Childhood Education and Care Policy in Ireland. "Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development," Paris, 2004). What may be debated is how significant the changes are. In this paper, we analyse…

  15. Holocene fluvial geochronologies, global databases and hydrological proxies: rethinking people-river interactions and rapid climate change impacts (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, M. G.

    2009-12-01

    The assumption of the constancy of climate over time periods of around a century, which was the basis of much engineering and hydrological forward planning until recently, is now widely felt to be unsatisfactory. This re-evaluation has been prompted by a number of important empirical, interdisciplinary and technological advances in fluvial science research over the last decade that is increasingly being carried out in a global framework. Some of the more important developments have included: 1. wider application of high precision sediment-based dating techniques (e.g. OSL) to a greater range of fluvial environments; 2. worldwide database compilation and statistical analysis of 14C dated Holocene fluvial units, enabling the identification of climatic and anthropogenic environmental signals in fluvial sedimentary sequences; and 3. new earth surface observation (e.g. LIDAR) and sediment core analysis (e.g. ITRAX core scanner) techniques that are providing event-scale reconstructions of fluvial environments. Drawing on recent geoarchaeological research in the lower Nile valley, 14C database analysis and comparison of Holocene fluvial records in Europe and New Zealand, and a new 3700-year continuous flood record from the UK reconstructed from fine-grained floodplain sediments, the impact of rapid climate change on riverine societies resulting from monsoon, thermohaline circulation, ENSO and NAO variability is critically reviewed. These studies show that establishing causal relationships between river dynamics and cultural/demographic change is not a straightforward task and identifying possible natural environmental triggers of societal change is especially problematic. A solution may be to stress the inseparable nature of environmental and cultural influences, and view the physical environment as a delimiter of possible action rather than as a prescriptive agency.

  16. Educational disparities in the metabolic syndrome in a rapidly changing society--the case of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung-Hee; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Choi, Bo Youl; Shin, Young-Jeon

    2005-12-01

    Most of the evidence about socioeconomic inequalities in the metabolic syndrome comes from Western industrialized societies. The aim of this study is to examine how the inequalities appear and what could explain them in Korea, a rapidly changing society. We analysed the nationwide survey data of 1998 and 2001 with a sample of 4630 men and 5896 women (> or = 25 years). The subjects were grouped into four birth cohorts based on the historical context: born before 1946, 1946-53, 1954-62, and since 1963. Socioeconomic position was defined by education level: high school graduation or above as the more educated group, and below that as the less educated one. The syndrome was defined according to ATP III criteria using abdominal obesity for Asians. The covariates included family history of diabetes, smoking, drinking, daily physical activity, regular exercise, suicidal ideation, weight change, and carbohydrates intake. The associations were examined by stratified logistic regression models across cohorts and gender. Less-educated women had higher prevalence with widening gaps across successive cohorts; the age-adjusted odds ratios of the less-educated group were 1.22 (0.86-1.71), 1.41 (1.01-1.97), 2.50 (1.87-3.35), and 2.64 (1.69-4.14). They hardly changed after covariate adjustment, and remained significant with considerable attenuation after controlling body mass index. However, educational disparities were not observed in men. We could observe the complex pattern of disparities in the metabolic syndrome across cohorts and gender. An equity-sensitive health promotion programme to prevent further spread of social inequalities may have beneficial effects on the metabolic syndrome and its components in Korea.

  17. Behavior of pesticides in a paddy field with rapid water penetration; Koka shinto sokudo no hayai suiden ni okeru noyaku dotai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, T.; Nakano, Y. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering

    2000-11-10

    The behavior of pesticides (dymron, mefenacet, bensulfuron-methyl) was measured and simulated in a paddy field with rapid water penetration. In the field experiment, the concentration of each pesticide in paddy water reached a maximum shortly after its application, and then diminished rapidly to a non-detectable level within three days. In paddy soil, the concentrations of dymron and mefenacet in the topsoil (from soil surface to 5 cm, 0-5 cm) were much higher than those in the subsoil (5-10 cm) four days after application, and their concentrations in both soils became almost the same after six days. On the other hand, a significant difference in the concentration of bensulfuron-methyl between the topsoil and the subsoil could not be observed. The behavior of pesticides in the paddy field was predicted well using a mathematical simulation model. It was found that transfer of pesticide with dissolution and penetration of water significantly contributed to the behavior of pesticides in paddy water, and the spatial distribution of the pesticides in paddy soil depended on the adsorbability of each pesticide. Dymron and mefenacet were shown to be spatially less mobile than bensulfuron-methyl because of their higher adsorbability. (author)

  18. The dynamic feedbacks between channel changes in the Colorado River Basin and the rapid invasion of Tamarisk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manners, R.; Schmidt, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    The resiliency and sensitivity of western rivers to future climate change may be partly anticipated by the response of these rivers to past perturbations in stream flow and sediment supply. Predictions of earlier spring runoff and reduced peak flows of snowmelt-dominated streams mimic hydrologic changes caused by the closure and operation of large dams built within the past century. In the Colorado River Basin, channels have narrowed between 5 and 26% following large dam construction, but the correlation between flow reduction and channel narrowing is confounded by changes in bank strength caused by the rapid spread of the non-native riparian shrub, tamarisk (Tamarix spp.). Thus, predictions of future changes in channel form and analysis of past changes related to dams must distinguish between channel narrowing caused by direct changes in flow, and caused by the indirect effects wherein changes in flow regime allow expansion of non-native riparian vegetation that in turn leads to accelerated channel narrowing. Our research evaluates the geomorphic controls on tamarisk colonization, the role of tamarisk in accelerating the narrowing process, and the dynamic feedbacks between channel changes on western rivers and the invasion of non-native riparian species. The transformation of formerly active bars and channel margins into stable inset floodplain surfaces is the dominant process by which these channels have narrowed, as determined by detailed alluvial stratigraphy and dendrogeomorphology. We recreated the 3-dimensional bar surface present at the time of tamarisk establishment by excavating an extensive network of trenches. In doing this, we evaluated the hydraulic environment within which tamarisk established. We also characterized the hydrodynamic roughness of aging tamarisk stands from ground-based LiDAR scans to evaluate the role of tamarisk in the promotion of floodplain formation. Our study sites are representative of the predominant geomorphic organization of

  19. Electric-field-induced structural changes in water confined between two graphene layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino Fernández, Mario; Peeters, F. M.; Neek-Amal, M.

    2016-07-01

    An external electric field changes the physical properties of polar liquids due to the reorientation of their permanent dipoles. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we predict that an in-plane electric field applied parallel to the channel polarizes water molecules which are confined between two graphene layers, resulting in distinct ferroelectricity and electrical hysteresis. We found that electric fields alter the in-plane order of the hydrogen bonds: Reversing the electric field does not restore the system to the nonpolar initial state, instead a residual dipole moment remains in the system. The square-rhombic structure of 2D ice is transformed into two rhombic-rhombic structures. Our study provides insights into the ferroelectric state of water when confined in nanochannels and shows how this can be tuned by an electric field.

  20. Magnetic field changes associated with a sub-flare and surge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagyard, M. J.; West, E. A.; Smith, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    A sub-flare and surge were observed on June 13, 1990, with the Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograph and coaligned H-alpha telescope. This activity occurred at the site of a parasitic polarity near a large, mature sunspot. Analysis of the vector magnetic field showed that while flux emergence and other field changes occurred sporadically throughout a period of four days, the sub-flare and surge only took place after an increase in magnetic shear in the field of the parasitic polarity. This event also provided an example of relaxation of magnetic shear following the flare and surging.

  1. Identifying a framework of institutional change in the field of higher education in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volchik Vyacheslav, V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the features of institutional change in the field of higher education in Russia. Institutional environment of Russian higher education is very dynamic, institutions change quickly; therefore, interactions between actors occur spontaneously rather than deliberately. The article aims at identifying relevant institutions, regulatory mechanisms, informal rules and practices that influence actors’ behavior in the field. The paper emphasizes the application of qualitative interpretative methods in examining actors’ behavior. Participant observation and questionnaires have been chosen as prevailing data collection methods. The results obtained through participant observation and questionnaires are intermediate, preceding the stage of semi-structured interviews.

  2. Terrestrial Plant Biomarkers Preserved in Cariaco Basin Sediments: Records of Abrupt Tropical Vegetation Response to Rapid Climate Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughen, K. A.; Eglinton, T. I.; Makou, M.; Xu, L.; Sylva, S.

    2004-12-01

    Organic-rich sediments from the anoxic Cariaco Basin, Venezuela, preserve high concentrations of biomarkers for reconstruction of terrestrial environmental conditions. Molecular-level investigations of organic compounds provide a valuable tool for extracting terrestrial signals from these annually laminated marine sediments. Differences in hydrogen isotopic fractionation between C16-18 and C24-30 n-alkanoic acids suggest a marine source for the shorter chain lengths and a terrestrial source for the longer chains. Records of carbon and hydrogen isotopes, as well as average carbon chain length (ACL), from long-chain n-alkanoic acids parallel millennial-scale changes in vegetation and climate between the late Glacial and Preboreal periods, 15,000 to 10,000 years ago. Data from all terrestrial chain lengths were combined to produce single δ D and δ 13C indices through deglaciation, exhibiting enrichment during the late Glacial and Younger Dryas and depletion during the Bolling-Allerod and Preboreal periods. δ D reflects the hydrogen isotopic composition of environmental water used for plant growth, combined with evaporative enrichment within leaf spaces, and as such may act as a proxy for local aridity. Leaf wax δ 13C, which is a proxy for C3 versus C4 metabolic pathways, indicates that C3 plants predominated in the Cariaco watershed during warm/wet Bolling-Allerod and Holocene periods, and C4 plant biomass proliferated during cool/dry Glacial and Younger Dryas intervals. Coupled carbon and hydrogen isotopic measurements together clearly distinguish deglacial climatic periods as wetter with C3 vegetation versus drier with C4 vegetation. High resolution biomarker records reveal the rapidity of vegetation changes in northern South America during the last deglaciation. The leaf wax data reveal that local vegetation biomass, although not necessarily entire assemblages, shifted between arid grassland and wetter forest taxa on timescales of decades. Comparison of ACL

  3. Rapid compositional change and significant loss of plant species diversity among Triassic-Jurassic palynofloras in East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Luke; Kürschner, Wolfram; McElwain, Jennifer

    2010-05-01

    The Triassic-Jurassic (Tr-J; 200Ma) transition coincides with the eruption of massive flood basalts associated with the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. This is thought to have lead to a fourfold increase in palaeoatmospheric carbon dioxide, a consequent rise in global temperatures of between 3 and 6 degrees Celsius, and a rise in atmospheric pollutants such as sulphur dioxide. Recent work has employed either plant macrofossils (mostly leaves) or sporomorphs (pollen and spores) to reconstruct the response of terrestrial vegetation to this episode of major environmental change. Investigations of the macrofossil record at Astartekloft in East Greenland indicate a rapid loss of plant diversity in the Late Rhaetian, culminating in an 80% species turnover at the Tr-J boundary interval. However, evidence for such catastrophic diversity loss is conspicuously absent from the sporomorph record. This fossil group indicates that the Tr-J boundary interval in central and northwest Europe is characterized by compositional change and a transient shift from gymnosperm forests to fern-dominated vegetation. In order to address this uncertainty regarding Tr-J vegetation change according to macrofossils versus sporomorphs, we present an analysis of sporomorph diversity and compositional change across the Tr-J at Astartekloft, East Greenland. Sporomorph diversity was estimated using individual and sample-based rarefaction techniques, and compositional differences between sporomorph samples were assessed using non-metric multidimensional scaling. These analyses reveal that sporomorph assemblages from the Tr-J boundary interval at Astartekloft are between 23 and 27% less taxonomically diverse than other Triassic assemblages, and that this interval is characterized by a dramatic shift in the composition of the standing vegetation. These results are statistically significant and are also unrelated to changes in the environment of deposition. These results indicate that the magnitude of

  4. The first evidence for multiple pulsation axes: a new rapidly oscillating Ap star in the Kepler field, KIC 10195926

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtz, Donald W.; Cunha, Margarida S.; Saio, H.

    2011-01-01

    We have discovered a new rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) star among the Kepler mission target stars, KIC 10195926. This star shows two pulsation modes with periods that are amongst the longest known for roAp stars at 17.1 and 18.1 min, indicating that the star is near the terminal-age main sequence...... of νrot/2. We propose that this and other subharmonics are the first observed manifestation of torsional modes in an roAp star. From high-resolution spectra, we determine Teff= 7400 K, log g= 3.6 and v sin i= 21 km s−1. We have found a magnetic pulsation model with fundamental parameters close...

  5. Azimuthal collimation of long range rapidity correlations by strong color fields in high multiplicity hadron-hadron collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusling, Kevin; Venugopalan, Raju

    2012-06-29

    The azimuthal collimation of dihadrons with large rapidity separations in high multiplicity p+p collisions at the LHC is described in the color glass condensate (CGC) effective theory [A. Dumitru, K. Dusling, F. Gelis, J. Jalilian-Marian, T. Lappi, and R. Venugopalan, Phys. Lett. B 697, 21 (2011).] by N(c)(2) suppressed multiladder QCD diagrams that are enhanced α(S)(-8) due to gluon saturation in hadron wave functions. We show that quantitative computations in the CGC framework are in good agreement with data from the CMS experiment on per trigger dihadron yields and predict further systematics of these yields with varying trigger p(T) and charged hadron multiplicity. Radial flow generated by rescattering is strongly limited by the structure of the p+p dihadron correlations. In contrast, radial flow explains the systematics of identical measurements in heavy ion collisions.

  6. Monitoring of two rapidly changing glacier tongues in the Swiss Alps by new drone data and historical documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaumer, Samuel U.; Jörg, Philip C.; Gärtner-Roer, Isabelle; Rastner, Philipp; Ruff, Alexander; Steiner, Daniel; Vieli, Andreas; Zumbühl, Heinz J.

    2015-04-01

    Glaciers are considered among the most sensitive indicators of climate change. One of the most visually compelling examples of recent climate change is the retreat of glaciers in mountain regions, and knowledge about the past evolution of glacier fluctuations has been proven to be crucial for studying past decadal to century-scale climate variability. In this presentation, we evaluate the potential of a light fixed-wing UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle; drone) designed for surveying and remote sensing purposes, for monitoring glacier changes. We focus on the frontal zones of two well-known glaciers in the Swiss Alps: Unterer Grindelwaldgletscher in the Bernese Oberland, and Findelengletscher near Zermatt, Valais. We used a professional mapping drone (eBee by senseFly) to cover both frontal areas of the glaciers in the summer/autumn of 2014. We used a Canon IXUS 125HS RGB camera on-board the drone to collect overlapping nadir images for both study sites. For Unterer Grindelwaldgletscher (Findelengletscher), 187 (421) images were taken for a surveyed area of 3.2 km2 (2.9 km2) resulting in digital surface models and orthophotos with a very high spatial resolution of 0.16 m (0.11 m). The high number of images collected per area resulted in accurate elevation models and no detectable systematic horizontal shifts. Analysis of these images reveal in great detail the typical processes and features known for down-wasting and rapidly disintegrating Alpine glacier tongues: formation of (pro-)glacial lakes, dead ice, thermokarst phenomena, collapse of lateral moraines, and a complex interplay between many of those processes. Typically glacio-fluvial, gravitational, and periglacial processes occur in close vicinity and on different temporal scales (continuous, sporadic). We compare both glacier landscapes and address the important processes identified to be responsible for the glacier change at both sites. Finally, to set the observed geomorphological processes and the rapid

  7. Geohazards and myths: ancient memories of rapid coastal change in the Asia-Pacific region and their value to future adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Patrick D.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid coastal change is common in the Asia-Pacific region yet an understanding of its causes, recurrence times, and impacts is not always clear through the use of conventional geological methods. It is suggested that myths (traditional [oral] tales) are underutilized sources of information about coastal change in this region. This is illustrated by consideration of myths likely to recall (early) Holocene sea-level rise, particularly along the coasts of India and Australia, as well as myths recalling rapid episodic coastal emergence and submergence, the latter including the disappearance of entire landmasses (islands). Two examples of how details in such myths can inform geological understanding of coastal change are given. The first argues that myths recalling the rapid flooding of coastal cities/lowlands are likely to represent memories of extreme wave events superimposed on a rising (postglacial) sea level. The second suggests that many myths about landmass/island disappearance fail to report the occurrence of rapid (coseismic and aseismic) subsidence even though they provide inferential evidence that this occurred. Few such myths are known to the author from many parts of Asia yet it is likely they exist and could, as elsewhere in the world, help illuminate the understanding of the nature and chronology of rapid coastal change. The challenges involved in helping communities in the Asia-Pacific region adapt to future coastal changes might be partly overcome by the use of appropriate myths to demonstrate precedents and engender local participation in adaptation strategies.

  8. Rapid and Deep Proteomes by Faster Sequencing on a Benchtop Quadrupole Ultra-High-Field Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Christian D; Jersie-Christensen, Rosa R; Batth, Tanveer Singh

    2014-01-01

    Shotgun proteomics is a powerful technology for global analysis of proteins and their post-translational modifications. Here, we investigate faster sequencing speed of the latest Q Exactive HF mass spectrometer, which features an ultra-high-field Orbitrap mass analyzer. Proteome coverage is evalu......Shotgun proteomics is a powerful technology for global analysis of proteins and their post-translational modifications. Here, we investigate faster sequencing speed of the latest Q Exactive HF mass spectrometer, which features an ultra-high-field Orbitrap mass analyzer. Proteome coverage...... in less than 24 hours of analysis time by offline high pH reversed-phase peptide fractionation from which we identify more than 140,000 unique peptide sequences. This is comparable to state-of-the-art multi-day, multi-enzyme efforts. Finally the acquisition methods are evaluated for single-shot...

  9. Rapid and Deep Proteomes by Faster Sequencing on a Benchtop Quadrupole Ultra-High-Field Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Christian D; Jersie-Christensen, Rosa R; Batth, Tanveer Singh

    2014-01-01

    Shotgun proteomics is a powerful technology for global analysis of proteins and their post-translational modifications. Here, we investigate faster sequencing speed of the latest Q Exactive HF mass spectrometer, which features an ultra-high-field Orbitrap mass analyzer. Proteome coverage is evalu......Shotgun proteomics is a powerful technology for global analysis of proteins and their post-translational modifications. Here, we investigate faster sequencing speed of the latest Q Exactive HF mass spectrometer, which features an ultra-high-field Orbitrap mass analyzer. Proteome coverage...... per second or up to 600 new peptides sequenced per gradient minute. We identify 4400 proteins from one microgram of HeLa digest using a one hour gradient, which is an approximately 30% improvement compared to previous instrumentation. In addition, we show very deep proteome coverage can be achieved...

  10. ZnO nanorod arrays prepared by chemical bath deposition combined with rapid thermal annealing: structural, photoluminescence and field emission characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Wei; Yang, Hsi-Wen; He, Hsin-Min; Lee, Yi-Mu

    2016-01-01

    ZnO nanorod arrays were prepared by low temperature chemical bath deposition (CBD) combined with rapid thermal annealing (RTA) under different ambient conditions. The structure and morphology of the synthesized ZnO have been characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The obtained ZnO samples are highly crystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite phase and also display well-aligned array structure. A pronounced effect on increased nanorod length was found for the RTA-treated ZnO as compared to the as-grown ZnO. Analysis of XRD indicates that the (0 0 2) feature peak of the as-grown ZnO was shifted towards a lower angle as compared to the peaks of RTA-treated ZnO samples due to the reduction of tensile strain along the c-axis by RTA. Photoluminescence (PL) studies reveal that the ZnO nanorod arrays receiving RTA in an O2 environment have the sharpest UV emission band and greatest intensity ratio of near band-edge emission (NBE) to deep level emission (DLE). Additionally, the effects of RTA on the field emission properties were evaluated. The results demonstrate that RTA an O2 environment can lower the turn-on field and improve the field enhancement factor. The stability of the field emission current was also tested for 4 h.

  11. Climate Change Winners: Receding Ice Fields Facilitate Colony Expansion and Altered Dynamics in an Adélie Penguin Metapopulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRue, Michelle A.; Ainley, David G.; Swanson, Matt; Dugger, Katie M.; Lyver, Phil O′B.; Barton, Kerry; Ballard, Grant

    2013-01-01

    There will be winners and losers as climate change alters the habitats of polar organisms. For an Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) colony on Beaufort Island (Beaufort), part of a cluster of colonies in the southern Ross Sea, we report a recent population increase in response to increased nesting habitat as glaciers have receded. Emigration rates of birds banded as chicks on Beaufort to colonies on nearby Ross Island decreased after 2005 as available habitat on Beaufort increased, leading to altered dynamics of the metapopulation. Using aerial photography beginning in 1958 and modern satellite imagery, we measured change in area of available nesting habitat and population size of the Beaufort colony. Population size varied with available habitat, and both increased rapidly since the 1990s. In accord with glacial retreat, summer temperatures at nearby McMurdo Station increased by ∼0.50°C per decade since the mid-1980s. Although the Ross Sea is likely to be the last ocean with an intact ecosystem, the recent retreat of ice fields at Beaufort that resulted in increased breeding habitat exemplifies a process that has been underway in the Ross Sea during the entire Holocene. Furthermore, our results are in line with predictions that major ice shelves and glaciers will retreat rapidly elsewhere in the Antarctic, potentially leading to increased breeding habitat for Adélie penguins. Results further indicated that satellite imagery may be used to estimate large changes in Adélie penguin populations, facilitating our understanding of metapopulation dynamics and environmental factors that influence regional populations. PMID:23573267

  12. Climate change winners: receding ice fields facilitate colony expansion and altered dynamics in an Adélie penguin metapopulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRue, Michelle A; Ainley, David G; Swanson, Matt; Dugger, Katie M; Lyver, Phil O'B; Barton, Kerry; Ballard, Grant

    2013-01-01

    There will be winners and losers as climate change alters the habitats of polar organisms. For an Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) colony on Beaufort Island (Beaufort), part of a cluster of colonies in the southern Ross Sea, we report a recent population increase in response to increased nesting habitat as glaciers have receded. Emigration rates of birds banded as chicks on Beaufort to colonies on nearby Ross Island decreased after 2005 as available habitat on Beaufort increased, leading to altered dynamics of the metapopulation. Using aerial photography beginning in 1958 and modern satellite imagery, we measured change in area of available nesting habitat and population size of the Beaufort colony. Population size varied with available habitat, and both increased rapidly since the 1990s. In accord with glacial retreat, summer temperatures at nearby McMurdo Station increased by ~0.50 °C per decade since the mid-1980s. Although the Ross Sea is likely to be the last ocean with an intact ecosystem, the recent retreat of ice fields at Beaufort that resulted in increased breeding habitat exemplifies a process that has been underway in the Ross Sea during the entire Holocene. Furthermore, our results are in line with predictions that major ice shelves and glaciers will retreat rapidly elsewhere in the Antarctic, potentially leading to increased breeding habitat for Adélie penguins. Results further indicated that satellite imagery may be used to estimate large changes in Adélie penguin populations, facilitating our understanding of metapopulation dynamics and environmental factors that influence regional populations.

  13. Climate change winners: receding ice fields facilitate colony expansion and altered dynamics in an Adélie penguin metapopulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A LaRue

    Full Text Available There will be winners and losers as climate change alters the habitats of polar organisms. For an Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae colony on Beaufort Island (Beaufort, part of a cluster of colonies in the southern Ross Sea, we report a recent population increase in response to increased nesting habitat as glaciers have receded. Emigration rates of birds banded as chicks on Beaufort to colonies on nearby Ross Island decreased after 2005 as available habitat on Beaufort increased, leading to altered dynamics of the metapopulation. Using aerial photography beginning in 1958 and modern satellite imagery, we measured change in area of available nesting habitat and population size of the Beaufort colony. Population size varied with available habitat, and both increased rapidly since the 1990s. In accord with glacial retreat, summer temperatures at nearby McMurdo Station increased by ~0.50 °C per decade since the mid-1980s. Although the Ross Sea is likely to be the last ocean with an intact ecosystem, the recent retreat of ice fields at Beaufort that resulted in increased breeding habitat exemplifies a process that has been underway in the Ross Sea during the entire Holocene. Furthermore, our results are in line with predictions that major ice shelves and glaciers will retreat rapidly elsewhere in the Antarctic, potentially leading to increased breeding habitat for Adélie penguins. Results further indicated that satellite imagery may be used to estimate large changes in Adélie penguin populations, facilitating our understanding of metapopulation dynamics and environmental factors that influence regional populations.

  14. Climate change winners: receding ice fields facilitate colony expansion and altered dynamics in an Adélie penguin metapopulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRue, Michelle A.; Ainley, David G.; Swanson, Matt; Dugger, Katie M.; Lyber, Phil O'B.; Barton, Kerry; Ballard, Grant

    2013-01-01

    There will be winners and losers as climate change alters the habitats of polar organisms. For an Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) colony on Beaufort Island (Beaufort), part of a cluster of colonies in the southern Ross Sea, we report a recent population increase in response to increased nesting habitat as glaciers have receded. Emigration rates of birds banded as chicks on Beaufort to colonies on nearby Ross Island decreased after 2005 as available habitat on Beaufort increased, leading to altered dynamics of the metapopulation. Using aerial photography beginning in 1958 and modern satellite imagery, we measured change in area of available nesting habitat and population size of the Beaufort colony. Population size varied with available habitat, and both increased rapidly since the 1990s. In accord with glacial retreat, summer temperatures at nearby McMurdo Station increased by ~0.50°C per decade since the mid-1980s. Although the Ross Sea is likely to be the last ocean with an intact ecosystem, the recent retreat of ice fields at Beaufort that resulted in increased breeding habitat exemplifies a process that has been underway in the Ross Sea during the entire Holocene. Furthermore, our results are in line with predictions that major ice shelves and glaciers will retreat rapidly elsewhere in the Antarctic, potentially leading to increased breeding habitat for Adélie penguins. Results further indicated that satellite imagery may be used to estimate large changes in Adélie penguin populations, facilitating our understanding of metapopulation dynamics and environmental factors that influence regional populations.

  15. Rapid Calibration of High Resolution Geologic Models to Dynamic Data Using Inverse Modeling: Field Application and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil Datta-Gupta

    2008-03-31

    Streamline-based assisted and automatic history matching techniques have shown great potential in reconciling high resolution geologic models to production data. However, a major drawback of these approaches has been incompressibility or slight compressibility assumptions that have limited applications to two-phase water-oil displacements only. We propose an approach to history matching three-phase flow using a novel compressible streamline formulation and streamline-derived analytic sensitivities. First, we utilize a generalized streamline model to account for compressible flow by introducing an 'effective density' of total fluids along streamlines. Second, we analytically compute parameter sensitivities that define the relationship between the reservoir properties and the production response, viz. water-cut and gas/oil ratio (GOR). These sensitivities are an integral part of history matching, and streamline models permit efficient computation of these sensitivities through a single flow simulation. We calibrate geologic models to production data by matching the water-cut and gas/oil ratio using our previously proposed generalized travel time inversion (GTTI) technique. For field applications, however, the highly non-monotonic profile of the gas/oil ratio data often presents a challenge to this technique. In this work we present a transformation of the field production data that makes it more amenable to GTTI. Further, we generalize the approach to incorporate bottom-hole flowing pressure during three-phase history matching. We examine the practical feasibility of the method using a field-scale synthetic example (SPE-9 comparative study) and a field application. Recently Ensemble Kalman Filtering (EnKF) has gained increased attention for history matching and continuous reservoir model updating using data from permanent downhole sensors. It is a sequential Monte-Carlo approach that works with an ensemble of reservoir models. Specifically, the method

  16. Diversification of an organisational field: how Europe promotes and hampers domestic change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boasson, Elin Lerum

    2008-11-15

    Better understanding of Europeanization requires research on national, societal change. This paper presents a theoretical framework that enables assessment of Europeanised change processes within national industries. Empirically it explores how European Union (EU) state aid regulations and European renewable energy trends in conjunction led to diversification among Norwegian stationary energy producers. Key theoretical implications are as follows: (1) The pattern of interaction between change impulses from the European environment, governmental hierarchical steering and institutional logics within the national organisational field was crucial to the output of the change process. (2) Misfit between institutional logics at the European level and the organisational field hampers change, rather than promoting it. (3) The carriers / the actors that bring the European impulses into the organisational field / matter because they translate change impulses in line with their institutional logic. (4) National politicians are unable to control the process of translating these impulses, and that reduces their political clout. (5) Europeanization brings greater challenges to national democratic governance of liberalised industries. (author). refs., tabs

  17. Giant low-field magnetic entropy changes in Ni45Mn44-xCrxSn11 ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C. L.; Zou, W. Q.; Xuan, H. C.; Han, Z. D.; Wang, D. H.; Gu, B. X.; Du, Y. W.

    2007-12-01

    A series of Ni45Mn44-xCrxSn11 (x = 0, 1, 2) ferromagnetic shape memory alloys were prepared. With slight doping of Cr, the martensitic transition temperatures decrease rapidly. The magnetic entropy changes at a low magnetic field were investigated in these alloys. The maximum value of ΔSM is 23.4 J kg-1 K-1, which was observed in Ni45Mn43CrSn11 alloys. The origin of the magnetic entropy changes in these alloys has been discussed. The giant low-field magnetic entropy changes and low cost make Ni45Mn44-xCrxSn11 alloys a promising candidate for magnetic refrigeration.

  18. Use of a Nutrition Behavior Change Counseling Tool: Lessons from a Rapid Qualitative Assessment in Eastern Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid M Weiss

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. Agency for International Development Feed the Future Mawa Project—led by Catholic Relief Services—aims to improve food and economic security for farming households in Zambia’s Eastern Province. Mawa employs social and behavior change strategies with households and communities to improve nutrition and reduce stunting among children under two (CU2. To support these strategies, sub-partner University Research Co., LLC employed a participatory process to develop a series of 35 action cards, each illustrating one project-promoted behavior, that are used at household and community group levels. Caregivers of CU2 are given a full set of action cards to promote household dialogue and support for the promoted behaviors. As a final step in the action card tool development process, a qualitative rapid assessment was conducted one month after implementation to investigate preliminary ways action cards were being used and if the methods of using the cards had the potential to impact behavior change. The research team conducted nine key informant interviews and four focus group discussions with Mawa staff and administered 41 qualitative interview questionnaires with project participants in the Chipata and Lundazi districts. Although not based on a representative sampling frame, the assessment produced valuable results for program improvement purposes. It also provided a feedback mechanism for community-based staff and project participants, a crucial step in the participatory tool development process. The assessment found that Mawa staff at every level use action cards combined with at least one other SBC tool for each nutrition intervention. Our results suggest Mawa staff and project participants share a common understanding of the cards’ purpose. Each group noted that the cards provide a visual cue for action and reinforce previous Mawa nutrition messages. Intended uses confirmed by the assessment include encouraging household cooperation

  19. Ancestral genetic diversity associated with the rapid spread of stress-tolerant coral symbionts in response to Holocene climate change

    KAUST Repository

    Hume, Benjamin C. C.

    2016-04-05

    Coral communities in the Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG) withstand unusually high salinity levels and regular summer temperature maxima of up to ∼35 °C that kill conspecifics elsewhere. Due to the recent formation of the PAG and its subsequent shift to a hot climate, these corals have had only <6, 000 y to adapt to these extreme conditions and can therefore inform on how coral reefs may respond to global warming. One key to coral survival in the world\\'s warmest reefs are symbioses with a newly discovered alga, Symbiodinium thermophilum. Currently, it is unknown whether this symbiont originated elsewhere or emerged from unexpectedly fast evolution catalyzed by the extreme environment. Analyzing genetic diversity of symbiotic algae across >5, 000 km of the PAG, the Gulf of Oman, and the Red Sea coastline, we show that S. thermophilum is a member of a highly diverse, ancient group of symbionts cryptically distributed outside the PAG. We argue that the adjustment to temperature extremes by PAG corals was facilitated by the positive selection of preadapted symbionts. Our findings suggest that maintaining the largest possible pool of potentially stress-tolerant genotypes by protecting existing biodiversity is crucial to promote rapid adaptation to present-day climate change, not only for coral reefs, but for ecosystems in general.

  20. Changes in skeletal and dental relationship in Class II Division I malocclusion after rapid maxillary expansion: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratieri, Carolina; Alves, Matheus; Bolognese, Ana Maria; Nojima, Matilde C G; Nojima, Lincoln I

    2014-01-01

    To assess skeletal and dental changes immediately after rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in Class II Division 1 malocclusion patients and after a retention period, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. Seventeen children with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion and maxillary skeletal transverse deficiency underwent RME following the Haas protocol. CBCT were taken before treatment (T1), at the end of the active expansion phase (T2) and after a retention period of 6 months (T3). The scanned images were measured anteroposteriorly (SNA, SNB, ANB, overjet and MR) and vertically (N-ANS, ANS-Me, N-Me and overbite). Significant differences were identified immediately after RME as the maxilla moved forward, the mandible moved downward, overjet increased and overbite decreased. During the retention period, the maxilla relapsed backwards and the mandible was displaced forward, leaving patients with an overall increase in anterior facial height. RME treatment allowed more anterior than inferior positioning of the mandible during the retention period, thus significantly improving Class II dental relationship in 75% of the patients evaluated.

  1. Changes in skeletal and dental relationship in Class II Division I malocclusion after rapid maxillary expansion: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Baratieri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess skeletal and dental changes immediately after rapid maxillary expansion (RME in Class II Division 1 malocclusion patients and after a retention period, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT imaging. METHODS: Seventeen children with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion and maxillary skeletal transverse deficiency underwent RME following the Haas protocol. CBCT were taken before treatment (T1, at the end of the active expansion phase (T2 and after a retention period of 6 months (T3. The scanned images were measured anteroposteriorly (SNA, SNB, ANB, overjet and MR and vertically (N-ANS, ANS-Me, N-Me and overbite. RESULTS: Significant differences were identified immediately after RME as the maxilla moved forward, the mandible moved downward, overjet increased and overbite decreased. During the retention period, the maxilla relapsed backwards and the mandible was displaced forward, leaving patients with an overall increase in anterior facial height. CONCLUSION: RME treatment allowed more anterior than inferior positioning of the mandible during the retention period, thus significantly improving Class II dental relationship in 75% of the patients evaluated.

  2. Potential Rapid Effects on Soil Organic Matter Characteristics and Chemistry Following a Change in Dominant Litter Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, S. E.; Filley, T.; Conyers, G.; Stott, D.; McCormick, M.; Whigham, D.; Taylor, D.

    2006-12-01

    Changes in vegetation structure are expected in forests globally under predicted future climate scenarios. Shifts in type or quantity of litter inputs, which will be associated with changes in plant community, may influence soil organic matter (SOM) characteristics. We altered litter inputs in a mixed-deciduous forest at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center beginning in May 2004: litter removal, leaf amendment, and wood amendment plots were established in three old (120-150 y) and three young (50-70 y) forests. Plots were amended with wood and leaves collected locally from the dominant tree species, tulip poplar (Lirodendron tulipifera). 0-5 cm A horizon soil was collected in November 2005, 18 months after initial treatment, and physically fractionated first by dispersal in HMP and size separation (53 μm) to remove silts and clays then the >53 μm fraction by density (1.4 g cm-3) in SPT to separate the organic debris (light fraction, LF) from the mineral material. Soil with the greatest amount of C present within the LF came from the wood amendment treatment (35.2 ± 0.1%), followed by the leaf amendment (27.7 ± 0.0%) and the litter removal (24.5 ± 0.0%) treatments. In a pattern opposite of the other treatments, leaf amended soil from the old sites had less C within LF than the young. Potentially, a priming effect from the leaf addition at the old sites resulted in increased decomposition of soil LF. While at the young sites, invasive earthworms potentially provided a rapid, direct mode for incorporation of fresh leaf inputs into LF. Preliminary data indicate differences in lignin and cutin/suberin decay rates during litter decomposition between old and young sites. An investigation into the biopolymer composition of LF will determine whether altering litter inputs will ultimately influence SOM dynamics at both the old and young forest sites.

  3. Heterogeneous glacial lake changes and links of lake expansions to the rapid thinning of adjacent glacier termini in the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunqiao; Sheng, Yongwei; Wang, Jida; Ke, Linghong; Madson, Austin; Nie, Yong

    2017-03-01

    Glacier mass loss in the Himalayas has far-reaching implications for the alteration of regional hydrologic regimes, an increased risk of glacial lake outburst, downstream water resource abundance, and contributions to sea level rise. However, the mass losses of Himalayan glaciers are not well understood towing to the scarcity of observations and the heterogeneous responses of Himalayan glaciers to climate change and local factors (e.g., glacier surge, interacting with proglacial lakes). In particular, there is a lack of understanding on the unique interactions between moraine-dammed glacial lakes and their effects on debris cover on valley glacier termini. In this study, we examined the temporal evolution of 151 large glacial lakes across the Himalayas and then classified these glacial lakes into three categories: proglacial lakes in contact with full or partial debris-covered glaciers (debris-contact lakes), ice cliff-contact lakes, and non-glacier-contact lakes. The results show that debris-contact lakes experienced a dramatic areal increase of 36.5% over the years 2000 to 2014, while the latter two categories of lakes remained generally stable. The majority of lake expansions occurred at the glacier front without marked lake level rises. This suggests that the rapid expansion of these debris-contact lakes can be largely attributed to the thinning of debris-covered ice as caused by the melting of glacial fronts and the subsequent glacial retreat. We reconstructed the height variations of glacier fronts in contact with 57 different proglacial lakes during the years 2000 to 2014. These reconstructed surface elevation changes of debris-covered, lake-contact glacier fronts reveal significant thinning trends with considerable lowering rates that range from 1.0 to 9.7 m/y. Our study reveals that a substantial average ice thinning of 3.9 m/y occurred at the glacier fronts that are in contact with glacial lakes.

  4. Simple changes within dietary subgroups can rapidly improve the nutrient adequacy of the diet of French adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Eric O; Holmes, Bridget A; Huneau, Jean François; Mariotti, François

    2014-06-01

    Identifying the dietary changes with the greatest potential for improving diet quality is critical to designing efficient nutrition communication campaigns. Our objective was to simulate the effects of different types of dietary substitutions to improve diet quality at the individual level. Starting from the observed diets of 1330 adults participating in the national French Nutrition and Health Survey (Etude Nationale Nutrition Santé), we simulated the effects of 3 different types of food and beverage substitutions with graded implementation difficulty for the consumer in a stepwise dietary counseling model based on the improvement in the PANDiet index, which measures diet quality in terms of nutrient adequacy. In scenario 1, substitutions of a food or beverage for its "lighter" version resulted in a modest improvement in the PANDiet score (Δ = +3.3 ± 0.1) and a decrease in energy intake (Δ = -114 ± 2 kcal/d). In scenario 2, substitutions of a food or beverage within the same food subgroup resulted in a marked improvement in the PANDiet score (Δ = +26.4 ± 0.2) with no significant change in energy intake. In this second scenario, the improvement in nutrient adequacy was due to substitutions in many subgroups, with no single subgroup contributing >8% to the increase in the PANDiet score. In scenario 3, substitutions of a food or beverage within the same food group resulted in the greatest improvement in the PANDiet score (Δ = +31.8 ± 0.2) but with an increase in energy intake (Δ = +204 ± 9 kcal/d). In this third scenario, the improvement in nutrient adequacy was largely due to substitutions of fish for meat and processed meat (∼30% of the increase in the PANDiet score). This study shows that a strategy based on simple substitutions within food subgroups is effective in rapidly improving the nutritional adequacy of the diet of French adults and could be used in public health nutrition actions. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Change in Hamiltonian general relativity from the lack of a time-like Killing vector field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, J. Brian

    2014-08-01

    In General Relativity in Hamiltonian form, change has seemed to be missing, defined only asymptotically, or otherwise obscured at best, because the Hamiltonian is a sum of first-class constraints and a boundary term and thus supposedly generates gauge transformations. Attention to the gauge generator G of Rosenfeld, Anderson, Bergmann, Castellani et al., a specially tuned sum of first-class constraints, facilitates seeing that a solitary first-class constraint in fact generates not a gauge transformation, but a bad physical change in electromagnetism (changing the electric field) or General Relativity. The change spoils the Lagrangian constraints, Gauss's law or the Gauss-Codazzi relations describing embedding of space into space-time, in terms of the physically relevant velocities rather than auxiliary canonical momenta. While Maudlin and Healey have defended change in GR much as G. E. Moore resisted skepticism, there remains a need to exhibit the technical flaws in the no-change argument. Insistence on Hamiltonian-Lagrangian equivalence, a theme emphasized by Mukunda, Castellani, Sugano, Pons, Salisbury, Shepley and Sundermeyer among others, holds the key. Taking objective change to be ineliminable time dependence, one recalls that there is change in vacuum GR just in case there is no time-like vector field ξα satisfying Killing's equation £ξgμν = 0, because then there exists no coordinate system such that everything is independent of time. Throwing away the spatial dependence of GR for convenience, one finds explicitly that the time evolution from Hamilton's equations is real change just when there is no time-like Killing vector. The inclusion of a massive scalar field is simple. No obstruction is expected in including spatial dependence and coupling more general matter fields. Hence change is real and local even in the Hamiltonian formalism. The considerations here resolve the Earman-Maudlin standoff over change in Hamiltonian General Relativity: the

  6. Electrical conductivity of the deep mantle: Joint inversion approach based on EM induction by external sources and rapid changes of secular variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velímský, Jakub

    2010-05-01

    The basic idea of this study is to combine two different, previously established techniques to study the electrical conductivity of the Earth's deep mantle, into one joint inversion scheme. Both methods are based on time-domain integration of electromagnetic induction equation in the Earth's mantle with one-dimensional, depth-dependent electrical conductivity. In the first forward problem, external excitation by intense geomagnetic storms is assumed, while in the second forward problem, induction by rapid changes of secular variation of the main field at the core-mantle boundary (the geomagnetic jerks) is studied. Different time scales of both approaches lead to use of two distinct datasets. Seven years of CHAMP satellite data is processed into time series of spherical harmonic coefficients with 1 hr sampling rate and used in the external induction problem. Annual means provided by Intermagnet observatories for selected 20th century jerks, are used in the modelling of secular variation. The joint inversion aims to recover both the radial profile of mantle conductivity, and the unknown spatial structure of the secular acceleration at the CMB for each jerk. Limited-memory quasi-Newton technique is used to minimize the misfit, complemented by effective evaluation of data sensitivities based on solutions of adjoint problems. First results of the inversion suggest only small increase of electrical conductivity to values about 10 S/m in D".

  7. Poor sensitivity of rapid tests for the detection of antibodies to the hepatitis B virus: implications for field studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Medina Cruz

    Full Text Available Rapid tests (RTs can be used as an alternative method for the conventional diagnosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV. This study aims to evaluate antibodies to HBsAg (anti-HBs and antibodies to HBeAg (anti-HBe RTs under different Brazilian settings. The following three groups were included: GI: viral hepatitis outpatient services; GII: low resource areas; and GIII: crack users and beauticians. Imuno-rápido anti-HBsAg™ and Imuno-rápido anti-HBeAg™ RTs were evaluated and showed specificities greater than 95% in all groups. The sensitivity values to anti-HBs were 50.38%, 51.05% and 46.73% and the sensitivity values to anti-HBe were 76.99%, 10.34% and 11.76% in the GI, GII and GIII groups, respectively. The assays had a low sensitivity and high specificity, which indicated their use for screening in regions endemic for HBV.

  8. High-field electrical transport in amorphous phase-change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaes, Matthias; Le Gallo, Manuel; Sebastian, Abu; Salinga, Martin; Krebs, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    Electrical transport in chalcogenide-based phase change materials is an active area of research owing to the prominent role played by these materials in the field of information technology. Here, we present transport measurements (IV curves) obtained on line-cells of as-deposited amorphous phase change materials (Ge2Sb2Te5, GeTe, Ag4In3Sb66Te27) over a wide voltage and temperature range (300 K to 160 K). The well defined geometry of our devices enables a description of the transport behavior in terms of conductivity vs. electric field. At higher temperatures (300 K ≥ T ≥ 220 K) and low to intermediate fields (F Poole-Frenkel emission from a two-center Coulomb potential. Based on this model, we observe a temperature dependence of the inter-trap distance, which we can relate to a temperature dependence in the occupation of the defect creating the Coulomb potential governing Poole-Frenkel emission. At higher fields and lower temperatures, the dependency of the IV curve on the electric field can be described by ln(I/I0) = (F/Fc)2. By combining this contribution with that of the Poole-Frenkel emission, we can show that the slope at high fields, Fc, is independent of temperature. We argue that models based on direct tunneling or thermally assisted tunneling from a single defect into the valence band cannot explain the observed behavior quantitatively.

  9. A Decade of Field Changing Atmospheric Aerosol Research: Outcomes of EPA’s STAR Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conference: Gordon Research Conference in Atmospheric Chemistry, July 28 – August 2, 2013, VermontPresentation Type: PosterTitle: An Analysis of EPA’s STAR Program and a Decade of Field Changing Research in Atmospheric AerosolsAuthors: Kristina M. Wagstrom1,2, Sherri ...

  10. Origin and Evolution of Magnetic Field in PMS Stars: Influence of Rotation and Structural Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emeriau-Viard, Constance; Brun, Allan Sacha

    2017-09-01

    During stellar evolution, especially in the pre-main-sequence phase, stellar structure and rotation evolve significantly, causing major changes in the dynamics and global flows of the star. We wish to assess the consequences of these changes on stellar dynamo, internal magnetic field topology, and activity level. To do so, we have performed a series of 3D HD and MHD simulations with the ASH code. We choose five different models characterized by the radius of their radiative zone following an evolutionary track computed by a 1D stellar evolution code. These models characterized stellar evolution from 1 to 50 Myr. By introducing a seed magnetic field in the fully convective model and spreading its evolved state through all four remaining cases, we observe systematic variations in the dynamical properties and magnetic field amplitude and topology of the models. The five MHD simulations develop a strong dynamo field that can reach an equipartition state between the kinetic and magnetic energies and even superequipartition levels in the faster-rotating cases. We find that the magnetic field amplitude increases as it evolves toward the zero-age main sequence. Moreover, the magnetic field topology becomes more complex, with a decreasing axisymmetric component and a nonaxisymmetric one becoming predominant. The dipolar components decrease as the rotation rate and the size of the radiative core increase. The magnetic fields possess a mixed poloidal-toroidal topology with no obvious dominant component. Moreover, the relaxation of the vestige dynamo magnetic field within the radiative core is found to satisfy MHD stability criteria. Hence, it does not experience a global reconfiguration but slowly relaxes by retaining its mixed stable poloidal-toroidal topology.

  11. The morphological and molecular changes of brain cells exposed to direct current electric field stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Simon J; Lagacé, Marie; St-Amour, Isabelle; Arsenault, Dany; Cisbani, Giulia; Chabrat, Audrey; Fecteau, Shirley; Lévesque, Martin; Cicchetti, Francesca

    2014-12-07

    The application of low-intensity direct current electric fields has been experimentally used in the clinic to treat a number of brain disorders, predominantly using transcranial direct current stimulation approaches. However, the cellular and molecular changes induced by such treatment remain largely unknown. Here, we tested various intensities of direct current electric fields (0, 25, 50, and 100V/m) in a well-controlled in vitro environment in order to investigate the responses of neurons, microglia, and astrocytes to this type of stimulation. This included morphological assessments of the cells, viability, as well as shape and fiber outgrowth relative to the orientation of the direct current electric field. We also undertook enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and western immunoblotting to identify which molecular pathways were affected by direct current electric fields. In response to direct current electric field, neurons developed an elongated cell body shape with neurite outgrowth that was associated with a significant increase in growth associated protein-43. Fetal midbrain dopaminergic explants grown in a collagen gel matrix also showed a reorientation of their neurites towards the cathode. BV2 microglial cells adopted distinct morphological changes with an increase in cyclooxygenase-2 expression, but these were dependent on whether they had already been activated with lipopolysaccharide. Finally, astrocytes displayed elongated cell bodies with cellular filopodia that were oriented perpendicularly to the direct current electric field. We show that cells of the central nervous system can respond to direct current electric fields both in terms of their morphological shape and molecular expression of certain proteins, and this in turn can help us to begin understand the mechanisms underlying the clinical benefits of direct current electric field. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  12. Field-Deployable Reverse Transcription-Insulated Isothermal PCR (RT-iiPCR) Assay for Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambagala, A; Fisher, M; Goolia, M; Nfon, C; Furukawa-Stoffer, T; Ortega Polo, R; Lung, O

    2017-10-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, which can decimate the livestock industry and economy of countries previously free of this disease. Rapid detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is critical to containing an FMD outbreak. Availability of a rapid, highly sensitive and specific, yet simple and field-deployable assay would support local decision-making during an FMDV outbreak. Here we report validation of a novel reverse transcription-insulated isothermal PCR (RT-iiPCR) assay that can be performed on a commercially available, compact and portable POCKIT™ analyser that automatically analyses data and displays '+' or '-' results. The FMDV RT-iiPCR assay targets the 3D region of the FMDV genome and was capable of detecting 9 copies of in vitro-transcribed RNA standard with 95% confidence. It accurately identified 63 FMDV strains belonging to all seven serotypes and showed no cross-reactivity with viruses causing similar clinical diseases in cloven-hoofed animals. The assay was able to identify FMDV RNA in multiple sample types including oral, nasal and lesion swabs, epithelial tissue suspensions, vesicular and oral fluid samples, even before the appearance of clinical signs. Clinical sensitivity of the assay was comparable or slightly higher than the laboratory-based real-time RT-PCR assay in use. The assay was able to detect FMDV RNA in vesicular fluid samples without nucleic acid extraction. For RNA extraction from more complex sample types, a commercially available taco™ mini transportable magnetic bead-based, automated extraction system was used. This assay provides a potentially useful field-deployable diagnostic tool for rapid detection of FMDV in an outbreak in FMD-free countries or for routine diagnostics in endemic countries with less structured laboratory systems. © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada.

  13. Learning to Recognize Patterns: Changes in the Visual Field with Familiarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebko, James M.; Uchikawa, Keiji; Saida, Shinya; Ikeda, Mitsuo

    1995-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate changes which take place in the visual information processing of novel stimuli as they become familiar. Japanese writing characters (Hiragana and Kanji) which were unfamiliar to two native English speaking subjects were presented using a moving window technique to restrict their visual fields. Study time for visual recognition was recorded across repeated sessions, and with varying visual field restrictions. The critical visual field was defined as the size of the visual field beyond which further increases did not improve the speed of recognition performance. In the first study, when the Hiragana patterns were novel, subjects needed to see about half of the entire pattern simultaneously to maintain optimal performance. However, the critical visual field size decreased as familiarity with the patterns increased. These results were replicated in the second study with more complex Kanji characters. In addition, the critical field size decreased as pattern complexity decreased. We propose a three component model of pattern perception. In the first stage a representation of the stimulus must be constructed by the subject, and restricting of the visual field interferes dramatically with this component when stimuli are unfamiliar. With increased familiarity, subjects become able to reconstruct a previous representation from very small, unique segments of the pattern, analogous to the informativeness areas hypothesized by Loftus and Mackworth [J. Exp. Psychol., 4 (1978) 565].

  14. Reversible and irreversible temperature-induced changes in exchange-biased planar Hall effect bridge (PHEB) magnetic field sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzi, G.; Lundtoft, N.C.; Østerberg, F.W.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the changes of planar Hall effect bridge magnetic field sensors upon exposure to temperatures between 25° C and 90°C. From analyses of the sensor response vs. magnetic fields we extract the exchange bias field Hex, the uniaxial anisotropy field HK and the anisotropic...

  15. Rapid directional changes associated with a 6.5 kyr-long Blake geomagnetic excursion at the Blake-Bahama Outer Ridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Mark; McNiocaill, Conall; Thomas, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    and provide constraints on the mechanisms producing field variability. We present here the highest resolution record yet published of the Blake geomagnetic excursion (similar to 125 ka) measured in three cores from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1062 on the Blake-Bahama Outer Ridge. The Blake excursion has......Geomagnetic excursions are recognized as intrinsic features of the Earth's magnetic field. High-resolution records of field behaviour, captured in marine sedimentary cores, present an opportunity to determine the temporal and geometric character of the field during geomagnetic excursions...... a controversial structure and timing but these cores have a sufficiently high sedimentation rate (similar to 10 cm ka(-1)) to allow detailed reconstruction of the field behaviour at this site during the excursion. Palaeomagnetic measurements of the cores reveal rapid transitions (

  16. Intraoperative observation of changes in cochlear nerve action potentials during exposure to electromagnetic fields generated by mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletti, Vittorio; Mandalà, Marco; Manganotti, Paolo; Ramat, Stefano; Sacchetto, Luca; Colletti, Liliana

    2011-07-01

    The rapid spread of devices generating electromagnetic fields (EMF) has raised concerns as to the possible effects of this technology on humans. The auditory system is the neural organ most frequently and directly exposed to electromagnetic activity owing to the daily use of mobile phones. In recent publications, a possible correlation between mobile phone usage and central nervous system tumours has been detected. Very recently a deterioration in otoacoustic emissions and in the auditory middle latency responses after intensive and long-term magnetic field exposure in humans has been demonstrated. To determine with objective observations if exposure to mobile phone EMF affects acoustically evoked cochlear nerve compound action potentials, seven patients suffering from Ménière's disease and undergoing retrosigmoid vestibular neurectomy were exposed to the effects of mobile phone placed over the craniotomy for 5 min. All patients showed a substantial decrease in amplitude and a significant increase in latency of cochlear nerve compound action potentials during the 5 min of exposure to EMF. These changes lasted for a period of around 5 min after exposure. The possibility that EMF can produce relatively long-lasting effects on cochlear nerve conduction is discussed and analysed in light of contrasting previous literature obtained under non-surgical conditions. Limitations of this novel approach, including the effects of the anaesthetics, craniotomy and surgical procedure, are presented in detail.

  17. Changing cultural landscape in post-productivism of rice field in Nyuh Kuning Village Bali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulidi, C.; Wulandari, L. D.

    2017-06-01

    Natural landscape in developing countries is facing a challenge due to economic growth, a cultural shift, and population dynamics. Farm land where is close to urban areas tending to be converted into more economically valuable spaces. Watershed Pakerisan listed as World Heritage of UNESCO, rich of cultural value on its landscape, especially the Subak, a traditional irrigation system, has a close relationship to the philosophy of Hindu-Bali culture. Nyuh Kuning, a village (local terms is Banjar) located adjacent to the Pakerisan Watershed, and has a spatial pattern in synergic ally connected with tradition, culture, and their religion. Rice field not only for economical but also its place to worship the Goddess (Dewi Sri). Rice Field in Nyuh Kuning declined significantly along past 10 years. The changing landscape of Nyuh Kuning traced through serial of aerial photographs from 2005 until 2015. Along with the broad decline of rice field, villager’s attachment on their cultural space is also changing. An economic motive pronounces a winner in the bargaining between the motives of economic value and cultural value in the Nyuh Kuning. Villagers revealed arguments that necessities nowadays prosecute high consumption, both for household and for education. Therefore conversion of rice fields to become more economical is understandable among communities. Villagers rent the rice fields to foreigners (migrants), and then foreigners take rice-fields as personal assets, not for the villagers (ritual activities and the cultural traditions) any longer. In theoritical term, villager’s emotional bond to the cultural landscape in post—productivism of rice field, is weakened. Wawedangan Desa and its complex cultural values are not part of their identity anymore. However, place dependence become the reason why the shifting place attachment is happening. Functional economic bond is mentioned as place dependence dominats in villager’s attachment. Certainly it’s not a

  18. Rapid detection of methylation change at H19 in human imprinting disorders using methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojdacz, Tomasz K; Dobrovic, Alexander; Algar, Elizabeth M

    2008-10-01

    Beckwith Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) and Russell Silver syndrome (RS) are growth disorders with opposing epimutations affecting the H19/IGF2 imprinting center at 11p15.5. Overgrowth and tumor risk in BWS is caused by aberrant expression of the paternally expressed, imprinted IGF2 gene, occurring as a consequence of mosaic hypermethylation within the imprinting center, or to mosaic paternal uniparental disomy (UPD). RS is characterized by severe intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). A subset of RS cases were recently shown to have mosaic hypomethylation within the H19/IGF2 imprinting center, predicted to silence paternally expressed IGF2 in early development. Molecular diagnosis for BWS and RS involves methylation analysis of the H19 locus, enabling discrimination of allelic methylation patterns. In this study, methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting analysis (MS-HRM) was used to analyze methylation within the intergenic region of the H19 locus. A total of 36 samples comprising normal control (11), BWS (19), and RS (six) DNA were analyzed in a blinded study and scored as hypermethylated, normal, or hypomethylated. Results were compared with those derived by methylation-sensitive Southern blotting using the restriction enzymes Rsa I and Hpa II. A total of 100% concordance was obtained for the Southern blotting and MS-HRM scores. A total of three samples with paternal duplication affecting the H19/IGF2 region were scored as equivocal by both methods; however, 33 out of 36 (92%) the samples were unambiguously scored as being hypermethylated, hypomethylated, or normally methylated us