WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapid-mix flow cytometry

  1. Practical flow cytometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shapiro, Howard M. (Howard Maurice)

    2003-01-01

    ... ... Conflict: Resolution ... 1.3 Problem Number One: Finding The Cell(s) ... Flow Cytometry: Quick on the Trigger ... The Main Event ... The Pulse Quickens, the Plot Thickens ... 1.4 Flow Cytometry: ...

  2. Flow Cytometry Section

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The primary goal of the Flow Cytometry Section is to provide the services of state-of-the-art multi-parameter cellular analysis and cell sorting for researchers and...

  3. Multiparameter Conventional Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Katherine M

    2018-01-01

    Multicolor flow cytometry is a useful technique when examining mixed populations of cells, such as blood and tissue cells in human and animal samples. The ability to use multiple fluorescent markers simultaneously allows for the identification of multiple cell types, as well as functional markers that further characterize each sample. The introduction of instruments capable of measuring 12-plus colors and new reagents has made this type of flow cytometry both popular and problematic. Adapting a typical staining panel from 4 to 6 color tubes to more than 12 colors is not simply a matter of "plug and play", but must be approached in a systematic manner to achieve a successful multi-parameter staining panel. This chapter will examine the considerations and methods needed to successfully perform multicolor flow cytometry.

  4. Basics of flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliff, G; Jaroszeski, M J

    1998-01-01

    In summary, a beginner requires fundamental knowledge about flow cytometric instrumentation in order to effectively use this technology. It is important to remember that flow cytometers are very complex instruments that are composed of four closely related systems. The fluidic system transports particles from a suspension through the cytometer for interrogation by an illumination system. The resulting light scattering and fluorescence is collected, filtered, and converted into electrical signals by the optical and electronics system. The data storage and computer control system saves acquired data and is also the user interface for controlling most instrument functions. These four systems provide a very unique and powerful analytical tool for researchers and clinicians. This is because they analyze the properties of individual particles, and thousands of particles can be analyzed in a matter of seconds. Thus, data for a flow cytometric sample are a collection of many measurements instead of a single bulk measurement. Basic knowledge of instrumentation is a tremendous aid to designing experiments that can be successfully analyzed using flow cytometry. For example, it is important to know the emission wavelength of the laser in the instrument that will be used for analysis. This wavelength is critical knowledge for selecting probes. It is also important to understand that a different range of wavelengths is detected for each fluorescent channel. This will aid selection of probes that are compatible with the flow cytometer. Understanding the complication that emission spectra overlap contributes to detection can be used to guide fluorochrome selections for multicolor analysis. All of these experiment design considerations that rely on knowledge of how flow cytometers work are a very practical and effective means of avoiding wasted time, energy, and costly reagents. Data analysis is a paramount issue in flow cytometry. Analysis includes interpreting as well as

  5. Two-Photon Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhog, Cheng Frank; Ye, Jing Yong; Norris, Theodore B.; Myc, Andrzej; Cao, Zhengyl; Bielinska, Anna; Thomas, Thommey; Baker, James R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Flow cytometry is a powerful technique for obtaining quantitative information from fluorescence in cells. Quantitation is achieved by assuring a high degree of uniformity in the optical excitation and detection, generally by using a highly controlled flow such as is obtained via hydrodynamic focusing. In this work, we demonstrate a two-beam, two- channel detection and two-photon excitation flow cytometry (T(sup 3)FC) system that enables multi-dye analysis to be performed very simply, with greatly relaxed requirements on the fluid flow. Two-photon excitation using a femtosecond near-infrared (NIR) laser has the advantages that it enables simultaneous excitation of multiple dyes and achieves very high signal-to-noise ratio through simplified filtering and fluorescence background reduction. By matching the excitation volume to the size of a cell, single-cell detection is ensured. Labeling of cells by targeted nanoparticles with multiple fluorophores enables normalization of the fluorescence signal and thus ratiometric measurements under nonuniform excitation. Quantitative size measurements can also be done even under conditions of nonuniform flow via a two-beam layout. This innovative detection scheme not only considerably simplifies the fluid flow system and the excitation and collection optics, it opens the way to quantitative cytometry in simple and compact microfluidics systems, or in vivo. Real-time detection of fluorescent microbeads in the vasculature of mouse ear demonstrates the ability to do flow cytometry in vivo. The conditions required to perform quantitative in vivo cytometry on labeled cells will be presented.

  6. Analyzing the Tumor Microenvironment by Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Yoon Kow; Bolt, Alicia M; Ahn, Ryuhjin; Mann, Koren K

    2016-01-01

    Flow cytometry is an essential tool for studying the tumor microenvironment. It allows us to quickly quantify and identify multiple cell types in a heterogeneous sample. A brief overview of flow cytometry instrumentation and the appropriate considerations and steps in building a good flow cytometry staining panel are discussed. In addition, a lymphoid tissue and solid tumor leukocyte infiltrate flow cytometry staining protocol and an example of flow cytometry data analysis are presented.

  7. Teaching Phagocytosis Using Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Boothby

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigative microbiology on protists in a basic teaching laboratory environment is limited by student skill level, ease of microbial culture and manipulation, instrumentation, and time. The flow cytometer is gaining use as a mainstream instrument in research and clinical laboratories, but has had minimal application in teaching laboratories. Although the cost of a flow cytometer is currently prohibitive for many microbiology teaching environments and the number of trained instructors and teaching materials is limited, in many ways the flow cytometer is an ideal instrument for teaching basic microbiology. We report here on a laboratory module to study phagocytosis in Tetrahymena sp. using flow cytometry in a basic microbiology teaching laboratory. Students and instructors found the flow cytometry data analysis program, Paint-A-GatePRO-TM, to be very intuitive and easy to learn within a short period of time. Assessment of student learning about Tetrahymena sp., phagocytosis, flow cytometry, and investigative microbiology using an inquiry-based format demonstrated an overall positive response from students.

  8. Experimental observations of flow instabilities and rapid mixing of two dissimilar viscoelastic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiong Yap Gan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Viscoelastically induced flow instabilities, via a simple planar microchannel, were previously used to produce rapid mixing of two dissimilar polymeric liquids (i.e. at least a hundredfold different in shear viscosity even at a small Reynolds number. The unique advantage of this mixing technology is that viscoelastic liquids are readily found in chemical and biological samples like organic and polymeric liquids, blood and crowded proteins samples; their viscoelastic properties could be exploited. As such, an understanding of the underlying interactions will be important especially in rapid microfluidic mixing involving multiple-stream flow of complex (viscoelastic fluids in biological assays. Here, we use the same planar device to experimentally show that the elasticity ratio (i.e. the ratio of stored elastic energy to be relaxed between two liquids indeed plays a crucial role in the entire flow kinematics and the enhanced mixing. We demonstrate here that the polymer stretching dynamics generated in the upstream converging flow and the polymer relaxation events occurring in the downstream channel are not exclusively responsible for the transverse flow mixing, but the elasticity ratio is also equally important. The role of elasticity ratio for transverse flow instability and the associated enhanced mixing were illustrated based on experimental observations. A new parameter Deratio = Deside / Demain (i.e. the ratio of the Deborah number (De of the sidestream to the mainstream liquids is introduced to correlate the magnitude of energy discontinuity between the two liquids. A new Deratio-Demain operating space diagram was constructed to present the observation of the effects of both elasticity and energy discontinuity in a compact manner, and for a general classification of the states of flow development.

  9. Fluorescent Proteins for Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Teresa S; Hawley, Robert G; Telford, William G

    2017-04-03

    Fluorescent proteins have become standard tools for cell and molecular biologists. The color palette of fluorescent proteins spans the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared spectrum. Utility of fluorescent proteins has been greatly facilitated by the availability of compact and affordable solid state lasers capable of providing various excitation wavelengths. In theory, the plethora of fluorescent proteins and lasers make it easy to detect multiple fluorescent proteins simultaneously. However, in practice, heavy spectral overlap due to broad excitation and emission spectra presents a challenge. In conventional flow cytometry, careful selection of excitation wavelengths and detection filters is necessary. Spectral flow cytometry, an emerging methodology that is not confined by the "one color, one detector" paradigm, shows promise in the facile detection of multiple fluorescent proteins. This chapter provides a synopsis of fluorescent protein development, a list of commonly used fluorescent proteins, some practical considerations and strategies for detection, and examples of applications. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Flow Cytometry of Nonhematopoietic Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Vinodh; Dorfman, David M

    2016-01-01

    Many epithelial neoplasms can be analyzed by flow cytometry (FC), particularly from serous cavity effusion samples, using EpCAM, a cell adhesion molecule expressed on most normal epithelial cells and expressed at a higher level in most epithelial neoplasms. A simple 3-color flow cytometric panel can provide a high sensitivity and specificity compared to cytomorphology. FC provides more rapid immunophenotyping than conventional immunohistochemical staining, can identify rare malignant cells that could be missed by a cytological exam alone, and can be utilized to evaluate limited samples such as cerebrospinal fluid or fine-needle aspiration samples. Flow cytometric analysis for epithelial antigens can be combined with DNA ploidy analysis or assessment of the nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio. Panels of flow cytometric markers are useful for the assessment of pediatric nonhematopoietic neoplasms, including neuroblastomas, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, Wilms' tumor, rhabdomyosarcomas, germ cell tumors, and hemangiopericytomas, as well as small-round-blue-cell tumors in adults, including small-cell carcinomas. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Flow cytometry: basic principles and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adan, Aysun; Alizada, Günel; Kiraz, Yağmur; Baran, Yusuf; Nalbant, Ayten

    2017-03-01

    Flow cytometry is a sophisticated instrument measuring multiple physical characteristics of a single cell such as size and granularity simultaneously as the cell flows in suspension through a measuring device. Its working depends on the light scattering features of the cells under investigation, which may be derived from dyes or monoclonal antibodies targeting either extracellular molecules located on the surface or intracellular molecules inside the cell. This approach makes flow cytometry a powerful tool for detailed analysis of complex populations in a short period of time. This review covers the general principles and selected applications of flow cytometry such as immunophenotyping of peripheral blood cells, analysis of apoptosis and detection of cytokines. Additionally, this report provides a basic understanding of flow cytometry technology essential for all users as well as the methods used to analyze and interpret the data. Moreover, recent progresses in flow cytometry have been discussed in order to give an opinion about the future importance of this technology.

  12. Quantitative Functional Morphology by Imaging Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobjev, Ivan A; Barteneva, Natasha S

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes advantages and limitations of imaging flow cytometry (IFC) based on Imagestream instrumentation using a hybrid approach of morphometric measurement and quantitation of multiparametric fluorescent intensities' distribution in cells and particles. Brief comparison is given of IFC with conventional flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. Some future directions of the IFC technology are described and discussed.

  13. Detecting fetomaternal hemorrhage by flow cytometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld; Nielsen, Leif Kofoed; Berkowicz, Adela

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the most recent developments in the area of detection of fetomaternal hemorrhage by flow cytometry.......The aim of this review is to summarize the most recent developments in the area of detection of fetomaternal hemorrhage by flow cytometry....

  14. Immuno flow cytometry in marine phytoplankton research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peperzak, L; Vrieling, EG; Sandee, B; Rutten, T

    The developments in the combination of flow cytometry and immunology as a tool to identify, count and examine marine phytoplankton cells are reviewed. The concepts of immunology and now cytometry are described. A distinction is made between quantitative and qualitative immunofluorescence.

  15. Flow cytometry, fluorescent probes, and flashing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunthof, C.J.

    2002-01-01


    Key words: fluorescent probes, flow cytometry, CSLM, viability, survival, microbial physiology, lactic acid bacteria, Lactococcus lactis , Lactobacillus plantarum , cheese, milk,

  16. Flow Cytometry Technician | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES The Flow Cytometry Core (Flow Core) of the Cancer & Inflammation Program (CIP) is a service core which supports the research efforts of the CCR by providing expertise in the field of flow cytometry (fluorescence cell sorting) with the goal of gaining a more thorough understanding of the biology of cancer and cancer cells. The Flow Core provides service to 12-15 CIP laboratories and more than 22 non-CIP laboratories. Flow core staff provide technical advice on the experimental design of applications, which include immunological phenotyping, cell function assays, and cell cycle analysis. Work is performed per customer requirements, and no independent research is involved. The Flow Cytometry Technician will be responsible for: Monitor performance of and maintain high dimensional flow cytometer analyzers and cell sorters Operate high dimensional flow cytometer analyzers and cell sorters Monitoring lab supply levels and order lab supplies, perform various record keeping responsibilities Assist in the training of scientific end users on the use of flow cytometry in their research, as well as how to operate and troubleshoot the bench-top analyzer instruments Experience with sterile technique and tissue culture

  17. Flow cytometry and integrated imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kachel

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available It is a serious problem to relate the results of a flow cytometric analysis of a marine sample to different species. Images of particles selectively triggered by the flow cytometric analysis and picked out from the flowing stream give a valuable additional information on the analyzed organisms. The technical principles and problems of triggered imaging in flow are discussed, as well as the positioning of the particles in the plane of focus, freezing the motion of the quickly moving objects and what kinds of light sources are suitable for pulsed illumination. The images have to be stored either by film or electronically. The features of camera targets and the memory requirements for storing the image data and the conditions for the triggering device are shown. A brief explanation of the features of three realized flow cytometric imaging (FCI systems is given: the Macro Flow Planktometer built within the EUROMAR MAROPT project, the Imaging Module of the European Plankton Analysis System, supported by the MAST II EurOPA project and the most recently developed FLUVO VI universal flow cytometer including HBO 100- and laser excitation for fluorescence and scatter, Coulter sizing as well as bright field and and phase contrast FCI.

  18. Near infrared lasers in flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, William G

    2015-07-01

    Technology development in flow cytometry has closely tracked laser technology, the light source that flow cytometers almost exclusively use to excite fluorescent probes. The original flow cytometers from the 1970s and 1980s used large water-cooled lasers to produce only one or two laser lines at a time. Modern cytometers can take advantage of the revolution in solid state laser technology to use almost any laser wavelength ranging from the ultraviolet to the near infrared. Commercial cytometers can now be equipped with many small solid state lasers, providing almost any wavelength needed for cellular analysis. Flow cytometers are now equipped to analyze 20 or more fluorescent probes simultaneously, requiring multiple laser wavelengths. Instrument developers are now trying to increase this number by designing fluorescent probes that can be excited by laser wavelength at the "edges" of the visible light range, in the near ultraviolet and near-infrared region. A variety of fluorescent probes have been developed that excite with violet and long wavelength ultraviolet light; however, the near-infrared range (660-800 nm) has yet seen only exploitation in flow cytometry. Fortunately, near-infrared laser diodes and other solid state laser technologies appropriate for flow cytometry have been in existence for some time, and can be readily incorporated into flow cytometers to accelerate fluorescent probe development. The near infrared region represents one of the last "frontiers" to maximize the number of fluorescent probes that can be analyzed by flow cytometry. In addition, near infrared fluorescent probes used in biomedical tracking and imaging could also be employed for flow cytometry with the correct laser wavelengths. This review describes the available technology, including lasers, fluorescent probes and detector technology optimal for near infrared signal detection. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Multinode acoustic focusing for parallel flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piyasena, Menake E.; Suthanthiraraj, Pearlson P. Austin; Applegate, Robert W.; Goumas, Andrew M.; Woods, Travis A.; López, Gabriel P.; Graves, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    Flow cytometry can simultaneously measure and analyze multiple properties of single cells or particles with high sensitivity and precision. Yet, conventional flow cytometers have fundamental limitations with regards to analyzing particles larger than about 70 microns, analyzing at flow rates greater than a few hundred microliters per minute, and providing analysis rates greater than 50,000 per second. To overcome these limits, we have developed multi-node acoustic focusing flow cells that can position particles (as small as a red blood cell and as large as 107 microns in diameter) into as many as 37 parallel flow streams. We demonstrate the potential of such flow cells for the development of high throughput, parallel flow cytometers by precision focusing of flow cytometry alignment microspheres, red blood cells, and the analysis of CD4+ cellular immunophenotyping assay. This approach will have significant impact towards the creation of high throughput flow cytometers for rare cell detection applications (e.g. circulating tumor cells), applications requiring large particle analysis, and high volume flow cytometry. PMID:22239072

  20. immunophenotyping of acute leukaemias by flow cytometry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... cells. This is especially useful in detecting small numbers of leakaemic cell in the bone marrow, as a way of assessing the minimal residual disease after treatment of leukaemias. The major limitations of flow cytometry are the high costs of instruments and reagents, specialised skills and experience required ...

  1. Analysis of Erythropoiesis Using Imaging Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalfa, Theodosia; McGrath, Kathleen E

    2018-01-01

    Erythroid maturation has been classically defined based on the remarkable changes visualized through microscopy. These involve the decrease in cell size, nuclear condensation and organelle loss, and include the final unique asymmetric division creating the short-lived nucleated pyrenocyte and the enucleate reticulocyte that matures into the red blood cell. Understanding the regulation of these processes has been challenging due to the difficulty in obtaining sufficient numbers of cells, particularly of rare intermediates, to study by microscopy. While flow cytometry can provide quantitative analysis of high cell numbers as well as critical tools for assaying processes like cell cycle, apoptosis and cell signaling, it cannot analyze or categorize cells based on morphology. Imaging flow cytometry (IFC) combines microscopy and flow cytometry by capturing brightfield and fluorescent images of large numbers of cells, which can be quantitated for both morphometric and fluorescent characteristics. Over the past 10 years, this approach has been increasingly used to study aspects of erythropoiesis. This chapter describes how to utilize IFC to enumerate multiple specific stages of erythropoiesis from primary tissue, as well as how to culture primary progenitors to enrich for the rare late stage enucleating cells in order to examine intracellular proteins involved in enucleation. These methods demonstrate the approaches and strength of IFC as a tool to bridge the power of microscopy and flow cytometry to more fully interrogate erythropoiesis.

  2. Supercontinuum white light lasers for flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, William G.; Subach, Fedor V.; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

    2009-01-01

    Excitation of fluorescent probes for flow cytometry has traditionally been limited to a few discrete laser lines, an inherent limitation in our ability to excite the vast array of fluorescent probes available for cellular analysis. In this report, we have used a supercontinuum (SC) white light laser as an excitation source for flow cytometry. By selectively filtering the wavelength of interest, almost any laser wavelength in the visible spectrum can be separated and used for flow cytometric analysis. The white light lasers used in this study were integrated into a commercial flow cytometry platform, and a series of high-transmission bandpass filters used to select wavelength ranges from the blue (~480 nm) to the long red (>700 nm). Cells labeled with a variety of fluorescent probes or expressing fluorescent proteins were then analyzed, in comparison with traditional lasers emitting at wavelengths similar to the filtered SC source. Based on a standard sensitivity metric, the white light laser bandwidths produced similar excitation levels to traditional lasers for a wide variety of fluorescent probes and expressible proteins. Sensitivity assessment using fluorescent bead arrays confirmed that the SC laser and traditional sources resulted in similar levels of detection sensitivity. Supercontinuum white light laser sources therefore have the potential to remove a significant barrier in flow cytometric analysis, namely the limitation of excitation wavelengths. Almost any visible wavelength range can be made available for excitation, allowing access to virtually any fluorescent probe, and permitting “fine-tuning” of excitation wavelength to particular probes. PMID:19072836

  3. Flow cytometry what you see matters: Enhanced clinical detection using image-based flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlin, Brian K; Gary, Melody A

    2017-01-01

    Image-based flow cytometry combines the throughput of traditional flow cytometry with the ability to visually confirm findings and collect novel data that would not be possible otherwise. Since image-based flow cytometry borrows measurement parameters and analysis techniques from microscopy, it is possible to collect unique measures (i.e. nuclear translocation, co-localization, cellular synapse, cellular endocytosis, etc.) that would not be possible with traditional flow cytometry. The ability to collect unique outcomes has led many researchers to develop novel assays for the monitoring and detection of a variety of clinical conditions and diseases. In many cases, investigators have innovated and expanded classical assays to provide new insight regarding clinical conditions and chronic disease. Beyond human clinical applications, image-based flow cytometry has been used to monitor marine biology changes, nano-particles for solar cell production, and particle quality in pharmaceuticals. This review article summarizes work from the major scientists working in the field of image-based flow cytometry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lanthanide-Coordinated Semiconducting Polymer Dots Used for Flow Cytometry and Mass Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xu; DeGottardi, Quinn; Wu, I-Che; Yu, Jiangbo; Wu, Li; Ye, Fangmao; Kuo, Chun-Ting; Kwok, William W; Chiu, Daniel T

    2017-11-20

    Simultaneous monitoring of biomarkers as well as single-cell analyses based on flow cytometry and mass cytometry are important for investigations of disease mechanisms, drug discovery, and signaling-network studies. Flow cytometry and mass cytometry are complementary to each other; however, probes that can satisfy all the requirements for these two advanced technologies are limited. In this study, we report a probe of lanthanide-coordinated semiconducting polymer dots (Pdots), which possess fluorescence and mass signals. We demonstrated the usage of this dual-functionality probe for both flow cytometry and mass cytometry in a mimetic cell mixture and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells as model systems. The probes not only offer high fluorescence signal for use in flow cytometry, but also show better performance in mass cytometry than the commercially available counterparts. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Detection of platelet vesicles by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, John P; Jones, Jennifer C

    2017-05-01

    The composition and function of platelet-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) in health and in disease are a major topic of investigation in biomedical research. However, efforts to delineate specific molecular repertoires and roles for different types of EVs in the circulation are limited not only by the lack of flow cytometers capable of analyzing submicron- and nano-materials across the full size spectrum of plasma EVs, but also by the lack of standardized methods and reference materials that would permit inter-laboratory reproducibility for these analyses. In this review, we summarize the flow cytometry of EVs, with a focus on platelet vesicles in plasma. In addition to delineating the basic principles that govern what precautions must be considered when using flow cytometry for the analysis of platelet vesicles, we provide an overview for how to standardize, control, annotate, and report EV flow cytometry data reproducibly, while looking forward to a next generation of high sensitivity instruments for the analysis of EVs and other submicron biomaterials in the circulation.

  6. Flow: Statistics, visualization and informatics for flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kepler Thomas B

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Flow is an open source software application for clinical and experimental researchers to perform exploratory data analysis, clustering and annotation of flow cytometric data. Flow is an extensible system that offers the ease of use commonly found in commercial flow cytometry software packages and the statistical power of academic packages like the R BioConductor project.

  7. Photoacoustic flow cytometry for nanomaterial research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Nedosekin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Conventional flow cytometry is a versatile tool for drug research and cell characterization. However, it is poorly suited for quantification of non-fluorescent proteins and artificial nanomaterials without the use of additional labeling. The rapid growth of biomedical applications for small non-fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs for drug delivery, image contrast and therapy enhancement, as well as research focused on natural cell pigments and chromophores, demands high-throughput quantification methods for the non-fluorescent components. In this work, we present an advanced novel photoacoustic (PA fluorescence flow cytometry (PAFFC platform that integrates NP quantification though PA detection with conventional sample characterization using fluorescence labeling. PAFFC simplifies high-throughput analysis of cell-NP interactions, optimization of targeted nanodrugs, and NP toxicity assessment by providing a direct correlation between NP uptake and characterization of toxicity markers for every cell.

  8. Flow Cytometry Techniques in Radiation Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    FORCES RAOIOSIOLOGY Toxicology Letters, 43 (1988) 219-233 RESEARCH IMSTITUTE 219Elsevier SCIENTIFIC REPORTSR88-42 TXL 02046 Flow cytometry techniques ...in radiation biology Kenneth F. McCarthy and Martha L. Hale Radiation Biochemistry Department, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda...marrow hematopoietic cells [2,31. In the past, ef- forts to isolate the HSC used physical techniques such as density gradient centrifugation in isotonic

  9. Application of flow cytometry to wine microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longin, Cédric; Petitgonnet, Clément; Guilloux-Benatier, Michèle; Rousseaux, Sandrine; Alexandre, Hervé

    2017-04-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is a powerful technique allowing detection and enumeration of microbial populations in food and during food process. Thanks to the fluorescent dyes used and specific probes, FCM provides information about cell physiological state and allows enumeration of a microorganism in a mixed culture. Thus, this technique is increasingly used to quantify pathogen, spoilage microorganisms and microorganisms of interest. Since one decade, FCM applications to the wine field increase greatly to determine population and physiological state of microorganisms performing alcoholic and malolactic fermentations. Wine spoilage microorganisms were also studied. In this review we briefly describe FCM principles. Next, a deep revision concerning enumeration of wine microorganisms by FCM is presented including the fluorescent dyes used and techniques allowing a yeast and bacteria species specific enumeration. Then, the last chapter is dedicated to fluorescent dyes which are used to date in fluorescent microscopy but applicable in FCM. This chapter also describes other interesting "future" techniques which could be applied to study the wine microorganisms. Thus, this review seeks to highlight the main advantages of the flow cytometry applied to wine microbiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. BayesFlow: latent modeling of flow cytometry cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, Kerstin; Wallin, Jonas; Fontes, Magnus

    2016-01-12

    Flow cytometry is a widespread single-cell measurement technology with a multitude of clinical and research applications. Interpretation of flow cytometry data is hard; the instrumentation is delicate and can not render absolute measurements, hence samples can only be interpreted in relation to each other while at the same time comparisons are confounded by inter-sample variation. Despite this, most automated flow cytometry data analysis methods either treat samples individually or ignore the variation by for example pooling the data. A key requirement for models that include multiple samples is the ability to visualize and assess inferred variation, since what could be technical variation in one setting would be different phenotypes in another. We introduce BayesFlow, a pipeline for latent modeling of flow cytometry cell populations built upon a Bayesian hierarchical model. The model systematizes variation in location as well as shape. Expert knowledge can be incorporated through informative priors and the results can be supervised through compact and comprehensive visualizations. BayesFlow is applied to two synthetic and two real flow cytometry data sets. For the first real data set, taken from the FlowCAP I challenge, BayesFlow does not only give a gating which would place it among the top performers in FlowCAP I for this dataset, it also gives a more consistent treatment of different samples than either manual gating or other automated gating methods. The second real data set contains replicated flow cytometry measurements of samples from healthy individuals. BayesFlow gives here cell populations with clear expression patterns and small technical intra-donor variation as compared to biological inter-donor variation. Modeling latent relations between samples through BayesFlow enables a systematic analysis of inter-sample variation. As opposed to other joint gating methods, effort is put at ensuring that the obtained partition of the data corresponds to actual

  11. Flow Cytometry: Impact On Early Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Bruce S.; Sklar, Larry A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Modern flow cytometers can make optical measurements of 10 or more parameters per cell at tens-of-thousands of cells per second and over five orders of magnitude dynamic range. Although flow cytometry is used in most drug discovery stages, “sip-and-spit” sampling technology has restricted it to low sample throughput applications. The advent of HyperCyt sampling technology has recently made possible primary screening applications in which tens-of-thousands of compounds are analyzed per day. Target-multiplexing methodologies in combination with extended multi-parameter analyses enable profiling of lead candidates early in the discovery process, when the greatest numbers of candidates are available for evaluation. The ability to sample small volumes with negligible waste reduces reagent costs, compound usage and consumption of cells. Improved compound library formatting strategies can further extend primary screening opportunities when samples are scarce. Dozens of targets have been screened in 384- and 1536-well assay formats, predominantly in academic screening lab settings. In concert with commercial platform evolution and trending drug discovery strategies, HyperCyt-based systems are now finding their way into mainstream screening labs. Recent advances in flow-based imaging, mass spectrometry and parallel sample processing promise dramatically expanded single cell profiling capabilities to bolster systems level approaches to drug discovery. PMID:25805180

  12. Relevance of sample preparation for flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muccio, V E; Saraci, E; Gilestro, M; Oddolo, D; Ruggeri, M; Caltagirone, S; Bruno, B; Boccadoro, M; Omedè, P

    2017-10-06

    Flow cytometry is a useful tool for diagnosis and minimal residual disease (MRD) study of hematological diseases. Standard sample preparation protocols are characterized by stain-lyse-wash (SLW). To prevent nonspecific bindings and achieve high sensitivity in MRD studies, lyse-wash-stain-wash (LWSW) is required. To our knowledge, no comparison between the two methods has been performed. We compared mean fluorescence intensity (MFI), stain index, signal-to-noise ratio, and percentage of positive cells of 104 antibodies and of 13 selected antibodies tested in 10 samples simultaneously prepared with the two methods. MFI and percentages of positive cells obtained by the two methods did not show significant differences and showed a very high correlation. Stain index and signal-to-noise ratio presented higher values for kappa and lambda surface chains in LWSW samples and a trend of higher values for the other antibodies in SLW samples. We suggest to use LWSW method also at diagnosis to obtain more comparable antibody intensity expressions when samples from the same patient are processed for MRD evaluation after bulk lysis. Moreover, LWSW can prevent nonspecific bindings, shows no differences in the identification and quantitation of the populations of interest, and reduces acquisition of cell debris. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Purification of dopamine neurons by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, C W; Lee, L J; Romero, A A; Stull, N D; Iacovitti, L

    1994-12-05

    The heterogeneity and preponderence of other cell types present in cultures has greatly impeded our ability to study dopamine neurons. In this report, we describe methods for isolating nearly pure dopamine neurons for study in culture. To do so, the lipid-soluble dye, 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3'3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (diI) was injected into the embryonic rat striata where it was taken up by nerve terminals and transported overnight back to the innervating perikarya in the ventral midbrain. Midbrain cells were then dissected, dissociated and separated on the basis of their (rhodamine) fluorescence by flow cytometry. Nearly all cells recovered as fluorescent positive (> 98%) were also immunoreactive for the dopamine specific enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (80%-96%). Little contamination by other cells types was observed after labeling for specific neuronal and glial markers. Purified dopamine neurons continued to thrive and elaborate neuronal processes for at least 3 days in culture. Using this new model, it may now be possible to directly study the cellular and molecular processes regulating the survival and functioning of developing, injured and transplanted dopamine neurons.

  14. Cellometer image cytometry as a complementary tool to flow cytometry for verifying gated cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuksin, Dmitry; Kuksin, Christina Arieta; Qiu, Jean; Chan, Leo Li-Ying

    2016-06-15

    Traditionally, many cell-based assays that analyze cell populations and functionalities have been performed using flow cytometry. However, flow cytometers remain relatively expensive and require highly trained operators for routine maintenance and data analysis. Recently, an image cytometry system has been developed by Nexcelom Bioscience (Lawrence, MA, USA) for automated cell concentration and viability measurement using bright-field and fluorescent imaging methods. Image cytometry is analogous to flow cytometry in that gating operations can be performed on the cell population based on size and fluorescent intensity. In addition, the image cytometer is capable of capturing bright-field and fluorescent images, allowing for the measurement of cellular size and fluorescence intensity data. In this study, we labeled a population of cells with an enzymatic vitality stain (calcein-AM) and a cell viability dye (propidium iodide) and compared the data generated by flow and image cytometry. We report that measuring vitality and viability using the image cytometer is as effective as flow cytometric assays and allows for visual confirmation of the sample to exclude cellular debris. Image cytometry offers a direct method for performing fluorescent cell-based assays but also may be used as a complementary tool to flow cytometers for aiding the analysis of more complex samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Flow Cytometry and Solid Organ Transplantation: A Perfect Match

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Orla; Tario, Joseph D.; Shanahan, Thomas C.; Wallace, Paul K.; Minderman, Hans

    2015-01-01

    In the field of transplantation, flow cytometry serves a well-established role in pre-transplant crossmatching and monitoring immune reconstitution following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The capabilities of flow cytometers have continuously expanded and this combined with more detailed knowledge of the constituents of the immune system, their function and interaction and newly developed reagents to study these parameters have led to additional utility of flow cytometry-based analyses, particularly in the post-transplant setting. This review discusses the impact of flow cytometry on managing alloantigen reactions, monitoring opportunistic infections and graft rejection and gauging immunosuppression in the context of solid organ transplantation. PMID:25296232

  16. An active, collaborative approach to learning skills in flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Kathryn; Linden, Matthew D; Lee-Pullen, Tracey; Fragall, Clayton; Erber, Wendy N; Röhrig, Kimberley J

    2016-06-01

    Advances in science education research have the potential to improve the way students learn to perform scientific interpretations and understand science concepts. We developed active, collaborative activities to teach skills in manipulating flow cytometry data using FlowJo software. Undergraduate students were given compensated clinical flow cytometry listmode output (FCS) files and asked to design a gating strategy to diagnose patients with different hematological malignancies on the basis of their immunophenotype. A separate cohort of research trainees was given uncompensated data files on which they performed their own compensation, calculated the antibody staining index, designed a sequential gating strategy, and quantified rare immune cell subsets. Student engagement, confidence, and perceptions of flow cytometry were assessed using a survey. Competency against the learning outcomes was assessed by asking students to undertake tasks that required understanding of flow cytometry dot plot data and gating sequences. The active, collaborative approach allowed students to achieve learning outcomes not previously possible with traditional teaching formats, for example, having students design their own gating strategy, without forgoing essential outcomes such as the interpretation of dot plots. In undergraduate students, favorable perceptions of flow cytometry as a field and as a potential career choice were correlated with student confidence but not the ability to perform flow cytometry data analysis. We demonstrate that this new pedagogical approach to teaching flow cytometry is beneficial for student understanding and interpretation of complex concepts. It should be considered as a useful new method for incorporating complex data analysis tasks such as flow cytometry into curricula. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  17. Visible and Near Infrared Fluorescence Spectral Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, John P.; Condello, Danilo; Duggan, Erika; Naivar, Mark; Novo, David

    2013-01-01

    There is a long standing interest in measuring complete emission spectra from individual cells in flow cytometry. We have developed flow cytometry instruments and analysis approaches to enable this to be done routinely and robustly. Our spectral flow cytometers use a holographic grating to disperse light from single cells onto a CCD for high speed, wavelength-resolved detection. Customized software allows the single cell spectral data to be displayed and analyzed to produce new spectra-derived parameters. We show that familiar reference and calibration beads can be employed to quantitatively assess instrument performance. We use microspheres stained with six different quantum dots to compare a virtual bandpass filter approach with classic least squares (CLS) spectral unmixing, and then use antibody capture beads and CLS unmixing to demonstrate immunophenotyping of peripheral blood mononuclear cells using spectral flow cytometry. Finally, we characterize and evaluate several near infrared (NIR) emitting fluorophores for use in spectral flow cytometry. Spectral flow cytometry offers a number of attractive features for single cell analysis, including a simplified optical path, high spectral resolution, and streamlined approaches to quantitative multiparameter measurements. The availability of robust instrumentation, software, and analysis approaches will facilitate the development of spectral flow cytometry applications. PMID:23225549

  18. Flow cytometry approach for studying the interaction between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flow cytometry approach for studying the interaction between Bacillus mojavensis and Alternaria alternata. Asma Milet, Noreddine Kacem Chaouche, Laid Dehimat, Asma Ait Kaki, Mounira Kara Ali, Philippe Thonart ...

  19. Flow cytometry in Spermatology: A bright future ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Ferrusola, C; Gil, M C; Rodríguez-Martínez, H; Anel, L; Peña, F J; Martín-Muñoz, P

    2017-12-01

    Techniques such as mass spectrometry have led to unprecedented knowledge of the proteins that are present in the spermatozoa of humans and other mammals. However, in spite of their high-throughput and fractioning techniques, most of the techniques in use only offer average values for the entire sperm population. Yet, ejaculate is very heterogeneous, and average values may mask relevant biological information.The application of flow cytometry may overcome this disadvantage, allowing proteomic analysis at the single-cell level. Moreover, recent advances in cytometry, allowing multiple analyses within a single cell combined with powerful statistical tools, as an expanding subfield in spermatology, are described. The increased use of advanced flow cytometers in andrology laboratories will allow the rapid development of multiparametric, multicolour flow cytometry in andrology that will expand the clinical applications and research possibilities of flow cytometry-based proteomic approaches, especially in the subfields of clinical andrology and sperm biotechnology. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Minimal residual disease in multiple myeloma: Benefits of flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtseva, I V; Davydova, Y O; Kapranov, N M; Julhakyan, H L; Mendeleeva, L P

    2017-10-23

    Over the last 20 years, the approaches to the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) have changed considerably, which led to an increase in remission rate. Using new diagnostic methods has made it possible to assess the response to treatment more reliably and forecast disease recurrence: allele-specific polymerase chain reaction, new-generation sequencing and multicolor flow cytometry enable minimal residual disease (MRD) detection of with sensitivity of 10(-5) to 10(-6) . MRD assessment with flow cytometry using is a rapidly developing area of research. The goal of multicenter groups that use flow cytometry as a tool to detect MRD in patients with MM is achieving standardization and increasing sensitivity and specificity of this method. This article provides data about the methods used for MRD monitoring and describes the advances in the field of flow cytometry. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Induction and flow cytometry identification of mixoploidy through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Induction and flow cytometry identification of mixoploidy through colchicine treatment of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Faten Omezzine, Afef Ladhari, Faten Nefzi, Rafik Harrath, Mahjoub Aouni, Rabiaa Haouala ...

  2. International Society for Advancement of Cytometry (ISAC) flow cytometry shared resource laboratory (SRL) best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsky, Lora W; Black, Michele; Cochran, Matthew; Daniel, Benjamin J; Davies, Derek; DeLay, Monica; Gardner, Rui; Gregory, Michael; Kunkel, Desiree; Lannigan, Joanne; Marvin, James; Salomon, Robert; Torres, Carina; Walker, Rachael

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to define minimal standards for a flow cytometry shared resource laboratory (SRL) and provide guidance for best practices in several important areas. This effort is driven by the desire of International Society for the Advancement of Cytometry (ISAC) members in SRLs to define and maintain standards of excellence in flow cytometry, and act as a repository for key elements of this information (e.g. example SOPs/training material, etc.). These best practices are not intended to define specifically how to implement these recommendations, but rather to establish minimal goals for an SRL to address in order to achieve excellence. It is hoped that once these best practices are established and implemented they will serve as a template from which similar practices can be defined for other types of SRLs. Identification of the need for best practices first occurred through discussions at the CYTO 2013 SRL Forum, with the most important areas for which best practices should be defined identified through several surveys and SRL track workshops as part of CYTO 2014. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  3. Computational analysis of high-throughput flow cytometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J Paul; Rajwa, Bartek; Patsekin, Valery; Davisson, Vincent Jo

    2012-08-01

    Flow cytometry has been around for over 40 years, but only recently has the opportunity arisen to move into the high-throughput domain. The technology is now available and is highly competitive with imaging tools under the right conditions. Flow cytometry has, however, been a technology that has focused on its unique ability to study single cells and appropriate analytical tools are readily available to handle this traditional role of the technology. Expansion of flow cytometry to a high-throughput (HT) and high-content technology requires both advances in hardware and analytical tools. The historical perspective of flow cytometry operation as well as how the field has changed and what the key changes have been discussed. The authors provide a background and compelling arguments for moving toward HT flow, where there are many innovative opportunities. With alternative approaches now available for flow cytometry, there will be a considerable number of new applications. These opportunities show strong capability for drug screening and functional studies with cells in suspension. There is no doubt that HT flow is a rich technology awaiting acceptance by the pharmaceutical community. It can provide a powerful phenotypic analytical toolset that has the capacity to change many current approaches to HT screening. The previous restrictions on the technology, based on its reduced capacity for sample throughput, are no longer a major issue. Overcoming this barrier has transformed a mature technology into one that can focus on systems biology questions not previously considered possible.

  4. Computational analysis of high-throughput flow cytometry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J Paul; Rajwa, Bartek; Patsekin, Valery; Davisson, Vincent Jo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Flow cytometry has been around for over 40 years, but only recently has the opportunity arisen to move into the high-throughput domain. The technology is now available and is highly competitive with imaging tools under the right conditions. Flow cytometry has, however, been a technology that has focused on its unique ability to study single cells and appropriate analytical tools are readily available to handle this traditional role of the technology. Areas covered Expansion of flow cytometry to a high-throughput (HT) and high-content technology requires both advances in hardware and analytical tools. The historical perspective of flow cytometry operation as well as how the field has changed and what the key changes have been discussed. The authors provide a background and compelling arguments for moving toward HT flow, where there are many innovative opportunities. With alternative approaches now available for flow cytometry, there will be a considerable number of new applications. These opportunities show strong capability for drug screening and functional studies with cells in suspension. Expert opinion There is no doubt that HT flow is a rich technology awaiting acceptance by the pharmaceutical community. It can provide a powerful phenotypic analytical toolset that has the capacity to change many current approaches to HT screening. The previous restrictions on the technology, based on its reduced capacity for sample throughput, are no longer a major issue. Overcoming this barrier has transformed a mature technology into one that can focus on systems biology questions not previously considered possible. PMID:22708834

  5. Multispectral flow cytometry: The consequences of increased light collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feher, Kristen; von Volkmann, Konrad; Kirsch, Jenny; Radbruch, Andreas; Popien, Jan; Kaiser, Toralf

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, multispectral flow cytometry systems have come to attention. They differ from conventional flow cytometers in two key ways: a multispectral flow cytometer collects the full spectral information at the single cell level and the detector configuration is fixed and not explicitly tuned to a particular staining panel. This brings about clear hardware advantages, as a closed system should be highly stable, and ease-of-use should be improved if used in conjunction with custom unmixing software. An open question remains: what are the benefits of multispectral over conventional flow cytometry in terms of sensitivity and resolution? To probe this, we use Q (detection efficiency) and B (background) values and develop a novel "multivariate population overlap factor" to characterize the cytometer performance. To verify the usefulness of our factor, we perform representative experiments and compare our overlap factor to Q and B. Finally, we conclude that the increased light collection of multispectral flow cytometry does indeed lead to increased sensitivity, an improved detection limit, and a higher resolution. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  6. Flow cytometry applications in the study of immunological lung disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortaz, Esmaeil|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/29141320X; Gudarzi, Hoda; Tabarsi, Payam; M Adcock, Ian; Masjedi, Mohamad Reza; Jamaati, Hamid Reza; Garssen, Johan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/086369962; Velayati, Ali Akbar; A Redegeld, Frank|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074752464

    The use of flow cytometry in the clinical laboratory has grown substantially in the past decade. Flow cytometric analysis provides a rapid qualitative and quantitative description of multiple characteristics of individual cells. For example, it is possible to detect the cell size and granularity,

  7. An Active, Collaborative Approach to Learning Skills in Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Kathryn; Linden, Matthew D.; Lee-Pullen, Tracey; Fragall, Clayton; Erber, Wendy N.; Röhrig, Kimberley J.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in science education research have the potential to improve the way students learn to perform scientific interpretations and understand science concepts. We developed active, collaborative activities to teach skills in manipulating flow cytometry data using FlowJo software. Undergraduate students were given compensated clinical flow…

  8. Microfluidic Impedance Flow Cytometry Enabling High-Throughput Single-Cell Electrical Property Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Chen; Chengcheng Xue; Yang Zhao; Deyong Chen; Min-Hsien Wu; Junbo Wang

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent developments in microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for high-throughput electrical property characterization of single cells. Four major perspectives of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell characterization are included in this review: (1) early developments of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell electrical property characterization; (2) microfluidic impedance flow cytometry with enhanced sensitivity; (3) microfluidic impedance ...

  9. Flow cytometry-based diagnosis of primary immunodeficiency diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Kanegane

    2018-01-01

    Flow cytometry can evaluate specific cell populations and subpopulations, cell surface, intracellular and intranuclear proteins, biologic effects associated with specific immune defects, and certain functional immune characteristics, each being useful for the diagnosis and evaluation of PIDs. Flow cytometry effectively identifies major forms of PIDs, including severe combined immunodeficiency, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, hyper IgM syndromes, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome, familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, IPEX syndrome, CTLA 4 haploinsufficiency and LRBA deficiency, IRAK4 and MyD88 deficiencies, Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease, chronic mucocuneous candidiasis, and chronic granulomatous disease. While genetic analysis is the definitive approach to establish specific diagnoses of PIDs, flow cytometry provides a tool to effectively evaluate patients with PIDs at relatively low cost.

  10. Flow cytometry measurements of human chromosome kinetochore labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantes, J.A.; Green, D.K.; Malloy, P.; Sumner, A.T.

    1989-03-01

    A method for the preparation and measurement of immunofluorescent human chromosome centromeres in suspension is described using CREST antibodies, which bind to the centromeric region of chromosomes. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated antihuman antibodies provide the fluorescent label. Labeled chromosomes are examined on microscope slides and by flow cytometry. In both cases a dye which binds to DNA is added to provide identification of the chromosome groups. Sera from different CREST patients vary in their ability to bind to chromosome arms in addition to the centromeric region. Flow cytometry and microfluorimetry measurements have shown that with a given CREST serum the differences in kinetochore fluorescence between chromosomes are only minor. Flow cytometry experiments to relate the number of dicentric chromosomes, induced by in vitro radiation of peripheral blood cells to the slightly increased number of chromosomes with above-average kinetochore fluorescence did not produce decisive radiation dosimetry results.

  11. Multicolor Digital Flow Cytometry in Human Translational Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Samit R; Mohanty, Subhasis; Shaw, Albert C

    2015-01-01

    By facilitating the simultaneous analysis of parameters from diverse cell lineages and biological pathways, multicolor flow cytometry is integral to many studies in human immunology-particularly those in older individuals-where sample amounts may be limiting. Studies in human cohorts require particular attention to fluorochrome panel design and procedures to standardize instrument performance; reproducible instrument conditions (over time and between centers) are crucial to accurate comparisons and conclusions in the analysis of heterogeneous groups of human subjects. Here, we describe procedures for multicolor digital flow cytometry, our experience in flow cytometry panel design and our approach in standardizing instrument performance using BD Biosciences hardware and software (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA). These techniques allow for the generation of accurate and precise data in a variety of settings.

  12. Quantitative Fluorescence Measurements with Multicolor Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Gaigalas, Adolfas K; Wood, James

    2018-01-01

    Multicolor flow cytometer assays are routinely used in clinical laboratories for immunophenotyping, monitoring disease and treatment, and determining prognostic factors. However, existing methods for quantitative measurements have not yet produced satisfactory results independent of flow cytometers used. This chapter details a procedure for quantifying surface and intracellular protein biomarkers by calibrating the output of a multicolor flow cytometer in units of antibodies bound per cell (ABC). The procedure includes the following critical steps: (a) quality control (QC) and performance characterization of the multicolor flow cytometer, (b) fluorescence calibration using hard dyed microspheres assigned with fluorescence intensity values in equivalent number of reference fluorophores (ERF), (c) compensation for correction of fluorescence spillover, and (d) application of a biological reference standard for translating the ERF scale to the ABC scale. The chapter also points out current efforts for implementing quantification of biomarkers in a manner which is independent of instrument platforms and reagent differences.

  13. A Semiconductor Microlaser for Intracavity Flow Cytometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, O.; Copeland, G.C.; Dunne, J.L.; Gourley, P.L.; Hendricks, J.K.; McDonald, A.E.

    1999-01-20

    Semiconductor microlasers are attractive components for micro-analysis systems because of their ability to emit coherent intense light from a small aperture. By using a surface-emitting semiconductor geometry, we were able to incorporate fluid flow inside a laser microcavity for the first time. This confers significant advantages for high throughput screening of cells, particulates and fluid analytes in a sensitive microdevice. In this paper we discuss the intracavity microfluidics and present preliminary results with flowing blood and brain cells.

  14. Merging Mixture Components for Cell Population Identification in Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Finak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a framework for the identification of cell subpopulations in flow cytometry data based on merging mixture components using the flowClust methodology. We show that the cluster merging algorithm under our framework improves model fit and provides a better estimate of the number of distinct cell subpopulations than either Gaussian mixture models or flowClust, especially for complicated flow cytometry data distributions. Our framework allows the automated selection of the number of distinct cell subpopulations and we are able to identify cases where the algorithm fails, thus making it suitable for application in a high throughput FCM analysis pipeline. Furthermore, we demonstrate a method for summarizing complex merged cell subpopulations in a simple manner that integrates with the existing flowClust framework and enables downstream data analysis. We demonstrate the performance of our framework on simulated and real FCM data. The software is available in the flowMerge package through the Bioconductor project.

  15. Immunophenotyping of actue leukaemias by flow cytometry: a review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To provide an overview of the utility of flow cytometry for phenotyping of acute leukaemias and selection of monoclonal antibodies. Data sources: The literature review was obtained through internet, journals and chapters in the relevant books. Data selection: Relevant articles and chapters on immunophenotyping ...

  16. Flow cytometry determination of ploidy level in winged bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flow cytometry determination of ploidy level in winged bean [ Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC] and its response to colchicine-induced mutagenesis. ... For mutation induction, 20 seeds from accessionsTPt26 and TPt154 were soaked in three different concentrations of colchicine (5,10, 15mg/l) for 24, 48, and 72 hours, ...

  17. Quantification of microglial proliferation and apoptosis by flow cytometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babcock, Alicia A; Wirenfeldt, Martin; Finsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    of proliferation and apoptosis maintain a low rate of microglial turnover. Here, we describe quantitative analysis of proliferation and apoptosis of microglial cells isolated from individual adult mice by flow cytometry, which allows distinction from perivascular or infiltrating macrophages, based on differential...

  18. The curvHDR method for gating flow cytometry samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wand Matthew P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput flow cytometry experiments produce hundreds of large multivariate samples of cellular characteristics. These samples require specialized processing to obtain clinically meaningful measurements. A major component of this processing is a form of cell subsetting known as gating. Manual gating is time-consuming and subjective. Good automatic and semi-automatic gating algorithms are very beneficial to high-throughput flow cytometry. Results We develop a statistical procedure, named curvHDR, for automatic and semi-automatic gating. The method combines the notions of significant high negative curvature regions and highest density regions and has the ability to adapt well to human-perceived gates. The underlying principles apply to dimension of arbitrary size, although we focus on dimensions up to three. Accompanying software, compatible with contemporary flow cytometry infor-matics, is developed. Conclusion The method is seen to adapt well to nuances in the data and, to a reasonable extent, match human perception of useful gates. It offers big savings in human labour when processing high-throughput flow cytometry data whilst retaining a good degree of efficacy.

  19. Determination of ploidy level by flow cytometry and autopolyploid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A procedure for chromosome doubling of the white cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) type was established by using colchicine and oryzalin treatments to in vitro plantlets. Flow cytometry was successfully used for analyzing ploidy levels within three cocoyam types and regenerated plants. Treating in vitro white cocoyam ...

  20. Setting objective thresholds for rare event detection in flow cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Adam J.; Staats, Janet; Enzor, Jennifer; McKinnon, Katherine; Frelinger, Jacob; Denny, Thomas N.; Weinhold, Kent J.; Chan, Cliburn

    2014-01-01

    The accurate identification of rare antigen-specific cytokine positive cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after antigenic stimulation in an intracellular staining (ICS) flow cytometry assay is challenging, as cytokine positive events may be fairly diffusely distributed and lack an obvious separation from the negative population. Traditionally, the approach by flow operators has been to manually set a positivity threshold to partition events into cytokine-positive and cytokin...

  1. Identification and detection of murine leukemia blasts by flow cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Human leukemia has been determined and classified with the help of flow cytometry for the past two decades. Past attempts to detect leukemia blasts relied on both forward and side scatter (FSC and SSC) based on cell size and granularity. However, this technique failed to show a clean separation of blasts from normal lineage cells. In 1993, Borowitz, et al developed flow cytometric analysis to distinguish human leukemia blasts from other normal lineage cells by using fluorescence-conjugated CD...

  2. Standardized Multi-Color Flow Cytometry and Computational Biomarker Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlickeiser, Stephan; Streitz, Mathias; Sawitzki, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Multi-color flow cytometry has become a valuable and highly informative tool for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of patients with immune deficiencies or inflammatory disorders. However, the method complexity and error-prone conventional manual data analysis often result in a high variability between different analysts and research laboratories. Here, we provide strategies and guidelines aiming at a more standardized multi-color flow cytometric staining and unsupervised data analysis for whole blood patient samples.

  3. Measurement of Soluble Biomarkers by Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal-Szalmás, Péter; Nagy, Béla; Debreceni, Ildikó Beke; Kappelmayer, János

    2013-01-01

    Microparticle based flow cytometric assays for determination of the level of soluble biomarkers are widely used in several research applications and in some diagnostic setups. The major advantages of these multiplex systems are that they can measure a large number of analytes (up to 500) at the same time reducing assay time, costs and sample volume. Most of these assays are based on antigen-antibody interactions and work as traditional immunoassays, but nucleic acid alterations - by using special hybridization probes -, enzyme- substrate or receptor-ligand interactions can be also studied with them. The applied beads are nowadays provided by the manufacturers, but cheaper biological microbeads can be prepared by any user. One part of the systems can be used on any research or clinical cytometers, but some companies provide dedicated analyzers for their multiplex bead arrays. Due to the high standardization of the bead production and the preparation of the assay components the analytical properties of these assays are quite reliable with a wide range of available applications. Cytokines, intracellular fusion proteins, activated/phosphorylated components of different signaling pathways, transcription factors and nuclear receptors can be identified and quantitated. The assays may serve the diagnostics of autoimmune disorders, different viral and bacterial infections, as well as genetic alterations such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, small deletions/insertions or even nucleotide triplet expansions can be also identified. The most important principles, technical details and applications of these systems are discussed in this short review.

  4. Accurate and fast urinalysis in febrile patients by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Foppie J; Gieteling, Elske; van Egmond-Kreileman, Heidi; Moshaver, Bijan; van der Leur, Sjef J C M; Stegeman, Coen A; Groeneveld, Paul H P

    2017-05-01

    The urine culture is worldwide accepted as the gold standard in diagnosing urinary tract infections, but is time consuming and costly, other methods are fast but moderately reliable. We investigated whether counting the number of bacteria by flow cytometry could be a fast and accurate method to analyze urine samples in febrile patients at the emergency department (ED). Urine samples were obtained from 140 febrile patients at the ED. Urinalysis was performed according to standard procedures. Flow cytometric analysis for bacteria was performed with the Accuri C6 flow cytometer. Diagnostic values were determined at various cut-off points by using urine culture as the gold standard. The highest diagnostic accuracy of urinalysis of bacteria was obtained with flow cytometric analysis (AUC of 0.96). The best cut-off value for bacteria counted by flow cytometry based on the ROC-curve was 3.72 × 10(6) bacteria/mL, this resulted in a sensitivity of 94.7% and a specificity of 88.2%. Counting bacteria by flow cytometry has the highest diagnostic accuracy and is superior to other methods in urinalysis in febrile patients in the ED when using urine culture as the gold standard.

  5. Rapid mixing kinetic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen R; Schilstra, Maria J

    2013-01-01

    Almost all of the elementary steps in a biochemical reaction scheme are either unimolecular or bimolecular processes that frequently occur on sub-second, often sub-millisecond, time scales. The traditional approach in kinetic studies is to mix two or more reagents and monitor the changes in concentrations with time. Conventional spectrophotometers cannot generally be used to study reactions that are complete within less than about 20 s, as it takes that amount of time to manually mix the reagents and activate the instrument. Rapid mixing techniques, which generally achieve mixing in less than 2 ms, overcome this limitation. This chapter is concerned with the use of these techniques in the study of reactions which reach equilibrium; the application of these methods to the study of enzyme kinetics is described in several excellent texts (Cornish-Bowden, Fundamentals of enzyme kinetics. Portland Press, 1995; Gutfreund, Kinetics for the life sciences. Receptors, transmitters and catalysis. Cambridge University Press, 1995).There are various ways to monitor changes in concentration of reactants, intermediates and products after mixing, but the most common way is to use changes in optical signals (absorbance or fluorescence) which often accompany reactions. Although absorbance can sometimes be used, fluorescence is often preferred because of its greater sensitivity, particularly in monitoring conformational changes. Such methods are continuous with good time resolution but they seldom permit the direct determination of the concentrations of individual species. Alternatively, samples may be taken from the reaction volume, mixed with a chemical quenching agent to stop the reaction, and their contents assessed by techniques such as HPLC. These methods can directly determine the concentrations of different species, but are discontinuous and have a limited time resolution.

  6. Method of detaching adherent cells for flow cytometry

    KAUST Repository

    Kaur, Mandeep

    2015-12-24

    In one aspect, a method for detaching adherent cells can include adding a cell lifting solution to the media including a sample of adherent cells and incubating the sample of adherent cells with the cell lifting solution. No scraping or pipetting is needed to facilitate cell detachment. The method do not require inactivation of cell lifting solution and no washing of detaching cells is required to remove cell lifting solution. Detached cells can be stained with dye in the presence of cell lifting solution and are further analyzed using flow cytometer. The method has been tested using 6 different cell lines, 4 different assays, two different plate formats (96 and 384 well plates) and two different flow cytometry instruments. The method is simple to perform, less time consuming, with no cell loss and makes high throughput flow cytometry on adherent cells a reality.

  7. Analysis and Isolation of Adipocytes by Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majka, Susan M.; Miller, Heidi L.; Helm, Karen M.; Acosta, Alistaire S.; Childs, Christine R.; Kong, Raymond; Klemm, Dwight J.

    2014-01-01

    Analysis and isolation of adipocytes via flow cytometry is particularly useful to study their biology. However, the adoption of this technology has often been hampered by the presence of stromal/vascular cells in adipocyte fractions prepared from collagenase-digested adipose tissue. Here, we describe a multistep staining method and gating strategy that effectively excludes stromal contaminants. Initially, we set a gate optimized to the size and internal complexity of adipocytes. Exclusion of cell aggregates is then performed based on fluorescence of a nuclear stain followed by positive selection to collect only those cell events containing lipid droplets. Lastly, negative selection of cells expressing stromal or vascular lineage markers removes any remaining stromal contaminants. These procedures are applicable to simple analysis of adipocytes and their subcellular constituents by flow cytometry as well as isolation of adipocytes by flow sorting. PMID:24480352

  8. Microfluidic Impedance Flow Cytometry Enabling High-Throughput Single-Cell Electrical Property Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews recent developments in microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for high-throughput electrical property characterization of single cells. Four major perspectives of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell characterization are included in this review: (1 early developments of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell electrical property characterization; (2 microfluidic impedance flow cytometry with enhanced sensitivity; (3 microfluidic impedance and optical flow cytometry for single-cell analysis and (4 integrated point of care system based on microfluidic impedance flow cytometry. We examine the advantages and limitations of each technique and discuss future research opportunities from the perspectives of both technical innovation and clinical applications.

  9. Microfluidic impedance flow cytometry enabling high-throughput single-cell electrical property characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Xue, Chengcheng; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Deyong; Wu, Min-Hsien; Wang, Junbo

    2015-04-29

    This article reviews recent developments in microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for high-throughput electrical property characterization of single cells. Four major perspectives of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell characterization are included in this review: (1) early developments of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell electrical property characterization; (2) microfluidic impedance flow cytometry with enhanced sensitivity; (3) microfluidic impedance and optical flow cytometry for single-cell analysis and (4) integrated point of care system based on microfluidic impedance flow cytometry. We examine the advantages and limitations of each technique and discuss future research opportunities from the perspectives of both technical innovation and clinical applications.

  10. Managing Multi-center Flow Cytometry Data for Immune Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Scott; Laske, Karoline; Welters, Marij Jp; Bidmon, Nicole; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; Britten, Cedrik M; Enzor, Jennifer; Staats, Janet; Weinhold, Kent J; Gouttefangeas, Cécile; Chan, Cliburn

    2014-01-01

    With the recent results of promising cancer vaccines and immunotherapy1-5, immune monitoring has become increasingly relevant for measuring treatment-induced effects on T cells, and an essential tool for shedding light on the mechanisms responsible for a successful treatment. Flow cytometry is the canonical multi-parameter assay for the fine characterization of single cells in solution, and is ubiquitously used in pre-clinical tumor immunology and in cancer immunotherapy trials. Current state-of-the-art polychromatic flow cytometry involves multi-step, multi-reagent assays followed by sample acquisition on sophisticated instruments capable of capturing up to 20 parameters per cell at a rate of tens of thousands of cells per second. Given the complexity of flow cytometry assays, reproducibility is a major concern, especially for multi-center studies. A promising approach for improving reproducibility is the use of automated analysis borrowing from statistics, machine learning and information visualization21-23, as these methods directly address the subjectivity, operator-dependence, labor-intensive and low fidelity of manual analysis. However, it is quite time-consuming to investigate and test new automated analysis techniques on large data sets without some centralized information management system. For large-scale automated analysis to be practical, the presence of consistent and high-quality data linked to the raw FCS files is indispensable. In particular, the use of machine-readable standard vocabularies to characterize channel metadata is essential when constructing analytic pipelines to avoid errors in processing, analysis and interpretation of results. For automation, this high-quality metadata needs to be programmatically accessible, implying the need for a consistent Application Programming Interface (API). In this manuscript, we propose that upfront time spent normalizing flow cytometry data to conform to carefully designed data models enables automated

  11. Managing Multi-center Flow Cytometry Data for Immune Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Scott; Laske, Karoline; Welters, Marij JP; Bidmon, Nicole; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; Britten, Cedrik M; Enzor, Jennifer; Staats, Janet; Weinhold, Kent J; Gouttefangeas, Cécile; Chan, Cliburn

    2014-01-01

    With the recent results of promising cancer vaccines and immunotherapy1–5, immune monitoring has become increasingly relevant for measuring treatment-induced effects on T cells, and an essential tool for shedding light on the mechanisms responsible for a successful treatment. Flow cytometry is the canonical multi-parameter assay for the fine characterization of single cells in solution, and is ubiquitously used in pre-clinical tumor immunology and in cancer immunotherapy trials. Current state-of-the-art polychromatic flow cytometry involves multi-step, multi-reagent assays followed by sample acquisition on sophisticated instruments capable of capturing up to 20 parameters per cell at a rate of tens of thousands of cells per second. Given the complexity of flow cytometry assays, reproducibility is a major concern, especially for multi-center studies. A promising approach for improving reproducibility is the use of automated analysis borrowing from statistics, machine learning and information visualization21–23, as these methods directly address the subjectivity, operator-dependence, labor-intensive and low fidelity of manual analysis. However, it is quite time-consuming to investigate and test new automated analysis techniques on large data sets without some centralized information management system. For large-scale automated analysis to be practical, the presence of consistent and high-quality data linked to the raw FCS files is indispensable. In particular, the use of machine-readable standard vocabularies to characterize channel metadata is essential when constructing analytic pipelines to avoid errors in processing, analysis and interpretation of results. For automation, this high-quality metadata needs to be programmatically accessible, implying the need for a consistent Application Programming Interface (API). In this manuscript, we propose that upfront time spent normalizing flow cytometry data to conform to carefully designed data models enables

  12. Step-specific Sorting of Mouse Spermatids by Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Olivier; Leduc, Frédéric; Acteau, Geneviève; Arguin, Mélina; Grégoire, Marie-Chantal; Brazeau, Marc-André; Marois, Isabelle; Richter, Martin V; Boissonneault, Guylain

    2015-12-31

    The differentiation of mouse spermatids is one critical process for the production of a functional male gamete with an intact genome to be transmitted to the next generation. So far, molecular studies of this morphological transition have been hampered by the lack of a method allowing adequate separation of these important steps of spermatid differentiation for subsequent analyses. Earlier attempts at proper gating of these cells using flow cytometry may have been difficult because of a peculiar increase in DNA fluorescence in spermatids undergoing chromatin remodeling. Based on this observation, we provide details of a simple flow cytometry scheme, allowing reproducible purification of four populations of mouse spermatids fixed with ethanol, each representing a different state in the nuclear remodeling process. Population enrichment is confirmed using step-specific markers and morphological criterions. The purified spermatids can be used for genomic and proteomic analyses.

  13. Impedance Flow Cytometry: A Novel Technique in Pollen Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Heidmann, Iris; Schade-Kampmann, Grit; Lambalk, Joep; Ottiger, Marcel; Di Berardino, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An efficient and reliable method to estimate plant cell viability, especially of pollen, is important for plant breeding research and plant production processes. Pollen quality is determined by classical methods, like staining techniques or in vitro pollen germination, each having disadvantages with respect to reliability, analysis speed, and species dependency. Analysing single cells based on their dielectric properties by impedance flow cytometry (IFC) has developed into a comm...

  14. A CLIPS expert system for clinical flow cytometry data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzman, G. C.; Duque, R. E.; Braylan, R. C.; Stewart, C. C.

    1990-01-01

    An expert system is being developed using CLIPS to assist clinicians in the analysis of multivariate flow cytometry data from cancer patients. Cluster analysis is used to find subpopulations representing various cell types in multiple datasets each consisting of four to five measurements on each of 5000 cells. CLIPS facts are derived from results of the clustering. CLIPS rules are based on the expertise of Drs. Stewart, Duque, and Braylan. The rules incorporate certainty factors based on case histories.

  15. Report of the European Myeloma Network on multiparametric flow cytometry in multiple myeloma and related disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rawstron, Andy C.; Orfao, Alberto; Beksac, Meral; Bezdickova, Ludmila; Broolmans, Rik A.; Bumbea, Horia; Dalva, Klara; Fuhler, Gwenny; Gratama, Jan; Hose, Dirk; Kovarova, Lucie; Lioznov, Michael; Mateo, Gema; Morilla, Ricardo; Mylin, Anne K.; Omede, Paola; Pellat-Deceunynck, Catherine; Andres, Martin Perez; Petrucci, Maria; Ruggeri, Marina; Rymkiewicz, Grzegorz; Schmitz, Alexander; Schreder, Martin; Seynaeve, Carine; Spacek, Martin; de Tute, Ruth M.; Van Valckenborgh, Els; Weston-Bell, Nicky; Owen, Roger G.; Miguel, Jesus F. San; Sonneveld, Pieter; Johnsen, Hans E.

    The European Myeloma Network (EMN) organized two flow cytometry workshops. The first aimed to identify specific indications for flow cytometry in patients with monoclonal gammopathies, and consensus technical approaches through a questionnaire-based review of current practice in participating

  16. Flow cytometry based rapid duplexed immunoassay for fusarium mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czéh, Árpád; Mézes, Miklós; Mandy, Francis; Szőke, Zsuzsanna; Nagyéri, György; Laufer, Noémi; Kőszegi, Balázs; Koczka, Tamás; Kunsági-Máté, Sándor; Lustyik, György

    2017-02-01

    At small food processing facilities, the most frequently used test to determine if grain-derived mycotoxin concentrations are compliant with legal limits is the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Each kit is designed to detect one of the six dangerous mycotoxins. With the increasing occurrence of coinfection of grain with multiple-mycotoxins in the field and/or during storage, ELISA is no longer a cost effective best assay option. With ELISA, each species of mycotoxin requires different sample preparation/extraction and a 45 min incubation. The alternative multiplexed assay presented here, the competitive fluorescent microsphere immunoassay (CFIA), follows current food safety standards. It handles several toxins simultaneously with a single universal extraction protocol. The authors' objective was to modify an existing commercial CFIA kit developed for bench top flow cytometry and extend its utility for point-of-need (PON) applications. The accelerated protocol offers over 60% reduction in total processing time and it detects dual mycotoxin contamination simultaneously. The observed enhanced binding kinetics equations reported here utilizing suspended solid phase particles in liquid phase, are also supported by published theoretical calculations. In the near future portable cytometry may bring rapid multiplexed PON testing to assure the safety of small food processing installations. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  17. Ultraviolet 320 nm laser excitation for flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, William; Stickland, Lynn; Koschorreck, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Although multiple lasers and high-dimensional analysis capability are now standard on advanced flow cytometers, ultraviolet (UV) lasers (usually 325-365 nm) remain an uncommon excitation source for cytometry. This is primarily due to their cost, and the small number of applications that require this wavelength. The development of the Brilliant Ultraviolet (BUV fluorochromes, however, has increased the importance of this formerly niche excitation wavelength. Historically, UV excitation was usually provided by water-cooled argon- and krypton-ion lasers. Modern flow cytometers primary rely on diode pumped solid state lasers emitting at 355 nm. While useful for all UV-excited applications, DPSS UV lasers are still large by modern solid state laser standards, and remain very expensive. Smaller and cheaper near UV laser diodes (NUVLDs) emitting at 375 nm make adequate substitutes for 355 nm sources in many situations, but do not work as well with very short wavelength probes like the fluorescent calcium chelator indo-1. In this study, we evaluate a newly available UV 320 nm laser for flow cytometry. While shorter in wavelength that conventional UV lasers, 320 is close to the 325 nm helium-cadmium wavelength used in the past on early benchtop cytometers. A UV 320 nm laser was found to excite almost all Brilliant Ultraviolet dyes to nearly the same level as 355 nm sources. Both 320 nm and 355 nm sources worked equally well for Hoechst and DyeCycle Violet side population analysis of stem cells in mouse hematopoetic tissue. The shorter wavelength UV source also showed excellent excitation of indo-1, a probe that is not compatible with NUVLD 375 nm sources. In summary, a 320 nm laser module made a suitable substitute for conventional 355 nm sources. This laser technology is available in a smaller form factor than current 355 nm units, making it useful for small cytometers with space constraints. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International

  18. Capture of Fluorescence Decay Times by Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naivar, Mark A.; Jenkins, Patrick; Freyer, James P.

    2012-01-01

    In flow cytometry, the fluorescence decay time of an excitable species has been largely underutilized and is not likely found as a standard parameter on any imaging cytometer, sorting, or analyzing system. Most cytometers lack fluorescence lifetime hardware mainly owing to two central issues. Foremost, research and development with lifetime techniques has lacked proper exploitation of modern laser systems, data acquisition boards, and signal processing techniques. Secondly, a lack of enthusiasm for fluorescence lifetime applications in cells and with bead-based assays has persisted among the greater cytometry community. In this unit, we describe new approaches that address these issues and demonstrate the simplicity of digitally acquiring fluorescence relaxation rates in flow. The unit is divided into protocol and commentary sections in order to provide a most comprehensive discourse on acquiring the fluorescence lifetime with frequency-domain methods. The unit covers (i) standard fluorescence lifetime acquisition (protocol-based) with frequency-modulated laser excitation, (ii) digital frequency-domain cytometry analyses, and (iii) interfacing fluorescence lifetime measurements onto sorting systems. Within the unit is also a discussion on how digital methods are used for aliasing in order to harness higher frequency ranges. Also, a final discussion is provided on heterodyning and processing of waveforms for multi-exponential decay extraction. PMID:25419263

  19. Limited flow cytometry panels on bone marrow specimens reduce costs and predict negative cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Douglas G; Kim, Burton H

    2014-01-01

    To determine the clinical and financial impact and predictive value of a limited flow cytometry strategy in the evaluation of bone marrow specimens. Consecutive bone marrow cases (n = 1,242) were reviewed following the independent, prospective application of two flow cytometry protocols: a limited marker strategy and a multimarker strategy. Combined morphologic and flow cytometry findings were also compared with cytogenetic results. A limited flow cytometry strategy did not have a negative impact on disease detection and resulted in reduced utilization and cost. In addition, negative combined morphology and flow cytometry had a 98.4% predictive value for negative cytogenetics (P flow cytometric and cytogenetic studies on these samples.

  20. In vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry for early malaria diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chengzhong; Carey, Kai A; Nedosekin, Dmitry A; Menyaev, Yulian A; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Galanzha, Ekaterina I; Stumhofer, Jason S; Zharov, Vladimir P

    2016-06-01

    In vivo photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC) has already demonstrated a great potential for the diagnosis of deadly diseases through ultrasensitive detection of rare disease-associated circulating markers in whole blood volume. Here, we demonstrate the first application of this powerful technique for early diagnosis of malaria through label-free detection of malaria parasite-produced hemozoin in infected red blood cells (iRBCs) as high-contrast PA agent. The existing malaria tests using blood smears can detect the disease at 0.001-0.1% of parasitemia. On the contrary, linear PAFC showed a potential for noninvasive malaria diagnosis at an extremely low level of parasitemia of 0.0000001%, which is ∼10(3) times better than the existing tests. Multicolor time-of-flight PAFC with high-pulse repetition rate lasers at wavelengths of 532, 671, and 820 nm demonstrated rapid spectral and spatial identification and quantitative enumeration of individual iRBCs. Integration of PAFC with fluorescence flow cytometry (FFC) provided real-time simultaneous detection of single iRBCs and parasites expressing green fluorescence proteins, respectively. A combination of linear and nonlinear nanobubble-based multicolor PAFC showed capability to real-time control therapy efficiency by counting of iRBCs before, during, and after treatment. Our results suggest that high-sensitivity, high-resolution ultrafast PAFC-FFC platform represents a powerful research tool to provide the insight on malaria progression through dynamic study of parasite-cell interactions directly in bloodstream, whereas portable hand-worn PAFC device could be broadly used in humans for early malaria diagnosis. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  1. Detection of PNH cells by flow cytometry, using multiparameter analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Maria Camargos Rocha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The laboratory diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH, disease that is categorized by reduced synthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI anchor, is based on the detection of blood cells deficient in GPI-anchored proteins by flow cytometry. PNH clones have been detected in patients with aplastic anaemia (AA and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, with therapeutic implications.Objectives:To validate a sensitive assay for detection of GPI-anchored protein-deficient cells, by flow cytometry, and to analyze the clone frequency in AA and MDS patients.Methods:Samples from 20 AA patients, 30 MDS patients and 20 adult volunteers (control group were analyzed using monoclonal antibodies to CD16, CD24, CD55 and CD59 (neutrophils; CD14 and CD55 (monocytes; CD55 and CD59 (erythrocytes; besides fluorescent aerolysin reagent (FLAER (neutrophils and monocytes and lineage markers. The proportions of PNH cells detected in neutrophils and monocytes, using different reagent combinations, were compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA and Pearson's correlation.Results:PNH cells were detected in five (25% AA patients, and the proportions of PNH cells varied from 0.14% to 94.84% of the analyzed events. PNH cells were not detected in the MDS patients. However, by the analysis of these samples, it was possible to identify the technical challenges caused by the presence of immature and dysplastic circulating cells. FLAER showed clear distinction of GPI-deficient cells.Conclusion:Multiparameter flow cytometry analysis offers high sensitivity and accuracy in the detection of subclinical PNH clones. FLAER shows excellent performance in detection of PNH neutrophils and monocytes.

  2. High-throughput flow cytometry for drug discovery: principles, applications, and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Mei; Kaspersson, Karin; Murray, David; Bardelle, Catherine

    2017-09-12

    Flow cytometry is a technology providing multiparametric analysis of single cells or other suspension particles. High-throughput (HT) flow cytometry has become an attractive screening platform for drug discovery. In this review, we highlight the recent HT flow cytometry applications, and then focus on HT flow cytometry deployment at AstraZeneca (AZ). Practical considerations for successful HT flow cytometry assay development and screening are provided based on experience from four project case studies at AZ. We provide an overview of the scientific rationale, explain why HT flow cytometry was chosen and how HT flow cytometry assays deliver new ways to support the drug discovery process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Calibration of Flow Cytometry for Quantitative Quantum Dot Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rowena; Bruchez, Marcel P

    2009-07-01

    Observations of quantum dot (QD) labeled cells in biomedical research are mainly qualitative in nature, which limits the ability of researchers to compare results experiment-to-experiment and lab-to-lab to improve the state-of-the-art. Labeled cells are useful in a range of in vitro and in vivo assays where tracking behavior of administered cells is integral for answering research questions in areas such as tissue engineering and stem cell therapy. Before the full potential of QD based toolsets can be realized in the clinic, uptake of QDs by cells must be quantified and standardized. This unit describes a novel, simple method to assess the number of QDs per cell using flow cytometry and commercially available standards. This quick and easy method can be used by all researchers to calibrate their flow cytometry instruments and settings, and quantify QD uptake by cells for in vitro and in vivo experimentation for comparable results across QD conjugate types, cell types, research groups, lots of commercial QDs, and homemade QDs.

  4. Thrombocytopenia: diagnosis with flow cytometry and antiplatelet antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, João Carlos de Campos; Kanayama, Ruth Hissae; Nozawa, Sonia Tsukasa; Ioshida, Márcia Regina; Takiri, Irina Yoko; Lazaro, Robson José; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Rosenfeld, Luiz Gastão Mange; Guerra, Celso Carlos de Campos; Bacal, Nydia Strachman

    2011-06-01

    To identify antiplatelet antibodies by flow cytometry (direct method) in patients with thrombocytopenia. Between January 1997 and March 2004 a total of 15100 patients were referred to the Centro de Hematologia de São Paulo for hematological investigation of several diagnoses (anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, coagulation abnormalities, adenomegaly, leukemia and others). Of those, 1057 were referred because of thrombocytopenia and were divided into two groups: Group Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, with no identifiable cause; and Group Other thrombocytopenia, which included low normal platelet counts cause to be established, hepatitis C and HIV infection, hypersplenism, EDTA-induced artifacts, laboratory error, and other causes. Flow cytometry immunophenotyping was done in 115 cases to identify platelet autoantibodies (direct method). Of the total number of patients, 1057 (7%) presented low platelet counts, 670 were females (63.4%) and age range of one to 75 years. Of the 115 cases (9.7%) submitted to immunophenotyping, the results were positive in 40% and the test was inconclusive in 5%. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura was found in 52% of patients, more often in women. Hepatitis C virus infection was found in 7% and HIV infection in 1%. Low normal platelet counts were found in 17%, laboratory errors in 6%, and laboratory artifacts in 1% of cases. Platelet autoantibodies were found in 76.9% of all idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura cases. It was negative in 83.3% of the low normal counts. antiplatelet autoantibodies when present help to diagnose idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. When absent, suggest other causes of thrombocytopenia.

  5. Digital Analysis and Sorting of Fluorescence Lifetime by Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Jessica P.; Naivar, Mark A.; Freyer, James P.

    2010-01-01

    Frequency-domain flow cytometry techniques are combined with modifications to the digital signal processing capabilities of the Open Reconfigurable Cytometric Acquisition System (ORCAS) to analyze fluorescence decay lifetimes and control sorting. Real-time fluorescence lifetime analysis is accomplished by rapidly digitizing correlated, radiofrequency modulated detector signals, implementing Fourier analysis programming with ORCAS’ digital signal processor (DSP) and converting the processed data into standard cytometric list mode data. To systematically test the capabilities of the ORCAS 50 MS/sec analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and our DSP programming, an error analysis was performed using simulated light scatter and fluorescence waveforms (0.5–25 ns simulated lifetime), pulse widths ranging from 2 to 15 µs, and modulation frequencies from 2.5 to 16.667 MHz. The standard deviations of digitally acquired lifetime values ranged from 0.112 to >2 ns, corresponding to errors in actual phase shifts from 0.0142° to 1.6°. The lowest coefficients of variation (flow cytometer demonstrated similar precision and accuracy on measurements of a range of fluorescent microspheres, unstained cells and cells stained with three common fluorophores. Sorting based on fluorescence lifetime was accomplished by adding analog outputs to ORCAS and interfacing with a commercial cell sorter with a radiofrequency modulated solid-state laser. Two populations of fluorescent microspheres with overlapping fluorescence intensities but different lifetimes (2 and 7 ns) were separated to ~98% purity. Overall, the digital signal acquisition and processing methods we introduce present a simple yet robust approach to phase-sensitive measurements in flow cytometry. The ability to simply and inexpensively implement this system on a commercial flow sorter will both allow better dissemination of this technology and better exploit the traditionally underutilized parameter of fluorescence lifetime

  6. Misty Mountain clustering: application to fast unsupervised flow cytometry gating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sealfon Stuart C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are many important clustering questions in computational biology for which no satisfactory method exists. Automated clustering algorithms, when applied to large, multidimensional datasets, such as flow cytometry data, prove unsatisfactory in terms of speed, problems with local minima or cluster shape bias. Model-based approaches are restricted by the assumptions of the fitting functions. Furthermore, model based clustering requires serial clustering for all cluster numbers within a user defined interval. The final cluster number is then selected by various criteria. These supervised serial clustering methods are time consuming and frequently different criteria result in different optimal cluster numbers. Various unsupervised heuristic approaches that have been developed such as affinity propagation are too expensive to be applied to datasets on the order of 106 points that are often generated by high throughput experiments. Results To circumvent these limitations, we developed a new, unsupervised density contour clustering algorithm, called Misty Mountain, that is based on percolation theory and that efficiently analyzes large data sets. The approach can be envisioned as a progressive top-down removal of clouds covering a data histogram relief map to identify clusters by the appearance of statistically distinct peaks and ridges. This is a parallel clustering method that finds every cluster after analyzing only once the cross sections of the histogram. The overall run time for the composite steps of the algorithm increases linearly by the number of data points. The clustering of 106 data points in 2D data space takes place within about 15 seconds on a standard laptop PC. Comparison of the performance of this algorithm with other state of the art automated flow cytometry gating methods indicate that Misty Mountain provides substantial improvements in both run time and in the accuracy of cluster assignment. Conclusions

  7. Separating the signal from the noise: Expanding flow cytometry into the sub-micron range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytometry Part A Special Section: Separating the signal from the noise: Expanding flow cytometry into the sub-micron range. The current Cytometry Part A Special Section presents three studies that utilize cytometers to study sub-micron particles. The three studies involve the 1...

  8. Digital analysis and sorting of fluorescence lifetime by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Jessica P; Naivar, Mark A; Freyer, James P

    2010-09-01

    Frequency-domain flow cytometry techniques are combined with modifications to the digital signal-processing capabilities of the open reconfigurable cytometric acquisition system (ORCAS) to analyze fluorescence decay lifetimes and control sorting. Real-time fluorescence lifetime analysis is accomplished by rapidly digitizing correlated, radiofrequency (RF)-modulated detector signals, implementing Fourier analysis programming with ORCAS' digital signal processor (DSP) and converting the processed data into standard cytometric list mode data. To systematically test the capabilities of the ORCAS 50 MS/sec analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and our DSP programming, an error analysis was performed using simulated light scatter and fluorescence waveforms (0.5-25 ns simulated lifetime), pulse widths ranging from 2 to 15 micros, and modulation frequencies from 2.5 to 16.667 MHz. The standard deviations of digitally acquired lifetime values ranged from 0.112 to >2 ns, corresponding to errors in actual phase shifts from 0.0142 degrees to 1.6 degrees. The lowest coefficients of variation (<1%) were found for 10-MHz modulated waveforms having pulse widths of 6 micros and simulated lifetimes of 4 ns. Direct comparison of the digital analysis system to a previous analog phase-sensitive flow cytometer demonstrated similar precision and accuracy on measurements of a range of fluorescent microspheres, unstained cells, and cells stained with three common fluorophores. Sorting based on fluorescence lifetime was accomplished by adding analog outputs to ORCAS and interfacing with a commercial cell sorter with a RF-modulated solid-state laser. Two populations of fluorescent microspheres with overlapping fluorescence intensities but different lifetimes (2 and 7 ns) were separated to approximately 98% purity. Overall, the digital signal acquisition and processing methods we introduce present a simple yet robust approach to phase-sensitive measurements in flow cytometry. The ability to

  9. High-throughput flow cytometry data normalization for clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finak, Greg; Jiang, Wenxin; Krouse, Kevin; Wei, Chungwen; Sanz, Ignacio; Phippard, Deborah; Asare, Adam; De Rosa, Stephen C; Self, Steve; Gottardo, Raphael

    2014-03-01

    Flow cytometry datasets from clinical trials generate very large datasets and are usually highly standardized, focusing on endpoints that are well defined apriori. Staining variability of individual makers is not uncommon and complicates manual gating, requiring the analyst to adapt gates for each sample, which is unwieldy for large datasets. It can lead to unreliable measurements, especially if a template-gating approach is used without further correction to the gates. In this article, a computational framework is presented for normalizing the fluorescence intensity of multiple markers in specific cell populations across samples that is suitable for high-throughput processing of large clinical trial datasets. Previous approaches to normalization have been global and applied to all cells or data with debris removed. They provided no mechanism to handle specific cell subsets. This approach integrates tightly with the gating process so that normalization is performed during gating and is local to the specific cell subsets exhibiting variability. This improves peak alignment and the performance of the algorithm. The performance of this algorithm is demonstrated on two clinical trial datasets from the HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) and the Immune Tolerance Network (ITN). In the ITN data set we show that local normalization combined with template gating can account for sample-to-sample variability as effectively as manual gating. In the HVTN dataset, it is shown that local normalization mitigates false-positive vaccine response calls in an intracellular cytokine staining assay. In both datasets, local normalization performs better than global normalization. The normalization framework allows the use of template gates even in the presence of sample-to-sample staining variability, mitigates the subjectivity and bias of manual gating, and decreases the time necessary to analyze large datasets. © 2013 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  10. Flow cytometry in the study of cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro L Bertho

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this report we present a concise review concerning the use of flow cytometric methods to characterize and differentiate between two different mechanisms of cell death, apoptosis and necrosis. The applications of these techniques to clinical and basic research are also considered. The following cell features are useful to characterize the mode of cell death: (1 activation of an endonuclease in apoptotic cells results in extraction of the low molecular weight DNA following cell permeabilization, which, in turn, leads to their decreased stainability with DNA-specific fluorochromes. Measurements of DNA content make it possible to identify apoptotic cells and to recognize the cell cycle phase specificity of apoptotic process; (2 plasma membrane integrity, which is lost in necrotic but not in apoptotic cells; (3 the decrease in forward light scatter, paralleled either by no change or an increase in side scatter, represent early changes during apoptosis. The data presented indicate that flow cytometry can be applied to basic research of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of apoptosis, as well as in the clinical situations, where the ability to monitor early signs of apoptosis in some systems may be predictive for the outcome of some treatment protocols.

  11. Apoptosis in CHO cell batch cultures: examination by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, A; Donahue, C J; Hooley, J; Stocks, D L; Bauer, K D; Mather, J P

    1995-02-01

    Chinese hamster ovary cells grown under conditions which are optimal for the production of a genetically engineered protein in batch culture, lose significant viability shortly after entering the stationary phase. This cell death was investigated morphologically and was found to be almost exclusively via apoptosi. Furthermore, cells were analyzed by flow cytometry using a fluorescent DNA end-labeling assay to label apoptotic cells, in conjunction with cell cycle analysis using propidium iodide. Apoptotic cells could be detected by this method, and by the radioactive end-labeling of extracted DNA, on all days of culture from day 1 to day 7; however, the degree of apoptotic cell death increased dramatically when the cells entered the stationary phase, rising to 50-60% of the total cell number at the termination of the culture. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the majority of cells underwent apoptosis whilst in G(1)/G(0) and formed an apoptotic population with high DNA FITC end-labeling and hypodiploid propidium iodide binding. Additionally, the ability or inability to secrete specific protein products did not appear to interfere with the development of the apoptotic population with time.

  12. Ecological Stability Properties of Microbial Communities Assessed by Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zishu; Cichocki, Nicolas; Bonk, Fabian; Günther, Susanne; Schattenberg, Florian; Harms, Hauke; Centler, Florian; Müller, Susann

    2018-01-01

    Natural microbial communities affect human life in countless ways, ranging from global biogeochemical cycles to the treatment of wastewater and health via the human microbiome. In order to probe, monitor, and eventually control these communities, fast detection and evaluation methods are required. In order to facilitate rapid community analysis and monitor a community's dynamic behavior with high resolution, we here apply community flow cytometry, which provides single-cell-based high-dimensional data characterizing communities with high acuity over time. To interpret time series data, we draw inspiration from macroecology, in which a rich set of concepts has been developed for describing population dynamics. We focus on the stability paradigm as a promising candidate to interpret such data in an intuitive and actionable way and present a rapid workflow to monitor stability properties of complex microbial ecosystems. Based on single-cell data, we compute the stability properties resistance, resilience, displacement speed, and elasticity. For resilience, we also introduce a method which can be implemented for continuous online community monitoring. The proposed workflow was tested in a long-term continuous reactor experiment employing both an artificial and a complex microbial community, which were exposed to identical short-term disturbances. The computed stability properties uncovered the superior stability of the complex community and demonstrated the global applicability of the protocol to any microbiome. The workflow is able to support high temporal sample densities below bacterial generation times. This may provide new opportunities to unravel unknown ecological paradigms of natural microbial communities, with applications to environmental, biotechnological, and health-related microbiomes. IMPORTANCE Microbial communities drive many processes which affect human well-being directly, as in the human microbiome, or indirectly, as in natural environments or in

  13. Setting objective thresholds for rare event detection in flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Adam J; Staats, Janet; Enzor, Jennifer; McKinnon, Katherine; Frelinger, Jacob; Denny, Thomas N; Weinhold, Kent J; Chan, Cliburn

    2014-07-01

    The accurate identification of rare antigen-specific cytokine positive cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after antigenic stimulation in an intracellular staining (ICS) flow cytometry assay is challenging, as cytokine positive events may be fairly diffusely distributed and lack an obvious separation from the negative population. Traditionally, the approach by flow operators has been to manually set a positivity threshold to partition events into cytokine-positive and cytokine-negative. This approach suffers from subjectivity and inconsistency across different flow operators. The use of statistical clustering methods does not remove the need to find an objective threshold between between positive and negative events since consistent identification of rare event subsets is highly challenging for automated algorithms, especially when there is distributional overlap between the positive and negative events ("smear"). We present a new approach, based on the Fβ measure, that is similar to manual thresholding in providing a hard cutoff, but has the advantage of being determined objectively. The performance of this algorithm is compared with results obtained by expert visual gating. Several ICS data sets from the External Quality Assurance Program Oversight Laboratory (EQAPOL) proficiency program were used to make the comparisons. We first show that visually determined thresholds are difficult to reproduce and pose a problem when comparing results across operators or laboratories, as well as problems that occur with the use of commonly employed clustering algorithms. In contrast, a single parameterization for the Fβ method performs consistently across different centers, samples, and instruments because it optimizes the precision/recall tradeoff by using both negative and positive controls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Report of the European Myeloma Network on multiparametric flow cytometry in multiple myeloma and related disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rawstron, A.C.; Orfao, A.; Beksac, M.

    2008-01-01

    The European Myeloma Network (EMN) organized two flow cytometry workshops. The first aimed to identify specific indications for flow cytometry in patients with monoclonal gammopathies, and consensus technical approaches through a questionnaire-based review of current practice in participating lab...

  15. Report of the European Myeloma Network on multiparametric flow cytometry in multiple myeloma and related disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Rawstron; A. Orfao (Alberto); M. Beksaç (Meral); L. Bezdickova (Ludmila); R.A. Brooimans (Rik); H. Bumbea (Horia); K. Dalva (Klara); G.M. Fuhler (Gwenny); J.W. Gratama (Jan-Willem); D. Hose (Dirk); L. Kovarova (Lucie); M. Lioznov (Michael); G. Mateo (Gema); R. Morilla (Ricardo); A.K. Mylin (Anne); P. Omedé (Paola); C. Pellat-Deceunynck (Catherine); M.P. Andres; M. Petrucci (Maria); M. Ruggeri (Marina); G. Rymkiewicz (Grzegorz); A. Schmitz; M. Schreder (Martin); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); M. Spacek (Martin); R.M. de Tute (Ruth); E. van Valckenborgh (Els); N. Weston-Bell (Nicky); R.G. Owen (Roger); J.F. San Miguel (Jesús Fernando); P. Sonneveld (Pieter); H.E. Johnsen (Hans)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe European Myeloma Network (EMN) organized two flow cytometry workshops. The first aimed to identify specific indications for flow cytometry in patients with monoclonal gammopathies, and consensus technical approaches through a questionnaire-based review of current practice in

  16. Viability staining of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts combined with flow cytometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schets FM; Medema GJ; MGB

    1998-01-01

    Flow cytometrie als extra zuiveringsstap heeft de detectiemethode voor Cryptosporidium oocysten en Giardia cysten in water verbeterd. Door middel van flow cytometrie kunnen (oo)cysten gescheiden worden van het meeste debris dat in waterconcentraten aanwezig is, waardoor de toepassing van fluorogene

  17. Hardware-software complex for diagnostics of breast cancer on the basis of flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selchuk, V. Y.; Shamilov, F. A.; Beznos, O. A.; Vorotnikov, I. K.; Polyakov, E. V.; Tupitsyn, N. N.

    2017-01-01

    The method of multicolor flow cytometry makes it possible to quantify the disseminated tumor cells (DTC) in patients with solid tumors. Application of the method multi-color flow cytometry showed its efficiency and accuracy in the detection of DTC in patients with breast cancer.

  18. Viability staining of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts combined with flow cytometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schets FM; Medema GJ; MGB

    1998-01-01

    The incorporation of flow cytometry as an additional purification step has improved the detection method for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water. Flow cytometry allows separation of (oo)cysts from interfering debris particles present in water concentrates and thus enables the

  19. Impedance Flow Cytometry: A Novel Technique in Pollen Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Heidmann

    Full Text Available An efficient and reliable method to estimate plant cell viability, especially of pollen, is important for plant breeding research and plant production processes. Pollen quality is determined by classical methods, like staining techniques or in vitro pollen germination, each having disadvantages with respect to reliability, analysis speed, and species dependency. Analysing single cells based on their dielectric properties by impedance flow cytometry (IFC has developed into a common method for cellular characterisation in microbiology and medicine during the last decade. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the potential of IFC in plant cell analysis with the focus on pollen.Developing and mature pollen grains were analysed during their passage through a microfluidic chip to which radio frequencies of 0.5 to 12 MHz were applied. The acquired data provided information about the developmental stage, viability, and germination capacity. The biological relevance of the acquired IFC data was confirmed by classical staining methods, inactivation controls, as well as pollen germination assays.Different stages of developing pollen, dead, viable and germinating pollen populations could be detected and quantified by IFC. Pollen viability analysis by classical FDA staining showed a high correlation with IFC data. In parallel, pollen with active germination potential could be discriminated from the dead and the viable but non-germinating population.The presented data demonstrate that IFC is an efficient, label-free, reliable and non-destructive technique to analyse pollen quality in a species-independent manner.

  20. Impedance Flow Cytometry: A Novel Technique in Pollen Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidmann, Iris; Schade-Kampmann, Grit; Lambalk, Joep; Ottiger, Marcel; Di Berardino, Marco

    2016-01-01

    An efficient and reliable method to estimate plant cell viability, especially of pollen, is important for plant breeding research and plant production processes. Pollen quality is determined by classical methods, like staining techniques or in vitro pollen germination, each having disadvantages with respect to reliability, analysis speed, and species dependency. Analysing single cells based on their dielectric properties by impedance flow cytometry (IFC) has developed into a common method for cellular characterisation in microbiology and medicine during the last decade. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the potential of IFC in plant cell analysis with the focus on pollen. Developing and mature pollen grains were analysed during their passage through a microfluidic chip to which radio frequencies of 0.5 to 12 MHz were applied. The acquired data provided information about the developmental stage, viability, and germination capacity. The biological relevance of the acquired IFC data was confirmed by classical staining methods, inactivation controls, as well as pollen germination assays. Different stages of developing pollen, dead, viable and germinating pollen populations could be detected and quantified by IFC. Pollen viability analysis by classical FDA staining showed a high correlation with IFC data. In parallel, pollen with active germination potential could be discriminated from the dead and the viable but non-germinating population. The presented data demonstrate that IFC is an efficient, label-free, reliable and non-destructive technique to analyse pollen quality in a species-independent manner.

  1. Applications of flow cytometry in environmental microbiology and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergquist, Peter L; Hardiman, Elizabeth M; Ferrari, Belinda C; Winsley, Tristrom

    2009-05-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is a technique for counting, examining and sorting microscopic particles suspended in a stream of fluid. It uses the principles of light scattering, light excitation and the emission from fluorescent molecules to generate specific multiparameter data from particles and cells. The cells are hydrodynamically focussed in a sheath solution before being intercepted by a focused light source provided by a laser. FCM has been used primarily in medical applications but is being used increasingly for the examination of individual cells from environmental samples. It has found uses in the isolation of both culturable and hitherto non-culturable bacteria present infrequently in environmental samples using appropriate growth conditions. FCM lends itself to high-throughput applications in directed evolution for the analysis of single cells or cell populations carrying mutant genes. It is also suitable for encapsulation studies where individual bacteria are compartmentalised with substrate in water-in-oil-in-water emulsions or with individual genes in transcriptional/translational mixtures for the production of mutant enzymes. The sensitivity of the technique has allowed the examination of gene optimisation by a procedure known as random or neutral drift where screening and selection is based on the retention of some predetermined level of activity through multiple rounds of mutagenesis.

  2. Click Chemistry for Analysis of Cell Proliferation in Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Scott T; Calderon, Veronica; Bradford, Jolene A

    2017-10-02

    The measurement of cellular proliferation is fundamental to the assessment of cellular health, genotoxicity, and the evaluation of drug efficacy. Labeling, detection, and quantification of cells in the synthesis phase of cell cycle progression are not only important for characterizing basic biology, but also in defining cellular responses to drug treatments. Changes in DNA replication during S-phase can provide valuable insights into mechanisms of cell growth, cell cycle kinetics, and cytotoxicity. A common method for detection of cell proliferation is the incorporation of a thymidine analog during DNA synthesis. This chapter presents a pulse labeling method using the thymidine analog, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU), with subsequent detection by click chemistry. EdU detection using click chemistry is bio-orthogonal to most living systems and does not non-specifically label other biomolecules. Live cells are first pulsed with EdU. After antibody labeling cell surface markers, fixation, and permeabilization, the incorporated EdU is covalently labeled using click chemistry thereby identifying proliferating cells. Improvements in click chemistry allow for labeling in the presence of fluorescent proteins and phycobiliproteins without quenching due to copper. Measuring DNA replication during cell cycle progression has cell health applications in flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, and high content imaging. This protocol has been developed and optimized for research use only and is not suitable for use in diagnostic procedures. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. DIAGNOSTIC UTILITY OF FLOW CYTOMETRY IN MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Della Porta

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The pathological hallmark of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS is marrow dysplasia, which representsthe basis of the WHO classification of these disorders. This classification provides clinicians with a useful tool for defining the different subtypes of MDS and individual prognosis. The WHO proposal has raised some concern regarding minimal diagnostic criteria particularly in patients with normal karyotype without robust morphological markers of dysplasia (such as ring sideroblasts or excess of blasts. Therefore, there is clearly a need to refine the accuracy to detect marrow dysplasia. Flow cytometry (FCM immunophenotyping has been proposed as a tool to improve the evaluation of marrow dysplasia. Rationale for the application of FCM in the diagnostic work up of MDS is that immunophenotyping is an accurate method for quantitative and qualitative evaluation of hematopoietic cells and that MDS have been found to have abnormal expression of several cellular antigens. To become clinically applicable, FCM analysis should be based on parameters with sufficient specificity and sensitivity, data should be reproducible between different operators and the results should be easily understood by clinicians. In this review, we discuss the most relevant progresses in detection of marrow dysplasia by FCM in MDS

  4. Impact of cryopreservation on tetramer, cytokine flow cytometry, and ELISPOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morse Michael A

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryopreservation of PBMC and/or overnight shipping of samples are required for many clinical trials, despite their potentially adverse effects upon immune monitoring assays such as MHC-peptide tetramer staining, cytokine flow cytometry (CFC, and ELISPOT. In this study, we compared the performance of these assays on leukapheresed PBMC shipped overnight in medium versus cryopreserved PBMC from matched donors. Results Using CMV pp65 peptide pool stimulation or pp65 HLA-A2 tetramer staining, there was significant correlation between shipped and cryopreserved samples for each assay (p ≤ 0.001. The differences in response magnitude between cryopreserved and shipped PBMC specimens were not significant for most antigens and assays. There was significant correlation between CFC and ELISPOT assay using pp65 peptide pool stimulation, in both shipped and cryopreserved samples (p ≤ 0.001. Strong correlation was observed between CFC (using HLA-A2-restricted pp65 peptide stimulation and tetramer staining (p Conclusion We conclude that all three assays show concordant results on shipped versus cryopreserved specimens, when using a peptide-based readout. The assays are also concordant with each other in pair wise comparisons using equivalent antigen systems.

  5. Identifying Cell Populations in Flow Cytometry Data Using Phenotypic Signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouyan, Maziyar Baran; Nourani, Mehrdad

    2017-01-01

    Single-cell flow cytometry is a technology that measures the expression of several cellular markers simultaneously for a large number of cells. Identification of homogeneous cell populations, currently done by manual biaxial gating, is highly subjective and time consuming. To overcome the shortcomings of manual gating, automatic algorithms have been proposed. However, the performance of these methods highly depends on the shape of populations and the dimension of the data. In this paper, we have developed a time-efficient method that accurately identifies cellular populations. This is done based on a novel technique that estimates the initial number of clusters in high dimension and identifies the final clusters by merging clusters using their phenotypic signatures in low dimension. The proposed method is called SigClust. We have applied SigClust to four public datasets and compared it with five well known methods in the field. The results are promising and indicate higher performance and accuracy compared to similar approaches reported in literature.

  6. Laser flow cytometry as a tool for the advancement of clinical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebisher, David; Bartusik, Dorota; Tabarkiewicz, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Flow cytometry is a classic laser technology. With the discovery of the cytometer, flow cytometry has become a primary tool in biodiagnostic research. This review focuses on current applications of flow cytometry to the diagnosis of disease and treatment monitoring at the single-cell level. A description of the principles of flow cytometry and a brief overview of the major applications are presented. Our criteria for selecting research papers for this review are those that show advances in biomedicine and pharmacotherapy achieved by using non-invasive flow cytometry. New concepts for diagnosis and classification based on quantitative measurements of cellular parameters and the expression of specific differentiation antigens on the surface of cells will be discussed herein. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Nuclear Cytometry: Analysis of the Patterns of DNA Synthesis and Transcription Using Flow Cytometry, Confocal Microscopy, and RNA Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, David W; Sliwinska, Elwira; Samadder, Partha

    2018-01-01

    Eukaryotes are defined by cells that contain a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. Cytometric analysis in situ, utilizing imaging, provides a useful understanding of the structure and function of the various subcellular components, particularly when combined with methods that preserve the living state. In terms of information provided by the observation of eukaryotic nuclei, imaging has provided a wealth of information about cellular multiplication. When organisms are present in multicellular form (tissues and organs), this property does not generally confound imaging cytometry. Multicellular eukaryotic species present immediate problems when being considered for analysis using flow cytometry which requires suspensions of single particles. Although some eukaryotic cell types exist as natural single cell suspensions (cf. the erythropoietic system), for other tissues and organs, strategies are required to produce single particle suspensions. This chapter illustrates the application of flow cytometry combined with confocal microscopy to analyze complex organs, focusing on properties of the plant nucleus, and then goes on to describe how suspensions of nuclei can be prepared from tissues and organs, and used for flow cytometric analysis of cellular and transcriptional states. The application of these techniques to animal species is also discussed with the implication that this strategy is universally applicable for the characterization of nuclei within tissues that cannot readily be converted into suspensions of cells.

  8. Understanding microbial/DOM interactions using fluorescence and flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Bethany; Rushworth, Cathy; Attridge, John; Anesio, Alexandre; Cox, Tim; Reynolds, Darren

    2015-04-01

    The transformation and movement of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) within freshwater aquatic systems is an important factor in the global cycling of carbon. DOC within aquatic systems is known to underpin the microbial food web and therefore plays an essential role in supporting and maintaining the aquatic ecosystem. Despite this the interactions between bacteria and dissolved organic matter (DOM) are not well understood, although the literature indicates that the microbial processing of bioavailable DOM is essential during the production of autochthonous, labile, DOM. DOM can be broadly characterised by its fluorescing properties and Coble et al. (2014) define terrestrially derived DOM as exhibiting "peak C" fluorescence, whilst labile microbially derived DOM is defined as showing "peak T" fluorescence. Our work explores the microbial/DOM interactions by analysing aquatic samples using fluorescence excitation and emission matrices (EEMs) in conjunction with microbial consumption of dissolved oxygen. Environmental and synthetic water samples were subjected to fluorescence characterisation using both fluorescence spectroscopy and in situ fluorescence sensors (Chelsea Technologies Group Ltd.). PARAFAC analysis and peak picking were performed on EEMs and compared with flow cytometry data, used to quantify bacterial numbers present within samples. Synthetic samples were created using glucose, glutamic acid, nutrient-rich water and a standard bacterial seed. Synthetic samples were provided with terrestrially derived DOM via the addition of an aliquot of environmental water. Using a closed system approach, samples were incubated over time (up to a maximum of 20 days) and analysed at pre-defined intervals. The main focus of our work is to improve our understanding of microbial/DOM interactions and how these interactions affect both the DOM characteristics and microbial food web in freshwater aquatic systems. The information gained, in relation to the origin, microbial

  9. Flow Cytometry of the Side Population: Tips & Tricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Sales-Pardo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Side Population (SP has become an important hallmark for the definition of the stem cell compartment, especially in the detection of these cells and in their physical isolation by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. SP cells are CD34neg and were discovered using ultraviolet excitation based on the efflux of Hoechst 33342 (Ho342. Although the method works as originally described, we believe that this method is difficult for most investigators. First, because the ability to discriminate SP cells is based on the differential retention of Ho342 during a functional assay; second, because of the difficulties in setting the right experimental and acquisition conditions; and third, because the analysis of the acquired data requires an extensive expertise on flow cytometry to accurately detect the SP events. Methods: First of all and mainly for the SP application, the laser beam paths were exhaustively checked to ensure the lowest coefficients of variation. Blood suspensions were prepared by erythrocyte lysis with ammonium chloride and hematopoietic cells were labeled with Ho342. Results: The Ho342 concentration and the staining procedure are critical for the optimal resolution of the SP cells. Although UV laser alignment is very important to resolve the dim tail that outlines the SP, the problem with Ho342 excitation is not the Hoechst Blue emission, but rather the Hoechst Red's (because of the weak emission. Conclusions: Each laboratory must establish its own expected ranges based on its instrument and results may vary slightly due to instrument differences such as the narrowness of the band pass filters, laser power, laser emission wavelength, nozzle type, differential of pressure, light collection system (cuvette versus jet-in-air and beam shaping optics.

  10. Applications of imaging flow cytometry in the diagnostic assessment of acute leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimwade, Lizz F; Fuller, Kathryn A; Erber, Wendy N

    2017-01-01

    Automated imaging flow cytometry integrates flow cytometry with digital microscopy to produce high-resolution digital imaging with quantitative analysis. This enables cell identification based on morphology (cell size, shape), antigen expression, quantification of fluorescence signal intensity and localisation of detected signals (i.e. surface, cytoplasm, nuclear). We describe applications of imaging flow cytometry for the diagnostic assessment of acute leukaemia. These bone marrow malignancies are traditionally diagnosed and classified by cell morphology, phenotype and cytogenetic abnormalities. Traditionally morphology is assessed by light microscopy, phenotyping by conventional flow cytometry and genetics by karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) on interphase nuclei/metaphase spreads of cells on slides. Imaging flow cytometry adds a new dimension to the diagnostic assessment of these neoplasms. We describe three specific applications: From this we conclude that imaging flow cytometry offers benefits over conventional diagnostic methods. Specifically the ability to visualise the cells of interest, the pattern and localisation of expressed antigens and assess cytogenetic abnormalities in one integrated automated high-throughput test. Imaging flow cytometry presents a new paradigm for the diagnostic assessment of leukaemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Utility of Flow Cytometry in Diagnosing Hematologic Malignancy in Tonsillar Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisagbonhi, Omonigho; DeLelys, Michelle; Hartford, Nicole; Preffer, Frederic; Ly, Amy

    2017-08-01

    Tonsil surgical biopsy or excision is a very common procedure. However, there exist no consensus guidelines for the pathologic handling of tonsil specimens; gross and/or microscopic evaluation may be used. Diagnosis of tonsillar hematologic malignancy requires histology, immunohistochemistry and/or flow cytometry. Data regarding the utility of flow cytometry in tonsillar tissues are limited. We assessed our experience with flow cytometry for tonsil diagnosis with regard to accuracy and use patterns at a tertiary academic medical center. We retrospectively analyzed all surgically biopsied or excised tonsil specimens that underwent flow cytometry evaluation from August 2011 to March 2014. Patient clinical information, intraoperative frozen section, histology, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry diagnoses were recorded. The study included 154 tonsil specimens from 89 females and 65 males. Patients averaged 27.4 years old (range 2-87 years); 73 were pediatric. Both histology and flow cytometry were benign for 148 patients (96.1%). Hematolymphoid malignancy was diagnosed in 6 adults by histology/immunohistochemistry: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (2), small B-cell lymphoma (2), concomitant follicular lymphoma and histiocytic sarcoma (1), and extraosseous plasmacytoma (1). Flow cytometry identified abnormal populations in 5 of 6 cases, and detected clonal populations in 2 reactive follicular hyperplasia cases. Tonsillar hematolymphoid malignancy is uncommon, and flow cytometry was less accurate than histology/immunohistochemistry for its diagnosis. Despite the rarity of tonsillar lymphoma in children, nearly half of study patients were pediatric. Intraoperative frozen section diagnosis showed excellent sensitivity for malignancy, and could be used to effectively triage cases for flow cytometry evaluation.

  12. Analysis of Cell Suspensions Isolated from Solid Tissues by Spectral Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, Sandrine; Valente, Mariana; Cumano, Ana; Novault, Sophie

    2017-05-05

    Flow cytometry has been used for the past 40 years to define and analyze the phenotype of lymphoid and other hematopoietic cells. Initially restricted to the analysis of a few fluorochromes, currently there are dozens of different fluorescent dyes, and up to 14-18 different dyes can be combined at a time. However, several limitations still impair the analytical capabilities. Because of the multiplicity of fluorescent probes, data analysis has become increasingly complex due to the need of large, multi-parametric compensation matrices. Moreover, mutant mouse models carrying fluorescent proteins to detect and trace specific cell types in different tissues have become available, so the analysis (by flow cytometry) of auto-fluorescent cell suspensions obtained from solid organs is required. Spectral flow cytometry, which distinguishes the shapes of emission spectra along a wide range of continuous wavelengths, addresses some of these problems. The data is analyzed with an algorithm that replaces compensation matrices and treats auto-fluorescence as an independent parameter. Thus, spectral flow cytometry should be capable of discriminating fluorochromes with similar emission peaks and can provide a multi-parametric analysis without compensation requirements. This protocol describes the spectral flow cytometry analysis, allowing for a 21-parameter (19 fluorescent probes) characterization and the management of an auto-fluorescent signal, providing high resolution in minor population detection. The results presented here show that spectral flow cytometry presents advantages in the analysis of cell populations from tissues difficult to characterize in conventional flow cytometry, such as the heart and the intestine. Spectral flow cytometry thus demonstrates the multi-parametric analytical capacity of high-performing conventional flow cytometry without the requirement for compensation and enables auto-fluorescence management.

  13. Preparing a Minimum Information about a Flow Cytometry Experiment (MIFlowCyt) compliant manuscript using the International Society for Advancement of Cytometry (ISAC) FCS file repository (FlowRepository.org).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spidlen, Josef; Breuer, Karin; Brinkman, Ryan

    2012-07-01

    FlowRepository.org is a Web-based flow cytometry data repository provided by the International Society for Advancement of Cytometry (ISAC). It supports storage, annotation, analysis, and sharing of flow cytometry datasets. A fundamental tenet of scientific research is that published results should be open to independent validation and refutation. With FlowRepository, researchers can annotate their datasets in compliance with the Minimum Information about a Flow Cytometry Experiment (MIFlowCyt) standard, thus greatly facilitating third-party interpretation of their data. In this unit, we will mainly focus on the deposition, sharing, and annotation of flow cytometry data.

  14. NetFCM: A Semi-Automated Web-Based Method for Flow Cytometry Data Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Juliet Wairimu; Buggert, Marcus; Karlsson, Annika C.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-parametric flow cytometry (FCM) represents an invaluable instrument to conduct single cell analysis and has significantly increased our understanding of the immune system. However, due to new techniques allowing us to measure an increased number of phenotypes within the immune system, FCM...... for Advancement of Cytometry...

  15. Development of an Immunomagnetic Separation Method for Viable Salmonella Typhimurium Detected by Flow Cytometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Shakil; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Erdmann, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    for detection of food-related bacteria. In this study, a flow cytometry based immunomagnetic separation (IMS) method for the isolation and enrichment of Salmonella Typhimurium from liquid samples was developed and optimized. Both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies have been used to couple with 1 micron sized...... paramagnetic particles for the preparation of immunomagnetic beads (IMBs). The most suitable antibody was chosen by applying an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), whereas living bacteria were detected by flow cytometry. The parameters for both IMS and flow cytometry e.g., concentration of bead...

  16. 78 FR 5186 - Clinical Flow Cytometry in Hematologic Malignancies; Public Workshop; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... issuance of the guidance, many uncleared, multi-analyte panels were withdrawn from distribution in order to comply with the interpretation of the ``ASR rule.'' Clinical flow cytometry plays a major role world-wide...

  17. Standardization of microparticle enumeration across different flow cytometry platforms : results of a multicenter collaborative workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cointe, S; Judicone, C; Robert, S; Mooberry, M J; Poncelet, P; Wauben, M; Nieuwland, R; Key, N S; Dignat-George, F; Lacroix, R

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microparticles are extracellular vesicles resulting from the budding of cellular membranes that have a high potential as emergent biomarkers; however, their clinical relevance is hampered by methodological enumeration concerns and a lack of standardization. Flow cytometry (FCM) remains

  18. Antimicrobial Activity of Rhoeo discolor Phenolic Rich Extracts Determined by Flow Cytometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    García-Varela, Rebeca; García-García, Rebeca M; Barba-Dávila, Bertha A; Fajardo-Ramírez, Oscar R; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O; Cardineau, Guy A

    2015-01-01

    .... We evaluated the in vitro activity of phenolic rich extracts against specifically chosen microorganisms of human health importance by measuring their susceptibility via agar-disc diffusion assay and flow cytometry...

  19. [Which technique should be used in the phenotyping of lymphocytic alveolitis: Immunocytochemistry or flow cytometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlika, Mona; Kasmi, Rihem; Safra, Ines; Braham, Emna; Chebbi, Chokri; Mezni, Faouzi El

    2017-10-01

    Diffuse interstitial pneumonias are considered as a group of multiple affections characterized by challenging diagnoses because of the lack of specific clinical signs. Radiologic investigations highlight the diagnoses in most of the cases but bronchoalveolar lavage plays a key role in the diagnostic diagram. We aim to compare the immunocytochemical technique and the flow cytometry in the phenotyping of lymphocytic alveolitis. We described a series of 32 lymphocytic alveolitis, which were analyzed using immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry. We found a good reproducibility between the immunocytochemistry performed on smears and cytoblocks (kappa=0.7) and a poor reproducibility between immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry (kappa=0.35). Our study emphasized on the poor reproducibility between immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry. Further studies about the reliability of both techniques are needed especially in discordant cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Detection and Characterization of Rare Circulating Endothelial Cells by Imaging Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsel, Leigh; McCoy, J Philip

    2016-01-01

    Circulating endothelial cells (CECs) are angiogenic cells that appear in increased numbers in the peripheral circulation either as a result of vascular injury or in response to angiogenic stimuli. Elevated levels of CECs have been correlated with various disease states, indicating the use of CECs as a biomarker of disease. Flow cytometry is a widely accepted method for detecting and quantitating CECs. Flow cytometry provides statistical information on large numbers of cells but no information on morphological characteristics. Imaging flow cytometry combines traditional flow cytometry and microscopy, providing a streamlined, multiparameter approach to characterize the biological properties and morphology of large numbers of cells, and is particularly amenable for rare event analysis such as CECs. This approach for identifying and characterizing CECs allows the morphological characterization of large numbers of live, nucleated, single CECs, and alleviates the need for prior enrichment.

  1. Implementation of erythroid lineage analysis by flow cytometry in diagnostic models for myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, Eline M P; Westers, Theresia M; Alhan, Canan; Cali, Claudia; Visser-Wisselaar, Heleen A; Chitu, Dana A; van der Velden, Vincent H J; Te Marvelde, Jeroen G; Klein, Saskia K; Muus, Petra; Vellenga, Edo; de Greef, Georgina E; Legdeur, Marie-Cecile C J C; Wijermans, Pierre W; Stevens-Kroef, Marian J P L; Silva-Coelho, Pedro da; Jansen, Joop H; Ossenkoppele, Gert J; van de Loosdrecht, Arjan A

    2017-02-01

    Flow cytometric analysis is a recommended tool in the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes. Current flow cytometric approaches evaluate the (im)mature myelo-/monocytic lineage with a median sensitivity and specificity of ~71% and ~93%, respectively. We hypothesized that the addition of erythroid lineage analysis could increase the sensitivity of flow cytometry. Hereto, we validated the analysis of erythroid lineage parameters recommended by the International/European LeukemiaNet Working Group for Flow Cytometry in Myelodysplastic Syndromes, and incorporated this evaluation in currently applied flow cytometric models. One hundred and sixty-seven bone marrow aspirates were analyzed; 106 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes, and 61 cytopenic controls. There was a strong correlation between presence of erythroid aberrancies assessed by flow cytometry and the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes when validating the previously described erythroid evaluation. Furthermore, addition of erythroid aberrancies to two different flow cytometric models led to an increased sensitivity in detecting myelodysplastic syndromes: from 74% to 86% for the addition to the diagnostic score designed by Ogata and colleagues, and from 69% to 80% for the addition to the integrated flow cytometric score for myelodysplastic syndromes, designed by our group. In both models the specificity was unaffected. The high sensitivity and specificity of flow cytometry in the detection of myelodysplastic syndromes illustrates the important value of flow cytometry in a standardized diagnostic approach. The trial is registered at www.trialregister.nl as NTR1825; EudraCT n.: 2008-002195-10. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  2. Comparative exploration of multidimensional flow cytometry software: a model approach evaluating T cell polyfunctional behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Timothy T; Nishimura, Michael I; Simms, Patricia E

    2017-08-01

    Advancement in flow cytometry reagents and instrumentation has allowed for simultaneous analysis of large numbers of lineage/functional immune cell markers. Highly complex datasets generated by polychromatic flow cytometry require proper analytical software to answer investigators' questions. A problem among many investigators and flow cytometry Shared Resource Laboratories (SRLs), including our own, is a lack of access to a flow cytometry-knowledgeable bioinformatics team, making it difficult to learn and choose appropriate analysis tool(s). Here, we comparatively assess various multidimensional flow cytometry software packages for their ability to answer a specific biologic question and provide graphical representation output suitable for publication, as well as their ease of use and cost. We assessed polyfunctional potential of TCR-transduced T cells, serving as a model evaluation, using multidimensional flow cytometry to analyze 6 intracellular cytokines and degranulation on a per-cell basis. Analysis of 7 parameters resulted in 128 possible combinations of positivity/negativity, far too complex for basic flow cytometry software to analyze fully. Various software packages were used, analysis methods used in each described, and representative output displayed. Of the tools investigated, automated classification of cellular expression by nonlinear stochastic embedding (ACCENSE) and coupled analysis in Pestle/simplified presentation of incredibly complex evaluations (SPICE) provided the most user-friendly manipulations and readable output, evaluating effects of altered antigen-specific stimulation on T cell polyfunctionality. This detailed approach may serve as a model for other investigators/SRLs in selecting the most appropriate software to analyze complex flow cytometry datasets. Further development and awareness of available tools will help guide proper data analysis to answer difficult biologic questions arising from incredibly complex datasets. © Society

  3. Simplified protocol for flow cytometry analysis of fluorescently labeled exosomes and microvesicles using dedicated flow cytometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospichalova, Vendula; Svoboda, Jan; Dave, Zankruti; Kotrbova, Anna; Kaiser, Karol; Klemova, Dobromila; Ilkovics, Ladislav; Hampl, Ales; Crha, Igor; Jandakova, Eva; Minar, Lubos; Weinberger, Vit; Bryja, Vitezslav

    2015-01-01

    Flow cytometry is a powerful method, which is widely used for high-throughput quantitative and qualitative analysis of cells. However, its straightforward applicability for extracellular vesicles (EVs) and mainly exosomes is hampered by several challenges, reflecting mostly the small size of these vesicles (exosomes: ~80–200 nm, microvesicles: ~200–1,000 nm), their polydispersity, and low refractive index. The current best and most widely used protocol for beads-free flow cytometry of exosomes uses ultracentrifugation (UC) coupled with floatation in sucrose gradient for their isolation, labeling with lipophilic dye PKH67 and antibodies, and an optimized version of commercial high-end cytometer for analysis. However, this approach requires an experienced flow cytometer operator capable of manual hardware adjustments and calibration of the cytometer. Here, we provide a novel and fast approach for quantification and characterization of both exosomes and microvesicles isolated from cell culture media as well as from more complex human samples (ascites of ovarian cancer patients) suitable for multiuser labs by using a flow cytometer especially designed for small particles, which can be used without adjustments prior to data acquisition. EVs can be fluorescently labeled with protein-(Carboxyfluoresceinsuccinimidyl ester, CFSE) and/or lipid- (FM) specific dyes, without the necessity of removing the unbound fluorescent dye by UC, which further facilitates and speeds up the characterization of microvesicles and exosomes using flow cytometry. In addition, double labeling with protein- and lipid-specific dyes enables separation of EVs from common contaminants of EV preparations, such as protein aggregates or micelles formed by unbound lipophilic styryl dyes, thus not leading to overestimation of EV numbers. Moreover, our protocol is compatible with antibody labeling using fluorescently conjugated primary antibodies. The presented methodology opens the possibility for

  4. Rapid quantification of rice root-associated bacteria by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdameri, G; Kokot, T B; Pedrosa, F de O; de Souza, E M

    2015-03-01

    To understand the mechanism of plant-bacterium interaction, it is critical to enumerate epiphytic bacteria colonizing the roots of the host. We developed a new approach, based on flow cytometry, for enumerating these bacteria and used it with rice plants, 7 and 20 days after colonization with Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans and Azospirillum brasilense. The results were compared with those obtained with the traditional plate count method. Both methods gave similar numbers of H. rubrisubalbicans associated with rice roots (c. 10(9) CFU g(-1) ). However, flow cytometry gave a number of viable cells of rice-associated A. brasilense that was approx. 10-fold greater than that obtained with the plate count method. These results suggest that the plate count method can underestimate epiphytic populations. Flow cytometry has the additional advantage that it is more precise and much faster than the plate count method. Determination of precise number of root-associated bacteria is critical for plant-bacteria interaction studies. We developed a flow cytometry approach for counting bacteria and compared it with the plate count method. Our flow cytometry assay solves two major limitations of the plate count method, namely that requires long incubation times of up to 48 h and only determines culturable cells. This flow cytometry assay provides an efficient, precise and fast tool for enumerating epiphytic cells. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Imaging flow cytometry for the study of erythroid cell biology and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsel, Leigh; McCoy, J Philip

    2015-08-01

    Erythroid cell maturation and diseases affecting erythrocytes are frequently accompanied by morphologic and immunophenotypic changes to these cells. In the past, these changes have been assessed primarily through the use of manual microscopy, which substantially limits the statistical rigor, throughput, and objectivity of these studies. Imaging flow cytometry provides a technology to examine both the morphology of cells as well as to quantify the staining intensity and signal distribution of numerous fluorescent markers on a cell-by-cell basis with high throughput in a statistically robust manner, and thus is ideally suited to studying erythroid cell biology. To date imaging flow cytometry has been used to study erythrocytes in three areas: 1) erythroid cell maturation, 2) sickle cell disease, and 3) infectious diseases such as malaria. In the maturation studies, imaging flow cytometry can closely recapitulate known stages of maturation and has led to the identification of a new population of erythroid cell precursors. In sickle cell disease, imaging flow cytometry provides a robust method to quantify sickled erythrocytes and to identify cellular aggregates linked to morbidities, and in malaria, imaging flow cytometry has been used to screen for new chemotherapeutic agents. These studies have demonstrated the value of imaging flow cytometry for investigations of erythrocyte biology and pathology. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Flow cytometry susceptibility testing for conventional antifungal drugs and Comparison with the NCCLS Broth Macrodilution Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Najafzadeh

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During the last decade, the incidence of fungal infection has been increased in many countries. Because of the advent of resistant to antifungal agents, determination of an efficient strategic plan for treatment of fungal disease is an important issue in clinical mycology. Many methods have been introduced and developed for determination of invitro susceptibility tests. During the recent years, flow cytometry has developed to solving the problem and many papers have documented the usefulness of this technique. Materials and methods: As the first step, the invitro susceptibility of standard PTCC (Persian Type of Culture Collection strain and some clinical isolates of Candida consisting of Candida albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. kefyer and C. parapsilosis were evaluated by macrodilution broth method according to NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines and flow cytometry susceptibility test. Results:  The data indicated that macro dilution broth methods and flow cytometry have the same results in determination of MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration for amphotericin B, clotrimazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole and miconazole in C. albicans PTCC 5027 as well as clinical Candida isolates, such as C.albicans, C.dubliniensis, C.glabrata C.kefyr, and C.parapsilosis. Discussion: Comparing the results obtained by macrodilution broth and flow cytometry methods revealed that flow cytometry was faster. It is suggested that flow cytometry susceptibility test can be used as a powerful tool for determination of MIC and administration of the best antifungal drug in treatment of patients with Candida infections.

  7. First proposed panels on acute leukemia for four-color immunophenotyping by flow cytometry from the Brazilian group of flow cytometry-GBCFLUX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikoma, Maura R V; Sandes, Alex F; Thiago, Leandro S; Cavalcanti Júnior, Geraldo B; Lorand-Metze, Irene G H; Costa, Elaine S; Pimenta, Glicinia; Santos-Silva, Maria C; Bacal, Nydia S; Yamamoto, Mihoko; Souto, Elizabeth X

    2015-01-01

    Multiparameter flow cytometry is a highly sensitive, fast, and specific diagnostic technology with a wide range of applicability in hematology. Although well-established eight-color immunophenotyping panels are already available, most Brazilian clinical laboratories are equipped with four-color flow cytometer facilities. Based on this fact, the Brazilian Group of Flow Cytometry (Grupo Brasileiro de Citometria de Fluxo, GBCFLUX) for standardization of clinical flow cytometry has proposed an antibody panel designed to allow precise diagnosis and characterization of acute leukemia (AL) within resource-restricted areas. Morphological analysis of bone marrow smears, together with the screening panel, is mandatory for the primary identification of AL. The disease-oriented panels proposed here are divided into three levels of recommendations (mandatory, recommendable, and optional) in order to provide an accurate final diagnosis, as well as allow some degree of flexibility based on available local resources and patient-specific needs. The proposed panels will be subsequently validated in an interlaboratory study to evaluate its effectiveness on the diagnosis and classification of AL. (Assoc editor comm. 2). © 2015 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  8. Confocal Microscopy and Flow Cytometry System Performance: Assessment of QA Parameters that affect data Quanitification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flow and image cytometers can provide useful quantitative fluorescence data. We have devised QA tests to be used on both a flow cytometer and a confocal microscope to assure that the data is accurate, reproducible and precise. Flow Cytometry: We have provided two simple perform...

  9. Diagnosis of chronic lymphoproliferative disorders by flow cytometry using four-color combinations for immunophenotyping: A proposal of the brazilian group of flow cytometry (GBCFLUX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, M M; Ferreira, S I A C P; Ikoma, M R V; Sandes, A F; Beltrame, M P; Bacal, N S; Silva, M C A; Malvezzi, M; Lorand-Metze, I G H; Orfao, A; Yamamoto, M

    2017-09-01

    Multiparametric flow cytometry (MFC) is a powerful tool for the diagnosis of hematological malignancies and has been useful for the classification of chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (CLPD) according to the WHO criteria. Following the purposes of the Brazilian Group of Flow Cytometry (GBCFLUX), the aim of this report was to standardize the minimum requirements to achieve an accurate diagnosis in CLPDs, considering the different economic possibilities of the laboratories in our country. Most laboratories in Brazil work with 4-fluorescence flow cytometers, which is why the GBCFLUX CLPD Committee has proposed 4-color monoclonal antibody (MoAb) panels. Panels for screening and diagnosis in B, T and NK lymphoproliferative disorders were developed based on the normal differentiation pathways of these cells and the most frequent phenotypic aberrations. Important markers for prognosis and for minimal residual disease (MRD) evaluation were also included. The MoAb panels presented here were designed based on the diagnostic expertise of the participating laboratories and an extensive literature review. The 4-color panels presented to aid in the diagnosis of lymphoproliferative neoplasms by GBCFLUX aim to provide clinical laboratories with a systematic, step-wise, cost-effective, and reproducible approach to obtain an accurate immunophenotypic diagnosis of the most frequent of these disorders. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  10. FuGEFlow: data model and markup language for flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manion Frank J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flow cytometry technology is widely used in both health care and research. The rapid expansion of flow cytometry applications has outpaced the development of data storage and analysis tools. Collaborative efforts being taken to eliminate this gap include building common vocabularies and ontologies, designing generic data models, and defining data exchange formats. The Minimum Information about a Flow Cytometry Experiment (MIFlowCyt standard was recently adopted by the International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. This standard guides researchers on the information that should be included in peer reviewed publications, but it is insufficient for data exchange and integration between computational systems. The Functional Genomics Experiment (FuGE formalizes common aspects of comprehensive and high throughput experiments across different biological technologies. We have extended FuGE object model to accommodate flow cytometry data and metadata. Methods We used the MagicDraw modelling tool to design a UML model (Flow-OM according to the FuGE extension guidelines and the AndroMDA toolkit to transform the model to a markup language (Flow-ML. We mapped each MIFlowCyt term to either an existing FuGE class or to a new FuGEFlow class. The development environment was validated by comparing the official FuGE XSD to the schema we generated from the FuGE object model using our configuration. After the Flow-OM model was completed, the final version of the Flow-ML was generated and validated against an example MIFlowCyt compliant experiment description. Results The extension of FuGE for flow cytometry has resulted in a generic FuGE-compliant data model (FuGEFlow, which accommodates and links together all information required by MIFlowCyt. The FuGEFlow model can be used to build software and databases using FuGE software toolkits to facilitate automated exchange and manipulation of potentially large flow cytometry experimental data sets

  11. Use of flow cytometry for high-throughput cell population estimates in brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nicole A.; Flaherty, David K.; Airey, David C.; Varlan, Peter; Aworunse, Feyi; Kaas, Jon H.; Collins, Christine E.

    2012-01-01

    The large size of primate brains is an impediment to obtaining high-resolution cell number maps of the cortex in humans and non-human primates. We present a rapid, flow cytometry-based cell counting method that can be used to estimate cell numbers from homogenized brain tissue samples comprising the entire cortical sheet. The new method, called the flow fractionator, is based on the isotropic fractionator (IF) method (Herculano-Houzel and Lent, 2005), but substitutes flow cytometry analysis for manual, microscope analysis using a Neubauer counting chamber. We show that our flow cytometry-based method for total cell estimation in homogenized brain tissue provides comparable data to that obtained using a counting chamber on a microscope. The advantages of the flow fractionator over existing methods are improved precision of cell number estimates and improved speed of analysis. PMID:22798947

  12. Measuring sickle cell morphology in flow using spectrally encoded flow cytometry (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kviatkovsky, Inna; Zeidan, Adel; Yeheskely-Hayon, Daniella; Dann, Eldad J.; Yelin, Dvir

    2017-02-01

    During a sickle cell crisis in sickle cell anemia patients, deoxygenated red blood cells may change their mechanical properties and block small blood vessels, causing pain, local tissue damage and even organ failure. Measuring these cellular structural and morphological changes is important for understanding the factors contributing to vessel blockage and developing an effective treatment. In this work, we use spectrally encoded flow cytometry for confocal, high-resolution imaging of flowing blood cells from sickle cell anemia patients. A wide variety of cell morphologies were observed by analyzing the interference patterns resulting from reflections from the front and back faces of the cells' membrane. Using numerical simulation for calculating the two-dimensional reflection pattern from the cells, we propose an analytical expression for the three-dimensional shape of a characteristic sickle cell and compare it to a previous from the literature. In vitro spectrally encoded flow cytometry offers new means for analyzing the morphology of sickle cells in stress-free environment, and could provide an effective tool for studying the unique physiological properties of these cells.

  13. Correlation between flow cytometry and histologic findings: ten year experience in the investigation of lymphoproliferative diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Bezerra, Alanna Mara Pinheiro Sobreira; Pasqualin, Denise da Cunha; Guerra, João Carlos de Campos; Colombini, Marjorie Paris; Velloso, Elvira Deolinda Rodrigues Pereira; Silveira, Paulo Augusto Achucarro; Mangueira, Cristovão Luis Pitangueira; Kanayama, Ruth Hissae; Nozawa, Sonia Tsukasa; Correia, Rodolfo; Apelle, Ana Carolina; Pereira, Welbert de Oliveira; Garcia, Rodrigo Gobbo; Bacal, Nydia Strachman

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the advantages of correlating flow cytometry immunophenotyping with the pathology/ immunohistochemistry of lymph nodes or nodules in the diagnosis of lymphoproliferative diseases. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out of 157 biopsy or fine-needle aspiration lymph nodes/ nodule specimens taken from 142 patients, from 1999 and 2009. The specimens were simultaneously studied with fow cytometry and pathology at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein. The specimens ...

  14. Multiparametric flow cytometry profiling of neoplastic plasma cells in multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Hans Erik; Bøgsted, Martin; Klausen, Tobias W

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: The clinical impact of multiparametric flow cytometry (MFC) in multiple myeloma (MM) is still unclear and under evaluation. Further progress relies on multiparametric profiling of the neoplastic plasma cell (PC) compartment to provide an accurate image of the stage......, prognostic, and predictive information useful in clinical practice, which will be prospectively validated within the European Myeloma Network (EMN). © 2010 International Clinical Cytometry Society....

  15. The Intersection of Flow Cytometry with Microfluidics and Microfabrication

    OpenAIRE

    Piyasena, Menake E.; Graves, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    A modern flow cytometer can analyze and sort particles on a one by one basis at rates of 50,000 particles per second. Flow cytometers can also measure as many as 17 channels of fluorescence, several angles of scattered light, and other non-optical parameters such as particle impedance. More specialized flow cytometers can provide even greater analysis power, such as single molecule detection, imaging, and full spectral collection, at reduced rates. These capabilities have made flow cytometers...

  16. [Clinical evaluation of leukocyte differential count in peripheral blood by five-color flow cytometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ying; Wang, Jian-zhong; Pu, Cheng-wei; Shang, Ke

    2013-08-13

    To explore the clinical application values of five-color flow cytometry for leukocyte differential count in peripheral blood. Leukocyte differentiation in 265 peripheral blood samples collected at Peking University First Hospital from September 2010 to December 2010 was detected by standard microscopic cytology as a reference method. Meanwhile, Beckman-Coulter LH750 hematology analyzer and FC500 flow cytometer were performed. Then the correlations were analyzed between microscopic cytology, hematology analyzer and flow cytometry. Forty blood samples collected at Peking University First Hospital, Beijing Daopei Hospital and General Hospital of Beijing Military Command from August 2010 to November 2010 were analyzed by standard microscopic cytology, Beckman-Coulter LH750 hematology analyzer and NAVIOS flow cytometer. Then the correlations between microscopy, hematology analyzer and flow cytometry were explored to analyze the clinical diagnostic efficiency of flow cytometry. Correlation of leukocyte differential count between FC500 flow cytometer and standard microscopic cytology was significant (all P leukocyte differential count between NAVIOS flow cytometer via manual gate and standard microscopic cytology was significant (r > 0.700, all P leukocyte differential count in peripheral blood with different flow cytometers, and the sensitivity of detecting blasts and immature granulocytes is very excellent.

  17. flowClust: a Bioconductor package for automated gating of flow cytometry data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Kenneth

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a high-throughput technology that offers rapid quantification of multidimensional characteristics for millions of cells, flow cytometry (FCM is widely used in health research, medical diagnosis and treatment, and vaccine development. Nevertheless, there is an increasing concern about the lack of appropriate software tools to provide an automated analysis platform to parallelize the high-throughput data-generation platform. Currently, to a large extent, FCM data analysis relies on the manual selection of sequential regions in 2-D graphical projections to extract the cell populations of interest. This is a time-consuming task that ignores the high-dimensionality of FCM data. Results In view of the aforementioned issues, we have developed an R package called flowClust to automate FCM analysis. flowClust implements a robust model-based clustering approach based on multivariate t mixture models with the Box-Cox transformation. The package provides the functionality to identify cell populations whilst simultaneously handling the commonly encountered issues of outlier identification and data transformation. It offers various tools to summarize and visualize a wealth of features of the clustering results. In addition, to ensure its convenience of use, flowClust has been adapted for the current FCM data format, and integrated with existing Bioconductor packages dedicated to FCM analysis. Conclusion flowClust addresses the issue of a dearth of software that helps automate FCM analysis with a sound theoretical foundation. It tends to give reproducible results, and helps reduce the significant subjectivity and human time cost encountered in FCM analysis. The package contributes to the cytometry community by offering an efficient, automated analysis platform which facilitates the active, ongoing technological advancement.

  18. A liposome-based size calibration method for measuring microvesicles by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, J B

    2016-01-01

    ESSENTIALS: A gold standard to determine the sizes of microvesicles by flow cytometry is needed. We used fluorescently labeled liposomes to estimate the size of microvesicles with flow cytometry. We suggest that liposomes are more accurate size calibrators than the commonly used polystyrene beads. The liposome-based size calibrators improve the size assessment of microvesicle made with flow cytometry. During the past years, the need for a gold standard to determine the sizes of extracellular vesicles including microvesicles by flow cytometry has been emphasized. This work suggests that artificial vesicles can be used as calibrators to estimate the size of microvesicles from the side scattering (SSC) measured with flow cytometry. We prepared fluorescently labeled liposomes with different maximum sizes defined by the pore size (200, 400, 800, and 1000 nm) of the membrane used for the extrusion. The fluorescence strengths from the largest liposomes pertaining to each pore size enabled us to verify the correlation between the SSC from a liposome and the corresponding size. This study indicates that artificial vesicles are more accurate size calibrators compared to the commonly used polystyrene calibrator beads illustrated by the SSC from 110 nm polystyrene beads corresponds to the scattering from ~400 nm vesicle-like particles. We also show that this method of size assessment based on SSC has a low resolution that is roughly estimated to be between 60 and 200 nm, dependent on the vesicle size. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  19. Visualization of pulmonary clearance mechanisms via noninvasive optical imaging validated by near-infrared flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haiying; Gunsten, Sean P; Zhegalova, Natalia G; Bloch, Sharon; Achilefu, Samuel; Christopher Holley, J; Schweppe, Daniel; Akers, Walter; Brody, Steven L; Eades, William C; Berezin, Mikhail Y

    2015-05-01

    In vivo optical imaging with near-infrared (NIR) probes is an established method of diagnostics in preclinical and clinical studies. However, the specificities of these probes are difficult to validate ex vivo due to the lack of NIR flow cytometry. To address this limitation, we modified a flow cytometer to include an additional NIR channel using a 752 nm laser line. The flow cytometry system was tested using NIR microspheres and cell lines labeled with a combination of visible range and NIR fluorescent dyes. The approach was verified in vivo in mice evaluated for immune response in lungs after intratracheal delivery of the NIR contrast agent. Flow cytometry of cells obtained from the lung bronchoalveolar lavage demonstrated that the NIR dye was taken up by pulmonary macrophages as early as 4-h post-injection. This combination of optical imaging with NIR flow cytometry extends the capability of imaging and enables complementation of in vivo imaging with cell-specific studies. © 2015 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  20. Use of flow cytometry for rapid and accurate enumeration of live pathogenic Leptospira strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Célia; Crussard, Steve; Simon-Dufay, Nathalie; Pialot, Daniel; Bomchil, Natalia; Reyes, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Enumeration of Leptospira, the causative agent of leptospirosis, is arduous mainly because of its slow growth rate. Rapid and reliable tools for numbering leptospires are still lacking. The current standard for Leptospira cultures is the count on Petroff-Hausser chamber under dark-field microscopy, but this method remains time-consuming, requires well-trained operators and lacks reproducibility. Here we present the development of a flow-cytometry technique for counting leptospires. We showed that upon addition of fluorescent dyes, necessary to discriminate the bacterial population from debris, several live Leptospira strains could be enumerated at different physiologic states. Flow cytometry titers were highly correlated to counts with Petroff-Hausser chambers (R(2)>0.99). Advantages of flow cytometry lie in its rapidity, its reproducibility significantly higher than Petroff-Hausser method and its wide linearity range, from 10(4) to 10(8)leptospires/ml. Therefore, flow cytometry is a fast, reproducible and sensitive tool representing a promising technology to replace current enumeration techniques of Leptospira in culture. We were also able to enumerate Leptospira in artificially infected urine and blood with a sensitivity limit of 10(5)leptospires/ml and 10(6)leptospires/ml, respectively, demonstrating the feasibility to use flow cytometry as first-line tool for diagnosis or bacterial dissemination studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Flow cytometry as an improved method for the titration of Chlamydiaceae and other intracellular bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käser, T; Pasternak, J A; Hamonic, G; Rieder, M; Lai, K; Delgado-Ortega, M; Gerdts, V; Meurens, F

    2016-05-01

    Chlamydiaceae is a family of intracellular bacteria causing a range of diverse pathological outcomes. The most devastating human diseases are ocular infections with C. trachomatis leading to blindness and genital infections causing pelvic inflammatory disease with long-term sequelae including infertility and chronic pelvic pain. In order to enable the comparison of experiments between laboratories investigating host-chlamydia interactions, the infectious titer has to be determined. Titer determination of chlamydia is most commonly performed via microscopy of host cells infected with a serial dilution of chlamydia. However, other methods including fluorescent ELISpot (Fluorospot) and DNA Chip Scanning Technology have also been proposed to enumerate chlamydia-infected cells. For viruses, flow cytometry has been suggested as a superior alternative to standard titration methods. In this study we compared the use of flow cytometry with microscopy and Fluorospot for the titration of C. suis as a representative of other intracellular bacteria. Titer determination via Fluorospot was unreliable, while titration via microscopy led to a linear read-out range of 16 - 64 dilutions and moderate reproducibility with acceptable standard deviations within and between investigators. In contrast, flow cytometry had a vast linear read-out range of 1,024 dilutions and the lowest standard deviations given a basic training in these methods. In addition, flow cytometry was faster and material costs were lower compared to microscopy. Flow cytometry offers a fast, cheap, precise, and reproducible alternative for the titration of intracellular bacteria like C. suis. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  2. Chromomycin A/sub 3/ as a fluorescent probe for flow cytometry of human gynecologic samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    Chemical, physical and optical properties of chromomycin A/sub 3/ are examined so as to ascertain appropriate staining and analysis procedures for flow cytometry of human gynecologic samples. Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of chromomycin A/sub 3/-stained cervical cells are compared with those of chromomycin a/sub 3/-stained deoxyribonucleic acid. Conditions for deoxyribonucleic acid-specific staining of cervical cells are presented, and staining specificity of cervical cells with chromomycin A/sub 3/ is compared to that obtained with ethidium bromide, propidium iodide and Hoechst 33258. Also presented is a brief review of two parameter flow cytometry as a prescreening procedure for detection of cervical neoplasia. Results of flow cytometry and cell sorting are interpreted based on the deoxyribonucliec acid-specificity of chromomycin A/sub 3/ staining.

  3. Chromomycin A/sub 3/ as a fluorescent probe for flow cytometry of human gynecologic samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenson, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    Chemical, physical and optical properties of chromomycin A/sub 3/ are examined so as to ascertain appropriate staining and analysis procedures for flow cytometry of human gynecologic samples. Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of chromomycin A/sub 3/-stained cervical cells are compared with those of chromomycin A/sub 3/-stained deoxyribonucleic acid. Conditions for deoxyribonucleic acid-specific staining of cervical cells are presented, and staining specificity of cervical cells with chromomycin A/sub 3/ is compared to that obtained with ethidium bromide, propidium iodide and Hoechst 33258. Also presented is a brief review of two parameter flow cytometry as a prescreening procedure for detection of cervical neoplasia. Results of flow cytometry and cell sorting are interpreted based on the deoxyribonucleic acid-specificity of chromomycin A/sub 3/ staining.

  4. An integrated, multiparametric flow cytometry chip using "microfluidic drifting" based three-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiaole; Nawaz, Ahmad Ahsan; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Lapsley, Michael Ian; Zhao, Yanhui; McCoy, J Philip; El-Deiry, Wafik S; Huang, Tony Jun

    2012-06-01

    In this work, we demonstrate an integrated, single-layer, miniature flow cytometry device that is capable of multi-parametric particle analysis. The device integrates both particle focusing and detection components on-chip, including a "microfluidic drifting" based three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic focusing component and a series of optical fibers integrated into the microfluidic architecture to facilitate on-chip detection. With this design, multiple optical signals (i.e., forward scatter, side scatter, and fluorescence) from individual particles can be simultaneously detected. Experimental results indicate that the performance of our flow cytometry chip is comparable to its bulky, expensive desktop counterpart. The integration of on-chip 3D particle focusing with on-chip multi-parametric optical detection in a single-layer, mass-producible microfluidic device presents a major step towards low-cost flow cytometry chips for point-of-care clinical diagnostics.

  5. Flow Cytometry, a Versatile Tool for Diagnosis and Monitoring of Primary Immunodeficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Genetic defects of the immune system are referred to as primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs). These immunodeficiencies are clinically and immunologically heterogeneous and, therefore, pose a challenge not only for the clinician but also for the diagnostic immunologist. There are several methodological tools available for evaluation and monitoring of patients with PIDs, and of these tools, flow cytometry has gained prominence, both for phenotyping and functional assays. Flow cytometry allows real-time analysis of cellular composition, cell signaling, and other relevant immunological pathways, providing an accessible tool for rapid diagnostic and prognostic assessment. This minireview provides an overview of the use of flow cytometry in disease-specific diagnosis of PIDs, in addition to other broader applications, which include immune phenotyping and cellular functional measurements. PMID:26912782

  6. Comparison of clustering methods for high-dimensional single-cell flow and mass cytometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Lukas M; Robinson, Mark D

    2016-12-01

    Recent technological developments in high-dimensional flow cytometry and mass cytometry (CyTOF) have made it possible to detect expression levels of dozens of protein markers in thousands of cells per second, allowing cell populations to be characterized in unprecedented detail. Traditional data analysis by "manual gating" can be inefficient and unreliable in these high-dimensional settings, which has led to the development of a large number of automated analysis methods. Methods designed for unsupervised analysis use specialized clustering algorithms to detect and define cell populations for further downstream analysis. Here, we have performed an up-to-date, extensible performance comparison of clustering methods for high-dimensional flow and mass cytometry data. We evaluated methods using several publicly available data sets from experiments in immunology, containing both major and rare cell populations, with cell population identities from expert manual gating as the reference standard. Several methods performed well, including FlowSOM, X-shift, PhenoGraph, Rclusterpp, and flowMeans. Among these, FlowSOM had extremely fast runtimes, making this method well-suited for interactive, exploratory analysis of large, high-dimensional data sets on a standard laptop or desktop computer. These results extend previously published comparisons by focusing on high-dimensional data and including new methods developed for CyTOF data. R scripts to reproduce all analyses are available from GitHub (https://github.com/lmweber/cytometry-clustering-comparison), and pre-processed data files are available from FlowRepository (FR-FCM-ZZPH), allowing our comparisons to be extended to include new clustering methods and reference data sets. © 2016 The Authors. Cytometry Part A published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of ISAC. © 2016 The Authors. Cytometry Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of ISAC.

  7. Use of flow cytometry in the diagnosis of lymphoproliferative disorders in fluid specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gordon H; Vergara, Norge; Moore, Erika M; King, Rebecca L

    2014-08-01

    The diagnostic evaluation of fluid specimens, including serous effusions and cerebrospinal fluids (CSFs), can be challenging for a number of reasons. The evaluation of lymphoid proliferations in these specimens can be particularly problematic, given the frequent presence of coexisting inflammatory conditions and the manner in which these specimens are processed. As a result, immunophenotypic analysis of hematopoietic cell populations by flow cytometry has emerged as a useful ancillary study in the diagnosis of these specimens, both in patients with and without a previous history of a lymphoproliferative disorder. In this study, we review our experience with flow cytometry in fluid specimens over a four-year period. Flow cytometry was performed in 184 of 6,925 total cases (2.7% of all fluids). Flow cytometry was performed in 4.8% of pleural fluids (positive findings in 38%, negative in 40%, and atypical in 18%), 1.1% of peritoneal fluids (positive in 40%, negative in 50%, and atypical in 10%), 1.9% of pericardial fluids (positive in 67%, negative in 33%), and 1.9% of CSFs (positive in 23%, negative in 55%, atypical in 3%). The specimen submitted was inadequate for analysis in 9.2% of cases, most commonly with CSF specimens, but was not related to the volume of fluid submitted. Atypical flow cytometry findings and atypical morphologic findings in the context of negative flow cytometry results led to the definitive diagnosis of a lymphoproliferative disorder in a significant number of cases when repeat procedures and ancillary studies were performed. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Absolute counting of neutrophils in whole blood using flow cytometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brunck, Marion E. G; Andersen, Stacey B; Timmins, Nicholas E; Osborne, Geoffrey W; Nielsen, Lars K

    2014-01-01

    .... Here we combine the 1A8 antibody, specific for the mouse granulocyte protein Ly6G, with flow cytometric counting in straightforward FCM assays for mouse ANC, easily implementable in the research laboratory...

  9. Report of the European Myeloma Network on multiparametric flow cytometry in multiple myeloma and related disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rawstron, Andy C; Orfao, Alberto; Beksac, Meral

    2008-01-01

    The European Myeloma Network (EMN) organized two flow cytometry workshops. The first aimed to identify specific indications for flow cytometry in patients with monoclonal gammopathies, and consensus technical approaches through a questionnaire-based review of current practice in participating...... in patients with MGUS and detecting minimal residual disease. A range of technical recommendations were identified, including: 1) CD38, CD138 and CD45 should all be included in at least one tube for plasma cell identification and enumeration. The primary gate should be based on CD38 vs. CD138 expression; 2...

  10. A comparison of flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry in human colorectal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt; Hansen, T P; Nielsen, O

    1998-01-01

    In human colorectal cancer it has been reported that some tumours lack the HLA-ABC antigens. This has been interpreted as reflecting tumour escape from the immune system. Earlier data have been obtained by immunohistochemistry. In this study, we compared the expression of HLA-ABC, HLA-DR, CD80 (B7......-1) and CD54 (ICAM-1) in 20 tumours using both a conventional immunohistochemistry two-layer technique and multiparameter flow cytometry, gating on an epithelial cell marker. Colorectal cancer tissue used in flow cytometry was dissociated with collagenase, deoxyribonuclease and hyaluronidase. The intensity...

  11. Assessing basophil activation by using flow cytometry and mass cytometry in blood stored 24 hours before analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Kaori; Gaudenzio, Nicolas; Gupta, Sheena; Vivanco, Nora; Bendall, Sean C; Maecker, Holden T; Chinthrajah, Rebecca S; Tsai, Mindy; Nadeau, Kari C; Galli, Stephen J

    2017-03-01

    Basophil activation tests (BATs) have promise for research and for clinical monitoring of patients with allergies. However, BAT protocols vary in blood anticoagulant used and temperature and time of storage before testing, complicating comparisons of results from various studies. We attempted to establish a BAT protocol that would permit analysis of blood within 24 hours of obtaining the sample. Blood from 46 healthy donors and 120 patients with peanut allergy was collected into EDTA or heparin tubes, and samples were stored at 4°C or room temperature for 4 or 24 hours before performing BATs. Stimulation with anti-IgE or IL-3 resulted in strong upregulation of basophil CD203c in samples collected in EDTA or heparin, stored at 4°C, and analyzed 24 hours after sample collection. However, a CD63hi population of basophils was not observed in any conditions in EDTA-treated samples unless exogenous calcium/magnesium was added at the time of anti-IgE stimulation. By contrast, blood samples collected in heparin tubes were adequate for quantification of upregulation of basophil CD203c and identification of a population of CD63hi basophils, irrespective of whether the specimens were analyzed by means of conventional flow cytometry or cytometry by time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and such tests could be performed after blood was stored for 24 hours at 4°C. BATs to measure upregulation of basophil CD203c and induction of a CD63hi basophil population can be conducted with blood obtained in heparin tubes and stored at 4°C for 24 hours. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. National flow cytometry and sorting research resource. Annual progress report, July, 1, 1994--June 30, 1995, Year 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jett, J.H.

    1995-04-27

    Research progress utilizing flow cytometry is described. Topics include: rapid kinetics flow cytometry; characterization of size determinations for small DNA fragments; statistical analysis; energy transfer measurements of molecular confirmation in micelles; and enrichment of Mus spretus chromosomes by dual parameter flow sorting and identification of sorted fractions by fluorescence in-situ hybridization onto G-banded mouse metaphase spreads.

  13. In vivo plant flow cytometry: a first proof-of-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedosekin, Dmitry A; Khodakovskaya, Mariya V; Biris, Alexandru S; Wang, Daoyuan; Xu, Yang; Villagarcia, Hector; Galanzha, Ekaterina I; Zharov, Vladimir P

    2011-10-01

    In vivo flow cytometry has facilitated advances in the ultrasensitive detection of tumor cells, bacteria, nanoparticles, dyes, and other normal and abnormal objects directly in blood and lymph circulatory systems. Here, we propose in vivo plant flow cytometry for the real-time noninvasive study of nanomaterial transport in xylem and phloem plant vascular systems. As a proof of this concept, we demonstrate in vivo real-time photoacoustic monitoring of quantum dot-carbon nanotube conjugates uptake by roots and spreading through stem to leaves in a tomato plant. In addition, in vivo scanning cytometry using multimodal photoacoustic, photothermal, and fluorescent detection schematics provided multiplex detection and identification of nanoparticles accumulated in plant leaves in the presence of intensive absorption, scattering, and autofluorescent backgrounds. The use of a portable fiber-based photoacoustic flow cytometer for studies of plant vasculature was demonstrated. These integrated cytometry modalities using both endogenous and exogenous contrast agents have a potential to open new avenues of in vivo study of the nutrients, products of photosynthesis and metabolism, nanoparticles, infectious agents, and other objects transported through plant vasculature. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  14. One tube with eight antibodies for 14-part bone marrow leukocyte differential using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Marie-Christine; Souvignet, Alice; Pont, Julie; Solly, Françoise; Mondet, Julie; Kesr, Sanae; Pernollet, Martine; Dumestre-Perard, Chantal; Campos, Lydia; Cesbron, Jean-Yves

    2017-07-01

    Bone marrow analysis by flow cytometry is part of the routine diagnosis of hematological disorders in medical laboratories. Differential leukocyte count and identification of abnormal cell subsets is currently performed through morphological examination on bone marrow smears by skilled cytologists. In this work, we propose a single 8-color tube for providing equivalent information, using flow cytometry. 99 bone marrow samples were classified into 2 groups, (i) 51 samples, obtained from either healthy donors (n = 4) or patients with various diseases at diagnosis or during remission that did not present a hematological malignancy (n = 47), and (ii) 48 pathological samples with quantitative and/or qualitative abnormalities. A panel of eight antibodies-CD3-FITC/CD10-PE/CD38-PerCP-Cy5.5/CD19-PECy7/CD36-APC/CD16-APC-H7/CD34-BV421/CD45-V500-was tested to identify the main cell subsets at different stages of maturation using a FACSCanto-II analyzer. We first proposed a strategy of sequential gating leading to the identification of 14 leukocyte subsets, that is, erythroblasts, monocytes, B-lymphoid cells from hematogones to plasma-cells (5 subsets), T- and NK-cells, polymorphonuclear cells (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils), myeloblasts and other immature granular cells. This approach was validated by comparing flow cytometry and microscopic morphological examination, both in cases of normal and abnormal samples. Interestingly, cell identification, and numeration by flow cytometry was easy to perform and highly reproducible. A very simple, rapid, and reproducible flow cytometric approach, using a combination of eight antibodies allows determination of the cellular composition of bone marrow with high precision. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  15. Quantifying spore viability of the honey bee pathogen Nosema apis using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yan; Lee-Pullen, Tracey F; Heel, Kathy; Millar, A Harvey; Baer, Boris

    2014-05-01

    Honey bees are hosts to more than 80 different parasites, some of them being highly virulent and responsible for substantial losses in managed honey bee populations. The study of honey bee pathogens and their interactions with the bees' immune system has therefore become a research area of major interest. Here we developed a fast, accurate and reliable method to quantify the viability of spores of the honey bee gut parasite Nosema apis. To verify this method, a dilution series with 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% live N. apis was made and SYTO 16 and Propidium Iodide (n = 35) were used to distinguish dead from live spores. The viability of spores in each sample was determined by flow cytometry and compared with the current method based on fluorescence microscopy. Results show that N. apis viability counts using flow cytometry produced very similar results when compared with fluorescence microscopy. However, we found that fluorescence microscopy underestimates N. apis viability in samples with higher percentages of viable spores, the latter typically being what is found in biological samples. A series of experiments were conducted to confirm that flow cytometry allows the use of additional fluorescent dyes such as SYBR 14 and SYTOX Red (used in combination with SYTO 16 or Propidium Iodide) to distinguish dead from live spores. We also show that spore viability quantification with flow cytometry can be undertaken using substantially lower dye concentrations than fluorescence microscopy. In conclusion, our data show flow cytometry to be a fast, reliable method to quantify N. apis spore viabilities, which has a number of advantages compared with existing methods. © 2013 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  16. Potential Use of Quantum Dots in Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ibáñez-Peral

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available QDs may offer significant advantages in environmental and bead-based applications where the target cells need to be discriminated above background fluorescence. We have examined the possible applications of QDs for flow cytometric measurements (FCM by studying their excitation - emission spectra and their binding to paramagnetic beads. We labelled beads with either QDs or a commonly-used fluorochrome (FITC and studied their fluorescence intensity by FCM. Flow cytometric comparisons indicated that the minimum fluorophore concentration required for detection of QDs above autofluorescent background was 100-fold less than for FITC.

  17. FlowCam: Quantification and Classification of Phytoplankton by Imaging Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Nicole J

    2016-01-01

    The ability to enumerate, classify, and determine biomass of phytoplankton from environmental samples is essential for determining ecosystem function and their role in the aquatic community and microbial food web. Traditional micro-phytoplankton quantification methods using microscopic techniques require preservation and are slow, tedious and very laborious. The availability of more automated imaging microscopy platforms has revolutionized the way particles and cells are detected within their natural environment. The ability to examine cells unaltered and without preservation is key to providing more accurate cell concentration estimates and overall phytoplankton biomass. The FlowCam(®) is an imaging cytometry tool that was originally developed for use in aquatic sciences and provides a more rapid and unbiased method for enumerating and classifying phytoplankton within diverse aquatic environments.

  18. Report of the results of the International Clinical Cytometry Society and American Society for Clinical Pathology workload survey of clinical flow cytometry laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolniak, Kristy; Goolsby, Charles; Choi, Sarah; Ali, Asma; Serdy, Nina; Stetler-Stevenson, Maryalice

    2017-11-01

    Thorough review of current workload, staffing, and testing practices in clinical laboratories allows for optimization of laboratory efficiency and quality. This information is largely missing with regard to clinical flow cytometry laboratories. The purpose of this survey is to provide comprehensive, current, and accurate data on testing practices and laboratory staffing in clinical laboratories performing flow cytometric studies. Survey data was collected from flow cytometry laboratories through the ASCP website. Data was collected on the workload during a 1-year time period of full-time and part-time technical and professional (M.D./D.O./Ph.D. or equivalent) flow cytometry employees. Workload was examined as number of specimens and tubes per full time equivalent (FTE) technical and professional staff. Test complexity, test result interpretation, and reporting practices were also evaluated. There were 205 respondent laboratories affiliated predominantly with academic and health system institutions. Overall, 1,132 FTE employees were reported with 29% professional FTE employees and 71% technical. Fifty-one percent of the testing performed was considered high complexity and 49% was low complexity. The average number of tubes per FTE technologist was 1,194 per year and the average number of specimens per FTE professional was 1,659 per year. The flow cytometry reports were predominantly written by pathologists (57%) and were typically written as a separate report (58%). This survey evaluates the overall status of the current practice of clinical flow cytometry and provides a comprehensive dataset as a framework to help laboratory departments, directors, and managers make appropriate, cost-effective staffing decisions. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  19. Challenges of setting up flow cytometry for diagnosis of leukemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bone marrow (BM) is a complex tissue containing cells of multiple hematopoietic cell lineages in all stages of development. Flow cytometric immunophenotyping evaluates the frequencies of the various leukocyte (sub) populations in BM and blood that then helps in the diagnosis of leukemia's. The aim of this study was ...

  20. Assessment of Equine Autoimmune Thrombocytopenia (EAT by flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzwald Colin

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rationale Thrombocytopenia is a platelet associated process that occurs in human and animals as result of i decreased production; ii increased utilization; iii increased destruction coupled to the presence of antibodies, within a process know as immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (IMT; or iv platelet sequestration. Thus, the differentiation of the origin of IMT and the development of reliable diagnostic approaches and methodologies are important in the clarification of IMT pathogenesis. Therefore, there is a growing need in the field for easy to perform assays for assessing platelet morphological characteristics paired with detection of platelet-bound IgG. Objectives This study is aimed to develop and characterize a single color flow cytometric assay for detection of platelet-bound IgG in horses, in combination with flow cytometric assessment of platelet morphological characteristics. Findings The FSC and SSC evaluation of the platelets obtained from the thrombocytopenic animals shows several distinctive features in comparison to the flow cytometric profile of platelets from healthy animals. The thrombocytopenic animals displayed i increased number of platelets with high FSC and high SSC, ii a significant number of those gigantic platelets had strong fluorescent signal (IgG bound, iii very small platelets or platelet derived microparticles were found significantly enhanced in one of the thrombocytopenic horses, iv significant numbers of these microplatelet/microparticles/platelet-fragments still carry very high fluorescence. Conclusions This study describes the development and characterization of an easy to perform, inexpensive, and noninvasive single color flow cytometric assay for detection of platelet-bound IgG, in combination with flow cytometric assessment of platelet morphological characteristics in horses.

  1. Implementing a routine flow cytometry assay for nucleated red blood cell counts in cord blood units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, C; Cloutier, M; Jobin, C; Dion, J; Fournier, D; Néron, S

    2016-12-01

    As required by standards organizations, Héma-Québec Cord Blood Bank performs enumeration of nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) in cord blood units (CBUs). This study presents the validation and implementation approaches developed to transfer the routine NRBC enumeration from the manual blood film method to a flow cytometric assay. The flow cytometry method was adapted from Tsuji (Cytometry, 37, 1999, 291). This assay was validated to assess the specificity, detection limit, repeatability, and reproducibility of the method, including interoperator and interlaboratory testing. Finally, postimplementation follow-up and adjustments were performed for CBU over a 7-month period. Blood film and flow cytometry NRBC enumerations showed a strong correlation (n = 40; Pearson's r correlation = 0.90). Validation was successful as exemplified by the correlation in interlaboratory testing (n = 30; r = 0.98). During implementation, our routine laboratory analyses revealed that CBU with low NRBC content (≤2%), representing 26% of all CBU tested, resulted in 15% of repeated reading and/or staining and was the principal source of nonconformity. Small adjustments in the standard operating procedures (SOPs), including a fixed 200-event setting in the NRBC gate for the second reading of the replicates, have completely solved this issue. Flow cytometric NRBC enumerations, now implemented in Héma-Québec Public Cord Blood Bank, is an improvement in the efficiency of our operations by integrating the count for NRBC into our flow cytometry platform. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Flow Cytometry Sorting to Separate Viable Giant Viruses from Amoeba Co-culture Supernatants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Jacques Y B; Langlois, Thierry; Andreani, Julien; Sorraing, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier; Camoin, Laurence; La Scola, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Flow cytometry has contributed to virology but has faced many drawbacks concerning detection limits, due to the small size of viral particles. Nonetheless, giant viruses changed many concepts in the world of viruses, as a result of their size and hence opened up the possibility of using flow cytometry to study them. Recently, we developed a high throughput isolation of viruses using flow cytometry and protozoa co-culture. Consequently, isolating a viral mixture in the same sample became more common. Nevertheless, when one virus multiplies faster than others in the mixture, it is impossible to obtain a pure culture of the minority population. Here, we describe a robust sorting system, which can separate viable giant virus mixtures from supernatants. We tested three flow cytometry sorters by sorting artificial mixtures. Purity control was assessed by electron microscopy and molecular biology. As proof of concept, we applied the sorting system to a co-culture supernatant taken from a sample containing a viral mixture that we couldn't separate using end point dilution. In addition to isolating the quick-growing Mimivirus, we sorted and re-cultured a new, slow-growing virus, which we named "Cedratvirus." The sorting assay presented in this paper is a powerful and versatile tool for separating viral populations from amoeba co-cultures and adding value to the new field of flow virometry.

  3. Ultrasonic analyte concentration and application in flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaduchak, Gregory [Los Alamos, NM; Goddard, Greg [Los Alamos, NM; Salzman, Gary [White Rock, NM; Sinha, Dipen [Los Alamos, NM; Martin, John C [Los Alamos, NM; Kwiatkowski, Christopher [Los Alamos, NM; Graves, Steven [San Juan Pueblo, NM

    2008-03-11

    The present invention includes an apparatus and corresponding method for concentrating analytes within a fluid flowing through a tube using acoustic radiation pressure. The apparatus includes a function generator that outputs a radio frequency electrical signal to a transducer that transforms the radio frequency electric signal to an acoustic signal and couples the acoustic signal to the tube. The acoustic signal is converted within the tube to acoustic pressure that concentrates the analytes within the fluid.

  4. Ultrasonic analyte concentration and application in flow cytometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Goddard, Greg; Salzman, Gary; Sinha, Dipen; Martin, John C.; Kwiatkowski, Christopher; Graves, Steven

    2015-07-07

    The present invention includes an apparatus and corresponding method for concentrating analytes within a fluid flowing through a tube using acoustic radiation pressure. The apparatus includes a function generator that outputs a radio frequency electrical signal to a transducer that transforms the radio frequency electric signal to an acoustic signal and couples the acoustic signal to the tube. The acoustic signal is converted within the tube to acoustic pressure that concentrates the analytes within the fluid.

  5. Microfluidic Imaging Flow Cytometry by Asymmetric-detection Time-stretch Optical Microscopy (ATOM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Anson H L; Lai, Queenie T K; Chung, Bob M F; Lee, Kelvin C M; Mok, Aaron T Y; Yip, G K; Shum, Anderson H C; Wong, Kenneth K Y; Tsia, Kevin K

    2017-06-28

    Scaling the number of measurable parameters, which allows for multidimensional data analysis and thus higher-confidence statistical results, has been the main trend in the advanced development of flow cytometry. Notably, adding high-resolution imaging capabilities allows for the complex morphological analysis of cellular/sub-cellular structures. This is not possible with standard flow cytometers. However, it is valuable for advancing our knowledge of cellular functions and can benefit life science research, clinical diagnostics, and environmental monitoring. Incorporating imaging capabilities into flow cytometry compromises the assay throughput, primarily due to the limitations on speed and sensitivity in the camera technologies. To overcome this speed or throughput challenge facing imaging flow cytometry while preserving the image quality, asymmetric-detection time-stretch optical microscopy (ATOM) has been demonstrated to enable high-contrast, single-cell imaging with sub-cellular resolution, at an imaging throughput as high as 100,000 cells/s. Based on the imaging concept of conventional time-stretch imaging, which relies on all-optical image encoding and retrieval through the use of ultrafast broadband laser pulses, ATOM further advances imaging performance by enhancing the image contrast of unlabeled/unstained cells. This is achieved by accessing the phase-gradient information of the cells, which is spectrally encoded into single-shot broadband pulses. Hence, ATOM is particularly advantageous in high-throughput measurements of single-cell morphology and texture - information indicative of cell types, states, and even functions. Ultimately, this could become a powerful imaging flow cytometry platform for the biophysical phenotyping of cells, complementing the current state-of-the-art biochemical-marker-based cellular assay. This work describes a protocol to establish the key modules of an ATOM system (from optical frontend to data processing and visualization

  6. Data File Standard for Flow Cytometry, Version FCS 3.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spidlen, Josef; Moore, Wayne; Parks, David; Goldberg, Michael; Bray, Chris; Gorombey, Peter; Hyun, Bill; Hubbard, Mark; Lange, Simon; Lefebvre, Ray; Leif, Robert; Novo, David; Ostruszka, Leo; Treister, Adam; Wood, James; Murphy, Robert F.; Roederer, Mario; Sudar, Damir; Zigon, Robert; Brinkman, Ryan R.; Brierre, Pierre

    2009-11-10

    The flow cytometry data file standard provides the specifications needed to completely describe flow cytometry data sets within the confines of the file containing the experimental data. In 1984, the first Flow Cytometry Standard format for data files was adopted as FCS 1.0. This standard was modified in 1990 as FCS 2.0 and again in 1997 as FCS 3.0. We report here on the next generation flow cytometry standard data file format. FCS 3.1 is a minor revision based on suggested improvements from the community. The unchanged goal of the standard is to provide a uniform file format that allows files created by one type of acquisition hardware and software to be analyzed by any other type. The FCS 3.1 standard retains the basic FCS file structure and most features of previous versions of the standard. Changes included in FCS 3.1 address potential ambiguities in the previous versions and provide a more robust standard. The major changes include simplified support for international characters and improved support for storing compensation. The major additions are support for preferred display scale, a standardized way of capturing the sample volume, information about originality of the data file, and support for plate and well identification in high throughput, plate based experiments. Please see the normative version of the FCS 3.1 specification in Supporting Information for this manuscript (or at http://www.isac-net.org/ in the Current standards section) for a complete list of changes.

  7. DIRECT FLOW-CYTOMETRY OF ANAEROBIC-BACTERIA IN HUMAN FECES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERWAAIJ, LA; MESANDER, G; LIMBURG, PC; VANDERWAAIJ, D

    1994-01-01

    We describe a flow cytometry method for analysis of noncultured anaerobic bacteria present in human fecal suspensions. Nonbacterial fecal compounds, bacterial fragments, and large aggregates could be discriminated from bacteria by staining with propidium iodide (PI) and setting a discriminator on PI

  8. Construction and Use of Flow Cytometry Optimized Plasmid-Sensor Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Martin Iain; Oregaard, Gunnar; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2009-01-01

    stability of the plasmid is high. The method presented here relies on a phenotypic (green fluorescence protein) marker, which is switched on if the host bacteria loses the residing plasmid. The incorporation of flow cytometry for single-cell detection and discrimination between plasmid-free and plasmid...

  9. Induction studies with Escherichia coli expressing recombinant interleukin-13 using multi-parameter flow cytometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shitu, J. O.; Woodley, John; Wnek, R.

    2009-01-01

    The expression of interleukin-13 (IL13) following induction with IPTG in Escherichia coli results in metabolic changes as indicated by multi-parameter flow cytometry and traditional methods of fermentation profiling (O-2 uptake rate, CO2 evolution rate and optical density measurements). Induction...

  10. Isolation of FRET-positive cells using single 408-nm laser flow cytometry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wageningen, S. van; Pennings, A.H.M.; Reijden, B.A. van der; Boezeman, J.B.M.; Lange, F. de; Jansen, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Flow cytometry may be used to isolate large amounts of living, fluorescently labeled cells. Certain fluorescent labels, like enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP) and enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP), allow the assessment of direct protein-protein interaction in situ, by

  11. Intracellular cytokine detection by flow cytometry in pigs: Fixation, permeabilization and cell surface staining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zelníčková, P.; Faldyna, M.; Štěpánová, H.; Ondráček, J.; Kovářů, František

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 327, č. 1 (2007), s. 18-29 ISSN 0022-1759 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA524/05/0267 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : cytokine detection * flow cytometry * pig Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.947, year: 2007

  12. DNA Detection by Flow Cytometry using PNA‐Modified Metal–Organic Framework Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mejia-Ariza, Raquel; Rosselli, Jessica; Breukers, Christian; Manicardi, Alex; Terstappen, Leon; Corradini, Roberto; Huskens, J.

    2017-01-01

    A DNA-sensing platform is developed by exploiting the easy surface functionalization of metal–organic framework (MOF) particles and their highly parallelized fluorescence detection by flow cytometry. Two strategies were employed to functionalize the surface of MIL-88A, using either covalent or

  13. Teaching the Microbial Growth Curve Concept Using Microalgal Cultures and Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forget, Nathalie; Belzile, Claude; Rioux, Pierre; Nozais, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The microbial growth curve is widely studied within microbiology classes and bacteria are usually the microbial model used. Here, we describe a novel laboratory protocol involving flow cytometry to assess the growth dynamics of the unicellular microalgae "Isochrysis galbana." The algal model represents an appropriate alternative to…

  14. Flow cytometry of sputum: assessing inflammation and immune response elements in the bronchial airways**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: The evaluation of sputum leukocytes by flow cytometry is an opportunity to assess characteristics of cells residing in the central airways, yet it is hampered by certain inherent properties of sputum including mucus and large amounts of contaminating cells and debris. ...

  15. High resolution DNA flow cytometry of boar sperm cells in identification of boars carrying cytogenetic aberrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob; Christensen, Knud; Larsen, Jørgen K

    2004-01-01

    The cytogenetic quality of boars used for breeding determines the litter outcome and thus has large economical consequences. Traditionally, quality controls based on the examination of simple karyograms are time consuming and sometimes give uncertain results. As an alternative, the use of high-re......-resolution DNA flow cytometry on DAPI-stained sperm cell nuclei (CV...

  16. Application of flow cytometry and cell sorting to the bacterial analysis of environmental aerosol samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flow cytometry (FCM) combined with viability staining is a useful tool in discerning viable bacteria in environmental samples where traditional culture methods may fail. Contamination of aerosol samples with dust and other non-biological particles can interfere with accurate sample analysis and ther...

  17. A quantitative evaluation of erythropoiesis in myelodysplastic syndromes using multiparameter flow cytometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, I M; Hokland, M; Hokland, P

    1993-01-01

    By staining human bone marrow cells with a monoclonal antibody reacting with erythroid precursor cells (AS-E1) and propidium iodide, we have evaluated the proliferative capacity of erythropoiesis in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) using flow cytometry. Comparing 36 patients (13 RA...

  18. Ploidy of USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) world pear germplasm collection determined by flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Living germplasm collections representing world diversity of pear (Pyrus L.) are maintained by the U.S. Department of Agriculture at the National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) in Corvallis, Oregon, USA. Flow cytometry was performed on young leaf tissue from 1,284 genebank accessions to assess p...

  19. High-throughput tri-colour flow cytometry technique to assess Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in bioassays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiendrebeogo, Regis W; Adu, Bright; Singh, Susheel K

    2014-01-01

    distinction of early ring stages of Plasmodium falciparum from uninfected red blood cells (uRBC) remains a challenge. METHODS: Here, a high-throughput, three-parameter (tri-colour) flow cytometry technique based on mitotracker red dye, the nucleic acid dye coriphosphine O (CPO) and the leucocyte marker CD45...

  20. Quantification of proteins by flow cytometry: Quantification of human hepatic transporter P-gp and OATP1B1 using flow cytometry and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Karen; Thomas, Jerry; Ashford, David; Cartwright, Jared; Coldwell, Ruth; Weston, Daniel J; Pillmoor, John; Surry, Dominic; O'Toole, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Flow cytometry is a powerful tool for the quantitation of fluorescence and is proven to be able to correlate the fluorescence intensity to the number of protein on cells surface. Mass spectroscopy can also be used to determine the number of proteins per cell. Here we have developed two methods, using flow cytometry and mass spectroscopy to quantify number of transporters in human cells. These two approaches were then used to analyse the same samples so that a direct comparison could be made. Transporters have a major impact on the behaviour of a diverse number of drugs in human systems. While active uptake studies by transmembrane protein transporters using model substrates are routinely undertaken in human cell lines and hepatocytes as part of drug discovery and development, the interpretation of these results is currently limited by the inability to quantify the number of transporters present in the test samples. Here we provide a flow cytometric method for accurate quantification of transporter levels both on the cell surface and within the cell, and compare this to a quantitative mass spectrometric approach. Two transporters were selected for the study: OATP1B1 (also known as SLCO1B1, LST-1, OATP-C, OATP2) due to its important role in hepatic drug uptake and elimination; P-gp (also known as P-glycoprotein, MDR1, ABCB1) as a well characterised system and due to its potential impact on oral bioavailability, biliary and renal clearance, and brain penetration of drugs that are substrates for this transporter. In all cases the mass spectrometric method gave higher levels than the flow cytometry method. However, the two methods showed very similar trends in the relative ratios of both transporters in the hepatocyte samples investigated. The P-gp antibody allowed quantitative discrimination between externally facing transporters located in the cytoplasmic membrane and the total number of transporters on and in the cell. The proportion of externally facing transporter

  1. Flow cytometry-based DNA hybridization and polymorphism analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, H.; Kommander, K.; White, P.S.; Nolan, J.P.

    1998-07-01

    Functional analysis of the humane genome, including the quantification of differential gene expression and the identification of polymorphic sites and disease genes, is an important element of the Human Genome Project. Current methods of analysis are mainly gel-based assays that are not well-suited to rapid genome-scale analyses. To analyze DNA sequence on a large scale, robust and high throughput assays are needed. The authors are developing a suite of microsphere-based approaches employing fluorescence detection to screen and analyze genomic sequence. The approaches include competitive DNA hybridization to measure DNA or RNA targets in unknown samples, and oligo ligation or extension assays to analyze single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Apart from the advances of sensitivity, simplicity, and low sample consumption, these flow cytometric approaches have the potential for high throughput multiplexed analysis using multicolored microspheres and automated sample handling.

  2. Tomographic flow cytometry assisted by intelligent wavefronts analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merola, F.; Memmolo, P.; Miccio, L.; Mugnano, M.; Ferraro, P.

    2017-06-01

    High-throughput single-cell analysis is a challenging target for implementing advanced biomedical applications. An excellent candidate for this aim is label-free tomographic phase microscopy. However, in-line tomography is very difficult to be implemented in practice, as it requires complex setup for rotating the sample and/or illuminate the cell along numerous directions [1]. We exploit random rolling of cells while they are flowing along a microfluidic channel demonstrating that it is possible to obtain in-line phase-contrast tomography by adopting strategies for intelligent wavefronts analysis thus obtaining complete retrieval of both 3D-position and orientation of rotating cells [2]. Thus, by numerical wavefront analysis a-priori knowledge of such information is no longer needed. This approach makes continuos-flow cyto-tomography suitable for practical operation in real-world, single-cell analysis and with substantial simplification of the optical system avoiding any mechanical/optical scanning of light source. Demonstration is given for different classes of biosamples, red-blood-cells (RBCs), diatom algae and fibroblast cells [3]. Accurate characterization of each type of cells is reported despite their very different nature and materials content, thus showing the proposed method can be extended, by adopting two alternate strategies of wavefront-analysis, to many classes of cells. In particular, for RBCs we furnish important parameters as 3D morphology, Corpuscular Hemoglobin (CH), Volume (V), and refractive index (RI) for each single cell in the total population [3]. This could open a new route in blood disease diagnosis, for example for the isolation and characterization of "foreign" cells in the blood stream, the so called Circulating Tumor Cells (CTC), early manifestation of metastasis.

  3. Preoperative diagnostic algorithm of primary thyroid lymphoma using ultrasound, aspiration cytology, and flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Kudo, Takumi; Ota, Hisashi; Suzuki, Ayana; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Miyauchi, Akira

    2017-09-30

    The aims of this report were to clarify the diagnostic significance of ultrasound (US), fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), and flow cytometry for primary thyroid lymphoma, and to establish a preoperative diagnostic algorithm of primary thyroid lymphoma. We retrospectively examined US, FNAC, and flow cytometry in 43 patients with benign lymphoproliferative lesions and 32 patients with primary thyroid lymphoma, who underwent US, FNAC, and flow cytometry at Kuma Hospital between May 2012 and December 2015. Primary thyroid lymphomas included 27 mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas, 4 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, and 1 follicular lymphoma. Flow cytometry had the highest specificity (88.4%) and sensitivity (75.0%). The specificity of US was the lowest (32.6%). Both the positive predictive value (90.5%) and negative predictive value (94.7%) were the highest for FNAC. A scoring system was defined as follows: US, low suspicion 0, intermediate suspicion 1, and high suspicion 2; FNAC, benign 0, undetermined 1, malignant 2; and flow cytometry, 0.33< κ/λ ratio <3 0, κ/λ ratio ≤0.33 2, and κ/λ ratio ≥3 2. We propose that a score ≥4 indicates the need for thyroid resection for diagnosing primary thyroid lymphoma. In such a situation, the case of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, which was aggressive, was not excluded. Approximately one-fifth of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas may be overlooked, but the patients could be followed up with because of an indolent course.

  4. Flow cytometry detection of vitamin D receptor changes during vitamin D treatment in Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendix, M; Dige, A; Deleuran, B; Dahlerup, J F; Jørgensen, S P; Bartels, L E; Husted, L B; Harsløf, T; Langdahl, B; Agnholt, J

    2015-07-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with a dysregulated T cell response towards intestinal microflora. Vitamin D has immune modulatory effects on T cells through the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR) in vitro. It is unclear how oral vitamin D treatment affects VDR expression. The aim of this study was to establish a flow cytometry protocol, including nuclear and cytoplasmic VDR expression, and to investigate the effects of vitamin D treatment on T cell VDR expression in CD patients. The flow cytometry protocol for VDR staining was developed using the human acute monocytic leukaemia cell line (THP-1). The protocol was evaluated in anti-CD3/CD28-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from vitamin D3- (n = 9) and placebo-treated (n = 9) CD patients. Anti-VDR-stained PBMCs were examined by flow cytometry, and their cytokine production was determined by cytokine bead array. VDR, CYP27B1 and RXRα mRNA expression levels in CD4(+) T cells were measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The flow cytometry protocol enabled detection of cytoplasmic and nuclear VDR expression. The results were confirmed by confocal microscopy and supported by correlation with VDR mRNA expression. VDR expression in CD4(+) T cells increased following stimulation. This VDR up-regulation was inhibited with 30% by vitamin D treatment compared to placebo in CD patients (P = 0027). VDR expression was correlated with in-vitro interferon-γ production in stimulated PBMCs (P = 0.01). Flow cytometry is a useful method with which to measure intracellular VDR expression. Vitamin D treatment in CD patients reduces T cell receptor-mediated VDR up-regulation. © 2015 British Society for Immunology.

  5. Rice starch granule characterization by flow cytometry scattering techniques hyphenated with sedimentation field-flow fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clédat, Dominique; Battu, Serge; Mokrini, Redouane; Cardot, Philippe J P

    2004-09-17

    Sedimentation field-flow fractionation (SdFFF) elution mode of micron sized particle is described generically as "Hyperlayer" and involves particle size, density, shape and rigidity. It requires the use of specific detectors of mass, size, surface, or of other characteristics of the eluted particles. Correlation of FFF retention data with such signals gives hyphenated information about particle properties. Flow cytometry (FC) is a multi dimensional particle counter, which permits specific particle property characterization using light scattering and fluorescence principles. It appears therefore as a powerful technique for micron sized species description. FC is mostly known for cell analyses, while its potential is much broader once proper calibration performed. In this report, forward angle signal (FS) is calibrated in size by using standard latex beads and produces, for a given particle sample, a number versus size histogram, describing particle size distribution. These histograms can be an alternative to Coulter counting. That methodology is tested with rice starch population (RSP) fractions obtained from FFF separation.

  6. Flow cytometry for the development of biotechnological processes with microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyka, P; Lickova, S; Přibyl, P; Melzoch, K; Kovar, K

    2013-01-01

    The current interest in microalgae as a sustainable source of next generation biofuels and other valuable substances is driving exploration of their use as unique biotechnological production systems. To design and optimise appropriate production strategies, the behaviour of particular microalgal species should be well characterised under different culture conditions. Thus, flow cytometric (FCM) methods, which are already well established in environmental and toxicological studies of microalgae, are also useful for analysing the physiological state of microalgae, and have the potential to contribute to the rapid development of feasible bioprocesses. These methods are commonly based on the examination of intrinsic features of individual cells within a population (such as autofluorescence or size). Cells possessing the desired physiological or morphological features, which are detectable with or without fluorescent staining, are counted or isolated (sorted) using an FCM device. The options for implementation of FCM in the development of biotechnological processes detailed in this review are (i) analysing the chemical composition of biomass, (ii) monitoring cellular enzyme activity and cell viability, and (iii) sorting cells to isolate those overproducing the target compound or for the preparation of axenic cultures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Flow cytometry of DNA in mouse sperm and testis nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meistrich, M.L. (Univ. of Texas, Houston); Lake, S.; Steinmetz, L.L.; Gledhill, B.L.

    1978-01-01

    Mutations that occur in spermatogenic cells may be expressed as changes in DNA content, but developmentally-dependent alteration of its staining properties complicates the quantitation of DNA in individual germ cells. These alterations have been studied with flow cytometric techniques. Nuclei from mouse testis cells and sperm were stained by the acriflavine--Feulgen method. The fluorescence intensity frequency distribution of nuclei of testis cells was characterized by 2 major and 5 minor peaks. Nuclei sorted from the various peaks with a fluorescence-activated cell sorter were identified microscopically. These data were confirmed by generation of peaks with nuclei prepared from cell suspensions enriched in specific cell types. One of the major peaks corresponded to round spermatid nuclei. The other major peak, located at 0.6 of the fluorescence intensity of the round nuclei, corresponded to elongated spermatid nuclei. Purified nuclei of epididymal and vas deferens spermatozoa displayed asymmetric fluorescence distributions. A minor peak at 0.8 the intensity of the round spermatid nuclei was tentatively assigned to elongating spermatids. 2 of the minor peaks, located at 1.7 and 2.0 times the fluorescence intensity of the round nuclei, corresponded to clumps of 2 haploid and diploid nuclei.

  8. Distinct neutrophil subpopulations phenotype by flow cytometry in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikentiou, Myrofora; Psarra, Katerina; Kapsimali, Violetta; Liapis, Konstantinos; Michael, Michalis; Tsionos, Konstantinos; Lianidou, Evi; Papasteriades, Chryssa

    2009-03-01

    The cardinal feature of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is dysplasia involving one or more myeloid cell lineages. In the present study, we used 4-color flow cytometric analysis to investigate dysgranulopoiesis in bone marrow specimens from 65 patients with MDS. The antigen expression patterns of total neutrophil granulocytes (TNG) and of the two distinct neutrophil granulocytic subpopulations (NGSs), NGS-1 (dimmer CD45 expression) and NGS-2 (stronger CD45 expression) identified on the side scatter (SS) vs. CD45-intensity plot, were studied. The neutrophil granulocytes from patients with MDS showed characteristic antigen expression aberrancies which were more pronounced in NGS-2 subpopulation. Studying separately the NGS-2 subpopulation with the CD16/MPO/LF combination, the low CD16(+)/MPO(+) and low CD16(+)/LF(+) percentages seemed to discriminate between lower-risk and higher-risk patients with MDS in most occasions. Furthermore, a detailed assessment of the NGS-1 and NGS-2 immunophenotypic patterns revealed early dysplastic changes, not otherwise observed by standard TNG analysis, especially in cases of lower-risk MDS.

  9. Use of Multicolor Flow Cytometry for Isolation of Specific Cell Populations Deriving from Differentiated Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengarelli, Isabella; Fryga, Andrew; Barberi, Tiziano

    2016-01-01

    Flow Cytometry-Sorting (FCM-Sorting) is a technique commonly used to identify and isolate specific types of cells from a heterogeneous population of live cells. Here we describe a multicolor flow cytometry technique that uses five distinct cell surface antigens to isolate four live populations with

  10. Role of receptor occupancy assays by flow cytometry in drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jennifer J; Green, Cherie L; Jones, Nicholas; Liang, Meina; Xu, Yuanxin; Wilkins, Danice E C; Moulard, Maxime; Czechowska, Kamila; Lanham, David; McCloskey, Thomas W; Ferbas, John; van der Strate, Barry W A; Högerkorp, Carl-Magnus; Wyant, Timothy; Lackey, Alan; Litwin, Virginia

    2016-03-01

    The measurement of the binding of a biotherapeutic to its cellular target, receptor occupancy (RO), is increasingly important in development of biologically-based therapeutic agents. Receptor occupancy (RO) assays by flow cytometry describe the qualitative and/or quantitative assessment of the binding of a therapeutic agent to its cell surface target. Such RO assays can be as simple as measuring the number of cell surface receptors bound by an antireceptor therapeutic agent or can be designed to address more complicated scenarios such as internalization or shedding events once a receptor engages the administered therapeutic agent. Data generated from RO assays can also be used to model whether given doses of an experimental therapeutic agent and their administration schedules lead to predicted levels of receptor occupancy and whether the receptor is modulated (up or down) on cells engaged by the therapeutic agent. There are a variety of approaches that can be used when undertaking RO assays and with the ability to measure distinct subsets in heterogeneous populations, flow cytometry is ideally suited to RO measurements. This article highlights the importance of RO assays on the flow cytometric platform in the development of biotherapeutic agents. © 2016 The Authors Cytometry Part B: Clinical Cytometry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Automated Analysis of Clinical Flow Cytometry Data: A Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermann, Richard H; Bui, Jack; Wang, Huan-You; Qian, Yu

    2017-12-01

    Flow cytometry is used in cell-based diagnostic evaluation for blood-borne malignancies including leukemia and lymphoma. The current practice for cytometry data analysis relies on manual gating to identify cell subsets in complex mixtures, which is subjective, labor-intensive, and poorly reproducible. This article reviews recent efforts to develop, validate, and disseminate automated computational methods and pipelines for cytometry data analysis that could help overcome the limitations of manual analysis and provide for efficient and data-driven diagnostic applications. It demonstrates the performance of an optimized computational pipeline in a pilot study of chronic lymphocytic leukemia data from the authors' clinical diagnostic laboratory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An automated analysis of highly complex flow cytometry-based proteomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchlý, Jan; Kanderová, Veronika; Fišer, Karel; Cerná, Daniela; Holm, Anders; Wu, Weiwei; Hrušák, Ondřej; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Kalina, Tomáš

    2012-02-01

    The combination of color-coded microspheres as carriers and flow cytometry as a detection platform provides new opportunities for multiplexed measurement of biomolecules. Here, we developed a software tool capable of automated gating of color-coded microspheres, automatic extraction of statistics from all subsets and validation, normalization, and cross-sample analysis. The approach presented in this article enabled us to harness the power of high-content cellular proteomics. In size exclusion chromatography-resolved microsphere-based affinity proteomics (Size-MAP), antibody-coupled microspheres are used to measure biotinylated proteins that have been separated by size exclusion chromatography. The captured proteins are labeled with streptavidin phycoerythrin and detected by multicolor flow cytometry. When the results from multiple size exclusion chromatography fractions are combined, binding is detected as discrete reactivity peaks (entities). The information obtained might be approximated to a multiplexed western blot. We used a microsphere set with >1,000 subsets, presenting an approach to extract biologically relevant information. The R-project environment was used to sequentially recognize subsets in two-dimensional space and gate them. The aim was to extract the median streptavidin phycoerythrin fluorescence intensity for all 1,000+ microsphere subsets from a series of 96 measured samples. The resulting text files were subjected to algorithms that identified entities across the 24 fractions. Thus, the original 24 data points for each antibody were compressed to 1-4 integrated values representing the areas of individual antibody reactivity peaks. Finally, we provide experimental data on cellular protein changes induced by treatment of leukemia cells with imatinib mesylate. The approach presented here exemplifies how large-scale flow cytometry data analysis can be efficiently processed to employ flow cytometry as a high-content proteomics method. Copyright

  13. Stabilization of pre-optimized multicolor antibody cocktails for flow cytometry applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ray Chun-Fai; Kotner, Joshua S; Chuang, Christine Ming-Hui; Gaur, Amitabh

    2017-11-01

    Flow cytometry has a multitude of applications in nearly all fields of biology. Newly described biological markers enable the creation of novel reagents which then aid in the elucidation of unique subsets of cells and their potential role in health and disease. In order to enable the simultaneous detection of an even greater number of parameters, the future progress of flow cytometry relies on advances in instrument engineering and the parallel development of new fluorophores. In order to address the issues of reagent reliability, reproducibility, and work-flow optimization, we have used the freeze-dry technique to stabilize pre-mixed, pre-optimized, multicolor 'cocktails' of antibodies within 12 × 75 mm flow cytometry tubes (Lyotube). In this study we describe several lyophilized stabilized reagent combinations that are functional for extended periods of time (18 months and beyond), and can be stored at ambient temperature, eliminating cold-chain requirements during transportation and storage. This improves precision and reduces the redundant labor and error-potential associated with mixing antibodies to create "home-brew" cocktails. We have stained different types of samples including normal and leukemic whole blood, bone marrow, and PBMCs, as well as cell lines, directly with BD Lyotube reagents: The data show comparable and consistent performance of multiple batches of dehydrated, stabilized mixtures of antibodies and their liquid counterparts. The approach we describe here, the Lyotube, facilitates the improvement and implementation of standardization measures in clinical settings and in multi-site studies, a useful tool which can also be applied to determining the efficacy and safety of candidate therapeutics and vaccines. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  14. Two-step protocol for preparing adherent cells for high-throughput flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Mandeep; Esau, Luke

    2015-09-01

    We have developed a simple, cost-effective, and labor-efficient two-step protocol for preparing adherent cells for high-throughput flow cytometry. Adherent cells were grown on microplates, detached with 2.9 mM EDTA (pH 6.14) added directly to wells containing cell culture medium, stained, and then analyzed on a flow cytometer. This protocol bypasses washing, centrifugation, and transfer between plates, reducing the cell loss that occurs in standard multistep protocols. The method has been validated using six adherent cell lines, four commercially available dyes, and two antibodies; the results have been confirmed using two different flow cytometry (FC) instruments. Our approach has been used for estimating apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive oxygen species, and autophagy in response to exposure to pure compounds as well as plant and bacterial extracts.

  15. Application of Digital Image Analysis and Flow Cytometry To Enumerate Marine Viruses Stained with SYBR Gold†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Lu, Jing-rang; Binder, Brian J.; Liu, Ying-chun; Hodson, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    A novel nucleic acid stain, SYBR Gold, was used to stain marine viral particles in various types of samples. Viral particles stained with SYBR Gold yielded bright and stable fluorescent signals that could be detected by a cooled charge-coupled device camera or by flow cytometry. The fluorescent signal strength of SYBR Gold-stained viruses was about twice that of SYBR Green I-stained viruses. Digital images of SYBR Gold-stained viral particles were processed to enumerate the concentration of viral particles by using digital image analysis software. Estimates of viral concentration based on digitized images were 1.3 times higher than those based on direct counting by epifluorescence microscopy. Direct epifluorescence counts of SYBR Gold-stained viral particles were in turn about 1.34 times higher than those estimated by the transmission electron microscope method. Bacteriophage lysates stained with SYBR Gold formed a distinct population in flow cytometric signatures. Flow cytometric analysis revealed at least four viral subpopulations for a Lake Erie sample and two subpopulations for a Georgia coastal sample. Flow cytometry-based viral counts for various types of samples averaged 1.1 times higher than direct epifluorescence microscopic counts. The potential application of digital image analysis and flow cytometry for rapid and accurate measurement of viral abundance in aquatic environments is discussed. PMID:11157214

  16. Using flow cytometry for counting natural planktonic bacteria and understanding the structure of planktonic bacterial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. Gasol

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Flow cytometry is rapidly becoming a routine methodology in aquatic microbial ecology. The combination of simple to use bench-top flow cytometers and highly fluorescent nucleic acid stains allows fast and easy determination of microbe abundance in the plankton of lakes and oceans. The different dyes and protocols used to stain and count planktonic bacteria as well as the equipment in use are reviewed, with special attention to some of the problems encountered in daily routine practice such as fixation, staining and absolute counting. One of the main advantages of flow cytometry over epifluorescence microscopy is the ability to obtain cell-specific measurements in large numbers of cells with limited effort. We discuss how this characteristic has been used for differentiating photosynthetic from non-photosynthetic prokaryotes, for measuring bacterial cell size and nucleic acid content, and for estimating the relative activity and physiological state of each cell. We also describe how some of the flow cytometrically obtained data can be used to characterize the role of microbes on carbon cycling in the aquatic environment and we prospect the likely avenues of progress in the study of planktonic prokaryotes through the use of flow cytometry.

  17. Utilization of imaging flow cytometry to define intermediates of megakaryopoiesis in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Kathleen E

    2015-08-01

    Imaging flow cytometry is a particularly powerful analytical approach for the study of megakaryopoiesis. It can utilize well-defined immunophenotypic markers as well as assess maturation of megakaryocytes by their increasing ploidy as they endoreplicate. Imaging flow cytometry can also assess morphometric cell characteristics of size and nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio, which are informative indications of maturation. However, megakaryopoiesis is challenging for flow cytometric analysis, particularly in vivo, because megakaryocytes are very rare in the bone marrow and their odd shape, high DNA content and cell size are similar to clumps of cells. Additionally, both megakaryocytes and immunophenotypically similar platelets are frequently found associated with other cells. Due to these challenges, imaging flow cytometry of megakaryopoiesis exemplifies several strengths of this approach in utilizing fluorescent signal's shape, texture and overlap with other fluorescent signals to distinguish megakaryocytes from a variety of contaminants and to restrict analysis to megakaryocytes, even when associated with other cells. Presented here is a strategy for imaging flow cytometric analysis of rare murine megakaryocytes directly from the bone marrow as well those grown in vitro and analyzed as live cells, or after fixation and permeabilization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Screening of carcinoma metastasis by flow cytometry: A study of 238 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Maria; Pereira, José; Arroz, Maria

    2016-05-01

    Malignant epithelial cells may be detected in different specimens, by immunophenotyping using flow cytometry (FCM). CD326 (epithelial-specific antigen, clone Ber-Ep4) was used to identify epithelial cells, CD45 to discriminate between leucocytes (positive for this antigen) and non-hematological cells (negative for this antigen), and CD33 to identify monocytes/macrophages. This combination is particularly useful in effusions to characterize large cells and distinguish between monocyte/macrophages (CD45+ CD33+ CD326-), mesothelial cells (CD45 ± (dim) CD33 - CD326-) and epithelial cells (CD45 - CD33 - CD326 +). We evaluated the efficiency of flow cytometry to detect malignant epithelial cells in 238 fresh samples, including effusions, lymph node biopsies, fine needle aspirates, bone marrow aspirates, cerebrospinal fluid, among others. These are specimens expected to lack epithelial cells. FCM results were then compared to the results of smear and cell block morphology, as well as immunocytochemistry on paraffin wax embedded cell blocks, when available. Final diagnosis was the gold standard and a very good sensitivity (96.7%) and specificity (99.3%) were obtained. We concluded that the detection of CD326 positive cells using FCM is strongly indicative of the presence of carcinoma cells. © 2015 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2015 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  19. Sepsis-induced immune alterations monitoring by flow cytometry as a promising tool for individualized therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monneret, Guillaume; Venet, Fabienne

    2016-07-01

    Septic syndromes remain a major although largely under-recognized health care problem and represent the first cause of mortality in intensive care units. While sepsis has, for long, been solely described as inducing a tremendous systemic inflammatory response, novel findings indicate that sepsis indeed initiates a more complex immunologic response that varies over time, with the concomitant occurrence of both pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. As a resultant, after a short proinflammatory phase, septic patients enter a stage of protracted immunosuppression. This is illustrated in those patients by reactivation of dormant viruses (CMV or HSV) or infections due to pathogens, including fungi, which are normally pathogenic solely in immunocompromised hosts. Although mechanisms are not totally understood, these alterations might be directly responsible for worsening outcome in patients who survived initial resuscitation as nearly all immune functions are deeply compromised. Indeed, the magnitude and persistence over time of these dysfunctions have been associated with increased mortality and health-care associated infection rate. Consequently, new promising therapeutic avenues are currently emerging from those recent findings such as adjunctive immunostimulation (IFN-γ, GM-CSF, IL-7, anti-PD1/L1 antibodies) for the most immunosuppressed patients. Nevertheless, as there is no clinical sign of immune dysfunctions, the prerequisite for such therapeutic intervention relies on our capacity in identifying the patients who could benefit from immunostimulation. To date, the most robust biomarkers of sepsis-induced immunosuppression are measured by flow cytometry. Of them, the decreased expression of monocyte HLA-DR appears as a "gold standard." This review reports on the mechanisms sustaining sepsis-induced immunosuppression and its related biomarkers measurable by flow cytometry. The objective is to integrate the most recent facts in an up-to-date account of clinical

  20. Measurement of lymphocyte aggregation by flow cytometry-physiological implications in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezorella, Nili; Kay, Sigi; Baron, Shoshana; Shapiro, Mika; Porat, Ziv; Deutsch, Varda; Herishanu, Yair; Katz, Ben-Zion

    2016-05-01

    Cellular aggregation is a physiological response of lymphocytes to various extracellular stimuli. Currently, lymphocytes aggregation is only evaluated qualitatively or by semiquantitative methods. In this study, we assessed the capacity of flow cytometry to measure lymphocytes aggregation in a quantitative, accurate, and reproducible manner, and examined the significance of aggregation responses in various lymphoproliferative diseases. Extracellular triggers such as anti-CD19 antibodies or phorbol ester were utilized to induce lymphoid cells aggregation in a concentration dependent manner. Aggregation was quantified by flow cytometry based on the forward or side scatter (SSC), or by dark-field SSC of aggregates measured by ImageStreamX. Accuracy, reproducibility, and limitations of the methodology were evaluated. Aggregation responses were measured in various types of lymphoproliferative diseases, and correlated with immunophenotyping and IGHV mutational status in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Lymphoid aggregates provoked by extracellular stimuli elevate the forward and SSC signals relatively to the number of cells in each event. Aggregation responses vary among different types of lymphoproliferative diseases. Moreover, elevated levels of CD19-induced aggregation are associated with aberrant chronic lymphocytic leukemia characteristics, but not with IGHV mutational status of the disease We have demonstrated that flow cytometry can provide accurate and reproducible measurement of both primary as well as T and B cell lines aggregation in response to extracellular stimuli. The use of quantitative evaluation of activation driven or other cellular aggregation may provide an analytical tool to elucidate biochemical and molecular mechanisms associated with lymphoproliferative diseases. © 2015 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2015 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  1. Wide-field fluorescent microscopy and fluorescent imaging flow cytometry on a cell-phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-04-11

    Fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry are widely used tools in biomedical research and clinical diagnosis. However these devices are in general relatively bulky and costly, making them less effective in the resource limited settings. To potentially address these limitations, we have recently demonstrated the integration of wide-field fluorescent microscopy and imaging flow cytometry tools on cell-phones using compact, light-weight, and cost-effective opto-fluidic attachments. In our flow cytometry design, fluorescently labeled cells are flushed through a microfluidic channel that is positioned above the existing cell-phone camera unit. Battery powered light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are butt-coupled to the side of this microfluidic chip, which effectively acts as a multi-mode slab waveguide, where the excitation light is guided to uniformly excite the fluorescent targets. The cell-phone camera records a time lapse movie of the fluorescent cells flowing through the microfluidic channel, where the digital frames of this movie are processed to count the number of the labeled cells within the target solution of interest. Using a similar opto-fluidic design, we can also image these fluorescently labeled cells in static mode by e.g. sandwiching the fluorescent particles between two glass slides and capturing their fluorescent images using the cell-phone camera, which can achieve a spatial resolution of e.g. - 10 μm over a very large field-of-view of - 81 mm(2). This cell-phone based fluorescent imaging flow cytometry and microscopy platform might be useful especially in resource limited settings, for e.g. counting of CD4+ T cells toward monitoring of HIV+ patients or for detection of water-borne parasites in drinking water.

  2. A Flow Cytometry Protocol to Estimate DNA Content in the Yellowtail Tetra Astyanax altiparanae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Pedro L P; Senhorini, José A; Pereira-Santos, Matheus; Fujimoto, Takafumi; Shimoda, Eduardo; Silva, Luciano A; Dos Santos, Silvio A; Yasui, George S

    2017-01-01

    The production of triploid yellowtail tetra Astyanax altiparanae is a key factor to obtain permanently sterile individuals by chromosome set manipulation. Flow cytometric analysis is the main tool for confirmation of the resultant triploids individuals, but very few protocols are specific for A. altiparanae species. The current study has developed a protocol to estimate DNA content in this species. Furthermore, a protocol for long-term storage of dorsal fins used for flow cytometry analysis was established. The combination of five solutions with three detergents (Nonidet P-40 Substitute, Tween 20, and Triton X-100) at 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4% concentration was evaluated. Using the best solution from this first experiment, the addition of trypsin (0.125, 0.25, and 0.5%) and sucrose (74 mM) and the effects of increased concentrations of the detergents at 0.6 and 1.2% concentration were also evaluated. After adjustment of the protocol for flow cytometry, preservation of somatic tissue or isolated nuclei was also evaluated by freezing (at -20°C) and fixation in saturated NaCl solution, acetic methanol (1:3), ethanol, and formalin at 10% for 30 or 60 days of storage at 25°C. Flow cytometry analysis in yellowtail tetra species was optimized using the following conditions: lysis solution: 9.53 mM MgCl2.7H20; 47.67 mM KCl; 15 mM Tris; 74 mM sucrose, 0.6% Triton X-100, pH 8.0; staining solution: Dulbecco's PBS with DAPI 1 μg mL(-1); preservation procedure: somatic cells (dorsal fin samples) frozen at -20°C. Using this protocol, samples may be stored up to 60 days with good accuracy for flow cytometry analysis.

  3. An introduction to automated flow cytometry gating tools and their implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris P Verschoor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Current flow cytometry reagents and instrumentation allow for the measurement of an unprecedented number of parameters for any given cell within a homogenous or heterogeneous population. While this provides a great deal of power for hypothesis testing, it also generates a vast amount of data, which is typically analyzed manually through a processing called gating. For large experiments, such as high-content screens, in which many parameters are measured, the time required for manual analysis as well as the technical variability inherent to manual gating can increase dramatically, even becoming prohibitive depending on the clinical or research goal. In the following article, we aim to provide the reader an overview of automated flow cytometry analysis as well as an example of the implementation of FLOCK (FLOw Clustering without K, a tool that we consider accessible to researchers of all levels of computational expertise. In most cases, computational assistance methods are more reproducible and much faster than manual gating, and for some, also allow for the discovery of cellular populations that might not be expected or evident to the researcher. We urge any researcher that is planning or has previously performed large flow cytometry experiments to consider implementing computational assistance into their analysis pipeline.

  4. Analysis of flow cytometry data by matrix relevance learning vector quantization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Biehl

    Full Text Available Flow cytometry is a widely used technique for the analysis of cell populations in the study and diagnosis of human diseases. It yields large amounts of high-dimensional data, the analysis of which would clearly benefit from efficient computational approaches aiming at automated diagnosis and decision support. This article presents our analysis of flow cytometry data in the framework of the DREAM6/FlowCAP2 Molecular Classification of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML Challenge, 2011. In the challenge, example data was provided for a set of 179 subjects, comprising healthy donors and 23 cases of AML. The participants were asked to provide predictions with respect to the condition of 180 patients in a test set. We extracted feature vectors from the data in terms of single marker statistics, including characteristic moments, median and interquartile range of the observed values. Subsequently, we applied Generalized Matrix Relevance Learning Vector Quantization (GMLVQ, a machine learning technique which extends standard LVQ by an adaptive distance measure. Our method achieved the best possible performance with respect to the diagnoses of test set patients. The extraction of features from the flow cytometry data is outlined in detail, the machine learning approach is discussed and classification results are presented. In addition, we illustrate how GMLVQ can provide deeper insight into the problem by allowing to infer the relevance of specific markers and features for the diagnosis.

  5. Optimizing transformations for automated, high throughput analysis of flow cytometry data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Andrew

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a high throughput setting, effective flow cytometry data analysis depends heavily on proper data preprocessing. While usual preprocessing steps of quality assessment, outlier removal, normalization, and gating have received considerable scrutiny from the community, the influence of data transformation on the output of high throughput analysis has been largely overlooked. Flow cytometry measurements can vary over several orders of magnitude, cell populations can have variances that depend on their mean fluorescence intensities, and may exhibit heavily-skewed distributions. Consequently, the choice of data transformation can influence the output of automated gating. An appropriate data transformation aids in data visualization and gating of cell populations across the range of data. Experience shows that the choice of transformation is data specific. Our goal here is to compare the performance of different transformations applied to flow cytometry data in the context of automated gating in a high throughput, fully automated setting. We examine the most common transformations used in flow cytometry, including the generalized hyperbolic arcsine, biexponential, linlog, and generalized Box-Cox, all within the BioConductor flowCore framework that is widely used in high throughput, automated flow cytometry data analysis. All of these transformations have adjustable parameters whose effects upon the data are non-intuitive for most users. By making some modelling assumptions about the transformed data, we develop maximum likelihood criteria to optimize parameter choice for these different transformations. Results We compare the performance of parameter-optimized and default-parameter (in flowCore data transformations on real and simulated data by measuring the variation in the locations of cell populations across samples, discovered via automated gating in both the scatter and fluorescence channels. We find that parameter

  6. Detection of Intracellular Factor VIII Protein in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells by Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouri Shankar Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow cytometry is widely used in cancer research for diagnosis, detection of minimal residual disease, as well as immune monitoring and profiling following immunotherapy. Detection of specific host proteins for diagnosis predominantly uses quantitative PCR and western blotting assays. In this study, we optimized a flow cytometry-based detection assay for Factor VIII protein in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. An indirect intracellular staining (ICS method was standardized using monoclonal antibodies to different domains of human Factor VIII protein. The FVIII protein expression level was estimated by calculating the mean and median fluorescence intensities (MFI values for each monoclonal antibody. ICS staining of transiently transfected cell lines supported the method's specificity. Intracellular FVIII protein expression was also detected by the monoclonal antibodies used in the study in PBMCs of five blood donors. In summary, our data suggest that intracellular FVIII detection in PBMCs of hemophilia A patients can be a rapid and reliable method to detect intracellular FVIII levels.

  7. Screening of Compounds Toxicity against Human Monocytic cell line-THP-1 by Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pick Neora

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide rapid increase in bacterial resistance to numerous antibiotics requires on-going development of new drugs to enter the market. As the development of new antibiotics is lengthy and costly, early monitoring of compound's toxicity is essential in the development of novel agents. Our interest is in a rapid, simple, high throughput screening method to assess cytotoxicity induced by potential agents. Some intracellular pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis primary site of infection is human alveolar macrophages. Thus, evaluation of candidate drugs for macrophage toxicity is crucial. Protocols for high throughput drug toxicity screening of macrophages using flow cytometry are lacking in the literature. For this application we modified a preexisting technique, propidium iodide (PI exclusion staining and utilized it for rapid toxicity tests. Samples were prepared in 96 well plates and analyzed by flow cytometry, which allowed for rapid, inexpensive and precise assessment of compound's toxicity associated with cell death.

  8. High resolution DNA flow cytometry of boar sperm cells in identification of boars carrying cytogenetic aberrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob; Christensen, Knud; Larsen, Jørgen K

    2004-01-01

    -resolution DNA flow cytometry on DAPI-stained sperm cell nuclei (CV animals judged normal by their fertility statistics and a series of seven animals with known reciprocal translocations, a model...... for identifying sperm cells from cytogenetically aberrant animals was proposed. This model was applied to a series of 50 uncharacterized animals. The model successfully identified a mosaic or chimaeric carrier of an aberrant X chromosome. However, implementation of this technique for screening purposes would...

  9. Evaluation of T cell subsets by an immunocytochemical method compared to flow cytometry in four countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Böttiger, B; Christensen, L B

    1997-01-01

    to the corresponding results obtained by flow cytometry (FC) performed in the respective countries. The authors found good correspondence between the two methods for measurements of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes independent of serological status and geographical site. However, the CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes values obtained...... results. Replicate measurements suggested good correspondence between results obtained by IA. By using an IA level of

  10. Polyploidy in the olive complex (Olea europaea): Evidence from flow cytometry and nuclear microsatellite analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besnard, G.; Garcia-Verdugo, C.; Rubio de Casas, R.

    2008-01-01

    putative polyploidization events and their evolutionary significance in the diversification of the olive tree and its relatives. Methods: Representatives of the six olive subspecies were investigated using (a) flow cytometry to estimate genome content, and (b) six highly variable nuclear microsatellites....... Lastly, abnormalities in chromosomes inheritance leading to aneuploid formation were revealed using microsatellite analyses in the offspring from the controlled cross in subsp. maroccana. Conclusions: This study constitutes the first report for multiple polyploidy in olive tree relatives. Formation...

  11. Rapid Ganciclovir Susceptibility Assay Using Flow Cytometry for Human Cytomegalovirus Clinical Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSharry, James J.; Lurain, Nell S.; Drusano, George L.; Landay, Alan L.; Notka, Mostafa; O’Gorman, Maurice R. G.; Weinberg, Adriana; Shapiro, Howard M.; Reichelderfer, Patricia S.; Crumpacker, Clyde S.

    1998-01-01

    Rapid, quantitative, and objective determination of the susceptibilities of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) clinical isolates to ganciclovir has been assessed by an assay that uses a fluorochrome-labeled monoclonal antibody to an HCMV immediate-early antigen and flow cytometry. Analysis of the ganciclovir susceptibilities of 25 phenotypically characterized clinical isolates by flow cytometry demonstrated that the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of ganciclovir for 19 of the isolates were between 1.14 and 6.66 μM, with a mean of 4.32 μM (±1.93) (sensitive; IC50 less than 7 μM), the IC50s for 2 isolates were 8.48 and 9.79 μM (partially resistant), and the IC50s for 4 isolates were greater than 96 μM (resistant). Comparative analysis of the drug susceptibilities of these clinical isolates by the plaque reduction assay gave IC50s of less than 6 μM, with a mean of 2.88 μM (±1.40) for the 19 drug-sensitive isolates, IC50s of 6 to 8 μM for the partially resistant isolates, and IC50s of greater than 12 μM for the four resistant clinical isolates. Comparison of the IC50s for the drug-susceptible and partially resistant clinical isolates obtained by the flow cytometry assay with the IC50s obtained by the plaque reduction assay showed an acceptable correlation (r2 = 0.473; P = 0.001), suggesting that the flow cytometry assay could substitute for the more labor-intensive, subjective, and time-consuming plaque reduction assay. PMID:9736557

  12. Characterization and use of a rabbit-anti-mouse VPAC1 antibody by flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Rebecca J.; Van der Steen, Travis; Vomhof-DeKrey, Emilie E.; Benton, Keith D.; Failing, Jarrett J.; Haring, Jodie S.; Dorsam, Glenn P.

    2011-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor – 1 signaling in lymphocytes has been shown to regulate chemotaxis, proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. During T cell activation, VPAC1 mRNA is downregulated, but the effect on its protein levels is less clear. A small number of studies have reported measurement of human VPAC1 by flow cytometry, but murine VPAC1 reagents are unavailable. Therefore, we set out to generate a reliable and highly specific α-mouse VPAC1 polyclonal antibody for use with flow cytometry. After successfully generating a rabbit α-VPAC1 polyclonal antibody (α-mVPAC1 pAb), we characterized its cross-reactivity and showed that it does not recognize other family receptors (mouse VPAC2 and PAC1, human VPAC1, VPAC2 and PAC1) by flow cytometry. Partial purification of the rabbit α-VPAC1 sera increased the specific-activity of the α-mVPAC1 pAb by 20-fold, and immunofluorescence microscopy (IF) confirmed a plasma membrane subcellular localization for mouse VPAC1 protein. To test the usefulness of this specific α-mVPAC1 pAb, we showed that primary, resting mouse T cells express detectable levels of VPAC1 protein, with little detectable signal from activated T cells, or CD19 B cells. These data support our previously published data showing a downregulation of VPAC1 mRNA during T cell activation. Collectively, we have established a well-characterized, and highly species specific α-mVPAC1 pAb for VPAC1 surface measurement by IF and flow cytometry. PMID:22079255

  13. Application of flow cytometry to monitor assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and microbial community changes in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhadidy, Ahmed M; Van Dyke, Michele I; Peldszus, Sigrid; Huck, Peter M

    2016-11-01

    Flow cytometry is an efficient monitoring tool for rapid cell counting, and can be applied to research on water quality and treatment. In this study, a method that employs flow cytometry and a natural microbial inoculum to determine assimilable organic carbon (AOC) was adapted for use with challenging surface waters that have a high organic and particle content, and subsequently applied in a long term river water study. AOC method optimization showed that river water bacteria could pass through a 0.2μm membrane filter, and therefore membrane filtration combined with heat treatment was required for sample sterilization. Preparation of the natural river inoculum with an acceptable yield value could only be achieved when grown using the natural water source, since growth was limited on different types of inorganic minimal media and in natural spring water. The resulting flow cytometry AOC method was reliable and reproducible, and results were comparable to the standard plate count AOC method. Size exclusion chromatography showed that both high and low molecular weight organic matter fractions were utilized by the natural AOC inoculum. Flow cytometry was used to measure both AOC levels and total cell counts in a long term study to monitor the water quality of a river which was used as a drinking water source. The method could distinguish between high nucleic acid (HNA) and low nucleic acid (LNA) groups of bacteria, and HNA bacteria were found to respond faster than LNA bacteria to seasonal changes in nutrients and water temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Technical advances in flow cytometry-based diagnosis and monitoring of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Rodolfo Patussi; Bento, Laiz Cameirão; Bortolucci, Ana Carolina Apelle; Alexandre, Anderson Marega; Vaz, Andressa da Costa; Schimidell, Daniela; Pedro, Eduardo de Carvalho; Perin, Fabricio Simões; Nozawa, Sonia Tsukasa; Mendes, Cláudio Ernesto Albers; Barroso, Rodrigo de Souza; Bacal, Nydia Strachman

    2016-01-01

    To discuss the implementation of technical advances in laboratory diagnosis and monitoring of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria for validation of high-sensitivity flow cytometry protocols. A retrospective study based on analysis of laboratory data from 745 patient samples submitted to flow cytometry for diagnosis and/or monitoring of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Implementation of technical advances reduced test costs and improved flow cytometry resolution for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clone detection. High-sensitivity flow cytometry allowed more sensitive determination of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clone type and size, particularly in samples with small clones. Discutir as melhorias técnicas no diagnóstico e no acompanhamento laboratorial de hemoglobinúria paroxística noturna para a validação da técnica de citometria de fluxo de alta sensibilidade. Estudo retrospectivo, que envolveu a análise de dados laboratoriais de 745 pacientes com hipótese diagnóstica e/ou acompanhamento de hemoglobinúria paroxística noturna por citometria de fluxo. Os avanços técnicos não só reduziram o custo do ensaio, mas também melhoraram a identificação e a resolução da citometria de fluxo para a detecção de clone hemoglobinúria paroxística noturna. A citometria de fluxo de alta sensibilidade possibilitou a identificação do tipo e do tamanho de clone de hemoglobinúria paroxística noturna, especialmente em amostras com pequeno clone.

  15. A theorem proving approach for automatically synthesizing visualizations of flow cytometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Sunny; Hussain, Faraz; Husein, Zubir; Torosdagli, Neslisah; Turgut, Damla; Deo, Narsingh; Pattanaik, Sumanta; Chang, Chung-Che Jeff; Jha, Sumit Kumar

    2017-06-07

    Polychromatic flow cytometry is a popular technique that has wide usage in the medical sciences, especially for studying phenotypic properties of cells. The high-dimensionality of data generated by flow cytometry usually makes it difficult to visualize. The naive solution of simply plotting two-dimensional graphs for every combination of observables becomes impractical as the number of dimensions increases. A natural solution is to project the data from the original high dimensional space to a lower dimensional space while approximately preserving the overall relationship between the data points. The expert can then easily visualize and analyze this low-dimensional embedding of the original dataset. This paper describes a new method, SANJAY, for visualizing high-dimensional flow cytometry datasets. This technique uses a decision procedure to automatically synthesize two-dimensional and three-dimensional projections of the original high-dimensional data while trying to minimize distortion. We compare SANJAY to the popular multidimensional scaling (MDS) approach for visualization of small data sets drawn from a representative set of benchmarks, and our experiments show that SANJAY produces distortions that are 1.44 to 4.15 times smaller than those caused due to MDS. Our experimental results show that SANJAY also outperforms the Random Projections technique in terms of the distortions in the projections. We describe a new algorithmic technique that uses a symbolic decision procedure to automatically synthesize low-dimensional projections of flow cytometry data that typically have a high number of dimensions. Our algorithm is the first application, to our knowledge, of using automated theorem proving for automatically generating highly-accurate, low-dimensional visualizations of high-dimensional data.

  16. Novel flow cytometry approach to identify bronchial epithelial cells from healthy human airways

    OpenAIRE

    Danay Maestre-Batlle; Pena, Olga M.; Hirota, Jeremy A.; Evelyn Gunawan; Rider, Christopher F.; Darren Sutherland; Alexis, Neil E.; Chris Carlsten

    2017-01-01

    Sampling various compartments within the lower airways to examine human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) is essential for understanding numerous lung diseases. Conventional methods to identify HBEC in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and wash (BW) have throughput limitations in terms of efficiency and ensuring adequate cell numbers for quantification. Flow cytometry can provide high-throughput quantification of cell number and function in BAL and BW samples, while requiring low cell numbers. To ...

  17. In vivo, label-free, and noninvasive detection of melanoma metastasis by photoacoustic flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongrong; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Cheng; Wang, Xueding; Wei, Xunbin

    2014-02-01

    Melanoma, a malignant tumor of melanocytes, is the most serious type of skin cancer in the world. It accounts for about 80% of deaths of all skin cancer. For cancer detection, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) serve as a marker for metastasis development, cancer recurrence, and therapeutic efficacy. Melanoma tumor cells have high content of melanin, which has high light absorption and can serve as endogenous biomarker for CTC detection without labeling. Here, we have developed an in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC) to monitor the metastatic process of melanoma cancer by counting CTCs of melanoma tumor bearing mice in vivo. To test in vivo PAFC's capability of detecting melanoma cancer, we have constructed a melanoma tumor model by subcutaneous inoculation of highly metastatic murine melanoma cancer cells, B16F10. In order to effectively distinguish the targeting PA signals from background noise, we have used the algorithm of Wavelet denoising method to reduce the background noise. The in vivo flow cytometry (IVFC) has shown a great potential for detecting circulating tumor cells quantitatively in the blood stream. Compared with fluorescence-based in vivo flow cytometry (IVFC), PAFC technique can be used for in vivo, label-free, and noninvasive detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs).

  18. Leukocyte Populations in Human Preterm and Term Breast Milk Identified by Multicolour Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trend, Stephanie; de Jong, Emma; Lloyd, Megan L; Kok, Chooi Heen; Richmond, Peter; Doherty, Dorota A; Simmer, Karen; Kakulas, Foteini; Strunk, Tobias; Currie, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Extremely preterm infants are highly susceptible to bacterial infections but breast milk provides some protection. It is unknown if leukocyte numbers and subsets in milk differ between term and preterm breast milk. This study serially characterised leukocyte populations in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants using multicolour flow cytometry methods for extended differential leukocyte counts in blood. Sixty mothers of extremely preterm (mature milk (d26-30) samples were collected, cells isolated, and leukocyte subsets analysed using flow cytometry. The major CD45+ leukocyte populations circulating in blood were also detectable in breast milk but at different frequencies. Progression of lactation was associated with decreasing CD45+ leukocyte concentration, as well as increases in the relative frequencies of neutrophils and immature granulocytes, and decreases in the relative frequencies of eosinophils, myeloid and B cell precursors, and CD16- monocytes. No differences were observed between preterm and term breast milk in leukocyte concentration, though minor differences between preterm groups in some leukocyte frequencies were observed. Flow cytometry is a useful tool to identify and quantify leukocyte subsets in breast milk. The stage of lactation is associated with major changes in milk leukocyte composition in this population. Fresh preterm breast milk is not deficient in leukocytes, but shorter gestation may be associated with minor differences in leukocyte subset frequencies in preterm compared to term breast milk.

  19. Discovering cell types in flow cytometry data with random matrix theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yang; Nussenblatt, Robert; Losert, Wolfgang

    Flow cytometry is a widely used experimental technique in immunology research. During the experiments, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from a single patient, labeled with multiple fluorescent stains that bind to different proteins, are illuminated by a laser. The intensity of each stain on a single cell is recorded and reflects the amount of protein expressed by that cell. The data analysis focuses on identifying specific cell types related to a disease. Different cell types can be identified by the type and amount of protein they express. To date, this has most often been done manually by labelling a protein as expressed or not while ignoring the amount of expression. Using a cross correlation matrix of stain intensities, which contains both information on the proteins expressed and their amount, has been largely ignored by researchers as it suffers from measurement noise. Here we present an algorithm to identify cell types in flow cytometry data which uses random matrix theory (RMT) to reduce noise in a cross correlation matrix. We demonstrate our method using a published flow cytometry data set. Compared with previous analysis techniques, we were able to rediscover relevant cell types in an automatic way. Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742.

  20. Flow cytometry community fingerprinting and amplicon sequencing for the assessment of landfill leachate cellulolytic bioaugmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinet, R; Dzaomuho, P; Baert, J; Taminiau, B; Daube, G; Nezer, C; Brostaux, Y; Nguyen, F; Dumont, G; Thonart, P; Delvigne, F

    2016-08-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is a high throughput single cell technology that is actually becoming widely used for studying phenotypic and genotypic diversity among microbial communities. This technology is considered in this work for the assessment of a bioaugmentation treatment in order to enhance cellulolytic potential of landfill leachate. The experimental results reveal the relevant increase of leachate cellulolytic potential due to bioaugmentation. Cytometric monitoring of microbial dynamics along these assays is then realized. The flow FP package is used to establish microbial samples fingerprint from initial 2D cytometry histograms. This procedure allows highlighting microbial communities' variation along the assays. Cytometric and 16S rRNA gene sequencing fingerprinting methods are then compared. The two approaches give same evidence about microbial dynamics throughout digestion assay. There are however a lack of significant correlation between cytometric and amplicon sequencing fingerprint at genus or species level. Same phenotypical profiles of microbiota during assays matched to several 16S rRNA gene sequencing ones. Flow cytometry fingerprinting can thus be considered as a promising routine on-site method suitable for the detection of stability/variation/disturbance of complex microbial communities involved in bioprocesses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Integration of lyoplate based flow cytometry and computational analysis for standardized immunological biomarker discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanova, Federica; Di Meglio, Paola; Inokuma, Margaret; Aghaeepour, Nima; Perucha, Esperanza; Mollon, Jennifer; Nomura, Laurel; Hernandez-Fuentes, Maria; Cope, Andrew; Prevost, A Toby; Heck, Susanne; Maino, Vernon; Lord, Graham; Brinkman, Ryan R; Nestle, Frank O

    2013-01-01

    Discovery of novel immune biomarkers for monitoring of disease prognosis and response to therapy in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases is an important unmet clinical need. Here, we establish a novel framework for immunological biomarker discovery, comparing a conventional (liquid) flow cytometry platform (CFP) and a unique lyoplate-based flow cytometry platform (LFP) in combination with advanced computational data analysis. We demonstrate that LFP had higher sensitivity compared to CFP, with increased detection of cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-10) and activation markers (Foxp3 and CD25). Fluorescent intensity of cells stained with lyophilized antibodies was increased compared to cells stained with liquid antibodies. LFP, using a plate loader, allowed medium-throughput processing of samples with comparable intra- and inter-assay variability between platforms. Automated computational analysis identified novel immunophenotypes that were not detected with manual analysis. Our results establish a new flow cytometry platform for standardized and rapid immunological biomarker discovery with wide application to immune-mediated diseases.

  2. Candidiasis and the impact of flow cytometry on antifungal drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Tsun Sheng N; Bernardo, Stella; Walraven, Carla J; Lee, Samuel A

    2017-11-01

    Invasive candidiasis continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality as well as substantial health care costs nationally and globally. One of the contributing factors is the development of resistance to antifungal agents that are already in clinical use. Moreover, there are known treatment limitations with all of the available antifungal agents. Since traditional techniques in novel drug discovery are time consuming, high-throughput screening using flow cytometry presents as a potential tool to identify new antifungal agents that would be useful in the management of these patients. Areas covered: In this review, the authors discuss the use of automated high-throughput screening assays based upon flow cytometry to identify potential antifungals from a library comprised of a large number of bioactive compounds. They also review studies that employed the use of this research methodology that has identified compounds with antifungal activity. Expert opinion: High-throughput screening using flow cytometry has substantially decreased the processing time necessary for screening thousands of compounds, and has helped enhance our understanding of fungal pathogenesis. Indeed, the authors see this technology as a powerful tool to help scientists identify new antifungal agents that can be added to the clinician's arsenal in their fight against invasive candidiasis.

  3. Investigating γ H2AX as a Biomarker of Radiosensitivity Using Flow Cytometry Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Lindsay A; Marro, Leonora; Malone, Shawn; Samiee, Sara; Grimes, Scott; Malone, Kyle; Wilkins, Ruth C

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose. This project examined the in vitro   γ H2AX response in lymphocytes of prostate cancer patients who had a radiosensitive response after receiving radiotherapy. The goal of this project was to determine whether the γ H2AX response, as measured by flow cytometry, could be used as a marker of individual patient radiosensitivity. Materials and Methods. Patients were selected from a randomized clinical trial evaluating the optimal timing of Dose Escalated Radiation and short-course Androgen Deprivation Therapy. Of 438 patients, 3% developed Grade 3 late radiation proctitis and were considered to be radiosensitive. Blood was drawn from 10 of these patients along with 20 matched samples from patients with Grade 0 proctitis. Dose response curves up to 10 Gy along with time response curves after 2 Gy (0-24 h) were generated for each sample. The γ H2AX response in lymphocytes and lymphocyte subsets was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results. There were no significant differences between the radiosensitive and control samples for either the dose course or the time course. Conclusions. Although γ H2AX response has previously been demonstrated to be an indicator of individual patient radiosensitivity, flow cytometry lacks the sensitivity necessary to distinguish any differences between samples from control and radiosensitive patients.

  4. In vivo assessment of rodent Plasmodium parasitemia and merozoite invasion by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelliott, Patrick M; McMorran, Brendan J; Foote, Simon J; Burgio, Gaetan

    2015-04-05

    During blood stage infection, malaria parasites invade, mature, and replicate within red blood cells (RBCs). This results in a regular growth cycle and an exponential increase in the proportion of malaria infected RBCs, known as parasitemia. We describe a flow cytometry based protocol which utilizes a combination of the DNA dye Hoechst, and the mitochondrial membrane potential dye, JC-1, to identify RBCs which contain parasites and therefore the parasitemia, of in vivo blood samples from Plasmodium chabaudi adami DS infected mice. Using this approach, in combination with fluorescently conjugated antibodies, parasitized RBCs can be distinguished from leukocytes, RBC progenitors, and RBCs containing Howell-Jolly bodies (HJ-RBCs), with a limit of detection of 0.007% parasitemia. Additionally, we outline a method for the comparative assessment of merozoite invasion into two different RBC populations. In this assay RBCs, labeled with two distinct compounds identifiable by flow cytometry, are transfused into infected mice. The relative rate of invasion into the two populations can then be assessed by flow cytometry based on the proportion of parasitized RBCs in each population over time. This combined approach allows the accurate measurement of both parasitemia and merozoite invasion in an in vivo model of malaria infection.

  5. Stochastic Individual-Based Modeling of Bacterial Growth and Division Using Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Míriam R. García

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A realistic description of the variability in bacterial growth and division is critical to produce reliable predictions of safety risks along the food chain. Individual-based modeling of bacteria provides the theoretical framework to deal with this variability, but it requires information about the individual behavior of bacteria inside populations. In this work, we overcome this problem by estimating the individual behavior of bacteria from population statistics obtained with flow cytometry. For this objective, a stochastic individual-based modeling framework is defined based on standard assumptions during division and exponential growth. The unknown single-cell parameters required for running the individual-based modeling simulations, such as cell size growth rate, are estimated from the flow cytometry data. Instead of using directly the individual-based model, we make use of a modified Fokker-Plank equation. This only equation simulates the population statistics in function of the unknown single-cell parameters. We test the validity of the approach by modeling the growth and division of Pediococcus acidilactici within the exponential phase. Estimations reveal the statistics of cell growth and division using only data from flow cytometry at a given time. From the relationship between the mother and daughter volumes, we also predict that P. acidilactici divide into two successive parallel planes.

  6. Leukocyte Populations in Human Preterm and Term Breast Milk Identified by Multicolour Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trend, Stephanie; de Jong, Emma; Lloyd, Megan L.; Kok, Chooi Heen; Richmond, Peter; Doherty, Dorota A.; Simmer, Karen; Kakulas, Foteini; Strunk, Tobias; Currie, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Extremely preterm infants are highly susceptible to bacterial infections but breast milk provides some protection. It is unknown if leukocyte numbers and subsets in milk differ between term and preterm breast milk. This study serially characterised leukocyte populations in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants using multicolour flow cytometry methods for extended differential leukocyte counts in blood. Methods Sixty mothers of extremely preterm (leukocyte subsets analysed using flow cytometry. Results The major CD45+ leukocyte populations circulating in blood were also detectable in breast milk but at different frequencies. Progression of lactation was associated with decreasing CD45+ leukocyte concentration, as well as increases in the relative frequencies of neutrophils and immature granulocytes, and decreases in the relative frequencies of eosinophils, myeloid and B cell precursors, and CD16- monocytes. No differences were observed between preterm and term breast milk in leukocyte concentration, though minor differences between preterm groups in some leukocyte frequencies were observed. Conclusions Flow cytometry is a useful tool to identify and quantify leukocyte subsets in breast milk. The stage of lactation is associated with major changes in milk leukocyte composition in this population. Fresh preterm breast milk is not deficient in leukocytes, but shorter gestation may be associated with minor differences in leukocyte subset frequencies in preterm compared to term breast milk. PMID:26288195

  7. Determining the contents and cell origins of apoptotic bodies by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lanzhou; Paone, Stephanie; Caruso, Sarah; Atkin-Smith, Georgia K; Phan, Thanh Kha; Hulett, Mark D; Poon, Ivan K H

    2017-10-31

    Over 200 billion cells undergo apoptosis every day in the human body in order to maintain tissue homeostasis. Increased apoptosis can also occur under pathological conditions including infection and autoimmune disease. During apoptosis, cells can fragment into subcellular membrane-bound vesicles known as apoptotic bodies (ApoBDs). We recently developed a flow cytometry-based method to accurately differentiate ApoBDs from other particles (e.g. cells and debris). In the present study, we aim to further characterize subsets of ApoBDs based on intracellular contents and cell type-specific surface markers. Utilizing a flow cytometry-based approach, we demonstrated that intracellular contents including nuclear materials and mitochondria are distributed to some, but not all ApoBDs. Interestingly, the mechanism of ApoBD formation could affect the distribution of intracellular contents into ApoBDs. Furthermore, we also showed that ApoBDs share the same surface markers as their cell of origin, which can be used to distinguish cell type-specific ApoBDs from a mixed culture. These studies demonstrate that ApoBDs are not homogeneous and can be divided into specific subclasses based on intracellular contents and cell surface markers. The described flow cytometry-based method to study ApoBDs could be used in future studies to better understand the function of ApoBDs.

  8. Quantification of natural killer cell polarization and visualization of synaptic granule externalization by imaging flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Dixita I; Mace, Emily M; Hsu, Hsiang-Ting; Orange, Jordan S

    2017-04-01

    Defining immunological mechanisms underlying NK cell biology is crucial for the treatment and prevention of immune deficiency and malignancy. The limited availability of human biological specimens presents a challenge to the study of human immunobiology. The use of high throughput, multi-parametric assays will not only aid in the definition and diagnosis of complex human immune disorders affecting NK cell function but also advance NK cell biology through population-based assessment of molecular signaling. In an effort to garner the most information from limited numbers of human cells, we designed a quantitative method to study NK cell function using imaging flow cytometry (IFC), which combines multiparametric flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Specifically, we developed IFC as a tool to measure polarization and secretion of lytic granules at the immunological synapse formed between an NK cell and a susceptible target. We have further validated our approach through quantitative comparison with high-resolution confocal microscopy. We show that IFC can be used as a quantitative, high throughput measure of NK cell biological function possessing greater dimensionality than standard flow cytometry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Utility of peripheral blood immunophenotyping by flow cytometry in the diagnosis of pediatric acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metrock, Laura K; Summers, Ryan J; Park, Sunita; Gillespie, Scott; Castellino, Sharon; Lew, Glen; Keller, Frank G

    2017-10-01

    Childhood acute leukemia is traditionally diagnosed from a bone marrow aspirate (BMA). New-onset acute leukemia patients do not always have visible circulating blasts in the peripheral blood (PB) at diagnosis. While the role of bone marrow flow cytometry for the diagnosis of acute leukemia is well established, the utility of PB flow cytometry (PBFC) is unknown. We performed a single-institution retrospective analysis to compare PBFC versus BMA in establishing or excluding a diagnosis of childhood acute leukemia. We retrospectively identified 485 PBFC samples with concurrent BMA from 2008 to 2013. Results of four-color flow cytometry for immunophenotypic characterization of leukemic versus nonclonal disease were characterized. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated among patients without a known diagnosis or prior therapy. Among 485 samples eligible for analysis, 120 had negative PBFC and BMA, 359 had positive PBFC and BMA, 3 had negative PBFC and positive BMA, and 3 had positive PBFC and negative BMA. There were small but significant differences in sensitivity (100 vs. 93.8%; P = 0.002) and positive predictive value (100 vs. 93.8%; P = 0.002) favoring BMA over PBFC among those demonstrating absence of circulating morphologic blasts. PBFC has high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of childhood acute leukemia. The predictive value of PBFC remains high for patients without visible circulating blasts and may enhance the diagnostic process for determining the indications for marrow testing. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Integration of lyoplate based flow cytometry and computational analysis for standardized immunological biomarker discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Villanova

    Full Text Available Discovery of novel immune biomarkers for monitoring of disease prognosis and response to therapy in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases is an important unmet clinical need. Here, we establish a novel framework for immunological biomarker discovery, comparing a conventional (liquid flow cytometry platform (CFP and a unique lyoplate-based flow cytometry platform (LFP in combination with advanced computational data analysis. We demonstrate that LFP had higher sensitivity compared to CFP, with increased detection of cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-10 and activation markers (Foxp3 and CD25. Fluorescent intensity of cells stained with lyophilized antibodies was increased compared to cells stained with liquid antibodies. LFP, using a plate loader, allowed medium-throughput processing of samples with comparable intra- and inter-assay variability between platforms. Automated computational analysis identified novel immunophenotypes that were not detected with manual analysis. Our results establish a new flow cytometry platform for standardized and rapid immunological biomarker discovery with wide application to immune-mediated diseases.

  11. Procoagulant and platelet-derived microvesicle absolute counts determined by flow cytometry correlates with a measurement of their functional capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Ayers

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flow cytometry is the most commonly used technology to measure microvesicles (MVs. Despite reported limitations of this technique, MV levels obtained using conventional flow cytometry have yielded many clinically relevant findings, such as associations with disease severity and ability to predict clinical outcomes. This study aims to determine if MV enumeration by flow cytometry correlates with a measurement of their functional capacity, as this may explain how flow cytometry generates clinically relevant results. Methods: One hundred samples from healthy individuals and patients with obstructive sleep apnoea were analysed by conventional flow cytometry (FACSCalibur and by three functional MV assays: Zymuphen MP-activity in which data were given as phosphatidylserine equivalent, STA® Phospholipid Procoag Assay expressed as clotting time and Endogenous Thrombin Potential (ETP reflecting in vitro thrombin generation. Correlations were determined by Spearman correlation. Results: Absolute counts of lactadherin+ procoagulant MVs generated by flow cytometry weakly correlated with the results obtained from the Zymuphen MP-activity (r=0.5370, p<0.0001; correlated with ETP (r=0.7444, p<0.0001; negatively correlated with STA® Phospholipid Procoag Assay clotting time (−0.7872, p<0.0001, reflecting a positive correlation between clotting activity and flow cytometry. Levels of Annexin V+ procoagulant and platelet-derived MVs were also associated with functional assays. Absolute counts of MVs derived from other cell types were not correlated with the functional results. Conclusions: Quantitative results of procoagulant and platelet-derived MVs from conventional flow cytometry are associated with the functional capability of the MVs, as defined by three functional MV assays. Flow cytometry is a valuable technique for the quantification of MVs from different cellular origins; however, a combination of several analytical techniques may give the

  12. Flow cytometry of ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma of breast implant-associated effusion and capsular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, David; Allen, Camilla T; Fromm, Jonathan R

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) of the breast capsule is a rare lymphoma involving capsular tissues and/or effusions associated with breast implants. While several studies have detailed the histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) features of these tumors, no study has yet described flow cytometry features of the neoplastic cells of this entity. Here, we report two cases from our institution in which multi-parametric flow cytometry was performed. The immunophenotype of ALCL in association with breast implant was evaluated by flow cytometry. We show that much like CD30+ tumor cells of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) and ALCL of non-breast implant tumors, the neoplastic cells of this entity can be readily identified by flow cytometry. The neoplastic cells of both cases were largely devoid of T-cell antigens, but had expression of weak CD15, strong CD30, and expression of CD40. These results are correlated with routine morphologic and IHC analysis, supporting the flow cytometry immunophenotype. Flow cytometry can aid in the diagnostic evaluation of effusions or tissue samples in association with breast implant/prostheses. © 2014 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  13. Procoagulant and platelet-derived microvesicle absolute counts determined by flow cytometry correlates with a measurement of their functional capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Lisa; Harrison, Paul; Kohler, Malcolm; Ferry, Berne

    2014-01-01

    Flow cytometry is the most commonly used technology to measure microvesicles (MVs). Despite reported limitations of this technique, MV levels obtained using conventional flow cytometry have yielded many clinically relevant findings, such as associations with disease severity and ability to predict clinical outcomes. This study aims to determine if MV enumeration by flow cytometry correlates with a measurement of their functional capacity, as this may explain how flow cytometry generates clinically relevant results. ONE HUNDRED SAMPLES FROM HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS AND PATIENTS WITH OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNOEA WERE ANALYSED BY CONVENTIONAL FLOW CYTOMETRY (FACSCALIBUR) AND BY THREE FUNCTIONAL MV ASSAYS: Zymuphen MP-activity in which data were given as phosphatidylserine equivalent, STA(®) Phospholipid Procoag Assay expressed as clotting time and Endogenous Thrombin Potential (ETP) reflecting in vitro thrombin generation. Correlations were determined by Spearman correlation. Absolute counts of lactadherin+ procoagulant MVs generated by flow cytometry weakly correlated with the results obtained from the Zymuphen MP-activity (r=0.5370, pflow cytometry. Levels of Annexin V+ procoagulant and platelet-derived MVs were also associated with functional assays. Absolute counts of MVs derived from other cell types were not correlated with the functional results. Quantitative results of procoagulant and platelet-derived MVs from conventional flow cytometry are associated with the functional capability of the MVs, as defined by three functional MV assays. Flow cytometry is a valuable technique for the quantification of MVs from different cellular origins; however, a combination of several analytical techniques may give the most comprehensive information on the role of MVs in health and disease.

  14. Best practices in performing flow cytometry in a regulated environment: feedback from experience within the European Bioanalysis Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    der Strate, Barry van; Longdin, Robin; Geerlings, Marie; Bachmayer, Nora; Cavallin, Maria; Litwin, Virginia; Patel, Minesh; Passe-Coutrin, Wilfried; Schoelch, Corinna; Companjen, Arjen; Fjording, Marianne Scheel

    2017-08-01

    Flow cytometry is a powerful tool that can be used for the support of (pre)clinical studies. Although various white papers are available that describe the set-up and validation of the instrumentation (the flow cytometer) and validation of flow cytometry methods, to date no guidelines exist that address the requirements for performing flow cytometry in a regulated environment. In this manuscript, the European Bioanalysis Forum presents additional practice guidance on the use of flow cytometry in the support of drug development programs and addresses areas that are not covered in the previous publications. The concepts presented here are based on the consensus of discussions in the European Bioanalysis Forum Topic Team 32, in meetings in Barcelona, Limelette and multiple telephone conferences.

  15. Platelet function investigation by flow cytometry: Sample volume, needle size, and reference intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Oliver Heidmann; Nissen, Peter H; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2017-09-29

    Flow cytometry is an increasingly used method for platelet function analysis because it has some important advantages compared with other platelet function tests. Flow cytometric platelet function analyses only require a small sample volume (3.5 mL); however, to expand the field of applications, e.g., for platelet function analysis in children, even smaller volumes are needed. Platelets are easily activated, and the size of the needle for blood sampling might be of importance for the pre-activation of the platelets. Moreover, to use flow cytometry for investigation of platelet function in clinical practice, a reference interval is warranted. The aims of this work were 1) to determine if small volumes of whole blood can be used without influencing the results, 2) to examine the pre-activation of platelets with respect to needle size, and 3) to establish reference intervals for flow cytometric platelet function assays. To examine the influence of sample volume, blood was collected from 20 healthy individuals in 1.0 mL, 1.8 mL, and 3.5 mL tubes. To examine the influence of the needle size on pre-activation, blood was drawn from another 13 healthy individuals with both a 19- and 21-gauge needle. For the reference interval study, 78 healthy adults were included. The flow cytometric analyses were performed on a NAVIOS flow cytometer (Beckman Coulter, Miami, Florida) investigating the following activation-dependent markers on the platelet surface; bound-fibrinogen, CD63, and P-selectin (CD62p) after activation with arachidonic acid, ristocetin, adenosine diphosphate, thrombin-receptor-activating-peptide, and collagen. The study showed that a blood volume as low as 1.0 mL can be used for platelet function analysis by flow cytometry and that both a 19- and 21-gauge needle can be used for blood sampling. In addition, reference intervals for platelet function analyses by flow cytometry were established.

  16. Flow Cytometry Enables Multiplexed Measurements of Genetically Encoded Intramolecular FRET Sensors Suitable for Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, Jaimee; Zhao, Ziyan; Geyer, Rory J; Barra, Melanie M; Balunas, Marcy J; Zweifach, Adam

    2016-07-01

    Genetically encoded sensors based on intramolecular FRET between CFP and YFP are used extensively in cell biology research. Flow cytometry has been shown to offer a means to measure CFP-YFP FRET; we suspected it would provide a unique way to conduct multiplexed measurements from cells expressing different FRET sensors, which is difficult to do with microscopy, and that this could be used for screening. We confirmed that flow cytometry accurately measures FRET signals using cells transiently transfected with an ERK activity reporter, comparing responses measured with imaging and cytometry. We created polyclonal long-term transfectant lines, each expressing a different intramolecular FRET sensor, and devised a way to bar-code four distinct populations of cells. We demonstrated the feasibility of multiplexed measurements and determined that robust multiplexed measurements can be conducted in plate format. To validate the suitability of the method for screening, we measured responses from a plate of bacterial extracts that in unrelated experiments we had determined contained the protein kinase C (PKC)-activating compound teleocidin A-1. The multiplexed assay correctly identifying the teleocidin A-1-containing well. We propose that multiplexed cytometric FRET measurements will be useful for analyzing cellular function and for screening compound collections. © 2016 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  17. A high-throughput method for detection of DNA in chloroplasts using flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldenburg Delene J

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amount of DNA in the chloroplasts of some plant species has been shown recently to decline dramatically during leaf development. A high-throughput method of DNA detection in chloroplasts is now needed in order to facilitate the further investigation of this process using large numbers of tissue samples. Results The DNA-binding fluorophores 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI, SYBR Green I (SG, SYTO 42, and SYTO 45 were assessed for their utility in flow cytometric analysis of DNA in Arabidopsis chloroplasts. Fluorescence microscopy and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR were used to validate flow cytometry data. We found neither DAPI nor SYTO 45 suitable for flow cytometric analysis of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA content, but did find changes in cpDNA content during development by flow cytometry using SG and SYTO 42. The latter dye provided more sensitive detection, and the results were similar to those from the fluorescence microscopic analysis. Differences in SYTO 42 fluorescence were found to correlate with differences in cpDNA content as determined by qPCR using three primer sets widely spaced across the chloroplast genome, suggesting that the whole genome undergoes copy number reduction during development, rather than selective reduction/degradation of subgenomic regions. Conclusion Flow cytometric analysis of chloroplasts stained with SYTO 42 is a high-throughput method suitable for determining changes in cpDNA content during development and for sorting chloroplasts on the basis of DNA content.

  18. Deformation of double emulsions under conditions of flow cytometry hydrodynamic focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shaohua; Huck, Wilhelm T S; Balabani, Stavroula

    2015-11-21

    Water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) microfluidics double emulsions offer a new route to compartmentalise reagents into isolated aqueous microenvironments while maintaining an aqueous carrier fluid phase; this enables compatibility with commercial flow cytometry systems such as fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Double emulsion (inner core) deformation under hydrodynamic focusing conditions that mimic the environment double emulsions experience in flow cytometry applications is of particular importance for droplet stability and cell viability. This paper reports on an experimental study of the dynamic deformation of aqueous cores of w/o/w double emulsions under hydrodynamic focusing, with the sheath flow directed at 45° to the sample flow. A number of factors affecting the inner core deformation and recovery were examined. Deformation was found to depend significantly on the core or shell viscosity, the droplet-to-sheath flow velocity ratio, and core and shell sizes. Core deformation was found to depend more on the type of surfactant rather concentration with high molecular weight surfactant exhibiting a negligible effect on deformation whereas low molecular weight surfactant enhancing deformation at low concentrations due to their lateral mobility at the interface.

  19. Opto-fluidics based microscopy and flow cytometry on a cell phone for blood analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2015-01-01

    Blood analysis is one of the most important clinical tests for medical diagnosis. Flow cytometry and optical microscopy are widely used techniques to perform blood analysis and therefore cost-effective translation of these technologies to resource limited settings is critical for various global health as well as telemedicine applications. In this chapter, we review our recent progress on the integration of imaging flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy on a cell phone using compact, light-weight and cost-effective opto-fluidic attachments integrated onto the camera module of a smartphone. In our cell-phone based opto-fluidic imaging cytometry design, fluorescently labeled cells are delivered into the imaging area using a disposable micro-fluidic chip that is positioned above the existing camera unit of the cell phone. Battery powered light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are butt-coupled to the sides of this micro-fluidic chip without any lenses, which effectively acts as a multimode slab waveguide, where the excitation light is guided to excite the fluorescent targets within the micro-fluidic chip. Since the excitation light propagates perpendicular to the detection path, an inexpensive plastic absorption filter is able to reject most of the scattered light and create a decent dark-field background for fluorescent imaging. With this excitation geometry, the cell-phone camera can record fluorescent movies of the particles/cells as they are flowing through the microchannel. The digital frames of these fluorescent movies are then rapidly processed to quantify the count and the density of the labeled particles/cells within the solution under test. With a similar opto-fluidic design, we have recently demonstrated imaging and automated counting of stationary blood cells (e.g., labeled white blood cells or unlabeled red blood cells) loaded within a disposable cell counting chamber. We tested the performance of this cell-phone based imaging cytometry and blood analysis platform

  20. Gating-ML: XML-based gating descriptions in flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spidlen, Josef; Leif, Robert C; Moore, Wayne; Roederer, Mario; Brinkman, Ryan R

    2008-12-01

    The lack of software interoperability with respect to gating due to lack of a standardized mechanism for data exchange has traditionally been a bottleneck, preventing reproducibility of flow cytometry (FCM) data analysis and the usage of multiple analytical tools. To facilitate interoperability among FCM data analysis tools, members of the International Society for the Advancement of Cytometry (ISAC) Data Standards Task Force (DSTF) have developed an XML-based mechanism to formally describe gates (Gating-ML). Gating-ML, an open specification for encoding gating, data transformations and compensation, has been adopted by the ISAC DSTF as a Candidate Recommendation. Gating-ML can facilitate exchange of gating descriptions the same way that FCS facilitated for exchange of raw FCM data. Its adoption will open new collaborative opportunities as well as possibilities for advanced analyses and methods development. The ISAC DSTF is satisfied that the standard addresses the requirements for a gating exchange standard.

  1. Improved signal recovery for flow cytometry based on ‘spatially modulated emission’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quint, S.; Wittek, J.; Spang, P.; Levanon, N.; Walther, T.; Baßler, M.

    2017-09-01

    Recently, the technique of ‘spatially modulated emission’ has been introduced (Baßler et al 2008 US Patent 0080181827A1; Kiesel et al 2009 Appl. Phys. Lett. 94 041107; Kiesel et al 2011 Cytometry A 79A 317-24) improving the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for detecting bio-particles in the field of flow cytometry. Based on this concept, we developed two advanced signal processing methods which further enhance the SNR and selectivity for cell detection. The improvements are achieved by adapting digital filtering methods from RADAR technology and mainly address inherent offset elimination, increased signal dynamics and moreover reduction of erroneous detections due to processing artifacts. We present a comprehensive theory on SNR gain and provide experimental results of our concepts.

  2. [Reference intervals and its verification for leukocyte differential count in peripheral blood by CytoDiff flow cytometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Chenxue; Pu, Chengwei; Shang, Ke; Dong, Ning; Xing, Ying; Li, Xiufeng; Wang, Jianzhong

    2015-07-14

    To establish and verify the reference intervals for leukocyte differential count in peripheral blood by CytoDiff flow cytometry. Leukocyte differentiation count was analyzed by using hematology analyzer, CytoDiff flow cytometry and morphology differential count in 278 healthy controls, 550 flagged and 102 unflagged samples. The reference intervals of leukocyte parameters were established and verified according to the healthy controls. Then the correlations of five leukocytes were analyzed among hematology analyzer, CytoDiff flow cytometry and morphology differential count. Lymphocyte subsets were analyzed and compared between healthy controls and patients with different diseases. The CytoDiff flow cytometric blast counts were explored to analyze the clinical diagnostic efficiency compared to morphology differential count as a reference method. CytoDiff flow cytometry can differentiate the leukocyte into 16 parameters, including percentage and absolute count, therefore 32 parameters in total. Among these parameters, 18 parameters had significant difference between male and female (P 0. 05). Except the CD16pos monocyte, there were no difference among ages in other parameters. The correlation between hematology analyzer, CytoDiff flow cytometry and morphology differential count were good for neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, basophils and eosinophils in healthy controls and clinical samples. When the cutoff value of the ratio of T + NK and B lymphocyte was set at 1. 0 by ROC, the sensitivity was 90. 9% and specificity was 99. 8% for diagnosing the chronic lymphocyte leukemia (CLL). When the cutoff value of blast count by CytoDiff flow cytometry was set at 1%, the sensitivity was 100%, specificity was 96. 1% and accuracy was 96. 2% by morphology differential blast count for the reference method. Establish and verify the reference interval of leukocyte differential count in peripheral blood by CytoDiff flow cytometry in the adults of Beijing region. CytoDiff flow

  3. Single and multi-subject clustering of flow cytometry data for cell-type identification and anomaly detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouyan, Maziyar Baran; Jindal, Vasu; Birjandtalab, Javad; Nourani, Mehrdad

    2016-08-10

    Measurement of various markers of single cells using flow cytometry has several biological applications. These applications include improving our understanding of behavior of cellular systems, identifying rare cell populations and personalized medication. A common critical issue in the existing methods is identification of the number of cellular populations which heavily affects the accuracy of results. Furthermore, anomaly detection is crucial in flow cytometry experiments. In this work, we propose a two-stage clustering technique for cell type identification in single subject flow cytometry data and extend it for anomaly detection among multiple subjects. Our experimentation on 42 flow cytometry datasets indicates high performance and accurate clustering (F-measure > 91 %) in identifying main cellular populations. Furthermore, our anomaly detection technique evaluated on Acute Myeloid Leukemia dataset results in only <2 % false positives.

  4. A novel flow cytometry-based method of analyzing Heinz bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palasuwan, D; Palasuwan, A; Charoensappakit, A; Noulsri, E

    2017-02-01

    Heinz bodies are important to diagnosing and managing patients. However, microscopic examination of Heinz bodies has several disadvantages, demonstrating the need for a better method. We explored the potential use of flow cytometry to examine Heinz bodies. Whole-blood samples were collected from patients deficient in G6PD and healthy volunteers. Acetylphenylhydrazine was used to induce formation of Heinz bodies in red blood cells (RBCs). Then, RBCs positive for Heinz bodies were examined using a FACSCanto II cytometer. RBCs treated with acetylphenylhydrazine formed Heinz bodies and emitted a broad spectrum of fluorescence that could be detected by flow cytometry. The maximum emission of fluorescence was observed at 45 min after the incubation with acetylphenylhydrazine. In addition, the fluorescence emitted was stable for at least 72 h. The flow cytometer could detect the RBCs positive for Heinz bodies even if they made up as little as 0.1% of the total RBC population. Furthermore, the percentage and number, respectively, of RBCs positive for Heinz bodies in G6PD-deficient patients and normal donors exhibited a mean ± standard deviation (SD) of 68.9 ± 27.5 vs. 50.9 ± 28.6 and 96 014 ±35 732 cells/μL vs. 74 688 ± 36 514 cells/μL. Heinz bodies induced by acetylphenylhydrazine emit fluorescence, and this fluorescence could be examined using flow cytometry. Our study suggests the potential use of the developed method to investigate the formation of Heinz bodies in clinical samples. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Multiparameter Flow Cytometry for the Diagnosis and Monitoring of Small GPI-deficient Cellular Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiwalla, Minoo; Hepgur, Mehmet; Pan, Dalin; McCarthy, Philip L.; Ahluwalia, Manmeet S.; Camacho, Susan H.; Starostik, Petr; Wallace, Paul K.

    2010-01-01

    Background Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-negative blood cells are diagnostic for Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH). Marrow failure states are often associated with GPI negative cell populations. Quantification of small clonal populations of GPI negative cells influences clinical decisions to administer immunosuppressive therapy in marrow failure states (aplastic anemia or myelodysplastic syndrome) and to monitor minimal residual disease after allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (BMT). We studied the reliability of high resolution flow cytometry markers operating at the limits of detection. Methods We performed serial quantification of the PNH clone size in 38 samples using multiparameter flow cytometry. Granulocytes, monocytes and RBCs were gated using forward and side scatter as well as lineage-specific markers. The GPI-linked markers fluorescent aerolysin (FLAER), CD55 and CD59 were comparatively evaluated. We also evaluated CD16 on granulocytes and CD14 on monocytes. The sensitivity of detection by each marker was further defined by serial dilution experiments on a flow-sorted sample. Two patients had quantification of their GPI-negative clones before and after allogeneic BMT. Results FLAER was the most discriminant marker and allowed identification of 0.1% of GPI-negative cells despite other markers having superior signal-to-noise characteristics. CD14 and CD16 were inferior to CD55 at lower concentrations and in clinical application. Conclusions Multiparameter flow cytometry permits quantification of small GPI-negative clones with a sensitivity limit of about 0.1%. The single most reliable marker to monitor small granulocyte or monocyte PNH clones is FLAER, especially in conditions such as myelodysplastic syndromes or BMT, when traditional GPI-linked surface marker expression can be significantly altered. PMID:20533383

  6. MRT letter: light sheet based imaging flow cytometry on a microfluidic platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Raju; Mohan, Kavya; Mondal, Partha P

    2013-11-01

    We propose a light sheet based imaging flow cytometry technique for simultaneous counting and imaging of cells on a microfluidic platform. Light sheet covers the entire microfluidic channel and thus omits the necessity of flow focusing and point scanning based technology. Another advantage lies in the orthogonal detection geometry that totally cuts-off the incident light, thereby substantially reducing the background in the detection. Compared to the existing state-of-art techniques the proposed technique shows marked improvement. Using fluorescently-coated Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells we have recorded cell counting with throughput as high as 2,090 cells/min in the low flow rate regime and were able to image the individual cells on-the-go. Overall, the proposed system is cost-effective and simple in channel geometry with the advantage of efficient counting in operational regime of low laminar flow. This technique may advance the emerging field of microfluidic based cytometry for applications in nanomedicine and point of care diagnostics. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A Flow Cytometry Method for Rapidly Assessing Mycobacterium tuberculosis Responses to Antibiotics with Different Modes of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendon-Dunn, Charlotte Louise; Doris, Kathryn Sarah; Thomas, Stephen Richard; Allnutt, Jonathan Charles; Marriott, Alice Ann Neville; Hatch, Kim Alexandra; Watson, Robert James; Bottley, Graham; Marsh, Philip David; Taylor, Stephen Charles; Bacon, Joanna

    2016-07-01

    Current methods for assessing the drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are lengthy and do not capture information about viable organisms that are not immediately culturable under standard laboratory conditions as a result of antibiotic exposure. We have developed a rapid dual-fluorescence flow cytometry method using markers for cell viability and death. We show that the fluorescent marker calcein violet with an acetoxy-methyl ester group (CV-AM) can differentiate between populations of M. tuberculosis growing at different rates, while Sytox green (SG) can differentiate between live and dead mycobacteria. M. tuberculosis was exposed to isoniazid or rifampin at different concentrations over time and either dual stained with CV-AM and SG and analyzed by flow cytometry or plated to determine the viability of the cells. Although similar trends in the loss of viability were observed when the results of flow cytometry and the plate counting methods were compared, there was a lack of correlation between these two approaches, as the flow cytometry analysis potentially captured information about cell populations that were unable to grow under standard conditions. The flow cytometry approach had an additional advantage in that it could provide insights into the mode of action of the drug: antibiotics targeting the cell wall gave a flow cytometry profile distinct from those inhibiting intracellular processes. This rapid drug susceptibility testing method could identify more effective antimycobacterials, provide information about their potential mode of action, and accelerate their progress to the clinic. Copyright © 2016 Hendon-Dunn et al.

  8. Simultaneous evaluation of plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, and mitochondrial membrane potential in bovine spermatozoa by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Chihiro; Kang, Sung-Sik; Kitade, Yasuyuki; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Nagano, Masashi

    2016-08-01

    The present study aimed to develop an objective evaluation procedure to estimate the plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, and mitochondrial membrane potential of bull spermatozoa simultaneously by flow cytometry. Firstly, we used frozen-thawed semen mixed with 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100% dead spermatozoa. Semen was stained using three staining solutions: SYBR-14, propidium iodide (PI), and phycoerythrin-conjugated peanut agglutinin (PE-PNA), for the evaluation of plasma membrane integrity and acrosomal integrity. Then, characteristics evaluated by flow cytometry and by fluorescence microscopy were compared. Characteristics of spermatozoa (viability and acrosomal integrity) evaluated by flow cytometry and by fluorescence microscopy were found to be similar. Secondly, we attempted to evaluate the plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, and also mitochondrial membrane potential of spermatozoa by flow cytometry using conventional staining with three dyes (SYBR-14, PI, and PE-PNA) combined with MitoTracker Deep Red (MTDR) staining (quadruple staining). The spermatozoon characteristics evaluated by flow cytometry using quadruple staining were then compared with those of staining using SYBR-14, PI, and PE-PNA and staining using SYBR-14 and MTDR. There were no significant differences in all characteristics (viability, acrosomal integrity, and mitochondrial membrane potential) evaluated by quadruple staining and the other procedures. In conclusion, quadruple staining using SYBR-14, PI, PE-PNA, and MTDR for flow cytometry can be used to evaluate the plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, and mitochondrial membrane potential of bovine spermatozoa simultaneously.

  9. Leukocyte Populations in Human Preterm and Term Breast Milk Identified by Multicolour Flow Cytometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Trend

    Full Text Available Extremely preterm infants are highly susceptible to bacterial infections but breast milk provides some protection. It is unknown if leukocyte numbers and subsets in milk differ between term and preterm breast milk. This study serially characterised leukocyte populations in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants using multicolour flow cytometry methods for extended differential leukocyte counts in blood.Sixty mothers of extremely preterm (<28 weeks gestational age, very preterm (28-31 wk, and moderately preterm (32-36 wk, as well as term (37-41 wk infants were recruited. Colostrum (d2-5, transitional (d8-12 and mature milk (d26-30 samples were collected, cells isolated, and leukocyte subsets analysed using flow cytometry.The major CD45+ leukocyte populations circulating in blood were also detectable in breast milk but at different frequencies. Progression of lactation was associated with decreasing CD45+ leukocyte concentration, as well as increases in the relative frequencies of neutrophils and immature granulocytes, and decreases in the relative frequencies of eosinophils, myeloid and B cell precursors, and CD16- monocytes. No differences were observed between preterm and term breast milk in leukocyte concentration, though minor differences between preterm groups in some leukocyte frequencies were observed.Flow cytometry is a useful tool to identify and quantify leukocyte subsets in breast milk. The stage of lactation is associated with major changes in milk leukocyte composition in this population. Fresh preterm breast milk is not deficient in leukocytes, but shorter gestation may be associated with minor differences in leukocyte subset frequencies in preterm compared to term breast milk.

  10. Rapid, sensitive detection of bacteria in platelet samples with Fountain Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul; Moriwaki, Mika; Johnson, Joseph

    2017-11-01

    There is a current need to develop a technique for bacterial screening of platelet donations that is more rapid, sensitive, and economical than alternatives. The objective of this research was to perform a pilot test of the viability of Fountain Flow Cytometry (FFC), for the rapid and sensitive detection of bacteria in platelet donations. Platelet samples were inoculated with serial dilutions of five selected bacterial strains. Samples were then centrifuged, reconstituted in buffer, and stained with a live/dead bacterial stain cocktail. The resulting aqueous sample was measured by FFC, in which the sample passed as a stream in front of an LED, which excited the fluorescent labels. Fluorescence was detected with a digital camera as the sample flowed toward it. Fountain Flow Cytometry enumeration yielded results that were linear with bacterial concentration, having an R2 of ≥0.98 with a detection efficiency of 92%±3%. Measurements of uninoculated samples showed a false-positive detection rate at ~400 colony forming units (CFU)/mL. Detection of bacterial concentrations in platelets above this threshold can be made in ~15 minutes, including sample preparation time. This pilot study supports the efficacy of FFC for the rapid and sensitive screening of platelet donations for bacteria. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Quantitative analysis of gold and carbon nanoparticles in mammalian cells by flow cytometry light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Gang [Nanjing University, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences (China); Liu, Naicheng; Wang, Zhenheng [Nanjing University, Department of Orthopedics, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine (China); Shi, Tongguo; Gan, Jingjing; Wang, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Junfeng, E-mail: jfzhang@nju.edu.cn [Nanjing University, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences (China)

    2017-02-15

    Nanoparticle-based applications for diagnostics and therapeutics have been extensively studied. These applications require a profound understanding of the fate of nanoparticles (NPs) in cellular environments. However, until now, few analytical methods are available and most of them rely on fluorescent properties or special elements of NPs; therefore, for NPs without observable optical properties or special elements, the existing methods are hardly applicable. In this study, we introduce a flow cytometry light scattering (FCLS)-based approach that quantifies in situ NPs accurately in mammalian cells. Continuous cells of heterogeneous human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2 cells), mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPM), and human adenocarcinomic alveolar basal epithelia (A549 cells) were cultured with NPs with certain concentrations and size. The intensity of the flow cytometric side scattered light, which indicates the quantity of NPs in the cells, was analyzed. The result shows an accurate size- and dose-dependent uptake of Au NPs (5, 30, 250 nm) in Caco-2 cells. The size- and dose- dependence of Au NPs (5, 30, 250 nm) and carbon NPs (50, 500 nm) in cells was validated by transmission electron microscope (TEM). This paper demonstrates the great potential of flow cytometry light scattering in the quantitative study of the size and dose effect on in situ metallic or non-metallic NPs in mammalian cells.

  12. A perspective for biomedical data integration: Design of databases for flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakoumentas John

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The integration of biomedical information is essential for tackling medical problems. We describe a data model in the domain of flow cytometry (FC allowing for massive management, analysis and integration with other laboratory and clinical information. The paper is concerned with the proper translation of the Flow Cytometry Standard (FCS into a relational database schema, in a way that facilitates end users at either doing research on FC or studying specific cases of patients undergone FC analysis Results The proposed database schema provides integration of data originating from diverse acquisition settings, organized in a way that allows syntactically simple queries that provide results significantly faster than the conventional implementations of the FCS standard. The proposed schema can potentially achieve up to 8 orders of magnitude reduction in query complexity and up to 2 orders of magnitude reduction in response time for data originating from flow cytometers that record 256 colours. This is mainly achieved by managing to maintain an almost constant number of data-mining procedures regardless of the size and complexity of the stored information. Conclusion It is evident that using single-file data storage standards for the design of databases without any structural transformations significantly limits the flexibility of databases. Analysis of the requirements of a specific domain for integration and massive data processing can provide the necessary schema modifications that will unlock the additional functionality of a relational database.

  13. A flow cytometry-based submicron-sized bacterial detection system using a movable virtual wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyoungseon; Jeon, Chang Su; Hwang, Inseong; Ko, Juhui; Lee, Saram; Choo, Jaebum; Boo, Jin-Hyo; Kim, Hee Chan; Chung, Taek Dong

    2014-07-07

    Detection of pathogenic bacteria requires a sensitive, accurate, rapid, and portable device. Given that lethal microbes are of various sizes, bacterial sensors based on DC (direct current) impedance on chips should be equipped with channels with commensurate cross sections. When it comes to counting and interrogation of individual bacteria on a microfluidic chip, very narrow channels are required, which are neither easy nor cost-effective to fabricate. Here, we report a flow cytometry-based submicron-sized bacterial detection system using a movable virtual wall made of a non-conducting fluid. We show that the effective dimension of a microfluidic channel can be adjusted by varying the respective flow rates of a sample solution as well as the liquid wall therein. Using such a virtual wall, we have successfully controlled the channel width and detected submicron-sized Francisella tularensis, a lethal, tularemia-causing bacterium. Since the system is capable of monitoring changes in DC impedance and fluorescence simultaneously, we were also able to discriminate between different types of bacterial mixtures containing F. tularensis and E. coli BL21 that have different gamuts of size distributions. The proposed flow cytometry-based system represents a promising way to detect bacteria including, but not limited to, submicron-sized pathogenic microbes.

  14. Quantitative analysis of gold and carbon nanoparticles in mammalian cells by flow cytometry light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Liu, Naicheng; Wang, Zhenheng; Shi, Tongguo; Gan, Jingjing; Wang, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Junfeng

    2017-02-01

    Nanoparticle-based applications for diagnostics and therapeutics have been extensively studied. These applications require a profound understanding of the fate of nanoparticles (NPs) in cellular environments. However, until now, few analytical methods are available and most of them rely on fluorescent properties or special elements of NPs; therefore, for NPs without observable optical properties or special elements, the existing methods are hardly applicable. In this study, we introduce a flow cytometry light scattering (FCLS)-based approach that quantifies in situ NPs accurately in mammalian cells. Continuous cells of heterogeneous human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2 cells), mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPM), and human adenocarcinomic alveolar basal epithelia (A549 cells) were cultured with NPs with certain concentrations and size. The intensity of the flow cytometric side scattered light, which indicates the quantity of NPs in the cells, was analyzed. The result shows an accurate size- and dose-dependent uptake of Au NPs (5, 30, 250 nm) in Caco-2 cells. The size- and dose- dependence of Au NPs (5, 30, 250 nm) and carbon NPs (50, 500 nm) in cells was validated by transmission electron microscope (TEM). This paper demonstrates the great potential of flow cytometry light scattering in the quantitative study of the size and dose effect on in situ metallic or non-metallic NPs in mammalian cells.

  15. In vivo flow cytometry and time-resolved near-IR angiography and lymphography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Brock, Robert W.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2007-05-01

    Integration of photoacoustic and photothermal techniques with high-speed, high-resolution transmission and fluorescence microscopy shows great potential for in vivo flow cytometry and indocyanine green (ICG) near-infrared (IR) angiography of blood and lymph microvessels. In particular, the capabilities of in vivo flow cytometry using rat mesentery and nude mouse ear models are demonstrated for real-time quantitative detection of circulating and migrating individual blood and cancer cells in skin, mesentery, lymph nodes, liver, kidney; studying vascular dynamics with a focus on lymphatics; monitoring cell traffic between blood and lymph systems; high-speed imaging of cell deformability in flow; and label-free real-time monitoring of single cell extravasation from blood vessel lumen into tissue. As presented, the advantages of ICG IR-angiography include estimation of time resolved dye dynamics (appearance and clearance) in blood and lymph microvessels using fluorescent and photoacoustic modules of the integrated technique. These new approaches are important for monitoring and quantifying metastatic and apoptotic cells; comparative measurements of plasma and cell velocities; analysis of immune responses; monitoring of circulating macromolecules, chylomicrons, bacteria, viruses and nanoparticles; molecular imaging. In the future, we believe that the integrated technique presented will have great potential for translation to early disease diagnoses (e.g. cancer) or assessment of innovative therapeutic interventions in humans.

  16. Flow cytometry vs. Ki67 labelling index in breast cancer: a prospective evaluation of 181 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Arribas, F; Núñez, M J; Piqueras, V; Lucas, A R; Sánchez, J; Tejerina, A; Schneider, J

    2002-01-01

    Excessive proliferation is one of the first steps in oncogenic activation and one of the most important biological features defining the aggressiveness of tumors. Quantifying the proportion of tumor cells in S-phase by means of flow cytometry has shown, in the past, to be useful for defining high-risk subgroups in breast cancer. Several antigens closely associated with proliferation are also detectable by means of immunohistochemistry, offering in theory an easy to perform and cheap alternative to flow cytometry for measuring proliferation. To test this hypothesis, we compared both methods prospectively in a series of breast cancers. We studied the proliferation rate of 181 breast cancers (152 ductal infiltrating, 17 lobular infiltrating, 12 other histological varieties), operated upon at our institution, by means of flow cytometry and the Ki67 labelling index, using the MIBI antibody. Ploidy (expressed as DNA content or DNA-index), S-phase fraction and the Ki67 labelling index were the variables of the study. The S-phase fraction was considered separately for diploid and aneuploid tumors, following the 1992 Maine Consensus guidelines and was judged abnormally elevated if higher than the 75th percentile for each group. The Ki67 labelling index was expressed as percent positive tumor cells, positive cells being those showing specific nuclear staining. DNA-ploidy and the Ki67 labelling index could be evaluated in all tumors. Of the total, 96 (53%) were diploid and 85 (47%) aneuploid. S-phase fraction could be measured in 172 out of the 181 tumors (95%). The 75th percentile cut-offs for diploid and aneuploid tumors were 9.9% and 15.8%, respectively. We found a significant correlation beween rising DNA content and increasing Ki67 index (r = 0.18; p = 0.022), as well as between the percentage of cells in S-phase of the whole tumor population and Ki67 (r = 0.22; p = 0.0055). A Ki67 cut-off of 50% or higher identified most aneuploid tumors, or a small group of diploid

  17. Surface profiling of normally responding and nonreleasing basophils by flow cytometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Poulsen, Lars Kærgaard; Jensen, Bettina Margrethe

    2012-01-01

    a maximum release using flow cytometry, basophils, defined as FceRIa+CD3-CD14-CD19-CD56-,were analysed for surface expression of relevant markers. All samples were compensated and analysed in logicle display. All gates...... were set on FMO (fluorescence minus one) controls and results are given in geoMFI normalised to FMO control. Releaser and nonreleasers were compared using unpaired t test with Welch’s correction. Results Twelve donors were included, three of which were nonreleasers and characterized in regard...... expression on nonreleasers (p = 0.0609). Conclusion Surface profiling using 15 different receptors, illustrated no significant difference between normal and nonreleasing basophils....

  18. Dual-labelled antibodies for flow and mass cytometry: A new tool for cross-platform comparison and enrichment of target cells for mass cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Sabine; Schulz, Axel R; Peddinghaus, Anette; Stanislawiak, Silke; Gillert, Sarah; Hirseland, Heike; Krauthäuser, Susanne; Dose, Christian; Mei, Henrik E; Grützkau, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    Antibody conjugates applicable in both conventional flow and mass cytometry would offer interesting options for cross-platform comparison, as well as the enrichment of rare target cells by conventional flow cytometry (FC) sorting prior to deep phenotyping by mass cytometry (MC). Here, we introduce a simple method to generate dual fluorochrome/metal-labelled antibodies by consecutive orthogonal labelling. First, we compared different fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies specific for CD4, such as FITC, Vio667, VioGreen or VioBlue for their compatibility with the conventional secondary MAXPAR® labelling protocol. After labelling with 141 Pr, the fluorescence emission spectra of all fluorochromes investigated retained their characteristics, and CD4 dual conjugates (DCs) provided consistent results in immune phenotyping assays performed by FC and MC. The phenotypical composition of CD4+ T-cells was maintained after enrichment by FC sorting using different CD4 DCs. Finally, magnetic cell depletion was combined with FC sorting using CD19-VioBlue-142 Nd, CD20-VioGreen-147 Sm, CD27-Cy5-167 Er and CD38-Alexa488-143 Nd DC to enrich rare human plasmablasts to purities >80%, which allowed a subsequent deep phenotyping by MC. In conclusion, DCs have been successfully established for direct assay comparison between FC and MC, and help to minimise MC data acquisition time for deep phenotyping of rare cell subsets. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Biomass measurement by flow cytometry during solid-state fermentation of basidiomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steudler, Susanne; Böhmer, Ulrike; Weber, Jost; Bley, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is a robust process that is well suited to the on-site cultivation of basidiomycetes that produce enzymes for the treatment of lignocellulosics. Reliable methods for biomass quantification are essential for the analysis of fungal growth kinetics. However, direct biomass determination is not possible during SSF because the fungi grow into the substrate and use it as a nutrient source. This necessitates the use of indirect methods that are either very laborious and time consuming or can only provide biomass measurements during certain growth periods. Here, we describe the development and optimization of a new rapid method for fungal biomass determination during SSF that is based on counting fungal nuclei by flow cytometry. Fungal biomass was grown on an organic substrate and its concentration was measured by isolating the nuclei from the fungal hyphae after cell disruption, staining them with SYTOX(®) Green, and then counting them using a flow cytometer. A calibration curve relating the dry biomass of the samples to their concentrations of nuclei was established. Multiple buffers and disruption methods were tested. The results obtained were compared with values determined using the method of ergosterol determination, a classical technique for fungal biomass measurement during SSF. Our new approach can be used to measure fungal biomass on a range of different scales, from 15 mL cultures to a laboratory reactor with a working volume of 10 L (developed by the Research Center for Medical Technology and Biotechnology (fzmb GmbH)). © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  20. Standardization of flow cytometry in myelodysplastic syndromes: report from the first European LeukemiaNet working conference on flow cytometry in myelodysplastic syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Loosdrecht, Arjan A.; Alhan, Canan; Béné, Marie Christine; Della Porta, Matteo G.; Dräger, Angelika M.; Feuillard, Jean; Font, Patricia; Germing, Ulrich; Haase, Detlef; Homburg, Christa H.; Ireland, Robin; Jansen, Joop H.; Kern, Wolfgang; Malcovati, Luca; te Marvelde, Jeroen G.; Mufti, Ghulam J.; Ogata, Kiyoyuki; Orfao, Alberto; Ossenkoppele, Gert J.; Porwit, Anna; Preijers, Frank W.; Richards, Stephen J.; Schuurhuis, Gerrit Jan; Subirá, Dolores; Valent, Peter; van der Velden, Vincent H.J.; Vyas, Paresh; Westra, August H.; de Witte, Theo M.; Wells, Denise A.; Loken, Michael R.; Westers, Theresia M.

    2009-01-01

    The myelodysplastic syndromes are a group of clonal hematopoietic stem cell diseases characterized by cytopenia(s), dysplasia in one or more cell lineages and increased risk of evolution to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Recent advances in immunophenotyping of hematopoietic progenitor and maturing cells in dysplastic bone marrow point to a useful role for multiparameter flow cytometry (FCM) in the diagnosis and prognostication of myelodysplastic syndromes. In March 2008, representatives from 18 European institutes participated in a European LeukemiaNet (ELN) workshop held in Amsterdam as a first step towards standardization of FCM in myelodysplastic syndromes. Consensus was reached regarding standard methods for cell sampling, handling and processing. The group also defined minimal combinations of antibodies to analyze aberrant immunophenotypes and thus dysplasia. Examples are altered numbers of CD34+ precursors, aberrant expression of markers on myeloblasts, maturing myeloid cells, monocytes or erythroid precursors and the expression of lineage infidelity markers. When applied in practice, aberrant FCM patterns correlate well with morphology, the subclassification of myelodysplastic syndromes, and prognostic scoring systems. However, the group also concluded that despite strong evidence for an impact of FCM in myelodysplastic syndromes, further (prospective) validation of markers and immunophenotypic patterns are required against control patient groups as well as further standardization in multi-center studies. Standardization of FCM in myelodysplastic syndromes may thus contribute to improved diagnosis and prognostication of myelodysplastic syndromes in the future. PMID:19546437

  1. Diurnal Variations of Circulating Extracellular Vesicles Measured by Nano Flow Cytometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty M Danielson

    Full Text Available The identification of extracellular vesicles (EVs as intercellular conveyors of biological information has recently emerged as a novel paradigm in signaling, leading to the exploitation of EVs and their contents as biomarkers of various diseases. However, whether there are diurnal variations in the size, number, and tissue of origin of blood EVs is currently not known, and could have significant implications when using EVs as biomarkers for disease progression. Currently available technologies for the measurement of EV size and number are either time consuming, require specialized equipment, or lack sufficient accuracy across a range of EV sizes. Flow cytometry represents an attractive alternative to these methods; however, traditional flow cytometers are only capable of measuring particles down to 500 nm, which is significantly larger than the average and median sizes of plasma EVs. Utilizing a Beckman Coulter MoFlo XDP flow cytometer with NanoView module, we employed nanoscale flow cytometry (termed nanoFCM to examine the relative number and scatter distribution of plasma EVs at three different time points during the day in 6 healthy adults. Analysis of liposomes and plasma EVs proved that nanoFCM is capable of detecting biologically-relevant vesicles down to 100 nm in size. With this high resolution configuration, we observed variations in the relative size (FSC/SSC distributions and concentration (proportions of EVs in healthy adult plasma across the course of a day, suggesting that there are diurnal variations in the number and size distribution of circulating EV populations. The use of nanoFCM provides a valuable tool for the study of EVs in both health and disease; however, additional refinement of nanoscale flow cytometric methods is needed for use of these instruments for quantitative particle counting and sizing. Furthermore, larger scale studies are necessary to more clearly define the diurnal variations in circulating EVs, and thus

  2. A novel flow cytometry-based assay for the quantification of antibody-dependent pneumococcal agglutination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habets, Marrit N; van Selm, Saskia; van der Gaast-de Jongh, Christa E; Diavatopoulos, Dimitri A; de Jonge, Marien I

    2017-01-01

    The respiratory pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of diseases such as otitis media, pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis. The first step towards infection is colonization of the nasopharynx. Recently, it was shown that agglutinating antibodies play an important role in the prevention of mucosal colonization with S. pneumoniae. Here, we present a novel method to quantify antibody-dependent pneumococcal agglutination in a high-throughput manner using flow cytometry. We found that the concentration of agglutinating antibodies against pneumococcal capsule are directly correlated with changes in the size and complexity of bacterial aggregates, as measured by flow cytometry and confirmed by light microscopy. Using the increase in size, we determined the agglutination index. The cutoff value was set by measuring a series of non-agglutinating antibodies. With this method, we show that not only anti-polysaccharide capsule antibodies are able to induce agglutination but that also anti-PspA protein antibodies have agglutinating capabilities. In conclusion, we have described and validated a novel method to quantify pneumococcal agglutination, which can be used to screen sera from murine or human vaccination studies, in a high-throughput manner.

  3. Innovative Flow Cytometry Allows Accurate Identification of Rare Circulating Cells Involved in Endothelial Dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Boraldi

    Full Text Available Although rare, circulating endothelial and progenitor cells could be considered as markers of endothelial damage and repair potential, possibly predicting the severity of cardiovascular manifestations. A number of studies highlighted the role of these cells in age-related diseases, including those characterized by ectopic calcification. Nevertheless, their use in clinical practice is still controversial, mainly due to difficulties in finding reproducible and accurate methods for their determination.Circulating mature cells (CMC, CD45-, CD34+, CD133- and circulating progenitor cells (CPC, CD45dim, CD34bright, CD133+ were investigated by polychromatic high-speed flow cytometry to detect the expression of endothelial (CD309+ or osteogenic (BAP+ differentiation markers in healthy subjects and in patients affected by peripheral vascular manifestations associated with ectopic calcification.This study shows that: 1 polychromatic flow cytometry represents a valuable tool to accurately identify rare cells; 2 the balance of CD309+ on CMC/CD309+ on CPC is altered in patients affected by peripheral vascular manifestations, suggesting the occurrence of vascular damage and low repair potential; 3 the increase of circulating cells exhibiting a shift towards an osteoblast-like phenotype (BAP+ is observed in the presence of ectopic calcification.Differences between healthy subjects and patients with ectopic calcification indicate that this approach may be useful to better evaluate endothelial dysfunction in a clinical context.

  4. Viability and membrane potential analysis of Bacillus megaterium cells by impedance flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, F; Hebeisen, M; Schade, G; Franco-Lara, E; Di Berardino, M

    2012-02-01

    Single cell analysis is an important tool to gain deeper insights into microbial physiology for the characterization and optimization of bioprocesses. In this study a novel single cell analysis technique was applied for estimating viability and membrane potential (MP) of Bacillus megaterium cells cultured in minimal medium. Its measurement principle is based on the analysis of the electrical cell properties and is called impedance flow cytometry (IFC). Comparatively, state-of-the-art fluorescence-based flow cytometry (FCM) was used to verify the results obtained by IFC. Viability and MP analyses were performed with cells at different well-defined growth stages, focusing mainly on exponential and stationary phase cells, as well as on dead cells. This was done by PI and DiOC(2)(3) staining assays in FCM and by impedance measurements at 0.5 and 10 MHz in IFC. In addition, transition growth stages of long-term cultures and agar plate colonies were characterized with both methods. FCM and IFC analyses of all experiments gave comparable results, quantitatively and qualitatively, indicating that IFC is an equivalent technique to FCM for the study of physiological cell states of bacteria. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Characterisation of cryoinjury in Euglena gracilis using flow-cytometry and cryomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Roland A; Pickup, Roger W; Day, John G; Benson, Erica E

    2006-04-01

    Flow-cytometry and cryomicroscopy elucidated that the unicellular algal protist Euglena gracilis was undamaged by cryoprotectant added at 0 degree C, and super-cooling in the absence of ice. Cryoinjuries were however induced by: osmotic shock resulting from excessive cryodehydration, intracellular ice, and fracturing of the frozen medium on thawing. Suboptimal cooling at -0.3 degrees C min(-1) to -60 degrees C and osmotic shock invariably resulted in damage to the organism's pellicle and osmoregulatory system causing, a significant (P > 0.005) increase in cell size. Cell damage was not repairable and led to death. The responses of E. gracilis to cryopreservation as visualised by flow-cytometry and cryomicroscopy assisted the development of an improved storage protocol. This comprised: cryoprotection with methanol [10%(v/v)] at 0 degree C, cooling at 0.5 degrees C min(-1) to -60 degrees C, isothermal hold for 30 min, and direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. Highest post-thaw viability (>60%) was obtained using two-step thawing, which involved initial slow warming to -130 degrees C followed by relatively rapid warming (approximately 90 degrees C min(-1)) to ambient temperature (ca. 25 degrees C).

  6. Quantification of heterotypic granule fusion in human neutrophils by imaging flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halla Björnsdottir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human neutrophils are filled with intracellular storage organelles, called granules and secretory vesicles, which differ in their content of soluble matrix proteins and membrane-bound molecules. To date, at least four distinct granule/vesicle subsets have been identified. These organelles may secrete their content extracellularly following mobilization to and fusion with the plasma membrane, but some of them may also fuse with internal membrane-enclosed organelles, typically a plasma membrane-derived phagosome. There are also instances where different granules appear to fuse with one another, a process that would enable mixing of their matrix and membrane components. Such granule fusion enables e.g., myeloperoxidase-processing of intragranular oxygen radicals, a key event in the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (Björnsdottir et al., 2015 [1]. Described herein are data that show the quantification of such heterotypic granule–granule fusion by the use of imaging flow cytometry, a technique that combines flow cytometry with microscopy. The analysis described is based on immunofluorescent staining of established granule markers (lactoferrin and/or NGAL for one granule subset; the specific granules, and CD63 for another granule subset, the azurophil granules and calculation of a colocalization score for resting and PMA-stimulated neutrophils.

  7. Evaluating the morphology of erythrocyte population: An approach based on atomic force microscopy and flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sayari; Chakraborty, Ishita; Chakraborty, Monojit; Mukhopadhyay, Ashis; Mishra, Raghwendra; Sarkar, Debasish

    2016-04-01

    Erythrocyte morphology is gaining importance as a powerful pathological index in identifying the severity of any blood related disease. However, the existing technique of quantitative microscopy is highly time consuming and prone to personalized bias. On the other hand, relatively unexplored, complementary technique based on flow cytometry has not been standardized till date, particularly due to the lack of a proper morphological scoring scale. In this article, we have presented a new approach to formulate a non-empirical scoring scale based on membrane roughness (R(rms)) data obtained from atomic force microscopy. Subsequently, the respective morphological quantifier of the whole erythrocyte population, commonly known as morphological index, was expressed as a function of highest correlated statistical parameters of scattered signal profiles generated by flow cytometry. Feed forward artificial neural network model with multilayer perceptron architecture was used to develop the intended functional form. High correlation coefficient (R(2) = 0.95), even for model-formulation exclusive samples, clearly indicates the universal validity of the proposed model. Moreover, a direct pathological application of the proposed model has been illustrated in relation to patients, diagnosed to be suffering from a wide variety of cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

  8. Limits of Flow-Cytometry Histogram Analysis Methods to Assess Bladder Tumour Antigen Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Chabanas

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumour‐associated antigens detected in cells obtained from bladder washings or tumours are useful markers in bladder cancer. Flow cytometry is commonly used to quantify immuno‐stained cells. A straightforward way to analyze data is to count the fluorescent cells above a threshold empirically determined on a control histogram representation. However, specific antigens expressed at highly variable rates give rise to wide range distributions in flow cytometry as illustrated when a mucin antigen for urinary bladder was titrated by M344 monoclonal antibody in urothelial cancer cells. We have evaluated several methods of background estimation and subtraction in order to determine the proportion of M344 Mab positive cells. These include threshold setting (Histogram Shape Dependent (HSD threshold developped in this study, 2% preset or 5% preset background, subtraction of the blank from the test histograms, and Kolmogorov–Smirnov statistical test. The HSD method appeared to be a more reliable method for background estimation; however, in the case of very low antigen expression, where specific fluorescence histograms could hardly be distinguished from that of the background, fluorescence microscopy remained the only valid method, since it allowed the distinction between specific and non‐specific fluorescence on the basis of structural differences between the two.

  9. Tree-Based Methods for Discovery of Association between Flow Cytometry Data and Clinical Endpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Eliot

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the application and comparative interpretations of three tree-based algorithms for the analysis of data arising from flow cytometry: classification and regression trees (CARTs, random forests (RFs, and logic regression (LR. Specifically, we consider the question of what best predicts CD4 T-cell recovery in HIV-1 infected persons starting antiretroviral therapy with CD4 count between 200 and 350 cell/μL. A comparison to a more standard contingency table analysis is provided. While contingency table analysis and RFs provide information on the importance of each potential predictor variable, CART and LR offer additional insight into the combinations of variables that together are predictive of the outcome. In all cases considered, baseline CD3-DR-CD56+CD16+ emerges as an important predictor variable, while the tree-based approaches identify additional variables as potentially informative. Application of tree-based methods to our data suggests that a combination of baseline immune activation states, with emphasis on CD8 T-cell activation, may be a better predictor than any single T-cell/innate cell subset analyzed. Taken together, we show that tree-based methods can be successfully applied to flow cytometry data to better inform and discover associations that may not emerge in the context of a univariate analysis.

  10. Performance of computer vision in vivo flow cytometry with low fluorescence contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Stacey; Li, Siyuan; Niedre, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Detection and enumeration of circulating cells in the bloodstream of small animals are important in many areas of preclinical biomedical research, including cancer metastasis, immunology, and reproductive medicine. Optical in vivo flow cytometry (IVFC) represents a class of technologies that allow noninvasive and continuous enumeration of circulating cells without drawing blood samples. We recently developed a technique termed computer vision in vivo flow cytometry (CV-IVFC) that uses a high-sensitivity fluorescence camera and an automated computer vision algorithm to interrogate relatively large circulating blood volumes in the ear of a mouse. We detected circulating cells at concentrations as low as 20 cells/mL. In the present work, we characterized the performance of CV-IVFC with low-contrast imaging conditions with (1) weak cell fluorescent labeling using cell-simulating fluorescent microspheres with varying brightness and (2) high background tissue autofluorescence by varying autofluorescence properties of optical phantoms. Our analysis indicates that CV-IVFC can robustly track and enumerate circulating cells with at least 50% sensitivity even in conditions with two orders of magnitude degraded contrast than our previous in vivo work. These results support the significant potential utility of CV-IVFC in a wide range of in vivo biological models.

  11. Quantitative studies of chicken somatotrophs during growth and development by morphometry, immunocytochemistry, and flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S; Deaver, D; Perez, F; Radecki, S; Gibney, J; Scanes, C G

    1997-10-01

    Changes in the male chicken somatotroph during growth and maturation have been examined by morphometric and immunocytochemical (ICC) analysis of serial sections of the anterior pituitary gland and by flow cytometry of dispersed anterior pituitary cells. ICC showed that somatotrophs are confined to the middle and caudal thirds of the anterior pituitary gland at all ages from 5 to 26 weeks. At a given age somatotrophs are of equal size at all positions along the cephalocaudal axis of the anterior pituitary gland. However, there are age-related changes: from 5 to 11 weeks rises occur in both the mean total somatotroph volume per gland (64%) and the mean number of somatotrophs (78%), while the mean volume of the single somatotroph is unchanged. From 11 to 18 weeks the mean volume of the single somatotroph decreases 41%. From 18 to 26 weeks the mean volume of the somatotroph, the mean total somatotroph volume, and the mean number per gland do not change. Flow cytometry studies suggested that somatotrophs from adults have less growth hormone (GH) than somatotrophs from young birds. The increases in total somatotroph volume and number from 5 to 11 weeks are consistent with the rise in anterior pituitary GH reported previously. Basic quantitative morphological information about age-related changes in somatotrophs is reported here. When combined with additional facts from future work, they may explain the well-documented sharp decline in circulating GH from 5 to 11 weeks. Copyright 1997 Academic Press.

  12. Antimicrobial Activity of Rhoeo discolor Phenolic Rich Extracts Determined by Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Varela, Rebeca; García-García, Rebeca M; Barba-Dávila, Bertha A; Fajardo-Ramírez, Oscar R; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O; Cardineau, Guy A

    2015-10-14

    Traditional medicine has led to the discovery of important active substances used in several health-related areas. Phytochemicals in Rhoeo discolor extracts have proven to have important antimicrobial activity. In the present study, our group determined the antimicrobial effects of extracts of Rhoeo discolor, a plant commonly used in Mexico for both medicinal and ornamental purposes. We evaluated the in vitro activity of phenolic rich extracts against specifically chosen microorganisms of human health importance by measuring their susceptibility via agar-disc diffusion assay and flow cytometry: Gram-positive Listeria innocua and Streptococcus mutans, Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and lastly a fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Ten different extracts were tested in eight different doses on all the microorganisms. Analytical data revealed a high content of phenolic compounds. Both agar-disc diffusion assay and flow cytometry results demonstrated that Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the least affected by extract exposure. However, low doses of these extracts (predominantly polar), in a range from 1 to 4 μg/mL, did produce a statistically significant bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect on the rest of the microorganisms. These results suggest the addition of certain natural extracts from Rhoeo discolor could act as antibacterial and antimycotic drugs or additives for foods and cosmetics.

  13. High-Throughput Multiplex Flow Cytometry Screening for Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A Light Chain Protease Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Given their medical importance, proteases have been studied by diverse approaches and screened for small molecule protease inhibitors. Here, we present a multiplexed microsphere-based protease assay that uses high-throughput flow cytometry to screen for inhibitors of the light chain protease of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNTALC). Our assay uses a full-length substrate and several deletion mutants screened in parallel to identify small molecule inhibitors. The use of multiplex flow cytometry has the advantage of using full-length substrates, which contain already identified distal-binding elements for the BoNTALC, and could lead to a new class of BoNTALC inhibitors. In this study, we have screened 880 off patent drugs and bioavailable compounds to identify ebselen as an in vitro inhibitor of BoNTALC. This discovery demonstrates the validity of our microsphere-based approach and illustrates its potential for high-throughput screening for inhibitors of proteases in general. PMID:20035615

  14. Antimicrobial Activity of Rhoeo discolor Phenolic Rich Extracts Determined by Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca García-Varela

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional medicine has led to the discovery of important active substances used in several health-related areas. Phytochemicals in Rhoeo discolor extracts have proven to have important antimicrobial activity. In the present study, our group determined the antimicrobial effects of extracts of Rhoeo discolor, a plant commonly used in Mexico for both medicinal and ornamental purposes. We evaluated the in vitro activity of phenolic rich extracts against specifically chosen microorganisms of human health importance by measuring their susceptibility via agar-disc diffusion assay and flow cytometry: Gram-positive Listeria innocua and Streptococcus mutans, Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and lastly a fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Ten different extracts were tested in eight different doses on all the microorganisms. Analytical data revealed a high content of phenolic compounds. Both agar-disc diffusion assay and flow cytometry results demonstrated that Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the least affected by extract exposure. However, low doses of these extracts (predominantly polar, in a range from 1 to 4 μg/mL, did produce a statistically significant bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect on the rest of the microorganisms. These results suggest the addition of certain natural extracts from Rhoeo discolor could act as antibacterial and antimycotic drugs or additives for foods and cosmetics.

  15. Bead-Based Assays for Biodetection: From Flow-Cytometry to Microfluidics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozanich, Richard M.; Antolick, Kathryn C.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Bunch, Kyle J.; Dockendorff, Brian P.; Grate, Jay W.; Nash, Michael A.; Tyler, Abby J.

    2009-05-04

    ABSTRACT The potential for the use of biological agents by terrorists is a real threat. Two approaches for detection of biological species will be described: 1) The use of microbead arrays for multiplexed flow cytometry detection of cytokines and botulinum neurotoxin simulant, and 2) a microfluidic platform for capture and separation of different size superparamagnetic nanoparticles followed by on-chip fluorescence detection of the sandwich complex. The methods and automated fluidic systems used for trapping functionalized microbeads will be described. This approach allows sample, assay reagents, and wash solutions to be perfused over a micro-column of beads, resulting in faster and more sensitive assays. The automated fluidic approach resulted in up to five-fold improvements in assay sensitivity/speed as compared to identical assays performed in a typical manual batch mode. A second approach for implementing multiplexed bead-based assays without using flow cytometry detection is currently under development. The goal of the microfluidic-based approach is to achieve rapid (<20 minutes), multiplexed (> 3 bioagents) detection using a simple and low-cost, integrated microfluidic/optical detection platform. Using fiber-optic guided laser-induced fluorescence, assay detection limits were shown to be in the 100’s of picomolar range (10’s of micrograms per liter) for botulinum neurotoxin simulant without any optimization of the microfluidic device or optical detection approach. Video taping magnetic nanoparticle capture and release was used to improve understanding of the process and revealed interesting behavior.

  16. An imaging flow cytometry method to assess ricin trafficking in A549 human lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Dominic; Chong, Damien; Walker, Nicola; Green, A Christopher

    2018-02-01

    The endocytosis and trafficking of ricin in mammalian cells is an important area of research for those producing ricin anti-toxins and other ricin therapeutics. Ricin trafficking is usually observed by fluorescence microscopy techniques. This gives good resolution and leads to a detailed understanding of the internal movement of ricin within cells. However, microscopy techniques are often hampered by complex analysis and quantification techniques, and the inability to look at ricin trafficking in large populations of cells. In these studies we have directly labelled ricin and assessed if its trafficking can be observed using Imaging Flow Cytometry (IFC) both to the cytoplasmic region of cells and specifically to the Golgi apparatus. Using IDEAS® data analysis software the specific fluorescence location of the ricin within the cells was analysed. Then, using cytoplasmic masking techniques to quantify the number of cells with endocytosed cytoplasmic ricin or cells with Golgi-associated ricin, kinetic endocytosis curves were generated. Here we present, to the authors' knowledge, the first example of using imaging flow cytometry for evaluating the subcellular transport of protein cargo, using the trafficking of ricin toxin in lung cells as a model. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Noninvasive and label-free detection of circulating melanoma cells by in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Liu, Rongrong; Niu, Zhenyu; Suo, Yuanzhen; He, Hao; Wei, Xunbin

    2015-03-01

    Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes. Circulating melanoma cell has high light absorption due to melanin highly contained in melanoma cells. This property is employed for the detection of circulating melanoma cell by in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC). PAFC is based on photoacoustic effect. Compared to in vivo flow cytometry based on fluorescence, PAFC can employ high melanin content of melanoma cells as endogenous biomarkers to detect circulating melanoma cells in vivo. In our research, we developed in vitro experiments to prove the ability of PAFC system of detecting PA signals from melanoma cells. For in vivo experiments, we constructed a model of melanoma tumor bearing mice by inoculating highly metastatic murine melanoma cancer cells B16F10 with subcutaneous injection. PA signals were detected in the blood vessels of mouse ears in vivo. By counting circulating melanoma cells termly, we obtained the number variation of circulating melanoma cells as melanoma metastasized. Those results show that PAFC is a noninvasive and label-free method to detect melanoma metastases in blood or lymph circulation. Our PAFC system is an efficient tool to monitor melanoma metastases, cancer recurrence and therapeutic efficacy.

  18. DNA flow cytometry of human spermatozoa: consistent stoichiometric staining of sperm DNA using a novel decondensation protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Tamás; Békési, Gyöngyi; Fábián, Akos; Rákosy, Zsuzsa; Horváth, Gábor; Mátyus, László; Balázs, Margit; Jenei, Attila

    2008-10-01

    Rapid flow cytometric measurement of the frequency of aneuploid human sperms is in increasing demand but development of an exploitable method is hindered by difficulties of stoichiometric staining of sperm DNA. An aggressive decondensation protocol is needed after which cell integrity still remains intact. We used flow cytometry to examine the effect of lithium diiodosalicylate (LIS, chaotropic agent) on fluorescence intensity of propidium iodide-treated human spermatozoa from 10 normozoospermic men. When flow cytometric identification of diploid spermatozoa was achieved, validation was performed after sorting by three-color FISH. In contrast with the extremely variable histograms of nondecondensed sperms, consistent identification of haploid and diploid spermatozoa was possible if samples were decondensed with LIS prior to flow cytometry. A 76-fold enrichment of diploid sperms was observed in the sorted fractions by FISH. A significant correlation was found between the proportion of sorted cells and of diploid sperms by FISH. Application of LIS during the preparation of sperm for flow cytometry appears to ensure the stoichiometric staining of sperm DNA, making quantification of aneuploid sperm percentage possible. To our knowledge this is the first report in terms of separating spermatozoa with confirmedly abnormal chromosomal content. High correlation between the proportion of cells identified as having double DNA content by flow cytometry and diploid sperm by FISH allows rapid calculation of diploidy rate. Copyright 2008 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  19. Integration of Microfluidics and Microacoustics Components for Miniature Flow Cytometry Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra K. RAVULA

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Flow cytometry is an indispensable tool in clinical diagnostics, for example in cancer, AIDS, infectious disease outbreaks, microbiology, and others. The cost and size of existing cytometers preclude their entry into field clinics, water monitoring, agriculture/veterinary diagnostics, and rapidly deployable biothreat detection. Much of the cost and footprint of conventional cytometers is dictated by the high speed achieved by cells or beads in a hydrodynamically focused stream. This constraint is removed by using ultrasonic focusing in parallel microfluidic architecture. In this paper, we describe our progress towards a microfabricated flow cytometer that uses bulk and microfabricated planar piezoelectric transducers in glass microfluidic channels. In addition to experimental data, initial modeling data to predict the performance of our transducers are discussed.

  20. Use of flow cytometry for high-throughput cell population estimates in fixed brain tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A Young

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The numbers and types of cells in an area of cortex define its function. Therefore it is essential to characterize the numbers and distributions of total cells in areas of the cortex, as well as to identify numbers of subclasses of neurons and glial cells. To date, the large size of the primate brain and the lack of innovation in cell counting methods have been a roadblock to obtaining high-resolution maps of cell and neuron density across the cortex in humans and non-human primates. Stereological counting methods and the isotropic fractionator are valuable tools for estimating cell numbers, but are better suited to smaller, well-defined brain structures or to cortex as a whole. In the present study, we have extended our flow-cytometry based counting method, the flow fractionator (Collins et al., 2010a, to include high-throughput total cell population estimates in homogenized cortical samples. We demonstrate that our method produces consistent, accurate and repeatable cell estimates quickly. The estimates we report are in excellent agreement with estimates for the same samples obtained using a Neubauer chamber and a fluorescence microscope. We show that our flow cytometry-based method for total cell estimation in homogenized brain tissue is more efficient and more precise than manual counting methods. The addition of automated nuclei counting to our flow fractionator method allows for a fully automated, rapid characterization of total cells and neuronal and non-neuronal populations in human and non-human primate brains, providing valuable data to further our understanding of the functional organization of normal, aging and diseased brains.

  1. Study of inertial hydrodynamic focusing in sheath-driven flows for lab-on-a-chip flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Nishtha; Song, Peiyi; Yong, Ken-Tye; Tjin, Swee Chuan

    2017-05-01

    Miniature flow cytometer models enable fast and cost-effective management of diseases in vulnerable and low-end settings. The single-line focusing of cell or particle samples is achieved using hydrodynamic forces in the microfluidic channels. The two common configurations among them are the single-sheath and dual-sheath flows wherein the sample is directed through the main channel, and the surrounding sheath fluids are directed into the main channel through inlets on either side of the main channel. Most models predict the width of the focused sample stream based on hydrodynamic focusing in the low Reynolds number regime (Re << 1), where the viscous forces dominate the inertial forces. In this work, we present comparative analysis of particle focusing by single-sheath and dual-sheath configurations for focusing of micron-sized cells/particles in the range 2 to 20 μm in the higher Re (10 < Re < 80) laminar regime. A quantitative analysis of the relative focused stream width (wf/wch) as a function of flow rate ratio (FRR = Sample flow rate/Sheath flow rate) for the two configurations is presented. The particle tracing results are also compared with the experimental fluorescent microscopy results at various FRR. The deviations of the results from the theoretical predictions of hydrodynamic focusing at Re << 1, are explained analytically. These findings clearly outline the range of flow parameters and relative particle sizes that can be used for cytometry studies for a given channel geometry. This is a highly predictive modeling method as it provides substantial results of particle positions across the microchannel width according to their size and FRR for single-line focusing of particles. Such information is crucial for one to engineer miniaturized flow cytometry for screening of desired cells or particles.

  2. Measurement of lipid accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris via flow cytometry and liquid-state ¹H NMR spectroscopy for development of an NMR-traceable flow cytometry protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Bono

    Full Text Available In this study, we cultured Chlorella vulgaris cells with a range of lipid contents, induced via nitrogen starvation, and characterized them via flow cytometry, with BODIPY 505/515 as a fluorescent lipid label, and liquid-state 1H NMR spectroscopy. In doing so, we demonstrate the utility of calibrating flow cytometric measurements of algal lipid content using triacylglyceride (TAG, also known as triacylglycerol or triglyceride content per cell as measured via quantitative 1H NMR. Ensemble-averaged fluorescence of BODIPY-labeled cells was highly correlated with average TAG content per cell measured by bulk NMR, with a linear regression yielding a linear fit with r2 = 0.9974. This correlation compares favorably to previous calibrations of flow cytometry protocols to lipid content measured via extraction, and calibration by NMR avoids the time and complexity that is generally required for lipid quantitation via extraction. Flow cytometry calibrated to a direct measurement of TAG content can be used to investigate the distribution of lipid contents for cells within a culture. Our flow cytometry measurements showed that Chlorella vulgaris cells subjected to nitrogen limitation exhibited higher mean lipid content but a wider distribution of lipid content that overlapped the relatively narrow distribution of lipid content for replete cells, suggesting that nitrogen limitation induces lipid accumulation in only a subset of cells. Calibration of flow cytometry protocols using direct in situ measurement of TAG content via NMR will facilitate rapid development of more precise flow cytometry protocols, enabling investigation of algal lipid accumulation for development of more productive algal biofuel feedstocks and cultivation protocols.

  3. Measurement of Lipid Accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris via Flow Cytometry and Liquid-State ¹H NMR Spectroscopy for Development of an NMR-Traceable Flow Cytometry Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono Jr., Michael S.; Garcia, Ravi D.; Sri-Jayantha, Dylan V.; Ahner, Beth A.; Kirby, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we cultured Chlorella vulgaris cells with a range of lipid contents, induced via nitrogen starvation, and characterized them via flow cytometry, with BODIPY 505/515 as a fluorescent lipid label, and liquid-state 1H NMR spectroscopy. In doing so, we demonstrate the utility of calibrating flow cytometric measurements of algal lipid content using triacylglyceride (TAG, also known as triacylglycerol or triglyceride) content per cell as measured via quantitative 1H NMR. Ensemble-averaged fluorescence of BODIPY-labeled cells was highly correlated with average TAG content per cell measured by bulk NMR, with a linear regression yielding a linear fit with r2 = 0.9974. This correlation compares favorably to previous calibrations of flow cytometry protocols to lipid content measured via extraction, and calibration by NMR avoids the time and complexity that is generally required for lipid quantitation via extraction. Flow cytometry calibrated to a direct measurement of TAG content can be used to investigate the distribution of lipid contents for cells within a culture. Our flow cytometry measurements showed that Chlorella vulgaris cells subjected to nitrogen limitation exhibited higher mean lipid content but a wider distribution of lipid content that overlapped the relatively narrow distribution of lipid content for replete cells, suggesting that nitrogen limitation induces lipid accumulation in only a subset of cells. Calibration of flow cytometry protocols using direct in situ measurement of TAG content via NMR will facilitate rapid development of more precise flow cytometry protocols, enabling investigation of algal lipid accumulation for development of more productive algal biofuel feedstocks and cultivation protocols. PMID:26267664

  4. Measurement of lipid accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris via flow cytometry and liquid-state ¹H NMR spectroscopy for development of an NMR-traceable flow cytometry protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, Michael S; Garcia, Ravi D; Sri-Jayantha, Dylan V; Ahner, Beth A; Kirby, Brian J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we cultured Chlorella vulgaris cells with a range of lipid contents, induced via nitrogen starvation, and characterized them via flow cytometry, with BODIPY 505/515 as a fluorescent lipid label, and liquid-state 1H NMR spectroscopy. In doing so, we demonstrate the utility of calibrating flow cytometric measurements of algal lipid content using triacylglyceride (TAG, also known as triacylglycerol or triglyceride) content per cell as measured via quantitative 1H NMR. Ensemble-averaged fluorescence of BODIPY-labeled cells was highly correlated with average TAG content per cell measured by bulk NMR, with a linear regression yielding a linear fit with r2 = 0.9974. This correlation compares favorably to previous calibrations of flow cytometry protocols to lipid content measured via extraction, and calibration by NMR avoids the time and complexity that is generally required for lipid quantitation via extraction. Flow cytometry calibrated to a direct measurement of TAG content can be used to investigate the distribution of lipid contents for cells within a culture. Our flow cytometry measurements showed that Chlorella vulgaris cells subjected to nitrogen limitation exhibited higher mean lipid content but a wider distribution of lipid content that overlapped the relatively narrow distribution of lipid content for replete cells, suggesting that nitrogen limitation induces lipid accumulation in only a subset of cells. Calibration of flow cytometry protocols using direct in situ measurement of TAG content via NMR will facilitate rapid development of more precise flow cytometry protocols, enabling investigation of algal lipid accumulation for development of more productive algal biofuel feedstocks and cultivation protocols.

  5. Flow cytometry as a tool to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis interaction with the immune system and drug susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Gloria Bonecini-Almeida

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Flow cytometric analysis is a useful and widely employed tool to identify immunological alterations caused by different microorganisms, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, this tool can be used for several others analysis. We will discuss some applications for flow cytometry to the study of M. tuberculosis, mainly on cell surface antigens, mycobacterial secreted proteins, their interaction with the immune system using inflammatory cells recovered from peripheral blood, alveolar and pleura spaces and the influence of M. tuberculosis on apoptosis, and finally the rapid determination of drug susceptibility. All of these examples highlight the usefulness of flow cytometry in the study of M. tuber-culosis infection.

  6. MICROSPHERE-BASED FLOW CYTOMETRY PROTEASE ASSAYS FOR USE IN PROTEASE ACTIVITY DETECTION AND HIGH-THROUGHPUT SCREENING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Matthew J.; Edwards, Bruce S.; Zhu, Jingshu; Sklar, Larry A.; Graves, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    This protocol describes microsphere-based protease assays for use in flow cytometry and high-throughput screening. This platform measures a loss of fluorescence from the surface of a microsphere due to the cleavage of an attached fluorescent protease substrate by a suitable protease enzyme. The assay format can be adapted to any site or protein specific protease of interest and results can be measured in both real time and as end point fluorescence assays on a flow cytometer. End point assays are easily adapted to microplate format for flow cytometry high-throughput analysis and inhibitor screening. PMID:20938917

  7. Polychromatic flow cytometry is more sensitive than microscopy in detecting small monoclonal plasma cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Daniel N; Smith, Sandy A B C; Brown, David A; Parker, Andrew J C; Joseph, Joanne E; Armstrong, Nicola; Sewell, William A

    2017-03-01

    There is an emerging role for flow cytometry (FC) in the assessment of small populations of plasma cells (PC). However, FC's utility has been questioned due to consistent underestimation of the percentage of PC compared to microscopy. A retrospective study was performed on bone marrow samples analysed by 8-colour FC. Plasma cell populations were classified as polyclonal or monoclonal based on FC analysis. FC findings were compared with microscopy of aspirates, histology and immunohistochemistry of trephine biopsies, and immunofixation (IFX) of serum and/or urine. FC underestimated PC compared to aspirate and trephine microscopy. The 10% diagnostic cutoff for MM on aspirate microscopy corresponded to a 3.5% cutoff on FC. Abnormal plasma cell morphology by aspirate microscopy and clonality by FC correlated in 229 of 294 cases (78%). However, in 50 cases, FC demonstrated a monoclonal population but microscopy reported no abnormality. In 15 cases, abnormalities were reported by microscopy but not by FC. Clonality assessment by trephine microscopy and FC agreed in 251/280 cases (90%), but all 29 discordant cases were monoclonal by FC and not monoclonal by microscopy. These cases had fewer PC and proportionally more polyclonal PC, and when IFX detected a paraprotein, it had the same light chain as in the PC determined by FC. FC was more sensitive in detecting monoclonal populations that were small or accompanied by polyclonal PC. This study supports the inclusion of FC in the evaluation of PC, especially in the assessment of small populations. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  8. Flow cytometry of duodenal intraepithelial lymphocytes improves diagnosis of celiac disease in difficult cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Julio; Morgado, José Mario T; Ruiz-Martín, Juan; Guardiola, Antonio; Lopes-Nogueras, Miriam; García-Vela, Almudena; Martín-Sacristán, Beatriz; Sánchez-Muñoz, Laura

    2017-10-01

    Diagnosis of celiac disease is difficult when the combined results of serology and histology are inconclusive. Studies using flow cytometry of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) have found that celiac patients have increased numbers of γδ IELs, along with a decrease in CD3-CD103 + IELs. The objective of this article is to assess the role of flow cytometric analysis of IELs in the diagnosis of celiac disease in difficult cases. A total of 312 patients with suspicion of celiac disease were included in the study. Duodenal biopsy samples were used for histological assessment and for flow cytometric analysis of IELs. In 46 out of 312 cases (14.7%) the combination of serology and histology did not allow the confirmation or exclusion of celiac disease. HLA typing had been performed in 42 of these difficult cases. Taking into account HLA typing and the response to a gluten-free diet, celiac disease was excluded in 30 of these cases and confirmed in the remaining 12. Flow cytometric analysis of IELs allowed a correct diagnosis in 39 out of 42 difficult cases (92.8%) and had a sensitivity of 91.7% (95% CI: 61.5% to 99.8%) and a specificity of 93.3% (95% CI: 77.9% to 99.2%) for the diagnosis of celiac disease in this setting. Flow cytometric analysis of IELs is useful for the diagnosis of celiac disease in difficult cases.

  9. Improved graft survival in highly sensitized patients undergoing renal transplantation after the introduction of a clinically validated flow cytometry crossmatch.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Limaye, Sandhya

    2009-04-15

    Flow cytometric techniques are increasingly used in pretransplant crossmatching, although there remains debate regarding the clinical significance and predictive value of donor-specific antibodies detected by flow cytometry. At least some of the discrepancies between published studies may arise from differences in cutoffs used and lack of standardization of the test.

  10. An open-source solution for advanced imaging flow cytometry data analysis using machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Holger; Rees, Paul; Blasi, Thomas; Kamentsky, Lee; Hung, Jane; Dao, David; Carpenter, Anne E; Filby, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Imaging flow cytometry (IFC) enables the high throughput collection of morphological and spatial information from hundreds of thousands of single cells. This high content, information rich image data can in theory resolve important biological differences among complex, often heterogeneous biological samples. However, data analysis is often performed in a highly manual and subjective manner using very limited image analysis techniques in combination with conventional flow cytometry gating strategies. This approach is not scalable to the hundreds of available image-based features per cell and thus makes use of only a fraction of the spatial and morphometric information. As a result, the quality, reproducibility and rigour of results are limited by the skill, experience and ingenuity of the data analyst. Here, we describe a pipeline using open-source software that leverages the rich information in digital imagery using machine learning algorithms. Compensated and corrected raw image files (.rif) data files from an imaging flow cytometer (the proprietary .cif file format) are imported into the open-source software CellProfiler, where an image processing pipeline identifies cells and subcellular compartments allowing hundreds of morphological features to be measured. This high-dimensional data can then be analysed using cutting-edge machine learning and clustering approaches using "user-friendly" platforms such as CellProfiler Analyst. Researchers can train an automated cell classifier to recognize different cell types, cell cycle phases, drug treatment/control conditions, etc., using supervised machine learning. This workflow should enable the scientific community to leverage the full analytical power of IFC-derived data sets. It will help to reveal otherwise unappreciated populations of cells based on features that may be hidden to the human eye that include subtle measured differences in label free detection channels such as bright-field and dark-field imagery

  11. Imaging Flow Cytometry for Morphologic and Phenotypic Characterization of Rare Circulating Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsel, Leigh; Dagur, Pradeep K.; Raghavachari, Nalini; Seamon, Catherine; Kato, Gregory J.; McCoy, J Philip

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial cells in the peripheral circulation are rare events that require technically rigorous approaches for detection by flow cytometry. Visualization of these cells has been even more demanding, as this has historically required extensive enrichment and processing prior to attempting imaging. As a result, few, if any, examples exist of images of peripheral blood CECs that include verification of the cell lineage both phenotypically and genomically. In the present study, we have devised a method whereby CECs can be directly visualized after lysis of red blood cells and staining, without pre-enrichment or additional processing. Peripheral blood is stained with CD45, CD146, CD3, Hoechst, and dapi to permit identification of CD146 positive, non-leukocyte, nucleated and live cells that fit the description of CECs. These cells are imaged using the Amnis ImagestreamX, an imaging flow cytometer. Genomic verification of the endothelial nature of these cells is accomplished by using an aliquot of the same stained samples for sorting CECs using similar gating strategies. This proof of principle of direct imaging of CECs by imaging flow cytometry (IFC) will permit studies to be conducted heretofore not possible, as the ImagestreamX has the capability of detecting additional fluorochromes other than those used to identify the CECs. Such potential investigations include antigen colocalization or capping, autophagy and apoptosis, morphologic changes in response to therapy, as well as many others. Thus, this method will enable a broad range of novel studies to be conducted using CECs as surrogates of the endothelium. PMID:23554273

  12. Standardization of 8-color flow cytometry across different flow cytometer instruments: A feasibility study in clinical laboratories in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glier, Hana; Heijnen, Ingmar; Hauwel, Mathieu; Dirks, Jan; Quarroz, Stéphane; Lehmann, Thomas; Rovo, Alicia; Arn, Kornelius; Matthes, Thomas; Hogan, Cassandra; Keller, Peter; Dudkiewicz, Ewa; Stüssi, Georg; Fernandez, Paula

    2017-07-29

    The EuroFlow Consortium developed a fully standardized flow cytometric approach from instrument settings, through antibody panel, reagents and sample preparation protocols, to data acquisition and analysis. The Swiss Cytometry Society (SCS) promoted a study to evaluate the feasibility of using such standardized measurements of 8-color data across two different flow cytometry platforms - Becton Dickinson (BD) FACSCanto II and Beckman Coulter (BC) Navios, aiming at increasing reproducibility and inter-laboratory comparability of immunophenotypic data in clinical laboratories in Switzerland. The study was performed in two phases, i.e. a learning phase (round 1) and an analytical phase (rounds 2 and 3) consisting of a total of three rounds. Overall, 10 laboratories using BD FACSCanto II (n=6) or BC Navios (n=4) flow cytometers participated. Each laboratory measured peripheral blood samples from healthy donors stained with a uniform antibody panel of reagents - EuroFlow Lymphoid Screening Tube (LST) - applying the EuroFlow standardized protocols for instrument setup and sample preparation (www.EuroFlow.org). All data files were analyzed centrally and median fluorescence intensity (MedFI) values for individual markers on defined lymphocyte subsets were recorded; variability from reference MedFI values was assessed using performance scores. Data troubleshooting and discussion of the results with the participants followed after each round at SCS meetings. The results of the learning phase demonstrated that standardized instrument setup and data acquisition are feasible in routine clinical laboratories without previous experience with EuroFlow. During the analytical phase, highly comparable data were obtained at the different laboratories using either BD FACSCanto II or BC Navios. The coefficient of variation of MedFI for 7 of 11 markers performed repeatedly below 30%. In the last study round, 89% of participants scored over 90% MedFI values within the acceptance criteria

  13. Impedance flow cytometry gauges proliferative capacity by detecting TRPC1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Sara; Beyer, Christian; Unternährer, Silvio; Benavides Damm, Tatiana; Schade-Kampmann, Grit; Hebeisen, Monika; Di Berardino, Marco; Fröhlich, Jürg; Franco-Obregón, Alfredo

    2014-06-01

    When examined, the expansion of many stem cell classes has been shown to be facilitated by mechanically-regulated calcium entry from the extracellular space that also helps direct their developmental programs towards mechanosensitive tissues such as muscle, bone, and connective tissues. Cation channels of the transient receptor potential C class (TRPC) are the predominant conduit for calcium entry into proliferating myoblasts. Nonetheless, methods to non-invasively study this calcium-entry pathway are still in their infancy. Here we show that a microfluidic configuration of impedance-based flow cytometry (IFC) provides a method to detect TRP channel expression in cells at high throughput. Using this technology we discern changes in the IFC signal that correlates with the functional expression of TRPC1 channels and coincides with cell proliferation. Pharmacological agents, mechanical conditions or malignant states that alter the expression of TRPC1 channels are reflected in the IFC signal accordingly, whereas pharmacological agents that alter cation-permeation through TRPC1 channels, or ionophores that independently increase calcium entry across the membrane, have little effect. Our results suggest that IFC detects changes in whole-cell membrane organization associated with TRPC1 activation and surface expression, rather than cation permeation through the channel per se. IFC-based technologies thus have the potential to identify living stem cells in their earliest stages of expansion without staining or chemical fixation. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  14. Novel flow cytometry approach to identify bronchial epithelial cells from healthy human airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre-Batlle, Danay; Pena, Olga M; Hirota, Jeremy A; Gunawan, Evelyn; Rider, Christopher F; Sutherland, Darren; Alexis, Neil E; Carlsten, Chris

    2017-02-06

    Sampling various compartments within the lower airways to examine human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) is essential for understanding numerous lung diseases. Conventional methods to identify HBEC in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and wash (BW) have throughput limitations in terms of efficiency and ensuring adequate cell numbers for quantification. Flow cytometry can provide high-throughput quantification of cell number and function in BAL and BW samples, while requiring low cell numbers. To date, a flow cytometric method to identify HBEC recovered from lower human airway samples is unavailable. In this study we present a flow cytometric method identifying HBEC as CD45 negative, EpCAM/pan-cytokeratin (pan-CK) double-positive population after excluding debris, doublets and dead cells from the analysis. For validation, the HBEC panel was applied to primary HBEC resulting in 98.6% of live cells. In healthy volunteers, HBEC recovered from BAL (2.3% of live cells), BW (32.5%) and bronchial brushing samples (88.9%) correlated significantly (p = 0.0001) with the manual microscopy counts with an overall Pearson correlation of 0.96 across the three sample types. We therefore have developed, validated, and applied a flow cytometric method that will be useful to interrogate the role of the respiratory epithelium in multiple lung diseases.

  15. Flow cytometry with gold nanoparticles and their clusters as scattering contrast agents: FDTD simulation of light-cell interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Sun, Wenbo; Pond, James; Tuchin, Valery V; Zharov, Vladimir P

    2009-09-01

    The formulation of the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) approach is presented in the framework of its potential applications to in-vivo flow cytometry based on light scattering. The consideration is focused on comparison of light scattering by a single biological cell alone in controlled refractive-index matching conditions and by cells labeled by gold nanoparticles. The optical schematics including phase contrast (OPCM) microscopy as a prospective modality for in-vivo flow cytometry is also analyzed. The validation of the FDTD approach for the simulation of flow cytometry may open up a new avenue in the development of advanced cytometric techniques based on scattering effects from nanoscale targets. 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  16. A Rapid and Quantitative Flow Cytometry Method for the Analysis of Membrane Disruptive Antimicrobial Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil M O'Brien-Simpson

    Full Text Available We describe a microbial flow cytometry method that quantifies within 3 hours antimicrobial peptide (AMP activity, termed Minimum Membrane Disruptive Concentration (MDC. Increasing peptide concentration positively correlates with the extent of bacterial membrane disruption and the calculated MDC is equivalent to its MBC. The activity of AMPs representing three different membranolytic modes of action could be determined for a range of Gram positive and negative bacteria, including the ESKAPE pathogens, E. coli and MRSA. By using the MDC50 concentration of the parent AMP, the method provides high-throughput, quantitative screening of AMP analogues. A unique feature of the MDC assay is that it directly measures peptide/bacteria interactions and lysed cell numbers rather than bacteria survival as with MIC and MBC assays. With the threat of multi-drug resistant bacteria, this high-throughput MDC assay has the potential to aid in the development of novel antimicrobials that target bacteria with improved efficacy.

  17. Monitoring of dynamic microbiological processes using real-time flow cytometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Arnoldini

    Full Text Available We describe a straightforward approach to continuously monitor a variety of highly dynamic microbiological processes in millisecond resolution with flow cytometry, using standard bench-top instrumentation. Four main experimental examples are provided, namely: (1 green fluorescent protein expression by antibiotic-stressed Escherichia coli, (2 fluorescent labeling of heat-induced membrane damage in an autochthonous freshwater bacterial community, (3 the initial growth response of late stationary E. coli cells inoculated into fresh growth media, and (4 oxidative disinfection of a mixed culture of auto-fluorescent microorganisms. These examples demonstrate the broad applicability of the method to diverse biological experiments, showing that it allows the collection of detailed, time-resolved information on complex processes.

  18. Nuclear DNA content of the pigeon orchid (Dendrobium crumenatum Sw. with the analysis of flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upatham Meesawat

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear DNA content for the adult plants grown in a greenhouse and in vitro young plantlets of the pigeon orchid (Dendrobium crumenatum Sw. was analyzed using flow cytometry. The resulting 2C DNA values ranged from 2.30±0.14 pgto 2.43±0.06 pg. However, nuclear DNA ploidy levels of long-term in vitro plantlets were found to be triploid and tetraploid.These ploidy levels were confirmed by chromosome counting. Tetraploid individuals (2n = 4x = 76 had approximately two times DNA content than diploid (2n = 2x = 38 individuals. This variation may be due to prolonged cultivation and thepresence of exogenous plant growth regulators.

  19. Development by flow cytometry of bioassays based on chlorella for environmental monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrescu C-M,

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In ecotoxicological assessments, bioassays (ecotoxicity tests or biotests are one of the main tools, defined as methods which use living cells, tissues, organism or communities to assess exposure-related effects of chemicals. The increasing complexity of environmental degradation requires an increase in the capacity of scientific approach in monitoring and notification as early as possible risks. Our own objective concerns the detection of aquatic environment pollution in Romania and particularly in the Danube basin. For assessing aquatic environment pollution degree or for assessing cytotoxicity or ecotoxicity of pollutants (heavy metals, nanoparticles, pesticides, etc. we developed news experimental bioassays based on the use of viability and apoptosis biomarkers of Chlorella cells by flow cytometry. Our proposed bioassays could be rapid and very sensitive tests for in laboratory aquatic risk assessment and biomonitoring.

  20. Isolation and Flow Cytometry Analysis of Innate Lymphoid Cells from the Intestinal Lamina Propria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronke, Konrad; Kofoed-Nielsen, Michael; Diefenbach, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The intestinal mucosa constitutes the biggest surface area of the body. It is constantly challenged by bacteria, commensal and pathogenic, protozoa, and food-derived irritants. In order to maintain homeostasis, a complex network of signaling circuits has evolved that includes contributions of immune cells. In recent years a subset of lymphocytes, which belong to the innate immune system, has caught particular attention. These so-called innate lymphoid cells (ILC) reside within the lamina propria of the small and large intestines and rapidly respond to environmental challenges. They provide immunity to various types of infections but may also contribute to organ homeostasis as they produce factors acting on epithelial cells thereby enhancing barrier integrity. Here, we describe how these cells can be isolated from their environment and provide an in-depth protocol how to visualize the various ILC subsets by flow cytometry.

  1. Rapid flow cytometry analysis of antimicrobial properties of nettle powder and cranberry powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattuniemi, Maarit; Korhonen, Johanna; Jaakkola, Mari; Räty, Jarkko; Virtanen, Vesa

    2010-11-01

    Both nettle (Urtica dioica) and cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccus) are widely known to have good influence on health. The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial properties of nettle powder and cranberry powder against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and monitor the growth of the bacteria by a rapid flow cytometry (FCM) method. For FCM measurements samples were stained with fluorescent dyes. The inhibitory effects of plant material on growth of E. coli were estimated by comparing the results of control sample (E. coli) to E. coli samples with plant material. FCM offers both a brilliant tool to investigate the kinetics of the growth of bacterium, since subsamples can be taken from the same liquid medium during the growing period and with fluorescent dyes a rapid method to investigate viability of the bacterium.

  2. Evaluation of T cell subsets by an immunocytochemical method compared to flow cytometry in four countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Böttiger, B; Christensen, L B

    1997-01-01

    counts with a low CD4 percentage was 92% and 68% for FC and 91% and 73% for IA, respectively. The IA method is 10-fold cheaper than FC, is independent of advanced laboratory facilities, and does not need immediate processing of samples as blood smears can be stored for long periods. The IA method......The authors tested an alternative method for CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes enumeration, the immunoalkaline phosphatase method (IA), in three African countries and in Denmark. The IA determinations from 136 HIV antibody positive and 105 HIV antibody negative individuals were compared...... to the corresponding results obtained by flow cytometry (FC) performed in the respective countries. The authors found good correspondence between the two methods for measurements of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes independent of serological status and geographical site. However, the CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes values obtained...

  3. Flow cytometry evidence of human granulocytes interaction with polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes: effect of nanoparticle charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renò, Filippo; Carniato, Fabio; Rizzi, Manuela; Olivero, Francesco; Pittarella, Pamela; Marchese, Leonardo

    2013-05-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) entering the human body are immediately confronted with the innate part of human immune system. In particular, monocyte and neutrophil granulocytes readily clear particles by phagocytosis, even if in the case of NPs the uptake mechanism may be classified as macropinocytosis. Among engineered nanoparticles, in the last years, siliceous materials have emerged as promising materials for several applications ranging from catalysis to biomedical. The polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) are nanodimensional, easily synthesizable molecular compounds and POSS-based systems are promising carriers for biological molecules. In this work, the ability of human granulocytes to uptake positively and negatively charged POSS was measured using a simple flow cytometry analysis based on cell size modifications. The data obtained showed that after a 30 min exposure only positive NPs were uptaken by human granulocyte using both macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated mechanisms as demonstrated by uptake inhibition mediated by amiloride and chlorpromazine.

  4. Flow cytometry application for studies on adenosine A2A receptors expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Tomasz; Bereta, Michał; Faron-Górecka, Agata; Dziedzicka-Wasylewska, Marta; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2008-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors belong to the heptaspanning membrane receptors family A, also known as G protein-coupled receptors. In human brain they are highly expressed in striatum, where they co-exist and co-function with adenosine A1, glutamate mGlu5 and dopamine D2 receptors. As glutaminergic neurotransmission modulators in GABAergic enkephalinergic neurons, adenosine A2A receptors are attractive targets for new, alternative therapies of neurodegenerative disorders, like Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. The aim of the research was to obtained fluorescently tagged adenosine A2A receptors. Gene encoding human adenosine A2A receptor was inserted into plasmid pEYFP-N1, bearing enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP). The construct was expressed in HEK 293 cells. Fluorescence was observed by flow cytometry and epifluorescence microscopy. Functional ligand binding properties were investigated by saturation binding analysis of adenosine A2A receptors specific agonist [3H] CGS 21680.

  5. Evaluation of Giardia duodenalis viability after metronidazole treatment by flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Barbosa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis (syn. lamblia; syn. intestinalis susceptibility testing is not routinely performed because the classical culture methods are very time-consuming and laborious. We developed a novel flow cytometry (FC assay to evaluate the susceptibility of G. duodenalis trophozoites to metronidazole (MTZ. Different concentrations of MTZ were added to cultures of trophozoites (10 5 /mL and the cultures were incubated for different periods. The 50% inhibitory concentration was calculated and propidium iodide (PI was used to quantify the number of dead cells. After treatment, PI-positive trophozoites increased with increasing drug concentration and exposure time. An excellent correlation was found between FC and the classical method. A novel, accurate and reliable method is now available to evaluate G. duodenalis viability.

  6. A liposome-based size calibration method for measuring microvesicles by flow cytometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jens Bæk

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Over the last years the need for a gold standard to determine the sizes of extracellular vesicles including microvesicles by flow cytometry has been emphasized. METHODS: This work suggests to use artificial vesicles as calibrators to ascertain the size of microvesicles from the side...... to verify the correlation between the SSC from a liposome and the corresponding size. CONCLUSIONS: We show that artificial vesicles are more accurate size calibrators compared to the commonly used polystyrene calibrator beads illustrated by the SSC from 110 nm polystyrene beads corresponds to the scattering...... from ~400 nm sized vesicle-like particles. We also show that this method of size assessment based on SSC has a low resolution that is roughly estimated to be between 60 to 200 nm dependent on the vesicle size. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  7. Flow cytometry for monitoring contaminant exposure in black-crowned night-herons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Bickham, J.W.; Lyne, T.B.; Lewis, T.; Ruedas, L.A.; Custer, Christine M.; Melancon, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The flow cytometry method (FCM) was employed to determine cellular DNA content of black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos and 10-day-old chicks collected at sites differing in types of chemical contamination. The coefficient of variation of DNA content (CV) in blood collected from embryos suggested cytogenetic damage at a site in Louisiana known to be contaminated with petroleum. Blood CV from chicks suggested genetic damage at a site in Texas also known to be contaminated with petroleum. Spleen CVs in chicks were significantly lower than respective means from the reference site. The CVs of chick blood and liver and spleen negatively correlated, suggesting recovery of spleen and liver cells after exposure to a clastogenic compound. Thus, the lower CVs may also have been indicative of genetic damage. Based on the findings of this study, FCM is a potential indicator of certain environmental contaminants in black-crowned night-herons.

  8. Flow cytometry protocol to evaluate ionizing radiation effects on P-glycoprotein activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Neyliane Goncalves dos; Amaral, Ademir; Cavalcanti, Mariana Brayner [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear]. E-mail; neylisantos@yahoo.com.br; Neves, Maria Amelia Batista; Machado, Cintia Gonsalves de Faria [Fundacao de Hematologia e Hemoterapia de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Unidade de Laboratorios Especializados. Lab. de Imunofenotipagem

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this work was to establish a protocol to evaluate ionizing radiation effects on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity. For this, human peripheral blood samples were irradiated in vitro with different doses and P-gp activity was analyzed for CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes through rhodamine123-efflux assay by flow cytometry. By simultaneous employment of percentage and mean fluorescence index parameters, subject-by-subject analysis pointed out changes in P-gp activity for some individuals and irradiated samples. Based on this work, the proposed protocol was considered adequate for evaluating P-gp activity on cells after radioactive stress. Besides, this research suggests that P-gp activity could be an important factor to define patient-specific protocols in combined chemo- and radiotherapy, particularly when radiation exposure precedes chemical treatment. (author)

  9. A comparison of TRECs and flow cytometry for naive T cell quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, S P; Kricke, S; Ralph, E; Gilmour, N; Gilmour, K C

    2018-02-01

    Assessment of thymic output by measurement of naive T cells is carried out routinely in clinical diagnostic laboratories, predominantly using flow cytometry with a suitable panel of antibodies. Naive T cell measurements can also be made using molecular analyses to quantify T cell receptor excision circle (TRECs) levels in sorted cells from peripheral blood. In this study we have compared TRECs levels retrospectively with CD45RA + CD27 + T cells and also with CD45RA + CD31 + T cells in 134 patient samples at diagnosis or during follow-up. Both panels provide naive T cell measurements that have a strongly positive correlation with TRECs numbers and are suitable for use with enumerating naive T cell levels in a clinical laboratory. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  10. Surface profiling of normally responding and nonreleasing basophils by flow cytometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Poulsen, Lars Kærgaard; Jensen, Bettina Margrethe

    Background Human basophils are granulocytes with the capacity to play important roles in allergy for example by releasing histamine when activated by cross-linking of their high affinity IgE receptors (FcRI). However, not all individuals have basophils responding with a histamine release after...... such activation and are therefore called nonreleasers. Intracellularly these basophils differ from responding cells by having a low level of the tyrosine kinase Syk, but studies of their surface profile are lacking. We have investigated the expression of FcRI, HLA-DR, CD16, CD63, CD69, CD117, CD123, CD124, CD203......c, C3aR, C5aR CCR3, FPR1, ST2, CRTH2 on anti-IgE respondsive and nonreleasing basophils by flow cytometry, thereby generating a surface profile of the two phenotypes. Methods Fresh buffy coat blood (

  11. Surface profiling of normally responding and nonreleasing basophils by flow cytometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Poulsen, Lars Kærgaard; Jensen, Bettina Margrethe

    2012-01-01

    Background Human basophils are granulocytes with the capacity to play important roles in allergy for example by releasing histamine when activated by cross-linking of their high affinity IgE receptors (Fc¿RI). However, not all individuals have basophils responding with a histamine release after...... such activation and are therefore called nonreleasers. Intracellularly these basophils differ from responding cells by having a low level of the tyrosine kinase Syk, but studies of their surface profile are lacking. We have investigated the expression of Fc¿RI, HLA-DR, CD16, CD63, CD69, CD117, CD123, CD124, CD203......c, C3aR, C5aR CCR3, FPR1, ST2, CRTH2 on anti-IgE respondsive and nonreleasing basophils by flow cytometry, thereby generating a surface profile of the two phenotypes. Methods Fresh buffy coat blood (

  12. A new flow cytometry method to measure oxidative status: the Peroxidation of Leukocytes Index Ratio (PLIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Ilaria; Adorno, Gaspare; Raguzzini, Anna; Urban, Lourdes; Ghiselli, Andrea; Serafini, Mauro

    2013-04-30

    A complex relationship between immune system and metabolic pathway exists and can induce oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to design a new methodology allowing the measurement of oxidative status of leukocytes. We developed a flow cytometry technique, based on C11-BODIPY 581/591 staining, to evaluate peroxidation in leukocytes. We defined the Peroxidation of Leukocytes Index Ratio (PLIR) as the ratio between the damage after AAPH-induced and PMA-induced peroxidation, using Trolox as standard antioxidant. Sensitivity of the method was assessed by correlating results with plasma antioxidant capacity (TRAP and FRAP), levels of endogenous antioxidants (uric acid and sulfhydryls) and markers of metabolic status (cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose and insulin). PLIR measures the ratio between the resistance to exogenous and endogenous ROS injury, independently from baseline level of oxidation, which was directly correlated with plasma cholesterol on lymphocytes (0.738, p=0.029), monocytes (0.691, p=0.047) and neutrophils (0.690, p=0.047). PLIR of lymphocytes was inversely correlated with uric acid (-0.810, p=0.009) and FRAP (-0.738, p=0.029) levels. On the other hand, PLIR of monocytes was directly correlated with the total scavenger antioxidant capacity attributable to nutritional antioxidants (0.738, p=0.029), calculated as the difference between TRAP and the contribution of uric acid and sulfhydryls to its value. This study reports a feasible and reproducible new flow cytometry assay for assessing the leukocytes redox status. PLIR discriminates between reducing and scavenger activities and is able to appreciate the potentially dangerous effect of uric acid on innate immune response. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Microsatellite and flow cytometry analysis to help understand the origin of Dioscorea alata polyploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemorin, A; David, J; Maledon, E; Nudol, E; Dalon, J; Arnau, G

    2013-09-01

    Dioscorea alata is a polyploid species with a ploidy level ranging from diploid (2n = 2x = 40) to tetraploid (2n = 4x = 80). Ploidy increase is correlated with better agronomic performance. The lack of knowledge about the origin of D. alata spontaneous polyploids (triploids and tetraploids) limits the efficiency of polyploid breeding. The objective of the present study was to use flow cytometry and microsatellite markers to understand the origin of D. alata polyploids. Different progeny generated by intracytotype crosses (2x × 2x) and intercytotype crosses (2x × 4x and 3x × 2x) were analysed in order to understand endosperm incompatibility phenomena and gamete origins via the heterozygosity rate transmitted to progeny. This work shows that in a 2x × 2x cross, triploids with viable seeds are obtained only via a phenomenon of diploid female non-gametic reduction. The study of the transmission of heterozygosity made it possible to exclude polyspermy and polyembryony as the mechanisms at the origin of triploids. The fact that no seedlings were obtained by a 3x × 2x cross made it possible to confirm the sterility of triploid females. Flow cytometry analyses carried out on the endosperm of seeds resulting from 2x × 4x crosses revealed endosperm incompatibility phenomena. The major conclusion is that the polyploids of D. alata would have appeared through the formation of unreduced gametes. The triploid pool would have been built and diversified through the formation of 2n gametes in diploid females as the result of the non-viability of seeds resulting from the formation of 2n sperm and of the non-viability of intercytotype crosses. The tetraploids would have appeared through bilateral sexual polyploidization via the union of two unreduced gametes due to the sterility of triploids.

  14. Analysis of basophil activation by flow cytometry in pediatric house dust mite allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Muñoz, Miguel; Villota, Julian; Moneo, Ignacio

    2008-06-01

    Detection of allergen-induced basophil activation by flow cytometry has been shown to be a useful tool for allergy diagnosis. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of this technique for the diagnosis of pediatric house dust mite allergy. Quantification of total and specific IgE and basophil activation test were performed to evaluate mite allergic (n = 24), atopic (n = 23), and non-allergic children (n = 9). Allergen-induced basophil activation was detected as a CD63-upregulation. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed to calculate the optimal cut-off value of activated basophils discriminating mite allergic and non-allergic children. ROC curve analysis yielded a threshold value of 18% activated basophils when mite-sensitized and atopic children were studied [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.97-1.01, p 43 kU/l) values for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergen. They also showed positive prick (wheal diameter >1.0 cm) and basophil activation (>87%) tests and high specific IgE (>100 kU/l) with shrimp allergen. Shrimp sensitization was demonstrated by high levels of Pen a 1-specific IgE (>100 kU/l). Cross-reactivity between mite and shrimp was confirmed by fluorescence enzyme immunoassay (FEIA-CAP) inhibition study in these two cases. This study demonstrated that the analysis of allergen-induced CD63 upregulation by flow cytometry is a reliable tool for diagnosis of mite allergy in pediatric patients, with sensitivity similar to routine diagnostic tests and a higher specificity. Furthermore, this method can provide additional information in case of disagreement between in vivo and in vitro test results.

  15. Griffonia simplicifolia I isolectin as a functionally monovalent probe for use in flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, J P; Shibuya, N; Riedy, M C; Goldstein, I J

    1986-03-01

    The inherent tendency of lectins to agglutinate cells has limited their use as reagents for the detection of carbohydrate groups on cell surfaces by flow cytometry. In the current study, we demonstrate a method for the use of a fluoresceinated tetrameric isolectin (Griffonia simplicifolia I-A3B, FITC-GS I-A3B) as a functionally monovalent, nonagglutinating probe in flow cytometry. This isolectin contains three A subunits and one B subunit. Both types of subunits bind alpha-D-galactopyranosyl (alpha-D-galp-) end groups with similar affinities; however, the A subunits have a 1,000-fold greater affinity for N-Acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc) than does the B subunit. The addition of low (1-2 mM) concentrations of GalNAc to the FITC-GS I-A3B isolectin results in blockage of the three A subunits without significantly affecting the B subunit; this yields a functionally monovalent probe for the detection of cell surface alpha-D-Galp end groups. This approach has been used to examine two types of cells: Ehrlich ascites tumor cells and rat alveolar macrophages, both of which are known to express cell surface alpha-D-Galp end groups. Lectin binding, as determined by number of positive cells and fluorescence intensity, was dependent upon concentration of the lectin and haptenic sugar. Specificity of the staining was demonstrated by the ability of methyl alpha-D-galactopyranoside (Met alpha-D-Galp) to abolish the binding of the lectin to the cells. Elimination of both GalNAc and Met alpha-D-Galp from the staining solution resulted in agglutination of the cells, indicating that the A subunits were active in the absence of GalNAc.

  16. Characterization of functional variables in epididymal alpaca (Vicugna pacos) sperm using imaging flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiani, Alexei; Ugarelli, Alejandra; Evangelista-Vargas, Shirley

    2016-10-01

    Epididymal alpaca sperm represent an alternative model for the study of alpaca semen. The objective of this study was to characterize the normal values of some functional variables in epididymal alpaca sperm using imaging flow cytometry. Alpaca testicles (n=150) were processed and sperm were recovered from the cauda epididymides. Only 76 samples with acceptable motility and sperm count were considered for assessment by imaging flow cytometry. Acrosome integrity and integrity/viability were assessed by FITC-PSA/PI and FITC-PNA/PI. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was assessed by MitoTracker CMXRos and MitoTracker Deep Red FM. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated using BODIPY 581/591 C11. Results show that the mean values for acrosome-intact sperm were 95.03±6.39% and 93.34±7.96%, using FITC-PSA and FITC-PNA, respectively. The mean values for acrosome-intact viable sperm were 60.58±12.12% with FITC-PSA/PI and 58.81±12.94% with FITC-PNA/PI. Greater MMP was detected in 65.03±15.92% and 59.52±19.19%, using MitoTracker CMXRos and MitoTracker Deep Red FM, respectively. Lipid peroxidation was 0.84±0.95%. Evaluation of acrosome-intact and acrosome-intact viable sperm with FITC-PSA/PI compared with. FITC-PNA/PI or MMP with MitoTracker CMXRos compared with MitoTracker Deep Red FM were correlated (Psperm motility (r=0.3979). This report provides a basis for future research related to alpaca semen using the epididymal sperm model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hierarchical modeling for rare event detection and cell subset alignment across flow cytometry samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Cron

    Full Text Available Flow cytometry is the prototypical assay for multi-parameter single cell analysis, and is essential in vaccine and biomarker research for the enumeration of antigen-specific lymphocytes that are often found in extremely low frequencies (0.1% or less. Standard analysis of flow cytometry data relies on visual identification of cell subsets by experts, a process that is subjective and often difficult to reproduce. An alternative and more objective approach is the use of statistical models to identify cell subsets of interest in an automated fashion. Two specific challenges for automated analysis are to detect extremely low frequency event subsets without biasing the estimate by pre-processing enrichment, and the ability to align cell subsets across multiple data samples for comparative analysis. In this manuscript, we develop hierarchical modeling extensions to the Dirichlet Process Gaussian Mixture Model (DPGMM approach we have previously described for cell subset identification, and show that the hierarchical DPGMM (HDPGMM naturally generates an aligned data model that captures both commonalities and variations across multiple samples. HDPGMM also increases the sensitivity to extremely low frequency events by sharing information across multiple samples analyzed simultaneously. We validate the accuracy and reproducibility of HDPGMM estimates of antigen-specific T cells on clinically relevant reference peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC samples with known frequencies of antigen-specific T cells. These cell samples take advantage of retrovirally TCR-transduced T cells spiked into autologous PBMC samples to give a defined number of antigen-specific T cells detectable by HLA-peptide multimer binding. We provide open source software that can take advantage of both multiple processors and GPU-acceleration to perform the numerically-demanding computations. We show that hierarchical modeling is a useful probabilistic approach that can provide a

  18. Flow Cytometry: A New Approach for Indirect Assessment of Sperm Protamine Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziyeh Tavalaee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flow cytometry (FCM has been extensively used to study mammalian sperm in theareas of clinical andrology and reproductive toxicology. FCM provides a powerful advantage overmicroscopy technique in terms of rapid, accurate and reproducible technology for the quantification ofvarious cell characteristics, including chromatin status. During spermiogenesis, histones are replacedby protamines resulting in a very condensed structure of sperm chromatin. Infertile men have anincreased sperm histone: protamine ratio than fertile counterparts. Chromomycin A3 (CMA3 stainingrepresents a useful tool for assessing the packaging quality of sperm chromatin and allows indirectvisualization of protamine deficiency. Routinely, fluorescence microscope is used for evaluation ofprotamine deficiency by CMA3. Considering the advantages of FCM and increasing use of CMA3 inassessment of protamine deficiency in the literature and its possible use as a diagnostic test, the aim ofthis study is to standardize this procedure for routine laboratory analysis.Materials and Methods: Semen samples were collected from 85 infertile men who referred toIsfahan Fertility and Infertility Center. A portion of semen sample was used for routine semenanalysis according to WHO criteria and the remainder were evaluated to standardize CMA3 stainingprocedure for fixation, the number of sperm and duration of exposure to CMA3. The results werecompared with standard fluorescent microscopic procedure. Percentage CMA3 positive sperm werecompared between flow cytometry and standard fluorescent microscopic procedure.Results: Our results show that fixation, the number of sperm and duration of exposure to CMA3can affect on FCM outcomes. In addition we show that the samples can be fixed, stained withCMA3, stores and then assessed for FCM.Conclusion: The optimal conditions for FCM assessment of CMA3 are: fixation, concentration of0.25 mg/ml, sperm density of 2 million/ml and exposure for 60

  19. Label-free detection of circulating melanoma cells by in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Yang, Ping; Liu, Rongrong; Niu, Zhenyu; Suo, Yuanzhen; He, Hao; Gao, Wenyuan; Tang, Shuo; Wei, Xunbin

    2016-03-01

    Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes. Melanoma cells have high light absorption due to melanin highly contained in melanoma cells. This property is employed for the detection of circulating melanoma cell by in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC), which is based on photoacoustic effect. Compared to in vivo flow cytometry based on fluorescence, PAFC can employ high melanin content of melanoma cells as endogenous biomarkers to detect circulating melanoma cells in vivo. We have developed in vitro experiments to prove the ability of PAFC system of detecting photoacoustic signals from melanoma cells. For in vivo experiments, we have constructed a model of melanoma tumor bearing mice by inoculating highly metastatic murine melanoma cancer cells, B16F10 with subcutaneous injection. PA signals are detected in the blood vessels of mouse ears in vivo. The raw signal detected from target cells often contains some noise caused by electronic devices, such as background noise and thermal noise. We choose the Wavelet denoising method to effectively distinguish the target signal from background noise. Processing in time domain and frequency domain would be combined to analyze the signal after denoising. This algorithm contains time domain filter and frequency transformation. The frequency spectrum image of the signal contains distinctive features that can be used to analyze the property of target cells or particles. The processing methods have a great potential for analyzing signals accurately and rapidly. By counting circulating melanoma cells termly, we obtain the number variation of circulating melanoma cells as melanoma metastasized. Those results show that PAFC is a noninvasive and label-free method to detect melanoma metastases in blood or lymph circulation.

  20. Enhanced Red and Near Infrared Detection in Flow Cytometry Using Avalanche Photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, William G.; Varadi, Gyula; Entine, Gerald; Podniesinski, Edward; Wallace, Paul K.

    2008-01-01

    Background Polychromatic flow cytometry enables detailed identification of cell phenotype using multiple fluorescent parameters. The photomultiplier tubes used to detect fluorescence in current instruments limit the sensitivity in the long wavelength spectral range. We demonstrate the flow cytometric applications of silicon avalanche photodiodes, which have improved red sensitivity and a working fluorescence detection range beyond 1000 nm. Methods A comparison of the wavelength dependent performance of the avalanche photodiode and photomultiplier tube was carried out using pulsed light emitting diode sources, calibrated test beads and biological samples. A breadboard flow cytometer test bench was constructed to compare the performance of photomultiplier tubes and avalanche photodiode detectors. The avalanche photodiode used an additional amplifier stage to match the internal gain of the photomultiplier tube. Results The resolution of the avalanche photodiode and photomultiplier tube was compared for flow cytometry applications using a pulsed light emitting diode source over the 500 nm to 1060 nm spectral range. These measurements showed the relative changes in the signal to noise performance of the APD and PMT over a broad spectral range. Both the avalanche photodiode and photomultiplier tubes were used to measure the signal to noise response for a set of 6 peak calibration beads over the 530 to 800 nm wavelength range. CD4 positive cells labeled with antibody conjugated phycoerythrin or 800 nm quantum dots were identified by simultaneous detection using the avalanche photodiode and the photomultiplier tube. The ratios of the intensities of the CD4− and CD4+ populations were found to be similar for both detectors in the visible wavelengths, but only the avalanche photodiode was able to separate these populations at wavelengths above 800 nm. Conclusions These measurements illustrate the differences in APD and PMT performance at different wavelengths and signal

  1. Measurement of Low-Abundance Intracellular mRNA Using Amplified FISH Staining and Image-Based Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Andrea L; Sampson, Jill N Best; McFarlin, Brian Keith

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in instrument design and reagent development have enabled the rapid progression in available measurement techniques in the field of flow cytometry. In particular, image-based flow cytometry extends the analysis capacity found in traditional flow cytometry. Until recently, it was not possible to measure intracellular mRNA in specific phenotypes of cells by flow cytometry. In this protocol, a method of completing simultaneous intracellular measurement of mRNA and protein for PPAR-gamma in peripheral blood monocytes, which have been exposed in vitro to modified LDL, is described. The process of PPAR-gamma activation following uptake of modified LDL is believed to play a role in the development of atherogenesis. PPAR-gamma mRNA measurement was made possible using an amplified FISH technique (PrimeFlow RNA Assay) that allowed for detection of low-abundant intracellular mRNA expression. This protocol represents a continued effort by the authors' laboratory to establish and validate new techniques to assess the role of the immune system in chronic disease. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. Flow cytometry as a tool for analyzing changes in Plasmodium falciparum cell cycle following treatment with indol compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Desirée Cigaran; Ribeiro, Ramira Yuri; Nery, Arthur A; Ulrich, Henning; Garcia, Célia R S

    2011-11-01

    Melatonin and its derivatives modulate the Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium chabaudi cell cycle. Flow cytometry was employed together with the nucleic acid dye YOYO-1 allowing precise discrimination between mono- and multinucleated forms of P. falciparum-infected red blood cell. The use of YOYO-1 permitted excellent discrimination between uninfected and infected red blood cells as well as between early and late parasite stages. Fluorescence intensities of schizont-stage parasites were about 10-fold greater than those of ring-trophozoite form parasites. Melatonin and related indolic compounds including serotonin, N-acetyl-serotonin and tryptamine induced an increase in the percentage of multinucleated forms compared to non-treated control cultures. YOYO-1 staining of infected erythrocyte and subsequent flow cytometry analysis provides a powerful tool in malaria research for screening of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  3. Fluorescence triggering: A general strategy for enumerating and phenotyping extracellular vesicles by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arraud, Nicolas; Gounou, Céline; Turpin, Delphine; Brisson, Alain R

    2016-02-01

    Plasma contains cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) which participate in various physiopathological processes and have potential biomedical applications. Despite intense research activity, knowledge on EVs is limited mainly due to the difficulty of isolating and characterizing sub-micrometer particles like EVs. We have recently reported that a simple flow cytometry (FCM) approach based on triggering the detection on a fluorescence signal enabled the detection of 50× more Annexin-A5 binding EVs (Anx5+ EVs) in plasma than the conventional FCM approach based on light scattering triggering. Here, we present the application of the fluorescence triggering approach to the enumeration and phenotyping of EVs from platelet free plasma (PFP), focusing on CD41+ and CD235a+ EVs, as well as their sub-populations which bind or do not bind Anx5. Higher EV concentrations were detected by fluorescence triggering as compared to light scattering triggering, namely 40× for Anx5+ EVs, 75× for CD41+ EVs, and 15× for CD235a+ EVs. We found that about 30% of Anx5+ EVs were of platelet origin while only 3% of them were of erythrocyte origin. In addition, a majority of EVs from platelet and erythrocyte origin do not expose PS, in contrast to the classical theory of EV formation. Furthermore, the same PFP samples were analyzed fresh and after freeze-thawing, showing that freeze-thawing processes induce an increase, of about 35%, in the amount of Anx5+ EVs, while the other EV phenotypes remain unchanged. The method of EV detection and phenotyping by fluorescence triggering is simple, sensitive and reliable. We foresee that its application to EV studies will improve our understanding on the formation mechanisms and functions of EVs in health and disease and help the development of EV-based biomarkers. © 2015 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  4. Immunophenotype Discovery, Hierarchical Organization, and Template-based Classification of Flow Cytometry Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariful Azad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe algorithms for discovering immunophenotypes from large collections of flow cytometry (FC samples, and using them to organize the samples into a hierarchy based on phenotypic similarity. The hierarchical organization is helpful for effective and robust cytometry data mining, including the creation of collections of cell populations characteristic of different classes of samples, robust classification, and anomaly detection. We summarize a set of samples belonging to a biological class or category with a statistically derived template for the class. Whereas individual samples are represented in terms of their cell populations (clusters, a template consists of generic meta-populations (a group of homogeneous cell populations obtained from the samples in a class that describe key phenotypes shared among all those samples. We organize an FC data collection in a hierarchical data structure that supports the identification of immunophenotypes relevant to clinical diagnosis. A robust template-based classification scheme is also developed, but our primary focus is in the discovery of phenotypic signatures and inter-sample relationships in an FC data collection. This collective analysis approach is more efficient and robust since templates describe phenotypic signatures common to cell populations in several samples, while ignoring noise and small sample-specific variations.We have applied the template-base scheme to analyze several data setsincluding one representing a healthy immune system, and one of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AMLsamples. The last task is challenging due to the phenotypic heterogeneity of the severalsubtypes of AML. However, we identified thirteen immunophenotypes corresponding to subtypes of AML, and were able to distinguish Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia from other subtypes of AML.

  5. An Introduction to Automated Flow Cytometry Gating Tools and Their Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschoor, Chris P; Lelic, Alina; Bramson, Jonathan L; Bowdish, Dawn M E

    2015-01-01

    Current flow cytometry (FCM) reagents and instrumentation allow for the measurement of an unprecedented number of parameters for any given cell within a homogenous or heterogeneous population. While this provides a great deal of power for hypothesis testing, it also generates a vast amount of data, which is typically analyzed manually through a processing called "gating." For large experiments, such as high-content screens, in which many parameters are measured, the time required for manual analysis as well as the technical variability inherent to manual gating can increase dramatically, even becoming prohibitive depending on the clinical or research goal. In the following article, we aim to provide the reader an overview of automated FCM analysis as well as an example of the implementation of FLOw Clustering without K, a tool that we consider accessible to researchers of all levels of computational expertise. In most cases, computational assistance methods are more reproducible and much faster than manual gating, and for some, also allow for the discovery of cellular populations that might not be expected or evident to the researcher. We urge any researcher who is planning or has previously performed large FCM experiments to consider implementing computational assistance into their analysis pipeline.

  6. Monitoring of minimal residual disease in acute leukemia by multiparametric flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusenda, J; Fajtova, M; Kovarikova, A

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we discuss methodological principles and clinical applications of minimal residual disease (MRD) assays based on multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC). The introduction of methods for MRD detection has revolutionized monitoring of treatment response in acute leukemia. Great progress has been made in the development of wide array of flow cytometric techniques for rare event detection. This advance was accompanied by increasingly greater understanding of the immunophenotypic features of leukemic and normal lymphoid cells, and of the antigenic differences that make MRD studies possible. Immunologic testing of MRD relies on "leukemia-associated" immunophenotypes which can be identified by MFC in the most of acute leukemia cases. The recent technical innovations in routine MFC (3 lasers and≥8 colors) and the new developments in software for data analysis make this technology the most attractive for MRD diagnostics. The importance of MFC methodology will be further strengthened by the ongoing international standardization efforts. Results of MRD testing provide unique and clinically important information. The systematic application of immunologic techniques to study MRD in clinical samples has demonstrated the prognostic significance of MRD in patients, leading to the use of MRD to regulate treatment intensity in many contemporary protocols. The identification of new markers of MRD should increase the sensitivity of MRD testing by MFC and is required to widen the applicability of MRD studies.

  7. Detection of somaclonal variation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) using cytogenetics, flow cytometry and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shuangxia; Mushke, Ramesh; Zhu, Huaguo; Tu, Lili; Lin, Zhongxu; Zhang, Yanxin; Zhang, Xianlong

    2008-08-01

    Two protocols of plant regeneration for cotton were adopted in this study, namely, 2, 4-D and kinetin hormone combination and IBA and kinetin hormone combination. Twenty-eight embryogenic cell lines via somatic embryogenesis and 67 regenerated plants from these embryogenic calli were selected and used for random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), simple sequence repeat (SSR), chromosomal number counting, and flow cytometric analysis. The roles of RAPD and SSR markers in detecting somaclonal variation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were evaluated. Two cluster analyses were performed to express, in the form of dendrograms, the relationships among the hormone combinations and the genetic variability. Both DNA-based techniques were able to amplify all of the cell clones and regenerated plantlets genomes and relative higher genetic variation could be detected in the culture type with 2, 4-D and kinetin hormone combination. The result suggested that 2, 4-D and kinetin hormone combination could induce relative high somaclonal variation and RAPD and SSR markers are useful in detecting somaclonal variation of regenerated cotton plants via somatic embryogenesis. Chromosome number counting and flow cytometry analysis revealed that the number of chromosomes and ploidy levels were nearly stable in all regenerated plants except two regenerated plantlets (lost 4 and 5 chromosomes, respectively) which meant that cytological changes were not correlated with the frequency of RAPD and SSR polymorphisms. This result also might mean that the cell lines with variation of chromosome numbers were difficult to regenerate plants.

  8. Femtosecond laser fabrication of fiber based optofluidic platform for flow cytometry applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serhatlioglu, Murat; Elbuken, Caglar; Ortac, Bulend; Solmaz, Mehmet E.

    2017-02-01

    Miniaturized optofluidic platforms play an important role in bio-analysis, detection and diagnostic applications. The advantages of such miniaturized devices are extremely low sample requirement, low cost development and rapid analysis capabilities. Fused silica is advantageous for optofluidic systems due to properties such as being chemically inert, mechanically stable, and optically transparent to a wide spectrum of light. As a three dimensional manufacturing method, femtosecond laser scanning followed by chemical etching shows great potential to fabricate glass based optofluidic chips. In this study, we demonstrate fabrication of all-fiber based, optofluidic flow cytometer in fused silica glass by femtosecond laser machining. 3D particle focusing was achieved through a straightforward planar chip design with two separately fabricated fused silica glass slides thermally bonded together. Bioparticles in a fluid stream encounter with optical interrogation region specifically designed to allocate 405nm single mode fiber laser source and two multi-mode collection fibers for forward scattering (FSC) and side scattering (SSC) signals detection. Detected signal data collected with oscilloscope and post processed with MATLAB script file. We were able to count number of events over 4000events/sec, and achieve size distribution for 5.95μm monodisperse polystyrene beads using FSC and SSC signals. Our platform shows promise for optical and fluidic miniaturization of flow cytometry systems.

  9. Performance analysis of a dual-buffer architecture for digital flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthi, Shiva; Sankaranarayanan, Sundararajan; Xia, Bo; Lambert, Georgina M; Rodríguez, Jeffrey J; Galbraith, David W

    2005-08-01

    Most current commercial flow cytometers employ analog circuitry to provide feature values describing the pulse waveforms produced from suspended cells and particles. This restricts the type of features that can be extracted (typically pulse height, width, and integral) and consequently places a limit on classification performance. In previous work, we described a first-generation digital data acquisition and processing system that was used to demonstrate the classification advantages provided by the extraction of additional waveform features. An improved version of the system is discussed in this paper, focusing on dual-buffering to ensure increased pulse capture. A mathematical model of the system is also presented for performance analysis. The second-generation system incorporates fast digitization of analog pulse waveforms, instantaneous pulse detection hardware, and a novel dual-buffering scheme. A mathematical model of the system was developed to theoretically compute the capture-rate performance. The capture rate of the system was theoretically analyzed and empirically measured. Under typical conditions, a capture rate of 8,000 pulses/s was experimentally achieved. Based on these results, the dual-buffer architecture shows great potential for use in flow cytometry. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Evolution of the scattering properties of phytoplankton cells from flow cytometry measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Moutier

    Full Text Available After the exponential growth phase, variability in the scattering efficiency of phytoplankton cells over their complete life cycle is not well characterised. Bulk measurements are impacted by senescent cells and detritrus. Thus the analysis of the evolution of the optical properties thanks to their morphological and/or intra-cellular variations remains poorly studied. Using the Cytosense flow cytometer (CytoBuoy b.v., NL, the temporal course of the forward and sideward efficiencies of two phytoplankton species (Thalassiosira pseudonana and Chlamydomonas concordia were analyzed during a complete life-cycle. These two species differ considerably from a morphological point of view. Over the whole experiment, the forward and sideward efficiencies of Thalassiosira pseudonana were, on average, respectively 2.2 and 1.6 times higher than the efficiencies of Chlamydomonas concordia. Large intra-species variability of the efficiencies were observed over the life cycle of the considered species. It highlights the importance of considering the optical properties of phytoplankton cells as a function of the population growth stage of the considered species. Furthermore, flow cytometry measurements were combined with radiative transfer simulations and biogeochemical and optical measurements. Results showed that the real refractive index of the chloroplast is a key parameter driving the sideward signal and that a simplistic two-layered model (cytoplasm-chloroplast seems particularly appropriate to represent the phytoplankton cells.

  11. [Flow cytometry controlled induction therapy with ATG and noninvasive monitoring of rejection--a modern management concept after heart transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, F M; Tugtekin, S M; Matschke, K; Platzbecker, U; Gulielmos, V; Schüler, S

    1998-01-01

    We introduce our concept of non-invasive transplant monitoring. The introduction of individualized immunosuppression by means of flow cytometry leads to a lower incidence of acute graft rejection and preserves immuncompetence. With the simultaneous use of echocardiography and intramyocardial electrogram (IMEG) acute graft rejections can be safely identified without using any invasive method.

  12. Flow cytometry with gold nanoparticlesand their clusters as scattering contrast agents: FDTD simulation of light-cell interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Sun, Wenbo; Pond, James

    2009-01-01

    The formulation of the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) approach is presented in the framework of its potential applications to in vivo flow cytometry based on light scattering. The consideration is focused on comparison of light scattering by a single biological cell alone in controlled refr...

  13. Flow cytometry total cell counts : A field study assessing microbiological water quality and growth in unchlorinated drinking water distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, G.; Van der Mark, E.J.; Verberk, J.Q.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    e objective of this study was to evaluate the application of flow cytometry total cell counts (TCCs) as a parameter to assess microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems and to determine the relationships between different parameters describing the biostability of treated water. A

  14. Utilization of flow cytometry to identify chimeral sectors in leaf tissue of Lolium multiflorum x L. arundinaceum hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have identified a method whereby Lolium multiflorum (Lm) or L. arundinaceum (Fa) genomes are preferentially eliminated through a mitotic loss behavior in interspecific Lm x Fa F1 hybrids, generating either dihaploid Lm lines or Fa lines. Flow cytometry, a method for rapidly characterizing optical...

  15. Immunological Tools: Engaging Students in the Use and Analysis of Flow Cytometry and Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Laura E.; Carson, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are commonly used techniques associated with clinical and research applications within the immunology and medical fields. The use of these techniques is becoming increasingly valuable in many life science and engineering disciplines as well. Herein, we report the development and…

  16. Using fluorescence-activated flow cytometry to determine reactive oxygen species formation and membrane lipid peroxidation in viable boar spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluorescence-activated flow cytometry analyses were developed for determination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and membrane lipid peroxidation in live spermatozoa loaded with, respectively, hydroethidine (HE) or the lipophilic probe 4,4-difluoro-5-(4-phenyl-1,3-butadienyl)-4-bora-3a,4a-d...

  17. Dengue Virus and Its Relation to Human Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Revealed by Fluorescence Microscopy and Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attatippaholkun, Nattapol; U-Pratya, Yaowalak; Supraditaporn, Panthipa; Lorthongpanich, Chanchao; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Issaragrisil, Surapol

    2017-11-01

    Understanding dengue virus (DENV)-induced hemorrhage remains a challenging jigsaw puzzle with many pieces missing to understand the complex interactions between DENV and blood coagulation system. To use flow cytometry studying the interactions between DENV and human platelet aggregation receptor, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (gpIIb/IIIa), directly conjugated fluorochrome monoclonal antibody (mAb) is essential to facilitate multifluorochrome immunostaining. However, the obstacle was that no directly conjugated fluorochrome-anti-DENV mAb had been commercially available. To overcome, we directly conjugated fluorochrome to a primary anti-DENV mAb using a LYNX rapid conjugation kit. Flow cytometry analysis showed that this conjugated antibody and anti-gpIIb/IIIa mAb were able to detect DENV and CD41a simultaneously. Fluorescence microscopy analysis further demonstrated CD41a superficially and DENV intracellularly. Potentially, this strategy can facilitate virologists for directly conjugating any virus-specific primary antibodies, which are not commercially available with fluorochrome, to study the infectivity in any surface marker-specific hosts through flow cytometry. Together, DENV can interact with both human gpIIb/IIIa(-) and gpIIb/IIIa(+) cells revealed by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy for the first time.

  18. Effectiveness of pulse-shape criteria for the selection of dicentric chromosomes by slit-scan flow cytometry and sorting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rens, W.; van Oven, C. H.; Stap, J.; Aten, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    A method was developed to detect dicentric chromosomes by slit-scan flow cytometry. The two centromeres of dicentric chromosomes are represented by the two dips in the trimodal fluorescence profile. A trimodal profile can, however, also be generated by aggregates of chromosomes. We tested the

  19. Phospho-specific flow cytometry identifies aberrant signaling in indolent B-cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blix Egil S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about signaling pathways in malignant cells may provide prognostic and diagnostic information in addition to identify potential molecular targets for therapy. B-cell receptor (BCR and co-receptor CD40 signaling is essential for normal B cells, and there is increasing evidence that signaling via BCR and CD40 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of B-cell lymphoma. The aim of this study was to investigate basal and induced signaling in lymphoma B cells and infiltrating T cells in single-cell suspensions of biopsies from small cell lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia (SLL/CLL and marginal zone lymphoma (MZL patients. Methods Samples from untreated SLL/CLL and MZL patients were examined for basal and activation induced signaling by phospho-specific flow cytometry. A panel of 9 stimulation conditions targeting B and T cells, including crosslinking of the B cell receptor (BCR, CD40 ligand and interleukins in combination with 12 matching phospho-protein readouts was used to study signaling. Results Malignant B cells from SLL/CLL patients had higher basal levels of phosphorylated (p-SFKs, p-PLCγ, p-ERK, p-p38, p-p65 (NF-κB, p-STAT5 and p-STAT6, compared to healthy donor B cells. In contrast, anti-BCR induced signaling was highly impaired in SLL/CLL and MZL B cells as determined by low p-SFK, p-SYK and p-PLCγ levels. Impaired anti-BCR-induced p-PLCγ was associated with reduced surface expression of IgM and CD79b. Similarly, CD40L-induced p-ERK and p-p38 were also significantly reduced in lymphoma B cells, whereas p-p65 (NF-κB was equal to that of normal B cells. In contrast, IL-2, IL-7 and IL-15 induced p-STAT5 in tumor-infiltrating T cells were not different from normal T cells. Conclusions BCR signaling and CD40L-induced p-p38 was suppressed in malignant B cells from SLL/CLL and MZL patients. Single-cell phospho-specific flow cytometry for detection of basal as well as activation

  20. An update on the use of flow cytometry in HIV infection and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengel, R L; Nicholson, J K

    2001-12-01

    Flow cytometry has played an invaluable role in recent advances made against HIV and AIDS, and there is every reason to expect it will continue to do so. Newer-generation machines, using three- and four-color panels, make measurements of lymphocyte subsets ever more accurate and potentially cost-effective. Similarly, recent single-platform techniques promise even more efficiencies, freeing CD4 enumeration from parallel determination of the CBC. In other developments, quantitative reporting of immunophenotype may well change the way subsets traditionally defined by qualitative determinations are viewed. The most promising initial candidates for such changes are surrogates of immune activation, such as CD38 expression on CD8 cells. But technical demonstration of reproducibility and reliability, and clinical trial evidence of utility--especially as measured against such established laboratory parameters as CD4 cell and HIV RNA determinations--are needed before a change from qualitative to quantitative immunophenotype measurement can be widely accepted. Although too soon to tell if they will emerge from the research arena into the clinical arena, tetramer binding, intracellular cytokine detection, and assays of cell division are rapidly advancing understanding of HIV-disease, and indeed understanding of all of human immunology. Some of these assays provide often subtly different information, and together they will help determine the most important surrogate measures of clinical immunity. Identifying such surrogates is critical to developing a rational HIV vaccine. The power of flow cytometry is its ability simultaneously to analyze data in four, five, six, or more dimensions. For longitudinal experiments, time adds yet another dimension. Humans struggle to think past three dimensions; interpreting results from experimental permutations and combinations that expand geometrically with each additional parameter studied requires considerable effort. Ultimately computer

  1. EpCAM-based flow cytometry in cerebrospinal fluid greatly improves diagnostic accuracy of leptomeningeal metastases from epithelial tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojkovic Kerklaan, Bojana; Pluim, Dick; Bol, Mijke; Hofland, Ingrid; Westerga, Johan; van Tinteren, Harm; Beijnen, Jos H.; Boogerd, Willem; Schellens, Jan H. M.; Brandsma, Dieta

    2016-01-01

    Background Moderate diagnostic accuracy of MRI and initial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology analysis results in at least 10%–15% false negative diagnoses of leptomeningeal metastases (LM) of solid tumors, thus postponing start of therapy. The aim of this prospective clinical study was to determine the diagnostic value of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)–based flow cytometry versus cytology in CSF for the diagnosis of LM in patients with epithelial tumors. Methods Patients with a clinical suspicion of LM but a negative or inconclusive MRI in whom a diagnostic lumbar puncture has to be performed were included. At least 5 mL of CSF for cytology, 5 mL for flow cytometry, 2 mL for cell count and biochemistry, and 8 mL whole blood samples for circulating tumor cells measurements and biochemistry were drawn. Tumor cells in CSF and whole blood were detected by multiparameter flow cytometry using EpCAM antibody. Results In total 29 eligible patients were enrolled in the study. Thirteen patients were ultimately diagnosed with LM. The flow cytometry assay showed 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for diagnosing LM, while sensitivity of CSF cytology was only 61.5%. Cell count or biochemical parameters in CSF were abnormal in 100% of patients with LM. Conclusions Our results suggest that the EpCAM-based flow cytometry assay is superior to CSF cytology for the diagnosis of LM in patients with an epithelial tumor, a clinical suspicion of LM, and a nonconclusive MRI. Confirmation of these data is needed in a larger dataset to recommend dual CSF diagnostics for LM. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01713699. PMID:26566655

  2. An optimized method to process mouse CNS to simultaneously analyze neural cells and leukocytes by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legroux, Laurine; Pittet, Camille L; Beauseigle, Diane; Deblois, Gabrielle; Prat, Alexandre; Arbour, Nathalie

    2015-05-30

    Flow cytometry is an efficient and powerful technique to characterize and quantify numerous cells. However, the strengths of this technique have not been widely harnessed in neurosciences due to the critical step of CNS tissue preparation into a single cell suspension. Previous reports assessed either neural cells or infiltrating leukocytes but simultaneous detection has not been extensively implemented. We optimized CNS tissue preparation for flow cytometry analysis. We subjected CNS tissue from individual adult mice to different digestion protocols and Percoll™ methods. We quantified and characterized by flow cytometry neural cells (neurons, oligodendrocytes, microglia) and leukocytes (macrophages, T lymphocytes). The one step Percoll™ method significantly increased cell yield compared to the gradient Percoll™ method. The collagenase D+DNase I digestion led to the maximal cell number recovery while preserving cell marker (O4, NeuN, CD45, CD11b, CD3, CD4, CD8) integrity compared to papain, trypsin digestion, and no digestion. The combination of collagenase D+DNase I digestion and one step Percoll™ method was optimal for the recovery and analysis of cells from the CNS of naïve and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (multiple sclerosis model) mice. Although flow cytometry does not reveal CNS localization, this technique allows concurrent quantification of multiple parameters. In contrast to other protocols, our novel method simultaneously analyzes neural and immune cells in individual mice in healthy and pathological conditions. We strongly believe that the field of neurosciences will benefit from an optimal use of flow cytometry to elucidate physiological and pathological processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The role of flow cytometry in the study of cell growth in the rat anterior pituitary gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Vitale

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Flow cytometry is a suitable technique for studying in vivo and in vitro the cell cycle kinetics of different animal and human tissues, both in normal and tumoral conditions. The rat anterior pituitary gland is a model to investigate cell growth and replication of differentiated, neuroendocrine cells, and we report current evidence on its cell cycle kinetics as well as on the role played by flow cytometry in this type of study. The proliferation potential of normal anterior pituitary cells is related to a number of different conditions, including heterogeneity of cell types, age and sex of donors, and circadian influences. In addition, the trend of cell proliferation in both in vivo and in vitro studies is similar, suggesting that cultured anterior pituitary elements may, at least in parts, retain growth features analogous to those of the intact gland. Sorting of selective cell types and analysis of the relation between proliferating anterior pituitary cells and the light-dark cycle have shown that flow cytometry may be useful to investigate the replication process of the gland. By using a combination of flow cytometry, light microscopic immunocytochemistry and morphometry, we have reported a peculiar trend of proliferation in prima- ry monolayer cultures of rat anterior pituitary gland, characterized by a non-linear reduction in their proliferation rate with advancing age, primarily dependent on a reduced transition of cells from the G0/G1- to the early S-phase pool. These studies indicate that flow cytometry offers insights into cell cycle check points of anterior pituitary cells, and suggest that it might be applied to the study of growth of selective pituitary elements, both in normal and tumoral conditions.

  4. Measurement of separase proteolytic activity in single living cells by a fluorogenic flow cytometry assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiltrud Haaß

    Full Text Available ESPL1/Separase, an endopeptidase, is required for centrosome duplication and separation of sister-chromatides in anaphase of mitosis. Overexpression and deregulated proteolytic activity of Separase as frequently observed in human cancers is associated with the occurrence of supernumerary centrosomes, chromosomal missegregation and aneuploidy. Recently, we have hypothesized that increased Separase proteolytic activity in a small subpopulation of tumor cells may serve as driver of tumor heterogeneity and clonal evolution in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. Currently, there is no quantitative assay to measure Separase activity levels in single cells. Therefore, we have designed a flow cytometry-based assay that utilizes a Cy5- and rhodamine 110 (Rh110-biconjugated Rad21 cleavage site peptide ([Cy5-D-R-E-I-M-R]2-Rh110 as smart probe and intracellular substrate for detection of Separase enzyme activity in living cells. As measured by Cy5 fluorescence the cellular uptake of the fluorogenic peptide was fast and reached saturation after 210 min of incubation in human histiocytic lymphoma U937 cells. Separase activity was recorded as the intensity of Rh110 fluorescence released after intracellular peptide cleavage providing a linear signal gain within a 90-180 min time slot. Compared to conventional cell extract-based methods the flow cytometric assay delivers equivalent results but is more reliable, bypasses the problem of vague loading controls and unspecific proteolysis associated with whole cell extracts. Especially suited for the investigaton of blood- and bone marrow-derived hematopoietic cells the flow cytometric Separase assay allows generation of Separase activity profiles that tell about the number of Separase positive cells within a sample i.e. cells that currently progress through mitosis and about the range of intercellular variation in Separase activity levels within a cell population. The assay was used to quantify Separase proteolytic

  5. Accurate live and dead bacterial cell enumeration using flow cytometry (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Fang; McGoverin, Cushla; Swift, Simon; Vanholsbeeck, Frédérique

    2017-03-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is based on the detection of scattered light and fluorescence to identify cells with particular characteristics of interest. However most FCM cannot precisely control the flow through its interrogation point and hence the volume and concentration of the sample cannot be immediately obtained. The easiest, most reliable and inexpensive way of obtaining absolute counts with FCM is by using reference beads. We investigated a method of using FCM with reference beads to measure live and dead bacterial concentration over the range of 106 to 108 cells/mL and ratio varying from 0 to 100%. We believe we are the first to use this method for such a large cell concentration range while also establishing the effect of varying the live/dead bacteria ratios. Escherichia coli solutions with differing ratios of live:dead cells were stained with fluorescent dyes SYTO 9 and propidium iodide (PI), which label live and dead cells, respectively. Samples were measured using a LSR II Flow Cytometer (BD Biosciences); using 488 nm excitation with 20 mW power. Both SYTO 9 and PI fluorescence were collected and threshold was set to side scatter. Traditional culture-based plate count was done in parallel to the FCM analysis. The concentration of live bacteria from FCM was compared to that obtained by plate counts. Preliminary results show that the concentration of live bacteria obtained by FCM and plate counts correlate well with each other and indicates this may be extended to a wider concentration range or for studying other cell characteristics.

  6. Multicentre evaluation of stable reference whole blood for enumeration of lymphocyte subsets by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Cherry; Belgrave, Danielle; Janossy, George; Bradley, Nicholas J; Stebbings, Richard; Gaines-Das, Rose; Thorpe, Robin; Sawle, Alex; Arroz, Maria Jorge; Brando, Bruno; Gratama, Jan Willem; Orfao de Matos, Alberto; Papa, Stephano; Papamichail, Michael; Lenkei, Rodica; Rothe, Gregor; Barnett, David

    2005-06-22

    BACKGROUND: Clinical indications for lymphocyte subset enumeration by flow cytometry include monitoring of disease progression and timing of therapeutic intervention in infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Until recently international standardisation has not been possible due to a lack of suitable stable reference material. METHODS: This study consisted of two trials of a stabilised whole blood preparation. Eleven participants were sent two standard protocols for staining plus gating strategy and asked to report absolute counts for lymphocyte subsets. RESULTS: No significant difference was detected between the two methods when results from the two assays and all partners were pooled. Significant differences in results from the different partners were observed. However, representative mean counts were obtained for geometric means, geometric coefficient of variation, and 95% confidence interval for CD3 910 cells/mul, 9%, and 888 to 933, respectively), CD4 (495 cells/mul, 12%, and 483 to 507), and CD8 (408 cells/mul, 13%, and 393 to 422). CONCLUSION: We have introduced a stabilised blood preparation and a well-characterized biological standard. The availability of this reference material greatly simplifies the validation of new techniques for CD4(+) T-cell enumeration and the expansion of external quality assurance programmes for clinical laboratories, including those that operate in resource-restricted environments. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry for Single Sickle Cell Detection In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengzhong Cai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of sickle cell disease (SCD stage and treatment efficiency are still time-consuming which makes well-timed prevention of SCD crisis difficult. We show here that in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC has a potential for real-time monitoring of circulating sickle cells in mouse model. In vivo data were verified by in vitro PAFC and photothermal (PT and PA spectral imaging of sickle red blood cells (sRBCs expressing SCD-associated hemoglobin (HbS compared to normal red blood cells (nRBCs. We discovered that PT and PA signal amplitudes from sRBCs in linear mode were 2–4-fold lower than those from nRBCs. PT and PA imaging revealed more profound spatial Hb heterogeneity in sRBCs than in nRBCs, which can be associated with the presence of HbS clusters with high local absorption. This hypothesis was confirmed in nonlinear mode through nanobubble formation around overheated HbS clusters accompanied by spatially selective signal amplification. More profound differences in absorption of sRBCs than in nRBCs led to notable increase in PA signal fluctuation (fluctuation PAFC mode as an indicator of SCD. The obtained data suggest that noninvasive label-free fluctuation PAFC has a potential for real-time enumeration of sRBCs in vitro and in vivo.

  8. Assessing ultraphytoplankton and heterotrophic prokaryote composition by flow cytometry in a Mediterranean lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhib, Amel; Denis, Michel; Ziadi, Boutheina; Barani, Aude; Turki, Souad; Aleya, Lotfi

    2017-05-01

    In the eutrophic Ghar El Melh Lagoon (GML, Tunisia), the distribution of heterotrophic prokaryotes, pico- and nanophytoplankton was studied at five stations in November 2012 at the single cell level, along with environmental factors. Flow cytometry analysis of ultraplankton (<10 μm) resolved (i) two heterotrophic prokaryote groups, low and high nucleic acid contents (LNA and HNA, respectively), and (ii) eight to nine ultraphytoplankton groups (cryptophyte-like cells, two nanoeukaryote subgroups, two picoeukaryote subgroups and three Synechococcus-like cells subgroups). Prochlorococcus was not detected. According to redundancy analysis (RDA), a significant difference was found in the distribution of the ultraplankton between stations (F = 2.61, p < 0.05); maximum proliferations of heterotrophic prokaryotes were observed in the inner parts of the lagoon at stations 3, 4 and 5 affected by urban, agricultural and industrial discharges. Ultraphytoplankton concentrations were the highest near the outlet of the lagoon at stations 1 and 2 influenced by freshwater outflow and oligotrophic Mediterranean water inflow, respectively. At station 1, the large ultraphytoplankton concentration derives from the high abundance of cryptophyte-like cells favoured by the freshwater outflow whereas at station 2, the input of oligotrophic Mediterranean water enhanced the abundance of Synechococcus and picoeukaryotes at the expense of nanoeukaryotes. Two trophic regimes were thus differentiated in GML.

  9. Measuring activity of endocytosis-regulating factors in T-lymphocytes by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran-Sastre, Violeta; Navarro, Estanislau

    2015-05-01

    Elucidation of the mechanisms regulating membrane traffic of lymphocyte receptors is of great interest to manipulate the immune response, as well as for accurately delivering drugs and nanoprobes to cells. Aiming to detect and characterize regulators of endocytosis and intracellular traffic, we have modified the FACS-based endocytosis assay to measure and quantify the activity of putative endocytic regulators as EGFP chimeras. To study the activity of putative endocytosis regulators, we transfected Jurkat T-lymphocytes with EGFP-tagged constructs of the regulators to be tested. Cells were then incubated with a αCD3(APC) antibody, and were allowed to internalize the label. After acid-washing the cells, APC fluorescence was measured by flow cytometry in cells gated for EGFP(+), as well as in their EGFP(-) (transfection-resistant) counterparts that were taken as internal controls. This approach facilitated intra- and inter-assay normalization of endocytic rates/loads by comparison with the internal control. We have used this assay to test the regulatory activity of polarity kinase EMK1, and here we substantiate a role for EMK1 in the control of receptor internalization in T-lymphocytes. The method here presented gives quantitative measures of internalization, and will facilitate the development of tools to modulate endocytic rates or the intracellular fate of internalized materials.

  10. Optimized signal detection and analysis methods for in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiyan; Zhou, Quanyu; Yang, Ping; Wang, Xiaoling; Niu, Zhenyu; Suo, Yuanzhen; He, Hao; Gao, Wenyuan; Tang, Shuo; Wei, Xunbin

    2017-02-01

    Melanoma is known as a malignant tumor of melanocytes, which usually appear in the blood circulation at the metastasis stage of cancer. Thus the detection of circulating melanoma cells is useful for early diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Here we have developed an in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC) based on the photoacoustic effect to detect melanoma cells. However, the raw signals we obtain from the target cells contain noises such as environmental sonic noises and electronic noises. Therefore we apply correlation comparison and feature separation methods to the detection and verification of the in vivo signals. Due to similar shape and structure of cells, the photoacoustic signals usually have similar vibration mode. By analyzing the correlations and the signal features in time domain and frequency domain, we are able to provide a method for separating photoacoustic signals generated by target cells from background noises. The method introduced here has proved to optimize the signal acquisition and signal processing, which can improve the detection accuracy in PAFC.

  11. Flow cytometry and phytochemical analysis of a sunflower cell suspension culture in a 5-L bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Christiane; Weber, Jost; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Deponte, Sandra; Bley, Thomas; Georgiev, Milen

    2008-01-01

    A cell suspension culture of sunflower (Helianthus annuus), a producer of immunologically active polysaccharides, was cultivated in a 5-L stirred tank bioreactor, operated in batch mode. After some changes in the internal bioreactor design a stable growth of Helianthus cells was achieved and the accumulated biomass reached 15.2 g/L (only approximately 5% lower compared to the accumulated biomass in shake-flasks). Flow cytometry used for measuring the cell cycle parameters of suspended Helianthus cells did not reveal significant differences between shake-flasks and bioreactor cultivation modes. For both cultivation methods significant enhancement of the percentage of S-phase cells was observed at the beginning of the cultivation process. Concerning the metabolite production the maximum in exopolysaccharides was reached at day 9 of the cultivation period (1.9 g/L), while the highest amounts of alpha-tocopherol were accumulated at the beginning of the cultivation process (day 2 of the cultivation). These finding were related to the respective stress levels caused by the inoculation procedure. The kinetic parameters of growth and polysaccharide production as well as the time course of carbon source utilization were monitored and discussed.

  12. Immune Monitoring in Cancer Vaccine Clinical Trials: Critical Issues of Functional Flow Cytometry-Based Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iole Macchia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of immune monitoring assays is essential to determine the immune responses against tumor-specific antigens (TSAs and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs and their possible correlation with clinical outcome in cancer patients receiving immunotherapies. Despite the wide range of techniques used, to date these assays have not shown consistent results among clinical trials and failed to define surrogate markers of clinical efficacy to antitumor vaccines. Multiparameter flow cytometry- (FCM- based assays combining different phenotypic and functional markers have been developed in the past decade for informative and longitudinal analysis of polyfunctional T-cells. These technologies were designed to address the complexity and functional heterogeneity of cancer biology and cellular immunity and to define biomarkers predicting clinical response to anticancer treatment. So far, there is still a lack of standardization of some of these immunological tests. The aim of this review is to overview the latest technologies for immune monitoring and to highlight critical steps involved in some of the FCM-based cellular immune assays. In particular, our laboratory is focused on melanoma vaccine research and thus our main goal was the validation of a functional multiparameter test (FMT combining different functional and lineage markers to be applied in clinical trials involving patients with melanoma.

  13. The nonopsonic allogeneic cell phagocytosis of macrophages detected by flow cytometry and two photon fluorescence microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang-Wei; Ma, Hai-Xia; Wu, You; Zhao, Yong

    2006-11-01

    Phagocytosis, one of the apparent functions for macrophages, represents an early and crucial event in triggering host defenses against invading pathogens as well as allo- or xenogeneic rejection. Now, some methods have been used in detecting the opsonic phagocytosis of macrophages in xenogeneic settings. Efficient nonopsonic phagocytosis analysis method has not been established yet. In the present studies, allogeneic lymphocytes pre-labeled with 5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) or derived from green fluorescent protein transgeneic B6 mice (GFP-B6 mice) were co-incubated with primary murine peritoneal macrophages (PEMs) for 1-2 h or were injected into murine peritoneal cavity for 30 to 240 min. Assays by flow cytometry (FCM) and two photon laser scanning microscope (TPM) showed an efficient uptake of both allogeneic lymphocytes and xenogeneic chicken red blood cells. The continuing process of nonopsonic phagocytosis of allogeneic lymphocytes by PEMs was recorded by TPM. Furthermore, the phenotype differences of PEMs with or without phagocytosis of allogeneic cells were determined by three-color FCMs. Significantly upregulated expressions of CD11b, CD44, TLR2 and TLR4 on PEMs were observed as early as 6 h after phagocytosis of allogeneic cells. Our present data indicated that the FCM and TPM combined method is a practical approach to detect macrophage nonopsonic phagocytosis of allogeneic lymphocytes and to identify the phenotype alteration of macrophages after phagocytosis.

  14. Optimization of the cryopreservation of biological resources, Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mzabi, Alexandre; Escotte-Binet, Sandie; Le Naour, Richard; Ortis, Naïma; Audonnet, Sandra; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Aubert, Dominique; Villena, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    The conservation of Toxoplasma gondii strains isolated from humans and animals is essential for conducting studies on Toxoplasma. Conservation is the main function of the French Biological Toxoplasma Resource Centre (BRC Toxoplasma, France, http://www.toxocrb.com/). In this study, we have determined the suitability of a standard cryopreservation methodology for different Toxoplasma strains using the viability of tachyzoites assayed by flow cytometry with dual fluorescent labelling (calcein acetoxymethyl ester and propidium iodide) of tachyzoites. This method provides a comparative quantitative assessment of viability after thawing. The results helped to define and refine quality criteria before tachyzoite cryopreservation and optimization of the cryopreservation parameters. The optimized cryopreservation method uses a volume of 1.0 mL containing 8 × 10(6) tachyzoites, in Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Medium (IMDM) containing 10% foetal calf serum (FCS). The cryoprotectant additive is 10% v/v Me2SO without incubation. A cooling rate of ∼1 °C/min to -80 °C followed, after 48 h, by storage in liquid nitrogen. Thawing was performed using a 37 °C water bath that produced a warming rate of ∼100 °C/min, and samples were then diluted 1:5 in IMDM with 5% FCS, and centrifuged and resuspended for viability assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of freeze damage on HPV vaccines by use of flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Erik; Frandsen, Peer Lyng; Sandberg, Eva

    2015-07-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines Gardasil, Silgard and Cervarix were labeled with antibodies against HPV strain 6 or 16/FITC conjugated secondary antibodies and analyzed by flow cytometry. The vaccines showed distinct peaks of fluorescent particles, and a shift towards decreased fluorescent particles was observed after incubation of the vaccines over night at -20 °C. Since parallel distributed vaccines could have longer route of transportation there is an increased risk of freeze damage for these types of vaccine. Shift in fluorescence of labeled vaccine particles was used to indicate whether parallel distributed Silgard, which is a vaccine type identical to Gardasil, was exposed to freeze damage during transportation, but no shift was observed. Additional experiments showed that the HPV vaccines could be degraded to smaller particles by citric acid/phosphate buffer treatment. The majority of particles detected in degraded Gardasil were very small indicating that the particles are HPV virus like particle (VLPs) labeled with antibodies, but Cervarix could only be degraded partially due to the presence of another type adjuvant in this vaccine. The described method may be useful in characterization of adjuvanted vaccines with respect to freeze damage, and to characterize vaccines containing particles corresponding to VLPs in size. Copyright © 2015 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluating Different Natural Phytoplankton Communities: a Comparison Between Flow Cytometry and Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, L.; Jakobsen, H. H.; Carstensen, J.

    2016-02-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is becoming a popular method in phytoplankton analysis. The ability to identify species populations and the accuracy of cell counts are determining factors that make this technique attractive in research and monitoring. In addition, the analysis speed prompts for sampling in high spatial and/or temporal resolution. On the other hand, inverted microscopy remains the gold standard in analysis of coastal phytoplankton providing detailed insights on community taxonomical composition and structure. We compared quantification conducted by a CYTOBOUY scanning flowcytometer and inverted microscopy on natural phytoplankton communities from a temperate estuary (Roskilde Fjord, Denmark). Both methods reveal expressively the differences in the spring and autumn blooms among the inner and outer basins the latter manifested by higher diversity and higher contribution of larger organisms. Functional traits can be obtained from "finger printing" silico imaging of cell populations derived from optical properties FCM, but to apply full taxonomical resolution, it is necessary to combine FCM and inverted microscopy, to create a solid local phytoplankton data basis. Our work shows that the results from such different techniques are comparable and that the FCM fingerprinting can increase the resolution for characterizing the phytoplankton community in time and space.

  17. Flow cytometry reticulocyte counting using acridine orange: validation of a new protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Augusta Viana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Currently, the reticulocyte counting is a challenge for clinical laboratories in Brazil, mainly for the ordinary ones, which still use the manual method. This method has some limitations, since it consists of a laborious method, time consuming, with low accuracy. Objectives: This study has developed and evaluated the performance of a New Laboratory Protocol for flow cytometry (FC reticulocytes counting using acridine orange (AO as dye, aiming to standardize a more precise, easy, fast implementation, and low cost protocol. After standardization of the New Protocol (FC/AO, it was compared with the manual method. The results were analyzed according to the recommendations of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS, now known as Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, to evaluate the interchangeability of methods in linear regression analysis and paired t test, besides other quality control tests. Conclusion: Based on these results concerning to the correlation between the methods and the tests related to quality control, we can admit that FC/AO for reticulocyte counting shows undeniable advantages when compared to the preexisting manual method.

  18. Noninvasive High-Throughput Single-Cell Analysis of HIV Protease Activity Using Ratiometric Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Rok; Majerle, Andreja; Jerala, Roman; Benčina, Mojca

    2013-01-01

    To effectively fight against the human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic, ongoing development of novel HIV protease inhibitors is required. Inexpensive high-throughput screening assays are needed to quickly scan large sets of chemicals for potential inhibitors. We have developed a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based, HIV protease-sensitive sensor using a combination of a fluorescent protein pair, namely mCerulean and mCitrine. Through extensive in vitro characterization, we show that the FRET-HIV sensor can be used in HIV protease screening assays. Furthermore, we have used the FRET-HIV sensor for intracellular quantitative detection of HIV protease activity in living cells, which more closely resembles an actual viral infection than an in vitro assay. We have developed a high-throughput method that employs a ratiometric flow cytometry for analyzing large populations of cells that express the FRET-HIV sensor. The method enables FRET measurement of single cells with high sensitivity and speed and should be used when subpopulation-specific intracellular activity of HIV protease needs to be estimated. In addition, we have used a confocal microscopy sensitized emission FRET technique to evaluate the usefulness of the FRET-HIV sensor for spatiotemporal detection of intracellular HIV protease activity. PMID:24287545

  19. Characterization of oligodendroglial populations in mouse demyelinating disease using flow cytometry: clues for MS pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Andrew P; Rodgers, Jane M; Goings, Gwendolyn E; Miller, Stephen D

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing and enumerating cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage (OLCs) is crucial for understanding demyelination and therapeutic benefit in models of demyelinating disease in the central nervous system. Here we describe a novel method for the rapid, unbiased analysis of mouse OLCs using flow cytometry. The assay was optimized to maximize viable yield of OLCs and maintain OLC antigen integrity. Panels of antibodies were assembled for simultaneous analysis of seven antigens on individual cells allowing for characterization of oligodendroglial cells throughout the lineage. We verified the utility of the assay with cultured OLCs and through a time course of developmental myelination. Next we employed the assay to characterize OLC populations in two well-characterized models of demyelination: cuprizone-induced demyelination and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In EAE we observed a dramatic loss of mature oligodendrocytes coincident with a dramatic expansion of oligodendrocyte progenitors cells (OPCs) at the onset of disease suggesting an attempt of the host to repair myelin. This expanded OPC pool was maintained through remission and relapse suggesting an arrest in differentiation in the face of the chronic autoimmune T cell-mediated inflammatory response. These robust, reproducible changes in OLCs through disease provide a rapid quantitative global analysis of myelin-producing cells in the adult mouse brain and important information regarding effects of disease on oligodendroglial proliferation/differentiation which is useful for defining the pathogenesis and therapy of MS.

  20. Flow cytometry and monoclonal antibodies identify normal liver cell populations antigenically related to oval cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agelli, M; Halay, E D

    1995-01-01

    Oval cells, a non-parenchymal cell population induced to rapidly proliferate in animals treated with carcinogens, are thought to be related to the hypothesized liver stem cells. In normal liver there are poorly defined cells antigenically related to oval cells. These oval cell antigen positive (OCAP) cells present in normal animals are thought to include hepatocyte and bile duct cell precursors. To isolate them, we modified the existing protocols designed for oval cells and used it on normal neonatal rat livers. Using flow cytometry, the percentage of normal liver OCAP-cells varied with the monoclonal antibody (MoAb) to the different oval cell membrane markers used: 12% (MoAb 18.2), 23% (MoAb 270.38), 27% (MoAb 18.11), 31% (MoAb 18.13), and 37% (MoAb 374.3). Macrophages consisted 10% of the cells (MoAb MCA 275); hepatocytes were essentially absent ( < 1%, MoAb 236.4). Our results demonstrate that is possible to obtain significant numbers of normal cells antigenically related to oval cells and that using different MoAbs, different cell populations can be sorted for use in experimental studies testing liver progenitor cell hypothesis.

  1. Evidence for P-Glycoprotein Involvement in Cell Volume Regulation Using Coulter Sizing in Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Pasquier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of cell volume is an essential function that is coupled to a variety of physiological processes such as receptor recycling, excitability and contraction, cell proliferation, migration, and programmed cell death. Under stress, cells undergo emergency swelling and respond to such a phenomenon with a regulatory volume decrease (RVD where they release cellular ions, and other osmolytes as well as a concomitant loss of water. The link between P-glycoprotein, a transmembrane transporter, and cell volume regulation is controversial, and changes in cells volume are measured using microscopy or electrophysiology. For instance, by using the patch-clamp method, our team demonstrated that chloride currents activated in the RVD were more intense and rapid in a breast cancer cell line overexpressing the P-glycoprotein (P-gp. The Cell Lab Quanta SC is a flow cytometry system that simultaneously measures electronic volume, side scatter and three fluorescent colors; altogether this provides unsurpassed population resolution and accurate cell counting. Therefore, here we propose a novel method to follow cellular volume. By using the Coulter-type channel of the cytometer Cell Lab Quanta SC MPL (multi-platform loading, we demonstrated a role for the P-gp during different osmotic treatments, but also a differential activity of the P-gp through the cell cycle. Altogether, our data strongly suggests a role of P-gp in cell volume regulation.

  2. Purification of murine endothelial cell cultures by flow cytometry using fluorescein-labeled griffonia simplicifolia agglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahagun, G; Moore, S A; Fabry, Z; Schelper, R L; Hart, M N

    1989-06-01

    Griffonia simplicifolia agglutinin (GSA) is a valuable histochemical tool in the identification of endothelium. In this study GSA labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (GSA-FITC) was used to purify cultures of murine cerebral microvascular endothelium. Cultures were stained with GSA-FITC, then sorted using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). GSA-positive endothelial cells were collected, re-cultured, and subsequently re-analyzed by FACS using GSA-FITC. Cultures that initially contained 80 +/- 3 to 89 +/- 3% (X +/- SE) GSA-positive cells were purified to 98 +/- 1% positivity. Immunohistochemistry with an anti-muscle-action antibody confirmed that FACS sorting of GSA-FITC-stained cells effectively removed contaminating smooth muscle cells from endothelial cell cultures. Viability, proliferation, and prostaglandin production of the cells was unaltered by lectin staining and FACS sorting. Thus, GSA-FITC can be used in conjunction with flow cytometry to enhance the purity of murine endothelial cell cultures without adversely affecting cell viability, growth, or metabolism.

  3. Definition of the zebrafish genome using flow cytometry and cytogenetic mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The zebrafish (Danio rerio is an important vertebrate model organism system for biomedical research. The syntenic conservation between the zebrafish and human genome allows one to investigate the function of human genes using the zebrafish model. To facilitate analysis of the zebrafish genome, genetic maps have been constructed and sequence annotation of a reference zebrafish genome is ongoing. However, the duplicative nature of teleost genomes, including the zebrafish, complicates accurate assembly and annotation of a representative genome sequence. Cytogenetic approaches provide "anchors" that can be integrated with accumulating genomic data. Results Here, we cytogenetically define the zebrafish genome by first estimating the size of each linkage group (LG chromosome using flow cytometry, followed by the cytogenetic mapping of 575 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones onto metaphase chromosomes. Of the 575 BAC clones, 544 clones localized to apparently unique chromosomal locations. 93.8% of these clones were assigned to a specific LG chromosome location using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and compared to the LG chromosome assignment reported in the zebrafish genome databases. Thirty-one BAC clones localized to multiple chromosomal locations in several different hybridization patterns. From these data, a refined second generation probe panel for each LG chromosome was also constructed. Conclusion The chromosomal mapping of the 575 large-insert DNA clones allows for these clones to be integrated into existing zebrafish mapping data. An accurately annotated zebrafish reference genome serves as a valuable resource for investigating the molecular basis of human diseases using zebrafish mutant models.

  4. Role of flow cytometry in diagnostics of myelodysplastic syndromes--beyond the WHO 2008 classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porwit, Anna

    2011-11-01

    Multiparameter flow cytometry (FCM) is an excellent method to follow the expression patterns of differentiation antigens using monoclonal antibodies to surface and cytoplasmic proteins. Although several authors described various aberrant immunophenotypic features in the bone marrow of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), the World Health Organization 2008 classification recommended that, only if 3 or more phenotypic abnormalities are found involving 1 or more of the myeloid lineages can the aberrant FCM findings be considered suggestive of MDS. In the absence of conclusive morphologic and/or cytogenetic features, FCM abnormalities alone were considered not sufficient to establish MDS diagnosis and further follow-up of the patients was recommended. Review of the literature gives accumulating evidence that FCM has become an important part of the integrated diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected MDS. Several studies have also reported FCM findings significant for prognosis and therapy choice in MDS patients. Technical progress in multicolor FCM and new analysis programs, together with ongoing efforts to standardize the methodology, will make it possible to apply FCM in individual risk assessment and choice of best therapy for MDS patients.

  5. New Method to Disaggregate and Analyze Single Isolated Helminthes Cells Using Flow Cytometry: Proof of Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Nava-Castro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In parasitology, particularly in helminthes studies, several methods have been used to look for the expression of specific molecules, such as RT-PCR, western blot, 2D-electrophoresis, and microscopy, among others. However, these methods require homogenization of the whole helminth parasite, preventing evaluation of individual cells or specific cell types in a given parasite tissue or organ. Also, the extremely high interaction between helminthes and host cells (particularly immune cells is an important point to be considered. It is really hard to obtain fresh parasites without host cell contamination. Then, it becomes crucial to determine that the analyzed proteins are exclusively from parasitic origin, and not a consequence of host cell contamination. Flow cytometry is a fluorescence-based technique used to evaluate the expression of extra-and intracellular proteins in different type cells, including protozoan parasites. It also allows the isolation and recovery of single-cell populations. Here, we describe a method to isolate and obtain purified helminthes cells.

  6. Antibacterial Activity of Commercial Dentine Bonding Systems against E. faecalis–Flow Cytometry Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Lukomska-Szymanska

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Literature presents inconsistent results on the antibacterial activity of dentine bonding systems (DBS. Antibacterial activity of adhesive systems depends on several factors, including composition and acidity. Flow cytometry is a novel detection method to measure multiple characteristics of a single cell: total cell number, structural (size, shape, and functional parameters (viability, cell cycle. The LIVE/DEAD® BacLightTM bacterial viability assay was used to evaluate an antibacterial activity of DBS by assessing physical membrane disruption of bacteria mediated by DBS. Ten commercial DBSs: four total-etching (TE, four self-etching (SE and two selective enamel etching (SEE were tested. Both total-etching DBS ExciTE F and OptiBond Solo Plus showed comparatively low antibacterial activity against E. faecalis. The lowest activity of all tested TE systems showed Te-Econom Bond. Among SE DBS, G-ænial Bond (92.24% dead cells followed by Clearfil S3 Bond Plus (88.02% and Panavia F 2.0 ED Primer II (86.67% showed the highest antibacterial activity against E. faecalis, which was comparable to isopropranol (positive control. In the present study, self-etching DBS exhibited higher antimicrobial activity than tested total-etching adhesives against E. faecalis.

  7. Antibacterial Activity of Commercial Dentine Bonding Systems against E. faecalis-Flow Cytometry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukomska-Szymanska, Monika; Konieczka, Magdalena; Zarzycka, Beata; Lapinska, Barbara; Grzegorczyk, Janina; Sokolowski, Jerzy

    2017-04-29

    Literature presents inconsistent results on the antibacterial activity of dentine bonding systems (DBS). Antibacterial activity of adhesive systems depends on several factors, including composition and acidity. Flow cytometry is a novel detection method to measure multiple characteristics of a single cell: total cell number, structural (size, shape), and functional parameters (viability, cell cycle). The LIVE/DEAD® BacLightTM bacterial viability assay was used to evaluate an antibacterial activity of DBS by assessing physical membrane disruption of bacteria mediated by DBS. Ten commercial DBSs: four total-etching (TE), four self-etching (SE) and two selective enamel etching (SEE) were tested. Both total-etching DBS ExciTE F and OptiBond Solo Plus showed comparatively low antibacterial activity against E. faecalis. The lowest activity of all tested TE systems showed Te-Econom Bond. Among SE DBS, G-ænial Bond (92.24% dead cells) followed by Clearfil S3 Bond Plus (88.02%) and Panavia F 2.0 ED Primer II (86.67%) showed the highest antibacterial activity against E. faecalis, which was comparable to isopropranol (positive control). In the present study, self-etching DBS exhibited higher antimicrobial activity than tested total-etching adhesives against E. faecalis.

  8. Oil production towards biofuel from autotrophic microalgae semicontinuous cultivations monitorized by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Teresa Lopes; Reis, Alberto; Medeiros, Roberto; Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Gouveia, Luisa

    2009-11-01

    Two microalgae species (Scenedesmus obliquus and Neochloris oleoabundans) were cultivated in closed sleeve photobioreactors in order to select the best oil producer for further large-scale open raceway pond cultivations, aiming at biofuel production. Scenedesmus obliquus reached a higher maximum biomass concentration (1.41 g l(-1)) with a lower lipid content (12.8% w/w), as compared to N. oleoabundans [maximum biomass concentration of 0.92 g l(-1) with 16.5% (w/w) lipid content]. Both microalgae showed adequate fatty acid composition and iodine values as substitutes for diesel fuel. Based on these results, N. oleoabundans was selected for further open raceway pond cultivations. Under these conditions, N. oleoabundans reached a maximum biomass concentration of 2.8 g l(-1) with 11% (w/w) of lipid content. A high correlation between the Nile Red fluorescence intensity measured by flow cytometry and total lipid content assayed by the traditional gravimetric lipid analysis was found for both microalgae, making this method a suitable and quick technique for the screening of microalgae strains for lipid production and optimization of biofuel production bioprocesses. Medium growth optimization for enhancement of microalgal oil production is now in progress.

  9. Flow Cytometry Increases the Sensitivity of Detection of Leukemia and Lymphoma Cells in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Joo Y.; Filie, Armando C.; Venzon, David; tevenson, Maryalice Stetler-S; Yuan, Constance M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies have definitively determined that Flow Cytometry (FC) is significantly more sensitive than cytomorphology (CM) in detection of hematolymphoid neoplasms (HLN). However, its utility in paucicellular bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens has not been established. Methods FC was performed on BAL specimens submitted from 44 patients with a prior diagnosis of HLN. Panels chosen were based upon cellularity of specimen and patient history. FC results were compared with concurrent CM evaluations. Results All 44 BALs were deemed satisfactory for FC and yielded informative results that assisted in diagnosis. Diagnoses included 22/44 B-cell neoplasms, 16/44 T-cell neoplasms, 4/44 myeloid neoplasms, and 2/44 plasma cell neoplasms. Overall concordance was demonstrated between FC and CM in 77% (34/44) of cases. In 9/44 cases (20%), one technique (FC or CM) clearly detected malignant cells when the other did not. FC was more sensitive than CM in detecting a HLN in 8/9 discordant cases. In only one case (1/44, 2%) were malignant HLN cells suspected by CM, but not identified by FC (1/44, 2%). Conclusion We demonstrate, in the largest series published to date, that FC can be performed on BAL specimens. FC is indicated in evaluation of BAL for HLN and improves sensitivity of detection of HLN over CM alone. An integrated FC and CM approach is superior to either technique alone in diagnostic evaluation of BAL. PMID:22837143

  10. Flow cytometry used to assess genetic damage in frogs from farm ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bly, B.L.; Knutson, M.G.; Sandheinrich, M.B.; Gray, B.R.; Jobe, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Flow cytometry (FC) is a laboratory method used to detect genetic damage induced by environmental contaminants and other stressors in animals, including amphibians. We tested FC methods on three species of ranid frogs collected from farm ponds and natural wetlands in southeastern Minnesota. We compared FC metrics for Rana clamitans between ponds with direct exposure to agricultural contaminants and reference (unexposed) ponds. Concentrations of atrazine in water from our farm ponds ranged from 0.04 to 0.55 ppb. We found that R. clamitans from exposed ponds had DNA content similar to frogs from unexposed ponds. Pond-averaged C-values (a measure of DNA content) ranged from 6.53 to 7.08 for R. pipiens (n . 13), 6.55 to 6.60 for R. clamitans (n . 40) and 6.74 for R. palustris (n . 5). Among all species, the mean sample CVs ranged from 1.91 (R. palustris) to 6.31 (R. pipiens). Deformities were observed in only 2 of 796 individuals among all species and occurred in both reference and exposed ponds. Although we did not detect evidence of DNA damage associated with agriculture in our study, we demonstrated the potential of FC for screening amphibian populations for genetic damage. Metrics from a variety of amphibian species and locations as well as laboratory studies are needed to further assess the value of FC for monitoring amphibian genetic integrity in contaminated sites.

  11. Application of flow cytometry for monitoring the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) by Halomonas boliviensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Torreiro, María; López-Abelairas, María; Lu-Chau, Thelmo A; Lema, Juan M

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a flow cytometry (FC) protocol was implemented to measure poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) content in a halophilic bacterium, to have a faster and easier control of the process. The halophilic bacterium Halomonas boliviensis was stained with BODIPY 493/503 and analyzed using FC. Bacterial polymer accumulation induced by two different nutrient limitations during the operation of a 2 L bioreactor was studied using traditional gas chromatography (GC) analysis and FC. The application of this rapid and straightforward method is useful to obtain complex and precise information about PHB accumulation that could be used for the monitoring, control and optimization of the production of PHB. A clear correlation between the PHB concentration determined by GC and the fluorescence signal obtained from stained bacteria by using FC was observed. Additionally, the heterogeneity of bacterial population as a function of PHB content was measured. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:276-284, 2017. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  12. Zingiber officinale: Its antibacterial activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and mode of action evaluated by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakotiya, Ankita Singh; Tanwar, Ankit; Narula, Alka; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Biofilm formation, low membrane permeability and efflux activity developed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, play an important role in the mechanism of infection and antimicrobial resistance. In the present study we evaluate the antibacterial effect of Zingiber officinale against multi-drug resistant strain of P. aeruginosa. The study explores antibacterial efficacy and time-kill study concomitantly the effect of herbal extract on bacterial cell physiology with the use of flow cytometry and inhibition of biofilm formation. Z. officinale was found to inhibit the growth of P. aeruginosa, significantly. A major decline in the Colony Forming Units was observed with 3 log10 at 12 h of treatment. Also it is found to affect the membrane integrity of the pathogen, as 70.06 ± 2.009% cells were found to stain with Propidium iodide. In case of efflux activity 86.9 ± 2.08% cells were found in Ethidium bromide positive region. Biofilm formation inhibition ability was found in the range of 68.13 ± 4.11% to 84.86 ± 2.02%. Z.officinale is effective for killing Multi-Drug Resistant P. aeruginosa clinical isolate by affecting the cellular physiology and inhibiting the biofilm formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. New Method to Disaggregate and Analyze Single Isolated Helminthes Cells Using Flow Cytometry: Proof of Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava-Castro, Karen; Hernández-Bello, Romel; Muñiz-Hernández, Saé; Escobedo, Galileo; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    In parasitology, particularly in helminthes studies, several methods have been used to look for the expression of specific molecules, such as RT-PCR, western blot, 2D-electrophoresis, and microscopy, among others. However, these methods require homogenization of the whole helminth parasite, preventing evaluation of individual cells or specific cell types in a given parasite tissue or organ. Also, the extremely high interaction between helminthes and host cells (particularly immune cells) is an important point to be considered. It is really hard to obtain fresh parasites without host cell contamination. Then, it becomes crucial to determine that the analyzed proteins are exclusively from parasitic origin, and not a consequence of host cell contamination. Flow cytometry is a fluorescence-based technique used to evaluate the expression of extra-and intracellular proteins in different type cells, including protozoan parasites. It also allows the isolation and recovery of single-cell populations. Here, we describe a method to isolate and obtain purified helminthes cells. PMID:22187522

  14. Seeing the Whole Elephant: Imaging Flow Cytometry Reveals Extensive Morphological Diversity within Blastocystis Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yason, John Anthony; Tan, Kevin Shyong Wei

    2015-01-01

    Blastocystis is a common protist isolated in humans and many animals. The parasite is a species complex composed of 19 subtypes, 9 of which have been found in humans. There are biological and molecular differences between Blastocystis subtypes although microscopy alone is unable to distinguish between these subtypes. Blastocystis isolates also display various morphological forms. Several of these forms, however, have not been properly evaluated on whether or not these play significant functions in the organism's biology. In this study, we used imaging flow cytometry to analyze morphological features of Blastocystis isolates representing 3 subtypes (ST1, ST4 and ST7). We also employed fluorescence dyes to discover new cellular features. The profiles from each of the subtypes exhibit considerable differences with the others in terms of shape, size and granularity. We confirmed that the classical vacuolar form comprises the majority in all three subtypes. We have also evaluated other morphotypes on whether these represent distinct life stages in the parasite. Irregularly-shaped cells were identified but all of them were found to be dying cells in one isolate. Granular forms were present as a continuum in both viable and non-viable populations, with non-viable forms displaying higher granularity. By analyzing the images, rare morphotypes such as multinucleated cells could be easily observed and quantified. These cells had low granularity and lower DNA content. Small structures containing nucleic acid were also identified. We discuss the possible biological implications of these unusual forms. PMID:26618361

  15. Flow cytometry for rapid detection of Salmonella spp. in seed sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bledar Bisha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed sprouts (alfalfa, mung bean, radish, etc. have been implicated in several recent national and international outbreaks of salmonellosis. Conditions used for sprouting are also conducive to the growth of Salmonella. As a result, this pathogen can quickly grow to very high cell densities during sprouting without any detectable organoleptic impact. Seed sprouts typically also support heavy growth (~108 CFU g−1 of a heterogeneous microbiota consisting of various bacterial, yeast, and mold species, often dominated by non-pathogenic members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. This heavy background may present challenges to the detection of Salmonella, especially if this pathogen is present in relatively low numbers. We combined DNA-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with flow cytometry (FCM for the rapid molecular detection of Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium in artificially contaminated alfalfa and other seed sprouts. Components of the assay included a set of cooperatively binding probes, a chemical blocking treatment intended to reduce non-specific background, and sample concentration via tangential flow filtration (TFF. We were able to detect S. Typhimurium in sprout wash at levels as low as 103 CFU ml−1 sprout wash (104 CFU g−1 sprouts against high microbial backgrounds (~108 CFU g−1 sprouts. Hybridization times were typically 30 min, with additional washing, but we ultimately found that S. Typhimurium could be readily detected using hybridization times as short as 2 min, without a wash step. These results clearly demonstrate the potential of combined DNA-FISH and FCM for rapid detection of Salmonella in this challenging food matrix and provide industry with a useful tool for compliance with sprout production standards proposed in the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA.

  16. Lot-to-lot stability of antibody reagents for flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Sebastian; van der Velden, Vincent H J; Villamor, Neus; Ritgen, Matthias; Flores-Montero, Juan; Murua Escobar, Hugo; Kalina, Tomas; Brüggemann, Monika; Grigore, Georgiana; Martin-Ayuso, Marta; Lecrevisse, Quentin; Pedreira, Carlos E; van Dongen, Jacques J M; Orfao, Alberto

    2017-03-30

    The fluorescence detected using fluorochrome-labelled monoclonal antibodies depends not only on the abundance of the target antigen, but amongst many other factors also on the effective fluorochrome-to-antibody ratio. The diagnostic approach of the EuroFlow consortium relies on reproducible fluorescence intensities over time. A capture bead system for mouse immunoglobulin light chains was utilized to compare the mean fluorescence intensity of 1323 consecutive antibody lots to the currently used lot of the same monoclonal antibody. In total, 157 different monoclonal antibodies were assessed over seven years. Median relative difference between consecutive lots was 3.8% (range: 0.01% to 164.7%, interquartile range: 1.3% to 10.1%). The relative difference exceeded 20% in 8.8% of all comparisons. FITC labelled monoclonal antibodies (median relative difference: 2.1%) showed a significantly smaller variation between lots than antibodies conjugated to PE (3.5%), PECy7 (3.9%), PerCPCy5.5 (5.8%), APC (5.8%), APCH7 (7.4%), and APCC750 (14.5%). Reagents labelled with Pacific Blue (1.4%), Pacific Orange (2.4%), HV450 (0.7%), and HV500 (1.7%) demonstrated more consistent results compared to conjugates of BV421 (4.1%) and BV510 (16.2%). Additionally, significant differences in lot-to-lot fluorescence stability amongst antibodies labelled with the same fluorochrome were observed between manufacturers. These observations might guide future quality recommendations for the production and application of fluorescence-labelled monoclonal antibodies in multicolor flow cytometry. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Multicenter comparison of CD34+ myeloid cell count by flow cytometry in low-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. Is it feasible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Patricia; Subirá, Dolores; Matarraz, Sergio; Benavente, Celina; Cedena, María Teresa; Morado, Marta; Pérez Corral, Ana; Bellón, José María; Díez-Martín, José Luis

    2017-06-15

    Accuracy of bone marrow (BM) blast count in low-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) still remains a challenge though it is essential for prognosis. We investigated whether the enumeration of CD34+ myeloid cells by flow cytometry immunophenotyping (FCI) could be used as a consistent parameter for clinical MDS studies. Six clinical centers entered the study and information on their FCI protocols was recorded. Sixty-seven flow cytometry listmodes from BM samples of patients with low-risk MDS with debris/aggregates. The frequency of discordant results increased with the accumulation of pitfalls (none, 16%; 1 pitfall, 40%; 2 pitfalls, 83%; P = 0.006). Finally, the use of a common gating strategy for analysis increased the percentage of files with "very good" agreement to 100%. Prevention of specific technical pitfalls is mandatory to reach a good reproducibility of CD34+ cell count among centers. These recommendations set the basis for laboratory standardization and enable the use of CD34+ cell enumeration as additional information in low-risk MDS patients. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  18. Determination of sperm concentration using flow cytometry with simultaneous analysis of sperm plasma membrane integrity in zebrafish Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huiping; Daly, Jonathan; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2016-04-01

    Control of sperm concentration is required to ensure consistent and reproducible results for cryopreservation and in vitro fertilization protocols. Determination of sperm concentration is traditionally performed with a counting chamber (e.g., hemocytometer), or more recently with a spectrophotometer. For small-sized biomedical model fishes, the availability of sperm sample is limited to microliters, so it is desirable to develop fast and accurate approaches for concentration determination that also minimize sample use. In this study, a new approach was developed for sperm concentration determination using a flow cytometer (Accuri C6, BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA) with simultaneous measurement of sperm membrane integrity after fluorescent staining with SYBR(®) -14 and propidium iodide (PI) in sperm from Zebrafish Danio rerio. The goal was to develop a protocol for simultaneous determination of sperm quality and quantity by flow cytometry. The objectives were to (1) determine the effects of sample volume (250 and 500 µl) and analysis volume (10 and 50 µl) on the accuracy of particle counting using standard volumetric validation beads; (2) identify the effective range of sperm concentrations that flow cytometry can measure; (3) test the precision and reproducibility of the sperm concentration measurements; and (4) verify the flow cytometry approach by comparison with measurement with a hemocytometer and a microspectrophotometer. Sample volumes of 250 and 500 µl and analysis volumes of 10 and 50 µl did not affect bead count with the factory-set flow rates of "medium" or "fast," and the precision and accuracy was retained across a concentration range of 1 × 10(3) -1 × 10(7) cells/ml. The approach developed in this study was comparable to traditional methodologies such as hemocytometer or microspectrophotometer. This study provides an efficient, accurate, and rapid method for determination of sperm concentration using flow cytometry while providing

  19. Imaging flow cytometry assays for quantifying pigment grade titanium dioxide particle internalization and interactions with immune cells in whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Rachel E; Vis, Bradley; Pele, Laetitia C; Faria, Nuno; Powell, Jonathan J

    2017-10-01

    Pigment grade titanium dioxide is composed of sub-micron sized particles, including a nanofraction, and is widely utilized in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and biomedical industries. Oral exposure to pigment grade titanium dioxide results in at least some material entering the circulation in humans, although subsequent interactions with blood immune cells are unknown. Pigment grade titanium dioxide is employed for its strong light scattering properties, and this work exploited that attribute to determine whether single cell-particle associations could be determined in immune cells of human whole blood at "real life" concentrations. In vitro assays, initially using isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, identified titanium dioxide associated with the surface of, and within, immune cells by darkfield reflectance in imaging flow cytometry. This was confirmed at the population level by side scatter measurements using conventional flow cytometry. Next, it was demonstrated that imaging flow cytometry could quantify titanium dioxide particle-bearing cells, within the immune cell populations of fresh whole blood, down to titanium dioxide levels of 10 parts per billion, which is in the range anticipated for human blood following titanium dioxide ingestion. Moreover, surface association and internal localization of titanium dioxide particles could be discriminated in the assays. Overall, results showed that in addition to the anticipated activity of blood monocytes internalizing titanium dioxide particles, neutrophil internalization and cell membrane adhesion also occurred, the latter for both phagocytic and nonphagocytic cell types. What happens in vivo and whether this contributes to activation of one or more of these different cells types in blood merits further attention. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  20. Flow Cytometry Assessment of In Vitro Generated CD138+ Human Plasma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayelle Itoua Maïga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro CD40-CD154 interaction promotes human B lymphocytes differentiation into plasma cells. Currently, CD138 is the hallmark marker enabling the detection of human plasma cells, both in vitro and in vivo; its presence can be monitored by flow cytometry using a specific antibody. We have developed a culture system allowing for the differentiation of memory B lymphocytes. In order to detect the newly formed plasma cells, we have compared their staining using five anti-CD138 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs. As a reference, we also tested human cell lines, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and bone marrow samples. The five anti-CD138 mAbs stained RPMI-8226 cells (>98% with variable stain index (SI. The highest SI was obtained with B-A38 mAb while the lowest SI was obtained with DL-101 and 1D4 mAbs. However, the anti-CD138 mAbs were not showing equivalent CD138+ cells frequencies within the generated plasma cells. B-A38, B-B4, and MI-15 were similar (15–25% while DL-101 mAb stained a higher proportion of CD138-positive cells (38–42%. DL-101 and B-A38 mAbs stained similar populations in bone marrow samples but differed in their capacity to bind to CD138high and CD138lo cell lines. In conclusion, such cellular fluctuations suggest heterogeneity in human plasma cell populations and/or in CD138 molecules.

  1. Circulating Tumor Cell Detection and Capture by Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry in Vivo and ex Vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galanzha, Ekaterina I. [Phillips Classic Laser and Nanomedicine Laboratories, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham Street, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Zharov, Vladimir P., E-mail: zharovvladimirp@uams.edu [Phillips Classic Laser and Nanomedicine Laboratories, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham Street, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Arkansas Nanomedicine Center, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham Street, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    Despite progress in detecting circulating tumor cells (CTCs), existing assays still have low sensitivity (1–10 CTC/mL) due to the small volume of blood samples (5–10 mL). Consequently, they can miss up to 10{sup 3}–10{sup 4} CTCs, resulting in the development of barely treatable metastasis. Here we analyze a new concept of in vivo CTC detection with enhanced sensitivity (up to 10{sup 2}–10{sup 3} times) by the examination of the entire blood volume in vivo (5 L in adults). We focus on in vivo photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC) of CTCs using label-free or targeted detection, photoswitchable nanoparticles with ultrasharp PA resonances, magnetic trapping with fiber-magnetic-PA probes, optical clearance, real-time spectral identification, nonlinear signal amplification, and the integration with PAFC in vitro. We demonstrate PAFC’s capability to detect rare leukemia, squamous carcinoma, melanoma, and bulk and stem breast CTCs and its clusters in preclinical animal models in blood, lymph, bone, and cerebrospinal fluid, as well as the release of CTCs from primary tumors triggered by palpation, biopsy or surgery, increasing the risk of metastasis. CTC lifetime as a balance between intravasation and extravasation rates was in the range of 0.5–4 h depending on a CTC metastatic potential. We introduced theranostics of CTCs as an integration of nanobubble-enhanced PA diagnosis, photothermal therapy, and feedback through CTC counting. In vivo data were verified with in vitro PAFC demonstrating a higher sensitivity (1 CTC/40 mL) and throughput (up to 10 mL/min) than conventional assays. Further developments include detection of circulating cancer-associated microparticles, and super-resolution PAFC beyond the diffraction and spectral limits.

  2. Evaluation of a prototype flow cytometry test for serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ker, Henrique Gama; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; das Dores Moreira, Nádia; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Machado, Evandro Marques de Menezes; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Coelho, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz; da Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2013-12-01

    Diagnosing canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a critical challenge since conventional immunoserological tests still present some deficiencies. The current study evaluated a prototype flow cytometry serology test, using antigens and fluorescent antibodies that had been stored for 1 year at 4°C, on a broad range of serum samples. Noninfected control dogs and Leishmania infantum-infected dogs were tested, and the prototype test showed excellent performance in differentiating these groups with high sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy (100% in all analyses). When the CVL group was evaluated according to the dogs' clinical status, the prototype test showed outstanding accuracy in all groups with positive serology (asymptomatic II, oligosymptomatic, and symptomatic). However, in dogs which had positive results by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) but negative results by conventional serology (asymptomatic I), serological reactivity was not observed. Additionally, sera from 40 dogs immunized with different vaccines (Leishmune, Leish-Tec, or LBSap) did not present serological reactivity in the prototype test. Eighty-eight dogs infected with other pathogens (Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania braziliensis, Ehrlichia canis, and Babesia canis) were used to determine cross-reactivity and specificity, and the prototype test performed well, particularly in dogs infected with B. canis and E. canis (100% and 93.3% specificities, respectively). In conclusion, our data reinforce the potential of the prototype test for use as a commercial kit and highlight its outstanding performance even after storage for 1 year at 4°C. Moreover, the prototype test efficiently provided accurate CVL serodiagnosis with an absence of false-positive results in vaccinated dogs and minor cross-reactivity against other canine pathogens.

  3. Reconfigurable laser arrays with capillary fill microfluidics for chip-based flow cytometry (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Low cost, portable chip based flow cytometry has great potential for applications in resource poor and point of care settings. Typical approaches utilise low cost silicon or glass substrates with light emission and detection performed either off-chip using external equipment or incorporated on-chip using `pick and place' diode lasers and photo-detectors. The former approach adds cost and limits portability while the sub-micron alignment tolerances imposed by the application make the latter impractical for all but the simplest of systems. Use of an optically active semiconductor substrate, on the other hand, overcomes these limitations by allowing multiple laser/detector arrays to be formed in the substrate itself using high resolution lithographic techniques. The capacity for multiple emitters and detectors on a single chip not only enables parallel measurement for increased throughput but also allows multiple measurements to be performed on each cell as it passes through the system. Several different experiments can be performed simultaneously and throughput demand can be reduced with the facility for error checking. Furthermore, the fast switching times inherent with semiconductor lasers allows the active sections of the device to be reconfigured on a sub-microsecond time scale providing additional functionality. This is demonstrated here in a capillary fill system using pairs of laser/detectors that are operated in pulsed mode and alternated between lasing and detecting in an interleaved manner. Passing cells are alternately interrogated from opposing directions providing information that can be used to correct for differences in lateral cell position and ultimately differentiate blood cell type.

  4. Circulating Tumor Cell Detection and Capture by Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry in Vivo and ex Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina I. Galanzha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite progress in detecting circulating tumor cells (CTCs, existing assays still have low sensitivity (1–10 CTC/mL due to the small volume of blood samples (5–10 mL. Consequently, they can miss up to 103–104 CTCs, resulting in the development of barely treatable metastasis. Here we analyze a new concept of in vivo CTC detection with enhanced sensitivity (up to 102–103 times by the examination of the entire blood volume in vivo (5 L in adults. We focus on in vivo photoacoustic (PA flow cytometry (PAFC of CTCs using label-free or targeted detection, photoswitchable nanoparticles with ultrasharp PA resonances, magnetic trapping with fiber-magnetic-PA probes, optical clearance, real-time spectral identification, nonlinear signal amplification, and the integration with PAFC in vitro. We demonstrate PAFC’s capability to detect rare leukemia, squamous carcinoma, melanoma, and bulk and stem breast CTCs and its clusters in preclinical animal models in blood, lymph, bone, and cerebrospinal fluid, as well as the release of CTCs from primary tumors triggered by palpation, biopsy or surgery, increasing the risk of metastasis. CTC lifetime as a balance between intravasation and extravasation rates was in the range of 0.5–4 h depending on a CTC metastatic potential. We introduced theranostics of CTCs as an integration of nanobubble-enhanced PA diagnosis, photothermal therapy, and feedback through CTC counting. In vivo data were verified with in vitro PAFC demonstrating a higher sensitivity (1 CTC/40 mL and throughput (up to 10 mL/min than conventional assays. Further developments include detection of circulating cancer-associated microparticles, and super-rsesolution PAFC beyond the diffraction and spectral limits.

  5. Optimizing recovery of frozen human peripheral blood mononuclear cells for flow cytometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Langhoff Hønge

    Full Text Available Live peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs can be frozen and thawed for later analyses by adding and removing a cryoprotectant, such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO. Laboratories across the world use various procedures, but published evidence of optimal thawing procedures is scarce.PBMCs were separated from blood collected from healthy Danish blood donors, and stored at -80°C after adding of DMSO. The essential steps in the thawing procedure were modified and performance was evaluated by flow cytometry with respect to the percentage and total yield of viable PMBCs.The best-performing washing medium was Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI 1640 at 37°C with 20% fetal bovine serum. When using 10 mL washing medium in a 15-mL Falcon tube, samples should be centrifuged for at least 10 minutes at 500 g. We failed to detect any differences between the tested methods of mixing PBMCs with washing medium. Likewise, neither the thawing duration nor centrifugation temperature (20°C and 37°C had any effect. PBMCs could be incubated (rested for up to eight hours in a 37°C 5% CO2 incubator without affecting cell counts, but incubating PBMCs for 16 hours significantly decreased viability and recovery. In general, high viability was not necessarily associated with high recovery.Changing the thawing procedure significantly impacted PBMC viability and live cell recovery. Evaluating both viability and live PBMC recovery are necessary to evaluate method performance. Investigation of differential loss of PBMC subtypes and phenotypic changes during thawing and incubation requires further evaluation.

  6. Application of image flow cytometry for the characterization of red blood cell morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ruben N.; Sebastian, Joseph A.; Parsons, Michael; Chang, Tim C.; Acker, Jason P.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2017-02-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) stored in hypothermic environments for the purpose of transfusion have been documented to undergo structural and functional changes over time. One sign of the so-called RBC storage lesion is irreversible damage to the cell membrane. Consequently, RBCs undergo a morphological transformation from regular, deformable biconcave discocytes to rigid spheroechinocytes. The spherically shaped RBCs lack the deformability to efficiently enter microvasculature, thereby reducing the capacity of RBCs to oxygenate tissue. Blood banks currently rely on microscope techniques that include fixing, staining and cell counting in order to morphologically characterize RBC samples; these methods are labor intensive and highly subjective. This study presents a novel, high-throughput RBC morphology characterization technique using image flow cytometry (IFC). An image segmentation template was developed to process 100,000 images acquired from the IFC system and output the relative spheroechinocyte percentage. The technique was applied on samples extracted from two blood bags to monitor the morphological changes of the RBCs during in vitro hypothermic storage. The study found that, for a given sample of RBCs, the IFC method was twice as fast in data acquisition, and analyzed 250-350 times more RBCs than the conventional method. Over the lifespan of the blood bags, the mean spheroechinocyte population increased by 37%. Future work will focus on expanding the template to segregate RBC images into more subpopulations for the validation of the IFC method against conventional techniques; the expanded template will aid in establishing quantitative links between spheroechinocyte increase and other RBC storage lesion characteristics.

  7. Diagnostic and prognostic significance of flow cytometry immunophenotyping in patients with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subirá, D; Simó, M; Illán, J; Serrano, C; Castañón, S; Gonzalo, R; Granizo, J J; Martínez-García, M; Navarro, M; Pardo, J; Bruna, J

    2015-04-01

    Some patients with epithelial-cell cancers develop leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LC), a severe complication difficult to diagnose and with an adverse prognosis. This study explores the contribution of flow cytometry immunophenotyping (FCI) to the diagnosis and prognosis of LC. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients diagnosed with LC were studied using FCI. Expression of the epithelial-cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) was the criterion used to identify the epithelial cells. To test the diagnostic precision, 144 patients (94 diagnosed with LC) were included. The prognostic value of FCI was evaluated in 72 patients diagnosed with LC and eligible for therapy. Compared with cytology, FCI showed greater sensitivity and negative predictive value (79.79 vs. 50%; 68.85 vs. 51.55%, respectively), but lower specificity and positive predictive value (84 vs. 100%; 90.36 vs. 100%, respectively). The multivariate analysis revealed that the percentage of CSF EpCAM+ cells predicted an increased risk of death (HR: 1.012, 95% CI 1.000-1.023; p=0.041). A cut-off value of 8% EpCAM+ cells in the CSF distinguished two groups of patients with statistically significant differences in overall survival (OS) (p=0.018). This cut-off value kept its statistical significance regardless of the absolute CSF cell-count. The FCI study of the CSF improved the sensitivity for diagnosing LC, but refinement of the technique is needed to improve specificity. Furthermore, quantification of CSF EpCAM+ cells was revealed to be an independent prognostic factor for OS in patients with LC eligible for therapy. An 8% cut-off value contributed to predicting clinical evolution before initiation of therapy.

  8. Contribution of Multiparameter Flow Cytometry Immunophenotyping to the Diagnostic Screening and Classification of Pediatric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Facio, Cristiane S.; Milito, Cristiane; Botafogo, Vitor; Fontana, Marcela; Thiago, Leandro S.; Oliveira, Elen; da Rocha-Filho, Ariovaldo S.; Werneck, Fernando; Forny, Danielle N.; Dekermacher, Samuel; de Azambuja, Ana Paula; Ferman, Sima Esther; de Faria, Paulo Antônio Silvestre; Land, Marcelo G. P.; Orfao, Alberto; Costa, Elaine S.

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric cancer is a relatively rare and heterogeneous group of hematological and non-hematological malignancies which require multiple procedures for its diagnostic screening and classification. Until now, flow cytometry (FC) has not been systematically applied to the diagnostic work-up of such malignancies, particularly for solid tumors. Here we evaluated a FC panel of markers for the diagnostic screening of pediatric cancer and further classification of pediatric solid tumors. The proposed strategy aims at the differential diagnosis between tumoral vs. reactive samples, and hematological vs. non-hematological malignancies, and the subclassification of solid tumors. In total, 52 samples from 40 patients suspicious of containing tumor cells were analyzed by FC in parallel to conventional diagnostic procedures. The overall concordance rate between both approaches was of 96% (50/52 diagnostic samples), with 100% agreement for all reactive/inflammatory and non-infiltrated samples as well as for those corresponding to solid tumors (n = 35), with only two false negative cases diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma and anaplastic lymphoma, respectively. Moreover, clear discrimination between samples infiltrated by hematopoietic vs. non-hematopoietic tumor cells was systematically achieved. Distinct subtypes of solid tumors showed different protein expression profiles, allowing for the differential diagnosis of neuroblastoma (CD56hi/GD2+/CD81hi), primitive neuroectodermal tumors (CD271hi/CD99+), Wilms tumors (>1 cell population), rhabdomyosarcoma (nuMYOD1+/numyogenin+), carcinomas (CD45−/EpCAM+), germ cell tumors (CD56+/CD45−/NG2+/CD10+) and eventually also hemangiopericytomas (CD45−/CD34+). In summary, our results show that multiparameter FC provides fast and useful complementary data to routine histopathology for the diagnostic screening and classification of pediatric cancer. PMID:23472067

  9. Contribution of multiparameter flow cytometry immunophenotyping to the diagnostic screening and classification of pediatric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane S Ferreira-Facio

    Full Text Available Pediatric cancer is a relatively rare and heterogeneous group of hematological and non-hematological malignancies which require multiple procedures for its diagnostic screening and classification. Until now, flow cytometry (FC has not been systematically applied to the diagnostic work-up of such malignancies, particularly for solid tumors. Here we evaluated a FC panel of markers for the diagnostic screening of pediatric cancer and further classification of pediatric solid tumors. The proposed strategy aims at the differential diagnosis between tumoral vs. reactive samples, and hematological vs. non-hematological malignancies, and the subclassification of solid tumors. In total, 52 samples from 40 patients suspicious of containing tumor cells were analyzed by FC in parallel to conventional diagnostic procedures. The overall concordance rate between both approaches was of 96% (50/52 diagnostic samples, with 100% agreement for all reactive/inflammatory and non-infiltrated samples as well as for those corresponding to solid tumors (n = 35, with only two false negative cases diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma and anaplastic lymphoma, respectively. Moreover, clear discrimination between samples infiltrated by hematopoietic vs. non-hematopoietic tumor cells was systematically achieved. Distinct subtypes of solid tumors showed different protein expression profiles, allowing for the differential diagnosis of neuroblastoma (CD56(hi/GD2(+/CD81(hi, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (CD271(hi/CD99(+, Wilms tumors (>1 cell population, rhabdomyosarcoma (nuMYOD1(+/numyogenin(+, carcinomas (CD45(-/EpCAM(+, germ cell tumors (CD56(+/CD45(-/NG2(+/CD10(+ and eventually also hemangiopericytomas (CD45(-/CD34(+. In summary, our results show that multiparameter FC provides fast and useful complementary data to routine histopathology for the diagnostic screening and classification of pediatric cancer.

  10. [Whole blood leukocyte phagocytosis assay for Candida albicans based on flow cytometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhengxin; Chen, Jing; Wang, Xianling; Zhao, Bohua; Hou, Tianwen

    2015-04-01

    To establish a whole blood leukocyte phagocytosis assay for Candida albicans (C.albicans) based on flow cytometry (FCM). C.albicans of mid-logarithmic growth phase was labeled by fluorescence probe carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFDA-SE), and then added into CD45-PC5 pre-stained human whole blood cells at a 10:1 multiplicity of infection (MOI) in 37DegreesCelsius. The cells were incubated for 10, 30 and 60 minutes. Phagocytosis rate of C.albicans by the CD45 positive cells in the blood was determined by FCM. In yeast extract peptone dextrose medium (YPD) and under the conditions of 37DegreesCelsius and 50 mL/L CO2, the logarithmic growth phase of C.albicans SC5314 was from the 5th to 11th hour. C.albicans were well stained by 10 mmol/L CFDA-SE after 30-minute incubation. After 10-, 30- and 60-minute incubation with SC5314 C.albicans with CD45⁺ cells, the phagocytosis rates measured by FCM were (80.1 ± 6.1)%, (83.8 ± 7.7)% and (92.3 ± 11.2)% for the neutrophils, (11.2 ± 3.6)%, (15.8 ± 4.4)% and (27.7 ± 6.8)% for the monocytes and (0.9 ± 0.3)%, (0.8 ± 0.4)% and (5.2 ± 1.6)% for the lymphocytes. The method for measuring whole blood leukocyte phagocytosis of C.albicans based on FCM is successfully established, and 30 minutes are the proper incubation time for the phagocytosis assay.

  11. Optimizing recovery of frozen human peripheral blood mononuclear cells for flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Petersen, Mikkel Steen; Olesen, Rikke; Møller, Bjarne Kuno; Erikstrup, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Live peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) can be frozen and thawed for later analyses by adding and removing a cryoprotectant, such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Laboratories across the world use various procedures, but published evidence of optimal thawing procedures is scarce. PBMCs were separated from blood collected from healthy Danish blood donors, and stored at -80°C after adding of DMSO. The essential steps in the thawing procedure were modified and performance was evaluated by flow cytometry with respect to the percentage and total yield of viable PMBCs. The best-performing washing medium was Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) 1640 at 37°C with 20% fetal bovine serum. When using 10 mL washing medium in a 15-mL Falcon tube, samples should be centrifuged for at least 10 minutes at 500 g. We failed to detect any differences between the tested methods of mixing PBMCs with washing medium. Likewise, neither the thawing duration nor centrifugation temperature (20°C and 37°C) had any effect. PBMCs could be incubated (rested) for up to eight hours in a 37°C 5% CO2 incubator without affecting cell counts, but incubating PBMCs for 16 hours significantly decreased viability and recovery. In general, high viability was not necessarily associated with high recovery. Changing the thawing procedure significantly impacted PBMC viability and live cell recovery. Evaluating both viability and live PBMC recovery are necessary to evaluate method performance. Investigation of differential loss of PBMC subtypes and phenotypic changes during thawing and incubation requires further evaluation.

  12. Identification of Myeloid Cell Subsets in Murine Lungs Using Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Taylor P.; Kendall, Peggy L.; Segal, Brahm H.; Weller, Kevin P.; Tighe, Robert M.; Blackwell, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    Although the antibody-based recognition of cell-surface markers has been widely used for the identification of immune cells, overlap in the expression of markers by different cell types and the inconsistent use of antibody panels have resulted in a lack of clearly defined signatures for myeloid cell subsets. We developed a 10-fluorochrome flow cytometry panel for the identification and quantitation of myeloid cells in the lungs, including pulmonary monocytes, myeloid dendritic cells, alveolar and interstitial macrophages, and neutrophils. After the initial sorting of viable CD45+ leukocytes, we detected three leukocyte subpopulations based on CD68 expression: CD68−, CD68low, and CD68hi. Further characterization of the CD68hi population revealed CD45+/CD68hi/F4/80+/CD11b−/CD11c+/Gr1− alveolar macrophages and CD45+/CD68hi/F4/80−/CD11c+/Gr1−/CD103+/major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class IIhi dendritic cells. The CD68low population contained primarily CD45+/CD68low/F4/80+/CD11b+/CD11c+/Gr1−/CD14low interstitial macrophages and CD45+/CD68low/F4/80+/CD11b+/CD11c−/Gr1low/CD14hi monocytes, whereas the CD68− population contained neutrophils (CD45+/CD68−/F4/80−/CD11b+/Gr1hi). The validity of cellular signatures was confirmed by a morphological analysis of FACS-sorted cells, functional studies, and the depletion of specific macrophage subpopulations using liposomal clodronate. We believe our approach provides an accurate and reproducible method for the isolation, quantification, and characterization of myeloid cell subsets in the lungs, which may be useful for studying the roles of myeloid cells during various pathological processes. PMID:23492192

  13. Identification and characterization of neutrophil extracellular trap shapes in flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginley, Brandon; Emmons, Tiffany; Sasankan, Prabhu; Urban, Constantin; Segal, Brahm H.; Sarder, Pinaki

    2017-03-01

    Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation is an alternate immunologic weapon used mainly by neutrophils. Chromatin backbones fused with proteins derived from granules are shot like projectiles onto foreign invaders. It is thought that this mechanism is highly anti-microbial, aids in preventing bacterial dissemination, is used to break down structures several sizes larger than neutrophils themselves, and may have several more uses yet unknown. NETs have been implied to be involved in a wide array of systemic host immune defenses, including sepsis, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Existing methods used to visually quantify NETotic versus non-NETotic shapes are extremely time-consuming and subject to user bias. These limitations are obstacles to developing NETs as prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets. We propose an automated pipeline for quantitatively detecting neutrophil and NET shapes captured using a flow cytometry-imaging system. Our method uses contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization to improve signal intensity in dimly illuminated NETs. From the contrast improved image, fixed value thresholding is applied to convert the image to binary. Feature extraction is performed on the resulting binary image, by calculating region properties of the resulting foreground structures. Classification of the resulting features is performed using Support Vector Machine. Our method classifies NETs from neutrophils without traps at 0.97/0.96 sensitivity/specificity on n = 387 images, and is 1500X faster than manual classification, per sample. Our method can be extended to rapidly analyze whole-slide immunofluorescence tissue images for NET classification, and has potential to streamline the quantification of NETs for patients with diseases associated with cancer and autoimmunity.

  14. A simple and efficient method for poly-3-hydroxybutyrate quantification in diazotrophic bacteria within 5 minutes using flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P.S. Alves

    Full Text Available The conventional method for quantification of polyhydroxyalkanoates based on whole-cell methanolysis and gas chromatography (GC is laborious and time-consuming. In this work, a method based on flow cytometry of Nile red stained bacterial cells was established to quantify poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB production by the diazotrophic and plant-associated bacteria, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Azospirillum brasilense. The method consists of three steps: i cell permeabilization, ii Nile red staining, and iii analysis by flow cytometry. The method was optimized step-by-step and can be carried out in less than 5 min. The final results indicated a high correlation coefficient (R2=0.99 compared to a standard method based on methanolysis and GC. This method was successfully applied to the quantification of PHB in epiphytic bacteria isolated from rice roots.

  15. A simple and efficient method for poly-3-hydroxybutyrate quantification in diazotrophic bacteria within 5 minutes using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, L P S; Almeida, A T; Cruz, L M; Pedrosa, F O; de Souza, E M; Chubatsu, L S; Müller-Santos, M; Valdameri, G

    2017-01-16

    The conventional method for quantification of polyhydroxyalkanoates based on whole-cell methanolysis and gas chromatography (GC) is laborious and time-consuming. In this work, a method based on flow cytometry of Nile red stained bacterial cells was established to quantify poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) production by the diazotrophic and plant-associated bacteria, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Azospirillum brasilense. The method consists of three steps: i) cell permeabilization, ii) Nile red staining, and iii) analysis by flow cytometry. The method was optimized step-by-step and can be carried out in less than 5 min. The final results indicated a high correlation coefficient (R2=0.99) compared to a standard method based on methanolysis and GC. This method was successfully applied to the quantification of PHB in epiphytic bacteria isolated from rice roots.

  16. Near Real-Time Flow Cytometry Monitoring of Bacterial and Viral Removal Efficiencies during Water Reclamation Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Huang; Zheng Zhao; Dana Hernandez; Jiang, Sunny C.

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater reuse has become an important part of the urban water supply portfolio in water stressed regions. Effective wastewater treatment processes are critical to protect public health during water reuse practices. However, the microbial removal efficiencies in wastewater reclamation plants are not routinely monitored due to the lack of a simple quantification method. This study applied a near real-time flow cytometry (FCM) technique to quantify the removal of total bacteria and viruses at...

  17. Comparison of different protocols of MRC5 cell line permeabilization for detection of CMV IE antigens by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siennicka, J

    2000-01-01

    The usefulness of four different protocols of permeabilizing human fibroblast cells for detection of CMV immediate-early antigens by flow cytometry was investigated. Permeabilizing protocols employed methanol, methanol/acetone, paraformaldehyde/Triton and FACSPermeabilizing Solution (Becton Dickinson). The best parameters (separation between positive stained CMV infected cells and negative control and detection of infected cells) were achieved for paraformaldehyde/Triton and FACSPermeabilizing Solution (Becton Dickinson).

  18. Fluorescein Isothiocyanate-Labeled Lectin Analysis of the Surface of the Nitrogen-Fixing Bacterium Azospirillum brasilense by Flow Cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    Yagoda-Shagam, Janet; Barton, Larry L.; Reed, William P.; Chiovetti, Robert

    1988-01-01

    The cell surface of Azospirillum brasilense was probed by using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled lectins, with binding determined by fluorescence-activated flow cytometry. Cells from nitrogen-fixing or ammonium-assimilating cultures reacted similarly to FITC-labeled lectins, with lectin binding in the following order: Griffonia simplicifolia II agglutinin > Griffonia simplicifolia I agglutinin > Triticum vulgaris agglutinin > Glycine max agglutinin > Canavalia ensiformis agglutinin >...

  19. Flow Cytometry as a Diagnostic Tool in the Early Diagnosis of Aggressive Lymphomas Mimicking Life-Threatening Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Tsagarakis, Nikolaos J.; Nektaria A. Kentrou; Georgios Kakiopoulos; Georgios Androutsos; Athanasios Galanopoulos; Christos Michaelidis; Dimitra Rontogianni; Apostolos Tolis; Stavroula Chini; Georgios Gortzolidis; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos A.; Dimitra Skoumi; Konstantina Tzanetou; Georgios Paterakis

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive lymphomas can present with symptoms mimicking life-threatening infection. Flow cytometry (FC) is usually recommended for the classification and staging of lymphomas in patients with organomegaly and atypical cells in effusions and blood, after the exclusion of other possible diagnoses. FC may also have a place in the initial diagnostic investigation of aggressive lymphoma. Three cases are presented here of highly aggressive lymphomas in young adults, which presented with the clinic...

  20. Using FRET to quantify changes in integrin structures in human leukocytes induced by chemoattractants with multi-frequency flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambrano, Jesus; Smagley, Yelena; Chigaev, Alexandre; Sklar, Larry A.; Houston, Jessica P.

    2017-02-01

    Flow cytometry for single cell counting uses optical measurements to report multiple cell features such as cell morphology, cell phenotype, and microenvironmental changes. Time-resolved flow cytometry is a unique method that involves the detection of the average fluorescence lifetime as a cytometric parameter. Measuring the average fluorescence lifetime is helpful when discriminating between more than one emission signal from a single cell because of spectrally overlapping emission. In this contribution, we present preliminary measurements toward a study that advances simple time-resolved flow cytometry and introduces a technique to measure fluorescence lifetime values from single cells labeled with a Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) pair. Specifically, donor fluorophore fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) fluorescence lifetime is measured to identify its proximity to the acceptor fluorophore. We hypothesize that our time-resolved flow cytometry approach can resolve changes in FRET in order to study integrin structures on the surface of leukocyte cells. Our results show that FITC has an average lifetime of 4.2 +/-0.1 nsec, and an average fluorescence lifetime of 2.4 nsec +/-0.2 nsec when engaged in FRET. After the release of FRET (e.g. dequenched) the average fluorescence lifetime of FITC was measured to be 3.1 +/- 0.5 nsec. Phasor graphs reveal large distributions of fluorescence lifetimes on a per cell basis, suggesting the existence of multiple fluorescence lifetimes. These data suggest more than one integrin conformation occurs throughout the cell population. The impact of this work is the addition of quantitative information for FRET efficiency values and determination of FRET calculations using high-throughput data.

  1. Application of an optimized flow cytometry-based quantification of Platelet Activation (PACT): Monitoring platelet activation in platelet concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicken, Cécile H; Roest, Mark; Henskens, Yvonne M C; de Laat, Bas; Huskens, Dana

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that flow cytometry is a reliable test to quantify platelet function in stored platelet concentrates (PC). It is thought that flow cytometry is laborious and hence expensive. We have optimized the flow cytometry-based quantification of agonist induced platelet activation (PACT) to a labor, time and more cost-efficient test. Currently the quality of PCs is only monitored by visual inspection, because available assays are unreliable or too laborious for use in a clinical transfusion laboratory. Therefore, the PACT was applied to monitor PC activation during storage. The optimized PACT was used to monitor 5 PCs during 10 days of storage. In brief, optimized PACT uses a ready-to-use reaction mix, which is stable at -20°C. When needed, a test strip is thawed and platelet activation is initiated by mixing PC with PACT. PACT was based on the following agonists: adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen-related peptide (CRP) and thrombin receptor-activating peptide (TRAP-6). Platelet activation was measured as P-selectin expression. Light transmission aggregometry (LTA) was performed as a reference. Both PACT and LTA showed platelet function decline during 10-day storage after stimulation with ADP and collagen/CRP; furthermore, PACT showed decreasing TRAP-induced activation. Major differences between the two tests are that PACT is able to measure the status of platelets in the absence of agonists, and it can differentiate between the number of activated platelets and the amount of activation, whereas LTA only measures aggregation in response to an agonist. Also, PACT is more time-efficient compared to LTA and allows high-throughput analysis. PACT is an optimized platelet function test that can be used to monitor the activation of PCs. PACT has the same accuracy as LTA with regard to monitoring PCs, but it is superior to both LTA and conventional flow cytometry based tests with regard to labor-, time- and cost efficiency.

  2. Effects on glycocalyx structures of frozen-thawed bovine sperm induced by flow cytometry and artificial capacitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezu, Kohei; Hiradate, Yuuki; Numabe, Takashi; Hara, Kenshiro; Tanemura, Kentaro

    2017-10-18

    Sperm sorting by flow cytometry is a useful technology in the bovine industry, but the conception rates after artificial insemination using sex-sorted sperm are lower than when using the un-sorted sperm. In this study, we have investigated the causes for these low conception rates. We have focused on changes caused by flow cytometry to the glycocalyx, which forms the outermost surface of the sperm membrane. We have also evaluated the effects of capacitation on the glycocalyx since capacitation involves a redistribution of the sperm membrane that is vital for successful fertilization and conception. Lectin histochemistry was used to visualize the structure of the sperm glycocalyx. Lectin-staining sites were examined in non-treated sperm, sex-sorted sperm, and capacitated sperm. We have detected six different staining patterns related to different labeling regions of the sperm. Phaseolus vulgaris-erythroagglutinin (PHA-E) lectin-staining patterns of non-treated sperm were very different from those observed for sex-sorted sperm or capacitated sperm, suggesting that both, sex sorting by flow cytometry and the capacitation process affected the glycocalyx structures in the sperm. In addition, the total tyrosine-phosphorylation level in sex-sorted sperm was significantly higher than that in the non-treated sperm. Therefore, we concluded that the unexpected capacitation of bovine sperm during flow cytometry is associated with changes in the glycocalyx. Since premature capacitation leads to low conception rates, this unexpected capacitation could be a cause of low conception rates after artificial insemination using sex-sorted sperm.

  3. Proposal for the standardization of flow cytometry protocols to detect minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikoma, Maura Rosane Valério; Beltrame, Miriam Perlingeiro; Ferreira, Silvia Inês Alejandra Cordoba Pires; Souto, Elizabeth Xisto; Malvezzi, Mariester; Yamamoto, Mihoko

    2015-01-01

    Minimal residual disease is the most powerful predictor of outcome in acute leukemia and is useful in therapeutic stratification for acute lymphoblastic leukemia protocols. Nowadays, the most reliable methods for studying minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia are multiparametric flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction. Both provide similar results at a minimal residual disease level of 0.01% of normal cells, that is, detection of one leukemic cell in up to 10,000 normal nucleated cells. Currently, therapeutic protocols establish the minimal residual disease threshold value at the most informative time points according to the appropriate methodology employed. The expertise of the laboratory in a cancer center or a cooperative group could be the most important factor in determining which method should be used. In Brazil, multiparametric flow cytometry laboratories are available in most leukemia treatment centers, but multiparametric flow cytometry processes must be standardized for minimal residual disease investigations in order to offer reliable and reproducible results that ensure quality in the clinical application of the method. The Minimal Residual Disease Working Group of the Brazilian Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation (SBTMO) was created with that aim. This paper presents recommendations for the detection of minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia based on the literature and expertise of the laboratories who participated in this consensus, including pre-analytical and analytical methods. This paper also recommends that both multiparametric flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction are complementary methods, and so more laboratories with expertise in immunoglobulin/T cell receptor (Ig/TCR) gene assays are necessary in Brazil. PMID:26670404

  4. Elimination of erroneous results in flow cytometry caused by antibody binding to Fc receptors on human monocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Morten N; Al-Karradi, Sinan N H; Kragstrup, Tue W; Hokland, Marianne

    2016-11-01

    Nonspecific binding of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to Fc-receptors on leukocytes is an important cause of background fluorescence in flow cytometry, and failing to block such nonspecific binding can lead to erroneous results. A major part of previous studies on blocking reagents for flow cytometry have been done in mice, and published results are not completely in agreement. In humans, Fc-receptors are found on most leukocytes, with highest abundance on monocytes/macrophages. Therefore, in the present study our aim was to thoroughly investigate the efficiency of different commonly used blocking reagents regarding inhibition of nonspecific binding of mouse mAbs to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). Monocytes and MDMs showed strong nonspecific binding of IgG1 and IgG2a isotypes, but not IgG2b. In contrast, B-cells, T-cells, and NK-cells did not substantially bind any of the mouse isotype control antibodies evaluated (IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b). Importantly, we show that binding of IgG1 and IgG2a to monocytes and MDMs can be eliminated by blocking, either with a commercial Fc-blocking reagent, with mouse or human serum, or with mouse or human IgG in high concentration. Previously, isotype controls have been widely used in flow cytometry assays. However, we show that such controls may be highly unreliable, and we believe they should not be used as gating controls, or to determine background signal. Based on these results, as well as considerations of price and applicability, our recommendation is not to use isotypes as gating controls in flow cytometry, but instead to use 100 μg/mL of purified human IgG as blocking reagent for elimination of nonspecific binding of mouse mAbs to human MNCs and MDMs. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  5. Lymphocyte and monocyte flow cytometry immunophenotyping as a diagnostic tool in uncharacteristic inflammatory disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grip Olof

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with uncharacteristic inflammatory symptoms such as long-standing fatigue or pain, or a prolonged fever, constitute a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The aim of the present study was to determine if an extended immunophenotyping of lymphocytes and monocytes including activation markers can define disease-specific patterns, and thus provide valuable diagnostic information for these patients. Methods Whole blood from patients with gram-negative bacteraemia, neuroborreliosis, tuberculosis, acute mononucleosis, influenza or a mixed connective tissue disorders, as diagnosed by routine culture and serology techniques was analysed for lymphocyte and monocyte cell surface markers using a no-wash, no-lyse protocol for multi-colour flow cytometry method. The immunophenotyping included the activation markers HLA-DR and CD40. Plasma levels of soluble TNF alpha receptors were analysed by ELISA. Results An informative pattern was obtained by combining two of the analysed parameters: (i, the fractions of HLA-DR-expressing CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells, respectively, and (ii, the level of CD40 on CD14+ CD16- monocytes. Patients infected with gram-negative bacteria or EBV showed a marked increase in monocyte CD40, while this effect was less pronounced for tuberculosis, borrelia and influenza. The bacterial agents could be distinguished from the viral agents by the T cell result; CD4+ T cells reacting in bacterial infection, and the CD8+ T cells dominating for the viruses. Patients with mixed connective tissue disorders also showed increased activation, but with similar engagement of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Analysis of soluble TNF alpha receptors was less informative due to a large inter-individual variation. Conclusion Immunophenotyping including the combination of the fractions of HLA-DR expressing T cell subpopulations with the level of CD40 on monocytes produces an informative pattern, differentiating between infections of

  6. Dual excitation multi-fluorescence flow cytometry for detailed analyses of viability and apoptotic cell transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Mazzini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The discrimination of live/dead cells as well as the detection of apoptosis is a frequent need in many areas of experimental biology. Cell proliferation is linked to apoptosis and controlled by several genes. During the cell life, specific events can stimulate proliferation while others may trigger the apoptotic pathway. Very few methods (i.e. TUNEL are now available for studies aimed at correlation between apoptosis and proliferation. Therefore, there is interest in developing new methodological approaches that are able to correlate apoptosis to the cell cycle phases. Recently new approaches have been proposed to detect and enumerate apoptotic cells by flow cytometry. Among these, the most established and applied are those based on the cell membrane modifications induced in the early phases of the apoptotic process. The dye pair Hoechst 33342 (HO and Propidium Iodide (PI, thanks to their peculiar characteristics to be respectively permeable and impermeable to the intact cell membrane, seems to be very useful. Unfortunately the spectral interaction of these dyes generates a consistent “energy transfer” from HO to PI. The co-presence of the dyes in a nucleus results in a modification in the intensity of both the emitted fluorescences. In order to designate the damaged cells (red fluorescence to the specific cell cycle phases (blue fluorescence, we have tested different staining protocols aimed to minimize the interference of these dyes as much as possible. In cell culture models, we are able to detect serum-starved apoptotic cells as well as to designate their exact location in the cell cycle phases using a very low PI concentration. Using a Partec PAS flow cytometer equipped with HBO lamp and argon ion laser, a double UV/blue excitation has been performed. This analytical approach is able to discriminate live blue cells from the damaged (blue-red ones even at 0.05 ?g/mL PI. The same instrumental setting allows performing other multi

  7. Using flow cytometry to screen patients for X-linked lymphoproliferative disease due to SAP deficiency and XIAP deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Rebecca A; Bleesing, Jack J; Filipovich, Alexandra H

    2010-10-31

    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease is a rare congenital immunodeficiency that is most often caused by mutations in SH2D1A, the gene encoding signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP). XLP caused by SAP deficiency is most often characterized by fulminant mononucleosis/EBV- associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), lymphoma, and dysgammaglobulinemia. XLP has also been found to be caused by mutations in BIRC4, the gene encoding X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP). Patients with XIAP deficiency often present with HLH or recurrent HLH, which may or may not be associated with EBV. XLP is prematurely lethal in the majority of cases. While genetic sequencing can provide a genetic diagnosis of XLP, a more rapid means of diagnosis of XLP is desirable. Rapid diagnosis is especially important in the setting of HLH, as this may hasten the initiation of life-saving medical treatments and expedite preparations for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Flow cytometry offers a means to quickly screen patients for XLP. Flow cytometry can be used to measure lymphocyte SAP or XIAP protein expression, and can also be used to observe lymphocyte phenotypes and functional defects that are unique to XLP. This review will give a brief overview of the clinical manifestations and molecular basis of SAP deficiency and XIAP deficiency, and will focus on the use of flow cytometry for diagnosis of XLP. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Detection of IgG Anti-Leishmania Antigen by Flow Cytometry as a Diagnostic Test for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedral-Sampaio, Geraldo; Alves, Jessé S; Schriefer, Albert; Magalhães, Andréa; Meyer, Roberto; Glesby, Marshall J; Carvalho, Edgar M; Carvalho, Lucas P

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) relies on clinical presentation, parasite isolation, histopathologic evaluation and positive Montenegro skin test. However, the low amounts of parasites in the lesion of these individuals make parasite isolation and histopatologic diagnosis unreliable, often leading to false-negative results. Also, 15% of people living in endemic areas have sub-clinical infection characterized by positive Montenegro skin test, which may contribute to misdiagnosis. Although the main Leishmania killing mechanism is through cell-mediated immune response, antibodies against Leishmania antigens are found in infected individuals. Here our goal was to develop a new serological technique using polystyrene microspheres sensitized with soluble Leishmania antigens as a tool for the detection of IgG in serum from CL patients by flow cytometry. To validate the assay we carried out a comparative test (ELISA) commonly used as a diagnostic test for parasitic diseases. To determine cross-reactivity we used serum from patients with Chagas disease, caused by a trypanosome that has several proteins with high homology to those of the Leishmania genus. We observed that the flow cytometry technique was more sensitive than the ELISA, but, less specific. Our results show that the flow cytometry serologic test can be used to confirm CL cases in L. braziliensis transmission areas, however, presence of Chagas disease has to be ruled out in these individuals.

  9. Morphological analysis of the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum using flow cytometry-the fast alternative to microscopic image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehgartner, Daniela; Herwig, Christoph; Fricke, Jens

    2017-10-01

    An important parameter in filamentous bioreactor cultivations is the morphology of the fungi, due to its interlink to productivity and its dependency on process conditions. Filamentous fungi show a large variety of morphological forms in submerged cultures. These range from dispersed hyphae, to interwoven mycelial aggregates, to denser hyphal aggregates, the so-called pellets. Depending on the objective function of the bioprocess, different characteristics of the morphology are favorable and need to be quantified accurately. The most common method to quantitatively characterize morphology is image analysis based on microscopy. This method is work intensive and time consuming. Therefore, we developed a faster, at-line applicable, alternative method based on flow cytometry. Within this contribution, this novel method is compared to microscopy for a penicillin production process. Both methods yielded in comparable distinction of morphological sub-populations and described their morphology in more detail. In addition to the appropriate quantification of size parameters and the description of the hyphal region around pellets, the flow cytometry method even revealed a novel compactness parameter for fungal pellets which is not accessible via light microscopy. Hence, the here presented flow cytometry method for morphological analysis is a fast and reliable alternative to common tools with some new insights in the pellet morphology, enabling at-line use in production environments.

  10. Combining Flow and Mass Cytometry in the Search for Biomarkers in Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stikvoort, Arwen; Chen, Yang; Rådestad, Emelie; Törlén, Johan; Lakshmikanth, Tadepally; Björklund, Andreas; Mikes, Jaromir; Achour, Adnane; Gertow, Jens; Sundberg, Berit; Remberger, Mats; Sundin, Mikael; Mattsson, Jonas; Brodin, Petter; Uhlin, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a debilitating complication arising in around half of all patients treated with an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Even though treatment of severe cGVHD has improved during recent years, it remains one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in affected patients. Biomarkers in blood that could aid in the diagnosis and classification of cGVHD severity are needed for the development of novel treatment strategies that can alleviate symptoms and reduce the need for painful and sometimes complicated tissue biopsies. Methods that comprehensively profile complex biological systems such as the immune system can reveal unanticipated markers when used with the appropriate methods of data analysis. Here, we used mass cytometry, flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and multiplex assays to systematically profile immune cell populations in 68 patients with varying grades of cGVHD. We identified multiple subpopulations across T, B, and NK-cell lineages that distinguished patients with cGVHD from those without cGVHD and which were associated in varying ways with severity of cGVHD. Specifically, initial flow cytometry demonstrated that patients with more severe cGVHD had lower mucosal-associated T cell frequencies, with a concomitant higher level of CD38 expression on T cells. Mass cytometry could identify unique subpopulations specific for cGVHD severity albeit with some seemingly conflicting results. For instance, patients with severe cGVHD had an increased frequency of activated B cells compared to patients with moderate cGVHD while activated B cells were found at a reduced frequency in patients with mild cGVHD compared to patients without cGVHD. Moreover, results indicate it may be possible to validate mass cytometry results with clinically viable, smaller flow cytometry panels. Finally, no differences in levels of blood soluble markers could be identified, with the exception for the semi

  11. Combining Flow and Mass Cytometry in the Search for Biomarkers in Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arwen Stikvoort

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD is a debilitating complication arising in around half of all patients treated with an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Even though treatment of severe cGVHD has improved during recent years, it remains one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in affected patients. Biomarkers in blood that could aid in the diagnosis and classification of cGVHD severity are needed for the development of novel treatment strategies that can alleviate symptoms and reduce the need for painful and sometimes complicated tissue biopsies. Methods that comprehensively profile complex biological systems such as the immune system can reveal unanticipated markers when used with the appropriate methods of data analysis. Here, we used mass cytometry, flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and multiplex assays to systematically profile immune cell populations in 68 patients with varying grades of cGVHD. We identified multiple subpopulations across T, B, and NK-cell lineages that distinguished patients with cGVHD from those without cGVHD and which were associated in varying ways with severity of cGVHD. Specifically, initial flow cytometry demonstrated that patients with more severe cGVHD had lower mucosal-associated T cell frequencies, with a concomitant higher level of CD38 expression on T cells. Mass cytometry could identify unique subpopulations specific for cGVHD severity albeit with some seemingly conflicting results. For instance, patients with severe cGVHD had an increased frequency of activated B cells compared to patients with moderate cGVHD while activated B cells were found at a reduced frequency in patients with mild cGVHD compared to patients without cGVHD. Moreover, results indicate it may be possible to validate mass cytometry results with clinically viable, smaller flow cytometry panels. Finally, no differences in levels of blood soluble markers could be identified, with the exception

  12. Assessment of a novel flow cytometry technique of one-step intracellular staining: example of FOXP3 in clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaret, Julie; Saison, Julien; Venet, Fabienne; Malcus, Christophe; Poitevin-Later, Francoise; Lepape, Alain; Ferry, Tristan; Monneret, Guillaume

    2013-05-01

    By measuring multiple parameters on a single-cell basis, flow cytometry is a potent tool to dissect the phenotypes and functions of cell subsets. However, because this technique may be time-consuming, particularly for intracellular staining, it could be problematic for its use in daily routine or in large cohorts. Recently, a novel reagent has been developed to perform intracellular staining in one step. The objective of our study was thus to assess this new method in comparison with the reference technique by focusing on FOXP3 staining in clinical samples. Peripheral blood was collected from 15 HIV-1-infected patients, 5 critically ill patients, and 5 healthy volunteers and stained using the two different methods. Different subsets of FOXP3 positive cells were investigated by flow cytometry. When comparing results obtained with the two techniques, no statistical differences between the percentages of CD4+FOXP3+, CD4+CD25+FOXP3+, and CD4+CD25+CD127-FOXP3+ cells were observed. Besides, a strong correlation between percentages of CD4+FOXP3+CD25+CD127- lymphocytes measured with both techniques was found in patients (r: 0.843, P flow cytometry stainings obtained with the one-step method were very robust with an excellent intra-assay precision, a better discriminative power and correct stability and reproducibility of the staining even after blood storage. With a strong correlation between the percentages of FOXP3+ Tregs when compared with the reference method, a better staining quality, a shorter realization time and no need of isotype control, this one step procedure may represent an important improvement for a daily routine use of intracellular staining. Copyright © 2013 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  13. Accuracy of Bone Marrow Flow Cytometry Analysis in Patients With Plasma Cell Neoplasm in Thailand: A Single Institutional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limvorapitak, Wasithep; Srisum-Ang, Thammasiree; Chimres, Chutima; Warnnissorn, Naree; Kanitsap, Nonglak

    2016-03-01

    Plasma cell neoplasm is a common hematologic malignancy. Treatment with novel agents results in favorable outcomes. Reliable investigations are required to monitor the residual disease, especially after such effective treatments. Flow cytometric analysis is a speedy and accurate method to detect abnormal cells. The aim of this study was to determine diagnostic performance of flow cytometry in the detection of abnormal plasma cells in bone marrow specimens. We included bone marrow samples taken from patients suspected to harbor plasma cell neoplasm at the time of diagnosis or follow-up after treatment from 2013 to 2015. Flow cytometric analyses, using cluster of differentiation (CD)19/CD20/CD27/CD38/CD45/CD56/CD117/CD138 and cytoplasmic κ/λ, were done and results compared with morphologic evaluation of marrow aspirate smear, histology, and immunohistochemistry of marrow biopsy and protein electrophoretic analyses. A total of 154 specimens were included. Plasma cell neoplasm was detected in 56 samples (36.4%). Most abnormal plasma cells in this study were CD19-negative (CD19(-))/CD20(-)/CD27(+)/CD38(+)/CD45(-) (or weakly positive)/CD56(+)/CD117(+)/CD138(+). Light chain restriction was found only in 18 samples (32.1%). Sensitivity and specificity of flow cytometric analysis were 91.1% and 96.9%, respectively. For the follow-up cohort, sensitivity and specificity were 86.7% and 66.7%, respectively. Analysis of plasma cell neoplasm using flow cytometry has high sensitivity and specificity. As an adjunct to marrow histology and immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry can be used in diagnosis of plasma cell neoplasm and more importantly in monitoring the disease after treatment. We propose a limited panel of CD19/CD38/CD45/CD56/CD117/CD138 for detecting minimal residual disease in Thai patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Locked Nucleic Acid Flow Cytometry-fluorescence in situ Hybridization (LNA flow-FISH): A Method for Bacterial Small RNA Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    Friedrich, U. & Lenke, J. Improved Enumeration of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Mesophilic Dairy Starter Cultures by Using Multiplex Quantitative Real...messenger RNA using locked nucleic acid probes. Anal. Biochem. 390, 109-114 (2009). 13. Waters, L. & Storz, G. Regulatory RNAs in bacteria . Cell. 136, 615...Video Article Locked Nucleic Acid Flow Cytometry-fluorescence in situ Hybridization (LNA flow-FISH): a Method for Bacterial Small RNA Detection Kelly

  15. Precise determinations of C and D periods by flow cytometry in Escherichia coli K-12 and B/r

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Ole; de Mattos, M.J.T.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2003-01-01

    The C and D cell cycle periods of seven Escherichia coli K-12 strains and three E, coli B/r strains were determined by computer simulation of DNA histograms obtained by flow cytometry of batch cultures grown at several different generation times. To obtain longer generation times two of the K-12...... generation times. In glucose-limited chemostats good correlation was found between D periods and generation times, whereas batch cultures exhibited carbon-source-dependent variations. Chemostat cultures showed cell cycle variations very similar to those obtained in batch cultures. These flow cytometric...

  16. Shifts in the fluorescence lifetime of EGFP during bacterial phagocytosis measured by phase-sensitive flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan; Houston, Kevin D.; Houston, Jessica P.

    2017-01-01

    Phase-sensitive flow cytometry (PSFC) is a technique in which fluorescence excited state decay times are measured as fluorescently labeled cells rapidly transit a finely focused, frequency-modulated laser beam. With PSFC the fluorescence lifetime is taken as a cytometric parameter to differentiate intracellular events that are challenging to distinguish with standard flow cytometry. For example PSFC can report changes in protein conformation, expression, interactions, and movement, as well as differences in intracellular microenvironments. This contribution focuses on the latter case by taking PSFC measurements of macrophage cells when inoculated with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing E. coli. During progressive internalization of EGFP-E. coli, fluorescence lifetimes were acquired and compared to control groups. It was hypothesized that fluorescence lifetimes would correlate well with phagocytosis because phagosomes become acidified and the average fluorescence lifetime of EGFP is known to be affected by pH. We confirmed that average EGFP lifetimes consistently decreased (3 to 2 ns) with inoculation time. The broad significance of this work is the demonstration of how high-throughput fluorescence lifetime measurements correlate well to changes that are not easily tracked by intensity-only cytometry, which is affected by heterogeneous protein expression, cell-to-cell differences in phagosome formation, and number of bacterium engulfed.

  17. Cytomorphology and flow cytometry of brain biopsy rinse fluid enables faster and multidisciplinary diagnosis of large B-cell lymphoma of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debliquis, Agathe; Voirin, Jimmy; Harzallah, Inès; Maurer, Maxime; Lerintiu, Felix; Drénou, Bernard; Ahle, Guido

    2016-08-01

    Central nervous system lymphomas are aggressive tumors requiring a prompt diagnosis for successful treatment. Stereotactic biopsy remains the standard procedure, but the time needed for histopathology is usually over 2 days. We evaluated the contribution of cytomorphology and flow cytometry to histopathology of the brain biopsy in particular on the rinse fluid usually removed. Eighteen patients with suspected localized brain lymphoma underwent stereotactic brain biopsy. Brain biopsy tissue sample and/or brain biopsy rinse fluid were analyzed by cytomorphology combined with flow cytometry. Histopathology was used as a reference. Histopathology characterized ten diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and eight other diseases. Cytomorphology and flow cytometry showed lymphoma cells in nine out of the ten lymphomas. Three cytomorphology or flow cytometry negative results were reported for lymphomas in tissue samples due to low cellularity and biopsy sample conditioning. No lymphomatous cells were found by cytomorphology or flow cytometry in the eight other diseases. Rinse fluid results were consistent with histology in all cases studied (sensitivity and specificity, 100%). The median time to result was 4.5 days (range, 2-10 days) for histopathology, while 5 h (range, 3-20 h) were required for both cytomorphology and flow cytometry. Brain biopsy rinse fluid alleviates problems of tissue sample distribution compared to tissue sample. Its analysis performs the diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma in a few hours and, associated with histopathology, allows a multidisciplinary diagnosis. This study shows that cytomorphology combined with flow cytometry on brain biopsy rinse fluid is a new, fast, and useful strategy. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  18. Standardization of flow cytometry in myelodysplastic syndromes: a report from an international consortium and the European LeukemiaNet Working Group.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westers, T.M.; Ireland, R.; Kern, W.; Alhan, C.; Balleisen, J.S.; Bettelheim, P.; Burbury, K.; Cullen, M.; Cutler, J.A.; Porta, M.G. Della; Drager, A.M.; Feuillard, J.; Font, P.; Germing, U.; Haase, D.; Johansson, U.; Kordasti, S.; Loken, M.R.; Malcovati, L.; Marvelde, J.G. Te; Matarraz, S.; Milne, T.; Moshaver, B.; Mufti, G.J.; Ogata, K.; Orfao, A.; Porwit, A.; Psarra, K.; Richards, S.J.; Subira, D.; Tindell, V.; Vallespi, T.; Valent, P.; Velden, V.H. van der; Witte, T.J.M. de; Wells, D.A.; Zettl, F.; Bene, M.C.; Loosdrecht, A.A. van de

    2012-01-01

    Flow cytometry (FC) is increasingly recognized as an important tool in the diagnosis and prognosis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). However, validation of current assays and agreement upon the techniques are prerequisites for its widespread acceptance and application in clinical practice.

  19. Bone marrow trephine biopsy involvement by lymphoma: pattern of involvement and concordance with flow cytometry, in 10 years from a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas-Quintario, M A; Gomez, P; Yuste-Del Pozo, V; Valencia-Mesa, A L; Sosa, G; Ricard, P; Hijas-Gómez, A I; Pinedo, F; Arguelles, M

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the features of bone marrow (BM) biopsy involvement by lymphoma, pattern of infiltration, morphological analysis and flow cytometry were reviewed at all lymphoma patients over a period of 10 years. 413 cases were included in the study if BM biopsy slides were available. Only 356 patients had both BM trephine biopsy and flow cytometry. The most frequent subtype was diffuse large B cell (31.2%), followed by follicular lymphoma (18.9%). The predominant pattern was mixed (nodular-interstitial) (9.2%). Morphological marrow infiltration was found in 138 cases, and flow cytometry identified 117 cases with BM involvement. A concordance between the two methods was detected in 305 cases (85.7%). There was discordance in 51 cases (14.3%): morphology positive/FC negative in 33 cases and morphology negative/FC positive in 18. Flow cytometry is slightly more useful in detecting involvement when the BM is affected, but this finding is not conclusive.

  20. A novel high-throughput multi-parameter flow cytometry based method for monitoring and rapid characterization of microbiome dynamics in anaerobic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhoble, Abhishek S; Bekal, Sadia; Dolatowski, William; Yanz, Connor; Lambert, Kris N; Bhalerao, Kaustubh D

    2016-11-01

    A novel multidimensional flow cytometry based method has been demonstrated to monitor and rapidly characterize the dynamics of the complex anaerobic microbiome associated with perturbations in external environmental factors. While community fingerprinting provides an estimate of the meta genomic structure, flow cytometry provides a fingerprint of the community morphology including its autofluorescence spectrum in a high-throughput manner. Using anaerobic microbial consortia perturbed with the controlled addition of various carbon sources, it is possible to quantitatively discriminate between divergent microbiome analogous to community fingerprinting techniques using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA). The utility of flow cytometry based method has also been demonstrated in a fully functional industry scale anaerobic digester to distinguish between microbiome composition caused by varying hydraulic retention time (HRT). This approach exploits the rich multidimensional information from flow cytometry for rapid characterization of the dynamics of microbial communities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Diagnostic Value of Flow Cytometry Imunophenotyping in an Albanian Patient Population with a Preliminary Clinical Diagnosis of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Semanaj

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Flow cytometry immunophenotyping is a fundamental examination for the final diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The expression of CD38+ in CLL patients stands for a more advanced clinical stage.

  2. Comparative Multi-Donor Study of IFNγ Secretion and Expression by Human PBMCs Using ELISPOT Side-by-Side with ELISA and Flow Cytometry Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Jodi; Zimmerman, Ryan; Goetz, Christine; Bonnevier, Jody; Houchins, Jeffrey P; Reagan, Kevin; Kalyuzhny, Alexander E

    2015-02-11

    ELISPOT, ELISA and flow cytometry techniques are often used to study the function of immune system cells. It is tempting to speculate that these assays can be used interchangeably, providing similar information about the cytokine secreting activity of cells: the higher the number of cytokine-positive cells measured by flow cytometry, the higher the number of cytokine-secreting cells expected to be detected by ELISPOT and the larger the amount of secreted cytokine expected to be measured by ELISA. We have analyzed the expression level and secretion capacity of IFNγ from peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from five healthy donors and stimulated by calcium ionomycin mixed with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in a non-specific manner in side-by-side testing using ELISPOT, ELISA and flow cytometry assays. In our study, we observed a general correlation in donors' ranking between ELISPOT and flow cytometry; ELISA values did not correlate with either ELISPOT or flow cytometry. However, a detailed donor-to-donor comparison between ELISPOT and flow cytometry revealed significant discrepancies: donors who have similar numbers of IFNγ-positive cells measured by flow cytometry show 2-3-fold differences in the number of spot-forming cells (SFCs) measured by ELISPOT; and donors who have the same number of SFCs measured by ELISPOT show 30% differences in the number of IFNγ-positive cells measured by flow cytometry. Significant discrepancies between donors were also found when comparing ELISA and ELISPOT techniques: donors who secreted the same amount of IFNγ measured by ELISA show six-fold differences in the number of SFCs measured by ELISPOT; and donors who have 5-7-times less secreted IFNγ measured by ELISA show a two-fold increase in the number of SFCs measured by ELISPOT compared to donors who show a more profound secretion of IFNγ measured by ELISA. The results of our study suggest that there can be a lack of correlation between IFNγ values measured by

  3. Microfluidic diagnostic tool for the developing world: contactless impedance flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaminejad, Sam; Javanmard, Mehdi; Dutton, Robert W; Davis, Ronald W

    2012-11-07

    In this work, we demonstrate a novel and cost-effective approach to implement a disposable microfluidic contactless impedance cytometer. Conventional methods for single cell impedance cytometry use microfabricated electrodes in direct contact with the buffer to measure changes of its electrical impedance when cells pass through the applied electric field. However, this approach requires expensive microfabrication of electrodes, and also, the fabricated electrodes cannot be reused without thorough and time-consuming cleaning process. Here, we introduce a novel approach to allow for single cell impedance cytometry using electrodes that can be reused, without the need for microfabrication of the electrodes. This disposable device can be potentially inserted onto a printed circuit board (PCB) which has a non-disposable, yet inexpensive, electronic reading apparatus. This significantly reduces the manufacturing costs, making it suitable for low resource settings, such as point-of-care testing in the developing countries.

  4. Microfluidic Diagnostic Tool for the Developing World: Contactless Impedance Flow Cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    Emaminejad, Sam; Javanmard, Mehdi; Dutton, Robert W.; Davis, Ronald W.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate a novel and cost-effective approach to implement a disposable microfluidic contactless impedance cytometer. Conventional methods for single cell impedance cytometry use microfabricated electrodes in direct contact with the buffer to measure changes of its electrical impedance when cells pass through the applied electric field. However, this approach requires expensive microfabrication of electrodes, and also, the fabricated electrodes cannot be reused without thor...

  5. A method for analysing phosphatase activity in aquatic bacteria at the single cell level using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhamel, Solange; Gregori, Gerald; Van Wambeke, France; Mauriac, Romain; Nedoma, Jirí

    2008-10-01

    It has been demonstrated that ELF97-phosphate (ELF-P) is a useful tool to detect and quantify phosphatase activity of phytoplankton populations at a single cell level. Recently, it has been successfully applied to marine heterotrophic bacteria in culture samples, the cells exhibiting phosphatase activity being detected using epifluorescence microscopy. Here, we describe a new protocol that enables the detection of ELF alcohol (ELFA), the product of ELF-P hydrolysis, allowing the detection of phosphatase positive bacteria, using flow cytometry. Bacteria from natural samples must be disaggregated and, in oligotrophic waters, concentrated before they can be analyzed by flow cytometry. The best efficiency for disaggregating/separating bacterial cell clumps was obtained by incubating the sample for 30 min with Tween 80 (10 mg l(-1), final concentration). A centrifugation step (20,000 g; 30 min) was required in order to recover all the cells in the pellet (only 7+/-2% of the cells were recovered from the supernatant). The cells and the ELFA precipitates were resistant to these treatments. ELFA-labelled samples were stored in liquid nitrogen for up to four months before counting without any significant loss in total or ELFA-labelled bacterial cell abundance or in the ELFA fluorescence intensity. We describe a new flow cytometry protocol for detecting and discriminating the signals from both ELFA and different counterstains (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and propidium iodide (PI)) necessary to distinguish between ELFA-labelled and non ELFA-labelled heterotrophic bacteria. The method has been successfully applied in both freshwater and marine samples. This method promises to improve our understanding of the physiological response of heterotrophic bacteria to P limitation.

  6. Using digital RNA counting and flow cytometry to compare mRNA with protein expression in acute leukemias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Fernandez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of malignant hematologic diseases has become increasingly complex during the last decade. It is based on the interpretation of results from different laboratory analyses, which range from microscopy to gene expression profiling. Recently, a method for the analysis of RNA phenotypes has been developed, the nCounter technology (Nanostring® Technologies, which allows for simultaneous quantification of hundreds of RNA molecules in biological samples. We evaluated this technique in a Swiss multi-center study on eighty-six samples from acute leukemia patients. METHODS: mRNA and protein profiles were established for normal peripheral blood and bone marrow samples. Signal intensities of the various tested antigens with surface expression were similar to those found in previously performed Affymetrix microarray analyses. Acute leukemia samples were analyzed for a set of twenty-two validated antigens and the Pearson Correlation Coefficient for nCounter and flow cytometry results was calculated. RESULTS: Highly significant values between 0.40 and 0.97 were found for the twenty-two antigens tested. A second correlation analysis performed on a per sample basis resulted in concordant results between flow cytometry and nCounter in 44-100% of the antigens tested (mean = 76%, depending on the number of blasts present in a sample, the homogeneity of the blast population, and the type of leukemia (AML or ALL. CONCLUSIONS: The nCounter technology allows for fast and easy depiction of a mRNA profile from hematologic samples. This technology has the potential to become a valuable tool for the diagnosis of acute leukemias, in addition to multi-color flow cytometry.

  7. Prostate extracellular vesicles in patient plasma as a liquid biopsy platform for prostate cancer using nanoscale flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zahrani, Ali A.; Pardhan, Siddika; Brett, Sabine I.; Guo, Qiu Q.; Yang, Jun; Wolf, Philipp; Power, Nicholas E.; Durfee, Paul N.; MacMillan, Connor D.; Townson, Jason L.; Brinker, Jeffrey C.; Fleshner, Neil E.; Izawa, Jonathan I.; Chambers, Ann F.; Chin, Joseph L.; Leong, Hon S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Extracellular vesicles released by prostate cancer present in seminal fluid, urine, and blood may represent a non-invasive means to identify and prioritize patients with intermediate risk and high risk of prostate cancer. We hypothesize that enumeration of circulating prostate microparticles (PMPs), a type of extracellular vesicle (EV), can identify patients with Gleason Score≥4+4 prostate cancer (PCa) in a manner independent of PSA. Patients and Methods Plasmas from healthy volunteers, benign prostatic hyperplasia patients, and PCa patients with various Gleason score patterns were analyzed for PMPs. We used nanoscale flow cytometry to enumerate PMPs which were defined as submicron events (100-1000nm) immunoreactive to anti-PSMA mAb when compared to isotype control labeled samples. Levels of PMPs (counts/μL of plasma) were also compared to CellSearch CTC Subclasses in various PCa metastatic disease subtypes (treatment naïve, castration resistant prostate cancer) and in serially collected plasma sets from patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. Results PMP levels in plasma as enumerated by nanoscale flow cytometry are effective in distinguishing PCa patients with Gleason Score≥8 disease, a high-risk prognostic factor, from patients with Gleason Score≤7 PCa, which carries an intermediate risk of PCa recurrence. PMP levels were independent of PSA and significantly decreased after surgical resection of the prostate, demonstrating its prognostic potential for clinical follow-up. CTC subclasses did not decrease after prostatectomy and were not effective in distinguishing localized PCa patients from metastatic PCa patients. Conclusions PMP enumeration was able to identify patients with Gleason Score ≥8 PCa but not patients with Gleason Score 4+3 PCa, but offers greater confidence than CTC counts in identifying patients with metastatic prostate cancer. CTC Subclass analysis was also not effective for post-prostatectomy follow up and for

  8. Flow cytometry imaging identifies rare T(H)2 cells expressing thymic stromal lymphopoietin receptor in a "proallergic" milieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reefer, Amanda J; Hulse, Kathryn E; Lannigan, Josephine A; Solga, Michael D; Wright, Paul W; Kelly, Libby A; Patrie, James; Chapman, Martin D; Woodfolk, Judith A

    2010-11-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is expressed at sites of allergic inflammation, including eczematous skin. This cytokine has been reported to exert its T(H)2-inducing properties through dendritic cells. Expression of TSLP receptor on the surface of activated T(H)2 cells could amplify T(H)2 responses at inflamed sites through the direct actions of TSLP. To test rigorously whether T(H)2 cells induced by "proallergic" factors express TSLP receptor and characterize these cells using an experimental platform that combines flow cytometry with microscopic capabilities. CD4(+) T cells isolated from patients with atopic dermatitis or normal healthy controls were cocultured with autologous dendritic cells in the presence of T(H)2-promoting stimuli (TSLP ± allergen and staphylococcal enterotoxin B ± TSLP). Surface expression of TSLP receptor was analyzed by image-based flow cytometry, and responsiveness of purified T cells to TSLP was assessed by phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-5 and cytokine secretion. T(H)2-promoting stimuli induced a robust population of activated T(H)2 cells (CD25(+)IL-4(+)). Regardless of the nature of the stimulus, flow cytometry imaging confirmed that T cells expressing TSLP receptor were rare, constituting a minor fraction of the IL-4(+) T cell pool; however, TSLP responsiveness was nonetheless detectable. Analysis of cell size and nuclear morphology revealed preferential expression of TSLP receptor on IL-4-expressing cells undergoing mitosis. Analysis of lesional skin in atopic dermatitis supported the view that rare IL-4(+) T cells expressing TSLP receptor are present at inflamed sites. In a "proallergic" milieu, TSLP receptor is preferentially expressed on rare actively dividing T(H)2 cells. The direct action of TSLP on T cells could amplify T(H)2 responses at sites of allergic inflammation. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Flow Cytometry Imaging Identifies Rare Th2 Cells Expressing TSLP Receptor in a “Pro-Allergic” Milieu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reefer, Amanda J.; Hulse, Kathryn E.; Lannigan, Josephine A.; Solga, Michael D.; Wright, Paul W.; Kelly, Libby A.; Patrie, James; Chapman, Martin D.; Woodfolk, Judith A.

    2010-01-01

    Background TSLP is expressed at sites of allergic inflammation, including eczematous skin. This cytokine has been reported to exert its Th2-inducing properties through dendritic cells. Expression of TSLP receptor on the surface of activated Th2 cells could amplify Th2 responses at inflamed sites through the direct actions of TSLP. Objective To rigorously test whether Th2 cells induced by “pro-allergic” factors express TSLP receptor and characterize these cells using an experimental platform that combines flow cytometry with microscopic capabilities. Methods CD4+ T cells isolated from patients with atopic dermatitis or normal healthy controls were co-cultured with autologous dendritic cells in the presence of Th2-promoting stimuli (TSLP±allergen and staphylococcal enterotoxin B±TSLP). Surface expression of TSLP receptor was analyzed by image-based flow cytometry and responsiveness of purified T cells to TSLP was assessed by phosphorylation of STAT5 and cytokine secretion. Results Th2-promoting stimuli induced a robust population of activated Th2 cells (CD25+IL-4+). Regardless of the nature of the stimulus, flow cytometry imaging confirmed that T cells expressing TSLP receptor were rare, constituting a minor fraction of the IL-4+ T cell pool; however, TSLP-responsiveness was nonetheless detectable. Analysis of cell size and nuclear morphology revealed preferential expression of TSLP receptor on IL-4-expressing cells undergoing mitosis. Analysis of lesional skin in atopic dermatitis supported the view that rare IL-4+ T cells expressing TSLP receptor are present at inflamed sites. Conclusion In a “pro-allergic” milieu, TSLP receptor is preferentially expressed on rare actively dividing Th2 cells. The direct action of TSLP on T cells could amplify Th2 responses at sites of allergic inflammation. PMID:20888036

  10. CD49d is the strongest flow cytometry-based predictor of overall survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulian, Pietro; Shanafelt, Tait D; Fegan, Chris; Zucchetto, Antonella; Cro, Lilla; Nückel, Holger; Baldini, Luca; Kurtova, Antonina V; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Burger, Jan A; Gaidano, Gianluca; Del Poeta, Giovanni; Pepper, Chris; Rossi, Davide; Gattei, Valter

    2014-03-20

    Although CD49d is an unfavorable prognostic marker in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), definitive validation evidence is lacking. A worldwide multicenter analysis was performed using published and unpublished CLL series to evaluate the impact of CD49d as an overall (OS) and treatment-free survival (TFS) predictor. A training/validation strategy was chosen to find the optimal CD49d cutoff. The hazard ratio (HR) for death and treatment imposed by CD49d was estimated by pooled analysis of 2,972 CLLs; Cox analysis stratified by center and stage was used to adjust for confounding variables. The importance of CD49d over other flow cytometry-based prognosticators (eg, CD38, ZAP-70) was ranked by recursive partitioning. Patients with ≥ 30% of neoplastic cells expressing CD49d were considered CD49d+. Decrease in OS at 5 and 10 years among CD49d+ patients was 7% and 23% (decrease in TFS, 26% and 25%, respectively). Pooled HR of CD49d for OS was 2.5 (2.3 for TFS) in univariate analysis. This HR remained significant and of similar magnitude (HR, 2.0) in a Cox model adjusted for clinical and biologic prognosticators. Hierarchic trees including all patients or restricted to those with early-stage disease or those age ≤ 65 years always selected CD49d as the most important flow cytometry-based biomarker, with negligible additional prognostic information added by CD38 or ZAP-70. Consistently, by bivariate analysis, CD49d reliably identified patient subsets with poorer outcome independent of CD38 and ZAP-70. In this analysis of approximately 3,000 patients, CD49d emerged as the strongest flow cytometry-based predictor of OS and TFS in CLL.

  11. Platelet antibody detection by flow cytometry: an effective method to evaluate and give transfusional support in platelet refractoriness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bonet Bub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Immune platelet refractoriness is mainly caused by human leukocyte antigen antibodies (80-90% of cases and, to a lesser extent, by human platelet antigen antibodies. Refractoriness can be diagnosed by laboratory tests and patients should receive compatible platelet transfusions. A fast, effective and low cost antibody-screening method which detects platelet human leukocyte/platelet antigen antibodies is essential in the management of immune platelet refractoriness. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the flow cytometry platelet immunofluorescence test to screen for immune platelet refractoriness. METHODS: A group of prospective hematologic patients with clinically suspected platelet refractoriness treated in a referral center in Campinas, SP during July 2006 and July 2011 was enrolled in this study. Platelet antibodies were screened using the flow cytometry platelet immunofluorescence test. Anti-human leukocyte antigen antibodies were detected by commercially available methods. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of the immunofluorescence test were determined taking into account that the majority of antiplatelet antibodies presented human leukocyte antigen specificity. RESULTS: Seventy-six samples from 32 female and 38 male patients with a median age of 43.5 years (range: 5-84 years were analyzed. The sensitivity of the test was 86.11% and specificity 75.00% with a positive predictive value of 75.61% and a negative predictive value of 85.71%. The accuracy of the method was 80.26%. CONCLUSION: This study shows that the flow cytometry platelet immunofluorescence test has a high correlation with the anti-human leukocyte antigen antibodies. Despite a few limitations, the method seems to be efficient, fast and feasible as the initial screening for platelet antibody detection and a useful tool to crossmatch platelets for the transfusional support of patients with immune platelet refractoriness.

  12. Fully Automated On-Chip Imaging Flow Cytometry System with Disposable Contamination-Free Plastic Re-Cultivation Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Kaneko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a novel imaging cytometry system using a poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA based microfluidic chip. The system was contamination-free, because sample suspensions contacted only with a flammable PMMA chip and no other component of the system. The transparency and low-fluorescence of PMMA was suitable for microscopic imaging of cells flowing through microchannels on the chip. Sample particles flowing through microchannels on the chip were discriminated by an image-recognition unit with a high-speed camera in real time at the rate of 200 event/s, e.g., microparticles 2.5 μm and 3.0 μm in diameter were differentiated with an error rate of less than 2%. Desired cells were separated automatically from other cells by electrophoretic or dielectrophoretic force one by one with a separation efficiency of 90%. Cells in suspension with fluorescent dye were separated using the same kind of microfluidic chip. Sample of 5 μL with 1 × 106 particle/mL was processed within 40 min. Separated cells could be cultured on the microfluidic chip without contamination. The whole operation of sample handling was automated using 3D micropipetting system. These results showed that the novel imaging flow cytometry system is practically applicable for biological research and clinical diagnostics.

  13. When are bacteria dead? A step towards interpreting flow cytometry profiles after chlorine disinfection and membrane integrity staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocker, Andreas; Cheswick, Ryan; Dutheil de la Rochere, Pierre-Marie; Denis, Matthieu; Léziart, Tangui; Jarvis, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Flow cytometry is increasingly employed by drinking water providers. Its use with appropriate fluorescent stains allows the distinction between intact and membrane-damaged bacteria, which makes it ideally suited for assessment of disinfection efficiency. In contrast to plate counting, the technology allows the visualization of the gradual loss of membrane integrity. Although this sensitivity per se is very positive, it creates the problem of how this detailed viability information compares with binary plate counts where a colony is either formed or not. Guidelines are therefore needed to facilitate interpretation of flow cytometry results and to determine a degree of membrane damage where bacteria can be considered 'dead'. In this study we subjected Escherichia coli and environmental microorganisms in real water to increasing chlorine concentrations. Resulting flow cytometric patterns after membrane integrity staining were compared with culturability and in part with redox activity. For laboratory-grown bacteria, culturability was lost at lower disinfectant concentrations than membrane integrity making the latter a conservative viability parameter. No recovery from chlorine was observed for four days. For real water, loss of membrane integrity had to be much more substantial to completely suppress colony formation, probably due to the heterogenic composition of the natural microbial community with different members having different susceptibilities to the disinfectant.

  14. Flow Cytometry and Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Analyses of Minimal Residual Disease in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Uhrmacher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available New therapeutic strategies developed recently for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL have led to remarkable treatment response rates and complete hematological remissions. This means highly sensitive and specific techniques are increasingly needed to evaluate minimal residual disease (MRD in CLL patients. Quantitative MRD levels can be used as prognostic markers, where total MRD eradication is associated with prolonged survival. Nowadays, PCR and flow cytometry techniques used to detect MRD in CLL patients can generate reliable and quantitative results with the highest sensitivity. MRD Flow is based on four-color flow cytometry using specific antibody combinations. For allele specific oligonucleotide real-time quantification (ASO RQ PCR individual primers are designed to detect a specific immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH rearrangement in each patient clone. Five comprehensive studies investigated and compared the sensitivity and specificity of both methods. Groups of patients receiving different therapies were analyzed at different time points to generate quantitative MRD levels and MRD kinetics. All studies confirmed that both methods generate equivalent results with regard to sensitivity and MRD quantification, although each method has advantages and disadvantages in the daily routine of a standard hematological laboratory. Here, we review these investigations and compare their results in the light of modern therapies.

  15. Flow Cytometry Is a Powerful Tool for Assessment of the Viability of Fungal Conidia in Metalworking Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhauteghem, D; Demeyere, K; Callaert, N; Boelaert, A; Haesaert, G; Audenaert, K; Meyer, E

    2017-08-15

    Fungal contamination of metalworking fluids (MWF) is a dual problem in automated processing plants because resulting fungal biofilms obstruct cutting, drilling, and polishing machines. Moreover, some fungal species of MWF comprise pathogens such as Fusarium solani Therefore, the development of an accurate analytical tool to evaluate conidial viability in MWF is important. We developed a flow cytometric method to measure fungal viability in MWF using F. solani as the model organism. To validate this method, viable and dead conidia were mixed in several proportions and flow was cytometrically analyzed. Subsequently, we assessed the fungicidal activity of two commercial MWF using flow cytometry (FCM) and compared it with microscopic analyses and plating experiments. We evaluated the fungal growth in both MWF after 7 days using quantitative PCR (qPCR) to assess the predictive value of FCM. Our results showed that FCM distinguishes live from dead conidia as early as 5 h after exposure to MWF, whereas the microscopic germination approach detected conidial viability much later and less accurately. At 24 h, microscopic analyses of germinating conidia and live/dead analyses by FCM correlated well, although the former consistently underestimated the proportion of viable conidia. In addition, the reproducibility and sensitivity of the flow cytometric method were high and allowed assessment of the fungicidal properties of two commercial MWF. Importantly, the obtained flow cytometric results on viability of F. solani conidia at both early time points (5 h and 24 h) correlated well with fungal biomass measurements assessed via a qPCR methodology 7 days after the start of the experiment. IMPORTANCE This result shows the predictive power of flow cytometry (FCM) in assessing the fungicidal capacity of MWF formulations. It also implies that FCM can be implemented as a rapid detection tool to estimate the viable fungal load in an industrial processing matrix (MWF). Copyright © 2017

  16. 2006 Bethesda International Consensus recommendations on the immunophenotypic analysis of hematolymphoid neoplasia by flow cytometry: optimal reagents and reporting for the flow cytometric diagnosis of hematopoietic neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brent L; Arroz, Maria; Barnett, David; DiGiuseppe, Joseph; Greig, Bruce; Kussick, Steven J; Oldaker, Teri; Shenkin, Mark; Stone, Elizabeth; Wallace, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Immunophenotyping by flow cytometry has become standard practice in the evaluation and monitoring of patients with hematopoietic neoplasia. However, despite its widespread use, considerable variability continues to exist in the reagents used for evaluation and the format in which results are reported. As part of the 2006 Bethesda Consensus conference, a committee was formed to attempt to define a consensus set of reagents suitable for general use in the diagnosis and monitoring of hematopoietic neoplasms. The committee included laboratory professionals from private, public, and university hospitals as well as large reference laboratories that routinely operate clinical flow cytometry laboratories with an emphasis on lymphoma and leukemia immunophenotyping. A survey of participants successfully identified the cell lineage(s) to be evaluated for each of a variety of specific medical indications and defined a set of consensus reagents suitable for the initial evaluation of each cell lineage. Elements to be included in the reporting of clinical flow cytometric results for leukemia and lymphoma evaluation were also refined and are comprehensively listed. The 2006 Bethesda Consensus conference represents the first successful attempt to define a set of consensus reagents suitable for the initial evaluation of hematopoietic neoplasia. Copyright 2007 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  17. Effect of ABO incompatibility on T-cell flow cytometry cross-match results prior to living donor kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, M; Lenz, V; Nyadu, B; Heinemann, F M; Heinold, A; Guberina, H; Eisenberger, U; Lachmann, N; Schönemann, C; Kribben, A; Paul, A; Horn, P A; Witzke, O

    2016-11-18

    Due to its high sensitivity, the flow cytometry cross-match (FCXM) has been described as valuable tool for identifying an optimal donor. We here focused on the impact of ABO incompatibility on FCXM results. We analyzed 29 ABO incompatible and 89 ABO compatible donor-recipient pairs (73 and 175 datasets, respectively) prior to living donor kidney transplantation. In all patients, lymphocytotoxic cross-matches for B and T cells were negative. Recipients with blood group O (A to O and B to O) displayed significantly (P < 0.05) higher T-FCXM results than those with blood group A and B (A to B, B to A and AB to A), respectively. Donor-specific T-FCXM responses (ΔMFI values) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in ABO incompatible vs. compatible pairs (ABO incompatible recipients with blood group O: 32 ± 6; with blood group A: 19 ± 7; with blood group B: 7 ± 4; recipients with ABO compatibility: 3 ± 2, respectively, data represent mean ± SEM). Consistent with the T-FCXM results donor-specific isohemagglutinins (IgG titers) were significantly higher in recipients with blood group O vs. A, both prior to rituximab treatment and plasmapheresis/immune adsorption (P = 0.004) and immediately prior to transplantation, i.e., after rituximab and antibody-depleting therapies (P = 0.04). ABO incompatibility was associated with higher T-FCXM responses, especially in recipients with blood group O. This finding has major impact on the interpretation of flow cross-match results. Current cut-off values need to be reassessed in the ABO incompatible setting. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  18. Evaluation of two new fluorochromes, TOTO and YOYO, for DNA content analysis in cells and chromosomes by flow cytometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirons, G.T.; Crissman, H.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The fluorochromes TOTO and YOYO were evaluated for their effectiveness in staining for DNA content analysis by flow cytometry (FCM). The dyes are dimers of thiazole orange (TO) and yellow oxazole (YO), respectively (Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR), and both have a very high quantum efficiency. Spectrofluorometric analysis showed that TOTO and YOYO had little fluorescence until bound to DNA or RNA. YOYO, the brighter of the two dyes, had an emission peak at [approximately]510 nm and TOTO at [approximately]530 nm. Analysis by flow cytometry indicated that cells stained with either dye at a concentration of [approximately]4.0 [mu]M could be preferentially excited at either 457 or 488 nm. Unfixed nuclei and fixed cells both treated with RNase, stained with either TOTO or YOYO, and analyzed by FCM yielded coefficients of variation (CV) comparable to CVs obtained for the same samples stained with mithramycin (MI) when excited at 457 nm and propidium iodide (PI) when excited at 488 nm. Both TOTO and YOYO are also being evaluated for their effectiveness in staining Chinese hamster embryo chromosomes; these results are being compared with results obtained with PI stained chromosomes.

  19. Notes on genome size in the hybrid Ranunculus x luizetii (Ranunculaceae and its parents by flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Prieto, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Notes on genome size in the hybrid Ranunculus x luizetii (Ranunculaceae and its parents by flow cytometry.- Flow cytometry was used to estimate the nuclear DNA content in the natural hybrid Ranunculus x luizetii and its parents. Our results indicate that the genome size of the hybrid R. x luizetii is closer to R. pyrenaeus than to R. parnassiifolius, providing an evidence of genome downsizing.Notas sobre el tamaño del genoma en el híbrido Ranunculus x luizetii (Ranunculaceae y sus progenitores mediante citometría de flujo.- Se ha empleado la citometría de flujo para estimar el contenido de ADN nuclear en el híbrido Ranunculus x luizetii y sus progenitores. Nuestros resultados indican que el tamaño del genoma del híbrido R. x luizetii se acerca más a R. pyrenaeus que a R. parnassiifolius, con una evidencia de reducción del genoma.

  20. Novel in vivo flow cytometry platform for early prognosis of metastatic activity of circulating tumor cells (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Jacqueline; Cai, Chenzhoung; Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2017-02-01

    Approximately 8 million people lose their lives due to cancer each year. Metastatic disease is responsible for 90% of those cancer-related deaths. Only viable circulating tumor cells (CTCs) that can survive in the blood circulation can create secondary tumors. Thus, real-time enumeration of CTCs and assessment of their viability in vivo has great biological significance. However, little progress has been made in this field. Conventional flow cytometry is the current technique being used for the assessment of cell viability, but there are many limitations to this technique: 1) cell properties may be altered during the extraction and processing method; 2) collection of cells from blood prevents the long-term study of individual cells in their natural biological environment; and 3) there are time-consuming preparation procedures. Whether it be for the assessment of antitumor drugs, where induction of apoptosis or necrosis is the preferred event, or the identification of nanoparticle-induced toxicity during nanotherapeutic treatment, it is clear that new approaches for assessment of the viability circulating blood cells and CTCs are urgently needed. We have developed a novel high speed, multicolor in vivo flow cytometry (FC) platform that integrates photoacoustic (PA) and fluorescence FC (PAFFC) and demonstrate its ability to enumerate rare circulating normal and abnormal (e.g. tumor) cells and assess their viability (e.g. apoptotic and necrotic) in a mouse model.

  1. Application of imaging flow cytometry for characterization of acute inflammation in non-classical animal model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More Bayona, Juan A; Karuppannan, Anbu K; Trites, Michael J; Barreda, Daniel R

    2017-01-01

    Phagocytes display marked heterogeneity in their capacity to induce and control acute inflammation. This has a significant impact on the effectiveness of antimicrobial immune responses at different tissue sites as well as their predisposition for inflammation-associated pathology. Imaging flow cytometry provides novel opportunities for characterization of these phagocyte populations through high spatial resolution, statistical robustness, and a broad range of quantitative morphometric cell analysis tools. This study highlights an integrative approach that brings together new tools in imaging flow cytometry with conventional methodologies for characterization of phagocyte responses during acute inflammation. We focus on a comparative avian in vivo challenge model to showcase the added depth gained through these novel quantitative multiparametric approaches even in the absence of antibody-based cellular markers. Our characterization of acute inflammation in this model shows significant conservation of phagocytic capacity among avian phagocytes compared to other animal models. However, it also highlights evolutionary divergence with regards to phagocyte inflammation control mechanisms based on the internalization of apoptotic cells. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Novel Strategy for Phenotypic Characterization of Human B Lymphocytes from Precursors to Effector Cells by Flow Cytometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Clavarino

    Full Text Available A precise identification and phenotypic characterization of human B-cell subsets is of crucial importance in both basic research and medicine. In the literature, flow cytometry studies for the phenotypic characterization of B-lymphocytes are mainly focused on the description of a particular cell stage, or of specific cell stages observed in a single type of sample. In the present work, we propose a backbone of 6 antibodies (CD38, CD27, CD10, CD19, CD5 and CD45 and an efficient gating strategy to identify, in a single analysis tube, a large number of B-cell subsets covering the whole B-cell differentiation from precursors to memory and plasma cells. Furthermore, by adding two antibodies in an 8-color combination, our approach allows the analysis of the modulation of any cell surface marker of interest along B-cell differentiation. We thus developed a panel of seven 8-colour antibody combinations to phenotypically characterize B-cell subpopulations in bone marrow, peripheral blood, lymph node and cord blood samples. Beyond qualitative information provided by biparametric representations, we also quantified antigen expression on each of the identified B-cell subsets and we proposed a series of informative curves showing the modulation of seventeen cell surface markers along B-cell differentiation. Our approach by flow cytometry provides an efficient tool to obtain quantitative data on B-cell surface markers expression with a relative easy-to-handle technique that can be applied in routine explorations.

  3. [THE NEW APPROACH TO EVALUATION OF ENDOTHELIUM DYSFUNCTION: DETECTION OF NUMBER OF CIRCULATING ENDOTHELIUM CELLS USING FLOW CYTOMETRY TECHNIQUE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feoktistova, V S; Vavilkova, T V; Sirotkina, O V; Boldueva, S A; Gaikovaia, L B; Leonova, I A; Laskovets, A B; Ermakov, A I

    2015-04-01

    The endothelium dysfunction takes leading place in pathogenesis of development of cardiovascular diseases. The circulating endothelium cells of peripheral blood can act as a direct cell marker of damage and remodeling of endothelium. The study was carried out to develop a new approach to diagnose of endothelium dysfunction by force of determination of number of circulating endothelium cells using flow cytometry technique and to apply determination of circulating endothelium cells for evaluation of risk of development of ischemic heart disease in women of young and middle age. The study embraced 62 female patients with angiography confirmed ischemic heart disease, exertional angina pectoris at the level of functional class I-II (mean age 51 ± 6 years) and 49 women without anamnesis of ischemic heart disease (mean age 52 ± 9 years). The occurrence of more than three circulating endothelium cells by 3 x 105 leukocytes in peripheral blood increases relative risk of development of ischemic heart disease up to 4 times in women of young and middle age and risk of development of acute myocardial infarction up to 8 times in women with ischemic heart disease. The study demonstrated possibility to apply flow cytometry technique to quantitatively specify circulating endothelium cells in peripheral blood and forecast risk of development of ischemic heart disease in women of young and middle age depending on level of circulating endothelium cells.

  4. Flow cytometry analysis of hormone receptors on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to identify stress-induced neuroendocrine effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, R. T.

    1986-01-01

    Understanding the role of circulating peptide hormones in the pathogenesis of space-flight induced disorders would be greatly facilitated by a method which monitors chronic levels of hormones and their effects upon in vivo cell physiology. Single and simultaneous multiparameter flow cytometry analysis was employed to identify subpopulations of mononuclear cells bearing receptors for ACTH, Endorphin, and Somatomedin-C using monoclonal antibodies and monospecific antisera with indirect immunofluorescence. Blood samples were obtained from normal donors and subjects participating in decompression chamber studies (acute stress), medical student academic examination (chronic stress), and a drug study (Dexamethasone). Preliminary results indicate most ACTH and Endorphin receptor positive cells are monocytes and B-cells, exhibit little diurnal variation but the relative percentages of receptor positive cells are influenced by exposure to various stressors and ACTH inhibition. This study demonstrates the capability of flow cytometry analysis to study cell surface hormone receptor regulation which should allow insight into neuroendocrine modulation of the immune and other cellular systems during exposure to stress or microgravity.

  5. An Integrated Workflow To Assess Technical and Biological Variability of Cell Population Frequencies in Human Peripheral Blood by Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burel, Julie G; Qian, Yu; Lindestam Arlehamn, Cecilia; Weiskopf, Daniela; Zapardiel-Gonzalo, Jose; Taplitz, Randy; Gilman, Robert H; Saito, Mayuko; de Silva, Aruna D; Vijayanand, Pandurangan; Scheuermann, Richard H; Sette, Alessandro; Peters, Bjoern

    2017-02-15

    In the context of large-scale human system immunology studies, controlling for technical and biological variability is crucial to ensure that experimental data support research conclusions. In this study, we report on a universal workflow to evaluate both technical and biological variation in multiparameter flow cytometry, applied to the development of a 10-color panel to identify all major cell populations and T cell subsets in cryopreserved PBMC. Replicate runs from a control donation and comparison of different gating strategies assessed the technical variability associated with each cell population and permitted the calculation of a quality control score. Applying our panel to a large collection of PBMC samples, we found that most cell populations showed low intraindividual variability over time. In contrast, certain subpopulations such as CD56 T cells and Temra CD4 T cells were associated with high interindividual variability. Age but not gender had a significant effect on the frequency of several populations, with a drastic decrease in naive T cells observed in older donors. Ethnicity also influenced a significant proportion of immune cell population frequencies, emphasizing the need to account for these covariates in immune profiling studies. We also exemplify the usefulness of our workflow by identifying a novel cell-subset signature of latent tuberculosis infection. Thus, our study provides a universal workflow to establish and evaluate any flow cytometry panel in systems immunology studies. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  6. Temporal appearance of structural and nonstructural bluetongue viral proteins in infected cells, as determined by immunofluorescence staining and flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetter, L E; Gebhard, D H; MacLachlan, N J

    1990-08-01

    The temporal appearance of 4 viral proteins was detected in bluetongue virus (BTV)-infected Vero cells by indirect immunofluorescence staining with monoclonal antibodies (MAb) to BTV structural proteins VP2 and VP7 and nonstructural proteins NS1 and NS2. Bluetongue viral proteins were detected at distinct intervals after inoculation of Vero cells; VP7 was first detected 3 hours after inoculation, NS1 and NS2 at 5 hours after inoculation, whereas VP2 was not detected until 8 hours after inoculation. Patterns of fluorescence varied with the fixative used, but each MAb induced a distinct pattern of fluorescence in infected cells. Flow cytometry, which was used with each of the 4 MAb, proved to be an accurate and sensitive method of detecting BTV-infected P3 mouse myeloma cells. The temporal appearance of each viral protein in BTV-infected P3 cells was similar to that detected in BTV-infected Vero cells. Advantages of flow cytometry over conventional immunofluorescence staining to detect BTV-infected cells included: (1) enumeration of the proportion of infected cells in a population; (2) further characterization of infected cells, including estimates of their viability; and (3) computer-assisted storage and analysis of data obtained.

  7. A method for simultaneous quantification of monoclonal antibody Ki-67 and DNA content by flow cytometry. Application to breast carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorisse, M C; Venteo, L; Pluot, M

    1999-02-01

    To seek a method assessing Ki-67 immunostaining and DNA content by flow cytometry simultaneously. The murine monoclonal antibody Ki-67 (Ki) identifies a nuclear protein complex expressed by all nonquiescent tumor cells. Since the antigen detected by Ki is quite labile in most fixation and embedding protocols, a new method for simultaneous quantification of nuclear Ki immunofluorescence and DNA content by flow cytometry was developed. Unfixed, solid tumor cells are permeabilized only with saponin to preserve Ki antigen. The percentage of Ki-positive cell subpopulations calculated by subtraction of the related aspecific fixation histogram gives optimal results more rapidly than by cytogram analysis. Application to breast carcinoma shows the feasibility of the method. Significant correlations between Ki staining and the S-phase fraction were observed. Mean Ki labelling rates of aneuploid tumors were significantly higher than those of the diploid tumors, and significant differences between histologic types were found. This technique can be considered a fast, sensitive and optimal method to evaluate the proliferative activity of breast carcinomas and possibly of other solid tumors in a department of pathology.

  8. Acridine Orange and Flow Cytometry: Which Is Better to Measure the Effect of Varicocele on Sperm DNA Integrity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam-Elden M. Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of varicocelectomy on semen parameters and levels of sperm DNA damage in infertile men. A total of 75 infertile men with varicocele and 40 fertile men (controls were included in this study. Semen analysis and sperm DNA damage expressed as the DNA fragmentation index using acridine orange staining and chromatin condensation test by flow cytometry were assessed before and 6 months after varicocelectomy. The patients were also followed up for 1 year for pregnancy outcome. Semen parameters were significantly lower in varicocele patients compared to controls (P<0.05. Mean percentages of sperm DNA fragmentation and sperm DNA chromatin condensation in patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05. After varicocelectomy, sperm DNA fragmentation improved significantly, whereas sperm chromatin condensation was not significantly changed. In 15 out of 75 varicocele patients, clinical pregnancy was diagnosed; those with positive pregnancy outcome had significant improvement in sperm count, progressive sperm motility, and sperm DNA fragmentation, but there was no significant difference in sperm DNA condensation compared to negative pregnancy outcome patients. We concluded from this study that acridine orange stain is more reliable method than flow cytometry in the evaluation of sperm DNA integrity after varicocelectomy.

  9. Simultaneous Measurement of Human Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells In Blood Using Multi-color Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimato, Thomas R.; Furlage, Rosemary L.; Conway, Alexis; Wallace, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells are the source of all inflammatory cell types. Discovery of specific cell surface markers unique to human hematopoietic stem (HSC) and progenitor (HSPC) cell populations has facilitated studies of their development from stem cells to mature cells. The specific marker profiles of HSCs and HSPCs can be used to understand their role in human inflammatory diseases. The goal of this study is to simultaneously measure HSCs and HSPCs in normal human venous blood using multi-color flow cytometry. Our secondary aim is to determine how G-CSF mobilization alters the quantity of each HSC and HSPC population. Here we show that cells within the CD34+ fraction of human venous blood contains cells with the same cell surface markers found in human bone marrow samples. Mobilization with G-CSF significantly increases the quantity of total CD34+ cells, blood borne HSCs, multipotent progenitors, common myeloid progenitors, and megakaryocyte erythroid progenitors as a percentage of total MNCs analyzed. The increase in blood borne common lymphoid and granulocyte macrophage progenitors with G-CSF treatment did not reach significance. G-CSF treatment predominantly increased the numbers of HSCs and multipotent progenitors in the total CD34+ cell population; common myeloid progenitors and megakaryocyte erythroid progenitors were enriched relative to total MNCs analyzed, but not relative to total CD34+ cells. Our findings illustrate the utility of multi-color flow cytometry to quantify circulating HSCs and HSPCs in venous blood samples from human subjects. PMID:26663713

  10. Validation of Flow Cytometry and Magnetic Bead-Based Methods to Enrich CNS Single Cell Suspensions for Quiescent Microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volden, T A; Reyelts, C D; Hoke, T A; Arikkath, J; Bonasera, S J

    2015-12-01

    Microglia are resident mononuclear phagocytes within the CNS parenchyma that intimately interact with neurons and astrocytes to remodel synapses and extracellular matrix. We briefly review studies elucidating the molecular pathways that underlie microglial surveillance, activation, chemotaxis, and phagocytosis; we additionally place these studies in a clinical context. We describe and validate an inexpensive and simple approach to obtain enriched single cell suspensions of quiescent parenchymal and perivascular microglia from the mouse cerebellum and hypothalamus. Following preparation of regional CNS single cell suspensions, we remove myelin debris, and then perform two serial enrichment steps for cells expressing surface CD11b. Myelin depletion and CD11b enrichment are both accomplished using antigen-specific magnetic beads in an automated cell separation system. Flow cytometry of the resultant suspensions shows a significant enrichment for CD11b(+)/CD45(+) cells (perivascular microglia) and CD11b(+)/CD45(-) cells (parenchymal microglia) compared to starting suspensions. Of note, cells from these enriched suspensions minimally express Aif1 (aka Iba1), suggesting that the enrichment process does not evoke significant microglial activation. However, these cells readily respond to a functional challenge (LPS) with significant changes in the expression of molecules specifically associated with microglia. We conclude that methods employing a combination of magnetic-bead based sorting and flow cytometry produce suspensions highly enriched for microglia that are appropriate for a variety of molecular and cellular assays.

  11. Locked nucleic acid and flow cytometry-fluorescence in situ hybridization for the detection of bacterial small noncoding RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kelly L; Vora, Gary J

    2012-01-01

    We describe the development and testing of a high-throughput method that enables the detection of small noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) from single bacterial cells using locked nucleic acid probes (LNA) and flow cytometry-fluorescence in situ hybridization (flow-FISH). The LNA flow-FISH method and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) were used to monitor the expression of three ncRNAs (6S, CsrB, and TPP-2) in Vibrio campbellii ATCC BAA-1116 cultures during lag phase, mid-log phase, and stationary phase. Both LNA flow-FISH and qRT-PCR revealed that CsrB and TPP-2 were highly expressed during lag phase but markedly reduced in mid-log phase and stationary phase, whereas 6S demonstrated no to little expression during lag phase but increased thereafter. Importantly, while LNA flow-FISH and qRT-PCR demonstrated similar overall expression trends, only LNA flow-FISH, which enabled the detection of ncRNAs in individual cells as opposed to the lysate-based ensemble measurements generated by qRT-PCR, was able to capture the cell-to-cell heterogeneity in ncRNA expression. As such, this study demonstrates a new method that simultaneously enables the in situ detection of ncRNAs and the determination of gene expression heterogeneity within an isogenic bacterial population.

  12. Flow cytometry combined with viSNE for the analysis of microbial biofilms and detection of microplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgier, Linn; Freimann, Remo; Zupanic, Anze; Kroll, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms serve essential ecosystem functions and are used in different technical applications. Studies from stream ecology and waste-water treatment have shown that biofilm functionality depends to a great extent on community structure. Here we present a fast and easy-to-use method for individual cell-based analysis of stream biofilms, based on stain-free flow cytometry and visualization of the high-dimensional data by viSNE. The method allows the combined assessment of community structure, decay of phototrophic organisms and presence of abiotic particles. In laboratory experiments, it allows quantification of cellular decay and detection of survival of larger cells after temperature stress, while in the field it enables detection of community structure changes that correlate with known environmental drivers (flow conditions, dissolved organic carbon, calcium) and detection of microplastic contamination. The method can potentially be applied to other biofilm types, for example, for inferring community structure for environmental and industrial research and monitoring. PMID:27188265

  13. Time-Domain Microfluidic Fluorescence Lifetime Flow Cytometry for High-Throughput Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedbal, Jakub; Visitkul, Viput; Ortiz-Zapater, Elena; Weitsman, Gregory; Chana, Prabhjoat; Matthews, Daniel R; Ng, Tony; Ameer-Beg, Simon M

    2015-01-01

    Sensing ion or ligand concentrations, physico-chemical conditions, and molecular dimerization or conformation change is possible by assays involving fluorescent lifetime imaging. The inherent low throughput of imaging impedes rigorous statistical data analysis on large cell numbers. We address this limitation by developing a fluorescence lifetime-measuring flow cytometer for fast fluorescence lifetime quantification in living or fixed cell populations. The instrument combines a time-correlated single photon counting epifluorescent microscope with microfluidics cell-handling system. The associated computer software performs burst integrated fluorescence lifetime analysis to assign fluorescence lifetime, intensity, and burst duration to each passing cell. The maximum safe throughput of the instrument reaches 3,000 particles per minute. Living cells expressing spectroscopic rulers of varying peptide lengths were distinguishable by Förster resonant energy transfer measured by donor fluorescence lifetime. An epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulation assay demonstrated the technique's capacity to selectively quantify EGF receptor phosphorylation in cells, which was impossible by measuring sensitized emission on a standard flow cytometer. Dual-color fluorescence lifetime detection and cell-specific chemical environment sensing were exemplified using di-4-ANEPPDHQ, a lipophilic environmentally sensitive dye that exhibits changes in its fluorescence lifetime as a function of membrane lipid order. To our knowledge, this instrument opens new applications in flow cytometry which were unavailable due to technological limitations of previously reported fluorescent lifetime flow cytometers. The presented technique is sensitive to lifetimes of most popular fluorophores in the 0.5–5 ns range including fluorescent proteins and is capable of detecting multi-exponential fluorescence lifetime decays. This instrument vastly enhances the throughput of experiments involving

  14. FLOCK cluster analysis of plasma cell flow cytometry data predicts bone marrow involvement by plasma cell neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, David M; LaPlante, Charlotte D; Li, Betty

    2016-09-01

    We analyzed plasma cell populations in bone marrow samples from 353 patients with possible bone marrow involvement by a plasma cell neoplasm, using FLOCK (FLOw Clustering without K), an unbiased, automated, computational approach to identify cell subsets in multidimensional flow cytometry data. FLOCK identified discrete plasma cell populations in the majority of bone marrow specimens found by standard histologic and immunophenotypic criteria to be involved by a plasma cell neoplasm (202/208 cases; 97%), including 34 cases that were negative by standard flow cytometric analysis that included clonality assessment. FLOCK identified discrete plasma cell populations in only a minority of cases negative for involvement by a plasma cell neoplasm by standard histologic and immunophenotypic criteria (38/145 cases; 26%). Interestingly, 55% of the cases negative by standard analysis, but containing a FLOCK-identified discrete plasma cell population, were positive for monoclonal gammopathy by serum protein electrophoresis and immunofixation. FLOCK-identified and quantitated plasma cell populations accounted for 3.05% of total cells on average in cases positive for involvement by a plasma cell neoplasm by standard histologic and immunophenotypic criteria, and 0.27% of total cells on average in cases negative for involvement by a plasma cell neoplasm by standard histologic and immunophenotypic criteria (pflow cytometric analysis, and had specificity of 74%, PPV of 84% and NPV of 95%. FLOCK analysis, which has been shown to provide useful diagnostic information for evaluating patients with suspected systemic mastocytosis, is able to identify neoplastic plasma cell populations analyzed by flow cytometry, and may be helpful in the diagnostic evaluation of bone marrow samples for involvement by plasma cell neoplasia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Neutrophil CD64 expression - comparison of two different flow cytometry protocols on EPICs MCL and the Leuko64(™) assay on a Celldyn Sapphire haematology analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Oskar; Douhan Håkansson, Lena; Karawajczyk, Malgorzata; Garwicz, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the Trillium Diagnostics Leuko64(™) assay on Abbott Celldyn Sapphire haematology analyser compared to two flow cytometry protocols on Beckman Coulter EPICS MCL flow cytometer. CD64 expression on neutrophils was determined by two flow cytometry protocols and by a commercial assay on an automatic haematology analyser. The inclusion of study subjects was based on elevated procalcitonin (PCT) values, identifying patients where a systemic infection was suspected. Healthy blood donors were used as a reference group. Statistically significant correlations between the Trillium Diagnostics Leuko64(™) assay and the flow cytometry methods were found when measuring neutrophil CD64 expression. The good correlation between a reference method and an automated haematology analyser method for CD64 expression on neutrophils supports introduction of the latter assay for routine use as an independent biomarker of bacterial infection and inflammation.

  16. Gram-typing of mastitis bacteria in milk samples using flow cytometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langerhuus, Sine Nygaard; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne; Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner

    2013-01-01

    cytometry-based method, which can detect and distinguish gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in mastitis milk samples. The differentiation was based on bacterial fluorescence intensities upon labeling with biotin-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin and acridine orange. Initially 19 in-house bacterial...... cultures (4 gram-negative and 15 gram-positive strains) were analyzed, and biotin-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin and acridine orange florescence intensities were determined for gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively. Fluorescence cut-off values were established based on receiver operating...... characteristic curves for the 19 bacterial cultures. The method was then tested on 53 selected mastitis cases obtained from the department biobank (milk samples from 6 gram-negative and 47 gram-positive mastitis cases). Gram-negative bacteria in milk samples were detected with a sensitivity of 1...

  17. Use of computer-assisted sperm analysis and flow cytometry to detect seasonal variations of bovine semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malama, E; Zeron, Y; Janett, F; Siuda, M; Roth, Z; Bollwein, H

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal fluctuations of climate are considered a major factor affecting spermatogenesis and semen quality in the bovine. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of season on functional parameters of frozen-thawed bovine semen using computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) and flow cytometry. For this purpose, 86 ejaculates were collected from five mature Holstein-Friesian bulls kept under subtropical conditions during summer (August to September; n = 43) and winter (December to January; n = 43) months. Semen was diluted with a Tris-egg yolk-based extender and frozen at -196 °C. Computer-assisted sperm analysis was performed immediately after thawing (0h) and after 3 hours of incubation (3h) to evaluate the percentage (%) of total motile, progressively motile, and rapidly motile sperm. In addition, the average path, curvilinear, and straight-line velocities as well as the amplitude of lateral head displacement of sperm were determined. The percentages of sperm with intact plasma membrane and acrosome (PMAI, %), with high mitochondrial membrane potential (HMMP, %), with low intracellular Ca(+2) levels (LOW-Ca(+2), %), and with high DNA fragmentation index (DFI%, %) were flow cytometrically determined at 0 and 3h. The survival rate of sperm under hypotonic conditions (HYPO-SURV, %) and the percentage of sperm with inducible acrosome reaction (IAR, %) were assessed using flow cytometry at 0 and 3h, respectively. The fixed effect of season (winter vs. summer) on the quality parameters of sperm was explored by applying linear mixed-effects models. The results showed an improvement of all CASA parameters, except for the straight-line velocity (P > 0.05) in winter compared with summer for both unincubated and incubated sperm (P  0.05 in all cases). Concluding, the employment of CASA and flow cytometry revealed season-related alterations in the functional status of cryopreserved bovine sperm, which suggest an adverse effect of summer heat stress on motility, plasma

  18. Flow cytometry analysis of CD4+IFN-γ+ T-cells for the diagnosis of mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Chrysovalantis V; Anastasopoulos, Andreas; Ploussi, Maria; Leventopoulos, Michail; Karabela, Simona; Fotiadis, Kyriakos; Papavasileiou, Apostolos; Vogiatzakis, Evangelos; Ioakeimidis, Dimitrios; Gritzapis, Angelos D; Poulakis, Nikolaos

    2016-05-01

    CD4+ cells expressing Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), following stimulation with specific mycobacterial antigens, identified with flow cytometry (FCM-CD4+IFN-γ+), is a new method for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of FCM-CD4+IFN-γ+ in comparison with tuberculin skin test (TST) and Quantiferon TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-G-IT) in the diagnosis of latent MTB infection (LTBI), in close contacts and in patients with rheumatic diseases under treatment with anti-TNFa and other biologic agents. TST, QFT-G-IT, and FCM-CD4+IFN-γ+ were performed in 56 immunocompetent close contacts and in 65 medically immunosuppressed patients under biologic treatment. In close contacts, 63% were FCM-CD4+IFN-γ+ ESAT-6(+), 70% FCM-CD4+IFN-γ+ PPD(+), 41% QFT-G-IT(+) and 57% TST(+). FCM-CD4+IFN-γ+ ESAT-6 was the only test that was strongly correlated to the exposure time to infection. In the immunosuppressed group, 49% were FCM-CD4+IFN-γ+ ESAT-6(+), 62% FCM-CD4+IFN-γ+ PPD(+), 4.6% QFT-G-IT(+), and 18% TST(+). FCM-CD4+IFN-γ+ assays are more sensitive than QFT-G-IT and TST for the diagnosis of LTBI in close contacts and in immunosuppressed patients under anti-TNF-a treatment. FCM-CD4+IFN-γ+ is not affected by the chronic use of biologic agents. © 2015 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2015 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  19. Flow cytometry in the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and the value of myeloid nuclear differentiation antigen (MNDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellos, Frauke; Kern, Wolfgang

    2014-09-25

    Background: Confirming diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is often challenging. Standard diagnostic methods are cytomorphology (CM) and cytogenetics (CG). Multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) is upcoming in MDS diagnostic work up, comparability and investigator experience are critical. Myeloid nuclear differentiation antigen (MNDA) in myelomonocytic cells might be expressed more weakly in patients with MDS. The analysis of MNDA may thus improve diagnostic capabilities of MFC in MDS. Methods: Staining methods and antibody combinations for MFC in MDS are outlined, giving details for interpretation of results in regard to dyspoiesis. MFC results are correlated with CM and CG and with survival data. Use of myeloid nuclear differentiation antigen (MNDA) in MDS diagnostics was evaluated in 239 patients with MDS, AML, other cytopenic conditions and in 30 negative controls. Results: Strong correlation between findings in CM and MFC was found; MFC results correlated well with those of CG. Patients with higher grades of dysplasia in MFC had shorter overall survival. Percentages of granulocytes and monocytes with diminished MNDA expression (%dimG, %dimM) were higher in patients with MDS and AML. Mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of MNDA in monocytes was lower in MDS and AML. Cut-off values for %dimG (12%) and %dimM (22%) as well as for MFI in monocytes (72) were defined discriminating between MDS and non-MDS. Conclusion: MFC adds significant information on dyspoiesis in the diagnostic work up for MDS and provides prognostic information. MNDA expression can be assessed by MFC and may facilitate evaluation of dyspoiesis when added to MDS MFC panels. © 2014 Clinical Cytometry Society. Copyright © 2014 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  20. Flow cytometry is a promising and rapid method for differentiating between freely suspended Escherichia coli and E. coli attached to clay particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, X; Soupir, M L; Rigby, S; Jarboe, L R; Zhang, W

    2014-12-01

    A standard procedure does not exist to distinguish between attached and unattached micro-organisms. In this study, we compared two methods to quantify between Escherichia coli attached to clay particles and E. coli freely suspended in solution: flow cytometry (attachment assay and viability assay) and settling (or centrifugation followed by settling). Methods were tested using three environmental strains collected from swine facilities (A, B and C) and one purchased modified pathogenic strain (ATCC 43888); four clay particles: Hectorite, Kaolinite, Ca-Montmorillonite, Montmorillonite K-10; and a range of surface area ratios (particle surface area to E. coli surface area). When comparing the two methods, the per cent attached obtained from the flow cytometry was lower, but not significantly different from the per cent attached obtained from the settling method for all conditions except when the particle was Hectorite or Montmorillonite K-10; when the strain was C; and when the surface area ratio was below 100. Differences between the methods are likely because traditional culture-based methods cannot detect the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) population, whereas flow cytometry can detect the fraction of VBNC with intact membranes. Our results indicate that flow cytometry is a rapid and culture-independent method for differentiating between attached and unattached micro-organisms. Flow cytometry is useful for laboratory-based studies of micro-organism-particle interactions. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Utility of quantitative flow cytometry immunophenotypic analysis of CD5 expression in small B-cell neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challagundla, Pramoda; Jorgensen, Jeffrey L; Kanagal-Shamanna, Rashmi; Gurevich, Inga; Pierson, Diane M; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Reyes, Steven R; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Miranda, Roberto N

    2014-07-01

    The value of assessing CD5 expression in the differential diagnosis of small B-cell neoplasms is well established. Assessment is usually done qualitatively. To assess CD5 expression levels by quantitative flow cytometry immunophenotyping and to determine possible differences among various small B-cell neoplasms. We performed 4-color flow cytometry analysis on specimens of peripheral blood and bone marrow aspirate and quantified CD5 expression in various small B-cell lymphomas and leukemias. We also assessed CD5 levels in peripheral blood samples of healthy blood donors. Cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and mantle cell lymphoma had higher levels of CD5 compared with control B cells (P < .001). Cases of marginal zone lymphoma and hairy cell leukemia had CD5 levels similar to control B cells (P = .35 and P = .14, respectively), whereas cases of follicular lymphoma and lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma had significantly lower CD5 levels than control B cells (P < .001 and P = .04, respectively). In B-cell neoplasms, a high level of CD5 expression was correlated with a homogeneous pattern of positive events, whereas lower CD5 levels were correlated with heterogeneous patterns of positive events. Using flow cytometric immunophenotypic analysis to quantify CD5 levels can aid in diagnosis. CD5 expression levels are higher in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and mantle cell lymphoma, and expression is observed in a homogeneous pattern, as compared with other B-cell neoplasms that are either negative for CD5 or express CD5 at lower levels with a heterogeneous pattern. However, there is some overlap in CD5 expression levels between a subset of atypical chronic lymphocytic leukemia and marginal zone lymphoma cases.

  2. A rapid method for quantifying cytoplasmic versus nuclear localization in endogenous peripheral blood leukocytes by conventional flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulnik, Sergei

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A biochemical system and method have been developed to enable the quantitative measurement of cytoplasmic versus nuclear localization within cells in whole blood. Compared with the analyses of nuclear localization by western blot or fluorescence microscopy, this system saves a lot of time and resources by eliminating the necessity of purification and culturing steps, and generates data that are free from the errors and artifacts associated with using tumor cell lines or calculating nuclear signals from 2D images. This user‐friendly system enables the analysis of cell signaling within peripheral blood cells in their endogenous environment, including measuring the kinetics of nuclear translocation for transcription factors without requiring protein modifications. We first demonstrated the efficiency and specificity of this system for targeting nuclear epitopes, and verified the results by fluorescence microscopy. Next, the power of the technique to analyze LPS‐induced signaling in peripheral blood monocytes was demonstrated. Finally, both FoxP3 localization and IL‐2‐induced STAT5 signaling in regulatory T cells were analyzed. We conclude that this system can be a useful tool for enabling multidimensional molecular‐biological analyses of cell signaling within endogenous peripheral blood cells by conventional flow cytometry. © 2017 The Authors. Cytometry Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of ISAC. PMID:28371169

  3. A High-Throughput, Flow Cytometry-Based Method to Quantify DNA-End Resection in Mammalian Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forment, Josep V; Walker, Rachael V; Jackson, Stephen P

    2012-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is an essential trimeric protein complex that binds to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) in eukaryotic cells and is involved in various aspects of cellular DNA metabolism, including replication and repair. Although RPA is ubiquitously expressed throughout the cell cycle, it localizes to DNA replication forks during S phase, and is recruited to sites of DNA damage when regions of ssDNA are exposed. During DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination (HR), RPA recruitment to DNA damage sites depends on a process termed DNA-end resection. Consequently, RPA recruitment to sub-nuclear regions bearing DSBs has been used as readout for resection and for ongoing HR. Quantification of RPA recruitment by immunofluorescence-based microscopy techniques is time consuming and requires extensive image analysis of relatively small populations of cells. Here, we present a high-throughput flow-cytometry method that allows the use of RPA staining to measure cell proliferation and DNA-damage repair by HR in an unprecedented, unbiased and quantitative manner. © 2012 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry PMID:22893507

  4. Analysis of Flow Cytometry DNA Damage Response Protein Activation Kinetics Following X-rays and High Energy Iron Nuclei Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Universities Space Research Association; Chappell, Lori J.; Whalen, Mary K.; Gurai, Sheena; Ponomarev, Artem; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Pluth, Janice M.

    2010-12-15

    We developed a mathematical method to analyze flow cytometry data to describe the kinetics of {gamma}H2AX and pATF2 phosphorylations ensuing various qualities of low dose radiation in normal human fibroblast cells. Previously reported flow cytometry kinetic results for these DSB repair phospho-proteins revealed that distributions of intensity were highly skewed, severely limiting the detection of differences in the very low dose range. Distributional analysis reveals significant differences between control and low dose samples when distributions are compared using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Radiation quality differences are found in the distribution shapes and when a nonlinear model is used to relate dose and time to the decay of the mean ratio of phosphoprotein intensities of irradiated samples to controls. We analyzed cell cycle phase and radiation quality dependent characteristic repair times and residual phospho-protein levels with these methods. Characteristic repair times for {gamma}H2AX were higher following Fe nuclei as compared to X-rays in G1 cells (4.5 {+-} 0.46 h vs 3.26 {+-} 0.76 h, respectively), and in S/G2 cells (5.51 {+-} 2.94 h vs 2.87 {+-} 0.45 h, respectively). The RBE in G1 cells for Fe nuclei relative to X-rays for {gamma}H2AX was 2.05 {+-} 0.61 and 5.02 {+-} 3.47, at 2 h and 24-h postirradiation, respectively. For pATF2, a saturation effect is observed with reduced expression at high doses, especially for Fe nuclei, with much slower characteristic repair times (>7 h) compared to X-rays. RBEs for pATF2 were 0.66 {+-} 0.13 and 1.66 {+-} 0.46 at 2 h and 24 h, respectively. Significant differences in {gamma}H2AX and pATF2 levels comparing irradiated samples to control were noted even at the lowest dose analyzed (0.05 Gy) using these methods of analysis. These results reveal that mathematical models can be applied to flow cytometry data to uncover important and subtle differences following exposure to various qualities of low dose radiation.

  5. LNA flow-FISH: a flow cytometry-fluorescence in situ hybridization method to detect messenger RNA using locked nucleic acid probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kelly L; Thach, Dzung C

    2009-07-15

    We present a novel method using flow cytometry-fluorescence in situ hybridization (flow-FISH) to detect specific messenger RNA (mRNA) in suspended cells using locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified oligonucleotide probes. beta-Actin mRNA was targeted in whole A549 epithelial cells by hybridization with a biotinylated, LNA-modified probe. The LNA bound to beta-actin was then stained using phycoerythrin-conjugated streptavidin and detected by flow cytometry. Shifts in fluorescence signal intensity between the beta-actin LNA probe and a biotinylated, nonspecific control LNA were used to determine optimal conditions for this type of flow-FISH. Multiple conditions for permeabilization and hybridization were tested, and it was found that conditions using 3 microg/ml of proteinase K for permeabilization and 90 min hybridization at 60 degrees C with buffer containing 50% formamide allow cells containing the LNA-bound mRNA to be detected and differentiated from the control LNA with high confidence (FISH, can be used for detection and quantification of other RNA species as well as for telomerase measurement and detection.

  6. Flow cytometry, morphometry and histopathology as biomarkers of benzo[a]pyrene exposure in brown bullheads (ameiurus nebulosus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Andrew W.; McLaughlin, Ronald M.; Caldwell, Charles W.; Schmitt, Christopher J.; Stalling, David L.

    1992-01-01

    Brown bullheads were given a single intraperitoneal dose of 0, 5, 25 or 125 mg kg−1 benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and evaluated over 18 months. Flow cytometric analyses of hepatocyte DNA content indicated an increase in DNA synthesis in BaP-exposed fish prior to day 14 post-exposure. Thereafter, all flow cytometric variables returned to initial levels. Histopathological evaluation of livers from fish sampled at 18 months revealed significant differences among treatments in the amount of hepatic macrophage ceroid pigmentation and basophilic staining intensity. No neoplasms or changes in blood cell DNA content were detected. Significant morphometric variations existed among fish, but differences between sexes overshadowed differences attributable to dose. Flow cytometry yielded no evidence of long-term DNA alterations from a single exposure to BaP; however, the differences detected by DNA analysis shortly after the toxic event suggest that flow cytometric cell cycle analysis may be useful for documenting continuing exposures.

  7. 16S rRNA in situ Hybridization Followed by Flow Cytometry for Rapid Identification of Acetic Acid Bacteria Involved in Submerged Industrial Vinegar Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Lipoglavšek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetic acid bacteria are involved in many biotechnological processes such as vitamin C, gluconic acid, miglitol or acetic acid production, and others. For a technologist trying to control the industrial process, the ability to follow the microbiological development of the process is thus of importance. During the past few years hybridization in a combination with flow cytometry has often been used for this purpose. Since vinegar is a liquid, it is an ideal matrix for flow cytometry analysis. In this work we have constructed a specific probe for highly acetic acid-resistant species of the acetic acid bacteria and a protocol for in situ hybridization, which in combination with flow cytometry enables direct monitoring of bacteria producing vinegar with >10 % of acetic acid. The approach was successfully applied for monitoring microbiota during industrial vinegar production.

  8. A computer vision approach to rare cell in vivo fluorescence flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Stacey; Li, Binlong; Pera, Vivian; Sznaier, Mario; Camps, Octavia; Niedre, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Noninvasive enumeration of rare circulating cell populations in small animals is of great importance in many areas of biomedical research. In this work, we describe a macroscopic fluorescence imaging system and automated computer vision algorithm that allows in vivo detection, enumeration and tracking of circulating fluorescently-labeled cells from multiple large blood vessels in the ear of a mouse. This imaging system uses a 660 nm laser and a high sensitivity electron-multiplied charge coupled device camera (EMCCD) to acquire fluorescence image sequences from relatively large (∼5 × 5 mm(2) ) imaging areas. The primary technical challenge was developing an automated method for identifying and tracking rare cell events in image sequences with substantial autofluorescence and noise content. To achieve this, we developed a two-step image analysis algorithm that first identified cell candidates in individual frames, and then merged cell candidates into tracks by dynamic analysis of image sequences. The second step was critical since it allowed rejection of >97% of false positive cell counts. Overall, our computer vision IVFC (CV-IVFC) approach allows single-cell detection sensitivity at estimated concentrations of 20 cells/mL of peripheral blood. In addition to simple enumeration, the technique recovers the cell's trajectory, which in the future could be used to automatically identify, for example, in vivo homing and docking events. © 2013 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  9. Flow Cytometry Method Analysis of Apoptosis: No Significant Difference Between EDTA and EDTA-free Trypsin Treatment Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-yan; Nie, Xiao-cui; Ma, Hai-ying; Song, Guo-qing; Zhang, Xiao-tong; Jin, Yu-nan; Yu, Yan-qiu

    2015-04-01

    Flow