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Sample records for rapid test evaluation

  1. RAPID TEST METHOD FOR EVALUATION OF ANTIFREEZE ADDITIVE EFFICIENCY

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    S. V. Gushchin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Usage of chemical additives while executing concrete works at negative temperatures is considered as a convenient and economical method. Range of the used antifreeze additives is rather wide. A great number of new additives are advertised but their characteristics have not been practically studied. Evaluation of the antifreeze additive efficiency is unfortunately rather long process and it does not provide comprehensive data on concrete structure formation processes. Due to this development of rapid and comprehensive methodology for construction companies is urgently required.Freezing processes of antifreeze additive aqueous solutions and hardening of cement paste with them have been investigated in the paper. The paper proposes a methodology for determination of freezing point for aqueous solutions of chemical additives of various applications. Identity of  freezing point for a chemical additive aqueous solution and cement paste with an equal concentration of the additive in the paste pore fluid has been determined while taking  calcium nitrate and sodium formate additives as an example. The paper demonstrates the possibility to evaluate efficiency of antifreeze additive action on the basis of kinetics in temperature changes of the cement paste with additives by its consecutive freezing and defrosting.  A methodology for operational evaluation in the field of chemical additive application for concreting items at negative temperatures has been offered in the paper.  The methodology does not require  deficient and expensive test-equipment. It can be applied at ordinary construction companies and it is comprehensible for personnel of low-qualification.  The paper shows the possibility to develop an original methodology for designing concrete structure which is based on operating efficiency determinations  for single and integrated antifreeze additives.

  2. Evaluation of a new rapid plasma reagin card test as a screening test for syphilis.

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    This study evaluates the American Dade (Biokit Laboratories) rapid plasma reagin (Dade RPR) card test, currently used in Spain for the diagnosis of syphilis, which has been recently released to the U.S. market. Used as a basis for comparison with the Dade card test were the 18-mm standard rapid plasma reagin (standard RPR) card test and the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) slide test, using both fresh sera obtained from 505 individuals and paired serum-plasma specimens from 174 ind...

  3. Evaluation of nine HIV rapid test kits to develop a national HIV testing algorithm in Nigeria

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    Orji Bassey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-cold chain-dependent HIV rapid testing has been adopted in many resource-constrained nations as a strategy for reaching out to populations. HIV rapid test kits (RTKs have the advantage of ease of use, low operational cost and short turnaround times. Before 2005, different RTKs had been used in Nigeria without formal evaluation. Between 2005 and 2007, a study was conducted to formally evaluate a number of RTKs and construct HIV testing algorithms. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess and select HIV RTKs and develop national testing algorithms. Method: Nine RTKs were evaluated using 528 well-characterised plasma samples. These comprised 198 HIV-positive specimens (37.5% and 330 HIV-negative specimens (62.5%, collected nationally. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated with 95% confidence intervals for all nine RTKs singly and for serial and parallel combinations of six RTKs; and relative costs were estimated. Results: Six of the nine RTKs met the selection criteria, including minimum sensitivity and specificity (both ≥ 99.0% requirements. There were no significant differences in sensitivities or specificities of RTKs in the serial and parallel algorithms, but the cost of RTKs in parallel algorithms was twice that in serial algorithms. Consequently, three serial algorithms, comprising four test kits (BundiTM, DetermineTM, Stat-Pak® and Uni-GoldTM with 100.0% sensitivity and 99.1% – 100.0% specificity, were recommended and adopted as national interim testing algorithms in 2007. Conclusion: This evaluation provides the first evidence for reliable combinations of RTKs for HIV testing in Nigeria. However, these RTKs need further evaluation in the field (Phase II to re-validate their performance.

  4. Evaluation of a new rapid test for carbapenemase detection in carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

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    Martino, Marines Dalla Valle; Koga, Paula Célia Mariko; Pasternak, Jacyr; Doi, André Mario; Ciola, Claudete Silvia; da Silva, Cely Barreto; Massaia, Irineu Francisco Delfino Silva; da Silva, Itacy Gonçalves Siqueira; de Araújo, Maria Rita Elmor

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated a new phenotypic test for carbapenemase detection. A total of 100 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were selected. The test was compared with conventional PCR for bla(KPC) and bla(NDM) detection. We found 100% sensitivity and specificity, suggesting that this test may be a feasible alternative for rapid carbapenemase detection.

  5. Evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic test for the detection of OXA-48 carbapenemase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Elisa; Zboromyrska, Yuliya; Pitart, Cristina; Campo, Irene; Alejo-Cancho, Izaskun; Fasanella, Assumpta; Vergara, Andrea; Marco, Francesc; Vila, Jordi

    2017-03-01

    We evaluated the OXA-48K-Set, a rapid immunochromatographic test for the detection of Oxacillinase-48 (OXA-48) carbapenemases, among 37 strains expressing OXA-48 and OXA-48-like carbapenemases and 20 additional strains harboring other β-lactamases. The test showed 100% sensitivity and specificity and the results were obtained in 15minutes.

  6. Evaluation of a rapid immunodiagnostic test kit for detection of African lyssaviruses from brain material

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    W. Markotter

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid immunodiagnostic test kit was evaluated against a selection of isolates of lyssavirus genotypes occurring in Africa. The test was carried out in parallel comparison with the fluorescent antibody test (FAT and isolates representing previously established phylogenetic groups from each genotype were included. The specificity of the rapid immunodiagnostic test compared favourably with the FAT and was found to detect all representatives of genotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4 in brain samples of either field cases or suckling mouse brain inoculates.

  7. Evaluation of novel second-generation RSV and influenza rapid tests at the point of care.

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    Tuttle, Ryan; Weick, Anja; Schwarz, Wiebke Sabrina; Chen, Xi; Obermeier, Patrick; Seeber, Lea; Tief, Franziska; Muehlhans, Susann; Karsch, Katharina; Peiser, Christian; Duwe, Susanne; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Rath, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    Acute respiratory infections represent common pediatric emergencies. Infection control warrants immediate and accurate diagnoses. In the past, first-generation respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) rapid tests (strip tests) have shown suboptimal sensitivities. In 2013, the Food and Drug Administration licensed a second-generation RSV rapid test providing user-independent readouts (SOFIA™-RSV) using automated fluorescence assay technology known to yield superior results with influenza rapid testing. We are reporting the first point-of-care evaluation of the SOFIA™-RSV rapid test. In the Charité Influenza-Like Disease Cohort, 686 nasopharyngeal samples were tested in parallel with SOFIA™-RSV and SOFIA™-Influenza A+B. Compared to real-time PCR, SOFIA™-RSV sensitivities/specificities were 78.6%/93.9%, respectively (SOFIA™-Influenza A: 80.6%/99.3%). Performance was greatest in patients below 2 years of age with a test sensitivity of 81.8%. RSV sensitivities were highest (85%) in the first 2 days of illness and with nasopharyngeal compared to nasal swabs (P=0.055, McNemar's test). Second-generation RSV and influenza rapid testing provides highly accurate results facilitating timely patient cohortation and management.

  8. Laboratory Evaluation of Three Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Dual Detection of HIV and Treponema pallidum Antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Humphries, Romney M.; Woo, Jennifer S.; Chung, Jun Ho; Sokovic, Anita; Bristow, Claire C; Jeffrey D Klausner

    2014-01-01

    The performance of three research-use-only, dual HIV and syphilis rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) was evaluated for 150 patient serum samples and compared to reference HIV and Treponema pallidum antibody detection methods. The RDTs performed comparably, with sensitivities of 93 to 99% and specificities of 97 to 100%. The kappa statistic between the RDTs was 0.95.

  9. Field evaluation of rapid HIV serologic tests for screening and confirming HIV-1 infection in Honduras.

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    Stetler, H C; Granade, T C; Nunez, C A; Meza, R; Terrell, S; Amador, L; George, J R

    1997-03-01

    To determine the ability of simple, rapid tests to identify HIV-1 antibody-positive specimens in field settings using the World Health Organization's (WHO) alternative testing strategies. Three-phase evaluation of simple, rapid assays using banked specimens and prospectively collected serum specimens at regional hospitals and rural clinics. Seven test (Retrocell, Genie, HIVCHEK, SUDS HIV-1, Testpack, Serodia HIV-1, and HIV-1/2 RTD) were evaluated and results compared with standard enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and Western blot results (phase 1). Further evaluation consisted of prospective testing of routine specimens at regional (phase 2; n = 900) and rural, peripheral laboratories (phase 3; n = 1266) throughout Honduras with selected assays. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each assay and combination of assays for each phase to evaluate the effectiveness of the WHO alternative testing strategies. All tests in all phases were > 99% sensitive after correcting for technical errors, with two exceptions (SUDS, phase 1; HIVCHEK, phase 3). In phase 3, where the testing algorithm was diagnostic, several combinations of assays were 100% sensitive and specific using WHO strategy II or III. For the Honduras Ministry of Health, the combination of Retrocell and Genie was found to be equally sensitive, more specific (no indeterminate results), and less expensive than EIA/Western blot. Combinations of rapid, simple HIV antibody assays provide sensitivity and specificity performance comparable to EIA/Western blot. Application of these combinations in the WHO alternative testing strategies provides an inexpensive and effective method of determining HIV status. Assay combinations using these strategies can be easily performed in small, rural laboratories and have been implemented in routine HIV screening in Honduras.

  10. Rapid, high-temperature, field test method for evaluation of geothermal calcium carbonate scale inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, R.G.

    1986-09-01

    A new test method is described that allows the rapid field testing of calcium carbonate scale inhibitors at 500/sup 0/F (260/sup 0/C). The method evolved from use of a full-flow test loop on a well with a mass flow rate of about 1 x 10/sup 6/ lbm/hr (126 kg/s). It is a simple, effective way to evaluate the effectiveness of inhibitors under field conditions. Five commercial formulations were chosen for field evaluation on the basis of nonflowing, laboratory screening tests at 500/sup 0/F (260/sup 0/C). Four of these formulations from different suppliers controlled calcium carbonate scale deposition as measured by the test method. Two of these could dislodge recently deposited scale that had not age-hardened. Performance-profile diagrams, which were measured for these four effective inhibitors, show the concentration interrelationship between brine calcium and inhibitor concentrations at which the formulations will and will not stop scale formation in the test apparatus. With these diagrams, one formulation was chosen for testing on the full-flow brine line. The composition was tested for 6 weeks and showed a dramatic decrease in the scaling occurring at the flow-control valve. This scaling was about to force a shutdown of a major, long-term flow test being done for reservoir economic evaluations. The inhibitor stopped the scaling, and the test was performed without interruption.

  11. Rapid Lead Screening Test

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    ... Vitro Diagnostics Tests Used In Clinical Care Rapid Lead Screening Test Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reducing the need for a follow-up visit. Lead Risk Links Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( ...

  12. Effect of sweet yeast bread formula on evaluating rapid mix test

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    Petra Dvořáková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to detect how different sweet yeast bread formulas influence results of rapid mix test and by the help of sensory analysis to discover consumer preferences and possible benefit and use in bakery industry. Applied raw materials (ground wheat flour T 530, yeast, sugar, salt, oil, egg, improver Hit along with basic formula were taken from the Varmužova bakery in Boršice by Buchlovice. The basic formula served as a standard (I, other six formulas were then determined (II–VII. In each formula, the rate of yeast, sugar or oil was altered in the range of ± 10% compared with the standard. Flour bread-making quality – Hagberg Falling number [s], Sedimentation index [ml], wet gluten [%], ash [%], moisture [%], binding capacity [%], granulation [%], alveographic energy [10−4J] and alveographic rate P/L – was measured. Rapid mix test and parameters like pastry weight, volume, shape, dough yield, pastry yield, baking loss, penetration and sensory analysis were determined. To establish yeast fermentation activity, Engelke fermentation test was applied. The most evident differences among the samples appeared in the volume and shape. The results of sensory analysis showed that the samples with higher rate of altered raw materials were evaluated as the best.

  13. Clinical Evaluation of Rapid Diagnostic Test Kit for Scrub Typhus with Improved Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of scrub typhus is challenging due to its more than twenty serotypes and the similar clinical symptoms with other acute febrile illnesses including leptospirosis, murine typhus and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Accuracy and rapidity of a diagnostic test to Orientia tsutsugamushi is an important step to diagnose this disease. To discriminate scrub typhus from other diseases, the improved ImmuneMed Scrub Typhus Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) was evaluated in Korea and Sri Lanka. The sensitivity at the base of each IgM and IgG indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) in Korean patients was 98.6% and 97.1%, and the specificity was 98.2% and 97.7% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for retrospective diagnosis at the base of IFA in Sri Lanka was 92.1% and 96.1%. ImmuneMed RDT was not reactive to any serum from seventeen diseases including hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (n = 48), leptospirosis (n = 23), and murine typhus (n = 48). ImmuneMed RDT shows superior sensitivity (98.6% and 97.1%) compared with SD Bioline RDT (84.4% at IgM and 83.3% at IgG) in Korea. The retrospective diagnosis of ImmuneMed RDT exhibits 94.0% identity with enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using South India patient serum samples. These results suggest that this RDT can replace other diagnostic tests and is applicable for global diagnosis of scrub typhus. This rapid and accurate diagnosis will be beneficial for diagnosing and managing scrub typhus. PMID:27478327

  14. A laboratory-based evaluation of four rapid point-of-care tests for syphilis.

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    Louise M Causer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Syphilis point-of-care tests may reduce morbidity and ongoing transmission by increasing the proportion of people rapidly treated. Syphilis stage and co-infection with HIV may influence test performance. We evaluated four commercially available syphilis point-of-care devices in a head-to-head comparison using sera from laboratories in Australia. METHODS: Point-of-care tests were evaluated using sera stored at Sydney and Melbourne laboratories. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated by standard methods, comparing point-of-care results to treponemal immunoassay (IA reference test results. Additional analyses by clinical syphilis stage, HIV status, and non-treponemal antibody titre were performed. Non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals (CI were considered statistically significant differences in estimates. RESULTS: In total 1203 specimens were tested (736 IA-reactive, 467 IA-nonreactive. Point-of-care test sensitivities were: Determine 97.3%(95%CI:95.8-98.3, Onsite 92.5%(90.3-94.3, DPP 89.8%(87.3-91.9 and Bioline 87.8%(85.1-90.0. Specificities were: Determine 96.4%(94.1-97.8, Onsite 92.5%(90.3-94.3, DPP 98.3%(96.5-99.2, and Bioline 98.5%(96.8-99.3. Sensitivity of the Determine test was 100% for primary and 100% for secondary syphilis. The three other tests had reduced sensitivity among primary (80.4-90.2% compared to secondary syphilis (94.3-98.6%. No significant differences in sensitivity were observed by HIV status. Test sensitivities were significantly higher among high-RPR titre (RPR ≥ 8 (range: 94.6-99.5% than RPR non-reactive infections (range: 76.3-92.9%. CONCLUSIONS: The Determine test had the highest sensitivity overall. All tests were most sensitive among high-RPR titre infections. Point-of-care tests have a role in syphilis control programs however in developed countries with established laboratory infrastructures, the lower sensitivities of some tests observed in primary syphilis suggest these would need to be

  15. Evaluation of four colourimetric susceptibility tests for the rapid detection of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosisisolates

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    Ahmet Yilmaz Coban

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate four rapid colourimetric methods, including the resazurin microtitre assay (REMA, malachite green decolourisation assay (MGDA, microplate nitrate reductase assay (MNRA and crystal violet decolourisation assay (CVDA, for the rapid detection of multidrug-resistant (MDR tuberculosis. Fifty Mycobacterium tuberculosisisolates were used in this study. Eighteen isolates were MDR, two isolates were only resistant to isoniazid (INH and the remaining isolates were susceptible to both INH and rifampicin (RIF. INH and RIF were tested in 0.25 µg/mL and 0.5 µg/mL, respectively. The agar proportion method was used as a reference method. MNRA and REMA were performed with some modifications. MGDA and CVDA were performed as defined in the literature. The agreements of the MNRA for INH and RIF were 96% and 94%, respectively, while the agreement of the other assays for INH and RIF were 98%. In this study, while the specificities of the REMA, MGDA and CVDA were 100%, the specificity of the MNRA was lower than the others (93.3% for INH and 90.9% for RIF. In addition, while the sensitivity of the MNRA was 100%, the sensitivities of the others were lower than that of the MNRA (from 94.1-95%. The results were reported on the seventh-10th day of the incubation. All methods are reliable, easy to perform, inexpensive and easy to evaluate and do not require special equipment.

  16. Evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test for yaws infection in a community surveillance setting.

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    Michael Marks

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Yaws is a non-venereal treponemal infection caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue. The WHO has launched a worldwide control programme, which aims to eradicate yaws by 2020. The development of a rapid diagnostic test (RDT for serological diagnosis in the isolated communities affected by yaws is a key requirement for the successful implementation of the WHO strategy. We conducted a study to evaluate the utility of the DPP test in screening for yaws, utilizing samples collected as part of a community prevalence survey conducted in the Solomon Islands. 415 serum samples were tested using both traditional syphilis serology (TPPA and quantitative RPR and the Chembio DPP Syphilis Screen and Confirm RDT. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of the RDT as compared to gold standard serology. The sensitivity of the RDT against TPPA was 58.5% and the specificity was 97.6%. The sensitivity of the RDT against RPR was 41.7% and the specificity was 95.2%. The sensitivity of the DPP was strongly related to the RPR titre with a sensitivity of 92.0% for an RPR titre of >1/16. Wider access to DPP testing would improve our understanding of worldwide yaws case reporting and the test may play a key role in assessing patients presenting with yaws like lesions in a post-mass drug administration (MDA setting.

  17. Evaluation of Verigene Blood Culture Test Systems for Rapid Identification of Positive Blood Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Seok; Kang, Go-Eun; Kim, Han-Sung; Kim, Hyun Soo; Song, Wonkeun; Lee, Kyu Man

    2016-01-01

    The performance of molecular tests using the Verigene Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Blood Culture nucleic acid tests (BC-GP and BC-GN, resp.; Naosphere, Northbrook, IL, USA) was evaluated for the identification of microorganisms detected from blood cultures. Ninety-nine blood cultures containing Gram-positive bacteria and 150 containing Gram-negative bacteria were analyzed using the BC-GP and BC-GN assays, respectively. Blood cultures were performed using the Bactec blood culture system (BD Diagnostic Systems, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) and conventional identification and antibiotic-susceptibility tests were performed using a MicroScan system (Siemens, West Sacramento, CA, USA). When a single strain of bacteria was isolated from the blood culture, Verigene assays correctly identified 97.9% (94/96) of Gram-positive bacteria and 93.8% (137/146) of Gram-negative bacteria. Resistance genes mecA and vanA were correctly detected by the BC-GP assay, while the extended-spectrum β-lactamase CTX-M and the carbapenemase OXA resistance gene were detected from 30 cases cultures by the BC-GN assay. The BC-GP and BC-GN assays showed high agreement with conventional identification and susceptibility tests. These tests are useful for rapid identification of microorganisms and the detection of clinically important resistance genes from positive Bactec blood cultures.

  18. Rapid high temperature field test method for evaluation of geothermal calcite scale inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, R.G.

    1982-08-01

    A test method is described which allows the rapid field testing of calcite scale inhibitors in high- temperature geothermal brines. Five commercial formulations, chosen on the basis of laboratory screening tests, were tested in brines with low total dissolved solids at ca 500 F. Four were found to be effective; of these, 2 were found to be capable of removing recently deposited scale. One chemical was tested in the full-flow brine line for 6 wks. It was shown to stop a severe surface scaling problem at the well's control valve, thus proving the viability of the rapid test method. (12 refs.)

  19. Prospective evaluation of three rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosis of human leptospirosis.

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    Marga G A Goris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of leptospirosis by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT or by culture is confined to specialized laboratories. Although ELISA techniques are more common, they still require laboratory facilities. Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs can be used for easy point-of-care diagnosis. This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the RDTs LeptoTek Dri Dot, LeptoTek Lateral Flow, and Leptocheck-WB, prospectively. METHODOLOGY: During 2001 to 2012, one or two of the RDTs at the same time have been applied prior to routine diagnostics (MAT, ELISA and culture on serum specimens from participants sent in for leptospirosis diagnosis. The case definition was based on MAT, ELISA and culture results. Participants not fulfilling the case definition were considered not to have leptospirosis. The diagnostic accuracy was determined based on the 1(st submitted sample and paired samples, either in an overall analysis or stratified according to days post onset of illness. RESULTS: The overall sensitivity and specificity for the LeptoTek Dri Dot was 75% respectively 96%, for the LeptoTek Lateral Flow 78% respectively 95%, and for the Leptocheck-WB 78% respectively 98%. Based on the 1(st submitted sample the sensitivity was low (51% for LeptoTek Dri Dot, 69% for LeptoTek Lateral Flow, and 55% for Leptocheck-WB, but substantially increased when the results of paired samples were combined, although accompanied by a lower specificity (82% respectively 91% for LeptoTek Dri Dot, 86% respectively 84% for LeptoTek Lateral Flow, and 80% respectively 93% for Leptocheck-WB. CONCLUSIONS: All three tests present antibody tests contributing to the diagnosis of leptospirosis, thus supporting clinical suspicion and contributing to awareness. Since the overall sensitivity of the tested RDTs did not exceed 80%, one should be cautious to rely only on an RDT result, and confirmation by reference tests is strongly recommended.

  20. Field evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test to detect antibodies in human toxocariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, P K C; Yamasaki, H; Mak, J W; Wong, S F; Chong, C W; Yap, I K S; Ambu, S; Kumarasamy, V

    2015-08-01

    Human toxocariasis which is caused mainly by the larvae of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, is a worldwide zoonotic disease that can be a potentially serious human infection. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using T. canis excretory-secretory (TES) antigens harvested from T. canis larvae is currently the serological test for confirming toxocariasis. An alternative to producing large amounts of Toxocara TES and improved diagnosis for toxocariasis is through the development of highly specific recombinant antigens such as the T. canis second stage larva excretory-secretory 30 kDa protein (recTES-30). The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a rapid diagnostic kit (RDT, named as iToxocara kit) in comparison to recTES-30 ELISA in Serendah Orang Asli village in Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 133 subjects were included in the study. The overall prevalence rates by ELISA and RDT were 29.3% and 33.1%, respectively, with more positive cases detected in males than females. However, no association was found between toxocariasis and gender or age. The percentage sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of RDT were 85.7%, 90.1%, 80% and 93.2%, respectively. The prevalence for toxocariasis in this population using both ELISA and RDT was 27.1% (36/133) and the K-concordance test suggested good agreement of the two tests with a Cohen's kappa of 0.722, Ptoxocariasis.

  1. Evaluation of a Direct Rapid Immunohistochemical Test (dRIT) for Rapid Diagnosis of Rabies in Animals and Humans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shampur Narayan Madhusudana; Sundaramurthy Subha; Ullas Thankappan; Yajaman Belludi Ashwin

    2012-01-01

    Presently the gold standard diagnostic technique for rabies is the direct immunofluorescence assay (dFA) which is very expensive and requires a high level of expertise.There is a need for more economical and user friendly tests,particularly for use in developing countries.We have established one such test called the direct rapid immunohistochemical test (dRIT) for diagnosis of rabies using brain tissue.The test is based on capture of rabies nucleoprotein (N) antigen in brain smears using a cocktail of biotinylated monoclonal antibodies specific for the N protein and color development by streptavidin peroxidase-amino ethyl carbazole and counter staining with haematoxollin.The test was done in parallel with standard FAT dFA using 400 brain samples from different animals and humans.The rabies virus N protein appears under light microscope as reddish brown particles against a light blue background.There was 100 % correlation between the results obtained by the two tests.Also,interpretation of results by dRIT was easier and only required a light microscope.To conclude,this newly developed dRIT technique promises to be a simple,cost effective diagnostic tool for rabies and will have applicability in field conditions prevalent in developing countries.

  2. [Attempt for development of rapid word reading test for children--evaluation of reliability and validity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ryusaku; Kashiwagi, Mitsuru; Suzuki, Shuhei

    2008-09-01

    We developed a rapid word reading test for examining the phonological processing ability of Japanese children. We prepared two versions of the test, version A and B. Each test has word and non-word tasks. Twenty-two healthy boys of third grade in primary schools participated in this validation study. For criterion related validity, we performed the serial Hiragana reading test, the sentence reading test, Raven's coloured progressive matrices (RCPM), the Token test for children, the Kana word dictation test, the standardized comprehension test of abstract words (SCTAW), and Trail Circle test. The reading times of the newly developed test correlated moderately or highly with those of the serial Hiragana reading test and the sentence reading test. However, the scores of the other tests (RCPM, Token test for children, Kana word dictation test, SCTAW, Trail Circle test) did not correlated with the reading time of the rapid word reading test. Test-retest reliabilities in the word tasks were more than moderate: 0.52 and 0.76 in versions A and B, while those in the non-word tasks were high: 0.91 and 0.88 in versions A and B. The correlation coefficient between versions A and B was 0.7 for the word tasks and 0.92 for the non-word tasks. This study showed that the rapid word reading test has substantial validity and reliability for testing the phonological processing ability of Japanese children. In addition, the non-word tasks were more suitable for selectively examining the speed of the grapheme to phoneme conversion process.

  3. A Global Comparative Evaluation of Commercial Immunochromatographic Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Jane; Hasker, Epco; Das, Pradeep; El Safi, Sayda; Goto, Hiro; Mondal, Dinesh; Mbuchi, Margaret; Mukhtar, Maowia; Rabello, Ana; Rijal, Suman; Sundar, Shyam; Wasunna, Monique; Adams, Emily; Menten, Joris; Peeling, Rosanna; Boelaert, Marleen

    2012-01-01

    Background. Poor access to diagnosis stymies control of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Antibody-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) can be performed in peripheral health settings. However, there are many brands available and published reports of variable accuracy. Methods. Commercial VL RDTs containing bound rK39 or rKE16 antigen were evaluated using archived human sera from confirmed VL cases (n = 750) and endemic non-VL controls (n = 754) in the Indian subcontinent (ISC), Brazil, and East Africa to assess sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals. A subset of RDTs were also evaluated after 60 days’ heat incubation (37°C, 45°C). Interlot and interobserver variability was assessed. Results. All test brands performed well against ISC panels (sensitivity range, 92.8%–100%; specificity range, 96%–100%); however, sensitivity was lower against Brazil and East African panels (61.5%–91% and 36.8%–87.2%, respectively). Specificity was consistently > 95% in Brazil and ranged between 90.8% and 98% in East Africa. Performance of some products was adversely affected by high temperatures. Agreement between lots and readers was good to excellent (κ > 0.73–0.99). Conclusions. Diagnostic accuracy of VL RDTs varies between the major endemic regions. Many tests performed well and showed good heat stability in the ISC; however, reduced sensitivity against Brazilian and East African panels suggests that in these regions, used alone, several RDTs are inadequate for excluding a VL diagnosis. More research is needed to assess ease of use and to compare performance using whole blood instead of serum and in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:22942208

  4. Field evaluation of diagnostic performance of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in western Kenya.

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    Wanja, Elizabeth W; Kuya, Nickline; Moranga, Collins; Hickman, Mark; Johnson, Jacob D; Moseti, Carolyne; Anova, Lalaine; Ogutu, Bernhards; Ohrt, Colin

    2016-09-07

    Malaria continues to be a major burden in the endemic regions of Kenya. Health outcomes associated with case management are dependent on the use of appropriate diagnostic methods. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have provided an important tool to help implement the WHO recommended parasite-based diagnosis in regions where expert microscopy is not available. One of the questions that must be answered when implementing RDTs is whether these tests are useful in a specific endemic region, as well as the most appropriate RDT to use. Data on the sensitivity and specificity of RDT test kits is important information to help guide test selection by national malaria control programmes. This study evaluated the diagnostic performance of RDTs including First Response (FR), CareStart (CS), SD Bioline (SD), and Binax Now (BN). The performance of these malaria kits was compared to microscopy, the gold standard, for the detection of malaria parasites. The malaria RDTs were also compared to PCR which is a more sensitive reference test. Five-hundred participants were included in the study through community screening (50 %) and testing suspected malaria cases referred from health facilities. Of the 500 participants recruited, 33 % were malaria positive by microscopy while 51.2 % were positive by PCR. Compared to microscopy, the sensitivity of eight RDTs to detect malaria parasites was 90.3-94.8 %, the specificity was 73.3-79.3 %, the positive predictive value was 62.2-68.8 %, and the negative predictive value was 94.3-96.8 %. Compared to PCR, the sensitivity of the RDTs to detect malaria parasites was 71.1-75.4 %, the specificity was 80.3-84.4 %, the positive predictive value was 80.3-83.3 %, and the negative predictive value was 73.7-76.1 %. The RDTs had a moderate measure of agreement with both microscopy (>80.1 %) and PCR (>77.6 %) with a κ > 0.6. The performance of the evaluated RDTs using field samples was moderate; hence they can significantly improve the quality

  5. Evaluation of five simple rapid HIV assays for potential use in the Brazilian national HIV testing algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Motta, Leonardo Rapone; Vanni, Andréa Cristina; Kato, Sérgio Kakuta; Borges, Luiz Gustavo dos Anjos; Sperhacke, Rosa Dea; Ribeiro, Rosangela Maria M; Inocêncio, Lilian Amaral

    2013-12-01

    Since 2005, the Department of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs), Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Viral Hepatitis under the Health Surveillance Secretariat in Brazil's Ministry of Health has approved a testing algorithm for using rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) tests in the country. Given the constant emergence of new rapid HIV tests in the market, it is necessary to maintain an evaluation program for them. Conscious of this need, this multicenter study was conducted to evaluate five commercially available rapid HIV tests used to detect anti-HIV antibodies in Brazil. The five commercial rapid tests under assessment were the VIKIA HIV-1/2 (bioMérieux, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), the Rapid Check HIV 1 & 2 (Center of Infectious Diseases, Federal University of Espírito Santo, Vitória, Brazil), the HIV-1/2 3.0 Strip Test Bioeasy (S.D., Kyonggi-do, South Korea), the Labtest HIV (Labtest Diagnóstica, Lagoa Santa, Brazil) and the HIV-1/2 Rapid Test Bio-Manguinhos (Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). A total of 972 whole-blood samples were collected from HIV-infected patients, pregnant women and individuals seeking voluntary counselling and testing who were recruited from five centers in different regions of the country. Informed consent was obtained from the study participants. The results were compared with those obtained using the HIV algorithm used currently in Brazil, which includes two enzyme immunoassays and one Western blot test. The operational performance of each assay was also compared to the defined criteria. A total of 972 samples were tested using reference assays, and the results indicated 143 (14.7%) reactive samples and 829 (85.3%) nonreactive samples. Sensitivity values ranged from 99.3 to 100%, and specificity was 100% for all five rapid tests. All of the rapid tests performed well, were easy to perform and yielded high scores in the operational performance analysis. Three tests, however, fulfilled all of the

  6. Evaluation of rapid alternative methods for drug susceptibility testing in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Mengatto

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to compare the performance of a commercial method (MGIT and four inexpensive drug susceptibility methods: nitrate reductase assay (NRA, microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS assay, MTT test, and broth microdilution method (BMM. A total of 64 clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were studied. The Lowenstein-Jensen proportion method (PM was used as gold standard. MGIT, NRA, MODS, and MTT results were available on an average of less than 10 days, whereas BMM results could be reported in about 20 days. Most of the evaluated tests showed excellent performance for isoniazid and rifampicin, with sensitivity and specificity values > 90%. With most of the assays, sensitivity for ethambutol was low (62-87% whereas for streptomycin, sensitivity values ranged from 84 to 100%; NRA-discrepancies were associated with cultures with a low proportion of EMB-resistant organisms while most discrepancies with quantitative tests (MMT and BMM were seen with isolates whose minimal inhibitory concentrations fell close the cutoff. MGIT is reliable but still expensive. NRA is the most inexpensive and easiest method to perform without changing the organization of the routine PM laboratory performance. While MODS, MTT, and BMM, have the disadvantage from the point of view of biosafety, they offer the possibility of detecting partial resistant strains. This study shows a very good level of agreement of the four low-cost methods compared to the PM for rapid detection of isoniazid, rifampicin and streptomycin resistance (Kappa values > 0.8; more standardization is needed for ethambutol.

  7. Field evaluation of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria in Yaounde, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahar, Rachida; Sayang, Collins; Ngane Foumane, Vincent; Soula, Georges; Moyou-Somo, Roger; Delmont, Jean; Basco, Leonardo K

    2013-02-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are affordable, alternative diagnostic tools. The present study aimed to evaluate RDTs available in Cameroon and compare their characteristics to follow the parasitological response of patients for 28 days. Malaria diagnosis was assessed in 179 febrile patients using conventional microscopy as the reference method. Parascreen detects both Plasmodium falciparum-specific histidine-rich protein 2 (Pf HRP-2) and Pan-specific plasmodial lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) in all four human Plasmodium spp. Diaspot is based on the detection of Pf HRP-2. OptiMAL-IT (pLDH specific for P. falciparum and pLDH for all four human Plasmodium spp.) was assessed for comparison. The reliability of RDTs was evaluated by calculating the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, false-positive rate, false-negative rate, and likelihood ratio. The clinical outcome of 18 children treated with atovaquone-proguanil and followed for 28 days was evaluated using microscopy and RDTs. Of 179 samples, 133 (74.3%) were pure P. falciparum-positive smears, 4 (2.2%) pure P. malariae-positive smears, and 42 (23.5%) negative smears. Parascreen and Diaspot had high sensitivity (>92%) and positive predictive values (>94%). The specificities for Parascreen and Diaspot were 81.0% and 90.5%, respectively. The false-positive rates and the false-negative rates were 19.0% and 4.5% for Parascreen and 9.5% and 8.3% for Diaspot, respectively. Most false-negatives occurred in samples with low parasitaemia (500 asexual parasites/μL). Four pure P. malariae were only detected by the pan-Plasmodium bands of Parascreen and OptiMAL-IT. In blood samples from patients treated and followed-up for 28 days, HRP2-based RDTs remained positive in most samples until Day 28. Despite negative smears, OptiMAL-IT remained positive in several patients until Day 7 but was negative in all patients from Day 14 onwards. RDTs can improve the management of febrile patients. The

  8. Evaluation of a rapid HIV testing initiative in an urban, hospital-based dental clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstock, Oni J; King, James R; Mason, Roger D; Lee, Cynthia C; Mannheimer, Sharon B

    2010-12-01

    Performing rapid HIV testing in nontraditional clinical settings such as dental clinics is a potential method for targeting high-risk individuals who may not otherwise access health care settings that offer HIV testing. In March 2008, Harlem Hospital Center, located in New York City, launched a counselor-based rapid HIV testing initiative in its on-site dental clinic. A full-time, trained counselor consented and tested patients as they waited for their appointments. HIV screening was performed using a whole-blood, finger-stick rapid HIV test. Through this initiative, 3864 HIV tests were performed from March 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009, representing 3565 unique individuals and 97.6% of dental patients approached for testing. Of those tested, the mean age was 38.5 years, with 47.1% female, 75.5% black, and 20.6% Hispanic. Self-reported HIV risk behaviors included 73.5% with recent unprotected heterosexual intercourse, 4.6% with recent or past injection drug use, and 2.6% who identified as men who have sex with men. Nineteen previously undiagnosed individuals (0.53%) were confirmed HIV positive. Of these individuals, mean age was 38.3 years with males representing 84.2%. Fifteen newly diagnosed patients (78.9%) were linked to care. Of those linked to care, median initial CD4 cell count was 317 cells/mm(3); 6 of these individuals (40%) had CD4 cell counts below 200 cells/mm(3). Our results demonstrate that a counselor-based rapid HIV testing program with linkage to specialized HIV care can be successfully integrated into the dental clinic setting.

  9. Development and evaluation of a latex agglutination test for the rapid serodiagnosis of tularemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastawicki, Waldemar; Rokosz-Chudziak, Natalia; Chróst, Anna; Gierczyński, Rafał

    2015-05-01

    A latex agglutination test (LAT) was developed for a rapid detection of antibodies against Francisella tularensis. The assay is performed by mixing serum with antigen-coated latex beads and read within 5 min. Developed LAT has been proved to be a specific, sensitive, fast, easy-to-perform and cost-efficient tool for the routine diagnosis of tularemia.

  10. Rapid prototype and test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, D.L.; Hansche, B.D.

    1996-06-01

    In order to support advanced manufacturing, Sandia has acquired the capability to produce plastic prototypes using stereolithography. Currently, these prototypes are used mainly to verify part geometry and ``fit and form`` checks. This project investigates methods for rapidly testing these plastic prototypes, and inferring from prototype test data actual metal part performance and behavior. Performances examined include static load/stress response, and structural dynamic (modal) and vibration behavior. The integration of advanced non-contacting measurement techniques including scanning laser velocimetry, laser holography, and thermoelasticity into testing of these prototypes is described. Photoelastic properties of the epoxy prototypes to reveal full field stress/strain fields are also explored.

  11. Evaluating the implementation of nurse-initiated HIV rapid testing in three Veterans Health Administration substance use disorder clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, E E; Hagedorn, H J; Butler, J N; Felmet, K; Hoang, T; Wilson, P; Klima, G; Sudzina, E; Anaya, H D

    2012-11-01

    Individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs) are at higher risk of HIV infection, yet recent studies show rates of HIV testing are low among this population. We implemented and evaluated a nurse-initiated HIV oral rapid testing (NRT) strategy at three Veterans Health Administration SUD clinics. Implementation of NRT includes streamlined nurse training and a computerized clinical reminder. The evaluation employed qualitative interviews with staff and a quantitative evaluation of HIV testing rates. Barriers to testing included lack of laboratory support and SUD nursing resistance to performing medical procedures. Facilitators included the ease of NRT integration into workflow, engaged management and an existing culture of disease prevention. Six-months post intervention, rapid testing rates at SUD clinics in sites 1, 2, and 3 were 5.0%, 1.1% and 24.0%, respectively. Findings indicate that NRT can be successfully incorporated into some types of SUD subclinics with minimal perceived impact on workflow and time.

  12. Evaluation of Rapid Stain IDentification (RSID™ Reader System for Analysis and Documentation of RSID™ Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravatchai W. Boonlayangoor

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to detect the presence of body fluids is a crucial first step in documenting and processing forensic evidence. The Rapid Stain IDentification (RSID™ tests for blood, saliva, semen and urine are lateral flow immunochromatographic strip tests specifically designed for forensic use. Like most lateral flow strips, the membrane components of the test are enclosed in a molded plastic cassette with a sample well and an observation window. No specialized equipment is required to use these tests or to score the results seen in the observation window; however, the utility of these tests can be enhanced if an electronic record of the test results can be obtained, preferably by a small hand-held device that could be used in the field under low light conditions. Such a device should also be able to “read” the lateral flow strips and accurately record the results of the test as either positive, i.e., the body fluid was detected, or negative, i.e., the body fluid was not detected. Here we describe the RSID™ Reader System—a ruggedized strip test reader unit that allows analysis and documentation of RSID™ lateral flow strip tests using pre-configured settings, and show that the RSID™ Reader can accurately and reproducibly report and record correct results from RSID™ blood, saliva, semen, and urine tests.

  13. Serodiagnosis of Helicobacter pylori: evaluation of a rapid, miniaturized immunochromatographic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cognein, P; Costa, A; Giacosa, A

    1994-11-01

    Diagnosis and successful eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection has been shown to be significantly related to symptom improvement in patients affected by chronic gastritis, duodenal and gastric ulcer. There is, therefore, an increasing need for the development of new, easy to use, reliable and non-invasive techniques to detect this organism. One such test is Flex-Sure (SmithKline Diagnostics Inc., United States), a new, rapid immunochromatographic test which requires a drop of the patient's serum to be placed on the absorbent pad of a strip. If specific antibodies to H. pylori are present a red colour line appears. The present study compared Flex-Sure with a homologous quantitative immunoenzymatic test (HM-CAP, EPI, US) using the same antigen (high molecular weight protein), the second generation GAP test (Bio-Rad, USA), a rapid urease test, culture and histology in a cohort of dyspeptic patients. We produced a semiquantitative visual scale with which to perform this comparison. Our results show that Flex-Sure possesses a sensitivity of 96.1%, a specificity of 73.9%, an overall accuracy of 78.8%, a positive predictive value of 72% and a negative predictive value of 91.6%. It showed a highly significant correlation with histological and cultural results (P < 0.001), and with the other serological tests (P < 0.0001). Based on our data we conclude that Flex-Sure may yield quick (within 4 min), simply readable, qualitative, and according to our colourimetric scale, even semiquantitative results. Furthermore, it does not require any sample dilution, any particular equipment, or any specialized training for the operator.

  14. Evaluation of a new, rapid test for detecting HCV infection, suitable for use with blood or oral fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephen R; Kardos, Keith W; Schiff, Eugene; Berne, Cheryl A; Mounzer, Karam; Banks, Alpha T; Tatum, Harvey A; Friel, Timothy J; Demicco, Michael P; Lee, William M; Eder, Scott E; Monto, Alexander; Yearwood, Graham D; Guillon, Geraldine B; Kurtz, Lisa A; Fischl, Mark; Unangst, Jay Lynn; Kriebel, Laura; Feiss, Gary; Roehler, Michele

    2011-03-01

    The availability of a highly accurate, rapid, point-of-care test for hepatitis C virus (HCV) may be useful in addressing the problem of under-diagnosis of HCV, by increasing opportunities for testing outside of traditional clinical settings. A new HCV rapid test device (OraQuick® HCV Rapid Antibody Test), approved recently in Europe for use with venous blood, fingerstick blood, serum, plasma, or oral fluid was evaluated in a multi-center study and performance compared to established laboratory-based tests for detection of HCV. The HCV rapid test was evaluated in prospective testing of subjects with signs and/or symptoms of hepatitis, or who were at risk for hepatitis C using all 5 specimen types. Performance was assessed relative to HCV serostatus established by laboratory methods (EIA, RIBA and PCR) approved in Europe for diagnosis of hepatitis C infection. Sensitivity to antibody in early infection was also compared to EIA in 27 seroconversion panels. In addition, the reliability of the oral fluid sample for accurate detection of anti-HCV was assessed by studying the impact of various potentially interfering conditions of oral health, use of oral care products and consumption of food and drink. In this large study of at-risk and symptomatic persons, the overall specificities of the OraQuick® HCV Rapid Antibody Test were equivalent (99.6-99.9%) for all 5 specimen types and the 95% CIs substantially overlapped. Overall sensitivities were virtually identical for venous blood, fingerstick blood, serum and plasma (99.7-99.9%). Observed sensitivity was slightly lower for oral fluid at 98.1% though the upper CI (99.0%) was equal to the lower CI for venous blood and fingerstick blood. Most of the HCV positive subjects which gave nonreactive results in oral fluid had serological and virological results consistent with resolved infection. Sensitivity for anti-HCV in early seroconversion was virtually identical between the HCV rapid test and EIA. Detection of anti-HCV in

  15. Development and evaluation of an enzyme-labeled antibody test for the rapid detection of hog cholera antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, G.C.

    1977-01-01

    A rapid enzyme-labeled antibody (ELA) microtechnique for the screening of swine for hog cholera antibodies was developed and evaluated with a blind study, using a 640-sample hog cholera serum bank. The total time to run a group of 22 samples was approximately 1 hour. The ELA test results correlated >99% with hog cholera serum-neutralization test results on the same serums. Test results also indicated that the ELA test shares with the hog cholera serum-neutralization test the problem of cross reactions between the antibodies of hog cholera and bovine viral diarrhea.

  16. Evaluation of the Palutop+4 malaria rapid diagnostic test in a non-endemic setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Esbroeck Marjan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Palutop+4 (All. Diag, Strasbourg, France, a four-band malaria rapid diagnostic test (malaria RDT targeting the histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP-2, Plasmodium vivax-specific parasite lactate dehydrogenase (Pv-pLDH and pan Plasmodium-specific pLDH (pan-pLDH was evaluated in a non-endemic setting on stored whole blood samples from international travellers suspected of malaria. Methods Microscopy corrected by PCR was the reference method. Samples include those infected by Plasmodium falciparum (n = 323, Plasmodium vivax (n = 97, Plasmodium ovale (n = 73 and Plasmodium malariae (n = 25 and 95 malaria negative samples. Results The sensitivities for the diagnosis of P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae and P. ovale were 85.1%, 66.0%, 32.0% and 5.5%. Sensitivities increased at higher parasite densities and reached 90.0% for P. falciparum >100/μl and 83.8% for P. vivax > 500/μl. Fourteen P. falciparum samples reacted with the Pv-pLDH line, one P. vivax sample with the HRP-2 line, and respectively two and four P. ovale and P. malariae samples reacted with the HRP-2 line. Two negative samples gave a signal with the HRP-2 line. Faint and weak line intensities were observed for 129/289 (44.6% HRP-2 lines in P. falciparum samples, for 50/64 (78.1% Pv-pLDH lines in P. vivax samples and for 9/13 (69.2% pan-pLDH lines in P. ovale and P. malariae samples combined. Inter-observer reliabilities for positive and negative readings were excellent for the HRP-2 and Pv-pLDH lines (overall agreement > 92.0% and kappa-values for each pair of readers ≥ 0.88, and good for the pan-pLDH line (85.5% overall agreement and kappa-values ≥ 0.74. Conclusions Palutop+4 performed moderately for the detection of P. falciparum and P. vivax, but sensitivities were lower than those of three-band malaria RDTs.

  17. Field evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic dipstick test for the diagnosis of cholera in a high-risk population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Taesung

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early detection of cholera outbreaks is crucial for the implementation of the most appropriate control strategies. Methods The performance of an immunochromatographic dipstick test (Institute Pasteur, Paris, France specific for Vibrio cholerae O1 was evaluated in a prospective study in Beira, Mozambique, during the 2004 cholera season (January-May. Fecal specimens were collected from 391 patients with acute watery nonbloody diarrhea and tested by dipstick and conventional culture. Results The overall sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test compared to culture were 95% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 91%–99% and 89% (95% CI: 86%–93%, respectively. After stratification by type of sample (rectal swab/bulk stool and severity of diarrhea, the sensitivity ranged between 85% and 98% and specificity between 77% and 97%. Conclusion This one-step dipstick test performed well in the diagnosis of V. cholerae O1 in a setting with seasonal outbreaks where rapid tests are most urgently needed.

  18. Multisite clinical evaluation of a rapid test for Entamoeba histolytica in stool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkerke, Hans P; Hanbury, Blake; Siddique, Abdullah; Samie, Amidou; Haque, Rashidul; Herbein, Joel; Petri, William A

    2015-02-01

    Rapid point-of-care detection of enteric protozoa in diarrheal stool is desirable in clinical and research settings to efficiently determine the etiology of diarrhea. We analyzed the ability of the third-generation E. histolytica Quik Chek assay developed by Techlab to detect amebic antigens in fecal samples collected from independent study populations in South Africa and Bangladesh. We compared the performance of this recently released rapid test to that of the commercially available ProSpecT Entamoeba histolytica microplate assay from Remel and the E. histolytica II enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) from Techlab, using real-time and nested-PCR for Entamoeba species to resolve any discrepant results. After discrepant resolution, The E. histolytica Quik Chek assay exhibited sensitivity and specificity compared to the E. histolytica II ELISA of 98.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 92.9% to 99.8%) and 100% (95% CI, 99.0% to 100%), respectively. Compared to the ProSpecT microplate assay, the E. histolytica Quik Chek (Quik Chek) assay exhibited 97.0% sensitivity (95% CI, 91.5% to 99.4%) and 100% specificity (95% CI, 99.0% to 100%). Our results indicate that the Quik Chek is a robust assay for the specific detection of E. histolytica trophozoites in unfixed frozen clinical stool samples.

  19. Multisite Clinical Evaluation of a Rapid Test for Entamoeba histolytica in Stool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkerke, Hans P.; Hanbury, Blake; Siddique, Abdullah; Samie, Amidou; Haque, Rashidul; Herbein, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Rapid point-of-care detection of enteric protozoa in diarrheal stool is desirable in clinical and research settings to efficiently determine the etiology of diarrhea. We analyzed the ability of the third-generation E. histolytica Quik Chek assay developed by Techlab to detect amebic antigens in fecal samples collected from independent study populations in South Africa and Bangladesh. We compared the performance of this recently released rapid test to that of the commercially available ProSpecT Entamoeba histolytica microplate assay from Remel and the E. histolytica II enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) from Techlab, using real-time and nested-PCR for Entamoeba species to resolve any discrepant results. After discrepant resolution, The E. histolytica Quik Chek assay exhibited sensitivity and specificity compared to the E. histolytica II ELISA of 98.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 92.9% to 99.8%) and 100% (95% CI, 99.0% to 100%), respectively. Compared to the ProSpecT microplate assay, the E. histolytica Quik Chek (Quik Chek) assay exhibited 97.0% sensitivity (95% CI, 91.5% to 99.4%) and 100% specificity (95% CI, 99.0% to 100%). Our results indicate that the Quik Chek is a robust assay for the specific detection of E. histolytica trophozoites in unfixed frozen clinical stool samples. PMID:25428152

  20. Evaluation of the positive predictive value of a rapid Immunochromatographic test to detect Campylobacter in stools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floch Pauline

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The recently developed rapid immunochromatographic tests (ICT have the potential to provide a quick and easy diagnosis of Campylobacter enteritis in comparison to culture. In a previous study we found them sensitive but lacking in specificity. The aim of the present study was to focus on the problem of specificity and determine the positive predictive value (PPV of a positive result of the ImmunoCard Stat! Campy (Meridian Bioscience, Cincinnati, OH, USA. For this purpose, the stools positive by ICT were cultured according to 3 different protocols: Karmali agar, Preston enrichment broth subcultured on Karmali agar, and a filtration method on a blood agar without antibiotics, all incubated for 7 days at 37°C. Out of 609 stools from adults and children with community acquired enteritis, the reference methods detected 25 positive cases (4.1% (culture: 19, specific PCR and ELISA both positive: 6 and the ICT: 31 including the 25 true positives. The PPV was 80.6%. We conclude that ICT is a good method to screen Campylobacter positive stools but because of its lack of specificity the positive stools must be tested by another method.

  1. Clinical Evaluation of the ZstatFlu-II Test: a Chemiluminescent Rapid Diagnostic Test for Influenza Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Marilyn S.; Abel, David M.; Ballam, Yolanda J.; Otto, Mary K.; Nickell, Angela F.; Pence, Lisa M.; Appleman, James R.; Shimasaki, Craig D.; Achyuthan, Komandoor E.

    2002-01-01

    Exploiting the high sensitivity of the chemiluminescence phenomenon, an accurate and sensitive point-of-care test, called the ZstatFlu-II test (ZymeTx, Inc., Oklahoma City, Okla.), was developed to detect influenza virus infections. The ZstatFlu-II test takes 20 min and requires approximately 2 min of “hands-on” time for operational steps. The ZstatFlu-II test does not distinguish between infections with influenza virus types A and B. ZstatFlu-II test results are printed on Polaroid High-Speed Detector Film, allowing test results to be archived. A prototype version of the ZstatFlu-II test was evaluated during the 2000-to-2001 flu season with 300 nasal aspirate specimens from children at a pediatric hospital. Compared to culture, the ZstatFlu-II test had 88% sensitivity and 92% specificity. The Directigen test had a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 93%. The sensitivity of the ZstatFlu-II test was significantly higher than that of the Directigen test (P < 0.0574). PMID:12089243

  2. Multicentre evaluation of a commercial test for the rapid diagnosis of Clostridium difficile-mediated antibiotic-associated diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, A H; Patel, N B; Sidorczuk, M; Loy, P; Fulcher, J; Dexter, P; Richards, J; Borriello, S P; Zak, K W; Thorn, E M

    1998-11-01

    An immunoassay for the detection of Clostridium difficile toxin A in stool samples (Clearview C. DIFF A; Unipath, UK) was evaluated against the cell cytotoxicity assay using 407 stool samples from patients suspected to have, or considered at risk of, antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Of the samples tested, 98 were positive and 280 were negative by both tests (sensitivity 83.1%, specificity 96.9%). Following resolution of the 29 discrepant results, the sensitivity and specificity of the immunoassay were 91% and 98%, respectively, and the sensitivity for the cell cytotoxicity assay was calculated as 91.5%, with a specificity of 99%. The Clearview C. DIFF A test proved to be a rapid simple assay for the detection of Clostridium difficile toxin A in stool samples. The test was equally suited to single or batch testing, required minimal sample handling, and provided results within 30 min of applying the sample to the test unit.

  3. Serological Diagnosis of Acute Scrub Typhus in Southern India: Evaluation of InBios Scrub Typhus Detect IgM Rapid Test and Comparison with other Serological Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitharaj, Velmurugan; Stephen, Selvaraj; Pradeep, Jothimani; Park, Sungman; Kim, Seung-Han; Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Eun-Ye; Kim, Yoon-Won

    2016-11-01

    Scrub Typhus (ST) is being reported from different parts of India in the recent past. However, the diagnosis and confirmation of ST cases require specific serological and molecular diagnostic tests. Both rapid and conventional ELISA tests need to be properly evaluated. Evaluation of a new ST IgM Immunochromatography (ICT) test kit (InBios Scrub Typhus Detect IgM Rapid Test) and compare it with another rapid kit, conventional ELISA kit and Weil-Felix (WF) test. This prospective study was carried out in Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Puducherry, during November 2015 to June 2016. Clinically suspected 220 ST patients were examined by a new kit, InBios Scrub Typhus Detect IgM Rapid Test, taking the conventional InBios Scrub Typhus Detect IgM ELISA as reference. Additional comparison was made with ImmuneMed Scrub Typhus Rapid, and WF test (single OXK titers ≥1:320). Statistical analysis was performed (Chi-square, Spearman's correlation and Kappa) using IBM SPSS Statistics 17 for Windows (SPSS Inc; Chicago, USA). Percentage Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive Predictive and Negative Predictive Values for InBios, ImmuneMed and WF were 99.25, 93.02, 95.68, 98.77; 94.87, 94.19, 96.21, 92.05 and 50.38, 95.51, 94.29, 56.67 respectively. A total of 134 patients were positive in reference standard InBios IgM ELISA. This new rapid ST IgM kit validated for the first time in India, showed good sensitivity and specificity. As a Point-of-Care (PoC) test, the kit would be helpful in both urban and remote rural parts of India.

  4. Field evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test (Parascreen™ for malaria diagnosis in the Peruvian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez Hugo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (RDT constitute a fast and opportune alternative for non-complicated malaria diagnosis in areas where microscopy is not available. The objective of this study was to validate a RDT named Parascreen™ under field conditions in Iquitos, department of Loreto, Peru. Parascreen™ is a RDT that detects the histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2 antigen from Plasmodium falciparum and lactate deshydrogenase from all Plasmodium species. Methods Parascreen™ was compared with microscopy performed by experts (EM and polymerase chain reaction (PCR using the following indicators: sensitivity (Se, specificity (Sp, positive (PV+ and negative predictive values (PV-, positive (LR+ and negative likehood ratio (LR-. Results 332 patients with suspected non-complicated malaria who attended to the MOH health centres were enrolled between October and December 2006. For P. falciparum malaria, Parascreen™ in comparison with EM, had Se: 53.5%, Sp: 98.7%, PV+: 66.7%, PV-: 97.8%, LR+: 42.27 and LR-: 0.47; and for non-P. falciparum malaria, Se: 77.1%, Sp: 97.6%, PV+: 91.4%, PV-: 92.7%, LR+: 32.0 and LR-: 0.22. The comparison of Parascreen™ with PCR showed, for P. falciparum malaria, Se: 81.8%, Sp: 99.1%, PV+: 75%, PV-: 99.4, LR+: 87.27 and LR-: 0.18; and for non-P. falciparum malaria Se: 76.1%, Sp: 99.2%, PV+: 97.1%, PV-: 92.0%, LR+: 92.51 and LR-: 0.24. Conclusions The study results indicate that Parascreen™ is not a valid and acceptable test for malaria diagnosis under the field conditions found in the Peruvian Amazon. The relative proportion of Plasmodium species, in addition to the genetic characteristics of the parasites in the area, must be considered before applying any RDT, especially after the finding of P. falciparum malaria parasites lacking pfhrp2 gene in this region.

  5. Rapid molecular diagnostic tests in patients with bacteremia: evaluation of their impact on decision making and clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardakas, K Z; Anifantaki, F I; Trigkidis, K K; Falagas, M E

    2015-11-01

    We performed a systematic review of the data regarding rapid diagnostic tests and their advantages or limitations on patients' clinical outcomes. The PubMed and Scopus databases were searched independently by two reviewers. Mortality was the primary outcome. Most studies compared rapid tests with blood cultures. Although not observed in all studies, only studies comparing rapid tests in conjunction with antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) showed a mortality benefit. A reduction in hospital or intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay was also observed in almost all studies when the rapid tests, with or without ASPs, were used. Finally, treatment decisions were taken earlier in the rapid test groups. Despite a faster treatment decision, a clear mortality benefit was not seen when rapid tests were used. It is crucial to differentiate the influence of rapid tests from that of ASPs and clarify the actual effect of each factor separately.

  6. [Evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Cotonou (Bénin)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogouyèmi-Hounto, A; Agbayahoun-Chokki, F; Sissinto Savi de Tove, Y; Biokou Bankole, B; Adinsi de Souza, V; Assogba, M; Kinde-Gazard, D; Massougbodji, A

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of the ImmunoComb® Toxo IgG and ImmunoComb® Toxo IgMassays (rapid diagnostic test) in the laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Cotonou. We interviewed 266 pregnant women, who first answered an epidemiological questionnaire, and collected blood samples for measurement of IgG and IgM anti T. gondii antibodies with the ImmunoComb toxo assays and with the ARCHITECT CIMA method. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated to determine the performance of the rapid test. The seroprevalences of IgG against T. gondii by CIMA technique and rapid test were respectively 48.9% and 48.5%. The prevalence increased with age. Performances for IgG were: sensitivity 97%, specificity 100%, PPV 100%, NPV = 97.10%. For IgM, Sensitivity: 33.3% Specificity: 100%, PPV 100%, NPV = 99.2%. Seroprevalence obtained shows that about half of the study population is not immune against T. gondii and requires regular serological monitoring until delivery. According to these results, and given the needs of toxoplasmosis diagnosis on the field characterized by an important decrease of immunized women, this test may be recommended in the laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in peripheral levels of the health pyramid.

  7. Rapid HIV test in family practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, C; Aymeric, S; Grammatico-Guillon, L; Lebeau, J P; Bernard, L; Le Bret, P; Le Moal, G; Gras, G

    2015-06-01

    The 2010-2014 HIV/AIDS French program recommends using HIV rapid diagnostic tests in family practice. Our aim was to assess the acceptability and feasibility of the RDT in family practice in France. The first part of this study was to determine the opinions of family practitioners (FPs) concerning the news guidelines for screening and the possible use of rapid HIV tests in their practice. The second part was a feasibility study of the actual use of rapid HIV tests given to FPs during six months. The third part was a qualitative analysis of experience feedback to determine the impediments to using rapid HIV tests. Seventy-seven percent of the 352 FPs interviewed were favorable to rapid HIV tests use. The three main impediments were: misinterpretation of test result, complexity of quality control, and lack of training: 23 of the 112 FPs having volunteered to evaluate the rapid HIV tests followed the required training session. Sixty-nine tests were handed out, and three rapid HIV tests were used; the qualitative study involved 12 FPs. The participants all agreed on the difficult use of rapid HIV tests in daily practice. The main reasons were: too few opportunities or requests for use, complex handling, difficulties in proposing the test, fear of having to announce seropositivity, significantly longer consultation. Although FPs are generally favorable to rapid HIV tests use in daily practice, the feasibility and contribution of rapid HIV tests are limited in family practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Avaliação do teste rápido da urease conservado em geladeira Evaluation of rapid urease test stored in refrigerator

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    Laura Cotta ORNELLAS

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available O teste rápido da urease, método acurado, barato, de resultado prontamente acessível, vem sendo largamente utilizado na pesquisa do Helicobacter pylori. Com qualidade equivalente à dos testes comerciais, o teste rápido da urease não tamponado tem sido preparado para uso diário. Objetivo - Avaliação deste método estocado em geladeira (4 ºC. Material e método - Foram obtidas biopsias endoscópicas da mucosa antral de 104 pacientes consecutivos, nas quais a pesquisa do Helicobacter pylori foi realizada pelo teste rápido da urease, exame anatomopatológico e teste rápido da urease estocado mantido em geladeira por período de 1 a 8 dias e retirado no dia do exame. Resultados - Consideramos presente a infecção quando o teste rápido da urease e anatomopatológico foram concomitantemente positivos, o que ocorreu em 45 pacientes (42%. O teste rápido da urease estocado mostrou especificidade comparável ao teste rápido da urease (93%, com sensibilidade de 88%. Conclusão - Podemos concluir que o teste rápido da urease estocado mantém acurácia adequada, permitindo seu uso rotineiro. Assim, torna-se ainda mais fácil a utilização de testes de urease não tamponados, já que a acurácia diagnóstica fica mantida mesmo com estocagem por até 8 dias.The rapid urease test is an accurate and cheap method, which results are readily available, and broadly used for routine Helicobacter pylori infection diagnosis. Aim - The evaluation of rapid urease test stored in refrigerator at 4 °C (SRUT compared to regular rapid urease test. Patients and Method - Endoscopic biopsies were obtained from gastric antrum in 104 consecutive patients. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection was accomplished by rapid urease test, histology and rapid urease test stored (kept in refrigerator by a period ranging from 1 to 8 days. Results - Infection was considered present if both rapid urease test and histology were positive. Helicobacter pylori was present in

  9. Evaluation of the BYG Carba Test, a New Electrochemical Assay for Rapid Laboratory Detection of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Sami; Massart, Marion; Huang, Te-Din; Glupczynski, Youri

    2015-01-01

    Accurate detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) constitutes a major laboratory diagnostic challenge. We evaluated an electrochemical technique (the BYG Carba test) which allows detection of CPE in less than 35 min. The BYG Carba test was first validated in triplicate against 57 collection isolates with previously characterized β-lactam resistance mechanisms (OXA-48, n = 12; KPC, n = 8; NDM, n = 8; VIM, n = 8; IMP, n = 3; GIM, n = 1; GES-6, n = 1; no carbapenemase, n = 16) and against a panel of 10 isolates obtained from the United Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Service (NEQAS). The test was then evaluated prospectively against 324 isolates referred to the national reference center for suspicion of CPE. The BYG Carba test results were compared with those obtained with the Carba NP test using multiplex PCR sequencing as the gold standard. Of the 57 collection and the 10 NEQAS isolates, all but one GES-6-producing isolate were correctly identified by the Carba BYG test. Among the 324 consecutive Enterobacteriaceae isolates tested prospectively, 146 were confirmed as noncarbapenemase producers by PCR while 178 harbored a carbapenemase gene (OXA-48, n = 117; KPC, n = 25; NDM, n = 23; and VIM, n = 13). Prospectively, in comparison with PCR results, the BYG Carba test displayed 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity versus 89% and 100%, respectively, for the Carba NP test. The BYG Carba test is a novel, rapid, and efficient assay based on an electro-active polymer biosensing technology discriminating between CPE and non-CPE. The precise electrochemical signal (electrochemical impedance variations) allows the establishment of real-time objective measurement and interpretation criteria which should facilitate the accreditation process of this technology. PMID:26637378

  10. Evaluation of the BYG Carba Test, a New Electrochemical Assay for Rapid Laboratory Detection of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaerts, Pierre; Yunus, Sami; Massart, Marion; Huang, Te-Din; Glupczynski, Youri

    2016-02-01

    Accurate detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) constitutes a major laboratory diagnostic challenge. We evaluated an electrochemical technique (the BYG Carba test) which allows detection of CPE in less than 35 min. The BYG Carba test was first validated in triplicate against 57 collection isolates with previously characterized β-lactam resistance mechanisms (OXA-48, n = 12; KPC, n = 8; NDM, n = 8; VIM, n = 8; IMP, n = 3; GIM, n = 1; GES-6, n = 1; no carbapenemase, n = 16) and against a panel of 10 isolates obtained from the United Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Service (NEQAS). The test was then evaluated prospectively against 324 isolates referred to the national reference center for suspicion of CPE. The BYG Carba test results were compared with those obtained with the Carba NP test using multiplex PCR sequencing as the gold standard. Of the 57 collection and the 10 NEQAS isolates, all but one GES-6-producing isolate were correctly identified by the Carba BYG test. Among the 324 consecutive Enterobacteriaceae isolates tested prospectively, 146 were confirmed as noncarbapenemase producers by PCR while 178 harbored a carbapenemase gene (OXA-48, n = 117; KPC, n = 25; NDM, n = 23; and VIM, n = 13). Prospectively, in comparison with PCR results, the BYG Carba test displayed 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity versus 89% and 100%, respectively, for the Carba NP test. The BYG Carba test is a novel, rapid, and efficient assay based on an electro-active polymer biosensing technology discriminating between CPE and non-CPE. The precise electrochemical signal (electrochemical impedance variations) allows the establishment of real-time objective measurement and interpretation criteria which should facilitate the accreditation process of this technology.

  11. Evaluation of Six Commercially Available Rapid Immunochromatographic Tests for the Diagnosis of Rabies in Brain Material.

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    Elisa Eggerbauer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease that causes an estimated 60,000 human deaths annually. The main burden lies on developing countries in Asia and Africa, where surveillance and disease detection is hampered by absence of adequate laboratory facilities and/or the difficulties of submitting samples from remote areas to laboratories. Under these conditions, easy-to-use tests such as immunochromatographic assays, i.e. lateral flow devices (LFD, may increase surveillance and improve control efforts. Several LFDs for rabies diagnosis are available but, except for one, there are no data regarding their performance. Therefore, we compared six commercially available LFDs for diagnostic and analytical sensitivity, as well as their specificity and their diagnostic agreement with standard rabies diagnostic techniques using different sample sets, including experimentally infected animals and several sets of field samples. Using field samples the sensitivities ranged between 0% up to 100% depending on the LFD and the samples, while for experimentally infected animals the maximum sensitivity was 32%. Positive results in LFD could be further validated using RT-qPCR and sequencing. In summary, in our study none of the tests investigated proved to be satisfactory, although the results somewhat contradict previous studies, indicating batch to batch variation. The high number of false negative results reiterates the necessity to perform a proper test validation before being marketed and used in the field. In this respect, marketing authorization and batch release control could secure a sufficient quality for these alternative tests, which could then fulfil their potential.

  12. Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of two rapid stool antigen tests using an immunochromatographic assay to detect Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva-Etto, Joyce Matie Kinoshita; Mattar, Rejane; Villares-Lopes, Cibele Aparecida; Marques, Sergio Barbosa; Carrilho, Flair José

    2017-05-05

    The stool antigen assay for H. pylori infection diagnosis with monoclonal antibodies is a simple and recommended technique by the Maastricht V/Florence consensus report. Recently, Pylori K-Set K-1219 (Coris Bioconcept Sprl, Belgium) and HP-F23 (Symbiosys, Brazil) have been made commercially available in Brazil. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracies of these two rapid stool antigen tests by immunochromatographic assays (index tests) for the clinical practice. A total of 98 patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and (13)C-urea breath test entered the study. H. pylori infection status was defined by the combination of the rapid urease test and the (13)C-urea breath test (reference standard). Two observers who were aware of H. pylori status performed the reading of index tests. Diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value with 95% confidence intervals, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio and kappa index measure of agreement) were determined. The index tests where in perfect agreement with the H. pylori status with kappa values of 0.87 for Pylori K-Set K-1219 and 0.92 for HP-F23. The sensitivity of HP-F23 was 97.9% (IC95%: 87.5-100) and specificity was 93.8% (IC95%; 84-97.2).The positive likelihood ratio was 15.8, and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.02. The Pylori K-Set K-1219 had a sensitivity of 87.7% (IC95%: 74.5-94.9) and a specificity of 100% (IC95%: 91.6-100); the positive likelihood ratio was ∞, and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.1. The test line on the cassette device of HP-F23 was stronger than of the Pylori K-Set K-1219. The HP-F23 test performed better in clinical practice. Nonetheless, the (13)C-urea breath test is more reliable technique. Moreover, caution must be paid to the trace or clear pale test line readings that were observed in false positive and false negative results, leading to incorrect management of the patient

  13. Evaluation of the Becton Dickinson Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Tests in Outpatients in Germany during Seven Influenza Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Maren; Enders, Martin; Terletskaia-Ladwig, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Background An extensive retrospective study spanning several seasons was undertaken to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the BD rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT) in comparison with the RT-PCR assay. Methods A total of 2,179 respiratory samples were tested in parallel by in-house RT-PCR and the RIDT. During the 2003-2004, 2006-2007, 2007-2008, and 2008-2009 (n=1671) seasons, the BD Directigen Flu A+B test was used, and during the 2010-2011, 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 (n=508) seasons, the BD Directigen EZ Flu A+B test b was used. Results The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for the BD Directigen Flu A+B test calculated for types A and B together were 39%, 99%, 98%, and 56%, respectively. For the BD Directigen EZ Flu A+B test, these values were 47%, 100%, 100%, 55%, respectively. The sensitivity of the BD Directigen Flu A+B test did not differ significantly from season to season or between types A (44%) and B (37%). The sensitivity of the BD Directigen EZ Flu A+B test calculated for type A only was 59%, which was considerably higher than the sensitivity of this test for type B (23%). The sensitivity of the RIDT was approximately 40-50% in children and teenagers, but it was only 18.% in adults aged 20 years and older. The specificity of both RIDTs was very high (>99%) during all seasons. Conclusions Due to their rapid turnaround time, RIDTs can help guide decisions about the clinical management of influenza. Because of the high specificity, a positive result can be interpreted as a true positive, and antiviral therapy as well as appropriate measures to prevent the transmission of influenza can be initiated. The best sensitivity of the RIDT is achieved in children. However, even in this group, the RIDT will only recognize influenza infection in approximately half of the cases, and influenza should still be considered in patients with negative results; negative RIDT results must be confirmed by PCR. PMID:26011531

  14. Evaluation of the Becton Dickinson Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Tests in Outpatients in Germany during Seven Influenza Seasons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Eggers

    Full Text Available An extensive retrospective study spanning several seasons was undertaken to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the BD rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT in comparison with the RT-PCR assay.A total of 2,179 respiratory samples were tested in parallel by in-house RT-PCR and the RIDT. During the 2003-2004, 2006-2007, 2007-2008, and 2008-2009 (n=1671 seasons, the BD Directigen Flu A+B test was used, and during the 2010-2011, 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 (n=508 seasons, the BD Directigen EZ Flu A+B test b was used.The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for the BD Directigen Flu A+B test calculated for types A and B together were 39%, 99%, 98%, and 56%, respectively. For the BD Directigen EZ Flu A+B test, these values were 47%, 100%, 100%, 55%, respectively. The sensitivity of the BD Directigen Flu A+B test did not differ significantly from season to season or between types A (44% and B (37%. The sensitivity of the BD Directigen EZ Flu A+B test calculated for type A only was 59%, which was considerably higher than the sensitivity of this test for type B (23%. The sensitivity of the RIDT was approximately 40-50% in children and teenagers, but it was only 18.% in adults aged 20 years and older. The specificity of both RIDTs was very high (>99% during all seasons.Due to their rapid turnaround time, RIDTs can help guide decisions about the clinical management of influenza. Because of the high specificity, a positive result can be interpreted as a true positive, and antiviral therapy as well as appropriate measures to prevent the transmission of influenza can be initiated. The best sensitivity of the RIDT is achieved in children. However, even in this group, the RIDT will only recognize influenza infection in approximately half of the cases, and influenza should still be considered in patients with negative results; negative RIDT results must be confirmed by PCR.

  15. Evaluation of the RAPIDEC® CARBA NP and β-CARBA® tests for rapid detection of Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Stefano; Kieffer, Nicolas; Poirel, Laurent; Nordmann, Patrice

    2017-08-01

    The analytical performances of the RAPIDEC CARBA NP® (bioMérieux) and the β-CARBA® (Bio-Rad) tests were evaluated for the rapid detection of any known type of carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae. An international collection of 149 enterobacterial isolates comprising 111 Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and 38 non-carbapenemase producers was used. CPE included 32 carbapenemase producers of class A (18 KPC-2, 1 FRI-1, 5 SME and 8 IMI), 33 of class B (13 NDM, 11 VIM and 9 IMP) and 46 of class D (15 OXA-48, 14 OXA-181, 10 OXA-204, 3 OXA-232 and 4 OXA-162). The RAPIDEC CARBA NP® and the β-CARBA® tests were performed in strict accordance to the manufacturer's instructions and results were read within 2 h and 30 min, respectively. RAPIDEC CARBA NP® detected 104/111 CPE isolates compared to 72/111 for the β-CARBA® test. The overall sensitivity and specificity were 93.7% and 100%, respectively, for the RAPIDEC CARBA NP® test, and 64.9% and 90%, respectively, for the β-CARBA® test. The β-CARBA® test failed to detect all the non-KPC class A carbapenemases (14/14) and most (24/31) of the OXA-48-like producers (OXA-162, OXA-181, OXA-204 and OXA-232), and detected 1/1 OXA-163 and 1/1 OXA-405 as carbapenemase producers whereas these enzymes are rather defined as non carbapenemases. RAPIDEC CARBA NP® test exhibited better performances than those of the β-CARBA® test and confirmed to be a reliable tool for the detection of CPE, especially for OXA-48-like producers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the MycoAKT latex agglutination test for rapid diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium complex infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olano, J P; Holmes, H; Woods, G L

    1998-01-01

    Rapid diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteremia is important for management of patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome who have disseminated MAC. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the MycoAKT latex agglutination test for direct detection of MAC in positive mycobacterial blood cultures. First, colonies of isolates of previously identified mycobacteria, including 35 MAC, were tested. Of the 55 isolates evaluated, 33 were identified as MAC by the latex test, including 31 of the known MAC and 2 M. chelonae (sensitivity, 88.6%; specificity, 90.0%). Second, broth from 20 ESP II and 20 BACTEC 12B bottles seeded with isolates of MAC were tested. Aliquots from 19 (95%) ESP II cultures and 16 (80%) 12B cultures were positive by the latex test. In phase 3, broth from 115 signal-positive ESP II blood cultures were tested by latex agglutination. Forty-three subcultures from these bottles grew mycobacteria (41 MAC and 2 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex); the remainder grew no organisms. Broth from 40 of the blood cultures (39 that grew MAC and 1 from which no organisms were recovered) were latex positive; thus, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the latex test for direct identification of MAC in ESP II blood cultures were 95.1, 98.6, 97.5, and 97.3%, respectively. The mean time to detection of MAC was 14.6 days (range, 6-34 days) with the direct latex test, compared with 18.3 days (range, 9-36 days) with subculture and probe (p < 0.05).

  17. Adaptation and evaluation of a rapid test for the diagnosis of sheep scrapie in samples of rectal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Lorenzo; Horton, Robert; Ramsay, Drew; Toomik, Reet; Leathers, Valerie; Tonelli, Quentin; Dagleish, Mark P; Jeffrey, Martin; Terry, Linda

    2008-03-01

    In recent publications, it was shown that disease-associated prion protein (PrP(d)) accumulates in the lymphoid tissue of the rectal mucosa of a high proportion of scrapie-infected sheep at clinical and preclinical stages, regardless of several host factors; PrP(d) can also be detected in biopsy specimens of rectal mucosa, with an increased probability proportional to age or incubation period and with an efficiency almost identical to that of tonsil biopsies. Rectal biopsies have the advantages of providing higher numbers of lymphoid follicles and of being simpler to perform, which makes them suitable for scrapie screening in the field. In biopsy samples, PrP(d) could be demonstrated by immunohistochemical (IHC) and Western immunoblotting methods, and the purpose of the present study was to optimize and evaluate a "rapid test" for the diagnosis of scrapie in rectal biopsy samples. The HerdChek CWD (chronic wasting disease) antigen EIA (enzyme immunoassay) test was chosen and, once optimized, provided specificity and sensitivity figures of 99.2% and 93.5%, respectively, compared with IHC results in the same samples obtained at a postmortem. The sensitivity of the assay increased from 82.1%, when a single rectal mucosa sample was tested to 99.4% for those sheep in which 3 or more samples were analyzed. Similarly, sensitivity values of the HerdChek CWD antigen EIA test on biopsy samples increased from 95% to 100% for sheep subjected to 1 or 2 sequential biopsies 4 months apart, respectively. Thus, a preclinical diagnosis of scrapie in live sheep can be achieved by a combination of a simple sampling procedure, which can be repeated several times with no detrimental effect for the animals, and a rapid and efficient laboratory method.

  18. CLINICAL EVALUATION OF FOUR RECOMBINANT TREPONEMA PALLIDUM ANTIGEN-BASED RAPID TESTS IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF SYPHILIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-na Wang; Lei Yang; He-yi Zheng

    2007-01-01

    To assess the sensitivity, specificity, and feasibility of 4 recombinant Treponema pallidum antigenbased rapid tests in the diagnosis of syphilis.Methods A total of 970 outpatients were selected from the Sexually Transmitted Diseases Centre of Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Venous blood was collected and serum was extracted. T. pallidum antibodies in whole blood, anticoagulant whole blood, and serum were detected using 4 recombinant T. pallidum antigen-based rapid tests.T. pallidum haemagglutination test (TPHA) was considered as the gold standard for the detection of T. pallidum specific antibodies in serum. The sensitivities and specificities of four methods were analyzed.Results The sensitivities and specificities of Abbott Determine Syphilis TP test, SD-BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test,VISITECT-SYPHILIS test, and Syphicheck-WB test for serum specimens were 100% and 98.9%, 95.7% and 98.0%, 94.6% and 98.2%, 68.1% and 98.9%; for whole blood were 74.1% and 99.5%, 87.9% and 99.4%,73.2% and 99.7%, 64.7% and 99.7%. The observed sensitivities of the 4 rapid diagnosis tests were not significantly different with TPHA ( P>0.05 ).Conclusions The 4 rapid tests show good performance and characteristics in the diagnosis of syphilis. Furthermore, they are more sensitive for serum specimens than whole blood.

  19. Evaluation of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture nucleic acid test for rapid detection of bacteria and resistance determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojewoda, Christina M; Sercia, Linda; Navas, Maria; Tuohy, Marion; Wilson, Deborah; Hall, Geraldine S; Procop, Gary W; Richter, Sandra S

    2013-07-01

    Rapid identification of pathogens from blood cultures can decrease lengths of stay and improve patient outcomes. We evaluated the accuracy of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture (BC-GP) nucleic acid test for investigational use only (Nanosphere, Inc., Northbrook, IL) for the identification of Gram-positive bacteria from blood cultures. The detection of resistance genes (mecA in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and vanA or vanB in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis) by the BC-GP assay also was assessed. A total of 186 positive blood cultures (in BacT/Alert FA bottles) with Gram-positive cocci observed with Gram staining were analyzed using the BC-GP assay. The BC-GP results were compared with the identification and susceptibility profiles obtained with routine methods in the clinical laboratory. Discordant results were arbitrated with additional biochemical, cefoxitin disk, and repeat BC-GP testing. The initial BC-GP organism identification was concordant with routine method results for 94.6% of the blood cultures. Only 40% of the Streptococcus pneumoniae identifications were correct. The detection of the mecA gene for 69 blood cultures with only S. aureus or S. epidermidis was concordant with susceptibility testing results. For 3 of 6 cultures with multiple Staphylococcus spp., mecA detection was reported but was correlated with oxacillin resistance in a species other than S. aureus or S. epidermidis. The detection of vanA agreed with susceptibility testing results for 45 of 46 cultures with E. faecalis or E. faecium. Comparison of the mean times to results for each organism group showed that BC-GP results were available 31 to 42 h earlier than phenotypic identifications and 41 to 50 h earlier than susceptibility results.

  20. Field and laboratory comparative evaluation of rapid malaria diagnostic tests versus traditional and molecular techniques in India

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    Bharti Praveen K

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria presents a diagnostic challenge in most tropical countries. Microscopy remains the gold standard for diagnosing malaria infections in clinical practice and research. However, microscopy is labour intensive, requires significant skills and time, which causes therapeutic delays. The objective of obtaining result quickly from the examination of blood samples from patients with suspected malaria is now made possible with the introduction of rapid malaria diagnostic tests (RDTs. Several RDTs are available, which are fast, reliable and simple to use and can detect Plasmodium falciparum and non-falciparum infections or both. A study was conducted in tribal areas of central India to measure the overall performance of several RDTs for diagnosis of P. falciparum and non-falciparum infections in comparison with traditional and molecular techniques. Such data will be used to guide procurement decisions of policy makers and programme managers. Methods Five commercially available RDTs were tested simultaneously in field in parallel with peripheral blood smears in outbreak-affected areas. The evaluation is designed to provide comparative data on the performance of each RDT. In addition, molecular method i.e. polymerase chain reaction (PCR was also carried out to compare all three methods. Results A total of 372 patients with a clinical suspicion of malaria from Bajag Primary Health Centre (PHC of district Dindori and Satanwada PHC of district Shivpuri attending the field clinics of Regional Medical Research Centre were included in the study. The analysis revealed that the First Response Malaria Antigen pLDH/HRP2 combo test was 94.7% sensitive (95% CI 89.5-97.7 and 69.9% specific (95% CI 63.6-75.6 for P. falciparum. However, for non-falciparum infections (Plasmodium vivax the test was 84.2% sensitive (95% CI 72.1-92.5 and 96.5% specific (95% CI 93.8-98.2. The Parascreen represented a good alternative. All other RDTs were relatively

  1. Evaluation of three parasite lactate dehydrogenase-based rapid diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of falciparum and vivax malaria

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    Leimanis Mara

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In areas where non-falciparum malaria is common rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs capable of distinguishing malaria species reliably are needed. Such tests are often based on the detection of parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH. Methods In Dawei, southern Myanmar, three pLDH based RDTs (CareStart™ Malaria pLDH (Pan, CareStart™ Malaria pLDH (Pan, Pf and OptiMAL-IT®were evaluated in patients presenting with clinically suspected malaria. Each RDT was read independently by two readers. A subset of patients with microscopically confirmed malaria had their RDTs repeated on days 2, 7 and then weekly until negative. At the end of the study, samples of study batches were sent for heat stability testing. Results Between August and November 2007, 1004 patients aged between 1 and 93 years were enrolled in the study. Slide microscopy (the reference standard diagnosed 213 Plasmodium vivax (Pv monoinfections, 98 Plasmodium falciparum (Pf mono-infections and no malaria in 650 cases. The sensitivities (sens and specificities (spec, of the RDTs for the detection of malaria were- CareStart Malaria™ pLDH (Pan test: sens 89.1% [CI95 84.2-92.6], spec 97.6% [CI95 96.5-98.4] OptiMal-IT®: Pf+/- other species detection: sens 95.2% [CI95 87.5-98.2], spec 94.7% [CI95 93.3-95.8]; non-Pf detection alone: sens 89.6% [CI95 83.6-93.6], spec 96.5% [CI95 94.8-97.7] CareStart Malaria™ pLDH (Pan, Pf: Pf+/- other species: sens 93.5% [CI9585.4-97.3], spec 97.4% [95.9-98.3]; non-Pf: sens 78.5% [CI9571.1-84.4], spec 97.8% [CI95 96.3-98.7] Inter-observer agreement was excellent for all tests (kappa > 0.9. The median time for the RDTs to become negative was two days for the CareStart™ Malaria tests and seven days for OptiMAL-IT®. Tests were heat stable up to 90 days except for OptiMAL-IT® (Pf specific pLDH stable to day 20 at 35°C. Conclusion None of the pLDH-based RDTs evaluated was able to detect non-falciparum malaria with high sensitivity, particularly

  2. Rapid Evaluation Capability (REC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The REC, located at Camp Grayling, MI, uses the only high-explosive impact area in the state to conduct year-round experiments and evaluations. In coordination with...

  3. Multicountry Prospective Clinical Evaluation of Two Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays and Two Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Diagnosing Dengue Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauner, Allison L.; Valks, Andrea; Forshey, Brett M.; Long, Kanya C.; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Sierra, Gloria; Picos, Victor; Talmage, Sara; Morrison, Amy C.; Halsey, Eric S.; Comach, Guillermo; Yasuda, Chadwick; Loeffelholz, Michael; Jarman, Richard G.; Fernandez, Stefan; An, Ung Sam; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Jasper, Louis E.; Wu, Shuenn-Jue L.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated four dengue diagnostic devices from Alere, including the SD Bioline Dengue Duo (nonstructural [NS] 1 Ag and IgG/IgM), the Panbio Dengue Duo Cassette (IgM/IgG) rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), and the Panbio dengue IgM and IgG capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) in a prospective, controlled, multicenter study in Peru, Venezuela, Cambodia, and the United States, using samples from 1,021 febrile individuals. Archived, well-characterized samples from an additional 135 febrile individuals from Thailand were also used. Reference testing was performed on all samples using an algorithm involving virus isolation, in-house IgM and IgG capture ELISAs, and plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT) to determine the infection status of the individual. The primary endpoints were the clinical sensitivities and specificities of these devices. The SD Bioline Dengue Duo had an overall sensitivity of 87.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.1 to 90.2%) and specificity of 86.8% (95% CI, 83.9 to 89.3%) during the first 14 days post-symptom onset (p.s.o.). The Panbio Dengue Duo Cassette demonstrated a sensitivity of 92.1% (87.8 to 95.2%) and specificity of 62.2% (54.5 to 69.5%) during days 4 to 14 p.s.o. The Panbio IgM capture ELISA had a sensitivity of 87.6% (82.7 to 91.4%) and specificity of 88.1% (82.2 to 92.6%) during days 4 to 14 p.s.o. Finally, the Panbio IgG capture ELISA had a sensitivity of 69.6% (62.1 to 76.4%) and a specificity of 88.4% (82.6 to 92.8%) during days 4 to 14 p.s.o. for identification of secondary dengue infections. This multicountry prospective study resulted in reliable real-world performance data that will facilitate data-driven laboratory test choices for managing patient care during dengue outbreaks. PMID:25588659

  4. [Evaluation of malaria rapid diagnostic test Optimal-IT® pLDH along the Plasmodium falciparum distribution limit in Mauritania].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, H; Ahouidi, A D; Duffy, C W; Deh, Y B; Diedhiou, C; Tandia, A; Diallo, M Y; Assefa, S; Lô, B B; Elkory, M B; Conway, D J

    2017-02-01

    Performance of the malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) OptiMal-IT® was evaluated in Mauritania where malaria is low and dependent on a short transmission season. Slide microscopy was considered as the reference method of diagnosis. Febrile patients with suspected malaria were recruited from six health facilities, 3 urban and 3 rural, during two periods (December 2011 to February 2012, and August 2012 to March 2013). Overall, 780 patients were sampled, with RDT and thick blood film microscopy results being obtained for 759 of them. Out of 774 slides examined, of which 200 were positive, P. falciparum and P. vivax mono-infections were detected in 63.5% (127) and 29.5% (59), while P. falciparum/P. vivax coinfections were detected in 7% (14). Both species were observed in all study sites, although in significantly different proportions. The proportions of thick blood film and OptiMal-IT® RDT positive individuals was 26.3% and 30.3% respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of OptiMal-IT® RDT were 89% [95% CI, 84.7-93.3] and 91.1% [88.6-93.4]. Positives and negative predictive values were 78.1% [72.2-83.7] and 95.9% [94.1-97.5]. These diagnostic values are similar to those generally reported elsewhere, and support the use of RDTs as the main diagnostic tool for malaria in Mauritanian health facilities. In the future, choice of RDTs to be used must take account of thermostability in a hot, dry environment and their ability to detect P. falciparum and P. vivax.

  5. Clinic-Based Evaluation of a Rapid Point-of-Care Test for Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in Specimens from Sex Workers in Escuintla, Guatemala▿

    OpenAIRE

    Sabidó, M; G. Hernández; González, V; Vallès, X; Montoliu, A.; Figuerola, J.; Isern, V.; Viñado, B; Figueroa,L.; Casabona, J.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated a rapid point-of-care test for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in specimens from 278 sex workers attending sexually transmitted infection clinics in Guatemala. The sensitivity and the specificity of the test compared to the results of PCR were 62.96% and 99.60%, respectively. The test performed moderately well as a screening tool in a context in which clinical follow-up visits are infrequent.

  6. Laboratory Evaluation of a Dual-Path Platform Assay for Rapid Point-of-Care HIV and Syphilis Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, S R; Ramos, L B; Vargas, S K; Kojima, N; Perez, D G; Caceres, C F; Klausner, J D

    2016-02-01

    We assessed the laboratory performance of the Chembio dual-path platform HIV-syphilis rapid immunodiagnostic test and electronic reader for detection of HIV and Treponema pallidum antibodies in 450 previously characterized serum specimens. For visual or electronic reader HIV antibody detection, the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity was 98.7%. For visual T. pallidum antibody detection, the test sensitivity was 94.7% and the specificity was 100.0%; with the electronic reader, the sensitivity was 94.7% and the specificity was 99.7%. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the rapid diagnostic test OptiMAL for diagnosis of malaria due to Plasmodium vivax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Soto Tarazona

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of the rapid diagnostic test OptiMAL® for diagnosis of Plasmodium vivax malaria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included all the patients who sought medical attention in the San Martin Pangoa Hospital, Junin, an area endemic for vivax malaria in Peru, between October and December 1998, who had fever during the previous 72 hours and who were older than 12 months. The gold standard for diagnosis was thick blood film microscopy. We determined the parasitemia rate for each of the positive slides. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the test. RESULTS: We included 72 patients; 39 of them were positive for P. vivax by microscopic examination. The sensitivity of the Optimal test was 92.3%, the specificity 100%, the positive predictive value 100% and the negative predictive value 91.6%. The accuracy of the test was 95.8%. The sensitivity of the OptiMAL® test progressively decreased when parasitemia was lower than 1,000 parasites/microliter. CONCLUSIONS: the OptiMAL® test has a high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of P. vivax malaria. However, its sensitivity decreased when parasitemia levels were lower. It is a very simple technique, which makes it a good alternative for malaria diagnosis in remote places, although its elevated cost is still a problem.

  8. Laboratory Evaluation of a Smartphone-Based Electronic Reader of Rapid Dual Point-of-Care Tests for Antibodies to Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Treponema pallidum Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst de Cortina, Sasha; Bristow, Claire C; Humphries, Romney; Vargas, Silver Keith; Konda, Kelika A; Caceres, Carlos F; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2017-07-01

    Dual point-of-care tests for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Treponema pallidum allow for same-day testing and treatment and have been demonstrated to be cost-effective in preventing the adverse outcomes of HIV infection and syphilis. By recording and transmitting data as they are collected, electronic readers address challenges related to the decentralization of point-of-care testing. We evaluated a smartphone-based electronic reader using 201 sera tested with 2 dual rapid tests for detection of antibodies to HIV and T. pallidum in Los Angeles, USA, and Lima, Peru. Tests were read both visually and with the electronic reader. Enzyme immunoassay followed by Western blot and T. pallidum particle agglutination were the reference tests for HIV and T. pallidum, respectively. The sensitivities of the 2 rapid tests for detection of HIV were 94.1% and 97.0% for electronic readings. Both tests had a specificity of 100% for detection of HIV by electronic reading. The sensitivities of the 2 rapid tests for detection of T. pallidum were 86.5% and 92.4% for electronic readings. The specificities for detection of T. pallidum were 99.1% and 99.0% by electronic reading. There were no significant differences between the accuracies of visual and electronic readings, and the performance did not differ between the 2 study sites. Our results show the electronic reader to be a promising option for increasing the use of point-of-care testing programs.

  9. Evaluation of the immunochromatographic strip test for the rapid diagnosis of antenatal syphilis in women in Eldoret, Kenya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lydia B.Nyamwamu; Michael M.Gicheru; Rekha R.Sharma; Albert Kimutai; Willy K.Tonui

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the performance of the immunochromatographic strip (ICS) to the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test and Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA) at a primary health care setting. Methods: The study group was comprised of 150 females randomly drawn from a population of pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit or follow-up visits at West Maternity Hospital in Eldoret Kenya, but without a previous syphilis test during that pregnancy. On-site VDRL, ICS and TPHA tests were performed and immediate treatment provided where appropriate. The performance of the three tests was compared. Results: The sero-prevalence of syphilis as determined by the VDRL test was 3%. There was no significant difference between the ICS and the VDRL test (P > 0.05). The sensitivity and specificity of the ICS test were 80% and 98.6% respectively, while the negative predictive value (NPV) and positive predictive value (PPV) were both 100%. On the other hand, the sensitivity and specificity of the VDRL test were 66.7% and 99.3%, while the NPV and PPV were 80% and 98.6% respectively. The Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay was used as a reference test and had sensitivity, specificity, NPV and PPV of 100%. Conclusion: The diagnostic accuracy of the ICS compared favorably with theVDRL gold standard. The use of the ICS in Kenya can improve the diagnosis of syphilis in health facilities both with and without laboratories and allow community health care workers to make a rapid diagnosis of the disease, and consequently make immediate therapeutic decisions.

  10. Kato-Katz and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation test to evaluate helminth prevalence in the setting of a school-based deworming program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Martha; Morales, Maria Luisa; Konana, Monisha; Hoyer, Paige; Pineda-Reyes, Roberto; White, Arthur Clinton; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Lescano, Andres Guillermo; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Cabada, Miguel Mauricio

    2016-05-01

    The sensitivity of the Kato-Katz test is suboptimal for the evaluation of intestinal helminth prevalence. Moreover, during mass deworming, as helminth egg burden decreases, the sensitivity is likely to decrease. The Lumbreras rapid sedimentation (Lumbreras) is a low-cost non-quantitative test, but may provide useful information in low burden areas. We compared the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections assessed by the Kato-Katz and the Lumbreras rapid sedimentation test on 3 stool specimens from each of 1083 children. The sensitivities were compared using the McNemar paired test. Using the combined outcome of the 3 different stool tests as the standard, Kato-Katz had lower sensitivity than Lumbreras rapid sedimentation tests for Ascaris lumbricoides (85.1% vs. 95.1%, p = 0.03), Hymenolepis nana (77.7% vs. 97.9%, p Katz demonstrated significantly lower sensitivity, missing most T. trichiura, hookworm, and S. stercoralis infections. The combination of Kato-Katz and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation tests enables the detection of more intestinal helminths infections in post-deworming low prevalence areas.

  11. Evaluation of a Novel Rapid Test System for the Detection of Specific IgE to Hymenoptera Venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Pfender

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Allergy Lateral Flow Assay (ALFA is a novel rapid assay for the detection of sIgE to allergens. The objective of this study is the evaluation of ALFA for the detection of sIgE to bee venom (BV and wasp venom (WV in insect venom allergic patients. Methods. Specific IgE to BV and WV was analyzed by ALFA, ALLERG-O-LIQ, and ImmunoCAP in 80 insect venom allergic patients and 60 control sera. Sensitivity and specificity of ALFA and correlation of ALFA and ImmunoCAP results were calculated. Results. The sensitivity/specificity of ALFA to the diagnosis was 100%/83% for BV and 82%/97% for WV. For insect venom allergic patients, the Spearman correlation coefficient for ALFA versus ImmunoCAP was 0.79 for BV and 0.80 for WV. However, significant differences in the negative control groups were observed. Conclusion. ALFA represents a simple, robust, and reliable tool for the rapid detection of sIgE to insect venoms.

  12. Comparative evaluation of bivalent malaria rapid diagnostic tests versus traditional methods in field with special reference to heat stability testing in Central India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeru Singh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria presents a diagnostic challenge in areas where both Plasmodium falciparum and P.vivax are co-endemic. Bivalent Rapid Diagnostic tests (RDTs showed promise as diagnostic tools for P.falciparum and P.vivax. To assist national malaria control programme in the selection of RDTs, commercially available seven malaria RDTs were evaluated in terms of their performance with special reference to heat stability. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study was undertaken in four forested districts of central India (July, 2011- March, 2012. All RDTs were tested simultaneously in field along with microscopy as gold standard. These RDTs were stored in their original packing at 25°C before transport to the field or they were stored at 35°C and 45°C upto 100 days for testing the performance of RDTs at high temperature. In all 2841 patients with fever were screened for malaria of which 26% were positive for P.falciparum, and 17% for P.vivax. The highest sensitivity of any RDT for P.falciparum was 98% (95% CI; 95.9-98.8 and lowest sensitivity was 76% (95% CI; 71.7-79.6. For P.vivax highest and lowest sensitivity for any RDT was 80% (95% CI; 94.9 - 83.9 and 20% (95% CI; 15.6-24.5 respectively. Heat stability experiments showed that most RDTs for P.falciparum showed high sensitivity at 45°C upto 90 days. While for P.vivax only two RDTs maintained good sensitivity upto day 90 when compared with RDTs kept at room temperature. Agreement between observers was excellent for positive and negative readings for both P.falciparum and P.vivax (Kappa >0.6-0.9. CONCLUSION: This is first field evaluation of RDTs regarding their temperature stability. Although RDTs are useful as diagnostic tool for P.falciparum and P.vivax even at high temperature, the quality of RDTs should be regulated and monitored more closely.

  13. Evaluation of the King-Devick Test to Assess Eye Movements and the Performance of Rapid Number Naming in Concussed and Non-Concussed Service Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-14-1-0173 TITLE: “ Evaluation of the King-Devick Test to Assess Eye Movements and the Performance of Rapid Number Naming in...YYYY) July 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 6/30/2014-6/29/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE “ Evaluation of the King-Devick Test to...submission and award, Dr. Russell left the institution and Dr. Harvey Watson was identified as the new PI. Late summer 2014, we received word that

  14. Growth-promoting Properties of Different Solid Nutrient Media Evaluated with Stressed and Unstressed Micro-organisms: Prestudy for the Validation of a Rapid Sterility Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jennifer Claire; Staerk, Alexandra; Berchtold, Manfred; Hecker, Werner; Neuhaus, Gunther; Wirth, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Currently, sterility testing in the pharmaceutical industry-a mandatory release test for all sterile drug products-takes an incubation time of at least 14 days and is based on liquid media according to the pharmacopoeias. The search is on for a rapid sterility test to reduce this rather long time frame. For this we have chosen the Millipore Milliflex Rapid Microbiology Detection System, which is based on solid nutrient media. As a prerequisite for the validation of this rapid sterility test, a solid nutrient medium promoting the growth of stressed and unstressed micro-organisms replacing tryptic soy broth and fluid thioglycollate medium from the traditional sterility test had to be found. For this a wide variety of appropriate nutrient media were evaluated. After a prestudy with 10 different nutrient agar media, tryptic soy agar, Center for Disease Control (CDC) anaerobic blood agar, Schaedler blood agar, and Difco brewer anaerobic agar were tested in detail using a range of 22 micro-organisms (7 ATCC strains and 15 production site-specific strains). These strains were inoculated in their unstressed and in a stressed state. Stress was evoked by heat treatment and nutrient starvation in the case of the sporulating bacteria. This stress effect-resulting in deceleration in growth-was experimentally confirmed based on growth curve analysis. It was statistically evaluated which media and which incubation temperatures are best suitable. The resulting data showed that Schaedler blood agar has the best growth-promoting properties among the agars tested and is going to be used in the rapid sterility test with the incubation temperatures 20-25 °C for aerobes, 30-35 °C for aerobes, and also 30-35 °C for anaerobic micro-organisms.

  15. Comparative evaluation of the DPP(®) CVL rapid test for canine serodiagnosis in area of visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenti, M D; de Santana Leandro, M V; Tomokane, T Y; De Lucca, H R L; Aschar, M; Souza, C S F; Silva, R M; Marcondes, M; da Matta, V L R

    2014-10-15

    We investigated the performance of the DPP(®) canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) rapid test, a novel immunochromatographic assay launched by BioManguinhos (Brazil), which was recently included in the new Brazilian protocol for screening CVL in serological surveys. The present study compared the DPP(®) with the ELISA and IFA produced by BioManguinhos (Brazil) both with L. major-like antigens and with in-house tests using Leishmania infantum chagasi (in-house ELISA and in-house IFA). We analyzed the sera from clinically symptomatic (n=47) and asymptomatic (n=38) infected dogs from an endemic area of CVL, as well as from healthy (n=18) dogs, in addition to the sera of dogs (n=81) infected with other pathogens. The DPP(®) and the in-house ELISA showed a sensitivity of 90.6% and 94.1%, respectively, and specificity of 95.1% and 97.5%, respectively, and both presented cross-reactivity only with the sera of dogs with babesiosis, 44% for the DPP(®) and 22% for the in-house ELISA. The clinical groups were detected equally by the two assays. The ELISA BioManguinhos, IFA BioManguinhos, and in house-IFA showed a good sensitivity, 90.6%, 96.5% and 89.4%, respectively, but very low specificity, 77.8%, 69.1% and 65.8%, respectively, due to the high cross-reactivity with the sera from the animals harboring other pathogens. The in-house ELISA provided the highest accuracy (95.8%), followed by the DPP(®) (92.7%), ELISA BioManguinhos (84.3%), IFA BioManguinhos (83.1%), and in-house IFA (78.0%). The simultaneous use of the DPP(®) and ELISA BioManguinhos reached a sensitivity of 99.1% and 82.1% when used sequentially. In conclusion, the DPP(®) performed well as serological test for CVL, and detected both asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs in equal proportions. Although its sensitivity is not ideal yet, discarding the IFA and including the DPP(®) improved the accuracy of the new Brazilian CVL diagnostic protocol, particularly of detecting truly infected dogs. Moreover

  16. Evaluation of a new immunochromatography test for rapid and simultaneous detection of Clostridium difficile antigen and toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, Zmira; Madar-Shapiro, Liora; Aziz, Mahanez; Bishara, Jihad

    2013-07-01

    Clostridium difficile infection is considered the most common cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea among adults in the developed world. It is responsible for virtually all cases of pseudomembranous colitis. The Tox A/B enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is the most widely used test for the detection of C. difficile toxins A and B. However, it is associated with poor sensitivity and an unacceptable high rate of false-negative results. To evaluate the performance of the C. DIFF QUIK CHEK COMPLETE assay, designed to simultaneously detect C. difficile-produced glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and toxins A and B. Using the C. DIFF QUIK CHEK COMPLETE assay, the Tox A/B EIA, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we tested 223 stool specimens from hospitalized patients with antibiotics-associated diarrhea. Sensitivity and specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) were calculated for the C. DIFF QUIK CHEK COMPLETE test and the Tox A/B EIA against PCR RESULTS: The C. DIFF QUIK CHEK COMPLETE test had a sensitivity of 83.5% and specificity of 94.3% compared to PCR for Tox A/B, with 93.7% correlation (PPV 98.5%, NPV 91.7%). The Tox A/B EIA yielded corresponding values of 72.1% and 93.1%, with 85.6% correlation (PPV 85.1%, NPV 85.8%). Given the importance of an early and appropriate diagnosis of Clostridium difficile-associated infection, the C. DIFF QUIK CHEK COMPLETE test may be of huge benefit to practitioners.

  17. Evaluation of four rapid tests for diagnosis and differentiation of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections in Guinea-Conakry, West Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaillet, Pascale; Tayler-Smith, Katie; Zachariah, Rony; Duclos, Nanfack; Moctar, Diallo; Beelaert, Greet; Fransen, Katrien

    2010-01-01

    With both HIV-1 and HV-2 prevalent in Guinea-Conakry, accurate diagnosis and differentiation is crucial for treatment purposes. Thus, four rapid HIV tests were evaluated for their HIV-1 and HIV-2 diagnostic and discriminative capacity for use in Guinea-Conakry. These included SD Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0 (Standard Diagnostics Inc.), Genie II HIV1/HIV2 (Bio-Rad), First Response HIV Card Test 1-2.0 (PMC Medical) and Immunoflow HIV1-HIV2 (Core Diagnostics). Results were compared with gold standard tes...

  18. Evaluation of four rapid tests for diagnosis and differentiation of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections in Guinea-Conakry, West Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaillet, Pascale; Tayler-Smith, Katie; Zachariah, Rony; Duclos, Nanfack; Moctar, Diallo; Beelaert, Greet; Fransen, Katrien

    2010-01-01

    With both HIV-1 and HV-2 prevalent in Guinea-Conakry, accurate diagnosis and differentiation is crucial for treatment purposes. Thus, four rapid HIV tests were evaluated for their HIV-1 and HIV-2 diagnostic and discriminative capacity for use in Guinea-Conakry. These included SD Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0 (Standard Diagnostics Inc.), Genie II HIV1/HIV2 (Bio-Rad), First Response HIV Card Test 1-2.0 (PMC Medical) and Immunoflow HIV1-HIV2 (Core Diagnostics). Results were compared with gold standard tes...

  19. Rapidity correlations test stochastic hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zin, Christopher; Moschelli, George

    2016-01-01

    We show that measurements of the rapidity dependence of transverse momentum correlations can be used to determine the characteristic time $\\tau_{\\pi}$ that dictates the rate of isotropization of the stress energy tensor, as well as the shear viscosity $\

  20. Nontreponemal tests in the diagnosis of neurosyphilis: an evaluation of the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) and the Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Rita; Prieto, Emília Simões; da Luz Martins Pereira, Filomena

    2008-01-01

    The Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test has long been considered the best serological test for the diagnosis of neurosyphilis. The goal of this study was to find out if the Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) could be an alternative to the VDRL. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and sera samples from patients in the following stages of syphilis were tested: 8 had symptomatic and 16 asymptomatic neurosyphilis, 4 were in the primary stage, 6 had secondary syphilis, and 92 were in the latent stage. We have also studied 61 samples from individuals with treated syphilis and 126 with other neurological diseases than neurosyphilis. All the CSF samples were studied with both RPR and VDRL tests. RPR and VDRL test results were mostly concordant. The specificity of these tests for current neurosyphilis was 99% for the VDRL and 99.3% for the RPR, whereas the sensitivity was 70.8 and 75%, respectively, for the VDRL and RPR. In view of these results it seems to us that the RPR could be an alternative to the VDRL in the diagnosis of neurosyphilis.

  1. Evaluation of two commercial, rapid, ELISA kits testing or scrapie in retro-pharyngeal lymph nodes in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kittelberger, R.; McIntuyre, L.; Watts, S.; MacDiarmid, S.; Hannah, M.J.; Jenner, J.; Bueno, R.; Swainsbury, R.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Keulen, van L.J.M.; Zijderveld, van F.G.; Wemheuer, W.M.; Richt, J.A.; Sorenson, S.J.; Pigott, C.J.; O'Keefe, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To estimate the number of cases of scrapie that would occur in sheep of different prion protein (PrP) genotypes if scrapie was to become established in New Zealand, and to compare the performance of two commercially available, rapid ELISA kits using ovine retro-pharyngeal lymph nodes (RLN) fro

  2. Evaluation of the proficiency of trained non-laboratory health staffs and laboratory technicians using a rapid and simple HIV antibody test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukoyama Yumi

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Cambodia, nearly half of pregnant women attend antenatal care (ANC, which is an entry point of services for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT. However, most of ANC services are provided in health centres or fields, where laboratory services by technicians are not available. In this study, those voluntary confidential counselling and testing (VCCT counsellors involved in PMTCT were trained by experienced laboratory technicians in our centre on HIV testing using Determine (Abbot Laboratories HIV1/2 test kits through a half-day training course, which consisted of use of a pipette, how to process whole blood samples, and how to read test result. The trained counsellors were midwives working for ANC and delivery ward in our centre without any experience on laboratory works. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of the training by evaluating the proficiency of the trained non-laboratory staffs. The trained counsellors withdrew blood sample after pre-test counselling following ANC, and performed the rapid test. Laboratory technicians routinely did the same test and returned reports of the test results to counsellors. Reports by the counsellors and the laboratory technicians were compared, and discordant reports in two groups were re-tested with the same rapid test kit using the same blood sample. Cause of discordance was detected in discussion with both groups. Of 563 blood samples tested by six trained VCCT counsellors and three laboratory technicians, 11 samples (2.0% were reported positive in each group, however four discordant reports (0.7% between the groups were observed, in which two positive reports and two negative reports by the counsellors were negative and positive by the laboratory technicians, respectively. Further investigation confirmed that all the reports by the counsellors were correct, and that human error in writing reports in the laboratory was a cause of these discordant

  3. Evaluation of the RAPIDEC® CARBA NP, the Rapid CARB Screen® and the Carba NP test for biochemical detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dortet, Laurent; Agathine, Aurélie; Naas, Thierry; Cuzon, Gaëlle; Poirel, Laurent; Nordmann, Patrice

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was the evaluation of the performance of two commercially available biochemical tests for the rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae compared with a home-made technique. A collection of 150 enterobacterial isolates, including 132 isolates with decreased susceptibility to at least one carbapenem molecule, were tested for carbapenemase activity using the RAPIDEC(®) CARBA NP (bioMérieux), the Rapid CARB Screen(®) (Rosco Diagnostica) and the home-made Carba NP test. This strain collection included 55 non-carbapenemase producers, 21 KPC producers, 21 NDM producers, 17 VIM producers, 11 IMP producers, 16 OXA-48 producers and 9 OXA-48-like producers (OXA-162, OXA-181, OXA-204, OXA-232 and OXA-244). The RAPIDEC(®) CARBA NP detected all carbapenemase producers except a single OXA-244 producer. Using the Rapid CARB Screen(®), one KPC-2, two NDM-1, one OXA-48 and five OXA-48 variant producers gave equivocal results and one OXA-244 producer was not detected. Using the Carba NP test, the same OXA-244 producer was not detected and one OXA-181 producer and one OXA-244 producer gave equivocal results. Sensitivity and specificity were 99% (95% CI 94.3%-99.8%) and 100% (95% CI 93.5%-100%), respectively, for the RAPIDEC(®) CARBA NP test, 89.5% (95% CI 81.7%-94.2%) and 70.9% (95% CI 57.9%-81.2%) for the Rapid CARB Screen(®) and 96.8% (95% CI 91.1%-98.9%) and 100% (95% CI 93.5%-100%) for the Carba NP test. The impact of the use of an adequate bacterial inoculum for obtaining the optimal performance with the RAPIDEC(®) CARBA NP was noted. The RAPIDEC(®) CARBA NP possesses the best performance for rapid and efficient detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Clinical Evaluation of Rapid Diagnostic Test Kit Using the Polysaccharide as a Genus-Specific Diagnostic Antigen for Leptospirosis in Korea, Bulgaria, and Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Woo; Park, Sungman; Kim, Seung Han; Christova, Iva; Jacob, Paulina; Vanasco, Norma B; Kang, Yeon-Mi; Woo, Ye-Ju; Kim, Min Soo; Kim, Young-Jin; Cho, Min-Kee; Kim, Yoon-Won

    2016-02-01

    Leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease that is caused by many serovars which are more than 200 in the world, is an emerging worldwide disease. Accurate and rapid diagnostic tests for leptospirosis are a critical step to diagnose the disease. There are some commercial kits available for diagnosis of leptospirosis, but the obscurity of a species- or genus-specific antigen of pathogenic Leptospira interrogans causes the reduced sensitivity and specificity. In this study, the polysaccharide derived from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of nonpathogenic Leptospira biflexa serovar patoc was prepared, and the antigenicity was confirmed by immunoblot and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The performance of the rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kit using the polysaccharide as a diagnostic antigen was evaluated in Korea, Bulgaria and Argentina. The sensitivity was 93.9%, 100%, and 81.0% and the specificity was 97.9%, 100%, and 95.4% in Korea (which is a rare region occurring with 2 serovars mostly), Bulgaria (epidemic region with 3 serovars chiefly) and Argentina (endemic region with 19 serovars mainly) respectively. These results indicate that this RDT is applicable for global diagnosis of leptospirosis. This rapid and effective diagnosis will be helpful for diagnosis and manage of leptospirosis to use and the polysaccharide of Leptospira may be called as genus specific antigen for diagnosis.

  5. Evaluation of a Semiquantitative Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Method for Rapid Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Positive Blood Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jette S; Hamacher, Christina; Gross, Birgit; Sparbier, Katrin; Lange, Christoph; Kostrzewa, Markus; Schubert, Sören

    2016-11-01

    With the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, rapid identification of the pathogen and its individual antibiotic resistance is crucial to ensure adequate antiinfective treatment at the earliest time point. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry for the identification of bacteria directly from the blood culture bottle has been widely established; however, there is still an urgent need for new methods that permit rapid resistance testing. Recently, a semiquantitative MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry-based method for the prediction of antibiotic resistance was described. We evaluated this method for detecting nonsusceptibility against two β-lactam and two non-β-lactam antibiotics. A collection of 30 spiked blood cultures was tested for nonsusceptibility against gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Furthermore, 99 patient-derived blood cultures were tested for nonsusceptibility against cefotaxime, piperacillin-tazobactam, and ciprofloxacin in parallel with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry identification from the blood culture fluid. The assay correctly classified all isolates tested for nonsusceptibility against gentamicin and cefotaxime. One misclassification for ciprofloxacin nonsusceptibility and five misclassifications for piperacillin-tazobactam nonsusceptibility occurred. Identification of the bacterium and prediction of nonsusceptibility was possible within approximately 4 h.

  6. Design, development and evaluation of rK28-based point-of-care tests for improving rapid diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis.

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    Sowmya Pattabhi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is diagnosed by microscopic confirmation of the parasite in bone marrow, spleen or lymph node aspirates. These procedures are unsuitable for rapid diagnosis of VL in field settings. The development of rK39-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDT revolutionized diagnosis of VL by offering high sensitivity and specificity in detecting disease in the Indian subcontinent; however, these tests have been less reliable in the African subcontinent (sensitivity range of 75-85%, specificity of 70-92%. We have addressed limitations of the rK39 with a new synthetic polyprotein, rK28, followed by development and evaluation of two new rK28-based RDT prototype platforms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Evaluation of 62 VL-confirmed sera from Sudan provided sensitivities of 96.8% and 93.6% (95% CI = K28: 88.83-99.61%; K39: 84.30-98.21% and specificities of 96.2% and 92.4% (95% CI = K28: 90.53-98.95%; K39: 85.54-96.65% for rK28 and rK39, respectively. Of greater interest was the observation that individual VL sera with low rK39 reactivity often had much higher rK28 reactivity. This characteristic of the fusion protein was exploited in the development of rK28 rapid tests, which may prove to be crucial in detecting VL among patients with low rK39 antibody levels. Evaluation of two prototype lateral flow-based rK28 rapid tests on 53 VL patients in Sudan and 73 VL patients in Bangladesh provided promisingly high sensitivities (95.9% [95% CI = 88.46-99.1 in Sudan and 98.1% [95% CI = 89.93-99.95%] in Bangladesh compared to the rK39 RDT (sensitivities of 86.3% [95% CI = 76.25-93.23%] in Sudan and 88.7% [95% CI = 76.97-95.73%] in Bangladesh. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study compares the diagnostic accuracy of rK39 and rK28 in detecting active VL cases and our findings indicate that rK28 polyprotein has great potential as a serodiagnostic tool. A new rK28-based RDT will prove to be a valuable asset in

  7. Evaluation of the Field Performance of ImmunoCard STAT!(®) Rapid Diagnostic Test for Rotavirus in Dadaab Refugee Camp and at the Kenya-Somalia Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ope, Maurice; Nyoka, Raymond; Unshur, Ahmed; Oyier, Fredrick O; Mowlid, Shafe A; Owino, Brian; Ochieng, Steve B; Okello, Charles I; Montgomery, Joel M; Wagacha, Burton; Galev, Aleksandar; Abdow, Abdikadir; Esona, Mathew D; Tate, Jacqueline; Fitter, David; Cookson, Susan T; Arunmozhi, Balajee; Marano, Nina

    2017-06-01

    AbstractRotavirus commonly causes diarrhea in children, leading to hospitalization and even death. Rapid diagnostic tests are feasible alternatives for determining rotavirus outbreaks in refugee camps that have inadequate laboratory capacity. We evaluated the field performance of ImmunoCard STAT!(®) Rotavirus (ICS-RV) in Dadaab Refugee Camp and at the Kenya-Somalia border. From May to December 2014, we prospectively enrolled children aged tested by trained surveillance clerks using ICS-RV per manufacturer's instructions. The field performance characteristics of ICS-RV were evaluated against the gold standard test, Premier(™) Rotaclone(®) enzyme immunoassay. The operational characteristics were evaluated using World Health Organization (WHO) ASSURED criteria to determine whether ICS-RV is appropriate as a point-of-care test by administering a standard questionnaire and observing surveillance clerks performing the test. We enrolled 213 patients with a median age of 10 months (range = 1-48); 58.2% were male. A total of 71 (33.3%) and 60 (28.2%) patients tested positive for rotavirus infection by immunoassay and ICS-RV, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of ICS-RV compared with the immunoassay were 83.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 72.3-91.0), 99.3% (95% CI = 96.1-100), 98.3% (95% CI = 91.1-100), and 92.1% (95% CI = 86.6-95.5), respectively. The ICS-RV fulfilled the WHO ASSURED criteria for point-of-care testing. ICS-RV is a field-ready point-of-care test with good field performance and operational characteristics. It can be useful in determining rotavirus outbreaks in resource-limited settings.

  8. Evaluating quality management systems for HIV rapid testing services in primary healthcare clinics in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, Ziningi; Drain, Paul K; Mashamba-Thompson, Tivani P

    2017-01-01

    Rapid HIV tests have improved access to HIV diagnosis and treatment by providing quick and convenient testing in rural clinics and resource-limited settings. In this study, we evaluated the quality management system for voluntary and provider-initiated point-of-care HIV testing in primary healthcare (PHC) clinics in rural KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), South Africa. We conducted a quality assessment audit in eleven PHC clinics that offer voluntary HIV testing and counselling in rural KZN, South Africa from August 2015 to October 2016. All the participating clinics were purposively selected from the province-wide survey of diagnostic services. We completed an on-site monitoring checklist, adopted from the WHO guidelines for assuring accuracy and reliability of HIV rapid tests, to assess the quality management system for HIV rapid testing at each clinic. To determine clinic's compliance to WHO quality standards for HIV rapid testing the following quality measure was used, a 3-point scale (high, moderate and poor). A high score was defined as a percentage rating of 90 to 100%, moderate was defined as a percentage rating of 70 to 90%, and poor was defined as a percentage rating of less than 70%. Clinic audit scores were summarized and compared. We employed Pearson pair wise correlation coefficient to determine correlations between clinics audit scores and clinic and clinics characteristics. Linear regression model was computed to estimate statistical significance of the correlates. Correlations were reported as significant at p ≤0.05. Nine out of 11 audited rural PHC clinics are located outside 20Km of the nearest town and hospital. Majority (18.2%) of the audited rural PHC clinics reported that HIV rapid test was performed by HIV lay counsellors. Overall, ten clinics were rated moderate, in terms of their compliance to the stipulated WHO guidelines. Audit results showed that rural PHC clinics' average rating score for compliance to the WHO guidelines ranged between 64.4% (CI

  9. Modification and evaluation of the Carba NP test by use of paper strip for simple and rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisrattakarn, Arpasiri; Lulitanond, Aroonlug; Wilailuckana, Chotechana; Charoensri, Nicha; Wonglakorn, Lumyai; Piyapatthanakul, Sirikan; Supajeen, Ampai; Chanawong, Aroonwadee

    2016-07-01

    Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) isolates have now emerged worldwide. We therefore modified the phenotypic Carba NP test by use of a filter paper strip for easily and rapidly identifying CPE in routine laboratory. A collection of 56 CPE and carbapenemase-producing Pseudomonas spp. isolates (including 28 NDM-1, 11 IMP-14a, 1 IMP-1, 1 IMP-4, 1 IMP-9, 1 IMP-15, 4 VIM-2, 1 VIM-1, 1 IMP-14a with VIM-2, 3 OXA-48, 3 OXA-181 and 1 KPC-2 producers) and 41 non-CPE isolates (including 19 ESBL, 7 pAmpC, 3 AmpC, 9 ESBL with pAmpC and 3 non-ESBL & non-AmpC producers) as confirmed by the PCR methods were tested by the paper strip method using pharmaceutical imipenem/cilastatin as a substrate. Bacterial colonies of each isolate were applied directly on filter paper strips dropped with either imipenem-phenol red (test strip) or phenol red solution alone (control strip). The reaction was read within 5 min. This test failed to detect 3 OXA-181, 2 OXA-48 and 3 IMP-14a producers (85.7 % sensitivity), whereas no false positives were seen (100 % specificity). Further evaluation of the paper strip test in 267 CPE screening-positive isolates from three hospitals by their medical technologists showed 92.0 % sensitivity (100 % for NDM producers) and 100 % specificity compared with the PCR methods. Because of its ease, rapidness and cost effective, the paper strip test has a potential for routine CPE testing in low-resource laboratories particularly in areas with high prevalence of NDM enzymes, leading to appropriate antimicrobial therapy and infection control strategy.

  10. Evaluation of the β-CARBA™ test, a colorimetric test for the rapid detection of carbapenemase activity in Gram-negative bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabeu, Sandrine; Dortet, Laurent; Naas, Thierry

    2017-06-01

    There is an urgent need for accurate and fast diagnostic tests to identify carbapenemase-producing bacteria. Here, we have evaluated a novel colorimetric test (the β-CARBA™ test; Bio-Rad) to detect carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli from cultured colonies. The performance of the β-CARBA™ test was compared with that of the Carba NP test (or the CarbAcineto NP test) and RAPIDEC ® CARBA NP (bioMérieux) using a collection of 290 isolates with characterized β-lactamase content. This collection included 199 carbapenemase producers (121 Enterobacteriaceae, 36 Pseudomonas and 42 Acinetobacter baumannii ) and 91 non-carbapenemase producers (55 Enterobacteriaceae, 20 Pseudomonas and 16 A. baumannii ). The β-CARBA™ test correctly detected 84.9% of the carbapenemase producers, including all KPC and IMP, 96.4% of VIM, 85.3% of NDM, 80.5% of OXA-48-like and 91.2% of A. baumannii -related OXA carbapenemases (OXA-23, OXA-40, OXA-58, OXA-143 and overexpressed OXA-51). All rare metallo-β-lactamases (SPM, AIM, GIM, DIM and SIM) were detected. Importantly, all non-KPC Ambler class A carbapenemases were not detected, including GES variants with carbapenemase activity ( n  = 6), IMI ( n  = 3), NMC-A ( n  = 1), SME ( n  = 2), FRI-1 ( n  = 1) and BIC-1 ( n  = 1). All non-carbapenemase producers gave a negative result except with OXA-163-, OXA-405- and one TEM-3-producing Citrobacter freundii . The overall sensitivity and specificity of the β-CARBA™ test were 84.9% and 95.6%, respectively. This test is easy to perform and to interpret by non-specialized staff members. Despite lack of specificity towards non-KPC Ambler class A and OXA-48-like carbapenemases, the β-CARBA™ test could complete the existing panel of tests available for the confirmation of carbapenemases in Gram-negatives.

  11. Evaluation of the Verigene® Blood Culture Nucleic Acid test for rapid identification of gram positive pathogens from positive blood cultures

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    Agnese Cellini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The rapid identification of the etiology and the evaluation of the antimicrobial susceptibility of the bacteria causing bacteremia is of outmost relevance to set up an adequate treatment of sepsis. In this study we evaluated the microarray based method, Verigene Gram-positive blood cultures (BC-GP nucleic acid test (Nanosphere Inc., Northbrook, IL, USA for the identification of Gram positive pathogens from positive blood cultures. The panel BC-GP is capable to identify 13 germs and 3 genes associated with antimicrobial resistance. Materials and Methods. In this study a total of 100 positive, non replicated and monomicrobic blood cultures have been evaluated. For testing on the Verigene platform using the BC-GP assay, 350 L of blood culture media from a positive the blood culture bottle.Results. A total of 100 positive blood cultures were tested by the Verigene BC-GP assay: out of these a total of 100 Gram-positive cocci were identified. The most frequent bacteria identified included staphylococci, streptococci and enterococci. Among staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 25% (15/60, with 38% of S. epidermidis 37% (23/60 and 37% (22/60 other CoNS. All the S. aureus isolates were correctly identified by BC-GP whereas in 2/45 cases (4% BC-GP misidentified CoNS. In the case of enterococci 7/10 were E. faecalis and 3 E. faecium, all of these were correctly identified.Conclusions. The overall agreement with the results obtained by standard procedure is quite elevated (88% and as a consequence the BC-GP panel could be used as a rapid diagnostic tool to give a faster response in the case of bacteremia associated with sepsis.

  12. A rapid online telepathy test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldrake, Rupert; Beharee, Ashwin

    2009-06-01

    In an automated online telepathy test, each participant had four senders, two actual and two virtual, generated by the computer. In a series of 12 30-sec. trials, the computer selected one of the senders at random and asked him to write a message to the subject. After 30 sec., the participant was asked to guess who had written a message. After the computer had recorded his guess, it sent him the message. In a total of 6,000 trials, there were 1,559 hits (26.7%), significantly above the chance expectation of 25%. In filmed tests, the hit rate was very similar. The hit rate with actual senders was higher than with virtual senders, but there was a strong guessing bias in favour of actual senders. When high-scoring subjects were retested, hit rates generally declined, but one subject repeatedly scored above chance.

  13. Evaluation of the Merlin MICRONAUT system for rapid direct susceptibility testing of gram-positive cocci and gram-negative bacilli from positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellinghausen, Nele; Pietzcker, Tim; Poppert, Sven; Belak, Syron; Fieser, Nicole; Bartel, Melanie; Essig, Andreas

    2007-03-01

    Bloodstream infections are life-threatening conditions which require the timely initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. We evaluated the automated Merlin MICRONAUT system for rapid direct microtiter broth antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of gram-positive cocci and gram-negative bacilli from BACTEC 9240 bottles with positive blood cultures in comparison to the standard method for the Merlin MICRONAUT system. This prospective study was conducted under routine working conditions during a 9-month period. Altogether, 504 isolates from 409 patients and 11,819 organism-antibiotic combinations were evaluated for comparison of direct and standard AST methods. For gram-negative bacilli, direct and standard AST of 110 isolates was evaluated and MIC agreement was found for 98.1% of 2,637 organism-antibiotic combinations. Category (susceptible, intermediate susceptible, resistant [SIR]) agreement was found for 99.0%, with results for 0.04% of combinations showing very major errors, those for 0.2% showing major errors, and those for 0.8% showing minor errors. For gram-positive cocci, 373 isolates were evaluated and MIC agreement was found for 95.6% of 8,951 organism-antibiotic combinations. SIR agreement was found for 98.8%, with results for 0.3% of combinations showing very major errors, those for 0.4% showing major errors, and those for 0.5% showing minor errors. Although the number of tested isolates was limited (n = 33), direct AST of streptococci was performed for the first time, yielding promising results with SIR agreement for 98.6% of 363 organism-antibiotic combinations. In conclusion, direct AST of gram-negative bacilli and gram-positive cocci from positive blood cultures with the MICRONAUT system is a reliable technique that allows for the omission of repeat testing of subcultured isolates. Thereby, it reduces the time to results of blood culture testing and may have a positive impact on patient care.

  14. Multicenter evaluation of the revised RIDA® QUICK test (N1402) for rapid detection of norovirus in a diagnostic laboratory setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, Stijn; Botteldoorn, Nadine; Vandecandelaere, Patricia; Frans, Johan; Laffut, Wim; Coppens, Guy; Vankeerberghen, Anne; De Beenhouwer, Hans

    2017-02-12

    The updated RIDA® QUICK (N1402) immunochromatographic assay (R-Biopharm) for detection of norovirus was evaluated during a prospective, multicenter study using 771 stool samples from patients with gastroenteritis. Compared to real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-rtPCR) as gold standard, the RIDA® QUICK had an overall sensitivity of 72.8% (91/125) and a specificity of 99.5% (640/643). Genotype analysis of the polymerase (ORF1) and capsid (ORF2) region of the genome indicated that the RIDA® QUICK assay could detect a broad range of genotypes including new variants (15 of 125 positive samples) which were detected by an in-house SYBR®Green RT-rtPCR, but not by the RIDA® GENE PCR PG1415 (R-Biopharm) and mostly not by the RIDA® GENE PCR PG1405 and the Xpert® Norovirus assay (Cepheid). The RIDA® QUICK can be used to reliably confirm norovirus in stool samples, but a negative result does not definitively exclude the presence of norovirus.

  15. Rapid genetic counseling and testing in newly diagnosed breast cancer: Patients' and health professionals' attitudes, experiences, and evaluation of effects on treatment decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wevers, Marijke R; Aaronson, Neil K; Bleiker, Eveline M A; Hahn, Daniela E E; Brouwer, Titia; van Dalen, Thijs; Theunissen, Evert B; van Ooijen, Bart; de Roos, Marnix A; Borgstein, Paul J; Vrouenraets, Bart C; Vriens, Eline; Bouma, Wim H; Rijna, Herman; Vente, Johannes P; Kuenen, Marianne A; van der Sanden-Melis, Jacoline; Witkamp, Arjen J; Rutgers, Emiel J Th; Verhoef, Senno; Ausems, Margreet G E M

    2017-07-13

    Rapid genetic counseling and testing (RGCT) in newly diagnosed high-risk breast cancer (BC) patients may influence surgical treatment decisions. To successfully integrate RGCT in practice, knowledge of professionals', and patients' attitudes toward RGCT is essential. Between 2008 and 2010, we performed a randomized clinical trial evaluating the impact of RGCT. Attitudes toward and experience with RGCT were assessed in 265 patients (at diagnosis, 6- and 12-month follow-up) and 29 medical professionals (before and after the recruitment period). At 6-month follow-up, more patients who had been offered RGCT felt they had been actively involved in treatment decision-making than patients who had been offered usual care (67% vs 48%, P = 0.06). Patients who received DNA-test results before primary surgery reported more often that RGCT influenced treatment decisions than those who received results afterwards (P < 0.01). Eighty-seven percent felt that genetic counseling and testing (GCT) should preferably take place between diagnosis and surgery. Most professionals (72%) agreed that RGCT should be routinely offered to eligible patients. Most patients (74%) and professionals (85%) considered surgeons the most appropriate source for referral. RGCT is viewed as helpful for newly diagnosed high-risk BC patients in choosing their primary surgery and should be offered routinely by surgeons. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Evaluation of the Xpert ® MTB/Rif test, microscopic observation drug susceptibility test and nitrate reductase assay, for rapid and accurate diagnosis of smear-negative tuberculosis in HIV patients

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    Simon Walusimbi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of smear-negative tuberculosis (TB, which is frequently seen in HIV-infected patients, is a challenge without conventional culture methods. Since 2007, the WHO (World Health Organization has endorsed new or improved tests for increased and rapid diagnosis of TB. This study was undertaken in an effort to evaluate the accuracy of two rapid culture methods: the Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility assay (MODS and Nitrate Reductase Assay (NRA, and the molecular based test Xpert ® MTB/Rif (Xpert, for diagnosis of smear-negative TB in HIV patients using the mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT in the BACTECTM MGITTM 960 system as the reference test. 430 smear-negative patients with presumptive TB were enrolled in a cross-sectional study at a tertiary care facility in Uganda. Their sputum was tested on MODS, NRA, Xpert and MGIT. Of the 430 patients, 373 had complete results to compute test accuracy. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB was detected in 43 patients by MGIT. The sensitivity and specificity were 24.4% and 98.1% for MODS, 41.5% and 92% for NRA, 48.8% and 95.1% for Xpert, respectively. The low sensitivity of the tests implies that additional diagnostics such as chest X-ray and conventional liquid culture methods might still be needed to detect TB in smear-negative HIV patients. The high specificity of the tests is useful to confirm TB in HIV patients with symptoms suggestive of TB.

  17. Evaluation of GenoType® MTBDRplus assay for rapid detection of drug susceptibility testing of multi-drug resistance tuberculosis in Northern India

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    Anand Kumar Maurya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The problem of multi-drug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB is growing in several hotspots throughout the world. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of MDR-TB is crucial to facilitate early treatment and to reduce its spread in the community. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the new, novel GenoType® MTBDRplus assay for rapid detection of drug susceptibility testing (DST of MDR-TB cases in Northern India. Materials and Methods: A total of 550 specimens were collected from highly suspected drug resistant from pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB cases. All the specimens were processed by Ziehl- Neelsen staining, culture, differentiation by the GenoType® CM assay, first line DST using BacT/ALERT 3D system and GenoType® MTBDRplus assay. The concordance of the GenoType® MTBDRplus assay was calculated in comparison with conventional DST results. Results: Overall the sensitivity for detection of rifampicin, isoniazid and MDR-TB resistance by GenoType® MTBDRplus assay was 98.0%, 98.4% and 98.2% respectively. Out of 55 MDR-TB strains, 45 (81.8%, 52 (94.5% and 17 (30.9% strains showed mutation in rpoB, katG and inhA genes respectively (P < 0.05. The most prominent mutations in rpoB, katG and inhA genes were; 37 (67.3% in S531L, 52 (94.5% in S315T1 and 11 (20% in C15T regions respectively (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated a high concordance between the GenoType® MTBDRplus assay resistance patterns and those were observed by conventional DST with good sensitivity, specificity with short turnaround times and to control new cases of MDR-TB in countries with a high prevalence of MDR-TB.

  18. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of CareStart G6PD deficiency Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT in a malaria endemic area in Ghana, Africa.

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    Dennis Adu-Gyasi

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is the most widespread enzyme defect that can result in red cell breakdown under oxidative stress when exposed to certain medicines including antimalarials. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of CareStart G6PD deficiency Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT as a point-of-care tool for screening G6PD deficiency.A cross-sectional study was conducted among 206 randomly selected and consented participants from a group with known G6PD deficiency status between February 2013 and June 2013. A maximum of 1.6ml of capillary blood samples were used for G6PD deficiency screening using CareStart G6PD RDT and Trinity qualitative with Trinity quantitative methods as the "gold standard". Samples were also screened for the presence of malaria parasites. Data entry and analysis were done using Microsoft Access 2010 and Stata Software version 12. Kintampo Health Research Centre Institutional Ethics Committee granted ethical approval.The sensitivity (SE and specificity (SP of CareStart G6PD deficiency RDT was 100% and 72.1% compared to Trinity quantitative method respectively and was 98.9% and 96.2% compared to Trinity qualitative method. Malaria infection status had no significant (P=0.199 change on the performance of the G6PD RDT test kit compared to the "gold standard".The outcome of this study suggests that the diagnostic performance of the CareStart G6PD deficiency RDT kit was high and it is acceptable at determining the G6PD deficiency status in a high malaria endemic area in Ghana. The RDT kit presents as an attractive tool for point-of-care G6PD deficiency for rapid testing in areas with high temperatures and less expertise. The CareStart G6PD deficiency RDT kit could be used to screen malaria patients before administration of the fixed dose primaquine with artemisinin-based combination therapy.

  19. Evaluation of the Bio-Rad Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 Rapid Test as an alternative to Western blot for confirmation of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Ana María; Baughan, Eleonore; Hodinka, Richard L

    2013-12-01

    In the United States, a new HIV diagnostic algorithm has been proposed that uses an HIV-1/HIV-2 antibody differentiation immunoassay instead of Western blot or immunofluoresence for confirmatory testing. To evaluate the Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 Rapid Test (Multispot) as an alternative to Western blot analysis for confirmation of HIV infection. A series of 205 serum and plasma specimens positive for HIV-1 or HIV-2 were used to compare the performance of Multispot to a standard HIV-1 Western blot. Positive samples included 63 specimens from patients>18 months of age, 33 proficiency survey specimens, and 109 specimens from nine commercial seroconversion and performance panels. In addition, 63 specimens from 51 HIV-exposed, uninfected children≤18 months of age in various stages of seroreversion and 192 HIV-negative samples were tested. Specimens were initially screened using a 4th generation HIV Ag/Ab Combo assay. Multispot readily discriminated between individuals with HIV-1 or HIV-2 infection and those who were uninfected. Of the 205 samples repeatedly reactive by the 4th generation screening assay, infection status was correctly confirmed by Multispot in 83.9% (172/205) compared to 68.8% (141/205) for Western blot. Multispot detected HIV-1 earlier in 27.6% of low-titer antibody specimens called indeterminate by Western blot, and effectively reduced the number of indeterminate results in seroreverting HIV-1 exposed, uninfected infants and for HIV-2 infections misinterpreted as indeterminate or positive by HIV-1 Western blot. Multispot offers speed and simplicity over Western blot and has an excellent performance for differentiation and confirmation of antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Testing of a simplified LED based vis/NIR system for rapid ripeness evaluation of white grape (Vitis vinifera L.) for Franciacorta wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovenzana, Valentina; Civelli, Raffaele; Beghi, Roberto; Oberti, Roberto; Guidetti, Riccardo

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to test a simplified optical prototype for a rapid estimation of the ripening parameters of white grape for Franciacorta wine directly in field. Spectral acquisition based on reflectance at four wavelengths (630, 690, 750 and 850 nm) was proposed. The integration of a simple processing algorithm in the microcontroller software would allow to visualize real time values of spectral reflectance. Non-destructive analyses were carried out on 95 grape bunches for a total of 475 berries. Samplings were performed weekly during the last ripening stages. Optical measurements were carried out both using the simplified system and a portable commercial vis/NIR spectrophotometer, as reference instrument for performance comparison. Chemometric analyses were performed in order to extract the maximum useful information from optical data. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed for a preliminary evaluation of the data. Correlations between the optical data matrix and ripening parameters (total soluble solids content, SSC; titratable acidity, TA) were carried out using partial least square (PLS) regression for spectra and using multiple linear regression (MLR) for data from the simplified device. Classification analysis were also performed with the aim of discriminate ripe and unripe samples. PCA, MLR and classification analyses show the effectiveness of the simplified system in separating samples among different sampling dates and in discriminating ripe from unripe samples. Finally, simple equations for SSC and TA prediction were calculated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Improving prescribing practices with rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burchett, Helen E D; Leurent, Baptiste; Baiden, Frank

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The overuse of antimalarial drugs is widespread. Effective methods to improve prescribing practice remain unclear. We evaluated the impact of 10 interventions that introduced rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (mRDTs) on the use of tests and adherence to results in different contexts....

  2. Evaluation of on-site oral fluid screening using Drugwipe-5(+), RapidSTAT and Drug Test 5000 for the detection of drugs of abuse in drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Sarah M R; Samyn, Nele; Ramírez-Fernández, Maria del Mar; De Boeck, Gert

    2010-05-20

    Driving under the influence of drugs is a major problem worldwide. At the moment, several countries have adopted a 'per se' legislation to address this problem. One of the key elements in the enforcement process is the possibility of rapid on-site screening tests to take immediate administrative measures. In this study, the reliability of three oral fluid screening devices (Mavand RapidSTAT, Securetec Drugwipe-5(+), and Dräger DrugTest 5000) was assessed by comparing their on-site results with confirmatory GC-MS plasma analysis. Our results demonstrate that for amphetamine screening, the oral fluid on-site devices on the market today are certainly sensitive enough. RapidSTAT, Drugwipe-5(+), and DrugTest 5000 demonstrated respectively a sensitivity of 93%, 100% and 92% for amphetamine/MDMA. For cocaine screening, sensitivities of 75%, 78% and 67% were obtained for the RapidSTAT, Drugwipe-5(+), and DrugTest 5000 devices, respectively. The studied devices were able to detect about 70% of all cannabis users in a roadside setting. However, a newer version of the DrugTest 5000 test cassette demonstrated a sensitivity of 93%, indicating an increased detection of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol using 'new generation' oral fluid screening tests with lowered cut-offs. Due to these promising results police officers and judicial experts are keen to use oral fluid screening devices. They believe that their ease of use and diminished amount of false positive results in comparison with urine screening will lead to more roadside tests and more appropriate juridical measures.

  3. Prototype Positive Control Wells for Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests: Prospective Evaluation of Implementation Among Health Workers in Lao People's Democratic Republic and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David; Bwanika, John Baptist; Cunningham, Jane; Gatton, Michelle; González, Iveth J; Hopkins, Heidi; Kibira, Simon Peter S; Kyabayinze, Daniel J; Mayxay, Mayfong; Ndawula, Bbaale; Newton, Paul N; Phommasone, Koukeo; Streat, Elizabeth; Umlauf, René

    2017-02-08

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are widely used for malaria diagnosis, but lack of quality control at point of care restricts trust in test results. Prototype positive control wells (PCW) containing recombinant malaria antigens have been developed to identify poor-quality RDT lots. This study assessed community and facility health workers' (HW) ability to use PCWs to detect degraded RDTs, the impact of PCW availability on RDT use and prescribing, and preferred strategies for implementation in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) and Uganda. A total of 557 HWs participated in Laos (267) and Uganda (290). After training, most (88% to ≥ 99%) participants correctly performed the six key individual PCW steps; performance was generally maintained during the 6-month study period. Nearly all (97%) reported a correct action based on PCW use at routine work sites. In Uganda, where data for 127,775 individual patients were available, PCW introduction in health facilities was followed by a decrease in antimalarial prescribing for RDT-negative patients ≥ 5 years of age (4.7-1.9%); among community-based HWs, the decrease was 12.2% (P malaria-endemic areas are able to use prototype PCWs for quality control of malaria RDTs. PCW availability can improve HWs' confidence in RDT results, and benefit malaria diagnostic programs. Lessons learned from this study may be valuable for introduction of other point-of-care diagnostic and quality-control tools. Future work should evaluate longer term impacts of PCWs on patient management. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  4. Field evaluation of the InBios Chagas detect plus rapid test in serum and whole-blood specimens in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vishal; Ferrufino, Lisbeth; Gilman, Robert H; Ramirez, Margot; Saenza, Eliana; Malaga, Edith; Sanchez, Gerardo; Okamoto, Emi E; Sherbuck, Jacqueline E; Clark, Eva H; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Bozo, Ricardo; Flores-Franco, Jorge Luis; Colanzi, Rony; Verastegui, Manuela; Bern, Caryn

    2014-12-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease, which affects an estimated 7 million to 8 million people. Chagas disease is endemic throughout Latin America, with the highest prevalence in Bolivia. Conventional diagnosis requires a well-equipped laboratory with experienced personnel. We evaluated the Chagas Detect Plus (CDP) (InBios, Seattle, WA), a rapid immunochromatographic assay for IgG antibodies to T. cruzi. CDP performance was compared to infection status based on results obtained by indirect hemagglutination assay, immunofluorescent-antibody test, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Confirmed infection required positive results by at least 2 conventional assays. We used specimens from adults of both sexes in a general hospital in the city of Santa Cruz and from pregnant women in a hospital and children in villages in the Bolivian Chaco, an area of hyperendemicity. CDP was performed in paired whole-blood and serum specimens from 385 individuals in the two hospital studies and in 200 serum specimens from the community study. CDP showed sensitivities/specificities of 96.2% (95% confidence interval, 92.7 to 98.4)/98.8% (95.9 to 99.9) in whole blood and 99.3% (97.5 to 99.9)/96.9% (94.2 to 98.6) in serum, with no differences by sex, age group, or study site. CDP showed excellent sensitivity and specificity in our study population, comparable to those of conventional serology. The test is reliable for field surveys, requires no laboratory equipment, and performed well in serum and whole blood. The CDP could also be used for accurate maternal screening to identify neonates at risk of congenital transmission. CDP performance data in diverse geographic areas are needed to strengthen the evidence base for its use. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Prototype Positive Control Wells for Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests: Prospective Evaluation of Implementation Among Health Workers in Lao People's Democratic Republic and Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David; Bwanika, John Baptist; Cunningham, Jane; Gatton, Michelle; González, Iveth J.; Hopkins, Heidi; Kibira, Simon Peter S.; Kyabayinze, Daniel J.; Mayxay, Mayfong; Ndawula, Bbaale; Newton, Paul N.; Phommasone, Koukeo; Streat, Elizabeth; Umlauf, René

    2017-01-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are widely used for malaria diagnosis, but lack of quality control at point of care restricts trust in test results. Prototype positive control wells (PCW) containing recombinant malaria antigens have been developed to identify poor-quality RDT lots. This study assessed community and facility health workers' (HW) ability to use PCWs to detect degraded RDTs, the impact of PCW availability on RDT use and prescribing, and preferred strategies for implementation in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) and Uganda. A total of 557 HWs participated in Laos (267) and Uganda (290). After training, most (88% to ≥ 99%) participants correctly performed the six key individual PCW steps; performance was generally maintained during the 6-month study period. Nearly all (97%) reported a correct action based on PCW use at routine work sites. In Uganda, where data for 127,775 individual patients were available, PCW introduction in health facilities was followed by a decrease in antimalarial prescribing for RDT-negative patients ≥ 5 years of age (4.7–1.9%); among community-based HWs, the decrease was 12.2% (P < 0.05) for all patients. Qualitative data revealed PCWs as a way to confirm RDT quality and restore confidence in RDT results. HWs in malaria-endemic areas are able to use prototype PCWs for quality control of malaria RDTs. PCW availability can improve HWs' confidence in RDT results, and benefit malaria diagnostic programs. Lessons learned from this study may be valuable for introduction of other point-of-care diagnostic and quality-control tools. Future work should evaluate longer term impacts of PCWs on patient management. PMID:27895267

  6. Evaluation of light microscopy and rapid diagnostic test for the detection of malaria under operational field conditions: a household survey in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Gedeon

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In most resource-poor settings, malaria is usually diagnosed based on clinical signs and symptoms and not by detection of parasites in the blood using microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests (RDT. In population-based malaria surveys, accurate diagnosis is important: microscopy provides the gold standard, whilst RDTs allow immediate findings and treatment. The concordance between RDTs and microscopy in low or unstable transmission areas has not been evaluated. Objectives This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of malaria parasites in randomly selected malarious areas of Amhara, Oromia, and Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' (SNNP regions of Ethiopia, using microscopy and RDT, and to investigate the agreement between microscopy and RDT under field conditions. Methods A population-based survey was conducted in 224 randomly selected clusters of 25 households each in Amhara, Oromia and SNNP regions, between December 2006 and February 2007. Fingerpick blood samples from all persons living in even-numbered households were tested using two methods: light microscopy of Giemsa-stained blood slides; and RDT (ParaScreen device for Pan/Pf. Results A total of 13,960 people were eligible for malaria parasite testing of whom 11,504 (82% were included in the analysis. Overall slide positivity rate was 4.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.4–5.0% while ParaScreen RDT was positive in 3.3% (95% CI 2.6–4.1% of those tested. Considering microscopy as the gold standard, ParaScreen RDT exhibited high specificity (98.5%; 95% CI 98.3–98.7 and moderate sensitivity (47.5%; 95% CI 42.8–52.2 with a positive predictive value of 56.8% (95% CI 51.7–61.9 and negative predictive value of 97.6% (95% CI 97.6–98.1% under field conditions. Conclusion Blood slide microscopy remains the preferred option for population-based prevalence surveys of malaria parasitaemia. The level of agreement between microscopy and RDT warrants further

  7. Evaluation and Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... University of Utah Research News Make a Difference Evaluation + Tests Print This Page Before diagnosing peripheral neuropathy, ... from any type of neuropathy or neurological disorder. Evaluation A neurological evaluation consists of a physical exam ...

  8. Implementing rapid testing for tuberculosis in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, James; Michel, Cathy; Manhiça, Ivan; Monivo, Claudio; Saize, Desiderio; Creswell, Jacob; Gloyd, Stephen; Micek, Mark

    2015-02-01

    In Mozambique, pulmonary tuberculosis is primarily diagnosed with sputum smear microscopy. However this method has low sensitivity, especially in people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Patients are seldom tested for drug-resistant tuberculosis. The national tuberculosis programme and Health Alliance International introduced rapid testing of smear-negative sputum samples. Samples were tested using a polymerase-chain-reaction-based assay that detects Mycobacterium tuberculosis deoxyribonucleic acid and a mutation indicating rifampicin resistance; Xpert® MTB/RIF (Xpert®). Four machines were deployed in four public hospitals along with a sputum transportation system to transfer samples from selected health centres. Laboratory technicians were trained to operate the machines and clinicians taught to interpret the results. In 2012, Mozambique had an estimated 140,000 new tuberculosis cases, only 34% of which were diagnosed and treated. Of tuberculosis patients, 58% are HIV-infected. From 2012-2013, 1558 people were newly diagnosed with tuberculosis using sputum smears at intervention sites. Xpert® detected M. tuberculosis in an additional 1081 sputum smear-negative individuals, an increase of 69%. Rifampicin resistance was detected in 58/1081 (5%) of the samples. However, treatment was started in only 82% of patients diagnosed by microscopy and 67% of patients diagnosed with the rapid test. Twelve of 16 Xpert® modules failed calibration within 15 months of implementation. Using rapid tests to diagnose tuberculosis is promising but logistically challenging. More affordable and durable platforms are needed. All patients diagnosed with tuberculosis need to start and complete treatment, including those who have drug resistant strains.

  9. Multicenter evaluation of the Verigene Gram-negative blood culture nucleic acid test for rapid detection of bacteria and resistance determinants in positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Naoki; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Yamakawa, Hiromi; Yamada, Maiko; Yaguchi, Yuji; Notake, Shigeyuki; Tamai, Kiyoko; Yanagisawa, Hideji; Misawa, Shigeki; Yanagihara, Katsunori

    2015-12-01

    The Verigene Gram-Negative Blood Culture Nucleic Acid Test (BC-GN) is a microarray-based assay that enables rapid detection of 9 common Gram-negative bacteria and 6 resistance determinants directly from positive blood cultures. We compared the performance of BC-GN with currently used automated systems, testing 141 clinical blood cultures and 205 spiked blood cultures. For identification of BC-GN target organisms in clinical and spiked blood cultures, the BC-GN assay showed 98.5% (130/132) and 98.9% (182/184) concordance, respectively. Of 140 resistance genes positively detected in clinical and spiked blood cultures with the BC-GN test, 139 (99.3%) were confirmed by PCR, and the detection results were consistent with the resistance phenotypes observed. The BC-GN assay, thus, can potentially improve care for sepsis patients by enabling timely detection and targeted antimicrobial therapy.

  10. Multicenter evaluation of the LightCycler methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) advanced test as a rapid method for detection of MRSA in nasal surveillance swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lance R; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Woods, Christopher W; Allen, Stephen D; Pombo, David; Patel, Parul A; Mehta, Maitry S; Nicholson, Bradly; Fuller, DeAnna; Onderdonk, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    The rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection continues to rise in many health care settings. Rapid detection of MRSA colonization followed by appropriate isolation can reduce transmission and infection. We compared the performance of the new Roche LightCycler MRSA advanced test to that of the BD GeneOhm MRSA test and culture. Double-headed swabs were used to collect anterior nasal specimens from each subject. For both tests, DNA was extracted and real-time PCR was performed according to manufacturer's instructions. For culture, one swab of the pair was plated directly to CHROMagar MRSA. The swab paired with the BD GeneOhm MRSA test was also placed into an enrichment broth and then plated to CHROMagar MRSA. Colonies resembling staphylococci were confirmed as S. aureus by standard methods. Discrepant specimens had further testing with additional attempts to grow MRSA as well as sample amplicon sequencing. Agreement between results for the two swabs was 99.3% for those with valid results. A total of 1,402 specimens were tested using direct culture detection of MRSA as the gold standard; 187 were culture positive for MRSA. The LightCycler MRSA advanced test had relative sensitivity and specificity of 95.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 91.1% to 97.8%) and 96.4% (95% CI: 95.2% to 97.4%), respectively. The BD GeneOhm assay had relative sensitivity and specificity of 95.7% (95% CI: 91.7% to 98.1%) and 91.7% (95% CI: 90.0% to 93.2%), respectively. Following discrepancy analysis, the relative sensitivities of the LightCycler MRSA advanced test and the BD GeneOhm MRSA assay were 92.2 and 93.2%, respectively; relative specificities were 98.9 and 94.2%, respectively. Specificity was significantly better (Padvanced test. The sensitivity of direct culture was 80.4%. The LightCycler MRSA advanced test is a useful tool for sensitive and rapid detection of MRSA nasal colonization.

  11. Field Evaluation of Calypte’s AWARE™ Blood Serum Plasma (BSP) and Oral Mucosal Transudate (OMT) Rapid Tests for Detecting Antibodies to HIV-1 and 2 in Plasma and Oral Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemnji, George A; Ngulefac, Gisele A; Ndumbe, Peter M; Asonganyi, Tazoacha

    2009-01-01

    As programs to prevent and care for HIV-infected persons are scaled-up in Africa, there is the need for continuous evaluation of the performance of test kits that could best support these programs. The present study evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, ease of use, and cost of AWARE ™ Blood Serum Plasma (BSP) and Oral Mucosal Transudate (OMT) Rapid HIV-1/2 test kits using real-time and archived samples of HIV-infected persons from Cameroon. Matched whole blood and OMT specimens were collected prospectively from HIV-positive and HIV-negative persons from different regions of Cameroon and tested using the AWARE ™ BSP and OMT test kits, respectively. These results were compared to the gold standard that included a combination of Determine HIV-1/2 and Enzygnost HIV-1/2. The BSP Rapid test kit was further evaluated using well characterized panels of HIV-2 and HIV-1 group O samples. Cost and end-user analysis of the OMT test kit was done by comparing its actual cost, consumables, safety, bench time and manipulation with other test kits. Of the 732 matched samples, 412 (56.3%) and 320 (43.7%) were from females and males, respectively. Of these samples, 23 (3.1%) gave discordant results between Determine HIV-1/2 and Enzygnost HIV1/2 and were excluded from the analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the AWARE™ BSP were 100%. The AWARE™ OMT had 98.8% sensitivity, 98.9% specificity, 98.0% PPV and 99.4% NPV. The results of a well-characterized archived panel of HIV-2 (n=7) and HIV-1 group O (n=3) samples using the AWARE™ BSP Rapid test kit gave 100% concordance. Total per patient cost of the AWARE OMT rapid test kit was US$4.72 compared to a mean cost of US $7.33 ± 0.11 for the other test kits. Both the AWARE™ BSP and OMT Rapid test kits demonstrated high sensitivities and specificities on all samples tested and were well adapted for use in resource-constrained settings with high HIV

  12. Field evaluation of Calypte's AWARE blood serum plasma (BSP) and oral mucosal transudate (OMT) rapid tests for detecting antibodies to HIV-1 and 2 in plasma and oral fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemnji, George A; Ngulefac, Gisele A; Ndumbe, Peter M; Asonganyi, Tazoacha

    2009-03-19

    As programs to prevent and care for HIV-infected persons are scaled-up in Africa, there is the need for continuous evaluation of the performance of test kits that could best support these programs. The present study evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, ease of use, and cost of AWARE Blood Serum Plasma (BSP) and Oral Mucosal Transudate (OMT) Rapid HIV-1/2 test kits using real-time and archived samples of HIV-infected persons from Cameroon. Matched whole blood and OMT specimens were collected prospectively from HIV-positive and HIV-negative persons from different regions of Cameroon and tested using the AWARE BSP and OMT test kits, respectively. These results were compared to the gold standard that included a combination of Determine HIV-1/2 and Enzygnost HIV-1/2. The BSP Rapid test kit was further evaluated using well characterized panels of HIV-2 and HIV-1 group O samples. Cost and end-user analysis of the OMT test kit was done by comparing its actual cost, consumables, safety, bench time and manipulation with other test kits. Of the 732 matched samples, 412 (56.3%) and 320 (43.7%) were from females and males, respectively. Of these samples, 23 (3.1%) gave discordant results between Determine HIV-1/2 and Enzygnost HIV1/2 and were excluded from the analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the AWARE BSP were 100%. The AWARE OMT had 98.8% sensitivity, 98.9% specificity, 98.0% PPV and 99.4% NPV. The results of a well-characterized archived panel of HIV-2 (n=7) and HIV-1 group O (n=3) samples using the AWARE BSP Rapid test kit gave 100% concordance. Total per patient cost of the AWARE OMT rapid test kit was US dollars 4.72 compared to a mean cost of US dollars 7.33 +/- 0.11 for the other test kits. Both the AWARE BSP and OMT Rapid test kits demonstrated high sensitivities and specificities on all samples tested and were well adapted for use in resource-constrained settings with high HIV

  13. An Original Testing Apparatus for Rapid Pull-Out Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprialdi, D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pull-out test is commonly used to investigate the pull-out behavior of geotextile reinforcement embedded in soil. It is also used by different authors to propose interface friction angles values. Unfortunately these works mainly deal with cyclic loadings with reference to seismic action, which are believed to be different to the load exposed to reinforced earthworks due to lateral impacts. Therefore an original rapid pull-out test apparatus is proposed in this study. This article assess the proposed test method in addressing the rapid pull-out response of a geotextile embedded in soil. The testing apparatus allows investigating shear velocities within the range of 0.1 to 1.2 m/s. This test method seems promising in addressing the response of soil-geotextile interfaces under dynamic loadings. Nevertheless, improvements concerning the testing apparatus are still required. The loading system could be modified to avoid oscillations and specific equipment should be added to increase the normal stress.

  14. Rapid urine antibody test for Helicobacter pylori infection in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Masumi; Mabe, Katsuhiro; Lin, Yingsong; Chaochen, Wang; Taniguchi, Yohei; Kato, Mototsugu; Kikuchi, Shogo

    2017-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with gastric cancer; thus, early diagnosis and treatment are crucial. Given that H. pylori infection in adolescents or young adults has few symptoms, screening tests are necessary for this population. In this study, the accuracy of the rapid urine H. pylori antibody (u-HpAb) test was evaluated and compared with that of urine and serum H. pylori enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (u-HpELISA and s-HpELISA, respectively) in junior high school students. All 1,225 students attending the junior high schools in Sasayama City were invited to participate in this study. Urine and blood samples were assayed for anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G antibodies, and rapid u-HpAb was performed by three investigators independently. When all investigators were in agreement, the test was confirmed as positive or negative. Non-concordance was defined as undetermined. In total, 187 students participated in this study and provided both urine and blood samples. Three students had undetermined rapid u-HpAb. Excluding these results, the positivity rate of rapid u-HpAb was 3.3% (6/184), whereas that for u-HpELISA and s-HpELISA was 4.8% (10/187) and 5.9% (11/187), respectively. Using s-HpELISA and u-HpELISA as the standards, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of rapid u-HpAb were 85.7%, 100%, 100%, and 99.4%, respectively, excluding the undetermined rapid u-HpAb results. Rapid urine-HpAb test had excellent specificity but relatively low sensitivity. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  15. Testing Result Statistics-Based Rapid Testing Method for Safety-Critical System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yao Deng; Nan Sang

    2008-01-01

    Safety-critical system (SCS) has highly demand for dependability, which requires plenty of resource to ensure that the system under test (SUT) satisfies the dependability requirement. In this paper, a new SCS rapid testing method is proposed to improve SCS adaptive dependability testing. The result of each test execution is saved in calculation memory unit and evaluated as an algorithm model. Then the least quantity of scenario test case for next test execution will be calculated according to the promised SUT's confidence level. The feedback data are generated to weight controller as the guideline for the further testing. Finally, a compre- hensive experiment study demonstrates that this adaptive testing method can really work in practice. This rapid testing method, testing result statistics-based adaptive control, makes the SCS dependability testing much more effective.

  16. Evaluation of the use of rapid urease test: Pronto Dry to detect H pylori in patients with dyspepsia in several cities in Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AF Syam; M Abdullah; AA Rani; S Nurdjanah; P Adi; A Djumhana; P Tarigan; IDN Wibawa

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate Pronto Dry examination in patients with dyspepsia.METHODS: The study was conducted in patients with dyspepsia who underwent endoscopic examination in several endoscopic centers of several cities in Indonesia from January 2003 until April 2004. Biopsies for histopathologic examination were fixed with formalin and sent to Histopathologic Department to be analyzed and confirm the presence of H pylori infection. If H pylori was found positive, the density was calculated semi quantitatively. Histopathologic examination from gastric biopsy samples was interpreted based on the updated Sydney system classification.RESULTS: Of 550 patients, 309 (56%) were male and 241 (44%) were female with ages ranging from 15 to 82years. Mean age was 44.98 ± 14.46 years. Mean age of male patients was 44.35 ± 13.85 years and mean age of female patients was 45.78 ± 15.19 years. Evaluation of endoscopic results showed gastric ulcer in 36 cases (6.5%) and duodenal ulcer in 20 cases (3.6%). Normal endoscopic finding was found in 45 cases (8.2%) and minimal disorder of gastritis and duodenitis were found in 246 cases (44.7%). One case of gastric cancer was identified. Of 56 cases which were positive based on the criteria used, 39 patients were positive with Pronto Dry and 17 patients were negative with Pronto Dry. Overall sensitivity and specificity of Pronto Dry were 69.7% and 95.7% respectively. Positive predictive value was 66.1%and negative predictive value was 96.4% and overall ac curate rate was 92.9%.CONCLUSION: Pronto Dry seems promising as a diagnostic tool to detect H pylori more rapidly and accurately.

  17. Effect of biopsies on sensitivity and specificity of ultra-rapid urease test for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection:A prospective evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Lin Lim; Khek Yu Ho; Bow Ho; Manuel Salto-Tellez

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To prospectively assess the sensitivity, specificity and time to positivity of theUItra-rapid urease test (URUT) for Helicobacter pylori(H pylori), and compare the results of one with those of two biopsies.METHODS: Five antral biopsies were taken in consecutive patients undergoing upper endoscopy: one and two biopsies for URUT, and one each for H pylori culture and histology.URUT was read at 1, 5, 10, 20 and 30 min, 1, 2, 3 and 24 h after biopsy insertion into the reagent. A positive histology and/or culture was used as positive reference "gold standards".RESULTS: URUT was more sensitive for detecting H pylori with two biopsies rather than one, at all time points up to120 min. The sensitivity improved from 3.6% to 82.1% for one biopsy and 10.7% to 85.7% for two biopsies from 1 to120 min. The sensitivity reached 96.4% at 24 h for both,but the specificity reduced from 100% to 96% and 92% for one and two biopsies, respectively.CONCLUSION: Development of a positive URUT result is hastened by doubling the number of gastric biopsies. We recommend taking two instead of one biopsy to achieve an earlier positive URUT result so that H pylori eradication therapy can be initiated before patient is discharged from the endoscopy suite.

  18. An algorithm to diagnose influenza infection: evaluating the clinical importance and impact on hospital costs of screening with rapid antigen detection tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Del Vecchio, M; Catalán, P; de Egea, V; Rodríguez-Borlado, A; Martos, C; Padilla, B; Rodríguez-Sanchez, B; Bouza, E

    2015-06-01

    Rapid antigen detection tests (RADTs) are immunoassays that produce results in 15 min or less, have low sensitivity (50 %), but high specificity (95 %). We studied the clinical impact and laboratory savings of a diagnostic algorithm for influenza infection using RADTs as a first-step technique during the influenza season. From January 15th to March 31st 2014, we performed a diagnostic algorithm for influenza infection consisting of an RADT for all respiratory samples received in the laboratory. We studied all the patients with positive results for influenza infection, dividing them into two groups: Group A with a negative RADT but positive reference tests [reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and/or culture] and Group B with an initial positive RADT. During the study period, we had a total of 1,156 patients with suspicion of influenza infection. Of them, 217 (19 %) had a positive result for influenza: 132 (11 %) had an initial negative RADT (Group A) and 85 (7 %) had a positive RADT (Group B). When comparing patients in Group A and Group B, we found significant differences, as follows: prescribed oseltamivir (67 % vs. 82 %; p = 0.02), initiation of oseltamivir before 24 h (89 % vs. 97 %; p = 0.03), antibiotics prescribed (89 % vs. 67 %; p = <0.01), intensive care unit (ICU) admissions after diagnosis (23 % vs. 14 %; p = 0.05), and need for supplementary oxygen (61 % vs. 47 %; p = 0.01). An influenza algorithm including RADTs as the first step improves the time of administration of proper antiviral therapy, reduces the use of antibiotics and ICU admissions, and decreases hospital costs.

  19. A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toussaint, M.W. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Fort Washington, MD (United States); Shedd, T.R. [Army Biomedical Research and Development Lab., Frederick, MD (United States); Schalie, W.H. van der [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Leather, G.R. [Hood Coll., Frederick, MD (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1995-05-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photobacterium phosphoreum--Microtox{reg_sign} test, and a mixture of bacterial species--the Polytox{reg_sign} test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia), green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC50/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  20. Comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; VanDerSchal, W.H.; Leather, G.R.

    1995-10-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus ccalyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photo bacterium phosphoreum - Microtox test, and a mixture of bacterial species - the polytox test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriadaphnta dubia), green algae (Setenastrum capricarnutum), fathead minnows (Pimephalespromelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC5O/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  1. Evaluation of Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS) and the string test for rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, Meredith H; Reimer-McAtee, Melissa J; Gilman, Robert H; Lozano, Daniel; Saravia, Ruth; Pajuelo, Monica; Bern, Caryn; Castro, Rosario; Espinoza, Magaly; Vallejo, Maya; Solano, Marco; Challapa, Roxana; Torrico, Faustino

    2015-06-06

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common opportunistic infection and the leading cause of death in HIV-positive people worldwide. Diagnosing TB is difficult, and is more challenging in resource-scarce settings where culture-based diagnostic methods rely on poorly sensitive smear microscopy by Ziehl-Neelsen stain (ZN). We performed a cross-sectional study examining the diagnostic utility of Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility liquid culture (MODS) versus traditional Ziehl-Neelsen staining (ZN) and Lowenstein Jensen culture (LJ) of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) in HIV-infected patients in Bolivia. For sputum scarce individuals we assessed the value of the string test and induced sputum for TB diagnosis. The presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in the sputum of 107 HIV-positive patients was evaluated by ZN, LJ, and MODS. Gastric secretion samples obtained by the string test were evaluated by MODS in 102 patients. The TB-HIV co-infection rate of HIV patients with respiratory symptoms by sputum sample was 45 % (48/107); 46/48 (96 %) were positive by MODS, 38/48 (79 %) by LJ, and 30/48 (63 %) by ZN. The rate of MDRTB was 9 % (4/48). Median time to positive culture was 10 days by MODS versus 34 days by LJ (p Bolivia.

  2. New Rapid Evaluation for Long-Term Behavior in Deep Geological Repository by Geotechnical Centrifuge—Part 2: Numerical Simulation of Model Tests in Isothermal Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Masataka; Nishimoto, Soshi; Okada, Tetsuji

    2017-01-01

    In high-level radioactive waste disposal repositories, there are long-term complex thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical (T-H-M) phenomena that involve the generation of heat from the waste, the infiltration of ground water, and swelling of the bentonite buffer. The ability to model such coupled phenomena is of particular importance to the repository design and assessments of its safety. We have developed a T-H-M-coupled analysis program that evaluates the long-term behavior around the repository (called "near-field"). We have also conducted centrifugal model tests that model the long-term T-H-M-coupled behavior in the near-field. In this study, we conduct H-M-coupled numerical simulations of the centrifugal near-field model tests. We compare numerical results with each other and with results obtained from the centrifugal model tests. From the comparison, we deduce that: (1) in the numerical simulation, water infiltration in the rock mass was in agreement with the experimental observation. (2) The constant-stress boundary condition in the centrifugal model tests may cause a larger expansion of the rock mass than in the in situ condition, but the mechanical boundary condition did not affect the buffer behavior in the deposition hole. (3) The numerical simulation broadly reproduced the measured bentonite pressure and the overpack displacement, but did not reproduce the decreasing trend of the bentonite pressure after 100 equivalent years. This indicates the effect of the time-dependent characteristics of the surrounding rock mass. Further investigations are needed to determine the effect of initial heterogeneity in the deposition hole and the time-dependent behavior of the surrounding rock mass.

  3. Modified TB rapid test by proteinase K for rapid diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yari, Shamsi; Hadizadeh Tasbiti, Alireza; Ghanei, Mostafa; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Fateh, Abolfazl; Yari, Fatemeh; Bahrmand, Ahmadreza

    2016-03-01

    The diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis continues to be a challenge due to the low sensitivity of traditional diagnostic methods. Better and more rapid tests are needed for diagnosis of pleural TB. In this study, pleural fluids were tested with rapid test to determine Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB antigen). Affinity chromatography was used to purify specific polyclonal antibodies against MTB antigen. Pleural samples after decontamination were treated with proteinase K. Rapid test for pleural fluids was prepared by specific antibody. Rapid test was performed on 85 pleural fluid patients. The patients had a mean age of 46.55 ± 15.96 years and 38 were men. The performance of rapid test, using proteinase K, was found to be the most impressive: sensitivity 93%, specificity 94%, PPV 90%, and NPV 96% compared with adenosine deaminase test (ADA), PCR, smear, and culture. The present study did demonstrate that modified TB rapid test can substantially improve the diagnosis of extrapulmonary TB.

  4. An embedded barcode for "connected" malaria rapid diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Thomas F; Gupta, Sparsh; Wright, David W; Haselton, Frederick R

    2017-03-29

    Many countries are shifting their efforts from malaria control to disease elimination. New technologies will be necessary to meet the more stringent demands of elimination campaigns, including improved quality control of malaria diagnostic tests, as well as an improved means for communicating test results among field healthcare workers, test manufacturers, and national ministries of health. In this report, we describe and evaluate an embedded barcode within standard rapid diagnostic tests as one potential solution. This information-augmented diagnostic test operates on the familiar principles of traditional lateral flow assays and simply replaces the control line with a control grid patterned in the shape of a QR (quick response) code. After the test is processed, the QR code appears on both positive or negative tests. In this report we demonstrate how this multipurpose code can be used not only to fulfill the control line role of test validation, but also to embed test manufacturing details, serve as a trigger for image capture, enable registration for image analysis, and correct for lighting effects. An accompanying mobile phone application automatically captures an image of the test when the QR code is recognized, decodes the QR code, performs image processing to determine the concentration of the malarial biomarker histidine-rich protein 2 at the test line, and transmits the test results and QR code payload to a secure web portal. This approach blends automated, sub-nanomolar biomarker detection, with near real-time reporting to provide quality assurance data that will help to achieve malaria elimination.

  5. Ada Test and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    Lady Lovelace , the daughter of the poet, Lord Byron. Ada was Charles Babbage’s programmer, Babbage being the inventor of the first mechanical...34 O-07 0 ARFOCERIGTAEOAUIAL LABS RIGHTPATTERSON AFB OH F/G 9/2 ADA TEST AND EVALUATION.(U) MAY BO A J SCARPELLI UNCLASSIFIED AFWAL-TR-BO-1024 NL E...llEllllEIlE III HA i28 5__ BIH~~ ~ 2 __I.,11 LZ AFAL-TR-80-1024 Ada TEST AND EVALUATION Alfred J. Scarpelli System Technology Branch Systen Avionics

  6. Rapid diagnostic tests for typhoid and paratyphoid (enteric) fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijedoru, Lalith; Mallett, Sue; Parry, Christopher M

    2017-01-01

    criteria and included a total of 5080 participants (range 50 to 1732). Enteric fever prevalence rates in the study populations ranged from 1% to 75% (median prevalence 24%, interquartile range (IQR) 11% to 46%). The included studies evaluated 16 different RDTs, and 16 studies compared two or more different RDTs. Only three studies used the Grade 1 reference standard, and only 11 studies recruited unselected febrile patients. Most included studies were from Asia, with five studies from sub-Saharan Africa. All of the RDTs were designed to detect S.Typhi infection only. Most studies evaluated three RDTs and their variants: TUBEX in 14 studies; Typhidot (Typhidot, Typhidot-M, and TyphiRapid-Tr02) in 22 studies; and the Test-It Typhoid immunochromatographic lateral flow assay, and its earlier prototypes (dipstick, latex agglutination) developed by the Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam (KIT) in nine studies. Meta-analyses showed an average sensitivity of 78% (95% confidence interval (CI) 71% to 85%) and specificity of 87% (95% CI 82% to 91%) for TUBEX; and an average sensitivity of 69% (95% CI 59% to 78%) and specificity of 90% (95% CI 78% to 93%) for all Test-It Typhoid and prototype tests (KIT). Across all forms of the Typhidot test, the average sensitivity was 84% (95% CI 73% to 91%) and specificity was 79% (95% CI 70% to 87%). When we based the analysis on the 13 studies of the Typhidot test that either reported indeterminate test results or where the test format means there are no indeterminate results, the average sensitivity was 78% (95% CI 65% to 87%) and specificity was 77% (95% CI 66% to 86%). We did not identify any difference in either sensitivity or specificity between TUBEX, Typhidot, and Test-it Typhoid tests when based on comparison to the 13 Typhidot studies where indeterminate results are either reported or not applicable. If TUBEX and Test-it Typhoid are compared to all Typhidot studies, the sensitivity of Typhidot was higher than Test-it Typhoid (15% (95

  7. Rapid Field Toxicity Test for Water Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-28

    of trichothecenes (2). The correlation of the novel method with the Mysid trichothecenes paper described a perfect qualitative shrimp test, using fresh...test designed for human or animal consumption. organisms in a standard time LED light emitting diode CONCLUSION ml milliliter ppm parts per million A...potassium. of Trichothecenes ," Naval Research Laboratory Memorwdm Report 5738 (March 1986) Logistics dictate a day or so to test field samples in the

  8. A rapid diagnostic test for schistosomiasis mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelia Christina Mello-Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an improvement to the Kato-Katz (KK method, making it faster and more efficient for the visualisation of fertile eggs in stool samples. This modified KK method uses sodium acetate formalin as a fixative and reveals the intensity of infection in less than 1 h, reducing the diagnostic time without increasing the cost. This modified method may contribute to future epidemiological studies in both hospitals and the field due to its rapid and precise diagnostic, which allow for immediate treatment.

  9. Rapid diagnostic tests for typhoid and paratyphoid (enteric) fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijedoru, Lalith; Mallett, Sue; Parry, Christopher M

    2017-05-26

    rates in the study populations ranged from 1% to 75% (median prevalence 24%, interquartile range (IQR) 11% to 46%). The included studies evaluated 16 different RDTs, and 16 studies compared two or more different RDTs. Only three studies used the Grade 1 reference standard, and only 11 studies recruited unselected febrile patients. Most included studies were from Asia, with five studies from sub-Saharan Africa. All of the RDTs were designed to detect S.Typhi infection only.Most studies evaluated three RDTs and their variants: TUBEX in 14 studies; Typhidot (Typhidot, Typhidot-M, and TyphiRapid-Tr02) in 22 studies; and the Test-It Typhoid immunochromatographic lateral flow assay, and its earlier prototypes (dipstick, latex agglutination) developed by the Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam (KIT) in nine studies. Meta-analyses showed an average sensitivity of 78% (95% confidence interval (CI) 71% to 85%) and specificity of 87% (95% CI 82% to 91%) for TUBEX; and an average sensitivity of 69% (95% CI 59% to 78%) and specificity of 90% (95% CI 78% to 93%) for all Test-It Typhoid and prototype tests (KIT). Across all forms of the Typhidot test, the average sensitivity was 84% (95% CI 73% to 91%) and specificity was 79% (95% CI 70% to 87%). When we based the analysis on the 13 studies of the Typhidot test that either reported indeterminate test results or where the test format means there are no indeterminate results, the average sensitivity was 78% (95% CI 65% to 87%) and specificity was 77% (95% CI 66% to 86%). We did not identify any difference in either sensitivity or specificity between TUBEX, Typhidot, and Test-it Typhoid tests when based on comparison to the 13 Typhidot studies where indeterminate results are either reported or not applicable. If TUBEX and Test-it Typhoid are compared to all Typhidot studies, the sensitivity of Typhidot was higher than Test-it Typhoid (15% (95% CI 2% to 28%), but other comparisons did not show a difference at the 95% level of CIs.In a

  10. Rapid pile load tests in the geotechnical centrifuge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holscher, P.; Van Tol, A.F.; Huy, N.Q.

    2012-01-01

    Centrifiige experiments were carried out to gain insight into the factors that affect the mobilized resistance during rapid load testing on piles in sand. The influence of generated pore water pressure during rapid load tests is shidied, and its effect on the commonly used unloadmg point method to d

  11. Rapid pile load tests in the geotechnical centrifuge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holscher, P.; Van Tol, A.F.; Huy, N.Q.

    2012-01-01

    Centrifiige experiments were carried out to gain insight into the factors that affect the mobilized resistance during rapid load testing on piles in sand. The influence of generated pore water pressure during rapid load tests is shidied, and its effect on the commonly used unloadmg point method to d

  12. Rapid toxicity testing based on yeast respiratory activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haubenstricker, M.E. (Environmental Protection Agency, Ann Arbor, MI (USA)); Meier, P.G.; Mancy, K.H. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA)); Brabec, M.J. (Eastern Michigan Univ., Ypsilanti (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Rapid and economical techniques are needed to determine the effects of environmental contaminants. At present, the main methods to assess the impact of pollutants are based on chemical analysis of the samples. Invertebrate and vertebrate exposures have been used over the last two decades in assessing acute and chronic toxicities. However, these tests are labor intensive and require several days to complete. An alternative to whole organism exposure is to determine toxic effects in monocellular systems. Another approach for assessing toxicity is to monitor sensitive, nonspecific, subcellular target sites such as mitochondria. Changes in mitochondrial function which could indicate a toxic effect can be demonstrated readily after addition of a foreign substance. In initial assessments of various chemicals, rat liver mitochondria (RLM) were evaluated as a biological sensor of toxicity. False toxicity assessments will result if these ions are present even though they are generally considered nontoxic. Because of these disadvantages, an alternative mitochondrial system, such as found in bakers yeast, was evaluated.

  13. Laboratory identification of Haemophilus influenzae: effects of basal media on the results of the satellitism test and evaluation of the RapID NH system.

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    The effects of four different basal media, tryptic soy agar, brain heart infusion agar, nutrient agar, and Mueller-Hinton agar, were investigated with respect to the identification of Haemophilus influenzae with a satellitism test in which X and V growth factors were supplied by factor-impregnated filter paper strips. A total of 187 recent clinical isolates of H. influenzae were examined. Of these, 179 strains (95.7%) were correctly identified with tryptic soy agar, 173 (92.5%) with brain hea...

  14. Evaluation of the Pseudalert/Quanti-Tray MPN Test for the Rapid Enumeration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Swimming Pool and Spa Pool Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartory, David P; Brewer, Megan; Beswick, Agnieszka; Steggles, Darron

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the performance of a new most probable number test (Pseudalert/Quanti-Tray) for the enumeration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from swimming pool and spa pool waters by comparing it to the international and national membrane filtration-based culture methods for P. aeruginosa: ISO 16266:2006 and UK The Microbiology of Drinking Water-Part 8 (MoDW Part 8) which both use Pseudomonas CN agar. The comparison was based on the calculation of mean relative differences between the two methods conducted according to ISO 17994:2014. Using both routine pool water samples (149 from 8 laboratories) and artificially contaminated samples (309 from 7 laboratories), paired counts from each sample and enumeration method were analysed. For routine samples, there were insufficient data for a conclusive assessment, but the data do indicate at least equivalent performance of Pseudalert/Quanti-Tray to the reference methods. For the artificially contaminated samples, the data also did not result in a statistically conclusive assessment but did indicate potentially better performance of Pseudalert/Quanti-Tray. Combining the data from the routine samples and artificially contaminated samples resulted in an ISO 17994 outcome that the two methods were not statistically significantly different. Thus, the Pseudalert/Quanti-Tray method is an acceptable alternative to ISO 16266 and MoDW Part 8. The Pseudalert/Quanti-Tray method has the advantage in that it does not require confirmation testing, and of providing confirmed counts within 24-28 h incubation compared to 40-48 h or longer for the ISO 16266 and MoDW Part 8 methods.

  15. A Rapid Usability Evaluation (RUE) Method for Health Information Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Alissa L; Baker, Darrell A; Fahner, W Jeffrey; Milligan, Bryce S; Cox, Leeann; Hagg, Heather K; Saleem, Jason J

    2010-11-13

    Usability testing can help generate design ideas to enhance the quality and safety of health information technology. Despite these potential benefits, few healthcare organizations conduct systematic usability testing prior to software implementation. We used a Rapid Usability Evaluation (RUE) method to apply usability testing to software development at a major VA Medical Center. We describe the development of the RUE method, provide two examples of how it was successfully applied, and discuss key insights gained from this work. Clinical informaticists with limited usability training were able to apply RUE to improve software evaluation and elected to continue to use this technique. RUE methods are relatively simple, do not require advanced training or usability software, and should be easy to adopt. Other healthcare organizations may be able to implement RUE to improve software effectiveness, efficiency, and safety.

  16. Comparison of an automated rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test with the conventional RPR card test in syphilis testing

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objective We compared the automated non-treponemal reagin (rapid plasma reagin (RPR)) test with the conventional RPR card test for usefulness in clinical applications. Setting A comparative study of laboratory methods using clinical specimens in a single institute. Participants A total of 112 serum samples including 59 Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA)-positive and 53 TPPA-negative specimens were evaluated. Outcome measures HiSens Auto RPR LTIA (HBI, Anyang, Korea) was compared...

  17. HT-SPOTi: A Rapid Drug Susceptibility Test (DST) to Evaluate Antibiotic Resistance Profiles and Novel Chemicals for Anti-Infective Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danquah, Cynthia A; Maitra, Arundhati; Gibbons, Simon; Faull, Jane; Bhakta, Sanjib

    2016-02-08

    Antibiotic resistance is one of the major threats to global health and well-being. The past decade has seen an alarming rise in the evolution and spread of drug-resistant strains of pathogenic microbes. The emergence of extensively drug resistant (XDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and antimicrobial resistance among the ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumanii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) as well as fungal pathogens (such as certain species of Candida, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, and Trichophyton) poses a significant 21st century scientific challenge. With an extremely limited arsenal of efficacious antibiotics, techniques that can (a) identify novel antimicrobials and (b) detect antimicrobial resistance are becoming increasingly important. In this article, we illustrate the HT-SPOTi, an assay that is principally based on the growth of an organism on agar medium containing a range of different concentrations of drugs or inhibitors. The simple methodology makes this assay ideal for evaluating novel antimicrobial compounds as well as profiling an organism's antibiotic resistance profile.

  18. Testing techniques for mechanical characterization of rapidly solidified materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, C. C.

    1986-01-01

    Mechanical property testing techniques are reviewed for rapidly solidified materials. Mechanical testing of rapidly solidified materials is complicated by the fact that in most cases at least one dimension of the material is very small (less than 100 microns). For some geometries, i.e., powder or thin surface layers, microhardness is the only feasible mechanical test. The ribbon geometry which is obtained by the melt-spinning method, however, has been used for a variety of mechanical property measurements including elastic properties, tensile properties, fracture toughness, creep, and fatigue. These techniques are described with emphasis placed on the precautions required by the restricted geometry of rapidly solidified specimens.

  19. Comparison of Rapid Malaria Test and Laboratory Microscopy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Comparison of Rapid Malaria Test and Laboratory Microscopy Investigation for ... of the low parasite density cases could escape detection, therefore, it cannot replace laboratory ..... WHO (1990): World Report of the tropical disease,.

  20. Evaluation of the Biofire FilmArray BioThreat-E Test (v2.5) for Rapid Identification of Ebola Virus Disease in Heat-Treated Blood Samples Obtained in Sierra Leone and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Simon A; Bailey, Daniel; Matthews, Steven; Lumley, Sarah; Sweed, Angela; Ready, Derren; Eltringham, Gary; Richards, Jade; Vipond, Richard; Lukaszewski, Roman; Payne, Phillippa M; Aarons, Emma; Simpson, Andrew J; Hutley, Emma J; Brooks, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Rapid Ebola virus (EBOV) detection is crucial for appropriate patient management and care. The performance of the FilmArray BioThreat-E test (v2.5) using whole-blood samples was evaluated in Sierra Leone and the United Kingdom and was compared with results generated by a real-time Ebola Zaire PCR reference method. Samples were tested in diagnostic laboratories upon availability, included successive samples from individual patients, and were heat treated to facilitate EBOV inactivation prior to PCR. The BioThreat-E test had a sensitivity of 84% (confidence interval [CI], 64% to 95%) and a specificity of 89% (CI, 73% to 97%) in Sierra Leone (n = 60; 44 patients) and a sensitivity of 75% (CI, 19% to 99%) and a specificity of 100% (CI, 97% to 100%) in the United Kingdom (n = 108; 70 patients) compared to the reference real-time PCR. Statistical analysis (Fisher's exact test) indicated there was no significant difference between the methods at the 99% confidence level in either country. In 9 discrepant results (5 real-time PCR positives and BioThreat-E test negatives and 4 real-time PCR negatives and BioThreat-E test positives), the majority (n = 8) were obtained from samples with an observed or probable low viral load. The FilmArray BioThreat-E test (v2.5) therefore provides an attractive option for laboratories (either in austere field settings or in countries with an advanced technological infrastructure) which do not routinely offer an EBOV diagnostic capability.

  1. Problems with rapid agglutination methods for identification of Staphylococcus aureus when Staphylococcus saprophyticus is being tested.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregson, D B; Low, D E; Skulnick, M; Simor, A E

    1988-01-01

    Six rapid agglutination tests for identification of Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated by using 62 strains of S. aureus, 63 strains of S. saprophyticus, and 67 strains of other coagulase-negative staphylococci. S. saprophyticus was responsible for 19 of 26 false-positive results and 20 uninterpretable reactions. Thus, urinary staphylococcal isolates that are positive by rapid agglutination tests may require other confirmatory tests for the identification of possible S. saprophyticus. PMID:3410950

  2. Problems with rapid agglutination methods for identification of Staphylococcus aureus when Staphylococcus saprophyticus is being tested.

    OpenAIRE

    Gregson, D B; Low, D E; Skulnick, M; Simor, A. E.

    1988-01-01

    Six rapid agglutination tests for identification of Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated by using 62 strains of S. aureus, 63 strains of S. saprophyticus, and 67 strains of other coagulase-negative staphylococci. S. saprophyticus was responsible for 19 of 26 false-positive results and 20 uninterpretable reactions. Thus, urinary staphylococcal isolates that are positive by rapid agglutination tests may require other confirmatory tests for the identification of possible S. saprophyticus.

  3. Evaluation and Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and other reflexes. Sensations in the feet and hands will be evaluated with a pin. Since some neuropathies are hereditary, you doctor will ask if other members of your family have suffered from any type of neuropathy or neurological disorder. Evaluation A neurological evaluation consists of a ...

  4. Online Reading Test Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷鸣

    2011-01-01

    Language test has been used as a scientific assessment tool in providing valuable information for teaching and learning. In fact,lots of online reading tests are not designed with validity. This paper analyzes those online reading tests from the aspects o

  5. Evaluation of the Rapid Method for Testing of Organophosphorus Pestic ides Residue in Vegetables%蔬菜有机磷农药残留快速检测方法的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪淑娟; 赵丽丽; 冯辉

    2001-01-01

    A rapid Testing method of organophosphorus pesticides residue in vegetables was introduced in this paper. The experimental evaluation was done by means of degree of accuracy,precision and sensitivity,and by compa ring with gas chromato-graphy method which is standard method of our countr y.The results showed that the rate of recovery for this method was over 70% ,the comparatively standard variance was less than 4%,and the lowest d etection limit was 0.02~0.5mg*kg-1. All of these show that this kind of rapid testing method can satisfy the need of user for rough detection of organophosphorus pesticides residue in vegetables.%介绍了一种快速检测蔬菜有机磷农药残留的方法。以黄瓜为试材,通过准确度、精密度和灵敏度的分析,以及与国家标准方法--气相色谱法的比较,对该方法进行了实验学评价。结果表明,该方法对敌敌畏、甲基对硫磷、辛硫磷、氧化乐果和甲胺磷的回收率分别为98.75%、83.00%、 91.00%、70.50%和86.00%;最低检测限量分别为0.05、0.02、0.3、0.5、0.5mg *kg-1。多次平行测定变异系数小于4%,可以满足半定量分析的要求。

  6. Dual specimens increase the diagnostic accuracy and reduce the reaction duration of rapid urease test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Hung; Hsu; Sophie; SW; Wang; Chiao-Yun; Chen; Ching-Wen; Chang; Jaw-Yuan; Wang; Yuan-Chieh; Yang; Deng-Chyang; Wu; Ming-Tsang; Wu

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the influence of multiple samplings during esophagogastr oduodenoscopy(EGD) on the accuracy of the rapid urease test,and the validity of newly developed rapid urease tests,HelicotecUT plus test and HelicotecUT test,CLO test and ProntoDry test.METHODS:A total of 355 patients undergoing EGD for dyspepsia were included.Their Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori) treatment status was either nave or eradicated.Six biopsy specimens from antrum and gastric body,respectively,were obtained during EGD.Single...

  7. Test & Evaluation Management Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    conducted, using munitions likely to be encountered in combat, on a complete system loaded or equipped with all the dangerous materials that normally would...systems, work scope, contracting approaches, efficiency, requirements creep , and risk management. 15.11.3 Agile Development and Testing Testing within an...White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, aerodynamic simulations of the proposed test were run on a computer during actual firings so that real-time

  8. Rapid detection of Gram-positive organisms by use of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture nucleic acid test and the BacT/Alert Pediatric FAN system in a multicenter pediatric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, K V; Turner, N N; Roundtree, S S; Young, S; Brock-Haag, C A; Lacey, D; Abuzaid, S; Blecker-Shelly, D L; Doern, C D

    2013-11-01

    Assays that expedite the reporting of organism identification and antibiotic susceptibility status in positive blood cultures can fast track interventions that improve clinical outcomes. We evaluated the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture nucleic acid test (BC-GP) in two pediatric hospitals. Positive BacT/Alert Pediatric FAN blood cultures with Gram-positive organisms were tested using the BC-GP in tandem with routine laboratory procedures. To test organisms underrepresented in the clinical blood culture evaluation, blood culture bottles were spiked with diluted organism suspensions at concentrations of 10 to 100 CFU per milliliter. A total of 249 Gram-positive bacterial isolates were recovered from 242 blood cultures. The BC-GP detected Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus with sensitivities of 100%, 99%, and 100% and specificities of 100%, 100%, and 99.5%, respectively. The BC-GP detected Staphylococcus epidermidis, methicillin-susceptible S. epidermidis, and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis with sensitivities of 95%, 80%, and 96%, respectively, and 100% specificity. The BC-GP correctly identified 14/15 cases of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium bacteremia and 9 cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae. It misidentified 5/15 clinical blood cultures with Streptococcus mitis/Streptococcus oralis and 1/3 blood cultures spiked with Streptococcus anginosus group as S. pneumoniae. The BC-GP detected a case of Streptococcus pyogenes bacteremia but failed to detect 2/3 clinical blood cultures with Streptococcus agalactiae. BC-GP's rapid accurate detection of Staphylococcus spp., E. faecium, and E. faecalis and its ability to ascertain mecA, vanA, and vanB status may expedite clinical decisions pertaining to optimal antibiotic use. False-positive S. pneumoniae results may warrant reporting of only "Streptococcus spp." when this organism is reported by the BC-GP.

  9. Rapid prototyping of replica knee implants for in vitro testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verjans Mark

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the complex biomechanics of the knee is a key for an optimal implant design. To easily investigate the influence of prosthetic designs on knee biomechanics a rapid prototyping workflow for knee implants has been developed and evaluated. Therefore, different manufacturing technologies and post-treatment methods have been examined and overall seven different replica knee implants were manufactured. For evaluation, the manufacturing properties such as surface accuracy and roughness were determined and kinematic behaviour was investigated in a novel knee testing rig. It was carried out that PolyJet-Modelling with a sanded surface resulted in changed kinematic patterns compared to a usual CoCr-UHMWPE implant. However, fused deposition modelling using ABS and subsequent surface smoothening with acetone vapor showed the lowest roughness of the manufactured implants and only minor kinematic differences. For this reason this method constitutes a promising approach towards an optimal implant design for improved patient-satisfaction and long lifetime of the implant. Finally the workflow is not only limited to the knee.

  10. Comparative evaluation of the Bio-Rad Geenius HIV-1/2 Confirmatory Assay and the Bio-Rad Multispot HIV-1/2 Rapid Test as an alternative differentiation assay for CLSI M53 algorithm-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloch, L; Kadivar, K; Putz, J; Levett, P N; Tang, J; Hatchette, T F; Kadkhoda, K; Ng, D; Ho, J; Kim, J

    2013-12-01

    The CLSI-M53-A, Criteria for Laboratory Testing and Diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection; Approved Guideline includes an algorithm in which samples that are reactive on a 4th generation EIA screen proceed to a supplemental assay that is able to confirm and differentiate between antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2. The recently CE-marked Bio-Rad Geenius HIV-1/2 Confirmatory Assay was evaluated as an alternative to the FDA-approved Bio-Rad Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 Rapid Test which has been previously validated for use in this new algorithm. This study used reference samples submitted to the Canadian - NLHRS and samples from commercial sources. Data was tabulated in 2×2 tables for statistical analysis; sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, kappa and likelihood ratios. The overall performance of the Geenius and Multispot was very high; sensitivity (100%, 100%), specificity (96.3%, 99.1%), positive (45.3, 181) and negative (0, 0) likelihood ratios respectively, high kappa (0.96) and low bias index (0.0068). The ability to differentiate HIV-1 (99.2%, 100%) and HIV-2 (98.1%, 98.1%) Ab was also very high. The Bio-Rad Geenius HIV-1/2 Confirmatory Assay is a suitable alternative to the validated Multispot for use in the second stage of CLSI M53 algorithm-I. The Geenius has additional features including traceability and sample and cassette barcoding that improve the quality management/assurance of HIV testing. It is anticipated that the CLSI M53 guideline and assays such as the Geenius will reduce the number of indeterminate test results previously associated with the HIV-1 WB and improve the ability to differentiate HIV-2 infections. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Global survey of malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) sales, procurement and lot verification practices: assessing the use of the WHO-FIND Malaria RDT Evaluation Programme (2011-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incardona, Sandra; Serra-Casas, Elisa; Champouillon, Nora; Nsanzabana, Christian; Cunningham, Jane; González, Iveth J

    2017-05-15

    Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) play a critical role in malaria case management, and assurance of quality is a key factor to promote good adherence to test results. Since 2007, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics (FIND) have coordinated a Malaria RDT Evaluation Programme, comprising a pre-purchase performance evaluation (product testing, PT) and a pre-distribution quality control of lots (lot testing, LT), the former being the basis of WHO recommendations for RDT procurement. Comprehensive information on malaria RDTs sold worldwide based on manufacturers' data and linked to independent performance data is currently not available, and detailed knowledge of procurement practices remains limited. The use of the PT/LT Programme results as well as procurement and lot verification practices were assessed through a large-scale survey, gathering product-specific RDT sales and procurement data (2011-14 period) from a total of 32 manufacturers, 12 procurers and 68 National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCPs). Manufacturers' reports showed that RDT sales had more than doubled over the four years, and confirmed a trend towards increased compliance with the WHO procurement criteria (from 83% in 2011 to 93% in 2014). Country-level reports indicated that 74% of NMCPs procured only 'WHO-compliant' RDT products, although procurers' transactions datasets revealed a surprisingly frequent overlap of different products and even product types (e.g., Plasmodium falciparum-only and Plasmodium-pan) in the same year and country (60 and 46% of countries, respectively). Importantly, the proportion of 'non-complying' (i.e., PT low scored or not evaluated) products was found to be higher in the private health care sector than in the public sector (32% vs 5%), and increasing over time (from 22% of private sector sales in 2011 to 39% in 2014). An estimated 70% of the RDT market was covered by the LT programme. The opinion about the PT

  12. Usefulness of Leukocyte Esterase Test Versus Rapid Strep Test for Diagnosis of Acute Strep Pharyngitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumara V. Nibhanipudi MD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A study to compare the usage of throat swab testing for leukocyte esterase on a test strip(urine dip stick-multi stick to rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of Group A Beta hemolytic streptococci in cases of acute pharyngitis in children. Hypothesis: The testing of throat swab for leukocyte esterase on test strip currently used for urine testing may be used to detect throat infection and might be as useful as rapid strep. Methods: All patients who come with a complaint of sore throat and fever were examined clinically for erythema of pharynx, tonsils and also for any exudates. Informed consent was obtained from the parents and assent from the subjects. 3 swabs were taken from pharyngo-tonsillar region, testing for culture, rapid strep & Leukocyte Esterase. Results: Total number is 100. Cultures 9(+; for rapid strep== 84(- and16 (+; For LE== 80(- and 20(+ Statistics: From data configuration Rapid Strep versus LE test don’t seem to be a random (independent assignment but extremely aligned. The Statistical results show rapid and LE show very agreeable results. Calculated Value of Chi Squared Exceeds Tabulated under 1 Degree Of Freedom (P<.0.0001 reject Null Hypothesis and Conclude Alternative Conclusions: Leukocyte esterase on throat swab is as useful as rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of strep pharyngitis on test strip currently used for urine dip stick causing acute pharyngitis in children.

  13. Research on testing software for rapid cloud deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanjin; Huang, Junfei; Ji, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Software testing is an important way to ensure the quality of software systems and services, but the ever-changing needs of software testing, in particular the size of the dynamic test requirements getting stronger. The traditional deployment way of testing software is complex and it is difficult to scale to meet the dynamic test requirements. With the rapid development of cloud computing technology, traditional testing software after modified can run in the cloud as well. This paper proposed building a cloud service platform based on cloud service provider, which combines several of cloud service to adapt to software testing. With this cloud service platform, software developer can run their testing software in the cloud quickly and test scale can stretch dynamically. Furthermore, it is possible to reduce the cost of testing because of the pay-for-use cloud computing.

  14. Rapid confirmation of drug susceptibility in Mycobacterium tuberculosis using MPT 64 Ag based test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Afu Ochang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the possible use of MPT64 based rapid test to detect multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis in antibiotic broth dilution cultures. Methods: Twenty five isolates of M. tuberculosis whose susceptibility pattern had previously been identified by HAIN Genotype MTBDRplus (HainLifecience, Herhen, Germany were processed and cultured according to the microscopic-observation drug susceptibility technique. These included 20 susceptible, two multi-drug resistant M. tuberculosis and three isoniazid mono-resistant isolates. After 10-day incubation, aspirates from each well were tested with the MPT64 rapid test. Results: The rapid test correctly identified all 25 isolates and detected rifampicin and isoniazid resistance in all but one isoniazid mono-resistant isolate. Conclusions: MPT64 rapid test could be useful in detecting M. tuberculosis and drug resistance from Middlebrook 7H9 antimicrobial broth dilution in resource poor settings without an inverted microscope.

  15. Pediatric multicenter evaluation of the Verigene gram-negative blood culture test for rapid detection of inpatient bacteremia involving gram-negative organisms, extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, and carbapenemases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, K V; Deburger, B; Roundtree, S S; Ventrola, C A; Blecker-Shelly, D L; Mortensen, J E

    2014-07-01

    We evaluated the investigational use only (IUO) version of the rapid Verigene Gram-negative blood culture test (BC-GN), a microarray that detects 9 genus/species targets (Acinetobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., Escherichia coli/Shigella spp., Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia marcescens) and 6 antimicrobial resistance determinants (blaCTX-M, blaKPC, blaNDM, blaVIM, blaIMP, and blaOXA) directly from positive blood cultures. BC-GN was performed on positive BacT/Alert Pediatric FAN and Bactec Peds Plus blood cultures with Gram-negative organisms at two tertiary pediatric centers. Vitek MS (bioMérieux, Durham, NC) was used to assign gold standard organism identification. The Check MDR CT-102 microarray (Check Points B.V., Wageningen, Netherlands) was used as an alternative method for detecting resistance determinants. In total, 104 organisms were isolated from 97 clinical blood cultures. BC-GN correctly detected 26/26 cultures with Acinetobacter spp., P. aeruginosa, and S. marcescens, 5/6 with Citrobacter spp., 13/14 with Enterobacter spp., 23/24 with E. coli, 2/3 with K. oxytoca, 16/17 with K. pneumoniae, and 0/1 with Proteus spp. BC-GN appropriately reported negative BC-GN results in 8/13 blood cultures that grew organisms that were not represented on the microarray but failed to detect targets in 3/5 cultures that grew multiple Gram-negative organisms. BC-GN detected 5/5 and 1/1 clinical blood cultures with blaCTX-M and blaVIM. All 6 results were corroborated by Check MDR CT-102 microarray testing. The Verigene BC-GN test has the potential to expedite therapeutic decision making in pediatric patients with Gram-negative bacteremia. Sensitivity was satisfactory but may be suboptimal in mixed Gram-negative blood cultures.

  16. Development of a rapid ATP bioluminescence assay for biocidal susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Renuka; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2010-10-01

    An ATP-based biocide susceptibility assay for mycobacteria was developed by optimizing the cell lysis and assay conditions. Compared to the conventional agar plating method, the assay was rapid (1.5 h) and showed high sensitivity and specificity as determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The test species, Mycobacterium immunogenum, M. chelonae, and M. abscessus, showed various susceptibilities to the glutaraldehyde- and isothiazolone-based test biocides.

  17. Rapid Color Test Identification System for Screening of Counterfeit Fluoroquinolone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Singh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The protocol of rapid identification system consists of three chemical color reactions; two group tests for fluoroquinolone class and a compound specific test each for norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin and sparfloxacin. The group color reactions are based on (a Oxidizing behavior of quinolone and (b Fluorine functional groups, both of which are characteristic of fluoroquinolone class. The compound specific color reactions are developed taking into consideration unique chemical behavior of each compound. The proposed chemical color tests have high selectivity⁄specificity, are ideal for screening purpose. The color of each test was defined by two standard color systems namely CIE lab and Munsell color. A suspected counterfeit tablet of any of the above mentioned drugs can be identified within 10-15 min using this rapid identification system.

  18. A rapid ultrasound particle agglutination method for HIV antibody detection: Comparison with conventional rapid HIV tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystryak, Simon; Ossina, Natalya

    2017-08-24

    We present the results of the feasibility and preliminary studies on analytical performance of a rapid test for detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies in human serum or plasma that is an important advance in detecting HIV infection. Current methods for rapid testing of antibodies against HIV are qualitative and exhibit poor sensitivity (limit of detection). In this paper, we describe an ultrasound particle agglutination (UPA) method that leads to a significant increase of the sensitivity of conventional latex agglutination tests for HIV antibody detection in human serum or plasma. The UPA method is based on the use of: 1) a dual mode ultrasound, wherein a first single-frequency mode is used to accelerate the latex agglutination process, and then a second swept-frequency mode of sonication is used to disintegrate non-specifically bound aggregates; and 2) a numerical assessment of results of the agglutination process. The numerical assessment is carried out by optical detection and analysis of moving patterns in the resonator cell during the swept-frequency mode. The single-step UPA method is rapid and more sensitive than the three commercial rapid HIV test kits analyzed in the study: analytical sensitivity of the new UPA method was found to be 510-, 115-, and 80-fold higher than that for Capillus™, Multispot™ and Uni-Gold™ Recombigen HIV antibody rapid test kits, respectively. The newly developed UPA method opens up additional possibilities for detection of a number of clinically significant markers in point-of-care settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Parallel rapid HIV testing in pregnant women at Tijuana General Hospital, Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viani, Rolando M; Araneta, Maria Rosario G; Spector, Stephen A

    2013-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of parallel rapid HIV testing and the presence of HIV-associated risk factors in pregnant women with unknown HIV status in Baja California, Mexico. Pregnant women attending the delivery unit or the prenatal clinic at Tijuana General Hospital had blood drawn for parallel rapid HIV testing with Determine™ HIV-1/2 and Uni-Gold™ Recombigen(®) HIV. The parallel rapid HIV test performance was compared to the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and western blot. From September 2007 to July 2008, 1,383 (94%) of 1,464 women in labor and 1,992 (96%) of 2,075 women in prenatal care were enrolled. The HIV seroprevalence among women screened during labor (19/1,383, 1.37%, 95% CI: 0.85-2.18%) was significantly higher compared to those seeking prenatal care (5/1,992, 0.25%, 95% CI: 0.09-0.62%; pwomen testing positive by parallel rapid HIV testing 24 had a positive confirmatory western blot and one (0.03%) was confirmed as false positive. Additionally, two (0.06%) women had parallel rapid HIV discordant testing results; both tested negative by western blot. All women who tested negative by rapid testing had negative results on pooled EIA antibody testing. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of parallel rapid HIV testing were 100%, 99.9%, 96%, and 100%, respectively. These findings document a very high acceptance rate and an excellent performance of the parallel rapid HIV testing strategy during pregnancy.

  20. Field-testing of the rapid assessment of disability questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, Manjula; Busija, Lucy; Islam, Fakir M Amirul; Devine, Alexandra; Fotis, Kathy; Baker, Sally M; Sprunt, Beth; Edmonds, Tanya J; Huq, Nafisa Lira; Cama, Anaseini; Keeffe, Jill E

    2014-09-01

    The Rapid Assessment of Disability (RAD) questionnaire measures the magnitude and impact of disability and aims to inform the design of disability inclusive development programs. This paper reports the psychometric evaluation of the RAD. The initial version of the RAD comprised five sections: 1) demographics, 2) functioning, 3) rights awareness, 4) well-being, and 5) access to the community. Item functioning and construct validity were assessed in a population-based study in Bangladesh. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics (sections 2 and 5) and Rasch modelling (sections 3 and 4). A subsequent case-control study in Fiji tested the refined questionnaire in a cross-cultural setting and assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the RAD section 2 to identify people with disability. 2,057 adults took part in the study (1,855 in Bangladesh and 202 in Fiji). The prevalence of disability estimated using RAD section 2 in Bangladesh was 10.5% (95% CI 8.8-12.2), with satisfactory sensitivity and specificity (62.4% and 81.2%, respectively). Section 3 exhibited multidimensionality and poor differentiation between levels of rights awareness in both Bangladesh (person separation index [PSI] = 0.71) and Fiji (PSI = 0.0), and was unable to distinguish between people with and without disability (Bangladesh p = 0.786, Fiji p = 0.43). This section was subsequently removed from the questionnaire pending re-development. Section 4 had good ability to differentiate between levels of well-being (PSI = 0.82). In both countries, people with disability had significantly worse well-being scores than people without disability (p RAD. Information from the questionnaire can be used to inform and evaluate disability inclusive development programs.

  1. Efficacy of leukocyte esterase dipstick test as a rapid test in diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rungsun Rerknimitr; Worawut Rungsangmanoon; Pradermchai Kongkam; Pinit Kullavanijaya

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of dipstick test in diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in cirrhotic patients who underwent abdominal paracentesis based on the locally available dipstick test.METHODS: There were 200 consecutive samples from cirrhotic patients who underwent abdominal paracentesis. Urine dipstick (Combur10 Test(R)M, Roche,Mannheim, Germany) was used as a screening test. A manual cell count with differential study was done in all samples by experienced technicians. The polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell count more than 250 cells/mm3 was used as a diagnostic cut off level. One to three plus dipstick results were used as cut off levels for a positive result. The dipstick test results had to be agreed by three experienced readers. The sensitivity,specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy of two different colorimetric cut off scales (1+and 2+) were calculated and compared.RESULTS: The prevalence of SBP diagnosed by manual cell count was 21.0%. There were 128 specimens that had a true negative result by dipstick. The sensitivity,specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy of 1+ and 2+ cut off scale to diagnose SBP were 88%, 81%, 55%, 96% and 83% respectively, and 63%, 96%, 82%, 81% and 89% respectively.CONCLUSION: Dipstick test can be used as a rapid test for screening of SBP. The higher cut off colorimetric scale has a better specificity and positive predictive value but a lower sensitivity.

  2. Evaluation of Curetis Unyvero, a multiplex PCR-based testing system, for rapid detection of bacteria and antibiotic resistance and impact of the assay on management of severe nosocomial pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Wafaa; Al Roomi, Ebtehal; AbdulAziz, Lubna R; Rotimi, Vincent O

    2014-07-01

    Health care-associated pneumonia due to multidrug-resistant organisms represents a major therapeutic challenge. Unfortunately, treatment is dependent on empirical therapy, which often leads to improper and inadequate antimicrobial therapy. A rapid multiplex PCR-based Unyvero pneumonia application (UPA) assay that assists in timely decision-making has recently become available. In this study, we evaluated the performance of UPA in detecting etiological pathogens and resistance markers in patients with nosocomial pneumonia (NP). The impact of this assay on the management of severe nosocomial pneumonia was also assessed. Appropriate specimens were processed by UPA according to the manufacturer's protocol in parallel with conventional culture methods. Of the 56 patients recruited into the study, 49 (87.5%) were evaluable. Of these, 27 (55.1%) and 4 (8.2%) harbored multiple bacteria by the PCR assay and conventional culture, respectively. A single pathogen was detected in 8 (16.3%) and 4 (8.2%) patients, respectively. Thirteen different genes were detected from 38 patients, including the ermB gene (40.8%), the blaOXA-51-like gene (28.6%), the sul1 (28.6%) and int1 (20.4%) integrase genes, and the mecA and blaCTX-M genes (12.3% each). The time from sample testing to results was 4 h versus 48 to 96 h by UPA and culture, respectively. Initial empirical treatment was changed within 5 to 6 h in 33 (67.3%) patients based on the availability of UPA results. Thirty (62.2%) of the patients improved clinically. A total of 3 (6.1%) patients died, mainly from their comorbidities. These data demonstrate the potential of a multiplex PCR-based assay for accurate and timely detection of etiological agents of NP, multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms, and resistance markers, which can guide clinicians in making early antibiotic adjustments.

  3. Evaluación de una prueba rápida para diagnóstico de dengue en el nivel local Evaluation of a rapid dengue test at the local level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Sáenz-Bolaños

    2008-12-01

    with the Duo IgM& IgG® (Pan Bio® at local level and at the CNRV were compared by the kappa index with those obtained with a MAC ELISA test at the CNRV. An inspection visit to participating laboratories was made and unknown samples were sent to evaluate the performance of the participants and to check the fulfillment of the procedures used with the recommendations of the manufacturer. Results: The kappa index of the results of the rapid test used at local level in comparison with the MAC ELISA was 0.62 (CI 95% 90-95; the concordance of the positive samples was 75% (CI 95% 71-79. The kappa index of the rapid test used at the CNRV was 0.81 (CI 95% 0.88- 1.74 and the concordance of the positive samples was 93% (CI 95% 90-95. All laboratories showed ideal facilities to carry out the tests and the staff got the training required; however, the attention to other analyses affected the reading within the time recommended. The concordance of the unknown samples was 100%. Conclusion: A significant difference was demonstrated in the kappa index and the concordance of positive samples between the rapid tests carried out at the participant laboratories and at the CNRV. These results imply that decentralization of this methodology would require continuous support to identify correctable factors of disagreement and to promote the generation of consistent results to orient the decision-making process.

  4. Quick coker test: A new and rapid engine oil detergency and thermo-oxidation test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A method of rapidly evaluating high temperature detergency and anti oxidation propertyof engine oil is developed. It takes several minutes to distinguish base oil and high, middle or lowAPI quality grade engine oil. The method simulates the vanish formation of engine oil in piston. Inthis method, varnish forms on the surface of aluminum plate in 330±10℃ with test oil dropping onit. The detergency and anti oxidation property of engine oil are evaluated on the color of varnish.According to different practise application, two procedures are developed. Procedure a is for dis-tinguishing base oil and engine oil. Procedure b is for distinguishing engine oil of various API qual-ity grades, Also, this method is specifically suitable for discriminating poor quality engine oil inmarket.

  5. Rapid Urease Test to Diagnose Helicobacter Pylori Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Berry, Vidya Sagar

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori, a common cause of peptic ulcer, may also lead to gastric mucosa associated lymphoidtissue lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma. A study was done for 17 months from 1st January 2004 to31st May 2005. Rapid Urease Test (RUT and microscopy were performed on endoscopic gastric biopsymaterial obtained from 302 patients suspected to have peptic ulcer. Thirty three (10.93% specimenswere positive by RUT and 25 of those were positive by microscopy. RUT, having high sensitivity (90-95% and cent per cent specificity, and also being simple cheap, rapid and convenient to perform, can bedone in all the microbiology laboratories. Rapid diagnosis of H.Pylori by RUT helps the patients ineffective treatment.

  6. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garetson, Thomas [The Clarity Group, Incorporated, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  7. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garetson, Thomas [The Clarity Group, Incorporated, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  8. Rapid Prototyping Integrated With Nondestructive Evaluation and Finite Element Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.

    2001-01-01

    Most reverse engineering approaches involve imaging or digitizing an object then creating a computerized reconstruction that can be integrated, in three dimensions, into a particular design environment. Rapid prototyping (RP) refers to the practical ability to build high-quality physical prototypes directly from computer aided design (CAD) files. Using rapid prototyping, full-scale models or patterns can be built using a variety of materials in a fraction of the time required by more traditional prototyping techniques (refs. 1 and 2). Many software packages have been developed and are being designed to tackle the reverse engineering and rapid prototyping issues just mentioned. For example, image processing and three-dimensional reconstruction visualization software such as Velocity2 (ref. 3) are being used to carry out the construction process of three-dimensional volume models and the subsequent generation of a stereolithography file that is suitable for CAD applications. Producing three-dimensional models of objects from computed tomography (CT) scans is becoming a valuable nondestructive evaluation methodology (ref. 4). Real components can be rendered and subjected to temperature and stress tests using structural engineering software codes. For this to be achieved, accurate high-resolution images have to be obtained via CT scans and then processed, converted into a traditional file format, and translated into finite element models. Prototyping a three-dimensional volume of a composite structure by reading in a series of two-dimensional images generated via CT and by using and integrating commercial software (e.g. Velocity2, MSC/PATRAN (ref. 5), and Hypermesh (ref. 6)) is being applied successfully at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The building process from structural modeling to the analysis level is outlined in reference 7. Subsequently, a stress analysis of a composite cooling panel under combined thermomechanical loading conditions was performed to validate

  9. Validation of four Helicobacter pylori rapid blood tests in a multi-ethnic Asian population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lee-Guan Lim; Khay-Guan Yeoh; Bow Ho; Seng-Gee Lim

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To validate the accuracy of four rapid blood tests in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori.METHODS: Consecutive dyspeptic patients scheduled for endoscopy at the National University Hospital,Singapore, were interviewed and had blood drawn for serology. The first 109 patients were tested with BM-test (BM), Pyloriset Screen (PS) and QuickVue (QV), and the next 99 subjects were tested with PS and Unigold (UG).Endoscopies were performed blinded to rapid blood test results and biopsies were taken for culture and rapid urease test. Urea breath tests were performed after endoscopies. The rapid blood test results were compared with four reference tests (rapid urease test, culture,serology, and breath test).RESULTS: The study population composed of 208patients (mean age 43.1 years; range 18-73 years; 119males; 174 Chinese). The number of evaluable patientsfor BM, QV, UG and PS were 102, 102, 95, and 197,respectively. The sensitivity and specificity, respectively were: PS 80.2%, 95.8%; UG 55.9%, 100%; QV 43.3%,100%; BM 67.2%, 97.1%.CONCLUSION: The rapid blood test kits showed high specificity and positive predictive value (97-100%), while sensitivity and negative predictive value ranged widely (43%-80% and 47%-73%, respectively). Among test kits, PS showed the best sensitivity (80%), best negative predictive value (73%) and best negative likelihood ratio (0.207). PS had a specificity of 96%, positive predictive value of 97% and positive likelihood ratio of 19.1.

  10. Test and Evaluation Management Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    requirements and specifications of the contract. (2) Identify operational deficiencies; Postproduction testing requirements may (3) Recommend and evaluate...objectives to evaluateTHE PRODUCTION AND DE PRODMENTIOHAND postproduction logistics readiness and sup- DEPLOYMENT PHASE port are to:(MS III to MS IV) After...does, however, in- grated Logistics Support Plan (ILSP), etc.) clude a requirement for postproduction that are also in early stages of develop- test

  11. Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinical isolates by digital time-lapse microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredborg, M; Rosenvinge, F S; Spillum, E

    2015-01-01

    Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is essential for early and appropriate therapy. Methods with short detection time enabling same-day treatment optimisation are highly favourable. In this study, we evaluated the potential of a digital time-lapse microscope system, the oCelloScope s......Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is essential for early and appropriate therapy. Methods with short detection time enabling same-day treatment optimisation are highly favourable. In this study, we evaluated the potential of a digital time-lapse microscope system, the o...... (168 antimicrobial agent-organism combinations) demonstrated 3.6 % minor, no major and 1.2 % very major errors of the oCelloScope system compared to conventional susceptibility testing, as well as a rapid and correct phenotypic detection of strains with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA...

  12. Kit Tests for Rapid Detection of Viable Bacteria and Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    34 ®,, LEYE V TŘ CHEMICAL SYSTEMS LABORATORY CONTRACTOR REPORTo ARCSL-CR-80064 KIT TESTS FOR RAPID DETECTION OF VIABLE BACTERIA AND VIRUSES Final Report by R.H...they are converted from colorless, water-soluble compounds to brightly colored insoluble precipitates on reduction. The reduced form remains at the...per test) Observation 0 no obvious change in 30 minutes 5 x 14trace color in 30 minutes 2 x 10 s trace color in 17 minutes, distinct in 30 minutes 5 x

  13. Report of Field Test Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Regional Instructional Materials Center for Handicapped Children and Youth.

    Reported by the Great Lakes Region Special Education Instructional Materials Center are field test evaluation of 18 auditory instructional materials for use with handicapped children who learn best through the auditory modality. Among materials evaluated are a taped program on use of the abacus and a cassette audiotape on bird habits and sounds.…

  14. Language Test Construction and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, J. Charles; And Others

    The guide is intended for teachers who must construct language tests and for other professionals who may need to construct, evaluate, or use the results of language tests. Most examples are drawn from the field of English-as-a-Second-Language instruction in the United Kingdom, but the principles and practices described may be applied to the…

  15. Sensitivity and specificity of point-of-care rapid combination syphilis-HIV-HCV tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen L Hess

    Full Text Available New rapid point-of-care (POC tests are being developed that would offer the opportunity to increase screening and treatment of several infections, including syphilis. This study evaluated three of these new rapid POC tests at a site in Southern California.Participants were recruited from a testing center in Long Beach, California. A whole blood specimen was used to evaluate the performance of the Dual Path Platform (DPP Syphilis Screen & Confirm, DPP HIV-Syphilis, and DPP HIV-HCV-Syphilis rapid tests. The gold-standard comparisons were Treponema pallidum passive particle agglutination (TPPA, rapid plasma reagin (RPR, HCV enzyme immunoassay (EIA, and HIV-1/2 EIA.A total of 948 whole blood specimens were analyzed in this study. The sensitivity of the HIV tests ranged from 95.7-100% and the specificity was 99.7-100%. The sensitivity and specificity of the HCV test were 91.8% and 99.3%, respectively. The treponemal-test sensitivity when compared to TPPA ranged from 44.0-52.7% and specificity was 98.7-99.6%. The non-treponemal test sensitivity and specificity when compared to RPR was 47.8% and 98.9%, respectively. The sensitivity of the Screen & Confirm test improved to 90.0% when cases who were both treponemal and nontreponemal positive were compared to TPPA+/RPR ≥ 1 ∶ 8.The HIV and HCV on the multi-infection tests showed good performance, but the treponemal and nontreponemal tests had low sensitivity. These results could be due to a low prevalence of active syphilis in the sample population because the sensitivity improved when the gold standard was limited to those more likely to be active cases. Further evaluation of the new syphilis POC tests is required before implementation into testing programs.

  16. Detection of human immunodeficiency virus using oral mucosal transudate by rapid test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuvan Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    Settings and Design: OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/2 Diagnostic test was evaluated in sera and oral fluids from 83 subjects. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 50 HIV seropositive subjects and the control group comprised of 33 seronegative subjects. Serum samples were collected using the standard phlebotomy technique and oral samples were collected using OraQuick Rapid HIV 1/2 Antibody test OMT collecting device. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical analysis was done using statistical package for social sciences version 16.0, SPSS Inc., 233 South Wacker Drive, 11 th Floor, Chicago, IL 60606-6412. The Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value were used. Results: All the subjects who tested either positive/reactive or negative/non-reactive with Western blot/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA produced similar results with Rapid test using OMT in study, our study also revealed that the subjects whether on anti-retroviral therapy or not had 100% sensitivity and specificity with the Rapid test using OMT. Conclusions: The Rapid test using OMT is highly accurate as the diagnostic efficacy in our study was 100% for HIV antibody detection and produced similar results to that of conventional Western blot/ELISA tests.

  17. Rapid screening test for porphyria diagnosis using fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, A.; Stepp, H.; Homann, C.; Hennig, G.; Brittenham, G. M.; Vogeser, M.

    2015-07-01

    Porphyrias are rare genetic metabolic disorders, which result from deficiencies of enzymes in the heme biosynthesis pathway. Depending on the enzyme defect, different types of porphyrins and heme precursors accumulate for the different porphyria diseases in erythrocytes, liver, blood plasma, urine and stool. Patients with acute hepatic porphyrias can suffer from acute neuropathic attacks, which can lead to death when undiagnosed, but show only unspecific clinical symptoms such as abdominal pain. Therefore, in addition to chromatographic methods, a rapid screening test is required to allow for immediate identification and treatment of these patients. In this study, fluorescence spectroscopic measurements were conducted on blood plasma and phantom material, mimicking the composition of blood plasma of porphyria patients. Hydrochloric acid was used to differentiate the occurring porphyrins (uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III) spectroscopically despite their initially overlapping excitation spectra. Plasma phantom mixtures were measured using dual wavelength excitation and the corresponding concentrations of uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III were determined. Additionally, three plasma samples of porphyria patients were examined and traces of coproporphyrin-III and uroporphyrin-III were identified. This study may therefore help to establish a rapid screening test method with spectroscopic differentiation of the occurring porphyrins, which consequently allows for the distinction of different porphyrias. This may be a valuable tool for clinical porphyria diagnosis and rapid or immediate treatment.

  18. A multiplexed microfluidic platform for rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Ritika; Mukherjee, Arnab; Sevgen, Selami E; Sanpitakseree, Chotitath; Lee, Jaebum; Schroeder, Charles M; Kenis, Paul J A

    2013-11-15

    Effective treatment of clinical infections is critically dependent on the ability to rapidly screen patient samples to identify antibiograms of infecting pathogens. Existing methods for antibiotic susceptibility testing suffer from several disadvantages, including long turnaround times, excess sample and reagent consumption, poor detection sensitivity, and limited combinatorial capabilities. Unfortunately, these factors preclude the timely administration of appropriate antibiotics, complicating management of infections and exacerbating the development of antibiotic resistance. Here, we seek to address these issues by developing a microfluidic platform that relies on fluorescence detection of bacteria that express green fluorescent protein for highly sensitive and rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing. This platform possesses several advantages compared to conventional methods: (1) analysis of antibiotic action in two to four hours, (2) enhanced detection sensitivity (≈ 1 cell), (3) minimal consumption of cell samples and antibiotic reagents (platform to quantify the effects of four antibiotics (ampicillin, cefalexin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline) and their combinations on Escherichia coli. Within four hours, the susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics can be determined by detecting variations in maxima of local fluorescence intensity over time. As expected, cell density is a major determinant of antibiotic efficacy. Our results also revealed that combinations of three or more antibiotics are not necessarily better for eradicating pathogens compared to pairs of antibiotics. Overall, this microfluidic based biosensor technology has the potential to provide rapid and precise guidance in clinical therapies by identifying the antibiograms of pathogens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of a new rapid plasma reagin card test with the standard rapid plasma reagin 18-mm circle card test and the venereal disease research laboratory slide test for serodiagnosis of syphilis.

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    The rapid plasma reagin (RPR) card test manufactured by Beckman Instruments, Inc., was compared, qualitatively and quantitatively, with the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) slide test and the standard RPR 18-mm circle card tests for the serodiagnosis of syphilis. Sera from 638 individuals were used in this study. Two pilot lots and two production lots of antigen were submitted by Beckman Instruments, Inc., for evaluation. Qualitative agreement among the three RPR card tests was 98....

  20. Simple and rapid field tests for brucellosis in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoel, Theresia; Dias, Isabel Travassos; Cardoso, Regina; Smits, Henk L

    2008-08-25

    Four simple and rapid field tests for the serodiagnosis of brucellosis in cattle, goat, sheep and swine were developed. The performance of the assays was investigated using serum samples collected in Portugal from animals originating from herds with a defined sanitary status with respect to the presence of brucellosis. The sensitivity calculated for the bovine, caprine, ovine and swine Brucella lateral flow assays based on results obtained for samples collected from animals with culture confirmed brucellosis was 90%, 100%, 90% and 73%, respectively. None of the samples from animals from herds free of brucellosis reacted in the flow assays indicating a high specificity. However, as expected, some degree of reactivity was observed when testing selected serum samples that reacted non-specific in reference tests for brucellosis.

  1. Testing Result Statistics-Based Rapid Testing Method for Safety-Critical System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yao Deng; Nan Sang

    2008-01-01

    Safety-critical system (SCS) has highlydemand for dependability, which requires plenty ofresource to ensure that the system under test (SUT)satisfies the dependability requirement. In this paper, anew SCS rapid testing method is proposed to improveSCS adaptive dependability testing. The result of each testexecution is saved in calculation memory unit andevaluated as an algorithm model. Then the least quantityof scenario test case for next test execution will becalculated according to the promised SUT's confidencelevel. The feedback data are generated to weightcontroller as the guideline for the further testing. Finally,a compre- hensive experiment study demonstrates thatthis adaptive testing method can really work in practice.This rapid testing method, testing result statistics-basedadaptive control, makes the SCS dependability testingmuch more effective.

  2. The effects of surface treatments on rapid chloride permeability tests

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Seyoon

    2012-08-01

    Surface treatments are commonly applied to improve the chloride resistance of concrete structures exposed to saline environments. Information on chloride ingress to surface-treated concrete is mostly provided by application of the rapid chloride permeability test (RCPT); this test is short in duration and provides rapid results. This study presents a numerical formulation, based on the extended Nernst-Plank/Poisson (NPP) equation, to model the effect of the surface treatment on a sample tested by RCPT. Predictions of the model are compared to experimental measurements. The simulations show that the results from RCPT, in terms of ionic profiles and measurement of the electric field, are dependent on the effectiveness of surface treatments. During RCPT, highly effective surface treatments cause both cations and anions to flocculate at the interface between the surface treatment and the concrete, creating a local electric field. Our numerical model includes these phenomena and presents a methodology to obtain more accurate diffusivities of the surface-treated- concrete from RCPT. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Potential for false positive HIV test results with the serial rapid HIV testing algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baveewo Steven

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid HIV tests provide same-day results and are widely used in HIV testing programs in areas with limited personnel and laboratory infrastructure. The Uganda Ministry of Health currently recommends the serial rapid testing algorithm with Determine, STAT-PAK, and Uni-Gold for diagnosis of HIV infection. Using this algorithm, individuals who test positive on Determine, negative to STAT-PAK and positive to Uni-Gold are reported as HIV positive. We conducted further testing on this subgroup of samples using qualitative DNA PCR to assess the potential for false positive tests in this situation. Results Of the 3388 individuals who were tested, 984 were HIV positive on two consecutive tests, and 29 were considered positive by a tiebreaker (positive on Determine, negative on STAT-PAK, and positive on Uni-Gold. However, when the 29 samples were further tested using qualitative DNA PCR, 14 (48.2% were HIV negative. Conclusion Although this study was not primarily designed to assess the validity of rapid HIV tests and thus only a subset of the samples were retested, the findings show a potential for false positive HIV results in the subset of individuals who test positive when a tiebreaker test is used in serial testing. These findings highlight a need for confirmatory testing for this category of individuals.

  4. Test Structures Applied to the Rapid Prototyping of Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, M.; Chang, L-J.; Martin, D.

    1997-01-01

    Recently, test structures were used to aid in the rapid development of a gas sensor and pressure sensor. These sensors were fabricated using co-fired ceramic technology and a multiproject approach. This talk will describe results obtained from a ceramic substrate which contained 36 chips with six variants including the sensors, process control monitors, and an interconnect chip. As far as the authors know, this is the first implementation of multi-projects in co-fired ceramic substrate. The gas sensor is being developed for the Space Shuttle and the pressure gage is being developed as a Martian barometer.

  5. Systematic review of the performance of rapid rifampicin resistance testing for drug-resistant tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Arentz

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rapid tests for rifampicin resistance may be useful for identifying isolates at high risk of drug resistance, including multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB. However, choice of diagnostic test and prevalence of rifampicin resistance may both impact a diagnostic strategy for identifying drug resistant-TB. We performed a systematic review to evaluate the performance of WHO-endorsed rapid tests for rifampicin resistance detection. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Library through January 1, 2012. For each rapid test, we determined pooled sensitivity and specificity estimates using a hierarchical random effects model. Predictive values of the tests were determined at different prevalence rates of rifampicin resistance and MDR-TB. RESULTS: We identified 60 publications involving six different tests (INNO-LiPA Rif. TB assay, Genotype MTBDR assay, Genotype MTBDRplus assay, Colorimetric Redox Indicator (CRI assay, Nitrate Reductase Assay (NRA and MODS tests: for all tests, negative predictive values were high when rifampicin resistance prevalence was ≤ 30%. However, positive predictive values were considerably reduced for the INNO-LiPA Rif. TB assay, the MTBDRplus assay and MODS when rifampicin resistance prevalence was < 5%. LIMITATIONS: In many studies, it was unclear whether patient selection or index test performance could have introduced bias. In addition, we were unable to evaluate critical concentration thresholds for the colorimetric tests. DISCUSSION: Rapid tests for rifampicin resistance alone cannot accurately predict rifampicin resistance or MDR-TB in areas with a low prevalence of rifampicin resistance. However, in areas with a high prevalence of rifampicin resistance and MDR-TB, these tests may be a valuable component of an MDR-TB management strategy.

  6. A novel microbead-based microfluidic device for rapid bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J; Mu, X; Guo, Z; Hao, H; Zhang, C; Zhao, Z; Wang, Q

    2014-12-01

    Effective treatment of infectious diseases depends on the ability to rapidly identify the infecting bacteria and the use of sensitive antibiotics. The currently used identification assays usually take more than 72 h to perform and have a low sensitivity. Herein, we present a microbead-based microfluidic platform that is highly sensitive and rapid for bacterial detection and antibiotic sensitivity testing. The platform includes four units, one of which is used for bacterial identification and the other three are used for susceptibility testing. Our results showed that Escherichia coli O157 at a cell density range of 10(1)-10(5) CFU/μL could be detected within 30 min. Additionally, the effects of three antibiotics on E. coli O157 were evaluated within 4-8 h. Overall, this integrated microbead-based microdevice provides a sensitive, rapid, reliable, and highly effective platform for the identification of bacteria, as well as antibiotic sensitivity testing.

  7. Comparison between the Traditional and a Rapid Screening Test for Cryoimmunoglobulins Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Romitelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. A new rapid, automatic, and sensitive screening test useful to detect cryoglobulins in serum samples is proposed. Design and Methods. The increase of turbidity during the cryoglobulin aggregation was monitored spectrophotometrically in sera from 400 patients with clinical evidence of cryoglobulinemia related disorders and 100 controls. Results were correlated to those obtained by the traditional method. Results. Kinetics of the aggregation curves were described by their maximum turbidity increase, lag time, and slope. Despite a partial correspondence between the traditional and the rapid test, patients with symptomatic cryoglobulinemia showed turbidity values significantly higher than the determined cutoff. Moreover, a functional classification of cryoglobulins is proposed. Conclusions. Due to its high reproducibility, operator independence, low cost, and results obtained within 2 hours, the rapid test can be used as a “real time” monitoring of cryoglobulinemia related diseases and for the evaluation of plasmapheresis efficacy.

  8. Rapidec Carba NP Test for Rapid Detection of Carbapenemase Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirel, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Performances of the Rapidec Carba NP test (bioMérieux) were evaluated for detection of all types of carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In less than 2 h after sample preparation, it showed a sensitivity and specificity of 96%. This ready-to-use test is well adapted to the daily need for detection of carbapenemase producers in any laboratory worldwide. PMID:26085619

  9. Rapid testing methods for food contaminants and toxicants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiachi Chiou; Arthur Ho Hon Leung; Hang Wai Lee; Wing-tak Wong

    2015-01-01

    Food safety is one of the major concerns in every country regardless of the economic and social development. The frequent occurrence of food scandals in the world has led the Chinese government to implement several strategies to fortify the food supply system to a high food safety standard. This relies heavily on laboratory testing services but conventional methods for detection of food contaminants and toxicants are limited by sophisticated sample preparation procedures, long analysis time, large instruments and professional personnel to meet the increasing demands. In this review, we have incorporated most of the current and potential rapid detection methods for many notorious food contaminants and toxicants including microbial agents, toxic ions, pesticides, veterinary drugs and preservatives, as wel as detection of geneticaly modiifed food genes and adulterated edible oil. Development of rapid, accurate, easy-to-use and affordable testing methods could urge food handlers and the public to actively screen for food contaminants and toxicants instead of passively relying on monitoring by the government examination facility. This review also provides several recommendations including how to encourage the public to engage in the food safety management system and provide optimal education and ifnancial assistance that may improve the current Chinese food safety control system.

  10. Diagnostic values of Helicobacter pylori diagnostic tests: stool antigen test, urea breath test, rapid urease test, serology and histology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Kazemi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study is to compare validity of 5 diagnostic tests of helicobacter pylori with each other: stool antigen test, urea breath test (UBT, rapid urease test (RUT, serology and histology. Methods: A total of 94 patients who had indication of endoscopy entered the study. All of the 5 tests were performed for each patient. When the results of at least 2 tests were positive (except serology, Helicobacter pylori infection was considered to be positive. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy and area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve of these 5 tests were determined. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy and area under ROC curve of these 5 tests are as below, respectively. Histology: 89%, 78%, 93%, 91%, 85% and 0.881; RUT: 93%, 75%, 95%, 94%, 86% and 0.831; serology: 50%, 54%, 46%, 61%, 52% and 0.563; stool antigen test: 96%, 83%, 98%, 96%, 91% and 0.897; UBT: 89%, 73%, 92%, 90%, 82% and 0.892. Conclusions: Stool antigen test is the most accurate test for Helicobacter pylori diagnosis before eradication of these bacteria.

  11. Rapid identification of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii using a modified Carba NP test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bakour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical tests have been previously developed to identify carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp. (Carba NP test and Acinetobacter spp. (CarbAcineto NP test. We evaluated a modified Carba NP test to detect carbapenemase production in Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter species using a single protocol with rapid results and found good reliability and speed.

  12. Rapid identification of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii using a modified Carba NP test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakour, S; Garcia, V; Loucif, L; Brunel, J-M; Gharout-Sait, A; Touati, A; Rolain, J-M

    2015-09-01

    Biochemical tests have been previously developed to identify carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp. (Carba NP test) and Acinetobacter spp. (CarbAcineto NP test). We evaluated a modified Carba NP test to detect carbapenemase production in Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter species using a single protocol with rapid results and found good reliability and speed.

  13. Studies on the Rapid Methods for Evaluating Seed Vigor of Sweet Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guangwu; Yang, Linlin; Wang, Jianhua; Zhu, Zhujun

    Since the germination test is still the main method for evaluating seed vigor of sweet corn, it is necessary to study the rapid methods for evaluating their vigor. First, two vigor levels of 9 super sweet corn and 9 sugar enhanced corn hybrids were distinguished by accelerated ageing treatment. Next, their vigor statuses were tested by rapid methods such as electrical conductivity (EC), soluble sugar (SS), volatile aldehyde (VA), dehydrogenase activity (DA) and Q2 oxygen sensing technology. Correlation relationship was analyzed between the above tested values and vigor performances. The results showed that EC, SS, VA, DA, oxygen metabolism rate (OMR), critical oxygen pressure (COP) were all suitable to evaluate seed vigor of sweet corn. Furthermore, VA was optimal for evaluating seed vigor of super sweet corn. DA was optimal for evaluating sugar enhanced corn.

  14. A Novel Automatic Rapid Diagnostic Test Reader Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Haydar; Kayhan, Osman Semih

    2016-01-01

    A novel automatic Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) reader platform is designed to analyze and diagnose target disease by using existing consumer cameras of a laptop-computer or a tablet. The RDT reader is useable with numerous lateral immunochromatographic assays and similar biomedical tests. The system has two different components, which are 3D-printed, low-cost, tiny, and compact stand and a decision program named RDT-AutoReader 2.0. The program takes the image of RDT, crops the region of interest (ROI), and extracts the features from the control end test lines to classify the results as invalid, positive, or negative. All related patient's personal information, image of ROI, and the e-report are digitally saved and transferred to the related clinician. Condition of the patient and the progress of the disease can be monitored by using the saved data. The reader platform has been tested by taking image from used cassette RDTs of rotavirus (RtV)/adenovirus (AdV) and lateral flow strip RDTs of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) before discarding them. The created RDT reader can also supply real-time statistics of various illnesses by using databases and Internet. This can help to inhibit propagation of contagious diseases and to increase readiness against epidemic diseases worldwide.

  15. Nuclear explosives testing readiness evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valk, T.C.

    1993-09-01

    This readiness evaluation considers hole selection and characterization, verification, containment issues, nuclear explosive safety studies, test authorities, event operations planning, canister-rack preparation, site preparation, diagnostic equipment setup, device assembly facilities and processes, device delivery and insertion, emplacement, stemming, control room activities, readiness briefing, arming and firing, test execution, emergency response and reentry, and post event analysis to include device diagnostics, nuclear chemistry, and containment. This survey concludes that the LLNL program and its supporting contractors could execute an event within six months of notification, and a second event within the following six months, given the NET group`s evaluation and the following three restraints: (1) FY94 (and subsequent year) funding is essentially constant with FY93, (2) Preliminary work for the initial event is completed to the historical sic months status, (3) Critical personnel, currently working in dual use technologies, would be recallable as needed.

  16. Standard test method for rapid indentation hardness testing of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1984-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the procedure for rapid indentation hardness testing of metallic materials as an alternative to Test Method E 10 on standard Brinell hardness. It includes methods for the verification of rapid indentation hardness testing machines, Part B, and the calibration of reference hardness test blocks, Part C. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  17. Rapid space hardware development through computer-automated testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masters, D.S.; Ruud, K.K.

    1997-10-01

    FORTE, the Fast On-Orbit Recording of Transient Events small satellite designed and built by Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories, is scheduled for launch in August, 1997. In the spirit of {open_quotes}better, cheaper, faster{close_quotes} satellites, the RF experiment hardware (receiver and trigger sub-systems) necessitated rapid prototype testing and characterization in the development of space-flight components. This was accomplished with the assembly of engineering model hardware prior to construction of flight hardware and the design of component-specific, PC-based software control libraries. Using the LabVIEW{reg_sign} graphical programming language, together with off-the-shelf PC digital I/O and GPIB interface cards, hardware control and complete automation of test equipment was possible from one PC. Because the receiver and trigger sub-systems employed complex functions for signal discrimination and transient detection, thorough validation of all functions and illumination of any faults were priorities. These methods were successful in accelerating the development and characterization of space-flight components prior to integration and allowed more complete data to be gathered than could have been accomplished without automation. Additionally, automated control of input signal sources was carried over from bench-level to system-level with the use of networked Linux workstation utilizing a GPIB interface.

  18. Open-source, Rapid Reporting of Dementia Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Rasinio S.; Mahnken, Jonathan D.; Swerdlow, Russell H.; Burns, Jeffrey M.; Price, Cathy; Amstein, Brad; Hunt, Suzanne L; Brown, Lexi; Adagarla, Bhargav; Vidoni, Eric D.

    2016-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health Alzheimer's Disease Center consortium requires member institutions to build and maintain a longitudinally characterized cohort with a uniform standard data set. Increasingly, centers are employing electronic data capture to acquire data at annual evaluations. In this paper, the University of Kansas Alzheimer's Disease Center reports on an open-source system of electronic data collection and reporting to improve efficiency. This Center capitalizes on the speed, flexibility and accessibility of the system to enhance the evaluation process while rapidly transferring data to the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center. This framework holds promise for other consortia that regularly use and manage large, standardized datasets. PMID:26779306

  19. [Clinical value of a rapid respiratory syncytial virus antigen detection in point-of-care testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Y X; Tian, R; Qian, Y; Sun, Y; Deng, J; Wang, F; Zhu, R N; Zhao, L Q

    2017-02-02

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of a rapid respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) antigen detection in point-of-care testing (POCT). Method: A total of 209 specimens, including 78 throat swabs (TS) and 131 nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs), were collected from inpatients who visited the Children's Hospital Affiliated to the Capital Institute of Pediatrics and were diagnosed as acute respiratory infection from 5 January to 7 February, 2015. These specimens were tested for RSV by a rapid antigen detection kit which was compared with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA) for RSV detection. Result: Compared with DFA for NPAs, the sensitivity and specificity of rapid antigen detection were 83.9% and 97.3%, respectively, with Kappa value of 0.86; Compared with RT-PCR, the sensitivity (NPAs, 74.2%; TS, 77.8%) and specificity (NPAs, 100.0%; TS, 92.0%) of rapid antigen detection were high, too, with Kappa value of 0.74 in NPAs and 0.62 in TS. However, the RSV positive rate of rapid antigen detection in TS (21.7%) from pediatric patients with acute lower respiratory tract infection was lower than that in NPAs (78.3%), as well as that of RT-PCR (7.3% in TS verse 78% in NPAs). The RSV rapid antigen detection kit can be finished in about 10 minutes. Conclusion: With characteristics of high specificity, high sensitivity, being rapid, efficient and easy to operate in comparison with DFA and RT-PCR, RSV rapid antigen detection in this study is suitable for POCT. For pediatric patients with acute respiratory tract infection, NPA was better than TS for RSV detection.

  20. Field accuracy of fourth-generation rapid diagnostic tests for acute HIV-1: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fourth-generation HIV-1 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) detect HIV-1 p24 antigen to screen for acute HIV-1. However, diagnostic accuracy during clinical use may be suboptimal. Methods: Clinical sensitivity and specificity of fourth-generation RDTs for acute HIV-1 were collated from field evaluation studies in adults identified by a systematic literature search. Results: Four studies with 17 381 participants from Australia, Swaziland, the United Kingdom and Malawi were identified. ...

  1. Modified rapid urease test for Helicobacter pylori detection in relation to an immunohistochemical stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Y; Shirahase, H; Yamamoto, E; Inao, R; Hamaguchi, S; Kanaji, K; Kitaoka, A; Yagi, T; Tokuka, A; Ohsumi, K

    2000-06-01

    The rapid urease test and touch cytology have been used for the rapid detection of Helicobacter pylori infection. Recently, a modified rapid urease (MRU) test, which provides results in 20 min has been available on a commercial basis. To date, few reports have evaluated the accuracy of this test. This study evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the MRU test and touch cytology to detect H. pylori in relation to the density of H. pylori infection determined semi-quantitatively by using immunohistochemical stains. Biopsy specimens obtained from a total of 60 patients who underwent endoscopy for evaluation of gastroduodenal diseases were studied by using the MRU test, Giemsa stain for touch smear tissue and histological methods. An immunohistochemical stain was used as a standard, and the density of H. pylori infection was graded according to the number of individual bacteria seen as follows: grade 0 = 0; grade 1+ = 1-9; grade 2+ = 10-29; grade 3+ = 30-99; grade 4+ > or = 100. The severity of gastritis was evaluated histologically in each specimen and compared with the density of H. pylori infection. The MRU test had an overall sensitivity of 73%, specificity of 100% and accuracy of 85%. The Giemsa stain had a sensitivity of 91%, specificity of 100% and accuracy of 95%.The sensitivities of the MRU test and Giemsa stain decreased in mild H. pylori infection. In the MRU test, the sensitivity was 47% when the density of H. pylori infection was 1+, while 80-100% sensitivities were obtained when the densities of infection were > or = 2+. With the Giemsa stain, the sensitivity was 80% when the density was 1+, while the sensitivity increased to 100% when the densities were > or = 2+. The severity of gastritis determined by the Rauws scores showed a positive correlation with the density of H. pylori infection as evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. The MRU test had high sensitivity and specificity for moderate to severe H. pylori infection, but it may

  2. Rapid antigen detection test for respiratory syncytial virus diagnosis as a diagnostic tool,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio da Silva Mesquita

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the QuickVue® RSV Test Kit (QUIDEL Corp, CA, USA as a screening tool for respiratory syncytial virus in children with acute respiratory disease in comparison with the indirect immunofluorescence assay as gold standard. In Brazil, rapid antigen detection tests for respiratory syncytial virus are not routinely utilized as a diagnostic tool, except for the diagnosis of dengue and influenza. Methods: The authors retrospectively analyzed 486 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples from children under age 5 with acute respiratory infection, between December 2013 and August 2014, the samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay and QuickVue® RSV Test kit. Samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Results: From 313 positive samples by immunofluorescence assays, 282 (90% were also positive by the rapid antigen detection test, two were positive only by rapid antigen detection test, 33 were positive only by immunofluorescence assays, and 171 were positive by both methods. The 35 samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR; the two samples positive only by rapid antigen detection test and the five positive only by immunofluorescence assays were also positive by real time PCR. There was no relation between the negativity by QuickVue® RSV Test and viral load or specific strain. The QuickVue® RSV Test showed sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 98.8%, predictive positive value of 99.3%, and negative predictive value of 94.6%, with accuracy of 93.2% and agreement κ index of 0.85 in comparison to immunofluorescence assay. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the QuickVue® RSV Test Kit can be effective in early detection of Respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirate and is reliable for use as a diagnostic tool in pediatrics.

  3. Rapid antigen detection test for respiratory syncytial virus diagnosis as a diagnostic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Flávio da Silva; Oliveira, Danielle Bruna Leal de; Crema, Daniela; Pinez, Célia Miranda Nunes; Colmanetti, Thaís Cristina; Thomazelli, Luciano Matsumia; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Vieira, Sandra Elisabeth; Martinez, Marina Baquerizo; Botosso, Viviane Fongaro; Durigon, Edison Luiz

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the QuickVue(®) RSV Test Kit (QUIDEL Corp, CA, USA) as a screening tool for respiratory syncytial virus in children with acute respiratory disease in comparison with the indirect immunofluorescence assay as gold standard. In Brazil, rapid antigen detection tests for respiratory syncytial virus are not routinely utilized as a diagnostic tool, except for the diagnosis of dengue and influenza. The authors retrospectively analyzed 486 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples from children under age 5 with acute respiratory infection, between December 2013 and August 2014, the samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay and QuickVue(®) RSV Test kit. Samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR and nucleotide sequencing. From 313 positive samples by immunofluorescence assays, 282 (90%) were also positive by the rapid antigen detection test, two were positive only by rapid antigen detection test, 33 were positive only by immunofluorescence assays, and 171 were positive by both methods. The 35 samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR; the two samples positive only by rapid antigen detection test and the five positive only by immunofluorescence assays were also positive by real time PCR. There was no relation between the negativity by QuickVue(®) RSV Test and viral load or specific strain. The QuickVue(®) RSV Test showed sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 98.8%, predictive positive value of 99.3%, and negative predictive value of 94.6%, with accuracy of 93.2% and agreement κ index of 0.85 in comparison to immunofluorescence assay. This study demonstrated that the QuickVue(®) RSV Test Kit can be effective in early detection of Respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirate and is reliable for use as a diagnostic tool in pediatrics. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of Yersinia pestis using bioluminescent reporter phage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, David A.; Molineux, Ian J.; Westwater, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    The rapid identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of Yersinia pestis is paramount for a positive prognosis. We previously engineered a Y. pestis-specific ‘bioluminescent’ reporter phage for the identification of Y. pestis. In this study, we generated an improved reporter phage and evaluated the ability of this phage to provide direct and rapid susceptibility testing. Compared to the first generation reporter, the second generation reporter exhibited a 100-fold increase in signal strength, leading to a 10-fold increase in assay sensitivity. Y. pestis antimicrobial testing in the presence of the reporter elicited bioluminescent signals that were drug concentration-dependent, and produced susceptibility profiles that mirrored the standard CLSI method. The phage-generated susceptibility profiles, however, were obtained within hours in contrast to days with the conventional method. PMID:22579583

  5. Rapid identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of Yersinia pestis using bioluminescent reporter phage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, David A; Molineux, Ian J; Westwater, Caroline

    2012-08-01

    The rapid identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of Yersinia pestis is paramount for a positive prognosis. We previously engineered a Y. pestis-specific 'bioluminescent' reporter phage for the identification of Y. pestis. In this study, we generated an improved reporter phage and evaluated the ability of this phage to provide direct and rapid susceptibility testing. Compared to the first generation reporter, the second generation reporter exhibited a 100-fold increase in signal strength, leading to a 10-fold increase in assay sensitivity. Y. pestis antimicrobial testing in the presence of the reporter elicited bioluminescent signals that were drug concentration-dependent, and produced susceptibility profiles that mirrored the standard CLSI method. The phage-generated susceptibility profiles, however, were obtained within hours in contrast to days with the conventional method.

  6. A Rapid In-Clinic Test Detects Acute Leptospirosis in Dogs with High Sensitivity and Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodjo, Angeli; Calleja, Christophe; Loenser, Michael; Lin, Dan; Lizer, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    A rapid IgM-detection immunochromatographic test (WITNESS® Lepto, Zoetis) has recently become available to identify acute canine leptospirosis at the point of care. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the test were evaluated by comparison with the microscopic agglutination assay (MAT), using a positive cut-off titer of ≥800. Banked serum samples from dogs exhibiting clinical signs and suspected leptospirosis were selected to form three groups based on MAT titer: (1) positive (n = 50); (2) borderline (n = 35); and (3) negative (n = 50). Using an analysis to weight group sizes to reflect French prevalence, the sensitivity and specificity were 98% and 93.5% (88.2% unweighted), respectively. This test rapidly identifies cases of acute canine leptospirosis with high levels of sensitivity and specificity with no interference from previous vaccination.

  7. Session: Test and Evaluation (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, B.; Hanley, C.

    2008-04-01

    The overall goal of this presentation is: (1) provide test and evaluation of PV cells/modules/systems to TPP participants, other PV industry, labs, and universities in support of technology optimization efforts sponsored by DOE's Solar Program and the SAI; (2) support commercial and emerging technology development; (3) provide component and system performance data to improve and validate system performance models; (4) provide T and E support for reliability activities; and (5) priority is placed on TPP's and other solicitations.

  8. Evaluation of a Rapid Point of Care Test for Detecting Acute and Established HIV Infection, and Examining the Role of Study Quality on Diagnostic Accuracy: A Bayesian Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Smallwood

    Full Text Available Fourth generation (Ag/Ab combination point of care HIV tests like the FDA-approved Determine HIV1/2 Ag/Ab Combo test offer the promise of timely detection of acute HIV infection, relevant in the context of HIV control. However, a synthesis of their performance has not yet been done. In this meta-analysis we not only assessed device performance but also evaluated the role of study quality on diagnostic accuracy.Two independent reviewers searched seven databases, including conferences and bibliographies, and independently extracted data from 17 studies. Study quality was assessed with QUADAS-2. Data on sensitivity and specificity (overall, antigen, and antibody were pooled using a Bayesian hierarchical random effects meta-analysis model. Subgroups were analyzed by blood samples (serum/plasma vs. whole blood and study designs (case-control vs. cross-sectional.The overall specificity of the Determine Combo test was 99.1%, 95% credible interval (CrI [97.3-99.8]. The overall pooled sensitivity for the device was at 88.5%, 95% [80.1-93.4]. When the components of the test were analyzed separately, the pooled specificities were 99.7%, 95% CrI [96.8-100] and 99.6%, 95% CrI [99.0-99.8], for the antigen and antibody components, respectively. Pooled sensitivity of the antibody component was 97.3%, 95% CrI [60.7-99.9], and pooled sensitivity for the antigen component was found to be 12.3%, 95% (CrI [1.1-44.2]. No significant differences were found between subgroups by blood sample or study design. However, it was noted that many studies restricted their study sample to p24 antigen or RNA positive specimens, which may have led to underestimation of overall test performance. Detection bias, selection (spectrum bias, incorporation bias, and verification bias impaired study quality.Although the specificity of all test components was high, antigenic sensitivity will merit from an improvement. Besides the accuracy of the device itself, study quality, also impacts

  9. Evaluation of a Rapid Point of Care Test for Detecting Acute and Established HIV Infection, and Examining the Role of Study Quality on Diagnostic Accuracy: A Bayesian Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Megan; Vijh, Rohit; Nauche, Bénédicte; Lebouché, Bertrand; Joseph, Lawrence; Pant Pai, Nitika

    2016-01-01

    Fourth generation (Ag/Ab combination) point of care HIV tests like the FDA-approved Determine HIV1/2 Ag/Ab Combo test offer the promise of timely detection of acute HIV infection, relevant in the context of HIV control. However, a synthesis of their performance has not yet been done. In this meta-analysis we not only assessed device performance but also evaluated the role of study quality on diagnostic accuracy. Two independent reviewers searched seven databases, including conferences and bibliographies, and independently extracted data from 17 studies. Study quality was assessed with QUADAS-2. Data on sensitivity and specificity (overall, antigen, and antibody) were pooled using a Bayesian hierarchical random effects meta-analysis model. Subgroups were analyzed by blood samples (serum/plasma vs. whole blood) and study designs (case-control vs. cross-sectional). The overall specificity of the Determine Combo test was 99.1%, 95% credible interval (CrI) [97.3-99.8]. The overall pooled sensitivity for the device was at 88.5%, 95% [80.1-93.4]. When the components of the test were analyzed separately, the pooled specificities were 99.7%, 95% CrI [96.8-100] and 99.6%, 95% CrI [99.0-99.8], for the antigen and antibody components, respectively. Pooled sensitivity of the antibody component was 97.3%, 95% CrI [60.7-99.9], and pooled sensitivity for the antigen component was found to be 12.3%, 95% (CrI) [1.1-44.2]. No significant differences were found between subgroups by blood sample or study design. However, it was noted that many studies restricted their study sample to p24 antigen or RNA positive specimens, which may have led to underestimation of overall test performance. Detection bias, selection (spectrum) bias, incorporation bias, and verification bias impaired study quality. Although the specificity of all test components was high, antigenic sensitivity will merit from an improvement. Besides the accuracy of the device itself, study quality, also impacts the

  10. Evaluation of methods for rapid determination of freezing point of aviation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiprakasam, B.

    1982-01-01

    Methods for identification of the more promising concepts for the development of a portable instrument to rapidly determine the freezing point of aviation fuels are described. The evaluation process consisted of: (1) collection of information on techniques previously used for the determination of the freezing point, (2) screening and selection of these techniques for further evaluation of their suitability in a portable unit for rapid measurement, and (3) an extensive experimental evaluation of the selected techniques and a final selection of the most promising technique. Test apparatuses employing differential thermal analysis and the change in optical transparency during phase change were evaluated and tested. A technique similar to differential thermal analysis using no reference fuel was investigated. In this method, the freezing point was obtained by digitizing the data and locating the point of inflection. Results obtained using this technique compare well with those obtained elsewhere using different techniques. A conceptual design of a portable instrument incorporating this technique is presented.

  11. Rapid microbiological testing: monitoring the development of bacterial stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Zavizion

    Full Text Available The ability to respond to adverse environments effectively along with the ability to reproduce are sine qua non conditions for all sustainable cellular forms of life. Given the availability of an appropriate sensing modality, the ubiquity and immediacy of the stress response could form the basis for a new approach for rapid biological testing. We have found that measuring the dielectric permittivity of a cellular suspension, an easily measurable electronic property, is an effective way to monitor the response of bacterial cells to adverse conditions continuously. The dielectric permittivity of susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, treated with gentamicin and vancomycin, were measured directly using differential impedance sensing methods and expressed as the Normalized Impedance Response (NIR. These same strains were also heat-shocked and chemically stressed with Triton X-100 or H(2O(2. The NIR profiles obtained for antibiotic-treated susceptible organisms showed a strong and continuous decrease in value. In addition, the intensity of the NIR value decrease for susceptible cells varied in proportion to the amount of antibiotic added. Qualitatively similar profiles were found for the chemically treated and heat-shocked bacteria. In contrast, antibiotic-resistant cells showed no change in the NIR values in the presence of the drug to which it is resistant. The data presented here show that changes in the dielectric permittivity of a cell suspension are directly correlated with the development of a stress response as well as bacterial recovery from stressful conditions. The availability of a practical sensing modality capable of monitoring changes in the dielectric properties of stressed cells could have wide applications in areas ranging from the detection of bacterial infections in clinical specimens to antibiotic susceptibility testing and drug discovery.

  12. Sensitivity and specificity of rapid influenza testing of children in a community setting 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, Samuel; Stark, James H.; Prasad, Ramakrishna; Thompson, William W.; Mitruka, Kiren; Rinaldo, Charles; Vukotich, Charles J.; Cummings, Derek A. T.

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Stebbins et al. (2011) Sensitivity and specificity of rapid influenza testing of children in a community setting. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(2), 104–109. Introduction  Rapid influenza testing (RFT) allows for a rapid point‐of‐care diagnosis of influenza. The Quidel QuickVue® Influenza A+B test (QuickVue) has a reported manufacturer’s sensitivity and specificity of 73% and 96%, respectively, with nasal swabs. However, investigators have shown sensitivities ranging from 22% to 77% in community settings. Methods  The QuickVue rapid influenza test was evaluated in a population of elementary (K‐5) school children, using testing in the home, as part of the Pittsburgh Influenza Prevention Project during the 2007–2008 influenza season. The QuickVue test was performed with nasal swab in full accordance with package instructions and compared with the results of nasal swab semi‐quantitative RT‐PCR. Results  Sensitivity of the QuickVue was found to be 27% in this sample. There was no statistically valid correlation between the semi‐quantitative PCR result and the QuickVue result. Conclusions  This study is consistent with the low sensitivity of the QuickVue test also reported by others. Viral load, technique, and the use of nasal swabs were examined as contributing factors but were not found to be explanations for this result. Community testing includes patients who are on the lower spectrum of illness which would not be the case in hospital or clinic samples. This suggests that RFT is less sensitive for patients at the lower spectrum of illness, with less severe disease. PMID:21306573

  13. Test and Evaluation of Autonomous Ground Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Sun; Guangming Xiong; Weilong Song; Jianwei Gong; Huiyan Chen

    2014-01-01

    A preestablished test and evaluation system will benefit the development of autonomous ground vehicles. This paper proposes a design method for a scientific and comprehensive test and evaluation system for autonomous ground vehicles competitions. It can better guide and regulate the development of China’s autonomous ground vehicles. The test and evaluation system includes the test contents, the test environment, the test methods, and the evaluation methods. Using a hierarchical design approac...

  14. Improving uptake and use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in the context of artemisinin drug resistance containment in eastern Myanmar: an evaluation of incentive schemes among informal private healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Tin; White, Christopher; Montagu, Dominic; McFarland, Willi; Hlaing, Thaung; Khin, Hnin Su Su; San, Aung Kyaw; Briegleb, Christina; Chen, Ingrid; Sudhinaraset, May

    2015-03-06

    As efforts to contain artemisinin resistance and eliminate Plasmodium falciparum intensify, the accurate diagnosis and prompt effective treatment of malaria are increasingly needed in Myanmar and the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS). Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have been shown to be safe, feasible, and effective at promoting appropriate treatment for suspected malaria, which are of particular importance to drug resistance containment. The informal private sector is often the first point of care for fever cases in malaria endemic areas across Myanmar and the GMS, but there is little published information about informal private provider practices, quality of service provision, or potential to contribute to malaria control and elimination efforts. This study tested different incentives to increase RDT use and improve the quality of care among informal private healthcare providers in Myanmar. The study randomized six townships in the Mon and Shan states of rural Myanmar into three intervention arms: 1) RDT price subsidies, 2) price subsidies with product-related financial incentives, and 3) price subsidies with intensified information, education and counselling (IEC). The study assessed the uptake of RDT use in the communities by cross-sectional surveys of 3,150 households at baseline and six months post-intervention (6,400 households total, 832 fever cases). The study also used mystery clients among 171 providers to assess quality of service provision across intervention arms. The pilot intervention trained over 600 informal private healthcare providers. The study found a price subsidy with intensified IEC, resulted in the highest uptake of RDTs in the community, as compared to subsidies alone or merchandise-related financial incentives. Moreover, intensified IEC led to improvements in the quality of care, with mystery client surveys showing almost double the number of correct treatment following diagnostic test results as compared to a simple subsidy. Results show

  15. New Rapid Evaluation for Long-Term Behavior in Deep Geological Repository by Geotechnical Centrifuge. Part 1: Test of Physical Modeling in Near Field Under Isotropic Stress-Constraint Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Soshi; Sawada, Masataka; Okada, Tetsuji

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the long-term geomechanical behavior of a geological repository for high-level radioactive waste disposal, using the centrifugal near-field model test. The model consisted of a sedimentary rock mass, bentonite buffer, and model overpack, and was enclosed within a pressure vessel. Tests were conducted with a centrifugal force field of 30 G under isotropic stress-constraint conditions with confining pressures of 5-10 MPa and injection of pore water up through a time period equivalent to about 165 years in the field. Our results showed that the measured values and the temporal changes in the displacement of the overpack, the soil pressure of the bentonite, and the strain of the rock mass were clearly dependent on the confining pressure. These data were not convergent during the test. Our data experimentally revealed that long-term behavior in the near field was changed by the geomechanical interaction between the deformation stress of the bedrock/disposal hole and the swelling behavior of the bentonite buffer.

  16. Good performance of rapid prostate-specific antigen test for detection of semen exposure in women: implications for qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Marcia M; Steiner, Markus J; Rich, Kimberly D; Gallo, Maria F; Alam, Anadil; Rahman, Motiur; Menezes, Prema; Chipato, Tsungai; Warner, Lee; Macaluso, Maurizio

    2009-08-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a valid biomarker of semen exposure in women and has been used to assess reliability of self-reported sexual behavior as well as serve as a proxy measure for condom efficacy. Quantitative PSA tests are expensive and require specialized equipment. A simple, rapid, and inexpensive test for PSA would facilitate semen biomarker evaluation in a variety of research settings. This study evaluated the performance of a rapid PSA test compared with a quantitative assay to identify semen in vaginal swab specimens. We tested 581 vaginal swabs collected from 492 women participating in 2 separate research studies in Bangladesh and Zimbabwe. PSA in vaginal secretions was detected using the quantitative IMx (Abbott Laboratories) assay and the ABAcard p30 (Abacus Diagnostics) rapid immunochromatographic strip test. The ABAcard test was 100% sensitive (95% confidence interval [CI], 98%-100%) and 96% specific (95% CI, 93%-97%) compared with the quantitative test in detecting >1.0 ng PSA/mL vaginal swab eluate. Rapid PSA results were semiquantitative and correlated well with PSA concentrations (kappa = 0.88; 95% CI, 0.85-0.90). Rapid PSA detection requires no instrumentation and can be performed easily and economically. Having rapid PSA results available immediately following interview provides opportunities to explore discrepancies between the objective marker of recent semen exposure and self-reported behaviors.

  17. Improving emergency department flow through Rapid Medical Evaluation unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Lucas; Josephson, Timothy; Bates, Kathy; Kuipers, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    The Toronto Western Hospital is an academic hospital in Toronto, Canada, with an annual Emergency Department (ED) volume of 64,000 patients. Despite increases in patient volumes of almost six percent per annum over the last decade, there have been no commensurate increases in resources, infrastructure, and staffing. This has led to substantial increase in patient wait times, most specifically for those patients with lower acuity presentations. Despite requiring only minimal care, these patients contribute disproportionately to ED congestion, which can adversely impact resource utilization and quality of care for all patients. We undertook a retrospective evaluation of a quality improvement initiative aimed at improving wait times experienced by patients with lower acuity presentations. A rapid improvement event was organized by frontline workers to rapidly overhaul processes of care, leading to the creation of the Rapid Medical Evaluation (RME) unit - a new pathway of care for patients with lower acuity presentations. The RME unit was designed by re-purposing existing resources and re-assigning one physician and one nurse towards the specific care of these patients. We evaluated the performance of the RME unit through measurement of physician initial assessment (PIA) times and total length of stay (LOS) times for multiple groups of patients assigned to various ED care pathways, during three periods lasting three months each. Weekly measurements of mean and 90th percentile of PIA and LOS times showed special cause variation in all targeted patient groups. Of note, the patients seen in the RME unit saw their median PIA and LOS times decrease from 98min to 70min and from 165min to 130min, respectively, from baseline. Despite ever-growing numbers of patient visits, wait times for all patients with lower acuity presentations remained low, and wait times of patients with higher acuity presentations assigned to other ED care pathways were not adversely affected. By

  18. Comparison of a new rapid plasma reagin card test with the standard rapid plasma reagin 18-mm circle card test and the venereal disease research laboratory slide test for serodiagnosis of syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambie, E A; Larsen, S A; Perryman, M W; Pettit, D E; Mullally, R L; Whittington, W

    1983-02-01

    The rapid plasma reagin (RPR) card test manufactured by Beckman Instruments, Inc., was compared, qualitatively and quantitatively, with the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) slide test and the standard RPR 18-mm circle card tests for the serodiagnosis of syphilis. Sera from 638 individuals were used in this study. Two pilot lots and two production lots of antigen were submitted by Beckman Instruments, Inc., for evaluation. Qualitative agreement among the three RPR card tests was 98.1%; between the Beckman RPR card and the VDRL slide tests, 95.0%; and between the reference RPR card and the VDRL slide tests, 95.5%. The Beckman RPR card test was 95.3% specific, whereas the specificities of the reference RPR card and the VDRL slide tests were 98.8% and 96.1%, respectively. Sensitivities of the three nontreponemal tests were: Beckman RPR card test production lots, 94.7%; reference RPR card test, 96.8%; and VDRL slide test, 90.6%. Quantitative agreement +/- 1 dilution among the three RPR card tests was 93.0%, whereas quantitative agreement was approximately 40% when both RPR card tests were compared with the VDRL slide test. We found the Beckman RPR card test comparable to the standard RPR card tests. Therefore, the decision of which test to use for the serodiagnosis of syphilis is at the discretion of the user.

  19. Local-Rapid Evaluation of Atmospheric Conditions (L-REAC (trademark)) System, Volume 4 (System Evaluation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    first responder s operational decision aid called the Local-Rapid Evaluation of Atmospheric Conditions (L-REAC ) System . As part of the technology transfer process, a detailed evaluation of the L-REAC System was conducted by volunteer and professional emergency first responders. This report documents the evaluation process, results and recommendations. In short, all evaluators independently stated that they would recommend the L-REAC System for

  20. Preferred HIV testing services and programme characteristics among clients of a rapid HIV testing programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In the current context of diversity and coexistence of HIV testing approaches, limited information exists on test recipient’s views of HIV testing services and programme attributes that could ease the testing process and make it more appealing for at risk individuals who don’t know their HIV status. This study analyzed ratings given to different testing sites and programme characteristics that might facilitate testing. Methods We analyzed data from 3120 persons attending a mobile HIV testing programme located on a central street in the gay district of Madrid. Results 64% were men (of which, 55% had had sex with other men), 59.5% were <30 years, 35.4% foreigners, 50.6% had a university degree,71.7% a regular employment, 59.3% reported multiple partners and inconsistent condom use and 56.5% had been tested for HIV. Non Governmental Organizations and specific HIV/STI centres received the maximum rating from over 60% of participants, followed by self-testing (38.9%). Pharmacies (20.8%) and hospital emergency departments (14.2%) were the worst valued testing sites. Over 80% gave the highest rating to having immediate test results, not needing a previous appointment, and free testing, while less than 50% gave the maximum rating to privacy and anonymity. Conclusions HIV testing services that don’t require an appointment, based on free tests with rapid results are most valued by a young, not socially marginalized but high risk sexual exposure population. On the contrary, issues traditionally highly valued by health care providers or AIDS social organizations (privacy and anonymity) are much less valued. PMID:23987230

  1. Rapid Real-Time Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing with Electrical Sensing on Plastic Microchips with Printed Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavieh, Mohammadali; Pandya, Hardik J; Venkataraman, Maanasa; Thirumalaraju, Prudhvi; Kanakasabapathy, Manoj Kumar; Singh, Anupriya; Prabhakar, Devbalaji; Chug, Manjyot Kaur; Shafiee, Hadi

    2017-03-30

    Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing is important for efficient and timely therapeutic decision making. Due to globally spread bacterial resistance, the efficacy of antibiotics is increasingly being impeded. Conventional antibiotic tests rely on bacterial culture, which is time-consuming and can lead to potentially inappropriate antibiotic prescription and up-front broad range of antibiotic use. There is an urgent need to develop point-of-care platform technologies to rapidly detect pathogens, identify the right antibiotics, and monitor mutations to help adjust therapy. Here, we report a biosensor for rapid (microchips with printed electrodes using antibodies (30 min), and its electrical response is monitored in the presence and absence of antibiotics over an hour of incubation time. We evaluated the microchip with Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as clinical models with ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, daptomycin, gentamicin, and methicillin antibiotics. The results are compared with the current standard methods, i.e. bacteria viability and conventional antibiogram assays. The technology presented here has the potential to provide precise and rapid bacteria screening and guidance in clinical therapies by identifying the correct antibiotics for pathogens.

  2. Evaluation of an immunochromatographic assay for rapid identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, Manel; Kahla, Imen Ben; Hannachi, Naila; Ferjeni, Asma; Salma, Walid Ben; Ghezal, Samira; Boukadida, Jalel

    2011-04-01

    Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) remains slow. Over the years, several new technologies have been proposed to accelerate and simplify the detection of MTC. In this context, we evaluated an immunochromatographic assay (ICA) (BIO-LINE SD Ag MPT64 TB) for rapid identification of MTC, based on detection of a specific MPT64 antigen of MTC. We have tested it on i) mycobacterial cultures: 210 MTC strains and 28 nontuberculous mycobacteria; ii) M. bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin strain SSI (Statens Serum Institut, Denmark); and iii) 22 microorganisms other than mycobacteria, isolated from cultures. We concluded that this kit has an excellent specificity (100%) and sensitivity (99%) from isolated cultures. The ICA (BIO-LINE SD Ag MPT64 TB) allows excellent MTC identification from clinical isolates. It is a rapid, simple, and inexpensive test, and has a definite contribution in the rapid laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis.

  3. New Immunochromatographic Rapid Test for Diagnosis of Acute Puumala Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hujakka, Helena; Koistinen, Vesa; Eerikäinen, Pekka; Kuronen, Ilpo; Mononen, Ilkka; Parviainen, Markku; Lundkvist, Åke; Vaheri, Antti; Närvänen, Ale; Vapalahti, Olli

    2001-01-01

    A new immunochromatographic rapid test, POC PUUMALA (Erilab Ltd., Kuopio, Finland), for detection of acute-phase Puumala virus (PUUV) infection was developed based on a highly purified baculovirus-expressed PUUV nucleocapsid protein antigen and lateral immunodiffusion techniques. After addition of sample (5 μl of serum, plasma, or fingertip blood) and buffer, PUUV-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies, if present, together with the gold-conjugated anti-human IgM, formed a specific colored line in 5 min. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were evaluated with 200 serum samples and 30 fingertip blood samples. The reference method for the serum samples was a μ-capture enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for IgM and an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for IgG antibodies. The analytical sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test were 100 and 99%, respectively, for unfrozen serum samples (n = 103; 12 PUUV IgM-positive samples). When freeze-thawed serum samples were used, the sensitivity and specificity were each 97.1% (n = 70; 35 PUUV IgM-positive samples). The specificity of the test was 96.2% for 27 serum samples with nonspecific IgM antibodies or rheumatoid factor (RF). The fingertip blood samples (n = 30) were negative, but they gave clear positive results when spiked with IgM-positive sera (n = 20). The results were in good agreement with the standard diagnostic methods. The rapid performance, the lack of need for refined laboratory equipment, and the high specificity with fresh serum and fingertip blood samples indicate that the developed POC PUUMALA rapid test is a useful tool for fast diagnosis of acute PUUV infection. PMID:11376049

  4. Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of positive blood cultures using MALDI-TOF MS and a modification of the standardised disc diffusion test: a pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, C

    2016-04-27

    In an era when clinical microbiology laboratories are under increasing financial pressure, there is a need for inexpensive, yet effective, rapid microbiology tests. The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel modification of standard methodology for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of pathogens in positive blood cultures, reducing the turnaround time of laboratory results by 24 h.

  5. The Evaluator Effect in Usability Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Niels Ebbe; Hertzum, Morten; John, Bonnie E.

    1998-01-01

    Usability tests are applied in industry to evaluate systems and in research as a yardstick for other usability evaluation methods. However, one potential threat to the reliability of usability tests has been left unaddressed: the evaluator effect. In this study, four evaluators analyzed four...... videotaped usability test sessions. Only 20% of the 93 unique problems were detected by all four evaluators and 46% were detected by only a single evaluator. Severe problems were detected more often by all four evaluators (41%) and less often by only one evaluator (22%) but a substantial evaluator effect...

  6. Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis : Its utility in resource poor settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poojary A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the rapid colorimetric nitrate reductase based antibiotic susceptibility (CONRAS test performed on Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates with the conventional method i.e., the proportion method. Methods: One hundred clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis were tested for susceptibility to isoniazid (INH and rifampicin (RIF by the conventional proportion method and CONRAS in Middlebrook 7H9 liquid medium enriched with growth supplements (MB7H9S. Results: The performance of the CONRAS test was evaluated using proportion method as the gold standard. The sensitivity (ability to detect true drug resistance and specificity (ability to detect true drug susceptibility of the CONRAS test to INH was 93.75 and 98.52% and for RIF it was 96.10 and 100% respectively. The mean time for reporting was 6.3 days and the test showed excellent reproducibility. The kappa (k value for INH was 0.92 and for RIF was 0.99, indicating excellent agreement between the two methods. Conclusions: CONRAS test is a rapid and reliable method of drug susceptibility for M. tuberculosis.

  7. Development and testing of a rapid diagnostic test for bubonic and pneumonic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanteau, Suzanne; Rahalison, Lila; Ralafiarisoa, Lalao; Foulon, Jeanine; Ratsitorahina, Mahery; Ratsifasoamanana, Lala; Carniel, Elisabeth; Nato, Farida

    2003-01-18

    Plague is often fatal without prompt and appropriate treatment. It affects mainly poor and remote populations. Late diagnosis is one of the major causes of human death and spread of the disease, since it limits the effectiveness of control measures. We aimed to develop and assess a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for plague. We developed a test that used monoclonal antibodies to the F1 antigen of Yersinia pestis. Sensitivity and specificity were assessed with a range of bacterial cultures and clinical samples, and compared with findings from available ELISA and bacteriological tests for plague. Samples from patients thought to have plague were tested with the RDT in the laboratory and by health workers in 26 pilot sites in Madagascar. The RDT detected concentrations of F1 antigen as low as 0.5 ng/mL in up to 15 min, and had a shelf life of 21 days at 60 degrees C. Its sensitivity and specificity were both 100%. RDT detected 41.6% and 31% more positive clinical specimens than did bacteriological methods and ELISA, respectively. The agreement rate between tests done at remote centres and in the laboratory was 89.8%. With the combination of bacteriological methods and F1 ELISA as reference standard, the positive and negative predictive values of the RDT were 90.6% and 86.7%, respectively. Our RDT is a specific, sensitive, and reliable test that can easily be done by health workers at the patient's bedside, for the rapid diagnosis of pneumonic and bubonic plague. This test will be of key importance for the control of plague in endemic countries.

  8. Comparative evaluation of the Vitek-2 Compact and Phoenix systems for rapid identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing directly from blood cultures of Gram-negative and Gram-positive isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherardi, Giovanni; Angeletti, Silvia; Panitti, Miriam; Pompilio, Arianna; Di Bonaventura, Giovanni; Crea, Francesca; Avola, Alessandra; Fico, Laura; Palazzo, Carlo; Sapia, Genoveffa Francesca; Visaggio, Daniela; Dicuonzo, Giordano

    2012-01-01

    We performed a comparative evaluation of the Vitek-2 Compact and Phoenix systems for direct identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) from positive blood culture bottles in comparison to the standard methods. Overall, 139 monomicrobial blood cultures, comprising 91 Gram-negative and 48 Gram-positive isolates, were studied. Altogether, 100% and 92.3% of the Gram-negative isolates and 75% and 43.75% of the Gram-positive isolates showed concordant identification between the direct and the standard methods with Vitek and Phoenix, respectively. AST categorical agreements of 98.7% and 99% in Gram-negative and of 96.2% and 99.5% in Gram-positive isolates with Vitek and Phoenix, respectively, were observed. In conclusion, direct inoculation procedures for Gram-negative isolates showed an excellent performance with both automated systems, while for identification of Gram-positive isolates they proved to be less reliable, although Vitek provided acceptable results. This approach contributes to reducing the turnaround time to result of blood cultures, with a positive impact on patient care.

  9. Rapid, automated, nonradiometric susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex to four first-line antituberculous drugs used in standard short-course chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Isik Somuncu; Thomsen, Vibeke Østergaard; Marjamäki, Merja

    2004-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis necessitates rapid and accurate susceptibility testing. The nonradiometric BACTEC Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube 960 (MGIT) system for susceptibility testing was evaluated on 222 clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates for ...

  10. Sensitivity of the STAT-VIEW rapid self-test and implications for use during acute HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukli, Narjis; Boyd, Anders; Wendremaire, Noémie; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Bottero, Julie; Morand-Joubert, Laurence

    2017-08-23

    HIV testing is an important step towards diminishing incident infections. Rapid self-tests whose use is becoming more common in France could help increase access to testing, yet could fail to diagnose HIV during acute HIV infection (AHI). The aim of the present study was to evaluate HIV-detection sensitivity of a commonly used rapid self-test (STAT-VIEW HIV1/2), compared with another point-of-care rapid test (INSTI), among patients presenting with AHI. Individuals tested at Saint-Antoine Hospital (Paris, France) with negative or indeterminate western blot (WB) results and detectable HIV-RNA were included. Rapid tests were performed retrospectively on stored serum. Patients with and without reactive rapid tests were compared, while probability of having a reactive test was modelled across infection duration using logistic regression. Of the 40 patients with AHI, 23 (57.5%) had a reactive STAT-VIEW rapid test. Patients with non-reactive versus reactive tests had a significantly shorter median time since infection (p=0.01), time since onset of symptoms (p=0.009), higher proportion with Fiebig stage III versus IV (p=0.003), negative WB results (p=0.007), higher HIV-RNA levels (p=0.001) and lower CD4+ and CD8+ cell count (p=0.03, prapid self-test when performed on serum samples. Considering that detection sensitivity increased substantially over infection time, individuals should not rely on a negative result to accurately exclude HIV infection within at least 5 weeks of potential HIV exposure. Notwithstanding strong recommendations against rapid test use during AHI, some utility in detecting HIV is observed 5-12 weeks after transmission. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. GSMA: Gene Set Matrix Analysis, An Automated Method for Rapid Hypothesis Testing of Gene Expression Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Cheadle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microarray technology has become highly valuable for identifying complex global changes in gene expression patterns. The assignment of functional information to these complex patterns remains a challenging task in effectively interpreting data and correlating results from across experiments, projects and laboratories. Methods which allow the rapid and robust evaluation of multiple functional hypotheses increase the power of individual researchers to data mine gene expression data more efficiently.Results: We have developed (gene set matrix analysis GSMA as a useful method for the rapid testing of group-wise up- or downregulation of gene expression simultaneously for multiple lists of genes (gene sets against entire distributions of gene expression changes (datasets for single or multiple experiments. The utility of GSMA lies in its flexibility to rapidly poll gene sets related by known biological function or as designated solely by the end-user against large numbers of datasets simultaneously.Conclusions: GSMA provides a simple and straightforward method for hypothesis testing in which genes are tested by groups across multiple datasets for patterns of expression enrichment.

  12. Study on validity of a rapid diagnostic test kit versus light microscopy for malaria diagnosis in Ahmedabad city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, S; Puwar, B; Patel, V; Bhatt, G; Kulkarni, S; Fancy, M

    2014-05-01

    Light microscopy of blood smears for diagnosis of malaria in the field has several limitations, notably delays in diagnosis. This study in Ahmedabad in Gujarat State, India, evaluated the diagnostic performance of a rapid diagnostic test for malaria (SD Bioline Malaria Ag P.f/Pan) versus blood smear examination as the gold standard. All fever cases presenting at 13 urban health centres were subjected to rapid diagnostic testing and thick and thin blood smears. A total of 677 cases with fever were examined; 135 (20.0%) tested positive by rapid diagnostic test and 86 (12.7%) by blood smear. The sensitivity of the rapid diagnostic test for malaria was 98.8%, specificity was 91.5%, positive predictive value 63.0% and negative predictive value 99.8%. For detection of Plasmodium falciparum the sensitivity of rapid diagnostic test was 100% and specificity was 97.3%. The results show the acceptability of the rapid test as an alternative to light microscopy in the field setting.

  13. Typhidot (IgM as a reliable and rapid diagnostic test for typhoid fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Krishna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Typhoid fever still continues to be a major public health problem, particularly in developing countries. A simple, reliable, affordable, and rapid diagnostic test has been a long-felt need of the clinicians. We, therefore, prospectively evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of Typhidot (IgM, a serological test to identify IgM antibodies against Salmonella typhi. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, Apollo Hospital, Bangalore between January 2009 and March 2009 on a total of 186 samples from clinically suspected febrile patients. Blood culture as well as Typhidot test was performed for each of the cases. Results: Out of 61 clinically diagnosed typhoid fever, 50 were blood culture positive for S. typhi all 50 were Typhidot (IgM positive and 11 were missed out on both. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the test using blood culture as gold standard were 100%, 95.5%, 89.2%, and 100%, respectively for typhoid fever. Conclusion: Typhidot (IgM test is rapid, easy to perform, and reliable for diagnosing typhoid fever, and useful for small, less equipped laboratories as well as for the laboratories with better facilities in typhoid endemic countries.

  14. A novel technique for detecting antibiotic-resistant typhoid from rapid diagnostic tests.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Fluoroquinolone-resistant typhoid is increasing. An antigen-detecting rapid diagnostic test (RDT) can rapidly diagnose typhoid from blood cultures. A simple, inexpensive molecular technique performed with DNA from positive RDTs accurately identified gyrA mutations consistent with phenotypic susceptibility testing results. Field diagnosis combined with centralized molecular resistance testing could improve typhoid management and surveillance in low-resource settings.

  15. A Novel Technique for Detecting Antibiotic-Resistant Typhoid from Rapid Diagnostic Tests

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Fluoroquinolone-resistant typhoid is increasing. An antigen-detecting rapid diagnotic test (RDT) can rapidly diagnose typhoid from blood cultures. A simple, inexpensive molecular technique performed with DNA from positive RDTs accurately identified gyrA mutations consistent with phenotypic susceptibility testing results. Field diagnosis combined with centralized molecular resistance testing could improve typhoid management and surveillance in low-resource settings.

  16. Impact of the rapid antigen detection test in diagnosis and treatment of acute pharyngotonsillitis in a pediatric emergency room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Débora Morais; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Hsin, Shieh Huei; Machado, Beatriz Marcondes; de Paulis, Milena; Lotufo, João Paulo B; Martinez, Marina Baquerizo; Grisi, Sandra Josefina E

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of the routine use of rapid antigen detection test in the diagnosis and treatment of acute pharyngotonsillitis in children. This is a prospective and observational study, with a protocol compliance design established at the Emergency Unit of the University Hospital of Universidade de São Paulo for the care of children and adolescents diagnosed with acute pharyngitis. 650 children and adolescents were enrolled. Based on clinical findings, antibiotics would be prescribed for 389 patients (59.8%); using the rapid antigen detection test, they were prescribed for 286 patients (44.0%). Among the 261 children who would not have received antibiotics based on the clinical evaluation, 111 (42.5%) had positive rapid antigen detection test. The diagnosis based only on clinical evaluation showed 61.1% sensitivity, 47.7% specificity, 44.9% positive predictive value, and 57.5% negative predictive value. The clinical diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis had low sensitivity and specificity. The routine use of rapid antigen detection test led to the reduction of antibiotic use and the identification of a risk group for complications of streptococcal infection, since 42.5% positive rapid antigen detection test patients would not have received antibiotics based only on clinical diagnosis.

  17. Development of a Rapid, Reliable Genetic Test for Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yanggu; Terry, Sharon F.; Terry, Patrick F.; Bercovitch, Lionel G.; Gerard, Gary F.

    2007-01-01

    Mutations in the human ABCC6 gene cause pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), a hereditary disorder that impacts the skin, eyes, and cardiovascular system. Currently, the diagnosis of PXE is based on physical findings and histological examination of a biopsy of affected skin. We have combined two simple, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods to develop a rapid, reliable genetic assay for the majority of known PXE mutations. After PCR amplification and heteroduplex formation, mutations in ex...

  18. Modeling & Testing of Inflatable Structures for Rapidly Deployable Port Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Rapidly Deployable Port Infrastructures By: Andrew Bloxom Abel Medellin Chris Vince Dr. Solomon Yim N SW C C D -C IS D -2 01...Andrew Bloxom, Abel Medellin , Chris Vince, Dr. Solomon Yim 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING...Andrew Bloxom Abel Medellin Chris Vince Dr. Solomon Yim A special thanks to: • Ben Testerman and Dr. Pat

  19. Correlates of Rapid-Guessing Behavior in Low-Stakes Testing: Implications for Test Development and Measurement Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Steven L.; Pastor, Dena A.; Kong, Xiaojing J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has shown that rapid-guessing behavior can degrade the validity of test scores from low-stakes proficiency tests. This study examined, using hierarchical generalized linear modeling, examinee and item characteristics for predicting rapid-guessing behavior. Several item characteristics were found significant; items with more text…

  20. Advantages of the rapid HIV-1 test in occupational accidents with potentially contaminated material among health workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MACHADO Alcyone Artioli

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In occupational accidents involving health professionals handling potentially contaminated material, the decision to start or to continue prophylactic medication against infection by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV has been based on the ELISA test applied to a blood sample from the source patient. In order to rationalize the prophylactic use of antiretroviral agents, a rapid serologic diagnostic test of HIV infection was tested by the enzymatic immunoabsorption method (SUDS HIV 1+2, MUREX® and compared to conventional ELISA (Abbott HIV-1/ HIV-2 3rd Generation plus EIA®. A total of 592 cases of occupational accidents were recorded at the University Hospital of Ribeirão Preto from July 1998 to April 1999. Of these, 109 were simultaneously evaluated by the rapid test and by ELISA HIV. The rapid test was positive in three cases and was confirmed by ELISA and in one the result was inconclusive and later found to be negative by ELISA. In the 106 accidents in which the rapid test was negative no prophylactic medication was instituted, with an estimated reduction in costs of US$ 2,889.35. In addition to this advantage, the good correlation of the rapid test with ELISA, the shorter duration of stress and the absence of exposure of the health worker to the adverse effects of antiretroviral agents suggest the adoption of this test in Programs of Attention to Accidents with Potentially Contaminated Material.

  1. Rapid Diagnosis of Active Tuberculosis by Lipoarabinomanna test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmila A.Sharma

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Presence of antimicrobial antibodies were repidly detected in 47 out of 50 cases of active pulmonaryand extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. The lipoarabinomanan (LAM antigen binds with the opllmumconcentration of anti LAM antibodies from the serum. Our findll1gs showed that the LAM test ISsimple, low cost, rapi~ and reliable test for detecting active tuberculosis.

  2. Evaluation of College English Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭奕奕

    2003-01-01

    There has been much heated discussion on College English Test for non-English majors Band 4 and Band 6 because it has exerted great influence on English teaching in Chinese universities. This essay is intended to explore the reliability, validity,practicality and washback of this large-scale test by focusing on CET Band 4. The author of this report discusses the merits as well as some existing problems of this test and offers some suggestions at the end of the essay.

  3. Rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosing uncomplicated non-falciparum or Plasmodium vivax malaria in endemic countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abba, Katharine; Kirkham, Amanda J; Olliaro, Piero L; Deeks, Jonathan J; Donegan, Sarah; Garner, Paul; Takwoingi, Yemisi

    2014-01-01

    specificities are presented alongside 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Main results We included 47 studies enrolling 22,862 participants. Patient characteristics, sampling methods and reference standard methods were poorly reported in most studies. RDTs detecting 'non-falciparum' parasitaemia Eleven studies evaluated Type 2 tests compared with microscopy, 25 evaluated Type 3 tests, and 11 evaluated Type 4 tests. In meta-analyses, average sensitivities and specificities were 78% (95% CI 73% to 82%) and 99% (95% CI 97% to 99%) for Type 2 tests, 78% (95% CI 69% to 84%) and 99% (95% CI 98% to 99%) for Type 3 tests, and 89% (95% CI 79% to 95%) and 98% (95% CI 97% to 99%) for Type 4 tests, respectively. Type 4 tests were more sensitive than both Type 2 (P = 0.01) and Type 3 tests (P = 0.03). Five studies compared Type 3 tests with PCR; in meta-analysis, the average sensitivity and specificity were 81% (95% CI 72% to 88%) and 99% (95% CI 97% to 99%) respectively. RDTs detecting P.vivax parasitaemia Eight studies compared pLDH tests to microscopy; the average sensitivity and specificity were 95% (95% CI 86% to 99%) and 99% (95% CI 99% to 100%), respectively. Authors' conclusions RDTs designed to detect P. vivax specifically, whether alone or as part of a mixed infection, appear to be more accurate than older tests designed to distinguish P. falciparum malaria from non-falciparum malaria. Compared to microscopy, these tests fail to detect around 5% ofP. vivax cases. This Cochrane Review, in combination with other published information about in vitro test performance and stability in the field, can assist policy-makers to choose between the available RDTs. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY Rapid tests for diagnosing malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax or other less common parasites This review summarises trials evaluating the accuracy of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for diagnosing malaria due to Plasmodium vivax or other non-falciparum species. After searching for relevant studies up to December

  4. Test and Evaluation of Autonomous Ground Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A preestablished test and evaluation system will benefit the development of autonomous ground vehicles. This paper proposes a design method for a scientific and comprehensive test and evaluation system for autonomous ground vehicles competitions. It can better guide and regulate the development of China's autonomous ground vehicles. The test and evaluation system includes the test contents, the test environment, the test methods, and the evaluation methods. Using a hierarchical design approach, the test content is designed to be stage by stage, moving from simplicity to complexity and from individual modules to the entire vehicle. The hierarchical test environment is established according to the levels of test content. The test method based on multilevel platforms and sensors is put forward to ensure the accuracy of test results. A fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method combined with analytic hierarchy process (AHP is used for the comprehensive evaluation which can quantitatively evaluate the individual module and the overall technical performance of autonomous ground vehicles. The proposed test and evaluation system has been successfully applied to real autonomous ground vehicle competitions.

  5. The impact of commercial rapid respiratory virus diagnostic tests on patient outcomes and health system utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Fiona; Drews, Steven J

    2017-10-01

    Acute respiratory tract infections due to influenza A/B and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are major causes of morbidity and mortality globally. Rapid tests for detection of these pathogens include antigen detection point of care tests (POC) and newer easy to use molecular tests. From experience, these assays improve both laboratory workflow and assay interpretation issues. However, the question of the benefits of using rapid test technology compared to routine laboratory testing for respiratory viral pathogens is still often asked. Areas covered: Specifically, this review aims to; 1) identify clinical/patient indicators that can be measured prior to and following the implementation of rapid diagnostic test for influenza and RSV, 2) provide multiple perspectives on the extent of impact of a rapid diagnostic test, including direct and indirect outcomes, and 3) identify the technological advancements in the development of rapid testing, demonstrating a timeline that transitions from antigen-based assays to molecular assays. Expert commentary: Key benefits to the use of either antigen-based or molecular rapid tests for patient care, patient flow within institutions, as well as laboratory utilization are identified. Due to improved test characteristics, the authors feel that rapid molecular tests have greater benefits than antigen-based detection methods.

  6. Impedimetric test for rapid determination of performic acid (PFA biocidal activity toward Echerichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Lasik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Performic acid has recently become available on a commercial scale for potential use in waste-water disinfection and can become an innovative biocide for various purposes in food processing. The aim of our study was: 1 to investigate the antimicrobial resistance of performic acid as high active and non toxic chemical disinfectant against Escherichi coli (hygiene indicator test  microorganism used in industrial micro- biology and 2 to evaluate the electrical impedance measurement method usefulness for fast and high precise test of antibacterial activity. Material and methods. Four types of antimicrobial disinfectants (commercial 35% hydrogen peroxide, 1% performic acid, 35% hydrogen peroxide and 15% formic acid were tested against Escherichia coli as hygiene indicator test microorganism. By evaluating the biocidal activity of selected disinfectants two methods were compared: electrical impedance measurement and classical serial dilution method with turbidity effect. Results.  It was stated that the performic acid expressed the highest antibacterial activity in comparison to other tested peroxide disinfectants: commercial 35% hydrogen peroxide solution and components required for performic acid production: 35% hydrogen peroxide solution with stabilizers and 15% formic acid solution with stabilizers. It was demonstrated that the proposed alternative microbiology method of electrical imped- ance measurement facilitates a rapidly and more precise analyses of the intensity of disinfectants inhibition effect. Conclusions. It can be postulated that both, the performic acid disinfectants as well as the impedimetric method can be a good advantage in the industrial microbiology.  

  7. Performance of rapid tests and algorithms for HIV screening in Abidjan, Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukou, Y G; Cabran, M A; Yessé, Zinzendorf Nanga; Adouko, B M O; Lathro, S J; Agbessi-Kouassi, K B T

    2014-01-01

    Seven rapid diagnosis tests (RDTs) of HIV were evaluated by a panel group who collected serum samples from patients in Abidjan (HIV-1 = 203, HIV-2 = 25, HIV-dual = 25, HIV = 305). Kit performances were recorded after the reference techniques (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The following RDTs showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity higher than 99%: Determine, Oraquick, SD Bioline, BCP, and Stat-Pak. These kits were used to establish infection screening strategies. The combination with 2 or 3 of these tests in series or parallel algorithms showed that series combinations with 2 tests (Oraquick and Bioline) and 3 tests (Determine, BCP, and Stat-Pak) gave the best performances (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 100%). However, the combination with 2 tests appeared to be more onerous than the combination with 3 tests. The combination with Determine, BCP, and Stat-Pak tests serving as a tiebreaker could be an alternative to the HIV/AIDS serological screening in Abidjan.

  8. Detection of chikungunya virus antigen by a novel rapid immunochromatographic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabayashi, Tamaki; Sasaki, Tadahiro; Masrinoul, Promsin; Chantawat, Nantarat; Yoksan, Sutee; Nitatpattana, Narong; Chusri, Sarunyou; Morales Vargas, Ronald E; Grandadam, Marc; Brey, Paul T; Soegijanto, Soegeng; Mulyantno, Kris Cahyo; Churrotin, Siti; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Faye, Oumar; Faye, Ousmane; Sow, Abdourahmane; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Puiprom, Orapim; Chaichana, Panjaporn; Kurosu, Takeshi; Kato, Seiji; Kosaka, Mieko; Ramasoota, Pongrama; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2015-02-01

    Chikungunya fever is a mosquito-borne disease of key public health importance in tropical and subtropical countries. Although severe joint pain is the most distinguishing feature of chikungunya fever, diagnosis remains difficult because the symptoms of chikungunya fever are shared by many pathogens, including dengue fever. The present study aimed to develop a new immunochromatographic diagnosis test for the detection of chikungunya virus antigen in serum. Mice were immunized with isolates from patients with Thai chikungunya fever, East/Central/South African genotype, to produce mouse monoclonal antibodies against chikungunya virus. Using these monoclonal antibodies, a new diagnostic test was developed and evaluated for the detection of chikungunya virus. The newly developed diagnostic test reacted with not only the East/Central/South African genotype but also with the Asian and West African genotypes of chikungunya virus. Testing of sera from patients suspected to have chikungunya fever in Thailand (n = 50), Laos (n = 54), Indonesia (n = 2), and Senegal (n = 6) revealed sensitivity, specificity, and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) agreement values of 89.4%, 94.4%, and 91.1%, respectively. In our study using serial samples, a new diagnostic test showed high agreement with the RT-PCR within the first 5 days after onset. A rapid diagnostic test was developed using mouse monoclonal antibodies that react with chikungunya virus envelope proteins. The diagnostic accuracy of our test is clinically acceptable for chikungunya fever in the acute phase. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of the rapid urine lipoarabinomannan test for pulmonary tuberculosis among HIV-infected adults in Ghana-findings from the DETECT HIV-TB study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Stephanie; Kenu, Ernest; Lartey, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rapid diagnostic tests are urgently needed to mitigate HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB) mortality. We evaluated diagnostic accuracy of the rapid urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) test for pulmonary TB and assessed the effect of a two-sample strategy. METHODS: HIV-infected adults eligible...

  10. Centrifuge modeling of rapid load tests with open-ended piles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.C.; Van Lottum, H.; Holscher, P.; Van Tol, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid and static load tests were conducted on open-ended and close-ended piles in the Deltares GeoCentriflige. hi flight, a pile was driven into the soil. Both fme-grained sand and silt beds were tested. Both the rapid and static soil resistances o f a close-ended pile were higher than the soil resi

  11. A new rapid home test for faecal calprotectin in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjaer, M; Burisch, Johan; Hansen, V Voxen

    2010-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a time-consuming method for the measurement of faecal calprotectin. Two new quantitative rapid tests have been developed.......Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a time-consuming method for the measurement of faecal calprotectin. Two new quantitative rapid tests have been developed....

  12. A new rapid home test for faecal calprotectin in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjaer, M; Burisch, Johan; Hansen, V Voxen

    2010-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a time-consuming method for the measurement of faecal calprotectin. Two new quantitative rapid tests have been developed.......Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a time-consuming method for the measurement of faecal calprotectin. Two new quantitative rapid tests have been developed....

  13. Establishment and Preliminary Application of a Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test (RFFIT) for Rabies Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pengcheng Yu; Xinjun Lv; Xinxin Shen; Qing Tang; Guodong Liang

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) standard assay for determining levels of the rabies virus neutralization antibody (RVNA) is the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT),which is used to evaluate the immunity effect after vaccination against rabies.For RFFIT,CVS-11 was used as the challenge virus,BSR cells as the adapted cells,and WHO rabies immunoglobulin (WHO STD) as the reference serum in this study.With reference to WHO and Pasteur RFFIT procedures,a micro-RFFIT procedure adapted to our laboratory was produced,and its specificity and reproducibility were tested.We tested levels of RVNA in human serum samples after immunization with different human rabies vaccines (domestic purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and imported purified chick embryo cell vaccine (PCECV)) using different regimens (Zagreb regimen and Essen regimen).We analyzed the levels of RVNA,and compared the immune efficacy of domestic PVRV and imported PCECV using different immunization regimens.The results showed that the immune efficacy of domestic PVRV using the Zagreb regimen was as good as that of the imported PCECV,but virus antibodies were generated more rapidly with the Zagreb regimen than with the Essen regimen.The RFFIT procedure established in our laboratory will enhance the comprehensive detection ability of institutions involved in rabies surveillance in China.

  14. Efficient diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidiasis by use of a new rapid immunochromatography test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marot-Leblond, Agnes; Nail-Billaud, Sandrine; Pilon, Françoise; Beucher, Bertrand; Poulain, Daniel; Robert, Raymond

    2009-12-01

    The clinical symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) are nonspecific, and misdiagnosis is common, leading to a delay in the initiation of antifungal treatment. We evaluated a new immunochromatography test (ICT), the CandiVagi assay (SR2B, Avrille, France), for the rapid diagnosis of VVC. This test, which employs an immunoglobulin M antibody directed against the beta-1,2-mannopyranosyl epitopes found in the yeast cell wall, was compared with direct microscopic examination and culture of vaginal swabs. Two-hundred five women were investigated, including 130 women with symptomatic vaginitis and 75 asymptomatic controls. Two vaginal swabs were obtained from each woman: one was used to prepare a wet mount and Gram-stained preparations for direct microscopic examination and was also cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar for the isolation of Candida spp., and the second swab was used for ICT. The sensitivities of microscopic examination, culture, and ICT for the diagnosis of VVC were 61%, 100%, and 96.6%, respectively, while the specificities of the three methods were 100%, 82%, and 98.6%, respectively. ICT had a negative predictive value of 98.6%, a positive predictive value of 96.6%, and an efficiency of 98%. ICT provided a rapid result and a better compromise between sensitivity and specificity than conventional microscopy and culture for the diagnosis of VVC. This easy-to-perform diagnostic test will be useful to practitioners treating women with symptoms of vaginitis.

  15. Detection of helicobacter pylori in nasal polyps using rapid urease test and ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Kaviani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nasal polyposis is an inflammatory condition of unknown etiology. Recently concerns regarding gastroesophageal reflux or helicobacter pylori as a possible pathologic cause of nasal polyps have been increasing. The present study was planned to investigate the presence of helicobacter pylori in nasal polyps. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was undertaken enrolling 37 patients with nasal polyps who had undergone nasal endoscopic sinus surgery and 38 control subjects. Biopsy specimens of nasal polyps and inferior turbinates were assessed by rapid urease test. Blood samples of both study and control subjects were evaluated for anti H.pylori IgG by ELISA. H. pylori status was regarded positive, if both tests were positive. Results: Seropositivity was more common in the patients with nasal polyps (66.2% than control subjects (36.8% (P

  16. Aircraft Test & Evaluation Facility (Hush House)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aircraft Test and Evaluation Facility (ATEF), or Hush House, is a noise-abated ground test sub-facility. The facility's controlled environment provides 24-hour...

  17. Development of a rapid, reliable genetic test for pseudoxanthoma elasticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yanggu; Terry, Sharon F; Terry, Patrick F; Bercovitch, Lionel G; Gerard, Gary F

    2007-02-01

    Mutations in the human ABCC6 gene cause pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), a hereditary disorder that impacts the skin, eyes, and cardiovascular system. Currently, the diagnosis of PXE is based on physical findings and histological examination of a biopsy of affected skin. We have combined two simple, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods to develop a rapid, reliable genetic assay for the majority of known PXE mutations. After PCR amplification and heteroduplex formation, mutations in exon 24 and exon 28 of the ABCC6 gene were detected with Surveyor nuclease, which cleaves double-stranded DNA at any mismatch site. Mutations originating from deletion of a segment of the ABCC6 gene between exon 23 and exon 29 (ex23_ex29del) were detected by long-range PCR. Size analysis of digestion fragments and long-range PCR products was performed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The methods accurately identified mutations or the absence thereof in 16 affected individuals as confirmed by DNA sequencing. Fifteen patients had one or two point mutations, and two of these individuals carried the ex23_ex29del in their second allele. This mutation detection and mapping strategy provides a simple and reliable genetic assay to assist in diagnosis of PXE, differential diagnosis of PXE-like conditions, and study of PXE genetics.

  18. Rapid bench identification of methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A multicenter comparative evaluation of Alere PBP2a Culture Colony Test (Alere) Versus Slidex MRSA detection (bioMérieux).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasse, Jason; Dupieux, Céline; Caillon, Jocelyne; Lanotte, Philippe; Lamy, Brigitte; Aissa, Nejla; Bemer, Pascale; Mereghetti, Laurent; Michon, Anne-Laure; Lozniewski, Alain; Bes, Michèle; Trouillet-Assant, Sophie; Laurent, Frédéric

    2016-08-01

    Using 30 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus representative of the most prevalent clones circulating in France, the performance of the Alere™ PBP2a Culture Colony Test (CCT) and the Slidex(®) MRSA detection kit (SMD) were compared in 5 different labs. CCT demonstrated better performance and was easier to conduct in routine.

  19. Comparative evaluation of validity and cost-benefit analysis of rapid diagnostic test (RDT kits in diagnosis of dengue infection using composite reference criteria: A cross-sectional study from south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhanker Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: It was concluded that in dengue outbreak, Panbio IgM capture RDT alone is reliable and easily available test which can be used in acute phase of dengue infection in any resource limited set up. NS1 capture rates by any of the other three RDTs might not be reliable for the diagnosis of acute dengue infection.

  20. A Rapid Screening Test on Dried Blood for the Neonatal Diagnosis of Tyrosinemia Type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Bodaghkhan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tyrosinemia is an inherited metabolic disorder characterized by elevated levels of tyrosine and its metabolites in plasma. Without treatment, the disease will progress to hepatic and renal failure, so that without liver transplantation will cause death in less than 10 years of age. So, early diagnosis and treatment can be life saving and crucial. It means that with early treatment starting in the neonatal period, the patient can have normal life with very few restrictions in diets containing tyrosine and phenylalanine. Objectives: In this study we wanted to evaluate an easy to perform, rapid and sensitive qualitative test with low cost, as a part of neonatal screening tests to help early diagnosis and treatment of hereditary tyrosinemia. Patients and Methods: In this cross sectional study, during the study period (2013 - 2014, 100 patients were selected. Fifty three (53 of these patients had proven tyrosinemia and the other 47 cases biliary atresia, paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts, cytomegalovirus (CMV hepatitis, galactosemia and storage diseases. Results: There were 2 false negative and 14 false positive cases of hereditary tyrosinemia (HT-1 in the test. Six cases of biliary atresia, 7 cases of paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts and one patient with cytomegalovirus (CMV hepatitis were falsely positive with the test. Sensitivity of the test was 96.23%, specificity 71.43%, positive predictive value (PPV 78.46%, and negative predictive value (NPV 94.59%. Conclusions: This rapid qualitative test on dried blood sample is an easy, cheap, and feasible method for the screening of hereditary tyrosinemia in neonatal period.

  1. Discordant rapid HIV tests: lessons from a low-resource community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetunji, A A; Kuti, M A; Audu, R A; Muyibi, S A; Imhansoloeva, M; Mosuro, O A; Solanke, E A; Akpa, O M; Irabor, A E; Ladipo, Mma; Berzins, B; Robertson, K; Ogunniyi, A; Adewole, I F; Taiwo, B O

    2017-07-31

    HIV rapid antibody tests are widely used in Africa, but dual testing sometimes produces discordant results. It is not clear if discordant rapid HIV tests should always heighten suspicion by frontline health workers that early HIV infection is present. Some studies have reported that discordant rapid tests have value for identifying early HIV infection in high HIV prevalence populations. It is not known if rapid test performance influenced this conclusion, or if this observation will hold true for low HIV prevalence populations. We therefore explored the occurrence of discordant rapid HIV tests in a low-resource community. A cross-sectional sample of HIV status-unaware adults with recent exposure to unsafe sex was assessed using a validated risk-based tool (University of North Carolina (UNC)-Malawi Risk Screening Score) for acute HIV infection. Participants received rapid testing with Determine™ HIV 1/2 and Uni-Gold™ HIV assays, plus plasma HIV-1 antigen testing with the COBAS(®) Ampliprep/COBAS(®) Taqman(®) HIV-1 assay, followed by western blot in those with detected HIV-1 antigen. Of 408 participants, 1.0% were confirmed to have established HIV infection. The discordance between rapid tests at initial screening was 2.45 and 2.94% when the two assays were used sequentially and simultaneously, respectively. Discordant rapid tests were strongly associated with risk scores > 2 [odds ratio (OR) 10.88; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.35-50.43], and with detected HIV-1 RNA (OR 26.06; 95% CI 3.91-173.60). When the sample occurrence of discordance between the first and second tests is below 5%, discordant rapid tests in an adult with sexual risk behaviour should trigger strong suspicion of early HIV infection in low HIV prevalence populations. © 2017 British HIV Association.

  2. Rapid diagnostic tests for neurological infections in central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Yansouni, Cedric P.; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Lutumba, Pascal; Winkler, Andrea S.; Lynen, Lut; Büscher, Philippe; Jacobs, Jan; Gillet, Philippe; Lejon, Veerle; Alirol, Emilie; Polman,Katja; Utzinger, Jürg; Miles, Michael A.; Peeling, Rosanna W; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Infections are a leading cause of life-threatening neuropathology worldwide. In central African countries affected by endemic diseases such as human African trypanosomiasis, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, and schistosomiasis, delayed diagnosis and treatment often lead to avoidable death or severe sequelae. Confirmatory microbiological and parasitological tests are essential because clinical features of most neurological infections are not specific, brain imaging is seldom feasible, and treatment reg...

  3. A Microfluidic Channel Method for Rapid Drug-Susceptibility Testing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimi Matsumoto

    Full Text Available The recent global increase in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and lack of development of new therapeutic agents emphasize the importance of selecting appropriate antimicrobials for the treatment of infections. However, to date, the development of completely accelerated drug susceptibility testing methods has not been achieved despite the availability of a rapid identification method. We proposed an innovative rapid method for drug susceptibility testing for Pseudomonas aeruginosa that provides results within 3 h. The drug susceptibility testing microfluidic (DSTM device was prepared using soft lithography. It consisted of five sets of four microfluidic channels sharing one inlet slot, and the four channels are gathered in a small area, permitting simultaneous microscopic observation. Antimicrobials were pre-introduced into each channel and dried before use. Bacterial suspensions in cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth were introduced from the inlet slot and incubated for 3 h. Susceptibilities were microscopically evaluated on the basis of differences in cell numbers and shapes between drug-treated and control cells, using dedicated software. The results of 101 clinically isolated strains of P. aeruginosa obtained using the DSTM method strongly correlated with results obtained using the ordinary microbroth dilution method. Ciprofloxacin, meropenem, ceftazidime, and piperacillin caused elongation in susceptible cells, while meropenem also induced spheroplast and bulge formation. Morphological observation could alternatively be used to determine the susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to these drugs, although amikacin had little effect on cell shape. The rapid determination of bacterial drug susceptibility using the DSTM method could also be applicable to other pathogenic species, and it could easily be introduced into clinical laboratories without the need for expensive instrumentation.

  4. Improving prescribing practices with rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burchett, Helen E D; Leurent, Baptiste; Baiden, Frank

    2017-01-01

    characteristics fitted with their own priorities. Goodness of fit of mRDTs with existing consultation and diagnostic practices appeared crucial to maximising the impact of mRDTs on care, as did prior familiarity with malaria testing; adequate human resources and supplies; possible alternative treatments for m......, private retail sector workers or community volunteers. Each study arm in a distinct setting was considered a case. PARTICIPANTS: 28 cases from 10 studies were included, representing 148 461 patients seeking care for suspected malaria. INTERVENTIONS: The interventions included different mRDT training......RDT-negative patients; a more directive intervention approach and local preferences for ACTs. CONCLUSIONS: Basic training and resources are essential but insufficient to maximise the potential of mRDTs in many contexts. Programme design should respond to assessments of provider priorities, expectations and capacities...

  5. Evidence of sulphonamide residues by rapid laboratory test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Kaša

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the significant role in the treatment of bacterial diseases, primarily mastitis, intestinal infections and pneumonia, sulphonamides are used as fodder additives. The disadvantage of antimicrobial therapy in dairy cows is the residue presence, of biologically active substances, in milk and milk products. The purpose of this paper is to control milk for sulphonamide residues in relation to the amounts as permitted by the Regulations (OfficialGazette of the Republic of Croatia No. 39/2003. To determine sulphonamides, the laboratory test LabSULFAmilk, manufactured by Frank analab d.o.o., was used. Positive reaction to sulphonamide residues was found in 10 % of the examined samples.

  6. Evaluation of immediate soft tissue changes after rapid maxillary expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Beom Kim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate immediate soft tissue changes following rapid maxillary expansion (RME in growing patients, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT. METHODS: Twenty-three consecutive patients (10 male, 13 female treated by RME were selected. Patients were scanned using CBCT prior to placement of the rapid maxillary expander (T0, then immediately following full activation of the appliance (T1. Defined landmarks were then located on the pre- and post-treatment orientated images. Change in landmark position from pre- to post-treatment was then measured. In addition to landmarks, 10 direct measures were made to determine distance change without regard to direction to measure soft tissue change of the lips. RESULTS: Significant transverse expansion was measured on most soft tissue landmark locations. All the measures made showed significant change in the lip position with a lengthening of the vertical dimension of the upper lip, and a generalized decrease of anterior-posterior thickness of both the upper and lower lips. CONCLUSIONS: Significant changes in the soft tissue do occur with RME treatment. There is a transverse widening of the midface, and a thinning of the lips.OBJETIVO: avaliar as mudanças imediatas no tecido mole após a expansão rápida da maxila (ERM em pacientes em fase de crescimento, usando tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico (TCFC. MÉTODOS: vinte e três pacientes (10 do sexo masculino e 13 do feminino tratados com ERM foram selecionados. Os pacientes foram escaneados por TCFC antes da implantação do expansor maxilar (T0 e imediatamente após a completa ativação do aparelho (T1. Pontos cefalométricos definidos foram localizados nas imagens pré- e pós-tratamento. As mudanças de posição desses pontos do pré- para o pós-tratamento foram, então, analisadas. Adicionalmente aos pontos, 10 medições diretas foram realizadas para determinar a mudança nas distâncias - independentemente da direção - nos

  7. A simple, rapid, and sensitive system for the evaluation of anti-viral drugs in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaoguang [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Department of Medical Microbiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Qian, Hua [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Miyamoto, Fusako [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Naito, Takeshi [Laboratory of Virus Control, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaramachi, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Kawaji, Kumi [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Kajiwara, Kazumi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); JST Innovation Plaza Kyoto, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Nishigyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8245 (Japan); Hattori, Toshio [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Matsuoka, Masao [Laboratory of Virus Control, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaramachi, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Watanabe, Kentaro; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); and others

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We established a novel, simple and rapid in vivo system for evaluation of anti-HIV-1 drugs with rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The system may be applicable for other antiviral drugs, and/or useful for initial screening in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this system, TRI-1144 displayed the most potent anti-HIV-1 activity in vivo. -- Abstract: The lack of small animal models for the evaluation of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) agents hampers drug development. Here, we describe the establishment of a simple and rapid evaluation system in a rat model without animal infection facilities. After intraperitoneal administration of test drugs to rats, antiviral activity in the sera was examined by the MAGI assay. Recently developed inhibitors for HIV-1 entry, two CXCR4 antagonists, TF14016 and FC131, and four fusion inhibitors, T-20, T-20EK, SC29EK, and TRI-1144, were evaluated using HIV-1{sub IIIB} and HIV-1{sub BaL} as representative CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic HIV-1 strains, respectively. CXCR4 antagonists were shown to only possess anti-HIV-1{sub IIIB} activity, whereas fusion inhibitors showed both anti-HIV-1{sub IIIB} and anti-HIV-1{sub BaL} activities in rat sera. These results indicate that test drugs were successfully processed into the rat sera and could be detected by the MAGI assay. In this system, TRI-1144 showed the most potent and sustained antiviral activity. Sera from animals not administered drugs showed substantial anti-HIV-1 activity, indicating that relatively high dose or activity of the test drugs might be needed. In conclusion, the novel rat system established here, 'phenotypic drug evaluation', may be applicable for the evaluation of various antiviral drugs in vivo.

  8. The rapid plasma reagin test cannot replace the venereal disease research laboratory test for neurosyphilis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Christina M; Tantalo, Lauren C; Maxwell, Clare L; Ho, Emily L; Sahi, Sharon K; Jones, Trudy

    2012-06-01

    The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test is a mainstay for neurosyphilis diagnosis, but it lacks diagnostic sensitivity and is logistically complicated. The rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test is easier to perform, but its appropriateness for use on CSF is controversial. RPR reactivity was determined for CSF from 149 individuals with syphilis using 2 methods. The CSF-RPR was performed according to the method for serum. The CSF-RPR-V was performed using the method recommended for the CSF-VDRL. Laboratory-defined neurosyphilis included reactive CSF-fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test and CSF white blood cells >20/uL. Symptomatic neurosyphilis was defined as vision loss or hearing loss. CSF-VDRL was reactive in 45 (30.2%) patients. Of these, 29 (64.4%) were CSF-RPR reactive and 37 (82.2%) were CSF-RPR-V reactive. There were no instances where the CSF-VDRL was nonreactive but the CSF-RPR or CSF-RPR-V was reactive. Among the 28 samples that were reactive in all 3 tests, CSF-VDRL titers (median [IQR], 1:4 [1:4-1:16]) were significantly higher than CSF-RPR (1:2 [1:1-1:4], P = 0.0002) and CSF-RPR-V titers (1:4 [1:2-1:8], P = 0.01). The CSF RPR and the CSF-RPR-V tests had lower sensitivities than the CSF-VDRL: 56.4% and 59.0% versus 71.8% for laboratory-diagnosed neurosyphilis and 51.5% and 57.6% versus 66.7% for symptomatic neurosyphilis. Compared with the CSF-VDRL, the CSF-RPR has a high false-negative rate, thus not improving upon this known limitation of the CSF-VDRL for neurosyphilis diagnosis. Adapting the RPR procedure to mimic the CSF-VDRL decreased, but did not eliminate, the number of false negatives and did not avoid all the logistical complications of the CSF-VDRL.

  9. Are Treponema pallidum specific rapid and point-of-care tests for syphilis accurate enough for screening in resource limited settings? Evidence from a meta-analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jafari, Yalda; Peeling, Rosanna W; Shivkumar, Sushmita; Claessens, Christiane; Joseph, Lawrence; Pai, Nitika Pant

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and point-of-care (POC) tests for syphilis are an invaluable screening tool, yet inadequate evaluation of their diagnostic accuracy against best reference standards limits their widespread global uptake...

  10. High throughput modular chambers for rapid evaluation of anesthetic sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckmann David M

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anesthetic sensitivity is determined by the interaction of multiple genes. Hence, a dissection of genetic contributors would be aided by precise and high throughput behavioral screens. Traditionally, anesthetic phenotyping has addressed only induction of anesthesia, evaluated with dose-response curves, while ignoring potentially important data on emergence from anesthesia. Methods We designed and built a controlled environment apparatus to permit rapid phenotyping of twenty-four mice simultaneously. We used the loss of righting reflex to indicate anesthetic-induced unconsciousness. After fitting the data to a sigmoidal dose-response curve with variable slope, we calculated the MACLORR (EC50, the Hill coefficient, and the 95% confidence intervals bracketing these values. Upon termination of the anesthetic, Emergence timeRR was determined and expressed as the mean ± standard error for each inhaled anesthetic. Results In agreement with several previously published reports we find that the MACLORR of halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane in 8–12 week old C57BL/6J mice is 0.79% (95% confidence interval = 0.78 – 0.79%, 0.91% (95% confidence interval = 0.90 – 0.93%, and 1.96% (95% confidence interval = 1.94 – 1.97%, respectively. Hill coefficients for halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane are 24.7 (95% confidence interval = 19.8 – 29.7%, 19.2 (95% confidence interval = 14.0 – 24.3%, and 33.1 (95% confidence interval = 27.3 – 38.8%, respectively. After roughly 2.5 MACLORR • hr exposures, mice take 16.00 ± 1.07, 6.19 ± 0.32, and 2.15 ± 0.12 minutes to emerge from halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane, respectively. Conclusion This system enabled assessment of inhaled anesthetic responsiveness with a higher precision than that previously reported. It is broadly adaptable for delivering an inhaled therapeutic (or toxin to a population while monitoring its vital signs, motor reflexes, and providing precise control

  11. Analytical evaluation of five oral fluid drug testing devices

    OpenAIRE

    Isalberti, Cristina; Van Stechelman, Sylvie; Legrand, Sara-Ann; Van der Linden, Gertrude; Verstraete, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The correlation with blood drug presence and the easiness of sample collection make oral fluid an ideal matrix for roadside drug tests targeting impaired drivers. Aim: To evaluate the reliability of five oral fluid testing devices: Varian OraLab®6, Dräger DrugTest® 5000, Cozart® DDS 806, Mavand RapidSTAT® and Innovacon OrAlert. Method: More than 760 samples were collected from volunteers either at drug addiction treatment centres or during roadside sessions. Target drug ...

  12. Evaluation of a rapid hydration protocol: Safety and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Sean; Hilliard, Jane; Vaillancourt, Regis

    2017-06-01

    Background The Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO) has implemented a rapid hydration protocol that may reduce the time required to achieve urine specific gravity and pH targets prior to chemotherapy. Objective The aim of this study was to determine if a rapid hydration protocol resulted in a shorter time to chemotherapy administration and during peak staffing levels without increasing adverse effects. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted using data from electronic and paper medical charts, the hematology/oncology whiteboard, and video recordings. Patients who received cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, cisplatin and ifosfamide during the study period were included in the chart review. A urine specific gravity of ≤1.01, and in most cases a urine pH ≥7 was required to begin chemotherapy. Differences in time parameters between the standard and rapid hydration protocols were measured. Comparable parameters included the time from the start of pre-chemotherapy hydration to meeting urine targets, time from starting hydration to administration of chemotherapy, length of hospital stay and the number of chemotherapy administrations that were initiated prior to the nursing shift change at 19:30 h. Results Data were collected from 116 pre-chemotherapy intravenous hydration events administered to 25 different patients. There was a shorter time required to reach urine specific gravity and pH targets with the rapid hydration protocol compared to the standard hydration protocol, which translated into initiating chemotherapy sooner. There was also a shorter overall length of hospital stay and administration of chemotherapy occurred before the nursing shift change more often in the rapid hydration cohort compared to those patients who received the standard hydration protocol. There were no significant differences in adverse effects between the groups. Conclusion Patients receiving rapid hydration had a shorter time to chemotherapy administration and had a

  13. Introducing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria into registered drug shops in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Clarke, Sîan E; Lal, Sham

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major public health problem in Uganda and the current policy recommends introduction of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (RDTs) to facilitate effective case management. However, provision of RDTs in drug shops potentially raises a new set of issues, such as adherence...... to RDTs results, management of severe illnesses, referral of patients, and relationship with caretakers. The main objective of the study was to examine the impact of introducing RDTs in registered drug shops in Uganda and document lessons and policy implications for future scale-up of malaria control...... in the private health sector. METHODS: A cluster-randomized trial introducing RDTs into registered drug shops was implemented in central Uganda from October 2010 to July 2012. An evaluation was undertaken to assess the impact and the processes involved with the introduction of RDTs into drug shops, the lessons...

  14. [Evaluation of a new blood gas analysis system: RapidPoint 500(®)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Thierry; Cabrolier, Nadège; Bardonnet, Karine; Davani, Siamak

    2013-01-01

    We present here evaluation of a new blood gas analysis system, RapidPoint 500(®) (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics). The aim of this research was to compare the ergonomics and analytical performances of this analyser with those of the RapidLab 1265 for the following parameters: pH, partial oxygen pressure, partial carbon dioxide pressure, sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, lactate and the CO-oximetry parameters: hemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin, methemoglobin, reduced hemoglobin, neonatal bilirubin; as well as with the Dimension Vista 500 results for chloride and glucose. The Valtec protocol, recommended by the French Society of Clinical Biology (SFBC), was used to analyze the study results. The experiment was carried out over a period of one month in the Department of medical biochemistry. One hundred sixty five samples from adult patients admitted to the ER or hospitalized in intensive care were tested. The RapidPoint 500(®) was highly satisfactory from an ergonomic point of view. Intra-and inter- assay coefficients of variation (CV) with the three control levels were below those recommended by the SFBC for all parameters, and the comparative study gave coefficients of determination higher than 0.91. Taken together, the RapidPoint 500(®) appears fully satisfactory in terms of ergonomics and analytical performance.

  15. Monitored Geologic Repository Test Evaluation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.B. Skorska

    2002-01-02

    The Monitored Geologic Repository test & evaluation program will specify tests, demonstrations, examinations, and analyses, and describe procedures to conduct and document testing necessary to verify meeting Monitored Geologic Repository requirements for a safe and effective geologic repository for radioactive waste. This test program will provide assurance that the repository is performing as designed, and that the barriers perform as expected; it will also develop supporting documentation to support the licensing process and to demonstrate compliance with codes, standards, and regulations. This comprehensive program addresses all aspects of verification from the development of test requirements to the performance of tests and reporting of the test results. The ''Monitored Geologic Repository Test & Evaluation Plan'' provides a detailed description of the test program approach necessary to achieve the above test program objectives. This test plan incorporates a set of test phases focused on ensuring repository safety and operational readiness and implements a project-wide integrated product management team approach to facilitate test program planning, analysis, and implementation. The following sections provide a description of the individual test phases, the methodology for test program planning and analyses, and the management approach for implementing these activities.

  16. The rapid plasma reagin (circle) card test in biological false positive and leprosy sera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, M. F.; Backhouse, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    The rapid plasma reagin (RPR) circle card and the Venereal Disease Reference Laboratory (VDRL) slide test results were compared on a group of sera known to show biological false positive (BFP) reactions to reagin detection tests for syphilis. The RPR test was more specific than the VDRL test on the sera selected, ie, it gave fewer false positive results than the VDRL test. However, in a group of presumed normal sera, the RPR test gave BFP reactions while the VDRL test gave none. The RPR test gave fewer BFP reactions than the VDRL test in 269 sera from patients with lepromatous leprosy. PMID:5086221

  17. Cost-effectiveness of malaria microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests versus presumptive diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batwala, Vincent; Magnussen, Pascal; Hansen, Kristian Schultz

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Current Uganda National Malaria treatment guidelines recommend parasitological confirmation either by microscopy or rapid diagnostic test (RDT) before treatment with artemether-lumefantrine (AL). However, the cost-effectiveness of these strategies has not been assessed...

  18. False positive malaria rapid diagnostic test in returning traveler with typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meatherall, Bonnie; Preston, Keith; Pillai, Dylan R

    2014-07-09

    Rapid diagnostic tests play a pivotal role in the early diagnosis of malaria where microscopy or polymerase chain reaction are not immediately available. We report the case of a 39 year old traveler to Canada who presented with fever, headache, and abdominal pain after visiting friends and relatives in India. While in India, the individual was not ill and had no signs or symptoms of malaria. Laboratory testing upon his return to Canada identified a false positive malaria rapid diagnostic (BinaxNOW® malaria) result for P. falciparum with coincident Salmonella Typhi bacteraemia without rheumatoid or autoimmune factors. Rapid diagnostic test false positivity for malaria coincided with the presence or absence of Salmonella Typhi in the blood. Clinicians should be aware that Salmonella Typhi infection may result in a false positive malaria rapid diagnostic test. The mechanism of this cross-reactivity is not clear.

  19. Use of rapid HIV assays as supplemental tests in specimens with repeatedly reactive screening immunoassay results not confirmed by HIV-1 Western blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Laura G; Delaney, Kevin P; Meyer, William A; Blatt, Amy J; Bennett, Berry; Chavez, Pollyanna; Granade, Timothy C; Owen, Michele

    2013-09-01

    An alternate HIV testing algorithm has been proposed which includes a fourth-generation immunoassay followed by an HIV-1/HIV-2 antibody differentiation supplemental test for reactive specimens and a nucleic acid test (NAT) for specimens with discordant results. To evaluate the performance of five rapid tests (Alere Clearview, Bio-Rad Multispot, OraSure OraQuick, MedMira Reveal, and Trinity Biotech Unigold) as the supplemental antibody assay in the algorithm. A total of 3273 serum and plasma specimens that were third-generation immunoassay repeatedly reactive and Western blot (WB) negative or indeterminate were tested with rapid tests and NAT. Specimens were classified by NAT: (1) HIV-1 infected (NAT-reactive; n=184, 5.6%), (2) HIV-status unknown (NAT nonreactive; n=3078, 94.2%) or by Multispot, (3) HIV-2 positive (n=5), and (4) HIV-1 and HIV-2 positive (n=6). Excluding HIV-2 positive specimens, we calculated the proportion of reactive rapid tests among specimens with reactive and nonreactive NAT. The proportion of infected specimens with reactive rapid test results and negative or indeterminate WB ranged from 30.4% (56) to 47.8% (88) depending on the rapid test. From 1% to 2% of NAT-negative specimens had reactive rapid test results. In these diagnostically challenging specimens, all rapid tests identified infections that were missed by the Western blot, but only Multispot could differentiate HIV-1 from HIV-2. Regardless of which rapid test is used as a supplemental test in the alternative algorithm, false-positive algorithm results (i.e., reactive screening and rapid test in uninfected person) may occur, which will need to be resolved during the baseline medical evaluation. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Willingness to use the oral fluid HIV rapid test among men who have sex with men in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunan Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early detection of HIV infection enables timely care and treatment. However, many men who have sex with men (MSM remain unaware of their HIV status because they do not or are unable to access HIV testing services. Oral fluid HIV rapid tests have the potential to increase HIV testing. This study is the first to evaluate willingness to use the oral fluid test among MSM in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Beijing from July to October, 2012. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaires. RESULTS: Of 262 who participated in the survey, 223(85.1% reported that they were willing to use the oral fluid HIV rapid test. Willingness to use the oral fluid test was associated with higher education (adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 2.40, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.13-5.10, lack of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI with male partners in the past one month (AOR: 2.38; 95% 95%CI: 1.15-4.95, having taken more than 4 HIV tests (AOR: 3.54; 95%CI:1.52-8.28, and having ever heard of the oral fluid HIV rapid test from gay friends or gay organizations (AOR: 3.24, 95%CI: 1.40-7.51. Among those who expressed willingness to use the oral fluid HIV rapid test, the median amount of money they were willing to pay was 8 dollars. Among the 39 participants who were unwilling to use the oral fluid test, 79.5% (31/39 expressed concerns about the accuracy of the oral fluid HIV rapid test results and 17.9%(7/39 reported that they were not familiar with the oral fluid test and did not know how to use such a test. CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of MSM in Beijing appear to be willing to use the oral fluid HIV rapid test. Appropriate cost and education measures could help improve acceptance of the oral fluid test.

  1. New rapid test for prenatal detection of trisomy 21 (Down's syndrome): preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryndorf, T.; Christensen, B.; Philip, J.; Hansen, W.; Yokobata, K.; Bui, N.; Gaiser, C.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To devise and evaluate a rapid screening method for detecting trisomy 21 (Down's syndrome) in samples of uncultured amniotic fluid cells. DESIGN--Non-radioactive in situ hybridisation with HY128, a 500,000 base pair yeast artificial chromosome probe specific for chromosome 21. Blinded study of 12 karyotypically normal amniotic fluid samples and eight samples trisomic for chromosome 21. SETTING--Cytogenetic and obstetric services at a tertiary referral centre, Copenhagen. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Time necessary to complete the test. Proportion of cell nuclei containing two and three hybridisation signals in karyotypically normal and abnormal amniotic fluid samples. RESULTS--The test could be completed within three to four days after amniocentesis. In the normal samples a mean of 73% (range 61-82%) of the amniotic cell nuclei showed two hybridisation signals and 6% (0-18%) showed three signals. By contrast, among the trisomic samples 29% (19-38%) of the nuclei exhibited two signals and 48% (31-60%) showed three signals. CONCLUSION--The technique clearly distinguished between normal and trisomic samples. Prenatal diagnosis with in situ hybridisation with chromosome specific probes was fast and may make it possible to screen for selected, aneuploidies. However, the technique is still at a preliminary stage and needs further evaluation and refinement. Images p1537-a PMID:1385745

  2. Component evaluation testing and analysis algorithms.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Darren M.; Merchant, Bion John

    2011-10-01

    The Ground-Based Monitoring R&E Component Evaluation project performs testing on the hardware components that make up Seismic and Infrasound monitoring systems. The majority of the testing is focused on the Digital Waveform Recorder (DWR), Seismic Sensor, and Infrasound Sensor. In order to guarantee consistency, traceability, and visibility into the results of the testing process, it is necessary to document the test and analysis procedures that are in place. Other reports document the testing procedures that are in place (Kromer, 2007). This document serves to provide a comprehensive overview of the analysis and the algorithms that are applied to the Component Evaluation testing. A brief summary of each test is included to provide the context for the analysis that is to be performed.

  3. Rapid Runway Repair (RRR) In-House Test and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    AND AFTER 156 LOAD CART COVERAGES. WET DRY WATER "- COVERAGES DEPTH DENSITY DENSITY CONTENT (F-15 LOAD CART) (IN.) (LB/FT 3 ) (LB/FT 3 ) (PERCENT...CRUSHED STONE BASE AFTER 24 F-15 LOADCART COVERAGES, AFTER MAINTENANCE, UNCOMPACTED. WET DRY WATER SAMPLE DEPTH DENSITY DENSITY CONTENT NUMBER (IN) (LB...8217....-.. -. " 5,. 5*.- . ..* *5.. o5* 5 .- . .5 .~ - .~ • TABLE E-7. MOISTURE-DENSITY RESULTS FOR CRUSHED STONE BASE AFTER 156 LOADCART COVERAGES. WET DRY

  4. Immunochromatographic IgG/IgM Test for Rapid Diagnosis of Active Tuberculosis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Selma, Walid; Harizi, Hedi; Boukadida, Jalel

    2011-01-01

    For rapid diagnosis and discrimination between active tuberculosis (TB) and other pulmonary diseases, we evaluated the clinical usefulness of detection of serum immunoglobulin IgG and IgM antibodies raised against mycobacterial 38-kDa, 16-kDa, and 6-kDa antigens by a commercial rapid immunochromatographic IgG/IgM test (Standard Diagnostics, South Korea) in 246 serum samples from three groups of patients: (i) 171 patients with active TB (128 with pulmonary TB [pTB] and 43 with extrapulmonary TB [epTB]), (ii) 73 patients with pulmonary non-TB diseases, and (iii) two leprosy patients. The sensitivities of IgG and IgM in patients with active TB (pTB and epTB) were 68.4% and 2.3%, respectively. IgG had the best performance characteristics, with sensitivities of 78.1% and 39.5% in sera from patients with active pTB and epTB, respectively, and a specificity of 100%. The sensitivities of IgM were poor and were similar for pTB and epTB (2.3%). In contrast, specificity was very elevated (100%). The combination of IgG with IgM did not improve its sensitivity. IgG-mediated responses against the mycobacterial 38-kDa, 16-kDa, and 6-kDa antigens might constitute a clinically useful tool for presumptive diagnosis and discrimination of active pTB from other pulmonary diseases. Moreover, based on its simplicity and rapidity of application, it could be a screening tool for active pTB in poorly equipped laboratories. PMID:21994352

  5. Immunochromatographic IgG/IgM test for rapid diagnosis of active tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Selma, Walid; Harizi, Hedi; Boukadida, Jalel

    2011-12-01

    For rapid diagnosis and discrimination between active tuberculosis (TB) and other pulmonary diseases, we evaluated the clinical usefulness of detection of serum immunoglobulin IgG and IgM antibodies raised against mycobacterial 38-kDa, 16-kDa, and 6-kDa antigens by a commercial rapid immunochromatographic IgG/IgM test (Standard Diagnostics, South Korea) in 246 serum samples from three groups of patients: (i) 171 patients with active TB (128 with pulmonary TB [pTB] and 43 with extrapulmonary TB [epTB]), (ii) 73 patients with pulmonary non-TB diseases, and (iii) two leprosy patients. The sensitivities of IgG and IgM in patients with active TB (pTB and epTB) were 68.4% and 2.3%, respectively. IgG had the best performance characteristics, with sensitivities of 78.1% and 39.5% in sera from patients with active pTB and epTB, respectively, and a specificity of 100%. The sensitivities of IgM were poor and were similar for pTB and epTB (2.3%). In contrast, specificity was very elevated (100%). The combination of IgG with IgM did not improve its sensitivity. IgG-mediated responses against the mycobacterial 38-kDa, 16-kDa, and 6-kDa antigens might constitute a clinically useful tool for presumptive diagnosis and discrimination of active pTB from other pulmonary diseases. Moreover, based on its simplicity and rapidity of application, it could be a screening tool for active pTB in poorly equipped laboratories.

  6. Rapid impact testing for quantitative assessment of large populations of bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun; Prader, John; DeVitis, John; Deal, Adrienne; Zhang, Jian; Moon, Franklin; Aktan, A. Emin

    2011-04-01

    Although the widely acknowledged shortcomings of visual inspection have fueled significant advances in the areas of non-destructive evaluation and structural health monitoring (SHM) over the last several decades, the actual practice of bridge assessment has remained largely unchanged. The authors believe the lack of adoption, especially of SHM technologies, is related to the 'single structure' scenarios that drive most research. To overcome this, the authors have developed a concept for a rapid single-input, multiple-output (SIMO) impact testing device that will be capable of capturing modal parameters and estimating flexibility/deflection basins of common highway bridges during routine inspections. The device is composed of a trailer-mounted impact source (capable of delivering a 50 kip impact) and retractable sensor arms, and will be controlled by an automated data acquisition, processing and modal parameter estimation software. The research presented in this paper covers (a) the theoretical basis for SISO, SIMO and MIMO impact testing to estimate flexibility, (b) proof of concept numerical studies using a finite element model, and (c) a pilot implementation on an operating highway bridge. Results indicate that the proposed approach can estimate modal flexibility within a few percent of static flexibility; however, the estimated modal flexibility matrix is only reliable for the substructures associated with the various SIMO tests. To overcome this shortcoming, a modal 'stitching' approach for substructure integration to estimate the full Eigen vector matrix is developed, and preliminary results of these methods are also presented.

  7. Diagnostic performance characteristics of a rapid field test for anthrax in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Janine; Gwozdz, Jacek; Hodgeman, Rachel; Ainsworth, Catherine; Kluver, Patrick; Czarnecki, Jill; Warner, Simone; Fegan, Mark

    2015-07-01

    Although diagnosis of anthrax can be made in the field with a peripheral blood smear, and in the laboratory with bacterial culture or molecular based tests, these tests require either considerable experience or specialised equipment. Here we report on the evaluation of the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of a simple and rapid in-field diagnostic test for anthrax, the anthrax immunochromatographic test (AICT). The AICT detects the protective antigen (PA) component of the anthrax toxin present within the blood of an animal that has died from anthrax. The test provides a result in 15min and offers the advantage of avoiding the necessity for on-site necropsy and subsequent occupational risks and environmental contamination. The specificity of the test was determined by testing samples taken from 622 animals, not infected with Bacillus anthracis. Diagnostic sensitivity was estimated on samples taken from 58 animals, naturally infected with B. anthracis collected over a 10-year period. All samples used to estimate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the AICT were also tested using the gold standard of bacterial culture. The diagnostic specificity of the test was estimated to be 100% (99.4-100%; 95% CI) and the diagnostic sensitivity was estimated to be 93.1% (83.3-98.1%; 95% CI) (Clopper-Pearson method). Four samples produced false negative AICT results. These were among 9 samples, all of which tested positive for B. anthracis by culture, where there was a time delay between collection and testing of >48h and/or the samples were collected from animals that were >48h post-mortem. A statistically significant difference (P48h post-mortem 5 of 9 Se=56% (21-86.3%; 95% CI) (Clopper-Pearson method). Based upon these results a post hoc cut-off for use of the AICT of 48h post-mortem was applied, Se=100% (92.8-100%; 95% CI) and Sp=100% (99.4-100%; 95% CI). The high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity and the simplicity of the AICT enables it to be used for

  8. Evaluation of OXA-48 K-Se T: an immunochromatographic assay for rapid detection of OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Javier; Fleites, Ana; Rodcio, María Rosario; Vazquez, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    The OXA-48 K-Se T, a new immunochromatographic assay for rapid detection of OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae, has been evaluated in a Spanish Hospital during a 3-month period. A collection of 100 Enterobacteriaceae including 79 isolates producing OXA-48 has been tested. Sensitivity and specificity of 100% were obtained.

  9. Developmental validation of a novel lateral flow strip test for rapid identification of human blood (Rapid Stain Identification--Blood).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweers, Brett A; Old, Jennifer; Boonlayangoor, P W; Reich, Karl A

    2008-06-01

    Human blood is the body fluid most commonly encountered at crime scenes, and blood detection may aid investigators in reconstructing what occurred during a crime. In addition, blood detection can help determine which items of evidence should be processed for DNA-STR testing. Unfortunately, many common substances can cause red-brown stains that resemble blood. Furthermore, many current human blood detection methods are presumptive and prone to false positive results. Here, the developmental validation of a new blood identification test, Rapid Stain Identification--Blood (RSID--Blood), is described. RSID--Blood utilizes two anti-glycophorin A (red blood cell membrane specific protein) monoclonal antibodies in a lateral flow strip test format to detect human blood. We present evidence demonstrating that this test is accurate, reproducible, easy to use, and highly specific for human blood. Importantly, RSID--Blood does not cross-react with ferret, skunk, or primate blood and exhibits no high-dose hook effect. Also, we describe studies on the sensitivity, body fluid specificity, and species specificity of RSID--Blood. In addition, we show that the test can detect blood from a variety of forensic exhibits prior to processing for DNA-STR analysis. In conclusion, we suggest that RSID--Blood is effective and useful for the detection of human blood on forensic exhibits, and offers improved blood detection when compared to other currently used methods.

  10. UBC(®) Rapid Test for detection of carcinoma in situ for bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecke, Thorsten H; Weiß, Sarah; Stephan, Carsten; Hallmann, Steffen; Barski, Dimitri; Otto, Thomas; Gerullis, Holger

    2017-05-01

    UBC(®) Rapid Test is a test that detects fragments of cytokeratins 8 and 18 in urine. We present results of a multicentre study measuring UBC(®) Rapid Test in bladder cancer patients and healthy controls with focus on carcinoma in situ (CIS) and high-grade bladder cancer. From our study with N = 452 patients, we made a stratified sub-analysis for carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder. Clinical urine samples were used from 87 patients with tumours of the urinary bladder (23 carcinoma in situ, 23 non-muscle-invasive low-grade tumours, 21 non-muscle-invasive high-grade tumours and 20 muscle-invasive high-grade tumours) and from 22 healthy controls. The cut-off value was defined at 10.0 µg/L. Urine samples were analysed by the UBC(®) Rapid Test point-of-care system (concile Omega 100 POC reader). Pathological levels of UBC Rapid Test in urine are higher in patients with bladder cancer in comparison to the control group (p Rapid Test using the optimal threshold obtained by receiveroperated curve analysis was 0.75. Pathological values of UBC(®) Rapid Test in urine are higher in patients with high-grade bladder cancer in comparison to low-grade tumours and the healthy control group. UBC(®) Rapid Test has potential to be more sensitive and specific urinary protein biomarker for accurate detection of high-grade patients and could be added especially in the diagnostics for carcinoma in situ and non-muscle-invasive high-grade tumours of urinary bladder cancer.

  11. Rapid HIV Testing for Individuals on Probation/Parole: Outcomes of an Intervention Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michael S.; Kinlock, Timothy W.; McKenzie, Michelle; Wilson, Monique E.; Rich, Josiah D.

    2013-01-01

    Many probationers and parolees do not receive HIV testing despite being at increased risk for obtaining and transmitting HIV. A two-group randomized controlled trial was conducted between April, 2011 and May, 2012 at probation/parole offices in Baltimore, Maryland and Providence/Pawtucket, Rhode Island. Male and female probationers/parolees were interviewed (N=1263) and then offered HIV testing based on random assignment to one of two conditions: 1) On-site rapid HIV testing conducted at the probation/parole office; or 2) Referral for rapid HIV testing off site at a community HIV testing clinic. Outcomes were: 1) undergoing HIV testing; and 2) receipt of HIV testing results. Participants were significantly more likely to be tested onsite at a probation/parole office versus off-site at a HIV testing clinic (p < .001). There was no difference between the two groups in terms of receiving HIV testing results. Findings indicate that probationers/ parolees are willing to be tested on-site and, independent of testing location, are equally willing to receive their results. Implications for expanding rapid HIV testing to more criminal justice related locations and populations are discussed. PMID:23536140

  12. Providing HIV results via SMS one day after testing: more popular than rapid point-of-care tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Stephen C; Koh, Andrew; Lindsay, Heather E; Fulton, Richard B; Fernando, Suran L

    2017-06-01

    An inner Sydney sexual health service introduced the option to gay and bisexual men of receiving a negative HIV result by SMS to mobile phone one business day after venipuncture (rapid SMS). Men could also choose one of the other options: a point-of-care-test (POCT), by phone, or in-person (clinicians could also require in-person). We followed-up patients choosing the rapid SMS method to ascertain their satisfaction. During 12 months, 473 men had 591 HIV tests. Of these tests, 5.4% were POCTs, 9.1% were in-person, 24% were by phone, and 62% were rapid SMS. HIV POCTs declined from being 22% of result methods in the pre-study period to 5.4% during the rapid SMS intervention period (odds ratio 0.20, 95% CI 0.13-0.32, P rapid SMS result rather than having another POCT. The higher accuracy of conventional serology was commonly expressed as the reason for choosing rapid SMS for results.

  13. Early warning systems and rapid response to the deteriorating patient in hospital: A realist evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaughey, Jennifer; O'Halloran, Peter; Porter, Sam; Trinder, John; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2017-06-21

    To test the Rapid Response Systems programme theory against actual practice components of the Rapid Response Systems implemented to identify those contexts and mechanisms which have an impact on the successful achievement of desired outcomes in practice. Rapid Response Systems allow deteriorating patients to be recognized using Early Warning Systems, referred early via escalation protocols and managed at the bedside by competent staff. Realist evaluation. The research design was an embedded multiple case study approach of four wards in two hospitals in Northern Ireland which followed the principles of Realist Evaluation. We used various mixed methods including individual and focus group interviews, observation of nursing practice between June-November 2010 and document analysis of Early Warning Systems audit data between May-October 2010 and hospital acute care training records over 4.5 years from 2003-2008. Data were analysed using NiVivo8 and SPPS. A cross-case analysis highlighted similar patterns of factors which enabled or constrained successful recognition, referral and response to deteriorating patients in practice. Key enabling factors were the use of clinical judgement by experienced nurses and the empowerment of nurses as a result of organizational change associated with implementation of Early Warning System protocols. Key constraining factors were low staffing and inappropriate skill mix levels, rigid implementation of protocols and culturally embedded suboptimal communication processes. Successful implementation of Rapid Response Systems was dependent on adopting organizational and cultural changes that facilitated staff empowerment, flexible implementation of protocols and ongoing experiential learning. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Hydrogen and methane breath tests for evaluation of resistant carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J

    1992-01-01

    This review considers in detail the background, principles, techniques, limitations and advantages of the hydrogen and methane breath tests. Resistant food carbohydrates, defined as dietary carbohydrates partly or totally escaping small intestinal assimilation, are fermented in the human colon...... carbohydrates. Methane breath tests may supplement the information gained from hydrogen measurements, but further evaluations are needed. The hydrogen breath technique is rapid, simple and non-invasive as well as non-radioactive. It may be carried out in a large number of intact individuals under physiological...

  15. Accuracy of individual rapid tests for serodiagnosis of gambiense sleeping sickness in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Jamonneau

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Individual rapid tests for serodiagnosis (RDT of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT are particularly suited for passive screening and surveillance. However, so far, no large scale evaluation of RDTs has been performed for diagnosis of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense HAT in West Africa. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of 2 commercial HAT-RDTs on stored plasma samples from West Africa.SD Bioline HAT and HAT Sero-K-Set were performed on 722 plasma samples originating from Guinea and Côte d'Ivoire, including 231 parasitologically confirmed HAT patients, 257 healthy controls, and 234 unconfirmed individuals whose blood tested antibody positive in the card agglutination test but negative by parasitological tests. Immune trypanolysis was performed as a reference test for trypanosome specific antibody presence. Sensitivities in HAT patients were respectively 99.6% for SD Bioline HAT, and 99.1% for HAT Sero-K-Set, specificities in healthy controls were respectively 87.9% and 88.3%. Considering combined positivity in both RDTs, increased the specificity significantly (p ≤ 0.0003 to 93.4%, while 98.7% sensitivity was maintained. Specificities in controls were 98.7-99.6% for the combination of one or two RDTs with trypanolysis, maintaining a sensitivity of at least 98.1%.The observed specificity of the single RDTs was relatively low. Serial application of SD Bioline HAT and HAT Sero-K-Set might offer superior specificity compared to a single RDT, maintaining high sensitivity. The combination of one or two RDTs with trypanolysis seems promising for HAT surveillance.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of rapid syphilis screening in prenatal HIV testing programs in Haiti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce R Schackman

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New rapid syphilis tests permit simple and immediate diagnosis and treatment at a single clinic visit. We compared the cost-effectiveness, projected health outcomes, and annual cost of screening pregnant women using a rapid syphilis test as part of scaled-up prenatal testing to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in Haiti. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A decision analytic model simulated health outcomes and costs separately for pregnant women in rural and urban areas. We compared syphilis syndromic surveillance (rural standard of care, rapid plasma reagin test with results and treatment at 1-wk follow-up (urban standard of care, and a new rapid test with immediate results and treatment. Test performance data were from a World Health Organization-Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases field trial conducted at the GHESKIO Center Groupe Haitien d'Etude du Sarcome de Kaposi et des Infections Opportunistes in Port-au-Prince. Health outcomes were projected using historical data on prenatal syphilis treatment efficacy and included disability-adjusted life years (DALYs of newborns, congenital syphilis cases, neonatal deaths, and stillbirths. Cost-effectiveness ratios are in US dollars/DALY from a societal perspective; annual costs are in US dollars from a payer perspective. Rapid testing with immediate treatment has a cost-effectiveness ratio of $6.83/DALY in rural settings and $9.95/DALY in urban settings. Results are sensitive to regional syphilis prevalence, rapid test sensitivity, and the return rate for follow-up visits. Integrating rapid syphilis testing into a scaled-up national HIV testing and prenatal care program would prevent 1,125 congenital syphilis cases and 1,223 stillbirths or neonatal deaths annually at a cost of $525,000. CONCLUSIONS: In Haiti, integrating a new rapid syphilis test into prenatal care and HIV testing would prevent congenital syphilis cases and stillbirths, and is cost-effective. A

  17. Thermionic Technology Program: A, Insulator test and evaluation: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, J.C.; Witt, T.

    1987-11-30

    The Thermionic Technology Program (TTP) consisted of two major efforts, evaluation of insulators and evaluation of thermionic converters. This report details the work performed on the insulator phase of the program. Efforts were made to better understand the mechanisms involved in the electrochemistry of insulators at elevated temperatures by modelling the ionic transport through the various layers of the insulator package. Although rigorous analytic solutions could not be obtained owing to a lack of detailed data, a simplified model indicated that alumina should not fail by depletion of aluminum for thousands of years, whereas calculations for yttria revealed a far more rapid depletion of oxygen and consequently earlier failure. Methods for microscopic and electrical testing of cylindrical insulator samples were developed, and an improved test oven design was initiated. Testing of alumina/niobium cermet samples revealed rapid failure contrary to the theoretical predictions for alumina. Large discrepancies in the initial conduction activation energy among the various samples suggested that different mechanisms could have controlled the conduction and hence the failure in different samples, although all had undergone nominally identical processing. The short lifetimes reveal how rapidly ambient conditions in thermionic power conversion can degrade the performance of insulating oxides. It was concluded that minor dopants could have been responsible for the early breakdowns. Thus, high purity materials with precise quality control will be necessary for trilayer package development. 35 refs., 28 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Early diagnosis and retention in care of HIV-infected patients through rapid salivary testing: a test-and-treat fast track pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Maria Rita; Soldini, Laura; Negri, Silvia; Vidoni, Gian Marino; Gianotti, Nicola; Nozza, Silvia; Schlusnus, Karin; Dorigatti, Fernanda; Lazzarin, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and the retention-in-care of individuals diagnosed during six years of salivary HIV testing (EASY-test project). Among those linked-to-care at the Infectious Diseases Department of San Raffaele Hospital (Milan, Italy), the proportion of patients engaged, retained in care and virologically suppressed after the antiretroviral treatment was 96%, 100% and 95.2%, respectively. Results from our study suggest that salivary HIV testing may help bring to light cases of HIV infection otherwise undiagnosed, and thus favour a more rapid and wider reduction of the HIV infection burden at the population level.

  19. Rapid test for fecal calprotectin levels in children with crohn disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolho, K L; Turner, D; Veereman-Wauters, G

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of fecal calprotectin, a surrogate marker of mucosal inflammation, is a promising means to monitor therapeutic response in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease, especially if the result is readily available. We tested the performance of a novel calprotectin rapid test, Quantum Blue...

  20. Rapid screening test for gestational diabetes: public health need, market requirement, initial product design, and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, Bernhard H.; Zwisler, Greg; Peck, Roger; Abu-Haydar, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Gestational diabetes is a global epidemic where many urban areas in Southeast Asia have found prevalence rates as high as 20%, exceeding the highest prevalence rates in the developed world. It can have serious and life-threatening consequences for mothers and babies. We are developing two variants of a new, simple, low-cost rapid test for screening for gestational diabetes mellitus for use primarily in low-resource settings. The pair of assays, both semiquantitative rapid diagnostic strip tests for glycated albumin, require neither fasting nor an oral glucose challenge test. One variant is an extremely simple strip test to estimate the level of total glycated albumin in blood. The other, which is slightly more complex and expensive, is a test that determines the ratio of glycated albumin to total albumin. The screening results can be used to refer women to receive additional care during delivery to avoid birth complications as well as counseling on diet and exercise during and after pregnancy. Results with the latter test may also be used to start treatment with glucose-lowering drugs. Both assays will be read visually. We present initial results of a preliminary cost-performance comparison model evaluating the proposed test versus existing alternatives. We also evaluated user needs and schematic paper microfluidics-based designs aimed at overcoming the challenge of visualizing relatively narrow differences between normal and elevated levels of glycated albumin in blood.

  1. Rapid HIV testing experience at Veterans Affairs North Texas Health Care System's Homeless Stand Downs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshyar, Dina; Surís, Alina M; Czarnogorski, Maggie; Lepage, James P; Bedimo, Roger; North, Carol S

    2014-01-01

    In the USA, 21% of the estimated 1.1 million people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are unaware they are HIV-infected. In 2011, Veterans Health Administration (VHA)'s Office of Public Health in conjunction with VHA's Health Care for Homeless Veterans Program funded grants to support rapid HIV testing at homeless outreach events because homeless populations are more likely to obtain emergent rather than preventive care and have a higher HIV seroprevalence as compared to the general population. Because of a Veterans Affairs North Texas Health Care System (VANTHCS)'s laboratory testing requirement, VANTHCS partnered with community agencies to offer rapid HIV testing for the first time at VANTHCS' 2011 Homeless Stand Downs in Dallas, Fort Worth, and Texoma, Texas. Homeless Stand Downs are outreach events that connect Veterans with services. Veterans who declined testing were asked their reasons for declining. Comparisons by Homeless Stand Down site used Pearson χ², substituting Fisher's Exact tests for expected cell sizes Stand Downs, 261 Veterans reported reasons for declining HIV testing, and 133 Veterans were tested, where 92% of the tested Veterans obtained their test results at the events - all tested negative. Veterans' reported reasons for declining HIV testing included previous negative result (n=168), no time to test (n=49), no risk factors (n=36), testing is not a priority (n=11), uninterested in knowing serostatus (n=6), and HIV-infected (n=3). Only "no time to test" differed significantly by Homeless Stand Down site. Nonresponse rate was 54%. Offering rapid HIV testing at Homeless Stand Downs is a promising testing venue since 15% of Veterans attending VANTHCS' Homeless Stand Downs were tested for HIV, and majority obtained their HIV test results at point-of-care while further research is needed to determine how to improve these rates.

  2. Rapid evaluation of particle properties using inverse SEM simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekar, Kursat B [ORNL; Miller, Thomas Martin [ORNL; Patton, Bruce W [ORNL; Weber, Charles F [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    The characteristic X-rays produced by the interactions of the electron beam with the sample in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) are usually captured with a variable-energy detector, a process termed energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The purpose of this work is to exploit inverse simulations of SEM-EDS spectra to enable rapid determination of sample properties, particularly elemental composition. This is accomplished using penORNL, a modified version of PENELOPE, and a modified version of the traditional Levenberg Marquardt nonlinear optimization algorithm, which together is referred to as MOZAIK-SEM. The overall conclusion of this work is that MOZAIK-SEM is a promising method for performing inverse analysis of X-ray spectra generated within a SEM. As this methodology exists now, MOZAIK-SEM has been shown to calculate the elemental composition of an unknown sample within a few percent of the actual composition.

  3. Validation of a Leishmania infantum ELISA rapid test for serological diagnosis of Leishmania chagasi in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcondes, M; Biondo, A W; Gomes, A A D; Silva, A R S; Vieira, R F C; Camacho, A A; Quinn, John; Chandrashekar, R

    2011-01-10

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is caused by Leishmania donovani complex parasites including L. donovani, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania chagasi. As some studies suggest that L. chagasi and L. infantum may be very similar or even the same species, the aim of the present study was to evaluate a commercial rapid ELISA test, originally designed for L. infantum, in the diagnosis of CVL in dogs naturally infected by L. chagasi. A total of 400 serum canine samples, including 283 positive dogs for CVL from an endemic area, 86 clinically healthy dogs from a non-endemic area and 31 dogs seropositive for confounding infectious agents (Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Babesia canis and Ehrlichia canis) were used for test validation. An overall sensitivity of 94.7% (95% CI=91.41-97.01%) and specificity of 90.6% (95% CI=83.80-95.21%) was found, with a high degree of agreement (k=0.8445) to the indirect ELISA. When confounding infectious diseases were excluded, specificity increased to 100% (95% CI=95.8-100%), with a higher degree of agreement (k=0.8928). In conclusion, the commercial kit designed for L. infantum was a highly sensitive and specific device for detection of L. chagasi infection in dogs, which indicates high immunoreactivity similarities between L. infantum and L. chagasi.

  4. Reliability of the INSTI® rapid test for the diagnosis of HIV-1 non-B subtypes and recombinant variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goupil de Bouillé, Jeanne; Le Moal, Gwénaël; Hocqueloux, Laurent; Guigon, Aurélie; Plainchamp, David; Giraudeau, Geneviève; Theillay, Aurélie; Languille, Anne; Bélec, Laurent; Prazuck, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Data regarding the efficacy of Rapid HIV tests (RHTs) in detecting non-B subtype HIV-1 are limited. We evaluated the sensitivity of the INSTI® test for the detection of HIV-1 antibodies for the diagnosis of HIV-1 non-B subtypes and recombinant variants. We identified adults with HIV-1 infection due to non-B subtypes and recombinant variants. The participants were re-tested with INSTI® test. We included 258 patients. Overall, the INSTI® test sensitivity was 98.4% (95%CI: 96.9-99.9%). For the major CRF_02AG subtype, the sensitivity was 99.0% (95%CI: 97.1-100%). The HIV INSTI® test is reliable for the detection of various non-B HIV-1 antibodies.

  5. Testing iOS apps with HadoopUnit rapid distributed GUI testing

    CERN Document Server

    Tilley, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Smartphone users have come to expect high-quality apps. This has increased the importance of software testing in mobile software development. Unfortunately, testing apps-particularly the GUI-can be very time-consuming. Exercising every user interface element and verifying transitions between different views of the app under test quickly becomes problematic. For example, execution of iOS GUI test suites using Apple's UI Automation framework can take an hour or more if the app's interface is complicated. The longer it takes to run a test, the less frequently the test can be run, which in turn re

  6. Screening Tests for the Rapid Detection of Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins in Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera L. Trainer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The illness of three people due to diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP following their ingestion of recreationally harvested mussels from Sequim Bay State Park in the summer of 2011, resulted in intensified monitoring for diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs in Washington State. Rapid testing at remote sites was proposed as a means to provide early warning of DST events in order to protect human health and allow growers to test “pre-harvest” shellfish samples, thereby preventing harvest of toxic product that would later be destroyed or recalled. Tissue homogenates from several shellfish species collected from two sites in Sequim Bay, WA in the summer 2012, as well as other sites throughout Puget Sound, were analyzed using three rapid screening methods: a lateral flow antibody-based test strip (Jellett Rapid Test, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and a protein phosphatase 2A inhibition assay (PP2A. The results were compared to the standard regulatory method of liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS. The Jellett Rapid Test for DSP gave an unacceptable number of false negatives due to incomplete extraction of DSTs using the manufacturer’s recommended method while the ELISA antibody had low cross-reactivity with dinophysistoxin-1, the major toxin isomer in shellfish from the region. The PP2A test showed the greatest promise as a screening tool for Washington State shellfish harvesters.

  7. Accuracy in HIV Rapid Testing among Laboratory and Non-laboratory Personnel in Zambia: Observations from the National HIV Proficiency Testing System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Mwangala

    Full Text Available Despite rapid task-shifting and scale-up of HIV testing services in high HIV prevalence countries, studies evaluating accuracy remain limited. This study aimed to assess overall accuracy level and factors associated with accuracy in HIV rapid testing in Zambia.Accuracy was investigated among rural and urban HIV testing sites participating in two annual national HIV proficiency testing (PT exercises conducted in 2009 (n = 282 sites and 2010 (n = 488 sites. Testers included lay counselors, nurses, laboratory personnel and others. PT panels of five dry tube specimens (DTS were issued to testing sites by the national reference laboratory (NRL. Site accuracy level was assessed by comparison of reported results to the expected results. Non-parametric rank tests and multiple linear regression models were used to assess variation in accuracy between PT cycles and between tester groups, and to examine factors associated with accuracy respectively.Overall accuracy level was 93.1% (95% CI: 91.2-94.9 in 2009 and 96.9% (95% CI: 96.1-97.8 in 2010. Differences in accuracy were seen between the tester groups in 2009 with laboratory personnel being more accurate than non-laboratory personnel, while in 2010 no differences were seen. In both PT exercises, lay counselors and nurses had more difficulties interpreting results, with more occurrences of false-negative, false-positive and indeterminate results. Having received the standard HIV rapid testing training and adherence to the national HIV testing algorithm were positively associated with accuracy.The study showed an improvement in tester group and overall accuracy from the first PT exercise to the next. Average number of incorrect test results per 1000 tests performed was reduced from 69 to 31. Further improvement is needed, however, and the national HIV proficiency testing system seems to be an important tool in this regard, which should be continued and needs to be urgently strengthened.

  8. Textiles Objective and Sensory Evaluation in Rapid Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenija STRAZDIENE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Most consumer purchases nowadays are driven by sensory attraction and good feeling. From this standpoint textile and fashion industries need new methods to evaluate fabric quality and to respond to consumer expectations. Recently the implementation of sensory analysis in the process of material characterization has drawn much international attention. So, the aim of the research was to find dependencies between the results of sensory analysis and objective fabric behaviour evaluation performed using KES-F and Griff-Tester devices. The later method was developed at Kaunas University of Technology and is based on fabric extraction through a rounded hole, thus describing the behaviour of textile materials and their tactile properties by one complex criterion.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.4.778

  9. Data Testing CIELO Evaluations with ICSBEP Benchmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahler, Albert Comstock [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-09

    We review criticality data testing performed at Los Alamos with a combination of ENDF/B-VII.1 + potential CIELO nuclear data evaluations. The goal of CIELO is to develop updated, best available evaluated nuclear data files for 1H, 16O, 56Fe, 235,238U and 239Pu. because the major international evaluated nuclear data libraries don’t agree on the internal cross section details of these most important nuclides.

  10. Evaluation Of Algorithms Of Anti- HIV Antibody Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paranjape R.S

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: Can alternate algorithms be used in place of conventional algorithm for epidemiological studies of HIV infection with less expenses? Objective: To compare the results of HIV sero- prevalence as determined by test algorithms combining three kits with conventional test algorithm. Study design: Cross â€" sectional. Participants: 282 truck drivers. Statistical analysis: Sensitivity and specificity analysis and predictive values. Results: Three different algorithms that do not include Western Blot (WB were compared with the conventional algorithm, in a truck driver population with 5.6% prevalence of HIV â€"I infection. Algorithms with one EIA (Genetic Systems or Biotest and a rapid test (immunocomb or with two EIAs showed 100% positive predictive value in relation to the conventional algorithm. Using an algorithm with EIA as screening test and a rapid test as a confirmatory test was 50 to 70% less expensive than the conventional algorithm per positive scrum sample. These algorithms obviate the interpretation of indeterminate results and also give differential diagnosis of HIV-2 infection. Alternate algorithms are ideally suited for community based control programme in developing countries. Application of these algorithms in population with low prevalence should also be studied in order to evaluate universal applicability.

  11. The Center For Medicare And Medicaid Innovation's blueprint for rapid-cycle evaluation of new care and payment models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrank, William

    2013-04-01

    The Affordable Care Act established the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation to test innovative payment and service delivery models. The goal is to reduce program expenditures while preserving or improving the quality of care provided to beneficiaries of Medicare, Medicaid, and the Children's Health Insurance Program. Central to the success of the Innovation Center is a new, rapid-cycle approach to evaluation. This article describes that approach--setting forth how the Rapid Cycle Evaluation Group aims to deliver frequent feedback to providers in support of continuous quality improvement, while rigorously evaluating the outcomes of each model tested. This article also describes the relationship between the group's work and that of the Office of the Actuary at the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, which plays a central role in the assessment of new models.

  12. Rapid Flood Evaluation Systems in Taiwan Metropolitan Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Dar Guo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological issues in metropolises in Taiwan have become increasingly important because the storm water sewer systems of metropolises are frequently unable to meet the requirements of the existing and future metropolitan development. Typhoons or torrential rains that cause rainfall intensities that exceed the designed capacity of storm water sewers can result in serious flooding. The losses caused by flooding can be reduced if the areas at risk of flooding can be predicted and warnings can be issued to prompt disaster prevention and allow response units and residents to prepare before disasters occur. The primary purpose of this study is to integrate the quantitative precipitation forecasting technologies [1, 2] developed by the Taiwan Typhoon and Flood Research Institute to establish a rapid, stable, real-time, and automatic metropolitan area flood estimation system for predictive flooding analysis. The objects of this study are metropolitan areas in Taiwan with storm water sewer systems. The standard capacities of storm water sewer systems throughout Taiwan and the geographic information system (GIS shape files are collected and compiled. Additionally, the potential flooding areas are divided into four levels (high, medium, low, and no flooding and are compared with the rainfall warning values of the Water Resources Agency. The study combines the results of quantitative precipitation forecasts, establishes an information database (MySQL, processes Google Earth KML files, and designs a WEB GIS display interface to construct a system for estimating the flooding possibility (probability in metropolitan areas during typhoons or torrential rains. This study subsequently employs the event of Typhoon Kalmaegi for flooding estimation and display; the estimation results are consistent with the flooding survey data, indicating that the estimations made by the flooding estimation system are correct.

  13. A New Technique to Rapidly Test Agrochemical Residues In Fruits and Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Extraction of AchE, relationship between substrate and enzyme concentration, and inhibition effects of the agrochemicals to AchE are discussed in this paper. Through the re search, the proper AchE concentration for hydrolysis of 1 ml 1mmoL/L substrate and I50 val ues of the agrochemicals to AchE are decided. It is proved that Asch-DTNB method is a rapid test tool for agrochemical residues in fruits and vegetables. A rapid test card has been developed with sensitivity of 0.05mg/L.

  14. Testing and Evaluation of Multifunctional Smart Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrow, Jerry; Li, Wenyan; Jolley, Scott; Calle, Luz M.; Pearman, Benjamin; Zhang, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    A smart coating system, based on pH sensitive microcontainers (microparticles and microcapsules) has been developed. Various corrosion inhibitors have been encapsulated and incorporated into commercial and formulated coatings to test the functionality imparted on the coating by the incorporation of the inhibitor microcontainers. Coated carbon steel and aluminum alloy panels were tested using salt immersion, salt fog, and coastal atmospheric exposure conditions. This paper provides the details on coating sample preparation, evaluation methods, as well as test results of the inhibiting function of smart coatings.

  15. Fatigue Sensor Evaluation Program Laboratory Test Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-10-01

    Evaluation Program - laboratory Test Report, " by John Y. Kaufman, Design Engineer, and it was prepared for publication by Sue Bardsley, Technical Aid ...fatigue sensor as an aid to this purpose. The laboratory test effort was based on collection of data from six types of tests and thirty-three...34 ’: « •IIIS ......... li : « rtrtintr : •* M» c f M i H ::::::;:• ;:« ...j . .... ..:. •f’ ::.::::: ^::|:::: n» VH ft;; ** ViH ! * 1 - •• •-•• ; i

  16. Teste rápido para diagnóstico da infecção pelo HIV em parturientes Rapid HIV testing in parturients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Lara de Carvalho

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: determinar o valor preditivo positivo de um teste rápido para anticorpos contra o HIV denominado DetermineTM (Abott em gestantes internadas em trabalho de parto entre 1° de agosto de 2001 e 5 de outubro de 2002. MÉTODOS: foram incluídas neste estudo as parturientes que não haviam sido submetidas a exames para a detecção do HIV durante a gestação ou que não apresentavam os resultados disponíveis no momento da internação. A amostra de sangue foi colhida no momento da internação, na sala de admissão, e o teste rápido foi realizado e comparado com o padrão ouro (ELISA e Western blot. RESULTADOS: entre as 298 gestantes avaliadas, o teste rápido foi positivo em 16 pacientes (5,3%. Os resultados foram confirmados pelos testes de ELISA e Western blot em 12 pacientes (4%. Todos os exames negativos foram avaliados pelos testes ELISA e Western blot. O teste apresentou sensibilidade de 100%, especificidade de 98%, valor preditivo positivo de 75% e valor preditivo negativo de 100%. CONCLUSÕES: estes dados mostram o valor do teste rápido para a detecção de infecção por HIV em situações de emergência, como o parto, de gestantes não testadas previamenteOBJECTIVE: to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a rapid antibody HIV test (DetermineTM - Abott for women in labor between August 1, 2001, and October 5, 2002. METHODS: all parturient women who had not been tested for the detection of HIV during pregnancy or had the result of an HIV test not available at admission were included in the present study. Blood samples were collected at the moment of admission, and the rapid test was carried out and compared with the gold standard (ELISA and Western blot. RESULTS: in 298 pregnant women assessed, the rapid test was positive in 16 (5.3%, and the results were confirmed by ELISA and Western blot in 12 cases (4%. All negative results were confirmed by the ELISA and Western blot tests. CONCLUSIONS: the test presented 100

  17. Rapid ultrasonic C-scan test for spot welding based on image interpolation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 徐国成; 史延利; 周广浩; 谷晓鹏

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,ultrasonic C-scan test ofspot welds for stainless steel has been studied.It is concluded that large scanning step length contributes to high testing efficiency,however,the low-resolution C-scan image generated cannot be used to assess spot welding quality reliably.Based on bicubic image interpolation,the C-scan image in low resolution with the large step length 1 000μm is subdivided and reconstructed.By this means,the C-scan image resolution is greatly enhanced and testing results obtained are satisfactory,realizing rapid assessment ofspot welds.The results ofrapid ultrasonic C-scan test fit the actual metallographic measured value well.Mean value ofnormal distribution oferror statistics is 0.006 67,and the standard deviation is 0.087 1 1 .Rapid ultrasonic C-scan test based on image interpolation is of high accuracy and excellent stability.

  18. Implementing rapid, robust, cost-effective, patient-centred, routine genetic testing in ovarian cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Angela; Riddell, Daniel; Seal, Sheila; Talukdar, Sabrina; Mahamdallie, Shazia; Ruark, Elise; Cloke, Victoria; Slade, Ingrid; Kemp, Zoe; Gore, Martin; Strydom, Ann; Banerjee, Susana; Hanson, Helen; Rahman, Nazneen

    2016-07-13

    Advances in DNA sequencing have made genetic testing fast and affordable, but limitations of testing processes are impeding realisation of patient benefits. Ovarian cancer exemplifies the potential value of genetic testing and the shortcomings of current pathways to access testing. Approximately 15% of ovarian cancer patients have a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation which has substantial implications for their personal management and that of their relatives. Unfortunately, in most countries, routine implementation of BRCA testing for ovarian cancer patients has been inconsistent and largely unsuccessful. We developed a rapid, robust, mainstream genetic testing pathway in which testing is undertaken by the trained cancer team with cascade testing to relatives performed by the genetics team. 207 women with ovarian cancer were offered testing through the mainstream pathway. All accepted. 33 (16%) had a BRCA mutation. The result informed management of 79% (121/154) women with active disease. Patient and clinician feedback was very positive. The pathway offers a 4-fold reduction in time and 13-fold reduction in resource requirement compared to the conventional testing pathway. The mainstream genetic testing pathway we present is effective, efficient and patient-centred. It can deliver rapid, robust, large-scale, cost-effective genetic testing of BRCA1 and BRCA2 and may serve as an exemplar for other genes and other diseases.

  19. Waste Handling Equipment Devleopment Test and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.L. Tome

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify candidate Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface waste handling equipment for development testing. This study will also identify strategies for performing the development tests. Development testing shall be implemented to support detail design and reduce design risks. Development testing shall be conducted to confirm design concepts, evaluate alternative design concepts, show the availability of needed technology, and provide design documentation. The candidate equipment will be selected from MGR surface waste handling equipment that is the responsibility of the Management and Operating Contractor (M&O) Surface Design Department. The equipment identified in this study is based on Viability Assessment (VA) design. The ''Monitored Geologic Repository Test and Evaluation Plan'' (MGR T&EP), Reference 5.1, was used as a basis for this study. The MGR T&EP reflects the extent of test planning and analysis that can be conducted, given the current status of the MGR requirements and latest VA design information. The MGR T&EP supports the appropriate sections in the license application (LA) in accordance with 10 CFR 60.2 1(c)(14). The MGR T&EP describes the following test activities: site characterization to confirm, by test and analysis, the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site for housing a geologic repository; development testing to investigate and document design concepts to reduce risk; qualification testing to verify equipment compliance with design requirements, specifications, and regulatory requirements; system testing to validate compliance with MGR requirements, which include the receipt, handling, retrieval, and disposal of waste; periodic performance testing to verify preclosure requirements and to demonstrate safe and reliable MGR operation; and performance confirmation modeling, testing, and analysis to verify adherence to postclosure regulatory requirements. Development test activities can be

  20. CMOS test and evaluation a physical perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Bhushan, Manjul

    2015-01-01

    This book extends test structure applications described in Microelectronic Test Struc­tures for CMOS Technology (Springer 2011) to digital CMOS product chips. Intended for engineering students and professionals, this book provides a single comprehensive source for evaluating CMOS technology and product test data from a basic knowledge of the physical behavior of the constituent components. Elementary circuits that exhibit key properties of complex CMOS chips are simulated and analyzed, and an integrated view of design, test and characterization is developed. Appropriately designed circuit monitors embedded in the CMOS chip serve to correlate CMOS technology models and circuit design tools to the hardware and also aid in test debug. Impact of silicon process variability, reliability, and power and performance sensitivities to a range of product application conditions are described. Circuit simulations exemplify the methodologies presented, and problems are included at the end of the chapters.

  1. Interbull validation test for genomic evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic evaluations (GEBV) can be validated by comparing GEBVs of bulls in the youngest age classes to the daughter yield deviations (DYD) that the bulls will receive later. The GEBV are calculated from truncated data where the last four years of phenotypic data are removed. The test consists of w...

  2. Cholera Rapid Test with Enrichment Step Has Diagnostic Performance Equivalent to Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontweka, Lameck N.; Deng, Lul O.; Rauzier, Jean; Debes, Amanda K.; Tadesse, Fisseha; Parker, Lucy A.; Wamala, Joseph F.; Bior, Bior K.; Lasuba, Michael; But, Abiem Bona; Grandesso, Francesco; Jamet, Christine; Cohuet, Sandra; Ciglenecki, Iza; Serafini, Micaela; Sack, David A.; Quilici, Marie-Laure; Azman, Andrew S.; Luquero, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Cholera rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) could play a central role in outbreak detection and surveillance in low-resource settings, but their modest performance has hindered their broad adoption. The addition of an enrichment step may improve test specificity. We describe the results of a prospective diagnostic evaluation of the Crystal VC RDT (Span Diagnostics, India) with enrichment step and of culture, each compared to polymerase chain reaction (PCR), during a cholera outbreak in South Sudan. RDTs were performed on alkaline peptone water inoculated with stool and incubated for 4–6 hours at ambient temperature. Cholera culture was performed from wet filter paper inoculated with stool. Molecular detection of Vibrio cholerae O1 by PCR was done from dry Whatman 903 filter papers inoculated with stool, and from wet filter paper supernatant. In August and September 2015, 101 consecutive suspected cholera cases were enrolled, of which 36 were confirmed by PCR. The enriched RDT had 86.1% (95% CI: 70.5–95.3) sensitivity and 100% (95% CI: 94.4–100) specificity compared to PCR as the reference standard. The sensitivity of culture versus PCR was 83.3% (95% CI: 67.2–93.6) for culture performed on site and 72.2% (95% CI: 54.8–85.8) at the international reference laboratory, where samples were tested after an average delay of two months after sample collection, and specificity was 98.5% (95% CI: 91.7–100) and 100% (95% CI: 94.5–100), respectively. The RDT with enrichment showed performance comparable to that of culture and could be a sustainable alternative to culture confirmation where laboratory capacity is limited. PMID:27992488

  3. Cholera Rapid Test with Enrichment Step Has Diagnostic Performance Equivalent to Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontweka, Lameck N; Deng, Lul O; Rauzier, Jean; Debes, Amanda K; Tadesse, Fisseha; Parker, Lucy A; Wamala, Joseph F; Bior, Bior K; Lasuba, Michael; But, Abiem Bona; Grandesso, Francesco; Jamet, Christine; Cohuet, Sandra; Ciglenecki, Iza; Serafini, Micaela; Sack, David A; Quilici, Marie-Laure; Azman, Andrew S; Luquero, Francisco J; Page, Anne-Laure

    2016-01-01

    Cholera rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) could play a central role in outbreak detection and surveillance in low-resource settings, but their modest performance has hindered their broad adoption. The addition of an enrichment step may improve test specificity. We describe the results of a prospective diagnostic evaluation of the Crystal VC RDT (Span Diagnostics, India) with enrichment step and of culture, each compared to polymerase chain reaction (PCR), during a cholera outbreak in South Sudan. RDTs were performed on alkaline peptone water inoculated with stool and incubated for 4-6 hours at ambient temperature. Cholera culture was performed from wet filter paper inoculated with stool. Molecular detection of Vibrio cholerae O1 by PCR was done from dry Whatman 903 filter papers inoculated with stool, and from wet filter paper supernatant. In August and September 2015, 101 consecutive suspected cholera cases were enrolled, of which 36 were confirmed by PCR. The enriched RDT had 86.1% (95% CI: 70.5-95.3) sensitivity and 100% (95% CI: 94.4-100) specificity compared to PCR as the reference standard. The sensitivity of culture versus PCR was 83.3% (95% CI: 67.2-93.6) for culture performed on site and 72.2% (95% CI: 54.8-85.8) at the international reference laboratory, where samples were tested after an average delay of two months after sample collection, and specificity was 98.5% (95% CI: 91.7-100) and 100% (95% CI: 94.5-100), respectively. The RDT with enrichment showed performance comparable to that of culture and could be a sustainable alternative to culture confirmation where laboratory capacity is limited.

  4. Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing with electrokinetics enhanced biosensors for diagnosis of acute bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Lu, Yi; Gau, Vincent; Liao, Joseph C; Wong, Pak Kin

    2014-11-01

    Rapid pathogen detection and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) are required in diagnosis of acute bacterial infections to determine the appropriate antibiotic treatment. Molecular approaches for AST are often based on the detection of known antibiotic resistance genes. Phenotypic culture analysis requires several days from sample collection to result reporting. Toward rapid diagnosis of bacterial infection in non-traditional healthcare settings, we have developed a rapid AST approach that combines phenotypic culture of bacterial pathogens in physiological samples and electrochemical sensing of bacterial 16S rRNA. The assay determines the susceptibility of pathogens by detecting bacterial growth under various antibiotic conditions. AC electrokinetic fluid motion and Joule heating induced temperature elevation are optimized to enhance the sensor signal and minimize the matrix effect, which improve the overall sensitivity of the assay. The electrokinetics enhanced biosensor directly detects the bacterial pathogens in blood culture without prior purification. Rapid determination of the antibiotic resistance profile of Escherichia coli clinical isolates is demonstrated.

  5. Validation of the Puumala virus rapid field test for bank voles in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reil, D; Imholt, C; Rosenfeld, U M; Drewes, S; Fischer, S; Heuser, E; Petraityte-Burneikiene, R; Ulrich, R G; Jacob, J

    2017-02-01

    Puumala virus (PUUV) causes many human infections in large parts of Europe and can lead to mild to moderate disease. The bank vole (Myodes glareolus) is the only reservoir of PUUV in Central Europe. A commercial PUUV rapid field test for rodents was validated for bank-vole blood samples collected in two PUUV-endemic regions in Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia and Baden-Württemberg). A comparison of the results of the rapid field test and standard ELISAs indicated a test efficacy of 93-95%, largely independent of the origin of the antigens used in the ELISA. In ELISAs, reactivity for the German PUUV strain was higher compared to the Swedish strain but not compared to the Finnish strain, which was used for the rapid field test. In conclusion, the use of the rapid field test can facilitate short-term estimation of PUUV seroprevalence in bank-vole populations in Germany and can aid in assessing human PUUV infection risk.

  6. Comparative evaluation of Rose Bengal plate agglutination test, mallein test, and some conventional serological tests for diagnosis of equine glanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naureen, Abeera; Saqib, Muhammad; Muhammad, Ghulan; Hussain, Muhammad H; Asi, Muhammad N

    2007-07-01

    The Rose Bengal plate agglutination test (RBT) was evaluated for the diagnosis of equine glanders, and its diagnostic efficiency was compared with that of mallein and other serological tests, including indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT), complement fixation test (CFT), and modified counter immunoelectrophoresis test (mCIET). Sera from 70 naturally infected culture-positive, 96 potentially exposed cohorts, and 110 healthy equines were tested. All tests but mCIET showed 100% specificity when testing the sera from glanders-negative equines. The calculated sensitivities of RBT, IHAT, CFT, mCIET, and mallein test when testing culture-positive equines were 90.0, 97.1, 91.4, 81.4, and 75.7%, respectively. The RBT was significantly (P glandered and nonglandered animals, the highest agreement (0.987) was found between RBT and CFT followed by RBT and IHAT (0.940), RBT and mallein test (0.871), and RBT and mCIET (0.852). Because the RBT is simpler and rapid to perform, the inclusion of the test as a supplementary test for the diagnosis of glanders in field conditions is recommended.

  7. Comparison of a New and Rapid Method: Brucella Coombs Gel Test With Other Diagnostic Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalem, Fatma; Ergün, Ayşe Gül; Durmaz, Süleyman; Doğan, Metin; Ertuğrul, Ömür; Gündem, Seval

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to detect reliability of Brucella Coombs gel test (BCGT) by comparing with with ELISA (IgG + IgM), Standard agglutination test, and Brucella immunocapture agglutination methods in serological diagnosis of brucellosis. Brucella Coombs gel test (BCGT), Brucella ELISA (IgG + IgM), Standard agglutination test, and Brucella immunocapture agglutination tests of 78 patients with presumptive diagnosis of brucellosis which were sent to Microbiology Laboratory of Konya Numune Hospital from various regions of Konya were studied. Of 78 patients with ELISA IgG and IgM, STA, BICA and BCGT; 26, 21, 10, 12 and 12 were positive. When compared with BICA, the sensitivity and specifity of BCGT were 100% and 100%, respectively. According to results BCGT can be used as a diagnostic test in routine laboratories after more comprehensive studies in control groups and patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Bioequivalence evaluation of epinephrine autoinjectors with attention to rapid delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclar, David Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Timely and proper injection of epinephrine is critical to prevent serious consequences relating to anaphylaxis. In a recent bioavailability study comparing epinephrine delivery from the Auvi-Q™ and EpiPen(®) epinephrine autoinjectors, the Auvi-Q failed to meet the bioequivalence threshold when using partial area under the curve (AUC) analyses based on zero to Tmax recommended for highly variable drugs such as epinephrine. Peak plasma epinephrine concentrations for the EpiPen occurred 10 minutes (median Tmax) after dosing, while peak concentrations for the Auvi-Q occurred 20 minutes after dosing. Though bioequivalence may be concluded for Cmax, AUCinf, and AUC0-t, for fast-acting therapeutics used to treat life-threatening conditions, such as epinephrine, additional pharmacokinetic parameters such as AUC zero to Tmax may be important to evaluate when assessing bioequivalence.

  9. Evaluation of the RapID NH system for identification of Haemophilus somnus, Pasteurella multocida, Pasteurella haemolytica, and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolated from cattle and pigs with respiratory disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Salmon, S A; Watts, J L; Yancey, R J

    1993-01-01

    Haemophilus somnus, Pasteurella haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae from cattle and pigs with respiratory disease were used to evaluate the RapID NH system (Innovative Diagnostics, Atlanta, Ga.). Minor modifications of the RapID NH system to include animal source and growth requirements would permit the identification of all isolates tested.

  10. Rapid Bedside Inactivation of Ebola Virus for Safe Nucleic Acid Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstierne, Maiken Worsøe; Karlberg, Helen; Bragstad, Karoline

    2016-01-01

    Rapid bedside inactivation of Ebola virus would be a solution for the safety of medical and technical staff, risk containment, sample transport, and high-throughput or rapid diagnostic testing during an outbreak. We show that the commercially available Magna Pure lysis/binding buffer used...... for nucleic acid extraction inactivates Ebola virus. A rapid bedside inactivation method for nucleic acid tests is obtained by simply adding Magna Pure lysis/binding buffer directly into vacuum blood collection EDTA tubes using a thin needle and syringe prior to sampling. The ready-to-use inactivation vacuum...... tubes are stable for more than 4 months, and Ebola virus RNA is preserved in the Magna Pure lysis/binding buffer for at least 5 weeks independent of the storage temperature. We also show that Ebola virus RNA can be manually extracted from Magna Pure lysis/binding buffer-inactivated samples using...

  11. Clinical Usefulness of Response Profiles to Rapidly Incremental Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta P. Ramos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The advent of microprocessed “metabolic carts” and rapidly incremental protocols greatly expanded the clinical applications of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET. The response normalcy to CPET is more commonly appreciated at discrete time points, for example, at the estimated lactate threshold and at peak exercise. Analysis of the response profiles of cardiopulmonary responses at submaximal exercise and recovery, however, might show abnormal physiologic functioning which would not be otherwise unraveled. Although this approach has long been advocated as a key element of the investigational strategy, it remains largely neglected in practice. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to highlight the usefulness of selected submaximal metabolic, ventilatory, and cardiovascular variables in different clinical scenarios and patient populations. Special care is taken to physiologically justify their use to answer pertinent clinical questions and to the technical aspects that should be observed to improve responses’ reproducibility and reliability. The most recent evidence in favor of (and against these variables for diagnosis, impairment evaluation, and prognosis in systemic diseases is also critically discussed.

  12. Power Evaluation of Focused Cluster Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puett, Rc; Lawson, Ab; Clark, Ab; Hebert, Jr; Kulldorff, M

    2010-09-01

    Many statistical tests have been developed to assess the significance of clusters of disease located around known sources of environmental contaminants, also known as focused disease clusters. The majority of focused-cluster tests were designed to detect a particular spatial pattern of clustering, one in which the disease cluster centers around the pollution source and declines in a radial fashion with distance. However, other spatial patterns of environmentally related disease clusters are likely given that the spatial dispersion patterns of environmental contaminants, and thus human exposure, depend on a number of factors (i.e., meteorology and topography). For this study, data were simulated with five different spatial patterns of disease clusters, reflecting potential pollutant dispersion scenarios: 1) a radial effect decreasing with increasing distance, 2) a radial effect with a defined peak and decreasing with distance, 3) a simple angular effect, 4) an angular effect decreasing with increasing distance and 5) an angular effect with a defined peak and decreasing with distance. The power to detect each type of spatially distributed disease cluster was evaluated using Stone's Maximum Likelihood Ratio Test, Tango's Focused Test, Bithell's Linear Risk Score Test, and variations of the Lawson-Waller Score Test. Study findings underscore the importance of considering environmental contaminant dispersion patterns, particularly directional effects, with respect to focused-cluster test selection in cluster investigations. The effect of extra variation in risk also is considered, although its effect is not substantial in terms of the power of tests.

  13. The RAPID-II Neuropsychological Test battery for subjects aged 20 to 49 years: Norms and cognitive profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binetruy, M; Mauny, F; Lavaux, M; Meyer, A; Sylvestre, G; Puyraveau, M; Berger, E; Magnin, E; Vandel, P; Galmiche, J; Chopard, G

    2017-06-30

    Cognitive evaluation of young subjects is now widely carried out for non-traumatic diseases such as multiple sclerosis, HIV, or sleep disorders. This evaluation requires normative data based on healthy adult samples. However, most clinicians use a set of tests that were normed in an isolated manner from different samples using different cutoff criteria. Thus, the score of an individual may be considered either normal or impaired according to the norms used. It is well established that healthy adults obtained low-test scores when a battery of tests is administered. Thus, the knowledge of low base rates is required so as to minimize false diagnosis of cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was twofold (1) to provide normative data for RAPID-II battery in healthy adults, and (2) estimate the proportion of healthy adults having low scores across this battery. Norms for the 44 test scores of the RAPID-II test battery were developed using the overall sample of 335 individuals based on three categories of age (20 to 29, 30 to 39, and 40 to 49 years) and two educational levels: Baccalaureate or higher educational degree (high educational level), lower than baccalaureate (low educational level). The 5th, 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles were calculated from the six age and education subsamples and used to define norms. The frequency of low scores on the RAPID-II battery was calculated by simultaneously examining the performance of 33 primary scores. A low score was defined as less than or equal to the 5th percentile drawn from the six age and education normative subsamples. In addition, the percentages of low scores were also determined when all possible combinations of two-test scores across the RAPID-II were considered in the overall normative sample. Our data showed that 59.4% subjects of the normative sample obtained at least one or more low score. With more than 9 test scores, this percentage was equal to 0% in the normative sample. Among all combinations of two-test

  14. Using rapid assessment to evaluate noise on an in-patient unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitrick, Lynn M; Kennedy, Paulette; Cyriax, Carol; Davies-Hathen, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Rapid assessment was used to evaluate a noise problem on a busy, high-traffic, high-acuity medical/surgical telemetry unit over a 4-week period. Six sources of environmental noise were identified including conversational noise, noise from doors, noise from housekeeping activities, noise from the pneumatic message tube station, hallway noise, and miscellaneous noise. Our study also demonstrates the value of rapid-assessment methodology for the evaluation of clinical problems such as noise.

  15. Dorsomedial Prefrontal Cortex Mediates Rapid Evaluations Predicting the Outcome of Romantic Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Jeffrey C.; Dunne, Simon; Furey, Teresa; O’Doherty, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Humans frequently make real-world decisions based on rapid evaluations of minimal information – for example, should we talk to an attractive stranger at a party? Little is known, however, about how the brain makes rapid evaluations with real and immediate social consequences. To address this question, we scanned participants with FMRI while they viewed photos of individuals that they subsequently met at real-life “speed-dating” events. Neural activity in two areas of dorsomedial prefrontal co...

  16. Rapid development of the X-31 simulation to support flight-testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackall, Dale; Norlin, Kenneth; Cohen, Dorothea; Kellogg, Gary; Schilling, Lawrence; Sheen, John

    1992-01-01

    The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Program has been recognized to form the International Test Organization, with the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (NASA-Dryden) as the responsible test organization. The two X-31 research aircraft and engineering support personnel were colocated at NASA-Dryden, with flight test operations beginning in Apr. 1992. Therefore, rapid development of a hardware-in-the-loop simulation was needed to support the flight test operations at NASA-Dryden, and to perform verification and validation of flight control software. The X-31 simulation system requirements, distributed simulation system architecture, simulation components math models to the visual system, and the advanced capabilities the X-31 simulation provides. In addition, unique software tools and the methods used to rapidly develop this simulation system will be highlighted.

  17. Impact of introduction of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria on antibiotic prescribing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, Heidi; Bruxvoort, Katia J; Cairns, Matthew E

    2017-01-01

    measures Proportions of patients for whom an antibiotic was prescribed in trial groups who had undergone rapid diagnostic testing compared with controls and in patients with negative test results compared with patients with positive results. A secondary aim compared classes of antibiotics prescribed...... in different settings.Results Antibiotics were prescribed to 127 052/238 797 (53%) patients in control groups and 167 714/283 683 (59%) patients in intervention groups. Antibiotics were prescribed to 40% (35 505/89 719) of patients with a positive test result for malaria and to 69% (39 400/57 080) of those...... with a negative result. All but one study showed a trend toward more antibiotic prescribing in groups who underwent rapid diagnostic tests. Random effects meta-analysis of the trials showed that the overall risk of antibiotic prescription was 21% higher (95% confidence interval 7% to 36%) in intervention settings...

  18. Impact of introduction of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria on antibiotic prescribing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, Heidi; Bruxvoort, Katia J; Cairns, Matthew E

    2017-01-01

    measures Proportions of patients for whom an antibiotic was prescribed in trial groups who had undergone rapid diagnostic testing compared with controls and in patients with negative test results compared with patients with positive results. A secondary aim compared classes of antibiotics prescribed...... with a negative result. All but one study showed a trend toward more antibiotic prescribing in groups who underwent rapid diagnostic tests. Random effects meta-analysis of the trials showed that the overall risk of antibiotic prescription was 21% higher (95% confidence interval 7% to 36%) in intervention settings....... In most intervention settings, patients with negative test results received more antibiotic prescriptions than patients with positive results for all the most commonly used classes: penicillins, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (one exception), tetracyclines, and metronidazole.Conclusions Introduction...

  19. Bioequivalence evaluation of epinephrine autoinjectors with attention to rapid delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sclar DA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available David Alexander Sclar Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, Midwestern University, Glendale, AZ, USA Abstract: Timely and proper injection of epinephrine is critical to prevent serious consequences relating to anaphylaxis. In a recent bioavailability study comparing epinephrine delivery from the Auvi-Q™ and EpiPen® epinephrine autoinjectors, the Auvi-Q failed to meet the bioequivalence threshold when using partial area under the curve (AUC analyses based on zero to Tmax recommended for highly variable drugs such as epinephrine. Peak plasma epinephrine concentrations for the EpiPen occurred 10 minutes (median Tmax after dosing, while peak concentrations for the Auvi-Q occurred 20 minutes after dosing. Though bioequivalence may be concluded for Cmax, AUCinf, and AUC0–t, for fast-acting therapeutics used to treat life-threatening conditions, such as epinephrine, additional pharmacokinetic parameters such as AUC zero to Tmax may be important to evaluate when assessing bioequivalence. Keywords: anaphylaxis, therapy, pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, EpiPen, Tmax

  20. Rapid evaluation of ion thruster lifetime using optical emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, B. A.; Parsons, M. L.; Mantenieks, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    A major life-limiting phenomenon of electric thrusters is the sputter erosion of discharge chamber components. Thrusters for space propulsion are required to operate for extended periods of time, usually in excess of 10,000 hr. Lengthy and very costly life-tests in high-vacuum facilities have been required in the past to determine the erosion rates of thruster components. Alternative methods for determining erosion rates which can be performed in relatively short periods of time at considerably lower costs are studied. An attempt to relate optical emission intensity from an ion bombarded surface (screen grid) to the sputtering rate of that surface is made. The model used a kinetic steady-state (KSS) approach, balancing the rates of population and depopulation of ten low-lying excited states of the sputtered molybdenum atom (MoI) with those of the ground state to relate the spectral intensities of the various transitions of the MoI to the population densities. Once this is accomplished, the population density can be related to the sputting rate of the target. Radiative and collisional modes of excitation and decay are considered. Since actual data has not been published for MoI excitation rate and decay constants, semiempirical equations are used. The calculated sputtering rate and intensity is compared to the measured intensity and sputtering rates of the 8 and 30 cm ion thrusters.

  1. The role of rapid diagnostic tests in managing adults with pneumonia in low-resource settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Aston

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In well-resourced settings the systematic use of rapid diagnostics tests (e.g. pneumococcal urinary antigen test that define the causal pathogen to direct therapy has not resulted in significantly improved outcomes in adults with pneumonia. The management of pneumonia in many low-resource settings is complicated by a substantial burden of tuberculosis and HIV-associated opportunistic infections, in addition to the usual spectrum of pathogens seen in well-resourced settings. Clinical features alone do not reliably distinguish between these different aetiologies and physicians often have to treat empirically. Given the limitations in diagnostic laboratory capability present in most low-resource settings, rapid and point-of-care diagnostic tests could become valuable tools to guide treatment decisions. Pneumococcal and Legionella urinary antigen tests are specific and moderately sensitive, but their utility in low-resource settings is uncertain. The Xpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid, USA platform and rapid assays for urinary lipoarabinomannan can substantially speed up tuberculosis diagnosis; the current challenge is to translate this into earlier treatment and hopefully improve patient outcome. In HIV-infected patients, 1-3-β-D-glucan is a serum marker of Pneumocystis jirovecii infection with excellent sensitivity. Further studies are needed to assess the clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of these rapid diagnostic assays when they are incorporated into treatment algorithms.

  2. Human Plasmodium knowlesi infection detected by rapid diagnostic tests for malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. van Hellemond (Jaap); M. Rutten (Martine); R. Koelewijn (Rob); A.M. Zeeman (Anne Marie); J. Verweij (Jaap); P.J. Wismans (Pieter); C.H. Kocken (Clemens); P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe describe a PCR-confirmed case of Plasmodium knowlesi infection with a high parasitemia level and clinical signs of severe malaria in a migrant worker from Malaysian Borneo in the Netherlands. Investigations showed that commercially available rapid antigen tests for detection of human

  3. Introducing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria into registered drug shops in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Clarke, Sîan E; Lal, Sham;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major public health problem in Uganda and the current policy recommends introduction of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (RDTs) to facilitate effective case management. However, provision of RDTs in drug shops potentially raises a new set of issues, such as adherence...

  4. Introducing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria into drug shops in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Magnussen, Pascal; Chandler, Clare Ir;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An intervention was designed to introduce rapid diagnostics tests for malaria (mRDTs) into registered drug shops in Uganda to encourage rational and appropriate treatment of malaria with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). We conducted participatory training of drug shop...

  5. The generation of monoclonal antibodies and their use in rapid diagnostic tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibodies are the most important component of an immunoassay. In these proceedings we outline novel methods used to generate and select monoclonal antibodies that meet performance criteria for use in rapid lateral flow and microfluidic immunoassay tests for the detection of agricultural pathogens ...

  6. Introducing rapid tests for malaria into the retail sector: what are the unintended consequences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchinson, Eleanor; Hutchison, Coll; Lal, Sham

    2017-01-01

    The observation that many people in Africa seek care for febrile illness in the retail sector has led to a number of public health initiatives to try to improve the quality of care provided in these settings. The potential to support the introduction of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (mRDTs) ...

  7. [Introduction of rapid syphilis and HIV testing in prenatal care in Colombia: qualitative analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Manjarrés, María Teresa; Gaitán-Duarte, Hernando Guillermo; Caicedo, Sidia; Gómez, Berta; Pérez, Freddy

    2016-12-01

    Interpret perceptions of Colombian health professionals concerning factors that obstruct and facilitate the introduction of rapid syphilis and HIV testing in prenatal care services. A qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews was carried out. A convenience sample was selected with 37 participants, who included health professionals involved in prenatal care services, programs for pregnant women, clinical laboratories, and directors of health care units or centers, as well as representatives from regional departments and the Ministry of Health. Colombia does not do widespread screening with rapid syphilis and HIV tests in prenatal care. The professionals interviewed stated they did not have prior experience in the use of rapid tests-except for laboratory staff-or in the course of action in response to a positive result. The insurance system hinders access to timely diagnosis and treatment. Health authorities perceive a need to review existing standards, strengthen the first level of care, and promote comprehensive prenatal care starting with contracts between insurers and health service institutional providers. Participants recommended staff training and integration between health-policymaking and academic entities for updating training programs. The market approach and the characteristics of the Colombian health system constitute the main barriers to implementation of rapid testing as a strategy for elimination of mother-to-child transmission of syphilis and HIV. Measures identified include making changes in contracts between insurers and health service institutional providers, adapting the timing and duration of prenatal care procedures, and training physicians and nurses involved in prenatal care.

  8. Rapid prototyping of centrifugal microfluidic modules for point of care blood testing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Madzivhandila, Phophi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present modular centrifugal microfluidic devices that enable a series of blood tests to be performed towards a full blood count. The modular approach allows for rapid prototyping of device components in a generic format to complete different...

  9. Does rapid HIV testing result in an early diagnosis and reduce the waiting time for patients to receive medical care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Magaly Carvalho Vieira de; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar; Falcão, Ilka Veras; Miranda-Filho, Demócrito de Barros

    2017-08-01

    The implementation of rapid HIV testing in Brazil began in 2006 for specific groups, and from 2009 was extended to the Counseling and Testing Centers (CTC) in certain Brazilian capitals. The aim of this study was to compare two groups of individuals: those diagnosed with HIV infection by conventional testing and those diagnosed with rapid testing, with respect to: the waiting time before receiving medical care, the time of the first laboratory tests and the virological, immune and clinical status. This is a cross-sectional study to compare a group with individuals diagnosed by conventional testing (2006-2008) and another with those diagnosed by rapid testing (2010-2011).The median time between blood collection and diagnosis of HIV in the conventional test group was 76 days, while in the rapid test group 94.2% of the subjects received their results on the same day of blood collection (p rapid test group the time was 14 days (p rapid test group (p rapid test group (472) was higher than in the conventional test group (397) (p = 0.01). The introduction of rapid HIV testing as a diagnostic strategy has reduced the waiting times for medical care and laboratory tests and also allowed earlier diagnosis of HIV infection than with the conventional test.

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of a rapid fecal test to confirm H pylori eradication after therapy: Prospective comparison with a laboratory stool test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lucio Trevisani; Viviana Cifalà; Nadia Fusetti; Giuseppe Gilli; Paola Tombesi; Marco Torchiaro; Sergio Boccia; Vincenzo Abbasciano

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the clinical performances of rapid stool test (ImmunoCard STAT HpSA, Meridian Diagnostic Inc.) in the evaluation of eradication therapy of H pylori and to compare it with a well-known and validated laboratory stool test (Amplified IDEA Hp StAR, Dako).METHODS: Stool samples of 122 patients were evaluated after eradication therapy of H pylori. H pyloristatus was assessed by 13C-urea breath test (UBT).Stool specimens were tested using either the rapid immunoassay kit or the laboratory immunoassay kit.RESULTS: Forty-three patients were infected and 79 non-infected. Sensitivity and specificity of ImmunoCard STAT and Hp StAR were 58.14% and 76.4%, and 97.47% and 98.73%, respectively (P > 0.05). Overall agreement between the two tests was 92.6% (113 of 122 cases).CONCLUSION: ImmunoCard STAT seems to have rather low performances, and it cannot be regarded as a reliable tool in the post-treatment setting. Also Hp StAR cannot be recommended to confirm H pylori eradication after treatment.

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of a rapid fecal test to confirm H pylori eradication after therapy: Prospective comparison with a laboratory stool test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisani, Lucio; Cifalà, Viviana; Fusetti, Nadia; Gilli, Giuseppe; Tombesi, Paola; Torchiaro, Marco; Boccia, Sergio; Abbasciano, Vincenzo

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the clinical performances of rapid stool test (ImmunoCard STAT HpSA, Meridian Diagnostic Inc.) in the evaluation of eradication therapy of H pylori and to compare it with a well-known and validated laboratory stool test (Amplified IDEA Hp StAR, Dako). METHODS: Stool samples of 122 patients were evaluated after eradication therapy of H pylori. H pylori status was assessed by 13C-urea breath test (UBT). Stool specimens were tested using either the rapid immunoassay kit or the laboratory immunoassay kit. RESULTS: Forty-three patients were infected and 79 non-infected. Sensitivity and specificity of ImmunoCard STAT and Hp StAR were 58.14% and 76.4%, and 97.47% and 98.73%, respectively (P > 0.05). Overall agreement between the two tests was 92.6% (113 of 122 cases). CONCLUSION: ImmunoCard STAT seems to have rather low performances, and it cannot be regarded as a reliable tool in the post-treatment setting. Also Hp StAR cannot be recommended to confirm H pylori eradication after treatment. PMID:17724805

  12. Rapid molecular diagnostic test for Zika virus with low demands on sample preparation and instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eboigbodin, Kevin E; Brummer, Mirko; Ojalehto, Tuomas; Hoser, Mark

    2016-12-01

    Zika virus has only recently gained attention due to recent large outbreaks worldwide. An easy to use nucleic acid amplification test could play an important role in the early detection of the infection and patient management. Here, we report a rapid and robust isothermal nucleic acid amplification assay for the detection of Zika virus. The method is cost-effective and compatible with portable instrumentation, enabling near patient testing and field use.

  13. Rapid, automated, nonradiometric susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex to four first-line antituberculous drugs used in standard short-course chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Isik Somuncu; Thomsen, Vibeke Østergaard; Marjamäki, Merja

    2004-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis necessitates rapid and accurate susceptibility testing. The nonradiometric BACTEC Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube 960 (MGIT) system for susceptibility testing was evaluated on 222 clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates...... MGIT system is a rapid and reliable alternative for susceptibility testing of M. tuberculosis complex to first-line drugs....... for isoniazid, rifampin, and ethambutol. Fifty-seven of the isolates were tested for pyrazinamide. Results were compared to those of radiometric BACTEC 460 system and discrepancies were resolved by the agar proportion method. We found an overall agreement of 99.0% for isoniazid, 99.5% for rifampin, 98...

  14. Comparison of rapid tests for detection of rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNerney Ruth

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug resistant tuberculosis (TB is a growing concern worldwide. Rapid detection of resistance expedites appropriate intervention to control the disease. Several technologies have recently been reported to detect rifampicin resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis directly in sputum samples. These include phenotypic culture based methods, tests for gene mutations and tests based on bacteriophage replication. The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility of implementing technology for rapid detection of rifampicin resistance in a high disease burden setting in Africa. Methods Sputum specimens from re-treatment TB patients presenting to the Mulago Hospital National TB Treatment Centre in Kampala, Uganda, were examined by conventional methods and simultaneously used in one of the four direct susceptibility tests, namely direct BACTEC 460, Etest, "in-house" phage test, and INNO- Rif.TB. The reference method was the BACTEC 460 indirect culture drug susceptibility testing. Test performance, cost and turn around times were assessed. Results In comparison with indirect BACTEC 460, the respective sensitivities and specificities for detecting rifampicin resistance were 100% and 100% for direct BACTEC and the Etest, 94% and 95% for the phage test, and 87% and 87% for the Inno-LiPA assay. Turn around times ranged from an average of 3 days for the INNO-LiPA and phage tests, 8 days for the direct BACTEC 460 and 20 days for the Etest. All methods were faster than the indirect BACTEC 460 which had a mean turn around time of 24 days. The cost per test, including labour ranged from $18.60 to $41.92 (USD. Conclusion All four rapid technologies were shown capable of detecting rifampicin resistance directly from sputum. The LiPA proved rapid, but was the most expensive. It was noted, however, that the LiPA test allows sterilization of samples prior to testing thereby reducing the risk of accidental laboratory transmission. In contrast the

  15. 25th Test and Evaluation National Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-05

    Auditory Displays Tactile / Haptic Displays Input Devices & Controls State Dependent Design Human Factors Engineering Taxonomy Visual and Auditory...Charles McQueary, Director, Operational Test & Evaluation (DOT&E) ROUNDTABLE : REALITIES FACING THE WORLD OF DEFENSE AND HOMELAND SECURITY T&E...aM roundtable: realitieS facing the World of defenSe and homeland Security t&e Moderator: Maj Gen Steve Sargeant, USAF, Commander AFOTEC MG

  16. Rapid Evaluation of Prediction Methods with DIPPR's Automated Property Prediction Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, J. R.; Wilding, W. V.; Oscarson, J. L.; Rowley, R. L.

    2007-06-01

    An automated property prediction package has been developed that permits rapid evaluation of group-contribution, corresponding states, empirical, and theoretical property estimation methods. The property prediction package, which is part of the DIPPR® Information And Data Evaluation Manager (DIADEM) software, is used in conjunction with the DIPPR® 801 database to develop and test new prediction methods. The software is freely available to all DIPPR sponsor companies, but is also commercially available. The estimation engine is based on an automated SMILES (Simplified Molecular Input Line Entry Specification) formula parser to provide required molecular structural information, retrieval of required secondary properties from the DIPPR® database, and defined rules for the method. Automatic comparisons of predicted values to experimental data in the DIPPR® database can be made for properties at specified accuracy levels, by chemical family or type, or over the entire database. This allows evaluation of the relative effectiveness of methods for specific chemical families and tailoring of the selected method to specific chemical classes. New methods can readily be added by input using a simple input form. Nearly 200 thermophysical property prediction methods are currently available in DIADEM.

  17. 应用快、慢速液体营养负荷试验评价近端胃敏感性与适应性舒张功能%Application of slow and rapid liquid nutrient load tests for evaluating proximal gastric perception and accommodation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐茜茜; 张艳丽; 姚树坤

    2014-01-01

    入量和饱胀饮入量可能较适宜用于评价胃感觉功能,快速饱胀饮入量可能较适宜用于评价胃适应性舒张功能.%Objective To evaluate the possibility of slow and rapid liquid nutrient loading test (LNLT) in the proximal gastric function assessment according to the results of gastric barostat testing.Methods From April to August in 2013,20 healthy volunteer were selected.The sensitivity of gastric,basic abdominal pressure,gastric sensing threshold,gastric discomfort and pain thresholds were examined by barostat.The average gastric volume after fasting was tested by barostat,which reflected gastric accommodation.And then 200 mL liquild meal was taken in five minutes by the volunteers.The difference value between the maximum gastric volume in 60 minutes after taking the meal minus the average gastric volume after fasting was used to evaluate the proximal gastric adapted diastolic function.In LNLT,volunteers drank 100 mL/min and 15 mL/min (rapid and slow) liquid meal.The threshold value of drinking volume,satiety drinking volume and maximum drinking volume were determined.Pearson correlation analyses were performed in the results of fast and slow LNLT,correlation between LNLT and sensitivity of gastric,gastric adapted diastolic function tested by barostat.Results The basic abdominal pressure,gastric sensing threshold,gastric discomfort and pain thresholds,gastric volume after fasting,maximum gastric volume and adapted diastolic volume was (6.8±1.2) mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa),(2.7±1.9) mmHg,(5.2±2.0) mmHg,(7.3-±-2.1) mmHg,(188.7-±-80.0) mL,(505.2±133.7) mL and (316.5±87.7) mL,respectively.The maximum gastric volume after the meal was at (9.8±3.3) min after meal.In rapid LNLT,the threshold value of drinking volume,satiety drinking volume and maximum drinking volume of volunteers was (209-±-96),(501±148) and (674±199) mL,respectively,and that in slow LNLT was (107 ± 43),(340 ± 134) and (524 ± 213) mL,respectively,there was

  18. Rapid identification of Listeria spp.: an AOAC performance test of the MIT 1000 rapid microbial identification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods that rapidly confirm the identification of foodborne pathogens are highly desired. The Micro Imaging Technology (MIT) 1000 Rapid Microbial Identification (RMID) System is a benchtop instrument that detects laser light scattered from individual bacterial cells in solution with an array of 35 ...

  19. Simultaneous Quantitative Detection of Helicobacter Pylori Based on a Rapid and Sensitive Testing Platform using Quantum Dots-Labeled Immunochromatiographic Test Strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Wang, Kan; Zhang, Jingjing; Qin, Weijian; Yan, Xinyu; Shen, Guangxia; Gao, Guo; Pan, Fei; Cui, Daxiang

    2016-12-01

    Quantum dots-labeled urea-enzyme antibody-based rapid immunochromatographic test strips have been developed as quantitative fluorescence point-of-care tests (POCTs) to detect helicobacter pylori. Presented in this study is a new test strip reader designed to run on tablet personal computers (PCs), which is portable for outdoor detection even without an alternating current (AC) power supply. A Wi-Fi module was integrated into the reader to improve its portability. Patient information was loaded by a barcode scanner, and an application designed to run on tablet PCs was developed to handle the acquired images. A vision algorithm called Kmeans was used for picture processing. Different concentrations of various human blood samples were tested to evaluate the stability and accuracy of the fabricated device. Results demonstrate that the reader can provide an easy, rapid, simultaneous, quantitative detection for helicobacter pylori. The proposed test strip reader has a lighter weight than existing detection readers, and it can run for long durations without an AC power supply, thus verifying that it possesses advantages for outdoor detection. Given its fast detection speed and high accuracy, the proposed reader combined with quantum dots-labeled test strips is suitable for POCTs and owns great potential in applications such as screening patients with infection of helicobacter pylori, etc. in near future.

  20. Simultaneous Quantitative Detection of Helicobacter Pylori Based on a Rapid and Sensitive Testing Platform using Quantum Dots-Labeled Immunochromatiographic Test Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Wang, Kan; Zhang, Jingjing; Qin, Weijian; Yan, Xinyu; Shen, Guangxia; Gao, Guo; Pan, Fei; Cui, Daxiang

    2016-02-01

    Quantum dots-labeled urea-enzyme antibody-based rapid immunochromatographic test strips have been developed as quantitative fluorescence point-of-care tests (POCTs) to detect helicobacter pylori. Presented in this study is a new test strip reader designed to run on tablet personal computers (PCs), which is portable for outdoor detection even without an alternating current (AC) power supply. A Wi-Fi module was integrated into the reader to improve its portability. Patient information was loaded by a barcode scanner, and an application designed to run on tablet PCs was developed to handle the acquired images. A vision algorithm called Kmeans was used for picture processing. Different concentrations of various human blood samples were tested to evaluate the stability and accuracy of the fabricated device. Results demonstrate that the reader can provide an easy, rapid, simultaneous, quantitative detection for helicobacter pylori. The proposed test strip reader has a lighter weight than existing detection readers, and it can run for long durations without an AC power supply, thus verifying that it possesses advantages for outdoor detection. Given its fast detection speed and high accuracy, the proposed reader combined with quantum dots-labeled test strips is suitable for POCTs and owns great potential in applications such as screening patients with infection of helicobacter pylori, etc. in near future.

  1. Nitrogen Recommendations for Summer Maize in Northern China Using the Nmin Test and Rapid Plant Tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xue-Jun; JU Xiao-Tang; CHEN Xin-Ping; ZHANG Fu-Suo; V.ROMHELD

    2005-01-01

    A field experiment with a split-plot design was carried out at Dongbeiwang Farm in Beijing Municipality to establish reliable N fertilizer recommendation indices for summer maize (Zea mays L.) in northern China using the soil Nmin (mineral N) test as well as the plant nitrate and SPAD (portable chlorophyll meter readings) tests. The results showed that Nmin sollwert (NS) 60 kg N ha-1 at the third leaf stage and N rate of 40 to 120 kg N ha-1 at the tenth leaf stage could meet the N requirement of summer maize with a target yield of 5.5-6 t ha-1. Sap nitrate concentrations and SPAD chlorophyll meter readings in the latest expanded maize leaves at the tenth leaf stage were positively correlated with NS levels, indicating that plant nitrate and SPAD tests reflected the N nutritional status of maize well. Considering that winter wheat subsequently utilized N after the summer maize harvest, the 0-90 cm soil Nmin (74 kg N ha-1) and apparent N loss (12 kg N ha-1) in the NS60+40 treatment were controlled at environmentally acceptable levels. Therefore NS60+40, giving a total N supply of 100 kg N ha-1, was considered the optimal N fertilizer input for summer maize under these experimental conditions.

  2. Improving the screening of blood donors with syphilis rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkodie, F.; Hassall, O.; Owusu-Dabo, E.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Syphilis testing conventionally relies on a combination of non-treponemal and treponemal tests. The primary objective of this study was to describe the positive predictive value (PPV) of a screening algorithm in a combination of a treponemal rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and rapid plasm...... of blood donors by combining syphilis RDT and RPR with relatively good PPV may provide a reasonable technology for LMIC that has a limited capacity for testing and can contribute to the improvement of blood safety with a minimal loss of donors....

  3. Evaluation of three rapid diagnostic methods for direct identification of microorganisms in positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Raquel M; Bauerle, Elizabeth R; Fang, Ferric C; Butler-Wu, Susan M

    2014-07-01

    The identification of organisms from positive blood cultures generally takes several days. However, recently developed rapid diagnostic methods offer the potential for organism identification within only a few hours of blood culture positivity. In this study, we evaluated the performance of three commercial methods to rapidly identify organisms directly from positive blood cultures: QuickFISH (AdvanDx, Wolburn, MA), Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture (BC-GP; Nanosphere, Northbrook, IL), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) with Sepsityper processing (Bruker Daltonics, Billerica, MA). A total of 159 blood cultures (VersaTREK Trek Diagnostic Systems, Cleveland, OH) positive for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as yeast were analyzed with QuickFISH and MALDI-TOF MS. In all, 102 blood cultures were analyzed using the BC-GP assay. For monomicrobial cultures, we observed 98.0% concordance with routine methods for both QuickFISH (143/146) and the BC-GP assay (93/95). MALDI-TOF MS demonstrated 80.1% (117/146) and 87.7% (128/146) concordance with routine methods to the genus and species levels, respectively. None of the methods tested were capable of consistently identifying polymicrobial cultures in their entirety or reliably differentiating Streptococcus pneumoniae from viridans streptococci. Nevertheless, the methods evaluated in this study are convenient and accurate for the most commonly encountered pathogens and have the potential to dramatically reduce turnaround time for the provision of results to the treating physician.

  4. Evaluation of Rapidly Disintegrating Vaginal Tablets of Tenofovir, Emtricitabine and Their Combination for HIV-1 Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith R. Clark

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal tablets are being developed as an alternative to gels as an inexpensive, discreet dosage form for the administration of microbicides. This work describes the pharmacokinetic (PK evaluation of rapidly disintegrating vaginal tablets containing tenofovir (TFV, 10 mg, emtricitabine (FTC, 10 mg, and the combination of TFV and FTC (10 mg each under in vitro and in vivo conditions, and in direct comparison to the clinical TFV 1% gel, a microbicide product in Phase III clinical testing. The PK of TFV and FTC from tablets were also evaluated in female rabbits following intravaginal administration. Direct comparison of a single dose of TFV tablets (intact or predissolved at 10 mg/mL and TFV 1% gel showed no differences in the vaginal PK of TFV between groups; however systemic bioavailability of TFV was significantly higher from the gel. When rabbits were dosed either once or daily for seven days with intact tablets of TFV, FTC, or the combination of TFV/FTC, vaginal and systemic concentrations of TFV and FTC were unaffected by co-formulation. Moreover, plasma PK parameters were similar following a single dose or seven once-daily doses. Tissue concentrations of TFV and FTC in the cranial vagina 4 h after administration ranged between 104 and 105 ng/g. Concentrations of TFV-diphospate (TFV-DP, the active metabolite were also high (over 103 ng/g or about 3000 to 6000 fmol/mg in the cranial vagina 4 h after administration and similar to those measured following administration of TFV 1% gel. These data demonstrate that rapidly disintegrating vaginal tablets may be a suitable topical microbicide dosage form providing similar vaginal TFV PK to that of TFV 1% gel. The data also support co-administration of FTC with TFV in a single vaginal tablet to create a combination microbicide in a simple and inexpensive dosage form.

  5. Acceptability of rapid oral fluid HIV testing among male injection drug users in Taiwan, 1997 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Shu-Yu; Morisky, Donald E; Yeh, Ching-Ying; Twu, Shiing-Jer; Peng, Eugene Yu-Chang; Malow, Robert M

    2011-04-01

    Rapid oral fluid HIV testing (rapid oral testing) is in the process of being adapted in Taiwan and elsewhere given its advantages over prior HIV testing methods. To guide this process, we examined the acceptability of rapid oral testing at two time points (i.e., 1997 and 2007) among one of the highest risk populations, male injection drug users (IDUs). For this purpose, an anonymous self-administered survey was completed by HIV-negative IDUs involved in the criminal justice system in 1997 (N (1)=137 parolees) and 2007 (N (2)=106 prisoners). A social marketing model helped guide the design of our questionnaire to assess the acceptability of rapid oral testing. This included assessing a new product, across four marketing dimensions: product, price, promotion, and place. Results revealed that in both 1997 and 2007, over 90% indicated that rapid oral testing would be highly acceptable, particularly if the cost was under US$6, and that a pharmacy would be the most appropriate and accessible venue for selling the rapid oral testing kits. The vast majority of survey respondents believed that the cost of rapid oral testing should be federally subsidized and that television and newspaper advertisements would be the most effective media to advertise for rapid oral testing. Both the 1997 and 2007 surveys suggested that rapid oral HIV testing would be particularly accepted in Taiwan by IDUs after release from the criminal justice system.

  6. Detection of cut-off point for rapid automized naming test in good readers and dyslexics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Soleymani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Rapid automized naming test is an appropriate tool to diagnose learning disability even before teaching reading. This study aimed to detect the cut-off point of this test for good readers and dyslexics.Methods: The test has 4 parts including: objects, colors, numbers and letters. 5 items are repeated on cards randomly for 10 times. Children were asked to name items rapidly. We studied 18 dyslexic students and 18 age-matched good readers between 7 and 8 years of age at second and third grades of elementary school; they were recruited by non-randomize sampling into 2 groups: children with developmental dyslexia from learning disabilities centers with mean age of 100 months, and normal children with mean age of 107 months from general schools in Tehran. Good readers selected from the same class of dyslexics.Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.849 for letter naming, 0.892 for color naming, 0.971 for number naming, 0.887 for picture naming, and 0.965 totally. The overall sensitivity and specificity was 1 and was 0.79, respectively. The highest sensitivity and specificity were related to number naming (1 and 0.90, respectively.Conclusion: Findings showed that the rapid automized naming test could diagnose good readers from dyslexics appropriately.

  7. Validation study of a rapid ELISA for detection of aflatoxin in corn. Performance Tested Method 050901.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Anthony; Roebuck, Chris; Dutcher, Monica; Kennedy, Justina; Abouzied, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Neogen Corp. developed the Veratox aflatoxin test kit for the detection of total aflatoxin. The purpose of this study was to validate the method under the requirements of the AOAC Research Institute Performance Tested Methods (PTM) program. There are several AOAC Official Methods for total aflatoxin detection in corn (994.08, 990.33, 979.18, 993.17, 990.32, 993.16, 991.31, and 990.74), varying between rapid and analytical-based methods and one rapid method that has been performance tested by the AOAC Research Institute (PTM 030701). However, the widely used reference method is AOAC Official Method 994.08, which is an HPLC method and is referred to as the reference method in this paper. Although considered the reference method, the HPLC procedure is complicated and requires the investment of both expensive equipment and a highly skilled technician. A rapid (e.g., ELISA) test kit to be validated by the AOAC Research Institute is needed.

  8. Patho-TB test for the rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Alavi-Naini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Despite recent technologic improvements in identifying mycobacterium tuberculosis, we are still facing problems in rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis. The objective of this study is to determine the diagnostic value of a new rapid screening test (Patho-TB™ for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.
    • METHODS: Between September 2006 to August 2007, 178 patients were enrolled in the study who were finally classified into two groups; a group of documented pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 67 and a group of non-tuberculous pulmonary infection (n = 111. Patho-TB™ test, Ziehl-Neelsen staining and culture were done on all specimens.
    • RESULTS: Of all, 43 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were sputum smear positive for acid fast bacilli and the rest were smear negative. Mean age of the patients was 59.8 ± 16.1 years and 44% of them were men. The results of Patho- TB™ test were positive in 40 of smear positive and 20 of smear negative tuberculous patients and 33 cases of nontuberculous control group. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy of Patho- TB™ test were estimated 89.5%, 70.2%, 64.5%, 91.7% and 77.5%, respectively.
    • CONCLUSIONS: According to the present study it would be suggested that Patho-TB™ test could be a rapid and inexpensive method for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, given by its high sensitivity and negative predictive value. Concerning the high number of false positive results, using a confirmatory diagnostic procedure is mandatory.
    • KEYWORDS: Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Rapid Diagnosis, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Antigens, Iran

  9. [Neuropad test in evaluation of diabetic foot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieru, Alexandra; Niţă, Otilia; Graur, Lidia Iuliana; Mazilu, Georgiana; Mihalache, Laura; Popescu, Raluca Maria; Graur, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is the main cause of foot ulceration. One of the earliest modifications is the loss of normal sudomotor function, a sign of autonomic neuropathy. The aim of this study is to evaluate sudomotor dysfunction using a new tool (Neuropad) in diabetic patients with foot ulceration. We included 58 diabetic patients with foot ulceration admitted in 2010 in the Clinical Center for Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases. We collected data regarding age, gender, type and duration of diabetes, glycated hemoglobin (HbAlc), history of amputations and duration of hospital admission. Peripheral neuropathy was evaluated through the Neuropathy Disability Score (NDS) and autonomic neuropathy was tested through Neuropad. 95% of patients had NDS > or = 6, among which 76% had also positive Neuropad test. Patients with both peripheral and autonomic neuropathy had longer duration of diabetes (p = 0.027) but similar HbA1c as patients with only peripheral neuropathy (p = 0.09). The former also had longer duration of current admission (p = 0.022) and a higher percentage of these patients had history of amputations (p = 0.041). Neuropad is a reliable, easy to use test for the diagnosis of autonomic neuropathy, which puts patients at greater risk for foot ulceration and amputation.

  10. Effects of rapid versus standard HIV voluntary counselling and testing on receipt rate of HIV test results: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Guo, Jian; Lu, Wenli

    2015-03-01

    Rapid HIV voluntary counselling and testing (RVCT) is an alternative method of standard HIV voluntary counselling and testing (SVCT). Less is known about whether RVCT improves the receipt rate of HIV test results among clients who seek HIV counselling and testing. We aimed to evaluate effectiveness of RVCT on result receipt rate. We conducted a comprehensive search of databases containing Medline, EBSCO, Web of science, and Cochrane library to identify studies published up to August 2012. Reviewers extracted information independently. Risk of bias was evaluated with Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing study quality. Five randomised controlled trials were included and analysed for the result receipt rate using a random-effects model. The pooled receipt rate of HIV test results in the RVCT was significantly higher than in the SVCT (RR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.47-2.07). Our results suggest RVCT as a favourable method to increase the receipt of HIV test results. Only two included studies assessed the modification of risk behaviour after HIV-CT in a different manner; also, the sample size was small in the current meta-analysis. In future research, it is necessary to confirm the effect of RVCT on disinhibition of post-test risk behaviour.

  11. Applicability of slug interference tests under Hanford Site test conditions: Analytical assessment and field test evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spane, F.A. Jr.

    1992-04-01

    Slug interference testing may be a useful technique for characterizing the hydraulic properties of high conductivity formations where problems associated with disposal of contaminated ground water make pumping tests undesirable. The suitability of the slug interference method for characterizing the unconfined aquifer at the Hanford Site was evaluated in a two-phase investigation. The first phase consisted of an analytical assessment. Slug interference responses were predicted over the range of conditions expected for the aquifer. The effects of partial penetration, delayed-yield and aquifer anisotropy on expected test results were also evaluated and possible analytical corrections are presented. The field test evaluation was conducted at a site with two observation wells and a stress well. Results verified the analytical evaluation and gave reasonable values of hydraulic conductivity and storativity. Test design considerations that optimize the observed response are discussed.

  12. Multifrequency excitation method for rapid and accurate dynamic test of micromachined gyroscope chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yan; Zhou, Bin; Xing, Chao; Zhang, Rong

    2014-10-17

    A novel multifrequency excitation (MFE) method is proposed to realize rapid and accurate dynamic testing of micromachined gyroscope chips. Compared with the traditional sweep-frequency excitation (SFE) method, the computational time for testing one chip under four modes at a 1-Hz frequency resolution and 600-Hz bandwidth was dramatically reduced from 10 min to 6 s. A multifrequency signal with an equal amplitude and initial linear-phase-difference distribution was generated to ensure test repeatability and accuracy. The current test system based on LabVIEW using the SFE method was modified to use the MFE method without any hardware changes. The experimental results verified that the MFE method can be an ideal solution for large-scale dynamic testing of gyroscope chips and gyroscopes.

  13. Multifrequency Excitation Method for Rapid and Accurate Dynamic Test of Micromachined Gyroscope Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Deng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel multifrequency excitation (MFE method is proposed to realize rapid and accurate dynamic testing of micromachined gyroscope chips. Compared with the traditional sweep-frequency excitation (SFE method, the computational time for testing one chip under four modes at a 1-Hz frequency resolution and 600-Hz bandwidth was dramatically reduced from 10 min to 6 s. A multifrequency signal with an equal amplitude and initial linear-phase-difference distribution was generated to ensure test repeatability and accuracy. The current test system based on LabVIEW using the SFE method was modified to use the MFE method without any hardware changes. The experimental results verified that the MFE method can be an ideal solution for large-scale dynamic testing of gyroscope chips and gyroscopes.

  14. Are Participants in a Street-Based HIV Testing Program Able to Perform Their Own Rapid Test and Interpret the Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Luis; Rosales-Statkus, María Elena; Hoyos, Juan; Pulido, José; Santos, Sara; Bravo, María José; Barrio, Gregorio; Fernández-Balbuena, Sonia; Belza, María José

    2012-01-01

    Objective Availability of over-the-counter rapid HIV tests could improve access to testing those reluctant or unable to use current services. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of HIV self-testing using a finger-stick whole-blood rapid test (Determine™ HIV Combo) to detect both antigen and antibody. Methods Before being tested, 313 participants in a street-based testing program were given adapted instructions and a test kit, and performed the self-test without supervision. These participants, together with another 207 who performed supervised self-testing, received additional instructions on how to interpret the test results shown in six colour photos and filled out a questionnaire. Logistic regression and generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used in the statistical analysis. Results About 8.0% (95%CI:4.8%–11.2%) obtained an invalid self-test. An invalid result was inversely associated with male participants who had sex with men (OR = 0.3;95%CI:0.1–1.0). Of the 3111 photos interpreted,4.9% (95%CI:4.1–5.7) were incorrect. Only 1.1% (95%CI:0.3–1.8) of the positive results were interpreted as negative. Age 30 or older (OR = 2.1; 95%CI:1.2–3.7), having been born in Latin America (OR = 1.6; 95%CI:1.1–2.2),and not having university education (OR = 2.1;95%CI:1.2–3.7) were associated with misinterpreting test results in the GEE. Participant's perceptions of both their proficiency when conducting the test and interpretation were related with actual outcomes. Most participants (83.9%) were more motivated than before to use the self-test in the future, and 51.7% would pay >10 Euros for the test if it was sold in pharmacies. Conclusions This is the first study showing that blood-based self-testing with current technology is feasible in HIV-negative participants demanding the test and without prior training or supervision. Bearing in mind that it was conducted under difficult weather conditions and using a complex kit, over

  15. Are participants in a street-based HIV testing program able to perform their own rapid test and interpret the results?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis de la Fuente

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Availability of over-the-counter rapid HIV tests could improve access to testing those reluctant or unable to use current services. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of HIV self-testing using a finger-stick whole-blood rapid test (Determine™ HIV Combo to detect both antigen and antibody. METHODS: Before being tested, 313 participants in a street-based testing program were given adapted instructions and a test kit, and performed the self-test without supervision. These participants, together with another 207 who performed supervised self-testing, received additional instructions on how to interpret the test results shown in six colour photos and filled out a questionnaire. Logistic regression and generalized estimating equations (GEE were used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS: About 8.0% (95%CI:4.8%-11.2% obtained an invalid self-test. An invalid result was inversely associated with male participants who had sex with men (OR=0.3;95%CI:0.1-1.0. Of the 3111 photos interpreted,4.9% (95%CI:4.1-5.7 were incorrect. Only 1.1% (95%CI:0.3-1.8 of the positive results were interpreted as negative. Age 30 or older (OR=2.1; 95%CI:1.2-3.7, having been born in Latin America (OR=1.6; 95%CI:1.1-2.2,and not having university education (OR=2.1;95%CI:1.2-3.7 were associated with misinterpreting test results in the GEE. Participant's perceptions of both their proficiency when conducting the test and interpretation were related with actual outcomes. Most participants (83.9% were more motivated than before to use the self-test in the future, and 51.7% would pay >10 Euros for the test if it was sold in pharmacies. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study showing that blood-based self-testing with current technology is feasible in HIV-negative participants demanding the test and without prior training or supervision. Bearing in mind that it was conducted under difficult weather conditions and using a complex kit, over-the-counter tests could be a feasible

  16. Missed opportunities: refusal to confirm reactive rapid HIV tests in the emergency department.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishani Ganguli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV infection remains a major US public health concern. While HIV-infected individuals now benefit from earlier diagnosis and improved treatment options, progress is tempered by large numbers of newly diagnosed patients who are lost to follow-up prior to disease confirmation and linkage to care. METHODOLOGY: In the randomized, controlled USHER trial, we offered rapid HIV tests to patients presenting to a Boston, MA emergency department. Separate written informed consent was required for confirmatory testing. In a secondary analysis, we compared participants with reactive results who did and did not complete confirmatory testing to identify factors associated with refusal to complete the confirmation protocol. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirteen of 62 (21.0%, 95% CI (11.7%, 33.2% participants with reactive rapid HIV tests refused confirmation; women, younger participants, African Americans, and those with fewer HIV risks, with lower income, and without primary care doctors were more likely to refuse. We projected that up to four true HIV cases were lost at the confirmation stage. CONCLUSIONS: These findings underscore the need to better understand the factors associated with refusal to confirm reactive HIV testing and to identify interventions that will facilitate confirmatory testing and linkage to care among these populations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00502944; NCT01258582.

  17. Implementation of broad screening with Ebola rapid diagnostic tests in Forécariah, Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantz Jean Louis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory-enhanced surveillance is critical for rapidly detecting the potential re-emergence of Ebola virus disease. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT for Ebola antigens could expand diagnostic capacity for Ebola virus disease.Objectives: The Guinean National Coordination for Ebola Response conducted a pilot implementation to determine the feasibility of broad screening of patients and corpses with the OraQuick® Ebola RDT.Methods: The implementation team developed protocols and trained healthcare workers to screen patients and corpses in Forécariah prefecture, Guinea, from 15 October to 30 November 2015. Data collected included number of consultations, number of fevers reported or measured, number of tests performed for patients or corpses and results of confirmatory RT-PCR testing. Data on malaria RDT results were collected for comparison. Feedback from Ebola RDT users was collected informally during supervision visits and forums.Results: There were 3738 consultations at the 15 selected healthcare facilities; 74.6% of consultations were for febrile illness. Among 2787 eligible febrile patients, 2633 were tested for malaria and 1628 OraQuick® Ebola RDTs were performed. A total of 322 OraQuick® Ebola RDTs were conducted on corpses. All Ebola tests on eligible patients were negative.Conclusions: Access to Ebola testing was expanded by the implementation of RDTs in an emergency situation. Feedback from Ebola RDT users and lessons learned will contribute to improving quality for RDT expansion.

  18. Development of a quantitative rapid diagnostic test for multibacillary leprosy using smart phone technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula Vaz Cardoso, Ludimila; Dias, Ronaldo Ferreira; Freitas, Aline Araújo; Hungria, Emerith Mayra; Oliveira, Regiane Morillas; Collovati, Marco; Reed, Steven G; Duthie, Malcolm S; Martins Araújo Stefani, Mariane

    2013-10-23

    Despite efforts to eliminate leprosy as public health problem, delayed diagnosis and disabilities still occur in many countries. Leprosy diagnosis remains based on clinical manifestations and the number of clinicians with expertise in leprosy diagnosis is in decline. We have developed a new immunochromatographic test with the goal of producing a simple and rapid system that can be used, with a minimal amount of training, to provide an objective and consistent diagnosis of multibacillary leprosy. The test immobilizes two antigens that have been recognized as excellent candidates for serologic diagnosis (the PGL-I mimetic, ND-O, and LID-1), on a nitrocellulose membrane. This allows the detection of specific IgM and IgG antibodies within 20 minutes of the addition of patient sera. Furthermore, we coupled the NDO-LID® rapid tests with a new cell phone-based test reader platform (Smart Reader®) to provide objective interpretation that was both quantifiable and consistent. Direct comparison of serologic responses indicated that the rapid test detected a greater proportion of leprosy patients than a lab-based PGL-I ELISA. While positive responses were detected by PGL-I ELISA in 83.3% of multibacillary patients and 15.4% of paucibacillary patients, these numbers were increased to 87% and 21.2%, respectively, when a combination of the NDO-LID® test and Smart Reader® was used. Among multibacillary leprosy the sensitivity of NDO-LID® test assessed by Smart Reader® was 87% (95% CI, 79.2-92.7%) and the specificity was 96.1% (95% CI, 91.7- 98.6%). The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value of NDO-LID® tests were 94% (95% CI, 87.4-97.8%) and 91.4% (95% CI, 85.9-95.2%), respectively. The widespread provision of rapid diagnostic tests to facilitate the diagnosis or prognosis of multibacillary leprosy could impact on leprosy control programs by aiding early detection, directing appropriate treatment and potentially interrupting Mycobacterium leprae

  19. Method and apparatus using selected superparamagnetic labels for rapid quantification of immunochromatographic tests

    OpenAIRE

    Vuento, Matti

    2009-01-01

    Mika PA Laitinen1, Jari Salmela2, Leona Gilbert1, Risto Kaivola1, Topi Tikkala2, Christian Oker-Blom1, Jukka Pekola3, Matti Vuento11Department of Biological and Environmental Science; 2Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland; 3Low Temperature Laboratory, Helsinki University of Technology, Helsinki, FinlandAbstract: A rapid method and instrumentation for quantification of immunochromatographic tests (ICT) are described. The princip...

  20. Hydraulic test for evaluation of hydrophone VSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabuuchi, Satoshi; Koide, Kaoru [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Toki, Gifu (Japan). Tono Geoscience Center

    1997-12-01

    This hydraulic test was carried out at the test site of Tono Geoscience Center, Mizunami-shi, Gifu Pref. in order to evaluate the reliability of the hydraulic conductivity estimated from hydrophone VSP experiment. From March to April 1997, we carried out measurements of pore-water pressure at five depths and permeability tests at seven depths down to G.L.-300m, within a borehole drilled in granitic rock. We compared the results of hydraulic test with hydrophone VSP experiment on condition that a single open fracture existed, and we obtained two notable results. First, for the granitic rock at which a single open fracture was found by BTV and also detected by hydrophone VSP experiment, the hydraulic conductivity was 1.54 x 10{sup -7} cm/sec, while for the same granitic rock at which another single open fracture was found by BTV but not detected by hydrophone VSP experiment, the hydraulic conductivity was less than 6 x 10{sup -10} cm/sec. Second, we converted the hydraulic conductivity of 1.54 x 10{sup -7} cm/sec which was obtained in a hydraulic test section of length 2.5 m into an equivalent value for a single open fracture of width 1 mm. The converted value (3.8 x 10{sup -4} cm/sec) was similar to the hydraulic conductivity estimated from hydrophone VSP experiment. In conclusion, the hydraulic test result shows that hydrophone VSP is useful to estimate an approximate hydraulic conductivity of a single open fracture. (author)

  1. Evaluation of ergonomic postures of dental professions by Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA, in Birjand, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasl Saraji J.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs are major parts of the occupational diseases in workplaces. Protection from such diseases is dependent on assessment and improvement of job postures by using job analysis methods in ergonomics. Purpose: This study was aimed to evaluate ergonomic conditions in dental professions by rapid entire body assessment (REBA in Birjand city and also to assess the relation between MSDS in different parts of the body and work conditions. Materials and Methods: This study was a descriptive-analytical approach performed on 48 persons working at different professions by using REBA method. The prevalence of MSDs was obtained by using Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ. The data were analyzed by independent t-test, Chi-square and Fisher tests with P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: In this investigation, the prevalence of disorders for different parts of the body was as follows: 65% for neck, 60% for back, 38% for shoulders, and 31% for wrist. These disorders were higher in women than men except for the back. There were significant correlation between disorders of femur and foreleg with work history, ankle and sole with body mass index (BMI, and MSDs with work conditions (P<0.05. Conclusion: It is concluded that the work conditions and postures need to be improved. In addition the level of dental professional education regarding biomechanical hazardous effects as well as correct work conditions and postures should be increased.

  2. [Benefits of using rapid HIV testing at the PMU-FLON walk-in clinic in Lausanne].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilgien, W; Aubert, J; Bischoff, T; Herzig, L; Perdrix, J

    2012-05-16

    Lab tests are frequently used in primary care to guide patient care. This is particularly the case when a severe disorder, or one that will affect patients' initial care, needs to be excluded rapidly. At the PMU-FLON walk-in clinic the use of HIV testing as recommended by the Swiss Office of Public Health was hampered by the delay in obtaining test results. This led us to introduce rapid HIV testing which provides results within 30 minutes. Following the first 250 tests the authors discuss the results as well as the benefits of rapid HIV testing in an urban walk-in clinic.

  3. Application of Rapid Prototyping Methods to High-Speed Wind Tunnel Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, A. M.

    1998-01-01

    This study was undertaken in MSFC's 14-Inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel to determine if rapid prototyping methods could be used in the design and manufacturing of high speed wind tunnel models in direct testing applications, and if these methods would reduce model design/fabrication time and cost while providing models of high enough fidelity to provide adequate aerodynamic data, and of sufficient strength to survive the test environment. Rapid prototyping methods utilized to construct wind tunnel models in a wing-body-tail configuration were: fused deposition method using both ABS plastic and PEEK as building materials, stereolithography using the photopolymer SL-5170, selective laser sintering using glass reinforced nylon, and laminated object manufacturing using plastic reinforced with glass and 'paper'. This study revealed good agreement between the SLA model, the metal model with an FDM-ABS nose, an SLA nose, and the metal model for most operating conditions, while the FDM-ABS data diverged at higher loading conditions. Data from the initial SLS model showed poor agreement due to problems in post-processing, resulting in a different configuration. A second SLS model was tested and showed relatively good agreement. It can be concluded that rapid prototyping models show promise in preliminary aerodynamic development studies at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds.

  4. Preparation of a blood culture pellet for rapid bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxatto, Antony; Prod'hom, Guy; Durussel, Christian; Greub, Gilbert

    2014-10-15

    Bloodstream infections and sepsis are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The successful outcome of patients suffering from bacteremia depends on a rapid identification of the infectious agent to guide optimal antibiotic treatment. The analysis of Gram stains from positive blood culture can be rapidly conducted and already significantly impact the antibiotic regimen. However, the accurate identification of the infectious agent is still required to establish the optimal targeted treatment. We present here a simple and fast bacterial pellet preparation from a positive blood culture that can be used as a sample for several essential downstream applications such as identification by MALDI-TOF MS, antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) by disc diffusion assay or automated AST systems and by automated PCR-based diagnostic testing. The performance of these different identification and AST systems applied directly on the blood culture bacterial pellets is very similar to the performance normally obtained from isolated colonies grown on agar plates. Compared to conventional approaches, the rapid acquisition of a bacterial pellet significantly reduces the time to report both identification and AST. Thus, following blood culture positivity, identification by MALDI-TOF can be reported within less than 1 hr whereas results of AST by automated AST systems or disc diffusion assays within 8 to 18 hr, respectively. Similarly, the results of a rapid PCR-based assay can be communicated to the clinicians less than 2 hr following the report of a bacteremia. Together, these results demonstrate that the rapid preparation of a blood culture bacterial pellet has a significant impact on the identification and AST turnaround time and thus on the successful outcome of patients suffering from bloodstream infections.

  5. A methodology to enable rapid evaluation of aviation environmental impacts and aircraft technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Keith Frederick

    of multiple aircraft families. The results of experimentation led to a down selection to the best approach to use to rapidly characterize the performance of the commercial fleet for accurately in the context of acceptability of current fleet evaluation methods. The parametric correction factor and average replacement approaches were shown to be successful in capturing reference fleet results as well as fleet performance with variations in operations. The best-in-class replacement approach was shown to be unacceptable as a model for the larger fleet in each of the scenarios tested. Finally, the average replacement approach was the only one that was successful in capturing the impact of technologies on a larger fleet. These results are meaningful because they show that it is possible to calculate the fuel burn and emissions of a larger fleet with a reduced number of physics-based models within acceptable bounds of accuracy. At the same time, the physics-based modeling also provides the ability to evaluate the impact of technologies on fleet-level fuel burn and emissions metrics. The value of such a capability is that multiple future fleet scenarios involving changes in both aircraft operations and technology levels may now be rapidly evaluated to inform and equip policy makers of the implications of impacts of changes on fleet-level metrics.

  6. The use of the rapid exchange grip test in detecting sincerity of effort, Part II: validity of the test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechtman, O; Taylor, C

    2000-01-01

    The rapid exchange grip (REG) test was developed to identify patients exerting insincere effort. The premise of the REG test is that a maximal, sincere effort yields a "negative REG," in which peak static grip (SG) scores are greater than peak REG scores, and that a submaximal, insincere effort yields a "positive REG," in which REG scores are greater than SG scores. There is disagreement in the literature concerning what constitutes a positive REG test, suggesting that the REG may not be a valid measure of sincerity of effort. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the validity of the REG test by examining its premise as well as its sensitivity and specificity values. The 146 uninjured subjects performed a series of randomized grip strength tests, exerting both maximal and submaximal efforts. The tests included the REG at hand switch rates of 45 rpm (REG-45) and 60 rpm (REG-60), the maximal static grip test (MSGT), and the five-rung test (5R). Our findings supported the concept of a "negative REG" for both REG maneuvers and both comparative SG tests. The concept of a "positive REG," however, was supported only when peak REG scores were compared with peak 5R scores. The authors found relatively low sensitivity and specificity values, suggesting that the REG test may not be sensitive or specific enough to effectively detect sincerity of effort. The authors discuss the likelihood that mistakes will be made when the REG test is used to diagnose sincerity of effort and the possible consequences of making such mistakes.

  7. Emerging Rapid Resistance Testing Methods for Clinical Microbiology Laboratories and Their Potential Impact on Patient Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen Frickmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Atypical and multidrug resistance, especially ESBL and carbapenemase expressing Enterobacteriaceae, is globally spreading. Therefore, it becomes increasingly difficult to achieve therapeutic success by calculated antibiotic therapy. Consequently, rapid antibiotic resistance testing is essential. Various molecular and mass spectrometry-based approaches have been introduced in diagnostic microbiology to speed up the providing of reliable resistance data. PCR- and sequencing-based approaches are the most expensive but the most frequently applied modes of testing, suitable for the detection of resistance genes even from primary material. Next generation sequencing, based either on assessment of allelic single nucleotide polymorphisms or on the detection of nonubiquitous resistance mechanisms might allow for sequence-based bacterial resistance testing comparable to viral resistance testing on the long term. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, based on specific binding of fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotide probes, provides a less expensive molecular bridging technique. It is particularly useful for detection of resistance mechanisms based on mutations in ribosomal RNA. Approaches based on MALDI-TOF-MS, alone or in combination with molecular techniques, like PCR/electrospray ionization MS or minisequencing provide the fastest resistance results from pure colonies or even primary samples with a growing number of protocols. This review details the various approaches of rapid resistance testing, their pros and cons, and their potential use for the diagnostic laboratory.

  8. Criteria evaluation for cleanliness testing phase 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meltzer, Michael [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Koester, Carolyn [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Stefanni, Chris [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    1999-02-04

    The Boeing Company (Boeing) contracted with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop criteria for evaluating the efficacy of its parts cleaning processes. In particular, LLNL and Boeing are attempting to identify levels of contamination that lead to parts failures. Sufficient contamination to cause impairment of anodizing, alodining, painting, or welding operations is considered a "part failure." In the "Phase 0" part of the project that was recently completed, preliminary analyses of aluminum substrates were performed as a first step in determining suitable cleanliness criteria for actual Boeing parts made from this material. A wide spread of contamination levels was specified for the Phase 0 test coupons, in the hopes of finding a range in which an appropriate cleanliness specification might lie. It was planned that, based on the results of the Phase 0 testing, further more detailed analyses ("Phase 1 testing") would be performed in order to more accurately identify the most appropriate criteria. For the Phase 0 testing, Boeing supplied LLNL with 3" x 6" and 3" x 10" aluminum test panels which LLNL contaminated with measured amounts of typical hydrocarbon substances encountered in Boeing' s fabrication operations. The panels were then subjected by Boeing to normal cleaning procedures, after which they went through one of the following sets of operations: l anodizing and primer painting . alodining (chromating) and primer painting l welding The coatings or welds were then examined by both Boeing and LLNL to determine whether any of the operations were impaired, and whether there was a correlation between contamination level and damage to the parts. The experimental approach and results are described in detail.

  9. Rapid MRI evaluation of acute intracranial hemorrhage in pediatric head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, Maura E.; Jaju, Alok [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States); Ciolino, Jody D. [Northwestern University, Biostatistics Collaboration Center, Department of Preventive Medicine Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Alden, Tord [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Neurological Surgery, Chicago, IL (United States); Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Neurosurgery, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Rapid MRI with ultrafast T2 sequences can be performed without sedation and is often used in place of computed tomography (CT) to evaluate pediatric patients for indications such as hydrocephalus. This study investigated the sensitivity of rapid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detection and follow-up of acute intracranial hemorrhage in comparison to CT, which is commonly the first-line imaging. Patients presenting to a pediatric hospital with acute intracranial hemorrhage on CT and follow-up rapid MRI within 48 h were included. Rapid MRI studies consisted of three plane ultrafast T2 sequences either with or without axial gradient echo (GRE) sequences. Identification of hemorrhage on rapid MRI was assessed by readers both blinded and unblinded to prior CT results. One hundred two acute hemorrhages in 61 patients were identified by CT. Rapid MRI detection of subdural and epidural hemorrhages was modest in the absence of prior CT for comparison (sensitivity 61-74 %), but increased with review of the prior CT (sensitivity 80-86 %). Hemorrhage size was a significant predictor of detection (p < 0.0001). Three plane fast T2 images alone without GRE sequences were poor at detecting subarachnoid hemorrhage (sensitivity 10-25 %); rapid MRI with GRE sequences identified the majority of subarachnoid hemorrhage (sensitivity 71-93 %). GRE modestly increased detection of other extra-axial hemorrhages. Rapid MRI with GRE sequences is sensitive for most acute intracranial hemorrhages only when a prior CT is available for review. Rapid MRI is not adequate to replace CT in initial evaluation of intracranial hemorrhages but may be helpful in follow-up of known hemorrhages. (orig.)

  10. Feasibility of utilizing the SD BIOLINE Onchocerciasis IgG4 rapid test in onchocerciasis surveillance in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieye, Yakou; Storey, Helen L; Barrett, Kelsey L; Gerth-Guyette, Emily; Di Giorgio, Laura; Golden, Allison; Faulx, Dunia; Kalnoky, Michael; Ndiaye, Marie Khemesse Ngom; Sy, Ngayo; Mané, Malang; Faye, Babacar; Sarr, Mamadou; Dioukhane, Elhadji Mamadou; Peck, Roger B; Guinot, Philippe; de Los Santos, Tala

    2017-10-03

    As effective onchocerciasis control efforts in Africa transition to elimination efforts, different diagnostic tools are required to support country programs. Senegal, with its long standing, successful control program, is transitioning to using the SD BIOLINE Onchocerciasis IgG4 (Ov16) rapid test over traditional skin snip microscopy. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating the Ov16 rapid test into onchocerciasis surveillance activities in Senegal, based on the following attributes of acceptability, usability, and cost. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 13 villages in southeastern Senegal in May 2016. Individuals 5 years and older were invited to participate in a demographic questionnaire, an Ov16 rapid test, a skin snip biopsy, and an acceptability interview. Rapid test technicians were interviewed and a costing analysis was conducted. Of 1,173 participants, 1,169 (99.7%) agreed to the rapid test while 383 (32.7%) agreed to skin snip microscopy. The sero-positivity rate of the rapid test among those tested was 2.6% with zero positives 10 years and younger. None of the 383 skin snips were positive for Ov microfilaria. Community members appreciated that the rapid test was performed quickly, was not painful, and provided reliable results. The total costs for this surveillance activity was $22,272.83, with a cost per test conducted at $3.14 for rapid test, $7.58 for skin snip microscopy, and $13.43 for shared costs. If no participants had refused skin snip microscopy, the total cost per method with shared costs would have been around $16 per person tested. In this area with low onchocerciasis sero-positivity, there was high acceptability and perceived value of the rapid test by community members and technicians. This study provides evidence of the feasibility of implementing the Ov16 rapid test in Senegal and may be informative to other country programs transitioning to Ov16 serologic tools.

  11. Rapid quantitative pharmacodynamic imaging by a novel method: theory, simulation testing and proof of principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J. Black

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological challenge imaging has mapped, but rarely quantified, the sensitivity of a biological system to a given drug. We describe a novel method called rapid quantitative pharmacodynamic imaging. This method combines pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling, repeated small doses of a challenge drug over a short time scale, and functional imaging to rapidly provide quantitative estimates of drug sensitivity including EC50 (the concentration of drug that produces half the maximum possible effect. We first test the method with simulated data, assuming a typical sigmoidal dose-response curve and assuming imperfect imaging that includes artifactual baseline signal drift and random error. With these few assumptions, rapid quantitative pharmacodynamic imaging reliably estimates EC50 from the simulated data, except when noise overwhelms the drug effect or when the effect occurs only at high doses. In preliminary fMRI studies of primate brain using a dopamine agonist, the observed noise level is modest compared with observed drug effects, and a quantitative EC50 can be obtained from some regional time-signal curves. Taken together, these results suggest that research and clinical applications for rapid quantitative pharmacodynamic imaging are realistic.

  12. Rapid susceptibility testing and microcolony analysis of Candida spp. cultured and imaged on porous aluminum oxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J Ingham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acquired resistance to antifungal agents now supports the introduction of susceptibility testing for species-drug combinations for which this was previously thought unnecessary. For pathogenic yeasts, conventional phenotypic testing needs at least 24 h. Culture on a porous aluminum oxide (PAO support combined with microscopy offers a route to more rapid results. METHODS: Microcolonies of Candida species grown on PAO were stained with the fluorogenic dyes Fun-1 and Calcofluor White and then imaged by fluorescence microscopy. Images were captured by a charge-coupled device camera and processed by publicly available software. By this method, the growth of yeasts could be detected and quantified within 2 h. Microcolony imaging was then used to assess the susceptibility of the yeasts to amphotericin B, anidulafungin and caspofungin (3.5 h culture, and voriconazole and itraconazole (7 h culture. SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, the results showed good agreement with EUCAST (86.5% agreement; n = 170 and E-test (85.9% agreement; n = 170. The closest agreement to standard tests was found when testing susceptibility to amphotericin B and echinocandins (88.2 to 91.2% and the least good for the triazoles (79.4 to 82.4%. Furthermore, large datasets on population variation could be rapidly obtained. An analysis of microcolonies revealed subtle effects of antimycotics on resistant strains and below the MIC of sensitive strains, particularly an increase in population heterogeneity and cell density-dependent effects of triazoles. Additionally, the method could be adapted to strain identification via germ tube extension. We suggest PAO culture is a rapid and versatile method that may be usefully adapted to clinical mycology and has research applications.

  13. Rapid diagnostic tests duo as alternative to conventional serological assays for conclusive Chagas disease diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egüez, Karina E; Alonso-Padilla, Julio; Terán, Carolina; Chipana, Zenobia; García, Wilson; Torrico, Faustino; Gascon, Joaquim; Lozano-Beltran, Daniel-Franz; Pinazo, María-Jesús

    2017-04-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. It affects several million people, mainly in Latin America, and severe cardiac and/or digestive complications occur in ~30% of the chronically infected patients. Disease acute stage is mostly asymptomatic and infection goes undiagnosed. In the chronic phase direct parasite detection is hampered due to its concealed presence and diagnosis is achieved by serological methods, like ELISA or indirect hemagglutination assays. Agreement in at least two tests must be obtained due to parasite wide antigenic variability. These techniques require equipped labs and trained personnel and are not available in distant regions. As a result, many infected people often remain undiagnosed until it is too late, as the two available chemotherapies show diminished efficacy in the advanced chronic stage. Easy-to-use rapid diagnostic tests have been developed to be implemented in remote areas as an alternative to conventional tests. They do not need electricity, nor cold chain, they can return results within an hour and some even work with whole blood as sample, like Chagas Stat-Pak (ChemBio Inc.) and Chagas Detect Plus (InBIOS Inc.). Nonetheless, in order to qualify a rapidly diagnosed positive patient for treatment, conventional serological confirmation is obligatory, which might risk its start. In this study two rapid tests based on distinct antigen sets were used in parallel as a way to obtain a fast and conclusive Chagas disease diagnosis using whole blood samples. Chagas Stat-Pak and Chagas Detect Plus were validated by comparison with three conventional tests yielding 100% sensitivity and 99.3% specificity over 342 patients seeking Chagas disease diagnosis in a reference centre in Sucre (Bolivia). Combined used of RDTs in distant regions could substitute laborious conventional serology, allowing immediate treatment and favouring better adhesion to it.

  14. Clients of sex workers in Switzerland: it makes sense to counsel and propose rapid test for HIV on the street, a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansermet-Pagot Anne

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clients of street sex workers may be at higher risk for HIV infection than the general population. Furthermore, there is a lack of knowledge regarding HIV testing of clients of sex workers in developed countries. Method This pilot study assessed the feasibility and acceptance of rapid HIV testing by the clients of street-based sex workers in Lausanne, Switzerland. For 5 evenings, clients in cars were stopped by trained field staff for face-to-face interviews focusing on sex-related HIV risk behaviors and HIV testing history. The clients were then offered a free anonymous rapid HIV test in a bus parked nearby. Rapid HIV testing and counselling were performed by experienced nurse practitioners. Clients with reactive tests were offered confirmatory testing, medical evaluation, and care in our HIV clinic. Result We intercepted 144 men, 112 (77.8% agreed to be interviewed. Among them, 50 (46.6% had never been tested for HIV. A total of 31 (27.7% rapid HIV tests were performed, 16 (51.6% in clients who had not previously been tested. None were reactive. Initially, 19 (16.9% additional clients agreed to HIV testing but later declined due to the 40-minute queue for testing. Conclusion This pilot study showed that rapid HIV testing in the red light district of Lausanne was feasible, and that the clients of sex workers accepted testing at an unexpectedly high rate. This setting seems particularly appropriate for targeted HIV screening, since more than 40% of the clients had not previously been tested for HIV even though they engaged in sex-related HIV risk behaviour.

  15. Rapid diagnostic tests versus clinical diagnosis for managing people with fever in malaria endemic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odaga, John; Sinclair, David; Lokong, Joseph A; Donegan, Sarah; Hopkins, Heidi; Garner, Paul

    2014-04-17

    In 2010, the World Health Organization recommended that all patients with suspected malaria are tested for malaria before treatment. In rural African settings light microscopy is often unavailable. Diagnosis has relied on detecting fever, and most people were given antimalarial drugs presumptively. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) provide a point-of-care test that may improve management, particularly of people for whom the RDT excludes the diagnosis of malaria. To evaluate whether introducing RDTs into algorithms for diagnosing and treating people with fever improves health outcomes, reduces antimalarial prescribing, and is safe, compared to algorithms using clinical diagnosis. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register; CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library); MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL; LILACS; and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials for eligible trials up to 10 January 2014. We contacted researchers in the field and reviewed the reference lists of all included trials to identify any additional trials. Individual or cluster randomized trials (RCTs) comparing RDT-supported algorithms and algorithms using clinical diagnosis alone for diagnosing and treating people with fever living in malaria-endemic settings. Two authors independently applied the inclusion criteria and extracted data. We combined data from individually and cluster RCTs using the generic inverse variance method. We presented all outcomes as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. We included seven trials, enrolling 17,505 people with fever or reported history of fever in this review; two individually randomized trials and five cluster randomized trials. All trials were conducted in rural African settings.In most trials the health workers diagnosing and treating malaria were nurses or clinical officers with less than one week of training in RDT supported diagnosis. Health worker prescribing adherence to RDT

  16. Evaluation of the screening test results before marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Durmaz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C viruses and Treponema pallidum are parenterally and sexually transmitted infection agents. Screening test is made before marriage to pre-marital couples legally under the relevant legislation and legal procedures in our country; applicants are evaluated in terms of sexually transmitted diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate pre-marital test results for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV I/II and Treponema pallidum.Materials and methods: To make screening test before marriage, randomized 117 patients who were applied to Kızıltepe General Hospital of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, were included in this study between January 2011 and March 2011. Of these patients, 64 were women (average age 24.7±5.7, and 55 were males (mean age 24.7±4.7. HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV I/II tests of the patients were studied by macro-ELISA device (ECIQ Vitros, Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, USA, screening of anti-Treponema pallidum IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies were studied by immunochromatographic rapid test (syphilis syphilis 3.0, Standard Diagnostics, inc. Korea.Results: Of the 119 patients, five patients (4.2% were positive for HBsAg (3 male and 2 female. Anti-HCV, anti-HIV I/II and anti-Treponema pallidum antibodies were negative in all patients.Conclusion: HBsAg test result which was obtained in present study has been found consistent with HBsAg positivity rate in our region. As a result of screening test that was done before marriage will continue to believe that the increased importance of the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (3: 292-294.

  17. Validation of a rapid DNA process with the RapidHIT(®) ID system using GlobalFiler(®) Express chemistry, a platform optimized for decentralized testing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salceda, Susana; Barican, Arnaldo; Buscaino, Jacklyn; Goldman, Bruce; Klevenberg, Jim; Kuhn, Melissa; Lehto, Dennis; Lin, Frank; Nguyen, Phong; Park, Charles; Pearson, Francesca; Pittaro, Rick; Salodkar, Sayali; Schueren, Robert; Smith, Corey; Troup, Charles; Tsou, Dean; Vangbo, Mattias; Wunderle, Justus; King, David

    2017-05-01

    The RapidHIT(®) ID is a fully automated sample-to-answer system for short tandem repeat (STR)-based human identification. The RapidHIT ID has been optimized for use in decentralized environments and processes presumed single source DNA samples, generating Combined DNA Index System (CODIS)-compatible DNA profiles in less than 90min. The system is easy to use, requiring less than one minute of hands-on time. Profiles are reviewed using centralized linking software, RapidLINK™ (IntegenX, Pleasanton, CA), a software tool designed to collate DNA profiles from single or multiple RapidHIT ID systems at different geographic locations. The RapidHIT ID has been designed to employ GlobalFiler(®) Express and AmpFLSTR(®) NGMSElect™, Thermo Fisher Scientific (Waltham, MA) STR chemistries. The Developmental Validation studies were performed using GlobalFiler(®) Express with single source reference samples according to Scientific Working Group for DNA Analysis Methods guidelines. These results show that multiple RapidHIT ID systems networked with RapidLINK software form a highly reliable system for wide-scale deployment in locations such as police booking stations and border crossings enabling real-time testing of arrestees, potential human trafficking victims, and other instances where rapid turnaround is essential. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Retrospective Study of the Impact of Rapid Diagnostic Testing on Time to Pathogen Identification and Antibiotic Use for Children with Positive Blood Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veesenmeyer, Angela Fimbres; Olson, Jared A; Hersh, Adam L; Stockmann, Chris; Korgenski, Kent; Thorell, Emily A; Pavia, Andrew T; Blaschke, Anne J

    2016-12-01

    Rapid identification of bloodstream pathogens provides crucial information that can improve the choice of antimicrobial therapy for children. Previous impact studies have primarily focused on adults. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of rapid testing in a children's hospital on time to organism identification and antibiotic use in the setting of an established antimicrobial stewardship program. We conducted a retrospective study over three consecutive time periods (spanning January 2013-August 2015) as our hospital sequentially introduced two rapid testing methods for positive blood cultures. An antimicrobial stewardship program was active throughout the study. In the baseline period, no rapid diagnostic methods were routinely utilized. In the second period (PNAFISH), a fluorescent in situ hybridization test was implemented for gram-positive organisms and in the third a rapid multiplex PCR (rmPCR) test was employed. For children with positive blood cultures, time to organism identification use and duration of select antimicrobial therapies were compared between periods. Positive blood cultures were analyzed. Median overall time to organism identification was 23, 11, and 0 h in the baseline, PNAFISH, and rmPCR periods, respectively (p Rapid diagnostic testing for children with positive blood cultures results in faster time to identification and can influence antibiotic prescribing in the setting of active antimicrobial stewardship particularly for gram-positive pathogens. Merck.

  19. Self-Test Kit: Rapid Diagnosis of Urogenital Infections in Military Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    readable dipstick test to identify infection with Trichomonas vaginalis , Chlamydia trachomatis and/or Neisseria gonorrhoeae; 2. To evaluate a vaginal amine...and pH testing in a simple, easily readable, test for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis and Trichomonas vaginalis ; 3. To combine the vaginal...cervicitis while Trichomonas vaginalis , Candida species, and bacterial vaginosis account for nearly all cases of infectious vaginitis/vaginosis. 2

  20. A Cell Phone-Based Microphotometric System for Rapid Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlec, Meichei Wang; You, David; Liao, Joseph C; Wong, Pak Kin

    2014-06-01

    This study demonstrates a low-cost, portable diagnostic system for rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing in resource-limited settings. To determine the antimicrobial resistance phenotypically, the growth of pathogens in microwell arrays is detected under different antibiotic conditions. The use of a colorimetric cell viability reagent is shown to significantly improve the sensitivity of the assay compared with standard absorbance spectroscopy. Gas-permeable microwell arrays are incorporated for facilitating rapid bacterial growth and eliminating the requirement of bulky supporting equipment. Antibiotics can also be precoated in the microwell array to simplify the assay protocol toward point-of-care applications. Furthermore, a low-cost cell phone-based microphotometric system is developed for detecting the bacterial growth in the microwell array. By optimizing the operating conditions, the system allows antimicrobial susceptibility testing for samples with initial concentrations from 10(1) to 10(6) cfu/mL. Using urinary tract infection as the model system, we demonstrate rapid antimicrobial resistance profiling for uropathogens in both culture media and urine. With its simplicity and cost-effectiveness, the cell phone-based microphotometric system is anticipated to have broad applicability in resource-limited settings toward the management of infectious diseases caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens. © 2013 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  1. CarbAcineto NP test for rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dortet, Laurent; Poirel, Laurent; Errera, Caroline; Nordmann, Patrice

    2014-07-01

    Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates, particularly those that produce carbapenemases, are increasingly reported worldwide. The biochemically based Carba NP test, extensively validated for the detection of carbapenemase producers among Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp., has been modified to detect carbapenemase production in Acinetobacter spp. A collection of 151 carbapenemase-producing and 69 non-carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter spp. were tested using the Carba NP test and a modified Carba NP protocol (the CarbAcineto NP test) in this study. The CarbAcineto NP test requires modified lysis conditions and an increased bacterial inoculum compared to those of the original Carba NP test. The Carba NP test detects metallo-β-lactamase producers but failed to detect the production of other carbapenemase types among Acinetobacter spp. In contrast, the newly designed CarbAcineto NP test, which is rapid and reproducible, detects all types of carbapenemases with a sensitivity of 94.7% and a specificity of 100%. This cost-effective technique offers a reliable and affordable technique for identifying carbapenemase production in Acinetobacter spp., which is a marker of multidrug resistance in those species. Its use will facilitate the recognition of these carbapenemases and prevent their spread. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Miniaturized Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test by Combining Concentration Gradient Generation and Rapid Cell Culturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel C. Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective treatment of bacterial infection relies on timely diagnosis and proper prescription of antibiotic drugs. The antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST is one of the most crucial experimental procedures, providing the baseline information for choosing effective antibiotic agents and their dosages. Conventional methods, however, require long incubation times or significant instrumentation costs to obtain test results. We propose a lab-on-a-chip approach to perform AST in a simple, economic, and rapid manner. Our assay platform miniaturizes the standard broth microdilution method on a microfluidic device (20 × 20 mm that generates an antibiotic concentration gradient and delivers antibiotic-containing culture media to eight 30-nL chambers for cell culture. When tested with 20 μL samples of a model bacterial strain (E. coli ATCC 25922 treated with ampicillin or streptomycin, our method allows for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations consistent with the microdilution test in three hours, which is almost a factor of ten more rapid than the standard method.

  3. Low-Cost Rapid Usability Testing for health information systems: is it worth the effort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Tristin B; Kushniruk, Andre W; Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2012-01-01

    Usability testing is a step of the usability engineering process that focuses on analyzing and improving user interactions with computer systems. This study was designed to determine if an approach known as Low-Cost Rapid Usability Testing can be introduced as a standard part of the system development lifecycle (SDLC) for health information syste ms in a cost effective manner by completing a full cost-benefit analysis of this testing technique. It was found that by introducing this technique into the system development lifecycle to allow for earlier detection of errors in a health information syste m it is possible for a health organization to achieve an estimated 36.5% to 78.5% cost savings compared to the impact of errors going undetected and potentially causing a technology-induced error. Overall it was found that Low-Cost Rapid Usability Testing can be implemented in a cost effective manner to develop health information systems, and computer systems in general, which will have a lower incidence of technology-induced errors.

  4. A Rapidly-Incremented Tethered-Swimming Test for Defining Domain-Specific Training Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pessôa Filho Dalton M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a tethered-swimming incremental test comprising small increases in resistive force applied every 60 seconds could delineate the isocapnic region during rapidly-incremented exercise. Sixteen competitive swimmers (male, n = 11; female, n = 5 performed: (a a test to determine highest force during 30 seconds of all-out tethered swimming (Favg and the ΔF, which represented the difference between Favg and the force required to maintain body alignment (Fbase, and (b an incremental test beginning with 60 seconds of tethered swimming against a load that exceeded Fbase by 30% of ΔF followed by increments of 5% of ΔF every 60 seconds. This incremental test was continued until the limit of tolerance with pulmonary gas exchange (rates of oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production and ventilatory (rate of minute ventilation data collected breath by breath. These data were subsequently analyzed to determine whether two breakpoints defining the isocapnic region (i.e., gas exchange threshold and respiratory compensation point were present. We also determined the peak rate of O2 uptake and exercise economy during the incremental test. The gas exchange threshold and respiratory compensation point were observed for each test such that the associated metabolic rates, which bound the heavy-intensity domain during constant-work-rate exercise, could be determined. Significant correlations (Spearman’s were observed for exercise economy along with (a peak rate of oxygen uptake (ρ = .562; p < 0.025, and (b metabolic rate at gas exchange threshold (ρ = −.759; p < 0.005. A rapidly-incremented tethered-swimming test allows for determination of the metabolic rates that define zones for domain-specific constant-work-rate training.

  5. Antigen detection of rabies virus in brain smear using direct Rapid Immunohistochemistry Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damayanti R

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is zoonotic disease caused by a fatal, neurotropic virus. Rabies virus is classified into the Genus of Lyssavirus under the yang family of Rhabdoviridae. Rabies affecting hot- blooded animals, as well as human. Dogs, cats, monkeys are the vectors or reservoirs for rabies and the virus was transmitted through the saliva after infected animal’s bites. The aim of this study was to conduct rapid diagnosis to detect rabies viral antigen in brain smear using immunohistochemical (IHC method namely direct Rapid Immunohistochemical Test (dRIT. A total number of 119 brain samples were achieved from Bukittinggi Veterinary Laboratory, West Sumatra. Standardisation and validation of the method were compared to Fluorescent Antibody Test (FAT as a golden standard for rabies diagnosis. Results show that dRIT was a very good method, it can be performed within two hours without the need of fluorescent microscope. The samples were tested using FAT and from 119 samples tested, 80 (67.23% samples were positive for rabies and 39 (32.77% samples were negative for rabies whereas using dRIT showed that 78 (65.54% samples were positive for rabies and 41 (34.45% samples were negative for rabies. The dRIT results were validated by comparing them with FAT results as a golden standard for rabies. The relative sensitivity of dRIT to FAT was 97.5% and the relative specificity to FAT was 100% (with Kappa value of 0.976, stated as excellent. The achievement showed that dRIT is very potential diagnostic tool and is highly recommended to be used widely as a rapid diagnosis tool for rabies.

  6. Rapid DNA haplotyping using a multiplex heteroduplex approach: application to Duchenne muscular dystrophy carrier testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, T W; Wenger, G D; Papp, A C; Snyder, P J; Sedra, M S; Bartolo, C; Moore, J W; Highsmith, W E

    1995-01-01

    A new strategy has been developed for rapid haplotype analysis based on an initial multiplex amplification of several polymorphic sites, followed by heteroduplex detection. Heteroduplexes formed between two different alleles are detected because they migrate differently than the corresponding homoduplexes in Hydrolink-MDE gel. This simple, rapid method does not depend on specific sequences such as restriction enzyme sites or CA boxes and does not require the use of isotope. This approach has been tested using commonly occurring polymorphisms spanning the dystrophin gene as a model. We describe the use of the method to assign the carrier status of females in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) pedigrees. The method may be used for other genetic diseases when mutations are unknown or there are few dinucleotide markers in the gene proximity, and for the identification of haplotype backgrounds of mutant alleles.

  7. SuperTools Test and Evaluation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannos, Tom J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Mixed Signal ASIC Design

    2017-01-01

    Superconducting electronics (SCE) represents a potential path to efficient exascale computing for HPC and data center applications, but SCE-based circuit design lags far behind its CMOS equivalent. IARPA’s ongoing C3 program and its developing SuperTools program aim to jumpstart SCE R&D with the near-term goal of producing a high-speed, low-energy, 64-bit RISC processor using Josephson Junction based logic cells. SuperTools performers will develop software tools for efficient SCE design and accurate simulation and characterization of JJ-based circuits, which include the RSFQ, RQL, and AQFP logic families. T&E teams from NIST, MIT Lincoln Lab, Berkeley Lab, and Sandia National Labs will evaluate the tools and fabricate test circuits to compare with simulated results. The five-year, three-phase program includes 48 performer deliverables, three annual technical exchange meetings, and annual site visits.

  8. Generation of Recombinant Rabies Virus CVS-11 Expressing eGFP Applied to the Rapid Virus Neutralization Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianghong Xue

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The determination of levels of rabies virus-neutralizing antibody (VNA provides the foundation for the quantitative evaluation of immunity effects. The traditional fluorescent antibody virus neutralization test (FAVN using a challenge virus standard (CVS-11 strain as a detection antigen and staining infected cells with a fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC-labeled monoclonal antibody, is expensive and high-quality reagents are often difficult to obtain in developing countries. Indeed, it is essential to establish a rapid, economical, and specific rabies virus neutralization test (VNT. Here, we describe a recombinant virus rCVS-11-eGFP strain that stably expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP based on a reverse genetic system of the CVS-11 strain. Compared to the rCVS-11 strain, the rCVS-11-eGFP strain showed a similar growth property with passaging stability in vitro and pathogenicity in vivo. The rCVS-11-eGFP strain was utilized as a detection antigen to determine the levels of rabies VNAs in 23 human and 29 canine sera; this technique was termed the FAVN-eGFP method. The good reproducibility of FAVN-eGFP was tested with partial serum samples. Neutralization titers obtained from FAVN and FAVN-eGFP were not significantly different. The FAVN-eGFP method allows rapid economical, specific, and high-throughput assessment for the titration of rabies VNAs.

  9. Comparative effectiveness of single and dual rapid diagnostic tests for syphilis and HIV in antenatal care services in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán-Duarte, Hernando Guillermo; Newman, Lori; Laverty, Maura; Habib, Ndema Abu; González-Gordon, Lina María; Ángel-Müller, Edith; Abella, Catleya; Barros, Esther Cristina; Rincón, Carlos; Caicedo, Sidia; Gómez, Bertha; Pérez, Freddy

    2016-12-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a dual rapid test compared to a single rapid test for syphilis and HIV screening. A cluster-randomized open-label clinical trial was performed in 12 public antenatal care (ANC) centers in the cities of Bogotá and Cali, Colombia. Pregnant women who were over 14 years of age at their first antenatal visit and who had not been previously tested for HIV and syphilis during the current pregnancy were included. Pregnant women were randomized to single HIV and single syphilis rapid diagnostic tests (Arm A) or to dual HIV and syphilis rapid diagnostic tests (Arm B). The four main outcomes measured were: (1) acceptability of the test, (2) uptake in testing, (3) treatment on the same day (that is, timely treatment), and (4) treatment at any time for positive rapid test cases. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were calculated to adjust for the clustering effect and the period. A total of 1 048 patients were analyzed in Arm A, and 1 166 in Arm B. Acceptability of the rapid tests was 99.8% in Arm A and 99.6% in Arm B. The prevalence of positive rapid tests was 2.21% for syphilis and 0.36% for HIV. Timely treatment was provided to 20 of 29 patients (69%) in Arm A and 16 of 20 patients (80%) in Arm B (relative risk (RR), 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): (1.00 -1.20). Treatment at any time was given to 24 of 29 patients (83%) in Arm A and to 20 of 20 (100%) in Arm B (RR, 1.11; 95% CI: 1.01-1.22). There were no differences in patient acceptability, testing and timely treatment between dual rapid tests and single rapid tests for HIV and syphilis screening in the ANC centers. Same-day treatment depends also on the interpretation of and confidence in the results by the health providers.

  10. Highly sensitive multianalyte immunochromatographic test strip for rapid chemiluminescent detection of ractopamine and salbutamol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Hongfei; Han, Jing; Yang, Shijia; Wang, Zhenxing; Wang, Lin; Fu, Zhifeng, E-mail: fuzf@swu.edu.cn

    2014-08-11

    Graphical abstract: A multianalyte immunochromatographic test strip was developed for the rapid detection of two β{sub 2}-agonists. Due to the application of chemiluminescent detection, this quantitative method shows much higher sensitivity. - Highlights: • An immunochromatographic test strip was developed for detection of multiple β{sub 2}-agonists. • The whole assay process can be completed within 20 min. • The proposed method shows much higher sensitivity due to the application of CL detection. • It is a portable analytical tool suitable for field analysis and rapid screening. - Abstract: A novel immunochromatographic assay (ICA) was proposed for rapid and multiple assay of β{sub 2}-agonists, by utilizing ractopamine (RAC) and salbutamol (SAL) as the models. Owing to the introduction of chemiluminescent (CL) approach, the proposed protocol shows much higher sensitivity. In this work, the described ICA was based on a competitive format, and horseradish peroxidase-tagged antibodies were used as highly sensitive CL probes. Quantitative analysis of β{sub 2}-agonists was achieved by recording the CL signals of the probes captured on the two test zones of the nitrocellulose membrane. Under the optimum conditions, RAC and SAL could be detected within the linear ranges of 0.50–40 and 0.10–50 ng mL{sup −1}, with the detection limits of 0.20 and 0.040 ng mL{sup −1} (S/N = 3), respectively. The whole process for multianalyte immunoassay of RAC and SAL can be completed within 20 min. Furthermore, the test strip was validated with spiked swine urine samples and the results showed that this method was reliable in measuring β{sub 2}-agonists in swine urine. This CL-based multianalyte test strip shows a series of advantages such as high sensitivity, ideal selectivity, simple manipulation, high assay efficiency and low cost. Thus, it opens up new pathway for rapid screening and field analysis, and shows a promising prospect in food safety.

  11. Field Testing of Rapid Electrokinetic Nanoparticle Treatment for Corrosion Control of Steel in Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Henry E.; Alexander, Joshua B.; Kupwade-Patil,Kunal; Calle, Luz Marina

    2009-01-01

    This work field tested the use of electrokinetics for delivery of concrete sealing nanoparticles concurrent with the extraction of chlorides. Several cylinders of concrete were batched and placed in immersion at the Kennedy Space Center Beach Corrosion Test Site. The specimens were batched with steel reinforcement and a 4.5 wt.% (weight percent) content of sodium chloride. Upon arrival at Kennedy Space Center, the specimens were placed in the saltwater immersion pool at the Beach Corrosion Test Site. Following 30 days of saltwater exposure, the specimens were subjected to rapid chloride extraction concurrent with electrokinetic nanoparticle treatment. The treatments were operated at up to eight times the typical current density in order to complete the treatment in 7 days. The findings indicated that the short-term corrosion resistance of the concrete specimens was significantly enhanced as was the strength of the concrete.

  12. Comparative feasibility of implementing rapid diagnostic test and microscopy for parasitological diagnosis of malaria in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batwala, Vincent; Magnussen, Pascal; Nuwaha, Fred

    2011-01-01

    -based diagnosis for uncomplicated malaria in rural health centres (HCs) was investigated with a view to recommending measures for scaling up the policy. METHODS: Thirty HCs were randomized to implement parasite-based diagnosis based on rapid diagnostic tests [RDTs] (n=10), blood microscopy (n=10) and presumptive...... waiting time. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00565071. RESULTS: 102,087 outpatients were enrolled. Patients were more likely to be tested in the RDT 44,565 (96.6%) than in microscopy arm 19,545 (60.9%) [RR: 1.59]. RDTs reduced patient waiting time compared to microscopy and were more convenient to health workers...... and patients. Majority 23,804 (99.7%) in presumptive arm were prescribed AL. All (100%) of patients who tested positive for malaria in RDT and microscopy arms were prescribed anti-malarials. Parasitological-based diagnosis significantly reduced AL prescription in RDT arm [RR: 0.62] and microscopy arm [RR: 0...

  13. Clinical chorioamnionitis at term VIII: a rapid MMP-8 test for the identification of intra-amniotic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyasit, Noppadol; Romero, Roberto; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Docheva, Nikolina; Bhatti, Gaurav; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Dong, Zhong; Yeo, Lami; Pacora, Percy; Hassan, Sonia S; Erez, Offer

    2017-07-26

    Clinical chorioamnionitis is the most common infection/inflammatory process diagnosed in labor and delivery units worldwide. The condition is a syndrome that can be caused by (1) intra-amniotic infection, (2) intra-amniotic inflammation without demonstrable microorganisms (i.e. sterile intra-amniotic inflammation), and (3) maternal systemic inflammation that is not associated with intra-amniotic inflammation. The presence of intra-amniotic inflammation is a risk factor for adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes in a broad range of obstetrical syndromes that includes clinical chorioamnionitis at term. Although the diagnosis of intra-amniotic infection has relied on culture results, such information is not immediately available for patient management. Therefore, the diagnosis of intra-amniotic inflammation could be helpful as a proxy for intra-amniotic infection, while results of microbiologic studies are pending. A rapid test is now available for the diagnosis of intra-amniotic inflammation, based on the determination of neutrophil collagenase or matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8). The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the diagnostic indices of a rapid MMP-8 test for the identification of intra-amniotic inflammation/infection in patients with the diagnosis of clinical chorioamnionitis at term, and (2) to compare the diagnostic performance of a rapid MMP-8 test to that of a conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) interleukin (IL)-6 test for patients with clinical chorioamnionitis at term. A retrospective cohort study was conducted. A transabdominal amniocentesis was performed in patients with clinical chorioamnionitis at term (n=44). Amniotic fluid was analyzed using cultivation techniques (for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria as well as genital Mycoplasmas) and broad-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS). Amniotic fluid IL-6 concentrations were determined by ELISA, and rapid

  14. Rapid testing and identification of actuator using dSPACE real-time emulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Daocheng; Wang, Zhongwei; Zeng, Qinghua

    2011-10-01

    To solve the problem of model identification of actuator in control system design of aerocraft, testing system based on dSPACE emulator is established, sending testing signal and receiving feedback voltage are realized using dSPACE interactive cards, communication between signal generating equipment and feedback voltage acquisition equipment is synchronized. This paper introduces the hardware architecture and key technologies of the simulation system. Constructing, downloading and calculating of the testing model is finished using dSPACE emulator, D/A transfer of testing signal is realized using DS2103 card, DS2002 card transfer the feedback voltage to digital value. Filtering module is added to the signal acquisition, for reduction of noise interference in the A/D channel. Precision of time and voltage is improved by setting acquisition period 1ms. The data gathered is recorded and displayed with Controldesk tools. The response of four actuators under different frequency are tested, frequency-domain analysis is done using least square method, the model of actuator is identified, simulation data fits well with real response of the actuator. The testing system created with dSPACE emulator satisfies the rapid testing and identification of actuator.

  15. Performance of an influenza rapid test in children in a primary healthcare setting in Nicaragua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubree Gordon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza is major public health threat worldwide, yet the diagnostic accuracy of rapid tests in developing country settings is not well described. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of the QuickVue Influenza A+B test in a primary care setting in a developing country, we performed a prospective study of diagnostic accuracy of the QuickVue Influenza A+B test in comparison to reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR in a primary healthcare setting in children aged 2 to 12 years in Managua, Nicaragua. The sensitivity and specificity of the QuickVue test compared to RT-PCR were 68.5% (95% CI 63.4, 73.3 and 98.1% (95% CI 96.9, 98.9, respectively, for children with a fever or history of a fever and cough and/or sore throat. Test performance was found to be lower on the first day that symptoms developed in comparison to test performance on days two or three of illness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study found that the QuickVue Influenza A+B test performed as well in a developing country primary healthcare facility setting as in developed country settings.

  16. Rapid on-site evaluation of axillary fine-needle aspiration cytology in breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, D P

    2012-06-01

    Axillary ultrasonography (AUS) and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) can establish axillary lymph node status before surgery, although this technique is hampered by poor adequacy rates. To achieve consistently high rates of FNAC adequacy, rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) of FNAC samples was introduced.

  17. Haemolysis following rapid experimental red blood cell transfusion--an evaluation of two infusion pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Sprogøe-Jakobsen, U; Pedersen, C M;

    1998-01-01

    The vast majority of infusion pumps used for rapid transfusion of large amounts of blood have never been properly examined regarding their influence on the quality of the red blood cells (RBCs) infused. In this study, we evaluated the effect of two different infusion pumps on the degree of RBC...

  18. Haemolysis following rapid experimental red blood cell transfusion--an evaluation of two infusion pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Sprogøe-Jakobsen, U; Pedersen, C M

    1998-01-01

    The vast majority of infusion pumps used for rapid transfusion of large amounts of blood have never been properly examined regarding their influence on the quality of the red blood cells (RBCs) infused. In this study, we evaluated the effect of two different infusion pumps on the degree of RBC de...

  19. Evaluations of sagittal and vertical changes induced by surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iodice, Giorgio; Bocchino, Tecla; Casadei, Matteo; Baldi, Domenico; Robiony, Massimo

    2013-07-01

    Class II, anterior open bite and/or a steep mandibular plane angle are frequently considered a contraindication to the use of surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion (SARPE). Nevertheless, few studies have investigated the maxillary and mandibular effects after SARPE on the sagittal and vertical planes, with dissimilar results and small samples of patients.The aim of the current study was to evaluate the sagittal and vertical effects after SARPE. Twenty-one consecutive adult patients (7 males, 14 females; mean age, 25.6 ± 6.3 years) who required SARPE were included in this study. All patients were subjected to subtotal LeFort I osteotomy with pterygomaxillary disjunction. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken during the preoperative assessment (T0) and 6 months after the end of the expansion (T1). Cephalometric measurements were realized at T0 and T1 for all the patients. Independent-sample t test and analysis of variance were used. Statistically significant changes were observed only in upper incisor^NA (P = 0.04). No skeletal sagittal or vertical variation was found after SARPE. Class II, anterior open bite and/or a steep mandibular plane angle cannot be considered an outright contraindication to its use. Upper incisor palatal inclination could result after SARPE.

  20. Evaluation of ViroCyt® Virus Counter for Rapid Filovirus Quantitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia A. Rossi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Development and evaluation of medical countermeasures for diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics requires production of standardized, reproducible, and well characterized virus preparations. For filoviruses this includes plaque assay for quantitation of infectious virus, transmission electron microscopy (TEM for morphology and quantitation of virus particles, and real-time reverse transcription PCR for quantitation of viral RNA (qRT-PCR. The ViroCyt® Virus Counter (VC 2100 (ViroCyt, Boulder, CO, USA is a flow-based instrument capable of quantifying virus particles in solution. Using a proprietary combination of fluorescent dyes that stain both nucleic acid and protein in a single 30 min step, rapid, reproducible, and cost-effective quantification of filovirus particles was demonstrated. Using a seed stock of Ebola virus variant Kikwit, the linear range of the instrument was determined to be 2.8E+06 to 1.0E+09 virus particles per mL with coefficient of variation ranging from 9.4% to 31.5% for samples tested in triplicate. VC particle counts for various filovirus stocks were within one log of TEM particle counts. A linear relationship was established between the plaque assay, qRT-PCR, and the VC. VC results significantly correlated with both plaque assay and qRT-PCR. These results demonstrated that the VC is an easy, fast, and consistent method to quantify filoviruses in stock preparations.

  1. Impact of rapid diagnostic testing for chlamydia and gonorrhea on appropriate antimicrobial utilization in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivard, Kaitlyn R; Dumkow, Lisa E; Draper, Heather M; Brandt, Kasey L; Whalen, David W; Egwuatu, Nnaemeka E

    2017-02-01

    Prolonged turnaround time of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) test results may delay time to notification and treatment of test-positive patients and result in unnecessary antimicrobial use in test-negative patients. This quasi-experimental study evaluated the impact of NG/CT rapid diagnostic testing (RDT) in an urban emergency department (ED) on treatment appropriateness, time to notification, and cost. Patients tested in December 2013-January 2014 (traditional group, n=200) were compared with those in December 2014-January 2015 (RDT group, n=200). There was a significant increase in treatment appropriateness in the RDT group, 72.5% versus 60% (P=0.008) and time to results notification was significantly faster (median 17.4 versus 51.5hours, P=0.010). Availability of test result prior to discharge was associated with increased treatment appropriateness (odds ratio, 22.65 [95% confidence interval, 2.86-179.68]). The RDT would save approximately $37,000 annually. These results support the use of NG/CT RDT to expand antimicrobial stewardship efforts within the ED.

  2. Potential Impact of Rapid Blood Culture Testing for Gram-Positive Bacteremia in Japan with the Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Mari; Iguchi, Shigekazu; Mizutani, Tomonori; Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Tega-Ishii, Michiru; Sansaka, Kaori; Negishi, Kenta; Shimada, Kimie; Umemura, Jun; Notake, Shigeyuki; Yanagisawa, Hideji; Yabusaki, Reiko; Araoka, Hideki; Yoneyama, Akiko

    2017-01-01

    Background. Early detection of Gram-positive bacteremia and timely appropriate antimicrobial therapy are required for decreasing patient mortality. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the performance of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture assay (BC-GP) in two special healthcare settings and determine the potential impact of rapid blood culture testing for Gram-positive bacteremia within the Japanese healthcare delivery system. Furthermore, the study included simulated blood cultures, which included a library of well-characterized methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) isolates reflecting different geographical regions in Japan. Methods. A total 347 BC-GP assays were performed on clinical and simulated blood cultures. BC-GP results were compared to results obtained by reference methods for genus/species identification and detection of resistance genes using molecular and MALDI-TOF MS methodologies. Results. For identification and detection of resistance genes at two clinical sites and simulated blood cultures, overall concordance of BC-GP with reference methods was 327/347 (94%). The time for identification and antimicrobial resistance detection by BC-GP was significantly shorter compared to routine testing especially at the cardiology hospital, which does not offer clinical microbiology services on weekends and holidays. Conclusion. BC-GP generated accurate identification and detection of resistance markers compared with routine laboratory methods for Gram-positive organisms in specialized clinical settings providing more rapid results than current routine testing.

  3. Potential Impact of Rapid Blood Culture Testing for Gram-Positive Bacteremia in Japan with the Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Kikuchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Early detection of Gram-positive bacteremia and timely appropriate antimicrobial therapy are required for decreasing patient mortality. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the performance of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture assay (BC-GP in two special healthcare settings and determine the potential impact of rapid blood culture testing for Gram-positive bacteremia within the Japanese healthcare delivery system. Furthermore, the study included simulated blood cultures, which included a library of well-characterized methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE isolates reflecting different geographical regions in Japan. Methods. A total 347 BC-GP assays were performed on clinical and simulated blood cultures. BC-GP results were compared to results obtained by reference methods for genus/species identification and detection of resistance genes using molecular and MALDI-TOF MS methodologies. Results. For identification and detection of resistance genes at two clinical sites and simulated blood cultures, overall concordance of BC-GP with reference methods was 327/347 (94%. The time for identification and antimicrobial resistance detection by BC-GP was significantly shorter compared to routine testing especially at the cardiology hospital, which does not offer clinical microbiology services on weekends and holidays. Conclusion. BC-GP generated accurate identification and detection of resistance markers compared with routine laboratory methods for Gram-positive organisms in specialized clinical settings providing more rapid results than current routine testing.

  4. Use of the Treponema pallidum-specific captia syphilis IgG assay in conjunction with the rapid plasma reagin to test for syphilis.

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    The Captia Syphilis IgG enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was evaluated for use in conjunction with the rapid plasma reagin test (RPR) as a method to test for syphilis. A total of 1,288 serum specimens were tested by the routine laboratory protocol of the RPR followed by microhemagluttination assay for Treponema pallidum (MHA-TP) testing of RPR-reactive sera as well as the EIA-RPR protocol in which the automated EIA followed by a manual RPR test for EIA-positive specimens is used. When using the routi...

  5. Multicenter evaluation of crystal violet decolorization assay (CVDA) for rapid detection of isoniazid and rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, Ahmet Yilmaz; Akbal, Ahmet Ugur; Bicmen, Can; Albay, Ali; Sig, Ali Korhan; Uzun, Meltem; Selale, Deniz Sertel; Ozkutuk, Nuri; Surucuoglu, Suheyla; Albayrak, Nurhan; Ucarman, Nilay; Ozkutuk, Aydan; Esen, Nuran; Ceyhan, Ismail; Ozyurt, Mustafa; Bektore, Bayhan; Aslan, Gonul; Delialioğlu, Nuran; Alp, Alpaslan

    2016-12-16

    The aim of this multicenter study was to evaluate the performance of the crystal violet decolorization assay (CVDA) for detection of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). This study was performed in 11 centers in two phases. A total of 156 isolates were tested for INH and RIF resistance. In the phase I, 106 clinical isolates were tested in the Center 1-7. In the phase 2, 156 clinical isolates were tested in the center 1-6, center 8-11. Eighty six of 156 tested isolates were the same in phase I. Agreements were 96.2-96.8% for INH and 98.1-98.7% for RIF in the phase I-II, respectively. Mean time to obtain the results in the phase I was 14.3 ± 5.4 days. In the phase II, mean time to obtain the results was 11.6 ± 3.5 days. Test results were obtained within 14days for 62.3% (66/106) of isolates in the phase I and 81.4% (127/156) of isolates in the phase II. In conclusion, CVDA is rapid, reliable, inexpensive, and easy to perform for rapid detection of MDR-TB isolates. In addition, it could be adapted for drug susceptibility testing with all drugs both in developed and developing countries.

  6. Implementation science in the real world: a case study of HIV rapid testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, H; Anaya, H D

    2013-01-01

    Implementation science theories offer technical principles for carrying out activities designed to create or improve systems; however, such theories tend not to provide pragmatic or streamlined guidance when it comes to executing the actual implementation. We assembled a streamlined and comprehensive six-step theory-based implementation science model (ADAPTS - Assessment, Deliverables, Activate, Pretraining, Training, Sustainability) derived from the methods we have used to successfully execute multiple self-sustaining implementation efforts within the Veteran's Affairs Healthcare System. This paper provides a case study of our ADAPTS implementation science model, using a complex multisite HIV rapid testing implementation project as an exemplar.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of malaria microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests versus presumptive diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batwala, Vincent; Magnussen, Pascal; Hansen, Kristian S.;

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Current Uganda National Malaria treatment guidelines recommend parasitological confirmation either by microscopy or rapid diagnostic test (RDT) before treatment with artemether-lumefantrine (AL). However, the cost-effectiveness of these strategies has not been assessed...... at rural operational primary care centres. METHODS: Three health centres (HCs) were randomized to three diagnostic arms (microscopy, RDT and presumptive diagnosis) in a district of low and another of high malaria transmission intensities in Uganda. Some 22,052 patients presenting with fever at outpatients...

  8. Rapid, whole blood diagnostic test for detecting anti-hantavirus antibody in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amada, Takako; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Yasuda, Shumpei P; Shimizu, Kenta; Koma, Takaaki; Hayashimoto, Nobuhito; Gamage, Chandika D; Nishio, Sanae; Takakura, Akira; Arikawa, Jiro

    2013-10-01

    Hantavirus is a causative agent of rodent-borne viral zoonoses, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Seoul virus (SEOV) is a causative agent of urban and laboratory rat-associated HFRS worldwide. Surveillance of rodents has been done mainly by serological detection of hantavirus-specific antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA). An immunochromatographic (ICG) test was developed with the N-terminal 103 amino acids of nucleocapsid protein of Hantaan virus expressed by Escherichia coli as an antigen to detect IgG antibody specific to hantavirus in sera from Rattus sp. animals. Antibody-detecting sensitivity of the ICG test was the same as that of ELISA and about 100-times higher than that of IFA. Overall sensitivities and specificities of the ICG test in comparison to ELISA and IFA for sera from 192 urban rats and 123 laboratory rats were 99.3% and 100%, respectively. Diluted whole blood samples without separation could be used for the ICG test. The ICG test enabled detection of antibodies to SEOV, Hantaan, Dobrava/Belgrade, and Thailand viruses, which are causative agents of HFRS throughout Eurasia. The ICG test is a rapid, simple and safe method for diagnosis of SEOV infection in rats.

  9. A Dutch Achievement Testing Program for Guidance and Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnstra, Johan M.

    1984-01-01

    The Eindtoets Basisonderwijs (final primary school test) is a Dutch national achievement test taken annually by 90,000 pupils. This article overviews the Dutch educational system and describes this testing program, emphasizing test equating methods. Evaluation findings from 1980 and resulting changes in test content and evaluation reports are also…

  10. [Molecular test Genotype® MTBDRplus, an alternative to rapid detection of multidrug resistance tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asencios, Luis; Galarza, Marco; Quispe, Neyda; Vásquez, Lucy; Leo, Elena; Valencia, Eddy; Ramírez, Juan; Acurio, Margoth; Salazar, Rosario; Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto; Cáceres, Omar

    2012-03-01

    The Genotype®MTBDRplus molecular test is a method that allows identification of the most frequent mutations associated with resistance to major first-line antituberculosis drugs, Isoniazid (INH) and Rifampicin (RFP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the molecular test with culture and smear- positive sputum samples. We evaluated 95 cultures and 100 sputum samples with resistance profiles previously determined by the reference method "Agar Plate Proportions" (APP). The molecular test from cultures showed a sensitivity of 100 %, 97,5 % and 96,97 % for RIF, INH and MDR respectively while from sputums the sensitivity was 95,65 %, 96,77 % and 95,24 % for RIF, INH and MDR respectively. We conclude that the molecular test Genotype®MTBDRplus is a very useful tool to detect resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin simultaneously (MDR-TB) in up to 72 hours from sputum samples or cultures.

  11. A rapid phenol toxicity test based on photosynthesis and movement of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kottuparambil, Sreejith [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youn-Jung [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Marine Science, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Green-Pioneer (Ltd.), Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hoon; Kim, Mi-Sung; Park, Areum; Park, Jihae [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Woongghi [Department of Biology, Chungnam University, Daejeon 306 764 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Taejun, E-mail: hanalgae@hanmail.net [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Marine Science, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Green-Pioneer (Ltd.), Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Rapid phenol toxicity tests (1 h) were developed based on Chl a fluorescence and the movement parameters of Euglena agilis. • Phenol significantly reduced F{sub v}/F{sub m} of PS II and rETRmax with EC50 values of 8.94 and 4.67 mM, respectively. • Among the movement parameters tested, velocity was the most sensitive biomarker with an EC50 of 3.17 mM. • The EC50 values for F{sub v}/F{sub m}, motility, and velocity appear to overlap the environmental permissible levels of phenol. - Abstract: Phenol, a monosubstituted aromatic hydrocarbon with various commercial uses, is a major organic constituent in industrial wastewaters. The ecotoxic action of phenol for aquatic environment is well known. In this study, rapid phenol toxicity tests (1 h) were developed based on chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence and the movement parameters of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter. Phenol significantly reduced the maximum quantum yield (F{sub v}/F{sub m}) of photosystem II (PS II) and the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (rETR{sub max}) with median effective concentration (EC{sub 50}) values of 8.94 and 4.67 mM, respectively. Phenol reduced the motility and triggered change in the swimming velocity of the test organism. Among the parameters tested, velocity was the most sensitive biomarker with an EC{sub 50} of 3.17 mM. The EC{sub 50} values for F{sub v}/F{sub m}, motility, and velocity appear to overlap the permitted levels of phenol. In conclusion, the photosynthesis and movement of E. agilis can be fast and sensitive risk assessment parameters for the evaluation of phenol toxicity in municipal and industrial effluents.

  12. Rapid Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in Human Serum by Use of an Immunochromatographic Dipstick Test

    OpenAIRE

    Reithinger, Richard; Mario J Grijalva; Chiriboga, Rosa F.; Alarcón de Noya, Belkisyolé; Jaime R. Torres; Pavia-Ruz, Norma; MANRIQUE-SAIDE, Pablo; Cardinal, Marta V.; Ricardo E. Gürtler

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated a commercially available immunochromatographic dipstick test to detect Trypanosoma cruzi infection in 366 human serum samples with known serological results from Argentina, Ecuador, Mexico, and Venezuela. One hundred forty-nine of 366 (40.7%) and 171/366 (46.7%) samples tested positive by dipstick and serology, respectively. Dipstick sensitivity was calculated to be 84.8% (range between countries, 77.5 to 95%), and specificity was 97.9% (95.9 to 100%).

  13. Operational feasibility of using whole blood in the rapid HIV testing algorithm of a resource-limited settings like Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Munshi, Saif U.; Oyewale, Tajudeen O.; Begum, Shahnaz; Uddin, Ziya; Tabassum, Shahina

    2016-01-01

    Background Serum-based rapid HIV testing algorithm in Bangladesh constitutes operational challenge to scaleup HIV testing and counselling (HTC) in the country. This study explored the operational feasibility of using whole blood as alternative to serum for rapid HIV testing in Bangladesh. Methods Whole blood specimens were collected from two study groups. The groups included HIV-positive patients (n = 200) and HIV-negative individuals (n = 200) presenting at the reference laboratory in Dhaka,...

  14. Rapid prototyping compliant arterial phantoms for in-vitro studies and device testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biglino Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compliant vascular phantoms are desirable for in-vitro patient-specific experiments and device testing. TangoPlus FullCure 930® is a commercially available rubber-like material that can be used for PolyJet rapid prototyping. This work aims to gather preliminary data on the distensibility of this material, in order to assess the feasibility of its use in the context of experimental cardiovascular modelling. Methods The descending aorta anatomy of a volunteer was modelled in 3D from cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR images and rapid prototyped using TangoPlus. The model was printed with a range of increasing wall thicknesses (0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.5 mm, keeping the lumen of the vessel constant. Models were also printed in both vertical and horizontal orientations, thus resulting in a total of ten specimens. Compliance tests were performed by monitoring pressure variations while gradually increasing and decreasing internal volume. Knowledge of distensibility was thus derived and then implemented with CMR data to test two applications. Firstly, a patient-specific compliant model of hypoplastic aorta suitable for connection in a mock circulatory loop for in-vitro tests was manufactured. Secondly, the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT of a patient necessitating pulmonary valve replacement was printed in order to physically test device insertion and assess patient’s suitability for percutaneous pulmonary valve intervention. Results The distensibility of the material was identified in a range from 6.5 × 10-3 mmHg-1 for the 0.6 mm case, to 3.0 × 10-3 mmHg-1 for the 1.5 mm case. The models printed in the vertical orientation were always more compliant than their horizontal counterpart. Rapid prototyping of a compliant hypoplastic aorta and of a RVOT anatomical model were both feasible. Device insertion in the RVOT model was successful. Conclusion Values of distensibility, compared with literature data, show that Tango

  15. A cluster randomised trial introducing rapid diagnostic tests into registered drug shops in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Magnussen, Pascal; Lal, Sham

    2015-01-01

    the impact of introducing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (mRDTs) in registered drug shops in Uganda, with the aim to increase appropriate treatment of malaria with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in patients seeking treatment for fever in drug shops. METHODS: A cluster-randomized trial...... of febrile patients who received appropriate ACT treatment was 72·9% versus 33·7% in the control arm; a difference of 36·1% (95% CI: 21·3 - 50·9), ptested mRDT-positive. Drug shop vendors...... adhered to the mRDT results, reducing over-treatment of malaria by 72·6% (95% CI: 46·7- 98·4), pdrug shop vendors using presumptive diagnosis (control arm). CONCLUSION: Diagnostic testing with mRDTs compared to presumptive treatment of fevers implemented in registered drug shops...

  16. Durability of biomass fly ash concrete: Freezing and thawing and rapid chloride permeability tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuangzhen Wang; Emilio Llamazos; Larry Baxter; Fernando Fonseca [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (USA). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-03-15

    Strict interpretation of ASTM C 618 excludes non-coal fly ashes, such as biomass fly ashes from addition in concrete. Biomass fly ash in this investigation includes (1) cofired fly ash from burning biomass with coal; (2) wood fly ash and (3) blended fly ash (wood fly ash mixing with coal fly ash). A set of experiments conducted on concrete from pure cement and cement with fly ash provide basic data to assess the effects of several biomass fly ashes on the performances of freezing and thawing (F-T) and rapid chloride permeability test (RCPT). The F-T tests indicate that all fly ash concrete has statistically equal or less weight loss than the pure cement concrete (control). The RCPT illustrate that all kinds of fly ash concrete have lower chloride permeability than the pure cement control concrete. 37 refs., 5 figs.

  17. A cluster randomised trial introducing rapid diagnostic tests into registered drug shops in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Magnussen, Pascal; Lal, Sham;

    2015-01-01

    the impact of introducing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (mRDTs) in registered drug shops in Uganda, with the aim to increase appropriate treatment of malaria with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in patients seeking treatment for fever in drug shops. METHODS: A cluster-randomized trial...... adhered to the mRDT results, reducing over-treatment of malaria by 72·6% (95% CI: 46·7- 98·4), pDiagnostic testing with mRDTs compared to presumptive treatment of fevers implemented in registered drug shops...... of introducing mRDTs in registered drug shops was implemented in 20 geographical clusters of drug shops in Mukono district, central Uganda. Ten clusters were randomly allocated to the intervention (diagnostic confirmation of malaria by mRDT followed by ACT) and ten clusters to the control arm (presumptive...

  18. Results from nationwide hepatitis B serosurvey in Cambodia using simple and rapid laboratory test: implications for National Immunization Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeung, Sann Chan; Rani, Manju; Huong, Vu; Sarath, Savay; Kimly, Chea; Kohei, Toda

    2009-08-01

    Chronic liver infection and cancer in the western Pacific region is disproportionate to the population globally. This study provides the first nationwide estimates of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroprevalence in Cambodia among children five year of age. Using a simple and rapid test for HBsAg and multi-stage stratified cluster sampling design, we estimated HBsAg seroprevalence to be 3.5% (95% confidence interval = 2.4-4.8%) among five-year old children. Triangulating the results with other studies, we demonstrate the importance of interrupting perinatal transmission and one-time catch-up vaccination of older children born before nationwide introduction of vaccination for effective hepatitis B control in Cambodia and for reaching the disease control goal of less than 2% chronic infection rates among children > or = 5 years of age. The results demonstrate the feasibility of conducting nationwide serosurveys using simple and rapid tests to evaluate the impact of hepatitis B vaccination programs in lieu of standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

  19. Development of an immunochromatographic strip test for the rapid detection of zearalenone in corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yaning; Hu, Xiaofei; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Jifei; Wang, Fangyu; Wang, Yao; Deng, Ruiguang; Zhang, Gaiping

    2014-11-19

    A rapid immunochromatographic test strip has been developed for the detection of zearalenone (ZEN) residues in corn. For this purpose, a specific anti-ZEN monoclonal antibody (mAb), 4A3-F9, was obtained and identified. ZEN coupled to bovine serum albumin (BSA) via 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether was prepared as immunogen. The mAb showed low cross-reactivity with five ZEN analogues. Using an antibody preparation with a titer of ≥1:5.12 × 10(5), the cross-reactivity (CR) of the anti-ZEN monoclonal antibody with four of the analogues was <4%, except for zearalanone, which was 53.121%. The recovery rates of ZEN in spiked corn samples were in the range of 91.30-97.07% with coefficients of variation <5.32%. An immunochromatographic strip was developed using the specific anti-ZEN monoclonal antibody and applied to the screening of corn samples for ZEN residues. The test could be accomplished within 5-10 min. The sensitivity of the test strip in corn sample extract was confirmed to be 20 μg/kg by unaided visual assessment, and the IC50 was calculated as 3.4 ng/mL using a test strip reader. The test strip, analyzed by unaided visual assessment and strip reader, showed very good agreement with competitive indirect ELISA and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis for naturally contaminated corn samples.

  20. Ecosytem Services: A Rapid Assessment Method Tested at 35 Sites of the LTER-Europe Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick Jan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The identification of parameters to monitor the ecosystem services delivered at a site is fundamental to the concept’s adoption as a useful policy instrument at local, national and international scales. In this paper we (i describe the process of developing a rapid comprehensive ecosystem service assessment methodology and (ii test the applicability of the protocol at 35 long-term research (LTER sites across 14 countries in the LTER-Europe network (www.lter-europe.net including marine, urban, agricultural, forest, desert and conservation sites. An assessment of probability of occurrence with estimated confidence score using 83 ecosystem service parameters was tested. The parameters were either specific services like food production or proxies such as human activities which were considered surrogates for cultural diversity and economic activity. This initial test of the ecosystem service parameter list revealed that the parameters tested were relatively easy to score by site managers with a high level of certainty (92% scored as either occurring or not occurring at the site with certainty of over 90%. Based on this assessment, we concluded that (i this approach to operationalise the concept of ecosystem services is practical and applicable by many sectors of civil society as a first screen of the ecosystem services present at a site, (ii this study has direct relevance to land management and policy decision makers as a transparent vehicle to focus testing scenarios and target data gathering, but (iii further work beyond the scale investigated here is required to ensure global applicability.

  1. The administration and interpretation of the rapid exchange grip test: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechtman, Orit; Goodall, Sara K

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine if the administration and interpretation of the rapid exchange grip (REG) test vary among hand therapists nationally. The REG is used to determine sincerity of effort of grip strength. There are inconsistencies in the literature regarding the administration and interpretation of the REG, as various studies use different testing protocols and diverse interpretation criteria for what constitutes a sincere effort. As a result, we expected to find a lack of standardization in the administration and interpretation of the REG in clinical practice. We conducted a random nationwide survey of 200 hand therapists. The questionnaire items regarding the administration of the REG included patient position, test instructions, handle settings, handling of the dynamometer, hand switch rate, number of repetitions, and techniques used to record the score. The items for the interpretation of the REG involved questions regarding comparative tests. We found that the REG test lacks standardized administration protocols and interpretation criteria among therapists nationwide. The lack of standardization is likely to affect the reliability and validity of the REG and to hinder the therapist's ability to accurately report its outcomes. The implications of lack of standardization in assessment techniques to the profession are discussed.

  2. A rapid polymerase chain reaction-based test for screening Steinert′s disease (DM1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzi Khalil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Myotonic dystrophy (DM is a multisystemic neuromuscular disorder caused by a dynamic mutation of (CTG trinucleotide repeats in the 3′ untranslated region of the myotonic dystrophy protein kinase gene (DMPK. The aim of the present study was to establish the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based simple and rapid method for initial sample screening. Only a minority of samples were tested positive with the above method and need to be detected by tri primer (TP-PCR and Southern blotting which is more time consuming and involves use of radioactive material. This study concerned 24 patients from nine families with a clinical diagnosis of the DM1. DNA extracted from the blood was used for amplification of the triplet repeat sequences at the DMPK loci. We obtained two bands for the normal subjects and one band for patients corresponding to normal DMPK allele, confirmed by the TP-PCR and the Southern blot. This rapid test for initial screening of samples for the presence of DMPK mutations is economical and reliable method. This method reduces the number of samples needing TP-PCR and Southern blotting.

  3. Bacterial Cytological Profiling (BCP as a Rapid and Accurate Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Method for Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.T. Quach

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Successful treatment of bacterial infections requires the timely administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The failure to initiate the correct therapy in a timely fashion results in poor clinical outcomes, longer hospital stays, and higher medical costs. Current approaches to antibiotic susceptibility testing of cultured pathogens have key limitations ranging from long run times to dependence on prior knowledge of genetic mechanisms of resistance. We have developed a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus based on bacterial cytological profiling (BCP, which uses quantitative fluorescence microscopy to measure antibiotic induced changes in cellular architecture. BCP discriminated between methicillin-susceptible (MSSA and -resistant (MRSA clinical isolates of S. aureus (n = 71 within 1–2 h with 100% accuracy. Similarly, BCP correctly distinguished daptomycin susceptible (DS from daptomycin non-susceptible (DNS S. aureus strains (n = 20 within 30 min. Among MRSA isolates, BCP further identified two classes of strains that differ in their susceptibility to specific combinations of beta-lactam antibiotics. BCP provides a rapid and flexible alternative to gene-based susceptibility testing methods for S. aureus, and should be readily adaptable to different antibiotics and bacterial species as new mechanisms of resistance or multidrug-resistant pathogens evolve and appear in mainstream clinical practice.

  4. Intel's AMT enables rapid processing and info-turn for Intel's DFM test chip vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajj, Hazem

    2007-10-01

    Transistor dimensions are quickly approaching atomic levels. Metrology is already a challenge. Several technologies have evolved to keep pace such as scatterometry and bare wafer inspection. Lithography critical dimensions, registration and pitch are the forefront of dimensional scaling challenges. Variability at these dimensions can limit function, performance, yield and profitability with design for manufacturing (DFM) challenges. Intel's integrated device manufacturing (IDM) model has enabled many technologies and disciplines to come together to provide the most cost effective and optimal solutions to Moore's law scaling challenges. Intel's Automated Manufacturing Technology (AMT) capabilities play a significant role in enabling optimal Moore's law scaling solutions. The information turn cycle starts with the definition of the technology Test Chip and ends with the analysis of results from end of line (EOL) metrology. We will discuss the relevant DFM elements of AMT to enable: test-chip setup, computational lithography and validation, product & process modeling and setup, intelligence and control to minimize variability, rapid yield learning, and rapid product design learning.

  5. Test and evaluation capabilities at NAVELEXCEN Charleston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalvey, T.W.; Anderson, G.B.; Hinson, T.L. [Naval Electronic Systems Engineering Center, Charleston, SC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Environmental Systems and Instrumentation Engineering Department is located within the Special Programs Directorate of the Naval Electronic Systems Engineering Center (NAVELEXCEN Charleston). This Center is an echelon 4 Command under the Naval Command Control and Ocean Surveillance Center, San Diego (NCCOSC). NCCOSC is an echelon 3 Command under the Space and Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR) which is located in Washington DC. Radiation Detection, Indication and Computation (RDIAC) equipment life-cycle management for the entire Navy falls under the auspices of the Naval Sea Systems Command (SEA 04R). The RADIAC Program provides centralized management for the execution of research, development, test, evaluation, maintenance, procurement, allowance, and equipment support for all Navy RADIAC instrumentation and assigned special monitoring equipments. RADIAC equipment is used throughout the Navy to support various functions associated with radioactivity, potential contamination, and personnel exposure to sources of ionizing radiation. Common sources in today`s Navy include nuclear reactors, nuclear weapons, industrial radiography, and nuclear medicine. Types of radiation includes gamma, x-ray, alpha, and beta.

  6. Finds in Testing Experiments for Model Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ji; JIA Xiaoxia; LIU Chang; YANG Haiyan; LIU Chao

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the fault location and the failure prediction models, simulation-based and code-based experiments were conducted to collect the required failure data. The PIE model was applied to simulate failures in the simulation-based experiment. Based on syntax and semantic level fault injections, a hybrid fault injection model is presented. To analyze the injected faults, the difficulty to inject (DTI) and difficulty to detect (DTD) are introduced and are measured from the programs used in the code-based experiment. Three interesting results were obtained from the experiments: 1) Failures simulated by the PIE model without consideration of the program and testing features are unreliably predicted; 2) There is no obvious correlation between the DTI and DTD parameters; 3) The DTD for syntax level faults changes in a different pattern to that for semantic level faults when the DTI increases. The results show that the parameters have a strong effect on the failures simulated, and the measurement of DTD is not strict.

  7. Evaluation of Five Chromogenic Agar Media and the Rosco Rapid Carb Screen Kit for Detection and Confirmation of Carbapenemase Production in Gram-Negative Bacilli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Matthew W.; DeGagne, Pat; Nichol, Kim; Karlowsky, James A.

    2014-01-01

    An efficient workflow to screen for and confirm the presence of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli was developed by evaluating five chromogenic screening agar media and two confirmatory assays, the Rapid Carb screen test (Rosco Diagnostica A/S, Taastrup, Denmark) and the modified Hodge test. A panel of 150 isolates was used, including 49 carbapenemase-producing isolates representing a variety of β-lactamase enzyme classes. An evaluation of analytical performance, assay cost, and turnaround time indicated that the preferred workflow (screening test followed by confirmatory testing) was the chromID Carba agar medium (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Étoile, France), followed by the Rapid Carb screen test, yielding a combined sensitivity of 89.8% and a specificity of 100%. As an optional component of the workflow, a determination of carbapenemase gene class via molecular means could be performed subsequent to confirmatory testing. PMID:25355764

  8. Evaluation of five chromogenic agar media and the Rosco Rapid Carb screen kit for detection and confirmation of carbapenemase production in Gram-negative bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simner, Patricia J; Gilmour, Matthew W; DeGagne, Pat; Nichol, Kim; Karlowsky, James A

    2015-01-01

    An efficient workflow to screen for and confirm the presence of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli was developed by evaluating five chromogenic screening agar media and two confirmatory assays, the Rapid Carb screen test (Rosco Diagnostica A/S, Taastrup, Denmark) and the modified Hodge test. A panel of 150 isolates was used, including 49 carbapenemase-producing isolates representing a variety of β-lactamase enzyme classes. An evaluation of analytical performance, assay cost, and turnaround time indicated that the preferred workflow (screening test followed by confirmatory testing) was the chromID Carba agar medium (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Étoile, France), followed by the Rapid Carb screen test, yielding a combined sensitivity of 89.8% and a specificity of 100%. As an optional component of the workflow, a determination of carbapenemase gene class via molecular means could be performed subsequent to confirmatory testing. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Evaluation of a direct fluorescent antibody staining method for rapid identification of members of the bacteroides fragilis group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGirolami, P C; Mepani, C P

    1981-07-01

    A direct fluorescent antibody test kit (Fluorotec-F, Pfizer Inc., New York, New York) designed for rapid identification of members of the Bacteroides fragilis group (BFG) was evaluated. Tested were 228 clinical specimens (144 direct smears of clinical material, 14 smears of positive blood cultures, and 70 smears of colonies isolated from clinical material) and 49 reference strains of anaerobic bacteria, including 23 members of the BFG. Fluorotec-F detected 68 of 69 (98.5%) members of the BFG, including 55 B. fragilis, 12 B. thetaiotaomicron, and two B. ovatus, identified by cultural methods in all clinical specimens. Three specimens that yielded B. uniformis also fluoresced. Three specimens fluoresced but failed to yield members of the BFG or B. uniformis on culture. Of the 49 reference strains tested, all strains of B. fragilis, B. thetaiotaomicron, nd B. uniformis tested were detected by Fluorotec-F, but only five of a total of 14B. vulgatus, B. distasonis, and B. ovatus tested fluoresced. Of the 25 reference strains of anaerobic bacteria not belonging to the BFG, none fluoresced except for two strains of B. eggerthii. Direct fluorescent antibody staining of smears of clinical specimens suitable for anaerobic culture is a valuable tool for rapid detection of B. fragilis infections.

  10. Validation of RAPID E. coli 2 for enumeration and differentiation of Escherichia coli and other coliform bacteria in selected foods--Performance-Tested Method 050601.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Wendy F; Martinez, Frederic L; Patel, Asmita

    2007-01-01

    RAPID'E. coli 2 agar (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA) is a chromogenic medium for differentiation and enumeration of E. coli and non-E. coli coliform bacteria in food. The principle of RAPID'E. coli 2 medium relies on simultaneous detection of 2 enzymatic activities, P-D-glucuronidase (GLUC) and beta-D-galactosidase (GAL). Coliforms, other than E. coli (GAL+/GLUC-), form blue to green colonies, whereas, specifically, E. coli (GAL+/GLUC+) form violet colonies. Eleven foods (raw ground beef, raw boneless pork, fermented sausage, processed ham, processed turkey, frozen turkey breast, raw ground chicken, cottage cheese, ricotta cheese, raw milk, and dry infant formula) were validated, comparing the performance of RAPID'E. coli 2 agar to the reference method AOAC 966.24. Two sample incubation temperatures were evaluated, 37 and 44 degrees C, testing a mixture of naturally and artificially contaminated foods. If naturally contaminated food was not available, the matrix was artificially inoculated with one E. coli strain and one non-E. coli coliform strain. Method comparison studies demonstrated some statistical differences between the 2 methods, which are expected when a plating method is compared to a most probable number method. Inclusivity and exclusivity rates of the medium were 99 and 94%, respectively. The RAPID'E. coli 2 method was shown to be stable when minor variations were introduced.

  11. Performance of a new gelled nested PCR test for the diagnosis of imported malaria: comparison with microscopy, rapid diagnostic test, and real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Nuria; Subirats, Mercedes; Trevisi, Patricia; Ramírez-Olivencia, Germán; Castán, Pablo; Puente, Sabino; Toro, Carlos

    2014-07-01

    Microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are the techniques commonly used for malaria diagnosis but they are usually insensitive at very low levels of parasitemia. Nested PCR is commonly used as a reference technique in the diagnosis of malaria due to its high sensitivity and specificity. However, it is a cumbersome assay only available in reference centers. We evaluated a new nested PCR-based assay, BIOMALAR kit (Biotools B&M Labs, Madrid, Spain) which employs ready-to-use gelled reagents and allows the identification of the main four species of Plasmodium. Blood samples were obtained from patients with clinical suspicion of malaria. A total of 94 subjects were studied. Fifty-two (55.3%) of them were malaria-infected subjects corresponding to 48 cases of Plasmodium falciparum, 1 Plasmodium malariae, 2 Plasmodium vivax, and 1 Plasmodium ovale. The performance of the BIOMALAR test was compared with microscopy, rapid diagnostic test (RDT) (BinaxNOW® Malaria) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The BIOMALAR test showed a sensitivity of 98.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89.7-100), superior to microscopy (82.7% [95% CI, 69.7-91.8]) and RDT (94.2% [95% CI, 84.1-98.8]) and similar to qPCR (100% [95% CI, 93.2-100]). In terms of specificity, the BIOMALAR assay showed the same value as microscopy and qPCR (100% [95% CI, 93.2-100]). Nine subjects were submicroscopic carriers of malaria. The BIOMALAR test identified almost all of them (8/9) in comparison with RDT (6/9) and microscopy (0/9). In conclusion, the BIOMALAR is a PCR-based assay easy to use with an excellent performance and especially useful for diagnosis submicroscopic malaria.

  12. Small Project Rapid Integration and Test Environment (SPRITE) An Innovation Space for Small Projects Design, Development, Integration, and Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ashley; Rackoczy, John; Heater, Daniel; Sanders, Devon; Tashakkor, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few years interest in the development and use of small satellites has rapidly gained momentum with universities, commercial, and government organizations. In a few years we may see networked clusters of dozens or even hundreds of small, cheap, easily replaceable satellites working together in place of the large, expensive and difficult-to-replace satellites now in orbit. Standards based satellite buses and deployment mechanisms, such as the CubeSat and Poly Pico-satellite Orbital Deployer (P-POD), have stimulated growth in this area. The use of small satellites is also proving to be a cost effective capability in many areas traditionally dominated by large satellites, though many challenges remain. Currently many of these small satellites undergo very little testing prior to flight. As these small satellites move from technology demonstration and student projects toward more complex operational assets, it is expected that the standards for verification and validation will increase.

  13. Utility of immunochromatographic assay as a rapid point of care test for screening of antenatal syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bineeta Kashyap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Syphilis is one of the most common preventable causes of adverse effects during pregnancy. Antenatal screening prevents the delay between diagnosis and treatment there by reducing the risk of congenital syphilis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of an immunochromatographic assay as a point of care test for antenatal screening of syphilis. Materials and Methods: Sera of 200 antenatal mothers were evaluated for serodiagnosis of syphilis by the venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL, Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA and SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test. The performance of SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test was compared with VDRL as screening assay and TPHA as a confirmatory test. Results: The antenatal prevalence of syphilis was found to be 2% by both VDRL and TPHA. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and the negative predictive value of SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test were 75%, 100%, 100%, and 99.45%, respectively. Conclusions: Antenatal screening and treatment of maternal syphilis are cost-effective health interventions even under the low prevalence of infection. SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test, although having less sensitivity than the existing testing strategy, can have a tremendous impact on the disease burden if used prudently for the screening of antenatal mothers in peripheral health settings.

  14. Utility of immunochromatographic assay as a rapid point of care test for screening of antenatal syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Bineeta; Sagar, Tanu; Kaur, Iqbal R

    2015-01-01

    Syphilis is one of the most common preventable causes of adverse effects during pregnancy. Antenatal screening prevents the delay between diagnosis and treatment there by reducing the risk of congenital syphilis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of an immunochromatographic assay as a point of care test for antenatal screening of syphilis. Sera of 200 antenatal mothers were evaluated for serodiagnosis of syphilis by the venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL), Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA) and SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test. The performance of SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test was compared with VDRL as screening assay and TPHA as a confirmatory test. The antenatal prevalence of syphilis was found to be 2% by both VDRL and TPHA. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and the negative predictive value of SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test were 75%, 100%, 100%, and 99.45%, respectively. Antenatal screening and treatment of maternal syphilis are cost-effective health interventions even under the low prevalence of infection. SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 test, although having less sensitivity than the existing testing strategy, can have a tremendous impact on the disease burden if used prudently for the screening of antenatal mothers in peripheral health settings.

  15. Evaluation of the Genotype MTBDR Assay for Rapid Detection of Rifampin and Isoniazid Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    A novel PCR-based reverse hybridization method Genotype MTBDR assay (Hain Lifescience GmbH, Nehren, Germany) was evaluated for rapid detection of rifampin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistance in Turkish Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. The Genotype MTBDR assay is designed to detect mutations within the 81-bp hotspot region of rpoB and mutations at katG codon 315. A total of 41 RIF-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates with rpoB mutations that were previously tested by the INNO-LiPA Rif.TB ki...

  16. An optimized SYBR Green I/PI assay for rapid viability assessment and antibiotic susceptibility testing for Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Shuo; Shi, Wanliang; Zhang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Lyme disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi is the most common tick-borne disease in the US and Europe. Unlike most bacteria, measurements of growth and viability of B. burgdorferi are challenging. The current B. burgdorferi viability assays based on microscopic counting and PCR are cumbersome and tedious and cannot be used in a high throughput format. Here, we evaluated several commonly used viability assays including MTT and XTT assays, fluorescein diacetate assay, Sytox Green/Hoechst 33342 assay, the commercially available LIVE/DEAD BacLight assay, and SYBR Green I/PI assay by microscopic counting and by automated 96-well plate reader for rapid viability assessment of B. burgdorferi. We found that the optimized SYBR Green I/PI assay based on green to red fluorescence ratio is superior to all the other assays for measuring the viability of B. burgdorferi in terms of sensitivity, accuracy, reliability, and speed in automated 96-well plate format and in comparison with microscopic counting. The BSK-H medium which produced a high background for the LIVE/DEAD BacLight assay did not affect the SYBR Green I/PI assay, and the viability of B. burgdorferi culture could be directly measured using a microtiter plate reader. The SYBR Green I/PI assay was found to reliably assess the viability of planktonic as well as biofilm B. burgdorferi and could be used as a rapid antibiotic susceptibility test. Thus, the SYBR Green I/PI assay provides a more sensitive, rapid and convenient method for evaluating viability and antibiotic susceptibility of B. burgdorferi and can be used for high-throughput drug screens.

  17. The role and reliability of rapid bedside diagnostic test in early diagnosis and treatment of bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Debata, Pradeep Kumar; Ranjan, Amitabh; Gaind, Rajani

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the role and reliability of rapid bedside diagnostic test in early diagnosis and treatment of bacterial meningitis in children using reagent strips. This prospective, single blinded study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics of VMMC & Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi in collaboration with the Department of Microbiology of VMMC & Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, over a period of 15 mo (August 2009 to Nov 2010). Seventy-five children aged 3 mo to 12 y admitted in the pediatric ward with suspected diagnosis of acute meningitis were included. All enroled patients underwent lumbar puncture. CSF samples were taken and divided in 2 parts for laboratory evaluation and rapid strip analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and the negative predictive values of the reagent strips for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis were calculated. Accuracy of the reagent strips was established using kappa statistics. Latex agglutination for antigen detection and microbiological culture were also done. Highly significant association was observed between CSF examination in routine laboratory method and dipstick method. The number of laboratory values that correlated were- for cells 71(94.63%), for protein 68 (90.67%), for glucose 68(90.67%) out of total 75 cases. The sensitivity and specificity of reagent strip in diagnosing acute bacterial meningitis were 96.7% and 97.8% respectively. The positive predictive and negative predictive values of reagent strip in diagnosing acute bacterial meningitis were 96.7% and 97.8% respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be the most common organism isolated (50%). Thus reagent strip analysis is a very rapid, reliable and effective method for diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis in children. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism isolated.

  18. A False Positive Dengue Fever Rapid Diagnostic Test Result in a Case of Acute Parvovirus B19 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumida, Toshihide; Sakata, Hidenao; Nakamura, Masahiko; Hayashibara, Yumiko; Inasaki, Noriko; Inahata, Ryo; Hasegawa, Sumiyo; Takizawa, Takenori; Kaya, Hiroyasu

    2016-01-01

    An outbreak of dengue fever occurred in Japan in August 2014. We herein report the case of a 63-year-old man who presented with a persistent fever in September 2014. Acute parvovirus B19 infection led to a false positive finding of dengue fever on a rapid diagnostic test (Panbio Dengue Duo Cassette(TM)). To the best of our knowledge, there are no previous reports of a false positive result for dengue IgM with the dengue rapid diagnostic test. We believe that epidemiological information on the prevalence of parvovirus B19 is useful for guiding the interpretation of a positive result with the dengue rapid diagnostic test.

  19. The evaluation of diagnostic tests for sexually transmitted infections

    OpenAIRE

    Chernesky, Max A.

    2005-01-01

    Diagnostic tests should receive method- and use-effectiveness evaluations. Method-effectiveness evaluations determine sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for new tests. Use-effectiveness evaluations determine how practical or convenient a new test will be in a specific setting and may not be performed in a formal way in North American laboratories. To perform a clinical method evaluation of diagnostic tests, a good relationship between laboratory and clinical personnel is essential...

  20. Test characteristics of two rapid antigen detection tests (SD FK50 and SD FK60 for the diagnosis of malaria in returned travellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Esbroeck Marjan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two malaria rapid diagnostic tests were evaluated in a travel clinic setting: the SD FK50 Malaria Ag Plasmodium falciparum test (a two-band test and the SD FK60 Malaria Ag P. falciparum/Pan test (a three-band test. Methods A panel of stored whole blood samples (n = 452 and n = 614 for FK50 and FK60, respectively from returned travellers was used. The reference method was microscopy with PCR in case of discordant results. Results For both tests, overall sensitivity for the detection of P. falciparum was 93.5%, reaching 97.6% and 100% at parasite densities above 100 and 1,000/μl respectively. Overall sensitivities for Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae for the FK60 test were 87.5%, 76.3% and 45.2%, but they reached 92.6% and 90.5% for P. vivax and P. ovale at parasite densities above 500/μl. Specificities were above 95% for all species and both tests when corrected by PCR, with visible histidine-rich protein-2 lines for P. malariae (n = 3 and P. vivax and P. ovale (1 sample each. Line intensities were reproducible and correlated to parasite densities. The FK60 tests provided clues to estimate parasite densities for P. falciparum below or above 1,000/μl. Conclusion Both the FK50 and FK60 performed well for the diagnosis of P. falciparum in the present setting, and the FK60 for the diagnosis of P. vivax and P. ovale at parasite densities > 500/μl. The potential use of the FK60 as a semi-quantitative estimation of parasite density needs to be further explored.

  1. Ejercicio interlaboratorio de bioensayos marinos para la evaluacion de la calidad ambiental de sedimentos costeros en Espana. II Ensayo de inhibicion dela bioluminiscencia para la evaluacion rapida de la toxicidad de sedimentos = Interlaboratory assessment of marine bioassays to evaluate the environmental quality of coastal sediments in Spain. II. Bioluminescence inhibition test for rapid sediment toxicity assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casado-Martinez, M.C.; Campisi, T.; Diaz, A.; Re, Lo R.; Obispo, R.; Postma, J.F.; Riba, I.; Sneekes, A.C.; Buceta, J.L.; DelValls, T.A.

    2006-01-01

    The Microtox (R) bioassay was tested in an interlaboratory study to evaluate the variability when using solid-phase samples. The exercise consisted of two consecutive phases each one carried out with six sediment samples from Spanish ports. Phase I included six laboratories that reported results for

  2. Ejercicio interlaboratorio de bioensayos marinos para la evaluacion de la calidad ambiental de sedimentos costeros en Espana. II Ensayo de inhibicion dela bioluminiscencia para la evaluacion rapida de la toxicidad de sedimentos = Interlaboratory assessment of marine bioassays to evaluate the environmental quality of coastal sediments in Spain. II. Bioluminescence inhibition test for rapid sediment toxicity assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casado-Martinez, M.C.; Campisi, T.; Diaz, A.; Re, Lo R.; Obispo, R.; Postma, J.F.; Riba, I.; Sneekes, A.C.; Buceta, J.L.; DelValls, T.A.

    2006-01-01

    The Microtox (R) bioassay was tested in an interlaboratory study to evaluate the variability when using solid-phase samples. The exercise consisted of two consecutive phases each one carried out with six sediment samples from Spanish ports. Phase I included six laboratories that reported results for

  3. Dorsomedial prefrontal cortex mediates rapid evaluations predicting the outcome of romantic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jeffrey C; Dunne, Simon; Furey, Teresa; O'Doherty, John P

    2012-11-07

    Humans frequently make real-world decisions based on rapid evaluations of minimal information; for example, should we talk to an attractive stranger at a party? Little is known, however, about how the brain makes rapid evaluations with real and immediate social consequences. To address this question, we scanned participants with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while they viewed photos of individuals that they subsequently met at real-life "speed-dating" events. Neural activity in two areas of dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), paracingulate cortex, and rostromedial prefrontal cortex (RMPFC) was predictive of whether each individual would be ultimately pursued for a romantic relationship or rejected. Activity in these areas was attributable to two distinct components of romantic evaluation: either consensus judgments about physical beauty (paracingulate cortex) or individualized preferences based on a partner's perceived personality (RMPFC). These data identify novel computational roles for these regions of the DMPFC in even very rapid social evaluations. Even a first glance, then, can accurately predict romantic desire, but that glance involves a mix of physical and psychological judgments that depend on specific regions of DMPFC.

  4. 30 CFR 15.3 - Observers at tests and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Observers at tests and evaluation. 15.3 Section 15.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION... General Provisions § 15.3 Observers at tests and evaluation. Only personnel of MSHA, designees of...

  5. High Linkage to Care in a Community-Based Rapid HIV Testing and Counseling Project Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Tavs; Cowan, Susan Alice; Graugaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to evaluate a community-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing program for its capacity to reach men who have sex with men (MSM) and successfully refer HIV-positive patients to treatment. METHODS: A walk-in clinic placed in the heart...... syphilis positive in rapid testing and referred for confirmatory testing. Furthermore, 264 MSM completed a 3-shot hepatitis B vaccination program. CONCLUSIONS: Easily accessible, community walk-in clinics and targeted testing in high-risk settings are convenient for populations of MSM less likely to seek...