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Sample records for rapidity correlation length

  1. Rapidity correlations test stochastic hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zin, C; Gavin, S; Moschelli, G

    2017-01-01

    We show that measurements of the rapidity dependence of transverse momentum correlations can be used to determine the characteristic time τ π that dictates the rate of isotropization of the stress energy tensor, as well as the shear viscosity ν = η/sT . We formulate methods for computing these correlations using second order dissipative hydrodynamics with noise. Current data are consistent with τ π /ν ∼ 10 but targeted measurements can improve this precision. (paper)

  2. Quark ensembles with infinite correlation length

    OpenAIRE

    Molodtsov, S. V.; Zinovjev, G. M.

    2014-01-01

    By studying quark ensembles with infinite correlation length we formulate the quantum field theory model that, as we show, is exactly integrable and develops an instability of its standard vacuum ensemble (the Dirac sea). We argue such an instability is rooted in high ground state degeneracy (for 'realistic' space-time dimensions) featuring a fairly specific form of energy distribution, and with the cutoff parameter going to infinity this inherent energy distribution becomes infinitely narrow...

  3. Correlation length of magnetosheath fluctuations: Cluster statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Gutynska

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetosheath parameters are usually described by gasdynamic or magnetohydrodynamic (MHD models but these models cannot account for one of the most important sources of magnetosheath fluctuations – the foreshock. Earlier statistical processing of a large amount of magnetosheath observations has shown that the magnetosheath magnetic field and plasma flow fluctuations downstream of the quasiparallel shock are much larger than those at the opposite flank. These studies were based on the observations of a single spacecraft and thus they could not provide full information on propagation of the fluctuations through the magnetosheath.

    We present the results of a statistical survey of the magnetosheath magnetic field fluctuations using two years of Cluster observations. We discuss the dependence of the cross-correlation coefficients between different spacecraft pairs on the orientation of the separation vector with respect to the average magnetic field and plasma flow vectors and other parameters. We have found that the correlation length does not exceed ~1 RE in the analyzed frequency range (0.001–0.125 Hz and does not depend significantly on the magnetic field or plasma flow direction. A close connection of cross-correlation coefficients computed in the magnetosheath with the cross-correlation coefficients between a solar wind monitor and a magnetosheath spacecraft suggests that solar wind structures persist on the background of magnetosheath fluctuations.

  4. Correlation length of magnetosheath fluctuations: Cluster statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Gutynska

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetosheath parameters are usually described by gasdynamic or magnetohydrodynamic (MHD models but these models cannot account for one of the most important sources of magnetosheath fluctuations – the foreshock. Earlier statistical processing of a large amount of magnetosheath observations has shown that the magnetosheath magnetic field and plasma flow fluctuations downstream of the quasiparallel shock are much larger than those at the opposite flank. These studies were based on the observations of a single spacecraft and thus they could not provide full information on propagation of the fluctuations through the magnetosheath. We present the results of a statistical survey of the magnetosheath magnetic field fluctuations using two years of Cluster observations. We discuss the dependence of the cross-correlation coefficients between different spacecraft pairs on the orientation of the separation vector with respect to the average magnetic field and plasma flow vectors and other parameters. We have found that the correlation length does not exceed ~1 RE in the analyzed frequency range (0.001–0.125 Hz and does not depend significantly on the magnetic field or plasma flow direction. A close connection of cross-correlation coefficients computed in the magnetosheath with the cross-correlation coefficients between a solar wind monitor and a magnetosheath spacecraft suggests that solar wind structures persist on the background of magnetosheath fluctuations.

  5. Quark ensembles with the infinite correlation length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinov'ev, G. M.; Molodtsov, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    A number of exactly integrable (quark) models of quantum field theory with the infinite correlation length have been considered. It has been shown that the standard vacuum quark ensemble—Dirac sea (in the case of the space-time dimension higher than three)—is unstable because of the strong degeneracy of a state, which is due to the character of the energy distribution. When the momentum cutoff parameter tends to infinity, the distribution becomes infinitely narrow, leading to large (unlimited) fluctuations. Various vacuum ensembles—Dirac sea, neutral ensemble, color superconductor, and BCS state—have been compared. In the case of the color interaction between quarks, the BCS state has been certainly chosen as the ground state of the quark ensemble.

  6. Quark ensembles with the infinite correlation length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinov’ev, G. M.; Molodtsov, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    A number of exactly integrable (quark) models of quantum field theory with the infinite correlation length have been considered. It has been shown that the standard vacuum quark ensemble—Dirac sea (in the case of the space-time dimension higher than three)—is unstable because of the strong degeneracy of a state, which is due to the character of the energy distribution. When the momentum cutoff parameter tends to infinity, the distribution becomes infinitely narrow, leading to large (unlimited) fluctuations. Various vacuum ensembles—Dirac sea, neutral ensemble, color superconductor, and BCS state—have been compared. In the case of the color interaction between quarks, the BCS state has been certainly chosen as the ground state of the quark ensemble

  7. Quark ensembles with the infinite correlation length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinov’ev, G. M. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Bogoliubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (Ukraine); Molodtsov, S. V., E-mail: molodtsov@itep.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-15

    A number of exactly integrable (quark) models of quantum field theory with the infinite correlation length have been considered. It has been shown that the standard vacuum quark ensemble—Dirac sea (in the case of the space-time dimension higher than three)—is unstable because of the strong degeneracy of a state, which is due to the character of the energy distribution. When the momentum cutoff parameter tends to infinity, the distribution becomes infinitely narrow, leading to large (unlimited) fluctuations. Various vacuum ensembles—Dirac sea, neutral ensemble, color superconductor, and BCS state—have been compared. In the case of the color interaction between quarks, the BCS state has been certainly chosen as the ground state of the quark ensemble.

  8. Correlation length estimation in a polycrystalline material model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonovski, I.; Cizelj, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the correlation length estimated from a mesoscopic model of a polycrystalline material. The correlation length can be used in some macroscopic material models as a material parameter that describes the internal length. It can be estimated directly from the strain and stress fields calculated from a finite-element model, which explicitly accounts for the selected mesoscopic features such as the random orientation, shape and size of the grains. A crystal plasticity material model was applied in the finite-element analysis. Different correlation lengths were obtained depending on the used set of crystallographic orientations. We determined that the different sets of crystallographic orientations affect the general level of the correlation length, however, as the external load is increased the behaviour of correlation length is similar in all the analyzed cases. The correlation lengths also changed with the macroscopic load. If the load is below the yield strength the correlation lengths are constant, and are slightly higher than the average grain size. The correlation length can therefore be considered as an indicator of first plastic deformations in the material. Increasing the load above the yield strength creates shear bands that temporarily increase the values of the correlation lengths calculated from the strain fields. With a further load increase the correlation lengths decrease slightly but stay above the average grain size. (author)

  9. Potts ferromagnet correlation length in hypercubic lattices: Renormalization - group approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curado, E.M.F.; Hauser, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    Through a real space renormalization group approach, the q-state Potts ferromagnet correlation length on hierarchical lattices is calculated. These hierarchical lattices are build in order to simulate hypercubic lattices. The high-and-low temperature correlation length asymptotic behaviours tend (in the Ising case) to the Bravais lattice correlation length ones when the size of the hierarchical lattice cells tends to infinity. It is conjectured that the asymptotic behaviours several values of q and d (dimensionality) so obtained are correct. Numerical results are obtained for the full temperature range of the correlation length. (Author) [pt

  10. Spatial correlation length of normalized cone data in sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Firouzianbandpey, Sarah; Griffiths, D. V.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    The main topic of this study is to assess the anisotropic spatial correlation lengths of a sand layer deposit based on cone penetration testing with pore pressure measurement (CPTu) data. Spatial correlation length can be an important factor in reliability analysis of geotechnical systems, yet it...

  11. Evaluating Multispectral Snowpack Reflectivity With Changing Snow Correlation Lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Do Hyuk; Barros, Ana P.; Kim, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the sensitivity of multispectral reflectivity to changing snow correlation lengths. Matzler's ice-lamellae radiative transfer model was implemented and tested to evaluate the reflectivity of snow correlation lengths at multiple frequencies from the ultraviolet (UV) to the microwave bands. The model reveals that, in the UV to infrared (IR) frequency range, the reflectivity and correlation length are inversely related, whereas reflectivity increases with snow correlation length in the microwave frequency range. The model further shows that the reflectivity behavior can be mainly attributed to scattering rather than absorption for shallow snowpacks. The largest scattering coefficients and reflectivity occur at very small correlation lengths (approximately 10(exp -5 m) for frequencies higher than the IR band. In the microwave range, the largest scattering coefficients are found at millimeter wavelengths. For validation purposes, the ice-lamella model is coupled with a multilayer snow physics model to characterize the reflectivity response of realistic snow hydrological processes. The evolution of the coupled model simulated reflectivities in both the visible and the microwave bands is consistent with satellite-based reflectivity observations in the same frequencies. The model results are also compared with colocated in situ snow correlation length measurements (Cold Land Processes Field Experiment 2002-2003). The analysis and evaluation of model results indicate that the coupled multifrequency radiative transfer and snow hydrology modeling system can be used as a forward operator in a data-assimilation framework to predict the status of snow physical properties, including snow correlation length.

  12. Correlated evolution of sternal keel length and ilium length in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between the pectoral module (the pectoral girdle and limbs and the pelvic module (the pelvic girdle and limbs plays a key role in shaping avian evolution, but prior empirical studies on trait covariation between the two modules are limited. Here we empirically test whether (size-corrected sternal keel length and ilium length are correlated during avian evolution using phylogenetic comparative methods. Our analyses on extant birds and Mesozoic birds both recover a significantly positive correlation. The results provide new evidence regarding the integration between the pelvic and pectoral modules. The correlated evolution of sternal keel length and ilium length may serve as a mechanism to cope with the effect on performance caused by a tradeoff in muscle mass between the pectoral and pelvic modules, via changing moment arms of muscles that function in flight and in terrestrial locomotion.

  13. Correlation between spinal column length and the spread of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlation between spinal column length and the spread of subarachnoid hyperbaric bupivacaine in the term parturient. W.M Wan Rahiza, A.R Raha, A Muhd, M.N Nadia, M Muhammad, Z Azmil, I Azarinah, M.Z Jaafar ...

  14. Correlating telomere length and radiosensitivity in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprung, C.N.; Davey, D.S.P.; McKay, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Approximately three percent of cancer patients suffer from significant side effects in normal tissue exposed to ionising radiation during radiotherapy (RT). Although RT is an effective therapy for cancer treatment, the treatment dose intensity is generally restricted to minimize the incidence of these severe reactions. This imposes tumour control limitations on most patients. A major goal of radiation biology research is to develop efficient predictive assays that could identify these hyper-radiosensitive (hRS) individuals prior to treatment. This predictive ability would enable the individualisation of RT doses, which should result in improvement of tumour control rates and a reduction in the incidence of RT side effects. Recent studies have reported a correlation between cellular and organismal RS and shortened telomeres. Interestingly, a number of DNA repair proteins have been found to be associated with telomeres. Additionally, individuals with cancer-proneness and RS syndromes, such as ataxia telangiectasia and Fanconi anemia, have shortened telomeres. In animal models, mutations in DNA repair genes such as Ku, has resulted in shortened telomeres. We have a unique bank of blood samples and lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from over 50 hRS patients. We have used traditional methods of telomere length assessment and a clinically relevant method, flow cytometry fluorescence in situ hybridisation (flow-FISH) to determine the telomere length in both LCLs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the hRS patients. Results from the screening of these samples will be presented. If clinical hRS can be correlated with shortened telomeres in some patients, flow-FISH may have utility as part of a pre-treatment hRS assay for use in the clinic

  15. Scaling behaviour of the correlation length for the two-point correlation function in the random field Ising chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Adrian; Stinchcombe, Robin [Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1996-07-07

    We study the general behaviour of the correlation length {zeta}(kT:h) for two-point correlation function of the local fields in an Ising chain with binary distributed fields. At zero field it is shown that {zeta} is the same as the zero-field correlation length for the spin-spin correlation function. For the field-dominated behaviour of {zeta} we find an exponent for the power-law divergence which is smaller than the exponent for the spin-spin correlation length. The entire behaviour of the correlation length can be described by a single crossover scaling function involving the new critical exponent. (author)

  16. Inclusive rapidity correlations of π- mesons in pp interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golokhvastov, A.I.

    1994-01-01

    The simple single-parameter approximation of one-particle semi-inclusive rapidity distributions of negative particles (π - mesons) in pp interactions at various multiplicities over the investigated range of primary momenta 6.6 -400 GeV/c is presented. Assuming the lack of any kind of correlations in semi-inclusive events, a good description of experimental data on two-particle inclusive rapidity correlations (pseudocorrelations) is obtained. Data on forward-backward, right-left correlations and multiplicity distributions in rapidity intervals and intervals separated by empty gaps do not contradict independent π - production either. (orig.)

  17. Radial correlation length measurements on ASDEX Upgrade using correlation Doppler reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmer, J; Conway, G D; Holzhauer, E; Suttrop, W; Zohm, H

    2007-01-01

    The technique of correlation Doppler reflectometry for providing radial correlation length L r measurements is explored in this paper. Experimental L r measurements are obtained using the recently installed dual channel Doppler reflectometer system on ASDEX Upgrade. The experimental measurements agree well with theory and with L r measured on other fusion devices using different diagnostic techniques. A strong link between L r and plasma confinement could be observed. From the L- to the H-mode, an increase in the absolute value of E r shear was detected at the same plasma edge region where a decrease in L r was measured. This observation is in agreement with theoretical models which predict that an increase in the absolute shear suppresses turbulent fluctuations in the plasma, leading to a reduction in L r . Furthermore, L r decreases from the plasma core to the edge and decreases with increasing plasma triangularity δ. The experimental results have been extensively modelled using a 2-dimensional finite difference time domain code. The simulations confirm that Doppler reflectometry provides robust radial correlation lengths of the turbulence with high resolution and suggests that L r is independent of the turbulence wavenumber k p erpendicular and its fluctuation level

  18. Rapidity and multiplicity correlations in high energy hadronic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiselberg, H.

    1993-01-01

    Rapidity and multiplicity correlations of particle production in high energy hadronic collisions are studied. A simple model including short range correlations in rapidity due to clustering and long range correlations due to energy conservation is able to describe the two-body correlation functions well hadron-nucleon collisions around lab energies of 250 GeV. In this model fractional moments are calculated and compared to data. The strong rise of the factorial moments in rapidity intervals by size δy∝1 can be explained by long and short range correlation alone whereas the factorial moments approach a constant value at very small δy due to lack of correlations also in agreement with experiment. There is therefore no need for introducing intermittency in the particle production in hadronic collisions at these energies. (orig.)

  19. Correlates of rapid neuroleptic response in male patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, E C; Faustman, W O; Moses, J A; Lombrozo, L; Csernansky, J G

    1990-08-01

    Correlates of neuroleptic response latency were assessed in 16 male schizophrenic inpatients during 4 weeks of fixed dose (20 mg/day) haloperidol treatment. Rapid responders showed a mean 40% reduction in Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) positive symptom scores by day 10 of treatment. Rapid responders had significantly lower plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) concentrations compared to non-rapid responders during week 4 of haloperidol treatment. However, rapid versus non-rapid responders did not differ with respect to demographics, baseline positive or negative BPRS symptom scores, performance on tests of neuropsychological function, or mean plasma haloperidol concentrations.

  20. Length of Coronary Sinus in a Black Kenyan Population: Correlation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the current study was to determine the length of coronary sinus among black Kenyans. Coronary sinuses of seventy-four hearts (43 males and 31 females) of adult age range (20-70years) black Kenyans obtained during autopsy were studied at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya.

  1. Correlation between length and tilt of lipid tails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelevich, Dmitry I.; Nagle, John F.

    2015-10-01

    It is becoming recognized from simulations, and to a lesser extent from experiment, that the classical Helfrich-Canham membrane continuum mechanics model can be fruitfully enriched by the inclusion of molecular tilt, even in the fluid, chain disordered, biologically relevant phase of lipid bilayers. Enriched continuum theories then add a tilt modulus κθ to accompany the well recognized bending modulus κ. Different enrichment theories largely agree for many properties, but it has been noticed that there is considerable disagreement in one prediction; one theory postulates that the average length of the hydrocarbon chain tails increases strongly with increasing tilt and another predicts no increase. Our analysis of an all-atom simulation favors the latter theory, but it also shows that the overall tail length decreases slightly with increasing tilt. We show that this deviation from continuum theory can be reconciled by consideration of the average shape of the tails, which is a descriptor not obviously includable in continuum theory.

  2. ATXN2 trinucleotide repeat length correlates with risk of ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproviero, William; Shatunov, Aleksey; Stahl, Daniel; Shoai, Maryam; van Rheenen, Wouter; Jones, Ashley R; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Andersen, Peter M; Bonini, Nancy M; Conforti, Francesca L; Van Damme, Philip; Daoud, Hussein; Del Mar Amador, Maria; Fogh, Isabella; Forzan, Monica; Gaastra, Ben; Gellera, Cinzia; Gitler, Aaron D; Hardy, John; Fratta, Pietro; La Bella, Vincenzo; Le Ber, Isabelle; Van Langenhove, Tim; Lattante, Serena; Lee, Yi-Chung; Malaspina, Andrea; Meininger, Vincent; Millecamps, Stéphanie; Orrell, Richard; Rademakers, Rosa; Robberecht, Wim; Rouleau, Guy; Ross, Owen A; Salachas, Francois; Sidle, Katie; Smith, Bradley N; Soong, Bing-Wen; Sorarù, Gianni; Stevanin, Giovanni; Kabashi, Edor; Troakes, Claire; van Broeckhoven, Christine; Veldink, Jan H; van den Berg, Leonard H; Shaw, Christopher E; Powell, John F; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2017-03-01

    We investigated a CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the ATXN2 gene in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Two new case-control studies, a British dataset of 1474 ALS cases and 567 controls, and a Dutch dataset of 1328 ALS cases and 691 controls were analyzed. In addition, to increase power, we systematically searched PubMed for case-control studies published after 1 August 2010 that investigated the association between ATXN2 intermediate repeats and ALS. We conducted a meta-analysis of the new and existing studies for the relative risks of ATXN2 intermediate repeat alleles of between 24 and 34 CAG trinucleotide repeats and ALS. There was an overall increased risk of ALS for those carrying intermediate sized trinucleotide repeat alleles (odds ratio 3.06 [95% confidence interval 2.37-3.94]; p = 6 × 10 -18 ), with an exponential relationship between repeat length and ALS risk for alleles of 29-32 repeats (R 2  = 0.91, p = 0.0002). No relationship was seen for repeat length and age of onset or survival. In contrast to trinucleotide repeat diseases, intermediate ATXN2 trinucleotide repeat expansion in ALS does not predict age of onset but does predict disease risk. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Correlation between length and tilt of lipid tails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopelevich, Dmitry I., E-mail: dkopelevich@che.ufl.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Nagle, John F., E-mail: nagle@cmu.edu [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)

    2015-10-21

    It is becoming recognized from simulations, and to a lesser extent from experiment, that the classical Helfrich-Canham membrane continuum mechanics model can be fruitfully enriched by the inclusion of molecular tilt, even in the fluid, chain disordered, biologically relevant phase of lipid bilayers. Enriched continuum theories then add a tilt modulus κ{sub θ} to accompany the well recognized bending modulus κ. Different enrichment theories largely agree for many properties, but it has been noticed that there is considerable disagreement in one prediction; one theory postulates that the average length of the hydrocarbon chain tails increases strongly with increasing tilt and another predicts no increase. Our analysis of an all-atom simulation favors the latter theory, but it also shows that the overall tail length decreases slightly with increasing tilt. We show that this deviation from continuum theory can be reconciled by consideration of the average shape of the tails, which is a descriptor not obviously includable in continuum theory.

  4. Finite Correlation Length Implies Efficient Preparation of Quantum Thermal States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Kastoryano, Michael J.

    2018-05-01

    Preparing quantum thermal states on a quantum computer is in general a difficult task. We provide a procedure to prepare a thermal state on a quantum computer with a logarithmic depth circuit of local quantum channels assuming that the thermal state correlations satisfy the following two properties: (i) the correlations between two regions are exponentially decaying in the distance between the regions, and (ii) the thermal state is an approximate Markov state for shielded regions. We require both properties to hold for the thermal state of the Hamiltonian on any induced subgraph of the original lattice. Assumption (ii) is satisfied for all commuting Gibbs states, while assumption (i) is satisfied for every model above a critical temperature. Both assumptions are satisfied in one spatial dimension. Moreover, both assumptions are expected to hold above the thermal phase transition for models without any topological order at finite temperature. As a building block, we show that exponential decay of correlation (for thermal states of Hamiltonians on all induced subgraphs) is sufficient to efficiently estimate the expectation value of a local observable. Our proof uses quantum belief propagation, a recent strengthening of strong sub-additivity, and naturally breaks down for states with topological order.

  5. Rapidity correlations in the RHIC Beam Energy Scan Data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jowzaee, S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, Jana; Chaloupka, P.; Federič, Pavol; Rusňák, Jan; Rusňáková, O.; Šimko, Miroslav; Šumbera, Michal; Vértési, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 967, č. 11 (2017), s. 792-795 ISSN 0375-9474 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG15001; GA MŠk LM2015054 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : STAR collaboration * rapidity correlations * forward-backward asymmetry Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 1.916, year: 2016

  6. Simulative Global Warming Negatively Affects Cotton Fiber Length through Shortening Fiber Rapid Elongation Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yanjiao; Yang, Jiashuo; Hu, Wei; Zahoor, Rizwan; Chen, Binglin; Zhao, Wenqing; Meng, Yali; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2017-08-23

    Global warming could possibly increase the air temperature by 1.8-4.0 °C in the coming decade. Cotton fiber is an essential raw material for the textile industry. Fiber length, which was found negatively related to the excessively high temperature, determines yarn quality to a great extent. To investigate the effects of global warming on cotton fiber length and its mechaism, cottons grown in artificially elevated temperature (34.6/30.5 °C, T day /T night ) and ambient temperature (31.6/27.3 °C) regions have been investigated. Becaused of the high sensitivities of enzymes V-ATPase, PEPC, and genes GhXTH1 and GhXTH2 during fiber elongation when responding to high temperature stress, the fiber rapid elongation duration (FRED) has been shortened, which led to a significant suppression on final fiber length. Through comprehensive analysis, T night had a great influence on fiber elongation, which means T n could be deemed as an ideal index for forecasting the degree of high temperature stress would happen to cotton fiber property in future. Therefore, we speculate the global warming would bring unfavorable effects on cotton fiber length, which needs to take actions in advance for minimizing the loss in cotton production.

  7. Correlation of bowel symptoms with colonic transit, length, and faecal load in functional faecal retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahave, Dennis; Christensen, Elsebeth; Loud, Franck B.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Abdominal pain, bloating, and defecation disturbances are common complaints in gastrointestinal functional disorders. This study explores whether bowel symptoms are correlated to colon transit time (CTT), faecal loading (coprostasis), and colon length; and whether prokinetic interve...

  8. Rapidity correlations at fixed multiplicity in cluster emission models

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, M C

    1975-01-01

    Rapidity correlations in the central region among hadrons produced in proton-proton collisions of fixed final state multiplicity n at NAL and ISR energies are investigated in a two-step framework in which clusters of hadrons are emitted essentially independently, via a multiperipheral-like model, and decay isotropically. For n>or approximately=/sup 1///sub 2/(n), these semi-inclusive distributions are controlled by the reaction mechanism which dominates production in the central region. Thus, data offer cleaner insight into the properties of this mechanism than can be obtained from fully inclusive spectra. A method of experimental analysis is suggested to facilitate the extraction of new dynamical information. It is shown that the n independence of the magnitude of semi-inclusive correlation functions reflects directly the structure of the internal cluster multiplicity distribution. This conclusion is independent of certain assumptions concerning the form of the single cluster density in rapidity space. (23 r...

  9. Inflatable penile prosthesis implant length with baseline characteristic correlations: preliminary analysis of the PROPPER study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Nelson; Henry, Gerard; Karpman, Edward; Brant, William; Jones, LeRoy; Khera, Mohit; Kohler, Tobias; Christine, Brian; Rhee, Eugene; Kansas, Bryan; Bella, Anthony J

    2017-12-01

    "Prospective Registry of Outcomes with Penile Prosthesis for Erectile Restoration" (PROPPER) is a large, multi-institutional, prospective clinical study to collect, analyze, and report real-world outcomes for men implanted with penile prosthetic devices. We prospectively correlated co-morbid conditions and demographic data with implanted penile prosthesis size to enable clinicians to better predict implanted penis size following penile implantation. We present many new data points for the first time in the literature and postulate that radical prostatectomy (RP) is negatively correlated with penile corporal length. Patient demographics, medical history, baseline characteristics and surgical details were compiled prospectively. Pearson correlation coefficient was generated for the correlation between demographic, etiology of ED, duration of ED, co-morbid conditions, pre-operative penile length (flaccid and stretched) and length of implanted penile prosthesis. Multivariate analysis was performed to define predictors of implanted prosthesis length. From June 2011 to June 2017, 1,135 men underwent primary implantation of penile prosthesis at a total of 11 study sites. Malleable (Spectra), 2-piece Ambicor, and 3-piece AMS 700 CX/LGX were included in the analysis. The most common patient comorbidities were CV disease (26.1%), DM (11.1%), and PD (12.4%). Primary etiology of ED: RP (27.4%), DM (20.3%), CVD (18.0%), PD (10.3%), and Priapism (1.4%), others (22.6%). Mean duration of ED is 6.2¡À4.1 years. Implant length was weakly negatively correlated with White/Caucasian (r=-0.18; Pprosthesis length is negatively correlated with some ethnic groups, prostatectomy, and incontinence. Positive correlates include CV disease, preoperative stretched penile length, and flaccid penile length.

  10. Static correlation lengths in QCD at high temperatures and finite densities

    CERN Document Server

    Hart, A; Philipsen, O

    2000-01-01

    We use a perturbatively derived effective field theory and three-dimensional lattice simulations to determine the longest static correlation lengths in the deconfined QCD plasma phase at high temperatures (T\\gsim 2 Tc) and finite densities (\\mu\\lsim 4 T). For vanishing chemical potential, we refine a previous determination of the Debye screening length, and determine the dependence of different correlation lengths on the number of massless flavours as well as on the number of colours. For non-vanishing but small chemical potential, the existence of Debye screening allows us to carry out simulations corresponding to the full QCD with two (or three) massless dynamical flavours, in spite of a complex action. We investigate how the correlation lengths in the different quantum number channels change as the chemical potential is switched on.

  11. CORRELATION BETWEEN PENIS LENGTH AND ANTHOPOMETRY OF 5 YEAR OLD CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doddy Kurnia Indrawan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Short penis still a problem for parents. Penis lenght is associated with  weight and considered abnormal in obese children. The purpose of this study was to find out the correlation between penis length and the anthropometry children aged 5 years. A cross sectional study was conducted, at the Division of Endocrinology, Department of Child Health, Medical Faculty of Udayana University, Sanglah Hospital Denpasar, during October 2010, at TK Sayang Ibu Sanglah Hospital. The calculation of the sample with a correlation coefficient of weight and  height obtained  9 people, taking in consecutive sampling and analyzed  with Pearson’s correlation. The mean body weight was 23.6 (SD 7.70 kg;  mean child height was 108.4 (SD 5.3 cm, and 47.1% were obese. The mean length of the penis was 4.7(SD1.30 cm. The correlation between weight and penis lenght was strong negative (r = -0.876; P = 0.000 and between penis length and height was r = -0.597; P = 0,011.There was a strong negative correlation between body weight and penis length and also negative correlation between penis length and height in kindergarten children. (MEDICINA 2012;43:19-22.

  12. Correlation of Index Finger Length (2D with Height, Weight and BMI in Adult Bangladeshi Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Rezwan Hasan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human hand is one of the most versatile parts of the human body which plays an important role in modern medical science and evolutionary biology. By virtue of evolution and genetic arrangements, digital lengths vary from person to person according to age, sex, races, occupation or even environmental influences. It has been found that the digital lengths and their ratios are not same in different sexes and even in both hands of same individual. Specially, index to ring digit lengths and their ratios which already have been proved to represent sexual dimorphism may differ in both hands of an individual and show positive correlations with other morphological attributes like height, weight and BMI. Objectives: To analyze the variation of index finger (2D length and its correlation with height, weight and BMI in adult Bangladeshi male. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in the department of Anatomy, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka from July 2012 to June 2013 on 100 male MBBS students (20−25 years of age. With the help of digital vernier caliper measurements of index finger length (2D was recorded. Height and weight were measured by the stadiometer and weighing scale respectively. BMI was calculated from height and weight. Pearson’s correlation analysis was done to find out the correlation of index finger length with height, weight and BMI. Results: Significant correlation has been found between the lengths of index fingers (2D and height (p0.05. Conclusion: In this study, we found variation in index finger lengths of both hands of Bangladeshi male subjects, which needs further study and comparison.

  13. Initial root length in wheat is highly correlated with acid soil tolerance in the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Fernando Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In acid soils, toxic aluminum ions inhibit plant root growth. In order to discriminate aluminum (Al tolerance, trustful screening techniques are required. In this study, 20 wheat cultivars, showing different levels of Al tolerance, were evaluated in a short-term soil experiment to access their relative root length (RRL. Moreover, the alleles of two important genes (TaALMT1 and TaMATE1B for Al tolerance in wheat were discriminated. Both of these genes encode membrane transporters responsible for the efflux of organic acids by the root apices that are thought to confer tolerance by chelating Al. Genotypes showing TaALMT1 alleles V and VI and an insertion at the TaMATE1B promoter were among the ones showing greater RRL. Mechanisms of Al tolerance, which are not associated with organic acid efflux, can be potentially present in two cultivars showing greater RRL among the ones carrying inferior TaALMT1 and TaMATE1B alleles. The RRL data were highly correlated with wheat performance in acid soil at three developmental stages, tillering (r = −0.93, p < 0.001, silking (r = −0.91, p < 0.001 and maturation (r = −0.90, p < 0.001, as well as with the classification index of aluminum toxicity in the field (r = −0.92, p < 0.001. Since the RRL was obtained after only six days of growth and it is highly correlated with plant performance in acid soil under field conditions, the short-term experiment detailed here is an efficient and rapid method for reliable screening of wheat Al tolerance.

  14. Evaluation of the Normal Fetal Kidney Length and Its Correlation with Gestational Age

    OpenAIRE

    Farrokh Seilanian Toosi; Hossein Rezaie-Delui

    2013-01-01

    A true estimation of gestational age (GA) plays an important role in quality maternity care and scheduling the labor date. This study aimed to evaluate the normal fetal kidney length (KL) and its correlation with GA. A cross-sectional study on 92 pregnant women between 8th and 10th week of gestation with normal singleton pregnancy underwent standard ultrasound fetal biometry and kidney length measurement. univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis was used to create a predictive e...

  15. Study Regarding the Correlation between Body Mass and Spur Length in Hunting Pheasant (Males, in October

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenie Grigoroiu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a study on the correlation between body mass and spur length in October 2009.October is the month when the pheasant hunting begins. The structure per ages of pheasant cocks is not well known, but we may consider that over 80% are pheasants eclosed during the current year, from the first, second or the third mating, so that the body mass and spur length were different according to age.

  16. Azimuthal angle correlations at large rapidities. Revisiting density variation mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotsman, E. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv (Israel); Levin, E. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv (Israel); Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Departemento de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); Centro Cientifico-Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2017-11-15

    We discuss the angular correlation present in hadron-hadron collisions at large rapidity difference (anti α{sub S}y{sub 12} >> 1). We find that in the CGC/saturation approach the largest contribution stems from the density variation mechanism. Our principal results are that the odd Fourier harmonics (v{sub 2n+1}) decrease substantially as a function of y{sub 12}, while the even harmonics (v{sub 2n}) increase considerably with the growth of y{sub 12}. (orig.)

  17. A STUDY OF CORRELATION OF FOOT LENGTH AND GESTATIONAL MATURITY IN NEONATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bhuvaneswari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Gestational age estimation at birth can be done by clinical estimation through careful history of LMP, ultrasonic estimation of gestational age, date of first recorded foetal activity “quickening” first felt at approximately 16-18 weeks, Date of first recorded foetal heart sounds. MATERIALS AND METHODS A study sample of 800 live newborns were selected by simple random sampling technique born at GVR hospital and Government General Hospital, Kurnool from April 2015 to May 2016. Data was collected using standard proforma meeting the objectives of the study. a Gestational age assessment was done using modified Bellard’s score and b Foot length was measured using sliding calipers which is having an accuracy of a millimeter. Following instruments are used: 1 Sliding calipers for measuring foot length, 2 Flexible, non-stretchable measuring tape for head circumference, 3 Infantometer for measuring crown heel length, 4 Electronic weighing scale for measuring weight. RESULTS The foot length of preterm neonates ranged from 4.5-7.8 cm with the mean foot length of 6.1571 cm and 6.6964 cm for preterm SGA and AGA, respectively. The foot length of term neonates ranged from 5.4-8.7 cm with a mean foot length of 7.0471 cm, 7.5703 cm, 8.0391 cm for term SGA, AGA, LGA respectively. The foot length for post term neonates ranged from 6.7-8.8 cm, with a mean foot length of 7.5688 cm, 8.0170 cm and 8.2667 cm for post term SGA, AGA and LGA, respectively. This shows that foot length increases as the gestational age increases. CONCLUSION Foot length can be correlated significantly with the gestational age, birth weight, head circumference and crown heel length.

  18. Determination of two-dimensional correlation lengths in an anisotropic two-component flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, O.

    1994-05-01

    Former studies have shown that correlation methods can be used for determination of various two-component flow parameters, among these the correlation length. In cases where the flow can be described as a mixture, in which the minority component forms spatially limited perturbations within the majority component, this parameter gives a good indication of the maximum extension of these perturbations. In the former studies, spherical symmetry of the perturbations has been assumed, and the correlation length has been measured in the direction of the flow (axially) only. However, if the flow structure is anisotropic, the correlation length will be different in different directions. In the present study, the method has been developed further, allowing also measurements perpendicular to the flow direction (radially). The measurements were carried out using laser beams and the two-component flows consisted of either glass beads and air or air and water. In order to make local measurements of both the axial and radial correlation length simultaneously, it is necessary to use 3 laser beams and to form the triple cross-covariance. This lead to some unforeseen complications, due to the character of this function. The experimental results are generally positive and size determinations with an accuracy of better than 10% have been achieved in most cases. Less accurate results appeared only for difficult conditions (symmetrical signals), when 3 beams were used. 5 refs, 13 figs, 3 tabs

  19. Evaluation of the normal fetal kidney length and its correlation with gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seilanian Toosi, Farrokh; Rezaie-Delui, Hossein

    2013-05-30

    A true estimation of gestational age (GA) plays an important role in quality maternity care and scheduling the labor date. This study aimed to evaluate the normal fetal kidney length (KL) and its correlation with GA. A cross-sectional study on 92 pregnant women between 8th and 10th week of gestation with normal singleton pregnancy underwent standard ultrasound fetal biometry and kidney length measurement. univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis was used to create a predictive equation to estimate GA on the KL and fetobiometry parameters. A significant correlation was found between GA and KL (r=0.83, P<0.002). The best GA predictor was obtained by combining head circumference, fetal biparietal diameter, femur length and KL with a standard error (SE) about 14.2 days. Our findings showed that KL measurements combination with other fetal biometric parameters could predict age of pregnancy with a better precision.

  20. Evaluation of the Normal Fetal Kidney Length and Its Correlation with Gestational Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrokh Seilanian Toosi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A true estimation of gestational age (GA plays an important role in quality maternity care and scheduling the labor date. This study aimed to evaluate the normal fetal kidney length (KL and its correlation with GA. A cross-sectional study on 92 pregnant women between 8th and 10th week of gestation with normal singleton pregnancy underwent standard ultrasound fetal biometry and kidney length measurement. univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis was used to create a predictive equation to estimate GA on the KL and fetobiometry parameters. A significant correlation was found between GA and KL (r=0.83, P<0.002. The best GA predictor was obtained by combining head circumference, fetal biparietal diameter, femur length and KL with a standard error (SE about 14.2 days. Our findings showed that KL measurements combination with other fetal biometric parameters could predict age of pregnancy with a better precision.

  1. On the calculation of length scales for turbulent heat transfer correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, M.J.; Hollingsworth, D.K.

    1999-07-01

    Turbulence length scale calculation methods were critically reviewed for their usefulness in boundary layer heat transfer correlations. Merits and deficiencies in each calculation method were presented. A rigorous method for calculating an energy-based integral scale was introduced. The method uses the variance of the streamwise velocity and a measured dissipation spectrum to calculate the length scale. Advantages and disadvantages of the new method were discussed. A principal advantage is the capability to decisively calculate length scales in a low-Reynolds-number turbulent boundary layer. The calculation method was tested with data from grid-generated, free-shear-layer, and wall-bounded turbulence. In each case, the method proved successful. The length scale is well behaved in turbulent boundary layers with momentum thickness Reynolds numbers from 400 to 2,100 and in flows with turbulent Reynolds numbers as low as 90.

  2. Is the length of stay in hospital correlated with patient satisfaction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghans, Ine; Kleefstra, Sophia M.; Kool, Rudolf B.; Westert, Gert P.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between length of stay (LOS) and patient satisfaction on the level of hospital wards. The underlying hypothesis is that good quality of care leads both to shorter LOS and to patients that are more satisfied. We used standardized LOS and standardized patient

  3. Electrostatic turbulence with finite parallel correlation length and radial electric field generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlad, M.; Spineanu, F.; Misguich, J.H.; Balescu, R.

    2001-01-01

    Particle diffusion in a given electrostatic turbulence with a finite correlation length along the confining magnetic field is studied in the test particle approach. An anomalous diffusion regime of amplified diffusion coefficients is found in the conditions when particle trapping in the structure of the stochastic potential is effective. The auto-generated radial electric field is calculated. (author)

  4. Isthmus Dependent Atrial Flutter Cycle Length Correlates with Right Atrial Cross-Sectional Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kousik Krishnan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Right atrial flutter cycle length can prolong in the presence of antiarrhythmic drug therapy. We hypothesized that the cycle length of right atrial isthmus dependent flutter would correlate with right atrial cross-sectional area measurements. Methods: 60 patients who underwent ablation for electrophysiologically proven isthmus dependent right atrial flutter, who were not on Class I or Class III antiarrhythmic drugs and had recent 2-dimensional echocardiographic data comprised the study group. Right atrial length and width were measured in the apical four chamber view. Cross-sectional area was estimated by multiplying the length and width. 35 patients had an atrial flutter rate ≥250 bpm (Normal Flutter Group and 25 patients had an atrial flutter rate < 250 bpm (Slow Flutter Group. Results: Mean atrial flutter rate was 283 bpm in the normal flutter group and 227 bpm in the slow flutter group. Mean atrial flutter cycle length was 213 ms in the Normal Flutter Group and 265 ms in the Slow Flutter Group (p<0.0001. Mean right atrial cross sectional area was 1845 mm2 in the Normal Flutter group and 2378 mm2 in the Slow Flutter Group, (p< 0.0001. Using linear regression, CSA was a significant predictor of cycle length (β =0.014 p = 0.0045. For every 1 mm2 increase in cross-sectional area, cycle length is 0.014 ms longer.Conclusion: In the absence of antiarrhythmic medications, right atrial cross sectional area enlargement correlates with atrial flutter cycle length. These findings provide further evidence that historical rate-related definitions of typical isthmus dependent right atrial are not mechanistically valid.

  5. Characterization of relaxation processes in interacting vortex matter through a time-dependent correlation length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleimling, Michel; Täuber, Uwe C

    2015-01-01

    Vortex lines in type-II superconductors display complicated relaxation processes due to the intricate competition between their mutual repulsive interactions and pinning to attractive point or extended defects. We perform extensive Monte Carlo simulations for an interacting elastic line model with either point-like or columnar pinning centers. From measurements of the space- and time-dependent height-height correlation function for lateral flux line fluctuations, we extract a characteristic correlation length that we use to investigate different non-equilibrium relaxation regimes. The specific time dependence of this correlation length for different disorder configurations displays characteristic features that provide a novel diagnostic tool to distinguish between point-like pinning centers and extended columnar defects. (paper)

  6. Rapidity correlations in Wγ production at hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, U.; Errede, S.; Landsberg, G.

    1994-01-01

    We study the correlation of photon and charged lepton pseudorapidities, η(γ) and η(l), l=e,μ, in pp (-) →W ± γ+X→l ± at sign;sp T γ+X. In the standard model, the Δη(γ,l)=η(γ)-η(l) differential cross section is found to exhibit a pronounced dip at Δη(γ,l)∼ minus-plus 0.3 (=0) in p bar p(pp) collisions, which originates from the radiation zero present in q bar q'→Wγ. The sensitivity of the Δη(γ,l) distribution to higher order QCD corrections, nonstandard WWγ couplings, the W+ jet ''fake'' background, and the cuts imposed is explored. At hadron supercolliders, next-to-leading order QCD corrections are found to considerably obscure the radiation zero. The advantages of the Δη(γ,l) distribution over other quantities which are sensitive to the radiation zero are discussed. We conclude that photon-lepton rapidity correlations at the Fermilab Tevatron offer a unique opportunity to search for the standard model radiation zero in hadronic Wγ production

  7. Leukocyte telomere length in major depression: correlations with chronicity, inflammation and oxidative stress--preliminary findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen M Wolkowitz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Depression is associated with an unusually high rate of aging-related illnesses and early mortality. One aspect of "accelerated aging" in depression may be shortened leukocyte telomeres. When telomeres critically shorten, as often occurs with repeated mitoses or in response to oxidation and inflammation, cells may die. Indeed, leukocyte telomere shortening predicts early mortality and medical illnesses in non-depressed populations. We sought to determine if leukocyte telomeres are shortened in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, whether this is a function of lifetime depression exposure and whether this is related to putative mediators, oxidation and inflammation.Leukocyte telomere length was compared between 18 unmedicated MDD subjects and 17 controls and was correlated with lifetime depression chronicity and peripheral markers of oxidation (F2-isoprostane/Vitamin C ratio and inflammation (IL-6. Analyses were controlled for age and sex.The depressed group, as a whole, did not differ from the controls in telomere length. However, telomere length was significantly inversely correlated with lifetime depression exposure, even after controlling for age (p<0.05. Average telomere length in the depressed subjects who were above the median of lifetime depression exposure (≥9.2 years' cumulative duration was 281 base pairs shorter than that in controls (p<0.05, corresponding to approximately seven years of "accelerated cell aging." Telomere length was inversely correlated with oxidative stress in the depressed subjects (p<0.01 and in the controls (p<0.05 and with inflammation in the depressed subjects (p<0.05.These preliminary data indicate that accelerated aging at the level of leukocyte telomeres is proportional to lifetime exposure to MDD. This might be related to cumulative exposure to oxidative stress and inflammation in MDD. This suggest that telomere shortening does not antedate depression and is not an intrinsic feature. Rather, telomere shortening

  8. Word-Length Correlations and Memory in Large Texts: A Visibility Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Guzmán-Vargas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We study the correlation properties of word lengths in large texts from 30 ebooks in the English language from the Gutenberg Project (www.gutenberg.org using the natural visibility graph method (NVG. NVG converts a time series into a graph and then analyzes its graph properties. First, the original sequence of words is transformed into a sequence of values containing the length of each word, and then, it is integrated. Next, we apply the NVG to the integrated word-length series and construct the network. We show that the degree distribution of that network follows a power law, P ( k ∼ k - γ , with two regimes, which are characterized by the exponents γ s ≈ 1 . 7 (at short degree scales and γ l ≈ 1 . 3 (at large degree scales. This suggests that word lengths are much more strongly correlated at large distances between words than at short distances between words. That finding is also supported by the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA and recurrence time distribution. These results provide new information about the universal characteristics of the structure of written texts beyond that given by word frequencies.

  9. Isothermal-isobaric Nose-Hoover method application: correlation length and disclinations per particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, J.J.; Nuevo, J.M.; Rull, L.F.

    1987-01-01

    The new isothermic-isobaric MD(T,p,N) method of Nose and Hoover is applied in Molecular Dynamics simulations to both liquid and solid near the phase transition. We tested for an appropriate value of the isobaric friction coefficient before calculating the correlation length in the liquid and the disclinations per particle in solid on a big system of 2304 particles. The results are compared with those obtained by traditional MD simulation (E,V,N). (author)

  10. Variability of interconnected wind plants: correlation length and its dependence on variability time scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Martin, Clara M.; Lundquist, Julie K.; Handschy, Mark A.

    2015-04-01

    The variability in wind-generated electricity complicates the integration of this electricity into the electrical grid. This challenge steepens as the percentage of renewably-generated electricity on the grid grows, but variability can be reduced by exploiting geographic diversity: correlations between wind farms decrease as the separation between wind farms increases. But how far is far enough to reduce variability? Grid management requires balancing production on various timescales, and so consideration of correlations reflective of those timescales can guide the appropriate spatial scales of geographic diversity grid integration. To answer ‘how far is far enough,’ we investigate the universal behavior of geographic diversity by exploring wind-speed correlations using three extensive datasets spanning continents, durations and time resolution. First, one year of five-minute wind power generation data from 29 wind farms span 1270 km across Southeastern Australia (Australian Energy Market Operator). Second, 45 years of hourly 10 m wind-speeds from 117 stations span 5000 km across Canada (National Climate Data Archive of Environment Canada). Finally, four years of five-minute wind-speeds from 14 meteorological towers span 350 km of the Northwestern US (Bonneville Power Administration). After removing diurnal cycles and seasonal trends from all datasets, we investigate dependence of correlation length on time scale by digitally high-pass filtering the data on 0.25-2000 h timescales and calculating correlations between sites for each high-pass filter cut-off. Correlations fall to zero with increasing station separation distance, but the characteristic correlation length varies with the high-pass filter applied: the higher the cut-off frequency, the smaller the station separation required to achieve de-correlation. Remarkable similarities between these three datasets reveal behavior that, if universal, could be particularly useful for grid management. For high

  11. Correlation of normal-range FMR1 repeat length or genotypes and reproductive parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Bat-Sheva L; Davis, Stephanie; Engmann, Lawrence; Nulsen, John C; Benadiva, Claudio A

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to ascertain whether the length of normal-ranged CGG repeats on the FMR1 gene correlates with abnormal reproductive parameters. We performed a retrospective, cross-sectional study of all FMR1 carrier screening performed as part of routine care at a large university-based fertility center from January 2011 to March 2014. Correlations were performed between normal-range FMR1 length and baseline serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), cycle day 3 follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), ovarian volumes (OV), antral follicle counts (AFC), and incidence of diminished ovarian reserve (DOR), while controlling for the effect of age. Six hundred three FMR1 screening results were collected. One subject was found to be a pre-mutation carrier and was excluded from the study. Baseline serum AMH, cycle day 3 FSH, OV, and AFC data were collected for the 602 subjects with normal-ranged CGG repeats. No significant difference in median age was noted amongst any of the FMR1 repeat genotypes. No significant correlation or association was found between any allele length or genotype, with any of the reproductive parameters or with incidence of DOR at any age (p > 0.05). However, subjects who were less than 35 years old with low/low genotype were significantly more likely to have below average AMH levels compared to those with normal/normal genotype (RR 3.82; 95 % CI 1.38-10.56). This large study did not demonstrate any substantial association between normal-range FMR1 repeat lengths and reproductive parameters.

  12. Correlations between psychometric schizotypy, scan path length, fixations on the eyes and face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Peter J; Eaton, Elizabeth; Pake, J Michael

    2016-01-01

    Psychometric schizotypy in the general population correlates negatively with face recognition accuracy, potentially due to deficits in inhibition, social withdrawal, or eye-movement abnormalities. We report an eye-tracking face recognition study in which participants were required to match one of two faces (target and distractor) to a cue face presented immediately before. All faces could be presented with or without paraphernalia (e.g., hats, glasses, facial hair). Results showed that paraphernalia distracted participants, and that the most distracting condition was when the cue and the distractor face had paraphernalia but the target face did not, while there was no correlation between distractibility and participants' scores on the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). Schizotypy was negatively correlated with proportion of time fixating on the eyes and positively correlated with not fixating on a feature. It was negatively correlated with scan path length and this variable correlated with face recognition accuracy. These results are interpreted as schizotypal traits being associated with a restricted scan path leading to face recognition deficits.

  13. Retrieval of Effective Correlation Length and Snow Water Equivalent from Radar and Passive Microwave Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Lemmetyinen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Current methods for retrieving SWE (snow water equivalent from space rely on passive microwave sensors. Observations are limited by poor spatial resolution, ambiguities related to separation of snow microstructural properties from the total snow mass, and signal saturation when snow is deep (~>80 cm. The use of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar at suitable frequencies has been suggested as a potential observation method to overcome the coarse resolution of passive microwave sensors. Nevertheless, suitable sensors operating from space are, up to now, unavailable. Active microwave retrievals suffer, however, from the same difficulties as the passive case in separating impacts of scattering efficiency from those of snow mass. In this study, we explore the potential of applying active (radar and passive (radiometer microwave observations in tandem, by using a dataset of co-incident tower-based active and passive microwave observations and detailed in situ data from a test site in Northern Finland. The dataset spans four winter seasons with daily coverage. In order to quantify the temporal variability of snow microstructure, we derive an effective correlation length for the snowpack (treated as a single layer, which matches the simulated microwave response of a semi-empirical radiative transfer model to observations. This effective parameter is derived from radiometer and radar observations at different frequencies and frequency combinations (10.2, 13.3 and 16.7 GHz for radar; 10.65, 18.7 and 37 GHz for radiometer. Under dry snow conditions, correlations are found between the effective correlation length retrieved from active and passive measurements. Consequently, the derived effective correlation length from passive microwave observations is applied to parameterize the retrieval of SWE using radar, improving retrieval skill compared to a case with no prior knowledge of snow-scattering efficiency. The same concept can be applied to future radar

  14. Electron scattering in dense atomic and molecular gases: An empirical correlation of polarizability and electron scattering length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupnik, K.; Asaf, U.; McGlynn, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    A linear correlation exists between the electron scattering length, as measured by a pressure shift method, and the polarizabilities for He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe gases. The correlative algorithm has excellent predictive capability for the electron scattering lengths of mixtures of rare gases, simple molecular gases such as H 2 and N 2 and even complex molecular entities such as methane, CH 4

  15. Scale and time dependence of serial correlations in word-length time series of written texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, E.; Aguilar-Cornejo, M.; Femat, R.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.

    2014-11-01

    This work considered the quantitative analysis of large written texts. To this end, the text was converted into a time series by taking the sequence of word lengths. The detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) was used for characterizing long-range serial correlations of the time series. To this end, the DFA was implemented within a rolling window framework for estimating the variations of correlations, quantified in terms of the scaling exponent, strength along the text. Also, a filtering derivative was used to compute the dependence of the scaling exponent relative to the scale. The analysis was applied to three famous English-written literary narrations; namely, Alice in Wonderland (by Lewis Carrol), Dracula (by Bram Stoker) and Sense and Sensibility (by Jane Austen). The results showed that high correlations appear for scales of about 50-200 words, suggesting that at these scales the text contains the stronger coherence. The scaling exponent was not constant along the text, showing important variations with apparent cyclical behavior. An interesting coincidence between the scaling exponent variations and changes in narrative units (e.g., chapters) was found. This suggests that the scaling exponent obtained from the DFA is able to detect changes in narration structure as expressed by the usage of words of different lengths.

  16. Correlation of optical emission and turbulent length scale in a coaxial jet diffusion flame

    OpenAIRE

    松山, 新吾; Matsuyama, Shingo

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the correlation between optical emission and turbulent length scale in a coaxial jet diffusion flame. To simulate the H2O emission from an H2/O2 diffusion flame, radiative transfer is calculated on flame data obtained by numerical simulation. H2O emission characteristics are examined for a one-dimensional opposed-flow diffusion flame. The results indicate that H2O emission intensity is linearly dependent on flame thickness. The simulation of H2O emission is then exte...

  17. Measurement of the magneto-optical correlation length in turbid media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenke, Ralf; Eisenmann, Christoph; Reinke, Daniel; Maret, Georg

    2002-11-01

    In multiple light scattering media, magnetic field induced circular birefringence (Faraday effect) influences interference effects such as speckle pattern or coherent backscattering. It was predicted that in the diffusive regime the relevant correlation length with respect to the Faraday rotation l*F differs, in general, from the transport mean free path l*. We have experimentally verified the prediction that the ratio l*F/l* equals 2 for Rayleigh scattering and decreases to 1 with increasing scatterer size. We also discuss the influence of the structure factor on l*F.

  18. Logarithmic superposition of force response with rapid length changes in relaxed porcine airway smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijpma, G; Al-Jumaily, A M; Cairns, S P; Sieck, G C

    2010-12-01

    We present a systematic quantitative analysis of power-law force relaxation and investigate logarithmic superposition of force response in relaxed porcine airway smooth muscle (ASM) strips in vitro. The term logarithmic superposition describes linear superposition on a logarithmic scale, which is equivalent to multiplication on a linear scale. Additionally, we examine whether the dynamic response of contracted and relaxed muscles is dominated by cross-bridge cycling or passive dynamics. The study shows the following main findings. For relaxed ASM, the force response to length steps of varying amplitude (0.25-4% of reference length, both lengthening and shortening) are well-fitted with power-law functions over several decades of time (10⁻² to 10³ s), and the force response after consecutive length changes is more accurately fitted assuming logarithmic superposition rather than linear superposition. Furthermore, for sinusoidal length oscillations in contracted and relaxed muscles, increasing the oscillation amplitude induces greater hysteresivity and asymmetry of force-length relationships, whereas increasing the frequency dampens hysteresivity but increases asymmetry. We conclude that logarithmic superposition is an important feature of relaxed ASM, which may facilitate a more accurate prediction of force responses in the continuous dynamic environment of the respiratory system. In addition, the single power-function response to length changes shows that the dynamics of cross-bridge cycling can be ignored in relaxed muscle. The similarity in response between relaxed and contracted states implies that the investigated passive dynamics play an important role in both states and should be taken into account.

  19. Postnatal penile length and growth rate correlate to serum testosterone levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Malene; Boisen, Kirsten A; Virtanen, Helena E

    2006-01-01

    in Denmark and at 0, 3 and 18 months in Finland with blood samples taken at 3 months (n = 630). Penile length and growth were registered and reproductive hormones (testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, oestradiol) were analysed. RESULTS: Penile length increased from birth (3.49+/-0.4 cm) to 3 years...... and growth. DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal population-based study taking place at two large primary obstetric centres at the University Hospitals of Copenhagen, Denmark, and Turku, Finland. METHODS: Infant boys, 728 Danish and 1234 Finnish, underwent clinical examinations at 0, 3, 18 and 36 months...... of age (4.53+/-0.51 cm) with the highest growth velocity from birth to 3 months (1.0 mm/month). Penile length and growth were significantly, positively correlated to serum testosterone (r = 0.31 and 0.076, P = 0.006 and 0.001 respectively) and to free testosterone index (r = 0.385 and 0.094, P = 0...

  20. CORRELATION OF H-MODE BARRIER WIDTH AND NEUTRAL PENETRATION LENGTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GROEBNER, R.J.; MAHDAVI, M.A.; LEONARD, A.W.; OSBORNE, T.H.; WOLF, N.S.; PORTER, G.D.; STANGEBY, P.C.; BROOKS, N.H.; COLCHIN, R.J.; HEIDBRINK, W.W.; LUCE, T.C.; MCKEE, G.R.; OWEN, L.W.; WANG, G.; WHYTE, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 CORRELATION OF H-MODE BARRIER WIDTH AND NEUTRAL PENETRATION LENGTH. Pedestal studies in DIII-D find a good correlation between the width of the H-mode density barrier and the neutral penetration length. These results are obtained by comparing experimental density profiles to the predictions of an analytic model for the profile, obtained from the particle continuity equations for electrons and deuterium atoms. In its range of validity (edge temperature between 40-500 eV), the analytic model quantitatively predicts the observed decrease of the width as the pedestal density increases, the observed strong increase of the gradient of the density as the pedestal density increases and the observation that L-mode and H-mode profiles with the same pedestal density have very similar shapes. The width of the density barrier, measured from the edge of the electron temperature barrier, is the lower limit for the observed width of the temperature barrier. These results support the hypothesis that particle fueling provides the dominant control for the size of the H-mode transport barrier

  1. CORRELATION OF H-MODE BARRIER WIDTH AND NEUTRAL PENTRATION LENGTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GROEBNER, R.J.; MAHDAVI, M.A.; LEONARD, A.W.; OSBORNE, T.H.; WOLF, N.S.; PORTER, G.D.; STANGEBY, P.C.; BROOKS, N.H.; COLCHIN, R.J.; HEIDBRINK, W.W.; LUCE, T.C.; MCKEE, G.R.; OWEN, L.W.; WANG, G.; WHYTE, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 CORRELATION OF H-MODE BARRIER WIDTH AND NEUTRAL PENTRATION LENGTH. Pedestal studies in DIII-D find a good correlation between the width of the region of steep gradient in the H-mode density and the neutral penetration length. These results are obtained by comparing experimental density profiles to the predictions of an analytic model for the profile, obtained from the particle continuity equations for electrons and deuterium atoms. In its range of validity (edge temperature between 40-500 eV), the analytic model quantitatively predicts the observed decrease of the width as the pedestal density increases, the observed strong increase of the gradient of the density as the pedestal density increases and the observation that L-mode and H-mode profiles with the same pedestal density have very similar shapes. The width of the density barrier, measured from the edge of the electron temperature barrier, is the lower limit for the observed width of the temperature barrier. These results support the hypothesis that particle fueling provides a dominant control for the size of the H-mode transport barrier

  2. High avidity antibodies to full-length VAR2CSA correlate with absence of placental malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutterrow, Yeung Lo; Salanti, Ali; Avril, Marion

    2012-01-01

    VAR2CSA mediates sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the placenta, increasing the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Naturally acquired antibodies (Ab) to placental parasites at delivery have been associated with improved pregnancy outcomes, but Ab levels and how early...... in pregnancy Ab must be present in order to eliminate placental parasites before delivery remains unknown. Antibodies to individual Duffy-binding like domains of VAR2CSA have been studied, but the domains lack many of the conformational epitopes present in full-length VAR2CSA (FV2). Thus, the purpose...... of this study was to describe the acquisition of Ab to FV2 in women residing in high and low transmission areas and determine how Ab levels during pregnancy correlate with clearance of placental parasites. Plasma samples collected monthly throughout pregnancy from pregnant women living in high and low...

  3. Correlates of Length of Stay and Boarding in Florida Emergency Departments for Patients With Psychiatric Diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph L; De Nadai, Alessandro S; Storch, Eric A; Langland-Orban, Barbara; Pracht, Etienne; Petrila, John

    2016-11-01

    Length of stay (LOS) and boarding in the emergency department (ED) for psychiatric patients have been the subject of concern, given the problems with crowding and excessive wait times in EDs. This investigation examined correlates of LOS and boarding in Florida EDs for patients presenting with psychiatric complaints from 2010 to 2013. Utilizing the Florida ED discharge database, the authors examined the association of LOS and boarding with hospital and encounter factors for adult patients presenting with a primary psychiatric diagnosis (N=597,541). The mean LOS was 7.77 hours. Anxiety disorders were the most frequent psychiatric complaint and were associated with the lowest mean LOS compared with other diagnoses (pboarding (a stay of more than six or more hours in the ED). Extended LOS was endemic for psychiatric patients in Florida EDs.

  4. Correlation between minority carrier diffusion length and microstructure in a-Si:H thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, G.; Fameli, G.; Nobile, G.; Rubino, A.; Terzini, E.; Villani, F.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the opto-electronic properties of amorphous hydrogenated silicon (a-Si:H). The deposition temperature was used as a driving force to modify the morphology and bonded hydrogen distribution. The influence of the hydrogen microstructure on the carrier m-t products was examined. The m-t products, for both carriers, were evaluated from the diffusion length measurement, by using the Steady State Photocarrier Grating (SSPG) technique, and from the photoconductivity in the steady state condition (SSPC). The m-t products were correlated with the defect density and Fermi level position. The effects of the defect density on the Fermi level position were examined within the framework of a defect pool model in order to justify the consistency of the results

  5. Correlation of intra-articular osseous measurements with posterior cruciate ligament length on MRI scans.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Orakzai, S H

    2010-01-01

    Six patients with a clinical diagnosis of chronic posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) rupture, based on a positive posterior drawer test, had a normal appearance of the PCL on an MRI scan. It is postulated that the PCL had been ruptured but healed in a lengthened state. 12 volunteers with no history of knee trauma underwent an MRI scan of the knee. In this control group (n = 12), there was a close correlation between the lateral femoral condylar width in the sagittal plane and the PCL length, with a ratio of 2:1 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.817-2.095). In the clinically abnormal group (n = 6), the ratio was 1.49:1 (95% CI = 1.206-1.782) (p< 0.0005). In conclusion, the ratio of the lateral femoral condylar width in the sagittal plane to the PCL length is a useful index for diagnosing PCL attenuation and lengthening in the presence of a normal morphological MR appearance.

  6. PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism for Rapid, Low-Cost Identification of Isoniazid-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caws, Maxine; Tho, Dau Quang; Duy, Phan Minh; Lan, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Hoa, Dai Viet; Torok, Mili Estee; Chau, Tran Thi Hong; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Chinh, Nguyen Tran; Farrar, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    PCR-restriction fragment length poymorphism (PCR-RFLP) is a simple, robust technique for the rapid identification of isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One hundred consecutive isolates from a Vietnamese tuberculosis hospital were tested by MspA1I PCR-RFLP for the detection of isoniazid-resistant katG_315 mutants. The test had a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 100% against conventional phenotypic drug susceptibility testing. The positive and negative predictive values were 1 and 0.86, respectively. None of the discrepant isolates had mutant katG_315 codons by sequencing. The test is cheap (less than $1.50 per test), specific, and suitable for the rapid identification of isoniazid resistance in regions with a high prevalence of katG_315 mutants among isoniazid-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates. PMID:17428939

  7. Test anxiety and telomere length: Academic stress in adolescents may not cause rapid telomere erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yaru; Leong, Waiian; Yao, Mingling; Hu, Xuefei; Lu, Sixiao; Zhu, Xiaowei; Chen, Lianxiang; Tong, Jianjing; Shi, Jingyi; Gilson, Eric; Ye, Jing; Lu, Yiming

    2017-02-14

    Academic stress (AS) is one of the most important health problems experienced by students, but no biomarker of the potential psychological or physical problems associated with AS has yet been identified. As several cross-sectional studies have shown that psychiatric conditions accelerate aging and shorten telomere length (TL), we explored whether AS affected TL.Between June 2014 and July 2014, we recruited 200 junior high school students with imminent final examinations for participation in this study. The students were divided into three subgroups (mild, moderate, and severe anxiety) using the Sarason Test Anxiety Scale (TAS). Saliva samples were collected for TL measurement via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).Students from both a specialized and a general school suffered from anxiety (p > 0.05). A total 35% had severe anxiety (score: 26.09±3.87), 33% had moderate anxiety (16.98±2.64), and 32% had mild anxiety (7.89±1.92). The TAS values differed significantly (p 0.05): 1.14±0.46 for those with severe anxiety, 1.02±0.40 for those with moderate anxiety, and 1.12±0.45 for those with mild anxiety.Previous reports have found that AS is very common in Asian adolescents. We found no immediate telomere shortening in adolescents with AS. Longitudinal observations are required to determine if TL is affected by AS.

  8. Cerebrospinal Fluid Hypocretin-1 (Orexin-A Level Fluctuates with Season and Correlates with Day Length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Boddum

    Full Text Available The hypocretin/orexin neuropeptides (hcrt are key players in the control of sleep and wakefulness evidenced by the fact that lack of hcrt leads to the sleep disorder Narcolepsy Type 1. Sleep disturbances are common in mood disorders, and hcrt has been suggested to be poorly regulated in depressed subjects. To study seasonal variation in hcrt levels, we obtained data on hcrt-1 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from 227 human individuals evaluated for central hypersomnias at a Danish sleep center. The samples were taken over a 4 year timespan, and obtained in the morning hours, thus avoiding impact of the diurnal hcrt variation. Hcrt-1 concentration was determined in a standardized radioimmunoassay. Using biometric data and sleep parameters, a multivariate regression analysis was performed. We found that the average monthly CSF hcrt-1 levels varied significantly across the seasons following a sine wave with its peak in the summer (June-July. The amplitude was 19.9 pg hcrt/mL [12.8-26.9] corresponding to a 10.6% increase in midsummer compared to winter. Factors found to significantly predict the hcrt-1 values were day length, presence of snow, and proximity to the Christmas holiday season. The hcrt-1 values from January were much higher than predicted from the model, suggestive of additional factors influencing the CSF hcrt-1 levels such as social interaction. This study provides evidence that human CSF hcrt-1 levels vary with season, correlating with day length. This finding could have implications for the understanding of winter tiredness, fatigue, and seasonal affective disorder. This is the first time a seasonal variation of hcrt-1 levels has been shown, demonstrating that the hcrt system is, like other neurotransmitter systems, subjected to long term modulation.

  9. Perforated appendicitis: accuracy of CT diagnosis and correlation of CT findings with the length of hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, H.A.; Afzal, S.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the sensitivity and specificity of CT findings in the differentiation of perforated from nonperforated appendicitis and correlate CT diagnosis with the length of hospital stay. The study included 70 patients who presented with right lower quadrant abdominal pain and underwent preoperative CT scan followed by appendectomy. Patients were divided into two groups of having perforated and nonperforated appendicitis on the basis of CT scan findings. The surgical and pathological reports combined were considered the reference standard for the diagnosis of perforated appendicitis. Various CT scan findings and average duration of hospital stay in days was compared by t-test. Twenty-six (37%) of 70 patients had perforated appendicitis. It was correctly identified on pre-operative CT scan in 18 patients. There were 18 true positive diagnoses, 43 true negative diagnoses, 1 false positive diagnosis and 8 false negative diagnoses which yielded a sensitivity of 69%, specificity of 97%, positive predictive value of 94% and negative predictive value of 84%. Mean length of hospital stay in perforated group was 6.3 days and 2.9 days in nonperforated group. Severe periappendiceal inflammation, periappendiceal and or abdominopelvic fluid and abscess were significantly associated with perforated appendicitis and with a significant longer hospital stay (p <.001). CT scan is 69% sensitive and 97% specific for the diagnosis of perforated appendicitis and constellation of CT findings can be used to select patients with perforated appendicitis for initial non-operative management. Presence of CT signs of significant appendiceal inflammation is independent predictor of longer hospital stay. (author)

  10. Growing correlation length on cooling below the onset of caging in a simulated glass-forming liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lačević, N.; Starr, F. W.; Schrøder, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    We present a calculation of a fourth-order, time-dependent density correlation function that measures higher-order spatiotemporal correlations of the density of a liquid. From molecular dynamics simulations of a glass-forming Lennard-Jones liquid, we find that the characteristic length scale...... of the dynamics of the liquid in the alpha-relaxation regime....

  11. Rapid Titration of Measles and Other Viruses: Optimization with Determination of Replication Cycle Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorov, Boyan; Rabilloud, Jessica; Lawrence, Philip; Gerlier, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Background Measles virus (MV) is a member of the Paramyxoviridae family and an important human pathogen causing strong immunosuppression in affected individuals and a considerable number of deaths worldwide. Currently, measles is a re-emerging disease in developed countries. MV is usually quantified in infectious units as determined by limiting dilution and counting of plaque forming unit either directly (PFU method) or indirectly from random distribution in microwells (TCID50 method). Both methods are time-consuming (up to several days), cumbersome and, in the case of the PFU assay, possibly operator dependent. Methods/Findings A rapid, optimized, accurate, and reliable technique for titration of measles virus was developed based on the detection of virus infected cells by flow cytometry, single round of infection and titer calculation according to the Poisson's law. The kinetics follow up of the number of infected cells after infection with serial dilutions of a virus allowed estimation of the duration of the replication cycle, and consequently, the optimal infection time. The assay was set up to quantify measles virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) using antibody labeling of viral glycoprotein, virus encoded fluorescent reporter protein and an inducible fluorescent-reporter cell line, respectively. Conclusion Overall, performing the assay takes only 24–30 hours for MV strains, 12 hours for VSV, and 52 hours for HIV-1. The step-by-step procedure we have set up can be, in principle, applicable to accurately quantify any virus including lentiviral vectors, provided that a virus encoded gene product can be detected by flow cytometry. PMID:21915289

  12. Correlation of H-mode barrier width and neutral penetration length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groebner, R.J.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Leonard, A.W.

    2003-01-01

    Pedestal studies in DIII-D find a good correlation between the width of the H-mode density barrier and the neutral penetration length. These results are obtained by comparing experimental density profiles to the predictions of an analytic model for the profile, obtained from the particle continuity equations for electrons and deuterium atoms. In its range of validity (edge temperature between 40-500 eV), the analytic model quantitatively predicts the observed decrease of the width as the pedestal density increases, the observed strong increase of the gradient of the density as the pedestal density increases and the observation that L-mode and H-mode profiles with the same pedestal density have very similar shapes. The width of the density barrier, measured from the edge of the electron temperature barrier, is the lower limit for the observed width of the temperature barrier. These results support the hypothesis that particle fueling provides the dominant control for the size of the H-mode transport barrier. (author)

  13. Correlation of H-mode density barrier width and neutral penetration length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groebner, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    Pedestal studies in DIII-D find a good correlation between the width of the H-mode particle barrier width(ne) and the neutral penetration length. These results are obtained by comparing experimental n e profiles to the predictions of an analytic model for the density profile, obtained from a solution of the particle continuity equations for electrons and deuterium atoms. Initial bench-marking shows that the model is consistent with the fluid neutrals model of the UEDGE code. In its range of validity (edge temperature between 0.02-0.3 keV), the model quantitatively predicts the observed values of width(ne), the observed decrease of width(ne) as the pedestal density n e,ped increases, the observed increase of the gradient of n e with the square of n e,ped , and the observation that L-mode and H-mode profiles with the same n e,ped have very similar widths. In the model, width(ne) depends on the fuelling source and on the plasma transport. Thus, these results provide evidence that the width of the particle barrier depends on both plasma physics and atomic physics. (author)

  14. Systematic correlation of environmental exposure and physiological and self-reported behaviour factors with leukocyte telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chirag J; Manrai, Arjun K; Corona, Erik; Kohane, Isaac S

    2017-02-01

    It is hypothesized that environmental exposures and behaviour influence telomere length, an indicator of cellular ageing. We systematically associated 461 indicators of environmental exposures, physiology and self-reported behaviour with telomere length in data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 1999-2002. Further, we tested whether factors identified in the NHANES participants are also correlated with gene expression of telomere length modifying genes. We correlated 461 environmental exposures, behaviours and clinical variables with telomere length, using survey-weighted linear regression, adjusting for sex, age, age squared, race/ethnicity, poverty level, education and born outside the USA, and estimated the false discovery rate to adjust for multiple hypotheses. We conducted a secondary analysis to investigate the correlation between identified environmental variables and gene expression levels of telomere-associated genes in publicly available gene expression samples. After correlating 461 variables with telomere length, we found 22 variables significantly associated with telomere length after adjustment for multiple hypotheses. Of these varaibales, 14 were associated with longer telomeres, including biomarkers of polychlorinated biphenyls([PCBs; 0.1 to 0.2 standard deviation (SD) increase for 1 SD increase in PCB level, P  environmental exposures and chronic disease-related risk factors may play a role in telomere length. Our secondary analysis found no evidence of association between PCBs/smoking and gene expression of telomere-associated genes. All correlations between exposures, behaviours and clinical factors and changes in telomere length will require further investigation regarding biological influence of exposure. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  15. Dyslipidemia and chronic inflammation markers are correlated with telomere length shortening in Cushing's syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Aulinas

    Full Text Available Cushing's syndrome (CS increases cardiovascular risk (CVR and adipocytokine imbalance, associated with an increased inflammatory state. Telomere length (TL shortening is a novel CVR marker, associated with inflammation biomarkers. We hypothesized that inflammatory state and higher CVR in CS might be related to TL shortening, as observed in premature aging.To evaluate relationships between TL, CVR and inflammation markers in CS.In a cross-sectional study, 77 patients with CS (14 males, 59 pituitary-, 17 adrenal- and 1 ectopic-origin; 21 active disease and 77 age-, gender-, smoking-matched controls were included. Total white blood cell TL was measured by TRF-Southern technique. Clinical data and blood samples were collected (lipids, adrenal function, glucose. Adiponectin, interleukin-6 (IL6 and C-reactive protein (CRP were available in a subgroup of patients (n=32. Correlations between TL and clinical features were examined and multiple linear regression analysis was performed to investigate potential predictors of TL.Dyslipidemic CS had shorter TL than non-dyslipidemic subjects (7328±1274 vs 7957±1137 bp, p<0.05. After adjustment for age and body mass index, cured and active CS dyslipidemic patients had shorter TL than non-dyslipidemic CS (cured: 7187±1309 vs 7868±1104; active: 7203±1262 vs 8615±1056, respectively, p<0.05. Total cholesterol and triglycerides negatively correlated with TL (r-0.279 and -0.259, respectively, p<0.05, as well as CRP and IL6 (r-0.412 and -0.441, respectively, p<0.05. No difference in TL according the presence of other individual CVR factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity were observed in CS or in the control group. Additional TL shortening was observed in dyslipidemic obese patients who were also hypertensive, compared to those with two or less CVR factors (6956±1280 vs 7860±1180, respectively, p<0.001. Age and dyslipidemia were independent negative predictors of TL.TL is shortened in dyslipidemic CS

  16. Long range forward-backward rapidity correlations in proton-proton collisions at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogueira, P.; Dias de Deus, J.; Pajares, C.

    2009-01-01

    We argue that string percolation is in the origin of (i) an approximately flat rapidity distribution and of (ii) an approximately constant forward-backward correlation parameter b over a substantial fraction of the available rapidity. Predictions are given for pp collisions at LHC, √(s)=14 TeV and √(s)=5.5 TeV.

  17. High avidity antibodies to full-length VAR2CSA correlate with absence of placental malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeung Lo Tutterrow

    Full Text Available VAR2CSA mediates sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the placenta, increasing the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Naturally acquired antibodies (Ab to placental parasites at delivery have been associated with improved pregnancy outcomes, but Ab levels and how early in pregnancy Ab must be present in order to eliminate placental parasites before delivery remains unknown. Antibodies to individual Duffy-binding like domains of VAR2CSA have been studied, but the domains lack many of the conformational epitopes present in full-length VAR2CSA (FV2. Thus, the purpose of this study was to describe the acquisition of Ab to FV2 in women residing in high and low transmission areas and determine how Ab levels during pregnancy correlate with clearance of placental parasites. Plasma samples collected monthly throughout pregnancy from pregnant women living in high and low transmission areas in Cameroon were evaluated for Ab to FV2 and the proportion of high avidity Ab (i.e., Ab that remain bound in the presence of 3M NH(4SCN was assessed. Ab levels and proportion of high avidity Ab were compared between women with placental malaria (PM(+ and those without (PM(- at delivery. Results showed that PM(- women had significantly higher Ab levels (p = 0.0047 and proportion of high avidity Ab (p = 0.0009 than PM(+ women throughout pregnancy. Specifically, women with moderate to high Ab levels (>5,000 MFI and those with ≥ 35% high avidity Ab at 5-6 months were found to have 2.3 (95% CI, 1.0-4.9 and 7.6-fold (p = 0.0013, 95% CI: 1.2-50.0 reduced risk of placental malaria, respectively. These data show that high levels of Ab to FV2, particularly those with high avidity for FV2, produced by mid-pregnancy are important in clearing parasites from the placenta. Both high Ab levels and proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2 may serve as correlates of protection for assessing immunity against placental malaria.

  18. Modeling the length effect: Specifying the relation with visual and phonological correlates of reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boer, M.; de Jong, P.F.; Haentjens-van Meeteren, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Beginning readers' reading latencies increase as words become longer. This length effect is believed to be a marker of a serial reading process. We examined the effects of visual and phonological skills on the length effect. Participants were 184 second-grade children who read 3- to 5-letter words

  19. Different behaviour-body length correlations in two populations of juvenile three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Winter, Gunnar; Martins, Henrique Ramalho; Trovo, Rafael Arnoni; Chapman, Ben B

    2016-01-01

    Behavioural variation among individuals has received a lot of attention by behavioural ecologists in the past few years. Its causes and consequences are becoming vast areas of research. The origin and maintenance of individual variation in behaviour within and among populations is affected by many facets of the biotic and abiotic environment. Here, two populations of lab-reared juvenile three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) are tested for three behaviours (boldness, exploration, and sociability). Given the identical rearing conditions, the only difference between these populations is the parental habitat. In both populations, correlations between behaviour and body length are found. Interestingly, these differ between the populations. In one population body length was negatively correlated with exploratory behaviour, while in the other one body length correlated negatively with sociability. Considering the identical environment these juvenile fish were exposed to, these findings suggest a potential (epi)genetic foundation for these correlations and shows that, in three-spined sticklebacks, the proximate basis for correlations between body length and behaviour appears quite malleable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Vocal tract length and formant frequency dispersion correlate with body size in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, W T

    1997-08-01

    Body weight, length, and vocal tract length were measured for 23 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) of various sizes using radiographs and computer graphic techniques. linear predictive coding analysis of tape-recorded threat vocalizations were used to determine vocal tract resonance frequencies ("formants") for the same animals. A new acoustic variable is proposed, "formant dispersion," which should theoretically depend upon vocal tract length. Formant dispersion is the averaged difference between successive formant frequencies, and was found to be closely tied to both vocal tract length and body size. Despite the common claim that voice fundamental frequency (F0) provides an acoustic indication of body size, repeated investigations have failed to support such a relationship in many vertebrate species including humans. Formant dispersion, unlike voice pitch, is proposed to be a reliable predictor of body size in macaques, and probably many other species.

  1. Unitarity corrections to short-range order long-range rapidity correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Capella, A

    1978-01-01

    Although the effective hadronic forces have short range in rapidity space, one nevertheless expects long-range dynamical correlations induced by unitarity constraints. This paper contains a thorough discussion of long-range rapidity correlations in high-multiplicity events. In particular, the authors analyze in detail the forward- backward multiplicity correlations, measured recently in the whole CERN ISR energy range. They find from these data that the normalized variance of the number n of exchanged cut Pomerons, ((n/(n)-1)/sup 2/) , is most probably in the range 0.32 to 0.36. They show that such a number is obtained from Reggeon theory in the eikonal approximation. The authors also predict a very specific violation of local compensation of charge in multiparticle events: The violation should appear in the fourth-order zone correlation function and is absent in the second-order correlation function, the only one measured until now. (48 refs).

  2. Studies of many-particle correlations in proton-nucleus interactions using distributions of rapidity-gaps between particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangotra, L.K.; Otterlund, I.; Stenlund, E.

    1985-01-01

    Many-particle correlations in proton-Emulsion interactions at 400 GeV have been investigated using distributions of rapidity-gaps between particles. We have defined the normalized semi-inclusive rapidity-gap correlation function which is shown to have advantages over the normalized two- particle correlation function. Small, but significant, deviations from zero-correlations are observed in the data

  3. Rapid differentiation of closely related isolates of two plant viruses by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, D J; Morton, A; Spence, N J; Miller, A

    1995-09-01

    Immunocapture reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the product has been shown to be an effective procedure for discriminating serologically indistinguishable isolates of two plant viruses, raspberry bushy dwarf (RBDV) and zucchini yellow mosaic (ZYMV). For both viruses, only limited sequence information was available at the time of primer design, but most of the isolates which were tested could be amplified (the one exception being a serologically quite distinct isolate of ZYMV). Restriction endonucleases revealing diagnostic RFLPs were readily identified. Each of two isolates of ZYMV could be detected in the presence of the other and the relative proportions approximately quantified by visual estimation of the relative intensity of the appropriate bands. A range of isolates of different RBDV pathotypes were compared; isolates were grouped in ways that accorded with their known history. Computer analysis of the published sequence from which the primers had been derived showed the sequenced isolate to be identical with an isolate imported from the USSR. The PCR/RFLP procedure is rapid (it can be completed in less than 2 days), effective and will probably be generally applicable to distinguishing closely related virus isolates, even where little sequence information is available.

  4. Lyme disease with facial nerve palsy: rapid diagnosis using a nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Y; Takahashi, H; Kishiyama, K; Sato, Y; Nakao, M; Miyamoto, K; Iizuka, H

    1998-02-01

    A 64-year-old woman with Lyme disease and manifesting facial nerve palsy had been bitten by a tick on the left frontal scalp 4 weeks previously. Erythema migrans appeared on the left forehead, accompanied by left facial paralysis. Nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (nested PCR-RFLP) was performed on DNA extracted from a skin biopsy of the erythema on the left forehead. Borrelia flagellin gene DNA was detected and its RFLP pattern indicated that the organism was B. garinii, Five weeks later, B. garinii was isolated by conventional culture from the erythematous skin lesion, but not from the cerebrospinal fluid. After treatment with ceftriaxone intravenously for 10 days and oral administration of minocycline for 7 days, both the erythema and facial nerve palsy improved significantly. Nested PCR and culture taken after the lesion subsided, using skin samples obtained from a site adjacent to the original biopsy, were both negative. We suggest that nested PCR-RFLP analysis might be useful for the rapid diagnosis of Lyme disease and for evaluating therapy.

  5. Rapidity correlations in inclusive two-particle production at storage ring energies

    CERN Document Server

    Dibon, Heinz; Gottfried, Christian; Nefkens, B M K; Neuhofer, G; Niebergall, F; Regler, Meinhard; Schmidt-Parzefall, W; Schubert, K R; Schumacher, P E; Winter, Klaus

    1973-01-01

    Inclusive two-particle production in the reaction pp to gamma +ch+ (anything) has been measured at the CERN ISR for four energies ( square root s=23, 30.5, 45, and 53 GeV) at two production angles of the charged particles (ch) and at eight production angles of the gamma -rays. The rapidity correlation of the two particles is weak and of short range. The peak correlation is sigma /sub inel/(d/sup 2/ sigma /sub gamma ch//d sigma /sub gamma /d sigma /sub ch/)-1=0.62+or-0.08, the correlation range (y/sub gamma /-y/sub ch/)=1.17+or-0.05, independently of s. The phi correlation extends over a wide gap in rapidity; its strength is increasing with increasing transverse momentum. (7 refs).

  6. Further evidence for jet structure in large transverse momentum reactions from rapidity correlations and associated multiplicities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranft, J.; Ranft, G.

    1976-10-01

    Using the hard collision model and a simple parametrisation for jet fragmentation expressions for same side and opposite side two-particle correlations and multiplicities associated with large transverse momentum trigger particles are derived. Recent data on rapidity correlations and associated multiplicities can be well understood in such a model. This result is interpreted as further evidence for the presence of jets in large transverse momentum reactions. (author)

  7. Estimation of Kubo number and correlation length of fluctuating magnetic fields and pressure in BOUT + + edge pedestal collapse simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaewook; Lee, W.-J.; Jhang, Hogun; Kaang, H. H.; Ghim, Y.-C.

    2017-10-01

    Stochastic magnetic fields are thought to be as one of the possible mechanisms for anomalous transport of density, momentum and heat across the magnetic field lines. Kubo number and Chirikov parameter are quantifications of the stochasticity, and previous studies show that perpendicular transport strongly depends on the magnetic Kubo number (MKN). If MKN is smaller than one, diffusion process will follow Rechester-Rosenbluth model; whereas if it is larger than one, percolation theory dominates the diffusion process. Thus, estimation of Kubo number plays an important role to understand diffusion process caused by stochastic magnetic fields. However, spatially localized experimental measurement of fluctuating magnetic fields in a tokamak is difficult, and we attempt to estimate MKNs using BOUT + + simulation data with pedestal collapse. In addition, we calculate correlation length of fluctuating pressures and Chirikov parameters to investigate variation correlation lengths in the simulation. We, then, discuss how one may experimentally estimate MKNs.

  8. Finger length ratio (2D:4D) correlates with physical aggression in men but not in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Allison A; Hurd, Peter L

    2005-03-01

    Finger length ratio (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have relatively shorter second digits (index fingers) than fourth digits (ring fingers). Smaller, more masculine, digit ratios are thought to be associated with either higher prenatal testosterone levels or greater sensitivity to androgens, or both. Men with more masculine finger ratios are perceived as being more masculine and dominant by female observers, and tend to perform better in a number of physical sports. We hypothesized that digit ratio would correlate with propensity to engage in aggressive behavior. We examined the relationship between trait aggression, assayed using a questionnaire, and finger length ratio in both men and women. Men with lower, more masculine, finger length ratios had higher trait physical aggression scores (r(partial) = -0.21, N = 134, P = 0.028). We found no correlation between finger length ratio and any form of aggression in females. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that testosterone has an organizational effect on adult physical aggression in men.

  9. Serum Concentration of Leptin in Pregnant Adolescents Correlated with Gestational Weight Gain, Postpartum Weight Retention and Newborn Weight/Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna Sámano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gestational weight gain is an important modifiable factor known to influence fetal outcomes including birth weight and adiposity. Leptin is normally correlated with adiposity and is also known to increase throughout pregnancy, as the placenta becomes a source of leptin synthesis. Several studies have reported positive correlations between cord blood leptin level and either birthweight or size for gestational age, as well as body mass index (BMI. Objective: To determine the correlation of prenatal leptin concentration in pregnant adolescents with their gestational weight gain, postpartum weight retention, and weight/length of their newborn. Methods: A cohort study was conducted on pregnant Mexican adolescents from Gestational Week 26–28 to three months postpartum (n = 168 mother–child dyads. An anthropometric assessment was made of each pregnant adolescent, and the serum level of leptin and the intake of energy were determined. The newborn was evaluated each month during postpartum. Clinical records were reviewed to obtain sociodemographic data. Bivariate correlations, tests for repeating measurements and logistic regression models were performed. Results: Leptin concentration gradually increased during the third trimester of pregnancy. At Gestation Week 36, leptin level correlated with gestational weight gain. When comparing adolescents that had the lowest and highest concentration of leptin, the former presented a mean of 6 kg less in gestational weight gain (inter-subject leptin concentration, p = 0.001; inter-subject energy intake, p = 0.497. Leptin concentration and gestational weight gain exerted an effect on the weight of the newborn (inter-subject leptin concentration for Week 32, p = 0.024; inter-subject gestational weight gain, p = 0.011. Newborn length was associated with leptin concentration at Week 28 (leptin effect, p = 0.003; effect of gestational weight gain, p = 0.722. Conclusions: Pregnant adolescents with

  10. Serum Concentration of Leptin in Pregnant Adolescents Correlated with Gestational Weight Gain, Postpartum Weight Retention and Newborn Weight/Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sámano, Reyna; Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Chico-Barba, Gabriela; Godínez-Martínez, Estela; Sánchez-Jiménez, Bernarda; Montiel-Ojeda, Diana; Tolentino, Maricruz

    2017-09-27

    Introduction : Gestational weight gain is an important modifiable factor known to influence fetal outcomes including birth weight and adiposity. Leptin is normally correlated with adiposity and is also known to increase throughout pregnancy, as the placenta becomes a source of leptin synthesis. Several studies have reported positive correlations between cord blood leptin level and either birthweight or size for gestational age, as well as body mass index (BMI). Objective : To determine the correlation of prenatal leptin concentration in pregnant adolescents with their gestational weight gain, postpartum weight retention, and weight/length of their newborn. Methods : A cohort study was conducted on pregnant Mexican adolescents from Gestational Week 26-28 to three months postpartum ( n = 168 mother-child dyads). An anthropometric assessment was made of each pregnant adolescent, and the serum level of leptin and the intake of energy were determined. The newborn was evaluated each month during postpartum. Clinical records were reviewed to obtain sociodemographic data. Bivariate correlations, tests for repeating measurements and logistic regression models were performed. Results : Leptin concentration gradually increased during the third trimester of pregnancy. At Gestation Week 36, leptin level correlated with gestational weight gain. When comparing adolescents that had the lowest and highest concentration of leptin, the former presented a mean of 6 kg less in gestational weight gain (inter-subject leptin concentration, p = 0.001; inter-subject energy intake, p = 0.497). Leptin concentration and gestational weight gain exerted an effect on the weight of the newborn (inter-subject leptin concentration for Week 32, p = 0.024; inter-subject gestational weight gain, p = 0.011). Newborn length was associated with leptin concentration at Week 28 (leptin effect, p = 0.003; effect of gestational weight gain, p = 0.722). Conclusions : Pregnant adolescents with leptin

  11. The importance of parameter variances, correlations lengths, and cross-correlations in reactive transport models: key considerations for assessing the need for microscale information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, Paul W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-08

    A process-oriented modeling approach is implemented to examine the importance of parameter variances, correlation lengths, and especially cross-correlations in contaminant transport predictions over large scales. It is shown that the most important consideration is the correlation between flow rates and retardation processes (e.g., sorption, matrix diffusion) in the system. lf flow rates are negatively correlated with retardation factors in systems containing multiple flow pathways, then characterizing these negative correlation(s) may have more impact on reactive transport modeling than microscale information. Such negative correlations are expected in porous-media systems where permeability is negatively correlated with clay content and rock alteration (which are usually associated with increased sorption). Likewise, negative correlations are expected in fractured rocks where permeability is positively correlated with fracture apertures, which in turn are negatively correlated with sorption and matrix diffusion. Parameter variances and correlation lengths are also shown to have important effects on reactive transport predictions, but they are less important than parameter cross-correlations. Microscale information pertaining to contaminant transport has become more readily available as characterization methods and spectroscopic instrumentation have achieved lower detection limits, greater resolution, and better precision. Obtaining detailed mechanistic insights into contaminant-rock-water interactions is becoming a routine practice in characterizing reactive transport processes in groundwater systems (almost necessary for high-profile publications). Unfortunately, a quantitative link between microscale information and flow and transport parameter distributions or cross-correlations has not yet been established. One reason for this is that quantitative microscale information is difficult to obtain in complex, heterogeneous systems. So simple systems that lack the

  12. CGC/saturation approach for soft interactions at high energy: long range rapidity correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotsman, E.; Maor, U.; Levin, E.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we continue our program to construct a model for high energy soft interactions that is based on the CGC/saturation approach. The main result of this paper is that we have discovered a mechanism that leads to large long range rapidity correlations and results in large values of the correlation function R(y 1 , y 2 ) ≥ 1, which is independent of y 1 and y 2 . Such a behavior of the correlation function provides strong support for the idea that at high energies the system of partons that is produced is not only dense but also has strong attractive forces acting between the partons. (orig.)

  13. Disease associated malnutrition correlates with length of hospital stay in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Christina; Weber, Martina; Grote, Veit; Daskalou, Efstratia; Dell'Era, Laura; Flynn, Diana; Gerasimidis, Konstantinos; Gottrand, Frederic; Hartman, Corina; Hulst, Jessie; Joosten, Koen; Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi, Thomais; Koetse, Harma A; Kolaček, Sanja; Książyk, Janusz; Niseteo, Tena; Olszewska, Katarzyna; Pavesi, Paola; Piwowarczyk, Anna; Rousseaux, Julien; Shamir, Raanan; Sullivan, Peter B; Szajewska, Hania; Vernon-Roberts, Angharad; Koletzko, Berthold

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies reported a wide range of estimated malnutrition prevalence (6-30%) in paediatric inpatients based on various anthropometric criteria. We performed anthropometry in hospitalised children and assessed the relationship between malnutrition and length of hospital stay (LOS) and complication rates. In a prospective multi-centre European study, 2567 patients aged 1 month to 18 years were assessed in 14 centres in 12 countries by standardised anthropometry within the first 24 h after admission. Body mass index (BMI) and height/length malnutrition) and a BMI malnutrition) was associated with a 1.3 (CI95: 1.01, 1.55) and 1.6 (CI95: 1.27, 2.10) days longer LOS, respectively (p = 0.04 and p malnutrition in hospitalised children in Europe is common and is associated with significantly prolonged LOS and increased complications, with possible major cost implications, and reduced quality of life. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01132742. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of Correlation between Androgen Receptor CAG Repeat Length and Infertility in Infertile Men Living in Khuzestan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Reza Khatami

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The androgen receptor (AR gene contains a polymorphic trinucleotide repeat that encodes a polyglutamine tract in its N-terminal transactivation domain (NTAD. We aimed to find a correlation between the length of this polymorphic tract and azoospermia or oligozoospermia in infertile men living in Khuzestan, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study during two years till 2010, we searched for microdeletions in the Y chromosome in 84 infertile male patients with normal karyotype who lived in Khuzestan Province, Southwest of Iran. All cases (n=12 of azoospermia or oligozoospermia resulting from Y chromosome microdeletions were excluded from our study. The number of CAG repeats in exon 1 of the AR gene was determined in 72 patients with azoospermia or oligozoospermia and in 72 fertile controls, using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results: Microdeletions were detected in 14.3% (n=12 patients suffering severe oligozoospermia. The mean CAG repeat length was 18.99 ± 0.35 (range, 11-26 and 19.96 ± 0.54 (range, 12-25 in infertile males and controls, respectively. Also in the infertile group, the most common allele was 19 (26.38%, while in controls, it was 25 (22.22%. Conclusion: Y chromosome microdeletions could be one of the main reasons of male infertility living in Khuzestan Province, while there was no correlation between CAG length in AR gene with azoospermia or oligozoospermia in infertile men living in Khuzestan, Iran.

  15. TERRA Expression Levels Do Not Correlate With Telomere Length and Radiation Sensitivity in Human Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eSmirnova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian telomeres are transcribed into long non-coding telomeric RNA molecules (TERRA that seem to play a role in the maintenance of telomere stability. In human cells, CpG island promoters drive TERRA transcription and are regulated by methylation. It was suggested that the amount of TERRA may be related to telomere length. To test this hypothesis we measured telomere length and TERRA levels in single clones isolated from five human cell lines: HeLa (cervical carcinoma, BRC-230 (breast cancer, AKG and GK2 (gastric cancers and GM847 (SV40 immortalized skin fibroblasts. We observed great clonal heterogeneity both in TRF (Terminal Restriction Fragment length and in TERRA levels. However, these two parameters did not correlate with each other. Moreover, cell survival to γ-rays did not show a significant variation among the clones, suggesting that, in this cellular system, the intra-population variability in telomere length and TERRA levels does not influence sensitivity to ionizing radiation. This conclusion was supported by the observation that in a cell line in which telomeres were greatly elongated by the ectopic expression of telomerase, TERRA expression levels and radiation sensitivity were similar to the parental HeLa cell line.

  16. Importance of the Correlation between Width and Length in the Shape Analysis of Nanorods: Use of a 2D Size Plot To Probe Such a Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhihua; Zheng, Zhiqin; Roux, Clément; Delmas, Céline; Marty, Jean-Daniel; Kahn, Myrtil L; Mingotaud, Christophe

    2016-08-22

    Analysis of nanoparticle size through a simple 2D plot is proposed in order to extract the correlation between length and width in a collection or a mixture of anisotropic particles. Compared to the usual statistics on the length associated with a second and independent statistical analysis of the width, this simple plot easily points out the various types of nanoparticles and their (an)isotropy. For each class of nano-objects, the relationship between width and length (i.e., the strong or weak correlations between these two parameters) may suggest information concerning the nucleation/growth processes. It allows one to follow the effect on the shape and size distribution of physical or chemical processes such as simple ripening. Various electron microscopy pictures from the literature or from the authors' own syntheses are used as examples to demonstrate the efficiency and simplicity of the proposed 2D plot combined with a multivariate analysis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The correlation between the length of repetitive domain and mechanical properties of the recombinant flagelliform spidroin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Spider silk is an attractive biopolymer with numerous potential applications due to its remarkable characteristics. Among the six categories of spider silks, flagelliform (Flag spider silk possesses longer and more repetitive core domains than others, therefore performing the highest extensibility. To investigate the correlation between the recombinant spidroin size and the synthetic fiber properties, four recombinant proteins with different sizes [N-Scn-C (n=1-4] were constructed and expressed using IMPACT system. Subsequently, different recombinant spidroins were spun into fibers through wet-spinning via a custom-made continuous post-drawing device. Mechanical tests of the synthetic fibers with four parameters (maximum stress, maximum extension, Young's modulus and toughness demonstrated that the extensibility of the fibers showed a positive correlation with spidroin size, consequently resulting in the extensibility of N-Sc4-C fiber ranked the highest (58.76% among four fibers. Raman data revealed the relationship between secondary structure content and mechanical properties. The data here provide a deeper insight into the relationship between the function and structure of Flag silk for future design of artificial fibers.

  18. Correlation Between Pin Misalignment and Crack Length in THT Solder Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molnar A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, correlations were searched for between pin misalignments relative to PCB bores and crack propagation after cyclic thermal shock tests in THT solder joints produced from lead-free solder alloys. In total, 7 compositions were examined including SAC solders with varying Ag, Cu and Ni contents. The crack propagation was initiated by cyclic thermal shock tests with 40°C / +125°C temperature profiles. Pin misalignments relative to the bores were characterized with three attributes obtained from one section of the examined solder joints. Cracks typically originated at the solder/pin or solder/bore interfaces and propagated within the solder. It was shown that pin misalignments did not have an effect on crack propagation, thus, the solder joints’ lifetime.

  19. A general statistical test for correlations in a finite-length time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jeffery A; Yang, Haw

    2008-06-07

    The statistical properties of the autocorrelation function from a time series composed of independently and identically distributed stochastic variables has been studied. Analytical expressions for the autocorrelation function's variance have been derived. It has been found that two common ways of calculating the autocorrelation, moving-average and Fourier transform, exhibit different uncertainty characteristics. For periodic time series, the Fourier transform method is preferred because it gives smaller uncertainties that are uniform through all time lags. Based on these analytical results, a statistically robust method has been proposed to test the existence of correlations in a time series. The statistical test is verified by computer simulations and an application to single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy is discussed.

  20. The Correlation between Clinical Variables and Sleep Onset Rapid Eye Movement Period Frequencies in Narcoleptic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hwa Jeong

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective A diagnosis of narcolepsy is defined by less than 8 minutes of mean sleep latency, and two or more sleep onset rapid eye movement periods on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test. This study examined the relationship between the sleep onset rapid eye movement period frequencies during Multiple Sleep Latency Test and narcoleptic symptom severity. Methods From March 2004 to August 2009, 126 patients suffering from excessive daytime sleepiness who visited the Sleep Disorders Clinic of St. Vincent’s Hospital at the Catholic University of Korea were tested by polysomnography and Multiple Sleep Latency Test. Subjects were divided into three groups according to the number of sleep onset rapid eye movement periods that appeared on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test. Symptom severity instruments included the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Stanford Center for Narcolepsy Sleep Inventory, and various sleep parameters. In addition, we performed human leukocyte antigen genotyping for human leukocyte antigen-DQB1*0602 on all patients. Results Among the three groups classified by the number of sleep onset rapid eye movement periods during Multiple Sleep Latency Test, we found no significant differences in demographic features, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and most polysomnographic findings. However, we observed cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucination, sleep paralysis, and human leukocyte antigen-DQB1*0602 positivity more frequently in groups with higher sleep onset rapid eye movement period frequencies. In addition, the proportions of stage II sleep, REM sleep latency from polysomnography, and mean sleep latency and mean REM sleep latency from the Multiple Sleep Latency Test significantly decreased with increasing sleep onset rapid eye movement period frequency. Conclusions In this study, we demonstrated that sleep onset rapid eye movement period frequency during Multiple Sleep Latency Test correlated with sleep architecture, daytime symptom

  1. Maternal and ambient environmental effects of light on germination in Plantago lanceolata: correlated responses to selection on leaf length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinsberg, A. van

    1998-01-01

    1. Seeds from artificial selection lines were exposed to different maternal and ambient conditions, simulating sunlight and vegetation shade. 2. Lines selected for longer leaves also produced larger seeds, indicating a positive genetic correlation between leaf length and seed size. 3. Light conditions during maturation had no large effect on seed size. 4. Seed germination was reduced by a low ratio of red to far-red light (R/FR ratio) in the ambient environment. 5. Seeds maturated under simulated vegetation shade germinated less readily and were more inhibited by a low ambient R/FR ratio than seeds maturated under full sunlight or R/FR-neutral shade. Thus, low R/FR-ratios in the maternal and ambient environment operated synergistically. 6. Large genotypic variation in the germination responses to both maternal and ambient light conditions was found among and within selection lines, indicating that such responses might have the potential to evolve in response to natural selection. 7. Artificial selection for leaf length had affected seed germination characteristics but correlated responses and thus genetic correlations largely depended on light conditions in the selective environment. Selection for longer leaves under a low R/FR ratio increased seed dormancy and plasticity of germination in response to the R/FR ratio. However, in the opposite selective environment selection for longer leaves reduced seed dormancy and plasticity to the R/FR ratio. It is argued that leaf length and seed germination characteristics are somehow linked by shared physiological mechanisms, which may facilitate concerted changes in shade avoidance responses

  2. Forward-backward rapidity correlations in a two-step scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogueira, P.; Dias de Deus, J.

    2007-01-01

    We argue that two-step models, like String and Glasma models, with creation first of sources extended in rapidity that after locally decay into particles, lead to long range forward-backward correlations due to fluctuations in the number or the colour of the sources, and to a similar expression for the F-B correlation parameter b. In the simplest String percolation scenario, b increases with centrality or the number of participating nucleons. However, asymptotically it decreases with energy. This is different from the Glasma model where b increases with both, centrality and energy

  3. Year-to-year correlation, record length, and overconfidence in wind resource assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bodini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Interannual variability of wind speeds presents a fundamental source of uncertainty in preconstruction energy estimates. Our analysis of one of the longest and geographically most widespread extant sets of instrumental wind-speed observations (62-year records from 60 stations in Canada shows that deviations from mean resource levels persist over many decades, substantially increasing uncertainty. As a result of this persistence, the performance of each site's last 20 years diverges more widely than expected from the P50 level estimated from its first 42 years: half the sites have either fewer than 5 or more than 15 years exceeding the P50 estimate. In contrast to this 10-year-wide interquartile range, a 4-year-wide range (2.5 times narrower was found for "control" records where statistical independence was enforced by randomly permuting each station's historical values. Similarly, for sites with capacity factor of 0.35 and interannual variability of 6  %, one would expect 9 years in 10 to fall in the range 0.32–0.38; we find the actual 90  % range to be 0.27–0.43, or three times wider. The previously un-quantified effect of serial correlations favors a shift in resource-assessment thinking from a climatology-focused approach to a persistence-focused approach: for this data set, no improvement in P50 error is gained by using records longer than 4–5 years, and use of records longer than 20 years actually degrades accuracy.

  4. Correlation Lengths for Estimating the Large-Scale Carbon and Heat Content of the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloff, M. R.; Cornuelle, B. D.; Gille, S. T.; Verdy, A.

    2018-02-01

    The spatial correlation scales of oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon, heat content, and carbon and heat exchanges with the atmosphere are estimated from a realistic numerical simulation of the Southern Ocean. Biases in the model are assessed by comparing the simulated sea surface height and temperature scales to those derived from optimally interpolated satellite measurements. While these products do not resolve all ocean scales, they are representative of the climate scale variability we aim to estimate. Results show that constraining the carbon and heat inventory between 35°S and 70°S on time-scales longer than 90 days requires approximately 100 optimally spaced measurement platforms: approximately one platform every 20° longitude by 6° latitude. Carbon flux has slightly longer zonal scales, and requires a coverage of approximately 30° by 6°. Heat flux has much longer scales, and thus a platform distribution of approximately 90° by 10° would be sufficient. Fluxes, however, have significant subseasonal variability. For all fields, and especially fluxes, sustained measurements in time are required to prevent aliasing of the eddy signals into the longer climate scale signals. Our results imply a minimum of 100 biogeochemical-Argo floats are required to monitor the Southern Ocean carbon and heat content and air-sea exchanges on time-scales longer than 90 days. However, an estimate of formal mapping error using the current Argo array implies that in practice even an array of 600 floats (a nominal float density of about 1 every 7° longitude by 3° latitude) will result in nonnegligible uncertainty in estimating climate signals.

  5. StereoGene: rapid estimation of genome-wide correlation of continuous or interval feature data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrovskaya, Elena D; Niranjan, Tejasvi; Fertig, Elana J; Wheelan, Sarah J; Favorov, Alexander V; Mironov, Andrey A

    2017-10-15

    Genomics features with similar genome-wide distributions are generally hypothesized to be functionally related, for example, colocalization of histones and transcription start sites indicate chromatin regulation of transcription factor activity. Therefore, statistical algorithms to perform spatial, genome-wide correlation among genomic features are required. Here, we propose a method, StereoGene, that rapidly estimates genome-wide correlation among pairs of genomic features. These features may represent high-throughput data mapped to reference genome or sets of genomic annotations in that reference genome. StereoGene enables correlation of continuous data directly, avoiding the data binarization and subsequent data loss. Correlations are computed among neighboring genomic positions using kernel correlation. Representing the correlation as a function of the genome position, StereoGene outputs the local correlation track as part of the analysis. StereoGene also accounts for confounders such as input DNA by partial correlation. We apply our method to numerous comparisons of ChIP-Seq datasets from the Human Epigenome Atlas and FANTOM CAGE to demonstrate its wide applicability. We observe the changes in the correlation between epigenomic features across developmental trajectories of several tissue types consistent with known biology and find a novel spatial correlation of CAGE clusters with donor splice sites and with poly(A) sites. These analyses provide examples for the broad applicability of StereoGene for regulatory genomics. The StereoGene C ++ source code, program documentation, Galaxy integration scripts and examples are available from the project homepage http://stereogene.bioinf.fbb.msu.ru/. favorov@sensi.org. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. CGC/saturation approach for soft interactions at high energy: long range rapidity correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotsman, E.; Maor, U. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, Tel Aviv (Israel); Levin, E. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, Tel Aviv (Israel); Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria and Centro Cientifico- Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Departemento de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2015-11-15

    In this paper we continue our program to construct a model for high energy soft interactions that is based on the CGC/saturation approach. The main result of this paper is that we have discovered a mechanism that leads to large long range rapidity correlations and results in large values of the correlation function R(y{sub 1}, y{sub 2}) ≥ 1, which is independent of y{sub 1} and y{sub 2}. Such a behavior of the correlation function provides strong support for the idea that at high energies the system of partons that is produced is not only dense but also has strong attractive forces acting between the partons. (orig.)

  7. Internal fracture heterogeneity in discrete fracture network modelling: Effect of correlation length and textures with connected and disconnected permeability field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, A.; Hyman, J.; Zou, L.

    2017-12-01

    Analysing flow and transport in sparsely fractured media is important for understanding how crystalline bedrock environments function as barriers to transport of contaminants, with important applications towards subsurface repositories for storage of spent nuclear fuel. Crystalline bedrocks are particularly favourable due to their geological stability, low advective flow and strong hydrogeochemical retention properties, which can delay transport of radionuclides, allowing decay to limit release to the biosphere. There are however many challenges involved in quantifying and modelling subsurface flow and transport in fractured media, largely due to geological complexity and heterogeneity, where the interplay between advective and dispersive flow strongly impacts both inert and reactive transport. A key to modelling transport in a Lagrangian framework involves quantifying pathway travel times and the hydrodynamic control of retention, and both these quantities strongly depend on heterogeneity of the fracture network at different scales. In this contribution, we present recent analysis of flow and transport considering fracture networks with single-fracture heterogeneity described by different multivariate normal distributions. A coherent triad of fields with identical correlation length and variance are created but which greatly differ in structure, corresponding to textures with well-connected low, medium and high permeability structures. Through numerical modelling of multiple scales in a stochastic setting we quantify the relative impact of texture type and correlation length against network topological measures, and identify key thresholds for cases where flow dispersion is controlled by single-fracture heterogeneity versus network-scale heterogeneity. This is achieved by using a recently developed novel numerical discrete fracture network model. Furthermore, we highlight enhanced flow channelling for cases where correlation structure continues across

  8. Clinicopathological Correlates in a PRNP P102L Mutation Carrier with Rapidly Progressing Parkinsonism-dystonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, Chizoba C.; Kalakoti, Piyush; Greenberg, Michael K; Notari, Silvio; Cohen, Yvonne; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Oblak, Adrian L.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Mari, Zoltan

    2015-01-01

    Parkinsonism-dystonia is rare in carriers of PRNP P102L mutation. Severity and distribution of prion protein (PrP) deposition may influence the clinical presentation. We present such clinic-pathological correlation in a 56-year-old male with a PRNP P102L mutation associated with a phenotype characterized by rapidly progressing parkinsonism-dystonia. The patient was studied clinically (videotaped exams, brain MRIs); molecular genetically (gene sequence analysis); and neuropathologically (histology, immunohistochemistry) during his 7-month disease course. The patient had parkinsonism, apraxia, aphasia, and dystonia, which progressed rapidly. Molecular genetic analysis revealed PRNP P102L mutation carrier status. Brain MRIs revealed progressive global volume loss and T2/FLAIR hyperintensity in neocortex and basal ganglia. Postmortem examination showed neuronal loss, gliosis, spongiform changes, and PrP deposition in the striatum. PrP immunohistochemistry revealed widespread severe PrP deposition in the thalamus and cerebellar cortex. Based on the neuropathological and molecular-genetic analysis, the rapidly progressing parkinsonism-dystonia correlated with nigrostriatal, thalamic, and cerebellar pathology. PMID:27617269

  9. Rapid detection of dihydropteroate polymorphism in AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia by restriction fragment length polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, J; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Lundgren, B

    2000-01-01

    are associated with failure of sulpha prophylaxis and increased mortality in HIV-1 positive patients with PCP, suggesting that DHPS mutations may cause sulpha resistance. To facilitate detection of DHPS mutations we developed a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay, detecting mutations at codon...

  10. Rapid identification of Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter isolates by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the 16S rRNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, S M; Melito, P L; Woodward, D L; Johnson, W M; Rodgers, F G; Mulvey, M R

    1999-12-01

    A rapid two-step identification scheme based on PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the 16S rRNA gene was developed in order to differentiate isolates belonging to the Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter genera. For 158 isolates (26 reference cultures and 132 clinical isolates), specific RFLP patterns were obtained and species were successfully identified by this assay.

  11. The extended variant of the bond valence-bond length correlation curve for boron(III)-oxygen bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidey, Vasyl

    2015-01-01

    The extended variant of the bond valence (s)-bond length (r) correlation curve for boron(III)-oxygen bonds has been closely approximated using the three-parameter function s = [k/(r - l)] - m, where s is measured in valence units (vu), r is measured in Aa, k = 0.53 Aa.vu, l = 0.975(1) Aa and m = 0.32 vu. The function s = exp[(r 0 - r)/b] traditionally used in the modern bond valence model requires the separate set of the bond valence parameters (r 0 = 1.362 Aa; b = 0.23 Aa) in order to approximate the above s-r curve for the bonds shorter than ∝1.3 Aa.

  12. Effect of genomic long-range correlations on DNA persistence length: from theory to single molecule experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukhtar, Julien; Faivre-Moskalenko, Cendrine; Milani, Pascale; Audit, Benjamin; Vaillant, Cedric; Fontaine, Emeline; Mongelard, Fabien; Lavorel, Guillaume; St-Jean, Philippe; Bouvet, Philippe; Argoul, Françoise; Arneodo, Alain

    2010-04-22

    Sequence dependency of DNA intrinsic bending properties has been emphasized as a possible key ingredient to in vivo chromatin organization. We use atomic force microscopy (AFM) in air and liquid to image intrinsically straight (synthetic), uncorrelated (hepatitis C RNA virus) and persistent long-range correlated (human) DNA fragments in various ionic conditions such that the molecules freely equilibrate on the mica surface before being captured in a particular conformation. 2D thermodynamic equilibrium is experimentally verified by a detailed statistical analysis of the Gaussian nature of the DNA bend angle fluctuations. We show that the worm-like chain (WLC) model, commonly used to describe the average conformation of long semiflexible polymers, reproduces remarkably well the persistence length estimates for the first two molecules as consistently obtained from (i) mean square end-to-end distance measurement and (ii) mean projection of the end-to-end vector on the initial orientation. Whatever the operating conditions (air or liquid, concentration of metal cations Mg(2+) and/or Ni(2+)), the persistence length found for the uncorrelated viral DNA underestimates the value obtained for the straight DNA. We show that this systematic difference is the signature of the presence of an uncorrelated structural intrinsic disorder in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) DNA fragment that superimposes on local curvatures induced by thermal fluctuations and that only the entropic disorder depends upon experimental conditions. In contrast, the WLC model fails to describe the human DNA conformations. We use a mean-field extension of the WLC model to account for the presence of long-range correlations (LRC) in the intrinsic curvature disorder of human genomic DNA: the stronger the LRC, the smaller the persistence length. The comparison of AFM imaging of human DNA with LRC DNA simulations confirms that the rather small mean square end-to-end distance observed, particularly for G

  13. Postprandial fullness correlates with rapid inflow of gastric content into duodenum but not with chronic gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamichi Nobutake

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is evaluating the correlation of postprandial fullness with chronic gastritis or rapid inflow of gastric content into duodenum, based on double-contrast barium X-ray imaging. Methods 253 healthy subjects who underwent upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray examination were analyzed. Chronic gastritis was judged from mucosal atrophy and hypertrophic thickened folds on barium X-ray images. For the gastric excretion, the tips of barium flow on the single-contrast frontal barium X-ray images of the stomach were classified into four categories; V type (all the barium remained in the stomach, V-H type (some barium had flowed into the duodenum but the tip of barium remained in the proximal half of the duodenal bulb, H-V type (some barium had flowed into the duodenum and the tip of barium was in the distal half of duodenal the bulb, but no barium was observed in the descending part of the duodenum, and H type (some barium had flowed into the descending part of the duodenum. The chi-square test and Cochran-Mantel-Haenzel test were used for evaluation. Results Chronic gastritis was observed in 72 subjects, among which 21 subjects (29.2% presented with postprandial fullness. For the remaining 181 subjects without chronic gastritis, 53 subjects (29.3% complained of postprandial fullness. There is no significant correlation between chronic gastritis and postprandial fullness (p = 0.973. For the rapid flow of gastric content into duodenum, all the 253 subjects comprised 136 subjects with V type (in the stomach, 40 subjects with V-H type (in the proximal half of the duodenal bulb, 21 subjects with H-V type (in the distal half of the duodenal bulb, and 56 subjects with H type (in the descending part of the duodenum. Postprandial fullness was present in 30 subjects with V type (22.1%, 9 subjects with V-H type (22.5%, 8 subjects with H-V type (38.1%, and 27 subjects with H type (48.2%. There is a distinct correlation between

  14. Postprandial fullness correlates with rapid inflow of gastric content into duodenum but not with chronic gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is evaluating the correlation of postprandial fullness with chronic gastritis or rapid inflow of gastric content into duodenum, based on double-contrast barium X-ray imaging. Methods 253 healthy subjects who underwent upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray examination were analyzed. Chronic gastritis was judged from mucosal atrophy and hypertrophic thickened folds on barium X-ray images. For the gastric excretion, the tips of barium flow on the single-contrast frontal barium X-ray images of the stomach were classified into four categories; V type (all the barium remained in the stomach), V-H type (some barium had flowed into the duodenum but the tip of barium remained in the proximal half of the duodenal bulb), H-V type (some barium had flowed into the duodenum and the tip of barium was in the distal half of duodenal the bulb, but no barium was observed in the descending part of the duodenum), and H type (some barium had flowed into the descending part of the duodenum). The chi-square test and Cochran-Mantel-Haenzel test were used for evaluation. Results Chronic gastritis was observed in 72 subjects, among which 21 subjects (29.2%) presented with postprandial fullness. For the remaining 181 subjects without chronic gastritis, 53 subjects (29.3%) complained of postprandial fullness. There is no significant correlation between chronic gastritis and postprandial fullness (p = 0.973). For the rapid flow of gastric content into duodenum, all the 253 subjects comprised 136 subjects with V type (in the stomach), 40 subjects with V-H type (in the proximal half of the duodenal bulb), 21 subjects with H-V type (in the distal half of the duodenal bulb), and 56 subjects with H type (in the descending part of the duodenum). Postprandial fullness was present in 30 subjects with V type (22.1%), 9 subjects with V-H type (22.5%), 8 subjects with H-V type (38.1%), and 27 subjects with H type (48.2%). There is a distinct correlation between postprandial

  15. On the chain length dependence of local correlations in polymer melts and a perturbation theory of symmetric polymer blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, David C; Chung, Jun Kyung

    2009-06-14

    The self-consistent field (SCF) approach to the thermodynamics of dense polymer liquids is based on the idea that short-range correlations in a polymer liquid are almost independent of how monomers are connected into polymers over larger scales. Some limits of this idea are explored in the context of a perturbation theory for symmetric polymer blends. We consider mixtures of two structurally identical polymers, A and B, in which the AB monomer pair interaction differs slightly from the AA and BB interactions by an amount proportional to a parameter alpha. An expansion of the free energy to first order in alpha yields an excess free energy of mixing per monomer of the form alphaz(N)phi(A)phi(B) in both lattice and continuum models, where z(N) is a measure of the number of intermolecular near neighbors per monomer in a one-component (alpha=0) reference liquid with chains of length N. The quantity z(N) decreases slightly with increasing N because the concentration of intramolecular near neighbors is slightly higher for longer chains, creating a slightly deeper intermolecular correlation hole. We predict that z(N)=z(infinity)[1+betaN(-1/2)], where N is an invariant degree of polymerization and beta=(6/pi)(3/2) is a universal coefficient. This and related predictions about the slight N dependence of local correlations are confirmed by comparison to simulations of a continuum bead-spring model and to published lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We show that a renormalized one-loop theory for blends correctly describes this N dependence of local liquid structure. We also propose a way to estimate the effective interaction parameter appropriate for comparisons of simulation data to SCF theory and to coarse-grained theories of corrections to SCF theory, which is based on an extrapolation of perturbation theory to the limit N-->infinity.

  16. Rapid CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Cloning of Full-Length Epstein-Barr Virus Genomes from Latently Infected Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misako Yajima

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Herpesviruses have relatively large DNA genomes of more than 150 kb that are difficult to clone and sequence. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC cloning of herpesvirus genomes is a powerful technique that greatly facilitates whole viral genome sequencing as well as functional characterization of reconstituted viruses. We describe recently invented technologies for rapid BAC cloning of herpesvirus genomes using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated homology-directed repair. We focus on recent BAC cloning techniques of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV genomes and discuss the possible advantages of a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated strategy comparatively with precedent EBV-BAC cloning strategies. We also describe the design decisions of this technology as well as possible pitfalls and points to be improved in the future. The obtained EBV-BAC clones are subjected to long-read sequencing analysis to determine complete EBV genome sequence including repetitive regions. Rapid cloning and sequence determination of various EBV strains will greatly contribute to the understanding of their global geographical distribution. This technology can also be used to clone disease-associated EBV strains and test the hypothesis that they have special features that distinguish them from strains that infect asymptomatically.

  17. Rapid CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Cloning of Full-Length Epstein-Barr Virus Genomes from Latently Infected Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Misako; Ikuta, Kazufumi; Kanda, Teru

    2018-04-03

    Herpesviruses have relatively large DNA genomes of more than 150 kb that are difficult to clone and sequence. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) cloning of herpesvirus genomes is a powerful technique that greatly facilitates whole viral genome sequencing as well as functional characterization of reconstituted viruses. We describe recently invented technologies for rapid BAC cloning of herpesvirus genomes using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated homology-directed repair. We focus on recent BAC cloning techniques of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genomes and discuss the possible advantages of a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated strategy comparatively with precedent EBV-BAC cloning strategies. We also describe the design decisions of this technology as well as possible pitfalls and points to be improved in the future. The obtained EBV-BAC clones are subjected to long-read sequencing analysis to determine complete EBV genome sequence including repetitive regions. Rapid cloning and sequence determination of various EBV strains will greatly contribute to the understanding of their global geographical distribution. This technology can also be used to clone disease-associated EBV strains and test the hypothesis that they have special features that distinguish them from strains that infect asymptomatically.

  18. Significant Enhancement of the Chiral Correlation Length in Nematic Liquid Crystals by Gold Nanoparticle Surfaces Featuring Axially Chiral Binaphthyl Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Taizo; Sharma, Anshul; Hegmann, Torsten

    2016-01-26

    surface is diminished as the size of the particle is reduced. However, in comparison to the free ligands, per chiral molecule all tested gold nanoparticles induce helical distortions in a 10- to 50-fold larger number of liquid crystal host molecules surrounding each particle, indicating a significantly enhanced chiral correlation length. We propose that both the helicity and the chirality transfer efficiency of axially chiral binaphthyl derivatives can be controlled at metal nanoparticle surfaces by adjusting the particle size and curvature as well as the number and density of the chiral ligands to ultimately measure and tune the chiral correlation length.

  19. Limits of a rapid identification of common Mediterranean sandflies using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzedine Bounamous

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 131 phlebotomine Algerian sandflies have been processed in the present study. They belong to the species Phlebotomus bergeroti, Phlebotomus alexandri, Phlebotomus sergenti, Phlebotomus chabaudi, Phlebotomus riouxi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus longicuspis, Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus chadlii, Sergentomyia fallax, Sergentomyia minuta, Sergentomyia antennata, Sergentomyia schwetzi, Sergentomyia clydei, Sergentomyia christophersi and Grassomyia dreyfussi. They have been characterised by sequencing of a part of the cytochrome b (cyt b, t RNA serine and NADH1 on the one hand and of the cytochrome C oxidase I of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA on the other hand. Our study highlights two sympatric populations within P. sergenti in the area of its type-locality and new haplotypes of P. perniciosus and P. longicuspis without recording the specimens called lcx previously found in North Africa. We tried to use a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method based on a combined double digestion of each marker. These method is not interesting to identify sandflies all over the Mediterranean Basin.

  20. The Correlation between Mixing Length and Metallicity on the Giant Branch: Implications for Ages in the Gaia Era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayar, Jamie; Somers, Garrett; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Stello, Dennis; Mints, Alexey; Zamora, O.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Maraston, Claudia; Serenelli, Aldo; Bastien, Fabienne A.; Basu, Sarbani; Bird, J. C.; Cohen, R. E.; Cunha, Katia; Elsworth, Yvonne; García, Rafael A.

    2017-01-01

    In the updated APOGEE- Kepler catalog, we have asteroseismic and spectroscopic data for over 3000 first ascent red giants. Given the size and accuracy of this sample, these data offer an unprecedented test of the accuracy of stellar models on the post-main-sequence. When we compare these data to theoretical predictions, we find a metallicity dependent temperature offset with a slope of around 100 K per dex in metallicity. We find that this effect is present in all model grids tested, and that theoretical uncertainties in the models, correlated spectroscopic errors, and shifts in the asteroseismic mass scale are insufficient to explain this effect. Stellar models can be brought into agreement with the data if a metallicity-dependent convective mixing length is used, with Δ α ML,YREC ∼ 0.2 per dex in metallicity, a trend inconsistent with the predictions of three-dimensional stellar convection simulations. If this effect is not taken into account, isochrone ages for red giants from the Gaia data will be off by as much as a factor of two even at modest deviations from solar metallicity ([Fe/H] = −0.5).

  1. The Correlation between Mixing Length and Metallicity on the Giant Branch: Implications for Ages in the Gaia Era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayar, Jamie; Somers, Garrett; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Johnson, Jennifer A. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, OH 43210 (United States); Stello, Dennis [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Mints, Alexey [Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Zamora, O.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Prieto, Carlos Allende [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), Vía Lactea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Maraston, Claudia [ICG—University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Road, PO1 3FX, Portsmouth (United Kingdom); Serenelli, Aldo [Institute of Space Sciences (CSIC-IEEC), Carrer de Can Magrans, Barcelona, E-08193 (Spain); Bastien, Fabienne A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16803 (United States); Basu, Sarbani [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Bird, J. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 6301 Stevenson Circle, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Cohen, R. E. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Cunha, Katia [Observatório Nacional-MCTI (Brazil); Elsworth, Yvonne [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); García, Rafael A. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DRF-CNRS, Université Paris 7 Diderot, IRFU/SAp, Centre de Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); and others

    2017-05-01

    In the updated APOGEE- Kepler catalog, we have asteroseismic and spectroscopic data for over 3000 first ascent red giants. Given the size and accuracy of this sample, these data offer an unprecedented test of the accuracy of stellar models on the post-main-sequence. When we compare these data to theoretical predictions, we find a metallicity dependent temperature offset with a slope of around 100 K per dex in metallicity. We find that this effect is present in all model grids tested, and that theoretical uncertainties in the models, correlated spectroscopic errors, and shifts in the asteroseismic mass scale are insufficient to explain this effect. Stellar models can be brought into agreement with the data if a metallicity-dependent convective mixing length is used, with Δ α {sub ML,YREC} ∼ 0.2 per dex in metallicity, a trend inconsistent with the predictions of three-dimensional stellar convection simulations. If this effect is not taken into account, isochrone ages for red giants from the Gaia data will be off by as much as a factor of two even at modest deviations from solar metallicity ([Fe/H] = −0.5).

  2. Length of stay for patients undergoing invasive electrode monitoring with stereoelectroencephalography and subdural grids correlates positively with increased institutional profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alvin Y; Kharrat, Sohayla; Lundeen, Kelly; Mnatsakanyan, Lilit; Sazgar, Mona; Sen-Gupta, Indranil; Lin, Jack J; Hsu, Frank P K; Vadera, Sumeet

    2017-06-01

    Lowering the length of stay (LOS) is thought to potentially decrease hospital costs and is a metric commonly used to manage capacity. Patients with epilepsy undergoing intracranial electrode monitoring may have longer LOS because the time to seizure is difficult to predict or control. This study investigates the effect of economic implications of increased LOS in patients undergoing invasive electrode monitoring for epilepsy. We retrospectively collected and analyzed patient data for 76 patients who underwent invasive monitoring with either subdural grid (SDG) implantation or stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) over 2 years at our institution. Data points collected included invasive electrode type, LOS, profit margin, contribution margins, insurance type, and complication rates. LOS correlated positively with both profit and contribution margins, meaning that as LOS increased, both the profit and contribution margins rose, and there was a low rate of complications in this patient group. This relationship was seen across a variety of insurance providers. These data suggest that LOS may not be the best metric to assess invasive monitoring patients (i.e., SEEG or SDG), and increased LOS does not necessarily equate with lower or negative institutional financial gain. Further research into LOS should focus on specific specialties, as each may differ in terms of financial implications. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  3. Rapid evolution of the intersexual genetic correlation for fitness in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Julie M; Fuentes, Sara; Hesketh, Jack; Hill, Mark S; Innocenti, Paolo; Morrow, Edward H; Fowler, Kevin; Reuter, Max

    2016-04-01

    Sexual antagonism (SA) arises when male and female phenotypes are under opposing selection, yet genetically correlated. Until resolved, antagonism limits evolution toward optimal sex-specific phenotypes. Despite its importance for sex-specific adaptation and existing theory, the dynamics of SA resolution are not well understood empirically. Here, we present data from Drosophila melanogaster, compatible with a resolution of SA. We compared two independent replicates of the "LHM " population in which SA had previously been described. Both had been maintained under identical, controlled conditions, and separated for around 200 generations. Although heritabilities of male and female fitness were similar, the intersexual genetic correlation differed significantly, being negative in one replicate (indicating SA) but close to zero in the other. Using population sequencing, we show that phenotypic differences were associated with population divergence in allele frequencies at nonrandom loci across the genome. Large frequency changes were more prevalent in the population without SA and were enriched at loci mapping to genes previously shown to have sexually antagonistic relationships between expression and fitness. Our data suggest that rapid evolution toward SA resolution has occurred in one of the populations and open avenues toward studying the genetics of SA and its resolution. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. Measurement of the length and position of the lower oesophageal sphincter by correlation of external measurements and radiographic estimations in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterman, A.E.; Hashim, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    Fifty dogs were investigated in order to correlate the length and position of the lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) with external measurements. Various external measurements were taken while the dogs were anaesthetised and positioned in lateral recumbency. An oesophageal tube was then introduced into the oesophagus and thoracic radiographs were taken. The 'real internal length of the oesophagus' was calculated as the length from the lower jaw incisor tooth to the position of the oesophageal tube at the costal border of the diaphragm. A highly significant linear correlation was found between this internal length and the external length from lower jaw incisor tooth to the anterior border of the head of the 10th rib. Using oesophageal manometry, the length and position of the LOS was also studied in 25 clinically normal bitches. The mean length of the LOS was found to be 4.6 +/- 0.92 cm. The position of the LOS was a mean of 4.4 +/- 1.69 cm cranial to the costal border of the diaphragm. The findings of this study indicate that the external measurements can be used to position catheters for accurate oesophageal manometry in the dog

  5. Determination of the in vitro disintegration profile of rapidly disintegrating tablets and correlation with oral disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelbary, G; Eouani, C; Prinderre, P; Joachim, J; Reynier, Jp; Piccerelle, Ph

    2005-03-23

    The assessment of the in vitro disintegration profile of rapidly disintegrating tablets (RDT) is very important in the evaluation and the development of new formulations of this type. So far neither the US Pharmacopoeia nor the European Pharmacopoeia has defined a specific disintegration test for RDT; currently, it is only possible to refer to the tests on dispersible or effervescent tablets for the evaluation of RDT's disintegration capacity. In the present study, we have evaluated the disintegration profile of RDT manufactured by main commercialised technologies, using the texture analyser (TA). In order to simulate as much as possible the oral disintegration of these dosage forms, a new operating structure was developed. This structure mimics the situation in the patient's mouth and provides a gradual elimination of the detached particles during the disintegration process. The obtained time-distance profiles or disintegration profiles enabled the calculation of certain quantitative values as the disintegration onset (t1) and the total disintegration time (t2). These values were used in the characterisation of the effect of test variables as the disintegration medium and temperature on the disintegration time of RDT. Moreover, the oral disintegration time of the same products was evaluated by 14 healthy volunteers. Results obtained when artificial saliva at 37 degrees C was employed as disintegration medium were used to correlate the in vitro (t2) and oral disintegration times. Excellent correlation was found and in addition, we were able to achieve a qualitative measure of the mouthfeel by comparing the thickness of the tablets and the penetration distance obtained from the disintegration profile. This method also permitted the discrimination between different RDT, where differences in the disintegration mechanism were reflected on the disintegration profile achieved for each tablet.

  6. Mammography: Correlation of pectoral muscle width and the length in the mediolateral oblique view of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spuur, K.; Poulos, A.; Currie, G.; Rickard, M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between the width and length of the pectoral muscle in the mediolateral oblique mammogram of the breast. Method: Mammograms reviewed for this study were performed on women undergoing routine mammographic screening with BreastScreen NSW South West, Australia. The study included a total of 2800 randomly selected mediolateral oblique mammograms from examinations taken between July 2004 and September 2006. Measurements of the width and length of the pectoral muscle were recorded. Results: No statistically significant difference was demonstrated between the mean values for right and left width (p = 0.5293) or length (p = 0.2079). Matched pair analysis demonstrated a statistically significant difference width, (p = 0.0069) and length, (p = 0.0369). No relationship could be demonstrated between the width and length of the pectoral muscle, (p = 0.0701). Conclusion: The inability to determine a relationship between the width and length of the pectoral muscle suggests that these criteria should be assessed independently of each other. This new understanding of the presentation of the pectoral muscle will enable clinically relevant redevelopment of current image evaluation systems to include statistically supported mean performance values. Further research is needed to explore the relationship of width and length to other key image evaluation criteria used in mammography image quality evaluation.

  7. Wound Botulism in Injection Drug Users: Time to Antitoxin Correlates with Intensive Care Unit Length of Stay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Offerman, Steven R

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We sought to identify factors associated with need for mechanical ventilation (MV, length of intensive care unit (ICU stay, length of hospital stay, and poor outcome in injection drug users (IDUs with wound botulism (WB.Methods: This is a retrospective review of WB patients admitted between 1991-2005. IDUs were included if they had symptoms of WB and diagnostic confirmation. Primary outcome variables were the need for MV, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, hospital-related complications, and death.Results: Twenty-nine patients met inclusion criteria. Twenty-two (76% admitted to heroin use only and seven (24% admitted to heroin and methamphetamine use. Chief complaints on initial presentation included visual changes, 13 (45%; weakness, nine (31%; and difficulty swallowing, seven (24%. Skin wounds were documented in 22 (76%. Twenty-one (72% patients underwent mechanical ventilation (MV. Antitoxin (AT was administered to 26 (90% patients but only two received antitoxin in the emergency department (ED. The time from ED presentation to AT administration was associated with increased length of ICU stay (Regression coefficient = 2.5; 95% CI 0.45, 4.5. The time from ED presentation to wound drainage was also associated with increased length of ICU stay (Regression coefficient = 13.7; 95% CI = 2.3, 25.2. There was no relationship between time to antibiotic administration and length of ICU stay.Conclusion: MV and prolonged ICU stays are common in patients identified with WB. Early AT administration and wound drainage are recommended as these measures may decrease ICU length of stay.[West J Emerg Med. 2009;10(4:251-256.

  8. Determination of the length and position of the lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) by correlation of external measurements with combined radiographic and manometric estimations in the cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, M.A.; Waterman, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    Fifty DSH cats were studied radiographically and a highly significant linear correlation was found between the length of the oesophagus measured to the diaphragmatic line on the radiographs and the externally measured distance from the lower jaw incisor teeth to the anterior border of the head of 10th rib. A subsequent manometric study utilizing this correlation in 40 cats suggests that the functional lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) is situated almost at the level of the diaphragm in the cat. Significant differences were found between the length of the LOS in cats anaesthetized with ketamine compared to alphaxalone-alphadolone or xylazine-ketamine-atropine. The mean lengths of the LOS was 1.42 +/- 0.3 cm. The findings of this study indicate that external measurements can be used to position catheters for accurate oesophageal manometry in the cat

  9. Rapid identification of Pterocarpus santalinus and Dalbergia louvelii by FTIR and 2D correlation IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang-Da; Xu, Chang-Hua; Li, Ming-Yu; Huang, An-Min; Sun, Su-Qin

    2014-07-01

    Since Pterocarpus santalinus and Dalbergia louvelii, which are of precious Rosewood, are very similar in their appearance and anatomy characteristics, cheaper Hongmu D. louvelii is often illegally used to impersonate valuable P. santalinus, especially in Chinese furniture manufacture. In order to develop a rapid and effective method for easy confused wood furniture differentiation, we applied tri-step identification method, i.e., conventional infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), second derivative infrared (SD-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2DCOS-IR) spectroscopy to investigate P. santalinus and D. louvelii furniture. According to FT-IR and SD-IR spectra, it has been found two unconditional stable difference at 848 cm-1 and 700 cm-1 and relative stable differences at 1735 cm-1, 1623 cm-1, 1614 cm-1, 1602 cm-1, 1509 cm-1, 1456 cm-1, 1200 cm-1, 1158 cm-1, 1055 cm-1, 1034 cm-1 and 895 cm-1 between D. louvelii and P. santalinus IR spectra. The stable discrepancy indicates that the category of extractives is different between the two species. Besides, the relative stable differences imply that the content of holocellulose in P. santalinus is more than that of D. louvelii, whereas the quantity of extractives in D. louvelii is higher. Furthermore, evident differences have been observed in their 2DCOS-IR spectra of 1550-1415 cm-1 and 1325-1030 cm-1. P. santalinus has two strong auto-peaks at 1459 cm-1 and 1467 cm-1, three mid-strong auto-peaks at 1518 cm-1, 1089 cm-1 and 1100 cm-1 and five weak auto-peaks at 1432 cm-1, 1437 cm-1, 1046 cm-1, 1056 cm-1 and 1307 cm-1 while D. louvelii has four strong auto-peaks at 1465 cm-1, 1523 cm-1, 1084 cm-1 and 1100 cm-1, four mid-strong auto-peaks at 1430 cm-1, 1499 cm-1, 1505 cm-1 and 1056 cm-1 and two auto-peaks at 1540 cm-1 and 1284 cm-1. This study has proved that FT-IR integrated with 2DCOS-IR could be applicable for precious wood furniture authentication in a direct, rapid and holistic manner.

  10. Neural Correlates of Word Recognition: A Systematic Comparison of Natural Reading and Rapid Serial Visual Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornrumpf, Benthe; Niefind, Florian; Sommer, Werner; Dimigen, Olaf

    2016-09-01

    Neural correlates of word recognition are commonly studied with (rapid) serial visual presentation (RSVP), a condition that eliminates three fundamental properties of natural reading: parafoveal preprocessing, saccade execution, and the fast changes in attentional processing load occurring from fixation to fixation. We combined eye-tracking and EEG to systematically investigate the impact of all three factors on brain-electric activity during reading. Participants read lists of words either actively with eye movements (eliciting fixation-related potentials) or maintained fixation while the text moved passively through foveal vision at a matched pace (RSVP-with-flankers paradigm, eliciting ERPs). The preview of the upcoming word was manipulated by changing the number of parafoveally visible letters. Processing load was varied by presenting words of varying lexical frequency. We found that all three factors have strong interactive effects on the brain's responses to words: Once a word was fixated, occipitotemporal N1 amplitude decreased monotonically with the amount of parafoveal information available during the preceding fixation; hence, the N1 component was markedly attenuated under reading conditions with preview. Importantly, this preview effect was substantially larger during active reading (with saccades) than during passive RSVP with flankers, suggesting that the execution of eye movements facilitates word recognition by increasing parafoveal preprocessing. Lastly, we found that the N1 component elicited by a word also reflects the lexical processing load imposed by the previously inspected word. Together, these results demonstrate that, under more natural conditions, words are recognized in a spatiotemporally distributed and interdependent manner across multiple eye fixations, a process that is mediated by active motor behavior.

  11. Rapid weight gain in professional boxing and correlation with fight decisions: analysis from 71 title fights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, Gianlorenzo; Weinstein, Richard N; Wallace, Paul Wesley; Palmieri, Vincenzo; Bianco, Massimiliano

    2016-11-01

    Boxing is a sport where athletes compete in several weight categories. Professional boxers typically dehydrate to cut their weight for the weigh-in (24 h before the contest) and then rehydrate before the fight. The International Boxing Federation (IBF) mandates a second weigh-in 12 h before the fight. Our objectives were: 1) To quantify the weight gain (WG) from the 1st to the 2nd weigh-in; 2) to investigate whether rapid WG affects boxing performance (win/loss rate) and 3) whether weight discrepancy (WD) 15 between boxers exposes them to increased health risks (rate of fights ended before time limit). From official weigh-in reports of 71 IBF fights (142 fighters) the following data were gathered/calculated for each boxer: age, weight division, 1st weight, 2nd weight, WG between weigh-ins (kg and %), WD between opponents, and fight decision. Between the weigh-ins, the average WG was 2.52 ± 1.37 kg (range -0.3/6.4 kg) and 3.8 ± 2.2% of the initial body weight (range -0.4/9.3%) and the average WD 1.94 ± 1.50 kg (maximum 7.10 kg). Both WG and WD did not affect match outcomes. We observed tendencies for higher loss rate among boxers gaining more weight, and for higher victory rate in boxers with larger WD, however without reaching significance. A significant negative correlation was found between the 1st weight and the WG, both in absolute (r = -0.278, p = 0.001) and relative value (r = -0.497, p boxing performance were not found, single cases with an alarming high WG and WD were noted.

  12. Does the correlation between solar cycle lengths and Northern Hemisphere land temperatures rule out any significant global warming from greenhouse gases?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laut, Peter; Gundermann, Jesper

    1998-01-01

    Since the discovery of a striking correlation between solar cycle lengths and Northern Hemisphere land temperatures there have been widespread speculations as to whether these findings would rule out any significant contributions to global warming from the enhanced concentrations of greenhouse...... gases. The present analysis shows that a similar degree of correlation is obtained when testing the solar data against a couple of fictitious temperature series representing different global warming trends. Therefore, the correlation cannot be used to estimate the magnitude of a possible contribution...... to global warming from human activities, nor to rule out a sizable contribution from that source....

  13. Effects of correlations between particle longitudinal positions and transverse plane on bunch length measurement: a case study on GBS electron LINAC at ELI-NP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, L.; Arpaia, P.; Cianchi, A.; Liccardo, A.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Variola, A.

    2018-02-01

    In high-brightness LINear ACcelerators (LINACs), electron bunch length can be measured indirectly by a radio frequency deflector (RFD). In this paper, the accuracy loss arising from non-negligible correlations between particle longitudinal positions and the transverse plane (in particular the vertical one) at RFD entrance is analytically assessed. Theoretical predictions are compared with simulation results, obtained by means of ELEctron Generation ANd Tracking (ELEGANT) code, in the case study of the gamma beam system (GBS) at the extreme light infrastructure—nuclear physics (ELI-NP). In particular, the relative error affecting the bunch length measurement, for bunches characterized by both energy chirp and fixed correlation coefficients between longitudinal particle positions and the vertical plane, is reported. Moreover, the relative error versus the correlation coefficients is shown for fixed RFD phase 0 rad and π rad. The relationship between relative error and correlations factors can help the decision of using the bunch length measurement technique with one or two vertical spot size measurements in order to cancel the correlations contribution. In the case of the GBS electron LINAC, the misalignment of one of the quadrupoles before the RFD between  -2 mm and 2 mm leads to a relative error less than 5%. The misalignment of the first C-band accelerating section between  -2 mm and 2 mm could lead to a relative error up to 10%.

  14. Constraints on rapidity-dependent initial conditions from charged-particle pseudorapidity densities and two-particle correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Weiyao; Moreland, J. Scott; Bernhard, Jonah E.; Bass, Steffen A.

    2017-10-01

    We study the initial three-dimensional spatial configuration of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions using centrality and pseudorapidity-dependent measurements of the medium's charged particle density and two-particle correlations. A cumulant-generating function is first used to parametrize the rapidity dependence of local entropy deposition and extend arbitrary boost-invariant initial conditions to nonzero beam rapidities. The model is then compared to p +Pb and Pb + Pb charged-particle pseudorapidity densities and two-particle pseudorapidity correlations and systematically optimized using Bayesian parameter estimation to extract high-probability initial condition parameters. The optimized initial conditions are then compared to a number of experimental observables including the pseudorapidity-dependent anisotropic flows, event-plane decorrelations, and flow correlations. We find that the form of the initial local longitudinal entropy profile is well constrained by these experimental measurements.

  15. Charged plate in asymmetric electrolytes: One-loop renormalization of surface charge density and Debye length due to ionic correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Mingnan; Lu, Bing-Sui; Xing, Xiangjun

    2016-10-01

    Self-consistent field theory (SCFT) is used to study the mean potential near a charged plate inside a m:-n electrolyte. A perturbation series is developed in terms of g=4πκb, where band1/κ are Bjerrum length and bare Debye length, respectively. To the zeroth order, we obtain the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann theory. For asymmetric electrolytes (m≠n), the first order (one-loop) correction to mean potential contains a secular term, which indicates the breakdown of the regular perturbation method. Using a renormalizaton group transformation, we remove the secular term and obtain a globally well-behaved one-loop approximation with a renormalized Debye length and a renormalized surface charge density. Furthermore, we find that if the counterions are multivalent, the surface charge density is renormalized substantially downwards and may undergo a change of sign, if the bare surface charge density is sufficiently large. Our results agrees with large MC simulation even when the density of electrolytes is relatively high.

  16. Length of psychiatric hospitalization is correlated with CYP2D6 functional status in inpatients with major depressive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruaño, Gualberto; Szarek, Bonnie L; Villagra, David; Gorowski, Krystyna; Kocherla, Mohan; Seip, Richard L; Goethe, John W; Schwartz, Harold I

    2016-01-01

    Aim This study aimed to determine the effect of the CYP2D6 genotype on the length of hospitalization stay for patients treated for major depressive disorder. Methods A total of 149 inpatients with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder at the Institute of Living, Hartford Hospital (CT, USA), were genotyped to detect altered alleles in the CYP2D6 gene. Prospectively defined drug metabolism indices (metabolic reserve, metabolic alteration and allele alteration) were determined quantitatively and assessed for their relationship to length of hospitalization stay. Results Hospital stay was significantly longer in deficient CYP2D6 metabolizers (metabolic reserve <2) compared with functional or suprafunctional metabolizers (metabolic reserve ≥2; 7.8 vs 5.7 days, respectively; p = 0.002). Conclusion CYP2D6 enzymatic functional status significantly affected length of hospital stay, perhaps due to reduced efficacy or increased side effects of the medications metabolized by the CYP2D6 isoenzyme. Functional scoring of CYP2D6 alleles may have a substantial impact on the quality of care, patient satisfaction and the economics of psychiatric treatment. PMID:23734807

  17. Serum Concentration of Leptin in Pregnant Adolescents Correlated with Gestational Weight Gain, Postpartum Weight Retention and Newborn Weight/Length

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna Sámano; Hugo Martínez-Rojano; Gabriela Chico-Barba; Estela Godínez-Martínez; Bernarda Sánchez-Jiménez; Diana Montiel-Ojeda; Maricruz Tolentino

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Gestational weight gain is an important modifiable factor known to influence fetal outcomes including birth weight and adiposity. Leptin is normally correlated with adiposity and is also known to increase throughout pregnancy, as the placenta becomes a source of leptin synthesis. Several studies have reported positive correlations between cord blood leptin level and either birthweight or size for gestational age, as well as body mass index (BMI). Objective: To determine the corr...

  18. Simultaneous and rapid differential diagnosis of Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum based on a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mirnejad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this investigation was to simultaneously detect and differentiate Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum in female patients suffering from genital complications by polymerase chain reaction (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP. Materials and Methods : Genital swabs were taken from 210 patients. They were transported to the laboratory in phosphate-buffered saline. For PCR, samples were analysed with genus-specific MyUu-R and MyUu-F primers. This primer set, which was originally designed in our laboratory, amplified a 465 bp fragment (M. genitalium and a 559 bp fragment (U. urealyticum. Samples containing a band of the expected sizes for the Mycoplasma strains were subjected to digestion with a restriction endonuclease enzyme of TaqI and Cac8I. Results: Of the 210 samples, a total of 100 (47.6% samples were found to be positive for Mycoplasmas (seven M. genitalium isolates, 3.3%; and 89 U. urealyticum isolates, 42.4%, and coinfections with both species were detected in four samples (1.9%. The PCR-RFLP results showed that M. genitalium and U. urealyticum are different by enzyme patterns. Conclusion: PCR-RFLP offers a rapid and easily applicable protocol to simultaneous detection and differentiation of M. genitalium and U. urealyticum from clinical samples when specific primers and restriction enzymes are used.

  19. Correlation of chromosomal instability, telomere length and telomere maintenance in microsatellite stable rectal cancer: a molecular subclass of rectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Boardman

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC tumor DNA is characterized by chromosomal damage termed chromosomal instability (CIN and excessively shortened telomeres. Up to 80% of CRC is microsatellite stable (MSS and is historically considered to be chromosomally unstable (CIN+. However, tumor phenotyping depicts some MSS CRC with little or no genetic changes, thus being chromosomally stable (CIN-. MSS CIN- tumors have not been assessed for telomere attrition.MSS rectal cancers from patients ≤50 years old with Stage II (B2 or higher or Stage III disease were assessed for CIN, telomere length and telomere maintenance mechanism (telomerase activation [TA]; alternative lengthening of telomeres [ALT]. Relative telomere length was measured by qPCR in somatic epithelial and cancer DNA. TA was measured with the TRAPeze assay, and tumors were evaluated for the presence of C-circles indicative of ALT. p53 mutation status was assessed in all available samples. DNA copy number changes were evaluated with Spectral Genomics aCGH.Tumors were classified as chromosomally stable (CIN- and chromosomally instable (CIN+ by degree of DNA copy number changes. CIN- tumors (35%; n=6 had fewer copy number changes (<17% of their clones with DNA copy number changes than CIN+ tumors (65%; n=13 which had high levels of copy number changes in 20% to 49% of clones. Telomere lengths were longer in CIN- compared to CIN+ tumors (p=0.0066 and in those in which telomerase was not activated (p=0.004. Tumors exhibiting activation of telomerase had shorter tumor telomeres (p=0.0040; and tended to be CIN+ (p=0.0949.MSS rectal cancer appears to represent a heterogeneous group of tumors that may be categorized both on the basis of CIN status and telomere maintenance mechanism. MSS CIN- rectal cancers appear to have longer telomeres than those of MSS CIN+ rectal cancers and to utilize ALT rather than activation of telomerase.

  20. Body Composition within the First 3 Months: Optimized Correction for Length and Correlation with BMI at 2 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Colin P; Zemel, Babette S; Kiely, Mairead; Irvine, Alan D; Kenny, Louise C; O'B Hourihane, Jonathan; Murray, Deirdre M

    2016-01-01

    Although early infant growth has implications for future health, body composition reference data in infancy are limited. The aim of this study was to describe reference data for fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) corrected for length (L) within the first 3 months and to evaluate if these measures predict the body mass index (BMI) at 2 years. Term infants had air displacement plethysmography performed at birth (n = 1,063) and approximately 2 months later (n = 922, between 49 and 86 days). Age- and sex-specific reference data were generated for FM, FFM, FM/L 3 and FFM/L 2 and compared with BMI at 2 years. FM/L 3 and FFM/L 2 were the optimal indices independent of length. In the first 3 months, mean FM/L 3 increased (males, from 2.7 to 5.9 kg/m 3 ; females, from 3.2 to 6.1 kg/m 3 ), whereas FFM/L 2 remained relatively stable (males, from 11.8 to 12.7 kg/m 2 ; females, from 12.8 to 12.1 kg/m 2 ). The odds of a BMI Z-score ≥2 at 2 years increased with increasing FM (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.97-3.7) and weight (OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.64-3.13) Z-scores at 2 months. FM/L 3 and FFM/L 2 provide length-independent measures of FM and FFM in infancy. During the first 3 months, there is an increase in FM/L 3 , but not in FFM/L 2 . The weight Z-score at 2 months is as good at predicting BMI at 2 years as body composition parameters. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Socio-economic status by rapid appraisal is highly correlated with mortality risks in rural Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bodegom, D.; May, L.; Kuningas, M.; Kaptijn, R.; Thomese, G.C.F.; Meij, H.J.; Amankwa, J.; Westendorp, R.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    Socio-economic status is an important determinant of health and survival in rural Africa and necessitates a practical and valid instrument to implement in health studies. Our objective was to investigate the validity of the rapid appraisal method to assess socio-economic status and its ability to

  2. Correlation of HAMP gene polymorphisms and expression with the susceptibility and length of hospital stays in Taiwanese children with Kawasaki disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hsing-Fang; Wong, Henry Sung-Ching; Yu, Hong-Ren; Kuo, Hsing-Chun; Huang, Fu-Chen; Lo, Mao-Hung; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Chen, Su-Fen; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Kuo, Ho-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a form of systemic vasculitis. Regarding its pathogenesis, HAMP gene encoding hepcidin, which is significant for iron metabolism, has a vital function. In this study, we recruited a total of 381 KD patients for genotyping. Data from 997 subjects (500 subjects from cohort 1; 497 subjects from cohort 2) were used for analysis. Using TaqMan allelic discrimination, we determined five tag SNPs (rs916145, rs10421768, rs3817623, rs7251432, and rs2293689). Treatment outcome data related to such clinical phenotypes as coronary artery lesions (CAL), coronary artery aneurysms (CAA), and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) effects were also collected. Furthermore, we measured plasma hepcidin levels with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that HAMP gene polymorphism (rs7251432, and rs2293689) was significantly correlated with KD risk and that plasma hepcidin levels both before and after IVIG treatment had a significantly positive correlation with length of hospital stays (R = 0.217, p = 0.046 and R = 0.381, p < 0.0001, respectively). In contrast, plasma hepcidin levels has a negative correlation with KD patients’ albumin levels (R = −0.27, p < 0.001) prior to IVIG treatment. This study's findings indicate that HAMP might have a role in the disease susceptibility, as well as its expressions correlated length of hospital stays, and albumin levels in Taiwanese children with KD. PMID:28881695

  3. Correlation function distributions in rapidity for pairs of π mesons in K-p interactions at 32 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumazhnov, V.A.; Babintsev, V.V.; Bogolyubskij, M.Yu.

    1983-01-01

    The inclusive and semiinclusiVe distributions of correlation functions in K - p-interactions at 32 GeV/c are presented as functions of rapidity. The positive short range correlations among rapidities of two charged pions reach maximUm in fragmentation ranges of incoming hadrons. The correlations become central and increase with rising of transverse momentum. Maximum values of correlations in the π + π - and π - π - systems oc in the region of negative and positive values of rasidity

  4. Long-range rapidity correlations in soft interactions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotsman, E.; Maor, U.; Levin, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we take the next step (following the successful description of inclusive hadron production) in describing the structure of the bias events without the aid of Monte Carlo codes. Two new results are presented: (i) a method for calculating the two particle correlation functions in the BFKL pomeron calculus in zero transverse dimension; and (ii) an estimation of the values of these correlations in a model of soft interactions. Comparison with the multiplicity data at the LHC is given. (orig.)

  5. Rapid and Robust Cross-Correlation-Based Seismic Phase Identification Using an Approximate Nearest Neighbor Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibi, R.; Young, C. J.; Gonzales, A.; Ballard, S.; Encarnacao, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    The matched filtering technique involving the cross-correlation of a waveform of interest with archived signals from a template library has proven to be a powerful tool for detecting events in regions with repeating seismicity. However, waveform correlation is computationally expensive, and therefore impractical for large template sets unless dedicated distributed computing hardware and software are used. In this study, we introduce an Approximate Nearest Neighbor (ANN) approach that enables the use of very large template libraries for waveform correlation without requiring a complex distributed computing system. Our method begins with a projection into a reduced dimensionality space based on correlation with a randomized subset of the full template archive. Searching for a specified number of nearest neighbors is accomplished by using randomized K-dimensional trees. We used the approach to search for matches to each of 2700 analyst-reviewed signal detections reported for May 2010 for the IMS station MKAR. The template library in this case consists of a dataset of more than 200,000 analyst-reviewed signal detections for the same station from 2002-2014 (excluding May 2010). Of these signal detections, 60% are teleseismic first P, and 15% regional phases (Pn, Pg, Sn, and Lg). The analyses performed on a standard desktop computer shows that the proposed approach performs the search of the large template libraries about 20 times faster than the standard full linear search, while achieving recall rates greater than 80%, with the recall rate increasing for higher correlation values. To decide whether to confirm a match, we use a hybrid method involving a cluster approach for queries with two or more matches, and correlation score for single matches. Of the signal detections that passed our confirmation process, 52% were teleseismic first P, and 30% were regional phases.

  6. Data on correlations between T cell subset frequencies and length of partial remission in type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Narsale

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial remission in patients newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes is a period of good glucose control that can last from several weeks to over a year. The clinical significance of the remission period is that patients might be more responsive to immunotherapy if treated within this period. This article provides clinical data that indicates the level of glucose control and insulin-secreting β-cell function of each patient in the study at baseline (within 3 months of diagnosis, and at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months post-baseline. The relative frequency of immune cell subsets in the PBMC of each patient and the association between the frequency of immune cell subsets measured and length of remission is also shown. These data support the findings reported in the accompanying publication, “A pilot study showing associations between frequency of CD4+ memory cell subsets at diagnosis and duration of partial remission in type 1 diabetes” (Moya et al., 2016 [1], where a full interpretation, including biological relevance of the study can be found. Keywords: Type 1 diabetes, T cell subsets, Partial remission

  7. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of the HLA-DP subregion and correlations to HLA-DP phenotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyldig-Nielsen, J.J.; Morling, N.; Oedum, N.; Ryder, L.P.; Platz, P.; Jakobsen, B.; Svejgaard, A.

    1987-01-01

    The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the class II HLA-DP subregion of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of humans has been unraveled by Southern blotting using DP/sub α/ and DP/sub β/ probes in a study of 46 unrelated individuals with known HLA-DP types. Contrary to earlier preliminary findings with a limited number of enzymes, the RFLP appears to be quite extensive both with the DP/sub β/ (14 different DNA markers defined by individual fragments or clusters thereof) and the DP/sub α/ (8 markers) probes, especially when enzyme recognizing only four base pairs were used. A few markers were absolutely or strongly associated with individual DP antigens, whereas most were associated with two or more DP antigens as defined by primed lymphocyte typing. Thus, Southern blotting seems feasible for typing for most DP determinants by specific fragments or subtraction between the various more broadly reactive DNA markers, and the RFLP provides further information on the DP subregion in addition to that provided by primed lymphocyte typing. In two recombinant families, the DP/sub β/ and DP/sub α/ DNA markers segregated with DP antigens, whereas the DR/sub β/, DQ/sub β/, DQ/sub α/, and DX/sub α/ markers followed the DR and DQ antigens

  8. Correlates of historical suicide attempt in rapid-cycling bipolar disorder: a cross-sectional assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Keming; Tolliver, Bryan K; Kemp, David E; Ganocy, Stephen J; Bilali, Sarah; Brady, Kathleen L; Findling, Robert L; Calabrese, Joseph R

    2009-07-01

    A rapid-cycling course in bipolar disorder has previously been identified as a risk factor for attempted suicide. This study investigated factors associated with suicide attempts in patients with rapid-cycling bipolar I or II disorder. Cross-sectional data at the initial assessment of patients who were enrolled into 4 clinical trials were used to study the factors associated with suicide attempt. An extensive clinical interview and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview were used to ascertain DSM-IV diagnoses of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder, substance use disorders, anxiety disorders, psychosis, and other clinical variables. Chi-square, t test, and logistic regression or Poisson regression were used to analyze the data where appropriate, with odds ratios (ORs) for relative risk estimate. The data were collected from September 1995 to June 2005. In a univariate analysis, 41% of 561 patients had at least 1 lifetime suicide attempt. Earlier age of depression onset, bipolar I subtype, female sex, unmarried status, and a history of drug use disorder, panic disorder, sexual abuse, and psychosis were associated with significantly higher rates of attempted suicide (all p drug abuse (OR = 1.62, p = .0317) were independent predictors for increased risk of attempted suicide. However, white race was associated with a lower risk for suicide attempt (OR = 0.47, p = .0160). Psychosis during depression (p = .0003), bipolar I subtype (p = .0302), and physical abuse (p = .0195) were associated with increased numbers of suicide attempts by 248%, 166%, and 162%, respectively; white race was associated with a 60% decrease in the number of suicide attempts (p = .0320). In this highly comorbid group of patients with rapid-cycling bipolar disorder, 41% had at least 1 suicide attempt. Among the demographics, female sex was positively associated, but white race was negatively associated, with the risk for suicide attempt. Independent clinical variables for increased risk and

  9. Psychiatric and clinical correlates of rapid cycling bipolar disorder: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre D. Gigante

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Rapid cycling (RC is a feature of bipolar disorder (BD that has been associated with worse outcome and more severe disability. Our goal was to investigate the association of demographic and clinical factors with RC. Methods: We compared RC and non-rapid cycling (NRC BD patients from the Brazilian Research Network in Bipolar Disorder (BRN-BD regarding age at onset of BD; total number of episodes; previous number of manic, depressive, mixed, and hypomanic episodes; polarity of the first episode; gender; number of suicide attempts; number of lifetime hospitalizations and lifetime history of at least one hospitalization; family history of mood disorder; clinical comorbidities such as hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, seizures; and current use of medications such as lithium, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, and antidepressants. Results: We studied 577 patients and found that 100 (17.3% met the criteria for RC in the year before the investigation. RC patients had earlier age at onset, longer duration of disease, more lifetime depressive and manic episodes, higher number of suicide attempts, and higher rate antidepressant use. Conclusion: The presence of RC in the previous year was associated with specific clinical characteristics closely related to worse outcome in the course of BD.

  10. Rigorous control of logarithmic corrections in four-dimensional phi4 spin systems. II. Critical behavior of susceptibility and correlation length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, T.; Tasaki, H.

    1987-01-01

    Continuing the analysis started in Part I of this work, they investigate critical phenomena in weakly coupled phi 4 spin systems in four dimensions. Concerning the critical behavior of the susceptibility and the correlation length (in the high-temperature phase), the existence of logarithmic corrections to their mean field type behavior is rigorously shown (i.e., they prove chi(t) ∼ t -1 absolute value 1n t/sup 1/3/, zeta(t) ∼ t/sup -1/2/ absolute value of ln t/sup 1/6/)

  11. Long range rapidity correlations and jet production in high energy nuclear collisions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abelev, B. I.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Anderson, B. D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G. S.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L. S.; Baudot, J.; Baumgart, S.; Beavis, D.R.; Bellwied, R.; Benedosso, F.; Betancourt, M.J.; Betts, R. R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielčík, Jaroslav; Bielčíková, Jana; Biritz, B.; Bland, L.C.; Bombara, M.; Bonner, B. E.; Botje, M.; Bouchet, J.; Braidot, E.; Brandin, A. V.; Bruna, E.; Bueltmann, S.; Burton, T. P.; Bysterský, Michal; Cai, X.Z.; Caines, H.; Sanchez, M.C.D.; Catu, O.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M.C.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, Petr; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, J.H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Choi, K.E.; Christie, W.; Clarke, R.F.; Codrington, M.J.M.; Corliss, R.; Cormier, T.M.; Coserea, R. M.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, D.; Dash, S.; Daugherity, M.; De Silva, L.C.; Dedovich, T. G.; DePhillips, M.; Derevschikov, A.A.; de Souza, R.D.; Didenko, L.; Djawotho, P.; Dunlop, J.C.; Mazumdar, M.R.D.; Edwards, W.R.; Efimov, L.G.; Elhalhuli, E.; Elnimr, M.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Eun, L.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, A.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gaillard, L.; Ganti, M. S.; Gangaharan, D.R.; Garcia-Solis, E.J.; Geromitsos, A.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gorbunov, Y.N.; Gordon, A.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Grube, B.; Guertin, S.M.; Guimaraes, K.S.F.F.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, N.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T.J.; Hamed, A.; Harris, J.W.; He, W.; Heinz, M.; Heppelmann, S.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffman, A.M.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Hofman, D.J.; Hollis, R.S.; Huang, H.Z.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Iordanova, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Jakl, Pavel; Jena, C.; Jin, F.; Jones, C.L.; Jones, P.G.; Joseph, J.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kajimoto, K.; Kang, K.; Kapitán, Jan; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kettler, D.; Khodyrev, V.Yu.; Kikola, D.P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Klein, S.R.; Knospe, A.G.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D.D.; Kopytine, M.; Korsch, W.; Kotchenda, L.; Kushpil, Vasilij; Kravtsov, P.; Kravtsov, V.I.; Krueger, K.; Krus, M.; Kuhn, C.; Kumar, L.; Kurnadi, P.; Lamont, M.A.C.; Landgraf, J.M.; LaPointe, S.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednický, Richard; Lee, Ch.; Lee, J.H.; Leight, W.; LeVine, M.J.; Li, N.; Li, C.; Li, Y.; Lin, G.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Lisa, M.A.; Liu, F.; Liu, J.; Liu, L.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W.J.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, T.; Ma, G.L.; Ma, Y.G.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Majka, R.; Mall, O.I.; Mangotra, L.K.; Manweiler, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H.S.; Matulenko, Yu.A.; McShane, T.S.; Meschanin, A.; Milner, R.; Minaev, N.G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mischke, A.; Mitchell, J.; Mohanty, B.; Morozov, D.A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Nandi, B.K.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J.M.; Netrakanti, P.K.; Ng, M.J.; Nogach, L.V.; Nurushev, S.B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Okada, H.; Okorokov, V.; Olson, D.; Pachr, M.; Page, B.S.; Pal, S.K.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Panitkin, S.Y.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Perevoztchikov, V.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Phatak, S.C.; Poljak, N.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Potukuchi, B.V.K.S.; Prindle, D.; Pruneau, C.; Pruthi, N.K.; Putschke, J.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R.L.; Redwine, R.; Reed, R.; Ridiger, A.; Ritter, H.G.; Roberts, J.B.; Rogachevskiy, O.V.; Romero, J.L.; Rose, A.; Roy, C.; Ruan, L.; Russcher, M.J.; Sahoo, R.; Sakrejda, I.; Sakuma, T.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarsour, M.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R.P.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seyboth, P.; Shabetai, A.; Shahaliev, E.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M.; Shi, S.S.; Shi, X.H.; Sichtermann, E.P.; Simon, F.; Singaraju, R.N.; Skoby, M.J.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R.; Sorensen, P.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H.M.; Srivastava, B.; Stadnik, A.; Stanislaus, T.D.S.; Staszak, D.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A.A.P.; Suarez, M.C.; Subba, N.L.; Šumbera, Michal; Sun, X.M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Symons, T.J.M.; de Toledo, A. S.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A.H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thein, D.; Thomas, J.H.; Tian, J.; Timmins, A.R.; Timoshenko, S.; Tokarev, M. V.; Trainor, T.A.; Tram, V.N.; Trattner, A.L.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tsai, O.D.; Ulery, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D.G.; Van Buren, G.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vander Molen, A.M.; Vanfossen, J.A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G.S.M.; Vasilevski, I.M.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Videbaek, F.; Vigdor, S.E.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S.A.; Wada, M.; Walker, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, J.S.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J.C.; Westfall, G.D.; Whitten, C.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S.W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.; Tlustý, David; Xie, W.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q.H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, P.; Yepes, P.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.K.; Yue, Q.; Zawisza, M.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zhan, W.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, W.M.; Zhang, X.P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, Y.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, J.; Zoulkarneev, R.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zuo, J.X.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 6 (2009), 064912/1-064912/9 ISSN 0556-2813 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0079; GA MŠk LC07048; GA MŠk LA09013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : QUARK-GLUON PLASMA * CORRELATIONS * JETS Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.477, year: 2009

  12. Spatial variations of storm runoff pollution and their correlation with land-use in a rapidly urbanizing catchment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hua-Peng; Khu, Soon-Thiam; Yu, Xiang-Ying

    2010-09-15

    The composition of land use for a rapidly urbanizing catchment is usually heterogeneous, and this may result in significant spatial variations of storm runoff pollution and increase the difficulties of water quality management. The Shiyan Reservoir catchment, a typical rapidly urbanizing area in China, is chosen as a study area, and temporary monitoring sites were set at the downstream of its 6 sub-catchments to synchronously measure rainfall, runoff and water quality during 4 storm events in 2007 and 2009. Due to relatively low frequency monitoring, the IHACRES and exponential pollutant wash-off simulation models are used to interpolate the measured data to compensate for data insufficiency. Three indicators, event pollutant loads per unit area (EPL), event mean concentration (EMC) and pollutant loads transported by the first 50% of runoff volume (FF50), were used to describe the runoff pollution for different pollutants in each sub-catchment during the storm events, and the correlations between runoff pollution spatial variations and land-use patterns were tested by Spearman's rank correlation analysis. The results indicated that similar spatial variation trends were found for different pollutants (EPL or EMC) in light storm events, which strongly correlate with the proportion of residential land use; however, they have different trends in heavy storm events, which correlate with not only the residential land use, but also agricultural and bare land use. And some pairs of pollutants (such as COD/BOD, NH(3)-N/TN) might have the similar source because they have strong or moderate positive spatial correlation. Moreover, the first flush intensity (FF50) varies with impervious land areas and different interception ratio of initial storm runoff volume should be adopted in different sub-catchments. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Allelic sequence variations in the hypervariable region of a T-cell receptor β chain: Correlation with restriction fragment length polymorphism in human families and populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Direct sequence analysis of the human T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) V β1 variable gene identified a single base-pair allelic variation (C/G) located within the coding region. This change results in substitution of a histidine (CAC) for a glutamine (CAG) at position 48 of the TCR β chain, a position predicted to be in the TCR antigen binding site. The V β1 polymorphism was found by DNA sequence analysis of V β1 genes from seven unrelated individuals; V β1 genes were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction, the amplified fragments were cloned into M13 phage vectors, and sequences were determined. To determined the inheritance patterns of the V β1 substitution and to test correlation with V β1 restriction fragment length polymorphism detected with Pvu II and Taq I, allele-specific oligonucleotides were constructed and used to characterize amplified DNA samples. Seventy unrelated individuals and six families were tested for both restriction fragment length polymorphism and for the V β1 substitution. The correlation was also tested using amplified, size-selected, Pvu II- and Taq I-digested DNA samples from heterozygotes. Pvu II allele 1 (61/70) and Taq I allele 1 (66/70) were found to be correlated with the substitution giving rise to a histidine at position 48. Because there are exceptions to the correlation, the use of specific probes to characterize allelic forms of TCR variable genes will provide important tools for studies of basic TCR genetics and disease associations

  14. Selection for rapid embryo development correlates with embryo exposure to maternal androgens among passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabl, Hubert; Palacios, Maria G; Martin, Thomas E

    2007-08-01

    Greater offspring predation favors evolution of faster development among species. We hypothesized that greater offspring predation exerts selection on mothers to increase levels of anabolic androgens in egg yolks to achieve faster development. Here, we tested whether (1) concentrations of yolk androgens in passerine species were associated with offspring predation and (2) embryo and nestling development rates were associated with yolk androgen concentrations. We examined three androgens that increase in potency along the synthesis pathway: androstenedione (A(4)) to testosterone (T) to 5 alpha -dihydrotestosterone (5 alpha -DHT). Concentrations of none of these steroids were related to clutch size; only A(4) was allometrically related to egg volume. Species that experience greater predation showed higher yolk concentrations of T and 5 alpha -DHT. Higher concentrations of T and particularly 5 alpha -DHT were strongly correlated with faster development during the embryo period and less so during the nestling period. Development rates were most strongly correlated with 5 alpha -DHT, suggesting that potency increases along the androgen synthesis pathway and that effects are mediated by the androgen receptor pathway. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that selection for faster development by time-dependent offspring mortality may be achieved epigenetically by varying embryo exposure to maternal anabolic steroids.

  15. Calculation of evolutionary correlation between individual genes and full-length genome: a method useful for choosing phylogenetic markers for molecular epidemiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Wang

    Full Text Available Individual genes or regions are still commonly used to estimate the phylogenetic relationships among viral isolates. The genomic regions that can faithfully provide assessments consistent with those predicted with full-length genome sequences would be preferable to serve as good candidates of the phylogenetic markers for molecular epidemiological studies of many viruses. Here we employed a statistical method to evaluate the evolutionary relationships between individual viral genes and full-length genomes without tree construction as a way to determine which gene can match the genome well in phylogenetic analyses. This method was performed by calculation of linear correlations between the genetic distance matrices of aligned individual gene sequences and aligned genome sequences. We applied this method to the phylogenetic analyses of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2, measles virus (MV, hepatitis E virus (HEV and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV. Phylogenetic trees were constructed for comparisons and the possible factors affecting the method accuracy were also discussed in the calculations. The results revealed that this method could produce results consistent with those of previous studies about the proper consensus sequences that could be successfully used as phylogenetic markers. And our results also suggested that these evolutionary correlations could provide useful information for identifying genes that could be used effectively to infer the genetic relationships.

  16. The FIR-Radio Correlation in Rapidly Star-Forming Galaxies: The Spectral Index Problem and Proton Calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Todd A.; Lacki, Brian C.

    We review the physics of the FIR-radio correlation (FRC) of star-forming galaxies, focusing on "electron calorimetry" as an explanation. We emphasize the importance of the "spectral index problem"—that galaxies have flatter GHz synchrotron spectra than predicted in the strong-cooling calorimeter limit. We argue that these shallow spectra require significant bremsstrahlung and/or ionization losses for the primary and secondary CR electron/positron populations. This then implies that CR protons suffer strong pionic losses before escape in dense starburst galaxies ("proton calorimetry"), and that these systems should be gamma-ray bright, forming a FIR-gamma-ray correlation. Implications for the diffuse non-thermal cosmic gamma-ray and neutrino backgrounds are mentioned. Caveats and uncertainties, as well as other solutions to the "spectral index problem" such as rapid advection of CRs in starburst superwinds, are highlighted.

  17. Rapid feedback responses correlate with reach adaptation and properties of novel upper limb loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluff, Tyler; Scott, Stephen H

    2013-10-02

    A hallmark of voluntary motor control is the ability to adjust motor patterns for novel mechanical or visuomotor contexts. Recent work has also highlighted the importance of feedback for voluntary control, leading to the hypothesis that feedback responses should adapt when we learn new motor skills. We tested this prediction with a novel paradigm requiring that human subjects adapt to a viscous elbow load while reaching to three targets. Target 1 required combined shoulder and elbow motion, target 2 required only elbow motion, and target 3 (probe target) required shoulder but no elbow motion. This simple approach controlled muscle activity at the probe target before, during, and after the application of novel elbow loads. Our paradigm allowed us to perturb the elbow during reaching movements to the probe target and identify several key properties of adapted stretch responses. Adapted long-latency responses expressed (de-) adaptation similar to reaching errors observed when we introduced (removed) the elbow load. Moreover, reaching errors during learning correlated with changes in the long-latency response, showing subjects who adapted more to the elbow load displayed greater modulation of their stretch responses. These adapted responses were sensitive to the size and direction of the viscous training load. Our results highlight an important link between the adaptation of feedforward and feedback control and suggest a key part of motor adaptation is to adjust feedback responses to the requirements of novel motor skills.

  18. Correlative physiological and morphological studies of rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors in cat's glabrous skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iggo, A; Ogawa, H

    1977-01-01

    1. A total of fifty-four mechanoreceptor afferent units with fast conducting axons in the tibial nerve innervating the glabrous skin of the hind leg were isolated in anaesthetized cats. 2. Twenty-six rapidly adapting units (RA), eighteen slowly adapting units (SA) and ten Pacinian corpuscle units (PC) were differentiated from each other mainly on the presence of the off response in RA and PC units to a ramp stimulation, the persistence of discharges of the SA units during steady pressure on the receptive field and the classical tuning curve seen in the PC units. A few PC units in the hairy skin were also studied for comparison. 3. Lamellated corpuscles were found histologically in the skin of the receptive field of RA units and identified as Krause's corpuscle of cylindrical type by their superficial location in the cutaneous tissue and their structure revealed by electron microscopy. 4. Physiological characteristics of RA units to various forms of mechanical stimulation were studied and compared with those of the other two kinds of units. SA units had the lowest critical slope among three groups and PC units the highest. 5. The discharge pattern of RA and PC units to a ramp stimulation was found to be time-locked, whereas with SA unites only the first spike appeared at a fixed latency from the start of stimulation. 6. Some RA units showed a tuning curve which was flat from 10 to 200 Hz. Those with narrowly tuned curves had a best turning frequency at around 20 Hz. They were easily differentiated from the SA and PC units. SA units were tuned best at 5 HZ or less, and PC units at around 200 HZ. 7. The relation between the indentation velocity and amplitude of the ramp and the spike discharges was analysed in eleven RA units. In most cases the relation between identation velocity and maximum instataneous frequency was found to be best fit with a power function although other kinds of functions (linear, logarithmic, and logarithmic hyperbolic tangent) could also fit

  19. Dressed ion theory of size-asymmetric electrolytes: effective ionic charges and the decay length of screened Coulomb potential and pair correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Björn; Ulander, Johan; Kjellander, Roland

    2005-02-08

    The effects of ionic size asymmetry on long-range electrostatic interactions in electrolyte solutions are investigated within the primitive model. Using the formalism of dressed ion theory we analyze correlation functions from Monte Carlo simulations and the hypernetted chain approximation for size asymmetric 1:1 electrolytes. We obtain decay lengths of the screened Coulomb potential, effective charges of ions, and effective permittivity of the solution. It is found that the variation of these quantities with the degree of size asymmetry depends in a quite intricate manner on the interplay between the electrostatic coupling and excluded volume effects. In most cases the magnitude of the effective charge of the small ion species is larger than that of the large species; the difference increases with increasing size asymmetry. The effective charges of both species are larger (in absolute value) than the bare ionic charge, except for high asymmetry where the effective charge of the large ions can become smaller than the bare charge.

  20. Rapidity and kT dependence of HBT correlations in Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV with PHOBOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzman, Burt; the PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2004-08-01

    Two-particle correlations of identical charged pion pairs from Au+Au collisions at \\sqrt{s_NN} = 200 GeV were measured by the PHOBOS experiment at RHIC. Data for the most central (0-15%) events were analysed with Bertsch-Pratt (BP) and Yano-Koonin-Podgoretskii (YKP) parametrizations using pairs with rapidities of 0.4 < y < 1.3 and transverse momenta 0.1 < kT < 1.4 GeV/c. The Bertsch-Pratt radii decrease as a function of pair transverse momentum. The pair rapidity Yππ roughly scales with the source rapidity YYKP, indicating strong dynamical correlations.

  1. Charge Separation in Intermixed Polymer:PC70BM Photovoltaic Blends: Correlating Structural and Photophysical Length Scales as a Function of Blend Composition

    KAUST Repository

    Utzat, Hendrik

    2017-04-24

    A key challenge in achieving control over photocurrent generation by bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells is understanding how the morphology of the active layer impacts charge separation and in particular the separation dynamics within molecularly intermixed donor-acceptor domains versus the dynamics between phase-segregated domains. This paper addresses this issue by studying blends and devices of the amorphous silicon-indacenodithiophene polymer SiIDT-DTBT and the acceptor PCBM. By changing the blend composition, we modulate the size and density of the pure and intermixed domains on the nanometer length scale. Laser spectroscopic studies show that these changes in morphology correlate quantitatively with the changes in charge separation dynamics on the nanosecond time scale and with device photocurrent densities. At low fullerene compositions, where only a single, molecularly intermixed polymer-fullerene phase is observed, photoexcitation results in a ∼ 30% charge loss from geminate polaron pair recombination, which is further studied via light intensity experiments showing that the radius of the polaron pairs in the intermixed phase is 3-5 nm. At high fullerene compositions (≥67%), where the intermixed domains are 1-3 nm and the pure fullerene phases reach ∼4 nm, the geminate recombination is suppressed by the reduction of the intermixed phase, making the fullerene domains accessible for electron escape.

  2. Correlative analysis of metabolite profiling of Danggui Buxue Tang in rat biological fluids by rapid resolution LC-TOF/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang-Yin; Qi, Lian-Wen; Li, Ping

    2011-04-28

    In this work, the metabolite profiles of Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) in rat bile and plasma were qualitatively described, and the possible metabolic pathways of DBT were subsequently proposed. Emphasis was put on correlative analysis of metabolite profiling in different biological fluids. After oral administration of DBT, bile and plasma samples were collected and pretreated by solid phase extraction. Rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-TOFMS) was used for characterization of DBT-related compounds (parent compounds and metabolites) in biological matrices. A total of 142 metabolites were detected and tentatively identified from the drug-containing bile and plasma samples. Metabolite profiling shows that rat bile contained relatively more glutathione-derived conjugates, more saponins compounds and more diverse forms of metabolites than urine. The metabolite profile in plasma revealed that glucuronide conjugates of isoflavonoids, dimmers, acetylcysteine conjugates and parent form of phthalides, as well as saponin aglycones were the major circulating forms of DBT. Collectively, the metabolite profile analysis of DBT in different biological matrices provided a comprehensive understanding of the in vivo metabolic fates of constituents in DBT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fundamental length and relativistic length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    It si noted that the introduction of fundamental length contradicts the conventional representations concerning the contraction of the longitudinal size of fast-moving objects. The use of the concept of relativistic length and the following ''elongation formula'' permits one to solve this problem

  4. Flame Length

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  5. Rapidity and energy dependence of the electric charge correlations in A+A collisions from 20A to 158A GeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botje, M.A.J.; van Leeuwen, M.; Mischke, A.

    2007-01-01

    Results from electric charge correlations studied with the Balance Function (BF) method in A+A collisions from 20A to 158A GeV are presented in two different rapidity intervals: In the midrapidity region we observe a decrease of the width of the BF distribution with increasing centrality of the

  6. Transverse momentum and rapidity dependence of Hanbury-Brown Twiss correlations in Au+Au collisions at sNN= 62.4 and 200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Hauer, M.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; Nieuwenhuizen, G. J. Van; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wenger, E.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2006-03-01

    Two-particle correlations of identical charged pion pairs from Au+Au collisions at sNN=62.4 and 200 GeV were measured by the PHOBOS experiment at BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Data for the 15% most central events were analyzed with Bertsch-Pratt and Yano-Koonin-Podgoretskii parametrizations using pairs with rapidities of 0.4rapidity yYKP scales roughly with the pair rapidity yππ, indicating strong dynamical correlations.

  7. Comparison of short-range rapidity correlations in anti pp and pp interactions at √S = 53 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breakstone, A.; Crawley, H.B.; Firestone, A.; Gorbics, M.; Lamsa, J.W.; Meyer, W.T.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements are presented of two-particle rapidity correlations in anti pp and pp at √S = 53 GeV. The data were recorded at the CERN-ISR using the Split Field Magnet spectrometer with a minimum bias trigger. Short range correlations in normal inelastic events with measured charged multiplicities nsub(ch) >= 4 are observed for pairs of charged particles in all charge combinations. Within the experimental errors no differences are observed between the analogous correlations in pp and anti pp interactions. (orig.)

  8. Fundamental length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, T.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of fundamental length was first put forward by Heisenberg from purely dimensional reasons. From a study of the observed masses of the elementary particles known at that time, it is sumrised that this length should be of the order of magnitude 1 approximately 10 -13 cm. It was Heisenberg's belief that introduction of such a fundamental length would eliminate the divergence difficulties from relativistic quantum field theory by cutting off the high energy regions of the 'proper fields'. Since the divergence difficulties arise primarily due to infinite number of degrees of freedom, one simple remedy would be the introduction of a principle that limits these degrees of freedom by removing the effectiveness of the waves with a frequency exceeding a certain limit without destroying the relativistic invariance of the theory. The principle can be stated as follows: It is in principle impossible to invent an experiment of any kind that will permit a distintion between the positions of two particles at rest, the distance between which is below a certain limit. A more elegant way of introducing fundamental length into quantum theory is through commutation relations between two position operators. In quantum field theory such as quantum electrodynamics, it can be introduced through the commutation relation between two interpolating photon fields (vector potentials). (K.B.)

  9. Two-particle K0π+ and K0π- rapidity correlations in K+p-interactions at 8.2 and 16 GeV/c and their relation to the Ksup(*)(892) resonance production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatkins, D.

    1975-01-01

    Two-particle K 0 π + and K 0 π - rapidity correlations in K + p interactions at 8.2 and 16 GeV/c are compared for different regions of (K 0 π +- ) effective mass. It is shown that the strong Ksup(*)(892) resonance production has a small effect on the K 0 π - rapidity correlation behaviour

  10. Two particle correlations at mid-rapidity in Si+A and Au+Au from E859/E866

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.D.

    1997-01-01

    Two particle correlation measurements for Si-A and Au- Au collisions from Brookhaven E859 and E866 are discussed. These measurements allow us, with some interpretation, to deduce the size of the participant region in a heavy ion collision. We show that various source parameterizations yield consistent results and we explore the dependence of the apparent source size on the pion yield

  11. CHANG-ES. IX. Radio scale heights and scale lengths of a consistent sample of 13 spiral galaxies seen edge-on and their correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Marita; Irwin, Judith; Wiegert, Theresa; Miskolczi, Arpad; Damas-Segovia, Ancor; Beck, Rainer; Li, Jiang-Tao; Heald, George; Müller, Peter; Stein, Yelena; Rand, Richard J.; Heesen, Volker; Walterbos, Rene A. M.; Dettmar, Ralf-Jürgen; Vargas, Carlos J.; English, Jayanne; Murphy, Eric J.

    2018-03-01

    Aim. The vertical halo scale height is a crucial parameter to understand the transport of cosmic-ray electrons (CRE) and their energy loss mechanisms in spiral galaxies. Until now, the radio scale height could only be determined for a few edge-on galaxies because of missing sensitivity at high resolution. Methods: We developed a sophisticated method for the scale height determination of edge-on galaxies. With this we determined the scale heights and radial scale lengths for a sample of 13 galaxies from the CHANG-ES radio continuum survey in two frequency bands. Results: The sample average values for the radio scale heights of the halo are 1.1 ± 0.3 kpc in C-band and 1.4 ± 0.7 kpc in L-band. From the frequency dependence analysis of the halo scale heights we found that the wind velocities (estimated using the adiabatic loss time) are above the escape velocity. We found that the halo scale heights increase linearly with the radio diameters. In order to exclude the diameter dependence, we defined a normalized scale height h˜ which is quite similar for all sample galaxies at both frequency bands and does not depend on the star formation rate or the magnetic field strength. However, h˜ shows a tight anticorrelation with the mass surface density. Conclusions: The sample galaxies with smaller scale lengths are more spherical in the radio emission, while those with larger scale lengths are flatter. The radio scale height depends mainly on the radio diameter of the galaxy. The sample galaxies are consistent with an escape-dominated radio halo with convective cosmic ray propagation, indicating that galactic winds are a widespread phenomenon in spiral galaxies. While a higher star formation rate or star formation surface density does not lead to a higher wind velocity, we found for the first time observational evidence of a gravitational deceleration of CRE outflow, e.g. a lowering of the wind velocity from the galactic disk.

  12. Rapid decadal evolution in the groundwater arsenic content of Kolkata, India and its correlation with the practices of her dwellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakar, Arindam; Islam, Samirul; Ali, Md Ashif; Ray, Sugata

    2016-10-01

    Increasing arsenic contamination in the groundwater is one of the biggest environmental challenges that the Bengal delta is facing today. Groundwater is still the main source of water for a large number of population in this region and therefore, significant presence of toxic arsenic has a direct consequence on human lives here. Moreover, arsenic also enters into the food chain through the consumed agricultural products grown in this area. Therefore, acquiring knowledge about the ever-changing map of arsenic contamination and employing adequate protective measures are of utmost importance. Here, we present a comprehensive municipal ward-wise map of the arsenic content of the shallow groundwater table of Kolkata-the most important and highly population dense city of the delta. Comparison with previously available data reveals a rapid change and the grim situation for the city. Our study suggests that it should be an immediate task of the administration to extend treated water service to the whole population of the city for direct consumption, and artificial recharge and maximum rainwater replenishment need to be taken up with utmost urgency to avoid intrusion of toxicity in biological food chains via agricultural products. We hope our study would drive the city planners to reconsider the existing urbanization and development plans of all the cities, placed over arsenic-contaminated groundwater aquifers.

  13. Stormwater Runoff Pollutant Loading Distributions and Their Correlation with Rainfall and Catchment Characteristics in a Rapidly Industrialized City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongya; Wan, Jinquan; Ma, Yongwen; Wang, Yan; Huang, Mingzhi; Chen, Yangmei

    2015-01-01

    Fast urbanization and industrialization in developing countries result in significant stormwater runoff pollution, due to drastic changes in land-use, from rural to urban. A three-year study on the stormwater runoff pollutant loading distributions of industrial, parking lot and mixed commercial and residential catchments was conducted in the Tongsha reservoir watershed of Dongguan city, a typical, rapidly industrialized urban area in China. This study presents the changes in concentration during rainfall events, event mean concentrations (EMCs) and event pollution loads per unit area (EPLs). The first flush criterion, namely the mass first flush ratio (MFFn), was used to identify the first flush effects. The impacts of rainfall and catchment characterization on EMCs and pollutant loads percentage transported by the first 40% of runoff volume (FF40) were evaluated. The results indicated that the pollutant wash-off process of runoff during the rainfall events has significant temporal and spatial variations. The mean rainfall intensity (I), the impervious rate (IMR) and max 5-min intensity (Imax5) are the critical parameters of EMCs, while Imax5, antecedent dry days (ADD) and rainfall depth (RD) are the critical parameters of FF40. Intercepting the first 40% of runoff volume can remove 55% of TSS load, 53% of COD load, 58% of TN load, and 61% of TP load, respectively, according to all the storm events. These results may be helpful in mitigating stormwater runoff pollution for many other urban areas in developing countries. PMID:25774922

  14. Stormwater runoff pollutant loading distributions and their correlation with rainfall and catchment characteristics in a rapidly industrialized city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongya; Wan, Jinquan; Ma, Yongwen; Wang, Yan; Huang, Mingzhi; Chen, Yangmei

    2015-01-01

    Fast urbanization and industrialization in developing countries result in significant stormwater runoff pollution, due to drastic changes in land-use, from rural to urban. A three-year study on the stormwater runoff pollutant loading distributions of industrial, parking lot and mixed commercial and residential catchments was conducted in the Tongsha reservoir watershed of Dongguan city, a typical, rapidly industrialized urban area in China. This study presents the changes in concentration during rainfall events, event mean concentrations (EMCs) and event pollution loads per unit area (EPLs). The first flush criterion, namely the mass first flush ratio (MFFn), was used to identify the first flush effects. The impacts of rainfall and catchment characterization on EMCs and pollutant loads percentage transported by the first 40% of runoff volume (FF40) were evaluated. The results indicated that the pollutant wash-off process of runoff during the rainfall events has significant temporal and spatial variations. The mean rainfall intensity (I), the impervious rate (IMR) and max 5-min intensity (Imax5) are the critical parameters of EMCs, while Imax5, antecedent dry days (ADD) and rainfall depth (RD) are the critical parameters of FF40. Intercepting the first 40% of runoff volume can remove 55% of TSS load, 53% of COD load, 58% of TN load, and 61% of TP load, respectively, according to all the storm events. These results may be helpful in mitigating stormwater runoff pollution for many other urban areas in developing countries.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of the lumbar spine in elite horseback riders: correlations with back pain, body mass index, trunk/leg-length coefficient, and riding discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Clayton N; Pennekamp, Peter H; Becker, Ute; Young, Mei; Diedrich, Oliver; Lüring, Christian; von Falkenhausen, Makus

    2009-11-01

    Most orthopaedic problems experienced by competitive horseback riders are related to pain in the lower back, hip joint, and hamstring muscles. Riders-especially, show jumpers-are frequently hampered in their performance because of lumbar pain. To date, there has been no research into lumbar disk degeneration in elite competitive riders. Competitive horseback riding accelerates lumbar disk degeneration. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Fifty-eight elite riders (18 men, 40 women; mean age, 32.4 years) and a control group of 30 nonriding volunteers (17 men, 13 women; mean age, 28.7 years) were evaluated for lumbar disk degeneration, cross-sectional area of paraspinal muscles, spondylolysis, and spondylolisthesis, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The prevalence of disk degeneration between the 2 groups was compared, and the relationship was investigated between low back pain (LBP), riding discipline, body mass index (BMI), trunk/leg-length coefficient, and MRI results. Eighty-eight percent of elite riders (n = 51) had a history of LBP, versus 33% of the controls (P back pain. Although riders have a high prevalence of LBP, there is no conclusive MRI evidence to suggest that the cause lies in undue disk degeneration, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, or pathologic changes of the paraspinal muscles of the lumbar spine.

  16. A Rapid Identification Method for Calamine Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Based on Multi-Reference Correlation Coefficient Method and Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yangbo; Chen, Long; Huang, Bisheng; Chen, Keli

    2017-07-01

    As a mineral, the traditional Chinese medicine calamine has a similar shape to many other minerals. Investigations of commercially available calamine samples have shown that there are many fake and inferior calamine goods sold on the market. The conventional identification method for calamine is complicated, therefore as a result of the large scale of calamine samples, a rapid identification method is needed. To establish a qualitative model using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for rapid identification of various calamine samples, large quantities of calamine samples including crude products, counterfeits and processed products were collected and correctly identified using the physicochemical and powder X-ray diffraction method. The NIR spectroscopy method was used to analyze these samples by combining the multi-reference correlation coefficient (MRCC) method and the error back propagation artificial neural network algorithm (BP-ANN), so as to realize the qualitative identification of calamine samples. The accuracy rate of the model based on NIR and MRCC methods was 85%; in addition, the model, which took comprehensive multiple factors into consideration, can be used to identify crude calamine products, its counterfeits and processed products. Furthermore, by in-putting the correlation coefficients of multiple references as the spectral feature data of samples into BP-ANN, a BP-ANN model of qualitative identification was established, of which the accuracy rate was increased to 95%. The MRCC method can be used as a NIR-based method in the process of BP-ANN modeling.

  17. Charged-to-neutral correlation at forward rapidity in Au + Au collisions at √{sNN}=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anson, C. D.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Beavis, D. R.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Borowski, W.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Brovko, S. G.; Bültmann, S.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, L.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Chwastowski, J.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Contin, G.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cui, X.; Das, S.; Davila Leyva, A.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Derradi de Souza, R.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Ding, F.; Djawotho, P.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Engle, K. S.; Eppley, G.; Eun, L.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Fedorisin, J.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Gliske, S.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hamed, A.; Han, L.-X.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kesich, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Konzer, J.; Koralt, I.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kotchenda, L.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. M.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T. S.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Ohlson, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldag, E. W.; Olvitt, D. L.; Page, B. S.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Riley, C. K.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ross, J. F.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandacz, A.; Sandweiss, J.; Sangaline, E.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Simko, M.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Solanki, D.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stevens, J. R.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Turnau, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Vanfossen, J. A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Vossen, A.; Wada, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, H.; Xu, J.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yan, W.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Event-by-event fluctuations of the multiplicities of inclusive charged particles and photons at forward rapidity in Au +Au collisions at √{sNN}=200 GeV have been studied. The dominant contribution to such fluctuations is expected to come from correlated production of charged and neutral pions. We search for evidence of dynamical fluctuations of different physical origins. Observables constructed out of moments of multiplicities are used as measures of fluctuations. Mixed events and model calculations are used as base lines. Results are compared to the dynamical net-charge fluctuations measured in the same acceptance. A nonzero statistically significant signal of dynamical fluctuations is observed in excess to the model prediction when charged particles and photons are measured in the same acceptance. We find that, unlike dynamical net-charge fluctuation, charge-neutral fluctuation is not dominated by correlation owing to particle decay. Results are compared to the expectations based on the generic production mechanism of pions owing to isospin symmetry, for which no significant (<1 % ) deviation is observed.

  18. Twin correlations of telomere length metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Dalgård, Christine; Möller, Sören

    2015-01-01

    variation among adults. A number of studies have estimated the heritability of LTL, but none has assessed the heritability of age-dependent LTL attrition. METHODS: We examined the heritability of LTL dynamics based on a longitudinal evaluation (an average follow-up of 12 years) in 355 monozygotic and 297...... dizygotic same-sex twins (aged 19-64 years at baseline). RESULTS: Heritability of LTL at baseline was estimated at 64% (95% CI 39% to 83%) with 22% (95% CI 6% to 49%) of shared environmental effects. Heritability of age-dependent LTL attrition rate was estimated at 28% (95% CI 16% to 44%). Individually...

  19. The King-Devick (K-D) test of rapid eye movements: a bedside correlate of disability and quality of life in MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moster, Stephen; Wilson, James A; Galetta, Steven L; Balcer, Laura J

    2014-08-15

    We investigated the King-Devick (K-D) test of rapid number naming as a visual performance measure in a cohort of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). In this cross-sectional study, 81 patients with MS and 20 disease-free controls from an ongoing study of visual outcomes underwent K-D testing. A test of rapid number naming, K-D requires saccadic eye movements as well as intact vision, attention and concentration. To perform the K-D test, participants are asked to read numbers aloud as quickly as possible from three test cards; the sum of the three test card times in seconds constitutes the summary score. High-contrast visual acuity (VA), low-contrast letter acuity (1.25% and 2.5% levels), retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness by optical coherence tomography (OCT), MS Functional Composite (MSFC) and vision-specific quality of life (QOL) measures (25-Item NEI Visual Functioning Questionnaire [NEI-VFQ-25] and 10-Item Neuro-Ophthalmic Supplement) were also assessed. K-D time scores in the MS cohort (total time to read the three test cards) were significantly higher (worse) compared to those for disease-free controls (P=0.003, linear regression, accounting for age). Within the MS cohort, higher K-D scores were associated with worse scores for the NEI-VFQ-25 composite (Paccounting for age and within-patient, inter-eye correlations). Patients with a history of optic neuritis (ON) had increased (worse) K-D scores. Patients who classified their work disability status as disabled (receiving disability pension) did worse on K-D testing compared to those working full-time (P=0.001, accounting for age). The K-D test, a work disability as well as structural changes as measured by OCT imaging. History of ON and abnormal binocular acuities were associated with worse K-D scores, suggesting that abnormalities detected by K-D may go along with afferent dysfunction in MS patients. A brief test that requires saccadic eye movements, K-D should be considered for future MS trials as

  20. Fully exponentially correlated wavefunctions for small atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Frank E. [Department of Physics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 and Quantum Theory Project, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118435, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2015-01-22

    Fully exponentially correlated atomic wavefunctions are constructed from exponentials in all the interparticle coordinates, in contrast to correlated wavefunctions of the Hylleraas form, in which only the electron-nuclear distances occur exponentially, with electron-electron distances entering only as integer powers. The full exponential correlation causes many-configuration wavefunctions to converge with expansion length more rapidly than either orbital formulations or correlated wavefunctions of the Hylleraas type. The present contribution surveys the effectiveness of fully exponentially correlated functions for the three-body system (the He isoelectronic series) and reports their application to a four-body system (the Li atom)

  1. Telomere Length and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Gardner, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length, representing the mean length of all telomeres in leukocytes, is ostensibly a bioindicator of human aging. The authors hypothesized that shorter telomeres might forecast imminent mortality in elderly people better than leukocyte telomere length. They performed mortality...

  2. Construction and evaluation of normalized cDNA libraries enriched with full-length sequences for rapid discovery of new genes from Sisal (Agave sisalana Perr.) different developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Zhao; Zhang, Yan-Mei; Lu, Jun-Ying; Li, Jun-Feng

    2012-10-12

    To provide a resource of sisal-specific expressed sequence data and facilitate this powerful approach in new gene research, the preparation of normalized cDNA libraries enriched with full-length sequences is necessary. Four libraries were produced with RNA pooled from Agave sisalana multiple tissues to increase efficiency of normalization and maximize the number of independent genes by SMART™ method and the duplex-specific nuclease (DSN). This procedure kept the proportion of full-length cDNAs in the subtracted/normalized libraries and dramatically enhanced the discovery of new genes. Sequencing of 3875 cDNA clones of libraries revealed 3320 unigenes with an average insert length about 1.2 kb, indicating that the non-redundancy of libraries was about 85.7%. These unigene functions were predicted by comparing their sequences to functional domain databases and extensively annotated with Gene Ontology (GO) terms. Comparative analysis of sisal unigenes and other plant genomes revealed that four putative MADS-box genes and knotted-like homeobox (knox) gene were obtained from a total of 1162 full-length transcripts. Furthermore, real-time PCR showed that the characteristics of their transcripts mainly depended on the tight expression regulation of a number of genes during the leaf and flower development. Analysis of individual library sequence data indicated that the pooled-tissue approach was highly effective in discovering new genes and preparing libraries for efficient deep sequencing.

  3. Local charge nonequilibrium and anomalous energy dependence of normalized moments in narrow rapidity windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuanfang; Liu Lianshou

    1990-01-01

    From the study of even and odd multiplicity distributions for hadron-hadron collision in different rapidity windows, we propose a simple picture for charge correlation with nonzero correlation length and calculate the multiplicity distributions and the normalized moments in different rapidity windows at different energies. The results explain the experimentally observed coincidence and separation of even and odd distributions and also the anomalous energy dependence of normalized moments in narrow rapidity windows. The reason for the separation of even-odd distributions, appearing first at large multiplicities, is shown to be energy conservation. The special role of no-particle events in narrow rapidity windows is pointed out

  4. Glycogen with short average chain length enhances bacterial durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Wise, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    Glycogen is conventionally viewed as an energy reserve that can be rapidly mobilized for ATP production in higher organisms. However, several studies have noted that glycogen with short average chain length in some bacteria is degraded very slowly. In addition, slow utilization of glycogen is correlated with bacterial viability, that is, the slower the glycogen breakdown rate, the longer the bacterial survival time in the external environment under starvation conditions. We call that a durable energy storage mechanism (DESM). In this review, evidence from microbiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology will be assembled to support the hypothesis of glycogen as a durable energy storage compound. One method for testing the DESM hypothesis is proposed.

  5. Kondo length in bosonic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale; Trombettoni, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Motivated by the fact that the low-energy properties of the Kondo model can be effectively simulated in spin chains, we study the realization of the effect with bond impurities in ultracold bosonic lattices at half filling. After presenting a discussion of the effective theory and of the mapping of the bosonic chain onto a lattice spin Hamiltonian, we provide estimates for the Kondo length as a function of the parameters of the bosonic model. We point out that the Kondo length can be extracted from the integrated real-space correlation functions, which are experimentally accessible quantities in experiments with cold atoms.

  6. Analysis of ureteral length in adult cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. F. Novaes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In some occasions, correlations between human structures can help planning surgical intra-abdominal interventions. The previous determination of ureteral length helps pre-operatory planning of surgeries, reduces costs of auxiliary exams, the correct choice of double-J catheter with low morbidity and fewer symptoms, and an adequate adhesion to treatment. Objective To evaluate ureteral length in adult cadavers and to analyze its correlation with anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to January 2012 we determined ureteral length of adult cadavers submitted to necropsy and obtained the following measures: height, distance from shoulder to wrist, elbow-wrist, xiphoid appendix-umbilicus, umbilicus-pubis, xiphoid appendix-pubis and between iliac spines. We analyzed the correlations between ureteral length and those anthropometric measures. Results We dissected 115 ureters from 115 adult corpses from April 2009 to January 2012. Median ureteral length didn't vary between sexes or according to height. It was observed no correlation among ureteral length and all considered anthropometric measures in all analyzed subgroups and in general population. There were no significant differences between right and left ureteral measures. Conclusions There is no difference of ureteral length in relation to height or gender (male or female. There is no significant correlation among ureteral length and the considered anthropometric measures.

  7. Measuring Crack Length in Coarse Grain Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2010-01-01

    Due to a coarse grain structure, crack lengths in precracked spinel specimens could not be measured optically, so the crack lengths and fracture toughness were estimated by strain gage measurements. An expression was developed via finite element analysis to correlate the measured strain with crack length in four-point flexure. The fracture toughness estimated by the strain gaged samples and another standardized method were in agreement.

  8. Length scales in glass-forming liquids and related systems: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmakar, Smarajit; Dasgupta, Chandan; Sastry, Srikanth

    2016-01-01

    The central problem in the study of glass-forming liquids and other glassy systems is the understanding of the complex structural relaxation and rapid growth of relaxation times seen on approaching the glass transition. A central conceptual question is whether one can identify one or more growing length scale(s) associated with this behavior. Given the diversity of molecular glass-formers and a vast body of experimental, computational and theoretical work addressing glassy behavior, a number of ideas and observations pertaining to growing length scales have been presented over the past few decades, but there is as yet no consensus view on this question. In this review, we will summarize the salient results and the state of our understanding of length scales associated with dynamical slow down. After a review of slow dynamics and the glass transition, pertinent theories of the glass transition will be summarized and a survey of ideas relating to length scales in glassy systems will be presented. A number of studies have focused on the emergence of preferred packing arrangements and discussed their role in glassy dynamics. More recently, a central object of attention has been the study of spatially correlated, heterogeneous dynamics and the associated length scale, studied in computer simulations and theoretical analysis such as inhomogeneous mode coupling theory. A number of static length scales have been proposed and studied recently, such as the mosaic length scale discussed in the random first-order transition theory and the related point-to-set correlation length. We will discuss these, elaborating on key results, along with a critical appraisal of the state of the art. Finally we will discuss length scales in driven soft matter, granular fluids and amorphous solids, and give a brief description of length scales in aging systems. Possible relations of these length scales with those in glass-forming liquids will be discussed. (review article)

  9. Even-odd charged multiplicity distributions and energy dependence of normalized multiplicity moments in different rapidity windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuanfang; Liu Lianshou

    1990-01-01

    The even and odd multiplicity distributions for hadron-hadron collision in different rapidity windows are calculated, starting from a simple picture for charge correlation with non-zero correlation length. The coincidence and separation of these distributions are explained. The calculated window-and energy-dependence of normalized moments recovered the behaviour found in experiments. A new definition for normalized moments is propossed, especially suitable for narrow rapidity windows

  10. Rapidity correlations between high pT intermediate vector bosons and jets in bar pp collisions at √s = 1.8 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abachi, S.

    1995-07-01

    D OE has used W → eν and Z → e + e - events produced in association with a high p T , jet to examine the effects of strong radiative corrections. We have compared the primary jet pseudorapidity distribution, as a function of reconstructed W or Z boson rapidity to leading order (LO) and Next-to-Leading order (NLO) QCD Monte Carlo generators, as well as a model based on extended color dipoles. We find that the primary jet is more central than either LO or NLO expectations. None of the Monte Carlo programs does a good job of predicting the shape of the jet distributions as a function of intermediate vector bosons rapidity

  11. Telomere length analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Andrés; Klatt, Peter; Blasco, María A

    2007-01-01

    Most somatic cells of long-lived species undergo telomere shortening throughout life. Critically short telomeres trigger loss of cell viability in tissues, which has been related to alteration of tissue function and loss of regenerative capabilities in aging and aging-related diseases. Hence, telomere length is an important biomarker for aging and can be used in the prognosis of aging diseases. These facts highlight the importance of developing methods for telomere length determination that can be employed to evaluate telomere length during the human aging process. Telomere length quantification methods have improved greatly in accuracy and sensitivity since the development of the conventional telomeric Southern blot. Here, we describe the different methodologies recently developed for telomere length quantification, as well as their potential applications for human aging studies.

  12. Characterisation of vaccine-induced, broadly cross-reactive IFN-γ secreting T cell responses that correlate with rapid protection against classical swine fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Simon P; Haines, Felicity J; Johns, Helen L; Sosan, Olubukola; La Rocca, S Anna; Lamp, Benjamin; Rümenapf, Till; Everett, Helen E; Crooke, Helen R

    2012-04-05

    Live attenuated C-strain classical swine fever viruses (CSFV) provide a rapid onset of protection, but the lack of a serological test that can differentiate vaccinated from infected animals limits their application in CSF outbreaks. Since immunity may precede antibody responses, we examined the kinetics and specificity of peripheral blood T cell responses from pigs vaccinated with a C-strain vaccine and challenged after five days with a genotypically divergent CSFV isolate. Vaccinated animals displayed virus-specific IFN-γ responses from day 3 post-challenge, whereas, unvaccinated challenge control animals failed to mount a detectable response. Both CD4(+) and cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells were identified as the cellular source of IFN-γ. IFN-γ responses showed extensive cross-reactivity when T cells were stimulated with CSFV isolates spanning the major genotypes. To determine the specificity of these responses, T cells were stimulated with recombinant CSFV proteins and a proteome-wide peptide library from a related virus, BVDV. Major cross-reactive peptides were mapped on the E2 and NS3 proteins. Finally, IFN-γ was shown to exert potent antiviral effects on CSFV in vitro. These data support the involvement of broadly cross-reactive T cell IFN-γ responses in the rapid protection conferred by the C-strain vaccine and this information should aid the development of the next generation of CSFV vaccines. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Telomere length and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...... as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication....... RESULTS: Attendance at hospital for depression was associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not prospectively. Further, purchase of antidepressant medication was not associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally or prospectively. Mean follow-up was 7.6 years (range 0...

  14. Integration of length and curvature in haptic perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Virjanand; Tiest, Wouter M Bergmann; Kappers, Astrid M L

    2014-01-24

    We investigated if and how length and curvature information are integrated when an object is explored in one hand. Subjects were asked to explore four types of objects between thumb and index finger. Objects differed in either length, curvature, both length and curvature correlated as in a circle, or anti-correlated. We found that when both length and curvature are present, performance is significantly better than when only one of the two cues is available. Therefore, we conclude that there is integration of length and curvature. Moreover, if the two cues are correlated in a circular cross-section instead of in an anti-correlated way, performance is better than predicted by a combination of two independent cues. We conclude that integration of curvature and length is highly efficient when the cues in the object are combined as in a circle, which is the most common combination of curvature and length in daily life.

  15. Extended fuel cycle length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyere, M.; Vallee, A.; Collette, C.

    1986-09-01

    Extended fuel cycle length and burnup are currently offered by Framatome and Fragema in order to satisfy the needs of the utilities in terms of fuel cycle cost and of overall systems cost optimization. We intend to point out the consequences of an increased fuel cycle length and burnup on reactor safety, in order to determine whether the bounding safety analyses presented in the Safety Analysis Report are applicable and to evaluate the effect on plant licensing. This paper presents the results of this examination. The first part indicates the consequences of increased fuel cycle length and burnup on the nuclear data used in the bounding accident analyses. In the second part of this paper, the required safety reanalyses are presented and the impact on the safety margins of different fuel management strategies is examined. In addition, systems modifications which can be required are indicated

  16. A Method for Determining Skeletal Lengths from DXA Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogelman Ignac

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skeletal ratios and bone lengths are widely used in anthropology and forensic pathology and hip axis length is a useful predictor of fracture. The aim of this study was to show that skeletal ratios, such as length of femur to height, could be accurately measured from a DXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry image. Methods 90 normal Caucasian females, 18–80 years old, with whole body DXA data were used as subjects. Two methods, linear pixel count (LPC and reticule and ruler (RET were used to measure skeletal sizes on DXA images and compared with real clinical measures from 20 subjects and 20 x-rays of the femur and tibia taken in 2003. Results Although both methods were highly correlated, the LPC inter- and intra-observer error was lower at 1.6% compared to that of RET at 2.3%. Both methods correlated positively with real clinical measures, with LPC having a marginally stronger correlation coefficient (r2 = 0.94; r2 = 0.84; average r2 = 0.89 than RET (r2 = 0.86; r2 = 0.84; average r2 = 0.85 with X-rays and real measures respectively. Also, the time taken to use LPC was half that of RET at 5 minutes per scan. Conclusion Skeletal ratios can be accurately and precisely measured from DXA total body scan images. The LPC method is easy to use and relatively rapid. This new phenotype will be useful for osteoporosis research for individuals or large-scale epidemiological or genetic studies.

  17. Relativistic distances, sizes, lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Such notion as light or retarded distance, field size, formation way, visible size of a body, relativistic or radar length and wave length of light from a moving atom are considered. The relation between these notions is cleared up, their classification is given. It is stressed that the formation way is defined by the field size of a moving particle. In the case of the electromagnetic field, longitudinal sizes increase proportionally γ 2 with growing charge velocity (γ is the Lorentz-factor). 18 refs

  18. Economic issues of broiler production length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szőllősi László

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The length of broiler production cycle is also an important factor when profitability is measured. This paper is to determine the effects of different market ages and down-time period, overall broiler production cycle length on performance and economic parameters based on Hungarian production and financial circumstances. A deterministic model was constructed to manage the function-like correlations of age-related daily weight gain, daily feed intake and daily mortality data. The results show that broiler production cycle length has a significant effect on production and economic performance. Cycle length is determined by the length of down-time and grow-out periods. If down-time period is reduced by one day, an average net income of EUR 0.55 per m2 is realizable. However, the production period is not directly proportional either with emerging costs or obtainable revenues. Profit maximization is attainable if the production period is 41-42 days.

  19. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) for Rapid Determination of Microbial Cell Lipid Content: Correlation with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan-Oropeza, Aaron; Rebois, Rolando; David, Michelle; Moussa, Fathi; Dazzi, Alexandre; Bleton, Jean; Virolle, Marie-Joelle; Deniset-Besseau, Ariane

    2017-10-01

    There is a growing interest worldwide for the production of renewable oil without mobilizing agriculture lands; fast and reliable methods are needed to identify highly oleaginous microorganisms of potential industrial interest. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the relevance of attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy to achieve this goal. To do so, the total lipid content of lyophilized samples of five Streptomyces strains with varying lipid content was assessed with two classical quantitative but time-consuming methods, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ATR Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy in transmission mode with KBr pellets and the fast ATR method, often questioned for its lack of reliability. A linear correlation between these three methods was demonstrated allowing the establishment of equations to convert ATR values expressed as CO/amide I ratio, into micrograms of lipid per milligram of biomass. The ATR method proved to be as reliable and quantitative as the classical GC-MS and FT-IR in transmission mode methods but faster and more reproducible than the latter since it involves far less manipulation for sample preparation than the two others. Attenuated total reflection could be regarded as an efficient fast screening method to identify natural or genetically modified oleaginous microorganisms by the scientific community working in the field of bio-lipids.

  20. Determination of GABA and vigabatrin in human plasma by a rapid and simple HPLC method: correlation between clinical response to vigabatrin and increase in plasma GABA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löscher, W; Fassbender, C P; Gram, L; Gramer, M; Hörstermann, D; Zahner, B; Stefan, H

    1993-03-01

    The novel antiepileptic drug vigabatrin (Sabril) acts by inhibiting degradation of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), increasing the GABA concentrations in the brain. Because the GABA degrading enzyme GABA aminotransferase (GABA-T) is also present in peripheral tissues, including blood platelets, measurement of plasma GABA levels might be a useful indication of the pharmacological response to vigabatrin during therapeutic monitoring. However, because of the very low concentrations of GABA in plasma, the few methods available for plasma GABA analysis are time-consuming, difficult to perform and/or not selective enough because of potential interference with other plasma constituents. In the present study, a rapid, selective and sensitive amino acid analysis HPLC method has been developed for plasma GABA determination with fluorescence detection, using o-phthaldialdehyde as a precolumn derivatizing agent. By employing a 3 microns particle size reversed-phase column and a multi-step gradient system of two solvents, the very low endogenous concentration of GABA in human plasma could be reproducibly quantitated without interference of other endogenous compounds. Incubation of human plasma samples with GABA degrading enzyme(s) resulted in an almost total loss of the GABA peak, thus demonstrating the specificity of the method for GABA analysis. In addition to GABA and other endogenous amino acids, the HPLC method could be used to quantitate plasma levels of vigabatrin. Thus, this improved HPLC amino acid assay might be used to examine whether concomitant monitoring of plasma GABA and vigabatrin is useful for clinical purposes. This was examined in 20 epileptic patients undergoing chronic treatment with vigabatrin. The average plasma GABA level of these 20 patients did not differ significantly from non-epileptic controls. However, when epileptic patients were subdivided according to their clinical response to vigabatrin, vigabatrin responders

  1. Rapid response systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Patrick G; Edelson, Dana P; Churpek, Matthew M

    2018-07-01

    Rapid response systems are commonly employed by hospitals to identify and respond to deteriorating patients outside of the intensive care unit. Controversy exists about the benefits of rapid response systems. We aimed to review the current state of the rapid response literature, including evolving aspects of afferent (risk detection) and efferent (intervention) arms, outcome measurement, process improvement, and implementation. Articles written in English and published in PubMed. Rapid response systems are heterogeneous, with important differences among afferent and efferent arms. Clinically meaningful outcomes may include unexpected mortality, in-hospital cardiac arrest, length of stay, cost, and processes of care at end of life. Both positive and negative interventional studies have been published, although the two largest randomized trials involving rapid response systems - the Medical Early Response and Intervention Trial (MERIT) and the Effect of a Pediatric Early Warning System on All-Cause Mortality in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients (EPOCH) trial - did not find a mortality benefit with these systems, albeit with important limitations. Advances in monitoring technologies, risk assessment strategies, and behavioral ergonomics may offer opportunities for improvement. Rapid responses may improve some meaningful outcomes, although these findings remain controversial. These systems may also improve care for patients at the end of life. Rapid response systems are expected to continue evolving with novel developments in monitoring technologies, risk prediction informatics, and work in human factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. How does harvest size vary with hunting season length?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, Peter; Asferg, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    season length (population management/ethical/other). In non-sedentary species, changes in bag size correlated positively with changes in season length (overall response: b = 0.54, 95%CI: 0.14-0.95): reducing the hunting season to 50% of its initial length would on average result in a 31% reduction (95...

  3. Integration of length and curvature in haptic perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panday, V.; Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated if and how length and curvature information are integrated when an object is explored in one hand. Subjects were asked to explore four types of objects between thumb and index finger. Objects differed in either length, curvature, both length and curvature correlated as in a circle,

  4. The length of the male urethra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias. S. Kohler

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Catheter-based medical devices are an important component of the urologic armamentarium. To our knowledge, there is no population-based data regarding normal male urethral length. We evaluated the length of the urethra in men with normal genitourinary anatomy undergoing either Foley catheter removal or standard cystoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male urethral length was obtained in 109 men. After study permission was obtained, the subject's penis was placed on a gentle stretch and the catheter was marked at the tip of the penis. The catheter was then removed and the distance from the mark to the beginning of the re-inflated balloon was measured. Alternatively, urethral length was measured at the time of cystoscopy, on removal of the cystoscope. Data on age, weight, and height was obtained in patients when possible. RESULTS: The mean urethral length was 22.3 cm with a standard deviation of 2.4 cm. Urethral length varied between 15 cm and 29 cm. No statistically significant correlation was found between urethral length and height, weight, body mass index (BMI, or age. CONCLUSIONS: Literature documenting the length of the normal male adult urethra is scarce. Our data adds to basic anatomic information of the male urethra and may be used to optimize genitourinary device design.

  5. The comparison between the length of vertical dimension of occlusion and the length of thumb on undergraduate Mongoloid students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh Li Teng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Thumb Rule of Leonardo da Vinci states that many proportions of the face show relationship with the length of thumb which is measured from the proximal tip of the proximal phalanx to the distal tip of the distal phalanx. Previous studies have shown that the length of the vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO is similar to the length of thumb of the Caucasoid race. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the length of VDO have correlations with the length of thumb among those of the Mongoloid race. This study took a survey method with the analytical cross-sectional approach. A total of 80 students of Faculty of Dentistry who have fulfilled all population criteria were randomly chosen to measure the length of VDO and the length of the thumb. Results analyzed with Student's t-test statistic revealed that there was a significant difference between males and females in the length of VDO and the length of the thumb, however, there was no significant difference between the length of VDO and the length of the thumb. There were very strong correlations (P<0.05 between the length of VDO and the length of the thumb. As a conclusion, the length of thumb can be suggested as an objective method to determine the length of VDO in this population.

  6. Pion nucleus scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.T.; Levinson, C.A.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1971-09-01

    Soft pion theory and the Fubini-Furlan mass dispersion relations have been used to analyze the pion nucleon scattering lengths and obtain a value for the sigma commutator term. With this value and using the same principles, scattering lengths have been predicted for nuclei with mass number ranging from 6 to 23. Agreement with experiment is very good. For those who believe in the Gell-Mann-Levy sigma model, the evaluation of the commutator yields the value 0.26(m/sub σ//m/sub π/) 2 for the sigma nucleon coupling constant. The large dispersive corrections for the isosymmetric case implies that the basic idea behind many of the soft pion calculations, namely, slow variation of matrix elements from the soft pion limit to the physical pion mass, is not correct. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  7. Gap length distributions by PEPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warszawer, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions guaranteeing exponential gap length distributions are formulated and discussed. Exponential gap length distributions of bubble chamber tracks first obtained on a CRT device are presented. Distributions of resulting average gap lengths and their velocity dependence are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Relativistic length agony continued

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić D.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028

  9. Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In One; Cheon, Jung Eun; Lee, Young Seok; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Ok Hwa; Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Hong Dae; Sim, Jung Suk

    2010-01-01

    Renal length offers important information to detect or follow-up various renal diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the kidney length of normal Korean children in relation to age, height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and body mass index (BMI). Children between 1 month and 15 years of age without urological abnormality were recruited. Children below 3rd percentile and over 97th percentile for height or weight were excluded. Both renal lengths were measured in the prone position three times and then averaged by experienced radiologists. The mean length and standard deviation for each age group was obtained, and regression equation was calculated between renal length and age, weight, height, BSA, and BMI, respectively. Renal length was measured in 550 children. Renal length grows rapidly until 24 month, while the growth rate is reduced thereafter. The regression equation for age is: renal length (mm) = 45.953 + 1.064 x age (month, ≤ 24 months) (R2 = 0.720) or 62.173 + 0.203 x age (months, > 24 months) (R2 = 0.711). The regression equation for height is: renal length (mm) = 24.494 + 0.457 x height (cm) (R2 = 0.894). The regression equation for weight is: renal length (mm) = 38.342 + 2.117 x weight (kg, ≤18 kg) (R2 = 0.852) or 64.498 + 0.646 x weight (kg, > 18 kg) (R2 = 0.651). The regression equation for BSA is: renal length (mm) = 31.622 + 61.363 x BSA (m2, ≤ 0.7) (R2 = 0.857) or 52.717 + 29.959 x BSA (m2, > 0.7) (R2 = 0.715). The regression equation for BMI is: renal length (mm) = 44.474 + 1.163 x BMI (R2 = 0.079). This study provides data on the normal renal length and its association with age, weight, height, BSA and BMI. The results of this study will guide the detection and follow-up of renal diseases in Korean children

  10. Odd Length Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2013-09-01

    Let's denote by VE the speed of the Earth and byVR the speed of the rocket. Both travel in the same direction on parallel trajectories. We consider the Earth as a moving (at a constant speed VE -VR) spacecraft of almost spherical form, whose radius is r and thus the diameter 2r, and the rocket as standing still. The non-proper length of Earth's diameter, as measured by the astronaut is: L = 2 r√{ 1 -|/VE -VR|2 c2 } rocket! Also, let's assume that the astronaut is laying down in the direction of motion. Therefore, he would also shrink, or he would die!

  11. discouraged by queue length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Parthasarathy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient solution is obtained analytically using continued fractions for a state-dependent birth-death queue in which potential customers are discouraged by the queue length. This queueing system is then compared with the well-known infinite server queueing system which has the same steady state solution as the model under consideration, whereas their transient solutions are different. A natural measure of speed of convergence of the mean number in the system to its stationarity is also computed.

  12. Penile length and circumference: an Indian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promodu, K; Shanmughadas, K V; Bhat, S; Nair, K R

    2007-01-01

    Apprehension about the normal size of penis is a major concern for men. Aim of the present investigation is to estimate the penile length and circumference of Indian males and to compare the results with the data from other countries. Results will help in counseling the patients worried about the penile size and seeking penis enlargement surgery. Penile length in flaccid and stretched conditions and circumference were measured in a group of 301 physically normal men. Erected length and circumference were measured for 93 subjects. Mean flaccid length was found to be 8.21 cm, mean stretched length 10.88 cm and circumference 9.14 cm. Mean erected length was found to be 13.01 cm and erected circumference was 11.46 cm. Penile dimensions are found to be correlated with anthropometric parameters. Insight into the normative data of penile size of Indian males obtained. There are significant differences in the mean penile length and circumference of Indian sample compared to the data reported from other countries. Study need to be continued with a large sample to establish a normative data applicable to the general population.

  13. Word Length Effects in Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehan, Gerald; Tolan, Georgina Anne

    2007-01-01

    The word length effect has been a central feature of theorising about immediate memory. The notion that short-term memory traces rapidly decay unless refreshed by rehearsal is based primarily upon the finding that serial recall for short words is better than that for long words. The decay account of the word length effect has come under pressure…

  14. Nuclear reactor with scrammable part length rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1979-01-01

    A new part length rod is provided. It may be used to control xenon induced power oscillations but to contribute to shutdown reactivity when a rapid shutdown of the reactor is required. The part length rod consists of a control rod with three regions. The lower control region is a longer weaker active portion separated from an upper stronger shorter poison section by an intermediate section which is a relative non-absorber of neutrons. The combination of the longer weaker control section with the upper high worth poison section permits the part length rod of this to be scrammed into the core when a reactor shutdown is required but also permits the control rod to be used as a tool to control power distribution in both the axial and radial directions during normal operation

  15. Development of the Heated Length Correction Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ho-Young; Kim, Kang-Hoon; Nahm, Kee-Yil; Jung, Yil-Sup; Park, Eung-Jun

    2008-01-01

    The Critical Heat Flux (CHF) on a nuclear fuel is defined by the function of flow channel geometry and flow condition. According to the selection of the explanatory variable, there are three hypotheses to explain CHF at uniformly heated vertical rod (inlet condition hypothesis, exit condition hypothesis, local condition hypothesis). For inlet condition hypothesis, CHF is characterized by function of system pressure, rod diameter, rod length, mass flow and inlet subcooling. For exit condition hypothesis, exit quality substitutes for inlet subcooling. Generally the heated length effect on CHF in exit condition hypothesis is smaller than that of other variables. Heated length is usually excluded in local condition hypothesis to describe the CHF with only local fluid conditions. Most of commercial plants currently use the empirical CHF correlation based on local condition hypothesis. Empirical CHF correlation is developed by the method of fitting the selected sensitive local variables to CHF test data using the multiple non-linear regression. Because this kind of method can not explain physical meaning, it is difficult to reflect the proper effect of complex geometry. So the recent CHF correlation development strategy of nuclear fuel vendor is making the basic CHF correlation which consists of basic flow variables (local fluid conditions) at first, and then the geometrical correction factors are compensated additionally. Because the functional forms of correction factors are determined from the independent test data which represent the corresponding geometry separately, it can be applied to other CHF correlation directly only with minor coefficient modification

  16. Genetic polymorphism of toll-like receptors 4 gene by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms, polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformational polymorphism to correlate with mastitic cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja H. Gupta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An attempt has been made to study the toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4 gene polymorphism from cattle DNA to correlate with mastitis cows. Materials and Methods: In present investigation, two fragments of TLR4 gene named T4CRBR1 and T4CRBR2 of a 316 bp and 382 bp were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, respectively from Kankrej (22 and Triple cross (24 cattle. The genetic polymorphisms in the two populations were detected by a single-strand conformational polymorphism in the first locus and by digesting the fragments with restriction endonuclease Alu I in the second one. Results: Results showed that both alleles (A and B of two loci were found in all the two populations and the value of polymorphism information content indicated that these were highly polymorphic. Statistical results of χ2 test indicated that two polymorphism sites in the two populations fit with Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (p˂0.05. Meanwhile, the effect of polymorphism of TLR4 gene on the somatic cell score (SCS indicated the cattle with allele a in T4CRBR1 showed lower SCS than that of allele B (p<0.05. Thus, the allele A might play an important role in mastitis resistance in cows. Conclusion: The relationship between the bovine mastitis trait and the polymorphism of TLR4 gene indicated that the bovine TLR4 gene may play an important role in mastitis resistance.

  17. Correlations between the cross-sectional area and moment arm length of the erector spinae muscle and the thickness of the psoas major muscle as measured by MRI and the body mass index in lumbar degenerative kyphosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun; Lee, Sang Jin; Lee, Sang Ho

    2006-01-01

    Lumbar degenerative kyphosis (LDK) is a subgroup of the flatback syndrome, which is a condition caused by spinal degeneration. LDK is reported to be the most frequent cause of lumbar spine deformity in the farming districts of the 'oriental' countries. We investigated the relationship between the cross-sectional area (CSA) and the moment arm length (MAL) of the erector spinae muscle and the thickness of the psoas major muscle (PT) and the body mass index (BMI) by performing statistical analysis, and we tried to show the crucial role of these variables for diagnosing LDK. From July 2004 to April 2005, we retrospectively reviewed 17 LDK patients who had undergone anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) with posterior stabilization. We measured both the CSA and MAL on the transverse cross-sectional MR image of the trunk at the fourth to fifth vertebrae (L4/5). The MAL was defined as the anterior-posterior distance between the center of the erector spinae muscle and that of the vertebral body. A comparative study was undertaken between the LDK group and the matched (according to age and gender) control group with regard to the CSA, MAL, PT and BMI. The 17 LDK patients were all females [age: 62.5 ± 4.93 years, height: 157 ± 6.19 cm, weight: 55.59 ± 4.7 kg, and BMI: 22.58 ± 2.08 kg/m 2 ]. The control group patients were all female [age: 63.6 ± 2.27 years, height: 156 ± 5.05 cm, weight: 59.65 ± 7.39 kg and BMI: 24.38 ± 2.94 kg/m 2 ]. Spearman's rho indicated a positive association between the CSA and BMI (rho = 0.49, ρ = 0.046), between the MAL and BMI (rho = 0.808, ρ = 0.000) and between the CSA and PT (rho = 0.566, ρ = 0.018) in the LDK patients. In terms of the CSA versus MAL, there was a positive association in both groups (rho = 0.67, ρ = 0.000, MAL = 0.023CSA + 5.454 in the LDK group; rho = 0.564, ρ 0.018, MAL = 0.02CSA + 5.832 in the control group with using linear regression analysis). Independent t-tests revealed that both groups had statistically

  18. Sonographic Measurement of Fetal Ear Length in Turkish Women with a Normal Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mucize Eriç Özdemir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormal fetal ear length is a feature of chromosomal disorders. Fetal ear length measurement is a simple measurement that can be obtained during ultrasonographic examinations. Aims: To develop a nomogram for fetal ear length measurements in our population and investigate the correlation between fetal ear length, gestational age, and other standard fetal biometric measurements. Study Design: Cohort study. Methods: Ear lengths of the fetuses were measured in normal singleton pregnancies. The relationship between gestational age and fetal ear length in millimetres was analysed by simple linear regression. In addition, the correlation of fetal ear length measurements with biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length were evaluated.Ear length measurements were obtained from fetuses in 389 normal singleton pregnancies ranging between 16 and 28 weeks of gestation. Results: A nomogram was developed by linear regression analysis of the parameters ear length and gestational age. Fetal ear length (mm = y = (1.348 X gestational age-12.265, where gestational ages is in weeks. A high correlation was found between fetal ear length and gestational age, and a significant correlation was also found between fetal ear length and the biparietal diameter (r=0.962; p<0.001. Similar correlations were found between fetal ear length and head circumference, and fetal ear length and femur length. Conclusion: The results of this study provide a nomogram for fetal ear length. The study also demonstrates the relationship between ear length and other biometric measurements.

  19. Systematic and Cell Type-Specific Telomere Length Changes in Subsets of Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres, the protective DNA-protein complexes at the ends of linear chromosomes, are important for genome stability. Leukocyte or peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC telomere length is a potential biomarker for human aging that integrates genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors and is associated with mortality and risks for major diseases. However, only a limited number of studies have examined longitudinal changes of telomere length and few have reported data on sorted circulating immune cells. We examined the average telomere length (TL in CD4+, CD8+CD28+, and CD8+CD28− T cells, B cells, and PBMCs, cross-sectionally and longitudinally, in a cohort of premenopausal women. We report that TL changes over 18 months were correlated among these three T cell types within the same participant. Additionally, PBMC TL change was also correlated with those of all three T cell types, and B cells. The rate of shortening for B cells was significantly greater than for the three T cell types. CD8+CD28− cells, despite having the shortest TL, showed significantly more rapid attrition when compared to CD8+CD28+ T cells. These results suggest systematically coordinated, yet cell type-specific responses to factors and pathways contribute to telomere length regulation.

  20. Integral equations of hadronic correlation functions a functional- bootstrap approach

    CERN Document Server

    Manesis, E K

    1974-01-01

    A reasonable 'microscopic' foundation of the Feynman hadron-liquid analogy is offered, based on a class of models for hadron production. In an external field formalism, the equivalence (complementarity) of the exclusive and inclusive descriptions of hadronic reactions is specifically expressed in a functional-bootstrap form, and integral equations between inclusive and exclusive correlation functions are derived. Using the latest CERN-ISR data on the two-pion inclusive correlation function, and assuming rapidity translational invariance for the exclusive one, the simplest integral equation is solved in the 'central region' and an exclusive correlation length in rapidity predicted. An explanation is also offered for the unexpected similarity observed between pi /sup +/ pi /sup -/ and pi /sup -/ pi /sup -/ inclusive correlations. (31 refs).

  1. Relationship Between Physician Assistant Program Length and Physician Assistant National Certifying Examination Pass Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletti, Thomas P; Salisbury, Helen; Hertelendy, Attila J; Tseng, Tina

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to examine the relationship between physician assistant (PA) educational program length and PA programs' 5-year average Physician Assistant National Certifying Examination (PANCE) first-time pass rates. This was a retrospective correlational study that analyzed previously collected data from a nonprobability purposive sample of accredited PA program Web sites. Master's level PA programs (n = 108) in the United States with published average PANCE scores for 5 consecutive classes were included. Provisional and probationary programs were excluded (n = 4). Study data were not normally distributed per the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, P = .00. There was no relationship between program length and PANCE pass rates, ρ (108) = -0.04, P = .68. Further analyses examining a possible relationship between program phase length (didactic and clinical) and PANCE pass rates also demonstrated no differences (ρ [107] = -0.05, P = .60 and ρ [107] = 0.02, P = .80, respectively). The results of this study suggest that shorter length PA programs perform similarly to longer programs in preparing students to pass the PANCE. In light of rapid expansion of PA educational programs, educators may want to consider these findings when planning the length of study for new and established programs.

  2. Phenotypic Plasticity in Gut Length in the Planktivorous Filter-Feeding Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixin Ke

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity widely exists in the external morphology of animals as well as the internal traits of organs. In the present study, we studied the gut length plasticity of planktivorous filter-feeding silver carp under different food resources in large-net cage experiments in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu in 2004 and 2005. There was a significant difference in stocking density between these 2 years. Under a low stocking density and abundant food resources, silver carp increased their energy intake by feeding on more zooplankton. Meanwhile, silver carp adjusted their gut length to match the digestive requirements of food when exposed to different food resources. In the main growth seasons (from April to October, silver carp significantly increased their relative gut length when feeding on more phytoplankton in 2005 (p < 0.01, 9.23 ± 1.80 in 2004 and 10.77 ± 2.05 in 2005, respectively. There was a nearly significant negative correlation between zooplankton proportion in the diet and the relative gut length when silver carp were stocked in a high density (p = 0.112. It appears that silver carp might have evolved plasticity to change their gut length rapidly to facilitate efficient utilization of food resources. Such resource polymorphisms in the gut may be a good indication of temporal adaptation to resource conditions. Our work provided field evidence for understanding the functional basis of resource polymorphisms and the evolution of phenotypic plasticity in planktivorous filter-feeding fish.

  3. The effects of age and step length on joint kinematics and kinetics of large out-and-back steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Brian W; Ashton-Miller, James A; Alexander, Neil B

    2008-06-01

    Maximum step length (MSL) is a clinical test that has been shown to correlate with age, various measures of fall risk, and knee and hip joint extension speed, strength, and power capacities, but little is known about the kinematics and kinetics of the large out-and-back step utilized. Body motions and ground reaction forces were recorded for 11 unimpaired younger and 10 older women while attaining maximum step length. Joint kinematics and kinetics were calculated using inverse dynamics. The effects of age group and step length on the biomechanics of these large out-and-back steps were determined. Maximum step length was 40% greater in the younger than in the older women (P<0.0001). Peak knee and hip, but not ankle, angle, velocity, moment, and power were generally greater for younger women and longer steps. After controlling for age group, step length generally explained significant additional variance in hip and torso kinematics and kinetics (incremental R2=0.09-0.37). The young reached their peak knee extension moment immediately after landing of the step out, while the old reached their peak knee extension moment just before the return step liftoff (P=0.03). Maximum step length is strongly associated with hip kinematics and kinetics. Delays in peak knee extension moment that appear to be unrelated to step length, may indicate a reduced ability of older women to rapidly apply force to the ground with the stepping leg and thus arrest the momentum of a fall.

  4. Experimental investigation of tube length effect on nucleate pool boiling heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Myeong-Gie

    1998-01-01

    The effect of a vertically installed tube length on the nucleate pool boiling heat transfer coefficient under atmospheric pressure has been empirically obtained using various combination of major parameters for application to advanced light water reactor design. The experimental data for q'' versus ΔT test are counted as 1,063 points and can cover the extent of D = 9.7 ∼ 25.4 mm, ε = 15.1 ∼ 60.9 nm, H = 5.25 ∼ 30.93, and q'' ≤ 160 kW/m 2 . The experimental results show that a shorter tube is more efficient to increase heat transfer rate due to smaller bubble slug formation on the tube surface. The effect of tube length is greatly observed before H(= L/D) gets 50. After that, the heat flux decreases linearly with H increase. To quantify tube length effect, a new empirical correlation has been developed based on the experimental data bank for pool boiling heat transfer and some parametric studies have been done using the newly developed empirical correlation to broaden its applicability. The newly developed empirical correlation has the form of q'' 0.019ε 0.570 ΔT 4.676 /(D 1.238 H 0.072 ) and can predict the experimental data within ± 20% bound. Heat transfer characteristics can be changed with tube length variation and the transition point is H ∼ 50. Before the transition point, bubble coalescence is active and heat transfer rate gets rapidly decreased with increasing tube length. After that, heat transfer gets somewhat slowly decreased since bubble coalescence effect gets nearly equilibrium with liquid agitation effect

  5. Quantum discord length is enhanced while entanglement length is not by introducing disorder in a spin chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Debasis; Roy, Sudipto Singha; Rakshit, Debraj; Prabhu, R; Sen De, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2016-01-01

    Classical correlation functions of ground states typically decay exponentially and polynomially, respectively, for gapped and gapless short-range quantum spin systems. In such systems, entanglement decays exponentially even at the quantum critical points. However, quantum discord, an information-theoretic quantum correlation measure, survives long lattice distances. We investigate the effects of quenched disorder on quantum correlation lengths of quenched averaged entanglement and quantum discord, in the anisotropic XY and XYZ spin glass and random field chains. We find that there is virtually neither reduction nor enhancement in entanglement length while quantum discord length increases significantly with the introduction of the quenched disorder.

  6. Selective One-Dimensional Total Correlation Spectroscopy Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Experiments for a Rapid Identification of Minor Components in the Lipid Fraction of Milk and Dairy Products: Toward Spin Chromatography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaemmanouil, Christina; Tsiafoulis, Constantinos G; Alivertis, Dimitrios; Tzamaloukas, Ouranios; Miltiadou, Despoina; Tzakos, Andreas G; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P

    2015-06-10

    We report a rapid, direct, and unequivocal spin-chromatographic separation and identification of minor components in the lipid fraction of milk and common dairy products with the use of selective one-dimensional (1D) total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. The method allows for the complete backbone spin-coupling network to be elucidated even in strongly overlapped regions and in the presence of major components from 4 × 10(2) to 3 × 10(3) stronger NMR signal intensities. The proposed spin-chromatography method does not require any derivatization steps for the lipid fraction, is selective with excellent resolution, is sensitive with quantitation capability, and compares favorably to two-dimensional (2D) TOCSY and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods of analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that the 1D TOCSY NMR spin-chromatography method can become a procedure of primary interest in food analysis and generally in complex mixture analysis.

  7. Ultrasonographic assessment of renal length in 310 Turkish children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scanning was performed with a 3.5 MHz ultrasound probe in the supine position. The ultrasonographic appearance of the kidneys we measured was normal. The maximum length of each kidney was measured. The renal length was correlated with somatic parameters including age, body height and weight. Regression ...

  8. Universal and idiosyncratic characteristic lengths in bacterial genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junier, Ivan; Frémont, Paul; Rivoire, Olivier

    2018-05-01

    In condensed matter physics, simplified descriptions are obtained by coarse-graining the features of a system at a certain characteristic length, defined as the typical length beyond which some properties are no longer correlated. From a physics standpoint, in vitro DNA has thus a characteristic length of 300 base pairs (bp), the Kuhn length of the molecule beyond which correlations in its orientations are typically lost. From a biology standpoint, in vivo DNA has a characteristic length of 1000 bp, the typical length of genes. Since bacteria live in very different physico-chemical conditions and since their genomes lack translational invariance, whether larger, universal characteristic lengths exist is a non-trivial question. Here, we examine this problem by leveraging the large number of fully sequenced genomes available in public databases. By analyzing GC content correlations and the evolutionary conservation of gene contexts (synteny) in hundreds of bacterial chromosomes, we conclude that a fundamental characteristic length around 10–20 kb can be defined. This characteristic length reflects elementary structures involved in the coordination of gene expression, which are present all along the genome of nearly all bacteria. Technically, reaching this conclusion required us to implement methods that are insensitive to the presence of large idiosyncratic genomic features, which may co-exist along these fundamental universal structures.

  9. ATXN2 trinucleotide repeat length correlates with risk of ALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sproviero, William; Shatunov, Aleksey; Stahl, Daniel; Shoai, Maryam; van Rheenen, Wouter; Jones, Ashley R; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Andersen, Peter M.; Bonini, Nancy M; Conforti, Francesca L; Van Damme, Philip; Daoud, Hussein; Del Mar Amador, Maria; Fogh, Isabella; Forzan, Monica; Gaastra, Ben; Gellera, Cinzia; Gitler, Aaron D; Hardy, John; Fratta, Pietro; La Bella, Vincenzo; Le Ber, Isabelle; Van Langenhove, Tim; Lattante, Serena; Lee, Yi-Chung; Malaspina, Andrea; Meininger, Vincent; Millecamps, Stéphanie; Orrell, Richard W; Rademakers, Rosa; Robberecht, Wim; Rouleau, Guy A.; Ross, Owen A; Salachas, Francois; Sidle, Katie; Smith, Bradley N; Soong, Bing-Wen; Sorarù, Gianni; Stevanin, Giovanni; Kabashi, Edor; Troakes, Claire; van Broeckhoven, Christine; Veldink, Jan H.; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Shaw, Christopher E; Powell, John F.; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2017-01-01

    We investigated a CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the ATXN2 gene in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Two new case-control studies, a British dataset of 1474 ALS cases and 567 controls, and a Dutch dataset of 1328 ALS cases and 691 controls were analyzed. In addition, to increase power, we

  10. Correlation between prevalence of erectile dysfunction and length of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even stationary bikes can cause trauma to the blood supply to the penis, resulting in erectile dysfunction (22). Objective: To evaluate the effects of long hours of bicycle riding/week on erectile function among bicycle taxi (boda boda) riders in Bungoma town. Design: A Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Bungoma town, part of ...

  11. Diagnostic value of newborn foot length to predict gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutia Farah Fawziah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background  Identification of gestational age, especially within 48 hours of birth, is crucial for newborns, as the earlier preterm status is detected, the earlier the child can receive optimal management. Newborn foot length is an anthropometric measurement which is easy to perform, inexpensive, and potentially efficient for predicting gestational age. Objective  To analyze the diagnostic value of newborn foot length in predicting gestational age. Methods  This diagnostic study was performed between October 2016 and February 2017 in the High Care Unit of Neonates at Dr. Moewardi General Hospital, Surakarta. A total of 152 newborns were consecutively selected and underwent right foot length measurements before 96 hours of age. The correlation between newborn foot length to classify as full term and gestational age was analyzed with Spearman’s correlation test because of non-normal data distribution. The cut-off point of newborn foot length was calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and diagnostic values of newborn foot length were analyzed by 2 x 2 table with SPSS 21.0 software. Results There were no significant differences between male and female newborns in terms of gestational age, birth weight, choronological age, and newborn foot length (P>0.05. Newborn foot length and gestational age had a significant correlation (r=0.53; P=0.000. The optimal cut-off newborn foot length to predict full term status was 7.1 cm. Newborn foot length below 7.1 cm had sensitivity 75%, specificity 98%, positive predictive value 94.3%, negative predictive value 90.6%, positive likelihood ratio 40.5, negative likelihood ratio 0.25, and post-test probability 94.29%, to predict preterm status in newborns. Conclusion  Newborn foot length can be used to predict gestational age, especially for the purpose of differentiating between preterm and full term newborns.

  12. Short Rayleigh length free electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. B. Colson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional free electron laser (FEL oscillators minimize the optical mode volume around the electron beam in the undulator by making the resonator Rayleigh length about one third to one half of the undulator length. This maximizes gain and beam-mode coupling. In compact configurations of high-power infrared FELs or moderate power UV FELs, the resulting optical intensity can damage the resonator mirrors. To increase the spot size and thereby reduce the optical intensity at the mirrors below the damage threshold, a shorter Rayleigh length can be used, but the FEL interaction is significantly altered. We model this interaction using a coordinate system that expands with the rapidly diffracting optical mode from the ends of the undulator to the mirrors. Simulations show that the interaction of the strongly focused optical mode with a narrow electron beam inside the undulator distorts the optical wave front so it is no longer in the fundamental Gaussian mode. The simulations are used to study how mode distortion affects the single-pass gain in weak fields, and the steady-state extraction in strong fields.

  13. Large-scale parent–child comparison confirms a strong paternal influence on telomere length

    OpenAIRE

    Nordfjäll, Katarina; Svenson, Ulrika; Norrback, Karl-Fredrik; Adolfsson, Rolf; Roos, Göran

    2009-01-01

    Telomere length is documented to have a hereditary component, and both paternal and X-linked inheritance have been proposed. We investigated blood cell telomere length in 962 individuals with an age range between 0 and 102 years. Telomere length correlations were analyzed between parent–child pairs in different age groups and between grandparent–grandchild pairs. A highly significant correlation between the father's and the child's telomere length was observed (r=0.454, P

  14. Maternal telomere length inheritance in the king penguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, S; Rojas, E R; Zahn, S; Robin, J-P; Criscuolo, F; Massemin, S

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are emerging as a biomarker for ageing and survival, and are likely important in shaping life-history trade-offs. In particular, telomere length with which one starts in life has been linked to lifelong survival, suggesting that early telomere dynamics are somehow related to life-history trajectories. This result highlights the importance of determining the extent to which telomere length is inherited, as a crucial factor determining early life telomere length. Given the scarcity of species for which telomere length inheritance has been studied, it is pressing to assess the generality of telomere length inheritance patterns. Further, information on how this pattern changes over the course of growth in individuals living under natural conditions should provide some insight on the extent to which environmental constraints also shape telomere dynamics. To fill this gap partly, we followed telomere inheritance in a population of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). We tested for paternal and maternal influence on chick initial telomere length (10 days old after hatching), and how these relationships changed with chick age (at 70, 200 and 300 days old). Based on a correlative approach, offspring telomere length was positively associated with maternal telomere length early in life (at 10 days old). However, this relationship was not significant at older ages. These data suggest that telomere length in birds is maternally inherited. Nonetheless, the influence of environmental conditions during growth remained an important factor shaping telomere length, as the maternal link disappeared with chicks' age.

  15. Cycle length maximization in PWRs using empirical core models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okafor, K.C.; Aldemir, T.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of maximizing cycle length in nuclear reactors through optimal fuel and poison management has been addressed by many investigators. An often-used neutronic modeling technique is to find correlations between the state and control variables to describe the response of the core to changes in the control variables. In this study, a set of linear correlations, generated by two-dimensional diffusion-depletion calculations, is used to find the enrichment distribution that maximizes cycle length for the initial core of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). These correlations (a) incorporate the effect of composition changes in all the control zones on a given fuel assembly and (b) are valid for a given range of control variables. The advantage of using such correlations is that the cycle length maximization problem can be reduced to a linear programming problem

  16. Hypervapotron flow testing with rapid prototype models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driemeyer, D.; Hellwig, T.; Kubik, D.; Langenderfer, E.; Mantz, H.; McSmith, M.; Jones, B.; Butler, J.

    1995-01-01

    A flow test model of the inlet section of a three channel hypervapotron plate that has been proposed as a heat sink in the ITER divertor was prepared using a rapid prototyping stereolithography process that is widely used for component development in US industry. An existing water flow loop at the University of Illinois is being used for isothermal flow tests to collect pressure drop data for comparison with proposed vapotron friction factor correlations. Differential pressure measurements are taken, across the test section inlet manifold, the vapotron channel (about a seven inch length), the outlet manifold and the inlet-to-outlet. The differential pressures are currently measured with manometers. Tests were conducted at flow velocities from 1--10 m/s to cover the full range of ITER interest. A tap was also added for a small hypodermic needle to inject dye into the flow channel at several positions to examine the nature of the developing flow field at the entrance to the vapotron section. Follow-on flow tests are planned using a model with adjustable flow channel dimensions to permit more extensive pressure drop data to be collected. This information will be used to update vapotron design correlations for ITER

  17. Does length or neighborhood size cause the word length effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, Annie; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2011-10-01

    Jalbert, Neath, Bireta, and Surprenant (2011) suggested that past demonstrations of the word length effect, the finding that words with fewer syllables are recalled better than words with more syllables, included a confound: The short words had more orthographic neighbors than the long words. The experiments reported here test two predictions that would follow if neighborhood size is a more important factor than word length. In Experiment 1, we found that concurrent articulation removed the effect of neighborhood size, just as it removes the effect of word length. Experiment 2 demonstrated that this pattern is also found with nonwords. For Experiment 3, we factorially manipulated length and neighborhood size, and found only effects of the latter. These results are problematic for any theory of memory that includes decay offset by rehearsal, but they are consistent with accounts that include a redintegrative stage that is susceptible to disruption by noise. The results also confirm the importance of lexical and linguistic factors on memory tasks thought to tap short-term memory.

  18. Compliant walking appears metabolically advantageous at extreme step lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaehoon; Bertram, John E A

    2018-05-19

    Humans alter gait in response to unusual gait circumstances to accomplish the task of walking. For instance, subjects spontaneously increase leg compliance at a step length threshold as step length increases. Here we test the hypothesis that this transition occurs based on the level of energy expenditure, where compliant walking becomes less energetically demanding at long step lengths. To map and compare the metabolic cost of normal and compliant walking as step length increases. 10 healthy individuals walked on a treadmill using progressively increasing step lengths (100%, 120%, 140% and 160% of preferred step length), in both normal and compliant leg walking as energy expenditure was recorded via indirect calorimetry. Leg compliance was controlled by lowering the center-of-mass trajectory during stance, forcing the leg to flex and extend as the body moved over the foot contact. For normal step lengths, compliant leg walking was more costly than normal walking gait, but compliant leg walking energetic cost did not increase as rapidly for longer step lengths. This led to an intersection between normal and compliant walking cost curves at 114% relative step length (regression analysis; r 2  = 0.92 for normal walking; r 2  = 0.65 for compliant walking). Compliant leg walking is less energetically demanding at longer step lengths where a spontaneous shift to compliant walking has been observed, suggesting the human motor control system is sensitive to energetic requirements and will employ alternate movement patterns if advantageous strategies are available. The transition could be attributed to the interplay between (i) leg work controlling body travel during single stance and (ii) leg work to control energy loss in the step-to-step transition. Compliant leg walking requires more stance leg work at normal step lengths, but involves less energy loss at the step-to-step transition for very long steps. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Keeping disease at arm's length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2015-01-01

    active ageing change everyday life with chronic disease, and how do older people combine an active life with a range of chronic diseases? The participants in the study use activities to keep their diseases at arm’s length, and this distancing of disease at the same time enables them to engage in social...... and physical activities at the activity centre. In this way, keeping disease at arm’s length is analysed as an ambiguous health strategy. The article shows the importance of looking into how active ageing is practised, as active ageing seems to work well in the everyday life of the older people by not giving...... emphasis to disease. The article is based on ethnographic fieldwork and uses vignettes of four participants to show how they each keep diseases at arm’s length....

  20. Continuously variable focal length lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  1. CEBAF Upgrade Bunch Length Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Many accelerators use short electron bunches and measuring the bunch length is important for efficient operations. CEBAF needs a suitable bunch length because bunches that are too long will result in beam interruption to the halls due to excessive energy spread and beam loss. In this work, bunch length is measured by invasive and non-invasive techniques at different beam energies. Two new measurement techniques have been commissioned; a harmonic cavity showed good results compared to expectations from simulation, and a real time interferometer is commissioned and first checkouts were performed. Three other techniques were used for measurements and comparison purposes without modifying the old procedures. Two of them can be used when the beam is not compressed longitudinally while the other one, the synchrotron light monitor, can be used with compressed or uncompressed beam.

  2. Continuous lengths of oxide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2000-01-01

    A layered oxide superconductor prepared by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon. A continuous length of a second substrate ribbon is overlaid on the first substrate ribbon. Sufficient pressure is applied to form a bound layered superconductor precursor powder between the first substrate ribbon and the second substrate ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to establish the oxide superconducting phase. The layered oxide superconductor has a smooth interface between the substrate and the oxide superconductor.

  3. Summary of neutron scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, L.

    1981-12-01

    All available neutron-nuclei scattering lengths are collected together with their error bars in a uniform way. Bound scattering lengths are given for the elements, the isotopes, and the various spin-states. They are discussed in the sense of their use as basic parameters for many investigations in the field of nuclear and solid state physics. The data bank is available on magnetic tape, too. Recommended values and a map of these data serve for an uncomplicated use of these quantities. (orig.)

  4. Overview of bunch length measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumpkin, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of particle and photon beam bunch length measurements is presented in the context of free-electron laser (FEL) challenges. Particle-beam peak current is a critical factor in obtaining adequate FEL gain for both oscillators and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. Since measurement of charge is a standard measurement, the bunch length becomes the key issue for ultrashort bunches. Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques are presented in the context of using electromagnetic radiation over eight orders of magnitude in wavelength. In addition, the measurement of microbunching in a micropulse is addressed

  5. Slow oscillation amplitudes and up-state lengths relate to memory improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik P J Heib

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence of the active involvement of sleep in memory consolidation. Besides hippocampal sharp wave-ripple complexes and sleep spindles, slow oscillations appear to play a key role in the process of sleep-associated memory consolidation. Furthermore, slow oscillation amplitude and spectral power increase during the night after learning declarative and procedural memory tasks. However, it is unresolved whether learning-induced changes specifically alter characteristics of individual slow oscillations, such as the slow oscillation up-state length and amplitude, which are believed to be important for neuronal replay. 24 subjects (12 men aged between 20 and 30 years participated in a randomized, within-subject, multicenter study. Subjects slept on three occasions for a whole night in the sleep laboratory with full polysomnography. Whereas the first night only served for adaptation purposes, the two remaining nights were preceded by a declarative word-pair task or by a non-learning control task. Slow oscillations were detected in non-rapid eye movement sleep over electrode Fz. Results indicate positive correlations between the length of the up-state as well as the amplitude of both slow oscillation phases and changes in memory performance from pre to post sleep. We speculate that the prolonged slow oscillation up-state length might extend the timeframe for the transfer of initial hippocampal to long-term cortical memory representations, whereas the increase in slow oscillation amplitudes possibly reflects changes in the net synaptic strength of cortical networks.

  6. Amplitude e cadência do passo e componentes da aptidão muscular em idosos: um estudo correlacional multivariado Amplitud y cadencia del paso y componentes de la capacidad muscular en personas de edad avanzada: un estudio correlativo multivariado A multivariate analysis of the correlation between step length-pacing and muscular fitness components in elder subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Veras Farinatti

    2004-10-01

    resultados indicaron que: a AMP y CAP se asociaron significativamente con el conjunto de las variables de fuerza y flexibilidad, según sugerido por la buena correlación canónica (r can = 0,79; p The objective of the study was to verify the association between step length and pacing during gait and muscular fitness components (CAM (flexibility, strength and muscular endurance of the inferior limbs in 25 physically independent and apparently healthy women aged between 65 to 86 years-old (mean = 79±7 yrs tests. The following variables were assessed: a total and inferior limbs height and body weight; b step length and pacing (CAMP and CAP; c 2-minute step-in-place test (number of repetitions (RESISR; d maximal strength of knee extensors (load/body weight (FORCAR; e ankle and hip flexibility (FLEXT and FLEXQ. Data were analyzed by simple and multivariate correlation techniques. The results suggested that: a step length and pacing variables were directly associated to CAM, as suggested by the canonical analysis (rcan =.79; p <.05; b the step length seemed to be more correlated with maximal strength and muscular endurance than with flexibility; c the overall association of FLEXT, FLEXQ, FORCAR and RESISR with AMP and CAP was stronger than the correlations found for any isolated variable. Based on these findings, a regression equation was proposed to estimate gait efficiency from CAM variables: EMB = 7.53-.26(FLEXQ+.29(FLEXT-1.87(FORCAR-.05(RESISR, and EMF = 7(EMB+76, where EMB = Raw Gait Score and EMF = Final Gait Score (r² =.90; SEE =.35; p <.0001.

  7. Two-particle spatial correlations in superfluid nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillet, N.; Berger, J.-F.; Sandulescu, N.; Schuck, P.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the effect of pairing on two-neutron space correlations in deformed nuclei. The spatial correlations are described by the pairing tensor in coordinate space calculated in the HFB approach. Calculations are done using the D1S Gogny force. We show that the pairing tensor has a rather small extension in the relative coordinate, a feature observed earlier in spherical nuclei. It is pointed out that in deformed nuclei the coherence length corresponding to the pairing tensor has a pattern similar to what we have found previously in spherical nuclei; that is, it is maximal in the interior of the nucleus and then it decreases rather rapidly in the surface region, where it reaches a minimal value of about 2 fm. This minimal value of the coherence length in the surface is essentially determined by the finite size properties of single-particle states in the vicinity of the chemical potential and has little to do with enhanced pairing correlations in the nuclear surface. It is shown that in nuclei the coherence length is not a good indicator of the intensity of pairing correlations. This feature is contrasted with the situation in infinite matter.

  8. Evolution of spur-length diversity in Aquilegia petals is achieved solely through cell-shape anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzey, Joshua R; Gerbode, Sharon J; Hodges, Scott A; Kramer, Elena M; Mahadevan, L

    2012-04-22

    The role of petal spurs and specialized pollinator interactions has been studied since Darwin. Aquilegia petal spurs exhibit striking size and shape diversity, correlated with specialized pollinators ranging from bees to hawkmoths in a textbook example of adaptive radiation. Despite the evolutionary significance of spur length, remarkably little is known about Aquilegia spur morphogenesis and its evolution. Using experimental measurements, both at tissue and cellular levels, combined with numerical modelling, we have investigated the relative roles of cell divisions and cell shape in determining the morphology of the Aquilegia petal spur. Contrary to decades-old hypotheses implicating a discrete meristematic zone as the driver of spur growth, we find that Aquilegia petal spurs develop via anisotropic cell expansion. Furthermore, changes in cell anisotropy account for 99 per cent of the spur-length variation in the genus, suggesting that the true evolutionary innovation underlying the rapid radiation of Aquilegia was the mechanism of tuning cell shape.

  9. Information content versus word length in random typing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon; Moscoso del Prado Martín, Fermín

    2011-01-01

    Recently, it has been claimed that a linear relationship between a measure of information content and word length is expected from word length optimization and it has been shown that this linearity is supported by a strong correlation between information content and word length in many languages (Piantadosi et al 2011 Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 108 3825). Here, we study in detail some connections between this measure and standard information theory. The relationship between the measure and word length is studied for the popular random typing process where a text is constructed by pressing keys at random from a keyboard containing letters and a space behaving as a word delimiter. Although this random process does not optimize word lengths according to information content, it exhibits a linear relationship between information content and word length. The exact slope and intercept are presented for three major variants of the random typing process. A strong correlation between information content and word length can simply arise from the units making a word (e.g., letters) and not necessarily from the interplay between a word and its context as proposed by Piantadosi and co-workers. In itself, the linear relation does not entail the results of any optimization process. (letter)

  10. Diet, nutrition and telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ligi

    2011-10-01

    The ends of human chromosomes are protected by DNA-protein complexes termed telomeres, which prevent the chromosomes from fusing with each other and from being recognized as a double-strand break by DNA repair proteins. Due to the incomplete replication of linear chromosomes by DNA polymerase, telomeric DNA shortens with repeated cell divisions until the telomeres reach a critical length, at which point the cells enter senescence. Telomere length is an indicator of biological aging, and dysfunction of telomeres is linked to age-related pathologies like cardiovascular disease, Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease and cancer. Telomere length has been shown to be positively associated with nutritional status in human and animal studies. Various nutrients influence telomere length potentially through mechanisms that reflect their role in cellular functions including inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA integrity, DNA methylation and activity of telomerase, the enzyme that adds the telomeric repeats to the ends of the newly synthesized DNA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tube Length and Water Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Ruktantichoke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study water flowed through a straight horizontal plastic tube placed at the bottom of a large tank of water. The effect of changing the length of tubing on the velocity of flow was investigated. It was found that the Hagen-Poiseuille Equation is valid when the effect of water entering the tube is accounted for.

  12. Finite length Taylor Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streett, C. L.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    1987-01-01

    Axisymmetric numerical solutions of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for flow between concentric rotating cylinders of finite length are obtained by a spectral collocation method. These representative results pertain to two-cell/one-cell exchange process, and are compared with recent experiments.

  13. Turbulence closure for mixing length theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermyn, Adam S.; Lesaffre, Pierre; Tout, Christopher A.; Chitre, Shashikumar M.

    2018-05-01

    We present an approach to turbulence closure based on mixing length theory with three-dimensional fluctuations against a two-dimensional background. This model is intended to be rapidly computable for implementation in stellar evolution software and to capture a wide range of relevant phenomena with just a single free parameter, namely the mixing length. We incorporate magnetic, rotational, baroclinic, and buoyancy effects exactly within the formalism of linear growth theories with non-linear decay. We treat differential rotation effects perturbatively in the corotating frame using a novel controlled approximation, which matches the time evolution of the reference frame to arbitrary order. We then implement this model in an efficient open source code and discuss the resulting turbulent stresses and transport coefficients. We demonstrate that this model exhibits convective, baroclinic, and shear instabilities as well as the magnetorotational instability. It also exhibits non-linear saturation behaviour, and we use this to extract the asymptotic scaling of various transport coefficients in physically interesting limits.

  14. Noise Attenuation Estimation for Maximum Length Sequences in Deconvolution Process of Auditory Evoked Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Peng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of maximum length sequence (m-sequence has been found beneficial for recovering both linear and nonlinear components at rapid stimulation. Since m-sequence is fully characterized by a primitive polynomial of different orders, the selection of polynomial order can be problematic in practice. Usually, the m-sequence is repetitively delivered in a looped fashion. Ensemble averaging is carried out as the first step and followed by the cross-correlation analysis to deconvolve linear/nonlinear responses. According to the classical noise reduction property based on additive noise model, theoretical equations have been derived in measuring noise attenuation ratios (NARs after the averaging and correlation processes in the present study. A computer simulation experiment was conducted to test the derived equations, and a nonlinear deconvolution experiment was also conducted using order 7 and 9 m-sequences to address this issue with real data. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the NAR is essentially independent of the m-sequence order and is decided by the total length of valid data, as well as stimulation rate. The present study offers a guideline for m-sequence selections, which can be used to estimate required recording time and signal-to-noise ratio in designing m-sequence experiments.

  15. Length of a Hanging Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Costello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shape of a cable hanging under its own weight and uniform horizontal tension between two power poles is a catenary. The catenary is a curve which has an equation defined by a hyperbolic cosine function and a scaling factor. The scaling factor for power cables hanging under their own weight is equal to the horizontal tension on the cable divided by the weight of the cable. Both of these values are unknown for this problem. Newton's method was used to approximate the scaling factor and the arc length function to determine the length of the cable. A script was written using the Python programming language in order to quickly perform several iterations of Newton's method to get a good approximation for the scaling factor.

  16. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on effects arising from charged particles overcoming of the light velocity barrier, deformable templates for circle recognition, scintillation detectors for precise time measurements, atomic form factors and incoherent scattering functions of atoms and ions with the number of electrons N ≤ 10, experimental set-up ANOMALON for measurement of relativistic nuclear fragmentation cross sections, superconducting dipole magnet for ALICE dimuon arm spectrometer, analysis of transverse mass dependence of Bose-Einstein correlation radii using the DELPHI data, low-energy theorem in softly broken supersymmetry and study of the characteristics of particles in reactions π - , p, d, He, C + C with the total disintegration on carbon nucleus

  17. Minimal Length, Measurability and Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Shalyt-Margolin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a continuation of the previous papers written by the author on the subject. In terms of the measurability (or measurable quantities notion introduced in a minimal length theory, first the consideration is given to a quantum theory in the momentum representation. The same terms are used to consider the Markov gravity model that here illustrates the general approach to studies of gravity in terms of measurable quantities.

  18. πK-scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, M.K.; Osipov, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The msub(π)asub(0)sup(1/2)=0.1, msub(π)asub(0)sup(3/2)=-0.1, msub(π)asub(0)sup((-))=0.07, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)sup(1/2)=0.018, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)aup(3/2)=0.002, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)sup((-))=0.0044, msub(π)sup(5)asub(2)sup(1/2)=2.4x10sup(-4) and msub(π)sup(5)asub(2)sup(3/2)=-1.2x10sup(-4) scattering lengths are calculated in the framework of the composite meson model which is based on four-quark interaction. The decay form factors of (rho, epsilon, S*) → 2π, (K tilde, K*) → Kπ are used. The q 2 -terms of the quark box diagrams are taken into account. It is shown that the q 2 -terms of the box diagrams give the main contribution to the s-wave scattering lengths. The diagrams with the intermediate vector mesons begin to play the essential role at calculation of the p- and d-wave scattering lengths

  19. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the ...

  20. Status of computational and experimental correlations for Los Alamos fast-neutron critical assemblies; Correlation entre les calculs et les experiences sur les ensembles critiques a neutrons rapides de Los Alamos; Sostoyanie vychislitel'nykh i ehksperimental'nykh korrelyatsij dlya Los-Alamosskoj kriticheskoj sistemy na bystrykh nejtronakh; Conjuntos criticos de neutrones rapidos de Los Alamos; correlacion entre resultados calculados y experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, G E [Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, University of California, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1962-03-15

    les reacteurs ainsi qu'a celle des methodes de calcul, permettent de connaitre de mieux en mieux les caracteristique s d'une classe d'ensembles critiques a neutrons rapides. Cette classe comprend maintenant des montages a {sup 233}U, en geometrie spherique, sans reflecteur ou avec un reflecteur constitue d'une couche epaisse d'uranium. L'auteur presente des correlations directes parmi les donnees experimentales , pour montrer qu'il existe a priori la possibilite de bonnes correlations avec les resultats des calculs. La sensibilite des spectres calcules et des dimensions critiques aux modeles de transport neutronique (approximations du transport et hypothese de linearite) et aux approximations arithmetiques (hypothese de la segmentation angulaire et representations multigroupes) est presentee pour divers ensembles critiques afin d'aider a etablir les details des calculs indispensables. La comparaison entre l'experience et les previsions porte sur les indices spectraux et les dimensions critiques, les durees de vie des neutrons et les rapports relatifs aux neutrons retardes. (author) [Spanish] La puesta en servicio de nuevos conjuntos criticos y el perfeccionamiento de los metodos de medicion exigen una revision periodica de la correlacion entre los resultados calculados y los experimentales. Dados los problemas particularmente delicados que plantea la medicion de indices espectrales absolutos y dada tambien la necesidad de comprobar los calculos mas alla de las simples dimensiones criticas, conviene hacer hincapie en las caracterizaciones de los espectros neutronicos. El continuo perfeccionamient o ds las mediciones de indices espectrales, unido a la creciente precision de los datos microscopicos relativos a los materiales utilizados en los conjuntos criticos y en los detectores asi como la de los metodos de calculo contribuyen a un mejor conocimiento de las caracteristicas de un grupo de conjuntos criticos de neutrones rapidos. Este grupo compiende actualmente los

  1. On rapid rotation in stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helander, Per

    2008-01-01

    The conditions under which rapid plasma rotation may occur in a three-dimensional magnetic field, such as that of a stellarator, are investigated. Rotation velocities comparable to the ion thermal speed are found to be attainable only in magnetic fields which are approximately isometric. In an isometric magnetic field the dependence of the magnetic field strength B on the arc length l along the field is the same for all field lines on each flux surface ψ. Only in fields where the departure from exact isometry, B=B(ψ,l), is of the order of the ion gyroradius divided by the macroscopic length scale are rotation speeds comparable to the ion thermal speed possible. Moreover, it is shown that the rotation must be in the direction of the vector ∇ψx∇B. (author)

  2. Sonographic Measurement of Normal Splenic Length in Korean Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sang Bum; Cheon, Byung Kook; Kim, Jong Min; Oh, Kyung Seoung; Jung, Gyoo Sik; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk [Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-15

    To establish upper limit of normal splenic length of Korean adults on ultrasonography and to determice the degree of interobserver and intraobserver variation. Ultrasonographic scans were performed to measure the maximum length of spleen in 105 of 150 adults selected by convenience sampling. Remained 45 cases with any conditions that could alter splenic size were excluded from this study. The maximum length of spleen was measured and correlated with body surface area, patient height, weight, age and sex. In 31 of the 105 adults we evaluated the interobserver and intraobserver variations in sonographic measurements of splenic length obtained by three radiologists in blind fashion. The mean splenic length in 105 adults was 8.56cm ({+-} 0.95). The splenic length positively correlated with body surface area, patient height and weight (P <0.001), and negatively correlated with patient age (P < 0.01). Male spleen (8.87 cm {+-} 1.07) was longer than female spleen (8.35 cm {+-} 0.81) (P < 0.05). The following guidelines are proposed for the upper limit of normal splenic length at different groups of body surface area: no longer than 10 cm at 1.20{approx}1.59 m{sup 2}, 11 cm at1.60{approx}1.79 m{sup 2}, and 12 cm at 1.80{approx}1.99 m{sup 2}. The mean interobserver variation between any two radiologists ranged from 0.32 cm ({+-} 0.29) to 0.39 cm ({+-} 0.33) and interobserver variations were within 1 cm in 96%. The mean intraobserver variations were within 0.5 cm in 91%. The splenic length closely correlated with body surface area, patient height, weight and age. Particularly the upper limit of normal splenic length changed according to body surface area. Interobserver variation about 1 cm and intraobserver variation about 0.5 cm should be considered in the measurement of the splenic length on ultrasonography

  3. Length-weight and length-length relationships of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in the middle and southern Iraq provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-jebory, Taymaa A.; Das, Simon K.; Usup, Gires; Bakar, Y.; Al-saadi, Ali H.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, length-weight and length-length relationships of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in the middle and southern Iraq provinces were determined. Fish specimens were procured from seven provinces from July to December, 2015. A negative and positive allometric growth pattern was obtained, where the total length (TL) ranged from 25.60 cm to 33.53 cm, and body weight (BW) ranged from 700 g to 1423 g. Meanwhile, the lowest of 1.03 and highest of 3.54 in "b" value was recorded in group F and group C, respectively. Therefore, Fulton condition factor (K) range from 2.57 to 4.94. While, relative condition factor (Kn) was in the ranged of 0.95 to 1.01. A linear relationship between total length (TL) and standard length (SL) among the provinces for fish groups was obtained. The variances in "b" value ranged from 0.10 to 0.93 with correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.02 to 0.97. This research could be used as a guide to study the ecology and biology of common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in the middle and southern Iraq provinces.

  4. ESTIMATION OF STATURE BASED ON FOOT LENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyullatha Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Stature is the height of the person in the upright posture. It is an important measure of physical identity. Estimation of body height from its segments or dismember parts has important considerations for identifications of living or dead human body or remains recovered from disasters or other similar conditions. OBJECTIVE : Stature is an important indicator for identification. There are numerous means to establish stature and their significance lies in the simplicity of measurement, applicability and accuracy in prediction. Our aim of the study was to review the relationship between foot length and body height. METHODS : The present study reviews various prospective studies which were done to estimate the stature. All the measurements were taken by using standard measuring devices and standard anthropometric techniques. RESULTS : This review shows there is a correlation between stature and foot dimensions it is found to be positive and statistically highly significant. Prediction of stature was found to be most accurate by multiple regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS : Stature and gender estimation can be done by using foot measurements and stud y will help in medico - legal cases in establishing identity of an individual and this would be useful for Anatomists and Anthropologists to calculate stature based on foot length

  5. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains twelve separate reports on an estimation of the possibility of fusion reactions in water molecules, an analysis of pion spectra of the charge-exchange reaction Mg(t, 3 He), the results of simulation of e + e - pair production and detection in the ALICE experiment, the data on the edge effects in multiwire proportional chambers, standard and nonstandard applications of wavelet analysis, the design and study of light readout system for scintillator shower maximum detector for the endcap electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment at RHIC, a study of multiparticle azimuthal correlations in high energy interactions, coherent multifragmentation of relativistic nuclei, superposition of neutrino eigenstates and neutrino oscillation, simulation results and suggestions for possible design of gaseous shower maximum detector for the endcap electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment at RHIC, determination of the sizes of the pion emission region in np-interactions at P n =(5.2±0.16)GeV/c using the interference correlation method for identical particles, inelasticity of nucleus-nucleus collisions in the CMS experiment. 65 figs., 19 tabs

  6. Dependence of paracentric inversion rate on tract length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    York, Thomas L; Durrett, Rick; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We develop a Bayesian method based on MCMC for estimating the relative rates of pericentric and paracentric inversions from marker data from two species. The method also allows estimation of the distribution of inversion tract lengths. RESULTS: We apply the method to data from...... Drosophila melanogaster and D. yakuba. We find that pericentric inversions occur at a much lower rate compared to paracentric inversions. The average paracentric inversion tract length is approx. 4.8 Mb with small inversions being more frequent than large inversions.If the two breakpoints defining...... a paracentric inversion tract are uniformly and independently distributed over chromosome arms there will be more short tract-length inversions than long; we find an even greater preponderance of short tract lengths than this would predict. Thus there appears to be a correlation between the positions...

  7. Sonographic Evaluation of the Splenic Length in Normal Pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A prospective descriptive cross sectional study of the sonographic measurements of the splenic length was performed on 150 healthy normal pregnant women correlating this with the body mass index, gestational age and parity. Data were analyzed using software SPSS version 15 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).

  8. Rapid eye movement sleep disturbances in Huntington disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnulf, I.; Nielsen, J.; Lohmann, E.

    2008-01-01

    and shortened rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and increased periodic leg movements. Three HD patients (12%) had REM sleep behavior disorders. No sleep abnormality correlated with CAG repeat length. Reduced REM sleep duration (but not REM sleep behavior disorders) was present in premanifest carriers and patients...... with very mild HD and worsened with disease severity. In contrast to narcoleptic patients, HD patients had no cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, or sleep paralysis. Four HD patients had abnormally low (sleep latencies, but none had multiple sleep-onset REM periods. Conclusions......: The sleep phenotype of HD includes insomnia, advanced sleep phase, periodic leg movements, REM sleep behavior disorders, and reduced REM sleep but not narcolepsy. Reduced REM sleep may precede chorea. Mutant huntingtin may exert an effect on REM sleep and motor control during sleep Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4...

  9. Effects of Increased Nitrogen Deposition and Rotation Length on Long-Term Productivity of Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantation in Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meifang; Xiang, Wenhua; Tian, Dalun; Deng, Xiangwen; Huang, Zhihong; Zhou, Xiaolu; Peng, Changhui

    2013-01-01

    Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook. has been widely planted in subtropical China to meet increasing timber demands, leading to short-rotation practices that deplete soil nutrients. However, increased nitrogen (N) deposition offsets soil N depletion. While long-term experimental data investigating the coupled effects related to short rotation practices and increasing N deposition are scarce, applying model simulations may yield insights. In this study, the CenW3.1 model was validated and parameterized using data from pure C. lanceolata plantations. The model was then used to simulate various changes in long-term productivity. Results indicated that responses of productivity of C. lanceolata plantation to increased N deposition were more related to stand age than N addition, depending on the proportion and age of growing forests. Our results have also shown a rapid peak in growth and N dynamics. The peak is reached sooner and is higher under higher level of N deposition. Short rotation lengths had a greater effect on productivity and N dynamics than high N deposition levels. Productivity and N dynamics decreased as the rotation length decreased. Total productivity levels suggest that a 30-year rotation length maximizes productivity at the 4.9 kg N ha−1 year−1 deposition level. For a specific rotation length, higher N deposition levels resulted in greater overall ecosystem C and N storage, but this positive correlation tendency gradually slowed down with increasing N deposition levels. More pronounced differences in N deposition levels occurred as rotation length decreased. To sustain C. lanceolata plantation productivity without offsite detrimental N effects, the appropriate rotation length is about 20–30 years for N deposition levels below 50 kg N ha−1 year−1 and about 15–20 years for N deposition levels above 50 kg N ha−1 year−1. These results highlight the importance of assessing N effects on carbon management and the long-term productivity of

  10. Determination of thermal neutrons diffusion length in graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Fite, J.

    1959-01-01

    The diffusion length of thermal neutrons in graphite using the less possible quantity of material has been determined. The proceeding used was the measurement in a graphite pile which has a punctual source of rapid neutrons inside surrounded by a reflector medium (paraffin or water). The measurement was done in the following conditions: a) introducing an aluminium plate between both materials. b) Introducing a cadmium plate between both materials. (Author) 91 refs

  11. Extreme telomere length dimorphism in the Tasmanian devil and related marsupials suggests parental control of telomere length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah S Bender

    Full Text Available Telomeres, specialised structures that protect chromosome ends, play a critical role in preserving chromosome integrity. Telomere dynamics in the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii are of particular interest in light of the emergence of devil facial tumour disease (DFTD, a transmissible malignancy that causes rapid mortality and threatens the species with extinction. We used fluorescent in situ hybridisation to investigate telomere length in DFTD cells, in healthy Tasmanian devils and in four closely related marsupial species. Here we report that animals in the Order Dasyuromorphia have chromosomes characterised by striking telomere length dimorphism between homologues. Findings in sex chromosomes suggest that telomere length dimorphism may be regulated by events in the parental germlines. Long telomeres on the Y chromosome imply that telomere lengthening occurs during spermatogenesis, whereas telomere diminution occurs during oogenesis. Although found in several somatic cell tissue types, telomere length dimorphism was not found in DFTD cancer cells, which are characterised by uniformly short telomeres. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of naturally occurring telomere length dimorphism in any species and suggests a novel strategy of telomere length control. Comparative studies in five distantly related marsupials and a monotreme indicate that telomere dimorphism evolved at least 50 million years ago.

  12. Relation between axial length and ocular parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Qiu Yang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigatethe relation between axial length(AL, age and ocular parameters.METHODS: A total of 360 subjects(360 eyeswith emmetropia or myopia were recruited. Refraction, center corneal thickness(CCT, AL, intraocular pressure(IOPwere measured by automatic-refractor, Pachymeter, A-mode ultrasound and non-contact tonometer, respectively. Corneal curvature(CC, anterior chamber depth(ACDand white-to-white distance(WWDwere measured by Orbscan II. Three dimensional frequency domain coherent optical tomography(3D-OCTwas used to examine the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness(RNFLT. The Pearson correlation coefficient(rand multiple regression analysis were performed to evaluate the relationship between AL, age and ocular parameters.RESULTS: The average AL was 24.15±1.26mm. With elongation of the AL, spherical equivalent(SE(r=-0.742,Pr=-0.395, Pr=-0.374, Pr=0.411, Pr=0.099, P=0.060and WWD(r=0.061, P=0.252. There was also a significant correlation between AL and age(P=0.001, SE(PPPCONCLUSION: In longer eyes, there is a tendency toward myopia, a flatter cornea, a deeper ACD and a thinner RNFLT. Age is an influencing factor for the AL as well.

  13. Correlation in atomic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Correlation due to the Coulomb interactions between electrons in many-electron targets colliding with charged particles is formulated, and various approximate probability amplitudes are evaluated. In the limit that the electron-electron, 1/r/sub i//sub j/, correlation interactions are ignored or approximated by central potentials, the independent-electron approximation is obtained. Two types of correlations, or corrections to the independent-electron approximation due to 1/r/sub i//sub j/ terms, are identified: namely, static and scattering correlation. Static correlation is that contained in the asymptotic, e.g., bound-state, wave functions. Scattering correlation, arising from correlation in the scattering operator, is new and is considered in some detail. Expressions for a scattering correlation amplitude, static correlation or rearrangement amplitude, and independent-electron or direct amplitude are derived at high collision velocity and compared. At high velocities the direct and rearrangement amplitudes dominate. At very high velocities, ν, the rearrangement amplitude falls off less rapidly with ν than the direct amplitude which, however, is dominant as electron-electron correlation tends to zero. Comparisons with experimental observations are discussed

  14. Azimuthal correlations of the longitudinal structure of the mid-rapidity charged-particle multiplicity in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_\\mathrm{NN}}} =$ 2.76 TeV with ALICE arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, Saehanseul

    Studies of longitudinal correlations of the charged-particle multiplicity in heavy-ion collisions have provided insights into the asymmetry and fluctuations of the initial-state collision geometry. In addition to the expansion of the medium in the transverse direction, commonly quantified using Fourier coefficients ($v_{n}$), the initial geometry and resulting longitudinal expansion as a function of azimuthal angle enable us to better understand the full 3-dimensional picture of heavy-ion collisions. In these proceedings, azimuthal correlations of the longitudinal structure of charged-particle multiplicity are reported for Pb-Pb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV. The azimuthal angle distribution is divided into regions of in-plane and out-of-plane with respect to the second-order event plane, and the coefficients of Legendre polynomials are estimated from a decomposition of the longitudinal structure of the charged-particle multiplicity at midrapidity ($|\\eta| < 0.8$) on an ...

  15. Molecular markers. Amplified fragment length polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism molecular markers (AFLPs has been developed combining procedures of RFLPs and RAPDs molekular markers, i.e. the first step is restriction digestion of the genomic DNA that is followed by selective amplification of the restricted fragments. The advantage of the AFLP technique is that it allows rapid generation of a large number of reproducible markers. The reproducibility of AFLPs markers is assured by the use of restriction site-specific adapters and adapter-specific primers for PCR reaction. Only fragments containing the restriction site sequence plus the additional nucleotides will be amplified and the more selected nucleotides added on the primer sequence the fewer the number of fragments amplified by PCR. The amplified products are normally separated on a sequencing gel and visualized after exposure to X-ray film or by using fluorescent labeled primers. AFLP shave proven to be extremely proficient in revealing diversity at below the species level. A disadvantage of AFLP technique is that AFLPs are essentially a dominant marker system and not able to identify heterozygotes.

  16. Joint variable frame rate and length analysis for speech recognition under adverse conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Zheng-Hua; Kraljevski, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method that combines variable frame length and rate analysis for speech recognition in noisy environments, together with an investigation of the effect of different frame lengths on speech recognition performance. The method adopts frame selection using an a posteriori signal......-to-noise (SNR) ratio weighted energy distance and increases the length of the selected frames, according to the number of non-selected preceding frames. It assigns a higher frame rate and a normal frame length to a rapidly changing and high SNR region of a speech signal, and a lower frame rate and an increased...... frame length to a steady or low SNR region. The speech recognition results show that the proposed variable frame rate and length method outperforms fixed frame rate and length analysis, as well as standalone variable frame rate analysis in terms of noise-robustness....

  17. Korelace mezi délkou lyžařské tratě a rychlostí vrcholových slalomářů Correlation between the length of the ski track and the velocity of top slalom skiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Lešnik

    2007-02-01

    the help of a kinematic analysis, differences in the choice of a line of skiing between individual competitors were established based on a sample of top competitors in the World Cup in Kranjska Gora. We tried to establish whether the competitors achieved higher velocities with such a line of skiing, thus achieving faster sliding among the slalom gates and in the end a better time. In the first part of our research it was proven that none of the competitors had an extremely short line of skiing in the first two successive turns. It was also found out that the competitors who had the shortest lines of skiing in the first analysed turn had, as a rule, the longest lines of skiing in the second turn and vice versa. Based on these findings, it could be claimed that under present conditions, it is extremely difficult, possibly even impossible, to ski in such a way that the line of skiing would be very short in several successive turns. The second part of our research focussed on the establishment of the correlation between the trajectories of the skis and the velocity of skiing. The calculations of the correlations proved a statistically significant correlation between the average velocity of skiing and an average distance of the length of the line of skiing from the y-axis in the entire measured segment. It was established that the measured space was covered faster by the competitors whose line of skiing was shorter, which means more direct.

  18. Midupper arm circumference and weight-for-length z scores have different associations with body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos S; Wells, Jonathan Ck; Girma, Tsinuel

    2015-01-01

    understood. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between these 2 anthropometric indexes and body composition to help understand why they identify different children as wasted. DESIGN: We analyzed weight, length, MUAC, fat-mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) data from 2470 measurements from 595 healthy...... Ethiopian infants obtained at birth and at 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 6 mo of age. We derived WLZs by using 2006 WHO growth standards. We derived length-adjusted FM and FFM values as unexplained residuals after regressing each FM and FFM against length. We used a correlation analysis to assess associations...... between length, FFM, and FM (adjusted and nonadjusted for length) and the MUAC and WLZ and a multivariable regression analysis to assess the independent variability of length and length-adjusted FM and FFM with either the MUAC or the WLZ as the outcome. RESULTS: At all ages, length showed consistently...

  19. Nap sleep spindle correlates of intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujma, Péter P; Bódizs, Róbert; Gombos, Ferenc; Stintzing, Johannes; Konrad, Boris N; Genzel, Lisa; Steiger, Axel; Dresler, Martin

    2015-11-26

    Sleep spindles are thalamocortical oscillations in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, that play an important role in sleep-related neuroplasticity and offline information processing. Several studies with full-night sleep recordings have reported a positive association between sleep spindles and fluid intelligence scores, however more recently it has been shown that only few sleep spindle measures correlate with intelligence in females, and none in males. Sleep spindle regulation underlies a circadian rhythm, however the association between spindles and intelligence has not been investigated in daytime nap sleep so far. In a sample of 86 healthy male human subjects, we investigated the correlation between fluid intelligence and sleep spindle parameters in an afternoon nap of 100 minutes. Mean sleep spindle length, amplitude and density were computed for each subject and for each derivation for both slow and fast spindles. A positive association was found between intelligence and slow spindle duration, but not any other sleep spindle parameter. As a positive correlation between intelligence and slow sleep spindle duration in full-night polysomnography has only been reported in females but not males, our results suggest that the association between intelligence and sleep spindles is more complex than previously assumed.

  20. Telomeric repeat factor 1 protein levels correlates with telomere length in colorectal cancer Los niveles proteicos del factor de repetición telomérico 1 se correlacionan con la longitud del telómero en el cáncer colorrectal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Valls-Bautista

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: colorectal cancer is the third cancer cause of death in Spain. It is important to investigate new tumoral markers for early diagnosis, disease monitoring and prevention strategies. Telomeres protect the chromosome from degradation by nucleases and end-to-end fusion. The progressive loss of the telomeric ends of chromosomes is an important mechanism in the timing of human cellular aging. Telomeric Repeat Factor 1 (TRF1 is a protein that binds at telomere ends. Purpose: to measure the concentrations of TRF1 and the relationships among telomere length, telomerase activity, and TRF1 levels in tumor and normal colorectal mucosa. Method: from normal and tumoral samples of 83 patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer we analyzed TRF1 protein concentration by Western Blot, telomerase activity, by the fluorescent-telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay and telomere length by Southern Blot. Results: high levels of TRF1 were observed in 68.7% of tumor samples, while the majority of normal samples (59% showed negative or weak TRF1 concentrations. Among the tumor samples, telomere length was significantly associated with TRF1 protein levels (p = 0.023. Conclusions: a relationship was found between telomere length and TRF1 abundance protein in tumor samples, which means that TRF1 is an important factor in the tumor progression and maybe a diagnostic factor.

  1. Rapid assessment of repair of ultraviolet DNA damage with a modified host-cell reactivation assay using a luciferase reporter gene and correlation with polymorphisms of DNA repair genes in normal human lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao Yawei; Spitz, Margaret R.; Guo Zhaozheng; Hadeyati, Mohammad; Grossman, Lawrence; Kraemer, Kenneth H.; Wei Qingyi

    2002-11-30

    As DNA repair plays an important role in genetic susceptibility to cancer, assessment of the DNA repair phenotype is critical for molecular epidemiological studies of cancer. In this report, we compared use of the luciferase (luc) reporter gene in a host-cell reactivation (HCR) (LUC) assay of repair of ultraviolet (UV) damage to DNA to use of the chloramphenicol (cat) gene-based HCR (CAT) assay we used previously for case-control studies. We performed both the assays on cryopreserved lymphocytes from 102 healthy non-Hispanic white subjects. There was a close correlation between DNA repair capacity (DRC) as measured by the LUC and CAT assays. Although these two assays had similar variation, the LUC assay was faster and more sensitive. We also analyzed the relationship between DRC and the subjects' previously determined genotypes for four polymorphisms of two nucleotide-excision repair (NER) genes (in intron 9 of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) C and exons 6, 10 and 23 of XPD) and one polymorphism of a base-excision repair gene in exon 10 of X-ray complementing group 1 (XRCC1). The DRC was significantly lower in subjects homozygous for one or more polymorphisms of the two NER genes than in subjects with other genotypes (P=0.010). In contrast, the polymorphic XRCC1 allele had no significant effect on DRC. These results suggest that the post-UV LUC assay measures NER phenotype and that polymorphisms of XPC and XPD genes modulate DRC. For population studies of the DNA repair phenotype, many samples need to be evaluated, and so the LUC assay has several advantages over the CAT assay: the LUC assay was more sensitive, had less variation, was not radioactive, was easier to perform, and required fewer cryopreserved cells. These features make the LUC-based HCR assay suitable for molecular epidemiological studies.

  2. Estimation of ocular volume from axial length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagra, Manbir; Gilmartin, Bernard; Logan, Nicola S

    2014-12-01

    To determine which biometric parameters provide optimum predictive power for ocular volume. Sixty-seven adult subjects were scanned with a Siemens 3-T MRI scanner. Mean spherical error (MSE) (D) was measured with a Shin-Nippon autorefractor and a Zeiss IOLMaster used to measure (mm) axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and corneal radius (CR). Total ocular volume (TOV) was calculated from T2-weighted MRIs (voxel size 1.0 mm(3)) using an automatic voxel counting and shading algorithm. Each MR slice was subsequently edited manually in the axial, sagittal and coronal plane, the latter enabling location of the posterior pole of the crystalline lens and partitioning of TOV into anterior (AV) and posterior volume (PV) regions. Mean values (±SD) for MSE (D), AL (mm), ACD (mm) and CR (mm) were -2.62±3.83, 24.51±1.47, 3.55±0.34 and 7.75±0.28, respectively. Mean values (±SD) for TOV, AV and PV (mm(3)) were 8168.21±1141.86, 1099.40±139.24 and 7068.82±1134.05, respectively. TOV showed significant correlation with MSE, AL, PV (all p<0.001), CR (p=0.043) and ACD (p=0.024). Bar CR, the correlations were shown to be wholly attributable to variation in PV. Multiple linear regression indicated that the combination of AL and CR provided optimum R(2) values of 79.4% for TOV. Clinically useful estimations of ocular volume can be obtained from measurement of AL and CR. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Prediction of the Length of Upcoming Solar Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakad, Bharati; Kakad, Amar; Ramesh, Durbha Sai

    2017-12-01

    The forecast of solar cycle (SC) characteristics is crucial particularly for several space-based missions. In the present study, we propose a new model for predicting the length of the SC. The model uses the information of the width of an autocorrelation function that is derived from the daily sunspot data for each SC. We tested the model on Versions 1 and 2 of the daily international sunspot number data for SCs 10 - 24. We found that the autocorrelation width Aw n of SC n during the second half of its ascending phase correlates well with the modified length that is defined as T_{cy}^{n+2} - Tan. Here T_{cy}^{n+2} and T_{ a}n are the length and ascent time of SCs n+2 and n, respectively. The estimated correlation coefficient between the model parameters is 0.93 (0.91) for Version 1 (Version 2) sunspot series. The standard errors in the observed and predicted lengths of the SCs for Version 1 and Version 2 data are 0.38 and 0.44 years, respectively. The advantage of the proposed model is that the predictions of the length of the upcoming two SCs ( i.e., n+1, n+2) are readily available at the time of the peak of SC n. The present model gives a forecast of 11.01, 10.52, and 11.91 years (11.01, 12.20, and 11.68 years) for the length of SCs 24, 25, and 26, respectively, for Version 1 (Version 2).

  4. Relationship between hamstring length and gluteus maximus strength with and without normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed the relationship between hamstring length and gluteus maximus (GM) strength with and without normalization by body weight and height. [Subjects and Methods] In total, 34 healthy male subjects volunteered for this study. To measure GM strength, subjects performed maximal hip joint extension with the knee joints flexed to 90° in the prone position. GM strength was normalized for body weight and height. [Results] GM strength with normalization was positively correlated with hamstring length, whereas GM strength without normalization was negatively correlated with hamstring length. [Conclusion] The normalization of GM strength by body weight and height has the potential to lead to more appropriate conclusions and interpretations about its correlation with hamstring length. Hamstring length may be related to GM strength.

  5. Rapid Estimates of Rupture Extent for Large Earthquakes Using Aftershocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polet, J.; Thio, H. K.; Kremer, M.

    2009-12-01

    The spatial distribution of aftershocks is closely linked to the rupture extent of the mainshock that preceded them and a rapid analysis of aftershock patterns therefore has potential for use in near real-time estimates of earthquake impact. The correlation between aftershocks and slip distribution has frequently been used to estimate the fault dimensions of large historic earthquakes for which no, or insufficient, waveform data is available. With the advent of earthquake inversions that use seismic waveforms and geodetic data to constrain the slip distribution, the study of aftershocks has recently been largely focused on enhancing our understanding of the underlying mechanisms in a broader earthquake mechanics/dynamics framework. However, in a near real-time earthquake monitoring environment, in which aftershocks of large earthquakes are routinely detected and located, these data may also be effective in determining a fast estimate of the mainshock rupture area, which would aid in the rapid assessment of the impact of the earthquake. We have analyzed a considerable number of large recent earthquakes and their aftershock sequences and have developed an effective algorithm that determines the rupture extent of a mainshock from its aftershock distribution, in a fully automatic manner. The algorithm automatically removes outliers by spatial binning, and subsequently determines the best fitting “strike” of the rupture and its length by projecting the aftershock epicenters onto a set of lines that cross the mainshock epicenter with incremental azimuths. For strike-slip or large dip-slip events, for which the surface projection of the rupture is recti-linear, the calculated strike correlates well with the strike of the fault and the corresponding length, determined from the distribution of aftershocks projected onto the line, agrees well with the rupture length. In the case of a smaller dip-slip rupture with an aspect ratio closer to 1, the procedure gives a measure

  6. Correlations and Correlated Responses in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echekwu, CA.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant breeders must be concerned with the total array of economic characters in their efforts to develop a crop variety acceptable to farmers. Their selection endeavours must therefore take into consideration how changes in one trait affect, simultaneously changes in other economic attributes. The importance of correlations and correlated responses is therefore self evident in plant breeding endeavours. In this study F3 progenies from a cross between two cotton lines SAMCOT-9 x Y422 were evaluated for two years and performance data were used to obtain correlations between nine agronomic and fibre quality traits in upland cotton. The results indicated that plant helght was significantly and positively correlated with seed cotton yield, number of sympodial and monopodial branches, seed index, fibre length and micronaire index. Positive and significant correlations were also obtained between : seed cotton yield, tint percent and fibre strength and fibre length. Significant negative correlations were obtained between : plant height and lint percent ; number of monopodial branches, sympodial branches and lint percent ; fibre length, fibre strength and micronaire index. The correlated responses in the other eight traits when selection was practiced for seed cotton yield in the present study shows that it might be more profitable to practice direct selection for seed cotton yield compared to selecting for seed cotton yield through any of the other traits.

  7. The UCLA hadronization model and Pt correlation study at √s = 29 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Sebong.

    1989-01-01

    With only longitudinal phase space, a linear confining quark potential, and Clebsch-Gordon coefficients, the authors demonstrate remarkable agreement with a large body of data. This involves only two parameters of a modified Lund symmetric fragmentation function a, b and three coherent lengths: the number of hadrons over which the transverse momentum P t is required to be compensated, the degree of the spin correlation between a diquark and its partner anti-diquark in baryon and anti-baryon production, and the degree of suppression of successive mesons created between a baryon and anti-baryon (which comes from the uncertainty principle). These coherent lengths have a common fundamental characteristic, namely, the propagation length of information along the chain of produced hadrons. As a separate effort to probe the propagation length of P t , we studied the correlations in momentum transverse to the event jet-axis for neighboring particles close in rapidity, which reflect the tendency of back-to-back production of the hadron pairs. He found indications of interesting correlations, but that a larger data sample is needed for definitive understanding of the area

  8. Validation of Navigation Ultrasound for Clavicular Length Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høj, Anders Thorsmark; Villa, Chiara; Christensen, Ole M.

    2017-01-01

    interval): approximately ± 7.5 mm, Pearson's correlation R: 0.948-0.974). Navigation ultrasound can measure clavicular length with an intra-rater reliability matching that of 3-D rendered computed tomography scans and with high validity. Its use could spread to other fields requiring accurate...... of 52.5 (range: 21-78 y) were included. Navigation ultrasound exhibited high reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient: 0.942-0.997, standard error of the mean: 0.7-2.9 mm, minimal detectable change: 2.3-8.1 mm) and validity (measurement error: 1.3%-1.8%, limits of agreement (95% confidence...

  9. Neutron-triton scattering lengths for interactions reproducing low-energy trinucleon data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levashev, V.P.

    1981-01-01

    By solving the integral equations for four nucleons the neutron-triton scattering lengths and total cross section are calculated using different S-wave rank-one separable potentials. A number of linear correlations between the neutron-triton scattering lengths and triton binding energy are found. The scattering lengths consistent with low-energy trinucleon data. The results obtained are compared with available experimental data [ru

  10. [Renal length measured by ultrasound in adult mexican population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyuela-Carrasco, J; Rodríguez-Castellanos, F; Kimura, E; Delgado-Hernández, R; Herrera-Félix, J P

    2009-01-01

    Renal length estimation by ultrasound is an important parameter in clinical evaluation of kidney disease and healthy donors. Changes in renal volume may be a sign of kidney disease. Correct interpretation of renal length requires the knowledge of normal limits, these have not been described for Latin American population. To describe normal renal length (RL) by ultrasonography in a group of Mexican adults. Ultrasound measure of RL in 153 healthy Mexican adults stratified by age. Describe the association of RL to several anthropometric variables. A total of 77 males and 76 females were scanner. The average age for the group was 44.12 +/- 15.44 years. The mean weight, body mass index (BMI) and height were 68.87 +/- 11.69 Kg, 26.77 +/- 3.82 kg/m2 and 160 +/- 8.62 cm respectively. Dividing the population by gender, showed a height of 166 +/- 6.15 cm for males and 154.7 +/- 5.97 cm for females (p =0.000). Left renal length (LRL) in the whole group was 105.8 +/- 7.56 mm and right renal length (RRL) was 104.3 +/- 6.45 mm (p = 0.000.) The LRL for males was 107.16 +/- 6.97 mm and for females was 104.6 +/- 7.96 mm. The average RRL for males was 105.74 +/- 5.74 mm and for females 102.99 +/- 6.85 mm (p = 0.008.) We noted that RL decreased with age and the rate of decline accelerates alter 60 years of age. Both lengths correlated significantly and positively with weight, BMI and height. The RL was significantly larger in males than in females in both kidneys (p = 0.036) in this Mexican population. Renal length declines after 60 years of age and specially after 70 years.

  11. Estimation of Correlation Functions by Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Brincker, Rune

    This paper illustrates how correlation functions can be estimated by the random decrement technique. Several different formulations of the random decrement technique, estimating the correlation functions are considered. The speed and accuracy of the different formulations of the random decrement...... and the length of the correlation functions. The accuracy of the estimates with respect to the theoretical correlation functions and the modal parameters are both investigated. The modal parameters are extracted from the correlation functions using the polyreference time domain technique....

  12. Superadditive correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, B.G.; Heumann, J.M.; Lapedes, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    The fact that correlation does not imply causation is well known. Correlation between variables at two sites does not imply that the two sites directly interact, because, e.g., correlation between distant sites may be induced by chaining of correlation between a set of intervening, directly interacting sites. Such 'noncausal correlation' is well understood in statistical physics: an example is long-range order in spin systems, where spins which have only short-range direct interactions, e.g., the Ising model, display correlation at a distance. It is less well recognized that such long-range 'noncausal' correlations can in fact be stronger than the magnitude of any causal correlation induced by direct interactions. We call this phenomenon superadditive correlation (SAC). We demonstrate this counterintuitive phenomenon by explicit examples in (i) a model spin system and (ii) a model continuous variable system, where both models are such that two variables have multiple intervening pathways of indirect interaction. We apply the technique known as decimation to explain SAC as an additive, constructive interference phenomenon between the multiple pathways of indirect interaction. We also explain the effect using a definition of the collective mode describing the intervening spin variables. Finally, we show that the SAC effect is mirrored in information theory, and is true for mutual information measures in addition to correlation measures. Generic complex systems typically exhibit multiple pathways of indirect interaction, making SAC a potentially widespread phenomenon. This affects, e.g., attempts to deduce interactions by examination of correlations, as well as, e.g., hierarchical approximation methods for multivariate probability distributions, which introduce parameters based on successive orders of correlation. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  13. Nature vs nurture: interplay between the genetic control of telomere length and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Yaniv; Romano, Gal-Hagit; Ungar, Lior; Kupiec, Martin

    2013-11-15

    Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures that cap the ends of the linear eukaryotic chromosomes, thus protecting their stability and integrity. They play important roles in DNA replication and repair and are central to our understanding of aging and cancer development. In rapidly dividing cells, telomere length is maintained by the activity of telomerase. About 400 TLM (telomere length maintenance) genes have been identified in yeast, as participants of an intricate homeostasis network that keeps telomere length constant. Two papers have recently shown that despite this extremely complex control, telomere length can be manipulated by external stimuli. These results have profound implications for our understanding of cellular homeostatic systems in general and of telomere length maintenance in particular. In addition, they point to the possibility of developing aging and cancer therapies based on telomere length manipulation.

  14. Clan structure analysis and rapidity gap probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupia, S.; Giovannini, A.; Ugoccioni, R.

    1995-01-01

    Clan structure analysis in rapidity intervals is generalized from negative binomial multiplicity distribution to the wide class of compound Poisson distributions. The link of generalized clan structure analysis with correlation functions is also established. These theoretical results are then applied to minimum bias events and evidentiate new interesting features, which can be inspiring and useful in order to discuss data on rapidity gap probability at TEVATRON and HERA. (orig.)

  15. Clan structure analysis and rapidity gap probability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupia, S. [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Teorica]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin (Italy); Giovannini, A. [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Teorica]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin (Italy); Ugoccioni, R. [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Teorica]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin (Italy)

    1995-03-01

    Clan structure analysis in rapidity intervals is generalized from negative binomial multiplicity distribution to the wide class of compound Poisson distributions. The link of generalized clan structure analysis with correlation functions is also established. These theoretical results are then applied to minimum bias events and evidentiate new interesting features, which can be inspiring and useful in order to discuss data on rapidity gap probability at TEVATRON and HERA. (orig.)

  16. The length and time scales of water's glass transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David T.

    2014-06-01

    Using a general model for the equilibrium dynamics of supercooled liquids, I compute from molecular properties the emergent length and time scales that govern the nonequilibrium relaxation behavior of amorphous ice prepared by rapid cooling. Upon cooling, the liquid water falls out of equilibrium whereby the temperature dependence of its relaxation time is predicted to change from super-Arrhenius to Arrhenius. A consequence of this crossover is that the location of the apparent glass transition temperature depends logarithmically on cooling rate. Accompanying vitrification is the emergence of a dynamical length-scale, the size of which depends on the cooling rate and varies between angstroms and tens of nanometers. While this protocol dependence clarifies a number of previous experimental observations for amorphous ice, the arguments are general and can be extended to other glass forming liquids.

  17. The length and time scales of water's glass transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David T

    2014-06-07

    Using a general model for the equilibrium dynamics of supercooled liquids, I compute from molecular properties the emergent length and time scales that govern the nonequilibrium relaxation behavior of amorphous ice prepared by rapid cooling. Upon cooling, the liquid water falls out of equilibrium whereby the temperature dependence of its relaxation time is predicted to change from super-Arrhenius to Arrhenius. A consequence of this crossover is that the location of the apparent glass transition temperature depends logarithmically on cooling rate. Accompanying vitrification is the emergence of a dynamical length-scale, the size of which depends on the cooling rate and varies between angstroms and tens of nanometers. While this protocol dependence clarifies a number of previous experimental observations for amorphous ice, the arguments are general and can be extended to other glass forming liquids.

  18. Normal standards for kidney length as measured with US in premature infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, A.E.; Hedlund, G.L.; Pierson, W.P.; Null, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    In order to develop normal standards for kidney length in premature infants, the authors measured kidney length by US imaging in 39 (to date) premature infants less than 72 hours old and without known renal disease. Kidney length was compared with four different parameters of body size, including gestational age, birth weight, birth length, and body surface area. Similar standards have been generated previously for normal renal length as measured by US imaging in full-term infants and older children. These standards have proven utility in cases of congenital and acquired disorders that abnormally increase or decrease renal size. Scatter plots of kidney length versus body weight and kidney length versus body surface area conformed well to a logarithmic distribution, with a high correlation coefficient and close-fitting 95% confidence limits (SEE = 2.05)

  19. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  20. Large-scale parent-child comparison confirms a strong paternal influence on telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordfjäll, Katarina; Svenson, Ulrika; Norrback, Karl-Fredrik; Adolfsson, Rolf; Roos, Göran

    2010-03-01

    Telomere length is documented to have a hereditary component, and both paternal and X-linked inheritance have been proposed. We investigated blood cell telomere length in 962 individuals with an age range between 0 and 102 years. Telomere length correlations were analyzed between parent-child pairs in different age groups and between grandparent-grandchild pairs. A highly significant correlation between the father's and the child's telomere length was observed (r=0.454, Pfather-son: r=0.465, Pfather-daughter: r=0.484, Pmothers, the correlations were weaker (mother-child: r=0.148, P=0.098; mother-son: r=0.080, P=0.561; mother-daughter: r=0.297, P=0.013). A positive telomere length correlation was also observed for grandparent-grandchild pairs (r=0.272, P=0.013). Our findings indicate that fathers contribute significantly stronger to the telomere length of the offspring compared with mothers (P=0.012), but we cannot exclude a maternal influence on the daughter's telomeres. Interestingly, the father-child correlations diminished with increasing age (P=0.022), suggesting that nonheritable factors have an impact on telomere length dynamics during life.

  1. Allometric relationships among body mass, MUZZLE-tail length, and tibia length during the growth of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Hildemberg Agostinho Rocha de; De Pierro, Lucas Rodolfo; Reis, Rafael Menezes; Caluz, Antônio Gabriel Ricardo Engracia; Ribeiro, Victor Barbosa; Volpon, José Batista

    2015-11-01

    To investigate allometric relationships among body mass (BM), muzzle-tail length (MTL), and tibia length (TL) in Wistar rats and establish their growth rate change parameters. Eighteen male and 18 female Wistar rats were studied from the 3rd to the 21st week of age. BM, MTL, and TL were measured daily, and relative growth was compared using allometry. A positive correlation between BM and MTL (p<0.05) and BM and TL (p<0.05) was observed. Males and females showed comparable curves; however, females had turning points at a younger age. The allometric relationship between BM and MTL presented a regular increase until reaching a mass of 351 g (males) and 405 g (females). BM and TL showed an initial increase until 185 g (males) and 182 g (females), and then reached a plateau that finished at 412 g (males) and 334 g (females), to display another increase. The allometric relationship of body mass with animal length and tibia length was comparable for male and female rats, with female rats maturing earlier. Animal longitudinal growth occurred in a single stage. In contrast, tibia length depicted two stages of accelerated growth with an intermediate period of deceleration.

  2. Exponential smoothing weighted correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, F.; Di Matteo, T.; Aste, T.

    2012-06-01

    In many practical applications, correlation matrices might be affected by the "curse of dimensionality" and by an excessive sensitiveness to outliers and remote observations. These shortcomings can cause problems of statistical robustness especially accentuated when a system of dynamic correlations over a running window is concerned. These drawbacks can be partially mitigated by assigning a structure of weights to observational events. In this paper, we discuss Pearson's ρ and Kendall's τ correlation matrices, weighted with an exponential smoothing, computed on moving windows using a data-set of daily returns for 300 NYSE highly capitalized companies in the period between 2001 and 2003. Criteria for jointly determining optimal weights together with the optimal length of the running window are proposed. We find that the exponential smoothing can provide more robust and reliable dynamic measures and we discuss that a careful choice of the parameters can reduce the autocorrelation of dynamic correlations whilst keeping significance and robustness of the measure. Weighted correlations are found to be smoother and recovering faster from market turbulence than their unweighted counterparts, helping also to discriminate more effectively genuine from spurious correlations.

  3. Short Rayleigh Length Free Electron Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Crooker, P P; Armstead, R L; Blau, J

    2004-01-01

    Conventional free electron laser (FEL) oscillators minimize the optical mode volume around the electron beam in the undulator by making the resonator Rayleigh length about one third of the undulator length. This maximizes gain and beam-mode coupling. In compact configurations of high-power infrared FELs or moderate power UV FELs, the resulting optical intensity can damage the resonator mirrors. To increase the spot size and thereby reduce the optical intensity at the mirrors below the damage threshold, a shorter Rayleigh length can be used, but the FEL interaction is significantly altered. A new FEL interaction is described and analyzed with a Rayleigh length that is only one tenth the undulator length, or less. The effect of mirror vibration and positioning are more critical in the short Rayleigh length design, but we find that they are still within normal design tolerances.

  4. Length dependent properties of SNS microbridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauvageau, J.E.; Jain, R.K.; Li, K.; Lukens, J.E.; Ono, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Using an in-situ, self-aligned deposition scheme, arrays of variable length SNS junctions in the range of 0.05 μm to 1 μm have been fabricated. Arrays of SNS microbridges of lead-copper and niobium-copper fabricated using this technique have been used to study the length dependence, at constant temperature, of the critical current I and bridge resistance R /SUB d/ . For bridges with lengths pounds greater than the normal metal coherence length xi /SUB n/ (T), the dependence of I /SUB c/ on L is consistent with an exponential dependence on the reduced length l=L/xi /SUB n/ (T). For shorter bridges, deviations from this behavior is seen. It was also found that the bridge resistance R /SUB d/ does not vary linearly with the geometric bridge length but appears to approach a finite value as L→O

  5. Dither Cavity Length Controller with Iodine Locking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawson Marty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A cavity length controller for a seeded Q-switched frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser is constructed. The cavity length controller uses a piezo-mirror dither voltage to find the optimum length for the seeded cavity. The piezo-mirror dither also dithers the optical frequency of the output pulse. [1]. This dither in optical frequency is then used to lock to an Iodine absorption line.

  6. Information, polarization and term length in democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers term lengths in a representative democracy where the political issue divides the population on the left-right scale. Parties are ideologically different and better informed about the consequences of policies than voters are. A short term length makes the government more...... accountable, but the re-election incentive leads to policy-distortion as the government seeks to manipulate swing voters' beliefs to make its ideology more popular. This creates a trade-off: A short term length improves accountability but gives distortions. A short term length is best for swing voters when...

  7. Rapid Tooling via Stereolithography

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, composite stereolithography (SL) resins were introduced to the marketplace, offering performance features beyond what traditional SL resins could offer. In particular, the high heat deflection temperatures and high stiffness of these highly filled resins have opened the door to several new rapid prototyping (RP) applications, including wind tunnel test modelling and, more recently, rapid tooling.

  8. Cervical Length and Androgens in Pregnant Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Has Metformin Any Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetelig Løvvik, Tone; Stridsklev, Solhild; Carlsen, Sven M; Salvesen, Øyvind; Vanky, Eszter

    2016-06-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have increased risk of preterm delivery. Shortening of the cervix is a sign of preterm delivery. This study aimed to investigate potential effect of metformin on cervical length and whether androgen levels correlate with cervical length in PCOS pregnancies. This was a sub-study of a randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study (The PregMet study) performed at 11 secondary or tertiary centers from 2005 to 2009. Two-hundred sixty-one pregnancies of 245 women with PCOS, age 18-42 years participated. Participants were randomly assigned to metformin or placebo from first trimester to delivery. We compared cervical length and androgen levels in metformin and placebo groups at gestational weeks 19 and 32. We also explored whether cervical length correlated with androgen levels. We found no difference in cervical length between the metformin and the placebo groups at gestational week 19 and 32. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS) tended to be higher in the metformin group. There were no correlations between androgens and cervical length at week 19. At gestational week 32, androstenedione (P = .02) and DHEAS (P = .03) showed a trend toward negative correlation to cervical length. High androstenedione level correlated with shortening of cervical length from week 19 to 32 when adjusted for confounders (P = .003). T (P = .03), DHEAS (P = .02), and free testosterone index (P = .03) showed a similar trend. Metformin in pregnancy did not affect cervical length in women with PCOS. High maternal androgen levels correlated with cervical shortening from the second to the third trimester of pregnancy, as a sign of cervical ripening.

  9. Examining Hurricane Track Length and Stage Duration Since 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandrich, K. M.; Pennington, D.

    2017-12-01

    Each year, tropical systems impact thousands of people worldwide. Current research shows a correlation between the intensity and frequency of hurricanes and the changing climate. However, little is known about other prominent hurricane features. This includes information about hurricane track length (the total distance traveled from tropical depression through a hurricane's final category assignment) and how this distance may have changed with time. Also unknown is the typical duration of a hurricane stage, such as tropical storm to category one, and if the time spent in each stage has changed in recent decades. This research aims to examine changes in hurricane stage duration and track lengths for the 319 storms in NOAA's National Ocean Service Hurricane Reanalysis dataset that reached Category 2 - 5 from 1980 - 2015. Based on evident ocean warming, it is hypothesized that a general increase in track length with time will be detected, thus modern hurricanes are traveling a longer distance than past hurricanes. It is also expected that stage durations are decreasing with time so that hurricanes mature faster than in past decades. For each storm, coordinates are acquired at 4-times daily intervals throughout its duration and track lengths are computed for each 6-hour period. Total track lengths are then computed and storms are analyzed graphically and statistically by category for temporal track length changes. The stage durations of each storm are calculated as the time difference between two consecutive stages. Results indicate that average track lengths for Cat 2 and 3 hurricanes are increasing through time. These findings show that these hurricanes are traveling a longer distance than earlier Cat 2 and 3 hurricanes. In contrast, average track lengths for Cat 4 and 5 hurricanes are decreasing through time, showing less distance traveled than earlier decades. Stage durations for all Cat 2, 4 and 5 storms decrease through the decades but Cat 3 storms show a

  10. Rapid improvement teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemi, F; Moore, S; Headrick, L; Neuhauser, D; Hekelman, F; Kizys, N

    1998-03-01

    Suggestions, most of which are supported by empirical studies, are provided on how total quality management (TQM) teams can be used to bring about faster organizationwide improvements. Ideas are offered on how to identify the right problem, have rapid meetings, plan rapidly, collect data rapidly, and make rapid whole-system changes. Suggestions for identifying the right problem include (1) postpone benchmarking when problems are obvious, (2) define the problem in terms of customer experience so as not to blame employees nor embed a solution in the problem statement, (3) communicate with the rest of the organization from the start, (4) state the problem from different perspectives, and (5) break large problems into smaller units. Suggestions for having rapid meetings include (1) choose a nonparticipating facilitator to expedite meetings, (2) meet with each team member before the team meeting, (3) postpone evaluation of ideas, and (4) rethink conclusions of a meeting before acting on them. Suggestions for rapid planning include reducing time spent on flowcharting by focusing on the future, not the present. Suggestions for rapid data collection include (1) sample patients for surveys, (2) rely on numerical estimates by process owners, and (3) plan for rapid data collection. Suggestions for rapid organizationwide implementation include (1) change membership on cross-functional teams, (2) get outside perspectives, (3) use unfolding storyboards, and (4) go beyond self-interest to motivate lasting change in the organization. Additional empirical investigations of time saved as a consequence of the strategies provided are needed. If organizations solve their problems rapidly, fewer unresolved problems may remain.

  11. PET-CT offers accurate assessment of tumour length in oesophageal malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollins, K.E.; Lucas, E.; Tewari, N.; James, E.; Hughes, S.; Catton, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We examine the accuracy of staging modalities in estimating tumour length of oesophageal malignancy. • PET CT correlates most strongly with histopathological length of resected specimen. • Better measure than EUS with OGD correlating poorly. • Potential impact in radiotherapy and surgical resection planning. - Abstract: Introduction: Radiotherapy is increasingly used for both curative and palliative treatment of oesophageal malignancy. Accurate treatment depends on determining tumour location and length. This study assessed the value of PET-CT versus other staging modalities in determining tumour length. Materials and methods: Oesophageal cancer patients who underwent staging with PET/CT and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in addition to their diagnostic upper GI endoscopy and subsequent surgical resection were assessed. PET/CT length was obtained retrospectively by using Hermes Hybrid Viewer™ with a 1–5 Standardised Uptake Value grey scale. An SUV of 5 was used as the cut off for determining length. Direct measurement by EUS and OGD were determined. Results: 53 patients underwent PET-CT, EUS, OGD and surgical resection for oesophageal cancer. Overall the correlation between PET-CT and histopathological length was strongest (Pearson r = 0.5977, 95% CI 0.390–0.747) versus EUS (Pearson R = 0.5365, 95% CI 0.311–0.705) and OGD (Pearson r = 0.1574, 95% CI −0.118 to 0.410). After excluding tumours with a significant chemotherapy response, PET-CT length correlated significantly with histopathological length (R = 0.5651, p = 0.0005). In comparison, the correlation between histological length and EUS (R = 0.4637, p = 0.0057) measurement was less significant and this did not correlate with OGD (R = −0.1084, p = 0.5417). Conclusion: Tumour length estimated by PET-CT correlated most strongly with histopathological length of oesophageal malignancy and is the most accurate determinant of tumour length of all the staging modalities. This suggests a

  12. PET-CT offers accurate assessment of tumour length in oesophageal malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollins, K.E., E-mail: james.catton@nuh.nhs.uk [Department of Oesophago-Gastric Surgery, Nottingham University Hospitals, Hucknall Road, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Lucas, E. [University of Nottingham, Derby Road, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Tewari, N. [Department of Oesophago-Gastric Surgery, Nottingham University Hospitals, Hucknall Road, Nottingham (United Kingdom); James, E. [Department of Oncology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Hucknall Road, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Hughes, S. [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Hucknall Road, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Catton, J.A. [Department of Oesophago-Gastric Surgery, Nottingham University Hospitals, Hucknall Road, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • We examine the accuracy of staging modalities in estimating tumour length of oesophageal malignancy. • PET CT correlates most strongly with histopathological length of resected specimen. • Better measure than EUS with OGD correlating poorly. • Potential impact in radiotherapy and surgical resection planning. - Abstract: Introduction: Radiotherapy is increasingly used for both curative and palliative treatment of oesophageal malignancy. Accurate treatment depends on determining tumour location and length. This study assessed the value of PET-CT versus other staging modalities in determining tumour length. Materials and methods: Oesophageal cancer patients who underwent staging with PET/CT and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in addition to their diagnostic upper GI endoscopy and subsequent surgical resection were assessed. PET/CT length was obtained retrospectively by using Hermes Hybrid Viewer™ with a 1–5 Standardised Uptake Value grey scale. An SUV of 5 was used as the cut off for determining length. Direct measurement by EUS and OGD were determined. Results: 53 patients underwent PET-CT, EUS, OGD and surgical resection for oesophageal cancer. Overall the correlation between PET-CT and histopathological length was strongest (Pearson r = 0.5977, 95% CI 0.390–0.747) versus EUS (Pearson R = 0.5365, 95% CI 0.311–0.705) and OGD (Pearson r = 0.1574, 95% CI −0.118 to 0.410). After excluding tumours with a significant chemotherapy response, PET-CT length correlated significantly with histopathological length (R = 0.5651, p = 0.0005). In comparison, the correlation between histological length and EUS (R = 0.4637, p = 0.0057) measurement was less significant and this did not correlate with OGD (R = −0.1084, p = 0.5417). Conclusion: Tumour length estimated by PET-CT correlated most strongly with histopathological length of oesophageal malignancy and is the most accurate determinant of tumour length of all the staging modalities. This suggests a

  13. Relationship between photoreceptor outer segment length and visual acuity in diabetic macular edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forooghian, Farzin; Stetson, Paul F; Meyer, Scott A; Chew, Emily Y; Wong, Wai T; Cukras, Catherine; Meyerle, Catherine B; Ferris, Frederick L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify photoreceptor outer segment (PROS) length in 27 consecutive patients (30 eyes) with diabetic macular edema using spectral domain optical coherence tomography and to describe the correlation between PROS length and visual acuity. Three spectral domain-optical coherence tomography scans were performed on all eyes during each session using Cirrus HD-OCT. A prototype algorithm was developed for quantitative assessment of PROS length. Retinal thicknesses and PROS lengths were calculated for 3 parameters: macular grid (6 x 6 mm), central subfield (1 mm), and center foveal point (0.33 mm). Intrasession repeatability was assessed using coefficient of variation and intraclass correlation coefficient. The association between retinal thickness and PROS length with visual acuity was assessed using linear regression and Pearson correlation analyses. The main outcome measures include intrasession repeatability of macular parameters and correlation of these parameters with visual acuity. Mean retinal thickness and PROS length were 298 mum to 381 microm and 30 microm to 32 mum, respectively, for macular parameters assessed in this study. Coefficient of variation values were 0.75% to 4.13% for retinal thickness and 1.97% to 14.01% for PROS length. Intraclass correlation coefficient values were 0.96 to 0.99 and 0.73 to 0.98 for retinal thickness and PROS length, respectively. Slopes from linear regression analyses assessing the association of retinal thickness and visual acuity were not significantly different from 0 (P > 0.20), whereas the slopes of PROS length and visual acuity were significantly different from 0 (P < 0.0005). Correlation coefficients for macular thickness and visual acuity ranged from 0.13 to 0.22, whereas coefficients for PROS length and visual acuity ranged from -0.61 to -0.81. Photoreceptor outer segment length can be quantitatively assessed using Cirrus HD-OCT. Although the intrasession repeatability of PROS

  14. Length scale for configurational entropy in microemulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reiss, H.; Kegel, W.K.; Groenewold, J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we study the length scale that must be used in evaluating the mixing entropy in a microemulsion. The central idea involves the choice of a length scale in configuration space that is consistent with the physical definition of entropy in phase space. We show that this scale may be

  15. Proofs of Contracted Length Non-covariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1994-01-01

    Different proofs of contracted length non covariance are discussed. The way based on the establishment of interval inconstancy (dependence on velocity) seems to be the most convincing one. It is stressed that the known non covariance of the electromagnetic field energy and momentum of a moving charge ('the problem 4/3') is a direct consequence of contracted length non covariance. 8 refs

  16. Influence of mandibular length on mouth opening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, PU; Hof, AL; Stegenga, B; De Bont, LGM

    Theoretically, mouth opening not only reflects the mobility of the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) but also the mandibular length. Clinically, the exact relationship between mouth opening, mandibular length, and mobility of TMJs is unclear. To study this relationship 91 healthy subjects, 59 women

  17. Rapidity dependence of multiplicity fluctuations and correlations in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-08-02

    Aug 2, 2011 ... results obtained from the Monte Carlo simulated events for all the interactions. ... mental and theoretical points of view [3–7]. ... the production of one particle enhances the probability to produce other particles then the.

  18. Roentgenologic investigations for the anterior tooth length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Pyo; Ahn, Hyung Kyu [College of Dentistry, Seoul National University , Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-11-15

    The author measured the length of crown, root and tooth on the films which was taken by intraoral bisecting technic with mesh plate on the films. The films were taken from the dry skulls, dentiform, same patients who had to be removed their upper incisors, and the other patients who admitted for dental care. From this serial experiment the results were made as follows: 1. By using the film and mesh plate in the oral cavity, the real tooth length can be measured easily on the film surfaces. 2. The film distortion in the oral cavity can be avoided when taking the film using the mesh plate and film together. 3. When measuring the film, length of crown was elongated and length of root was shortened. 4. When using the well-trained bisecting technic, the real tooth length can be measured directly on the intraoral film.

  19. Screening length in dusty plasma crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, V S; Timofeev, A V

    2016-01-01

    Particles interaction and value of the screening length in dusty plasma systems are of great interest in dusty plasma area. Three inter-particle potentials (Debye potential, Gurevich potential and interaction potential in the weakly collisional regime) are used to solve equilibrium equations for two dusty particles suspended in a parabolic trap. The inter-particle distance dependence on screening length, trap parameter and particle charge is obtained. The functional form of inter-particle distance dependence on ion temperature is investigated and compared with experimental data at 200-300 K in order to test used potentials applicability to dusty plasma systems at room temperatures. The preference is given to the Yukawa-type potential including effective values of particle charge and screening length. The estimated effective value of the screening length is 5-15 times larger than the Debye length. (paper)

  20. Microcomputer system for controlling fuel rod length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, E.R.; Bouldin, D.W.; Bolfing, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    A system is being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to automatically measure and control the length of fuel rods for use in a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). The system utilizes an LSI-11 microcomputer for monitoring fuel rod length and for adjusting the primary factor affecting length. Preliminary results indicate that the automated system can maintain fuel rod length within the specified limits of 1.940 +- 0.040 in. This system provides quality control documentation and eliminates the dependence of the current fuel rod molding process on manual length control. In addition, the microcomputer system is compatible with planned efforts to extend control to fuel rod fissile and fertile material contents

  1. The reliability of transabdominal cervical length measurement in a low-risk obstetric population: Comparison with transvaginal measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng-Ran; Chen, Chie-Pein; Wang, Kuo-Gon; Wang, Liang-Kai; Chen, Chen-Yu; Chen, Yi-Yung

    2015-04-01

    To determine the correlation between transabdominal (TA) and transvaginal (TV) cervical length measurement in a low-risk obstetric population in Taiwan. Women with a singleton pregnancy between 20 weeks and 24 weeks of gestation underwent postvoid TA and TV cervical length measurements. Differences between the measurements obtained using the two methods were evaluated. Two hundred and five women agreed to participate in the study. Paired TA and TV measurements were obtained in 174 women. The mean TA cervical length was 36.0 ± 4.9 mm and the mean TV cervical length was 37.6 ± 5.4 mm. The mean TA cervical length was shorter than the mean TV cervical length by 1.6 mm. The 5(th) percentile of TA and TV cervical length was 29 mm and 29.1 mm, respectively. The discrepancies between the two methods were not significantly correlated with maternal body mass index (BMI). All women with TV cervical length women in the present study, and the TA cervical length was closely correlated with the TV cervical length. The use of TA ultrasound could be an effective initial tool for cervical length screening in low-risk pregnant women. TA cervical length TV ultrasound. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Charged-to-neutral correlation at forward rapidity in Au + Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anson, C. D.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Beavis, D. R.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Borowski, W.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Brovko, S. G.; Bültmann, S.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, L.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Chwastowski, J.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Contin, G.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cui, X.; Das, S.; Davila Leyva, A.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Derradi de Souza, R.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Ding, F.; Djawotho, P.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Engle, K. S.; Eppley, G.; Eun, L.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Fedorisin, J.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Gliske, S.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hamed, A.; Han, L-X.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kesich, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Konzer, J.; Koralt, I.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kotchenda, L.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. M.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T. S.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Ohlson, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldag, E. W.; Olvitt, D. L.; Page, B. S.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Riley, C. K.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ross, J. F.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandacz, A.; Sandweiss, J.; Sangaline, E.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Simko, M.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Solanki, D.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stevens, J. R.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Turnau, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Vanfossen, J. A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Vossen, A.; Wada, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, H.; Xu, J.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yan, W.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.

    2015-03-01

    Event-by-event fluctuations of the multiplicities of inclusive charged particles and photons at forward rapidity in Au + Au collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV have been studied. The dominant contribution to such fluctuations is expected to come from correlated production of charged and neutral pions. We search for evidence of dynamical fluctuations of different physical origins. Observables constructed out of moments of multiplicities are used as measures of fluctuations. Mixed events and model calculations are used as base lines. Results are compared to the dynamical net-charge fluctuations measured in the same acceptance. A nonzero statistically significant signal of dynamical fluctuations is observed in excess to the model prediction when charged particles and photons are measured in the same acceptance. We find that, unlike dynamical net-charge fluctuation, charge-neutral fluctuation is not dominated by correlation owing to particle decay. Results are compared to the expectations based on the generic production mechanism of pions owing to isospin symmetry, for which no significant (<1%) deviation is observed.

  3. Sonourethrography of anterior urethral strictures: assessment of length and degree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Chul; Jeong, Youn Sin

    1994-01-01

    We reviewed out experience of sonourethrography(SUG) in male anterior urethral strictures to correlate the stricture length and degree seen on SUG with those on urethroscopy, surgery or biopsy. During the recent 6 years,both the retrograde urethrography (RUG) and SUG were preformed in 50 occasions for 47 patients with anteriorurethral stricture, that were subsequently evaluated urethroscopically or at surgery. As a whole, the length of the stricture seen on SUG did not correlate very well with that seen on RGU (r2=0.71, p<0.005). Considering the data from the operation as the gold standard, SUG was more accurate than RUG in depicting the exact stricturelength (r2=0.97 and 0.75 respectively,p<0.005). The shorter the lesion, the more accurate the data obtained.Although SUG certainly identified periurethral tissue, it was not adequate in predicting the depth of spongiofibrosis compared with full-depth biopsies in 20 patients. In conclusion, SUG, a dynamic study, accurately defined the stricture site, number and calibre. When compared with RUG, SUG was more accurate in the measurement of stricture length and in the demonstration of periurethral tissue, making it a valuable method in the evaluation of patients with suspected anterior urethral strictures

  4. Characterization and estimation of permeability correlation structure from performance data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ershaghi, I.; Al-Qahtani, M. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In this study, the influence of permeability structure and correlation length on the system effective permeability and recovery factors of 2-D cross-sectional reservoir models, under waterflood, is investigated. Reservoirs with identical statistical representation of permeability attributes are shown to exhibit different system effective permeability and production characteristics which can be expressed by a mean and variance. The mean and variance are shown to be significantly influenced by the correlation length. Detailed quantification of the influence of horizontal and vertical correlation lengths for different permeability distributions is presented. The effect of capillary pressure, P{sub c1} on the production characteristics and saturation profiles at different correlation lengths is also investigated. It is observed that neglecting P{sub c} causes considerable error at large horizontal and short vertical correlation lengths. The effect of using constant as opposed to variable relative permeability attributes is also investigated at different correlation lengths. Next we studied the influence of correlation anisotropy in 2-D reservoir models. For a reservoir under five-spot waterflood pattern, it is shown that the ratios of breakthrough times and recovery factors of the wells in each direction of correlation are greatly influenced by the degree of anisotropy. In fully developed fields, performance data can aid in the recognition of reservoir anisotropy. Finally, a procedure for estimating the spatial correlation length from performance data is presented. Both the production performance data and the system`s effective permeability are required in estimating the correlation length.

  5. Stochastic Approaches Within a High Resolution Rapid Refresh Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankov, I.

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that global and regional numerical weather prediction (NWP) ensemble systems are under-dispersive, producing unreliable and overconfident ensemble forecasts. Typical approaches to alleviate this problem include the use of multiple dynamic cores, multiple physics suite configurations, or a combination of the two. While these approaches may produce desirable results, they have practical and theoretical deficiencies and are more difficult and costly to maintain. An active area of research that promotes a more unified and sustainable system is the use of stochastic physics. Stochastic approaches include Stochastic Parameter Perturbations (SPP), Stochastic Kinetic Energy Backscatter (SKEB), and Stochastic Perturbation of Physics Tendencies (SPPT). The focus of this study is to assess model performance within a convection-permitting ensemble at 3-km grid spacing across the Contiguous United States (CONUS) using a variety of stochastic approaches. A single physics suite configuration based on the operational High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) model was utilized and ensemble members produced by employing stochastic methods. Parameter perturbations (using SPP) for select fields were employed in the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) land surface model (LSM) and Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino (MYNN) Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) schemes. Within MYNN, SPP was applied to sub-grid cloud fraction, mixing length, roughness length, mass fluxes and Prandtl number. In the RUC LSM, SPP was applied to hydraulic conductivity and tested perturbing soil moisture at initial time. First iterative testing was conducted to assess the initial performance of several configuration settings (e.g. variety of spatial and temporal de-correlation lengths). Upon selection of the most promising candidate configurations using SPP, a 10-day time period was run and more robust statistics were gathered. SKEB and SPPT were included in additional retrospective tests to assess the impact of using

  6. Short fetal leukocyte telomere length and preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar Menon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rupture of the fetal membranes is a common harbinger of imminent labor and delivery. Telomere shortening is a surrogate for oxidative stress (OS and senescence. Fetal leukocyte and placental membrane DNA telomere lengths were evaluated to determine their association with preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes (pPROM or spontaneous preterm births with intact membranes (PTB, compared to term birth. METHODS: Telomere lengths were quantified in cord blood leukocytes (n = 133 from three major groups: 1 pPROM (n = 28, 2 PTB (n = 69 and 3 uncomplicated full term births (controls, n = 35, using real-time quantitative PCR. Placental membrane specimens (n = 18 were used to correlate fetal leukocyte and placental telomere lengths. Telomere length differences among the groups were analyzed by ANOVA. Pearson correlation coefficients determined relationships between leukocyte and placental membrane telomere lengths. RESULTS: In pregnancies with intact membranes, fetal leukocyte telomere length was inversely proportional to gestational age. The mean telomere length decreased as gestation progressed, with the shortest at term. pPROM had telomere lengths (9962 ± 3124 bp that were significantly shorter than gestational age-matched PTB (11546 ± 4348 bp, p = 0.04, but comparable to term births (9011 ± 2497 bp, p = 0.31. Secondary analyses revealed no effects of race (African American vs. Caucasian or intraamniotic infection on telomere length. A strong Pearson's correlation was noted between fetal leukocyte and placental membrane telomere lengths (ρ = 0.77; p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Fetal leukocyte telomere length is reduced in pPROM compared to PTB but is similar to term births. pPROM represents a placental membrane disease likely mediated by OS-induced senescence.

  7. Choosing a proper working length can improve the lifespan of locked plates. A biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeier, Konrad L; Hofmann, Gunther O; Mückley, Thomas

    2011-05-01

    It is hypothesized that the working length influences the implants fatigue behavior. However, few studies addressing this issue came to contrary results. Therefore, we tested systematically the influence of working length and implant material on the plate's endurance. We used an artificial model providing the substantial angle and length conditions of a human femur. A fracture gap of 10mm was bridged with identical shaped plate implants made of stainless steel and grade-2 titanium. The fatigue strength was tested for a short, medium and long working length. Aiming at an implant failure within 80,000 loading cycles the upper load threshold was set to 265N for the titanium plates and to 420N for the steel plates. The lower load threshold was -20N for both plates. For the steel plates there was no correlation between fatigue strength and working length. The construct stiffness did not differ at short and medium working length and was reduced by 10% (P=0.047) at long working length. For the titanium plates the fatigue strength tends to increase with the working length but this correlation was not significant (τ=0.417, P=0.051). Further there was a negative correlation between working length and construct stiffness (τ=0.552; P=0.01). The working length has no appreciable effect on the endurance of the steel plates. Compared to the grade 2-titanium plates the stainless steel plates sustain a larger amount of cyclic load. However, for the titanium plates a larger working length tends to improve the endurance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative analysis of maximum renal longitudinal length with positional changes on ultrasound with multiplanar reconstructed MR image in Korea Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Yun Hee; Cho, Bum Sang; Kang, Min Ho; Kang, Woo Young; Lee, Jisun; Kim, Yook; Lee, Soo Hyun; Lee, Soo Jung; Lee, Jin Yong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine a suitable position in which the measured length on ultrasound is close to the true renal length obtained through a multiplanar reconstructed MR image. A total of 33 individuals (males: 15, females: 18) without any underlying renal disease were included in the present study. Renal length was measured as the longest axis at the level of the renal hilum in three positions-supine, lateral decubitus, and prone, respectively. With a 3.0 T MR scanner, 3D eTHRIVE was acquired. Subsequently, the maximum longitudinal length of both the kidneys was measured through multiplanar reconstructed MR images. Paired t-test was used to compare the renal length obtained from ultrasonographic measurement with the length obtained through multiplanar reconstructed MR images. Our study demonstrated significant difference between sonographic renal length in three positions and renal length through MRI (p < 0.001). However, the longest longitudinal length of right kidney among the measured three values by ultrasound was statistically similar to the renal length measured by reconstructed MR image. Among them, the lateral decubitus position showed the strongest correlation with true renal length (right: 0.887; left: 0.849). We recommend measurement of the maximum renal longitudinal length in all possible positions on ultrasonography. If not allowed, the best measurement is on the lateral decubitus showing the strongest correlation coefficient with true renal length

  9. Comparative analysis of maximum renal longitudinal length with positional changes on ultrasound with multiplanar reconstructed MR image in Korea Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Yun Hee; Cho, Bum Sang; Kang, Min Ho; Kang, Woo Young; Lee, Jisun; Kim, Yook; Lee, Soo Hyun; Lee, Soo Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Chungbuk National University Hospital, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Yong [Public Health Medical Service, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine a suitable position in which the measured length on ultrasound is close to the true renal length obtained through a multiplanar reconstructed MR image. A total of 33 individuals (males: 15, females: 18) without any underlying renal disease were included in the present study. Renal length was measured as the longest axis at the level of the renal hilum in three positions-supine, lateral decubitus, and prone, respectively. With a 3.0 T MR scanner, 3D eTHRIVE was acquired. Subsequently, the maximum longitudinal length of both the kidneys was measured through multiplanar reconstructed MR images. Paired t-test was used to compare the renal length obtained from ultrasonographic measurement with the length obtained through multiplanar reconstructed MR images. Our study demonstrated significant difference between sonographic renal length in three positions and renal length through MRI (p < 0.001). However, the longest longitudinal length of right kidney among the measured three values by ultrasound was statistically similar to the renal length measured by reconstructed MR image. Among them, the lateral decubitus position showed the strongest correlation with true renal length (right: 0.887; left: 0.849). We recommend measurement of the maximum renal longitudinal length in all possible positions on ultrasonography. If not allowed, the best measurement is on the lateral decubitus showing the strongest correlation coefficient with true renal length.

  10. Zero-point length from string fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanini, Michele; Spallucci, Euro; Padmanabhan, T.

    2006-01-01

    One of the leading candidates for quantum gravity, viz. string theory, has the following features incorporated in it. (i) The full spacetime is higher-dimensional, with (possibly) compact extra-dimensions; (ii) there is a natural minimal length below which the concept of continuum spacetime needs to be modified by some deeper concept. On the other hand, the existence of a minimal length (zero-point length) in four-dimensional spacetime, with obvious implications as UV regulator, has been often conjectured as a natural aftermath of any correct quantum theory of gravity. We show that one can incorporate the apparently unrelated pieces of information-zero-point length, extra-dimensions, string T-duality-in a consistent framework. This is done in terms of a modified Kaluza-Klein theory that interpolates between (high-energy) string theory and (low-energy) quantum field theory. In this model, the zero-point length in four dimensions is a 'virtual memory' of the length scale of compact extra-dimensions. Such a scale turns out to be determined by T-duality inherited from the underlying fundamental string theory. From a low energy perspective short distance infinities are cutoff by a minimal length which is proportional to the square root of the string slope, i.e., α ' . Thus, we bridge the gap between the string theory domain and the low energy arena of point-particle quantum field theory

  11. Utility of telomere length measurements for age determination of humpback whales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Tange Olsen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the applicability of telomere length measurements by quantitative PCR as a tool for minimally invasive age determination of free-ranging cetaceans. We analysed telomere length in skin samples from 28 North Atlantic humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae, ranging from 0 to 26 years of age. The results suggested a significant correlation between telomere length and age in humpback whales. However, telomere length was highly variable among individuals of similar age, suggesting that telomere length measured by quantitative PCR is an imprecise determinant of age in humpback whales. The observed variation in individual telomere length was found to be a function of both experimental and biological variability, with the latter perhaps reflecting patterns of inheritance, resource allocation trade-offs, and stochasticity of the marine environment.

  12. Diffusion length in nanoporous TiO2 films under above-band-gap illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Park

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We determined the carrier diffusion lengths in TiO2 nanoporous layers of dye-sensitized solar cells by using scanning photocurrent microscopy using an ultraviolet laser. Here, we excited the carrier directly in the nanoporous layers where the diffusion lengths were found to 140 μm as compared to that of visible illumination measured at 90 μm. The diffusion length decreased with increasing laser modulation frequency, in which we determined the electron lifetimes and the diffusion coefficients for both visible and UV illuminations. The diffusion lengths have been studied in terms of the sintering temperatures for both cells with and without binding molecules. We found a strong correlation between the diffusion length and the overall light-to-current conversion efficiency, proving that improving the diffusion length and hence the interparticle connections, is key to improving cell efficiency.

  13. How Chain Length and Charge Affect Surfactant Denaturation of Acyl Coenzyme A Binding Protein (ACBP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kell Kleiner; Otzen, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    maltoside (DDM). The aim has been to determine how surfactant chain length and micellar charge affect the denaturation mechanism. ACBP denatures in two steps irrespective of surfactant chain length, but with increasing chain length, the potency of the denaturant rises more rapidly than the critical micelle......Using intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, equilibria and kinetics of unfolding of acyl coenzyme A binding protein (ACBP) have been investigated in sodium alkyl sulfate surfactants of different chain length (8-16 carbon atoms) and with different proportions of the nonionic surfactant dodecyl...... constants increases linearly with denaturant concentration below the cmc but declines at higher concentrations. Both shortening chain length and decreasing micellar charge reduce the overall kinetics of unfolding and makes the dependence of unfolding rate constants on surfactant concentration more complex...

  14. Automatic Control Of Length Of Welding Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, William F.

    1991-01-01

    Nonlinear relationships among current, voltage, and length stored in electronic memory. Conceptual microprocessor-based control subsystem maintains constant length of welding arc in gas/tungsten arc-welding system, even when welding current varied. Uses feedback of current and voltage from welding arc. Directs motor to set position of torch according to previously measured relationships among current, voltage, and length of arc. Signal paths marked "calibration" or "welding" used during those processes only. Other signal paths used during both processes. Control subsystem added to existing manual or automatic welding system equipped with automatic voltage control.

  15. Bunch Length Measurements in SPEAR3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, W.J.; Fisher, A.; Huang, X.; Safranek, J.; Sebek, J.; /SLAC; Lumpkin, A.; /Argonne; Sannibale, F.; /LBL, Berkeley; Mok, W.; /Unlisted

    2007-11-28

    A series of bunch length measurements were made in SPEAR3 for two different machine optics. In the achromatic optics the bunch length increases from the low-current value of 16.6ps rms to about 30ps at 25ma/bunch yielding an inductive impedance of -0.17{Omega}. Reducing the momentum compaction factor by a factor of {approx}60 [1] yields a low-current bunch length of {approx}4ps rms. In this paper we review the experimental setup and results.

  16. Nectar sugar composition of European Caryophylloideae (Caryophyllaceae) in relation to flower length, pollination biology and phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, T; Jürgens, A; Gottsberger, G

    2013-10-01

    Floral nectar composition has been explained as an adaptation to factors that are either directly or indirectly related to pollinator attraction. However, it is often unclear whether the sugar composition is a direct adaptation to pollinator preferences. Firstly, the lower osmolality of sucrose solutions means that they evaporate more rapidly than hexose solutions, which might be one reason why sucrose-rich nectar is typically found in flowers with long tubes (adapted to long-tongued pollinators), where it is better protected from evaporation than in open or short-tubed flowers. Secondly, it can be assumed that temperature-dependent evaporation is generally lower during the night than during the day so that selection pressure to secrete nectar with high osmolality (i.e. hexose-rich solutions) is relaxed for night-active flowers pollinated at night. Thirdly, the breeding system may affect selection pressure on nectar traits; that is, for pollinator-independent, self-pollinated plants, a lower selective pressure on nectar traits can be assumed, leading to a higher variability of nectar sugar composition independent of pollinator preferences, nectar accessibility and nectar protection. To analyse the relations between flower tube length, day vs. night pollination and self-pollination, the nectar sugar composition was investigated in 78 European Caryophylloideae (Caryophyllaceae) with different pollination modes (diurnal, nocturnal, self-pollination) using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All Caryophylleae species (Dianthus and relatives) were found to have nectar with more than 50% sucrose, whereas the sugar composition of Sileneae species (Silene and relatives) ranged from 0% to 98.2%. In the genus Silene, a clear dichotomous distribution of sucrose- and hexose-dominant nectars is evident. We found a positive correlation between the flower tube length and sucrose content in Caryophylloideae, particularly in day-flowering species, using both conventional

  17. Sonographic fetal weight estimation using femoral length: Honarvar Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firoozabadi, Raziah Dehghani; Ghasemi, N.; Firoozabadi, Mehdi Dehghani

    2007-01-01

    Fetal growth is the result of interactions between various factors and can be estimated by ultrasonic measurements. Fetal femur length is a scale for estimating the fetal weight in individual races because fetal growth patterns differ among different races. This was a prospective study involving 500 pregnant women at 36 weeks of gestational age. Real-time sonography was done to measure the femoral length and the weight of the fetus was estimated by the Honarvar 2 equation. The correlation between estimated fetal weight (EFW) and real weight was tested by Pearson correlation coefficient and relationships with the age and BMI of mother, the sex of the neonate and parity were tested by multiple regression. EFW by the Honarvar 2 equation correlated significantly with actual birthweight. Therefore, this equation is valid for fetal weight estimation. It also does not depend on the age and BMI of the mother, sex of the neonate, parity. Ethnicity potentially plays an important role in the fetal weight estimation. The Honarvar formula produced the best estimate of the actual birthweight for Iranian fetuses, and its use is recommended. (author)

  18. Telomere length and early severe social deprivation: linking early adversity and cellular aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, SS; Theall, K; Gleason, MM; Smyke, AT; De Vivo, I; Wong, JYY; Fox, NA; Zeanah, CH; Nelson, CA

    2012-01-01

    Accelerated telomere length attrition has been associated with psychological stress and early adversity in adults; however, no studies have examined whether telomere length in childhood is associated with early experiences. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project is a unique randomized controlled trial of foster care placement compared with continued care in institutions. As a result of the study design, participants were exposed to a quantified range of time in institutional care, and represented an ideal population in which to examine the association between a specific early adversity, institutional care and telomere length. We examined the association between average relative telomere length, telomere repeat copy number to single gene copy number (T/S) ratio and exposure to institutional care quantified as the percent of time at baseline (mean age 22 months) and at 54 months of age that each child lived in the institution. A significant negative correlation between T/S ratio and percentage of time was observed. Children with greater exposure to institutional care had significantly shorter relative telomere length in middle childhood. Gender modified this main effect. The percentage of time in institutional care at baseline significantly predicted telomere length in females, whereas the percentage of institutional care at 54 months was strongly predictive of telomere length in males. This is the first study to demonstrate an association between telomere length and institutionalization, the first study to find an association between adversity and telomere length in children, and contributes to the growing literature linking telomere length and early adversity. PMID:21577215

  19. Umbilical cord length in singleton gestations: a Finnish population-based retrospective register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, L; Keski-Nisula, L; Harju, M; Räisänen, S; Georgiadis, S; Hannila, M-L; Heinonen, S

    2014-04-01

    Many complications of pregnancy and delivery are associated with umbilical cord length. It is important to examine the variation in length, in order to identify normal and abnormal conditions. Moreover, the factors influencing cord growth and development are not precisely known. The main objectives were to provide updated reference charts for umbilical cord length in singleton pregnancies and to evaluate potential factors affecting cord length. Birth register data of 47,284 singleton pregnant women delivering in Kuopio University Hospital, Finland was collected prospectively. Gender-specific centile charts for cord length from 22 to 44 gestational weeks were obtained using generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS). Gestational, fetal, and maternal factors were studied for their potential influence on cord length with single variable analysis and stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. Cord length increased according to gestational age, while the growth decelerated post-term. Birth weight, placental weight, pregravid maternal body mass index, parity, and maternal age correlated to cord length. Gestational diabetes and previous miscarriages were associated with longer cords, while female gender and placental abruption were associated with shorter cords. Girls had shorter cords throughout gestation although there was substantial variation in length in both genders. Cord length associated significantly with birth weight, placental weight, and gestational age. Significantly shorter cords were found in women with placental abruption. This important finding requires further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cervical Length in Patients at Risk for Placenta Accreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rac, Martha W F; McIntire, Donald D; Wells, C Edward; Moschos, Elysia; Twickler, Diane D

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate cervical length measurements in women with placenta accreta compared to women with a nonadherent low-lying placenta or placenta previa and evaluate this relationship in terms of vaginal bleeding, preterm labor, and preterm birth. We conducted a retrospective cohort study between 1997 and 2011 of gravidas with more than 1 prior cesarean delivery who had a transvaginal ultrasound examination between 24 and 34 weeks for a low-lying placenta or placenta previa. Cervical length was measured from archived images in accordance with national guidelines by a single investigator, who was blinded to outcomes and ultrasound reports. The diagnosis of placental accreta was based on histologic confirmation. For study purposes, preterm birth was defined as less than 36 weeks, and cervical lengths of 3 cm or less were considered short. Standard statistical analyses were used. A total of 125 patients met inclusion criteria. The cohort was divided into patients with (n = 43 [34%]) and without (n = 82 [66%]) placenta accreta and stratified by gestational age at the ultrasound examinations. Women with placenta accreta had shorter cervical length measurements during their 32- to 34-week ultrasound examinations (mean ± SD, 3.23 ± 0.98 versus 3.95 ± 1.0 cm; P accreta had shorter cervical lengths at 32 to 34 weeks than women with a nonadherent low-lying placenta or placenta previa, but this finding did not correlate with a higher risk of vaginal bleeding or preterm labor resulting in preterm birth before 36 weeks. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  1. The benefits of longer fuel cycle lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesler, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    Longer fuel cycle lengths have been found to increase generation and improve outage management. A study at Duke Power Company has shown that longer fuel cycles offer both increased scheduling flexibility and increased capacity factors

  2. Atomic frequency-time-length standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghiu, O.C.; Mandache, C.

    1987-01-01

    The principles of operative of atomic frequency-time-length standards and their principle characteristics are described. The role of quartz crystal oscillators which are sloved to active or passive standards is presented. (authors)

  3. The analysis of projected fission track lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laslett, G.M.; Galbraith, R.F.; Green, P.F.

    1994-01-01

    This article deals with the question of how features of the thermal history can be estimated from projected track length measurements, i.e. lengths of the remaining parts of tracks that have intersected a surface, projected onto that surface. The appropriate mathematical theory is described and used to provide a sound basis both for understanding the nature of projected length measurements and for analysing observed data. The estimation of thermal history parameters corresponding to the current temperature, the maximum palaeotemperature and the time since cooling, is studied using laboratory data and simulations. In general the information contained in projected track lengths and angles is fairly limited, compared, for example, with that from a much smaller number of confined tracks, though we identify some circumstances when such measurements may be useful. Also it is not straightforward to extract the information and simple ad hoc estimation methods are generally inadequate. (author)

  4. Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP-cDNA) analysis of differential gene expression from the xerophyte Ammopiptanthus mongolicus in response to cold, drought and cold together with drought.

  5. Impedance of finite length resistive cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krinsky

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available We determine the impedance of a cylindrical metal tube (resistor of radius a, length g, and conductivity σ attached at each end to perfect conductors of semi-infinite length. Our main interest is in the asymptotic behavior of the impedance at high frequency (k≫1/a. In the equilibrium regime, ka^{2}≪g, the impedance per unit length is accurately described by the well-known result for an infinite length tube with conductivity σ. In the transient regime, ka^{2}≫g, where the contribution of transition radiation arising from the discontinuity in conductivity is important, we derive an analytic expression for the impedance and compute the short-range wakefield. The analytic results are shown to agree with numerical evaluation of the impedance.

  6. Characteristic length of the knotting probability revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Erica; Deguchi, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    We present a self-avoiding polygon (SAP) model for circular DNA in which the radius of impermeable cylindrical segments corresponds to the screening length of double-stranded DNA surrounded by counter ions. For the model we evaluate the probability for a generated SAP with N segments having a given knot K through simulation. We call it the knotting probability of a knot K with N segments for the SAP model. We show that when N is large the most significant factor in the knotting probability is given by the exponentially decaying part exp(−N/N K ), where the estimates of parameter N K are consistent with the same value for all the different knots we investigated. We thus call it the characteristic length of the knotting probability. We give formulae expressing the characteristic length as a function of the cylindrical radius r ex , i.e. the screening length of double-stranded DNA. (paper)

  7. Chord length distribution for a compound capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitřík, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Chord length distribution is a factor important in the calculation of ionisation chamber responses. This article describes Monte Carlo calculations of the chord length distribution for a non-convex compound capsule. A Monte Carlo code was set up for generation of random chords and calculation of their lengths based on the input number of generations and cavity dimensions. The code was written in JavaScript and can be executed in the majority of HTML viewers. The plot of occurrence of cords of different lengths has 3 peaks. It was found that the compound capsule cavity cannot be simply replaced with a spherical cavity of a triangular design. Furthermore, the compound capsule cavity is directionally dependent, which must be taken into account in calculations involving non-isotropic fields of primary particles in the beam, unless equilibrium of the secondary charged particles is attained. (orig.)

  8. Study on the Connecting Length of CFRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiongfei; Li, Yue; Li, Zhanguo

    2018-05-01

    The paper studied the varying mode of shear stress in the connecting zone of CFRP. Using epoxy resin (EP) as bond material, performance of specimens with different connecting length of CFRP was tested to obtain the conclusion. CFRP-confined concrete column was tested subsequently to verify the conclusion. The results show that: (1) The binding properties of modified epoxy resin with CFRP is good; (2) As the connecting length increased, the ultimate tensile strength of CFRP increased as well in the range of the experiment parameters; (3) Tensile strength of CFRP can reach the ultimate strength when the connecting length is 90mm;(4) The connecting length of 90mm of CFRP meet the reinforcement requirements.

  9. Fragment Length of Circulating Tumor DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Hunter R; Kitzman, Jacob O; Hellwig, Sabine; Welker, Noah C; Daza, Riza; Baker, Daniel N; Gligorich, Keith M; Rostomily, Robert C; Bronner, Mary P; Shendure, Jay

    2016-07-01

    Malignant tumors shed DNA into the circulation. The transient half-life of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) may afford the opportunity to diagnose, monitor recurrence, and evaluate response to therapy solely through a non-invasive blood draw. However, detecting ctDNA against the normally occurring background of cell-free DNA derived from healthy cells has proven challenging, particularly in non-metastatic solid tumors. In this study, distinct differences in fragment length size between ctDNAs and normal cell-free DNA are defined. Human ctDNA in rat plasma derived from human glioblastoma multiforme stem-like cells in the rat brain and human hepatocellular carcinoma in the rat flank were found to have a shorter principal fragment length than the background rat cell-free DNA (134-144 bp vs. 167 bp, respectively). Subsequently, a similar shift in the fragment length of ctDNA in humans with melanoma and lung cancer was identified compared to healthy controls. Comparison of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA between a melanoma patient and healthy controls found that the BRAF V600E mutant allele occurred more commonly at a shorter fragment length than the fragment length of the wild-type allele (132-145 bp vs. 165 bp, respectively). Moreover, size-selecting for shorter cell-free DNA fragment lengths substantially increased the EGFR T790M mutant allele frequency in human lung cancer. These findings provide compelling evidence that experimental or bioinformatic isolation of a specific subset of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA may improve detection of ctDNA.

  10. Electron Effective-Attenuation-Length Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 82 NIST Electron Effective-Attenuation-Length Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of electron effective attenuation lengths (EALs) in solid elements and compounds at selected electron energies between 50 eV and 2,000 eV. The database was designed mainly to provide EALs (to account for effects of elastic-eletron scattering) for applications in surface analysis by Auger-electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  11. Length and coverage of inhibitory decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    Authors present algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. Inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute ≠ value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. Paper contains also comparison of length and coverage of inhibitory rules constructed by a greedy algorithm and by the dynamic programming algorithm. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  12. The SME gauge sector with minimum length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belich, H.; Louzada, H.L.C. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2017-12-15

    We study the gauge sector of the Standard Model Extension (SME) with the Lorentz covariant deformed Heisenberg algebra associated to the minimum length. In order to find and estimate corrections, we clarify whether the violation of Lorentz symmetry and the existence of a minimum length are independent phenomena or are, in some way, related. With this goal, we analyze the dispersion relations of this theory. (orig.)

  13. The SME gauge sector with minimum length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belich, H.; Louzada, H. L. C.

    2017-12-01

    We study the gauge sector of the Standard Model Extension (SME) with the Lorentz covariant deformed Heisenberg algebra associated to the minimum length. In order to find and estimate corrections, we clarify whether the violation of Lorentz symmetry and the existence of a minimum length are independent phenomena or are, in some way, related. With this goal, we analyze the dispersion relations of this theory.

  14. Sexual Dimorphism and Estimation of Height from Body Length Anthropometric Parameters among the Hausa Ethnic Group of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaafar Aliyu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the sexual dimorphism in length and other anthropometric parameters. To also generate formulae for height estimation using anthropometric measurements of some length parameters among Hausa ethnic group of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A cross sectional study was conducted and a total of 500 subjects participated in this study which was mainly secondary school students between the age ranges of 16-27 years, anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard protocols. It was observed that there was significant sexual dimorphism in all the parameters except for body mass index. In all the parameters males tend to have significantly (P < 0.05 higher mean values except biaxillary distances. Height showed positive and strongest correlations with demispan length, followed by knee height, thigh length, sitting height, hand length, foot length, humeral length, forearm length and weight respectively. There were weak and positive correlations between height and neck length as well as biaxillary length. The demi span length showed the strongest correlation coefficient and low standard error of estimate indicating the strong estimation ability than other parameters. The combination of two parameters tends to give better estimations and low standard error of estimates, so also combining the three parameters gives better estimations with a lower standard error of estimates. The better correlation coefficient was also observed with the double and triple parameters respectively. Male Hausa tend to have larger body proportion compared to female. Height showed positive and strongest correlations with demispan length. Body length anthropometric proved to be useful in estimation of stature among Hausa ethnic group of Kaduna state Nigeria.

  15. Rapid treatment reduces hospitalization for pediatric patients with odontogenic-based cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thikkurissy, Sarat; Rawlins, Joseph T; Kumar, Ashok; Evans, Erik; Casamassimo, Paul S

    2010-07-01

    The study aimed to assess characteristics of facial cellulitis admissions and their relationship to cost of hospitalization (COH) and length of stay (LOS) in children ages 0 to 20 years at an urban hospital and to compare outcomes of rapid management to published and national statistics for LOS and COH. A retrospective review of 376 charts of facial cellulitis admissions between 2000 and 2006 revealed 63 of confirmed odontogenic cases from which cellulitis characteristics, COH, and LOS were gleaned. Variables were correlated to LOS and COH. Data on LOS and cost of admission were compared to published studies and 506 entries from the 2006 Kids' Inpatient Database (KID). Of 63 charts included, children included were 8.3 years (SD, +/-3.8 years) and equal in sex distribution. Treatment rendered and site of infection had no significant relationship to COH. Overall mean hospital LOS was 2.08 days and significantly less as compared to 3.97 days for published studies and 3.4 days for KID (P KID. In the management of pediatric facial cellulitis of odontogenic origin, rapid treatment had a significant positive impact on length of stay and total cost of treatment compared to published studies and nationally reflective data. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Adaptive variable-length coding for efficient compression of spacecraft television data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. F.; Plaunt, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    An adaptive variable length coding system is presented. Although developed primarily for the proposed Grand Tour missions, many features of this system clearly indicate a much wider applicability. Using sample to sample prediction, the coding system produces output rates within 0.25 bit/picture element (pixel) of the one-dimensional difference entropy for entropy values ranging from 0 to 8 bit/pixel. This is accomplished without the necessity of storing any code words. Performance improvements of 0.5 bit/pixel can be simply achieved by utilizing previous line correlation. A Basic Compressor, using concatenated codes, adapts to rapid changes in source statistics by automatically selecting one of three codes to use for each block of 21 pixels. The system adapts to less frequent, but more dramatic, changes in source statistics by adjusting the mode in which the Basic Compressor operates on a line-to-line basis. Furthermore, the compression system is independent of the quantization requirements of the pulse-code modulation system.

  17. Force generation and temperature-jump and length-jump tension transients in muscle fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J S; Rodgers, M E

    1995-01-01

    Muscle tension rises with increasing temperature. The kinetics that govern the tension rise of maximally Ca(2+)-activated, skinned rabbit psoas fibers over a temperature range of 0-30 degrees C was characterized in laser temperature-jump experiments. The kinetic response is simple and can be readily interpreted in terms of a basic three-step mechanism of contraction, which includes a temperature-sensitive rapid preequilibrium(a) linked to a temperature-insensitive rate-limiting step and followed by a temperature-sensitive tension-generating step. These data and mechanism are compared and contrasted with the more complex length-jump Huxley-Simmons phases in which all states that generate tension or bear tension are perturbed. The rate of the Huxley-Simmons phase 4 is temperature sensitive at low temperatures but plateaus at high temperatures, indicating a change in rate-limiting step from a temperature-sensitive (phase 4a) to a temperature-insensitive reaction (phase 4b); the latter appears to correlate with the slow, temperature-insensitive temperature-jump relaxation. Phase 3 is absent in the temperature-jump, which excludes it from tension generation. We confirm that de novo tension generation occurs as an order-disorder transition during phase 2slow and the equivalent, temperature-sensitive temperature-jump relaxation. PMID:7612845

  18. Administrative license suspension: Does length of suspension matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, James C; Scherer, Michael

    2017-08-18

    Administrative license revocation (ALR) laws, which provide that the license of a driver with a blood alcohol concentration at or over the illegal limit is subject to an immediate suspension by the state department of motor vehicles, are an example of a traffic law in which the sanction rapidly follows the offense. The power of ALR laws has been attributed to how swiftly the sanction is applied, but does the length of suspension matter? Our objectives were to (a) determine the relationship of the ALR suspension length to the prevalence of drinking drivers relative to sober drivers in fatal crashes and (b) estimate the extent to which the relationship is associated to the general deterrent effect compared to the specific deterrent effect of the law. Data comparing the impact of ALR law implementation and ALR law suspension periods were analyzed using structural equation modeling techniques on the ratio of drinking drivers to nondrinking drivers in fatal crashes from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). States with an ALR law with a short suspension period (1-30 days) had a significantly lower drinking driver ratio than states with no ALR law. States with a suspension period of 91-180 days had significantly lower ratios than states with shorter suspension periods, while the three states with suspension lengths of 181 days or longer had significantly lower ratios than states with shorter suspension periods. The implementation of any ALR law was associated with a 13.1% decrease in the drinking/nondrinking driver fatal crash ratio but only a 1.8% decrease in the intoxicated/nonintoxicated fatal crash ratio. The ALR laws and suspension lengths had a significant general deterrent effect, but no specific deterrent effect. States might want to keep (or adopt) ALR laws for their general deterrent effects and pursue alternatives for specific deterrent effects. States with short ALR suspension periods should consider lengthening them to 91 days or longer.

  19. Critical point phenomena: universal physics at large length scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, A.; Wallace, D.

    1993-01-01

    This article is concerned with the behaviour of a physical system at, or close to, a critical point (ebullition, ferromagnetism..): study of the phenomena displayed in the critical region (Ising model, order parameter, correlation length); description of the configurations (patterns) formed by the microscopic degrees of freedom near a critical point, essential concepts of the renormalization group (coarse-graining, system flow, fixed-point and scale-invariance); how these concepts knit together to form the renormalization group method; and what kind of problems may be resolved by the renormalization group method. 12 figs., 1 ref

  20. Rapid-Sequence Serial Sexual Homicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Louis B; Ramirez, Stephanie; Tusa, Brittany; Jarvis, John P; Erdberg, Philip

    2017-03-01

    Serial sexual murderers have been described as committing homicides in a methodical manner, taking substantial time between offenses to elude the authorities. The results of our study of the temporal patterns (i.e., the length of time between homicides) of a nonrandom national sample of 44 serial sexual murderers and their 201 victims indicate that this representation may not always be accurate. Although 25 offenders (56.8%) killed with longer than a 14-day period between homicides, a sizeable subgroup was identified: 19 offenders (43.2%) who committed homicides in rapid-sequence fashion, with fewer than 14 days between all or some of the murders. Six offenders (13.6%) killed all their victims in one rapid-sequence, spree-like episode, with homicides just days apart or sometimes two murders in the same day. Thirteen offenders (29.5%) killed in one or two rapid-sequence clusters (i.e., more than one murder within a 14-day period, as well as additional homicides with greater than 14 days between each). The purpose of our study was to describe this subgroup of rapid-sequence offenders who have not been identified until now. These findings argue for accelerated forensic assessments of dangerousness and public safety when a sexual murder is detected. Psychiatric disorders with rapidly occurring symptom patterns, or even atypical mania or mood dysregulation, may serve as exemplars for understanding this extraordinary group of offenders. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  1. Association of Telomere Length with Breast Cancer Prognostic Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoutar Ennour-Idrissi

    Full Text Available Telomere length, a marker of cell aging, seems to be affected by the same factors thought to be associated with breast cancer prognosis.To examine associations of peripheral blood cell-measured telomere length with traditional and potential prognostic factors in breast cancer patients.We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data collected before surgery from 162 breast cancer patients recruited consecutively between 01/2011 and 05/2012, at a breast cancer reference center. Data on the main lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity were collected using standardized questionnaires. Anthropometric factors were measured. Tumor biological characteristics were extracted from pathology reports. Telomere length was measured using a highly reproducible quantitative PCR method in peripheral white blood cells. Spearman partial rank-order correlations and multivariate general linear models were used to evaluate relationships between telomere length and prognostic factors.Telomere length was positively associated with total physical activity (rs = 0.17, P = 0.033; Ptrend = 0.069, occupational physical activity (rs = 0.15, P = 0.054; Ptrend = 0.054 and transportation-related physical activity (rs = 0.19, P = 0.019; P = 0.005. Among post-menopausal women, telomere length remained positively associated with total physical activity (rs = 0.27, P = 0.016; Ptrend = 0.054 and occupational physical activity (rs = 0.26, P = 0.021; Ptrend = 0.056 and was only associated with transportation-related physical activity among pre-menopausal women (rs = 0.27, P = 0.015; P = 0.004. No association was observed between telomere length and recreational or household activities, other lifestyle factors or traditional prognostic factors.Telomeres are longer in more active breast cancer patients. Since white blood cells are involved in anticancer immune responses, these findings suggest that even regular low-intensity physical activity, such as that

  2. Length bias correction in gene ontology enrichment analysis using logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Gu; Di, Yanming; Emerson, Sarah; Cumbie, Jason S; Chang, Jeff H

    2012-01-01

    When assessing differential gene expression from RNA sequencing data, commonly used statistical tests tend to have greater power to detect differential expression of genes encoding longer transcripts. This phenomenon, called "length bias", will influence subsequent analyses such as Gene Ontology enrichment analysis. In the presence of length bias, Gene Ontology categories that include longer genes are more likely to be identified as enriched. These categories, however, are not necessarily biologically more relevant. We show that one can effectively adjust for length bias in Gene Ontology analysis by including transcript length as a covariate in a logistic regression model. The logistic regression model makes the statistical issue underlying length bias more transparent: transcript length becomes a confounding factor when it correlates with both the Gene Ontology membership and the significance of the differential expression test. The inclusion of the transcript length as a covariate allows one to investigate the direct correlation between the Gene Ontology membership and the significance of testing differential expression, conditional on the transcript length. We present both real and simulated data examples to show that the logistic regression approach is simple, effective, and flexible.

  3. [Ultrasonographic evaluation of the uterine cervix length remaining after LOOP-excision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, A-L; Nicolas, F; Lavoué, V; Henno, S; Mesbah, H; Porée, P; Levêque, J

    2014-04-01

    To assess whether there is a correlation between the length of a conization specimen and the length of the cervix measured by vaginal ultrasonography after the operation Prospective observational study including patients less than 45 years with measurement of cervical length before and the day of the conization, and measuring the histological length of the specimen. Among the 40 patients enrolled, the average ultrasound measurements before conization was 26.9 mm (± 4.9 mm) against 18.1mm (± 4.4mm) after conization with a mean difference of 8.8mm (± 2.4mm) (difference statistically significant Pcervix length remove by loop-excision in our series is 33% (± 8.5%). A good correlation between the measurements of the specimen and the cervical ultrasound length before and after conization was found, as a significant reduction in cervical length after conization. The precise length of the specimen should be known in case of pregnancy and the prevention of prematurity due to conization rests on selected indications and efficient surgical technique. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid world modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Charles; Jensen, Ken

    2002-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has designed and developed systems capable of large-scale, three-dimensional mapping of unstructured environments in near real time. This mapping technique is called rapid world modeling and has proven invaluable when used by prototype systems consisting of sensory detection devices mounted on mobile platforms. These systems can be deployed into previously unmapped environments and transmit real-time 3-D visual images to operators located remotely. This paper covers a brief history of the rapid world modeling system, its implementation on mobile platforms, and the current state of the technology. Applications to the nuclear power industry are discussed. (author)

  5. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on relativistic multiparticle processes in the central rapidity region at asymptotically high energies, a new experimental study of charged K→3π decays, pre-Cherenkov radiation as a phenomenon of 'light barrier', stable S=-2 H dibaryon found in Dubna, calculation of Green functions and gluon top in some unambiguous gauges, a method of a fast selection of inelastic nucleus-nucleus collisions for the CMS experiment and the manifestation of jet quenching in differential distributions of the total transverse energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions

  6. Rapid microbiology - raising awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A 'high-level overview' of some of the emerging rapid microbiology technologies designed to help healthcare engineering and infection control teams working in hospitals and other healthcare facilities more rapidly identify potentially hazardous levels of waterborne microorganisms in their water systems, enabling them to take prompt remedial action, and a look at the some of the 'pros and cons' of such testing techniques, was given by Nalco technical director, Howard Barnes, the vice-chair of the Legionella Control Association (LCA), at a recent LCA open day. HEJ editor, Jonathan Bailie, reports.

  7. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on invisible Z-boson width and restrictions on next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model, cosmic test of honeycomb drift chambers, fission of 209 Bi, 232 Th, 235 U, 238 U and 237 Np in a spallation neutron field, rapid screening of spontaneous and radiation-induced structural changes at the vestigial gene of Drosophila melanogaster by polymerase chain reaction, gamma-ray multiplicities in sub-barrier fission of 226 Th and the decay constants of the scalar and pseudoscalar mesons in the quark models with quasilocal interaction

  8. Supernova-regulated ISM. V. Space and Time Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollins, J. F.; Sarson, G. R.; Shukurov, A.; Fletcher, A.; Gent, F. A.

    2017-11-01

    We apply correlation analysis to random fields in numerical simulations of the supernova-driven interstellar medium (ISM) with the magnetic field produced by dynamo action. We solve the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in a shearing Cartesian box representing a local region of the ISM, subject to thermal and kinetic energy injection by supernova explosions, and parameterized, optically thin radiative cooling. We consider the cold, warm, and hot phases of the ISM separately; the analysis mostly considers the warm gas, which occupies the bulk of the domain. Various physical variables have different correlation lengths in the warm phase: 40,50, and 60 {pc} for the random magnetic field, density, and velocity, respectively, in the midplane. The correlation time of the random velocity is comparable to the eddy turnover time, about {10}7 {year}, although it may be shorter in regions with a higher star formation rate. The random magnetic field is anisotropic, with the standard deviations of its components {b}x/{b}y/{b}z having approximate ratios 0.5/0.6/0.6 in the midplane. The anisotropy is attributed to the global velocity shear from galactic differential rotation and locally inhomogeneous outflow to the galactic halo. The correlation length of Faraday depth along the z axis, 120 {pc}, is greater than for electron density, 60{--}90 {pc}, and the vertical magnetic field, 60 {pc}. Such comparisons may be sensitive to the orientation of the line of sight. Uncertainties of the structure functions of synchrotron intensity rapidly increase with the scale. This feature is hidden in a power spectrum analysis, which can undermine the usefulness of power spectra for detailed studies of interstellar turbulence.

  9. length-weight relationhip of freshwater wild fish species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Naeem

    2012-06-21

    Jun 21, 2012 ... Length-weight (LWR) and length-length relationships (LLR) were determined for a freshwater catfish ... Key words: Mystus bleekeri, length-weight relationship, length-length relationship, predictive equations. INTRODUCTION. Mystus bleekeri (freshwater catfish Day, 1877), locally ..... fish farmers, Aquacult.

  10. Gated cardiac blood pool studies in atrial fibrillation: Role of cycle length windowing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallis, J W; Juni, J E; Wu, L [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (USA). Div. of Nuclear Medicine

    1991-01-01

    Cycle length windowing is gaining increasing acceptance in gated blood pool imaging of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). The goals of this study were: to assess differences of ejection fraction (EF) in AF with and without windowing and to determine how EF varied with cycle length in patients with AF. Twenty patients with AF were prospectively studied by gated blood pool imaging, with simultaneous collection in each patient of 5-7 studies with cycle length windows spanning the cycle length histogram. Each window accepted beats of only a narrow range of cycle lengths. EF was determined for each of the narrow cycle length windows as well as for the entire gated blood pool study without cycle length windowing. For every patient an average of the windowed EFs was compared with the non-windowed EF. EF values were similar (mean windowed: 46.6; non-windowed: 45.5; P=0.16), and there was a good correlation between the two techniques (r=0.97). The data were then examined for a relationship of EF with cycle length. The difference from average windowed EF ({Delta}EF) was calculated for each window and plotted vs. the cycle length of the center of each window. No predictable linear or nonlinear relationship of {Delta}EF with window position was observed. Lack of predictable variation of EF with cycle length is likely due to lack of a predictable amount of ventricular filling for a given cycle length, as the amount of diastolic filling in AF depends on the random cycle length of the preceding beat. In summary, windowing in AF does not provide a clinically significant difference in EF determination. If cycle length windowing is used, the exact location of the window is not critical. (orig.).

  11. Density Functional Theory and Materials Modeling at Atomistic Length Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapan K. Ghosh

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We discuss the basic concepts of density functional theory (DFT as applied to materials modeling in the microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic length scales. The picture that emerges is that of a single unified framework for the study of both quantum and classical systems. While for quantum DFT, the central equation is a one-particle Schrodinger-like Kohn-Sham equation, the classical DFT consists of Boltzmann type distributions, both corresponding to a system of noninteracting particles in the field of a density-dependent effective potential, the exact functional form of which is unknown. One therefore approximates the exchange-correlation potential for quantum systems and the excess free energy density functional or the direct correlation functions for classical systems. Illustrative applications of quantum DFT to microscopic modeling of molecular interaction and that of classical DFT to a mesoscopic modeling of soft condensed matter systems are highlighted.

  12. Navigate the Digital Rapids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Julie; Davis, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    How can teachers teach digital citizenship when the digital landscape is changing so rapidly? How can teachers teach proper online social interactions when the students are outside their classroom and thus outside their control? Will encouraging students to engage in global collaborative environments land teachers in hot water? These are the…

  13. Length expectation values in quantum Regge calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatsymovsky, V.M.

    2004-01-01

    Regge calculus configuration superspace can be embedded into a more general superspace where the length of any edge is defined ambiguously depending on the 4-tetrahedron containing the edge. Moreover, the latter superspace can be extended further so that even edge lengths in each the 4-tetrahedron are not defined, only area tensors of the 2-faces in it are. We make use of our previous result concerning quantization of the area tensor Regge calculus which gives finite expectation values for areas. Also our result is used showing that quantum measure in the Regge calculus can be uniquely fixed once we know quantum measure on (the space of the functionals on) the superspace of the theory with ambiguously defined edge lengths. We find that in this framework quantization of the usual Regge calculus is defined up to a parameter. The theory may possess nonzero (of the order of Planck scale) or zero length expectation values depending on whether this parameter is larger or smaller than a certain value. Vanishing length expectation values means that the theory is becoming continuous, here dynamically in the originally discrete framework

  14. Explaining the length threshold of polyglutamine aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Los Rios, Paolo; Hafner, Marc; Pastore, Annalisa

    2012-01-01

    The existence of a length threshold, of about 35 residues, above which polyglutamine repeats can give rise to aggregation and to pathologies, is one of the hallmarks of polyglutamine neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s disease. The reason why such a minimal length exists at all has remained one of the main open issues in research on the molecular origins of such classes of diseases. Following the seminal proposals of Perutz, most research has focused on the hunt for a special structure, attainable only above the minimal length, able to trigger aggregation. Such a structure has remained elusive and there is growing evidence that it might not exist at all. Here we review some basic polymer and statistical physics facts and show that the existence of a threshold is compatible with the modulation that the repeat length imposes on the association and dissociation rates of polyglutamine polypeptides to and from oligomers. In particular, their dramatically different functional dependence on the length rationalizes the very presence of a threshold and hints at the cellular processes that might be at play, in vivo, to prevent aggregation and the consequent onset of the disease. (paper)

  15. Explaining the length threshold of polyglutamine aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Rios, Paolo; Hafner, Marc; Pastore, Annalisa

    2012-06-01

    The existence of a length threshold, of about 35 residues, above which polyglutamine repeats can give rise to aggregation and to pathologies, is one of the hallmarks of polyglutamine neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s disease. The reason why such a minimal length exists at all has remained one of the main open issues in research on the molecular origins of such classes of diseases. Following the seminal proposals of Perutz, most research has focused on the hunt for a special structure, attainable only above the minimal length, able to trigger aggregation. Such a structure has remained elusive and there is growing evidence that it might not exist at all. Here we review some basic polymer and statistical physics facts and show that the existence of a threshold is compatible with the modulation that the repeat length imposes on the association and dissociation rates of polyglutamine polypeptides to and from oligomers. In particular, their dramatically different functional dependence on the length rationalizes the very presence of a threshold and hints at the cellular processes that might be at play, in vivo, to prevent aggregation and the consequent onset of the disease.

  16. Urban Aerodynamic Roughness Length Mapping Using Multitemporal SAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengli Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic roughness is very important to urban meteorological and climate studies. Radar remote sensing is considered to be an effective means for aerodynamic roughness retrieval because radar backscattering is sensitive to the surface roughness and geometric structure of a given target. In this paper, a methodology for aerodynamic roughness length estimation using SAR data in urban areas is introduced. The scale and orientation characteristics of backscattering of various targets in urban areas were firstly extracted and analyzed, which showed great potential of SAR data for urban roughness elements characterization. Then the ground truth aerodynamic roughness was calculated from wind gradient data acquired by the meteorological tower using fitting and iterative method. And then the optimal dimension of the upwind sector for the aerodynamic roughness calculation was determined through a correlation analysis between backscattering extracted from SAR data at various upwind sector areas and the aerodynamic roughness calculated from the meteorological tower data. Finally a quantitative relationship was set up to retrieve the aerodynamic roughness length from SAR data. Experiments based on ALOS PALSAR and COSMO-SkyMed data from 2006 to 2011 prove that the proposed methodology can provide accurate roughness length estimations for the spatial and temporal analysis of urban surface.

  17. The Association of Telomere Length With Family Violence and Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabile, Emily; Brett, Zoë H.; Esteves, Kyle; Jones, Edward; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Theall, Katherine P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To enhance the understanding of biological mechanisms connecting early adversity and negative health, we examine the association between family interpersonal violence and disruption and telomere length in youth. These specific exposures were selected because of their established links with negative health consequences across the life-course. METHODS: Children, age 5 to 15, were recruited from the greater New Orleans area, and exposure to family disruption and violence was assessed through caregiver report. Telomere length, from buccal cell DNA (buccal telomere length [bTL]), was determined by using monochrome multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The association between bTL and adversity exposure was tested (n = 80). RESULTS: Cumulative exposure to interpersonal violence and family disruption was correlated with bTL. Controlling for other sociodemographic factors, bTL was significantly shorter in children with higher exposure to family violence and disruption. Witnessing family violence exerted a particularly potent impact. A significant gender interaction was found (β = −0.0086, SE = 0.0031, z test= −2.79, P = .0053) and analysis revealed the effect only in girls. CONCLUSIONS: bTL is a molecular biomarker of adversity and allostatic load that is detectable in childhood. The present results extend previous studies by demonstrating that telomeres are sensitive to adversity within the overarching family domain. These findings suggest that the family ecology may be an important target for interventions to reduce the biological impact of adversity in the lives of children. PMID:24936002

  18. The association of telomere length with family violence and disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Stacy S; Mabile, Emily; Brett, Zoë H; Esteves, Kyle; Jones, Edward; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Theall, Katherine P

    2014-07-01

    To enhance the understanding of biological mechanisms connecting early adversity and negative health, we examine the association between family interpersonal violence and disruption and telomere length in youth. These specific exposures were selected because of their established links with negative health consequences across the life-course. Children, age 5 to 15, were recruited from the greater New Orleans area, and exposure to family disruption and violence was assessed through caregiver report. Telomere length, from buccal cell DNA (buccal telomere length [bTL]), was determined by using monochrome multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The association between bTL and adversity exposure was tested (n = 80). Cumulative exposure to interpersonal violence and family disruption was correlated with bTL. Controlling for other sociodemographic factors, bTL was significantly shorter in children with higher exposure to family violence and disruption. Witnessing family violence exerted a particularly potent impact. A significant gender interaction was found (β = -0.0086, SE = 0.0031, z test= -2.79, P = .0053) and analysis revealed the effect only in girls. bTL is a molecular biomarker of adversity and allostatic load that is detectable in childhood. The present results extend previous studies by demonstrating that telomeres are sensitive to adversity within the overarching family domain. These findings suggest that the family ecology may be an important target for interventions to reduce the biological impact of adversity in the lives of children. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Electrostatic stiffening and induced persistence length for coassembled molecular bottlebrushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Ingeborg M.; Stuart, Martien A. Cohen; de Vries, Renko; Leermakers, Frans A. M.

    2018-03-01

    A self-consistent field analysis for tunable contributions to the persistence length of isolated semiflexible polymer chains including electrostatically driven coassembled deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) bottlebrushes is presented. When a chain is charged, i.e., for polyelectrolytes, there is, in addition to an intrinsic rigidity, an electrostatic stiffening effect, because the electric double layer resists bending. For molecular bottlebrushes, there is an induced contribution due to the grafts. We explore cases beyond the classical phantom main-chain approximation and elaborate molecularly more realistic models where the backbone has a finite volume, which is necessary for treating coassembled bottlebrushes. We find that the way in which the linear charge density or the grafting density is regulated is important. Typically, the stiffening effect is reduced when there is freedom for these quantities to adapt to the curvature stresses. Electrostatically driven coassembled bottlebrushes, however, are relatively stiff because the chains have a low tendency to escape from the compressed regions and the electrostatic binding force is largest in the convex part. For coassembled bottlebrushes, the induced persistence length is a nonmonotonic function of the polymer concentration: For low polymer concentrations, the stiffening grows quadratically with coverage; for semidilute polymer concentrations, the brush chains retract and regain their Gaussian size. When doing so, they lose their induced persistence length contribution. Our results correlate well with observed physical characteristics of electrostatically driven coassembled DNA-bioengineered protein-polymer bottlebrushes.

  20. Single-particle motion in rapidly rotating nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, R.; Frisk, H.

    1985-01-01

    The motion of particles belonging to a single-j shell is described in terms of classical orbitals. The effects of rapid rotation and pairing correlations are discussed and the results are compared with the quantum mechanical orbitals. (orig.)

  1. Resonance effects in neutron scattering lengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn, J.E.

    1989-06-01

    The nature of neutron scattering lengths is described and the nuclear effects giving rise to their variation is discussed. Some examples of the shortcomings of the available nuclear data base, particularly for heavy nuclei, are given. Methods are presented for improving this data base, in particular for obtaining the energy variation of the complex coherent scattering length from long to sub-/angstrom/ wave lengths from the available sources of slow neutron cross section data. Examples of this information are given for several of the rare earth nuclides. Some examples of the effect of resonances in neutron reflection and diffraction are discussed. This report documents a seminar given at Argonne National Laboratory in March 1989. 18 refs., 18 figs.

  2. Aminophylline increases seizure length during electroconvulsive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, L; Dannon, P N; Hirschmann, S; Schriber, S; Amytal, D; Dolberg, O T; Grunhaus, L

    1999-12-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered to be one of the most effective treatments for patients with major depression and persistent psychosis. Seizure characteristics probably determine the therapeutic effect of ECT; as a consequence, short seizures are accepted as one of the factors of poor outcome. During most ECT courses seizure threshold increases and seizure duration decreases. Methylxanthine preparations, caffeine, and theophylline have been used to prolong seizure duration. The use of aminophylline, more readily available than caffeine, has not been well documented. The objective of this study was to test the effects of aminophylline on seizure length. Fourteen drug-free patients with diagnoses of affective disorder or psychotic episode receiving ECT participated in this study. Seizure length was assessed clinically and per EEG. Statistical comparisons were done using paired t tests. A significant increase (p < 0.04) in seizure length was achieved and maintained on three subsequent treatments with aminophylline. No adverse events were noted from the addition of aminophylline.

  3. Minimal Length Scale Scenarios for Quantum Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossenfelder, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    We review the question of whether the fundamental laws of nature limit our ability to probe arbitrarily short distances. First, we examine what insights can be gained from thought experiments for probes of shortest distances, and summarize what can be learned from different approaches to a theory of quantum gravity. Then we discuss some models that have been developed to implement a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. These models have entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle or the modified dispersion relation, and have allowed the study of the effects of a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, thermodynamics, black-hole physics and cosmology. Finally, we touch upon the question of ways to circumvent the manifestation of a minimal length scale in short-distance physics.

  4. Extending electronic length frequency analysis in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, M. H.; Mildenberger, Tobias K.

    2017-01-01

    VBGF (soVBGF) requires a more intensive search due to two additional parameters. This work describes the implementation of two optimisation approaches ("simulated annealing" and "genetic algorithm") for growth function fitting using the open-source software "R." Using a generated LFQ data set......Electronic length frequency analysis (ELEFAN) is a system of stock assessment methods using length-frequency (LFQ) data. One step is the estimation of growth from the progression of LFQ modes through time using the von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF). The option to fit a seasonally oscillating...... of the asymptotic length parameter (L-infinity) are found to have significant effects on parameter estimation error. An outlook provides context as to the significance of the R-based implementation for further testing and development, as well as the general relevance of the method for data-limited stock assessment....

  5. Resonance effects in neutron scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    The nature of neutron scattering lengths is described and the nuclear effects giving rise to their variation is discussed. Some examples of the shortcomings of the available nuclear data base, particularly for heavy nuclei, are given. Methods are presented for improving this data base, in particular for obtaining the energy variation of the complex coherent scattering length from long to sub-angstrom wave lengths from the available sources of slow neutron cross section data. Examples of this information are given for several of the rare earth nuclides. Some examples of the effect of resonances in neutron reflection and diffraction are discussed. This report documents a seminar given at Argonne National Laboratory in March 1989. 18 refs., 18 figs

  6. Minimal Length Scale Scenarios for Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Hossenfelder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the question of whether the fundamental laws of nature limit our ability to probe arbitrarily short distances. First, we examine what insights can be gained from thought experiments for probes of shortest distances, and summarize what can be learned from different approaches to a theory of quantum gravity. Then we discuss some models that have been developed to implement a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. These models have entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle or the modified dispersion relation, and have allowed the study of the effects of a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, thermodynamics, black-hole physics and cosmology. Finally, we touch upon the question of ways to circumvent the manifestation of a minimal length scale in short-distance physics.

  7. Rapidity-density patterns for events in a stochastic-field multiparticle theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.C.

    1976-02-01

    Typical-event rapidity distributions expected at energies of a few TeV are calculated in a stochastic-field multiparticle production theory. Short range rapidity correlations with characteristics of a Van der Waals fluid give rise to ''domain'' patterns in rapidity density, which have the appearance of clusters separated by rapidity gaps

  8. Correlation spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michael B [Albuquerque, NM; Pfeifer, Kent B [Los Lunas, NM; Flemming, Jeb H [Albuquerque, NM; Jones, Gary D [Tijeras, NM; Tigges, Chris P [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-04-13

    A correlation spectrometer can detect a large number of gaseous compounds, or chemical species, with a species-specific mask wheel. In this mode, the spectrometer is optimized for the direct measurement of individual target compounds. Additionally, the spectrometer can measure the transmission spectrum from a given sample of gas. In this mode, infrared light is passed through a gas sample and the infrared transmission signature of the gasses present is recorded and measured using Hadamard encoding techniques. The spectrometer can detect the transmission or emission spectra in any system where multiple species are present in a generally known volume.

  9. Effects of Foodstuffs on Intestinal Length in Larvae of Rhacophorus arboreus (Anura: Rhacophoridae) : Developmental Biology

    OpenAIRE

    SHINRI, HORIUCHI; YUTAKA, KOSHIDA; Department of Biology, College of General Education, Osaka University; Department of Biology, College of General Education, Osaka University

    1989-01-01

    Correlation between foodstuffs and intestinal length was examined in larvae of Rhacophorus arboreus (Anura: Rhacophoridae). The larva, being heterophagous, has a tube-like intestine provided with neither epithelial outfoldings nor villi, and intestinal length is found to be a good morphological index of digestive and absorptive functions of the intestine. The results obtained were summarized as follows: The grown larva fed on boiled spinach had an intestine more than 1.5 times as long as that...

  10. Defective proviruses rapidly accumulate during acute HIV-1 infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Katherine M.; Murray, Alexandra J.; Pollack, Ross A.; Soliman, Mary G.; Laskey, Sarah B.; Capoferri, Adam A.; Lai, Jun; Strain, Matthew C.; Lada, Steven M.; Hoh, Rebecca; Ho, Ya-Chi; Richman, Douglas D.; Deeks, Steven G.; Siliciano, Janet D.; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses viral replication to clinically undetectable levels, HIV-1 persists in CD4+ T cells in a latent form not targeted by the immune system or ART1–5. This latent reservoir is a major barrier to cure. Many individuals initiate ART during chronic infection, and in this setting, most proviruses are defective6. However, the dynamics of the accumulation and persistence of defective proviruses during acute HIV-1 infection are largely unknown. Here we show that defective proviruses accumulate rapidly within the first few weeks of infection to make up over 93% of all proviruses, regardless of how early ART is initiated. Using an unbiased method to amplify near full-length proviral genomes from HIV-1 infected adults treated at different stages of infection, we demonstrate that early ART initiation limits the size of the reservoir but does not profoundly impact the proviral landscape. This analysis allows us to revise our understanding of the composition of proviral populations and estimate the true reservoir size in individuals treated early vs. late in infection. Additionally, we demonstrate that common assays for measuring the reservoir do not correlate with reservoir size. These findings reveal hurdles that must be overcome to successfully analyze future HIV-1 cure strategies. PMID:27500724

  11. Stride length: measuring its instantaneous value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campiglio, G C; Mazzeo, J R

    2007-01-01

    Human gait has been studied from different viewpoints: kinematics, dynamics, sensibility and others. Many of its characteristics still remain open to research, both for normal gait and for pathological gait. Objective measures of some of its most significant spatial/temporal parameters are important in this context. Stride length, one of these parameters, is defined as the distance between two consecutive contacts of one foot with ground. On this work we present a device designed to provide automatic measures of stride length. Its features make it particularly appropriate for the evaluation of pathological gait

  12. Word length, set size, and lexical factors: Re-examining what causes the word length effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitard, Dominic; Gabel, Andrew J; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Surprenant, Aimée M; Neath, Ian

    2018-04-19

    The word length effect, better recall of lists of short (fewer syllables) than long (more syllables) words has been termed a benchmark effect of working memory. Despite this, experiments on the word length effect can yield quite different results depending on set size and stimulus properties. Seven experiments are reported that address these 2 issues. Experiment 1 replicated the finding of a preserved word length effect under concurrent articulation for large stimulus sets, which contrasts with the abolition of the word length effect by concurrent articulation for small stimulus sets. Experiment 2, however, demonstrated that when the short and long words are equated on more dimensions, concurrent articulation abolishes the word length effect for large stimulus sets. Experiment 3 shows a standard word length effect when output time is equated, but Experiments 4-6 show no word length effect when short and long words are equated on increasingly more dimensions that previous demonstrations have overlooked. Finally, Experiment 7 compared recall of a small and large neighborhood words that were equated on all the dimensions used in Experiment 6 (except for those directly related to neighborhood size) and a neighborhood size effect was still observed. We conclude that lexical factors, rather than word length per se, are better predictors of when the word length effect will occur. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David Lynn [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-08-01

    One embodiment of sighting optics according to the teachings provided herein may include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus, for a user, images of the front sight and the target.

  14. Cutting Whole Length or Partial Length of Internal Anal Sphincter in Managementof Fissure in Ano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furat Shani Aoda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A chronic anal fissure is a common painful perianal condition.The main operative procedure to treat this painful condition is a lateral internal sphincteretomy (LIS.The aim of study is to compare the outcome and complications of closed LIS up to the dentate line (whole length of internal sphincter or up to the fissure apex (partial length of internal sphincter in the treatment of anal fissure.It is a prospective comparativestudy including 100 patients with chronic fissure in ano. All patients assigned to undergo closed LIS. Those patients were randomly divided into two groups: 50 patients underwent LIS to the level of dentate line (whole length and other 50 patients underwent LIS to the level of fissure apex (partial length. Patients were followed up weekly in the 1st month, twice monthly in the second month then monthly   for next 2 months and finally after 1 year. There was satisfactory relief of pain in all patients in both groups & complete healing of the fissure occurred. Regarding post operative incontinence no major degree of incontinence occur in both group but minor degree of incontinence persists In 7 patients after whole length LIS after one year. In conclusion, both whole length & partial length LIS associated with improvement of pain, good chance of healing but whole length LIS associated with more chance of long term  flatus incontinence. Hence,we recommend partial length LIS as treatment forchronic anal fissure.

  15. Does length of common limb influence remission of diabetes? Short-term results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramraj V Nagendra Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite strict patient selection criteria, diabetes remission is not seen in all patients after gastric bypass. Can length of the common limb influence diabetes remission? Aim: To find if any correlation exists between the length of the common limb and remission of diabetes. Study Design: Prospective study. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five consecutive patients with Type II diabetes mellitus and a fasting C-peptide >1 ng/ml who underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-y gastric bypass were included. All patients had standard limb lengths and length of the common limb was measured in all patients. Patients were followed up and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c was repeated at 6 months postoperatively. Pre- and postoperative HbA1c were then correlated with the lengths of common limb to look for any relation. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: Of the 25 patients, 15 were females and 10 were males. The mean age was 44.16 years and the mean body mass index (BMI was 43.96 kg/m 2 . Preoperative HbA1c varied from 5.8 to 12.3%. Length of the common limb varied from 210 to 790 cm (mean 470.4 cm. HbA1c at 6 months ranged from 4.8 to 7.7% (mean 5.81%. On comparison of preoperative and 6 months postoperative HbA1c and correlating with the length of common limb, we found that patients with a common limb of length 600 cm length (P = 0.004. Conclusion: A shorter common limb does appear to have better chances of resolution of Type II diabetes mellitus in our study, thus paving the way for further studies.

  16. Linear intra-bone geometry dependencies of the radius: Radius length determination by maximum distal width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumbach, S.F.; Krusche-Mandl, I.; Huf, W.; Mall, G.; Fialka, C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate possible linear intra-bone geometry dependencies by determining the relation between the maximum radius length and maximum distal width in two independent populations and test for possible gender or age effects. A strong correlation can help develop more representative fracture models and osteosynthetic devices as well as aid gender and height estimation in anthropologic/forensic cases. Methods: First, maximum radius length and distal width of 100 consecutive patients, aged 20–70 years, were digitally measured on standard lower arm radiographs by two independent investigators. Second, the same measurements were performed ex vivo on a second cohort, 135 isolated, formalin fixed radii. Standard descriptive statistics as well as correlations were calculated and possible gender age influences tested for both populations separately. Results: The radiographic dataset resulted in a correlation of radius length and width of r = 0.753 (adj. R 2 = 0.563, p 2 = 0.592) and side no influence on the correlation. Radius length–width correlation for the isolated radii was r = 0.621 (adj. R 2 = 0.381, p 2 = 0.598). Conclusion: A relatively strong radius length–distal width correlation was found in two different populations, indicating that linear body proportions might not only apply to body height and axial length measurements of long bones but also to proportional dependency of bone shapes in general.

  17. Reduction in laboratory turnaround time decreases emergency room length of stay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik N

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitin Kaushik,1 Victor S Khangulov,2 Matthew O’Hara,2 Ramy Arnaout3,4 1Becton, Dickinson and Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA; 2Department of Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Boston Strategic Partners, Inc., Boston, MA, USA; 3Department of Pathology, 4Division of Biomedical Informatics, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA USA Objective: Laboratory tests are an important contributor to treatment decisions in the emergency department (ED. Rapid turnaround of laboratory tests can optimize ED throughout by reducing the length of stay (LOS and improving patient outcomes. Despite evidence supporting the effect of shorter turnaround time (TAT on LOS and outcomes, there is still a lack of large retrospective studies examining these associations. Here, we evaluated the effect of a reduction in laboratory TAT on ED LOS using retrospective analysis of Electronic Health Records (EHR. Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis of ED encounters from a large, US-based, de-identified EHR database and a separate analysis of ED encounters from the EHR of an ED at a top-tier tertiary care center were performed. Additionally, an efficiency model calculating the cumulative potential LOS time savings and resulting financial opportunity due to laboratory TAT reduction was created, assuming other factors affecting LOS are constant. Results: Multivariate regression analysis of patients from the multisite study showed that a 1-minute decrease in laboratory TAT was associated with 0.50 minutes of decrease in LOS. The single-site analysis confirmed our findings from the multisite analysis that a positive correlation between laboratory TAT and ED LOS exists in the ED population as a whole, as well as across different patient acuity levels. In addition, based on the calculations from the efficiency model, for a 5-, 10- and 15-minute TAT reduction, the single-site ED can potentially admit a total of 127, 256 and 386 additional

  18. Visual and tactile length matching in spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisiach, Edoardo; McIntosh, Robert D; Dijkerman, H Chris; McClements, Kevin I; Colombo, Mariarosa; Milner, A David

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that many patients with spatial neglect underestimate the horizontal extent of leftwardly located shapes (presented on screen or on paper) relative to rightwardly located shapes. This has been used to help explain their leftward biases in line bisection. In the present study we have tested patients with right hemisphere damage, either with or without neglect, on a comparable length matching task, but using 3-dimensional objects. The task was executed first visually without tactile contact, and second through touch without vision. In both sense modalities, we found that patients with neglect, but not those without, tended to underestimate leftward located objects relative to rightward located objects, differing significantly in this regard from healthy subjects. However these lateral biases were not as frequent or as pronounced as in previous studies using 2-D visual shapes. Despite the similar asymmetries in the two sense modalities, we found only a small correlation between them, and clear double dissociations were observed among our patients. We conclude that leftward length underestimation cannot be attributed to any one single cause. First it cannot be entirely due to impairments in the visual pathways, such as hemianopia and/or processing biases, since the disorder is also seen in the tactile modality. At the same time, however, length underestimation phenomena cannot be fully explained as a disruption of a supramodal central size processor, since they can occur in either vision or touch alone. Our data would fit best with a multiple-factor model in which some patients show leftward length underestimation for modality-specific reasons, while others do so due to a more high-level disruption of size judgements.

  19. Signatures of Quantum Transport Through Two-Dimensional Structures With Correlated and Anti-Correlated Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Low, Tony; Ansari, Davood

    2008-01-01

    Electronic transport through a 2D deca-nanometer length channel with correlated and anti-correlated surfaces morphologies is studied using the Keldysh non-equilibrium Green function technique. Due to the pseudo-periodicity of these structures, the energy-resolved transmission possesses pseudo-bands and pseudo-gaps. Channels with correlated surfaces exhibit wider pseudo-bands than their anti-correlated counterparts. By surveying channels with various combinations of material parameters, we fou...

  20. Extracting $p\\Lambda$ scattering lengths from heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Shapoval, V M; Lednicky, R; Sinyukov, Yu M

    2015-01-01

    The $p-\\Lambda \\oplus \\bar{p}-\\bar{\\Lambda}$ and $\\bar{p}-\\Lambda \\oplus p-\\bar{\\Lambda}$ correlation functions for 10% most central Au+Au collisions at top RHIC energy $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200$ GeV are modeled with Lednicky and Lyuboshitz analytical formula using the source radii extracted from the hydrokinetic model (HKM) simulations. For the baryon-antibaryon case the corresponding spin-averaged strong interaction scattering length is obtained by fitting the STAR correlation function. In contrast to the experimental results, where extracted $p\\bar{\\Lambda}$ source radius value was found $\\sim 2$ times smaller than the corresponding $p\\Lambda$ one, the calculations in HKM show both $p\\Lambda$ and $p\\bar{\\Lambda}$ effective source radii to be quite close, as expected from theoretical considerations. To obtain the satisfactory fit to the measured baryon-antibaryon correlation function at this large source radius value, the modified analytical approximation to the correlation function, effectively accounting for the...

  1. RUNX2 tandem repeats and the evolution of facial length in placental mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pointer Marie A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When simple sequence repeats are integrated into functional genes, they can potentially act as evolutionary ‘tuning knobs’, supplying abundant genetic variation with minimal risk of pleiotropic deleterious effects. The genetic basis of variation in facial shape and length represents a possible example of this phenomenon. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2, which is involved in osteoblast differentiation, contains a functionally-important tandem repeat of glutamine and alanine amino acids. The ratio of glutamines to alanines (the QA ratio in this protein seemingly influences the regulation of bone development. Notably, in domestic breeds of dog, and in carnivorans in general, the ratio of glutamines to alanines is strongly correlated with facial length. Results In this study we examine whether this correlation holds true across placental mammals, particularly those mammals for which facial length is highly variable and related to adaptive behavior and lifestyle (e.g., primates, afrotherians, xenarthrans. We obtained relative facial length measurements and RUNX2 sequences for 41 mammalian species representing 12 orders. Using both a phylogenetic generalized least squares model and a recently-developed Bayesian comparative method, we tested for a correlation between genetic and morphometric data while controlling for phylogeny, evolutionary rates, and divergence times. Non-carnivoran taxa generally had substantially lower glutamine-alanine ratios than carnivorans (primates and xenarthrans with means of 1.34 and 1.25, respectively, compared to a mean of 3.1 for carnivorans, and we found no correlation between RUNX2 sequence and face length across placental mammals. Conclusions Results of our diverse comparative phylogenetic analyses indicate that QA ratio does not consistently correlate with face length across the 41 mammalian taxa considered. Thus, although RUNX2 might function as a ‘tuning knob’ modifying face

  2. Impact of Lesion Length on Functional Significance in Intermediate Coronary Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Safi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed at assessing the role of lesion length in predicting Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR value for physiological evaluation of intermediate coronary lesions.Methods: In the current study, 68 patients with 83 coronary lesions were enrolled. All of the patients in this study underwent routine coronary angiography, according to appropriate indications. To evaluate physiologically significant intermediate coronary stenosis (defined between 40% and 70% on visual estimation, the Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR study was performed and the Quantitative Coronary Angiography (QCA data were also assessed for measurement of lesion length. The correlation between QCA data and FFR values was also examined.Results: Eighty-three lesions were evaluated from 68 patients. Stenosis was considered physiologically significant when FFR was lower than 0.75. The FFR was significant in twelve lesions (14.5%. There was a negative correlation between FFR value and lesion length (r = -0.294 and P = 0.013. Moreover, lesion length in physiologically significant FFR group (21.07  ± 6.9 was greater than that of the non-significant FFR group (15.23 ± 6.5 (P value < 0.05. Furthermore, the correlation between QCA data and FFR values was also investigated, yet, there was only a positive correlation between FFR and Minimum Luminal Diameter (MLD values (r = 0.248 and P value = 0.04. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve analysis for predicting the significant FFR value demonstrated that a lesion length greater than 17.5 mm was the best cut-off point for prediction of the significant FFR value with acceptable sensitivity and specificity of 83.3% and 68.8%, respectively.Conclusions: There is a negative correlation between lesion length and FFR value in intermediate coronary lesions. In addition, a lesion length greater than 17.5 mm is the best cut- off point for prediction of significant FFR values.

  3. Rapid road repair vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  4. Rapidly processable radiographic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabandere, L.A. de; Borginon, H.A.; Pattyn, H.A.; Pollet, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A new rapidly processable radiographic silver halide material is described for use in mammography and non-destructive testing of industrial materials. The radiographic material is used for direct exposure to penetrating radiation without the use of fluorescent-intensifying screens. It consists of a transparent support with a layer of hydrophilic colloid silver halide emulsion on one or both sides. Examples of the preparation of three different silver halide emulsions are given including the use of different chemical sensitizers. These new radiographic materials have good resistance to the formation of pressure marks in rapid processing apparatus and they have improved sensitivity for direct exposure to penetrating radiation compared to conventional radiographic emulsions. (U.K.)

  5. Spatial correlations in compressible granular flows

    OpenAIRE

    Van Noije, T. P. C.; Ernst, M. H.; Brito López, Ricardo

    1998-01-01

    The clustering instability in freely evolving granular fluids manifests itself in the density-density correlation function and structure factor. These functions are calculated from fluctuating hydrodynamics. As time increases, the structure factor of density fluctuations develops a maximum, which shifts to smaller wave numbers (growing correlation length). Furthermore, the inclusion of longitudinal velocity fluctuations changes long-range correlations in the flow field qualitatively and exten...

  6. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available for microfluidics K. LAND, S. HUGO, M MBANJWA, L FOURIE CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing P O Box 395, Pretoria 0001, SOUTH AFRICA Email: kland@csir.co.za INTRODUCTION Microfluidics refers to the manipulation of very small volumes of fluid.... Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  7. Relationship between Achilles tendon length and running performance in well-trained male endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hiromasa; Suga, Tadashi; Takao, Kenji; Tanaka, Takahiro; Misaki, Jun; Miyake, Yuto; Nagano, Akinori; Isaka, Tadao

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between Achilles tendon (AT) length and running performance, including running economy, in well-trained endurance runners. We also examined the reasonable portion of the AT related to running performance among AT lengths measured in three different portions. The AT lengths at three portions and cross-sectional area (CSA) of 30 endurance runners were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Each AT length was calculated as the distance from the calcaneal tuberosity to the muscle-tendon junction of the soleus, gastrocnemius medialis (GM AT ), and gastrocnemius lateralis, respectively. These AT lengths were normalized with shank length. The AT CSA was calculated as the average of 10, 20, and 30 mm above the distal insertion of the AT and normalized with body mass. Running economy was evaluated by measuring energy cost during three 4-minutes submaximal treadmill running trials at 14, 16, and 18 km/h, respectively. Among three AT lengths, only a GM AT correlated significantly with personal best 5000-m race time (r=-.376, P=.046). Furthermore, GM AT correlated significantly with energy cost during submaximal treadmill running trials at 14 km/h and 18 km/h (r=-.446 and -.429, respectively, Prunning performance. These findings suggest that longer AT, especially GM AT , may be advantageous to achieve superior running performance, with better running economy, in endurance runners. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Jet length/velocity ratio: a new index for echocardiographic evaluation of chronic aortic regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güvenç, Tolga Sinan; Karaçimen, Denizhan; Erer, Hatice Betül; İlhan, Erkan; Sayar, Nurten; Karakuş, Gültekin; Çekirdekçi, Elif; Eren, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Management of aortic regurgitation depends on the assessment for severity. Echocardiography remains as the most widely available tool for evaluation of aortic regurgitation. In this manuscript, we describe a novel parameter, jet length/velocity ratio, for the diagnosis of severe aortic regurgitation. A total of 30 patients with aortic regurgitation were included to this study. Severity of aortic regurgitation was assessed with an aortic regurgitation index incorporating five echocardiographic parameters. Jet length/velocity ratio is calculated as the ratio of maximum jet penetrance to mean velocity of regurgitant flow. Jet length/velocity ratio was significantly higher in patients with severe aortic regurgitation (2.03 ± 0.53) compared to patients with less than severe aortic regurgitation (1.24 ± 0.32, P < 0.001). Correlation of jet length/velocity ratio with aortic regurgitation index was very good (r(2) = 0.86) and correlation coefficient was higher for jet length/velocity ratio compared to vena contracta, jet width/LVOT ratio and pressure half time. For a cutoff value of 1.61, jet length/velocity ratio had a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 88%, with an AUC value of 0.955. Jet length/velocity ratio is a novel parameter that can be used to assess severity of chronic aortic regurgitation. Main limitation for usage of this novel parameter is jet impringement to left ventricular wall. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Blood and dried blood spot telomere length measurement by qPCR: assay considerations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeAnna L Zanet

    Full Text Available Measurement of telomere length is crucial for the study of telomere maintenance and its role in molecular pathophysiology of diseases and in aging. Several methods are used to measure telomere length, the choice of which usually depends on the type and size of sample to be assayed, as well as cost and throughput considerations. The goal of this study was to investigate the factors that may influence the reliability of qPCR-based relative telomere length measurements in whole blood. Day to day intra-individual variability, types of blood anticoagulant, sample storage conditions, processing and site of blood draw were investigated. Two qPCR-based methods to measure telomere length (monoplex vs. multiplex were also investigated and showed a strong correlation between them. Freezing and thawing of the blood and storage of the blood at 4°C for up to 4 days did not affect telomere length values. Telomere lengths in dried blood spots were significantly higher than both whole blood and peripheral mononuclear blood cells, and were highly correlated with both. We found that telomere length measurements were significantly higher in dried blood spots collected directly from fingertip prick compared to dried blood spots prepared with anticoagulated whole blood collected from the finger, and non-blotted whole blood taken from both finger and arm venipuncture. This suggests that DNA from cells blotted on paper is not equivalent to that collected from venipuncture whole blood, and caution should be taken when comparing between blood sample types.

  10. Measurement of Telomere Length in Colorectal Cancers for Improved Molecular Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Le Balc’h

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available All tumors have in common to reactivate a telomere maintenance mechanism to allow for unlimited proliferation. On the other hand, genetic instability found in some tumors can result from the loss of telomeres. Here, we measured telomere length in colorectal cancers (CRCs using TRF (Telomere Restriction Fragment analysis. Telomeric DNA content was also quantified as the ratio of total telomeric (TTAGGG sequences over that of the invariable Alu sequences. In most of the 125 CRCs analyzed, there was a significant diminution in telomere length compared with that in control healthy tissue. Only 34 tumors exhibited no telomere erosion and, in some cases, a slight telomere lengthening. Telomere length did not correlate with age, gender, tumor stage, tumor localization or stage of tumor differentiation. In addition, while telomere length did not correlate with the presence of a mutation in BRAF (V-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B, PIK3CA (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit, or MSI status, it was significantly associated with the occurrence of a mutation in KRAS. Interestingly, we found that the shorter the telomeres in healthy tissue of a patient, the larger an increase in telomere length in the tumor. Our study points to the existence of two types of CRCs based on telomere length and reveals that telomere length in healthy tissue might influence telomere maintenance mechanisms in the tumor.

  11. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  12. Rapid MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelman, R.R.; Buxton, R.B.; Brady, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods typically require several minutes to produce an image, but the periods of respiration, cardiac motion and peristalsis are on the order of seconds or less. The need to reduce motion artifact, as well as the need to reduce imaging time for patient comfort and efficiency, have provided a strong impetus for the development of rapid imaging methods. For abdominal imaging, motion artifacts due to respiration can be significantly reduced by collecting the entire image during one breath hold. For other applications, such as following the kinetics of administered contrast agents, rapid imaging is essential to achieve adequate time resolution. A shorter imaging time entails a cost in image signal/noise (S/N), but improvements in recent years in magnet homogeneity, gradient and radiofrequency coil design have led to steady improvements in S/N and consequently in image quality. For many chemical applications the available S/N is greater than needed, and a trade-off of lower S/N for a shorter imaging time is acceptable. In this chapter, the authors consider the underlying principles of rapid imaging as well as clinical applications of these methods. The bulk of this review concentrates on short TR imaging, but methods that provide for a more modest decrease in imaging time as well as or those that dramatically shorten the imaging time to tens of milliseconds are also discussed

  13. Neutron scattering lengths of 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfimenkov, V.P.; Akopian, G.G.; Wierzbicki, J.; Govorov, A.M.; Pikelner, L.B.; Sharapov, E.I.

    1976-01-01

    The total neutron scattering cross-section of 3 He has been measured in the neutron energy range from 20 meV to 2 eV. Together with the known value of coherent scattering amplitude it leads to the two sts of n 3 He scattering lengths

  14. Phonological length, phonetic duration and aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbers, D.G.; Bastiaanse, Y.R.M.; van der Linde, K.J.

    1997-01-01

    This study discusses an error type that is expected to occur in aphasics suffering from a phonological disorder, i.e. Wernicke's and conduction aphasics, but not in aphasics suffering from a phonetic disorder, i.e. Broca's aphasics. The critical notion is 'phonological length'. It will be argued

  15. Information-theoretic lengths of Jacobi polynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, A; Dehesa, J S [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain); Sanchez-Moreno, P, E-mail: agmartinez@ugr.e, E-mail: pablos@ugr.e, E-mail: dehesa@ugr.e [Instituto ' Carlos I' de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain)

    2010-07-30

    The information-theoretic lengths of the Jacobi polynomials P{sup ({alpha}, {beta})}{sub n}(x), which are information-theoretic measures (Renyi, Shannon and Fisher) of their associated Rakhmanov probability density, are investigated. They quantify the spreading of the polynomials along the orthogonality interval [- 1, 1] in a complementary but different way as the root-mean-square or standard deviation because, contrary to this measure, they do not refer to any specific point of the interval. The explicit expressions of the Fisher length are given. The Renyi lengths are found by the use of the combinatorial multivariable Bell polynomials in terms of the polynomial degree n and the parameters ({alpha}, {beta}). The Shannon length, which cannot be exactly calculated because of its logarithmic functional form, is bounded from below by using sharp upper bounds to general densities on [- 1, +1] given in terms of various expectation values; moreover, its asymptotics is also pointed out. Finally, several computational issues relative to these three quantities are carefully analyzed.

  16. Context quantization by minimum adaptive code length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Wu, Xiaolin

    2007-01-01

    Context quantization is a technique to deal with the issue of context dilution in high-order conditional entropy coding. We investigate the problem of context quantizer design under the criterion of minimum adaptive code length. A property of such context quantizers is derived for binary symbols....

  17. Asymptotic Translation Length in the Curve Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Valdivia, Aaron D.

    2013-01-01

    We show that when the genus and punctures of a surface are directly proportional by some rational number the minimal asymptotic translation length in the curve complex has behavior inverse to the square of the Euler characteristic. We also show that when the genus is fixed and the number of punctures varies the behavior is inverse to the Euler characteristic.

  18. Minimum Description Length Shape and Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The Minimum Description Length (MDL) approach to shape modelling is reviewed. It solves the point correspondence problem of selecting points on shapes defined as curves so that the points correspond across a data set. An efficient numerical implementation is presented and made available as open s...

  19. Hydrodynamic slip length as a surface property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    Equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were conducted in order to evaluate the hypothesis that the hydrodynamic slip length is a surface property. The system under investigation was water confined between two graphite layers to form nanochannels of different sizes (3-8 nm). The water-carbon interaction potential was calibrated by matching wettability experiments of graphitic-carbon surfaces free of airborne hydrocarbon contamination. Three equilibrium theories were used to calculate the hydrodynamic slip length. It was found that one of the recently reported equilibrium theories for the calculation of the slip length featured confinement effects, while the others resulted in calculations significantly hindered by the large margin of error observed between independent simulations. The hydrodynamic slip length was found to be channel-size independent using equilibrium calculations, i.e., suggesting a consistency with the definition of a surface property, for 5-nm channels and larger. The analysis of the individual trajectories of liquid particles revealed that the reason for observing confinement effects in 3-nm nanochannels is the high mobility of the bulk particles. Nonequilibrium calculations were not consistently affected by size but by noisiness in the smallest systems.

  20. 23 CFR 658.13 - Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Length. 658.13 Section 658.13 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS TRUCK SIZE AND WEIGHT, ROUTE... Network or in transit between these highways and terminals or service locations pursuant to § 658.19. (b...

  1. Link lengths and their growth powers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Youngsik; No, Sungjong; Oh, Seungsang; Rawdon, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    For a certain infinite family F of knots or links, we study the growth power ratios of their stick number, lattice stick number, minimum lattice length and minimum ropelength compared with their minimum crossing number c(K) for every K∈F. It is known that the stick number and lattice stick number grow between the (1/2) and linear power of the crossing number, and minimum lattice length and minimum ropelength grow with at least the (3/4) power of crossing number (which is called the four-thirds power law). Furthermore, the minimal lattice length and minimum ropelength grow at most as O (c(K)[ln(c(K))] 5 ), but it is unknown whether any family exhibits superlinear growth. For any real number r between (1/2) and 1, we give an infinite family of non-splittable prime links in which the stick number and lattice stick number grow exactly as the rth power of crossing number. Furthermore for any real number r between (3/4) and 1, we give another infinite family of non-splittable prime links in which the minimum lattice length and minimum ropelength grow exactly as the rth power of crossing number. (paper)

  2. Exciton diffusion length in narrow bandgap polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikhnenko, O.V.; Azimi, H.; Morana, M.; Blom, P.W.M.; Loi, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a new method to accurately extract the singlet exciton diffusion length in organic semiconductors by blending them with a low concentration of methanofullerene[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The dependence of photoluminescence (PL) decay time on the fullerene

  3. Scale Length of the Galactic Thin Disk

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    thin disk density scale length, hR, is rather short (2.7 ± 0.1 kpc). Key words. ... The 2MASS near infrared data provide, for the first time, deep star counts on a ... peaks allows to adjust the spatial extinction law in the model. ... probability that fi.

  4. Setting the Trajectory: Racial Disparities in Newborn Telomere Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Stacy S.; Esteves, Kyle; Hatch, Virginia; Woodbury, Margaret; Borne, Sophie; Adamski, Alys; Theall, Katherine P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore racial differences in newborn telomere length (TL) and the effect moderation of the sex of the infant while establishing the methodology for the use of newborn blood spots for telomere length analyses. Study design Pregnant mothers were recruited from the Greater New Orleans area. TL was determined using MMQ-PCR on DNA extracted from infant blood spots. Demographic data and other covariates were obtained via maternal report prior to infant birth. Birth outcome data were obtained from medical records and maternal report. Results Black infants weighed significantly less than white infants at birth, and had significantly longer TL than White infants (p=0.0134), with the strongest effect observed in Black female infants. No significant differences in gestational age were present. Conclusions Significant racial differences in TL were present at birth in this sample, even after controlling for a range of birth outcomes and demographic factors. As longer initial TL is predictive of more rapid TL attrition across the life course, these findings provide evidence that, even at birth, biological vulnerability to early life stress may differ by race and sex. PMID:25681203

  5. Two independent measurements of Debye lengths in doped nonpolar liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieve, D C; Hoggard, J D; Fu, R; Sides, P J; Bethea, R

    2008-02-19

    Electric current measurements were performed between 2.5 cm x 7.5 cm parallel-plate electrodes separated by 1.2 mm of heptane doped with 0-15% w/w poly(isobutylene succinimide) (PIBS) having a molecular weight of about 1700. The rapid (microsecond) initial charging of the capacitor can be used to infer the dielectric constant of the solution. The much slower decay of current arising from the polarization of electrodes depends on the differential capacitance of the diffuse clouds of charge carriers accumulating next to each electrode and on the ohmic resistance of the fluid. Using the Gouy-Chapman model for the differential capacitance, Debye lengths of 80-600 nm were deduced that decrease with increasing concentration of PIBS. Values of the Debye lengths were confirmed by performing independent measurements of double-layer repulsion between a 6 microm polystyrene (PS) latex sphere and a PS-coated glass plate using total internal reflection microscopy in the same solutions. The charge carriers appear to be inverted PIBS micelles having apparent Stokes diameters of 20-40 nm. Dynamic light scattering reveals a broad distribution of sizes having an intensity-averaged diameter of 15 nm. This smaller size might arise (1) from overestimating the electrophoretic mobility of micelles by treating them as point charges or (2) because charged micelles are larger on average than uncharged micelles. When Faradaic reactions and zeta potentials on the electrodes can be neglected, such current versus time experiments yield values for the Debye length and ionic strength with less effort than force measurements. To obtain the concentration of charge carriers from measurements of conductivity, the mobility of the charge carriers must be known.

  6. Simulations of The Dalles Dam Proposed Full Length Spillwall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.

    2008-02-25

    This report presents results of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling study to evaluatethe impacts of a full-length spillwall at The Dalles Dam. The full-length spillwall is being designed and evaluated as a structural means to improve tailrace egress and thus survival of juvenile fish passing through the spillway. During the course of this study, a full-length spillwall at Bays 6/7 and 8/9 were considered. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has proposed extending the spillwall constructed in the stilling basin between spillway Bays 6 and 7 about 590 ft farther downstream. It is believed that the extension of the spillwall will improve egress conditions for downstream juvenile salmonids by moving them more rapidly into the thalweg of the river hence reducing their exposure to predators. A numerical model was created, validated, and applied the The Dalles Dam tailrace. The models were designed to assess impacts to flow, tailrace egress, navigation, and adult salmon passage of a proposed spill wall extension. The more extensive model validation undertaken in this study greatly improved our confidence in the numerical model to represent the flow conditions in The Dalles tailrace. This study used these validated CFD models to simulate the potential impacts of a spillwall extension for The Dalles Dam tailrace for two locations. We determined the following: (1)The construction of an extended wall (between Bays 6/7) will not adversely impact entering or exiting the navigation lock. Impact should be less if a wall were constructed between Bays 8/9. (2)The construction of a wall between Bays 6/7 will increase the water surface elevation between the wall and the Washington shore. Although the increased water surface elevation would be beneficial to adult upstream migrants in that it decreases velocities on the approach to the adult ladder, the increased flow depth would enhance dissolved gas production, impacting potential operations of the project because of

  7. Variable angle correlation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.K.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1994-05-01

    In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with 13 C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system

  8. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on decays of excited strange mesons in the extended NJL model, production of heavy evaporation residues in the reactions induced by an extracted 48 Ca beam on a 208 Pb target, scaling behaviour of tensor analyzing power (A yy ) in the inelastic scattering or relativistic deuterons,two-photon collisions at very low Q 2 from LEP2: forthcoming results, high magnetic field uniformity superconducting magnet for a movable polarized target, multichannel time-to-digital converter for drift detector and wavelet-analysis: application to Gaussian signals

  9. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate reports on the measurement of charge radii for Ti nuclei, spectroscopy of 13 Be, concentrations of hadrons and quark-gluon plasma in mixed phase, experimental results on one-spin pion asymmetry in the d↑ + A → π±(90 0 ) + X process, new results on cumulative pion and proton production in p-D collisions, investigation of charge exchange reactions, the study of the tensor analyzing power in cumulative particle production on a deuteron beam and an evidence for the excited states of the S = -2 stable light dibaryon. 32 figs., 6 tabs

  10. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains five separate reports on analytic QCD running coupling with finite IR behaviour and universal α bar s (0) value, quark condensate in the interacting pion- nucleon medium at finite temperature and baryon number density, γ-π 0 discrimination with a shower maximum detector using neural networks for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC, off-specular neutron reflection from magnetic media with nondiagonal reflectivity matrices and molecular cytogenetics of radiation-induced gene mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. 21 fig., 1 tab

  11. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on additional conditions on eigenvectors in solving inverse problem for two-dimensional Schroedinger equation, on an absolute calibration of deuteron beam polarization at LHE, determination of the vector component of the polarization of the JINR synchrophasotron deuteron beam, wavelet-analysis: criterion of reliable signal selection, on asymptotics in inclusive production of antinuclei and nuclear fragments, use of neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor for atmospheric monitoring and impulse method for temperature measurement of silicon detectors

  12. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains six separate reports on Monte Carlo simulation of silicon detectors for the ALICE experiment at LHC, a study of single tagged multihadronic γγ* events at an average Q 2 of 90 GeV 2 , epithermal neutron activation analysis of moss, lichen and pine needles in atmospheric deposition monitoring, the theory of neutrino oscillation, coupled quadrupole and monopole vibrations of large amplitude and test of the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule using parametrization of the measured lepton-proton asymmetry. 21 figs., 18 tabs

  13. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  14. Direct recovery of infectious Pestivirus from a full-length RT-PCR amplicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Reimann, Ilona; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the use of a novel and rapid long reverse transcription (RT)-PCR for the generation of infectious full-length cDNA of pestiviruses. To produce rescued viruses, full-length RT-PCR amplicons of 12.3 kb, including a T7-promotor, were transcribed directly in vitro, and the result......This study describes the use of a novel and rapid long reverse transcription (RT)-PCR for the generation of infectious full-length cDNA of pestiviruses. To produce rescued viruses, full-length RT-PCR amplicons of 12.3 kb, including a T7-promotor, were transcribed directly in vitro......, and the resulting RNA transcripts were electroporated into ovine cells. Infectious virus was obtained after one cell culture passage. The rescued viruses had a phenotype similar to the parental Border Disease virus strain. Therefore, direct generation of infectious pestiviruses from full-length RT-PCR cDNA products...

  15. String matching with variable length gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel

    2012-01-01

    primitive in computational biology applications. Let m and n be the lengths of P and T, respectively, and let k be the number of strings in P. We present a new algorithm achieving time O(nlogk+m+α) and space O(m+A), where A is the sum of the lower bounds of the lengths of the gaps in P and α is the total...... number of occurrences of the strings in P within T. Compared to the previous results this bound essentially achieves the best known time and space complexities simultaneously. Consequently, our algorithm obtains the best known bounds for almost all combinations of m, n, k, A, and α. Our algorithm...

  16. Distance and Cable Length Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Sergio Elias; Acosta, Leopoldo; Toledo, Jonay

    2009-01-01

    A simple, economic and successful design for distance and cable length detection is presented. The measurement system is based on the continuous repetition of a pulse that endlessly travels along the distance to be detected. There is a pulse repeater at both ends of the distance or cable to be measured. The endless repetition of the pulse generates a frequency that varies almost inversely with the distance to be measured. The resolution and distance or cable length range could be adjusted by varying the repetition time delay introduced at both ends and the measurement time. With this design a distance can be measured with centimeter resolution using electronic system with microsecond resolution, simplifying classical time of flight designs which require electronics with picosecond resolution. This design was also applied to position measurement. PMID:22303169

  17. Investigations on quantum mechanics with minimal length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chargui, Yassine

    2009-01-01

    We consider a modified quantum mechanics where the coordinates and momenta are assumed to satisfy a non-standard commutation relation of the form( X i , P j ) = iℎ(δ ij (1+βP 2 )+β'P i P j ). Such an algebra results in a generalized uncertainty relation which leads to the existence of a minimal observable length. Moreover, it incorporates an UV/IR mixing and non commutative position space. We analyse the possible representations in terms of differential operators. The latter are used to study the low energy effects of the minimal length by considering different quantum systems : the harmonic oscillator, the Klein-Gordon oscillator, the spinless Salpeter Coulomb problem, and the Dirac equation with a linear confining potential. We also discuss whether such effects are observable in precision measurements on a relativistic electron trapped in strong magnetic field.

  18. Aberrant leukocyte telomere length in Birdshot Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazirpanah, Nadia; Verhagen, Fleurieke H; Rothova, Anna; Missotten, Tom O A R; van Velthoven, Mirjam; Den Hollander, Anneke I; Hoyng, Carel B; Radstake, Timothy R D J; Broen, Jasper C A; Kuiper, Jonas J W

    2017-01-01

    Birdshot Uveitis (BU) is an archetypical chronic inflammatory eye disease, with poor visual prognosis, that provides an excellent model for studying chronic inflammation. BU typically affects patients in the fifth decade of life. This suggests that it may represent an age-related chronic inflammatory disease, which has been linked to increased erosion of telomere length of leukocytes. To study this in detail, we exploited a sensitive standardized quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in 91 genotyped Dutch BU patients and 150 unaffected Dutch controls. Although LTL erosion rates were very similar between BU patients and healthy controls, we observed that BU patients displayed longer LTL, with a median of log (LTL) = 4.87 (= 74131 base pair) compared to 4.31 (= 20417 base pair) in unaffected controls (PRTEL1. These findings suggest that BU is accompanied by significantly longer LTL.

  19. Generation of Length Distribution, Length Diagram, Fibrogram, and Statistical Characteristics by Weight of Cotton Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Azzouz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The textile fibre mixture as a multicomponent blend of variable fibres imposes regarding the proper method to predict the characteristics of the final blend. The length diagram and the fibrogram of cotton are generated. Then the length distribution, the length diagram, and the fibrogram of a blend of different categories of cotton are determined. The length distributions by weight of five different categories of cotton (Egyptian, USA (Pima, Brazilian, USA (Upland, and Uzbekistani are measured by AFIS. From these distributions, the length distribution, the length diagram, and the fibrogram by weight of four binary blends are expressed. The length parameters of these cotton blends are calculated and their variations are plotted against the mass fraction x of one component in the blend .These calculated parameters are compared to those of real blends. Finally, the selection of the optimal blends using the linear programming method, based on the hypothesis that the cotton blend parameters vary linearly in function of the components rations, is proved insufficient.

  20. Summary of coherent neutron scattering length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, H.

    1981-07-01

    Experimental values of neutron-nuclei bound scattering lengths for some 354 isotopes and elements and the various spin-states are compiled in a uniform way together with their error bars as quoted in the original literature. Recommended values are also given. The definitions of the relevant quantities presented in the data tables and the basic principles of measurements are explained in the introductory chapters. The data is also available on a magnetic tape

  1. Asymptotic safety, emergence and minimal length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percacci, Roberto; Vacca, Gian Paolo

    2010-01-01

    There seems to be a common prejudice that asymptotic safety is either incompatible with, or at best unrelated to, the other topics in the title. This is not the case. In fact, we show that (1) the existence of a fixed point with suitable properties is a promising way of deriving emergent properties of gravity, and (2) there is a sense in which asymptotic safety implies a minimal length. In doing so we also discuss possible signatures of asymptotic safety in scattering experiments.

  2. Minimal length uncertainty relation and ultraviolet regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Achim; Mangano, Gianpiero

    1997-06-01

    Studies in string theory and quantum gravity suggest the existence of a finite lower limit Δx0 to the possible resolution of distances, at the latest on the scale of the Planck length of 10-35 m. Within the framework of the Euclidean path integral we explicitly show ultraviolet regularization in field theory through this short distance structure. Both rotation and translation invariance can be preserved. An example is studied in detail.

  3. Rapid Geophysical Surveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of US Department of Energy waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sites where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed because of refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INEL in September 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 in. along survey lines spaced 1-ft apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 worker-days using conventional ground survey techniques

  4. The Effective Coherence Length in Anisotropic Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polturak, E.; Koren, G.; Nesher, O

    1999-01-01

    If electrons are transmitted from a normal conductor(N) into a superconductor(S), common wisdom has it that the electrons are converted into Cooper pairs within a coherence length from the interface. This is true in conventional superconductors with an isotropic order parameter. We have established experimentally that the situation is rather different in high Tc superconductors having an anisotropic order parameter. We used epitaxial thin film S/N bilayers having different interface orientations in order to inject carriers from S into N along different directions. The distance to which these carriers penetrate were determined through their effect on the Tc of the bilayers. We found that the effective coherence length is 20A only along the a or b directions, while in other directions we find a length of 250dr20A out of plane, and an even larger value for in-plane, off high symmetry directions. These observations can be explained using the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk model adapted to anisotropic superconductivity. Several implications of our results on outstanding problems with high Tc junctions will be discussed

  5. FTO associations with obesity and telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuling; Hambly, Brett D; McLachlan, Craig S

    2017-09-01

    This review examines the biology of the Fat mass- and obesity-associated gene (FTO), and the implications of genetic association of FTO SNPs with obesity and genetic aging. Notably, we focus on the role of FTO in the regulation of methylation status as possible regulators of weight gain and genetic aging. We present a theoretical review of the FTO gene with a particular emphasis on associations with UCP2, AMPK, RBL2, IRX3, CUX1, mTORC1 and hormones involved in hunger regulation. These associations are important for dietary behavior regulation and cellular nutrient sensing via amino acids. We suggest that these pathways may also influence telomere regulation. Telomere length (TL) attrition may be influenced by obesity-related inflammation and oxidative stress, and FTO gene-involved pathways. There is additional emerging evidence to suggest that telomere length and obesity are bi-directionally associated. However, the role of obesity risk-related genotypes and associations with TL are not well understood. The FTO gene may influence pathways implicated in regulation of TL, which could help to explain some of the non-consistent relationship between weight phenotype and telomere length that is observed in population studies investigating obesity.

  6. Slip length crossover on a graphene surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Zhi, E-mail: liangz3@rpi.edu [Rensselaer Nanotechnology Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Keblinski, Pawel, E-mail: keplip@rpi.edu [Rensselaer Nanotechnology Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2015-04-07

    Using equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we study the flow of argon fluid above the critical temperature in a planar nanochannel delimited by graphene walls. We observe that, as a function of pressure, the slip length first decreases due to the decreasing mean free path of gas molecules, reaches the minimum value when the pressure is close to the critical pressure, and then increases with further increase in pressure. We demonstrate that the slip length increase at high pressures is due to the fact that the viscosity of fluid increases much faster with pressure than the friction coefficient between the fluid and the graphene. This behavior is clearly exhibited in the case of graphene due to a very smooth potential landscape originating from a very high atomic density of graphene planes. By contrast, on surfaces with lower atomic density, such as an (100) Au surface, the slip length for high fluid pressures is essentially zero, regardless of the nature of interaction between fluid and the solid wall.

  7. Hexagonalization of correlation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleury, Thiago [Instituto de Física Teórica, UNESP - University Estadual Paulista,ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research,Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, 01140-070, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Komatsu, Shota [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline St N Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2017-01-30

    We propose a nonperturbative framework to study general correlation functions of single-trace operators in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory at large N. The basic strategy is to decompose them into fundamental building blocks called the hexagon form factors, which were introduced earlier to study structure constants using integrability. The decomposition is akin to a triangulation of a Riemann surface, and we thus call it hexagonalization. We propose a set of rules to glue the hexagons together based on symmetry, which naturally incorporate the dependence on the conformal and the R-symmetry cross ratios. Our method is conceptually different from the conventional operator product expansion and automatically takes into account multi-trace operators exchanged in OPE channels. To illustrate the idea in simple set-ups, we compute four-point functions of BPS operators of arbitrary lengths and correlation functions of one Konishi operator and three short BPS operators, all at one loop. In all cases, the results are in perfect agreement with the perturbative data. We also suggest that our method can be a useful tool to study conformal integrals, and show it explicitly for the case of ladder integrals.

  8. Skeletal height estimation from regression analysis of sternal lengths in a Northwest Indian population of Chandigarh region: a postmortem study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jagmahender; Pathak, R K; Chavali, Krishnadutt H

    2011-03-20

    Skeletal height estimation from regression analysis of eight sternal lengths in the subjects of Chandigarh zone of Northwest India is the topic of discussion in this study. Analysis of eight sternal lengths (length of manubrium, length of mesosternum, combined length of manubrium and mesosternum, total sternal length and first four intercostals lengths of mesosternum) measured from 252 male and 91 female sternums obtained at postmortems revealed that mean cadaver stature and sternal lengths were more in North Indians and males than the South Indians and females. Except intercostal lengths, all the sternal lengths were positively correlated with stature of the deceased in both sexes (P regression analysis of sternal lengths was found more useful than the linear regression for stature estimation. Using multivariate regression analysis, the combined length of manubrium and mesosternum in both sexes and the length of manubrium along with 2nd and 3rd intercostal lengths of mesosternum in males were selected as best estimators of stature. Nonetheless, the stature of males can be predicted with SEE of 6.66 (R(2) = 0.16, r = 0.318) from combination of MBL+BL_3+LM+BL_2, and in females from MBL only, it can be estimated with SEE of 6.65 (R(2) = 0.10, r = 0.318), whereas from the multiple regression analysis of pooled data, stature can be known with SEE of 6.97 (R(2) = 0.387, r = 575) from the combination of MBL+LM+BL_2+TSL+BL_3. The R(2) and F-ratio were found to be statistically significant for almost all the variables in both the sexes, except 4th intercostal length in males and 2nd to 4th intercostal lengths in females. The 'major' sternal lengths were more useful than the 'minor' ones for stature estimation The universal regression analysis used by Kanchan et al. [39] when applied to sternal lengths, gave satisfactory estimates of stature for males only but female stature was comparatively better estimated from simple linear regressions. But they are not proposed for the

  9. Angular correlations and high energy evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovner, Alex; Lublinsky, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We address the question of to what extent JIMWLK evolution is capable of taking into account angular correlations in a high energy hadronic wave function. Our conclusion is that angular (and indeed other) correlations in the wave function cannot be reliably calculated without taking into account Pomeron loops in the evolution. As an example we study numerically the energy evolution of angular correlations between dipole scattering amplitudes in the framework of the large N c approximation to JIMWLK evolution (the 'projectile dipole model'). Target correlations are introduced via averaging over an (isotropic) ensemble of anisotropic initial conditions. We find that correlations disappear very quickly with rapidity even inside the saturation radius. This is in accordance with our physical picture of JIMWLK evolution. The actual correlations inside the saturation radius in the target QCD wave function, on the other hand, should remain sizable at any rapidity.

  10. Bedside prediction of right subclavian venous catheter insertion length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Ji Choi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The present study aimed to evaluate whether right subclavian vein (SCV catheter insertion depth can be predicted reliably by the distances from the SCV insertion site to the ipsilateral clavicular notch directly (denoted as I-IC, via the top of the SCV arch, or via the clavicle (denoted as I-T-IC and I-C-IC, respectively. Method: In total, 70 SCV catheterizations were studied. The I-IC, I-T-IC, and I-C-IC distances in each case were measured after ultrasound-guided SCV catheter insertion. The actual length of the catheter between the insertion site and the ipsilateral clavicular notch, denoted as L, was calculated by using chest X-ray. Results: L differed from the I-T-IC, I-C-IC, and I-IC distances by 0.14±0.53, 2.19±1.17, and -0.45 ±0.68 cm, respectively. The mean I-T-IC distance was the most similar to the mean L (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.89. The mean I-IC was significantly shorter than L, while the mean I-C-IC was significantly longer. Linear regression analysis provided the following formula: Predicted SCV catheter insertion length (cm = -0.037 + 0.036 × Height (cm + 0.903 × I-T-IC (cm (adjusted r2 =0.64. Conclusion: The I-T-IC distance may be a reliable bedside predictor of the optimal insertion length for a right SCV cannulation.

  11. Bond-length fluctuations in the copper oxide superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodenough, John B [Texas Materials Institute, ETC 9.102, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2003-02-26

    Superconductivity in the copper oxides occurs at a crossover from localized to itinerant electronic behaviour, a transition that is first order. A spinodal phase segregation is normally accomplished by atomic diffusion; but where it occurs at too low a temperature for atomic diffusion, it may be realized by cooperative atomic displacements. Locally cooperative, fluctuating atomic displacements may stabilize a distinguishable phase lying between a localized-electron phase and a Fermi-liquid phase; this intermediate phase exhibits quantum-critical-point behaviour with strong electron-lattice interactions making charge transport vibronic. Ordering of the bond-length fluctuations at lower temperatures would normally stabilize a charge-density wave (CDW), which suppresses superconductivity. It is argued that in the copper oxide superconductors, crossover occurs at an optimal doping concentration for the formation of ordered two-electron/two-hole bosonic bags of spin S = 0 in a matrix of localized spins; the correlation bags contain two holes in a linear cluster of four copper centres ordered within alternate Cu-O-Cu rows of a CuO{sub 2} sheet. This ordering is optimal at a hole concentration per Cu atom of p {approx} 1/6, but it is not static. Hybridization of the vibronic electrons with the phonons that define long-range order of the fluctuating (Cu-O) bond lengths creates barely itinerant, vibronic quasiparticles of heavy mass. The heavy itinerant vibrons form Cooper pairs having a coherence length of the dimension of the bosonic bags. It is the hybridization of electrons and phonons that, it is suggested, stabilizes the superconductive state relative to a CDW state. (topical review)

  12. Reduction in Mortality Following Pediatric Rapid Response Team Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolovos, Nikoleta S; Gill, Jeff; Michelson, Peter H; Doctor, Allan; Hartman, Mary E

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a physician-led rapid response team program on morbidity and mortality following unplanned admission to the PICU. Before-after study. Single-center quaternary-referral PICU. All unplanned PICU admissions from the ward from 2005 to 2011. The dataset was divided into pre- and post-rapid response team groups for comparison. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify the patient characteristics associated with mortality following unplanned PICU admission. Following rapid response team implementation, Pediatric Risk of Mortality, version 3, illness severity was reduced (28.7%), PICU length of stay was less (19.0%), and mortality declined (22%). Relative risk of death following unplanned admission to the PICU after rapid response team implementation was 0.685. For children requiring unplanned admission to the PICU, rapid response team implementation is associated with reduced mortality, admission severity of illness, and length of stay. Rapid response team implementation led to more proximal capture and aggressive intervention in the trajectory of a decompensating pediatric ward patient.

  13. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC

  14. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, DUBNA, contains eight separate records on symmetry in modern physics (dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of academician V.A.Fock), the double φ-meson production investigation on the Serpukhov accelerator, two-leptonic η-meson decays and SUSY without R parity, charge form factors and alpha-cluster internal structure of 12 C, increasing of muon-track reconstruction efficiency in ME1/1 Dubna prototype for the CMS/LHC, study of photon-structure function F 2 γ in the reaction e + e - → e + e - + hadrons at LEP2, jets reconstruction possibility in pAu and AuAu interactions at STAR RHIC and high-vacuum nondispersable gas absorber

  15. Rapid thermal pulse annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.G.; Koehn, B.W.; Chaplin, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    Characteristics of recovery processes have been investigated for cases of heating a sample to successively higher temperatures by means of isochronal annealing or by using a rapid pulse annealing. A recovery spectra shows the same features independent of which annealing procedure is used. In order to determine which technique provides the best resolution, a study was made of how two independent first-order processes are separated for different heating rates and time increments of the annealing pulses. It is shown that the pulse anneal method offers definite advantages over isochronal annealing when annealing for short time increments. Experimental data by means of the pulse anneal techniques are given for the various substages of stage I of aluminium. (author)

  16. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on the identification of events with a secondary vertex in the experiment EXCHARM, the zero degree calorimeter for CERN WA-98 experiment, a new approach to increase the resource of installation elements for super-high energy physics, a method of the in-flight production of exotic systems in the charge-exchange reactions, the neutron activation analysis for monitoring northern terrestrial ecosystems, a search for 28 O and study of the neutron-rich nuclei near the neutron closure N=20, a search for new neutron-rich nuclei with a 70A MeV 48 Ca beam. 33 figs., 4 tabs

  17. JINR Rapid Communications. Collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on quasi-classical description of one-nucleon transfer reactions with heavy ions, elastic and inelastic scattering in the high energy approximation, experimental study of fission and evaporation cross sections for 6 He + 209 Bi reaction, d ↑ + 12 C → p + X at Θ p = 0 o in the region of high internal momenta in the deuteron, the Nuclotron internal targets, actively screened superconducting magnets, using of polarized target in backward elastic dp scattering, application of transputers in the data acquisition system of the INESS-ALPHA spectrometer, narrow dibaryon resonances with isotopic spin I=2. 93 refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs

  18. JINR Rapid Communications. Collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate reports on Lorentz transformations with superluminal velocities, photo chromic effect in HTSC films, the investigation of hypernuclei in the Nuclotron accelerator, a new hadron jets finding algorithm in the four-dimensional velocity space, investigations of neutral particle production by relativistic nuclei on the LHE 90-channel γ-spectrometer (results and perspectives), coherent meson production in the dp → 3 HeX reaction, the relativistic projectile nuclei fragmentation and A-dependence of nucleon Fermi-momenta, energy spectra of γ-quanta from d-propane interactions at momentum P d = 1.25 GeV/c per nucleon. 86 refs., 26 figs., 4 tabs

  19. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on measurements of the total cross section difference Δσ L (np) at 1.59, 1.79, and 2.20 GeV, to the estimation of angular distributions of double charged spectator fragments in nucleus-nucleus interactions at superhigh energies, simulation dE/dx analysis results for silicon inner tracking system of ALICE set-up at LHC accelerator, high-multiplicity processes, triggering of high-multiplicity events using calorimetry, ORBIT-3.0 - a computer code for simulation and correction of the closed orbit and first turn in synchrotrons and determination of memory performance

  20. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on yields of the rare-earth neutron-deficient isotopes in the reactions of Mo isotopes with 40 Ca ions, observations of slow components of solitonic-type wave structure excited by e-beam in massive copper sample, development and investigation of low-mass multilayer drift chambers (MDC-2) for inner part of the HADES spectrometer, temperature measurement of the uranium sample irradiated with secondary neutrons, edge effects in multiwire proportional chambers, the influence of the dielectric frame, an object-oriented framework for the hadronic Monte-Carlo event generators and uranium-238 as a source for electronuclear power production. 32 figs., 3 tabs

  1. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on collective energy dissipation and fluctuations in elastoplastic systems, diagnostics system of the circulating beam of the NUCLOTRON based on microchannel plates, time-of-flight detector for WA98 CERN experiment, fractal structure formation on the surfaces of solids subjected to high intensity electron and ion treatment, production of nuclei in 32,34,36 S-induced reactions in the energy range 6-75 MeV/A, rare-earth elements in soil and pine needle from northern terrestrial ecosystems, 'thermal' multifragmentation in p + Au collisions at relativistic energies, search for effects of the OZI rule violation in φ and ω mesons production in polarized deuteron beam interaction with polarized proton target (project DPHE3) and fast detector for triggering on charged particle multiplicity for relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

  2. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on observation of transversal handedness in the diffractive production of pion triples, a possible experiment on the research of dibaryon states, Cherenkov beam counter system of the CERES/NA45 spectrometer for investigation with 160 GeV/n. lead ions, a profile-based gaseous detector with capacitive pad readout as the prototype of the shower maximum detector for the end-cap electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment, what DELPHI can get with an upgraded position for the very small angle tagger, estimation of the radiation environment and the shielding aspect for the point 2 area of the LHC and the orthopositronium decay puzzle

  3. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  4. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on investigation of the tensor analyzing power A yy in the reaction A(d polarized, p)X at large transverse momenta of proton, double-differential ionization cross section calculations for fast collisions of ions and atoms, a study of the two-photon interactions tagged at an average 2 > of 90 GeV 2 , cluster and single-particle distributions in nucleus-nucleus interactions, the Coulomb interaction of charged pions in CC-and CTa-collisions at 4.2 A GeV/c, influence of nitrogen and oxygen gas admixtures on the response of the DELPHI HCAL and MUS detectors and an automation of physics research on base of open standards

  5. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains six separate records on test of a threshold aerogel Cherenkov counter on cosmic particles, first results of study of transversal dimension of region of cumulative particles production in d + C and d + Cu reactions for energy 2 GeV/nucleon, the evidence of σ[0 + (0 ++ 0)] meson at a mass of M π + π - = 750 ± 5 MeV/c 2 observed in π + π - combinations from the reaction np → npπ + π - at an incident momentum of P n (5.20 ± 0.16 GeV/c, inclusive spectra of protons and π - mesons emitted in 4 HeC and 12 CC interactions with total disintegration of nuclei, heavy quark-antiquark pair production by double pomeron exchange in pp and AA collisions on the CMS and global features of nucleus-nucleus collisions in ultrarelativistic domain

  6. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  7. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  8. Unsupervised Idealization of Ion Channel Recordings by Minimum Description Length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnanasambandam, Radhakrishnan; Nielsen, Morten S; Nicolai, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    and characterize an idealization algorithm based on Rissanen's Minimum Description Length (MDL) Principle. This method uses minimal assumptions and idealizes ion channel recordings without requiring a detailed user input or a priori assumptions about channel conductance and kinetics. Furthermore, we demonstrate...... that correlation analysis of conductance steps can resolve properties of single ion channels in recordings contaminated by signals from multiple channels. We first validated our methods on simulated data defined with a range of different signal-to-noise levels, and then showed that our algorithm can recover...... channel currents and their substates from recordings with multiple channels, even under conditions of high noise. We then tested the MDL algorithm on real experimental data from human PIEZO1 channels and found that our method revealed the presence of substates with alternate conductances....

  9. Rapid population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    At the current rate of population growth, world population by 2000 is expected to reach 7 billion or more, with developing countries accounting for some 5.4 billion, and economically advanced nations accounting for 1.6 billion. 'Population explosion' is the result of falling mortality rates and continuing high birth rates. Many European countries, and Japan, have already completed what is termed as demographic transition, that is, birth rates have fallen to below 20 births per 1000 population, death rates to 10/1000 population, and annual growth rates are 1% or less; annual growth rates for less developed countries ranged from 2 to 3.5%. Less developed countries can be divided into 3 groups: 1) countries with both high birth and death rates; 2) countries with high birth rates and low death rates; and 3) countries with intermediate and declining birth rates and low death rates. Rapid population growth has serious economic consequences. It encourages inequities in income distribution; it limits rate of growth of gross national product by holding down level of savings and capital investments; it exerts pressure on agricultural production and land; and it creates unemployment problems. In addition, the quality of education for increasing number of chidren is adversely affected, as high proportions of children reduce the amount that can be spent for the education of each child out of the educational budget; the cost and adequacy of health and welfare services are affected in a similar way. Other serious consequences of rapid population growth are maternal death and illness, and physical and mental retardation of children of very poor families. It is very urgent that over a billion births be prevented in the next 30 years to reduce annual population growth rate from the current 2% to 1% per year.

  10. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved

  11. Rapidly Progressive Corticobasal Degeneration Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Herrero Valverde

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Corticobasal syndrome (CBS has a heterogeneous clinical presentation with no specific pathologic substratum. Its accurate diagnosis is a challenge for neurologists; in order to establish CBS definitively, postmortem confirmation is required. Some clinical and radiological features can help to distinguish it from other neurodegenerative conditions, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD. Clinical Case: A 74-year-old woman presented with language impairment, difficulty in walking and poor attentiveness that had begun 10 days before. Other symptoms, such as asymmetrical extra-pyramidal dysfunction, limb dystonia and ‘alien limb’ phenomena, were established over the next 2 months, with rapid progression. Death occurred 3 months after symptom onset. Laboratory results were normal. Initially, imaging only showed restricted diffusion with bilateral parieto-occipital gyri involvement on DWI-MRI, with unspecific EEG changes. An autopsy was performed. Brain neuropathology confirmed sporadic CJD (sCJD. Conclusions: CBS is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome whose differential diagnosis is extensive. CJD can occasionally present with clinical characteristics resembling CBS. MRI detection of abnormalities in some sequences (FLAIR, DWI, as previously reported, has high diagnostic utility for sCJD diagnosis – especially in early stages – when other tests can still appear normal. Abnormalities on DWI sequencing may not correlate with neuropathological findings, suggesting a functional basis to explain the changes found.

  12. Particle correlations in high-multiplicity reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayot, Fernand.

    1976-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the results obtained in the study of short range correlations in high-multiplicity events is presented: introduction of the fundamental short-range order hypothesis, introduction of clusters in nondiffractive events (only the production of identical, independent, and neutral clusters was considered); search for short range dynamical effects between particles coming from the decay of a same cluster by studying two-particle rapidity correlations in inclusive and semi-inclusive experiments; study of transverse momentum correlations [fr

  13. Rapid maxillary expansion in contemporary orthodontic literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Mutinelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have reviewed our retrospective research about rapid maxillary expansion performed in the early mixed dentition to summarize the results of different studies regarding maxillary dental arch width variation and crowding improvement in light of contemporary literature. The aim is to define the effects of treatments followed until the end of dental arch growth. In all studies, a Haas expander anchored to the deciduous dentition was used. The samples consisted of treated patients with and without a lateral crossbite and homogeneous untreated individuals as controls. Two additional control groups of adolescents and adults in dental Class 1 were also compared. As a result of the analysis, rapid maxillary expansion with anchorage to the deciduous dentition was found to be effective in increasing transverse width in intermolar and intercanine areas, and the change was preserved until the full permanent dentition stage. When performed before maxillary lateral incisors have fully erupted, this procedure allows for a rapid increase in the arch length in the anterior area and consequently, in the space available for permanent incisors with a stable reduction in crowding over time.

  14. Variational lower bound on the scattering length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, L.; Spruch, L.

    1975-01-01

    The scattering length A characterizes the zero-energy scattering of one system by another. It was shown some time ago that a variational upper bound on A could be obtained using methods, of the Rayleigh-Ritz type, which are commonly employed to obtain upper bounds on energy eigenvalues. Here we formulate a method for obtaining a variational lower bound on A. Once again the essential idea is to express the scattering length as a variational estimate plus an error term and then to reduce the problem of bounding the error term to one involving bounds on energy eigenvalues. In particular, the variational lower bound on A is rigorously established provided a certin modified Hamiltonian can be shown to have no discrete states lying below the level of the continuum threshold. It is unfortunately true that necessary conditions for the existence of bound states are not available for multiparticle systems in general. However, in the case of positron-atom scattering the adiabatic approximation can be introduced as an (essentially) solvable comparison problem to rigorously establish the nonexistence of bound states of the modified Hamiltonian. It has recently been shown how the validity of the variational upper bound on A can be maintained when the target ground-state wave function is imprecisely known. Similar methods can be used to maintain the variational lower bound on A. Since the bound is variational, the error in the calculated scattering length will be of second order in the error in the wave function. The use of the adiabatic approximation in the present context places no limitation in principle on the accuracy achievable

  15. Increasing average period lengths by switching of robust chaos maps in finite precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, N.; Shastry, M. C.; Vaidya, P. G.

    2008-12-01

    Grebogi, Ott and Yorke (Phys. Rev. A 38, 1988) have investigated the effect of finite precision on average period length of chaotic maps. They showed that the average length of periodic orbits (T) of a dynamical system scales as a function of computer precision (ɛ) and the correlation dimension (d) of the chaotic attractor: T ˜ɛ-d/2. In this work, we are concerned with increasing the average period length which is desirable for chaotic cryptography applications. Our experiments reveal that random and chaotic switching of deterministic chaotic dynamical systems yield higher average length of periodic orbits as compared to simple sequential switching or absence of switching. To illustrate the application of switching, a novel generalization of the Logistic map that exhibits Robust Chaos (absence of attracting periodic orbits) is first introduced. We then propose a pseudo-random number generator based on chaotic switching between Robust Chaos maps which is found to successfully pass stringent statistical tests of randomness.

  16. study of the inception lengt e inception lengt e inception length

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    of optimization and also correlates the Bauer's length with that of the present study. 2. ... Ten physical models of stepped-channel chute were built and fixed at the ..... of Stepped Chute Spillways”, Hydropower Dams J.,. 1994, pp. 33-42.

  17. Length-weight relationships and food and feeding habits of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The length-weight relationship of the commonly caught species of characids; Brycinus leuciscus, Hydrocynus vittatus, Alestes baremoze, and Brycinus macrolepidotus is provided in this study along with their percentage relative frequency of food groups. There were positive estimates for coefficient of correlation (r2) of ...

  18. Long Length Contaminated Equipment Maintenance Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ESVELT, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the maintenance requirements of the Long Length Contaminated Equipment (LLCE) trailers and provide a basis for the maintenance frequencies selected. This document is applicable to the LLCE Receiver trailer and Transport trailer assembled by Mobilized Systems Inc. (MSI). Equipment used in conjunction with, or in support of, these trailers is not included. This document does not provide the maintenance requirements for checkout and startup of the equipment following the extended lay-up status which began in the mid 1990s. These requirements will be specified in other documentation

  19. Track length estimation applied to point detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rief, H.; Dubi, A.; Elperin, T.

    1984-01-01

    The concept of the track length estimator is applied to the uncollided point flux estimator (UCF) leading to a new algorithm of calculating fluxes at a point. It consists essentially of a line integral of the UCF, and although its variance is unbounded, the convergence rate is that of a bounded variance estimator. In certain applications, involving detector points in the vicinity of collimated beam sources, it has a lower variance than the once-more-collided point flux estimator, and its application is more straightforward

  20. Crack Length Detection by Digital Image Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbye, Janus; Brincker, Rune

    1990-01-01

    It is described how digital image processing is used for measuring the length of fatigue cracks. The system is installed in a Personal Computer equipped with image processing hardware and performs automated measuring on plane metal specimens used in fatigue testing. Normally one can not achieve...... a resolution better then that of the image processing equipment. To overcome this problem an extrapolation technique is used resulting in a better resolution. The system was tested on a specimen loaded with different loads. The error σa was less than 0.031 mm, which is of the same size as human measuring...

  1. Length Scales in Bayesian Automatic Adaptive Quadrature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Gh.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two conceptual developments in the Bayesian automatic adaptive quadrature approach to the numerical solution of one-dimensional Riemann integrals [Gh. Adam, S. Adam, Springer LNCS 7125, 1–16 (2012] are reported. First, it is shown that the numerical quadrature which avoids the overcomputing and minimizes the hidden floating point loss of precision asks for the consideration of three classes of integration domain lengths endowed with specific quadrature sums: microscopic (trapezoidal rule, mesoscopic (Simpson rule, and macroscopic (quadrature sums of high algebraic degrees of precision. Second, sensitive diagnostic tools for the Bayesian inference on macroscopic ranges, coming from the use of Clenshaw-Curtis quadrature, are derived.

  2. Neutron chain length distributions in subcritical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolen, S.D.; Spriggs, G.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present the results of the chain-length distribution as a function of k in subcritical systems. These results were obtained from a point Monte Carlo code and a three-dimensional Monte Carlo code, MC++. Based on these results, they then attempt to explain why several of the common neutron noise techniques, such as the Rossi-α and Feynman's variance-to-mean techniques, are difficult to perform in highly subcritical systems using low-efficiency detectors

  3. Accumulative effects of indoor air pollution exposure on leukocyte telomere length among non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Nan; Mu, Xinlin; Wang, Guilian; Ren, Yu'ang; Su, Shu; Li, Zhiwen; Wang, Bin; Tao, Shu

    2017-01-01

    Indoor air pollution is an important environmental factor that contributes to the burden of various diseases. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with telomere shortening. However, the association between chronic indoor air pollution from household fuel combustion and leukocyte telomere length has not been studied. In our study, 137 cancer-free non-smokers were recruited. Their exposure levels to indoor air pollution from 1985 to 2014 were assessed using a face-to-face interview questionnaire, and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) was measured using a monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR method. Accumulative exposure to solid fuel usage for cooking was negatively correlated with LTL. The LTL of residents who were exposed to solid fuel combustion for three decades (LTL = 0.70 ± 0.17) was significantly shorter than that of other populations. In addition, education and occupation were related to both exposure to solid fuel and LTL. Sociodemographic factors may play a mediating role in the correlation between leukocyte telomere length and environmental exposure to indoor air pollution. In conclusion, long-term exposure to indoor air pollution may cause LTL dysfunction. - Highlights: • This is the first study to investigate a clear association between indoor air pollution and leukocyte telomere length. • Chronic exposure to household solid fuel combustion and leukocyte telomere length presented a negative correlation. • Shortest leukocyte telomere length belonged to population cooking for longest time. • Education and occupation were remarkably associated with leukocyte telomere length via relating with indoor air pollution. - Long-term exposure to household solid fuel combustion is negatively associated with LTL.

  4. Cerebrospinal Fluid Hypocretin-1 (Orexin-A) Level Fluctuates with Season and Correlates with Day Length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boddum, Kim; Hansen, Mathias Hvidtfelt; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    The hypocretin/orexin neuropeptides (hcrt) are key players in the control of sleep and wakefulness evidenced by the fact that lack of hcrt leads to the sleep disorder Narcolepsy Type 1. Sleep disturbances are common in mood disorders, and hcrt has been suggested to be poorly regulated in depressed...

  5. The Hausdorff dimension of random walks and the correlation length critical exponent in Euclidean field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiskis, J.; Narayanan, R.; Vranas, P.

    1993-01-01

    The authors study the random walk representation of the two-point function in statistical mechanics models near the critical point. Using standard scaling arguments, the authors show that the critical exponent v describing the vanishing of the physical mass at the critical point is equal to v θ /d w , where d w is the Hausdorff dimension of the walk, and v θ = var-phi, where var-phi is the crossover exponent known in the context of field theory. This implies that the Hausdorff dimension of the walk is var-phi/v for O(N) models. 3 refs

  6. On the hierarchical lattices approximation of Bravais lattices: Specific heat and correlation length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsallis, C.

    1984-01-01

    Certain types of real-space renormalization groups (which essentially approximate Bravais lattices through hierarchical ones) do not preserve standard thermodynamic convexity properties. It is pointed out that this serious defect is not intrinsic to any real-space renormalization. It can be avoided if form-invariance (under uniform translation of the energy scale) of the equation connecting the Bravais lattice (which is intended to study) to the hierarchical one (which approximates it) is demanded. In addition to that expressions for the critical exponentes ν and α corresponding to hierarchical lattices are analysed; these are consistent with Melrose recent analysis of the fractal intrinsic dimensionality. (Author) [pt

  7. Full Length Research Paper Lack of correlation between H 2O 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lactobacilli are considered to play important roles in human health as they are known to secrete inhibitory substances to prevent infection by pathogenic organisms. Previously we have isolated 77 strains of Lactobacillus spp. from human vaginas. In this study, using the plate diffusion method, strains showing in vitro ...

  8. Standing Height and its Estimation Utilizing Foot Length Measurements in Adolescents from Western Region in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevo Popović

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine standing height in both Kosovan genders in the Western Region as well as its association with foot length, as an alternative to estimating standing height. A total of 664 individuals (338 male and 326 female participated in this research. The anthropometric measurements were taken according to the protocol of ISAK. The relationships between body height and foot length were determined using simple correlation coefficients at a ninety-five percent confidence interval. A comparison of means of standing height and foot length between genders was performed using a t-test. After that a linear regression analysis were carried out to examine extent to which foot length can reliably predict standing height. Results displayed that Western Kosovan male are 179.71±6.00cm tall and have a foot length of 26.73±1.20cm, while Western Kosovan female are 166.26±5.23cm tall and have a foot length of 23.66±1.06cm. The results have shown that both genders made Western-Kosovans a tall group, a little bit taller that general Kosovan population. Moreover, the foot length reliably predicts standing height in both genders; but, not reliably enough as arm span. This study also confirms the necessity for developing separate height models for each region in Kosovo as the results from Western-Kosovans don’t correspond to the general values.

  9. Rapid evolution of troglomorphic characters suggests selection rather than neutral mutation as a driver of eye reduction in cave crabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Sebastian; Mendoza, José C E; Liew, Jia Huan; Plath, Martin; Meier, Rudolf; Yeo, Darren C J

    2013-04-23

    This study asked whether reductive traits in cave organisms evolve at a slower pace (suggesting neutral evolution under relaxed selection) than constructive changes, which are likely to evolve under directional selection. We investigated 11 subterranean and seven surface populations of Sundathelphusa freshwater crabs on Bohol Island, Philippines, and examined constructive traits associated with improved food finding in darkness (increased leg and setae length) and reductive traits (reduced cornea size and eyestalk length). All changes occurred rapidly, given that the age of the most recent common ancestor was estimated to be 722-271 ka based on three mitochondrial markers. In order to quantify the speed of character change, we correlated the degree of morphological change with genetic distances between surface and subterranean individuals. The temporal pattern of character change following the transition to subterranean life was indistinguishable for constructive and reductive traits, characterized by an immediate onset and rapid evolutionary change. We propose that the evolution of these reductive traits-just like constructive traits-is most likely driven by strong directional selection.

  10. Analysis of aneuploid lines of bread wheat to map chromosomal locations of genes controlling root hair length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miao; Rathjen, Tina; Weligama, Kumara; Forrest, Kerrie; Hayden, Matthew; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    2017-06-01

    Long root hairs enable the efficient uptake of poorly mobile nutrients such as phosphorus. Mapping the chromosomal locations of genes that control root hair length can help exploit the natural variation within crops to develop improved cultivars. Genetic stocks of the wheat cultivar 'Chinese Spring' were used to map genes that control root hair length. Aneuploid stocks of 'Chinese Spring' were screened using a rapid method based on rhizosheath size and then selected lines were assayed for root hair length to identify chromosomes harbouring genes controlling root hair length. A series of lines with various fractional deletions of candidate chromosomes were then screened to map the root hair loci more accurately. A line with a deletion in chromosome 5A was analysed with a 90 000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. The phosphorus acquisition efficiency (PAE) of one deletion line was compared with that of euploid 'Chinese Spring' by growing the seedlings in pots at low and luxury phosphorus supplies. Chromosomes 1A, 1D and 5A were found to harbour genes controlling root hair length. The 90 000 SNP array identified two candidate genes controlling root hair length located on chromosome 5A. The line with a deletion in chromosome 5A had root hairs that were approx. 20 % shorter than euploid 'Chinese Spring', but this was insufficient to reduce its PAE. A rapid screen for rhizosheath size enabled chromosomal regions controlling root hair length to be mapped in the wheat cultivar 'Chinese Spring' and subsequent analysis with an SNP array identified candidate genes controlling root hair length. The difference in root hair length between euploid 'Chinese Spring' and a deletion line identified in the rapid screen was still apparent, albeit attenuated, when the seedlings were grown on a fully fertilized soil. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Sorghum cobalt analysis on not determined wave length with atomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to know the better wave length on measuring cobalt content in forage sorghum hybrid (Sorghum bicolor) with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The analysis was on background correction mode with three wave lengths; 240.8, 240.7 (determined wave length or recommended wave length) and 240.6 ...

  12. Cellular Mechanisms of Ciliary Length Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Keeling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cilia and flagella are evolutionarily conserved, membrane-bound, microtubule-based organelles on the surface of most eukaryotic cells. They play important roles in coordinating a variety of signaling pathways during growth, development, cell mobility, and tissue homeostasis. Defects in ciliary structure or function are associated with multiple human disorders called ciliopathies. These diseases affect diverse tissues, including, but not limited to the eyes, kidneys, brain, and lungs. Many processes must be coordinated simultaneously in order to initiate ciliogenesis. These include cell cycle, vesicular trafficking, and axonemal extension. Centrioles play a central role in both cell cycle progression and ciliogenesis, making the transition between basal bodies and mitotic spindle organizers integral to both processes. The maturation of centrioles involves a functional shift from cell division toward cilium nucleation which takes place concurrently with its migration and fusion to the plasma membrane. Several proteinaceous structures of the distal appendages in mother centrioles are required for this docking process. Ciliary assembly and maintenance requires a precise balance between two indispensable processes; so called assembly and disassembly. The interplay between them determines the length of the resulting cilia. These processes require a highly conserved transport system to provide the necessary substances at the tips of the cilia and to recycle ciliary turnover products to the base using a based microtubule intraflagellar transport (IFT system. In this review; we discuss the stages of ciliogenesis as well as mechanisms controlling the lengths of assembled cilia.

  13. Electron plasma oscillations at arbitrary Debye lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1990-12-01

    A solution is presented for electron plasma oscillation in a thermalized homogeneous plasma, at arbitrary ratios between the Debye length λ D and the perturbation wave length λ. The limit λ D D >> λ corresponds to the free-streaming limit of strong kinetic phase-mixing due to large particle excursions. A strong large Debye distance (LDD) effect already appears when λ D > approx λ. The initial amplitude of the fluid-like contribution to the macroscopic density perturbation then becomes small as compared to the contribution from the free-streaming part. As a consequence, only a small fraction of the density perturbation remains after a limited number of kinetic damping times of the free-streaming part. The analysis further shows that a representation in terms of normal model of the form exp(-iωt) leads to amplitude factors of these modes which are related to each other and which depend on the combined free-streaming and fluid behaviour of the plasma. Consequently, these modes are coupled and cannot be treated as being independent of each other. (au)

  14. Bunch Length Measurements using Coherent Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ischebeck, Rasmus; Barnes, Christopher; Blumenfeld, Ian; Clayton, Chris; Decker, Franz Josef; Deng, Suzhi; Hogan, Mark; Huang Cheng Kun; Iverson, Richard; Johnson, Devon K; Krejcik, Patrick; Lu, Wei; Marsh, Kenneth; Oz, Erdem; Siemann, Robert; Walz, Dieter

    2005-01-01

    The accelerating field that can be obtained in a beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator depends on the current of the electron beam that excites the wake. In the E-167 experiment, a peak current above 10kA will be delivered at a particle energy of 28GeV. The bunch has a length of a few ten micrometers and several methods are used to measure its longitudinal profile. Among these, autocorrelation of coherent transition radiation (CTR) is employed. The beam passes a thin metallic foil, where it emits transition radiation. For wavelengths greater than the bunch length, this transition radiation is emitted coherently. This amplifies the long-wavelength part of the spectrum. A scanning Michelson interferometer is used to autocorrelate the CTR. However, this method requires the contribution of many bunches to build an autocorrelation trace. The measurement is influenced by the transmission characteristics of the vacuum window and beam splitter. We present here an analysis of materials, as well as possible layouts ...

  15. Aberrant leukocyte telomere length in Birdshot Uveitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Vazirpanah

    Full Text Available Birdshot Uveitis (BU is an archetypical chronic inflammatory eye disease, with poor visual prognosis, that provides an excellent model for studying chronic inflammation. BU typically affects patients in the fifth decade of life. This suggests that it may represent an age-related chronic inflammatory disease, which has been linked to increased erosion of telomere length of leukocytes.To study this in detail, we exploited a sensitive standardized quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length (LTL in 91 genotyped Dutch BU patients and 150 unaffected Dutch controls.Although LTL erosion rates were very similar between BU patients and healthy controls, we observed that BU patients displayed longer LTL, with a median of log (LTL = 4.87 (= 74131 base pair compared to 4.31 (= 20417 base pair in unaffected controls (P<0.0001. The cause underpinning the difference in LTL could not be explained by clinical parameters, immune cell-subtype distribution, nor genetic predisposition based upon the computed weighted genetic risk score of genotyped validated variants in TERC, TERT, NAF1, OBFC1 and RTEL1.These findings suggest that BU is accompanied by significantly longer LTL.

  16. Sella size and jaw bases - Is there a correlation???

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sella turcica is an important cephalometric structure and attempts have been made in the past to correlate its dimensions to the malocclusion. However, no study has so far compared the size of sella to the jaw bases that determine the type of malocclusion. The present study was undertaken to find out any such correlation if it exists. Materials and Methods: Lateral cephalograms of 110 adults consisting of 40 Class I, 40 Class II, and 30 Class III patients were assessed for the measurement of sella length, width, height, and area. The maxillary length, mandibular ramus height, and body length were also measured. The sella dimensions were compared among three malocclusion types by one-way ANOVA. Pearson correlation was calculated between the jaw size and sella dimensions. Furthermore, the ratio of jaw base lengths and sella area were calculated. Results and Conclusion: Mean sella length, width and area were found to be greatest in Class III, followed by Class I and least in Class II though the results were not statistically significant. 3 out of 4 measured dimensions of sella, correlated significantly with mandibular ramus and body length each. However, only one dimension of sella showed significant correlation with maxilla. The mandibular ramus and body length show a nearly constant ratio to sella area (0.83–0.85, 0.64–0.65, respectively in all the three malocclusions. Thus, mandible has a definite and better correlation to the size of sella turcica.

  17. Rapid Evaporation of microbubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Jitendra; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2008-11-01

    When a liquid is heated to a temperature far above its boiling point, it evaporates abruptly. Boiling of liquid at high temperatures can be explosive and destructive, and poses a potential hazard for a host of industrial processes. Explosive boiling may occur if a cold and volatile liquid is brought into contact with a hot and non-volatile liquid, or if a liquid is superheated or depressurized rapidly. Such possibilities are realized, for example, in the depressurization of low boiling point liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the pipelines or storage tanks as a result of a leak. While boiling of highly heated liquids can be destructive at macroscale, the (nearly) instantaneous pace of the process and the release of large amount of kinetic energy make the phenomena extremely attractive at microscale where it is possible to utilize the released energy to derive micromechanical systems. For instance, there is currently a growing interest in micro-explosion of liquid for generation of micro bubbles for actuation purposes. The aim of the current study is to gain a fundamental understanding of the subject using direct numerical simulations. In particular, we seek to investigate the boundary between stable and unstable nucleus growth in terms of the degree of liquid superheat and to compare the dynamics of unstable and stable growth.

  18. Rapid flow imaging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelc, N.J.; Spritzer, C.E.; Lee, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    A rapid, phase-contrast, MR imaging method of imaging flow has been implemented. The method, called VIGRE (velocity imaging with gradient recalled echoes), consists of two interleaved, narrow flip angle, gradient-recalled acquisitions. One is flow compensated while the second has a specified flow encoding (both peak velocity and direction) that causes signals to contain additional phase in proportion to velocity in the specified direction. Complex image data from the first acquisition are used as a phase reference for the second, yielding immunity from phase accumulation due to causes other than motion. Images with pixel values equal to MΔΘ where M is the magnitude of the flow compensated image and ΔΘ is the phase difference at the pixel, are produced. The magnitude weighting provides additional vessel contrast, suppresses background noise, maintains the flow direction information, and still allows quantitative data to be retrieved. The method has been validated with phantoms and is undergoing initial clinical evaluation. Early results are extremely encouraging

  19. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  20. Simulations of free-solution electrophoresis of polyelectrolytes with a finite Debye length using the Debye-Hückel approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Owen A; Shendruk, Tyler N; Harden, James L; Slater, Gary W

    2012-08-31

    We introduce a mesoscale simulation method based on multiparticle collision dynamics (MPCD) for the electrohydrodynamics of polyelectrolytes with finite Debye lengths. By applying the Debye-Hückel approximation to assign an effective charge to MPCD particles near charged monomers, our simulations are able to reproduce the rapid rise in the electrophoretic mobility with respect to the degree of polymerization for the shortest polymer lengths followed by a small decrease for longer polymers due to charge condensation. Moreover, these simulations demonstrate the importance of a finite Debye length in accurately determining the mobility of uniformly charged polyelectrolytes and net neutral polyampholytes.