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Sample records for rapid preferential dissolution

  1. Rapid dissolution of ZnO nanocrystals in acidic cancer microenvironment leading to preferential apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan, Abhilash; Chandran, Parwathy; Menon, Deepthy; Raman, Sreerekha; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor

    2011-09-01

    The microenvironment of cancer plays a very critical role in the survival, proliferation and drug resistance of solid tumors. Here, we report an interesting, acidic cancer microenvironment-mediated dissolution-induced preferential toxicity of ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) against cancer cells while leaving primary cells unaffected. Irrespective of the size-scale (5 and 200 nm) and surface chemistry differences (silica, starch or polyethylene glycol coating), ZnO NCs exhibited multiple stress mechanisms against cancer cell lines (IC50 ~150 μM) while normal human primary cells (human dermal fibroblast, lymphocytes, human umbilical vein endothelial cells) remain less affected. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy studies revealed that ZnO NCs undergo rapid preferential dissolution in acidic (pH ~5-6) cancer microenvironment causing elevated ROS stress, mitochondrial superoxide formation, depolarization of mitochondrial membrane, and cell cycle arrest at S/G2 phase leading to apoptosis. In effect, by elucidating the unique toxicity mechanism of ZnO NCs, we show that ZnO NCs can destabilize cancer cells by utilizing its own hostile acidic microenvironment, which is otherwise critical for its survival.The microenvironment of cancer plays a very critical role in the survival, proliferation and drug resistance of solid tumors. Here, we report an interesting, acidic cancer microenvironment-mediated dissolution-induced preferential toxicity of ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) against cancer cells while leaving primary cells unaffected. Irrespective of the size-scale (5 and 200 nm) and surface chemistry differences (silica, starch or polyethylene glycol coating), ZnO NCs exhibited multiple stress mechanisms against cancer cell lines (IC50 ~150 μM) while normal human primary cells (human dermal fibroblast, lymphocytes, human umbilical vein endothelial cells) remain less affected. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy studies revealed that ZnO NCs undergo rapid preferential dissolution in

  2. Evolving Spatial Heterogeneity Induced by Preferential Carbonate Dissolution in Fractured Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, H.; Li, L.; Crandall, D.; Hakala, A.

    2014-12-01

    Spatial heterogeneity plays a key role in determining physical and geochemical processes in geological systems. In reactive fractures, mineral reactions also can alter fracture properties locally, therefore leading to evolving spatial heterogeneity. Here we use two-dimensional (2D) reactive transport modeling to 1) understand the evolving spatial heterogeneity due to the preferential dissolution of carbonate and 2) quantify the dependence of calcite dissolution on characteristics of spatial heterogeneity, including fracture roughness (i.e., aperture standard derivation, surface parameter and fractal dimension), flow connectivity (i.e., ratio of effective permeability keff over geometric mean of local permeability kG), and transport connectivity indicators (e.g., ratio of late 5% arrival time tlate5% over average arrival time tave). The fractured core samples from Brady's Hot Springs geothermal field are composed of primarily carbonate, clay, and quartz. The computational domains were set up using fracture images obtained from CT scanning at the resolution of 31.6 μm. The two samples have similar initial average aperture, porosity, permeability, and mineralogical composition. They differ in the spatial patterns: one has narrow large-aperture zones distributed widely (AD sample); the other has a major large-aperture zone in the middle of the sample (AC sample). Simulation results show that highly connected flow path forms quickly in the AD sample, leading to an increase of average chemical aperture, effective permeability, and flow velocity by five times after 75 days of injecting salt water. In contrast, these properties remain constant in the AC sample. Other parameters that quantitatively characterize the spatial heterogeneity, including connectivity and the tail slope of the breakthrough curves, also change dramatically, indicating major alteration in fracture properties due to calcite dissolution.

  3. Strain-induced preferential dissolution at the dislocation emergences in MnS: an atomic scale study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y. T.; Wang, Y. J.; Zheng, S. J.; Zhang, B.; Ma, X. L.

    2015-08-01

    The long-standing problem of dislocation-preferential dissolution in a crystal has been generally ascribed to the distortion energy stored in the vicinity of the dislocation core. However, due to lack of experimental means, the relationship between the local distortion state and the electrochemical behaviour of a single dislocation has not been established so far. via in situ ex-environment transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we demonstrate that the emergences of both edge and screw dislocations on MnS surfaces are the preferential sites for dissolution of the MnS inclusions within a stainless steel. In addition, we map the strain-induced variation of the standard electrode potential around the edge dislocation by a combination of the aberration-corrected high-resolution TEM and strain-analysis-based mechanochemistry theory. Significantly, our report provides a new approach to investigate the strain-corrosion correlation at an atomic scale.

  4. Combined effects of dissolution kinetics, secondary mineral precipitation, and preferential flow on copper leaching from mining waste rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Nils; Destouni, Georgia

    A probabilistic Lagrangian approach to reactive subsurface transport is used to investigate possible processes that may explain reported discrepancies between modelled and observed copper concentrations at the Aitik waste rock heaps in northern Sweden and to quantify the implications of these processes for the long-term dynamics of copper leaching. The presented Lagrangian transport system couples two different types of primary dissolution kinetics with flow heterogeneity and pH-dependent equilibrium precipitation/dissolution of secondary copper-bearing minerals. Of the investigated processes, which we chose to study based on previous geochemical studies of the site, only flow heterogeneity in the form of preferential flow paths can provide a possible explanation for the low drainage water concentrations of copper currently measured in the field. The investigated pH-dependent precipitation-dissolution of secondary copper bearing minerals provides an explanation for even lower copper concentrations observed in laboratory column experiments in fresh waste rock; these experiments correspond to the initial part of the weathering phase in the field. If both preferential flow and secondary copper precipitation/dissolution occur at the Aitik site, the assumed prevailing type of primary dissolution kinetics does not influence the modelled expected long-term copper leaching nearly as much as it does under homogeneous flow conditions without formation of secondary minerals. The present sensitivity analysis does not provide a comprehensive prediction model for the Aitik site, since not all possible hydrological and chemical processes have been included in the investigation. This study rather exemplifies the application of the probabilistic Lagrangian approach as an investigation methodology for field-scale geochemical problems by using and extending results of detailed geochemical modelling.

  5. Rapid analysis of drug dissolution by paper spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Ning; Zhou, Ya-Nan; Lin, Lan; He, Lan

    2017-03-20

    With a great quantity of solid dosage tested by dissolution technology, developing a rapid and sensitive method to access the content of drug within dissolution media is highly desired by analysts and scientists. Traditionally, dissolution media is not compatible with mass spectrometry since the inorganic salts in the media might damage the mass spectrometer. Here, paper spray ionization mass spectrometry (PSI-MS), one of the ambient mass spectrometry technologies, is developed to characterize the content of drugs in dissolution media. The porous structure of paper can effectively retain salts from entering mass spectrometer. This makes the measurement of drug content within dissolution media by mass spectrometer possible. After the experimental parameters were optimized, calibration curves of model drugs - enalapril, quinapril and benazepril were established by using corresponding deuterated internal standards. PSI-MS was then deployed to characterize the content of enalapril from the dissolution testing of enalapril tablets. The results from PSI-MS are comparable to those from HPLC characterization. More importantly, the analysis time of 6 samples is shortened from 90min to 6min. Detection limit of enalapril maleate tablets by PSI-MS is 1/300 of LC. PSI-MS is rapid, sensitive and accurate in analyzing drug content from dissolution tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Controlled precipitation for enhanced dissolution rate of flurbiprofen: development of rapidly disintegrating tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, Ebtessam A; Elmarakby, Amira O; Donia, Ahmed M A; El Maghraby, Gamal M

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of controlled precipitation of flurbiprofen on solid surface, in the presence or absence of hydrophilic polymers, as a tool for enhanced dissolution rate of the drug. The work was extended to develop rapidly disintegrated tablets. This strategy provides simple technique for dissolution enhancement of slowly dissolving drugs with high scaling up potential. Aerosil was dispersed in ethanolic solution of flurbiprofen in the presence and absence of hydrophilic polymers. Acidified water was added as antisolvent to produce controlled precipitation. The resultant particles were centrifuged and dried at ambient temperature before monitoring the dissolution pattern. The particles were also subjected to FTIR spectroscopic, X-ray diffraction and thermal analyses. The FTIR spectroscopy excluded any interaction between flurbiprofen and excipients. The thermal analysis reflected possible change in the crystalline structure and or crystal size of the drug after controlled precipitation in the presence of hydrophilic polymers. This was further confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The modulation in the crystalline structure and size was associated with a significant enhancement in the dissolution rate of flurbiprofen. Optimum formulations were successfully formulated as rapidly disintegrating tablet with subsequent fast dissolution. Precipitation on a large solid surface area is a promising strategy for enhanced dissolution rate with the presence of hydrophilic polymers during precipitation process improving the efficiency.

  7. Comminution of ibuprofen to produce nano-particles for rapid dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakkot, S; de Matas, M; York, P; Saunders, M; Sulaiman, B

    2011-08-30

    A critical problem associated with poorly soluble drugs is low and variable bioavailability derived from slow dissolution and erratic absorption. The preparation of nano-formulations has been identified as an approach to enhance the rate and extent of drug absorption for compounds demonstrating limited aqueous solubility. A new technology for the production of nano-particles using high speed, high efficiency processes that can rapidly generate nano-particles with rapid dissolution rate has been developed. Size reduction of a low melting ductile model compound was achieved in periods less than 1h. Particle size reduction of ibuprofen using this methodology resulted in production of crystalline particles with average diameter of approximately 270nm. Physical stability studies showed that the nano-suspension remained homogeneous with slight increases in mean particle size, when stored at room temperature and under refrigerated storage conditions 2-8°C for up to 2 days. Powder containing crystalline drug was prepared by spray-drying ibuprofen nano-suspensions with mannitol dissolved in the aqueous phase. Dissolution studies showed similar release rates for the nano-suspension and powder which were markedly improved compared to a commercially available drug product. Ibuprofen nano-particles could be produced rapidly with smaller sizes achieved at higher suspension concentrations. Particles produced in water with stabilisers demonstrated greatest physical stability, whilst rapid dissolution was observed for the nano-particles isolated in powder form. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid runoff via shallow throughflow and deeper preferential flow in a boreal catchment underlain by frozen silt (Alaska, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Joshua C.; Ewing, Stephanie A.; Striegl, Robert G.; McKnight, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    In high-latitude catchments where permafrost is present, runoff dynamics are complicated by seasonal active-layer thaw, which may cause a change in the dominant flowpaths as water increasingly contacts mineral soils of low hydraulic conductivity. A 2-year study, conducted in an upland catchment in Alaska (USA) underlain by frozen, well-sorted eolian silt, examined changes in infiltration and runoff with thaw. It was hypothesized that rapid runoff would be maintained by flow through shallow soils during the early summer and deeper preferential flow later in the summer. Seasonal changes in soil moisture, infiltration, and runoff magnitude, location, and chemistry suggest that transport is rapid, even when soils are thawed to their maximum extent. Between June and September, a shift occurred in the location of runoff, consistent with subsurface preferential flow in steep and wet areas. Uranium isotopes suggest that late summer runoff erodes permafrost, indicating that substantial rapid flow may occur along the frozen boundary. Together, throughflow and deep preferential flow may limit upland boreal catchment water and solute storage, and subsequently biogeochemical cycling on seasonal to annual timescales. Deep preferential flow may be important for stream incision, network drainage development, and the release of ancient carbon to ecosystems

  9. Measurement of humic and fulvic acid concentrations and dissolution properties by a rapid batch procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Zomeren, A.; Comans, R.N.J. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, Petten (Netherlands)

    2007-08-29

    Although humic substances (HS) strongly facilitate the transport of metals and hydrophobic organic contaminants in environmental systems, their measurement is hampered by the time-consuming nature of currently available methods for their isolation and purification. We present and apply a new rapid batch method to measure humic (HA) and fulvic (FA) acid concentrations and dissolution properties in both solid and aqueous samples. The method is compared with the conventional procedures and is shown to substantially facilitate HS concentration measurements, particularly for applications such as geochemical modeling where HS purification is not required. The new method can be performed within 1.5-4 h per sample and multiple samples can be processed simultaneously, while the conventional procedures typically require approximately 40 h for a single sample. In addition, specific dissolution properties of HS are identified and are consistent with recent views on the molecular structure of HS that emphasize molecular interactions of smaller entities over distinct macromolecular components. Because the principles of the new method are essentially the same as those of generally accepted conventional procedures, the identified HA and FA properties are of general importance for the interpretation of the environmental occurrence and behavior of HS.

  10. Rapid Automated Dissolution and Analysis Techniques for Radionuclides in Recycle Process Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudowe, Ralf [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Radiochemistry Program and Health Physics Dept.; Roman, Audrey [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Radiochemistry Program; Dailey, Ashlee [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Radiochemistry Program; Go, Elaine [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Radiochemistry Program

    2013-07-18

    The analysis of process samples for radionuclide content is an important part of current procedures for material balance and accountancy in the different process streams of a recycling plant. The destructive sample analysis techniques currently available necessitate a significant amount of time. It is therefore desirable to develop new sample analysis procedures that allow for a quick turnaround time and increased sample throughput with a minimum of deviation between samples. In particular, new capabilities for rapid sample dissolution and radiochemical separation are required. Most of the radioanalytical techniques currently employed for sample analysis are based on manual laboratory procedures. Such procedures are time- and labor-intensive, and not well suited for situations in which a rapid sample analysis is required and/or large number of samples need to be analyzed. To address this issue we are currently investigating radiochemical separation methods based on extraction chromatography that have been specifically optimized for the analysis of process stream samples. The influence of potential interferences present in the process samples as well as mass loading, flow rate and resin performance is being studied. In addition, the potential to automate these procedures utilizing a robotic platform is evaluated. Initial studies have been carried out using the commercially available DGA resin. This resin shows an affinity for Am, Pu, U, and Th and is also exhibiting signs of a possible synergistic effects in the presence of iron.

  11. Rapid and near-complete dissolution of wood lignin at ≤80°C by a recyclable acid hydrotrope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liheng Chen; Jinze Dou; Qianli Ma; Ning Li; Ruchun Wu; Huiyang Bian; Daniel J. Yelle; Tapani Vuorinen; Shiyu Fu; Xuejun Pan; Junyong (J.Y.) Zhu

    2017-01-01

    We report the discovery of the hydrotropic properties of a recyclable aromatic acid, p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TsOH), for potentially low-cost and efficient fractionation of wood through rapid and near-complete dissolution of lignin. Approximately 90% of poplar wood (NE222) lignin can be dissolved at 80°C in 20 min. Equivalent delignification using...

  12. Evaluation of ammonium bifluoride fusion for rapid dissolution in post-detonation nuclear forensic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubley, Nicholas T. [Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Brockman, John D. [Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (United States). Research Reactor Center; Robertson, J. David [Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (United States). Research Reactor Center; Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-10-01

    Dissolution of geological reference materials by fusion with ammonium bifluoride, NH{sub 4}HF{sub 2} or ABF, was evaluated for its potential use in post-detonation nuclear forensics. The fusion procedure was optimized such that the total dissolution time was <3 h without compromising recovery. Geological reference materials containing various levels of silicates were dissolved and measured by ICP-MS to quantify elemental recovery. Dissolutions of NIST 278 obsidian and urban canyon matrix were performed with radiotracer spikes to measure potential loss of volatile elements during the fusion procedure via gamma-ray spectroscopy. Elemental percent recoveries obtained by ICP-MS were found to be 80-120% while recoveries of radiotracers were observed to be 90-100% with the exception of iodine.

  13. A new rapidly absorbed paracetamol tablet containing sodium bicarbonate. II. Dissolution studies and in vitro/in vivo correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami-Hodjegan, A; Shiran, M R; Tucker, G T; Conway, B R; Irwin, W J; Shaw, L R; Grattan, T J

    2002-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the in vitro dissolution profile of a new rapidly absorbed paracetamol tablet containing sodium bicarbonate (PS) with that of a conventional paracetamol tablet (P), and to relate these by deconvolution and mapping to in vivo release. The dissolution methods used include the standard procedure described in the USP monograph for paracetamol tablets, employing buffer at pH 5.8 or 0.05 M HCl at stirrer speeds between 10 and 50 rpm. The mapping process was developed and implemented in Microsoft Excel worksheets that iteratively calculated the optimal values of scale and shape factors which linked in vivo time to in vitro time. The in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) was carried out simultaneously for both formulations to produce common mapping factors. The USP method, using buffer at pH 5.8, demonstrated no difference between the two products. However, using an acidic medium the rate of dissolution of P but not of PS decreased with decreasing stirrer speed. A significant correlation (r = 0.773; p dissolution using the profiles obtained with 0.05 M HCl and a stirrer speed of 30 rpm. The scale factor for optimal simultaneous IVIVC in the fasting state was 2.54 and the shape factor was 0.16; corresponding values for mapping in the fed state were 3.37 and 0.13 (implying a larger in vitro-in vivo time difference but reduced shape difference in the fed state). The current IVIVC explains, in part, the observed in vivo variability of the two products. The approach to mapping may also be extended to different batches of these products, to predict the impact of any changes of in vitro dissolution on in vivo release and plasma drug concentration-time profiles.

  14. Rapid disintegrating tablets of simvastatin dispersions in polyoxyethylene–polypropylene block copolymer for maximized disintegration and dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balata, Gehan F; Zidan, Ahmad S; Abourehab, Mohamad AS; Essa, Ebtessam A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to improve the dissolution of simvastatin and to incorporate it in rapid disintegrating tablets (RDTs) with an optimized disintegration and dissolution characteristics. Polyoxyethylene–polypropylene block copolymer (poloxamer 188) was employed as a hydrophilic carrier to prepare simvastatin solid dispersions (SDs). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry were employed to understand the interaction between the drug and the carrier in the solid state. The results obtained from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed absence of any chemical interaction between the drug and poloxamer. The results of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry confirmed the conversion of simvastatin to distorted crystalline state. The SD of 1:2 w/w drug to carrier ratio showed the highest dissolution; hence, it was incorporated in RDT formulations using a 32 full factorial design and response surface methodology. The initial assessments of RDTs demonstrated an acceptable flow, hardness, and friability to indicate good mechanical strength. The interaction and Pareto charts indicated that percentage of croscarmellose sodium incorporated was the most important factor affecting the disintegration time and dissolution parameter followed by the hardness value and their interaction effect. Compression force showed a superior influence to increase RDT’s porosity and to fasten disintegration rather than swelling action by croscarmellose sodium. On the other hand, croscarmellose sodium was most important for the initial simvastatin release. The results suggest the potential use of poloxamer 188-based SD in RDT for the oral delivery of poor water-soluble antihyperlipidemic drug, simvastatin. PMID:27757012

  15. Rapid disintegrating tablets of simvastatin dispersions in polyoxyethylene-polypropylene block copolymer for maximized disintegration and dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balata, Gehan F; Zidan, Ahmad S; Abourehab, Mohamad As; Essa, Ebtessam A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to improve the dissolution of simvastatin and to incorporate it in rapid disintegrating tablets (RDTs) with an optimized disintegration and dissolution characteristics. Polyoxyethylene-polypropylene block copolymer (poloxamer 188) was employed as a hydrophilic carrier to prepare simvastatin solid dispersions (SDs). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry were employed to understand the interaction between the drug and the carrier in the solid state. The results obtained from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed absence of any chemical interaction between the drug and poloxamer. The results of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry confirmed the conversion of simvastatin to distorted crystalline state. The SD of 1:2 w/w drug to carrier ratio showed the highest dissolution; hence, it was incorporated in RDT formulations using a 3 2 full factorial design and response surface methodology. The initial assessments of RDTs demonstrated an acceptable flow, hardness, and friability to indicate good mechanical strength. The interaction and Pareto charts indicated that percentage of croscarmellose sodium incorporated was the most important factor affecting the disintegration time and dissolution parameter followed by the hardness value and their interaction effect. Compression force showed a superior influence to increase RDT's porosity and to fasten disintegration rather than swelling action by croscarmellose sodium. On the other hand, croscarmellose sodium was most important for the initial simvastatin release. The results suggest the potential use of poloxamer 188-based SD in RDT for the oral delivery of poor water-soluble antihyperlipidemic drug, simvastatin.

  16. Balancing practicality and hydrologic realism: a parsimonious approach for simulating rapid groundwater recharge via unsaturated-zone preferential flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirus, Benjamin B.; Nimmo, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of preferential flow on recharge and contaminant transport poses a considerable challenge to water-resources management. Typical hydrologic models require extensive site characterization, but can underestimate fluxes when preferential flow is significant. A recently developed source-responsive model incorporates film-flow theory with conservation of mass to estimate unsaturated-zone preferential fluxes with readily available data. The term source-responsive describes the sensitivity of preferential flow in response to water availability at the source of input. We present the first rigorous tests of a parsimonious formulation for simulating water table fluctuations using two case studies, both in arid regions with thick unsaturated zones of fractured volcanic rock. Diffuse flow theory cannot adequately capture the observed water table responses at both sites; the source-responsive model is a viable alternative. We treat the active area fraction of preferential flow paths as a scaled function of water inputs at the land surface then calibrate the macropore density to fit observed water table rises. Unlike previous applications, we allow the characteristic film-flow velocity to vary, reflecting the lag time between source and deep water table responses. Analysis of model performance and parameter sensitivity for the two case studies underscores the importance of identifying thresholds for initiation of film flow in unsaturated rocks, and suggests that this parsimonious approach is potentially of great practical value.

  17. Novel ultra-rapid freezing particle engineering process for enhancement of dissolution rates of poorly water-soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overhoff, Kirk A; Engstrom, Josh D; Chen, Bo; Scherzer, Brian D; Milner, Thomas E; Johnston, Keith P; Williams, Robert O

    2007-01-01

    An ultra-rapid freezing (URF) technology has been developed to produce high surface area powders composed of solid solutions of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and a polymer stabilizer. A solution of API and polymer excipient(s) is spread on a cold solid surface to form a thin film that freezes in 50 ms to 1s. This study provides an understanding of how the solvent's physical properties and the thin film geometry influence the freezing rate and consequently the final physico-chemical properties of URF-processed powders. Theoretical calculations of heat transfer rates are shown to be in agreement with infrared images with 10ms resolution. Danazol (DAN)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) powders, produced from both acetonitrile (ACN) and tert-butanol (T-BUT) as the solvent, were amorphous with high surface areas (approximately 28-30 m2/g) and enhanced dissolution rates. However, differences in surface morphology were observed and attributed to the cooling rate (film thickness) as predicted by the model. Relative to spray-freezing processes that use liquid nitrogen, URF also offers fast heat transfer rates as a result of the intimate contact between the solution and cold solid surface, but without the complexity of cryogen evaporation (Leidenfrost effect). The ability to produce amorphous high surface area powders with submicron primary particles with a simple ultra-rapid freezing process is of practical interest in particle engineering to increase dissolution rates, and ultimately bioavailability.

  18. Rapid disintegrating tablets of simvastatin dispersions in polyoxyethylene–polypropylene block copolymer for maximized disintegration and dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balata GF

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gehan F Balata,1,2 Ahmad S Zidan,2 Mohamad AS Abourehab,1,3 Ebtessam A Essa4 1Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 3Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, El-Minia University, El-Minia, 4Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt Abstract: The objective of this research was to improve the dissolution of simvastatin and to incorporate it in rapid disintegrating tablets (RDTs with an optimized disintegration and dissolution characteristics. Polyoxyethylene–polypropylene block copolymer (poloxamer 188 was employed as a hydrophilic carrier to prepare simvastatin solid dispersions (SDs. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and X-ray diffractometry were employed to understand the interaction between the drug and the carrier in the solid state. The results obtained from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed absence of any chemical interaction between the drug and poloxamer. The results of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry confirmed the conversion of simvastatin to distorted crystalline state. The SD of 1:2 w/w drug to carrier ratio showed the highest dissolution; hence, it was incorporated in RDT formulations using a 32 full factorial design and response surface methodology. The initial assessments of RDTs demonstrated an acceptable flow, hardness, and friability to indicate good mechanical strength. The interaction and Pareto charts indicated that percentage of croscarmellose sodium incorporated was the most important factor affecting the disintegration time and dissolution parameter followed by the hardness value and their interaction effect. Compression force showed a superior influence to increase RDT’s porosity and to fasten disintegration rather than swelling action by

  19. A rapid approach for measuring silver nanoparticle concentration and dissolution in seawater by UV-Vis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikder, Mithun; Lead, Jamie R; Chandler, G Thomas; Baalousha, Mohammed

    2017-04-12

    Detection and quantification of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in environmental systems is challenging and requires sophisticated analytical equipment. Furthermore, dissolution is an important environmental transformation process for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) which affects the size, speciation and concentration of AgNPs in natural water systems. Herein, we present a simple approach for the detection, quantification and measurement of dissolution of PVP-coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) based on monitoring their optical properties (extinction spectra) using UV-vis spectroscopy. The dependence of PVP-AgNPs extinction coefficient (ɛ) and maximum absorbance wavelength (λmax) on NP size was experimentally determined. The concentration, size, and extinction spectra of PVP-AgNPs were characterized during dissolution in 30ppt synthetic seawater. AgNPs concentration was determined as the difference between the total and dissolved Ag concentrations measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS); extinction spectra of PVP-AgNPs were monitored by UV-vis; and size evolution was monitored by atomic force microscopy (AFM) over a period of 96h. Empirical equations for the dependence of maximum absorbance wavelength (λmax) and extinction coefficient (ɛ) on NP size were derived. These empirical formulas were then used to calculate the size and concentration of PVP-AgNPs, and dissolved Ag concentration released from PVP-AgNPs in synthetic seawater at variable particle concentrations (i.e. 25-1500μgL(-1)) and in natural seawater at particle concentration of 100μgL(-1). These results suggest that UV-vis can be used as an easy and quick approach for detection and quantification (size and concentration) of sterically stabilized PVP-AgNPs from their extinction spectra. This approach can also be used to monitor the release of Ag from PVP-AgNPs and the concurrent NP size change. Finally, in seawater, AgNPs dissolve faster and to a higher extent with the decrease in NP

  20. Rapid subsidence in damaging sinkholes: Measurement by high-precision leveling and the role of salt dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desir, G.; Gutiérrez, F.; Merino, J.; Carbonel, D.; Benito-Calvo, A.; Guerrero, J.; Fabregat, I.

    2018-02-01

    Investigations dealing with subsidence monitoring in active sinkholes are very scarce, especially when compared with other ground instability phenomena like landslides. This is largely related to the catastrophic behaviour that typifies most sinkholes in carbonate karst areas. Active subsidence in five sinkholes up to ca. 500 m across has been quantitatively characterised by means of high-precision differential leveling. The sinkholes occur on poorly indurated alluvium underlain by salt-bearing evaporites and cause severe damage on various human structures. The leveling data have provided accurate information on multiple features of the subsidence phenomena with practical implications: (1) precise location of the vaguely-defined edges of the subsidence zones and their spatial relationships with surveyed surface deformation features; (2) spatial deformation patterns and relative contribution of subsidence mechanisms (sagging versus collapse); (3) accurate subsidence rates and their spatial variability with maximum and mean vertical displacement rates ranging from 1.0 to 11.8 cm/yr and 1.9 to 26.1 cm/yr, respectively; (4) identification of sinkholes that experience continuous subsidence at constant rates or with significant temporal changes; and (5) rates of volumetric surface changes as an approximation to rates of dissolution-induced volumetric depletion in the subsurface, reaching as much as 10,900 m3/yr in the largest sinkhole. The high subsidence rates as well as the annual volumetric changes are attributed to rapid dissolution of high-solubility salts.

  1. Measurement of humic and fulvic acid concentrations and dissolution properties by a rapid batch procedure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomeren, van A.; Comans, R.N.J.

    2007-01-01

    Although humic substances (HS) strongly facilitate the transport of metals and hydrophobic organic contaminants in environmental systems, their measurement is hampered by the time-consuming nature of currently available methods for their isolation and purification. We present and apply a new rapid

  2. Rapid and near-complete dissolution of wood lignin at ≤80°C by a recyclable acid hydrotrope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liheng; Dou, Jinze; Ma, Qianli; Li, Ning; Wu, Ruchun; Bian, Huiyang; Yelle, Daniel J; Vuorinen, Tapani; Fu, Shiyu; Pan, Xuejun; Zhu, Junyong J Y

    2017-09-01

    We report the discovery of the hydrotropic properties of a recyclable aromatic acid, p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TsOH), for potentially low-cost and efficient fractionation of wood through rapid and near-complete dissolution of lignin. Approximately 90% of poplar wood (NE222) lignin can be dissolved at 80°C in 20 min. Equivalent delignification using known hydrotropes, such as aromatic salts, can be achieved only at 150°C or higher for more than 10 hours or at 150°C for 2 hours with alkaline pulping. p-TsOH fractionated wood into two fractions: (i) a primarily cellulose-rich water-insoluble solid fraction that can be used for the production of high-value building blocks, such as dissolving pulp fibers, lignocellulosic nanomaterials, and/or sugars through subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis; and (ii) a spent acid liquor stream containing mainly dissolved lignin that can be easily precipitated as lignin nanoparticles by diluting the spent acid liquor to below the minimal hydrotrope concentration. Our nuclear magnetic resonance analyses of the dissolved lignin revealed that p-TsOH can depolymerize lignin via ether bond cleavage and can separate carbohydrate-free lignin from the wood. p-TsOH has a relatively low water solubility, which can facilitate efficient recovery using commercially proven crystallization technology by cooling the concentrated spent acid solution to ambient temperatures to achieve environmental sustainability through recycling of p-TsOH.

  3. Toxoplasma gondii infection shifts dendritic cells into an amoeboid rapid migration mode encompassing podosome dissolution, secretion of TIMP-1, and reduced proteolysis of extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ólafsson, Einar B; Varas-Godoy, Manuel; Barragan, Antonio

    2018-03-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) infected by Toxoplasma gondii rapidly acquire a hypermigratory phenotype that promotes systemic parasite dissemination by a "Trojan horse" mechanism in mice. Recent paradigms of leukocyte migration have identified the amoeboid migration mode of DCs as particularly suited for rapid locomotion in extracellular matrix and tissues. Here, we have developed a microscopy-based high-throughput approach to assess motility and matrix degradation by Toxoplasma-challenged murine and human DCs. DCs challenged with T. gondii exhibited dependency on metalloproteinase activity for hypermotility and transmigration but, strikingly, also dramatically reduced pericellular proteolysis. Toxoplasma-challenged DCs up-regulated expression and secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) and their supernatants impaired matrix degradation by naïve DCs and by-stander DCs dose dependently. Gene silencing of TIMP-1 by short hairpin RNA restored matrix degradation activity in Toxoplasma-infected DCs. Additionally, dissolution of podosome structures in parasitised DCs coincided with abrogated matrix degradation. Toxoplasma lysates inhibited pericellular proteolysis in a MyD88-dependent fashion whereas abrogated proteolysis persevered in Toxoplasma-infected MyD88-deficient DCs. This indicated that both TLR/MyD88-dependent and TLR/MyD88-independent signalling pathways mediated podosome dissolution and the abrogated matrix degradation. We report that increased TIMP-1 secretion and cytoskeletal rearrangements encompassing podosome dissolution are features of Toxoplasma-induced hypermigration of DCs with an impact on matrix degradation. Jointly, the data highlight how an obligate intracellular parasite orchestrates key regulatory cellular processes consistent with non-proteolytic amoeboid migration of the vehicle cells that facilitate its dissemination. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A preferential flow leaching index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGrath, G.S.; Hinz, C.; Sivapalan, M.

    2009-01-01

    The experimental evidence suggests that for many chemicals surface runoff and rapid preferential flow through the shallow unsaturated zone are significant pathways for transport to streams and groundwater. The signature of this is the episodic and pulsed leaching of these chemicals. The driver for

  5. Molecular-level elucidation of saccharin-assisted rapid dissolution and high supersaturation level of drug from Eudragit®E solid dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Keisuke; Kanaya, Harunobu; Higashi, Kenjirou; Yamamoto, Keiji; Moribe, Kunikazu

    2018-01-16

    In this work, the effect of saccharin (SAC) addition on the dissolution and supersaturation level of phenytoin (PHT)/Eudragit® E (EUD-E) solid dispersion (SD) at neutral pH was examined. The PHT/EUD-E SD showed a much slower dissolution of PHT compared to the PHT/EUD-E/SAC SD. EUD-E formed a gel layer after the dispersion of the PHT/EUD-E SD into an aqueous medium, resulting in a slow dissolution of PHT. Pre-dissolving SAC in the aqueous medium significantly improved the dissolution of the PHT/EUD-E SD. Solid-state 13 C NMR measurements showed an ionic interaction between the tertiary amino group of EUD-E and the amide group of SAC in the EUD-E gel layer. Consequently, the ionized EUD-E could easily dissolve from the gel layer, promoting PHT dissolution. Solution-state 1 H NMR measurements revealed the presence of ionic interactions between SAC and the amino group of EUD-E in the PHT/EUD-E/SAC solution. In contrast, interactions between PHT and the hydrophobic group of EUD-E strongly inhibited the crystallization of the former from its supersaturated solution. The PHT supersaturated solution was formed from the PHT/EUD-E/SAC SD by the fast dissolution of PHT and the strong crystallization inhibition effect of EUD-E after aqueous dissolution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Preferential dissolution behaviour in Ni–Cr dental cast alloy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Ni–Cr–Mo dental alloy was fabricated by three different casting methods, viz. centrifugal casting, high frequency induction casting and vacuum pressure casting. The dependence of cast microstructure on the electrochemical corrosion behaviour was investigated using potentiodynamic cyclic and potentiostatic polarization ...

  7. Preferential dissolution behaviour in Ni–Cr dental cast alloy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Ni–Cr–Mo; dental cast alloy; microstructure; corrosion; cyclic polarization. 1. Introduction. Co and Ni based alloys are widely used in dental skeletal structures and orthopedic implants such as screws, pins and plates (Wataha 2000). The advantages of these alloys include low cost of casting, matching thermal expansion.

  8. Dissolution processes. [224 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, G.L.

    1976-10-22

    This review contains more than 100 observations and 224 references on the dissolution phenomenon. The dissolution processes are grouped into three categories: methods of aqueous attack, fusion methods, and miscellaneous observations on phenomena related to dissolution problems. (DLC)

  9. Rapid synthesis of Fe-doped CuO-Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 catalysts for CO preferential oxidation in H2-rich streams: Effect of iron source and the ratio of Fe/Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Han, Caiyun; Gao, Xiaoya; Lu, Jichang; Wan, Gengpin; He, Dedong; Chen, Ran; Chen, Kezhen; He, Sufang; Luo, Yongming

    2017-03-01

    A facile route (urea grind combustion method) is described for the rapid synthesis of Fe-doped Cu-Ce-Zr catalysts within 30 min through simple grinding and combustion. The effects of iron source and Fe/Cu mass ratio on the performances of the catalysts for CO preferential oxidation (CO-PROX) are evaluated. The influences of H2O, CO2, and their mixture on the activity as well as stability of the catalysts are also investigated. The samples are characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, H2-TPR, TEM, Raman and XPS. Fe(NO3)3 is found to be superior to FeCl3 and Fe2(SO4)3 as the iron source for Fe-CuCZ catalyst. Among the different synthesized catalysts, 1/10Fe(N)-CuCZ is found to be the most active catalyst, indicating that the optimal Fe/Cu mass ratio is 1/10. The influences of H2O, CO2, and H2O + CO2 on the catalytic performance of 1/10Fe(N)-CuCZ are in the order of CO2 catalytic activity and excellent stability even in the presence of H2O and CO2. The excellent catalytic performance can be attributed to the synergy between the highly dispersed copper species and ceria, as well as the formation of more oxygen vacancies and reduced copper species.

  10. Dissolution Methods Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — For a drug product that does not have a dissolution test method in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), the FDA Dissolution Methods Database provides information on...

  11. Studies of second phase particles in different zirconium alloys using extractive carbon replica and an electrolytic anodic dissolution procedure [rapid communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffolon-Masclet, Caroline; Brachet, Jean-Christophe; Jago, Gilles

    2002-10-01

    Zirconium alloys are widely studied for applications as cladding tubes and structural components of PWR fuel assemblies. Due to their influence on some of the alloys properties (corrosion resistance, irradiation growth, …), the crystallographic structure and the chemical stoichiometry of the second phase particles (SPP) precipitated in these alloys have to be well established. The aim of this paper is to present the results obtained using two methods of SPP extractions. The first one, the extractive carbon replica method, allowed us to determine the chemical composition of SPP in different zirconium alloys: Zr-Sn-Fe-Cr (Zircaloy-4 ®), Zr-Sn-Fe-Cr-(V,Mo), Zr-Nb and Zr-Nb-Fe alloys. The second one, an anodic dissolution procedure of the matrix, is an interesting way of isolating SPP from the surrounding α-Zr matrix, giving access to a precise determination of the crystallographic structure and lattice parameters of the SPP by X-ray diffraction. This procedure was validated for Zy-4 by comparing the SPP size distribution obtained by extraction with that directly measured on a massive Zy-4 alloy (i.e. the SPP size distributions were the same for both measurements).

  12. Combined effect of carbonate and biotite dissolution in landslides biases silicate weathering proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberson, R.; Galy, A.; Hovius, N.

    2017-09-01

    Long-term estimates of the dissolution of silicate rock are generally derived from a range of isotopic proxies, such as the radiogenic strontium isotope ratio (87Sr/86Sr), which are preserved in sediment archives. For these systems to fairly represent silicate weathering, the changes in isotopic ratios in terrestrial surface waters should correspond to changes in the overall silicate dissolution. This assumes that the silicate mineral phases that act as sources of a given isotope dissolve at a rate that is proportional to the overall silicate weathering. Bedrock landsliding exhumes large quantities of fresh rock for weathering in transient storage, and rapid weathering in these deposits is controlled primarily by dissolution of the most reactive phases. In this study, we test the hypothesis that preferential weathering of these labile minerals can decouple the dissolution of strontium sources from the actual silicate weathering rates in the rapidly eroding Western Southern Alps (WSA) of New Zealand. We find that rapid dissolution of relatively radiogenic calcite and biotite in landslides leads to high local fluxes in strontium with isotopic ratios that offer no clear discrimination between sources. These higher fluxes of radiogenic strontium are in contrast to silicate weathering rates in landslides that are not systematically elevated. On a mountain belt scale, radiogenic strontium fluxes are not coupled to volumes of recent landslides in large (>100 km2) catchments, but silicate weathering fluxes are. Such decoupling is likely due first to the broad variability in the strontium content of carbonate minerals, and second to the combination of radiogenic strontium released from both biotite and carbonate in recent landslides. This study supports previous work suggesting the limited utility of strontium isotopes as a system to study silicate weathering in the WSA. Crucially however, in settings where bedrock landsliding is a dominant erosive process there is

  13. Selective aluminum dissolution as a means to observe the microstructure of nanocrystalline intermetallic phases from Al-Fe-Cr-Ti-Ce rapidly solidified alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalcová, Alena; Vojtěch, Dalibor; Novák, Pavel

    2013-02-01

    Rapidly solidified aluminum alloys are promising materials with very fine microstructure. The microscopy observation of these materials is complicated due to overlay of fcc-Al matrix and different intermetallic phases. A possible way to solve this problem is to dissolve the Al matrix. By this process powder formed by single intermetallic phase particles is obtained. In this paper a new aqueous based dissolving agent for Al-based alloy is presented. The influence of oxidation agent (FeCl(3)) concentration on quality of extraction process was studied. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Calcite Dissolution Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berelson, W.; Subhas, A.; Dong, S.; Naviaux, J.; Adkins, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    A geological buffer for high atmospheric CO2 concentrations is neutralization via reaction with CaCO3. We have been studying the dissolution kinetics of carbonate minerals using labeled 13C calcite and Picarro-based measurements of 13C enrichments in solution DIC. This methodology has greatly facilitated our investigation of dissolution kinetics as a function of water carbonate chemistry, temperature and pressure. One can adjust the saturation state Omega by changing the ion activity product (e.g. adjusting carbonate ion concentration), or by changing the solubility product (e.g. adjusting temperature or pressure). The canonical formulation of dissolution rate vs. omega has been refined (Subhas et al. 2015) and shows distinct non-linear behavior near equilibrium and rates in sea water of 1-3 e-6 g/cm2day at omega = 0.8. Carbonic anhydrase (CA), an enzyme that catalyzes the hydration of dissolved CO2 to carbonic acid, was shown (in concentrations rate at low degrees of undersaturation by >500x. This result points to the importance of carbonic acid in enhancing dissolution at low degrees of undersaturation. CA activity and abundance in nature must be considered regarding the role it plays in catalyzing dissolution. We also have been investigating the role of temperature on dissolution kinetics. An increase of 16C yields an order of magnitude increase in dissolution rate. Temperature (and P) also change Omega critical, the saturation state where dissolution rates change substantially. Increasing pressure (achieved in a pressure reaction chamber we built) also shifts Omega critical closer to equilibrium and small pressure increases have large impact on dissolution kinetics. Dissolution rates are enhanced by an order of magnitude for a change in pressure of 1500 psi relative to the dissolution rate achieved by water chemistry effects alone for an omega of 0.8. We've shown that the thermodynamic determination of saturation state does not adequately describe the kinetics

  15. Modeling of Dissolution Effects on Waterflooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexeev, Artem; Shapiro, Alexander; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    reaction rates) may exhibit rapid increase of porosity and permeability near the inlet probably indicating a formation of high permeable channels (wormholes). Water saturation in the zone of dissolution increases due to an increase in the bulk volume accessible for the injected fluid. Volumetric non...

  16. Dissolution Model of Multiple Species: Leaching of Highly Soluble Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luis; Ordóñez, Javier I.; Cisternas, Luis A.

    2017-06-01

    Dissolution of multi-species from a solid matrix is widely extended in different processes such as leaching of minerals; however, its modeling is often focused on a single species. A model for the simultaneous dissolution of soluble species was developed, which considers different solubilities and dissolution rates and considers that particle collapses when the rapidly soluble species is depleted. The collapsed matter is formed by inert material and a fraction of the soluble species with lower dissolution rate that has not dissolved yet. The model is applied to the leaching of a water-soluble mineral (caliche) with two soluble species dissolving simultaneously with different rates. Measured outlet concentrations of nitrate and magnesium were used to validate the model. Results showed that the model reproduced adequately the leaching of species with rapid and intermediate dissolution rate. Effect of the operating and kinetic parameters on the leaching process is also shown using the actual conditions of heap leaching for caliche mineral.

  17. Jarosite dissolution rates in perchlorate brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legett, Carey; Pritchett, Brittany N.; Elwood Madden, Andrew S.; Phillips-Lander, Charity M.; Elwood Madden, Megan E.

    2018-02-01

    Perchlorate salts and the ferric sulfate mineral jarosite have been detected at multiple locations on Mars by both landed instruments and orbiting spectrometers. Many perchlorate brines have eutectic temperatures Mars surface conditions. Therefore, jarosite-bearing rocks and sediments may have been altered by perchlorate brines. Here we measured jarosite dissolution rates in 2 M sodium perchlorate brine as well as dilute water at 298 K to determine the effects of perchlorate anions on jarosite dissolution rates and potential reaction products. We developed a simple method for determining aqueous iron concentrations in high salinity perchlorate solutions using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry that eliminates the risk of rapid oxidation reactions during analyses. Jarosite dissolution rates in 2 M perchlorate brine determined by iron release rate (2.87 × 10-12 ±0.85 × 10-12 mol m-2 s-1) were slightly slower than the jarosite dissolution rate measured in ultrapure (18.2 MΩ cm-1) water (5.06 × 10-12 mol m-2 s-1) using identical methods. No additional secondary phases were observed in XRD analyses of the reaction products. The observed decrease in dissolution rate may be due to lower activity of water (ɑH2O = 0.9) in the 2 M NaClO4 brine compared with ultrapure water (ɑH2O = 1). This suggests that the perchlorate anion does not facilitate iron release, unlike chloride anions which accelerated Fe release rates in previously reported jarosite and hematite dissolution experiments. Since dissolution rates are slower in perchlorate-rich solutions, jarosite is expected to persist longer in perchlorate brines than in dilute waters or chloride-rich brines. Therefore, if perchlorate brines dominate aqueous fluids on the surface of Mars, jarosite may remain preserved over extended periods of time, despite active aqueous processes.

  18. A study on the dissolution rates of K-Cr(VI)-jarosites: kinetic analysis and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Iván A; Mireles, Ister; Patiño, Francisco; Pandiyan, Thangarasu; Flores, Mizraim U; Palacios, Elia G; Gutiérrez, Emmanuel J; Reyes, Martín

    2016-01-01

    The presence of natural and industrial jarosite type-compounds in the environment could have important implications in the mobility of potentially toxic elements such as lead, mercury, arsenic, chromium, among others. Understanding the dissolution reactions of jarosite-type compounds is notably important for an environmental assessment (for water and soil), since some of these elements could either return to the environment or work as temporary deposits of these species, thus would reduce their immediate environmental impact. This work reports the effects of temperature, pH, particle diameter and Cr(VI) content on the initial dissolution rates of K-Cr(VI)-jarosites (KFe3[(SO4)2 - X(CrO4)X](OH)6). Temperature (T) was the variable with the strongest effect, followed by pH in acid/alkaline medium (H3O(+)/OH(-)). It was found that the substitution of CrO4 (2-)in Y-site and the substitution of H3O(+) in M-site do not modify the dissolution rates. The model that describes the dissolution process is the unreacted core kinetic model, with the chemical reaction on the unreacted core surface. The dissolution in acid medium was congruent, while in alkaline media was incongruent. In both reaction media, there is a release of K(+), SO4 (2-) and CrO4 (2-) from the KFe3[(SO4)2 - X(CrO4)X](OH)6 structure, although the latter is rapidly absorbed by the solid residues of Fe(OH)3 in alkaline medium dissolutions. The dissolution of KFe3[(SO4)2 - X(CrO4)X](OH)6 exhibited good stability in a wide range of pH and T conditions corresponding to the calculated parameters of reaction order n, activation energy E A and dissolution rate constants for each kinetic stages of induction and progressive conversion. The kinetic analysis related to the reaction orders and calculated activation energies confirmed that extreme pH and T conditions are necessary to obtain considerably high dissolution rates. Extreme pH conditions (acidic or alkaline) cause the preferential release of K(+), SO4 (2

  19. A novel high throughput method to investigate polymer dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Mallapragada, Surya K; Narasimhan, Balaji

    2010-02-16

    The dissolution behavior of polystyrene (PS) in biodiesel was studied by developing a novel high throughput approach based on Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy. A multiwell device for high throughput dissolution testing was fabricated using a photolithographic rapid prototyping method. The dissolution of PS films in each well was tracked by following the characteristic IR band of PS and the effect of PS molecular weight and temperature on the dissolution rate was simultaneously investigated. The results were validated with conventional gravimetric methods. The high throughput method can be extended to evaluate the dissolution profiles of a large number of samples, or to simultaneously investigate the effect of variables such as polydispersity, crystallinity, and mixed solvents. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Determinants of marriage dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Mohd Amirul Rafiq Abu; Shafie, Siti Aishah Mohd; Hadi, Az'lina Abdul; Razali, Nornadiah Mohd; Azid @ Maarof, Nur Niswah Naslina

    2015-10-01

    Nowadays, the number of divorce cases among Muslim couples is very worrisome whereby the total cases reported in 2013 increased by half of the total cases reported in the previous year. The questions on the true key factors of dissolution of marriage continue to arise. Thus, the objective of this study is to reveal the factors that contribute to the dissolution of marriage. A total of 181 cases and ten potential determinants were included in this study. The potential determinants considered were age at marriage of husband and wife, educational level of husband and wife, employment status of husband and wife, income of husband and wife, the number of children and the presence at a counseling session. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that four determinants, namely the income of husband and wife, number of children and the presence at a counselling session were significant in predicting the likelihood of divorce among Muslim couples.

  1. Non-preferential Trading Clubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the welfare implications of non-discriminatory tariff reforms by a subset of countries, which we term a non-preferential trading club. We show that there exist coordinated tariff reforms, accompanied by appropriate income transfers between the member countries, that unambiguou......, that unambiguously increase the welfare of these countries while leaving the welfare of non-members unaltered. In terms of economic policy implications, our results show that there exist regional, MFN-consistent arrangements that lead to Pareto improvements in world welfare....

  2. Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-12-31

    This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.

  3. Information filtering via preferential diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Linyuan

    2011-01-01

    Recommender systems have shown great potential to address information overload problem, namely to help users in finding interesting and relevant objects within a huge information space. Some physical dynamics, including heat conduction process and mass or energy diffusion on networks, have recently found applications in personalized recommendation. Most of the previous studies focus overwhelmingly on recommendation accuracy as the only important factor, while overlook the significance of diversity and novelty which indeed provide the vitality of the system. In this paper, we propose a recommendation algorithm based on the preferential diffusion process on user-object bipartite network. Numerical analyses on two benchmark datasets, MovieLens and Netflix, indicate that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. Specifically, it can not only provide more accurate recommendations, but also generate more diverse and novel recommendations by accurately recommending unpopular objects.

  4. Information filtering via preferential diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Linyuan; Liu, Weiping

    2011-06-01

    Recommender systems have shown great potential in addressing the information overload problem, namely helping users in finding interesting and relevant objects within a huge information space. Some physical dynamics, including the heat conduction process and mass or energy diffusion on networks, have recently found applications in personalized recommendation. Most of the previous studies focus overwhelmingly on recommendation accuracy as the only important factor, while overlooking the significance of diversity and novelty that indeed provide the vitality of the system. In this paper, we propose a recommendation algorithm based on the preferential diffusion process on a user-object bipartite network. Numerical analyses on two benchmark data sets, MovieLens and Netflix, indicate that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. Specifically, it can not only provide more accurate recommendations, but also generate more diverse and novel recommendations by accurately recommending unpopular objects.

  5. Biorelevant dissolution media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilardia-Arana, David; Kristensen, Henning G; Müllertz, Anette

    2006-01-01

    Biorelevant dissolution media containing bile salt and lecithin at concentrations appropriate for fed and fasted state are useful when testing oral solid formulations of poorly water-soluble drugs. Dilution of amphiphile solutions affects the aggregation state of the amphiphiles because bile salt....... Dilution of the two- and four component media caused enlargement of the mixed micelles and formation of vesicles. The solubility of estradiol in the buffer solution was increased with addition of the amphiphiles. A good correlation (R(2) = 0.987) was found between estradiol solubility and mass...

  6. Biorelevant dissolution of candesartan cilexetil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Gruberová

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The choice of an appropriate medium for dissolution tests is an essential step during a dosage form development. The adequate design of dissolution testing enables forecasting in vivo behavior of drug formulation. Biorelevant media were developed for this purpose because dissolution media described in the International Pharmacopoeia are not thoroughly suitable. Therefore, we carried out solubility and dissolution tests in biorelevant media and we compared the results with data measured in compendial dissolution media. A shake-flask method and standard paddle apparatus were used. The concentration was measured by a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. An oral solid dosage form with poorly soluble drug candesartan cilexetil was tested. Significant differences in the solubility and dissolution profiles of candesartan cilexetil were observed. The study offers the overview of compendial and biorelevant media simulating fasted state that can be analyzed by a spectrophotometric technique.

  7. Three-dimensional simulations of fracture dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starchenko, Vitaliy; Marra, Cameron J.; Ladd, Anthony J. C.

    2016-09-01

    Numerical studies of fracture dissolution are frequently based on two-dimensional models, where the fracture geometry is represented by an aperture field h(x,y). However, it is known that such models can break down when the spatial variations in aperture are rapid or large in amplitude; for example, in a rough fracture or when instabilities in the dissolution front develop into pronounced channels (or wormholes). Here we report a finite-volume implementation of a three-dimensional reactive transport model using the OpenFOAM® toolkit. Extensions to the OpenFOAM source code have been developed which displace and then relax the mesh in response to variations in the surface concentration; up to 100-fold increases in fracture aperture are possible without remeshing. Our code has simulated field-scale fractures with physical dimensions of about 10 m. We report simulations of smooth fractures, with small, well-controlled perturbations in fracture aperture introduced at the inlet. This allows for systematic convergence studies and for detailed comparisons with results from a two-dimensional model. Initially, the fracture aperture develops similarly in both models, but as local inhomogeneities develop the results start to diverge. We investigate numerically the onset of instabilities in the dissolution of fractures with small random variations in the initial aperture field. Our results show that elliptical cross sections, which are characteristic of karstic conduits, can develop very rapidly, on time scales of 10-20 years in calcite rocks.

  8. Experimental observations of dolomite dissolution in geologic carbon sequestration conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, A. J.; Kong, X.; Tutolo, B. M.; Saar, M. O.; Seyfried, W. E.

    2013-12-01

    One sequestration scenario proposed to reduce CO2 emissions involves injecting CO2 into saline formations or hydrocarbon reservoirs, where dolomite frequently occurs. To better understand fluid-mineral interactions in these sequestration settings, we have conducted a series of single-pass, flow-through experiments on dolomite core samples with CO2-bearing brine. An important component of the experimental design was to maintain the fabric of the rock so as to more accurately simulate fluid flow in natural dolomite-bearing systems. Seven experiments were conducted at 100°C and a pore-fluid pressure of 150 bars with a fluid containing 1 molal NaCl and 0.6 molal dissolved CO2. Flow rates ranged from 0.01 to 1 ml/min. Each experiment was terminated before dissolution breakthrough, but permeability increased by approximately an order of magnitude for all experiments. In general, Ca and Mg concentrations were initially high, but then decreased with reaction progress. We hypothesize that time-dependent changes in fluid chemistry reflect reduction in reactive surface area. Fluid chemistry also indicates preferential removal of Ba, Mn, and Sr with respect to Ca and Mg. In the extreme case, 70% of the Ba was removed from one core, while only 3% of the Ca, Mg, or the entire core mass was removed by dissolution. Ongoing work is focused on identifying elemental distributions throughout the rock to better understand the dissolution process. With fluid chemistry and BET surface area, we model dissolution rate as a function of core length using reactive transport simulations and compare our whole rock, far from equilibrium dissolution rates with analogous data reported in the literature. Finally, X-ray computed tomography images enable reconstructions of dissolution patterns, and they are being used to explore the effect of pore space heterogeneity on flow path development. Geologic carbon sequestration in dolomite will produce significant dissolution at the brine/CO2 interface

  9. Coexistence in preferential attachment networks

    CERN Document Server

    Antunović, Tonći; Racz, Miklos Z

    2013-01-01

    Competition in markets is ubiquitous: cell-phone providers, computer manufacturers, and sport gear brands all vie for customers. Though several coexisting competitors are often observed in empirical data, many current theoretical models of competition on small-world networks predict a single winner taking over the majority of the network. We introduce a new model of product adoption that focuses on word-of-mouth recommendations to provide an explanation for this coexistence of competitors. The key property of our model is that customer choices evolve simultaneously with the network of customers. When a new node joins the network, it chooses neighbors according to preferential attachment, and then chooses its type based on the number of initial neighbors of each type. This can model a new cell-phone user choosing a cell-phone provider, a new student choosing a laptop, or a new athletic team member choosing a gear provider. We provide a detailed analysis of the new model; in particular, we determine the possibl...

  10. 15 CFR 700.14 - Preferential scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preferential scheduling. 700.14...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Industrial Priorities § 700.14 Preferential scheduling. (a) A...

  11. Rapid synthesis of hybrids and hollow PdO nanostructures by controlled in situ dissolution of a ZnO nanorod template: insights into the formation mechanism and thermal stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Subhajit; Ravishankar, N.

    2016-01-01

    Hollow nanomaterials have attracted a lot of interest by virtue of their wide range of applications that arise primarily due to their unique architecture. A common strategy to synthesize hollow nanomaterials is by nucleation of the shell material over a preformed core and subsequent dissolution of the core in the second step. Herein an ultrafast, microwave route has been demonstrated, to synthesize PdO nanotubes in a single step using ZnO as a sacrificial template. The mechanism of the nanotube formation has been investigated in detail using control experiments. By tuning the starting ratio of PdCl2 : ZnO, hollow to hybrid PdO nanostructures could be obtained using the same method. Conversion of the PdO to Pd nanotubes has been shown by simple NaBH4 treatment. The thermal stability of the PdO nanotubes has been studied. The insights presented here are general and applicable for the synthesis of hybrids/hollow structures in other systems as well.Hollow nanomaterials have attracted a lot of interest by virtue of their wide range of applications that arise primarily due to their unique architecture. A common strategy to synthesize hollow nanomaterials is by nucleation of the shell material over a preformed core and subsequent dissolution of the core in the second step. Herein an ultrafast, microwave route has been demonstrated, to synthesize PdO nanotubes in a single step using ZnO as a sacrificial template. The mechanism of the nanotube formation has been investigated in detail using control experiments. By tuning the starting ratio of PdCl2 : ZnO, hollow to hybrid PdO nanostructures could be obtained using the same method. Conversion of the PdO to Pd nanotubes has been shown by simple NaBH4 treatment. The thermal stability of the PdO nanotubes has been studied. The insights presented here are general and applicable for the synthesis of hybrids/hollow structures in other systems as well. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of experiments

  12. Rapid synthesis of hybrids and hollow PdO nanostructures by controlled in situ dissolution of a ZnO nanorod template: insights into the formation mechanism and thermal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Subhajit; Ravishankar, N

    2016-01-21

    Hollow nanomaterials have attracted a lot of interest by virtue of their wide range of applications that arise primarily due to their unique architecture. A common strategy to synthesize hollow nanomaterials is by nucleation of the shell material over a preformed core and subsequent dissolution of the core in the second step. Herein an ultrafast, microwave route has been demonstrated, to synthesize PdO nanotubes in a single step using ZnO as a sacrificial template. The mechanism of the nanotube formation has been investigated in detail using control experiments. By tuning the starting ratio of PdCl2 : ZnO, hollow to hybrid PdO nanostructures could be obtained using the same method. Conversion of the PdO to Pd nanotubes has been shown by simple NaBH4 treatment. The thermal stability of the PdO nanotubes has been studied. The insights presented here are general and applicable for the synthesis of hybrids/hollow structures in other systems as well.

  13. The shell dissolution of various empty hard capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiwele, I; Jones, B E; Podczeck, F

    2000-07-01

    The shell dissolution properties of gelatine, gelatine/polyethylene glycol (PEG) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) capsules were studied as a function of temperature, dissolution medium, and after different storage conditions. In any dissolution medium with a pH below or equal to 5.8, HPMC capsule shells dissolved rapidly, and there was no difference in the time in which dissolution occurred in the tested temperature interval of 10 to 55 degrees C. Gelatine and gelatine/PEG capsule shells, generally, did not dissolve at temperatures below 30 degrees C. The shell dissolution time of all capsules tested was prolonged and more variable in mixed phosphate buffer pH = 6.8. The addition of enzymes (pepsin, pancreatin) to any dissolution medium was found not to enhance the differences between the different types of capsules investigated. In practical terms, the results indicated that capsule formulations should not be taken with drinks from the carbonated Cola-type. Gelatine containing capsules should preferably be administered with a warm drink, whereas HPMC capsules could be given with cold or warm drinks. The latter type of capsules should also be preferred for preparations to be taken in the fasted state. A short storage of gelatine containing capsules under hot humid tropical conditions appeared not to alter the dissolution properties of the shells, and changes in disintegration times and dissolution times of formulations filled in such capsules might be a reflection of changes of the powders incorporated rather than of the capsule shells. However, a short storage of HPMC capsules under such conditions appeared to influence the capsule shell matrix.

  14. Dissolution Threats and Legislative Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becher, Michael; Christiansen, Flemming Juul

    2015-01-01

    Chief executives in many parliamentary democracies have the power to dissolve the legislature. Despite a well-developed literature on the endogenous timing of parliamentary elections, political scientists know remarkably little about the strategic use of dissolution power to influence policymakin......, are important determinants of the use and effectiveness of dissolution threats in policymaking. Analyzing an original time-series data set from a multiparty parliamentary democracy, we find evidence in line with key empirical implications of the model....

  15. Dissolution of peripheral arterial thrombi by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariani, M; Fishbein, M C; Chae, J S; Sadeghi, H; Michael, A D; Dubin, S B; Siegel, R J

    1991-10-01

    We have previously shown that continuous-wave ultrasound can rapidly dissolve human thrombi in vitro, with 99% of all residual particles measuring less than 10 microns in diameter. To assess the effects of pulsed-wave ultrasound energy on whole blood clots, 1) in vitro studies were preformed to assess precisely the rates of clot disruption and to quantify particulate size, and 2) in vivo studies were performed to assess the efficacy and safety of catheter-delivered ultrasound for intra-arterial thrombus dissolution. In vitro, we studied 50 samples of human whole blood clots and using an 89-cm-long wire probe, applied pulse-wave energies from 8 to 23 W. The corresponding peak-to-peak tip displacement range was 63.5 - 102 microns. We studied arterial thrombosis in vivo in 21 canine superficial femoral arteries. To produce an acute thrombosis, 200 units of thrombin followed by 2 ml of 72-hour-old autologous clot were injected into a 5-7-cm segment of femoral artery and left to coagulate for 2 hours. Ultrasound energy was intermittently applied at a frequency of 20 kHz with a prototype ultrasound wire ensheathed in a catheter and directed to clots by fluoroscopy. In nine cases, angioscopic guidance was used to put the probe into direct contact with the intra-arterial thromboses. In vitro clot dissolution times were inversely related to the ultrasound power output (r = 0.95). All in vivo canine thromboses were disrupted in 4 minutes or less. All successful recanalizations were confirmed by angiography and in nine cases by angioscopy as well. Angioscopy demonstrated that probe activation caused rapid clot disruption. Histological studies of the vessels showed no evidence of thermal or cavitation injury, occlusive distal embolization, or perforation. Our findings in this experimental canine model suggest that ultrasound clot dissolution has the potential to be an effective and safe alternative to current treatment modalities for peripheral arterial thrombosis.

  16. Development of Dissolution Test Method for Drotaverine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Sink conditions, drug stability and specificity in different dissolution media were tested to optimize a dissolution test method using a USP paddle type dissolution test apparatus set at a speed of. 50 rpm. The dissolution medium consisted of 900 ml of phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) containing 0.25% w/v cetrimide at 37 ...

  17. 12 CFR 546.4 - Voluntary dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary dissolution. 546.4 Section 546.4... ASSOCIATIONS-MERGER, DISSOLUTION, REORGANIZATION, AND CONVERSION § 546.4 Voluntary dissolution. A Federal savings association's board of directors may propose a plan for dissolution of the association. The plan...

  18. Semantic foundation for preferential description logics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Description logics are a well-established family of knowledge representation formalisms in Artificial Intelligence. Enriching description logics with non-monotonic reasoning capabilities, especially preferential reasoning as developed by Lehmann...

  19. Optimal Design in Geostatistics under Preferential Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Gustavo da Silva; Gamerman, Dani

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of preferential sampling in Geostatistics when the choice of new sampling locations is the main interest of the researcher. A Bayesian criterion based on maximizing utility functions is used. Simulated studies are presented and highlight the strong influence of preferential sampling in the decisions. The computational complexity is faced by treating the new local sampling locations as a model parameter and the optimal choice is then made by analysing its posteri...

  20. Preferential tax regimes with asymmetric countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bucovetsky, Sam; Haufler, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Current policy initiatives taken by the EU and the OECD aim at abolishing preferential corporate tax regimes. This note extends Keen's (2001) analysis of symmetric capital tax competition under preferential (or discriminatory) and non-discriminatory tax regimes to allow for countries of different size. Even though size asymmetries imply a redistribution of tax revenue from the larger to the smaller country, a non-discrimination policy is found to have similar effects as in the symmetric model...

  1. Modeling Dissolution and Precipitation Dynamics During Dedolomitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edery, Y.; Scher, H.; Berkowitz, B.

    2010-12-01

    We simulate the process of dedolomitization and the precipitation of calcium carbonate using particle tracking. The study is stimulated by the results of a laboratory experiment of reactive transport of injected CaCl2/HCl in a constant flow field in a column of sucrosic dolomite particles. The injected fluid basically supplied Ca2+ and H+ and the dedolomitization is a protonation reaction yielding carbonic acid, which in a deprotonation reaction yields CO32-, and reacting with the abundant Ca2+ forms the precipitate CaCO3. The novelty of the simulation is to treat the dynamics of the rate limiting reactants with particle tracking. At each time step the local concentration of H+ determines the probability (assuming local carbonate equilibria) of precipitation and dissolution. The precipitation changes the porosity which in turn changes the local flow field. The particle tracking is governed by spatial and temporal distributions within a continuous time random walk framework. This includes the option of either advective-dispersive (Fickian) transport or the effects of disorder of heterogeneous media --- non-Fickian behavior. The dynamics of dedolomitization are examined for different flow conditions and for different spectra of velocity tails of the reactants. The fluctuations in the local velocity distributions, due to porosity changes, create conditions for positive feedbacks leading to preferential pathways and large-scale nonlinearity and precipitation banding. This feature has been observed in the laboratory experiments and is now accounted for by the simulation results at similar time frames, velocities and pH levels.

  2. Dissolution of anionic surfactant mesophases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Andreas S; Jones, Christopher S; Cabral, João T

    2017-08-09

    Linear and circular solvent penetration experiments are used to study the dissolution of anionic SLE3S surfactant mesophases in water. We show that a lamellar (Lα) phase in contact with water will transit through a series of cubic, hexagonal, and micellar phase bands with sharp interfaces identified from their optical textures. In both linear and circular geometries, the kinetics of front propagation and eventual dissolution are well described by diffusive penetration of water, and a simple model applies to both geometries, with a different effective diffusion coefficient for water Df as the only fitting parameter. Finally, we show a surprising variation of dissolution rates with initial surfactant concentration that can be well explained by assuming that the driving force for solvent penetration is the osmotic pressure difference between neat water and the aqueous fraction of the mesophase that is highly concentrated in surfactant counterions.

  3. Discovering Preferential Patterns in Sectoral Trade Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Cingolani

    Full Text Available We analyze the patterns of import/export bilateral relations, with the aim of assessing the relevance and shape of "preferentiality" in countries' trade decisions. Preferentiality here is defined as the tendency to concentrate trade on one or few partners. With this purpose, we adopt a systemic approach through the use of the tools of complex network analysis. In particular, we apply a pattern detection approach based on community and pseudocommunity analysis, in order to highlight the groups of countries within which most of members' trade occur. The method is applied to two intra-industry trade networks consisting of 221 countries, relative to the low-tech "Textiles and Textile Articles" and the high-tech "Electronics" sectors for the year 2006, to look at the structure of world trade before the start of the international financial crisis. It turns out that the two networks display some similarities and some differences in preferential trade patterns: they both include few significant communities that define narrow sets of countries trading with each other as preferential destinations markets or supply sources, and they are characterized by the presence of similar hierarchical structures, led by the largest economies. But there are also distinctive features due to the characteristics of the industries examined, in which the organization of production and the destination markets are different. Overall, the extent of preferentiality and partner selection at the sector level confirm the relevance of international trade costs still today, inducing countries to seek the highest efficiency in their trade patterns.

  4. Actor bonds after relationship dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    2000-01-01

    Most of the presented papers at the 1st NoRD Workshop can be classified as belonging to the business marketing approach to relationship dissolution. Two papers were conceptual, and the remaining six were empirical studies. The first conceptual study by Skaates (2000) focuses on the nature...... of the actor bonds that remain after a business relationship has ended. The study suggests that an interdisciplinary approach would provide a richer understanding of the phenomenon; this could be achieved by using e.g. Bourdieu's sociological concepts in dissolution research....

  5. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies of a miniaturized dissolution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenning, G; Ahnfelt, E; Sjögren, E; Lennernäs, H

    2017-04-15

    Dissolution testing is an important tool that has applications ranging from fundamental studies of drug-release mechanisms to quality control of the final product. The rate of release of the drug from the delivery system is known to be affected by hydrodynamics. In this study we used computational fluid dynamics to simulate and investigate the hydrodynamics in a novel miniaturized dissolution method for parenteral formulations. The dissolution method is based on a rotating disc system and uses a rotating sample reservoir which is separated from the remaining dissolution medium by a nylon screen. Sample reservoirs of two sizes were investigated (SR6 and SR8) and the hydrodynamic studies were performed at rotation rates of 100, 200 and 400rpm. The overall fluid flow was similar for all investigated cases, with a lateral upward spiraling motion and central downward motion in the form of a vortex to and through the screen. The simulations indicated that the exchange of dissolution medium between the sample reservoir and the remaining release medium was rapid for typical screens, for which almost complete mixing would be expected to occur within less than one minute at 400rpm. The local hydrodynamic conditions in the sample reservoirs depended on their size; SR8 appeared to be relatively more affected than SR6 by the resistance to liquid flow resulting from the screen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of CT Number-Derived Matrix Density on Preferential Flow 1 and Transport in a Macroporous Agricultural Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katuwal, Sheela; Moldrup, Per; Lamandé, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Preferential flow and transport in structured soils can be intimately linked to numerous environmental problems. Surface-applied chemicals are susceptible to rapid transport in structural soil pores to deeper depths, thereby potentially contaminating valuable environmental resources and posing ri...

  7. An experiment to assess the effects of diatom dissolution on oxygen isotope ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew C; Leng, Melanie J; Swann, George E A; Barker, Philip A; Mackay, Anson W; Ryves, David B; Sloane, Hilary J; Chenery, Simon R N; Hems, Mike

    2016-01-30

    Current studies which use the oxygen isotope composition from diatom silica (δ(18) Odiatom ) as a palaeoclimate proxy assume that the δ(18) Odiatom value reflects the isotopic composition of the water in which the diatom formed. However, diatoms dissolve post mortem, preferentially losing less silicified structures in the water column and during/after burial into sediments. The impact of dissolution on δ(18) Odiatom values and potential misinterpretation of the palaeoclimate record are evaluated. Diatom frustules covering a range of ages (6 samples from the Miocene to the Holocene), environments and species were exposed to a weak alkaline solution for 48 days at two temperatures (20 °C and 4 °C), mimicking natural dissolution post mucilage removal. Following treatment, dissolution was assessed using scanning electron microscope images and a qualitative diatom dissolution index. The diatoms were subsequently analysed for their δ(18) O values using step-wise fluorination and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Variable levels of diatom dissolution were observed between the six samples; in all cases higher temperatures resulted in more frustule degradation. Dissolution was most evident in younger samples, probably as a result of the more porous nature of the silica. The degree of diatom dissolution does not directly equate to changes in the isotope ratios; the δ(18) Odiatom value was, however, lower after dissolution, but in only half the samples was this reduction outside the analytical error (2σ analytical error = 0.46‰). We have shown that dissolution can have a small negative impact on δ(18) Odiatom values, causing reductions of up to 0.59‰ beyond analytical error (0.46‰) at natural environmental temperatures. These findings need to be considered in palaeoenvironmental reconstructions using δ(18) Odiatom values, especially when interpreting variations in these values of <1‰. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Reverse preferential spread in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoizumi, Hiroshi; Tani, Seiichi; Miyoshi, Naoto; Okamoto, Yoshio

    2012-08-01

    Large-degree nodes may have a larger influence on the network, but they can be bottlenecks for spreading information since spreading attempts tend to concentrate on these nodes and become redundant. We discuss that the reverse preferential spread (distributing information inversely proportional to the degree of the receiving node) has an advantage over other spread mechanisms. In large uncorrelated networks, we show that the mean number of nodes that receive information under the reverse preferential spread is an upper bound among any other weight-based spread mechanisms, and this upper bound is indeed a logistic growth independent of the degree distribution.

  9. Dissolution of cemented carbide powders in artificial sweat: implications for cobalt sensitization and contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Harvey, Christopher J; Virji, M Abbas; Day, Gregory A

    2010-10-06

    Skin exposure to cobalt-containing materials can cause systemic immune sensitization and upon repeat contact, elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Data on cobalt dissolution rates are needed to calculate uptake through skin and for development of models to understand risk of sensitization or dermatitis. The purpose of this research was to measure the dissolution kinetics of feedstock and process-sampled powders encountered in the production of hard metal alloys using artificial sweat. The physicochemical properties of each material were characterized prior to evaluation of dissolution behavior. Variations in artificial sweat solvent pH and chemistry were used to understand critical factors in dissolution. Dissolution of cobalt, tungsten, and tungsten carbide was often biphasic with the initial rapid phase being up to three orders of magnitude faster than the latter long-term phase. Artificial sweat pH did not influence dissolution of cobalt or tungsten carbide. Solvent composition had little influence on observed dissolution rates; however, vitamin E suppressed the dissolution of cobalt and tungsten carbide from sintered particles obtained from a chamfer grinder. There was no effect of particle size on dissolution of feedstock cobalt, tungsten, tungsten carbide, and admixture powders. Particle physicochemical properties influenced observed dissolution rates with more cobalt and tungsten carbide dissolving from chamfer grinder particles compared to the feedstock powders or admixture powder. Calculations using the observed dissolution rates revealed that skin exposure concentrations were similar to concentrations known to induce cobalt sensitization and elicit ACD. Observed dissolution rates for cobalt in artificial sweat indicate that dermal uptake may be sufficient to induce cobalt sensitization and allergic dermatitis.

  10. On the variability of dissolution data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkoshi, Z

    1997-10-01

    To investigate dissolution data variability and its origins. The Weibull function with four parameters t0 (dissolution lag-time), K (the rate parameter), beta (the shape parameter) and D (the fraction dissolved as t-->infinity), is used to describe the dissolution curve. The variance of the dissolution data is expressed in terms of these parameters and their individual variances sigma t02, sigma K2, sigma beta 2, and sigma D2. These four variances originate from variable physical properties of the dosage units and from a variable dissolution environment. Therefore, dissolution data variability depends on both, the functional form of the curve and on the variance of the physical conditions. The use of this method enables the elucidation of the sources of dissolution data variability. In the case of a sigmoidal dissolution curve (beta > 1), data variance is zero as dissolution begins (following dissolution lag-time). This initial variance diverges when the dissolution curve is non-sigmoidal (with beta point (corresponding to the curve inflection point, when the main source of variability is dissolution lag-time t0, or around t = 1/K + t0, when the main sources of variability are the rate parameter K or the shape parameter beta). When the curve is sigmoidal (beta > 1) and the main source of variability relates to the dissolution extent, the overall variance grows with time all the way to the plateau of the dissolution curve. With a non-sigmoidal dissolution curve (beta point. The dissolution relative variance, on the other hand, diverges as dissolution begins and decreases with time at least until 63% of the drug is released, irrespective to the Weibull parameter values. Later, it may decrease or increase, attaining a fixed value (sigma D2/D2) at the plateau of the dissolution curve. The particular time dependence of dissolution data variance is well defined in terms of the Weibull shape parameters and their individual variances. Dissolution data variability may

  11. A macroscopic relationship for preferential flow in the vadose zone: Theory and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.H.; Zhang, R.D.

    2010-02-15

    Preferential flow commonly observed in unsaturated soils allows rapid movement of solute from the ground surface or vadose zone to the groundwater, bypassing a significant volume of unsaturated soil and increasing the risk of groundwater contamination. A variety of evidence indicates that complex preferential flow patterns observed from fields are fractals. This paper discusses a macroscopic rela-tionship for modeling preferential flow in the vadose zone. Conceptually, the flow domain can be di-vided into active and inactive regions. Flow occurs preferentially in the active region (characterized by fractals), and inactive region is simply bypassed. The portion of the active region was found to be a power function of saturation. The validity of this macroscopic relationship is demonstrated by its consistency with field observations and the related numerical experiments.

  12. 25 CFR 11.606 - Dissolution proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dissolution proceedings. 11.606 Section 11.606 Indians... ORDER CODE Domestic Relations § 11.606 Dissolution proceedings. (a) Either or both parties to the marriage may initiate dissolution proceedings. (b) If a proceeding is commenced by one of the parties, the...

  13. Childbearing and Dissolution of the Second Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wineberg, Howard

    1992-01-01

    Examined relationship between childbearing and dissolution of second marriage among 713 white women. Women who gave birth in second marriage had significantly reduced probability of dissolution. Childbearing prior to remarriage was associated with increased risk of dissolution in first five years of remarriage. Other results suggest bringing…

  14. Lyophilic matrix method for dissolution and release studies of nanoscale particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessi, Jenni; Svanbäck, Sami; Lassila, Ilkka; Hæggström, Edward; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2017-10-25

    We introduce a system with a lyophilic matrix to aid dissolution studies of powders and particulate systems. This lyophilic matrix method (LM method) is based on the ability to discriminate between non-dissolved particles and the dissolved species. In the LM method the test substance is embedded in a thin lyophilic core-shell matrix. This permits rapid contact with the dissolution medium while minimizing dispersion of non-dissolved particles without presenting a substantial diffusion barrier. The method produces realistic dissolution and release results for particulate systems, especially those featuring nanoscale particles. By minimizing method-induced effects on the dissolution profile of nanopowders, the LM method overcomes shortcomings associated with current dissolution tests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dissolution test for glibenclamide tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Aparecida dos Santos Gianotto

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop and validate a dissolution test for glibenclamide tablets. Optimal conditions to carry out the dissolution test are 500 mL of phosphate buffer at pH 8.0, paddles at 75 rpm stirring speed, time test set to 60 min and using equipment with six vessels. The derivative UV spectrophotometric method for determination of glibenclamide released was developed, validated and compared with the HPLC method. The UVDS method presents linearity (r² = 0.9999 in the concentration range of 5-14 µg/mL. Precision and recoveries were 0.42% and 100.25%, respectively. The method was applied to three products commercially available on the Brazilian market.

  16. Dissolution Kinetics of Alumina Calcine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas

    2001-09-01

    Dissolution kinetics of alumina type non-radioactive calcine was investigated as part of ongoing research that addresses permanent disposal of Idaho High Level Waste (HLW). Calcine waste was produced from the processing of nuclear fuel at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). Acidic radioactive raffinates were solidified at ~500°C in a fluidized bed reactor to form the dry granular calcine material. Several Waste Management alternatives for the calcine are presented in the Idaho High Level Waste Draft EIS. The Separations Alternative addresses the processing of the calcine so that the HLW is ready for removal to a national geological repository by the year 2035. Calcine dissolution is the key front-end unit operation for the separations alternative.

  17. After adoption: dissolution or permanence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festinger, Trudy

    2002-01-01

    Results are presented on the whereabouts of 516 adopted children, based on a random sample of children adopted from placement in New York City in 1996. Data from interviews with adoptive parents were augmented by information from adoption subsidy records and state child tracking files, as well as interviews with caregivers of children whose adoptive parents were deceased. There were few dissolutions, but postadoption service needs were many.

  18. Attention and attribute overlap in preferential choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Sudeep

    2017-07-01

    Attributes that are common, or overlapping, across alternatives in two-alternative forced preferential choice tasks are often non-diagnostic. In many settings, attending to and evaluating these attributes does not help the decision maker determine which of the available alternatives is the most desirable. For this reason, many existing behavioural theories propose that decision makers ignore common attributes while deliberating. Across six experiments, we find that decision makers do direct their attention selectively and ignore attributes that are not present in or associated with either of the available alternatives. However, they are as likely to attend to common attributes as they are to attend to attributes that are unique to a single alternative. These results suggest the need for novel theories of attention in preferential choice.

  19. Hydrogen production from the dissolution of nano zero valent iron and its effect on anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Xi; Guo, Jialiang; Zhang, Chunyang; Hu, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Nano zero valent iron (NZVI) has shown inhibition on methanogenesis in anaerobic digestion due to its reductive decomposition of cell membrane. The inhibition was accompanied by the accumulation of hydrogen gas due to rapid NZVI dissolution. It is not clear whether and how rapid hydrogen release from NZVI dissolution directly affects anaerobic digestion. In this study, the hydrogen release kinetics from NZVI (average size = 55 ± 11 nm) dissolution in deionized water under anaerobic conditions was first evaluated. The first-order NZVI dissolution rate constant was 2.62 ± 0.26 h(-1) with its half-life of 0.26 ± 0.03 h. Two sets of anaerobic digestion experiments (i.e., in the presence of glucose or without any substrate but at different anaerobic sludge concentrations) were performed to study the impact of H2 release from rapid NZVI dissolution, in which H2 was generated in a separate water bottle containing NZVI (i.e., ex situ H2 or externally supplied from NZVI dissolution) before hydrogen gas was introduced to anaerobic digestion. The results showed that the H2 partial pressure in the headspace of the digestion bottle reached as high as 0.27 atm due to rapid NZVI dissolution, resulting in temporary inhibition of methane production. Nevertheless, the 5-d cumulative methane volume in the group with ex situ H2 production due to NZVI dissolution was actually higher than that of control, suggesting NZVI inhibition on methanogenesis is solely due to the reductive decomposition of cell membrane after direct contact with NZVI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dissolution rates of over-the-counter painkillers: a comparison among formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemanni, Matteo; Gatoulis, Sergio C; Voelker, Michael

    2016-06-01

    We wanted to compare the dissolution profile of several over-the-counter analgesics to understand whether the different formulation techniques employed to enhance absorption were associated with variations in the dissolution rate, a parameter known to affect drug absorption. We considered 5 formulations currently marketed in Italy: aspirin tablets (Aspirina Dolore e Infiammazione®), ibuprofen tablets and liquid capsules (Moment®), ibuprofen lysine tablets (Nurofenimmedia®) and dexketoprofen trometamol tablets (Enantyum®). Dissolution tests were performed according to the current USP/NF monograph dissolution procedure. Drug dissolution was evaluated at 1, 3, 6, 15, and 30 minutes since the start of the test. Dissolution was evaluated at three different pH: 1.2, 4.5 and 6.8. Every test was repeated 12 times. The aspirin formulation was by far the most rapid dissolving formulation, among those tested, with more than 80% of the tablet dissolved at 6 minutes for every pH considered. At pH 1.2 and 4.5, only the dexketoprofen formulation was able to reach the dissolution level of aspirin at 30 minutes, but had lower levels of dissolution at the previous time points. Instead, at pH 6.8, most of the formulations approached aspirin dissolution level, but only after 15 minutes. Ibuprofen capsules had the slowest kinetics, with a lag phase the first 6 minutes. Different formulation strategies can lead to great differences in the dissolution rates even among drugs of the same class, suggesting that enhancements in the formulation of painkillers can lead to improvements in drug absorption, and thus in the onset of analgesia.

  1. Concept model semantics for DL preferential reasoning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ; where BM abbreviates the concept BacterialMeningitis, M stands for Menin- gitis, VM for viralMeningitis, and F abbreviates FatalDisease. One should be able to conclude that viral meningitis is usually non-fatal (VM @ :F ). On the other hand, we should... not conclude that fatal versions of meningitis are usually bacterial (F uM @ BM), nor, for that matter, that fatal versions of meningitis are usually not bacterial ones (F uM @ :BM). Armed with the notion of a preferential model (cf. Section 3) we de ne pref...

  2. Human tooth enamel dissolution in citric acid as a function of degree of saturation and pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbour, Michele Emily

    2002-07-01

    There is increasing concern among the dental community regarding the damage caused to teeth by the acids in soft drinks. Enamel dissolution in acidic solution can be reduced by addition of calcium and/or phosphate salts to increase the degree of saturation with respect to hydroxyapatite (DS{sub HA}), or by an increase in pH. In soft drinks, however, both of these approaches are associated with a reduced taste quality. The separate effects of each parameter are not known. In the work presented here, enamel dissolution was studied in citric acid solutions with compositions typical of soft drinks. Nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to investigate very early stages of enamel dissolution, with typical exposure times of 30-600 s. Preliminary investigations of the application of SIMS, ESEM and XPS to enamel dissolution studies are also reported. The individual effects of DS{sub HA}, pH and calcium and phosphate concentrations on enamel dissolution have been investigated. It was shown that there exists a threshold condition defined by calcium and phosphate concentrations and pH, below which there is considerable dissolution and a rapid dependence of dissolution rate on DS{sub HA}, and above which little or no discernible dissolution takes place. This threshold condition corresponds to a considerably undersaturated solution (DS{sub HA} {approx_equal} 0.1). However, contrary to assumptions in many enamel dissolution models in the literature, DS{sub HA} is not sufficient to predict the dissolution rate and the individual calcium and phosphate concentrations are also important. The dependence of enamel dissolution on pH is comparatively minor, with only a small change in dissolution rate for a change in pH. In terms of soft drink modification, it has been shown here that DS{sub HA} adjustment can be used to greatly reduce the rate of enamel dissolution, and that a concurrent change in pH may be superfluous. (author)

  3. General class of multiparticulate dissolution models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, P V; Brown, K F

    1977-10-01

    The dissolution of multiparticulate systems under sink and nonsink conditions can be described rigorously according to a generally applicable formula on the basis of the single-particle dissolution model and the initial particle distribution. The kinetic model for log-normal systems dissolving under sink conditions is extended to nonsink conditions as a specific example. The equation presented describes a general class of multiparticulate models for various values of the dispersion parameter and the dissolution capacity coefficient.

  4. Modeling dissolution of sparingly soluble multisized powders

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Luís Pereira de; Simões, Sérgio; Brito, Paulo; Portugal, António; Figueiredo, Margarida

    1997-01-01

    The dissolution of powder drugs, besides being a topic of utmost importance, especially for the sparingly soluble ones, is far from being well-explained. The purpose of the present study is, on the one hand, to obtain experimental dissolution profiles and, on the other hand, to analyze and process the data for dissolution modeling. Three different size fractions of a widely used sparingly soluble drug - ibuprofen - were fully characterized with regard to its particle size distribution, specif...

  5. Dissolution of minerals and hydrometallurgical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habashi, Fathi

    1983-08-01

    Physical, chemical, electrochemical, and electrolytic processes involved in the dissolution of minerals in aqueous solutions are identified and characterized. Their importance to hydrometallurgy is outlined.

  6. Modeling Preferential Admissions at Elite Liberal Arts Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn, Sally; Hewitt, Gordon; Kelly, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a model that simulates the effects of varying preferential admissions policies on the academic profile of a set of 35 small liberal arts colleges. An underlying assumption is that all schools in the set use the same ratio of preferential to non-preferential admissions. The model predicts that even drastic changes…

  7. Optimization of Dissolution Compartments in a Biorelevant Dissolution Apparatus Golem v2, Supported by Multivariate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Stupák

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Biorelevant dissolution instruments represent an important tool for pharmaceutical research and development. These instruments are designed to simulate the dissolution of drug formulations in conditions most closely mimicking the gastrointestinal tract. In this work, we focused on the optimization of dissolution compartments/vessels for an updated version of the biorelevant dissolution apparatus—Golem v2. We designed eight compartments of uniform size but different inner geometry. The dissolution performance of the compartments was tested using immediate release caffeine tablets and evaluated by standard statistical methods and principal component analysis. Based on two phases of dissolution testing (using 250 and 100 mL of dissolution medium, we selected two compartment types yielding the highest measurement reproducibility. We also confirmed a statistically ssignificant effect of agitation rate and dissolution volume on the extent of drug dissolved and measurement reproducibility.

  8. Infants preferentially approach and explore the unexpected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Zi L; Xu, Fei

    2017-11-01

    Looking time experiments based on the violation-of-expectation (VOE) method have consistently demonstrated that infants look longer when their expectations are violated. However, it remains an open question whether similar effects will be observed in infants' approach behaviours. Specifically, do infants selectively approach and explore sources that violate their expectations? In this study, we address this question by examining how infants' looking times are related to their approach and exploration behaviours. Using a traditional VOE method and a crawling paradigm, we demonstrate a strong correspondence between looking time and approach behaviours, which indicates that 13-month-old infants preferentially explore sources of unexpected events. Such spontaneous exploration may provide learning opportunities and allow infants to play an active role in driving their own development. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Infants look longer when their expectations are violated. There is some evidence that infants also preferentially explore objects that violate their 'core' physical expectations. What the present study adds? There is a clear correspondence between infants' looking behaviour and their approach behaviour. Expectancy violations involving non-core knowledge can similarly influence infants' exploration. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Calcite dissolution rate spectra measured by in situ digital holographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Alexander S; Feng, Pan; Bullard, Jeffrey W

    2017-09-01

    Digital holographic microscopy in reflection mode is used to track in situ, real-time nanoscale topography evolution of cleaved (104) calcite surfaces exposed to flowing or static deionized water. The method captures full-field holograms of the surface at frame rates of up to 12.5 s(-1). Numerical reconstruction provides 3D surface topography with vertical resolution of a few nanometers and enables measurement of time-dependent local dissolution fluxes. A statistical distribution, or spectrum, of dissolution rates is generated by sampling multiple area domains on multiple crystals. The data show, as has been demonstrated by Fischer et al. (2012), that dissolution is most fully described by a rate spectrum, although the modal dissolution rate agrees well with published mean dissolution rates (e.g., 0.1 µmol m(-2) s(-1) to 0.3 µmol m(-2) s(-1)). Rhombohedral etch pits and other morphological features resulting from rapid local dissolution appear at different times and are heterogeneously distributed across the surface and through the depth. This makes the distribution in rates measured on a single crystal dependent both on the sample observation field size and on time, even at nominally constant undersaturation. Statistical analysis of the inherent noise in the DHM measurements indicates that the technique is robust and that it likely can be applied to quantify and interpret rate spectra for the dissolution or growth of other minerals.

  10. DISSOLUTION OF LANTHANUM FLUORIDE PRECIPITATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, B.A.

    1959-11-10

    A plutonium separatory ore concentration procedure involving the use of a fluoride type of carrier is presented. An improvement is given in the derivation step in the process for plutonium recovery by carrier precipitation of plutonium values from solution with a lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitate and subsequent derivation from the resulting plutonium bearing carrier precipitate of an aqueous acidic plutonium-containing solution. The carrier precipitate is contacted with a concentrated aqueous solution of potassium carbonate to effect dissolution therein of at least a part of the precipitate, including the plutonium values. Any remaining precipitate is separated from the resulting solution and dissolves in an aqueous solution containing at least 20% by weight of potassium carbonate. The reacting solutions are combined, and an alkali metal hydroxide added to a concentration of at least 2N to precipitate lanthanum hydroxide concomitantly carrying plutonium values.

  11. Dissolution enhancement of tadalafil by liquisolid technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mei; Xing, Haonan; Yang, Tianzhi; Yu, Jiankun; Yang, Zhen; Sun, Yanping; Ding, Pingtian

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to enhance the dissolution of tadalafil, a poorly water-soluble drug by applying liquisolid technique. The effects of two critical formulation variables, namely drug concentration (17.5% and 35%, w/w) and excipients ratio (10, 15 and 20) on dissolution rates were investigated. Pre-compression tests, including particle size distribution, flowability determination, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), were carried out to investigate the mechanism of dissolution enhancement. Tadalafil liquisolid tablets were prepared and their quality control tests, dissolution study, contact angle measurement, Raman mapping, and storage stability test were performed. The results suggested that all the liquisolid tablets exhibited significantly higher dissolution rates than the conventional tablets and pure tadalafil. FT-IR spectrum reflected no drug-excipient interactions. DSC and XRD studies indicated reduction in crystallinity of tadalafil, which was further confirmed by SEM and Raman mapping outcomes. The contact angle measurement demonstrated obvious increase in wetting property. Taken together, the reduction of particle size and crystallinity, and the improvement of wettability were the main mechanisms for the enhanced dissolution rate. No significant changes were observed in drug crystallinity and dissolution behavior after storage based on XRD, SEM and dissolution results.

  12. Nanosizing of drugs: Effect on dissolution rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizaj, S. Maleki; Vazifehasl, Zh.; Salatin, S.; Adibkia, Kh.; Javadzadeh, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The solubility, bioavailability and dissolution rate of drugs are important parameters for achieving in vivo efficiency. The bioavailability of orally administered drugs depends on their ability to be absorbed via gastrointestinal tract. For drugs belonging to Class II of pharmaceutical classification, the absorption process is limited by drug dissolution rate in gastrointestinal media. Therefore, enhancement of the dissolution rate of these drugs will present improved bioavailability. So far several techniques such as physical and chemical modifications, changing in crystal habits, solid dispersion, complexation, solubilization and liquisolid method have been used to enhance the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs. It seems that improvement of the solubility properties ofpoorly water soluble drugscan translate to an increase in their bioavailability. Nowadays nanotechnology offers various approaches in the area of dissolution enhancement of low aqueous soluble drugs. Nanosizing of drugs in the form of nanoparticles, nanocrystals or nanosuspensions not requiring expensive facilities and equipment or complicated processes may be applied as simple methods to increase the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs. In this article, we attempted to review the effects of nanosizing on improving the dissolution rate of poorly aqueous soluble drugs. According to the reviewed literature, by reduction of drug particle size into nanometer size the total effective surface area is increased and thereby dissolution rate would be enhanced. Additionally, reduction of particle size leads to reduction of the diffusion layer thickness surrounding the drug particles resulting in the increment of the concentration gradient. Each of these process leads to improved bioavailability. PMID:26487886

  13. Emotional and Cognitive Coping in Relationship Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrape, Elizabeth R.; Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Callahan, Jennifer L.; Nowlin, Rachel B.

    2016-01-01

    Dissolution of a romantic relationship can adversely affect functioning among college students and represents one primary reason for seeking campus counseling. This study examined the associations among common coping strategies and distress following relationship dissolution. Avoidance and repetitive negative thinking (RNT) were significantly…

  14. CALCIUM CARBONATE DISSOLUTION RATE IN LIMESTONE CONTACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rate of carbonate mineral dissolution from limestone was studied using a rotating disk apparatus and samples of limestone of varied composition. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of limestone composition on the kinetics of carbonate mineral dissolution. Th...

  15. Numerical modelling of multicomponent LNAPL dissolution kinetics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    During the initial phase, the dissolution rate of a soluble compound is very high due to the high concentration gradient, and as dissolution progresses, its effective solubility decreases with change in mole fraction. At higher pore volumes, the mole fractions of lower solubility fractions increase which can result in higher ...

  16. Dissolution kinetics of paracetamol single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Korlakunte V R; Ristic, Radoljub I; Sheen, David B; Sherwood, John N

    2002-05-15

    The dissolution anisotropy of paracetamol crystals grown in the presence and absence of the molecularly similar additive, p-acetoxyacetanilide (PAA) was studied under controlled conditions using a single crystal dissolution method in undersaturated aqueous solutions. Linear dissolution rates were determined for all the major habit faces by measuring their movement (regression) with time in a flow cell using a microscope. The rates of dissolution of particular faces of the pure material were distinctly different in crystals of different morphology grown at different supersaturations. The dissolution rates of [001] and [110] faces of crystals grown in the presence of PAA (6.02% w/w in solution) are higher than those of pure paracetamol. The results correlate with the distribution of strain in the crystal and support the concept that integral strain increases the solubility and hence the dissolution rate of the material. The mechanism of the dissolution process at the [001], [201;] and [110] faces was defined using optical microscopy and X-ray topography. At all undersaturations above 1% the dissolution studies yielded well developed, structurally oriented, etch pits on both [001] and [201;] faces while on the [110] face rough shallow etch pits were observed. On all three faces, this etch-pitting was considerably more widespread than the dislocation content of the sector and probably reflects a 2-dimensional nucleation process rather than a dislocation controlled mechanism.

  17. Enhanced performance large volume dissolution-DNP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowen, Sean; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study of the performance of the dissolution process in dissolution-DNP is presented. A relatively simple set of modifications is made to the standard Hypersense dissolution system to enable polarization of large volume samples. These consist of a large volume sample cup along...... with supporting modifications to the dissolution head and related components. Additional modifications were made to support the mapping of the temperature/pressure space of the dissolution process as well as enabling the use of large volumes of solvent and improving the robustness of the system. No loss...... of polarization was observed as sample size was increased to the 1g capacity of the large volume cup and for a dilution factor as low as 1:10....

  18. Phase Behavior of Ritonavir Amorphous Solid Dispersions during Hydration and Dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Hitesh S; Taylor, Lynne S

    2017-09-27

    The aim of this research was to study the interplay of solid and solution state phase transformations during the dissolution of ritonavir (RTV) amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs). RTV ASDs with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), polyvinylpyrrolidone vinyl acetate (PVPVA) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) were prepared at 10-50% drug loading by solvent evaporation. The miscibility of RTV ASDs was studied before and after exposure to 97% relative humidity (RH). Non-sink dissolution studies were performed on fresh and moisture-exposed ASDs. RTV and polymer release were monitored using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Techniques including fluorescence spectroscopy, confocal imaging, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) were utilized to monitor solid and the solution state phase transformations. All RTV-PVP and RTV-PVPVA ASDs underwent moisture-induced amorphous-amorphous phase separation (AAPS) on high RH storage whereas RTV-HPMCAS ASDs remained miscible. Non-sink dissolution of PVP- and PVPVA-based ASDs at low drug loadings led to rapid RTV and polymer release resulting in concentrations in excess of amorphous solubility, liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) and amorphous nanodroplet formation. High drug loading PVP- and PVPVA-based ASDs did not exhibit LLPS upon dissolution as a consequence of extensive AAPS in the hydrated ASD matrix. All RTV-HPMCAS ASDs led to LLPS upon dissolution. RTV ASD dissolution is governed by a competition between the dissolution rate and the rate of phase separation in the hydrated ASD matrix. LLPS was observed for ASDs where the drug release was polymer controlled and only ASDs that remained miscible during the initial phase of dissolution led to LLPS. Techniques such as fluorescence spectroscopy, confocal imaging and SEM were useful in understanding the phase behavior of ASDs upon hydration and dissolution

  19. Accelerated dissolution of iron oxides in ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jeong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron dissolution from mineral dusts and soil particles is vital as a source of bioavailable iron in various environmental media. In this work, the dissolution of iron oxide particles trapped in ice was investigated as a new pathway of iron supply. The dissolution experiments were carried out in the absence and presence of various organic complexing ligands under dark condition. In acidic pH conditions (pH 2, 3, and 4, the dissolution of iron oxides was greatly enhanced in the ice phase compared to that in water. The dissolved iron was mainly in the ferric form, which indicates that the dissolution is not a reductive process. The extent of dissolved iron was greatly affected by the kind of organic complexing ligands and the surface area of iron oxides. The iron dissolution was most pronounced with high surface area iron oxides and in the presence of strong iron binding ligands. The enhanced dissolution of iron oxides in ice is mainly ascribed to the "freeze concentration effect", which concentrates iron oxide particles, organic ligands, and protons in the liquid like ice grain boundary region and accelerates the dissolution of iron oxides. The ice-enhanced dissolution effect gradually decreased when decreasing the freezing temperature from −10 to −196 °C, which implies that the presence and formation of the liquid-like ice grain boundary region play a critical role. The proposed phenomenon of enhanced dissolution of iron oxides in ice may provide a new pathway of bioavailable iron production. The frozen atmospheric ice with iron-containing dust particles in the upper atmosphere thaws upon descending and may provide bioavailable iron upon deposition onto the ocean surface.

  20. Dissolution Enhancement of Drugs. Part II: Effect of Carriers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... surfactants, in dissolution enhancement. This part describes the use of cyclodextrin, carbohydrates, hydrotropes, polyglocolized glycerides, dendrimers, acids and miscellaneous carriers in enhancing dissolution of drugs. Keywords: Dissolution enhancement; aqueous solubility, water soluble carriers; lipophilic, excipients.

  1. Enhanced dissolution of oxcarbazepine microcrystals using a static mixer process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douroumis, D; Fahr, A

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to form micronized powders of Oxcarbazepine (OXC), a poorly water-soluble drug, using a static mixer technique to enhance the dissolution rate. Controlled precipitation was achieved injecting the organic OXC solution rapidly into an aqueous methylcellulose (MC) protective solution by means of a static mixer thus providing turbulent and homogeneous mixing. Furthermore, a factorial design was implemented for data analysis. The physicochemical properties of the freeze-dried dispersions were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Drug microcrystals showed a narrow size distribution with approximately 2 microm mean particle size and high drug loading. DSC and FTIR studies revealed that the drug remained in crystalline state and no drug-polymer interaction occurred. The dissolution studies showed enhanced dissolution of OXC microcrystals compared to the pure drug. The static mixer technique was proved capable for micro-sized polymeric particles. This is an inexpensive, less time consuming and fully scalable process for development of poorly soluble drugs.

  2. Improving the dissolution properties of spironolactone using liquisolid technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Akbari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of liquisolid technique on the dissolution profile of spironolactone was evaluated. Different formulations of spironolactone liquisolid compacts were prepared using various amounts of non-volatile vehicles (Poly ethylene glycol 400 and glycerin. The ratio of microcrystalline cellulose (as carrier to silica (as coating powder material was 20 for all formulations. After preparing tablets by direct compression with constant compression load, the release profiles were evaluated by USP paddle method. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC and FTIR were used to evaluate any interaction between spironolactone and other ingredients. The liquisolid tablets exhibited significantly higher dissolution rates in comparison with conventionally direct compressed tablets. Furthermore results showed dissolution rate enhancement of liquisolid tablets by increase in the amounts of non-volatile vehicles. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that, the drug has got solubilized in the liquid vehicle. FT-IR spectroscopy studies of pure spironolactone, liquisolid compacts, glycerin and PEG400 supported solubilization of the drug in the liquid vehicle too. The FT-IR spectra also showed that no interactions have been occurred between spironolactone and other ingredients. In conclusion the liquisolid technique can be a suitable method in order to prepare rapid release tablets of poorly water-soluble drugs such as spironolactone.

  3. Dissolution of steel slags in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shashikant; Mehra, Anurag

    2017-07-01

    Steel slag is a major industrial waste in steel industries, and its dissolution behavior in water needs to be characterized in the larger context of its potential use as an agent for sequestering CO2. For this purpose, a small closed system batch reactor was used to conduct the dissolution of steel slags in an aqueous medium under various dissolution conditions. In this study, two different types of steel slags were procured from steel plants in India, having diverse structural features, mineralogical compositions, and particle sizes. The experiment was performed at different temperatures for 240 h of dissolution at atmospheric pressure. The dissolution rates of major and minor slag elements were quantified through liquid-phase elemental analysis using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy at different time intervals. Advanced analytical techniques such as field emission gun-scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray, BET, and XRD were also used to analyze mineralogical and structural changes in the slag particles. High dissolution of slags was observed irrespective of the particle size distribution, which suggests high carbonation potential. Concentrations of toxic heavy metals in the leachate were far below maximum acceptable limits. Thus, the present study investigates the dissolution behavior of different mineral ions of steel slag in aqueous media in light of its potential application in CO2 sequestration.

  4. Mechanistic Basis of Cocrystal Dissolution Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fengjuan; Amidon, Gordon L; Rodríguez-Hornedo, Naír; Amidon, Gregory E

    2018-01-01

    Current interest in cocrystal development resides in the advantages that the cocrystal may have in solubility and dissolution compared with the parent drug. This work provides a mechanistic analysis and comparison of the dissolution behavior of carbamazepine (CBZ) and its 2 cocrystals, carbamazepine-saccharin (CBZ-SAC) and carbamazepine-salicylic acid (CBZ-SLC) under the influence of pH and micellar solubilization. A simple mathematical equation is derived based on the mass transport analyses to describe the dissolution advantage of cocrystals. The dissolution advantage is the ratio of the cocrystal flux to drug flux and is defined as the solubility advantage (cocrystal to drug solubility ratio) times the diffusivity advantage (cocrystal to drug diffusivity ratio). In this work, the effective diffusivity of CBZ in the presence of surfactant was determined to be different and less than those of the cocrystals. The higher effective diffusivity of drug from the dissolved cocrystals, the diffusivity advantage, can impart a dissolution advantage to cocrystals with lower solubility than the parent drug while still maintaining thermodynamic stability. Dissolution conditions where cocrystals can display both thermodynamic stability and a dissolution advantage can be obtained from the mass transport models, and this information is useful for both cocrystal selection and formulation development. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Modeling dissolution of sparingly soluble multisized powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, L P; Simöes, S; Brito, P; Portugal, A; Figueiredo, M

    1997-06-01

    The dissolution of powder drugs, besides being a topic of utmost importance, especially for the sparingly soluble ones, is far from being well-explained. The purpose of the present study is, on the one hand, to obtain experimental dissolution profiles and, on the other hand, to analyze and process the data for dissolution modeling. Three different size fractions of a widely used sparingly soluble drug--ibuprofen--were fully characterized with regard to its particle size distribution, specific surface area, density, solubility, and diffusion coefficient. The dissolution profiles were obtained making use of a technique that counts and sizes particles--the Coulter counter technique--which is capable of following the number and size of the particles in suspension throughout time. The knowledge of these parameters allowed a critical study of the assumptions associated with the models currently used to describe the dissolution process. It was concluded that most of the assumptions were not valid for the present experimental conditions. This motivated the proposal of a new methodology, which uses the experimentally determined characteristics of the drug and takes into account the polydisperse nature of the powder. By applying an adequate dissolution equation to each of the many size classes in which the primary particle size distribution was divided, it was possible to obtain a large agreement between the simulated and the experimental dissolution profile.

  6. Fe-Containing Allophane and Hisingerite Dissolution and Implications for Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, S. J.; Hausrath, E. M.; Tschauner, O.; Rampe, E. B.; Clark-Hogancamp, J. V.; Christoffersen, R.

    2017-01-01

    The mass-normalized dissolution rates measured in this study demonstrate that hisingerite and Fe-substituted allophane dissolve rapidly, much faster than crystalline phyllosilicates such as nontronite and kaolinite that have similar compositions. In addition, hisingerite dissolves more rapidly than allophane. Future work will focus on measuring dissolution rates at other pH values, so that dissolution rate laws for allophane and hisingerite can be derived. Results will be used to interpret data from Gale Crater. These initial experiments suggest that, if the liquid water present in Gale Crater was highly acidic, it was likely present for only a short time, allowing some amorphous soil-material similar to allophane to persist. Further experiments will enable us to constrain the timescales over which liquid water was present in Gale Crater and provide insight into its pH. This information is essential to assessing the potential habitability of ancient Mars.

  7. Preferential Entailments, Extensions and Reductions of The Vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    Moinard, Yves; Rolland, Raymond

    1999-01-01

    A preferential entailment is defined by a binary relation, or «preference relation», either among interpretations (or models) or among «states» which are «copies of interpretations». Firstly, we show how an extension of the vocabulary allows to express any preferential entailment as a preferent- ial entailment without state. Secondly, by reducing the vocabulary, we show how to express some preferential entailments in a smaller language. This second method works only for particular preferentia...

  8. Dissolution Kinetics of Milled-Silicate Rock Fertilizers in Organic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Priyono

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A dissolution experiment was carried out to identify the effects of milling condition on dissolution kinetics of silicate rock fertilizers. Initially ground materials (Ø < 250 μm for basalt, dolerite, gneiss, and Ø < 150 μm for K-feldspar were further milled with a ball mill (Spex 8000 under dry and wet conditions for 10, 60, and 120 minutes. The rock powders were dissolved in a mixture of 0.01M acetic-citric acid at a rock powder/solvent ratio of 1/1000, and the solution was agitated continuously on a rotary shaker at 25o C. The concentrations of dissolved Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, and Si from the milled rocks were determined at intervals from 1 hour up to 56 days. Results indicated that the relationships of quantity of dissolved rock and elemental plant nutrients (Et with time (t were well described by a power equation: Et = Eo + atn with reaction order (n of 0.3 – 0.8. Milling increased quantity of total and individual dissolved element (Et , dissolution rate (Rt, the proportion of rapidly soluble rock or element (Eo, and dissolution constant a. The increases in dissolution due to dry milling were larger than for wet milling. Although further proves should be provided, results of this dissolution experiment clearly indicates that SRFs may be used as multinutrient fertilizers as well as remedial materials for acidic soils; and dry milling may be applied as an appropriate method for manufacturing effective SRFs.

  9. Formulation and evaluation of a montelukast sodium orally disintegrating tablet with a similar dissolution profile as the marketed product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Feng, Tingting; Li, Yong; Du, Bin; Weng, Weiyu

    2017-03-01

    A major challenge of orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) development is predicting its bioequivalence to its corresponding marketed product. Therefore, comparing ODT dissolution profiles to those of the corresponding marketed product is very important. The objective of this study was to develop a 5.2-mg montelukast sodium (MS) ODT with a similar dissolution profile to that of the marketed chewable tablet. Dissolution profiles were examined in different media to screen each formulation. We found that MS dissolution from ODTs in acidic medium heavily depended on manufacturing methods. All MS ODTs prepared using direct compression rapidly disintegrated in acidic medium. However, dispersed MS powders aggregated into sticky masses, resulting in slow dissolution. In contrast, MS ODTs prepared using wet granulation had much faster dissolution rates in acidic medium with no obvious aggregation. Additionally, the optimized formulation, prepared using wet granulation, displayed similar dissolution profiles to the marketed reference in all four types of media examined (f2 > 50). The in vitro disintegration time of the optimized ODT was 9.5 ± 2.4 s, which meets FDA requirements. In conclusion, the wet granulation preparation method of MS ODTs resulted in a product with equivalent dissolution profiles as those of the marketed product.

  10. Low temperature dissolution flowsheet for plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, W. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Almond, P. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Rudisill, T. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-01

    The H-Canyon flowsheet used to dissolve Pu metal for PuO2 production utilizes boiling HNO3. SRNL was requested to develop a complementary dissolution flowsheet at two reduced temperature ranges. The dissolution and H2 generation rates of Pu metal were investigated using a dissolving solution at ambient temperature (20-30 °C) and for an intermediate temperature of 50-60 °C. Additionally, the testing included an investigation of the dissolution rates and characterization of the off-gas generated from the ambient temperature dissolution of carbon steel cans and the nylon bags that contain the Pu metal when charged to the dissolver.

  11. [Phytobezoar dissolution with Coca-Cola].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez de Juan, F; Martínez-Lapiedra, C; Picazo, V

    2006-05-01

    The treatment of phytobezoar is empiric. The various therapeutic choices include dietary modifications, prokinetic drugs, gastric lavage, enzymatic dissolution, endoscopic treatment, and surgery. We present two cases of phytobezoar with successful outcome after Coca-Cola administration.

  12. Corundum dissolution in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    u-sheng Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The corundum (α-alumina core has been considered as a suitable candidate for investment casting of hollow, high pressure turbine engine airfoils due to its excellent properties. However, the efficiency of removing alumina cores in concentrated caustic solution cannot meet the needs of industrial production. In this paper, the effects of temperature and initial solution concentration on dissolution of α-alumina were studied by the classical weight-loss method. The fractal kinetic model was developed in order to describe α-alumina dissolution, assuming that the nonporous particles shrank during reaction process. The results show that the dissolution rate increases with increasing reaction temperature and initial solution concentration. Especially, the initial solution concentration has a significant influence on α-alumina dissolution rate at a higher reaction temperature. The activation energies decrease with increasing initial solution concentration, and the chemical reaction is the rate-controlling step.

  13. CMP substitutions preferentially inhibit polysialic acid synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Tatsuo; Angata, Kiyohiko; Seeberger, Peter H; Hindsgaul, Ole; Fukuda, Minoru

    2008-02-01

    It is widely reported that derivatives of sugar moieties can be used to metabolically label cell surface carbohydrates or inhibit a particular glycosylation. However, few studies address the effect of substitution of the cytidylmonophosphate (CMP) portion on sialyltransferase activities. Here we first synthesized 2'-O-methyl CMP and 5-methyl CMP and then asked if these CMP derivatives are recognized by alpha2,3-sialyltransferases (ST3Gal-III and ST3Gal-IV), alpha2,6-sialyltransferase (ST6Gal-I), and alpha2,8-sialyltransferase (ST8Sia-II, ST8Sia-III, and ST8Sia-IV). We found that ST3Gal-III and ST3Gal-IV but not ST6Gal-I was inhibited by 2'-O-methyl CMP as potently as by CMP, while ST3Gal-III, ST3Gal-IV, and ST6Gal-I were moderately inhibited by 5-methyl CMP. Previously, it was reported that polysialyltransferase ST8Sia-II but not ST8Sia-IV was inhibited by CMP N-butylneuraminic acid. We found that ST8Sia-IV as well as ST8Sia-II and ST8Sia-III are inhibited by 2'-O-methyl CMP as robustly as by CMP and moderately by 5-methyl CMP. Moreover, the addition of CMP, 2'-O-methyl CMP, and 5-methyl CMP to the culture medium resulted in the decrease of polysialic acid expression on the cell surface and NCAM of Chinese hamster ovary cells. These results suggest that 2'-O-methyl CMP and 5-methyl CMP can be used to preferentially inhibit sialyltransferases, in particular, polysialyltransferases in vitro and in vivo. Such inhibition may be useful to determine the function of a carbohydrate synthesized by a specific sialyltransferase such as polysialyltransferase.

  14. Status report on dissolution model development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, D.D.

    1983-07-01

    The computer program PROTOCOL models the dissolution reactions of chemical species in water. It is being developed particularly to study the dissolution of proposed nuclear waste forms and related phases. Experimentally derived leaching rate functions are coupled to thermochemical equilibrium calculations and water flow rates. The program has been developed over a period of years. This report describes improvements that have been done in the past year.

  15. Hydrodynamic, mass transfer, and dissolution effects induced by tablet location during dissolution testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ge; Armenante, Piero M

    2009-04-01

    Tablets undergoing dissolution in the USP Dissolution Testing Apparatus II are often found at locations on the vessel bottom that are off-center with respect to the dissolution vessel and impeller. A previously validated CFD approach and a novel experimental method were used here to examine the effect of tablet location on strain rates and dissolution rates. Dissolution tests were conducted with non-disintegrating tablets (salicylic acid) and disintegrating tablets (Prednisone) immobilized at different locations along the vessel bottom. CFD was used to predict the velocity profiles and strain rates when the tablets were placed at such locations. A CFD-based model was derived to predict the mass transfer coefficient and dissolution curves, which were then compared to the experimental results. Both non-disintegrating and disintegrating off-center tablets experimentally produced higher dissolution rates than centered tablets. The CFD-predicted strain rate distribution along the bottom was highly not uniform and the predicted strain rates correlated well with the experimental mass transfer coefficients. The proposed CFD-based model predicts mass transfer rates that correlate well with the experimental ones. The exact tablet location has a significant impact on the dissolution profile. The proposed model can satisfactorily predict the mass transfer coefficients and dissolution profiles for non-disintegrating tablets.

  16. Variability of Zinc Oxide Dissolution Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, Monika; Fischer, Cornelius; Colombi Ciacchi, Lucio; Luttge, Andreas

    2017-04-18

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is of widespread use for numerous applications, including many in the cosmetic industry. Thus, ZnO particles are quite likely to enter the environment. ZnO may be harmful because of the release of cytotoxic Zn2+ ions during dissolution reactions. Here, we analyze the dissolution kinetics of the polar zinc-terminated (000-1) and nonpolar (10-10) crystal surfaces in ultrapure water to examine the impact of the crystal defects on dissolution. By using a complementary approach of atomic force microscopy and vertical scanning interferometry, we quantify the difference in reaction rate between the crystal faces, the overall range of rate variability, and the rate components that combine to an overall rate. The mean dissolution rate of the (000-1) crystal surface is more than 4 times that of the (10-10) surface. By using the rate spectrum analysis, we observed an overall dissolution rate variability of more than 1 order of magnitude. The rate components and the range of dissolution rate are important input parameters in reactive transport models for the prediction of potential release of Zn2+ into the environment.

  17. Assessment of solvents for cellulose dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Mohammad; Tsianou, Marina; Alexandridis, Paschalis

    2017-03-01

    A necessary step in the processing of biomass is the pretreatment and dissolution of cellulose. A good solvent for cellulose involves high diffusivity, aggressiveness in decrystallization, and capability of disassociating the cellulose chains. However, it is not clear which of these factors and under what conditions should be improved in order to obtain a more effective solvent. To this end, a newly-developed phenomenological model has been applied to assess the controlling mechanism of cellulose dissolution. Among the findings, the cellulose fibers remain crystalline almost to the end of the dissolution process for decrystallization-controlled kinetics. In such solvents, decreasing the fiber crystallinity, e.g., via pretreatment, would result in a considerable increase in the dissolution rate. Such insights improve the understanding of cellulose dissolution and facilitate the selection of more efficient solvents and processing conditions for biomass. Specific examples of solvents are provided where dissolution is limited due to decrystallization or disentanglement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental determination of natural carbonate rock dissolution rates with a focus on temperature dependency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirstein, Jens; Hellevang, Helge; Haile, Beyene G.; Gleixner, Gerd; Gaupp, Reinhard

    2016-05-01

    -from-equilibrium dissolution rates at higher temperatures. Formation of fluid pathways by preferential dissolution of framework calcite crystals is suggested to form infiltration pathways and affect denudation rates. The difference in crystal size between the micritic and sparitic limestones will affect the formation of such pathways (larger crystals may create fewer and larger conduits) and this is expected to be more important for the long-term denudation than the differences in activation energies.

  19. Conditional and preferential logics proof methods and theorem proving

    CERN Document Server

    Pozzato, GL

    2010-01-01

    Contains a version of the author's PhD dissertation and focuses on proof methods and theorem proving for conditional and preferential logics. This book introduces proof methods (sequent and tableau calculi) for conditional and preferential logics, as well as theorem provers obtained by implementing the proposed calculi.

  20. Predicting the growth of new links by new preferential attachment ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By revisiting the preferential attachment (PA) mechanism for generating a classical scale-free network, we propose a class of novel preferential attachment similarity indices for predicting future links in evolving networks. Extensive experiments on 14 real-life networks show that these new indices can provide more accurate ...

  1. Distributed network generation based on preferential attachment in ABS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Azadbakht (Keyvan); N. Bezirgiannis (Nikolaos); F.S. de Boer (Frank)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractGeneration of social networks using Preferential Attachment (PA) mechanism is proposed in the Barabasi-Albert model. In this mechanism, new nodes are introduced to the network sequentially and they attach to the existing nodes preferentially where the preference can be based on the

  2. 19 CFR 10.213 - Articles eligible for preferential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles eligible for preferential treatment. 10...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Textile and Apparel Articles Under the African Growth and Opportunity Act § 10.213 Articles eligible for preferential treatment...

  3. Development and Validation of a Dissolution Test Method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate a dissolution test method for dissolution release of artemether and lumefantrine from tablets. Methods: A single dissolution method for evaluating the in vitro release of artemether and lumefantrine from tablets was developed and validated. The method comprised of a dissolution medium of ...

  4. Discriminative Dissolution Method for Benzoyl Metronidazole Oral Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Aline Santos; da Rosa Silva, Carlos Eduardo; Paula, Fávero Reisdorfer; da Silva, Fabiana Ernestina Barcellos

    2016-06-01

    A dissolution method for benzoyl metronidazole (BMZ) oral suspensions was developed and validated using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. After determination of sink conditions, dissolution profiles were evaluated using different dissolution media and agitation speeds. The sample insertion mode in dissolution media was also evaluated. The best conditions were obtained using a paddle, 50 rpm stirring speed, simulated gastric fluid (without pepsin) as the dissolution medium, and sample insertion by a syringe. These conditions were suitable for providing sink conditions and discriminatory power between different formulations. Through the tested conditions, the results can be considered specific, linear, precise, accurate, and robust. The dissolution profiles of five samples were compared using the similarity factor (f 2) and dissolution efficiency. The dissolution kinetics were evaluated and described by the Weibull model. Whereas there is no monograph for this pharmaceutical formulation, the dissolution method proposed can be considered suitable for quality control and dissolution profile comparison of different commercial formulations.

  5. Rapid short-term clearance of chrysotile compared with amosite asbestos in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churg, A; Wright, J L; Gilks, B; DePaoli, L

    1989-04-01

    Compared with amphibole forms of asbestos, chrysotile asbestos fails to accumulate in lung tissue; the mechanism of this effect is disputed. To investigate this problem, we administered a mixture of the amphibole, amosite, and chrysotile to guinea pigs by intratracheal instillation. At 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month after instillation, animals were killed, and the numbers, types, sizes, and compositions of fibers in the lungs were determined by analytical electron microscopy. Both chrysotile and amosite fiber concentrations decreased with time, but relative chrysotile clearance was significantly greater than amosite clearance. There was no evidence of magnesium leaching from chrysotile fibers of any size at any time. Analysis of fiber lengths and widths showed a time trend toward shorter and narrower fibers (particularly toward fibers of less than 2 microns long and less than 0.025 microns wide) for chrysotile. This effect was not seen for amosite. We conclude that (1) failure of chrysotile accumulation in lung results from preferential chrysotile clearance during the first few days to weeks after exposure; (2) there is no evidence that fiber dissolution plays a role in chrysotile clearance; (3) preferential clearance may be a result of fragmentation and rapid removal of chrysotile fibers.

  6. Linking soil moisture balance and source-responsive models to estimate diffuse and preferential components of groundwater recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Cuthbert

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented of a detailed study into the vadose zone and shallow water table hydrodynamics of a field site in Shropshire, UK. A conceptual model is presented and tested using a range of numerical models, including a modified soil moisture balance model (SMBM for estimating groundwater recharge in the presence of both diffuse and preferential flow components. Tensiometry reveals that the loamy sand topsoil wets up via preferential flow and subsequent redistribution of moisture into the soil matrix. Recharge does not occur until near-positive pressures are achieved at the top of the sandy glaciofluvial outwash material that underlies the topsoil, about 1 m above the water table. Once this occurs, very rapid water table rises follow. This threshold behaviour is attributed to the vertical discontinuity in preferential flow pathways due to seasonal ploughing of the topsoil and to a lower permeability plough/iron pan restricting matrix flow between the topsoil and the lower outwash deposits. Although the wetting process in the topsoil is complex, a SMBM is shown to be effective in predicting the initiation of preferential flow from the base of the topsoil into the lower outwash horizon. The rapidity of the response at the water table and a water table rise during the summer period while flow gradients in the unsaturated profile were upward suggest that preferential flow is also occurring within the outwash deposits below the topsoil. A variation of the source-responsive model proposed by Nimmo (2010 is shown to reproduce the observed water table dynamics well in the lower outwash horizon when linked to a SMBM that quantifies the potential recharge from the topsoil. The results reveal new insights into preferential flow processes in cultivated soils and provide a useful and practical approach to accounting for preferential flow in studies of groundwater recharge estimation.

  7. Dissolution kinetics of schwertmannite and ferrihydrite in oxidized mine samples and their detection by differential X-ray diffraction (DXRD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dold, Bernhard

    2003-10-01

    A dissolution test with 9 natural and synthetic schwertmannite and ferrihydrite samples was performed by reaction with 0.2 M ammonium oxalate at pH 3.0 in the dark. The method was coupled with differential X-ray diffraction (DXRD) to successfully detect schwertmannite at low concentrations in oxidized mine tailings. Rapid dissolution was observed for all schwertmannites (> 94% in 60 min) and natural 2-line ferrihydrites (> 85% in 60 min); however, synthetic 2-line and 6-line ferrihydrite dissolved slower (42 and 16% after 60 min, respectively). The results showed that it was not possible to distinguish between natural schwertmannites and ferrihydrites on the basis of their dissolution kinetics. Modeling of the schwertmannite dissolution curves, examinations of mineral shape by scanning electron microscopy, and Fe/S mole ratios of the dissolved fractions indicated that two different schwertmannite particle morphologies (spherical and web-like) occurred. Collapse of spherical (sea-urchin) schwertmannite aggregates seemed to control the dissolution kinetics according to a shrinking core model. In the case of web-like schwertmannite, dissolution could be modeled with a simple first order equation, and structural SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} may have affected the dissolution kinetics. No relationship was found between ferrihydrite particle shape and dissolution behavior in acid NH{sub 4}-oxalate. A 1-h extraction with 0.2 M NH{sub 4}-oxalate at pH 3.0 in the dark should be adequate to dissolve schwertmannite and natural 2-line ferrihydrite in most samples. In some cases, a fraction of secondary jarosite or goethite may also be dissolved, although at a slower rate. If only schwertmannite is of interest (e.g., determination by DXRD), a 15 min attack should be used to increase selectivity. A truly selective leach of schwertmannite and ferrihydrite should be based on dissolution tests, as a broad variety of dissolution kinetics can be observed in this mineral group.

  8. Selective dissolution in AlFeNb alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drensler, Stefanie; Mardare, Cezarina Cela; Hassel, Achim Walter [Institute for Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials, Johannes Kepler University, Linz (Austria); Milenkovic, Srdjan [IMDEA Materials, Parque Cientifico de la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. del mar Mediterraneo 22, 28918 Leganes (Spain)

    2012-05-15

    Three different AlFeNb alloys of various compositions were prepared by arc melting. X-ray diffraction (XRD) investigation of the melted samples proved the presence of two phases identified as a bcc {alpha}(Fe,Al) solid solution and a hexagonal C14 (Fe,Al){sub 2}Nb Laves phase. Subsequent electrochemical treatment allowed for a selective dealloying of the {alpha}(Fe,Al) or respective FeAl phase and resulted in releasing differently microstructured surfaces. These structures ranged from regular lamellar structures towards branched, fibrous structures. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) characterisation along with a local energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic (EDX) analysis of the samples and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) analysis of the electrolyte revealed a preferential Fe dissolution and the passive nature of the Nb. The results demonstrate that the phases present in the alloys strongly depend on the production and heat treatment history of the sample. SEM micrograph of (A) Fe-15Al-10Nb and (B) Fe-26Al-4Nb after anodisation in 0.4 M borate buffer. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Preferential Interactions and the Effect of Protein PEGylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Stenstrup Holm

    Full Text Available PEGylation is a strategy used by the pharmaceutical industry to prolong systemic circulation of protein drugs, whereas formulation excipients are used for stabilization of proteins during storage. Here we investigate the role of PEGylation in protein stabilization by formulation excipients that preferentially interact with the protein.The model protein hen egg white lysozyme was doubly PEGylated on two lysines with 5 kDa linear PEGs (mPEG-succinimidyl valerate, MW 5000 and studied in the absence and presence of preferentially excluded sucrose and preferentially bound guanine hydrochloride. Structural characterization by far- and near-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy was supplemented by investigation of protein thermal stability with the use of differential scanning calorimetry, far and near-UV circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy. It was found that PEGylated lysozyme was stabilized by the preferentially excluded excipient and destabilized by the preferentially bound excipient in a similar manner as lysozyme. However, compared to lysozyme in all cases the melting transition was lower by up to a few degrees and the calorimetric melting enthalpy was decreased to half the value for PEGylated lysozyme. The ratio between calorimetric and van't Hoff enthalpy suggests that our PEGylated lysozyme is a dimer.The PEGylated model protein displayed similar stability responses to the addition of preferentially active excipients. This suggests that formulation principles using preferentially interacting excipients are similar for PEGylated and non-PEGylated proteins.

  10. Arresting dissolution by interfacial rheology design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltramo, Peter J.; Gupta, Manish; Alicke, Alexandra; Liascukiene, Irma; Gunes, Deniz Z.; Baroud, Charles N.; Vermant, Jan

    2017-09-01

    A strategy to halt dissolution of particle-coated air bubbles in water based on interfacial rheology design is presented. Whereas previously a dense monolayer was believed to be required for such an “armored bubble” to resist dissolution, in fact engineering a 2D yield stress interface suffices to achieve such performance at submonolayer particle coverages. We use a suite of interfacial rheology techniques to characterize spherical and ellipsoidal particles at an air-water interface as a function of surface coverage. Bubbles with varying particle coverages are made and their resistance to dissolution evaluated using a microfluidic technique. Whereas a bare bubble only has a single pressure at which a given radius is stable, we find a range of pressures over which bubble dissolution is arrested for armored bubbles. The link between interfacial rheology and macroscopic dissolution of ˜ 100 μm bubbles coated with ˜ 1 μm particles is presented and discussed. The generic design rationale is confirmed by using nonspherical particles, which develop significant yield stress at even lower surface coverages. Hence, it can be applied to successfully inhibit Ostwald ripening in a multitude of foam and emulsion applications.

  11. Preferential interactions and the effect of protein PEGylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Louise Stenstrup; Thulstrup, Peter Waaben; Kasimova, Marina Robertovna

    2015-01-01

    excipients that preferentially interact with the protein. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The model protein hen egg white lysozyme was doubly PEGylated on two lysines with 5 kDa linear PEGs (mPEG-succinimidyl valerate, MW 5000) and studied in the absence and presence of preferentially excluded sucrose...... excipients. This suggests that formulation principles using preferentially interacting excipients are similar for PEGylated and non-PEGylated proteins.......BACKGROUND: PEGylation is a strategy used by the pharmaceutical industry to prolong systemic circulation of protein drugs, whereas formulation excipients are used for stabilization of proteins during storage. Here we investigate the role of PEGylation in protein stabilization by formulation...

  12. Addressable Direct-Write Nanoscale Filament Formation and Dissolution by Nanoparticle-Mediated Bipolar Electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Garrison M; Han, Donghoon; Fullerton-Shirey, Susan K; Go, David B; Bohn, Paul W

    2017-05-23

    Nanoscale conductive filaments, usually associated with resistive memory or memristor technology, may also be used for chemical sensing and nanophotonic applications; however, realistic implementation of the technology requires precise knowledge of the conditions that control the formation and dissolution of filaments. Here we describe and characterize an addressable direct-write nanoelectrochemical approach to achieve repeatable formation/dissolution of Ag filaments across a ∼100 nm poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) film containing either Ag(+) alone or Ag(+) together with 50 nm Ag-nanoparticles acting as bipolar electrodes. Using a conductive AFM tip, formation occurs when the PEO film is subjected to a forward bias, and dissolution occurs under reverse bias. Formation-dissolution kinetics were studied for three film compositions: Ag|PEO-Ag(+), Ag|poly(ethylene glycol) monolayer-PEO-Ag(+), and Ag|poly(ethylene glycol) monolayer-PEO-Ag(+)/Ag-nanoparticle. Statistical analysis shows that the distribution of formation times exhibits Gaussian behavior, and the fastest average initial formation time occurs for the Ag|PEO-Ag(+) system. In contrast, formation in the presence of Ag nanoparticles likely proceeds by a noncontact bipolar electrochemical mechanism, exhibiting the slowest initial filament formation. Dissolution times are log-normal for all three systems, and repeated reformation of filaments from previously formed structures is characterized by rapid regrowth. The direct-write bipolar electrochemical deposition/dissolution strategy developed here presents an approach to reconfigurable, noncontact in situ wiring of nanoparticle arrays-thereby enabling applications where actively controlled connectivity of nanoparticle arrays is used to manipulate nanoelectronic and nanophotonic behavior. The system further allows for facile manipulation of experimental conditions while simultaneously characterizing surface conditions and filament formation/dissolution kinetics.

  13. Chitosan and chitosan chlorhydrate based various approaches for enhancement of dissolution rate of carvedilol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shete Amol S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and the purpose of the study Carvedilol nonselective β-adrenoreceptor blocker, chemically (±-1-(Carbazol-4-yloxy-3-[[2-(o-methoxypHenoxy ethyl] amino]-2-propanol, slightly soluble in ethyl ether; and practically insoluble in water, gastric fluid (simulated, TS, pH 1.1, and intestinal fluid (simulated, TS without pancreatin, pH 7.5 Compounds with aqueous solubility less than 1% W/V often represents dissolution rate limited absorption. There is need to enhance the dissolution rate of carvedilol. The objective of our present investigation was to compare chitosan and chitosan chlorhydrate based various approaches for enhancement of dissolution rate of carvedilol. Methods The different formulations were prepared by different methods like solvent change approach to prepare hydrosols, solvent evaporation technique to form solid dispersions and cogrind mixtures. The prepared formulations were characterized in terms of saturation solubility, drug content, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, electron microscopy, in vitro dissolution studies and stability studies. Results The practical yield in case of hydrosols was ranged from 59.76 to 92.32%. The drug content was found to uniform among the different batches of hydrosols, cogrind mixture and solid dispersions ranged from 98.24 to 99.89%. There was significant improvement in dissolution rate of carvedilol with chitosan chlorhdyrate as compare to chitosan and explanation to this behavior was found in the differences in the wetting, solubilities and swelling capacity of the chitosan and chitosan salts, chitosan chlorhydrate rapidly wet and dissolve upon its incorporation into the dissolution medium, whereas the chitosan base, less water soluble, would take more time to dissolve. Conclusion This technique is scalable and valuable in manufacturing process in future for enhancement of dissolution of poorly water soluble

  14. Criticality safety in high explosives dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troyer, S.D.

    1997-06-01

    In 1992, an incident occurred at the Pantex Plant in which the cladding around a fissile material component (pit) cracked during dismantlement of the high explosives portion of a nuclear weapon. Although the event did not result in any significant contamination or personnel exposures, concerns about the incident led to the conclusion that the current dismantlement process was unacceptable. Options considered for redesign, dissolution tooling design considerations, dissolution tooling design features, and the analysis of the new dissolution tooling are summarized. The final tooling design developed incorporated a number of safety features and provides a simple, self-contained, low-maintenance method of high explosives removal for nuclear explosive dismantlement. Analyses demonstrate that the tooling design will remain subcritical under normal, abnormal, and credible accident scenarios. 1 fig.

  15. DISSOLUTION OF IRRADIATED MURR FUEL ASSEMBLIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyser, E.

    2010-06-17

    A literature survey on the dissolution of spent nuclear fuel from the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) has been performed. This survey encompassed both internal and external literature sources for the dissolution of aluminum-clad uranium alloy fuels. The most limiting aspect of dissolution in the current facility configuration involves issues related to the control of the flammability of the off-gas from this process. The primary conclusion of this work is that based on past dissolution of this fuel in H-Canyon, four bundles of this fuel (initial charge) may be safely dissolved in a nitric acid flowsheet catalyzed with 0.002 M mercuric nitrate using a 40 scfm purge to control off-gas flammability. The initial charge may be followed by a second charge of up to five bundles to the same dissolver batch depending on volume and concentration constraints. The safety of this flowsheet relies on composite lower flammability limits (LFL) estimated from prior literature, pilot-scale work on the dissolution of site fuels, and the proposed processing flowsheet. Equipment modifications or improved LFL data offer the potential for improved processing rates. The fuel charging sequence, as well as the acid and catalyst concentrations, will control the dissolution rate during the initial portion of the cycle. These parameters directly impact the hydrogen and off-gas generation and, along with the purge flowrate determine the number of bundles that may be charged. The calculation approach within provides Engineering a means to determine optimal charging patterns. Downstream processing of this material should be similar to that of recent processing of site fuels requiring only minor adjustments of the existing flowsheet parameters.

  16. Potential of Bio-Enhanced DNAPL Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, J. M.; Kitanidis, P. K.; McCarty, P. L.

    2006-12-01

    DNAPL contamination is one of most challenging environmental problems. According to EPA's estimation, the total number of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) impacted sites in the U.S. could range from 15,000 to 25,000. It has been generally believed that promoting biological reactions that transform contaminants in DNAPL source zones can increase mass transfer rates, thereby shortening source longevity and total cleanup time. Use of bioremediation to enhance residual DNAPL dissolution, therefore, has potential as an economical and effective approach to accelerate DNAPL cleanup. While promising, some biological processes, such as biomass growth and gas production (CO2 and CH4), may occur together with biodegradation in source zones and adversely affect dissolution enhancement. In addition, the toxic effects of DNAPL compounds and transformation products produced by microorganisms may also adversely affect microbial activity and the extent of the bio-active zones. An understanding of how such factors control the efficiency of bio-enhanced dissolution is of great importance in helping to predict the potential benefits of DNAPL bioremediation. In this presentation, we will integrate the results of experimental and theoretical studies over the past six years on bio-enhanced tetrachloroethene (PCE) DNAPL dissolution to illustrate the effects on dissolution enhancement. Specifically, we will discuss the significance of our theoretical work on: (1) how biomass accumulation can affect dissolution enhancement for a PCE DNAPL pool and (2) the evolution of a bio-active zone in a residual DNAPL area under the influence of DNAPL toxicity. In addition, we will show the interplay between various groups of microorganisms within and around PCE DNAPL source zones as well as how our experimental work can help better understand the toxic effects of PCE and its transformation products on the activity of PCE dehalogenating bacteria. Finally, the presentation will highlight

  17. Bacterial dissolution of fluorapatite as a possible source of elevated dissolved phosphate in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mu-hua; Ngwenya, Bryne T.; Wang, Lin; Li, Wenchao; Olive, Valerie; Ellam, Robert M.

    2011-10-01

    In order to understand the contribution of geogenic phosphorus to lake eutrophication, we have investigated the rate and extent of fluorapatite dissolution in the presence of two common soil bacteria ( Pantoea agglomerans and Bacillus megaterium) at T = 25 °C for 26 days. The release of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and rare earth elements (REE) under biotic and abiotic conditions was compared to investigate the effect of microorganism on apatite dissolution. The release of Ca and P was enhanced under the influence of bacteria. Apatite dissolution rates obtained from solution Ca concentration in the biotic reactors increased above error compared with abiotic controls. Chemical analysis of biomass showed that bacteria scavenged Ca, P, and REE during their growth, which lowered their fluid concentrations, leading to apparent lower release rates. The temporal evolution of pH in the reactors reflected the balance of apatite weathering, solution reactions, bacterial metabolism, and potentially secondary precipitation, which was implied in the variety of REE patterns in the biotic and abiotic reactors. Light rare earth elements (LREE) were preferentially adsorbed to cell surfaces, whereas heavy rare earth elements (HREE) were retained in the fluid phase. Decoupling of LREE and HREE could possibly be due to preferential release of HREE from apatite or selective secondary precipitation of LREE enriched phosphates, especially in the presence of bacteria. When corrected for intracellular concentrations, both biotic reactors showed high P and REE release compared with the abiotic control. We speculate that lack of this correction explains the conflicting findings about the role of bacteria in mineral weathering rates. The observation that bacteria enhance the release rates of P and REE from apatite could account for some of the phosphorus burden and metal pollution in aquatic environments.

  18. Microbial dissolution of silicate materials. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartzman, D. [Howard Univ., Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1996-03-26

    The objective of this research was to better understand the role of selected thermophilic bacteria in the colonization and dissolution of silicate minerals, with potential applications to the HDR Project. The demonstration of enhanced dissolution from microbial effects is critically dependent on providing a mineral bait within a media deficient in the critical nutrient found in the mineral (e.g., Fe). Reproducible experimental conditions in batch experiments require agitation to expose mineral powders, as well as nearly similar initial conditions for both inoculated cultures and controls. It is difficult, but not impossible to ensure reproducible conditions with microbes favoring filamentous growth habits.

  19. Fundamental Insights into the Dissolution and Precipitation of Cellulosic Biomass from Ionic Liquid Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnick, David L.

    Lignocellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on earth making it a promising feedstock for the production of renewable chemicals and fuels. However, utilization of biomass remains a challenge as recalcitrance of cellulose and hemicellulose hinder separation and conversion of these carbohydrates. For instance, the complex inter- and intra- molecular hydrogen bonding network of cellulose renders it insoluble in nearly all aqueous and organic solvents. Alternatively, select ionic liquids (ILs) dissolve significant quantities. Through an ionic liquid mediated dissolution and precipitation process cellulose crystallinity is significantly reduced consequently enhancing subsequent chemical and biochemical reaction processes. Therefore, understanding the thermodynamics of ionic liquid - cellulose mixtures is imperative to developing an IL based biomass processing system. This dissertation illustrates solid-liquid phase equilibrium results for the dissolution and precipitation of cellulose in various IL/cosolvent, IL/antisolvent, and IL/mixed solvent systems with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate ([EMIm][DEP]). Molecular interactions between the ionic liquid, organic solvents, and cellulose are assessed by spectroscopic techniques including Kamlet-Taft solvatochromic analysis, FTIR, and NMR. Additionally, this dissertation discusses how preferential solvation of the IL cation and anion by co- and anti-solvents impact the ability of IL ions to interact with cellulose thus affecting the cellulose dissolution capacity of the various IL-solvent mixtures.

  20. Dissolution behaviour of polyethersulfone in diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J. L.; Cheng, C.; Zhang, H.; Sun, Z. Y.; Zhu, S.; Yu, M. H.

    2017-06-01

    Polyethersulfone (PES) is considered as an important and useful toughener for epoxy resins (EPs). Generally, PES was first dissolved in EP oligomer to form a homogeneous solution, which considerably affected the properties of cured EPs. Turbidity measurement was carried out to characterize the dissolution behaviour. Different PES/EP systems exhibited the same dissolution behaviour, albeit different swelling rate (R S) and dissolution rate (R D). Compared to molecular weight, the particle size and hydroxyl content of PES exerted considerable effects on dissolution. The smaller epoxy equivalent these diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) oligomers possessed, the better dissolubility they had; the more small molecules they contained, the more apparent the swelling observed. Moisture prevented the diffusion of the DGEBA oligomer molecules into PES. With increasing temperature, R S and R D first rapidly increased and then slowly increased, and the optimal dissolution temperature was 120°C. At the final steady, the turbidity increased linearly with increasing PES concentration; in addition, these values can be used as reference for homogeneous solution. Only one glass transition temperature (T g) was observed for PES/EP systems, indicative of the good compatibility between PES and EP.

  1. Effect of water chemistry on the dissolution rate of the lead corrosion product hydrocerussite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, James D; Wang, Yin; Giammar, Daniel E

    2014-05-01

    Hydrocerussite (Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2) is widely observed as a corrosion product in drinking water distribution systems. Its equilibrium solubility and dissolution rate can control lead concentrations in drinking water. The dissolution rate of hydrocerussite was investigated as a function of pH, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and orthophosphate concentrations at conditions relevant to drinking water distribution using continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs). In the absence of DIC and orthophosphate, the dissolution rate decreased with increasing pH. Addition of DIC inhibited the dissolution of hydrocerussite. The addition of orthophosphate significantly decreased the dissolution rate of hydrocerussite. At conditions with orthophosphate and without DIC, a lead(II) phosphate solid hydroxylpyromorphite (Pb5(PO4)3OH) was observed after reaction, and orthophosphate's inhibitory effect can be attributed to the formation of this low-solubility lead(II) phosphate solid. In the presence of both orthophosphate and DIC, no lead(II) phosphate solid was observed, but the rate was still lowered by the presence of orthophosphate, which might be due to the adsorption of orthophosphate to block reactive sites on the hydrocerussite surface. For systems in which hydroxylpyromorphite was present, the steady-state effluent lead concentrations from the CSTRs were close to the predicted equilibrium solubility of hydroxylpyromorphite. In the absence of orthophosphate rapid equilibration of hydrocerussite was observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Optical microscopy as a comparative analytical technique for single-particle dissolution studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanbäck, Sami; Ehlers, Henrik; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2014-07-20

    Novel, simple and cost effective methods are needed to replace advanced chemical analytical techniques, in small-scale dissolution studies. Optical microscopy of individual particles could provide such a method. The aim of the present work was to investigate and verify the applicability of optical microscopy as an analytical technique for drug dissolution studies. The evaluation was performed by comparing image and chemical analysis data of individual dissolving particles. It was shown that the data obtained by image analysis and UV-spectrophotometry produced practically identical dissolution curves, with average similarity and difference factors above 82 and below 4, respectively. The relative standard deviation for image analysis data, of the studied particle size range, varied between 1.9% and 3.8%. Consequently, it is proposed that image analysis can be used, on its own, as a viable analytical technique in single-particle dissolution studies. The possibility for significant reductions in sample preparation, operational cost, time and substance consumption gives optical detection a clear advantage over chemical analytical methods. Thus, image analysis could be an ideal and universal analytical technique for rapid small-scale dissolution studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Growth of preferential attachment random graphs via continuous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Some growth asymptotics of a version of `preferential attachment' random graphs are studied through an embedding into a continuous-time branching scheme. These results complement and extend previous work in the literature.

  4. Preferential pairing estimates from multivalent frequencies in tetraploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sybenga, J

    1994-12-01

    Mathematical models are presented for estimating preferential pairing and chiasma parameters in amphidiploids and autotetraploids on the basis of diakinesis or metaphase I configuration frequencies and are compared with other approaches of estimating affinity. With a preferential pairing factor p, estimated from quadrivalent and trivalent frequencies, and estimated chiasmate association factors for the two arms in quadrivalents (a(qu) and b(qu) for arms A and B, respectively) and in bivalents (a(bi) and b(bi)) a perfect fit between observed and predicted configuration frequencies can often be obtained in amphidiploids of several plant species, including Solanaceae and Gramineae. Since several proven autotetraploids give very similar apparent preferential pairing estimates, the biological significance of such parameters as preferential pairing and affinity factors is considered limited. The same is true for pairing parameters estimated by optimizing fit of configuration frequencies expected on the basis of theoretical models to observed data.

  5. Influence of pH and temperature on alunite dissolution rates and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, Patricia; Hudson-Edwards, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Aluminium is one of the main elements in most mining-affected environments, where it may influence the mobility of other elements and play a key role on pH buffering. Moreover, high concentrations of Al can have severe effects on ecosystems and humans; Al intake, for example, has been implicated in neurological pathologies (e.g., Alzheimer's disease; Flaten, 2001). The behaviour of Al in mining-affected environments is commonly determined, at least partially, by the dissolution of Al sulphate minerals and particularly by the dissolution of alunite (KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6), which is one of the most important and ubiquitous Al sulphates in mining-affected environments (Nordstrom, 2011). The presence of alunite has been described in other acid sulphate environments, including some soils (Prietzel & Hirsch, 1998) and on the surface of Mars (Swayze et al., 2008). Despite the important role of alunite, its dissolution rates and products, and their controlling factors under conditions similar to those found in these environments, remain largely unknown. In this work, batch dissolution experiments have been carried out in order to shed light on the rates, products and controlling factors of alunite dissolution under different pH conditions (between 3 and 8) and temperatures (between 279 and 313K) similar to those encountered in natural systems. The obtained initial dissolution rates using synthetic alunite, based on the evolution of K concentrations, are between 10-9.7 and 10-10.9 mol-m-2-s-1, with the lowest rates obtained at around pH 4.8, and increases in the rates recorded with both increases and decreases in pH. Increases of temperature in the studied range also cause increases in the dissolution rates. The dissolution of alunite dissolution is incongruent, as has been reported for jarosite (isostructural with alunite) by Welch et al. (2008). Compared with the stoichiometric ratio in the bulk alunite (Al/K=3), K tends to be released to the solution preferentially over Al

  6. An upscaled rate law for magnesite dissolution in heterogeneous porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hang; Li, Li

    2017-08-01

    Spatial heterogeneity in natural subsurface systems governs water fluxes and residence time in reactive zones and therefore determines effective rates of mineral dissolution. Extensive studies have documented mineral dissolution rates in natural systems, although a general rate law has remain elusive. Here we fill this gap by answering two questions: (1) how and to what extent does spatial heterogeneity affect water residence time and effectively-dissolving surface area? (2) what is the upscaled rate law that quantifies effective dissolution rates in natural, heterogeneous media? With data constraints from experimental work, 240 Monte-Carlo numerical experiments of magnesite dissolution within quartz matrix were run with spatial distributions characterized by a range of permeability variance σ2lnκ (0.5-6.0) and correlation length (2-50 cm). Although the total surface area and global residence time (τa) are the same in all experiments, the water fluxes through reactive magnesite zones varies between 0.7 and 72.8% of the total water fluxes. Highly heterogeneous media with large σ2lnκ and long λ divert water mostly into non-reactive preferential flow paths, therefore bypassing and minimizing flow in low permeability magnesite zones. As a result, the water residence time in magnesite zones (i.e., reactive residence time τa,r) is long and magnesite dissolution quickly reaches local equilibrium, which leads to small effective surface area and low dissolution rates. Magnesite dissolution rates in heterogeneous media vary from 2.7 to 100% of the rates in the equivalent homogeneous media, with effectively-dissolving surface area varying from 0.18 to 6.83 m2 (out of 51.71 m2 total magnesite surface area). Based on 240 numerical experiments and 45 column experiments, a general upscaled rate law in heterogeneous media, RMgCO3,ht =kAe,hm(1 - exp(-τa/τa,r))α , was derived to quantify effective dissolution rates. The dissolution rates in heterogeneous media are a

  7. Dissolution of glass wool, rock wool and alkaline earth silicate wool: morphological and chemical changes in fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campopiano, Antonella; Cannizzaro, Annapaola; Angelosanto, Federica; Astolfi, Maria Luisa; Ramires, Deborah; Olori, Angelo; Canepari, Silvia; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2014-10-01

    The behavior of alkaline earth silicate (AES) wool and of other biosoluble wools in saline solution simulating physiological fluids was compared with that of a traditional wool belonging to synthetic vitreous fibers. Morphological and size changes of fibers were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The elements extracted from fibers were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. SEM analysis showed a larger reduction of length-weighted geometric mean fiber diameter at 4.5 pH than at 7.4 pH. At the 7.4 pH, AES wool showed a higher dissolution rate and a dissolution time less than a few days. Their dissolution was highly non-congruent with rapid leaching of calcium. Unlike rock wool, glass wool dissolved more rapidly at physiological pH than at acid pH. Dissolution of AES and biosoluble rock wool is accompanied by a noticeable change in morphology while by no change for glass wool. Biosoluble rock wool developed a leached surface with porous honeycomb structure. SEM analysis showed the dissolution for glass wool is mainly due to breakage transverse of fiber at pH 7.4. AES dissolution constant (Kdis) was the highest at pH 7.4, while at pH 4.5 only biosoluble rockwool 1 showed a higher Kdis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Preferential attachment in the evolution of metabolic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elofsson Arne

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many biological networks show some characteristics of scale-free networks. Scale-free networks can evolve through preferential attachment where new nodes are preferentially attached to well connected nodes. In networks which have evolved through preferential attachment older nodes should have a higher average connectivity than younger nodes. Here we have investigated preferential attachment in the context of metabolic networks. Results The connectivities of the enzymes in the metabolic network of Escherichia coli were determined and representatives for these enzymes were located in 11 eukaryotes, 17 archaea and 46 bacteria. E. coli enzymes which have representatives in eukaryotes have a higher average connectivity while enzymes which are represented only in the prokaryotes, and especially the enzymes only present in βγ-proteobacteria, have lower connectivities than expected by chance. Interestingly, the enzymes which have been proposed as candidates for horizontal gene transfer have a higher average connectivity than the other enzymes. Furthermore, It was found that new edges are added to the highly connected enzymes at a faster rate than to enzymes with low connectivities which is consistent with preferential attachment. Conclusion Here, we have found indications of preferential attachment in the metabolic network of E. coli. A possible biological explanation for preferential attachment growth of metabolic networks is that novel enzymes created through gene duplication maintain some of the compounds involved in the original reaction, throughout its future evolution. In addition, we found that enzymes which are candidates for horizontal gene transfer have a higher average connectivity than other enzymes. This indicates that while new enzymes are attached preferentially to highly connected enzymes, these highly connected enzymes have sometimes been introduced into the E. coli genome by horizontal gene transfer. We speculate

  9. Preferential Regimes Can Make Tax Competition Less Harmful

    OpenAIRE

    Keen, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A key feature of the recent EU and OECD standards for good behavior in international taxation is a presumption against preferential tax regimes (such as those offering advantageous treatment to non-residents or enterprises not active in the domestic market), which are seen as especially corrosive forms of tax competition. This paper shows that, on the contrary, preferential regimes may serve a useful strategic purpose in enabling countries to confine their most aggressive tax competition to p...

  10. Kinetics of gold dissolution in iodide solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kang

    Cyanide has been used as a lixiviant for free milling gold ores for a long time. Cyanide solutions are highly toxic and their use poses long term environmental problems. Cyanidation process is efficient for oxide gold ores but it is ineffective for gold ores containing sulfides. Among the noncyanide based lixiviants, iodide has the potential of replacing cyanide due to its ability to leach gold at a wider pH range and higher rate of gold dissolution. The emerging technology of bio-oxidation is an accepted process for pretreatment of sulfide gold ores. The bio-oxidation is conducted at acidic pH which makes direct cyanidation without pH adjustment impractical. On the contrary, iodide leaching of gold from the bio-oxidized ore can be accomplished without any pH adjustment. The present study was undertaken in order to investigate the kinetics of gold dissolution in various iodide-oxidant solutions under conditions similar to those prevailing in a solution containing bio-oxidized ore. The thermodynamic study indicated that gold can be spontaneously dissolved in iodide-hydrogen peroxide, iodide-ferric ion and iodide-persulfate solutions. Dissolution of gold powder was carried out in these solutions and the results showed that the gold dissolution was dependent on solution pH, concentrations of iodide, oxidants and temperature. Gold dissolution was found to increase with decreasing pH and substantial gold dissolution could be achieved at pH ≤ 2. Increasing concentration of oxidant till an optimum oxidant/iodide molar ratio increased gold dissolution and much higher concentration of oxidant would result in a decrease in gold dissolution. With increasing iodide concentration and temperature, gold dissolution increased significantly. The activation energy data which ranged between 9.6 and 13.6 kcal/mole for various oxidants indicated that surface reaction was the rate controlling step. At higher temperatures a change in rate limiting step with passage of time was observed

  11. Dye staining and excavation of a lateral preferential flow network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Anderson

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Preferential flow paths have been found to be important for runoff generation, solute transport, and slope stability in many areas around the world. Although many studies have identified the particular characteristics of individual features and measured the runoff generation and solute transport within hillslopes, very few studies have determined how individual features are hydraulically connected at a hillslope scale. In this study, we used dye staining and excavation to determine the morphology and spatial pattern of a preferential flow network over a large scale (30 m. We explore the feasibility of extending small-scale dye staining techniques to the hillslope scale. We determine the lateral preferential flow paths that are active during the steady-state flow conditions and their interaction with the surrounding soil matrix. We also calculate the velocities of the flow through each cross-section of the hillslope and compare them to hillslope scale applied tracer measurements. Finally, we investigate the relationship between the contributing area and the characteristics of the preferential flow paths. The experiment revealed that larger contributing areas coincided with highly developed and hydraulically connected preferential flow paths that had flow with little interaction with the surrounding soil matrix. We found evidence of subsurface erosion and deposition of soil and organic material laterally and vertically within the soil. These results are important because they add to the understanding of the runoff generation, solute transport, and slope stability of preferential flow-dominated hillslopes.

  12. Dissolution of K-feldspar at CO2-saturated conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenqvist, Jörgen; Kilpatrick, Andrew D.; Yardley, Bruce W. D.; Rochelle, Christopher A.

    2014-05-01

    Underground storage of carbon dioxide on a very large scale is widely considered to be an essential part of any strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. Aquifers in deep sedimentary basins have been identified as suitable targets for geological carbon dioxide storage, especially aquifers located in sandstone host rock. This has led to renewed interest in studying the interaction between sandstone minerals and aqueous fluids, as there is a paucity of data for CO2-containing systems at relevant conditions. In an attempt to improve data coverage for important silicate minerals, we have measured the dissolution kinetics of K-feldspar in CO2-saturated fluids over a range of temperatures. K-feldspar fragments were hand-picked from a larger sample, crushed to a narrow size range and cleaned. The grains were reacted with water in batch-type reactors at temperatures from 20°C to 200°C and pressures up to 200 bar, and the dissolution was followed by periodic withdrawal of aliquots of solution. The mineral grains were allowed to react with pure water for a number of weeks before injection of CO2 into the system. Excess CO2 was provided to ensure CO2 saturation in the experimental systems. While the reaction time before injection was not long enough to attain complete equilibrium, it did considerably lower the degree of undersaturation with respect to K-feldspar and helped highlight the effect of CO2 injection into a rock-equilibrated aqueous fluid. At all temperatures studied, injection of CO2 resulted in a rapid increase in the soluble concentrations of K and Si (and also Na from a plagioclase component). The dissolution then reached apparent steady state conditions after a few days, with observed dissolution rates in the range of 1E-9 to 1E-12 mol/m2/s over the temperature range studied. The CO2-saturated solutions maintained mildly acidic conditions throughout the experiments and the observed rates therefore fall roughly between rates measured in

  13. Comparative Dissolution Profiles of Representative Quinolones in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    implication in the choice of medium for dissolution testing of quinolones, particularly for comparative purposes in the absence of specific monograph recommendations. Furthermore, it supports the change from 0.1N to 0.01NHCl for ciprofloxacin in the USP as a monographic modification. Conclusion: We conclude that there ...

  14. On the dissolution of iridium by aluminum.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewson, John C.

    2009-08-01

    The potential for liquid aluminum to dissolve an iridium solid is examined. Substantial uncertainties exist in material properties, and the available data for the iridium solubility and iridium diffusivity are discussed. The dissolution rate is expressed in terms of the regression velocity of the solid iridium when exposed to the solvent (aluminum). The temperature has the strongest influence in the dissolution rate. This dependence comes primarily from the solubility of iridium in aluminum and secondarily from the temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient. This dissolution mass flux is geometry dependent and results are provided for simplified geometries at constant temperatures. For situations where there is negligible convective flow, simple time-dependent diffusion solutions are provided. Correlations for mass transfer are also given for natural convection and forced convection. These estimates suggest that dissolution of iridium can be significant for temperatures well below the melting temperature of iridium, but the uncertainties in actual rates are large because of uncertainties in the physical parameters and in the details of the relevant geometries.

  15. Physicochemical characterization and dissolution properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical characterization and dissolution properties of binary systems of pyrimethamine and 2- hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin. ... (PYR), a drug effective against protozoan parasites, such as Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum, is poorly water soluble and exhibits marked variation in oral bioavailability.

  16. Numerical modelling of multicomponent LNAPL dissolution kinetics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    becoming the continuing source of subsurface contamination because of their inherent toxic- ity and partitioning .... dissolution mass transfer rate coefficient when the contaminant is present as single as well as in a mixture ...... port models which can over or under-predict aqueous phase concentrations to a large extent.

  17. 25 CFR 11.605 - Dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... dissolution of marriage if: (1) The court finds that the marriage is irretrievably broken, if the finding is... affecting the attitude of one or both of the parties towards the marriage; (2) The court finds that either..., or provided for child custody, the support of any child entitled to support, the maintenance of...

  18. Efavirenz Dissolution Enhancement I: Co-Micronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helvécio Vinícius Antunes Rocha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AIDS constitutes one of the most serious infectious diseases, representing a major public health priority. Efavirenz (EFV, one of the most widely used drugs for this pathology, belongs to the Class II of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System for drugs with very poor water solubility. To improve EFV’s dissolution profile, changes can be made to the physical properties of the drug that do not lead to any accompanying molecular modifications. Therefore, the study objective was to develop and characterize systems with efavirenz able to improve its dissolution, which were co-processed with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP. The technique used was co-micronization. Three different drug:excipient ratios were tested for each of the two carriers. The drug dispersion dissolution results showed significant improvement for all the co-processed samples in comparison to non-processed material and corresponding physical mixtures. The dissolution profiles obtained for dispersion with co-micronized SLS samples proved superior to those of co-micronized PVP, with the proportion (1:0.25 proving the optimal mixture. The improvements may be explained by the hypothesis that formation of a hydrophilic layer on the surface of the micronized drug increases the wettability of the system formed, corroborated by characterization results indicating no loss of crystallinity and an absence of interaction at the molecular level.

  19. Photoassisted dissolution of a colloidal manganese oxide in the presence of fulvic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walte, T.D.; Wrigley, I.C.; Szymczak, R.

    1988-07-01

    The dissolution of a synthesized manganese dioxide by a well-characterized fulvic acid has been investigated over a range of reactant concentrations, pH, and illumination conditions, as have components of the overall dissolution process including fulvic acid and manganous ion adsorption to the oxide surface. The dissolution process is satisfactorily described by an initial rapid formation of a surface-located precursor complex followed by a slower intramolecular electron-transfer step resulting in Mn(II) formation at the oxide surface. Illumination by 365-nm light enhances the rate of electron transfer significantly, with an increase in first-order reduction rate constant from 0.31 min/sup -1/ (dark) to 0.55 min/sup -1/ (light at pH 4.00 and from 0.53 min/sup -1/ (dark) to 1.23 min/sup -1/ (light) at pH 7.10. Depending on the affinity of the oxide surface for manganous ion, a portion of the Mn(II) produced at the oxide surface will be rapidly released to solution, resulting in dissolution of the oxide.

  20. Microbially mediated barite dissolution in anoxic brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Bingjie; Akob, Denise M.; Dunlap, Darren S.; Renock, Devon

    2017-01-01

    Fluids injected into shale formations during hydraulic fracturing of black shale return with extraordinarily high total-dissolved-solids (TDS) and high concentrations of barium (Ba) and radium (Ra). Barite, BaSO4, has been implicated as a possible source of Ba as well as a problematic mineral scale that forms on internal well surfaces, often in close association with radiobarite, (Ba,Ra)SO4. The dissolution of barite by abiotic processes is well quantified. However, the identification of microbial communities in flowback and produced water necessitates the need to understand barite dissolution in the presence of bacteria. Therefore, we evaluated the rates and mechanisms of abiotic and microbially-mediated barite dissolution under anoxic and hypersaline conditions in the laboratory. Barite dissolution experiments were conducted with bacterial enrichment cultures established from produced water from Marcellus Shale wells located in northcentral Pennsylvania. These cultures were dominated by anaerobic halophilic bacteria from the genus Halanaerobium. Dissolved Ba was determined by ICP-OES and barite surfaces were investigated by SEM and AFM. Our results reveal that: 1) higher amounts of barium (up to ∼5 × ) are released from barite in the presence of Halanaerobium cultures compared to brine controls after 30 days of reaction, 2) etch pits that develop on the barite (001) surface in the presence of Halanaerobium exhibit a morphology that is distinct from those that form during control experiments without bacteria, 3) etch pits that develop in the presence of Halanaerobium exhibit a morphology that is similar to the morphology of etch pits formed in the presence of strong organic chelators, EDTA and DTPA, and 4) experiments using dialysis membranes to separate barite from bacteria suggest that direct contact between the two is not required in order to promote dissolution. These results suggest that Halanaerobium increase the rate of barite dissolution in anoxic and

  1. Effect of background electrolytes on gypsum dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos-Cara, Alejandro; Putnis, Christine; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of the dissolution behaviour of gypsum (CaSO4· 2H2O) in aqueous solutions is of primary importance in many natural and technological processes (Pachon-Rodriguez and Colombani, 2007), including the weathering of rocks and gypsum karst formations, deformation of gypsum-bearing rocks, the quality of drinking water, amelioration of soil acidity, scale formation in the oil and gas industry or measurement of water motion in oceanography. Specific ions in aqueous solutions can play important but very different roles on mineral dissolution. For example, the dissolution rates and the morphology of dissolution features may be considerably modified by the presence of the foreign ions in the solution, which adsorb at the surface and hinder the detachment of the ions building the crystal. Dissolution processes in the aqueous environment are closely related to the rearrangement of water molecules around solute ions and the interaction between the solvent molecules themselves. The rearrangement of water molecules with respect to solute species has been recognized as the main kinetic barrier for crystal dissolution in many systems (Davis, 2000; De Yoreo and Dove 2004; Wasylenki et al. 2005). Current research suggest that the control that electrolytes exert on water structure is limited to the local environment surrounding the ions and is not related to long-range electric fields emanating from the ions but results from effects associated with the hydration shell(s) of the ions (Collins et al. 2007) and the ions' capacity to break or structure water (i.e. chaotropic and kosmotropic ions, respectively). These effects will ultimately affect the kinetics of crystal dissolution, and could be correlated with the water affinity of the respective background ions following a trend known as the lyotropic or Hofmeister series (Kunz et al. 2004; Dove and Craven, 2005). In situ macroscopic and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) flow-through dissolution experiments were conducted at a

  2. Effects of fine root length density and root biomass on soil preferential flow in forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghu Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The study was conducted to characterize the impacts of plant roots systems (e.g., root length density and root biomass on soil preferential flow in forest ecosystems. Area of study: The study was carried out in Jiufeng National Forest Park, Beijing, China. Material and methods: The flow patterns were measured by field dye tracing experiments. Different species (Sophora japonica Linn,Platycladus orientalis Franco, Quercus dentata Thunbwere quantified in two replicates, and 12 soil depth were applied. Plant roots were sampled in the sieving methods. Root length density and root biomass were measured by WinRHIZO. Dye coverage was implied in the image analysis, and maximum depth of dye infiltration by direct measurement. Main results: Root length density and root biomass decreased with the increasing distance from soil surface, and root length density was 81.6% higher in preferential pathways than in soil matrix, and 66.7% for root biomass with respect to all experimental plots. Plant roots were densely distributed in the upper soil layers. Dye coverage was almost 100% in the upper 5-10 cm, but then decreased rapidly with soil depth. Root length density and root biomass were different from species: Platycladus orientalis Franco > Quercus dentata Thunb > Sophora japonica Linn. Research highlights: The results indicated that fine roots systems had strong effects on soil preferential flow, particularly root channels enhancing nutrition transport across soil profiles in forest dynamics.

  3. Silicate mineral dissolution during heap bioleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopson, Mark; Halinen, Anna-Kaisa; Rahunen, Nelli; Boström, Dan; Sundkvist, Jan-Eric; Riekkola-Vanhanen, Marja; Kaksonen, Anna H; Puhakka, Jaakko A

    2008-03-01

    Silicate minerals are present in association with metal sulfides in ores and their dissolution occurs when the sulfide minerals are bioleached in heaps for metal recovery. It has previously been suggested that silicate mineral dissolution can affect mineral bioleaching by acid consumption, release of trace elements, and increasing the viscosity of the leach solution. In this study, the effect of silicates present in three separate samples in conjunction with chalcopyrite and a complex multi-metal sulfide ore on heap bioleaching was evaluated in column bioreactors. Fe(2+) oxidation was inhibited in columns containing chalcopyrite samples A and C that leached 1.79 and 1.11 mM fluoride, respectively but not in sample B that contained 0.14 mM fluoride. Microbial Fe(2+) oxidation inhibition experiments containing elevated fluoride concentrations and measurements of fluoride release from the chalcopyrite ores supported that inhibition of Fe(2+) oxidation during column leaching of two of the chalcopyrite ores was due to fluoride toxicity. Column bioleaching of the complex sulfide ore was carried out at various temperatures (7-50 degrees C) and pH values (1.5-3.0). Column leaching at pH 1.5 and 2.0 resulted in increased acid consumption rates and silicate dissolution such that it became difficult to filter the leach solutions and for the leach liquor to percolate through the column. However, column temperature (at pH 2.5) only had a minor effect on the acid consumption and silicate dissolution rates. This study demonstrates the potential negative impact of silicate mineral dissolution on heap bioleaching by microbial inhibition and liquid flow. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Effect of different water conditions on dissolution of nanosilver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Feng; Zhang, Hongyin; Lin, Qing-Yu

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the time-dependent dissolution of nanosilver (nAg) in common electrolytes and natural waters. nAg was synthesized via Tollens' method using sodium citrate as stabilizer; its morphology, UV-Vis spectrum, and particle size were characterized. The dissolved silver was monitored over time using filtration, centrifugation, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Our results indicated that nanoparticle aggregation, Cl(-) presence, and natural organic compounds could affect the dissolution behavior of nAg. The dissolution of nAg was highly dependent on Cl(-) concentration. Excessive Cl(-) enhanced nanoparticle dissolution, whereas natural organic compound inhibited the dissolution. The dissolution data fitted well with the first-order kinetic model, and the dissolution rate coefficients were calculated using the first-order equation. This study showed the dissolution of nAg under various water conditions. The obtained results may be helpful in predicting nAg behavior in relevant environmental aquatic systems.

  5. Synthesis of Phosphate Minerals for Use in Dissolution Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adcock, C. T.; Simon, A. C.; Hausrath, E. M.

    2011-03-01

    Mineral dissolution experiments require well-characterized mineral material that is relatively free of contaminates and is available in sufficient quantities. Here we report progress synthesizing chlorapatite and whitlockite for use in dissolution experiments.

  6. Multiparametric study of thorium oxide dissolution in aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonnet, Marie; Barre, Nicole; Drot, Romuald; Le Naour, Claire; Sladkov, Vladimir; Delpech, Sylvie [Universite Paris-Saclay, CNRS-IN2P3, Orsay (France). Institut de Physique Nucleaire

    2016-07-01

    Thorium oxide is poorly soluble: unlike uranium oxide, concentrated nitric acid medium is not sufficient to get quantitative dissolution. Addition of small amounts of fluoride is required to achieve thorium oxide total dissolution. The effect of several parameters on thorium oxide dissolution in order to optimize the dissolution conditions is reported in this paper. Thus the influence of solid characteristics, dissolution method, temperature and composition of dissolution medium on ThO{sub 2} dissolution rate has been studied. No complexing agents tested other than fluoride allows total dissolution. Beyond a given HF concentration a decrease of the dissolution rate is observed due to the formation of a precipitate at the solid/solution interface. It was demonstrated by XPS measurements that this precipitate is constituted of thorium fluoride (ThF{sub 4}) formed during the ThO{sub 2} dissolution. The low concentration of HF required to achieve a total dissolution and the activation energy value measured tends to show a catalytic effect of HF on the dissolution process.

  7. Importance of surface structure on dissolution of fluorite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godinho, Jose; Piazolo, Sandra; Balic Zunic, Tonci

    2014-01-01

    of dissolution. Results are analyzed in terms of changes in surface area, surface reactivity and dissolution rates. All surfaces studied present fast changes in topography during the initial 200 h of dissolution. The controlling factors that cause the development of topography are the stability of the step edges...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1219 - Dissolution of political subdivision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dissolution of political subdivision. 404... Agreements Is Obtained and Continues § 404.1219 Dissolution of political subdivision. If a political... satisfactory evidence of its dissolution or nonexistence. The evidence must establish that the entity is not...

  9. Examining Two Types of Best Friendship Dissolution during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined young adolescents' experiences with best friendship dissolution. Participants were 77 sixth-grade students (M age = 11.63 years, SD = 0.36; 11.00-12.69 age range) who reported on past experiences with (1) "complete dissolutions" (when friendship ties are completely severed), and (2) "downgrade dissolutions"…

  10. 32 CFR 202.10 - RAB adjournment and dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false RAB adjournment and dissolution. 202.10 Section... dissolution. (a) RAB adjournment—(1) Requirements for RAB adjournment. An Installation Commander may adjourn a... Commander decides to adjourn the RAB. (b) RAB dissolution—(1) Requirements for RAB dissolution. An...

  11. Kinetics of dissolution of phosphorite in acid mixtures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    apparent activation energy for the phosphate dissolution was evaluated and results discussed. INTRODUCTION ... the dissolution process, the kinetic model for the dissolution of fluorapatite (Ca5(PO4)3F) which is the major ... appropriate times during a run and analyzed colorimetrically for phosphate content by the.

  12. Dissolution Kinetics of Icel-Aydincik Dolomite in Hydrochloric Acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    The dissolution of Icel-Aydincik dolomite in aqueous hydrochloric acid solution was investigated with respect to the effects of acid/dolomite mole ..... reaction temperature increases. 3.6. Dissolution Rates. In order to calculate the dissolution rates, the derivative of the concentration-time plot is necessary. One mole of Ca2+ ...

  13. Characterization and Dissolution Kinetics Testing of Radioactive H-3 Calcine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garn, Troy Gerry; Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas

    2002-09-01

    Characterization and dissolution kinetics testing were performed with Idaho radioactive H-3 calcine. Calcine dissolution is the key front-end unit operation for the Separations Alternative identified in the Idaho High Level Waste Draft EIS. The impact of the extent of dissolution on the feasibility of Separations must be clearly quantified.

  14. Development and validation of dissolution test for Metoprolol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-02

    Mar 2, 2007 ... gelatin capsules. The average fill weight of one capsule is. 169 mg. Dissolution test was conducted in USP XXV dissolution test apparatus type I with basket rotation at. 100 rpm. The dissolution medium was 900 ml 0.1 .... REFERENCES. Food and Drug Administration (2000). Draft Guidance for Industry on.

  15. Quantifying the Movement and Dissolution of Fugitive Methane in Shallow Aquifers: Visualization Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Ven, C. J. C.; Mumford, K. G.

    2016-12-01

    The environmental impact and potential human health implications, specifically from the contamination of groundwater sources, has sparked controversy around shale gas extraction in North America. It is clear that understanding the effects of hydraulic fracturing on shallow fresh water aquifers is of great importance, including the threat of stray gas (also referred to as fugitive methane) on groundwater quality. Faulty wells provide a preferential pathway for free gas phase (mostly methane) to migrate from deeper gas-bearing formations of natural gas to shallow aquifers, followed by its dissolution into the surrounding groundwater. An increased understanding of the fate of fugitive methane in shallow aquifers is required to assess the potential risks associated with current and future operations, as well as to better link gas migration, dissolution and the deterioration of groundwater quality. In this study, a series of laboratory experiments were performed using carbon dioxide (CO2) gas as a surrogate for methane to improve our understanding of gas dissolution in groundwater systems. Using CO2, a novel laboratory technique was developed that allows the measurement of dissolved CO2 concentrations using image analysis alongside visualization of free gas mobilization. The technique is based on the acidification of water during CO2 dissolution, which causes a colour change in an indicator dye. The colour change is recorded using a visual light transmission technique, in which digital images are used to track dissolved concentrations at high spatial (1 mm) and temporal (5 s) resolutions in a two-dimensional (25 × 25 × 1 cm3) flow cell. The experiments were completed in both homogeneous sand packs and sand packs containing layered heterogeneities to investigate the dissolution of both gas fingers and gas pools. The results demonstrate the potential of this novel technique for investigating gas dissolution, and showed significant tailing of dissolved CO2 and

  16. Unilamellar DMPC Vesicles in Aqueous Glycerol: Preferential Interactions and Thermochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westh, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Glycerol is accumulated in response to environmental stresses in a diverse range of organisms. Understanding of favorable in vivo effects of this solute requires insight into its interactions with biological macromolecules, and one access to this information is the quantification of so-called preferential interactions in glycerol-biopolymer solutions. For model membrane systems, preferential interactions have been discussed, but not directly measured. Hence, we have applied a new differential vapor pressure equipment to quantify the isoosmotic preferential binding parameter, Γμ1, for systems of unilamellar vesicles of DMPC in aqueous glycerol. It is found that Γμ1 decreases linearly with the glycerol concentration with a slope of −0.14 ± 0.014 per molal. This implies that glycerol is preferentially excluded from the membrane-solvent interface. Calorimetric investigations of the same systems showed that the glycerol-DMPC interactions are weakly endothermic, and the temperature of the main phase transition increases slightly (0.16°C per molal) with the glycerol concentration. The results are discussed with respect to a molecular picture which takes into account both the partitioning of glycerol into the membrane and the preferential exclusion from the hydration layer, and it is concluded that the latter effect contributes about four times stronger than the former to the net interaction. PMID:12524287

  17. Converging hydrostatic and hydromechanic concepts of preferential flow definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutilek, M; Germann, P F

    2009-02-16

    The boundary between preferential flow and Richards-type flow is a priori set at a volumetric soil water content theta* at which soil water diffusivity D (theta*) = eta (= 10(-6) m(2) s(-1)), where eta is the kinematic viscosity. First we estimated with a hydrostatic approach from soil water retention curves the boundary, theta(K), between the structural pore domain, in which preferential flow occurs, and the matrix pore domain, in which Richards-type flow occurs. We then compared theta(K) with theta* that was derived from the respective soil hydrological property functions of same soil sample. Second, from in situ investigations we determined 96 values of theta(G) as the terminal soil water contents that established themselves when the corresponding water-content waves of preferential flow have practically ceased. We compared the frequency distribution of theta(G) with the one of theta* that was calculated from the respective soil hydrological property functions of 32 soil samples that were determined with pressure plate apparatuses in the laboratory. There is support of the notion that theta(K) approximately = theta(G) approximately = theta*, thus indicating the potential of theta* to explain more generally what constitutes preferential flow. However, the support is assessed as working hypothesis on which to base further research rather than a procedure to a clear-cut identification of preferential flow and associated flow paths.

  18. Ego-Dissolution and Psychedelics: Validation of the Ego-Dissolution Inventory (EDI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Matthew M; Evans, Lisa; Nutt, David; Carhart-Harris, Robin L

    2016-01-01

    The experience of a compromised sense of "self", termed ego-dissolution, is a key feature of the psychedelic experience. This study aimed to validate the Ego-Dissolution Inventory (EDI), a new 8-item self-report scale designed to measure ego-dissolution. Additionally, we aimed to investigate the specificity of the relationship between psychedelics and ego-dissolution. Sixteen items relating to altered ego-consciousness were included in an internet questionnaire; eight relating to the experience of ego-dissolution (comprising the EDI), and eight relating to the antithetical experience of increased self-assuredness, termed ego-inflation. Items were rated using a visual analog scale. Participants answered the questionnaire for experiences with classical psychedelic drugs, cocaine and/or alcohol. They also answered the seven questions from the Mystical Experiences Questionnaire (MEQ) relating to the experience of unity with one's surroundings. Six hundred and ninety-one participants completed the questionnaire, providing data for 1828 drug experiences (1043 psychedelics, 377 cocaine, 408 alcohol). Exploratory factor analysis demonstrated that the eight EDI items loaded exclusively onto a single common factor, which was orthogonal to a second factor comprised of the items relating to ego-inflation (rho = -0.110), demonstrating discriminant validity. The EDI correlated strongly with the MEQ-derived measure of unitive experience (rho = 0.735), demonstrating convergent validity. EDI internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach's alpha 0.93). Three analyses confirmed the specificity of ego-dissolution for experiences occasioned by psychedelic drugs. Firstly, EDI score correlated with drug-dose for psychedelic drugs (rho = 0.371), but not for cocaine (rho = 0.115) or alcohol (rho = -0.055). Secondly, the linear regression line relating the subjective intensity of the experience to ego-dissolution was significantly steeper for psychedelics (unstandardized regression

  19. Improving the API dissolution rate during pharmaceutical hot-melt extrusion I: Effect of the API particle size, and the co-rotating, twin-screw extruder screw configuration on the API dissolution rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Gogos, Costas G; Ioannidis, Nicolas

    2015-01-15

    The dissolution rate of the active pharmaceutical ingredients in pharmaceutical hot-melt extrusion is the most critical elementary step during the extrusion of amorphous solid solutions - total dissolution has to be achieved within the short residence time in the extruder. Dissolution and dissolution rates are affected by process, material and equipment variables. In this work, we examine the effect of one of the material variables and one of the equipment variables, namely, the API particle size and extruder screw configuration on the API dissolution rate, in a co-rotating, twin-screw extruder. By rapidly removing the extruder screws from the barrel after achieving a steady state, we collected samples along the length of the extruder screws that were characterized by polarized optical microscopy (POM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to determine the amount of undissolved API. Analyses of samples indicate that reduction of particle size of the API and appropriate selection of screw design can markedly improve the dissolution rate of the API during extrusion. In addition, angle of repose measurements and light microscopy images show that the reduction of particle size of the API can improve the flowability of the physical mixture feed and the adhesiveness between its components, respectively, through dry coating of the polymer particles by the API particles. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Preferential Voting in Denmark: How, Why, and to What Effect?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Jørgen

    is then briefly compared to the Swedish and the Finnish systems before a few empirical results from Danish impact studies are presented. Finally, a model attempts to illustrate how the various explanatory factors interact to produce the parties’ votes in the Danish multi-member constituencies.......The paper provides an overview of (1) the Danish system for casting a preferential – or personal – vote in a proportional list system and (2) how seats are subsequently allocated. Denmark differs from most (all?) preferential list PR systems by letting the parties themselves (actually the parties......’ multi-member constituency branches) decide which one of four possible preferential list options they want to employ in an upcoming election. The two dominant options are explained in some detail, to allow a full understanding of how they function. The paper then goes on to discuss how this system can...

  1. The Stable Equilibrium of Preferential Trade Agreements under Technology Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Han Kim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the optimal policy for trade negotiation in the current multilateral and preferential trade regime. Using a four country oligopoly model with asymmetric technology, we examine the implication of preferential trade agreement on tariff and welfare. We find any preferential trade agreement has a tariff complementarity effect. Social welfare of the more efficient country is also higher with more cooperative trade negotiation regime. However, for technically inefficient country, the cooperative trade policy does not always guarantee to improve the social welfare when the technology difference is large or the global free trade is not feasible. Under large technology difference, we show that South-South FTAs is an optimal alternative policy for the inefficient countries and is more sustainable.

  2. Dissolution of Hematite Nanoparticle Aggregates: Influence of Primary Particle Size, Dissolution Mechanism, and Solution pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanzl, C.A.; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Cwiertny, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    The size-dependent dissolution of nanoscale hematite (8 and 40 nm α-Fe2O3) was examined across a broad range of pH (pH 1–7) and mechanisms including proton- and ligand- (oxalate-) promoted dissolution and dark (ascorbic acid) and photochemical (oxalate) reductive dissolution. Empirical relationships

  3. Current challenges in quantifying preferential flow through the vadose zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koestel, John; Larsbo, Mats; Jarvis, Nick

    2017-04-01

    In this presentation, we give an overview of current challenges in quantifying preferential flow through the vadose zone. A review of the literature suggests that current generation models do not fully reflect the present state of process understanding and empirical knowledge of preferential flow. We believe that the development of improved models will be stimulated by the increasingly widespread application of novel imaging technologies as well as future advances in computational power and numerical techniques. One of the main challenges in this respect is to bridge the large gap between the scales at which preferential flow occurs (pore to Darcy scales) and the scale of interest for management (fields, catchments, regions). Studies at the pore scale are being supported by the development of 3-D non-invasive imaging and numerical simulation techniques. These studies are leading to a better understanding of how macropore network topology and initial/boundary conditions control key state variables like matric potential and thus the strength of preferential flow. Extrapolation of this knowledge to larger scales would require support from theoretical frameworks such as key concepts from percolation and network theory, since we lack measurement technologies to quantify macropore networks at these large scales. Linked hydro-geophysical measurement techniques that produce highly spatially and temporally resolved data enable investigation of the larger-scale heterogeneities that can generate preferential flow patterns at pedon, hillslope and field scales. At larger regional and global scales, improved methods of data-mining and analyses of large datasets (machine learning) may help in parameterizing models as well as lead to new insights into the relationships between soil susceptibility to preferential flow and site attributes (climate, land uses, soil types).

  4. Preferential positron annihilation in Fe-Al system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuriplach, J.; Dauve, C. [Ghent Univ. (Belgium); Sob, M. [Akademie Ved Ceske Republiky, Brno (Czech Republic). Ustav Fyzikalni Metalurgie

    1997-10-01

    The effect of preferential positron annihilation in binary Fe-Al system is studied by means of LMTO electron and positron structure method. The study covers the whole concentration range from Fe to Al. The supercell approach is utilized to model the structure of alloys. We conclude that positron preferential occupation of Fe sites is negligible for small Al concentrations and increases with Al content. The nonlinear dependence of positron annihilation rate on Al concentration can be almost fully explained as a volume effect. (author). 16 refs, 5 figs.

  5. Dissolution Model Development: Formulation Effects and Filter Complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Ragna; Holm, Rene; Jacobsen, Jette

    2016-01-01

    This study describes various complications related to sample preparation (filtration) during development of a dissolution method intended to discriminate among different fenofibrate immediate-release formulations. Several dissolution apparatus and sample preparation techniques were tested. The flow...... the mini paddle dissolution method demonstrates that sample preparation influenced the results. The investigations show that excipients from the formulations directly affected the drug–filter interaction, thereby affecting the dissolution profiles and the ability to predict the in vivo data....... With the tested drug–formulation combination, the best in vivo–in vitro correlation was found after filtration of the dissolution samples through 0.45-μm hydrophobic PTFE membrane filters....

  6. Coupled Mineral Dissolution and Precipitation Reactions in Shale-Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe-Wong, C. M.; Harrison, A. L.; Thomas, D.; Dustin, M. K.; Jew, A. D.; Brown, G. E.; Maher, K.; Bargar, J.

    2015-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing of low-permeability, hydrocarbon-rich shales has recently become an important energy source in the United States. However, hydrocarbon recovery rates are low and drop rapidly after a few months. Hydraulic fracture fluids, which contain dissolved oxygen and numerous organic additives, induce dissolution and precipitation reactions that change the porosity and permeability of the shale. To investigate these reactions, we studied the interactions of four shales (Eagle Ford, Barnett, Marcellus, and Green River) with a simulated hydraulic fracture fluid in batch reactors at 80 °C. The shales were chosen for both economic viability and chemical variety, allowing us to explore the reactivities of different components. The Eagle Ford shale is carbonate rich, and the Green River shale contains significant siderite and kerogen. The Barnett shale also has a high organic content, while the Marcellus shale has the highest fractions of clay and pyrite. Our experiments show that hydrochloric acid in the fluid promotes carbonate mineral dissolution, rapidly raising the pH from acidic to circumneutral levels for the Eagle Ford and Green River shales. Dissolution textures in the Green River shale and large cavities in the Barnett shale indicate significant mineralogical and physical changes in the reacted rock. Morphological changes are not readily apparent in the Eagle Ford and Marcellus shales. For all shales, ongoing changes to the solution Al: Si ratio suggest incongruent aluminosilicate dissolution. Siderite or pyrite dissolution occurs within days and is followed by the formation of secondary Fe precipitates in suspension and coating the walls of the reactor. However, little evidence of any coatings on shale surfaces was found. The net effect of these reactions on porosity and permeability and their influence on the long-term efficacy of oil and gas recovery after hydraulic fracturing are critical to the energy landscape of the United States.

  7. How important is exact knowledge of preferential flowpath locations and orientations for understanding spatiotemporally integrated spring hydrologic and transport response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, W.; De Rooij, R.; Graham, W. D.

    2016-12-01

    The Upper Floridian Aquifer is hydrogeologically complex; limestone dissolution has led to vertical and horizontal preferential flow paths. Locations of karst conduits are unknown and conduit properties are poorly constrained. Uncertainty in effects of conduit location, size, and density, network geometry and connectivity on hydrologic and transport responses is not well quantified, leading to limited use of discrete-continuum models that incorporate conduit networks for regional-scale hydrologic regulatory models. However, conduit networks typically dominate flow and contaminant transport in karst aquifers. We evaluated sensitivity of simulated water and nitrate fluxes and flow paths to karst conduit geometry in a springshed representative of Silver Springs, Florida, using a novel calcite dissolution conduit-generation algorithm coupled with a discrete-continuum flow and transport model (DisCo). Monte Carlo simulations of conduit generation, groundwater flow, and conservative solute transport indicate that, if a first magnitude spring system conduit network developed (i.e., spring flow >2.8 m3/s), the uncertainty in hydraulic and solute pulse response metrics at the spring vent was minimally related to locational uncertainty of network elements. Across the ensemble of realizations for various distributions of conduits, first magnitude spring hydraulic pulse metrics (e.g., steady-flow, peak flow, and recession coefficients) had coefficient of variation (CV). Similarly, spring solute breakthrough curve moments had low CV (<0.08); peak arrival had CV=0.06, mean travel time had CV=0.05, and travel time standard deviation had CV=0.08. Nevertheless, hydraulic and solute pulse response metrics were significantly different than those predicted by an equivalent porous-media model. These findings indicate that regional-scale decision models that incorporate karst preferential flow paths within an uncertainty framework can be used to better constrain aquifer

  8. Physicochemical characterization and dissolution properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... inclusion complex and a stability constant value of 914 M-1. Solubility and dissolution ... the co-evaporated and freeze-dried systems indicated strong drug amorphization and/or inclusion of. PYR in the CD cavities. .... 50 mg of PYR, to 5 ml simulated gastric fluid (without enzyme) pH. 1.2 [containing 2.0 g/L ...

  9. Aggregation, sedimentation, dissolution and bioavailability of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    To understand their fate and transport in estuarine systems, the aggregation, sedimentation, and dissolution of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) in seawater were investigated. Hydrodynamic size increased from 40 to 60 nm to >1 mm within 1 h in seawater, and the aggregates were highly polydispersed. Their sedimentation rates in seawater were measured to be 4–10 mm/day. Humic acid (HA), further increased their size and polydispersity, and slowed sedimentation. Light increased their dissolution and release of dissolved Cd. The ZnS shell also slowed release of Cd ions. With sufficient light, HA increased the dissolution of QDs, while with low light, HA alone did not change their dissolution. The benthic zone in estuarine systems is the most probable long-term destination of QDs due to aggregation and sedimentation. The bioavailability of was evaluated using the mysid Americamysis bahia. The 7-day LC50s of particulate and dissolved QDs were 290 and 23 μg (total Cd)/L, respectively. For mysids, the acute toxicity appears to be from Cd ions; however, research on the effects of QDs should be conducted with other organisms where QDs may be lodged in critical tissues such as gills or filtering apparatus and Cd ions may be released and delivered directly to those tissues. Because of their increasing use and value to society, cadmium-based quantum dots (QDs) will inevitably find their way into marine systems. In an effort to understand the fate and transport of CdSe QDs in estuar

  10. Preparation, Evaluation and Optimization of Rapidly Disintegrating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The unit dose content uniformity, dissolution rate, assay values and other tablet characteristics evaluated were all within the acceptable limits. Thus, it was possible to formulate an RDT of artemether-lumefantrine FDC using CPVP as a disintegrant and camphor as a pore forming agent. Keywords: rapidly disintegrating tablet ...

  11. Do organic ligands affect calcite dissolution rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelkers, Eric H.; Golubev, Sergey V.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Bénézeth, Pascale

    2011-04-01

    Steady state Iceland-spar calcite dissolution rates were measured at 25 °C in aqueous solutions containing 0.1 M NaCl and up to 0.05 M dissolved bicarbonate at pH from 7.9 to 9.1 in the presence of 13 distinct dissolved organic ligands in mixed-flow reactors. The organic ligands considered in this study include those most likely to be present in either (1) aquifers at the conditions pertinent to CO 2 sequestration or (2) soil/early diagenetic environments: acetate, phthalate, citrate, EDTA 4-, succinate, D-glucosaminate, L-glutamate, D-gluconate, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoate, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate, fumarate, malonate, and gallate. Results show that the presence of exopolysaccharides, and analogs of microbial cell envelopes: alginate, lichen extract, humic acid, pectin, and gum xanthan. In no case did the presence of <100 ppm of these organics change calcite dissolution rates by more than a factor of 2.5. Results obtained in this study suggest that the presence of aqueous organic anions negligibly affects calcite forward dissolution rates in most natural environments. Some effect on calcite reactivity may be observed, however, by the presence of organic anions if they change substantially the chemical affinity of the fluid with respect to calcite.

  12. Anomalous dissolution of metals and chemical corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGUTIN M. DRAZIC

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available An overview is given of the anomalous behavior of some metals, in particular Fe and Cr, in acidic aqueous solutions during anodic dissolution. The anomaly is recognizable by the fact that during anodic dissolutionmore material dissolves than would be expected from the Faraday law with the use of the expected valence of the formed ions. Mechanical disintegration, gas bubble blocking, hydrogen embrittlement, passive layer cracking and other possible reasons for such behavior have been discussed. It was shown, as suggested by Kolotyrkin and coworkers, that the reason can be, also, the chemical reaction in which H2O molecules with the metal form metal ions and gaseous H2 in a potential independent process. It occurs simultaneously with the electrochemical corrosion process, but the electrochemical process controls the corrosion potential. On the example of Cr in acid solution itwas shown that the reason for the anomalous behavior is dominantly chemical dissolution, which is considerably faster than the electrochemical corrosion, and that the increasing temperature favors chemical reaction, while the other possible reasons for the anomalous behavior are of negligible effect. This effect is much smaller in the case of Fe, but exists. The possible role of the chemical dissolution reacton and hydrogen evolution during pitting of steels and Al and stress corrosion cracking or corrosion fatigue are discussed.

  13. Dissolution of Marriage According to Canon Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Sulejman Ahmedi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Canon law, dissolution of marriage is not allowed since it was considered sacred and as such cannot break until the two spouses are alive, except only if one of the spouses passes away. But throughout history we find cases when allowed dissolution of the marriage and causes specific conditions set by the church. Thus, according to the Old Testament, if, a man married to a woman, didn’t like something about his wife, should write a request for divorce and allow her to leave his home. Meanwhile according to the New Testament records, divorce is prohibited. Although most Protestants continue to espouse the view that marriage was sacred and as such should not be divorced, from those who had supported the idea of granting the divorce. One of them was Luther, who in his remarks before his preachers said: "In my opinion, the issue of divorce belongs to the law, are not they to whom called for regulation of parental relationships, why not have they the authority to regulate the relations between spouses". Protestant churches allow the dissolution of marriage: a Because of adultery by the wife; allowed by Jesus, b Unjustified abandonment of the marital community; c If there were other reasons: if one spouse refuses to have sexual marriage, if the husband abuses his wife     repeatedly and without cause, severe illness of one spouse.

  14. Results of urinary dissolution therapy for radiolucent calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Maneesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose In this paper we present our experience with dissolution therapy of radiolucent calculi. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective analysis of patients who were offered urinary dissolution therapy between January 2010 and June 2011. Patients were treated with tablets containing potassium citrate and magnesium oxide. Partial dissolution was defined as at least a 50% reduction in stone size. Patients with complete or partial dissolution were classified in the successful dissolution group. Patients with no change, inadequate reduction, increase in stone size and those unable to tolerate alkali therapy were classified as failures. Patient sex, stenting before alkalinization, stone size, urine pH at presentation and serum uric acid levels were analyzed using Fisher t-test for an association with successful dissolution. Results Out of 67, 48 patients reported for follow up. 10 (15% had complete dissolution and 13 (19% had partial dissolution. Alkalinization was unsuccessful in achieving dissolution in 25 (37%. Stenting before alkalinization, patient weight ( 75kg and serum uric acid levels (≤ 6 vs. > 6 were the only factors to significantly affected dissolution rates (p = 0.039, p 0.035, p 0.01 respectively. CONCLUSIONS A policy of offering dissolution therapy to patients with radiolucent calculi had a successful outcome in 34% of patients.

  15. Monitoring Lidocaine Single-Crystal Dissolution by Ultraviolet Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Jesper; Ye, Fengbin; Rantanen, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    ) imaging for conducting single‐crystal dissolution studies was performed. Using lidocaine as a model compound, the aim was to develop a setup capable of monitoring and quantifying the dissolution of lidocaine into a phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, under stagnant conditions. A single crystal of lidocaine...... was placed in the quartz dissolution cell and UV imaging was performed at 254 nm. Spatially and temporally resolved mapping of lidocaine concentration during the dissolution process was achieved from the recorded images. UV imaging facilitated the monitoring of lidocaine concentrations in the dissolution...... media adjacent to the single crystals. The concentration maps revealed the effects of natural convection due to density gradients on the dissolution process of lidocaine. UV imaging has great potential for in vitro drug dissolution testing...

  16. Influence of dissolution media pH and USP1 basket speed on erosion and disintegration characteristics of immediate release metformin hydrochloride tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Divyakant; Wong, Benjamin; Huang, Yande; Tang, Dan; Hemenway, Jeffrey; Paruchuri, Srinivasa; Guo, Hang; Hsieh, Daniel; Timmins, Peter

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the influence of the pH of the dissolution medium on immediate release 850 mg metformin hydrochloride tablets. A traditional wet granulation method was used to manufacture metformin hydrochloride tablets with or without a disintegrant. Tablet dissolution was conducted using the USP apparatus I at 100 rpm. In spite of its pH-independent high solubility, metformin hydrochloride tablets dissolved significantly slower in 0.1 N HCl (pH 1.2) and 50 mM pH 4.5 acetate buffer compared with 50 mM pH 6.8 phosphate buffer, the dissolution medium in the USP. Metformin hydrochloride API compressed into a round 1200 mg disk showed a similar trend. When basket rotation speed was increased from 100 to 250 rpm, the dissolution of metformin hydrochloride tablets was similar in all three media. Incorporation of 2% w/w crospovidone in the tablet formulation improved the dissolution although the pH-dependent trend was still evident, but incorporation of 2% w/w croscarmellose sodium resulted in rapid pH-independent tablet dissolution. In absence of a disintegrant in the tablet formulation, the dissolution was governed by the erosion-diffusion process. Even for a highly soluble drug, a super-disintegrant was needed in the formulation to overcome the diffusion layer limitation and change the dissolution mechanism from erosion-diffusion to disintegration.

  17. Characteristics of drug-phospholipid coprecipitates I: Physical properties and dissolution behavior of griseofulvin-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataram, S; Rogers, J A

    1984-06-01

    Solid dispersions of griseofulvin and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (lecithin) have been prepared as both coprecipitates and physical mixtures, and their physical characteristics and dissolution behavior compared with pure griseofulvin. The dissolution of the physical mixtures was similar to pure drug, but the coprecipitates yielded a 3.5-fold greater initial dissolution rate and a limiting concentration after 60 min which was 72% greater at a griseofulvin-lecithin weight ratio of 19:1. Increasing the lecithin content to 1.5:1 compositions resulted in only a further 50% increase in the initial dissolution rate and a further 12% increase in the limiting concentration. The effect of the pH of the medium on dissolution was slight, but varied with the composition of the system. The phase diagram indicated that these systems have no significant eutectic or solid solution formation. X-ray diffraction spectra further showed that freshly prepared or aged coprecipitates contained griseofulvin crystals, and photomicrographs showed that the crystals essentially retained their characteristic shapes and sizes in all systems. Differential thermal analysis yielded heats of fusion that gave a good linear correlation with the percent of griseofulvin dissolved from coprecipitates at all time intervals, but not with physical mixtures. Furthermore, aged coprecipitates underwent a slower rate of dissolution compared with fresh samples. The results are interpreted to suggest that griseofulvin undergoes improved dissolution from coprecipitates due to the formation of crystals of lower stability. In addition, the rapid dispersion of lecithin in the aqueous medium (as seen microscopically) entraps griseofulvin in myelinic structures and liposomes and effectively increases the saturation concentration of drug in the diffusion layer during the dissolution process.

  18. Theoretical Analysis of Drug Dissolution: I. Solubility and Intrinsic Dissolution Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekunov, Boris; Montgomery, Eda Ross

    2016-09-01

    The first-principles approach presented in this work combines surface kinetics and convective diffusion modeling applied to compounds with pH-dependent solubility and in different dissolution media. This analysis is based on experimental data available for approximately 100 compounds of pharmaceutical interest. Overall, there is a linear relationship between the drug solubility and intrinsic dissolution rate expressed through the total kinetic coefficient of dissolution and dimensionless numbers defining the mass transfer regime. The contribution of surface kinetics appears to be significant constituting on average ∼20% resistance to the dissolution flux in the compendial rotating disk apparatus at 100 rpm. The surface kinetics contribution becomes more dominant under conditions of fast laminar or turbulent flows or in cases when the surface kinetic coefficient may decrease as a function of solution composition or pH. Limitations of the well-known convective diffusion equation for rotating disk by Levich are examined using direct computational modeling with simultaneous dissociation and acid-base reactions in which intrinsic dissolution rate is strongly dependent on pH profile and solution ionic strength. It is shown that concept of diffusion boundary layer does not strictly apply for reacting/interacting species and that thin-film diffusion models cannot be used quantitatively in general case. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Exchange-linked dissolution agents in dissolution-DNP (13)C metabolic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Ralph E; Spielman, Daniel; Josan, Sonal; Yen, Yi-Fen; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Mayer, Dirk

    2013-10-01

    The use of unlabeled exchange-linked dissolution agents in hyperpolarized metabolic imaging was studied to examine pool size limits and saturation relative to the availability of NADH. Three-dimensional dynamic metabolic images were obtained, and compared following injection of a bolus of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate, prepared with and without unlabeled sodium lactate in the dissolution buffer. Comparisons were made on the basis of apparent rate constants and [1-(13)C]lactate signal-to-noise ratio. Range finding data were obtained for different bolus compositions. Isotope exchange was also probed in the reverse direction, following injection of a bolus of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]lactate, with and without unlabeled sodium pyruvate in the dissolution buffer. Liver, kidney, and vascular regions of interest all showed an increase in [1-(13)C]lactate signal with addition of unlabeled sodium lactate in the dissolution buffer. Injection of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]lactate with unlabeled sodium pyruvate in the dissolution buffer, provided exchange rate constants Klp for kidney and vascular regions of interest. These results are consistent with a high level of (13)C-exchange, and with labeling rates that are limited by steady-state pool sizes in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Drying of crystalline drug nanosuspensions-the importance of surface hydrophobicity on dissolution behavior upon redispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eerdenbrugh, Bernard; Froyen, Ludo; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Martens, Johan A; Augustijns, Patrick; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2008-09-02

    d-alpha-Tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS)-stabilized nanosuspensions (25wt%, relative to the drug weight) were produced by media milling for 9 model drug compounds [cinnarizine, griseofulvin, indomethacin, itraconazole, loviride, mebendazole, naproxen, phenylbutazone and phenytoin]. After 3 months of storage at room temperature, Ostwald ripening occurred in all of the samples, except for indomethacin. Whereas lowering the temperature could slow down the ripening, it markedly increased upon storage at 40 degrees C. As for ripening, settling generally became more pronounced at 40 degrees C compared to 4 degrees C. As the nanosuspensions were afflicted by Ostwald ripening and settling, we explored nanosuspension drying as a strategy to circumvent these stability issues. Spray-drying and freeze-drying were evaluated for nanosuspensions and coarse reference suspensions of the compounds. Nanoparticle agglomeration could be visually observed in all of the powders. To evaluate the effect of agglomeration on the key characteristic of drug nanocrystals (i.e. rapid dissolution), dissolution experiments were performed under poor sink conditions. It was found that the compounds could be categorized into 3 groups: (i) compounds for which it was impossible to differentiate between coarse and nanosized products (griseofulvin, mebendazole, naproxen), (ii) compounds that gave clear differences in dissolution profiles between the nanosized and the coarse products, but for which drying of the nanosuspensions did not decrease the dissolution performance of the product (indomethacin, loviride, phenytoin) and (iii) compounds that showed differences between coarse and nanosized products, but for which drying of the nanosuspensions resulted in a significant decrease of the dissolution rate (cinnarizine, itraconazole, phenylbutazone). To gain insight on the influence of the drug compound characteristics on the dissolution of the dried products, the dissolution behavior of

  1. Reassessing North-South Relations: An Examination of North-South Preferential Trade Agreements for Developing and Emerging Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Sahakyan, Davit

    2016-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of North-South preferential trade agreements (PTAs) during the last quarter century has had broad implications for developing and emerging economies. As a result of North-South power asymmetries and the aggressive trade policy that has been characterized as ‘competitive liberalization,’ it has been argued that these agreements have produced asymmetric results in favor of Northern countries. This thesis advances a novel approach in the assessment of North-South preferen...

  2. Preferential utilization of pans by springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferential utilization of pans by springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis). Milton S.J., Dean W.R.J., Marincowitz C.P.. Abstract. Forage utilization by springbok in pans and surrounding habitats was compared at one karroid shrubland site and two desert grassland sites and was found to be greater in pans than on adjacent plains ...

  3. Fitness networks for real world systems via modified preferential attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ke-ke; Small, Michael; Yan, Wei-sheng

    2017-05-01

    Complex networks are virtually ubiquitous, and the Barabási and Albert model (BA model) has became an acknowledged standard for the modelling of these systems. The so-called BA model is a kind of preferential attachment growth model based on the intuitive premise that popularity is attractive. However, preferential attachment alone is insufficient to describe the diversity of complex networks observed in the real world. In this paper we first use the accuracy of a link prediction method, as a metric for network fitness. The link prediction method predicts the occurrence of links consistent with preferential attachment, the performance of this link prediction scheme is then a natural measure of the ;preferential-attachment-likeness; of a given network. We then propose several modification methods and modified BA models to construct networks which more accurately describe the fitness properties of real networks. We find that all features assortativity, degree distribution and rich-club formation can play significant roles for the network construction and eventual structure. Moreover, link sparsity and the size of a network are key factors for network reconstruction. In addition, we find that the structure of the network which is limited by geographic location (nodes are embedded in a Euclidean space and connectivity is correlated with distances) differs from other typical networks. In social networks, we observe that the high school contact network has similar structure as the friends network and so we speculate that the contact behaviours can reflect real friendships.

  4. Preferential procurement in the public sector: The case of Amathole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5 of 2000: Preferential Procurement Policy Framework Act (PPPFA), 2000 at government departments, with particular focus on the Amathole region of the Eastern Cape Province. The assessment was undertaken in a qualitative and quantitative research study conducted among key construction industry stakeholders such ...

  5. Predicting Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use from Preferential Music Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Crystal D.; Garcia, Javier A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that…

  6. Soil properties and preferential solute transport at the field scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koestel, J K; Minh, Luong Nhat; Nørgaard, Trine

    An important fraction of water flow and solute transport through soil takes place through preferential flow paths. Although this had been already observed in the nineteenth century, it had been forgotten by the scientific community until it was rediscovered during the 1970s. The awareness...

  7. Growth of preferential attachment random graphs via continuous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Departments of Mathematics and Statistics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011,. USA. 2Department of Statistics, Iowa State ... Introduction and results. Preferential attachment processes have ... rential attachment', that is by attaching new vertices to existing nodes with probabilities proportional to their 'weight'. When the ...

  8. Preferential Market Access, Foreign Aid and Economic Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afesorgbor, Sylvanus Kwaku; Abreha, Kaleb Girma

    contributed to the economic development of the beneficiary countries. Focusing on the ACP countries over the period 1970-2009, we show that only the EU preferential scheme is effective in promoting exports and that market access plays a significant and economically large role in the development of beneficiary...

  9. Preferential treatment of women and psychological reactance theory: An experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    187 male academic staff members read a low- or high-threat (freedom restricting) description of measures for the preferential treatment of women in job selection for academic staff functions. The high-threat condition evoked more psychological reactance than the low-threat condition. Ss with high

  10. Preferential procurement in the public sector: The case of Amathole

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    clients, architects, engineers, and quantity surveyors based within the Amathole region. Selected findings include that there is a perceived low level of awareness of preferential procurement in the public sector as the majority of the institutions investigated have not completely implemented procurement responsibilities.

  11. 19 CFR 10.253 - Articles eligible for preferential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles eligible for preferential treatment. 10...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Andean Trade Promotion and Drug Eradication Act Extension of Atpa Benefits to Tuna and Certain Other Non-Textile Articles...

  12. 19 CFR 10.223 - Articles eligible for preferential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles eligible for preferential treatment. 10...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act Textile and Apparel Articles Under the United States-Caribbean Basin...

  13. 19 CFR 10.243 - Articles eligible for preferential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles eligible for preferential treatment. 10...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Andean Trade Promotion and Drug Eradication Act Apparel and Other Textile Articles Under the Andean Trade Promotion and...

  14. Infants' Preferential Attention to Sung and Spoken Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia; Ilari, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Caregivers and early childhood teachers all over the world use singing and speech to elicit and maintain infants' attention. Research comparing infants' preferential attention to music and speech is inconclusive regarding their responses to these two types of auditory stimuli, with one study showing a music bias and another one…

  15. Predicting the growth of new links by new preferential attachment ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-07

    Mar 7, 2014 ... 4School of Management Science and Engineering, Central University of Finance and Economics, ... cal scale-free network, we propose a class of novel preferential attachment similarity indices for predicting ... unknown links and new insights to understand the underlying mechanisms that drive the network.

  16. Improving dissolution and oral bioavailability of pranlukast hemihydrate by particle surface modification with surfactants and homogenization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha ES

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Eun-Sol Ha,1 In-hwan Baek,2 Jin-Wook Yoo,1 Yunjin Jung,1 Min-Soo Kim1 1College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, 2College of Pharmacy, Kyungsung University, Busan, Republic of Korea Abstract: The present study was carried out to develop an oral formulation of pranlukast hemihydrate with improved dissolution and oral bioavailability using a surface-modified microparticle. Based on solubility measurements, surface-modified pranlukast hemihydrate microparticles were manufactured using the spray-drying method with hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, sucrose laurate, and water and without the use of an organic solvent. The hydrophilicity of the surface-modified pranlukast hemihydrate microparticle increased, leading to enhanced dissolution and oral bioavailability of pranlukast hemihydrate without a change in crystallinity. The surface-modified microparticles with an hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose/sucrose laurate ratio of 1:2 showed rapid dissolution of up to 85% within 30 minutes in dissolution medium (pH 6.8 and oral bioavailability higher than that of the commercial product, with approximately 2.5-fold and 3.9-fold increases in area under the curve (AUC0→12 h and peak plasma concentration, respectively. Therefore, the surface-modified microparticle is an effective oral drug delivery system for the poorly water-soluble therapeutic pranlukast hemihydrate. Keywords: solubility, wettability, sucrose laurate, cellulose

  17. Linking soil moisture balance and source-responsive models to estimate diffuse and preferential components of groundwater recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, M.O.; Mackay, R.; Nimmo, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Results are presented of a detailed study into the vadose zone and shallow water table hydrodynamics of a field site in Shropshire, UK. A conceptual model is developed and tested using a range of numerical models, including a modified soil moisture balance model (SMBM) for estimating groundwater recharge in the presence of both diffuse and preferential flow components. Tensiometry reveals that the loamy sand topsoil wets up via macropore flow and subsequent redistribution of moisture into the soil matrix. Recharge does not occur until near-positive pressures are achieved at the top of the sandy glaciofluvial outwash material that underlies the topsoil, about 1 m above the water table. Once this occurs, very rapid water table rises follow. This threshold behaviour is attributed to the vertical discontinuity in the macropore system due to seasonal ploughing of the topsoil, and a lower permeability plough/iron pan restricting matrix flow between the topsoil and the lower outwash deposits. Although the wetting process in the topsoil is complex, a SMBM is shown to be effective in predicting the initiation of preferential flow from the base of the topsoil into the lower outwash horizon. The rapidity of the response at the water table and a water table rise during the summer period while flow gradients in the unsaturated profile were upward suggest that preferential flow is also occurring within the outwash deposits below the topsoil. A variation of the source-responsive model proposed by Nimmo (2010) is shown to reproduce the observed water table dynamics well in the lower outwash horizon when linked to a SMBM that quantifies the potential recharge from the topsoil. The results reveal new insights into preferential flow processes in cultivated soils and provide a useful and practical approach to accounting for preferential flow in studies of groundwater recharge estimation.

  18. Integrated Geophysical Investigation of Preferential Flow Paths at the Former Tyson Valley Powder Farm near Eureka, Missouri, May 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Bethany L.; Ball, Lyndsay B.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Hobza, Christopher M.

    2009-01-01

    In May 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, conducted surface and borehole geophysical surveys at the former Tyson Valley Powder Farm near Eureka, Mo., to identify preferential pathways for potential contaminant transport along the bedrock surface and into dissolution-enhanced fractures. The Tyson Valley Powder Farm was formerly used as a munitions storage and disposal facility in the 1940s and 1950s, and the site at which the surveys were performed was a disposal area for munitions and waste solvents such as trichloroethylene and dichloroethylene. Direct-current resistivity and seismic refraction data were acquired on the surface; gamma, electromagnetic induction, and full waveform sonic logs were acquired in accessible boreholes. Through the combined interpretation of the seismic refraction tomographic and resistivity inversion results and borehole logs, inconsistencies in the bedrock surface were identified that may provide horizontal preferential flow paths for dense nonaqueous phase liquid contaminants. These results, interpreted and displayed in georeferenced three-dimensional space, should help to establish more effective monitoring and remediation strategies.

  19. The use of inorganic salts to improve the dissolution characteristics of tablets containing Soluplus®-based solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughey, Justin R; Keen, Justin M; Miller, Dave A; Kolter, Karl; Langley, Nigel; McGinity, James W

    2013-03-12

    The dissolution enhancement advantages inherent to amorphous solid dispersions systems are often not fully realized once they are formulated into a solid dosage form. The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of inorganic salts to improve the dissolution rate of carbamazepine (CBZ) from tablets containing a high loading of a Soluplus®-based solid dispersion. Cloud point and viscometric studies were conducted on Soluplus® solutions to understand the effect of temperature, salt type and salt concentration on the aqueous solubility and gelling tendencies of Soluplus®, properties that can significantly impact dissolution performance. Studies indicated that Soluplus® exhibited a cloud point that was strongly dependent on the salt type and salt concentration present in the dissolving medium. The presence of kosmotropic salts dehydrated the polymer, effectively lowering the cloud point and facilitating formation of a thermoreversible hydrogel. The ability of ions to impact the cloud point and gel strength generally followed the rank order of the Hofmeister series. Solid dispersions of CBZ and Soluplus® were prepared by KinetiSol® Dispersing, characterized to confirm an amorphous composition was formed and incorporated into tablets at very high levels (70% w/w). Dissolution studies demonstrated the utility of including salts in tablets to improve dissolution properties. Tablets that did not contain a salt or those that included a chaotropic salt hydrated at the tablet surface and did not allow for sufficient moisture ingress into the tablet. Conversely, the inclusion of kosmotropic salts allowed for rapid hydration of the entire tablet and the formation of a gel structure with strength dependent on the type of salt utilized. Studies also showed that, in addition to allowing tablet hydration, potassium bicarbonate and potassium carbonate provided effervescence which effectively destroyed the gel network and allowed for rapid dissolution of CBZ

  20. Composition and Dissolution of a Migratory, Weathered Coal Tar Creosote DNAPL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin E. Scherr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Opaque, viscous tars derived from the carbonization of fossile carbon feedstocks, such coal tars and creosote, are long-term sources of groundwater contamination, predominantly with poly- and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH. The dissolution, ageing and migratory behavior of dense, non aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL coal tar blobs and pools forming at the aquitard is not sufficiently understood to estimate the risk and adequately design groundwater treatment measures at a contaminated site. In this study, we investigate the composition and dissolution of a migrated, aged creosote DNAPL and corresponding experimental and groundwater profiles using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC-MS. GC-FID unresolved compounds were attributed to methylated homocyclic species using GCxGC-MS in the Methylanthracene weight range. Equilibrium concentrations were estimated using Raoult’s law, assuming non-ideal behavior. Low molecular weight compounds were found to be prevalent even after decades of weathering, with Naphthalene (8% by mass representing the most abundant identified compound, contrary to the expected preferential depletion of hydrophilic compounds. Morevoer, dimethylnaphthalenes were relatively more abundant in the aqueous boundary layer than in the DNAPL. DNAPL migration over 400m with the groundwater flow effected lower viscosity and specific gravity of the migrated phase body in a superposition of weathering, transport and aquifer chromatography effects. Based on a decomposition of analysed and estimated constituents using the group contribution approach, reference DNAPL values for activity coefficients γi were used to model aqueous solubilities for selected compounds. Anthracene was close to its theoretical precipitation limit in the bulk DNAPL. While laboratory and modelled DNAPL dissolution behavior agree well, field data imply the presence of specific interfacial in situ processes significantly impacting dissolution

  1. Mesoscale Approach to Feldspar Dissolution: Quantification of Dissolution Incongruency Based on Al/Si Ordering State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Min, Y.; Jun, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Dissolution mechanism of aluminosilicates is important for understanding natural and anthropogenic carbon cycles. The total mass of atmospheric CO2 is regulated by the weathering of silicate minerals, and the fate of geologically sequestered CO2 is affected by the interactions between brine, sandstone, caprock, and CO2, which is initiated by mineral dissolution. It has been shown through both experimental and ab initio studies that the dissolution/weathering reactivities of Al and Si in the matrix of an aluminosilicate can be different under many conditions. A subsequent observation is that the release rates of Al and Si, both from the same mineral, may not be stoichiometric when compared to the bulk chemistry of the mineral. For a very long time, the relationship between mineral dissolution incongruency and mineral crystallographic properties remain largely qualitative and descriptive. Here we study the dissolution incongruency of feldspars, the most abundant aluminosilicate on earth. Mineral dissolution experiments for a series of alkali feldspars (albite, anorthoclase, sanidine, and microcline) and plagioclases (oligoclase, andesine, labradorite, bytownite, and anorthite) were conducted at pH 1.68 under ambient conditions. Synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and water chemistry analysis (ICP-MS) are combined to examine the effect of Al/Si ordering on mineral dissolution. Our analysis based on a C1 structure model shows that the incongruency, stemming from the different reactivities of Al-O-Si and Si-O-Si linkages in feldspar's framework, is quantifiable and closely related to the Al/Si ordering state of a feldspar. Our results also suggest that the more random the Al/Si distribution of a mineral, the greater the dissolution incongruency. Our results have significant implications for understanding water-rock interactions. First, when studying the effect of water chemistry on water-rock interaction, smaller

  2. Dissolution of FB-Line Cabinet Sweepings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowder, Mark L.

    2005-06-14

    Three FB-Line samples were received by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for characterization and evaluation for suitability for HB-Line dissolution. These samples are part of a larger sampling/evaluation program in support of FB-Line deinventory efforts. The samples studied were identified as MC04-147- HBL, MC04-148-HBL, and FBL-SWP-04-016-HBL (N). The first sample, MC04-147-HBL, is a portion of FB-Line Packaging and Stabilization (P&S) materials. The second sample, MC04-148-HBL, is a sweeping from Cabinet 6-8, which is not representative of the mechanical line. The third sample, FBL-SWP-04-016-HBL (N), is an FB-Line North cabinet sweeping. The samples were described by FB-Line personnel as containing plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) which had not been high-fired. This description was generally confirmed by solids analysis and off gas measurements. All three samples were dissolved in 8 M HNO{sub 3}/0.1 M KF at 90-100 C leaving minor amounts of solid residue. During dissolution, sample MC04-147 did not generate hydrogen gas. Sample MC04-148 generated modest amounts of gas, which contained 4.0 to 4.7 volume percent (vol %) hydrogen (H{sub 2}) at a ratio of up to 8.4 x 10{sup -5} mol H{sub 2}/g sample. Sample FBL-SWP-04-016-HBL (N) was nearly completely soluble in 8 M HNO{sub 3}and produced a very small amount of gas. Apparently, the CaF{sub 2} in that sample dissolves and provides sufficient fluoride to support the dissolution of other components.

  3. Interactions between gravity currents and convective dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elenius, M. T.; Voskov, D. V.; Tchelepi, H. A.

    2015-09-01

    Geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) is a promising technology for reducing atmospheric emissions. The large discrepancy in the time- and length-scales between up-dip migration of buoyant supercritical CO2 and the sinking fingers of dissolved CO2 poses a challenge for numerical simulations aimed at describing the fate of the plume. Hence, several investigators have suggested methods to simplify the problem, but to date there has been no reference solution with which these simplified models can be compared. We investigate the full problem of Darcy-based two-phase flow with gravity-current propagation and miscible convective mixing, using high-resolution numerical simulations. We build on recent developments of the Automatic Differentiation - General Purpose Research Simulator (AD-GPRS) at Stanford. The results show a CO2 plume that travels for 5000 years reaching a final distance of 14 km up-dip from the injection site. It takes another 2000 years before the CO2 is completely trapped as residual (40%) and dissolved (60%) CO2. Dissolution causes a significant reduction of the plume speed. While fingers of dissolved CO2 appear under the propagating gravity current, the resident brine does not become fully saturated with CO2 anywhere under the plume. The overall mass transfer of CO2 into the brine under the plume remains practically constant for several thousands of years. These results can be used as a benchmark for verification, or improvements, of simplified (reduced-dimensionality, upscaled) models. Our results indicate that simplified models need to account for: (i) reduced dissolution due to interaction with the plume, and (ii) gradual reduction of the local dissolution rate after the fingers begin to interact with the bottom of the aquifer.

  4. A comparative study of the dissolution characteristics of capsule and tablet dosage forms of melt granulations of paracetamol--diluent effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhumwangho, Michael U; Okor, Roland S

    2007-01-01

    The dissolution characteristics of melt granulations of paracetamol in capsule and tablet dosage form were compared to determine whether the dissolution characteristics of the granules can be actualized by formulating them as rapidly disintegrating tablets. The term melt granulation refers here to the wax-matrix granules that were formed by triturating the drug powder (paracetamol) with a melted carnauba wax. The matrix granules were admixed with diluents (lactose, alpha-cellulose or microcrystalline cellulose) also in granular form to prevent size separation during encapsulation or tableting. The granules were filled into hard gelatin capsules (mean content weight, 500 +/- 6.2 mg) or tableted (mean weight 500 +/- 5.1 mg, and tensile strength 1.36 +/- 0.2 to 1.7 +/- 0.3 MN/m2). The capsules and tablets were subjected to disintegration and in vitro dissolution tests. The dissolution data were analyzed on the basis of zero, first order rate kinetics and Higuchi square root of time relationship. The results showed that the dissolution profiles were generally consistent with a first order rate kinetics (r = 0.95). The first order dissolution rate constants of capsules and tablets of the matrix granules only (without diluents) were 0.31 +/- 0.02 min(-1) and 0.20 +/- 0.03 min(-1), respectively, indicating faster dissolution from the capsules. Therefore, the dissolution characteristics of the matrix particles were not intact after tableting. Addition of diluents to the capsule formulations had no effect on dissolution rates, whereas in the tablets, dissolution rates increased. For instance, inclusion of a diluent up to 50% w/w in the tablets increased the dissolution rate constants to 0.34 +/- 0.04 min(-1) (lactose), 0.42 +/- 0.02 min(-1) (alpha-cellulose), and 0.46 +/- 0.03 min(-1) (microcrystalline cellulose). Thus, alpha-cellulose and microcrystalline cellulose produced greater enhancer effect on the tablet dissolution rates compared to lactose. Both the capsules and

  5. The Dissolution of Double Holliday Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizard, Anna H; Hickson, Ian D

    2014-01-01

    as "double Holliday junction dissolution." This reaction requires the cooperative action of a so-called "dissolvasome" comprising a Holliday junction branch migration enzyme (Sgs1/BLM RecQ helicase) and a type IA topoisomerase (Top3/TopoIIIα) in complex with its OB (oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding......Double Holliday junctions (dHJS) are important intermediates of homologous recombination. The separate junctions can each be cleaved by DNA structure-selective endonucleases known as Holliday junction resolvases. Alternatively, double Holliday junctions can be processed by a reaction known...

  6. Dissolution behavior of lithium compounds in ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Furukawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to exchange the components which received irradiation damage during the operation at the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility, the adhered lithium, which is partially converted to lithium compounds such as lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide, should be removed from the components. In this study, the dissolution experiments of lithium compounds (lithium nitride, lithium hydroxide, and lithium oxide were performed in a candidate solvent, allowing the clarification of time and temperature dependence. Based on the results, a cleaning procedure for adhered lithium on the inner surface of the components was proposed.

  7. System and process for dissolution of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liezers, Martin; Farmer, III, Orville T.

    2017-10-10

    A system and process are disclosed for dissolution of solids and "difficult-to-dissolve" solids. A solid sample may be ablated in an ablation device to generate nanoscale particles. Nanoparticles may then swept into a coupled plasma device operating at atmospheric pressure where the solid nanoparticles are atomized. The plasma exhaust may be delivered directly into an aqueous fluid to form a solution containing the atomized and dissolved solids. The composition of the resulting solution reflects the composition of the original solid sample.

  8. Dissolution of Platinum in the Operational Range of Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Gareth P.; Geiger, Simon; Zeradjanin, Aleksandar R.; Hodnik, Nejc; Kulyk, Nadiia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract One of the most important practical issues in low‐temperature fuel‐cell catalyst degradation is platinum dissolution. According to the literature, it initiates at 0.6–0.9 VRHE, whereas previous time‐ and potential‐resolved inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP–MS) experiments, however, revealed dissolution onset at only 1.05 VRHE. In this manuscript, the apparent discrepancy is addressed by investigating bulk and nanoparticulated catalysts. It is shown that, given enough time for accumulation, traces of platinum can be detected at potentials as low as 0.85 VRHE. At these low potentials, anodic dissolution is the dominant process, whereas, at more positive potentials, more platinum dissolves during the oxide reduction after accumulation. Interestingly, the potential and time dissolution dependence is similar for both types of electrode. Dissolution processes are discussed with relevance to fuel‐cell operation and plausible dissolution mechanisms are considered. PMID:27525206

  9. Dissolution of Platinum in the Operational Range of Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherevko, Serhiy; Keeley, Gareth P; Geiger, Simon; Zeradjanin, Aleksandar R; Hodnik, Nejc; Kulyk, Nadiia; Mayrhofer, Karl J J

    2015-10-01

    One of the most important practical issues in low-temperature fuel-cell catalyst degradation is platinum dissolution. According to the literature, it initiates at 0.6-0.9 VRHE, whereas previous time- and potential-resolved inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) experiments, however, revealed dissolution onset at only 1.05 VRHE. In this manuscript, the apparent discrepancy is addressed by investigating bulk and nanoparticulated catalysts. It is shown that, given enough time for accumulation, traces of platinum can be detected at potentials as low as 0.85 VRHE. At these low potentials, anodic dissolution is the dominant process, whereas, at more positive potentials, more platinum dissolves during the oxide reduction after accumulation. Interestingly, the potential and time dissolution dependence is similar for both types of electrode. Dissolution processes are discussed with relevance to fuel-cell operation and plausible dissolution mechanisms are considered.

  10. Improvement of dissolution property of poorly water-soluble drug by supercritical freeze granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Ryoichi; Hara, Yuko; Iwasaki, Tomohiro; Watano, Satoru

    2009-10-01

    The dissolution property of the poorly water-soluble drug, flurbiprofen (FP) was improved by a novel supercritical freeze granulation using supercritical carbon dioxide. Supercritical freeze granulation was defined as a production method of the granulated substances by using the dry ice to generate intentionally for the rapid atomization of the supercritical carbon dioxide to the atmospheric pressure. This process utilized a rapid expansion of supercritical solutions (RESS) process with the mixture of the drug and lactose. In the supercritical freeze granulation, needle-like FP fine particles were obtained which adhered to the surface of lactose particles, which did not dissolve in supercritical carbon dioxide. The number of FP particles that adhered to the surface of particles decreased with an increase in the ratio of lactose added, leading to markedly improve the dissolution rate. This improvement was caused not only by the increase in the specific surface area but also the improvement of the dispersibility of FP in water. It is thus concluded that the supercritical freeze granulation is a useful technique to improve the dissolution property of the poorly water-soluble flurbiprofen.

  11. Efavirenz Dissolution Enhancement IV-Antisolvent Nanocrystallization by Sonication, Physical Stability, and Dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Gabriela Julianelly; Prado, Livia Deris; Rocha, Helvécio Vinícius Antunes

    2017-11-01

    Efavirenz is a fundamental drug in the HIV therapy; however, it has a low bioavailability due to low water solubility. Particle nanonization should enhance its dissolution and therefore its bioavailability. Nanocrystallization is a promising technique for preparing drug nanocrystals. A solution containing efavirenz (EFV) and methanol was added to an aqueous solution of particle stabilizers, under sonication. The adequate polymer stabilizer and its concentration and drug load were evaluated. Particle size and zeta potential of suspensions were measured. Nanosuspensions were freeze-dried and the resulting powder was characterized by some techniques, with special attention to dissolution. Particle size and zeta potential analysis showed that HMPC and PVP were the most suitable polymers. All samples prepared with these stabilizers had nanosized particles and proper zeta potential; however, sedimentation and particle growth were detected with Turbiscan™. Time-related destabilization occurred when the lowest polymer concentration of 20% was used. SEM analysis of the dried powder shows film formation for suspensions with 40% of polymer and particle aggregation in samples with less polymer. Dissolution profiles of samples were higher than EFV raw material, although the lower the polymer concentration, the higher the dissolution.

  12. Frogging It: A poetic Analysis of Relationship Dissolution

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra L. Faulkner

    2012-01-01

    Often, themes in work and life intertwine; the author recognized that a cadre of poems she had written during the past several years were about relationship dissolution. The poems concerned romantic and friendship dissolution and the aspects of identity creation and loss this entails. The author presents the poems and makes an explicit connection to interpersonal relationship dissolution literature through the technique of poetic analysis. This analysis serves as an exemplar for how poetry as...

  13. Endothelial-dependent vasodilators preferentially increase subendocardial blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelc, L.R.; Gross, G.J.; Warltier, D.C.

    1986-03-05

    Interference with arachidonic acid metabolism on the effect of acetylcholine (Ach) or arachidonic acid (AA) to preferentially increase subendocardial perfusion was investigated in anesthetized dogs. Hemodynamics, regional myocardial blood flow (MBF (ml/min/g):radioactive microspheres) and the left ventricular transmural distribution of flow (endo/epi) were measured. Intracoronary infusion of Ach (10 ..mu..g/min) and AA (585 ..mu..g/min) significantly (P < .05*) increased myocardial perfusion and selectively redistributed flow to the subendocardium (increased endo/epi) without changes in systemic hemodynamics. Inhibition of phospholipase A/sub 2/ by quinacrine (Q; 600 ..mu..g/min, ic) attenuated the increase in myocardial perfusion produced by Ach but not by AA and inhibited the redistribution of flow to the subendocardium. The present results suggest that endothelium-dependent vasodilators produce a preferential increase in subendocardial perfusion via a product of AA metabolism.

  14. Bioclogging in Porous Media: Preferential Flow Paths and Anomalous Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzner, M.; Carrel, M.; Morales, V.; Derlon, N.; Beltran, M. A.; Morgenroth, E.; Kaufmann, R.

    2016-12-01

    Biofilms are sessile communities of microorganisms held together by an extracellular polymeric substance that enables surface colonization. In porous media (e.g. soils, trickling filters etc.) biofilm growth has been shown to affect the hydrodynamics in a complex fashion at the pore-scale by clogging individual pores and enhancing preferential flow pathways and anomalous transport. These phenomena are a direct consequence of microbial growth and metabolism, mass transfer processes and complex flow velocity fields possibly exhibiting pronounced three-dimensional features. Despite considerable past work, however, it is not fully understood how bioclogging interacts with flow and mass transport processes in porous media. In this work we use imaging techniques to determine the flow velocities and the distribution of biofilm in a porous medium. Three-dimensional millimodels are packed with a transparent porous medium and a glucose solution to match the optical refractive index. The models are inoculated with planktonic wildtype bacteria and biofilm cultivated for 60 h under a constant flow and nutrient conditions. The pore flow velocities in the increasingly bioclogged medium are measured using 3D particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV). The three-dimensional spatial distribution of the biofilm within the pore space is assessed by imaging the model with X-Ray microtomography. We find that biofilm growth increases the complexity of the pore space, leading to the formation of preferential flow pathways and "dead" pore zones. The probability of persistent high and low velocity regions (within preferential paths resp. stagnant flow regions) thus increases upon biofilm growth, leading to an enhancement of anomalous transport. The structural data seems to indicate that the largest pores are not getting clogged and carry the preferential flow, whereas intricated structures develop in the smallest pores, where the flow becomes almost stagnant. These findings may be relevant for

  15. Preferential growth in FeCoV/Ti:N multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemens, D.; Senthil Kumar, M.; Boeni, P.; Horisberger, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    The preferential growth in Fe{sub 0.50}Co{sub 0.48}V{sub 0.02}/Ti:N multilayers was studied by X-ray diffraction. X-ray specular reflectometry and subsequent simulation of the spectra was used to extract information about the thickness and interface roughness of individual layers. The investigation gives structural information about the material combination and its potential for the use of neutron polarizers. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 2 refs.

  16. Anodic dissolution of metals in ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Abbott

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The anodic dissolution of metals is an important topic for battery design, material finishing and metal digestion. Ionic liquids are being used in all of these areas but the research on the anodic dissolution is relatively few in these media. This study investigates the behaviour of 9 metals in an ionic liquid [C4mim][Cl] and a deep eutectic solvent, Ethaline, which is a 1:2 mol ratio mixture of choline chloride and ethylene glycol. It is shown that for the majority of metals studied a quasi-passivation of the metal surface occurs, primarily due to the formation of insoluble films on the electrode surface. The behaviour of most metals is different in [C4mim][Cl] to that in Ethaline due in part to the differences in viscosity. The formation of passivating salt films can be decreased with stirring or by increasing the electrolyte temperature, thereby increasing ligand transport to the electrode surface.

  17. Buffering children from marital conflict and dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, L F; Gottman, J M

    1997-06-01

    Examined several protective mechanisms that may reduce deleterious correlates of marital conflict and marital dissolution in young children. One set of potential buffers focused on parent-child interaction: parental warmth, parental scaffolding/praise, and inhibition of parental rejection. As a second set of potential buffers, each parent was interviewed about their "meta-emotion philosophy"--that is, their feelings about their own emotions, and their attitudes and responses to their children's anger and sadness. The third set of potential buffers concerned intraindividual characteristics of the child, including the child's intelligence and regulatory physiology (basal vagal tone and vagal suppression). Fifty-six families with a preschool child were studied at two time points: when the children were 5 years old (Time 1) and again when the children were 8 years old (Time 2). At Time 1, naturalistic observations of marital and parent-child interaction were conducted and assessment of child regulatory physiology was obtained through measures of basal vagal tone and suppression of vagal tone. Parents were also interviewed individually about their feelings about their own and their children's emotions, and children's intelligence was assessed. At Time 2, assessment of child outcomes were obtained, including observations of peer interaction, mother ratings of behavior problems and mother and teacher ratings of peer aggression, mother ratings of child physical illness, and measures of achievement. Results indicated that all Time 1 buffering factors protected children in face of marital conflict and dissolution.

  18. Bench Scale Saltcake Dissolution Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTOLD, D.B.; PACQUET, E.A.

    2000-12-06

    A potential scenario for retrieving saltcake from single shell tanks is the ''Rainbird{reg_sign} sprinkler'' method. Water is distributed evenly across the surface of the saltcake and allowed to percolate by gravity through the waste. The salt dissolves in the water, forming a saturated solution. The saturated liquid is removed by a saltwell pump situated near the bottom of the tank. By this method, there is never a large inventory of liquid in the tank that could pose a threat of leakage. There are many variables or factors that can influence the hydrodynamics of this retrieval process. They include saltcake porosity; saltwell pumping rate; salt dissolution chemistry; factors that could promote flow channeling (e.g. tank walls, dry wells, inclusions or discontinuities in the saltcake); method of water distribution; plug formation due to crystal formations or accumulation of insoluble solids. A brief literature search indicates that very little experimental data exist on these aspects of saltcake dissolution (Wiersma 1996, 1997). The tests reported here were planned (Herting, 2000) to provide preliminary data and information for planning future, scaled-up tests of the sprinkler method.

  19. The dissolution kinetics of quartz and kaolinite in alkaline solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drillet, V.

    1990-11-01

    For modelling alkaline migration in a reservoir rock, dissolution kinetics data are required. Dissolution of kaolinite, a typical mineral in clays, is studied at pH between 11 and 13 and for three temperatures 30, 47 and 55{sup 0}C. Experiments are realized by injection of the alkaline solution in a stirred reactor containing a suspension of the studied mineral. Dissolution rate is obtained from silicon and aluminium concentration in the effluent. For kaolinite dissolution rate increases with temperature and an unexpected fast decrease with Si or Al concentration in the solution. Results are interpreted.

  20. Frogging It: A poetic Analysis of Relationship Dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L. Faulkner

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Often, themes in work and life intertwine; the author recognized that a cadre of poems she had written during the past several years were about relationship dissolution. The poems concerned romantic and friendship dissolution and the aspects of identity creation and loss this entails. The author presents the poems and makes an explicit connection to interpersonal relationship dissolution literature through the technique of poetic analysis. This analysis serves as an exemplar for how poetry as performative writing offers a valuable addition to interpersonal communication research through the poeticizing of relational dissolution as an everyday relational challenge.

  1. Dissolution Studies With Pilot Plant and Actual INTEC Calcines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, Ronald Scott; Garn, Troy Gerry

    1999-04-01

    The dissolution of Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) pilot plant calcines was examined to determine solubility of calcine matrix components in acidic media. Two representatives pilot plant calcine types were studied: Zirconia calcine and Zirconia/ Sodium calcine. Dissolution of these calcines was evaluated using lower initial concentrations of nitric acid than used in previous tests to decrease the [H+] concentration in the final solutions. Lower [H+] concentrations contribute to more favorable TRUEX/SREX solvent extraction flowsheet performance. Dissolution and analytical results were also obtained for radioactive calcines produced using high sodium feeds blended with non-radioactive A1(NO3)3 solutions to dilute the sodium concentration and prevent bed agglomeration during the calcination process. Dissolution tests indicated >95 wt. % of the initial calcine mass can be dissolved using the baseline dissolution procedure, with the exception that higher initial nitric acid concentrations are required. The higher initial acid concentration is required for stoichiometric dissolution of the oxides, primarily aluminum oxide. Statistically designed experiments using pilot plant calcine were performed to determine the effect of mixing rate on dissolution efficiency. Mixing rate was determined to provide minimal effects on wt. % dissolution. The acid/calcine ratio and temperature were the predominate variables affecting the wt. % dissolution, a result consistent with previous studies using other similar types of pilot plant calcines.

  2. Rapid Column Extraction method for SoilRapid Column Extraction method for Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Sherrod, L. III; Culligan, Brian K.

    2005-11-07

    The analysis of actinides in environmental soil and sediment samples is very important for environmental monitoring as well as for emergency preparedness. A new, rapid actinide separation method has been developed and implemented that provides total dissolution of large soil samples, high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and DGA-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu) neptunium (Np), uranium (U), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multi-stage column combined with alpha spectrometry. The method combines a rapid fusion step for total dissolution to dissolve refractory analytes and matrix removal using cerium fluoride precipitation to remove the difficult soil matrix. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized.

  3. Preferential flow, diffuse flow, and perching in an interbedded fractured-rock unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, John R.; Creasey, Kaitlyn M; Perkins, Kimberlie; Mirus, Benjamin B.

    2017-01-01

    Layers of strong geologic contrast within the unsaturated zone can control recharge and contaminant transport to underlying aquifers. Slow diffuse flow in certain geologic layers, and rapid preferential flow in others, complicates the prediction of vertical and lateral fluxes. A simple model is presented, designed to use limited geological site information to predict these critical subsurface processes in response to a sustained infiltration source. The model is developed and tested using site-specific information from the Idaho National Laboratory in the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), USA, where there are natural and anthropogenic sources of high-volume infiltration from floods, spills, leaks, wastewater disposal, retention ponds, and hydrologic field experiments. The thick unsaturated zone overlying the ESRP aquifer is a good example of a sharply stratified unsaturated zone. Sedimentary interbeds are interspersed between massive and fractured basalt units. The combination of surficial sediments, basalts, and interbeds determines the water fluxes through the variably saturated subsurface. Interbeds are generally less conductive, sometimes causing perched water to collect above them. The model successfully predicts the volume and extent of perching and approximates vertical travel times during events that generate high fluxes from the land surface. These developments are applicable to sites having a thick, geologically complex unsaturated zone of substantial thickness in which preferential and diffuse flow, and perching of percolated water, are important to contaminant transport or aquifer recharge.

  4. Catalysis and chemical mechanisms of calcite dissolution in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhas, Adam V; Adkins, Jess F; Rollins, Nick E; Naviaux, John; Erez, Jonathan; Berelson, William M

    2017-07-18

    Near-equilibrium calcite dissolution in seawater contributes significantly to the regulation of atmospheric [Formula: see text] on 1,000-y timescales. Despite many studies on far-from-equilibrium dissolution, little is known about the detailed mechanisms responsible for calcite dissolution in seawater. In this paper, we dissolve (13)C-labeled calcites in natural seawater. We show that the time-evolving enrichment of [Formula: see text] in solution is a direct measure of both dissolution and precipitation reactions across a large range of saturation states. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer profiles into the (13)C-labeled solids confirm the presence of precipitated material even in undersaturated conditions. The close balance of precipitation and dissolution near equilibrium can alter the chemical composition of calcite deeper than one monolayer into the crystal. This balance of dissolution-precipitation shifts significantly toward a dissolution-dominated mechanism below about [Formula: see text] Finally, we show that the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) increases the dissolution rate across all saturation states, and the effect is most pronounced close to equilibrium. This finding suggests that the rate of hydration of [Formula: see text] is a rate-limiting step for calcite dissolution in seawater. We then interpret our dissolution data in a framework that incorporates both solution chemistry and geometric constraints on the calcite solid. Near equilibrium, this framework demonstrates a lowered free energy barrier at the solid-solution interface in the presence of CA. This framework also indicates a significant change in dissolution mechanism at [Formula: see text], which we interpret as the onset of homogeneous etch pit nucleation.

  5. K Basin sludge dissolution engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westra, A.G.

    1998-08-28

    The purpose of this engineering study is to investigate the available technology related to dissolution of the K Basin sludge in nitric acid. The conclusion of this study along with laboratory and hot cell tests with actual sludge samples will provide the basis for beginning conceptual design of the sludge dissolver. The K Basin sludge contains uranium oxides, fragments of metallic U, and some U hydride as well as ferric oxyhydroxide, aluminum oxides and hydroxides, windblown sand that infiltrated the basin enclosure, ion exchange resin, and miscellaneous materials. The decision has been made to dispose of this sludge separate from the fuel elements stored in the basins. The sludge will be conditioned so that it meets Tank Waste Remediation System waste acceptance criteria and can be sent to one of the underground storage tanks. Sludge conditioning will be done by dissolving the fuel constituents in nitric acid, separating the insoluble material, adding neutron absorbers for criticality safety, and then reacting the solution with caustic to co-precipitate the uranium and plutonium. There will be five distinct feed streams to the sludge conditioning process two from the K East (KE) Basin and three from the K West (KW) Basin. The composition of the floor and pit sludges which contain more iron oxides and sand than uranium is much different than the canister sludges which are composed of mostly uranium oxides. The sludge conditioning equipment will be designed to process all of the sludge streams, but some of the operating parameters will be adjusted as necessary to handle the different sludge stream compositions. The volume of chemical additions and the amount of undissolved solids will be much different for floor and pit sludge than for canister sludge. Dissolution of uranium metal and uranium dioxide has been studied quite thoroughly and much information is available. Both uranium metal and uranium dioxide have been dissolved on a large scale in nuclear fuel

  6. Glass dissolution rate measurement and calculation revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, Maxime, E-mail: maxime.fournier@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, F-30207, Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Ull, Aurélien; Nicoleau, Elodie [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, F-30207, Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Inagaki, Yaohiro [Department of Applied Quantum Physics & Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 819-0395 (Japan); Odorico, Michaël [ICSM-UMR5257 CEA/CNRS/UM2/ENSCM, Site de Marcoule, BP17171, F-30207, Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Frugier, Pierre; Gin, Stéphane [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, F-30207, Bagnols sur Cèze (France)

    2016-08-01

    Aqueous dissolution rate measurements of nuclear glasses are a key step in the long-term behavior study of such waste forms. These rates are routinely normalized to the glass surface area in contact with solution, and experiments are very often carried out using crushed materials. Various methods have been implemented to determine the surface area of such glass powders, leading to differing values, with the notion of the reactive surface area of crushed glass remaining vague. In this study, around forty initial dissolution rate measurements were conducted following static and flow rate (SPFT, MCFT) measurement protocols at 90 °C, pH 10. The international reference glass (ISG), in the forms of powders with different particle sizes and polished monoliths, and soda-lime glass beads were examined. Although crushed glass grains clearly cannot be assimilated with spheres, it is when using the samples geometric surface (S{sub geo}) that the rates measured on powders are closest to those found for monoliths. Overestimation of the reactive surface when using the BET model (S{sub BET}) may be due to small physical features at the atomic scale—contributing to BET surface area but not to AFM surface area. Such features are very small compared with the thickness of water ingress in glass (a few hundred nanometers) and should not be considered in rate calculations. With a S{sub BET}/S{sub geo} ratio of 2.5 ± 0.2 for ISG powders, it is shown here that rates measured on powders and normalized to S{sub geo} should be divided by 1.3 and rates normalized to S{sub BET} should be multiplied by 1.9 in order to be compared with rates measured on a monolith. The use of glass beads indicates that the geometric surface gives a good estimation of glass reactive surface if sample geometry can be precisely described. Although data clearly shows the repeatability of measurements, results must be given with a high uncertainty of approximately ±25%. - Highlights: • Initial dissolution

  7. Dissolution chemistry of Minnesota Lunar Simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglesby, James P.; Lindsay, Willard L.; Sadeh, Willy Z.

    1993-07-01

    Dissolution studies of Minnesota Lunar Simulant (MLS), a prepared finely ground basalt, were conducted to measure solution species, to assess the levels of plant nutrients and toxic elements, and to identify minerals controlling these levels. Many of the plant nutrients in the MLS solution (Mg, S, K, Ca, Cl, Mo, P, B, Ni, and Cu) are found to be in concentrations acceptable for plant growth. Nitrogen and manganese, however, are found to be deficient, and extractable iron and zinc are marginal after 150 d. The solution concentrations of metals are several orders of magnitude below levels that are toxic to plants. Aluminum hydroxide, calcite, and clinoenstatite are found to be the most likely mineral controls for aluminum, calcium, and magnesium, respectively. Many of the methods employed can be used to study actual lunar regolith.

  8. Helium enrichment during convective carbon dioxide dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, T.; Hesse, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Motivated by observed variations of the CO2/He ratios in natural carbon dioxide (CO2) reservoirs, such as the Bravo Dome field in northeastern New Mexico, we have performed laboratory experiments equilibrating gas mixtures containing Helium (He) and CO2 with water, at close to ambient conditions in a closed system. The experimental design allows for continuous measurement of headspace pressure as well as timed interval measurements of the CO2/He ratios and the δ13C value of CO2 in the headspace. Results from three dissolution experiments are reported: 1) pure Helium system, 2) 98% CO2 + 2% Nitrogen system, and 3) 97% CO2 and 3% Helium. Final equilibrated experimental results are compared to theoretical results obtained using Henry's Law relationships. The evolution of the amount of dissolved CO2 computed from gas pressure and gas compositions are in good agreement with Henry's Law relationships. For example, the CO2 + N2 system was initially pressurized with pure CO2 to 1323 mbar and after six days it equilibrated to a measured headspace pressure of 596 mbar. This compares very well with a calculated equilibrium headspace pressure of 592 mbar for this system. The CO2 + He system was pressurized to 1398 mbar CO2 and after six days equilibrated to a measured headspace pressure of 397 mbar. This measured pressure is slightly higher than the predicted equilibrated headspace pressure of 341 mbar, indicating a possible leak in the system during this particular experiment. In both experiments the initial pH of the water was 9.3 and the final equilibrated pH was 5.4. The δ13C value of equilibrated headspace CO2 was within 0.25‰ of its starting δ13C value, demonstrating insignificant carbon isotope fractionation at low pH. Measured Helium/ CO2 ratios throughout the CO2+Helium experiment preserve a non-linear trend of increasing He/ CO2 ratios through time that correlate very well with the measured pressure drop from CO2 dissolution. This indicates that gas composition

  9. The impact of ART on union dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Mariana Veloso; Vassard, Ditte; Hougaard, Charlotte Ørsted

    2018-01-01

    : Findings regarding marital stability and infertility treatments have been sparse and controversial. While there is data showing higher divorce rates among women who go through infertility treatments, there is also some evidence of this experience bringing couples closer by forcing them to communicate more...... was prospectively sampled. Participants could change status during follow-up if they entered ART. The final sample had 148 972 couples, followed until marital dissolution, death of self/spouse, migration or until 31 December 2010. We used Cox regression models adjusting for female and male age, education, marriage......, common child at baseline and live-born child during follow-up. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: At baseline, the majority of couples were married (69%). More non-ART couples opted for marriage (70% versus 64%; P

  10. Effect of Different Crystallization Techniques on the Dissolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Original Research Article. Effect of Different Crystallization Techniques on the. Dissolution Behavior of Ketoprofen ... dissolution behavior studies were carried out. The physical stability of the crystals were also evaluated ..... Safety evaluation of toothpaste containing chloroform. III. Long-term study in beagle dogs. J. Environ ...

  11. The effect of fuel chemistry on UO2 dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casella, Amanda; Hanson, Brady; Miller, William

    2016-08-01

    The dissolution rate of both unirradiated UO2 and used nuclear fuel has been studied by numerous countries as part of the performance assessment of proposed geologic repositories. In the scenario of waste package failure and groundwater infiltration into the fuel, the effects of variables such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, and water and fuel chemistry on the dissolution rates of the fuel are necessary to provide a quantitative estimate of the potential release over geologic time frames. The primary objective of this research was to determine the influence these parameters have on the dissolution rate of unirradiated UO2 under repository conditions and compare them to the rates predicted by current dissolution models. Both unirradiated UO2 and UO2 doped with varying concentrations of Gd2O3, to simulate used fuel composition after long time periods where radiolysis has minor contributions to dissolution, were examined. In general, a rise in temperature increased the dissolution rate of UO2 and had a larger effect on pure UO2 than on those doped with Gd2O3. Oxygen dependence was observed in the UO2 samples with no dopant and increased as the temperature rose; in the doped fuels less dependence was observed. The addition of gadolinia into the UO2 matrix showed a significant decrease in the dissolution rate. The matrix stabilization effect resulting from the dopant proved even more beneficial in lowering the dissolution rate at higher temperatures and dissolved O2 concentrations in the leachate where the rates would typically be elevated.

  12. wax matrix tablets and its implication on dissolution prof

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The matrix tablets were formed by compressing the wax matrix granules at a constant load (30 arbitrary units on the load scale). The tablets were evaluated for tablet tensile strength, packing fraction, friability and in vitro dissolution profile. The dissolution data were analysed with different mathematical models namely zero.

  13. 12 CFR 710.8 - Certificate of dissolution and liquidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificate of dissolution and liquidation. 710.8 Section 710.8 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS VOLUNTARY LIQUIDATION § 710.8 Certificate of dissolution and liquidation. Within 120 days after...

  14. Development and validation of dissolution test for Metoprolol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-02

    Mar 2, 2007 ... Dissolution test for sustained release capsules of Metoprolol 125 mg was developed and validated according to FDA and ICH guidelines. Metoprolol coated pellets were coated with microcrystalline wax and glyceryl distearate for slow release of drug. The dissolution method which uses USP apparatus I.

  15. Thermal dissolution of maize starches in aqueous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starches are not soluble in neutral water at room temperature. However, if they are heated in a closed container beyond the boiling point of water, they eventually dissolve. The dissolution temperature depends on the type of starch. The dissolution process was monitored in real time by measuring ...

  16. 29 CFR 511.5 - Vacancies and dissolution of committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vacancies and dissolution of committees. 511.5 Section 511.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS WAGE ORDER PROCEDURE FOR AMERICAN SAMOA § 511.5 Vacancies and dissolution of committees. The...

  17. 50 CFR 270.23 - Dissolution of Councils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dissolution of Councils. 270.23 Section 270.23 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... § 270.23 Dissolution of Councils. (a) Petition for termination. (1) A petition to terminate a Council...

  18. Biomimetic Dissolution: A Tool to Predict Amorphous Solid Dispersion Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppolo, Michael M; Hughey, Justin R; Dillon, Traciann; Storey, David; Jansen-Varnum, Susan

    2017-11-01

    The presented study describes the development of a membrane permeation non-sink dissolution method that can provide analysis of complete drug speciation and emulate the in vivo performance of poorly water-soluble Biopharmaceutical Classification System class II compounds. The designed membrane permeation methodology permits evaluation of free/dissolved/unbound drug from amorphous solid dispersion formulations with the use of a two-cell apparatus, biorelevant dissolution media, and a biomimetic polymer membrane. It offers insight into oral drug dissolution, permeation, and absorption. Amorphous solid dispersions of felodipine were prepared by hot melt extrusion and spray drying techniques and evaluated for in vitro performance. Prior to ranking performance of extruded and spray-dried felodipine solid dispersions, optimization of the dissolution methodology was performed for parameters such as agitation rate, membrane type, and membrane pore size. The particle size and zeta potential were analyzed during dissolution experiments to understand drug/polymer speciation and supersaturation sustainment of felodipine solid dispersions. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to measure the agreement or equivalence between dissolution profiles acquired using polymer membranes and porcine intestines and to establish the biomimetic nature of the treated polymer membranes. The utility of the membrane permeation dissolution methodology is seen during the evaluation of felodipine solid dispersions produced by spray drying and hot melt extrusion. The membrane permeation dissolution methodology can suggest formulation performance and be employed as a screening tool for selection of candidates to move forward to pharmacokinetic studies. Furthermore, the presented model is a cost-effective technique.

  19. Uranium carbide dissolution in nitric solution: Sonication vs. silent conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virot, Matthieu; Szenknect, Stéphanie; Chave, Tony; Dacheux, Nicolas; Moisy, Philippe; Nikitenko, Sergey I.

    2013-10-01

    The dissolution of uranium carbide (UC) in nitric acid media is considered by means of power ultrasound (sonication) or magnetic stirring. The induction period required to initiate UC dissolution was found to be dramatically shortened when sonicating a 3 M nitric solution (Ar, 20 kHz, 18 W cm-2, 20 °C). At higher acidity, magnetic stirring offers faster dissolution kinetics compared to sonication. Ultrasound-assisted UC dissolution is found to be passivated after ∼60% dissolution and remains incomplete whatever the acidity which is confirmed by ICP-AES, LECO and SEM-EDX analyses. In general, the kinetics of UC dissolution is linked to the in situ generation of nitrous acid in agreement with the general mechanism of UC dissolution; the nitrous acid formation is reported to be faster under ultrasound at low acidity due to the nitric acid sonolysis. The carbon balance shared between the gaseous, liquid, and solid phases is strongly influenced by the applied dissolution procedure and HNO3 concentration.

  20. Dissolution rate enhancement of repaglinide by solid dispersion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    solvency are some of the approaches to improve the dissolution rate of the drugs [3]. Solid dispersion (SD) is one of the most widely used techniques to improve solubility as well as dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs. This method involves a ...

  1. Frogging It: A Poetic Analysis of Relationship Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Often, themes in work and life intertwine; the author recognized that a cadre of poems she had written during the past several years were about relationship dissolution. The poems concerned romantic and friendship dissolution and the aspects of identity creation and loss this entails. The author presents the poems and makes an explicit connection…

  2. Dissolution kinetics and mechanism of pandermite in acetic acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-07

    Jun 7, 2010 ... reaction temperature. Conversion rate increased up to 3 M, acid concentration then decreased with increasing acid concentration.It was observed that there was no important effect of stirring speed on the dissolution rate. Furthermore, it was observed that the dissolution mechanism was dependent on.

  3. Dissolution kinetics of pyrite ore by hydrochloric acid | Baba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of HCl concentration, tem-perature and particle size on the dissolution rate indicated that about 76.4 % of the ore of < 0.1 mm particle size was dissolved at 80 ¢ªC and stirring rate of 360 rpm. The dissolution rate was also dependence on hydrogen ion concentration of the reaction system. Activation energy of ...

  4. Dissolution and Quantification of Tantalum-Containing Compounds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dissolution of Ta metal powder, TAN-1 CRM, TaF5, TaCl5 and Ta2O5 was undertaken with different acid, alkaline fluxes as well as with microwave digestion while quantification was performed using ICP-OES analysis. The success of the different dissolution methods was evaluated on percentage recovery basis, the results ...

  5. Evaluation of disintegration and dissolution of chloroquine tablets in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Vanderkamp tablet disintegration tester was used to assess the disintegration time, while the dissolution rate test was carried out according to British Pharmacopoeia specifications. Five tablets of each coded sample were singly placed in a dry basket of the dissolution tester and the contents of which were immersed in ...

  6. Dissolution enhancement of drugs. part i: technologies and effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    V Saharan, V Kukkar, M Kataria, M Gera, P Choudhury ... Since aqueous solubility and slow dissolution rate of BCS class II and class IV drugs is a major challenge in the drug development and delivery processes, improving aqueous solubility and slow dissolution of BCS Class II and Class IV drugs have been investigated ...

  7. Effect of Bulk and Interfacial Rheological Properties on Bubble Dissolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloek, W.; Vliet, van T.; Meinders, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes theoretical calculations of the combined effect of bulk and interracial rheological properties on dissolution behavior of a bubble in an infinite medium at saturated conditions. Either bulk or interracial elasticity can stop the bubble dissolution process, and stability criteria

  8. determination of personal and common property during dissolution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    those established legal effects of marriage would be terminated. The dissolution would consequently entail other various legal effects. One of such legal effects of dissolution of marriage is the liquidation of pecuniary effects. This inevitably imports the crucial issue of the determination of personal and common property at the ...

  9. Hydro-chemo-mechanical coupling in sediments: Localized mineral dissolution

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Minsu

    2016-06-11

    Mineral dissolution is inherently a chemo-hydro-mechanical coupled process. Field evidence and laboratory results show that dissolution may localize and form open conduits in cohesive media such as carbonate rocks. This study focuses on the evolution of localized dissolution in soils (i.e., frictional and non-cohesive granular materials) under effective confining stresses. Experimental results show the development of localized dissolution (“pipe”) when a carbonate-quartz sand is subjected to reactive fluid flow: only loosely packed quartz grains remain within pipes, and the number of pipes decreases away from the inlet port. Concurrent shear wave velocity measurements show a decrease in stiffness during dissolution due to stress and fabric changes, and more complex signal codas anticipate the development of internal heterogeneity. The discrete element method is used to simulate localized vertical dissolution features in granular materials, under constant vertical stress and zero lateral strain far-field boundaries. As porosity increases along dissolution pipes, vertical load is transferred to the surrounding soils and marked force chains develop. In terms of equivalent stress, principal stress rotation takes place within pipes and the sediment reaches the Coulomb failure condition inside pipes and in the surrounding medium. Dissolution pipes alter the geo-plumbing of the subsurface, enhance fluid transport but limit the long term performance of storage systems, alter the fluid pressure and effective stress fields, soften the sediment and may trigger shear failures.

  10. Assessing preferential flow by simultaneously injecting nanoparticle and chemical tracers

    KAUST Repository

    Subramanian, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    The exact manner in which preferential (e.g., much faster than average) flow occurs in the subsurface through small fractures or permeable connected pathways of other kinds is important to many processes but is difficult to determine, because most chemical tracers diffuse quickly enough from small flow channels that they appear to move more uniformly through the rock than they actually do. We show how preferential flow can be assessed by injecting 2 to 5 nm carbon particles (C-Dots) and an inert KBr chemical tracer at different flow rates into a permeable core channel that is surrounded by a less permeable matrix in laboratory apparatus of three different designs. When the KBr tracer has a long enough transit through the system to diffuse into the matrix, but the C-Dot tracer does not, the C-Dot tracer arrives first and the KBr tracer later, and the separation measures the degree of preferential flow. Tracer sequestration in the matrix can be estimated with a Peclet number, and this is useful for experiment design. A model is used to determine the best fitting core and matrix dispersion parameters and refine estimates of the core and matrix porosities. Almost the same parameter values explain all experiments. The methods demonstrated in the laboratory can be applied to field tests. If nanoparticles can be designed that do not stick while flowing through the subsurface, the methods presented here could be used to determine the degree of fracture control in natural environments, and this capability would have very wide ranging value and applicability.

  11. Chemical Dissolution of Simulant FCA Cladding and Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pierce, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); O' Rourke, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-08

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has received some fast critical assembly (FCA) fuel from the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) for disposition. Among the JAEA FCA fuel are approximately 7090 rectangular Stainless Steel clad fuel elements. Each element has an internal Pu-10.6Al alloy metal wafer. The thickness of each element is either 1/16 inch or 1/32 inch. The dimensions of each element ranges from 2 inches x 1 inch to 2 inches x 4 inches. This report discusses the potential chemical dissolution of the FCA clad material or stainless steel. This technology uses nitric acid-potassium fluoride (HNO3-KF) flowsheets of H-Canyon to dissolve the FCA elements from a rack of materials. Historically, dissolution flowsheets have aimed to maximize Pu dissolution rates while minimizing stainless steel dissolution (corrosion) rates. Because the FCA cladding is made of stainless steel, this work sought to accelerate stainless steel dissolution.

  12. Laboratory Evidence for Microbially Mediated Silicate Mineral Dissolution in Nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullman, W. J.; Kirchman, D. L.; Welch, S. A.; Vandevivere, P.

    1996-01-01

    Bacteria may potentially enhance or inhibit silicate mineral dissolution in nature by a variety of mechanisms. In the laboratory, some microbial metabolites enhanced dissolution rates by a factor of ten above the expected proton-promoted rate by an additional ligand-promoted mechanism focused principally at Al sites at the mineral surface. In investigations with bacteria, it was found that organic acids are produced in organic-rich/nutrient-poor cultures, resulting in increased mineral dissolution rates compared to abiotic controls. Alginate and poly-aspartate inhibited dissolution rates either by a reduction in surface reactivity or reactive surface area (or both). Bacteria may also influence dissolution rates by creating and maintaining microenvironments where metabolite concentrations are higher than in the bulk solution.

  13. [Preparation and in vitro dissolution of magnolol solid dispersion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lan; Qiu, Shuai-Bo; Wu, Lan; Lv, Long-Fei; Lv, Hui-Xia; Shan, Wei-Guang

    2016-02-01

    In this study, solid dispersion system of magnolol in croscarmellose sodium was prepared by using the solvent evaporation method, in order to increase the drug dissolution. And its dissolution behavior, stability and physical characteristics were studied. The solid dispersion was prepared with magnolol and croscarmellose sodium, with the proportion of 1∶5, the in vitro dissolution of magnolol solid dispersion was up to 80.66% at 120 min, which was 6.9 times of magnolol. The results of DSC (differential scanning calorimetry), IR (infra-red) spectrum and SEM (scanning electron microscopy) showed that magnolol existed in solid dispersion in an amorphous form. After an accelerated stability test for six months, the drug dissolution and content in magnolol solid dispersion showed no significant change. So the solid dispersion prepared with croscarmellose sodium as the carrier can remarkably improve the stability and dissolution of magnolol. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. Aluminum Target Dissolution in Support of the Pu-238 Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Benker, Dennis [ORNL; DePaoli, David W [ORNL; Felker, Leslie Kevin [ORNL; Mattus, Catherine H [ORNL

    2014-09-01

    Selection of an aluminum alloy for target cladding affects post-irradiation target dissolution and separations. Recent tests with aluminum alloy 6061 yielded greater than expected precipitation in the caustic dissolution step, forming up to 10 wt.% solids of aluminum hydroxides and aluminosilicates. We present a study to maximize dissolution of aluminum metal alloy, along with silicon, magnesium, and copper impurities, through control of temperature, the rate of reagent addition, and incubation time. Aluminum phase transformations have been identified as a function of time and temperature, using X-ray diffraction. Solutions have been analyzed using wet chemical methods and X-ray fluorescence. These data have been compared with published calculations of aluminum phase diagrams. Temperature logging during the transients has been investigated as a means to generate kinetic and mass transport data on the dissolution process. Approaches are given to enhance the dissolution of aluminum and aluminosilicate phases in caustic solution.

  15. Etch Pit Formation and Metal Release During Siderophore-Promoted Dissolution of Iron-Silicate Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, H. L.; Luttge, A.; Brantley, S. L.

    2002-12-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and vertical scanning interferometry (VSI) were used to investigate Fe-silicate surfaces after incubation in buffered growth medium for 46 days with the siderophore desferrioxamine mesylate (DFAM) or with a soil bacterium Bacillus sp. These bacteria use Fe as a micronutrient, adhere to surfaces, and release a siderophore that liberates Fe from hornblende when stressed for Fe. In this work, a glass was synthesized to provide a homogeneous, smooth surface chemically similar to hornblende. The stoichiometry of dissolution of Fe and Al relative to Si was investigated by performing simple calculations using solution data and by comparing atomic ratios (Fe/Si, Al/Si) of incubated surfaces to those of untreated surfaces. AFM and VSI analyses reveal widespread, small etch pits on the DFAM-exposed surfaces and localized groups of larger etch pits on the bacteria-exposed surfaces. Analyses of the filtered solutions revealed negligible Al and Fe release in abiotic control experiments and significant release of Al and Fe in experiments containing DFAM. Low Fe and Al concentrations in filtered solutions from the biotic experiments are consistent with uptake by bacteria or other components of the biomass. XPS results indicate stoichiometric dissolution of Fe with respect to Si from surfaces exposed to DFAM or bacteria. Modeling of the solution chemistry using Geochemist's Workbench 3.0 indicated likely precipitation of FeOOH in the control experiment only. Higher Fe/Si measured by XPS on the control suggests that FeOOH precipitates may have attached to the surface. Preferential release of Al relative to Si is indicated by the XPS results for all but the DFAM-exposed surface, which shows congruent loss of Al and Si. Stoichiometric dissolution and widespread pitting on DFAM-exposed surfaces demonstrates the ability of siderophores to promote dissolution and alter surface morphology. Groupings of microbial etch

  16. Using DC electrical resistivity tomography to quantify preferential flow in fractured rock environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    May, F

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available . This investigation aims to identify preferential flow paths in fractured rock environments. Time-lapse Electrical Resistivity Tomography (TLERT, Lund Imaging System), is regarded as a suitable method for identifying preferential water flow....

  17. A Nonmonotonic Extension of KLM Preferential Logic P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Laura; Gliozzi, Valentina; Olivetti, Nicola; Pozzato, Gian Luca

    In this paper, we propose the logic P min , which is a nonmonotonic extension of Preferential logic P defined by Kraus, Lehmann and Magidor (KLM). In order to perform nonmonotonic inferences, we define a "minimal model" semantics. Given a modal interpretation of a minimal A-world as A ∧ □¬A, the intuition is that preferred, or minimal models are those that minimize the number of worlds where ¬□¬A holds, that is of A-worlds which are not minimal. We also present a tableau calculus for deciding entailment in P min .

  18. Magnetic preferential orientation of metal oxide superconducting materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Donald W.; Dunlap, Bobby D.; Veal, Boyd W.

    1990-01-01

    A superconductor comprised of a polycrystalline metal oxide such as YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-X (where 0material permits the use of an applied magnetic field to orient the individual crystals when in the superconducting state to substantially increase current transport between adjacent grains. In another embodiment, the anisotropic paramagnetic susceptibility of rare-earth ions substituted into the oxide material is made use of as an applied magnetic field orients the particles in a preferential direction. This latter operation can be performed with the material in the normal (non-superconducting) state.

  19. Factors associated with relationship dissolution and post-dissolution adjustment among lesbian adoptive couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Rachel H

    2017-01-02

    Same-sex adoptive couples are increasingly visible, yet few studies have addressed relationship stability and dissolution among these couples. In this study, using a theoretical framework based on Investment Models and Vulnerability-Stress-Adaptation Theory, factors associated with dissolution and post-dissolution adjustment among 27 lesbian adoptive couples were examined across two points. At Wave 1, all 27 couples were together; children were on average 3 years old. Results revealed that nearly one third broke up over 5 years (between Waves 1 and 2). Factors related to shorter relationship length and undermining coparenting at Wave 1 distinguished women who later broke up versus stayed together. Worse mental health at Wave 2 characterized women in dissolved rather than sustained relationships, even with comparable individual adjustment at Wave 1. Weaker parenting alliance and greater dissatisfaction with childcare divisions were reported by women no longer with their partners at Wave 2 as compared with those in enduring partnerships. This research has implications for understanding lesbian relationship dynamics and associations with individual adjustment.

  20. Variable-focus microscopy and UV surface dissolution imaging as complementary techniques in intrinsic dissolution rate determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ward, Adam; Walton, Karl; Box, Karl

    2017-01-01

    This work reports a novel approach to the assessment of the surface properties of compacts used in Surface Dissolution Imaging (SDI). SDI is useful for determining intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR), an important parameter in early stage drug development. Surface topography, post-compaction and pos...

  1. Insight into Flufenamic Acid Cocrystal Dissolution in the Presence of a Polymer in Solution: from Single Crystal to Powder Dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Minshan; Wang, Ke; Qiao, Ning; Fábián, László; Sadiq, Ghazala; Li, Mingzhong

    2017-11-10

    Effects of three polymers, polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and copolymer of vinylpyrrolidone/vinyl acetate (PVP-VA), on the dissolution behavior of the cocrystals of flufenamic acid with theophylline (FFA-TP CO) and nicotinamide (FFA-NIC CO) were investigated at multiple length scales. At the molecular level, the interactions of crystal surfaces with a polymer were analyzed by observing etching pattern changes using atomic force microscopy. At the macroscopic scale, dissolution rates of particular faces of a single crystal were determined by measurement of the physical retreat velocities of the faces using optical light microscopy. In the bulk experiments, the FFA concentration in a dissolution medium in the absence or presence of a polymer was measured under both sink and nonsink conditions. It has been found that the dissolution mechanisms of FFA-TP CO are controlled by the defect sites of the crystal surface and by precipitation of the parent drug FFA as individual crystals in the bulk fluid. In contrast, the dissolution mechanisms of FFA-NIC CO are controlled by surface layer removal and by a surface precipitation mechanism, where the parent drug FFA precipitates directly onto the surface of the dissolving cocrystals. Through controlling the dissolution environment by predissolving a polymer, PVP or PVP-VA, which can interact with the crystal surface to alter its dissolution properties, improved solubility, and dissolution rates of FFA-TP CO and FFA-NIC CO have been demonstrated.

  2. Solute transport along preferential flow paths in unsaturated fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, G.W.; Geller, J.T.; Pruess, K.; Hunt, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to study solute transport along preferential flow paths in unsaturated, inclined fractures. Qualitative aspects of solute transport were identified in a miscible dye tracer experiment conducted in a transparent replica of a natural granite fracture. Additional experiments were conducted to measure the breakthrough curves of a conservative tracer introduced into an established preferential flow path in two different fracture replicas and a rock-replica combination. The influence of gravity was investigated by varying fracture inclination. The relationship between the travel times of the solute and the relative influence of gravity was substantially affected by two modes of intermittent flow that occurred: the snapping rivulet and the pulsating blob modes. The measured travel times of the solute were evaluated with three transfer function models: the axial dispersion, the reactors-in-series, and the lognormal models. The three models described the solute travel times nearly equally well. A mechanistic model was also formulated to describe transport when the pulsating blob mode occurred which assumed blobs of water containing solute mixed with residual pools of water along the flow path.

  3. Drosophila TRF2 is a preferential core promoter regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedmi, Adi; Zehavi, Yonathan; Glick, Yair; Orenstein, Yaron; Ideses, Diana; Wachtel, Chaim; Doniger, Tirza; Waldman Ben-Asher, Hiba; Muster, Nemone; Thompson, James; Anderson, Scott; Avrahami, Dorit; Yates, John R; Shamir, Ron; Gerber, Doron; Juven-Gershon, Tamar

    2014-10-01

    Transcription of protein-coding genes is highly dependent on the RNA polymerase II core promoter. Core promoters, generally defined as the regions that direct transcription initiation, consist of functional core promoter motifs (such as the TATA-box, initiator [Inr], and downstream core promoter element [DPE]) that confer specific properties to the core promoter. The known basal transcription factors that support TATA-dependent transcription are insufficient for in vitro transcription of DPE-dependent promoters. In search of a transcription factor that supports DPE-dependent transcription, we used a biochemical complementation approach and identified the Drosophila TBP (TATA-box-binding protein)-related factor 2 (TRF2) as an enriched factor in the fractions that support DPE-dependent transcription. We demonstrate that the short TRF2 isoform preferentially activates DPE-dependent promoters. DNA microarray analysis reveals the enrichment of DPE promoters among short TRF2 up-regulated genes. Using primer extension analysis and reporter assays, we show the importance of the DPE in transcriptional regulation of TRF2 target genes. It was previously shown that, unlike TBP, TRF2 fails to bind DNA containing TATA-boxes. Using microfluidic affinity analysis, we discovered that short TRF2-bound DNA oligos are enriched for Inr and DPE motifs. Taken together, our findings highlight the role of short TRF2 as a preferential core promoter regulator. © 2014 Kedmi et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  4. Dissolution and transport of coal tar compounds in fractured clay-rich residuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulava, Vijay M; McKay, Larry D; Broholm, Mette M; McCarthy, John F; Driese, Steven G; Sayler, Gary S

    2012-02-15

    We investigated the dissolution and transport of organic contaminants from a crude coal tar mixture in a monolith of fractured clay-rich residuum. An electrolyte solution was eluted through the residuum monolith containing a small emplaced source of coal tar under biologically inhibited and mildly acidic conditions. Concentrations of 10 coal tar compounds, representing mono-, poly-, and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that constitute crude coal tar were monitored in the effluent over a period of 377 days. Most compounds appeared in the effluent within the first 0.1 pore volume eluted indicating the importance of rapid dissolution and transport through the fracture networks. The concentrations continued to rise but did not reach the corresponding effective solubility limit in most cases. Compounds that were less soluble and those that were more susceptible to sorption or matrix diffusion eluted at a much slower rate. Analysis of contaminant concentrations in microcore residuum samples indicated that all 10 compounds had spread throughout the entire monolith and had diffused into the fine-grained matrix between fractures. These data suggest that the predominantly fine pore structure did not appear to inhibit coal tar dissolution and subsequent transport, even though only a small portion of tar was in direct contact with fractures and macropores that control most flow. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Carbonate ions and arsenic dissolution by groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M.-J.; Nriagu, J.; Haack, S.

    2000-01-01

    solutions. The effects of pH and redox conditions on As dissolution were examined. Results showed that As was not leached significantly out of the Marshall Sandstone samples after 3 d using either deionized water or groundwater, but As was leached efficiently by sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, and ferric chloride solutions. The leaching rate with sodium bicarbonate was about 25% higher than that with potassium bicarbonate. The data indicated that bicarbonate ion was involved primarily in As dissolution and that hydroxyl radical ion did not affect As dissolution to any significant degree. The amount of As leached was dependent upon the sodium bicarbonate concentration, increasing with reaction time for each concentration. Significant As leaching was found in the extreme pH ranges of <1.9 and 8.0-10.4. The resulting arseno-carbonate complexes formed were stable in groundwater.

  6. Factors Affecting the Dissolution of Indomethacin Solid Dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Chen-Ning; He, Yue; Duan, Ban-Yan; Yang, Guang-Yi; Ma, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Yong-Hong

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of factors such as carrier type, drug/carrier ratio, binary carriers, and preparation method on the dissolution of an insoluble drug, indomethacin (IM), under supersaturation conditions. Using a solvent evaporation (SE) method, poloxamer 188 and PVP K30 showed better dissolution among the selected carriers. Furthermore, as the ratio of carriers increased (drug/carrier ratio from 1:0.5 to 1:2), the dissolution rate increased especially in almost two times poloxamer 188 solid dispersions (SDs), while the reverse results were observed for PVP K30 SDs. For the binary carrier SD, a lower dissolution was found. Under hot melt extrusion (HME), the dissolution of poloxamer 188 SD and PVP K30 SD was 0.83- and 0.94-folds lower than that using SE, respectively, while the binary carrier SD showed the best dissolution. For poloxamer 188 SDs, the drug's crystal form changed when using SE, while no crystal form change was observed using HME. IM was amorphous in PVP K30 SDs prepared by both methods. For binary carrier systems, amorphous and crystalline drugs coexisted in SD using SE, and negligible amorphous IM was in SD using HME. This study indicated that a higher amorphous proportion in SD did not correlate with higher dissolution rate, and other factors, such as carrier type, particle size, and density, were also critical.

  7. Dissolution behaviour of silicon nitride coatings for joint replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Maria; Bryant, Michael; Schmidt, Susann; Engqvist, Håkan; Hall, Richard M; Neville, Anne; Persson, Cecilia

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the dissolution rate of SiNx coatings was investigated as a function of coating composition, in comparison to a cobalt chromium molybdenum alloy (CoCrMo) reference. SiNx coatings with N/Si ratios of 0.3, 0.8 and 1.1 were investigated. Electrochemical measurements were complemented with solution (inductively coupled plasma techniques) and surface analysis (vertical scanning interferometry and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy). The dissolution rate of the SiNx coatings was evaluated to 0.2-1.4 nm/day, with a trend of lower dissolution rate with higher N/Si atomic ratio in the coating. The dissolution rates of the coatings were similar to or lower than that of CoCrMo (0.7-1.2 nm/day). The highest nitrogen containing coating showed mainly Si-N bonds in the bulk as well as at the surface and in the dissolution area. The lower nitrogen containing coatings showed Si-N and/or Si-Si bonds in the bulk and an increased formation of Si-O bonds at the surface as well as in the dissolution area. The SiNx coatings reduced the metal ion release from the substrate. The possibility to tune the dissolution rate and the ability to prevent release of metal ions encourage further studies on SiNx coatings for joint replacements. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Olivine dissolution from Indian dunite in saline water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Amit Kumar; Mehra, Anurag

    2016-11-01

    The rate and mechanism of olivine dissolution was studied using naturally weathered dunite FO98.21(Mg1.884Fe0.391SiO4) from an Indian source, that also contains serpentine mineral lizardite. A series of batch dissolution experiments were carried out to check the influence of temperature (30-75 ∘C), initial dunite concentration (0.5 and 20 g/L), and salinity (0-35 g/L NaCl) under fixed head space CO2 pressure (P[Formula: see text] = 1 barg) on dunite dissolution. Dissolved Mg, Si, and Fe concentrations were determined by inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. End-product solids were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Initially, rates of dissolution of Si and Mg were observed to be in stoichiometric proportion. After 8 h, the dissolution rate was observed to decline. At the end of the experiment (504 h), an amorphous silica-rich layer was observed over the dunite surface. This results in decay of the dissolution rate. The operating conditions (i.e., salinity, temperature, and mineral loading) affect the dissolution kinetics in a very complex manner because of which the observed experimental trends do not exhibit a direct trend.

  9. High-speed atomic force microscopy of dental enamel dissolution in citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, Alice; Marks, Will; M Picco, Loren; G Dunton, Peter; Ulcinas, Arturas; E Barbour, Michele; B Jones, Siân; Gimzewski, James; J Miles, Mervyn

    2009-01-01

    High-speed atomic force microscopy (HS AFM) in 'contact' mode was used to image at video rate the surfaces of both calcium hydroxyapatite samples, often used as artificial dental enamel in such experiments, and polished actual bovine dental enamel in both neutral and acidic aqueous environments. The image in each frame of the video of the sample was a few micrometers square, and the high-speed scan window was panned across the sample in real time to examine larger areas. Conventional AFM images of the same regions of the sample were also recorded before and after high-speed imaging. The ability of HS AFM to follow processes occurring in liquid on the timescale of a few seconds was employed to study the dissolution process of both hydroxyapatite and bovine enamel under acidic conditions. Buffered citric acid at pH values between 3.0 and 4.0 was observed to dissolve the surface layers of these samples. The movies recorded showed rapid dissolution of the bovine enamel in particular, which proceeded until the relatively small amount of acid available had been exhausted. A comparison was made with enamel samples that had been treated in fluoride solution (1 h in 300 ppm NaF, pH 7) prior to addition of the acid; the speed of dissolution for these samples was much less than that of the untreated samples. The HS AFM used an in-house designed and constructed high-speed flexure scan stage employing a push-pull piezo actuator arrangement. The HS AFM is able to follow the large changes in height (on the micrometer scale) that occur during the dissolution process.

  10. Synthesis of Cubic-Shaped Pt Particles with (100) Preferential Orientation by a Quick, One-Step and Clean Electrochemical Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Fan, Xiayue; Liu, Xiaorui; Song, Zhishuang; Deng, Yida; Han, Xiaopeng; Hu, Wenbin; Zhong, Cheng

    2017-06-07

    A new approach has been developed for in situ preparing cubic-shaped Pt particles with (100) preferential orientation on the surface of the conductive support by using a quick, one-step, and clean electrochemical method with periodic square-wave potential. The whole electrochemical deposition process is very quick (only 6 min is required to produce cubic Pt particles), without the use of particular capping agents. The shape and the surface structure of deposited Pt particles can be controlled by the lower and upper potential limits of the square-wave potential. For a frequency of 5 Hz and an upper potential limit of 1.0 V (vs saturated calomel electrode), as the lower potential limit decreases to the H adsorption potential region, the Pt deposits are changed from nearly spherical particles to cubic-shaped (100)-oriented Pt particles. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected-area electron diffraction reveal that the formed cubic Pt particles are single-crystalline and enclosed by (100) facets. Cubic Pt particles exhibit characteristic H adsorption/desorption peaks corresponding to the (100) preferential orientation. Ge irreversible adsorption indicates that the fraction of wide Pt(100) surface domains is 47.8%. The electrocatalytic activities of different Pt particles are investigated by ammonia electro-oxidation, which is particularly sensitive to the amount of Pt(100) sites, especially larger (100) domains. The specific activity of cubic Pt particles is 3.6 times as high as that of polycrystalline spherical Pt particles, again confirming the (100) preferential orientation of Pt cubes. The formation of cubic-shaped Pt particles is related with the preferential electrochemical deposition and dissolution processes of Pt, which are coupled with the periodic desorption and adsorption processes of O-containing species and H adatoms.

  11. Dissolution of materials in artificial skin surface film liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Harvey, Christopher J

    2006-12-01

    The dissolution of chemical constituents from jewelry, textiles, cosmetics, drugs, industrial chemicals, and particles in direct and prolonged contact with human skin is often assessed in vitro using artificial skin surface film liquids (SSFL). To provide meaningful results, the composition of artificial SSFL should accurately mimic human sweat and sebum, and the conditions of the in vitro test system should accurately reflect in vivo skin conditions. We summarized the reported composition of human SSFL and compared it to 45 different formulations of artificial sweat and 18 formulations of artificial sebum (studies published from 1940 to 2005). Conditions of in vitro dissolution test systems were reviewed and compared to in vivo skin conditions. The concentrations of individual constituents and pH of artificial sweat and concentrations of artificial sebum constituents are not always within ranges reported for human SSFL. Nearly all artificial SSFL lack many of the constituents in human SSFL. To develop a comprehensive model SSFL, we propose a standard SSFL, modified from the two best published sweat and sebum formulations. Little is known concerning the influence of test system conditions on dissolution, including SSFL temperature, container material composition, agitation, and physicochemical properties of the test article on dissolution. Thus, both a need and an opportunity exist for standardizing the composition of artificial SSFL and in vitro dissolution test methodologies. To standardize in vitro dissolution test systems, we recommend: maintaining artificial SSFL at a biologically relevant temperature appropriate to the human activity being modeled, carefully selecting test and sample storage containers to avoid bias in dissolution measurements, accounting for friction between a test article and skin in a biologically plausible manner, and physicochemical characterization of the test article or material to better understand mechanisms of dissolution and

  12. Secondary calcification and dissolution respond differently to future ocean conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbiger, N. J.; Donahue, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change threatens both the accretion and erosion processes that sustain coral reefs. Secondary calcification, bioerosion, and reef dissolution are integral to the structural complexity and long-term persistence of coral reefs, yet these processes have received less research attention than reef accretion by corals. In this study, we use climate scenarios from RCP 8.5 to examine the combined effects of rising ocean acidity and sea surface temperature (SST) on both secondary calcification and dissolution rates of a natural coral rubble community using a flow-through aquarium system. We found that secondary reef calcification and dissolution responded differently to the combined effect of pCO2 and temperature. Calcification had a non-linear response to the combined effect of pCO2 and temperature: the highest calcification rate occurred slightly above ambient conditions and the lowest calcification rate was in the highest temperature-pCO2 condition. In contrast, dissolution increased linearly with temperature-pCO2 . The rubble community switched from net calcification to net dissolution at +271 μatm pCO2 and 0.75 °C above ambient conditions, suggesting that rubble reefs may shift from net calcification to net dissolution before the end of the century. Our results indicate that (i) dissolution may be more sensitive to climate change than calcification and (ii) that calcification and dissolution have different functional responses to climate stressors; this highlights the need to study the effects of climate stressors on both calcification and dissolution to predict future changes in coral reefs.

  13. To what extent do preferential flow pathways alter the impact of climate and land cover change on groundwater recharge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, F.; Hartmann, A. J.; Pianosi, F.; Wagener, T.

    2016-12-01

    Preferential flow (concentrated flow in areas of higher hydraulic conductivities) can occur in the soil and in the underlying bedrock due to root channels, heterogeneities in soil composition, physical and chemical weathering, and cracks and fissures in the bedrock originating from tectonic processes. It strongly influences groundwater recharge magnitude and dynamics. In particular, karst systems, which develop from the dissolution of carbonate rocks, include large fractures and conduits with high permeability. Karst aquifers are an important source of drinking water in many regions of the world but their resources are likely to be affected by changes in climate and land cover/land use. Therefore, understanding karst hydrology and estimating karst groundwater recharge at a large-scale is critical for preventing threats to water supply in a changing world. Hartmann et al. (2015, Geosci. Model Dev.) introduced a parsimonious karst recharge model, called VarKarst-R, which allows for large-scale simulations of groundwater recharge while accounting for the process of flow concentration in preferential pathways. The first objective of the present study is to introduce vegetation processes into the VarKarst-R model to better estimate evapotranspiration losses depending on land cover characteristics. We test the model at FLUXNET sites located in carbonate rock areas. Secondly, we establish a sensitivity analysis framework to understand the interactions between climate descriptors (e.g. mean precipitation, precipitation seasonality), vegetation parameters (e.g. canopy storage capacity, rooting depth) and soil parameters (e.g. soil storage, flow concentration coefficient). We apply this framework and the modified VarKarst-R model to assess the relative influence of changes in climate and land cover on aquifer recharge in Europe and in Mediterranean carbonate rock areas.

  14. Dissolution of cemented fractures in gas bearing shales in the context of CO2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Kamil; Szymczak, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    Carbon dioxide has a stronger binding than methane to the organic matter contained in the matrix of shale rocks [1]. Thus, the injection of CO2 into shale formation may enhance the production rate and total amount of produced methane, and simultaneously permanently store pumped CO2. Carbon dioxide can be injected during the initial fracking stage as CO2 based hydraulic fracturing, and/or later, as a part of enhanced gas recovery (EGR) [2]. Economic and environmental benefits makes CO2 sequestration in shales potentially very for industrial-scale operation [3]. However, the effective process requires large area of fracture-matrix interface, where CO2 and CH4 can be exchanged. Usually natural fractures, existing in shale formation, are preferentially reactivated during hydraulic fracturing, thus they considerably contribute to the flow paths in the resulting fracture system [4]. Unfortunately, very often these natural fractures are sealed by calcite [5]. Consequently the layer of calcite coating surfaces impedes exchange of gases, both CO2 and CH4, between shale matrix and fracture. In this communication we address the question whether carbonic acid, formed when CO2 is mixed with brine, is able to effectively dissolve a calcite layer present in the natural fractures. We investigate numerically fluid flow and dissolution of calcite coating in natural shale fractures, with CO2-brine mixture as a reactive fluid. Moreover, we discuss the differences between slow dissolution (driven by carbonic acid) and fast dissolution (driven by stronger hydrochloric acid) of calcite layer. We compare an impact of the flow rate and geometry of the fracture on the parameters of practical importance: available surface area, morphology of dissolution front, time scale of the dissolution, and the penetration length. We investigate whether the dissolution is sufficiently non-uniform to retain the fracture permeability, even in the absence of the proppant. The sizes of analysed fractures

  15. Dissolution behaviour of silicon nitride coatings for joint replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Maria [Materials in Medicine Group, Div. of Applied Materials Science, Dept. of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Bryant, Michael [Institute of Functional Surfaces (iFS), School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Schmidt, Susann [Thin Film Physics, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping (Sweden); Engqvist, Håkan [Materials in Medicine Group, Div. of Applied Materials Science, Dept. of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Hall, Richard M. [Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering (iMBE), School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Neville, Anne [Institute of Functional Surfaces (iFS), School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Persson, Cecilia, E-mail: cecilia.persson@angstrom.uu.se [Materials in Medicine Group, Div. of Applied Materials Science, Dept. of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the dissolution rate of SiN{sub x} coatings was investigated as a function of coating composition, in comparison to a cobalt chromium molybdenum alloy (CoCrMo) reference. SiN{sub x} coatings with N/Si ratios of 0.3, 0.8 and 1.1 were investigated. Electrochemical measurements were complemented with solution (inductively coupled plasma techniques) and surface analysis (vertical scanning interferometry and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy). The dissolution rate of the SiN{sub x} coatings was evaluated to 0.2–1.4 nm/day, with a trend of lower dissolution rate with higher N/Si atomic ratio in the coating. The dissolution rates of the coatings were similar to or lower than that of CoCrMo (0.7–1.2 nm/day). The highest nitrogen containing coating showed mainly Si–N bonds in the bulk as well as at the surface and in the dissolution area. The lower nitrogen containing coatings showed Si–N and/or Si–Si bonds in the bulk and an increased formation of Si–O bonds at the surface as well as in the dissolution area. The SiN{sub x} coatings reduced the metal ion release from the substrate. The possibility to tune the dissolution rate and the ability to prevent release of metal ions encourage further studies on SiN{sub x} coatings for joint replacements. - Graphical abstract: Dissolution rates of SiN{sub 0.3}, SiN{sub 0.8}, and SiN{sub 1.1} coatings on CoCrMo compared to uncoated CoCrMo. Dissolution rates were obtained from i) electrochemical measurements of I{sub corr}, ii) the step height between covered and solution-exposed surfaces, measured using VSI, and iii) the ion concentration in the solution, measured with ICP. - Highlights: • The dissolution of SiN{sub x} coatings was investigated in comparison to (bulk) CoCrMo. • The coatings gave a lower or similar dissolution rate to CoCrMo, of 0.2–1.2 nm/day. • An increased nitrogen content in the coatings gave lower dissolution rates. • SiN{sub x} coatings on CoCrMo reduced the metal ion release

  16. The dissolution of language in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertesz, A; Appell, J; Fisman, M

    1986-11-01

    Language impairment in Alzheimer's disease has become an important clinical issue. It has been recognized for some time that the disease may begin with aphasia and even before frank aphasia develops, some of the earliest changes in a large number of individuals consist of impairment of word fluency and semantic access manifesting itself in word finding difficulty. The second major issue concerning language in Alzheimer's disease is that the cases which have early severe language impairment may represent a more progressive familial variety of disease as it has been suggested in the literature. This is still subject to controversy. Finally, it will be documented that the later stage of the disease shows language invariably impaired and goes through stages of dissolution that resemble anomic, transcortical sensory. Wernicke's and global aphasias. Accurate assessment of language may turn out to be one of the most reliable predictors of the stages of Alzheimer's disease and provides important insights into the cerebral organization of language, semantic access, relationship of semantic and episodic memory and the pathophysiology of the disease.

  17. Cytotoxicity and intracellular dissolution of nickel nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Perez, Jose E.

    2015-12-22

    The assessment of cytotoxicity of nanostructures is a fundamental step for their development as biomedical tools. As widely used nanostructures, nickel nanowires (Ni NWs) seem promising candidates for such applications. In this work, Ni NWs were synthesized and then characterized using vibrating sample magnetometry, energy dispersive X-Ray analysis and electron microscopy. After exposure to the NWs, cytotoxicity was evaluated in terms of cell viability, cell membrane damage and induced apoptosis/necrosis on the model human cell line HCT 116. The influence of NW to cell ratio (10:1 to 1000:1) and exposure times up to 72 hours was analyzed for Ni NWs of 5.4 µm in length, as well as for Ni ions. The results show that cytotoxicity markedly increases past 24 hours of incubation. Cellular uptake of NWs takes place through the phagocytosis pathway, with a fraction of the dose of NWs dissolved inside the cells. Cell death results from a combination of apoptosis and necrosis, where the latter is the outcome of the secondary necrosis pathway. The cytotoxicity of Ni ions and Ni NWs dissolution studies suggest a synergistic toxicity between NW aspect ratio and dissolved Ni, with the cytotoxic effects markedly increasing after 24 hours of incubation.

  18. Dissolution of chromium in sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. POPIC

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available By combining electrochemical corrosion rate measurements and spectrophotometric analysis of the electrolyte it was shown that at room temperature chromium dissolves in deaerated 0.1 M Na2SO4 + H2SO4 (pH 1 solution as Cr(II and Cr(III ions in he ratio Cr(II : Cr(III @ 7 : 1. This process was stable over 4 h without any detectable change. The total corrosion rate of chromium calculated from the analytical data is about 12 times higher, than that determined electrochemically by cathodic Tafel line extrapolation to the corrosion potential. This finding was confirmed by applying the weight-loss method for the determination of the corrosion rate. This enormous difference between these experimentally determined corrosion rates can be explained by the rather fast, “anomalous” dissolution process proposed by Kolotyrkin and coworkers (chemical reaction of Cr with H2O molecules occurring simultaneously with the electrochemical corrosion process.

  19. The Dissolution of Multiculturalism. Causes and Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Lates

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The last financial and economic crisis, whose effects are fully felt, has disrupted the social relations domain as well, with unpredictable consequences on the relations between people. The poor balance, obtained by official and public recognition of cultural differences is increasingly questioned not only by politicians but also by philosophers and sociologists. Otherness has taken precedence over the ego. The identity markers which form the European cultural mosaic through increased quantity and dominance in public development generate unpredictable risks in the preservation of national identity. The countries receiving the flows of migrants, older or newer, confront a strange phenomena namely the otherness of their own cultural identity, the newcomers are usually of the kind who prefer to live in ethnic enclaves and marginal which decline the opportunities for cultural integration. What is natural, somehow, at the level of the adults is that it reverberates negatively at the level of the children, who cannot follow the same educational route as their natives and thus they cancel their chances of integration in the receiving societies. The effects of multiculturalism dissolution are observed at each step and therefore public policies are increasingly restrictive, preferring the ethnocentric solution of conservation / preservation of their own cultural identity.

  20. Cytotoxicity and intracellular dissolution of nickel nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Jose E; Contreras, Maria F; Vilanova, Enrique; Felix, Laura P; Margineanu, Michael B; Luongo, Giovanni; Porter, Alexandra E; Dunlop, Iain E; Ravasi, Timothy; Kosel, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    The assessment of cytotoxicity of nanostructures is a fundamental step for their development as biomedical tools. As widely used nanostructures, nickel nanowires (Ni NWs) seem promising candidates for such applications. In this work, Ni NWs were synthesized and then characterized using vibrating sample magnetometry, energy dispersive X-Ray analysis, and electron microscopy. After exposure to the NWs, cytotoxicity was evaluated in terms of cell viability, cell membrane damage, and induced apoptosis/necrosis on the model human cell line HCT 116. The influence of NW to cell ratio (10:1 to 1000:1) and exposure times up to 72 hours was analyzed for Ni NWs of 5.4 μm in length, as well as for Ni ions. The results show that cytotoxicity markedly increases past 24 hours of incubation. Cellular uptake of NWs takes place through the phagocytosis pathway, with a fraction of the dose of NWs dissolved inside the cells. Cell death results from a combination of apoptosis and necrosis, where the latter is the outcome of the secondary necrosis pathway. The cytotoxicity of Ni ions and Ni NWs dissolution studies suggest a synergistic toxicity between NW aspect ratio and dissolved Ni, with the cytotoxic effects markedly increasing after 24 hours of incubation.

  1. Initial Drug Dissolution from Amorphous Solid Dispersions Controlled by Polymer Dissolution and Drug-Polymer Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuejie; Wang, Shujing; Wang, Shan; Liu, Chengyu; Su, Ching; Hageman, Michael; Hussain, Munir; Haskell, Roy; Stefanski, Kevin; Qian, Feng

    2016-10-01

    To identify the key formulation factors controlling the initial drug and polymer dissolution rates from an amorphous solid dispersion (ASD). Ketoconazole (KTZ) ASDs using PVP, PVP-VA, HMPC, or HPMC-AS as polymeric matrix were prepared. For each drug-polymer system, two types of formulations with the same composition were prepared: 1. Spray dried dispersion (SDD) that is homogenous at molecular level, 2. Physical blend of SDD (80% drug loading) and pure polymer (SDD-PB) that is homogenous only at powder level. Flory-Huggins interaction parameters (χ) between KTZ and the four polymers were obtained by Flory-Huggins model fitting. Solution (13)C NMR and FT-IR were conducted to investigate the specific drug-polymer interaction in the solution and solid state, respectively. Intrinsic dissolution of both the drug and the polymer from ASDs were studied using a Higuchi style intrinsic dissolution apparatus. PXRD and confocal Raman microscopy were used to confirm the absence of drug crystallinity on the tablet surface before and after dissolution study. In solid state, KTZ is completely miscible with PVP, PVP-VA, or HPMC-AS, demonstrated by the negative χ values of -0.36, -0.46, -1.68, respectively; while is poorly miscible with HPMC shown by a positive χ value of 0.23. According to solution (13)C NMR and FT-IR studies, KTZ interacts with HPMC-AS strongly through H-bonding and dipole induced interaction; with PVPs and PVP-VA moderately through dipole-induced interactions; and with HPMC weakly without detectable attractive interaction. Furthermore, the "apparent" strength of drug-polymer interaction, measured by the extent of peak shift on NMR or FT-IR spectra, increases with the increasing number of interacting drug-polymer pairs. For ASDs with the presence of considerable drug-polymer interactions, such as KTZ/PVPs, KTZ/PVP-VA, or KTZ /HPMC-AS systems, drug released at the same rate as the polymer when intimate drug-polymer mixing was ensured (i.e., the SDD systems

  2. Modelling of the UO{sub 2} dissolution mechanisms in synthetic groundwater solutions. Dissolution experiments carried out under oxic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cera, E.; Grive, M.; Bruno, J. [EnvirosQuantiSci (Spain); Ollila, K. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    2001-02-01

    The analytical data generated during the last three years within the 4th framework program of the European Community at VTT Chemical Technology concerning UO{sub 2} dissolution under oxidising conditions have been modelled in the present work. The modelling work has been addressed to perform a kinetic study of the dissolution data generated by Ollila (1999) under oxidising conditions by using unirradiated uranium dioxide as solid sample. The average of the normalised UO{sub 2} dissolution rates determined by using the initial dissolution data generated in all the experimental tests is (6.06 {+-} 3.64)* 10{sup -7} mol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}. This dissolution rate agrees with most of the dissolution rates reported in the literature under similar experimental conditions. The results obtained in this modelling exercise show that the same bicarbonate promoted oxidative dissolution processes operate for uranium dioxide, as a chemical analogue of the spent fuel matrix, independently of the composition of the aqueous solution used. (orig.)

  3. In vitro dissolution of proton-pump inhibitor products intended for paediatric and geriatric use in physiological bicarbonate buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Shokrollahi, Honaz

    2015-05-15

    Proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) products based on enteric coated multiparticulates are design to meet the needs of patients who cannot swallow tablets such as children and older adults. Enteric coated PPI preparations exhibit delays in in vivo absorption and onset of antisecretory effects, which is not reflected by the rapid in vitro dissolution in compendial pH 6.8 phosphate buffer commonly used for assessment of these products. A more representative and physiological medium, pH 6.8 mHanks bicarbonate buffer, was used in this study to evaluate the in vitro dissolution of enteric coated multiparticulate-based PPI products. Commercially available omeprazole, lansoprazole and esomeprazole products were subject to dissolution tests using USP-II apparatus in pH 4.5 phosphate buffer saline for 45 min (acid stage) followed by pH 6.8 phosphate buffer or pH 6.8 mHanks bicarbonate buffer. In pH 6.8 phosphate buffer, all nine tested products displayed rapid and comparable dissolution profiles meeting the pharmacopeia requirements for delayed release preparations. In pH 6.8 mHanks buffer, drug release was delayed and failed the pharmacopeia requirements from most enteric coated preparations. Despite that the same enteric polymer, methacrylic acid-ethyl acrylate copolymer (1:1), was applied to all commercial multiparticulate-based products, marked differences were observed between dissolution profiles of these preparations. The use of pH 6.8 physiological bicarbonate (mHanks) buffer can serve as a useful tool to provide realistic and discriminative in vitro release assessment of enteric coated PPI preparations and to assist rational formulation development of these products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Personalized recommendation based on preferential bidirectional mass diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guilin; Gao, Tianrun; Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui; Yang, Zhao

    2017-03-01

    Recommendation system provides a promising way to alleviate the dilemma of information overload. In physical dynamics, mass diffusion has been used to design effective recommendation algorithms on bipartite network. However, most of the previous studies focus overwhelmingly on unidirectional mass diffusion from collected objects to uncollected objects, while overlooking the opposite direction, leading to the risk of similarity estimation deviation and performance degradation. In addition, they are biased towards recommending popular objects which will not necessarily promote the accuracy but make the recommendation lack diversity and novelty that indeed contribute to the vitality of the system. To overcome the aforementioned disadvantages, we propose a preferential bidirectional mass diffusion (PBMD) algorithm by penalizing the weight of popular objects in bidirectional diffusion. Experiments are evaluated on three benchmark datasets (Movielens, Netflix and Amazon) by 10-fold cross validation, and results indicate that PBMD remarkably outperforms the mainstream methods in accuracy, diversity and novelty.

  5. From Idealism to Realism? EU Preferential Trade Agreement Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Garcia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how the EU’s ‘conflicted power’ in trade has played out within its preferential trade agreement (PTA strategies with third parties. It does this by providing an overview of how approaches to the EU’s external trade policies have evolved over time, especially since the end of the Cold War. Tracing changes in discourse in the EU’s consolidated trade policy demonstrates how the policy objectives have evolved from what could be characterised as a soft and even normative power to a much more realist one, attempting to safeguard its position in the international economic order. Notwithstanding these changes, explained by a combination of international context and ideational preferences, an underlying overall continuity has remained in terms of the main economic interests to be realised through trade policy, which presents a portrait of the EU as a rational and realist (if sometimes conflicted actor in the global economy.

  6. Preferential partner selection in an evolutionary study of prisoner's dilemma

    CERN Document Server

    Ashlock, D; Stanley, E A; Tesfatsion, L; Ashlock, Dan; Smucker, Mark D; Stanley, E Ann; Tesfatsion, Leigh

    1994-01-01

    Partner selection is an important process in many social interactions, permitting individuals to decrease the risks associated with cooperation. In large populations, defectors may escape punishment by roving from partner to partner, but defectors in smaller populations risk social isolation. We investigate these possibilities for an evolutionary prisoner's dilemma in which agents use expected payoffs to choose and refuse partners. In comparison to random or round-robin partner matching, we find that the average payoffs attained with preferential partner selection tend to be more narrowly confined to a few isolated payoff regions. Most ecologies evolve to essentially full cooperative behavior, but when agents are intolerant of defections, or when the costs of refusal and social isolation are small, we also see the emergence of wallflower ecologies in which all agents are socially isolated. In between these two extremes, we see the emergence of ecologies whose agents tend to engage in a small number of defecti...

  7. Seeking a preferential option for the rural poor in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Dew

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available From colonial times well into the twentieth century (and, unfortunately, even beyond the man/land relationship in Latin America has been markedly unjust. Small numbers of families have owned large tracts of the best land, while large numbers of poor families have struggled with tiny plots of marginal land or labored on the estates of the rich. Chile was no exception to this pattern. Thus, its experiment with land reform in the 1960s and 1970s, the setback of reform under the military in the 1970s and 1980s, and the resumption of reform under democrats in the 1990s, may provide lessons for the rest of Latin America. Is a preferential option for the rural poor still possible in a neoliberal economic system? In Chile, the answer is a qualified “yes”

  8. Megacity pumping and preferential flow threaten groundwater quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mahfuzur R; Koneshloo, Mohammad; Knappett, Peter S K; Ahmed, Kazi M; Bostick, Benjamin C; Mailloux, Brian J; Mozumder, Rajib H; Zahid, Anwar; Harvey, Charles F; van Geen, Alexander; Michael, Holly A

    2016-09-27

    Many of the world's megacities depend on groundwater from geologically complex aquifers that are over-exploited and threatened by contamination. Here, using the example of Dhaka, Bangladesh, we illustrate how interactions between aquifer heterogeneity and groundwater exploitation jeopardize groundwater resources regionally. Groundwater pumping in Dhaka has caused large-scale drawdown that extends into outlying areas where arsenic-contaminated shallow groundwater is pervasive and has potential to migrate downward. We evaluate the vulnerability of deep, low-arsenic groundwater with groundwater models that incorporate geostatistical simulations of aquifer heterogeneity. Simulations show that preferential flow through stratigraphy typical of fluvio-deltaic aquifers could contaminate deep (>150 m) groundwater within a decade, nearly a century faster than predicted through homogeneous models calibrated to the same data. The most critical fast flowpaths cannot be predicted by simplified models or identified by standard measurements. Such complex vulnerability beyond city limits could become a limiting factor for megacity groundwater supplies in aquifers worldwide.

  9. Simulation of movement of pesticides towards drains with a preferential flow version of PEARL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiktak, Aaldrik; Hendriks, Rob F A; Boesten, Jos J T I

    2012-02-01

    As part of the Dutch authorisation procedure for pesticides, an assessment of the effects on aquatic organisms in surface waters adjacent to agricultural fields is required. The peak concentration is considered to be the most important exposure endpoint for the ecotoxicological effect assessment. Macropore flow is an important driver for the peak concentration, so the leaching model PEARL was extended with a macropore module. The new model has two macropore domains: a bypass domain and an internal catchment domain. The model was tested against data from a field leaching study on a cracking clay soil in the Netherlands. Most parameters of the model could be obtained from site-specific measurements, pedotransfer functions and general soil structural knowledge; only three macropore-flow-related parameters needed calibration. The flow-related macropore parameters could not be calibrated without using the concentration in drain water. Sequential calibration strategies, in which firstly the water flow model and then the pesticide fate model are calibrated, may therefore be less suitable for preferential flow models. After calibration, PEARL could simulate well the observed rapid movement towards drains of two pesticides with contrasting sorption and degradation rate properties. The calibrated value for the fraction of the internal catchment domain was high (90%). This means that a large fraction of water entering the macropores infiltrates into the soil matrix, thus reducing the fraction of rapid flow. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Dissolution kinetics and mechanism of Mg-Al layered double hydroxides: a simple approach to describe drug release in acid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parello, Mara L; Rojas, Ricardo; Giacomelli, Carla E

    2010-11-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) weathering in acidic media is one of the main features that affects their applications in drug delivery systems. In this work, the dissolution kinetics of biocompatible Mg-Al LDHs was studied at different initial pH values and solid concentrations using a simple and fast experimental method that coupled flow injection analysis and amperometric detection. A carbonate intercalated sample was used to determine the controlling step of the process and the dissolution mechanism. Finally, the study was extended to an ibuprofen intercalated LDH. The obtained results showed that the weathering process was mainly controlled by the exposed area and surface reactivity of LDHs particles. The dissolution mechanism at the particle surface was described in two steps: fast formation of surface reactive sites by hydroxyl group protonation and slow detachment of metal ions from surface. At strongly acidic conditions, the reaction rate was pH dependent due to the equilibrium between protonated (active) and deprotonated (inactive) hydroxyl groups. On the other hand, at mildly acidic conditions, the dissolution behavior was also ruled by the equilibrium attained between the particle surface reactive sites and the dissolved species. LDHs solubility and dissolution rate presented strong dependence with the interlayer anion. The ibuprofen intercalated sample was more soluble and more rapidly dissolved than the carbonate intercalated one in acetic/acetate buffer. On the other hand, the dissolution mechanism was invariant with the interlayer anion. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. DNA mismatch repair preferentially protects genes from mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfield, Eric J; Ding, Zhong Jie; Jamieson, Fiona J C; Visscher, Anne M; Zheng, Shao Jian; Mithani, Aziz; Harberd, Nicholas P

    2017-12-12

    Mutation is the source of genetic variation and fuels biological evolution. Many mutations first arise as DNA replication errors. These errors subsequently evade correction by cellular DNA repair, for example, by the well-known DNA mismatch repair (MMR) mechanism. Here, we determine the genome-wide effects of MMR on mutation. We first identify almost 9000 mutations accumulated over five generations in eight MMR-deficient mutation accumulation (MA) lines of the model plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana We then show that MMR deficiency greatly increases the frequency of both smaller-scale insertions and deletions (indels) and of single-nucleotide variant (SNV) mutations. Most indels involve A or T nucleotides and occur preferentially in homopolymeric (poly A or poly T) genomic stretches. In addition, we find that the likelihood of occurrence of indels in homopolymeric stretches is strongly related to stretch length, and that this relationship causes ultrahigh localized mutation rates in specific homopolymeric stretch regions. For SNVs, we show that MMR deficiency both increases their frequency and changes their molecular mutational spectrum, causing further enhancement of the GC to AT bias characteristic of organisms with normal MMR function. Our final genome-wide analyses show that MMR deficiency disproportionately increases the numbers of SNVs in genes, rather than in nongenic regions of the genome. This latter observation indicates that MMR preferentially protects genes from mutation and has important consequences for understanding the evolution of genomes during both natural selection and human tumor growth. © 2018 Belfield et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  12. Cyclosporin A preferentially attenuates skeletal slow-twitch muscle regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyabara E.H.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcineurin, a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase, is associated with muscle regeneration via NFATc1/GATA2-dependent pathways. However, it is not clear whether calcineurin preferentially affects the regeneration of slow- or fast-twitch muscles. We investigated the effect of a calcineurin inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA, on the morphology and fiber diameter of regenerating slow- and fast-twitch muscles. Adult Wistar rats (259.5 ± 9 g maintained under standard conditions were treated with CsA (20 mg/kg body weight, ip for 5 days, submitted to cryolesion of soleus and tibialis anterior (TA muscles on the 6th day, and then treated with CsA for an additional 21 days. The muscles were removed, weighed, frozen, and stored in liquid nitrogen. Cryolesion did not alter the body weight gain of the animals after 21 days of regeneration (P = 0.001 and CsA significantly reduced the body weight gain (15.5%; P = 0.01 during the same period. All treated TA and soleus muscles showed decreased weights (17 and 29%, respectively, P < 0.05. CsA treatment decreased the cross-sectional area of both soleus and TA muscles of cryoinjured animals (TA: 2108 ± 930 vs 792 ± 640 µm²; soleus: 2209 ± 322 vs 764 ± 439 m²; P < 0.001. Histological sections of both muscles stained with Toluidine blue revealed similar regenerative responses after cryolesion. In addition, CsA was able to minimize these responses, i.e., centralized nuclei and split fibers, more efficiently so in TA muscle. These results indicate that calcineurin preferentially plays a role in regeneration of slow-twitch muscle.

  13. Inclusion of cow records in genomic evaluations and impact on bias due to preferential treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dassonneville Romain

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Today, genomic evaluations are an essential feature of dairy cattle breeding. Initially, genomic evaluation targeted young bulls but recently, a rapidly increasing number of females (both heifers and cows are being genotyped. A rising issue is whether and how own performance of genotyped cows should be included in genomic evaluations. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of including yield deviations, i.e. own performance of cows, in genomic evaluations. Methods Two different genomic evaluations were performed: one including only reliable daughter yield deviations of proven bulls based on their non-genotyped daughters, and one including both daughter yield deviations for males and own yield deviations for genotyped females. Milk yield, the trait most prone to preferential treatment, and somatic cell count, for which such a bias is very unlikely, were studied. Data consisted of two groups of animals from the three main dairy breeds in France: 11 884 elite females genotyped by breeding companies and 7032 cows genotyped for a research project (and considered as randomly selected from the commercial population. Results For several measures that could be related to preferential treatment bias, the elite group presented a different pattern of estimated breeding values for milk yield compared to the other combinations of trait and group: for instance, for milk yield, the average difference between estimated breeding values with or without own yield deviations was significantly different from 0 for this group. Correlations between estimated breeding values with or without yield deviations were lower for elite females than for randomly selected cows for milk yield but were very similar for somatic cell count. Conclusions This study demonstrated that including own milk performance of elite females leads to biased (over-estimated genomic evaluations. Thus, milk production records of elite cows require specific treatment in

  14. Dissolution and precipitation dynamics during dedolomitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edery, Yaniv; Scher, Harvey; Berkowitz, Brian

    2011-08-01

    We simulate the processes of dedolomitization and calcium carbonate precipitation using particle tracking. The study is stimulated by the results of a laboratory experiment that examined reactive transport of injected CaCl2/HCl, into a column of sucrosic dolomite particles, with a constant flow field. The injected fluid supplies Ca2+ and H+. Dedolomitization is a protonation reaction yielding carbonic acid; a subsequent deprotonation reaction yields ?, and reaction with the abundant Ca2+ forms the precipitate CaCO3. The dedolomitization and precipitation processes involve multistep, multispecies chemical reactions, with both irreversible and reversible stages. The particle tracking is governed by spatial and temporal distributions within a continuous time random walk framework. This accounts for the effects of disorder of heterogeneous media (leading to non-Fickian transport) and includes the option of treating purely advective-dispersive (Fickian) transport. The dynamics of dedolomitization are examined for different flow conditions and reaction rates. The fluctuations in the local velocity distributions, due to porosity changes, create conditions for positive feedbacks leading to development of preferential pathways, large-scale nonlinearity, and precipitation banding. These features have been observed in the laboratory experiments and are now accounted for by the simulation results at similar time frames, velocities, and pH levels.

  15. Do Workplace Sex Ratios Affect Partnership Formation and Dissolution?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael

    In this paper, I analyse the association between workplace sex ratios and partnership formation and dissolution. I find that the risk of dissolution increases with the fraction of coworkers of the opposite sex at both the female and male workplace. On the other hand, workplace sex ratios are not ......In this paper, I analyse the association between workplace sex ratios and partnership formation and dissolution. I find that the risk of dissolution increases with the fraction of coworkers of the opposite sex at both the female and male workplace. On the other hand, workplace sex ratios...... are not important for the overall transition rate from singlehood to partnership. The results suggest that the workplace constitutes a more important marriage market segment for individuals who are already in a partnership presumably due to higher search cost for (alternative) partners in general....

  16. Kinetics of reductive bulk dissolution of lepidocrocite, ferrihydrite, and geothite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, O.; Postma, Diederik Jan

    2001-01-01

    The variation in Fe-oxide reactivity was investigated by studying the kinetics of bulk reductive dissolution of a suite of synthetic Fe-oxides in 10 mM ascorbic acid at pH 3. The Fe-oxides comprised three different ferrihydrites, five lepidocrocites, and a poorly crystalline goethite. During one...... of the reduction experiments, lepidocrocite crystals were subsampled and the change in crystal habit and size distribution was studied by transmission electron microscopy. The rate of complete dissolution was described by the function J/m0 5 k9(m/m0)g where J is the overall rate of dissolution (mol/s), m0...... for lepidocrocite showed strong etch-pitting of the crystals parallel to the c-axis resulting ultimately in disintegration of the crystals. For the different iron oxides, the initial rate was independent of the specific surface area, emphasizing the importance of the crystal structure for the dissolution rate...

  17. Dissolution of cellulose in ionic liquid: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd, N.; Draman, S. F. S.; Salleh, M. S. N.; Yusof, N. B.

    2017-02-01

    Dissolution of cellulose with ionic liquids (IL) and deep eutectic solvent (DES) lets the comprehensive dissolution of cellulose. Basically, cellulose can be dissolved, in some hydrophilic ionic liquids, such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) and 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AMIMCl). Chloride based ionic liquids are suitable solvents for cellulose dissolution. Although the ILs is very useful in fine chemical industry, its application in the pharmaceutical and food industry have been very limited due to issues with toxicity, purity, and high cost. Seeing to these limitations, new green alternative solvent which is DES was used. This green solvents, may be definitely treated as the next-generation reagents for more sustainable industrial development. Thus, this review aims to discuss the dissolution of cellulose either with ionic liquids or DES and its application.

  18. A rotating disk study of gold dissolution by bromine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesic, Batric; Sergent, Rodney H.

    1991-12-01

    Gold dissolution with bromine was studied using the rotating disk technique with Geobrom™ 3400 as a source of bromine. The parameters studied were speed of rotation, lixiviant concentration, pH, temperature, sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid concentrations, and the concentrations of various cations (i.e., copper, iron, zinc, aluminum, manganese, potassium, and sodium) and anions (i.e., chloride, bromide, sulfate, nitrate, and iodide). According to the Lavich plot and activation energy, gold dissolution is controlled by a chemical reaction rate. Copper, iron, and manganese in their highest oxidation states, as well as aluminum, zinc, sodium, and potassium, have no effect on the rate of gold dissolution. The presence of manganous ion substantially decreases the gold dissolution rate. The kinetic performance of bromine was found to be dramatically better than the performance of cyanide and thiourea.

  19. Studies on PEM fuel cell noble metal catalyst dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. M.; Grahl-Madsen, L.; Skou, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    A combination of electrochemical, spectroscopic and gravimetric methods was carried out on Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell electrodes with the focus on platinum and ruthenium catalysts dissolution, and the membrane degradation. In cyclic voltammetry (CV) experiments, the noble metals were...... found to dissolve in 1 M sulfuric acid solution and the dissolution increased exponentially with the upper potential limit (UPL) between 0.6 and 1.6 vs. RHE. 2-20% of the Pt (depending on the catalyst type) was found to be dissolved during the experiments. Under the same conditions, 30-100% of the Ru...... (depending on the catalyst type) was found to be dissolved. The faster dissolution of ruthenium compared to platinum in the alloy type catalysts was also confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. The dissolution of the carbon supported catalyst was found one order of magnitude higher than the unsupported...

  20. Evolution, dissolution and reversible generation of gold and silver ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with variable flux density) in the presence of nonionic micelle, TX-100. Even their cyano complexes break down in TX-100 under UV and hence dissolution and reevolution of almost monodispersed nanoparticles (∼ 3 nm) are possible.

  1. Biologically mediated dissolution of volcanic glass in seawater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staudigel, H; Yayanos, A; Chastain, R; Davies, G.T.; Verdurmen, E.A Th; Schiffmann, P; Bourcier, R; de Baar, H.J.W.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the effects of biological mediation on the dissolution of basaltic glass in seawater. Experiments with typical seawater microbial populations were contrasted with a sterile control, and reactions were monitored chemically and isotopically. Biologically mediated experiments produce twice

  2. Evolution of permeability and microstructure of tight carbonates due to numerical simulation of calcite dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kevin; Vanorio, Tiziana; Keehm, Youngseuk

    2017-06-01

    The current study concerns fundamental controls on fluid flow in tight carbonate rocks undergoing CO2 injection. Tight carbonates exposed to weak carbonic acid exhibit order of magnitude changes in permeability while maintaining a nearly constant porosity with respect to the porosity of the unreacted sample. This study aims to determine—if not porosity—what are the microstructural changes that control permeability evolution in these rocks? Given the pore-scale nature of chemical reactions, we took a digital rock physics approach. Tight carbonate mudstone was imaged using X-ray microcomputed tomography. We simulated calcite dissolution using a phenomenological numerical model that stands from experimental and microstructural observations under transport-limited reaction conditions. Fluid flow was simulated using the lattice-Boltzmann method, and the pore wall was adaptively eroded at a rate determined by the local surface area and velocity magnitude, which we use in place of solvent flux. We identified preexisting, high-conductivity fluid pathways imprinted in the initial microstructure. Though these pathways comprise a subset of the total connected porosity, they accommodated 80 to 99% of the volumetric flux through the digital sample and localized dissolution. Porosity-permeability evolution exhibited two stages: selective widening of narrow pore throats that comprised preferential pathways and development and widening of channels. We quantitatively monitored attributes of the pore geometry, namely, porosity, specific surface area, tortuosity, and average hydraulic diameter, which we qualitatively linked to permeability. This study gives a pore-scale perspective on the microstructural origins of laboratory permeability-porosity trends of tight carbonates undergoing transport-limited reaction with CO2-rich fluid.

  3. The dissolution of natural and artificial dusts in glutamic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Zhang; Faqin, Dong; Xiaochun, He

    2015-06-01

    This article describes the characteristics of natural dusts, industrial dusts, and artificial dusts, such as mineral phases, chemical components, morphological observation and size. Quartz and calcite are the main phases of natural dusts and industrial dusts with high SiO2 and CaO and low K2O and Na2O in the chemical composition. The dissolution and electrochemical action of dusts in glutamic acid liquor at the simulated human body temperature (37 °C) in 32 h was investigated. The potential harm that the dust could lead to in body glutamic acid acidic environment, namely biological activity, is of great importance for revealing the human toxicological mechanism. The changes of pH values and electric conductivity of suspension of those dusts were similar, increased slowly in the first 8 h, and then the pH values increased rapidly. The total amount of dissolved ions of K, Ca, Na, and Mg was 35.4 to 429 mg/kg, particularly Ca was maximal of 20 to 334 mg/kg. The total amount of dissolved ions of Fe, Zn, Mn, Pb, and Ba was 0.18 to 5.59 mg/kg and in Al and Si was 3.0 to 21.7 mg/kg. The relative solubility order of dusts in glutamic acid is wollastonite > serpentine > sepiolite, the cement plant industrial dusts > natural dusts > power plant industrial dusts. The wollastonite and cement plant industrial dusts have the highest solubility, which also have high content of CaO; this shows that there are a poorer corrosion-resisting ability and lower bio-resistibility. Sepiolite and power plant industrial dusts have lowest solubility, which also have high content of SiO2; this shows that there are a higher corrosion-resisting ability and stronger bio-resistibility.

  4. Hyperpolarized 13C metabolic imaging using dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurd, Ralph E.; Yen, Yi‐Fen; Chen, Albert

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the basic physics of dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (dissolution‐DNP), and the impact of the resulting highly nonequilibrium spin states, on the physics of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detection. The hardware requirements for clinical translation of this techn......This article describes the basic physics of dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (dissolution‐DNP), and the impact of the resulting highly nonequilibrium spin states, on the physics of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detection. The hardware requirements for clinical translation...

  5. Investigating Dissolution and Precipitation Phenomena with a Smartphone Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Arcia, Edgar

    2016-10-11

    A novel smartphone microscope can be used to observe the dissolution and crystallization of sodium chloride at a microscopic level. Observation of these seemingly simple phenomena through the microscope at 100× magnification can actually reveal some surprising behavior. These experiments offer the opportunity to discuss some basic concepts such as how the morphological features of the crystals dictates how the dissolution process proceeds, and how materials can be purified by re-crystallization techniques.

  6. Thermodynamics of dissolution of thiourea in triethylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Chen, Wanren

    2016-03-01

    The solubility of thiourea in triethylene glycol was determined in the temperature range of 318.35-357.75 K. The experimental data were approximated by the modified Apelblat equation. The dissolution enthalpy and dissolution entropy were calculated from the experimental data. The mutual interactions between solvent and solute were discussed in brief. The obtained data may be useful for development of the processes involving thiourea.

  7. Dissolution of nuclear fuels; Disolucion de combustibles Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uriarte Hueda, A.; Berberana Eizmendi, M.; Rainey, R.

    1968-07-01

    A laboratory study was made of the instantaneous dissolution rate (IDR) for unirradiated uranium metal rods and UO{sub 2}, PuO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2}-UO{sub 2} pellets in boiling nitric acid alone and with additives. The uranium metal and UO{sub 2} dissolved readily in nitric acid alone; PuO{sub 2} dissolved slowly even with the addition of fluoride; PuO{sub 2}-UO{sub 2} pellets containing as much as 35% PuO{sub 2} in UO{sub 2} gave values of the instantaneous dissolution rate to indicate can be dissolved with nitric acid alone. An equation to calculate the time for complete dissolution has been determinate in function of the instantaneous dissolution rates. The calculated values agree with the experimental. Uranium dioxide pellets from various sources but all having a same density varied in instantaneous dissolution rate. All the pellets, however, have dissolved ved in the same time. The time for complete dissolution of PuO{sub 2}-UO{sub 2} pellets, having the same composition, and the concentration of the used reagents are function of the used reagents are function of the fabrication method. (Author) 8 refs.

  8. Kinetics and mechanism of photopromoted oxidative dissolution of antimony trioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xingyun; Kong, Linghao; He, Mengchang

    2014-12-16

    Light (sunlight, ultraviolet, simulated sunlight) irradiation was used to initiate the dissolution of antimony trioxide (Sb2O3). Dissolution rate of Sb2O3 was accelerated and dissolved trivalent antimony (Sb(III)) was oxidized in the irradiation of light. The photopromoted oxidative dissolution mechanism of Sb2O3 was studied through experiments investigating the effects of pH, free radicals scavengers, dissolved oxygen removal and Sb2O3 dosage on the release rate of antimony from Sb2O3 under simulated sunlight irradiation. The key oxidative components were hydroxyl free radicals, photogenerated holes and superoxide free radicals; their contribution ratios were roughly estimated. In addition, a conceptual model of the photocatalytic oxidation dissolution of Sb2O3 was proposed. The overall pH-dependent dissolution rate of Sb2O3 and the oxidation of Sb(III) under light irradiation were expressed by r = 0.08 ·[OH(-)](0.63) and rox = 0.10 ·[OH(-)](0.79). The present study on the mechanism of the photo-oxidation dissolution of Sb2O3 could help clarify the geochemical cycle and fate of Sb in the environment.

  9. Oxidative dissolution of silver nanoparticles: A new theoretical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Oćwieja, Magdalena; Mrowiec, Halina; Walas, Stanisław; Lupa, Dawid

    2016-05-01

    A general model of an oxidative dissolution of silver particle suspensions was developed that rigorously considers the bulk and surface solute transport. A two-step surface reaction scheme was proposed that comprises the formation of the silver oxide phase by direct oxidation and the acidic dissolution of this phase leading to silver ion release. By considering this, a complete set of equations is formulated describing oxygen and silver ion transport to and from particles' surfaces. These equations are solved in some limiting cases of nanoparticle dissolution in dilute suspensions. The obtained kinetic equations were used for the interpretation of experimental data pertinent to the dissolution kinetics of citrate-stabilized silver nanoparticles. In these kinetic measurements the role of pH and bulk suspension concentration was quantitatively evaluated by using the atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). It was shown that the theoretical model adequately reflects the main features of the experimental results, especially the significant increase in the dissolution rate for lower pH. Also the presence of two kinetic regimes was quantitatively explained in terms of the decrease in the coverage of the fast dissolving oxide layer. The overall silver dissolution rate constants characterizing these two regimes were determined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reflectometric monitoring of the dissolution process of thin polymeric films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, Riikka; Räty, Jukka; Korhonen, Kristiina; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2017-05-15

    Pharmaceutical thin films are versatile drug-delivery platforms i.e. allowing transdermal, oral, sublingual and buccal administration. However, dissolution testing of thin films is challenging since the commonly used dissolution tests for conventional dosage forms correspond rather poorly to the physiological conditions at the site of administration. Here we introduce a traditional optical reflection method for monitoring the dissolution behavior of thin polymeric films. The substances, e.g. drug molecules, released from the film generate an increase in the refractive index in the liquid medium which can be detected by reflectance monitoring. Thin EUDRAGIT(®) RL PO poly(ethyl acrylate-co-methyl methacrylate-co trimethylammonioethyl methacrylate chloride) (RLPO) films containing the model drug perphenazine (PPZ) were prepared by spraying on a glass substrate. The glass substrates were placed inside the flow cell in the reflectometer which was then filled with phosphate buffer solution. Dissolution was monitored by measuring the reflectance of the buffer liquid. The method was able to detect the distinctive dissolution characteristics of different film formulations and measured relatively small drug concentrations. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that a traditional optical reflection method can provide valuable information about the dissolution characteristics of thin polymeric films in low liquid volume surroundings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Errors in reporting on dissolution research: methodological and statistical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasińska-Stroschein, Magdalena; Kurczewska, Urszula; Orszulak-Michalak, Daria

    2017-02-01

    In vitro dissolution testing provides useful information at clinical and preclinical stages of the drug development process. The study includes pharmaceutical papers on dissolution research published in Polish journals between 2010 and 2015. They were analyzed with regard to information provided by authors about chosen methods, performed validation, statistical reporting or assumptions used to properly compare release profiles considering the present guideline documents addressed to dissolution methodology and its validation. Of all the papers included in the study, 23.86% presented at least one set of validation parameters, 63.64% gave the results of the weight uniformity test, 55.68% content determination, 97.73% dissolution testing conditions, and 50% discussed a comparison of release profiles. The assumptions for methods used to compare dissolution profiles were discussed in 6.82% of papers. By means of example analyses, we demonstrate that the outcome can be influenced by the violation of several assumptions or selection of an improper method to compare dissolution profiles. A clearer description of the procedures would undoubtedly increase the quality of papers in this area.

  12. Modeling of the dissolution of a pharmaceutical compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangin, D.; Garcia, E.; Gerard, S.; Hoff, C.; Klein, J. P.; Veesler, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the phenomena encountered in the dissolution of a powder composed by drug crystals using the complementarity between the experimental and numerical approach. A macroscopic model based on the population balance equation was developed to describe dissolution experiments. The population balance equation was discretized and solved with the method of classes. The experiments were performed in a perfectly mixed vessel. Different initial masses of solid particles were introduced. The size distribution of the initial particles was measured by image analysis to take into account the particle anisotropy. For each experiment, the evolution of the concentration during the dissolution process was followed by conductimetry. The concentration measurements show an acceleration of the overall dissolution kinetics at the beginning of the dissolution process, although the undersaturation decreases. This particular behavior suggests that the aggregated powder is first disaggregated under the effect of stirring. The introduction of a fragmentation mechanism in our model has allowed a correct description of the concentration profiles. Intrinsic dissolution kinetics was found to be controlled by mass transfer.

  13. Entrapment and dissolution of DNAPLs in heterogeneous porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Scott A; Rathfelder, Klaus M; Lang, John; Abriola, Linda M

    2003-12-01

    Two-dimensional multiphase flow and transport simulators were refined and used to numerically investigate the entrapment and dissolution behavior of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in heterogeneous porous media containing spatial variations in wettability. Measured hydraulic properties, residual saturations, and dissolution parameters were employed in these simulations. Entrapment was quantified using experimentally verified hydraulic property and residual saturation models that account for hysteresis and wettability variations. The nonequilibrium dissolution of PCE was modeled using independent estimates of the film mass transfer coefficient and interfacial area for entrapped and continuous (PCE pools or films) saturations. Flow simulations demonstrate that the spatial distribution of PCE is highly dependent on subsurface wettability characteristics that create differences in PCE retention mechanisms and the presence of subsurface capillary barriers. For a given soil texture, the maximum and minimum PCE infiltration depth was obtained when the sand had intermediate (an organic-wet mass fraction of 25%) and strong (water- or organic-wet) wettability conditions, respectively. In heterogeneous systems, subsurface wettability variations were also found to enhance or diminish the performance of soil texture-induced capillary barriers. The dissolution behavior of PCE was found to depend on the soil wettability and the spatial PCE distribution. Shorter dissolution times tended to occur when PCE was distributed over large regions due to an increased access of flowing water to the PCE. In heterogeneous systems, capillary barriers that produced high PCE saturations tended to exhibit longer dissolution times.

  14. Is There Any Preferential Interaction of Ions of Ionic Liquids with DMSO and H2O? A Comparative Study from MD Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuling; Wang, Jianji; Wang, Huiyong; Li, Zhiyong; Liu, Xiaomin; Zhang, Suojiang

    2015-06-04

    Recently, some binary ionic liquid (IL)/cosolvent systems have shown better performance than the pure ILs in fields such as CO2 absorption, catalysis, cellulose dissolution, and electrochemistry. However, interactions of ILs with cosolvents are still not well understood at the molecular level. In this work, H2O and DMSO were chosen as the representative protic and aprotic solvents to study the effect of cosolvent nature on solvation of a series of ILs by molecular dynamics simulations and quantum chemistry calculations. The concept of preferential interaction of ions was proposed to describe the interaction of cosolvent with cation and anion of the ILs. By comparing the interaction energies between IL and different cosolvents, it was found that there were significantly preferential interactions of anions of the ILs with water, but the same was not true for the interactions of cations/anions of the ILs with DMSO. Then, a detailed analysis and comparison of the interactions in IL/cosolvent systems, hydrogen bonds between cations and anions of the ILs, and the structure of the first coordination shells of the cations and the anions were performed to reveal the existing state of ions at different molar ratios of the cosolvent to a given IL. Furthermore, a systematic knowledge for the solvation of ions of the ILs in DMSO was given to understand cellulose dissolution in IL/cosolvent systems. The conclusions drawn from this study may provide new insight into the ionic solvation of ILs in cosolvents, and motivate further studies in the related applications.

  15. DISSOLUTION KINETICS OF KETANSERIN TARTRATE, THE SALT OF A WEAKLY BASIC DRUG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERVEEN, J; BUITENDIJK, HH; LERK, CF

    1992-01-01

    The rotating disc method was used to study the dissolution kinetics of ketanserin tartrate, the salt of a weakly basic drug. Both solubility and dissolution rate decrease exponentially with increasing pH of the dissolution medium. A plot of the logarithm of the ratio of dissolution rate to

  16. Investigation of the Dissolution Profile of Gliclazide Modified-Release Tablets Using Different Apparatuses and Dissolution Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripnik, K K S; Riekes, M K; Pezzini, B R; Cardoso, S G; Stulzer, H K

    2017-07-01

    In the absence of an official dissolution method for modified-release tablets of gliclazide, dissolution parameters, such as apparatuses (1, 2, and 3), rotation speeds, pH, and composition of the dissolution medium were investigated. The results show that although the drug presents a pH-mediated solubility (pH 7.0 > 6.8 > 6.4 > 6.0 > 5.5 > 4.5), the in vitro release of the studied tablets was not dependent on this parameter, despite of the apparatus tested. On the other hand, the rotation speed demonstrated a greater influence (100 rpm >50 rpm). Using similar hydrodynamic conditions, the three different apparatuses were compared in pH 6.8 and provided the following trend: apparatus 1 at 100 rpm >2 at 50 rpm ≈3 at 10 dpm. As a complete, but slow release is expected from modified-release formulations, apparatus 2, in phosphate buffer pH 6.8 and 100 rpm, were selected as the optimized dissolution method. In comparison to apparatus 1 under the same conditions, the paddle avoids the stickiness of formulation excipients at the mesh of the basket, which could prejudice the release of gliclazide. Results obtained with biorelevant medium through the developed dissolution method were similar to the buffer solution pH 6.8. The application of the optimized method as a quality control test between two different brands of gliclazide modified-release tablets showed that both dissolution profiles were considered similar by the similarity factor (f2 = 51.8). The investigation of these dissolution profiles indicated a dissolution kinetic following first-order model.

  17. Architecture, persistence and dissolution of a 20 to 45 year old trichloroethene DNAPL source zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivett, Michael O; Dearden, Rachel A; Wealthall, Gary P

    2014-12-01

    A detailed field-scale investigation of processes controlling the architecture, persistence and dissolution of a 20 to 45year old trichloroethene (TCE) dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zone located within a heterogeneous sand/gravel aquifer at a UK industrial site is presented. The source zone was partially enclosed by a 3-sided cell that allowed detailed longitudinal/fence transect monitoring along/across a controlled streamtube of flow induced by an extraction well positioned at the cell closed end. Integrated analysis of high-resolution DNAPL saturation (Sn) (from cores), dissolved-phase plume concentration (from multilevel samplers), tracer test and permeability datasets was undertaken. DNAPL architecture was determined from soil concentration data using partitioning calculations. DNAPL threshold soil concentrations and low Sn values calculated were sensitive to sorption assumptions. An outcome of this was the uncertainty in demarcation of secondary source zone diffused and sorbed mass that is distinct from trace amounts of low Sn DNAPL mass. The majority of source mass occurred within discrete lenses or pools of DNAPL associated with low permeability geological units. High residual saturation (Sn>10-20%) and pools (Sn>20%) together accounted for almost 40% of the DNAPL mass, but only 3% of the sampled source volume. High-saturation DNAPL lenses/pools were supported by lower permeability layers, but with DNAPL still primarily present within slightly more permeable overlying units. These lenses/pools exhibited approximately linearly declining Sn profiles with increasing elevation ascribed to preferential dissolution of the uppermost DNAPL. Bi-component partitioning calculations on soil samples confirmed that the dechlorination product cDCE (cis-dichloroethene) was accumulating in the TCE DNAPL. Estimated cDCE mole fractions in the DNAPL increased towards the DNAPL interface with the uppermost mole fraction of 0.04 comparable to literature laboratory

  18. Multimodality imaging demonstrates trafficking of liposomes preferentially to ischemic myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinski, Michael J; Albelda, M Teresa; Frias, Juan C; Anderson, Stasia A; Luger, Dror; Westman, Peter C; Escarcega, Ricardo O; Hellinga, David G; Waksman, Ron; Arai, Andrew E; Epstein, Stephen E

    2016-03-01

    Nanoparticles may serve as a promising means to deliver novel therapeutics to the myocardium following myocardial infarction. We sought to determine whether lipid-based liposomal nanoparticles can be shown through different imaging modalities to specifically target injured myocardium following intravenous injection in an ischemia-reperfusion murine myocardial infarction model. Mice underwent ischemia-reperfusion surgery and then either received tail-vein injection with gadolinium- and fluorescent-labeled liposomes or no injection (control). The hearts were harvested 24h later and underwent T1 and T2-weighted ex vivo imaging using a 7 Tesla Bruker magnet. The hearts were then sectioned for immunohistochemistry and optical fluorescent imaging. The mean size of the liposomes was 100nm. T1-weighted signal intensity was significantly increased in the ischemic vs. the non-ischemic myocardium for mice that received liposomes compared with control. Optical imaging demonstrated significant fluorescence within the infarct area for the liposome group compared with control (163±31% vs. 13±14%, p=0.001) and fluorescent microscopy confirmed the presence of liposomes within the ischemic myocardium. Liposomes traffic to the heart and preferentially home to regions of myocardial injury, enabling improved diagnosis of myocardial injury and could serve as a vehicle for drug delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Preferential isolation of Megasphaera elsdenii from pig feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajihara, Yu; Yoshikawa, Shota; Cho, Yuichiro; Ito, Toshiyuki; Miyamoto, Hirokuni; Kodama, Hiroaki

    2017-08-28

    Lactic acid produced by intestinal bacteria is fermented by lactate-utilizing bacteria. In this study, we developed a selective culture medium (KMI medium) for Megasphaera elsdenii, a lactate-utilizing bacterium that is abundant in pig intestines. Supplementation of the medium with lactate and beef extract powder was necessary for the preferential growth of M. elsdenii. In addition, we designed a species-specific primer set to detect M. elsdenii. When pig fecal samples were plated on KMI agar medium, approximately 60-100% of the resulting colonies tested positive using the M. elsdenii-specific PCR primers. In fact, nearly all of the large, yellow-white colonies that grew on the KMI agar medium tested positive by PCR with this primer set. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of three representative PCR-positive strains showed strong similarities to that of M. elsdenii ATCC 25940(T) (98.9-99.2% identity). These three strains were approximately 1.5 μm sized cocci that were primarily arranged in pairs, as was observed for M. elsdenii JCM 1772(T). The selective KMI medium and species-specific primer set developed in this study are useful for the isolation and detection of M. elsdenii and will be useful in research aimed at increasing our understanding of intestinal short-chain fatty acid metabolism in pigs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. GPCR genes are preferentially retained after whole genome duplication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenia Semyonov

    Full Text Available One of the most interesting questions in biology is whether certain pathways have been favored during evolution, and if so, what properties could cause such a preference. Due to the lack of experimental evidence, whether select gene families have been preferentially retained over time after duplication in metazoan organisms remains unclear. Here, by syntenic mapping of nonchemosensory G protein-coupled receptor genes (nGPCRs which represent half the receptome for transmembrane signaling in the vertebrate genomes, we found that, as opposed to the 8-15% retention rate for whole genome duplication (WGD-derived gene duplicates in the entire genome of pufferfish, greater than 27.8% of WGD-derived nGPCRs which interact with a nonpeptide ligand were retained after WGD in pufferfish Tetraodon nigroviridis. In addition, we show that concurrent duplication of cognate ligand genes by WGD could impose selection of nGPCRs that interact with a polypeptide ligand. Against less than 2.25% probability for parallel retention of a pair of WGD-derived ligands and a pair of cognate receptor duplicates, we found a more than 8.9% retention of WGD-derived ligand-nGPCR pairs--threefold greater than one would surmise. These results demonstrate that gene retention is not uniform after WGD in vertebrates, and suggest a Darwinian selection of GPCR-mediated intercellular communication in metazoan organisms.

  1. Preferential sequestration of terrestrial organic matter in boreal lake sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemette, François; von Wachenfeldt, Eddie; Kothawala, Dolly N.; Bastviken, David; Tranvik, Lars J.

    2017-04-01

    The molecular composition and origin has recently been demonstrated to play a critical role in the persistence of organic matter in lake water, but it is unclear to what degree chemical attributes and sources may also control settling and burial of organic matter in lake sediments. Here we compared the annual contribution of allochthonous and autochthonous sources to the organic matter settling in the water column and present in the sediments of 12 boreal lakes. We used the fluorescence properties and elemental composition of the organic matter to trace its origin and found a consistent pattern of increasing contribution of terrestrial compounds in the sediments as compared to the settling matter, with an annual average allochthony of 87% and 57%, respectively. Seasonal data revealed a predominance of in-lake-produced compounds sinking in the water column in summer. Yet only a slight concurrent decrease in the contribution of terrestrial C to lake sediments was observed during the same period, and sediment allochthony increased again to high levels in autumn. Our results reveal a preferential preservation of allochthonous matter in the sediments and highlight the role of lakes as sequesters of organic carbon primarily originating from the surrounding landscape.

  2. Multimodality imaging demonstrates trafficking of liposomes preferentially to ischemic myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipinski, Michael J., E-mail: mjlipinski12@gmail.com [MedStar Heart and Vascular Institute, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC (United States); Albelda, M. Teresa [GIBI2" 3" 0, Grupo de Investigación Biomédica en Imagen, IIS La Fe, Valencia (Spain); Frias, Juan C. [Departamento de Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidad CEU Cardenal Herrera, Valencia (Spain); Anderson, Stasia A. [Advanced Cardiovascular Imaging Laboratory, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Luger, Dror; Westman, Peter C.; Escarcega, Ricardo O.; Hellinga, David G.; Waksman, Ron [MedStar Heart and Vascular Institute, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC (United States); Arai, Andrew E. [Advanced Cardiovascular Imaging Laboratory, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Epstein, Stephen E. [MedStar Heart and Vascular Institute, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Introduction: Nanoparticles may serve as a promising means to deliver novel therapeutics to the myocardium following myocardial infarction. We sought to determine whether lipid-based liposomal nanoparticles can be shown through different imaging modalities to specifically target injured myocardium following intravenous injection in an ischemia–reperfusion murine myocardial infarction model. Methods: Mice underwent ischemia–reperfusion surgery and then either received tail-vein injection with gadolinium- and fluorescent-labeled liposomes or no injection (control). The hearts were harvested 24 h later and underwent T1 and T2-weighted ex vivo imaging using a 7 Tesla Bruker magnet. The hearts were then sectioned for immunohistochemistry and optical fluorescent imaging. Results: The mean size of the liposomes was 100 nm. T1-weighted signal intensity was significantly increased in the ischemic vs. the non-ischemic myocardium for mice that received liposomes compared with control. Optical imaging demonstrated significant fluorescence within the infarct area for the liposome group compared with control (163 ± 31% vs. 13 ± 14%, p = 0.001) and fluorescent microscopy confirmed the presence of liposomes within the ischemic myocardium. Conclusions: Liposomes traffic to the heart and preferentially home to regions of myocardial injury, enabling improved diagnosis of myocardial injury and could serve as a vehicle for drug delivery.

  3. Rates and mechanisms of uranyl oxyhydroxide mineral dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso-Maset, Estela; Steefel, Carl I.; Um, Wooyong; Chorover, Jon; O'Day, Peggy A.

    2017-06-01

    Uranyl oxyhydroxide minerals are important weathering products in uranium-contaminated surface and subsurface environments that regulate dissolved uranium (U) concentrations. However, dissolution rates for this class of minerals and associated dissolution mechanisms have not been previously reported for circumneutral pH conditions, particularly for the case of flow through porous media. In this work, the dissolution rates of K- and Na-compreignacite (K2(UO2)6O4(OH)6·8H2O and Na2(UO2)6O4(OH)6·8H2O, respectively) were measured using flow-through columns reacted with two simulated background porewater (BPW) solutions of low and high dissolved carbonate concentration (ca. 0.2 and 2.8 mmol L-1). Column materials were characterized before and after reaction with electron microscopy, bulk chemistry, and EXAFS to identify structural and chemical changes during dissolution and to obtain insight into molecular-scale processes. The reactive transport code CrunchFlow was used to calculate overall dissolution rates while accounting for fluid transport and changes in mineral volume and reactive surface area, and results were compared to steady-state dissolution rate calculations. In low carbonate BPW systems, interlayer K and Na were initially leached from both minerals, and in Na-compreignacite, K and minor divalent cations from the input solution were incorporated into the mineral structure. Results of characterization analyses suggested that after reaction both K- and Na-compreignacite resembled a disordered K-compreignacite with altered surfaces. A 10-fold increase in dissolved carbonate concentration and corresponding increase in pH (from 6.65 to 8.40) resulted in a net removal of 58-87% of total U mass from the columns, compared to importance of coupling reaction and transport processes during the quantification of mineral dissolution rates to accurately predict the fate of contaminants such as U in porous geomedia.

  4. Preferential HLA Usage in the Influenza Virus-Specific CTL Response

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boon, Adrianus C. M; de Mutsert, Gerrie; Fouchier, Ron A. M; Sintnicolaas, Kees; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F

    2004-01-01

    ...; and Sanquin Bloodbank Rotterdam, Laboratory for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics, Dordrecht, The Netherlands To study whether individual HLA class I alleles are used preferentially or equally...

  5. Preferential Solvation/Hydration of α-Chymotrypsin in Water-Acetonitrile Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkin, Vladimir A; Kuchierskaya, Alexandra A

    2017-05-04

    The aim of our study is to monitor the preferential hydration/solvation of the protein macromolecules at low and high water content in water-organic mixtures. Our approach is based on the analysis of the absolute values of the water/organic solvent sorption. We applied this approach to estimate the protein stabilization/destabilization due to the preferential interactions of α-chymotrypsin with water-acetonitrile mixtures. At high water content, α-chymotrypsin is preferentially hydrated. At the intermediate water content, the preferential interaction changed from preferential hydration to preferential binding of acetonitrile. From infrared spectra, changes in the structure of α-chymotrypsin were determined through an analysis of the structure of the amide I band. Acetonitrile augments the intensity of the 1626 cm(-1) band assigned to the intermolecular β-sheet aggregates. At low water content, the protein is in a glassy (rigid) state. The H-bond accepting acetonitrile molecules are not effective in solvating the dehydrated protein molecules alone. Therefore, the acetonitrile molecules are preferentially excluded from the protein surface, resulting in the preferential hydration. Advantages of our approach: (i) The preferential interaction parameters can be determined in the entire range of water content in water-organic mixtures. (ii) Our approach facilitates the individual evaluation of the Gibbs energies of water, protein, and organic solvent.

  6. Oxidative dissolution of unirradiated Mimas MOX fuel (U/Pu oxides) in carbonated water under oxic and anoxic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odorowski, Mélina; Jégou, Christophe; De Windt, Laurent; Broudic, Véronique; Peuget, Sylvain; Magnin, Magali; Tribet, Magaly; Martin, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    Few studies exist concerning the alteration of Mimas Mixed-OXide (MOX) fuel, a mixed plutonium and uranium oxide, and data is needed to better understand its behavior under leaching, especially for radioactive waste disposal. In this study, two leaching experiments were conducted on unirradiated MOX fuel with a strong alpha activity (1.3 × 109 Bq.gMOX-1 reproducing the alpha activity of spent MOX fuel with a burnup of 47 GWd·tHM-1 after 60 years of decay), one under air (oxic conditions) for 5 months and the other under argon (anoxic conditions with [O2] reactor. An intermediate fraction of Am (12%) was also present as colloids. SEM and EPMA results indicated a preferential dissolution of the UO2 matrix compared to the Pu-enriched agglomerates, and Raman spectroscopy showed the Pu-enriched agglomerates were slightly oxidized during leaching. Unlike Pu-enriched zones, the UO2 grains were much more sensitive to oxidative dissolution, but the presence of carbonates did not enable observation of an oxidized layer by Raman spectroscopy with the exception of a few areas revealing the presence of U4O9. This data shows the heterogeneous nature of the alteration and the need to combine information from different techniques to determine the origin of releases.

  7. Beyond the Fe-P-redox connection: preferential regeneration of phosphorus from organic matter as a key control on Baltic Sea nutrient cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jilbert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of regeneration and burial of phosphorus (P in the Baltic Sea are strongly dependent on redox conditions. Redox varies spatially along water depth gradients and temporally in response to the seasonal cycle and multidecadal hydrographic variability. Alongside the well-documented link between iron oxyhydroxide dissolution and release of P from Baltic Sea sediments, we show that preferential remineralization of P with respect to carbon (C and nitrogen (N during degradation of organic matter plays a key role in determining the surplus of bioavailable P in the water column. Preferential remineralization of P takes place both in the water column and upper sediments and its rate is shown to be redox-dependent, increasing as reducing conditions become more severe at greater water-depth in the deep basins. Existing Redfield-based biogeochemical models of the Baltic may therefore underestimate the imbalance between N and P availability for primary production, and hence the vulnerability of the Baltic to sustained eutrophication via the fixation of atmospheric N. However, burial of organic P is also shown to increase during multidecadal intervals of expanded hypoxia, due to higher net burial rates of organic matter around the margins of the deep basins. Such intervals may be characterized by basin-scale acceleration of all fluxes within the P cycle, including productivity, regeneration and burial, sustained by the relative accessibility of the water column P pool beneath a shallow halocline.

  8. Impact of polymers on the crystallization and phase transition kinetics of amorphous nifedipine during dissolution in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Shweta A; Alonzo, David E; Zhang, Geoff G Z; Gao, Yi; Taylor, Lynne S

    2014-10-06

    The commercial and clinical success of amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) in overcoming the low bioavailability of poorly soluble molecules has generated momentum among pharmaceutical scientists to advance the fundamental understanding of these complex systems. A major limitation of these formulations stems from the propensity of amorphous solids to crystallize upon exposure to aqueous media. This study was specifically focused on developing analytical techniques to evaluate the impact of polymers on the crystallization behavior during dissolution, which is critical in designing effective amorphous formulations. In the study, the crystallization and polymorphic conversions of a model compound, nifedipine, were explored in the absence and presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), and HPMC-acetate succinate (HPMC-AS). A combination of analytical approaches including Raman spectroscopy, polarized light microscopy, and chemometric techniques such as multivariate curve resolution (MCR) were used to evaluate the kinetics of crystallization and polymorphic transitions as well as to identify the primary route of crystallization, i.e., whether crystallization took place in the dissolving solid matrix or from the supersaturated solutions generated during dissolution. Pure amorphous nifedipine, when exposed to aqueous media, was found to crystallize rapidly from the amorphous matrix, even when polymers were present in the dissolution medium. Matrix crystallization was avoided when amorphous solid dispersions were prepared, however, crystallization from the solution phase was rapid. MCR was found to be an excellent data processing technique to deconvolute the complex phase transition behavior of nifedipine.

  9. On the effects of subsurface parameters on evaporite dissolution (Switzerland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidane, Ali; Zechner, Eric; Huggenberger, Peter; Younes, Anis

    2014-05-01

    Uncontrolled subsurface evaporite dissolution could lead to hazards such as land subsidence. Observed subsidences in a study area of Northwestern Switzerland were mainly due to subsurface dissolution (subrosion) of evaporites such as halite and gypsum. A set of 2D density driven flow simulations were evaluated along 1000 m long and 150 m deep 2D cross sections within the study area that is characterized by tectonic horst and graben structures. The simulations were conducted to study the effect of the different subsurface parameters that could affect the dissolution process. The heterogeneity of normal faults and its impact on the dissolution of evaporites is studied by considering several permeable faults that include non-permeable areas. The mixed finite element method (MFE) is used to solve the flow equation, coupled with the multipoint flux approximation (MPFA) and the discontinuous Galerkin method (DG) to solve the diffusion and the advection parts of the transport equation. Results show that the number of faults above the lower aquifer that contains the salt layer is considered as the most important factor that affects the dissolution compared to the other investigated parameters of thickness of the zone above the halite formation, a dynamic conductivity of the lower aquifer, and varying boundary conditions in the upper aquifer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dissolution Enhancement of Rosuvastatin Calcium by Liquisolid Compact Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. J. Kapure

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In present investigation liquisolid compact technique is investigated as a tool for enhanced dissolution of poorly water-soluble drug Rosuvastatin calcium (RVT. The model drug RVT, a HMG-Co A reductase inhibitor was formulated in form of directly compressed tablets and liquisolid compacts; and studied for in-vitro release characteristics at different dissolution conditions. In this technique, liquid medications of water insoluble drugs in non-volatile liquid vehicles can be converted into acceptably flowing and compressible powders. Formulated systems were assessed for precompression parameters like flow properties of liquisolid system, Fourior transform infra red spectra (FTIR analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and post compression parameters like content uniformity, weight variation, hardness and friability, disintegration test, wetting time, in vitro dissolution studies, effect of dissolution volume on drug release rate, and estimation of fraction of molecularly dispersed drug in liquid medication. As liquisolid compacts demonstrated significantly higher drug release rates, we lead to conclusion that it could be a promising strategy in improving the dissolution of poor water soluble drugs and formulating immediate release solid dosage forms.

  11. Relationship between dissolution rate and bioavailability of paracetamol tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-ping; Wan, Xin-xiang; Liu, Qiang

    2003-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between the dissolution rate and bioavailability of paracetamol tablets. The dissolution rate of paracetamol tablet was determined according to methods described in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry was employed to measure urine concentration of paracetamol, and the relative bioavailability was determined in 25 male healthy volunteers, with the relationship between the dissolution rate and bioavailability of paracetamol assessed. The 15-min dissolution rates of 5 kinds of paracetamol tablets were 100.43+/-2.61, 99.76+/-1.97, 96.47+/-3.52, 89.58+/-1.85, and 85.85+/-1.83 respectively, with their bioavailability of 86.34+/-10.06, 85.82+/-11.21, 87.10+/-10.86, 81.71+/-12.34, and 76.53+/-11.73 respectively, showing obvious linear relationship between them, which conformed to the equation y = 0.6122x + 25.175, r = 0.9642. As there is a good linear relationship between the dissolution rate and bioavailability of paracetamol tablets, the latter parameter can be derived from the measurement of the former.

  12. Combinatorial localized dissolution analysis: Application to acid-induced dissolution of dental enamel and the effect of surface treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Alexander S; Al Botros, Rehab; Kinnear, Sophie L; Snowden, Michael E; McKelvey, Kim; Ashcroft, Alexander T; Carvell, Mel; Joiner, Andrew; Peruffo, Massimo; Philpotts, Carol; Unwin, Patrick R

    2016-08-15

    A combination of scanning electrochemical cell microscopy (SECCM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to quantitatively study the acid-induced dissolution of dental enamel. A micron-scale liquid meniscus formed at the end of a dual barrelled pipette, which constitutes the SECCM probe, is brought into contact with the enamel surface for a defined period. Dissolution occurs at the interface of the meniscus and the enamel surface, under conditions of well-defined mass transport, creating etch pits that are then analysed via AFM. This technique is applied to bovine dental enamel, and the effect of various treatments of the enamel surface on acid dissolution (1mM HNO3) is studied. The treatments investigated are zinc ions, fluoride ions and the two combined. A finite element method (FEM) simulation of SECCM mass transport and interfacial reactivity, allows the intrinsic rate constant for acid-induced dissolution to be quantitatively determined. The dissolution of enamel, in terms of Ca(2+) flux ( [Formula: see text] ), is first order with respect to the interfacial proton concentration and given by the following rate law: [Formula: see text] , with k0=0.099±0.008cms(-1). Treating the enamel with either fluoride or zinc ions slows the dissolution rate, although in this model system the partly protective barrier only extends around 10-20nm into the enamel surface, so that after a period of a few seconds dissolution of modified surfaces tends towards that of native enamel. A combination of both treatments exhibits the greatest protection to the enamel surface, but the effect is again transient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Formalization of the kinetics for autocatalytic dissolutions. Focus on the dissolution of uranium dioxide in nitric medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlier Florence

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Uranium dioxide dissolution in nitric acid is a complex reaction. On the one hand, the dissolution produces nitrous oxides (NOX, which makes it a triphasic reaction. On the other hand, one of the products accelerates the kinetic rate; the reaction is hence called autocatalytic. The kinetics for these kinds of reactions need to be formalized in order to optimize and design innovative dissolution reactors. In this work, the kinetics rates have been measured by optical microscopy using a single particle approach. The advantages of this analytical technique are an easier management of species transport in solution and a precise following of the dissolution rate. The global rate is well described by a mechanism considering two steps: a non-catalyzed reaction, where the catalyst concentration has no influence on the dissolution rate, and a catalyzed reaction. The mass transfer rate of the catalyst was quantified in order to discriminate when the reaction was influenced by catalyst accumulated in the boundary layer or uncatalyzed. This first approximation described well the sigmoid dissolution curve profile. Moreover, experiments showed that solutions filled with catalyst proved to lose reactivity over time. Results pointed out that the higher the liquid-gas exchanges, the faster the kinetic rate decreases with time. Thus, it was demonstrated, for the first time, that there is a link between catalyst and nitrous oxides. The outcome of this study leads to new ways for improving the design of dissolvers. Gas-liquid exchanges are indeed a lever to impact dissolution rates. Temperature and catalyst concentration can be optimized to reduce residence times in dissolvers.

  14. Frac Sand Mines Are Preferentially Sited in Unzoned Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Shifting markets can cause unexpected, stochastic changes in rural landscapes that may take local communities by surprise. Preferential siting of new industrial facilities in poor areas or in areas with few regulatory restrictions can have implications for environmental sustainability, human health, and social justice. This study focuses on frac sand mining-the mining of high-quality silica sand used in hydraulic fracturing processes for gas and oil extraction. Frac sand mining gained prominence in the 2000s in the upper midwestern United States where nonmetallic mining is regulated primarily by local zoning. I asked whether frac sand mines were more commonly sited in rural townships without formal zoning regulations or planning processes than in those that undertook zoning and planning before the frac sand boom. I also asked if mine prevalence was correlated with socioeconomic differences across townships. After creating a probability surface to map areas most suitable for frac sand mine occurrence, I developed neutral landscape models from which to compare actual mine distributions in zoned and unzoned areas at three different spatial extents. Mines were significantly clustered in unzoned jurisdictions at the statewide level and in 7 of the 8 counties with at least three frac sand mines and some unzoned land. Subsequent regression analyses showed mine prevalence to be uncorrelated with land value, tax rate, or per capita income, but correlated with remoteness and zoning. The predicted mine count in unzoned townships was over two times higher than that in zoned townships. However, the county with the most mines by far was under a county zoning ordinance, perhaps indicating industry preferences for locations with clear, homogenous rules over patchwork regulation. Rural communities can use the case of frac sand mining as motivation to discuss and plan for sudden land-use predicaments, rather than wait to grapple with unfamiliar legal processes during a period of

  15. Adult motor axons preferentially reinnervate predegenerated muscle nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M; O'Daly, A; Vyas, A; Rohde, C; Brushart, T M

    2013-11-01

    Preferential motor reinnervation (PMR) is the tendency for motor axons regenerating after repair of mixed nerve to reinnervate muscle nerve and/or muscle rather than cutaneous nerve or skin. PMR may occur in response to the peripheral nerve pathway alone in juvenile rats (Brushart, 1993; Redett et al., 2005), yet the ability to identify and respond to specific pathway markers is reportedly lost in adults (Uschold et al., 2007). The experiments reported here evaluate the relative roles of pathway and end organ in the genesis of PMR in adult rats. Fresh and 2-week predegenerated femoral nerve grafts were transferred in correct or reversed alignment to replace the femoral nerves of previously unoperated Lewis rats. After 8 weeks of regeneration the motoneurons projecting through the grafts to recipient femoral cutaneous and muscle branches and their adjacent end organs were identified by retrograde labeling. Motoneuron counts were subjected to Poisson regression analysis to determine the relative roles of pathway and end organ identity in generating PMR. Transfer of fresh grafts did not result in PMR, whereas substantial PMR was observed when predegenerated grafts were used. Similarly, the pathway through which motoneurons reached the muscle had a significant impact on PMR when grafts were predegenerated, but not when they were fresh. Comparison of the relative roles of pathway and end organ in generating PMR revealed that neither could be shown to be more important than the other. These experiments demonstrate unequivocally that adult muscle nerve and cutaneous nerve differ in qualities that can be detected by regenerating adult motoneurons and that can modify their subsequent behavior. They also reveal that two weeks of Wallerian degeneration modify the environment in the graft from one that provides no modality-specific cues for motor neurons to one that actively promotes PMR. © 2013.

  16. Caffeine preferentially protects against oxygen-induced retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuya; Zhou, Rong; Li, Bo; Li, Haiyan; Wang, Yanyan; Gu, Xuejiao; Tang, Lingyun; Wang, Cun; Zhong, Dingjuan; Ge, Yuanyuan; Huo, Yuqing; Lin, Jing; Liu, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2017-08-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is the leading cause of childhood blindness, but current anti-VEGF therapy is concerned with delayed retinal vasculature, eye, and brain development of preterm infants. The clinical observation of reduced ROP severity in premature infants after caffeine treatment for apnea suggests that caffeine may protect against ROP. Here, we demonstrate that caffeine did not interfere with normal retinal vascularization development but selectively protected against oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) in mice. Moreover, caffeine attenuated not only hypoxia-induced pathologic angiogenesis, but also hyperoxia-induced vaso-obliteration, which suggests a novel protection window by caffeine. At the hyperoxic phase, caffeine reduced oxygen-induced neural apoptosis by adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2A R)-dependent mechanism, as revealed by combined caffeine and A 2A R-knockout treatment. At the hypoxic phase, caffeine reduced microglial activation and enhanced tip cell formation by A 2A R-dependent and -independent mechanisms, as combined caffeine and A 2A R knockout produced additive and nearly full protection against OIR. Together with clinical use of caffeine in neonates, our demonstration of the selective protection against OIR, effective therapeutic window, adenosine receptor mechanisms, and neuroglial involvement provide the direct evidence of the novel effects of caffeine therapy in the prevention and treatment of ROP.-Zhang, S., Zhou, R., Li, B., Li, H., Wang, Y., Gu, X., Tang, L., Wang, C., Zhong, D., Ge, Y., Huo, Y., Lin, J., Liu, X.-L., Chen, J.-F. Caffeine preferentially protects against oxygen-induced retinopathy. © FASEB.

  17. Frac Sand Mines Are Preferentially Sited in Unzoned Rural Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Locke

    Full Text Available Shifting markets can cause unexpected, stochastic changes in rural landscapes that may take local communities by surprise. Preferential siting of new industrial facilities in poor areas or in areas with few regulatory restrictions can have implications for environmental sustainability, human health, and social justice. This study focuses on frac sand mining-the mining of high-quality silica sand used in hydraulic fracturing processes for gas and oil extraction. Frac sand mining gained prominence in the 2000s in the upper midwestern United States where nonmetallic mining is regulated primarily by local zoning. I asked whether frac sand mines were more commonly sited in rural townships without formal zoning regulations or planning processes than in those that undertook zoning and planning before the frac sand boom. I also asked if mine prevalence was correlated with socioeconomic differences across townships. After creating a probability surface to map areas most suitable for frac sand mine occurrence, I developed neutral landscape models from which to compare actual mine distributions in zoned and unzoned areas at three different spatial extents. Mines were significantly clustered in unzoned jurisdictions at the statewide level and in 7 of the 8 counties with at least three frac sand mines and some unzoned land. Subsequent regression analyses showed mine prevalence to be uncorrelated with land value, tax rate, or per capita income, but correlated with remoteness and zoning. The predicted mine count in unzoned townships was over two times higher than that in zoned townships. However, the county with the most mines by far was under a county zoning ordinance, perhaps indicating industry preferences for locations with clear, homogenous rules over patchwork regulation. Rural communities can use the case of frac sand mining as motivation to discuss and plan for sudden land-use predicaments, rather than wait to grapple with unfamiliar legal processes

  18. Partial preferential chromosome pairing is genotype dependent in tetraploid rose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Peter M; Arens, Paul; Voorrips, Roeland E; Esselink, G Danny; Koning-Boucoiran, Carole F S; Van't Westende, Wendy P C; Santos Leonardo, Tiago; Wissink, Patrick; Zheng, Chaozhi; van Geest, Geert; Visser, Richard G F; Krens, Frans A; Smulders, Marinus J M; Maliepaard, Chris

    2017-04-01

    It has long been recognised that polyploid species do not always neatly fall into the categories of auto- or allopolyploid, leading to the term 'segmental allopolyploid' to describe everything in between. The meiotic behaviour of such intermediate species is not fully understood, nor is there consensus as to how to model their inheritance patterns. In this study we used a tetraploid cut rose (Rosa hybrida) population, genotyped using the 68K WagRhSNP array, to construct an ultra-high-density linkage map of all homologous chromosomes using methods previously developed for autotetraploids. Using the predicted bivalent configurations in this population we quantified differences in pairing behaviour among and along homologous chromosomes, leading us to correct our estimates of recombination frequency to account for this behaviour. This resulted in the re-mapping of 25 695 SNP markers across all homologues of the seven rose chromosomes, tailored to the pairing behaviour of each chromosome in each parent. We confirmed the inferred differences in pairing behaviour among chromosomes by examining repulsion-phase linkage estimates, which also carry information about preferential pairing and recombination. Currently, the closest sequenced relative to rose is Fragaria vesca. Aligning the integrated ultra-dense rose map with the strawberry genome sequence provided a detailed picture of the synteny, confirming overall co-linearity but also revealing new genomic rearrangements. Our results suggest that pairing affinities may vary along chromosome arms, which broadens our current understanding of segmental allopolyploidy. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Experimental Biology.

  19. XPO1 Inhibition Preferentially Disrupts the 3D Nuclear Organization of Telomeres in Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor‐Kashton, Cheryl; Lichtensztejn, Daniel; Baloglu, Erkan; Senapedis, William; Shacham, Sharon; Kauffman, Michael G.; Kotb, Rami

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has shown that the three‐dimensional (3D) nuclear organization of telomeres is altered in cancer cells and the degree of alterations coincides with aggressiveness of disease. Nuclear pores are essential for spatial genome organization and gene regulation and XPO1 (exportin 1/CRM1) is the key nuclear export protein. The Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compounds developed by Karyopharm Therapeutics (KPT‐185, KPT‐330/selinexor, and KPT‐8602) inhibit XPO1 nuclear export function. In this study, we investigated whether XPO1 inhibition has downstream effects on the 3D nuclear organization of the genome. This was assessed by measuring the 3D telomeric architecture of normal and tumor cells in vitro and ex vivo. Our data demonstrate for the first time a rapid and preferential disruption of the 3D nuclear organization of telomeres in tumor cell lines and in primary cells ex vivo derived from treatment‐naïve newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients. Normal primary cells in culture as well as healthy lymphocyte control cells from the same patients were minimally affected. Using both lymphoid and non‐lymphoid tumor cell lines, we found that the downstream effects on the 3D nuclear telomere structure are independent of tumor type. We conclude that the 3D nuclear organization of telomeres is a sensitive indicator of cellular response when treated with XPO1 inhibitors. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2711–2719, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26991404

  20. XPO1 Inhibition Preferentially Disrupts the 3D Nuclear Organization of Telomeres in Tumor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Kashton, Cheryl; Lichtensztejn, Daniel; Baloglu, Erkan; Senapedis, William; Shacham, Sharon; Kauffman, Michael G; Kotb, Rami; Mai, Sabine

    2016-12-01

    Previous work has shown that the three-dimensional (3D) nuclear organization of telomeres is altered in cancer cells and the degree of alterations coincides with aggressiveness of disease. Nuclear pores are essential for spatial genome organization and gene regulation and XPO1 (exportin 1/CRM1) is the key nuclear export protein. The Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compounds developed by Karyopharm Therapeutics (KPT-185, KPT-330/selinexor, and KPT-8602) inhibit XPO1 nuclear export function. In this study, we investigated whether XPO1 inhibition has downstream effects on the 3D nuclear organization of the genome. This was assessed by measuring the 3D telomeric architecture of normal and tumor cells in vitro and ex vivo. Our data demonstrate for the first time a rapid and preferential disruption of the 3D nuclear organization of telomeres in tumor cell lines and in primary cells ex vivo derived from treatment-naïve newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients. Normal primary cells in culture as well as healthy lymphocyte control cells from the same patients were minimally affected. Using both lymphoid and non-lymphoid tumor cell lines, we found that the downstream effects on the 3D nuclear telomere structure are independent of tumor type. We conclude that the 3D nuclear organization of telomeres is a sensitive indicator of cellular response when treated with XPO1 inhibitors. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2711-2719, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Catalytic nanoceria are preferentially retained in the rat retina and are not cytotoxic after intravitreal injection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily L Wong

    Full Text Available Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria possess catalytic and regenerative radical scavenging activities. The ability of nanoceria to maintain cellular redox balance makes them ideal candidates for treatment of retinal diseases whose development is tightly associated with oxidative damage. We have demonstrated that our stable water-dispersed nanoceria delay photoreceptor cell degeneration in rodent models and prevent pathological retinal neovascularization in vldlr mutant mice. The objectives of the current study were to determine the temporal and spatial distributions of nanoceria after a single intravitreal injection, and to determine if nanoceria had any toxic effects in healthy rat retinas. Using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, we discovered that nanoceria were rapidly taken up by the retina and were preferentially retained in this tissue even after 120 days. We also did not observe any acute or long-term negative effects of nanoceria on retinal function or cytoarchitecture even after this long-term exposure. Because nanoceria are effective at low dosages, nontoxic and are retained in the retina for extended periods, we conclude that nanoceria are promising ophthalmic therapeutics for treating retinal diseases known to involve oxidative stress in their pathogeneses.

  2. Preferential binding of growth inhibitory prostaglandins by the target protein of a carcinogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, S.H.; Sorof, S. (Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1990-12-01

    Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) is the principal target protein of the hepatic carcinogen N-(2-fluorenyl)acetamide (2-acetylaminofluorene) in rat liver. In addition, the cyclopentenone prostaglandins (PG), PGA, PGJ{sub 2}, and {Delta}{sup 12}-PGJ{sub 2}, inhibit the growth of many cell types in vitro. This report describes the preferential binding of the growth inhibitory prostaglandins by L-FABP and the reversible inhibition of thymidine incorporation into DNA by PGA{sub 2} and {Delta}{sup 12}-PGJ{sub 2} in primary cultures of purified rat hepatocytes. As a model ligand, ({sup 3}H)PGA{sub 1} bound to L-FABP specifically, reversibly, rapidly, and with high affinity. Its dissociation constants were 134 nM (high affinity) and 3.6 {mu}M (low affinity). The high-affinity finding of ({sup 3}H)PGA{sup 1} correlated with their growth inhibitory activities reported previously and here. The in vitro actions of L-FABP are compatible with those of a specific and dissociable carrier of growth inhibitory prostaglandins in rat hepatocytes and suggest that the carcinogen may usurp the cellular machinery of the growth inhibitory prostaglandins.

  3. Antagonistic Effects of Ocean Acidification and Rising Sea Surface Temperature on the Dissolution of Coral Reef Carbonate Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Trnovsky

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing atmospheric CO2 is raising sea surface temperature (SST and increasing seawater CO2 concentrations, resulting in a lower oceanic pH (ocean acidification; OA, which is expected to reduce the accretion of coral reef ecosystems. Although sediments comprise most of the calcium carbonate (CaCO3 within coral reefs, no in situ studies have looked at the combined effects of increased SST and OA on the dissolution of coral reef CaCO3 sediments. In situ benthic chamber incubations were used to measure dissolution rates in permeable CaCO3 sands under future OA and SST scenarios in a coral reef lagoon on Australia’s Great Barrier Reef (Heron Island. End of century (2100 simulations (temperature +2.7°C and pH -0.3 shifted carbonate sediments from net precipitating to net dissolving. Warming increased the rate of benthic respiration (R by 29% per 1°C and lowered the ratio of productivity to respiration (P/R; ΔP/R = -0.23, which increased the rate of CaCO3 sediment dissolution (average net increase of 18.9 mmol CaCO3 m-2 d-1 for business as usual scenarios. This is most likely due to the influence of warming on benthic P/R which, in turn, was an important control on sediment dissolution through the respiratory production of CO2. The effect of increasing CO2 on CaCO3 sediment dissolution (average net increase of 6.5 mmol CaCO3 m-2 d-1 for business as usual scenarios was significantly less than the effect of warming. However, the combined effect of increasing both SST and pCO2 on CaCO3 sediment dissolution was non-additive (average net increase of 5.6 mmol CaCO3 m-2 d-1 due to the different responses of the benthic community. This study highlights that benthic biogeochemical processes such as metabolism and associated CaCO3 sediment dissolution respond rapidly to changes in SST and OA, and that the response to multiple environmental changes are not necessarily additive.

  4. Assessment of Metaborate Fusion for the Rapid Dissolution of Solid Samples: Suitability with the Northstar ARSIIe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    license the holder or any other person or corporation or convey any rights or permission to manufacture , use , or sell any patented invention that...101(2):144-147. 15. Grate JW, Egorov OB, Fiskum SK. Automated extraction chromatographic separations of actinides using separation-optimized... Using Government drawings, specifications, or other data included in this document for any purpose other than Government procurement does

  5. Dried blood spots on carboxymethyl cellulose sheets: Rapid sample preparation based on dissolution and precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skoglund Ask, Kristine; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    This short communication describes the use of carboxymethyl cellulose sheets as sampling material for dried blood spots. Whole blood, spiked with quetiapine, a hydrophobic and basic small molecule drug substance, was spotted on the sheet and subsequently dried. The dried spot was then almost...

  6. Enhanced dissolution of meloxicam from orodispersible tablets prepared by different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abd Elbary

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was formulation, development and evaluation of meloxicam orodispersible tablets. ODTs were prepared by two methods including sublimation technique where different subliming agents like camphor, menthol and thymol were used with Ac-Di-Sol as a superdisintegrant. Each subliming agent was used in three different concentrations (5, 10 and 15% w/w. Tablets were first prepared and later exposed to vacuum. Meloxicam ODTs were also prepared by freeze-drying an aqueous dispersion of meloxicam containing a matrix former, a sugar alcohol, and a collapse protectant. In addition, different disintegration accelerators were tested (each in 1% w/v including PVP K25, PVP K90, PEG 6000, PEG 4000, PEG 400, tween 80 and tween 20. The prepared ODTs from two methods were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, drug content, friability, hardness, wetting time, in vitro disintegration time and in vitro dissolution study. The best formulation was subjected to stability testing for 3 months at temperatures 40 °C and 75% relative humidity and at 60 °C. All formulations showed disintegration time ranging from 1 to 46 s. All the prepared formulae complied with the pharmacopoeial requirements of the drug contents. T17 gave the best in vitro disintegration and dissolution results. ODT formula T17 has shown no appreciable changes with respect to physical characters, meloxicam content and dissolution profiles when stored at elevated temperatures. In conclusion the results of this work suggest that orodispersible tablets of meloxicam with rapid disintegration time, fast drug release and good hardness can be efficiently and successfully formulated by employing freeze drying and sublimation methods.

  7. Dissolution Behaviour of Metal Elements from Several Types of E-waste Using Leaching Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd; Amira Nordin, Nurul; Mohamad, Fariza; Jaibee, Shafizan; Ismail, Al Emran; Omar, Badrul; Fauzi Ahmad, Mohd; Rahim, Abd Khalil Abd; Kamaruddin, Muhamad Khalif Ikhwan Mohd; Turan, Faiz Mohd; Abu Bakar, Elmi; Yokoyama, Seiji

    2017-08-01

    Rapid development of the electrical and electronic was increasing annually due to the demand by the human being. Increasing production of electrical and electronic product led to the increasing of electric and electronic waste or can be called as the e-waste. The UN Environment Programme estimates that the world generates 20-50 million tons of the e-waste each year and the amount is raising three times faster than other forms of municipal waste. This study is focusing on the investigation of the dissolution behaviour of metal element from several types of e-waste by hydrometallurgical process. Leaching test was conducted on the e-waste by using acid as the reagent solution. Prior to the leaching test, manual dismantling, separation, and crushing process were carried out to the e-waste. The e-waste were characterized by Scanning Electron Microcopy (SEM) and the Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) to define the elements inside the sample of e-waste. While the liquid residue from leaching test was analyzed by using Inductively Couple Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) to define the dissolution behaviour of the metal element that contain in the e-waste. It was found that the longest time for dismantling process was the dismantling of laptop. The dissolution behaviour of Fe, Al, Zn and Pb elements in the e-waste has affected to the increase of pH. The increasing pH led to the reduction of the metals element during leaching process.

  8. Effects of amorphous silicon dioxides on drug dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, K Y; Glemza, R; Jarowski, C I

    1979-05-01

    The dissolution profiles of prednisone, digoxin, and griseofulvin in simulated GI fluids were determined after solvent deposition or ball milling with three commercially available grades of amorphous silicon dioxide. The former procedure resulted in adsorbates showing evidence of drug entrapment by the two grades with larger average pore diameters. Ball milling the drugs with the grade possessing the largest average particle diameter produced triturations with the slowest dissolution rates. A relationship between drug dissolution and extent of dilution with the amorphous silicon dioxides was shown. Particle-size measurements revealed that the ball milling procedure was more apt to broaden the size distribution as compared with the solvent-deposition method of drug incorporation.

  9. High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2006-04-20

    This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

  10. The effect of sentencing types on singlehood and relationship dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Andersen, Lars Højsgaard

    Prior research shows that imprisonment may matter for the risk of experiencing divorce or other types of relationship dissolution, as imprisonment implies separation and the social stigma of criminal conviction. Despite these straightforward theoretical mechanisms, we currently lack empirical...... knowledge on the causal effect of sentencing types on relationship dissolution. This study fills this gap in the literature by examining how a noncustodial alternatives to imprisonment—electronic monitoring—affects the risk of relationship dissolution in Denmark. While imprisonment might disrupt contacts...... between spouses or partners, and restrains single convicted men from interacted with other for significant periods, electronic monitoring allows felons to serve time without severing ties to their partner and community. To obtain uncontaminated estimates of the effect of sentencing types on relationship...

  11. What Happens during Natural Protein Fibre Dissolution in Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingyu; Vongsanga, Kylie; Wang, Xungai; Byrne, Nolene

    2014-08-28

    Here, we monitor the dissolution of several natural protein fibres such as wool, human hair and silk, in various ionic liquids (ILs). The dissolution of protein-based materials using ILs is an emerging area exploring the production of new materials from waste products. Wool is a keratin fibre, which is extensively used in the textiles industry and as a result has considerable amounts of waste produced each year. Wool, along with human hair, has a unique morphology whereby the outer layer, the cuticle, is heavily cross linked with disulphide bonds, whereas silk does not have this outer layer. Here we show how ILs dissolve natural protein fibres and how the mechanism of dissolution is directly related to the structure and morphology of the wool fibre.

  12. Stick-jump mode in surface droplet dissolution

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, Erik; Zhang, Xuehua; Zandvliet, Harold J W; Lohse, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    The analogy between evaporating surface droplets in air to dissolving long-chain alcohol droplets in water is worked out. We show that next to the three known modi for surface droplet evaporation or dissolution (constant contact angle mode, constant contact radius mode, and stick-slide mode), a fourth mode exists for small droplets on supposedly smooth substrates, namely the stick-jump mode: intermittent contact line pinning causes the droplet to switch between sticking and jumping during the dissolution. We present experimental data and compare them to theory to predict the dissolution time in this stick-jump mode. We also explain why these jumps were easily observed for microscale droplets but not for larger droplets.

  13. Interactions between ciprofloxacin and antacids--dissolution and adsorption studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arayne, M Saeed; Sultana, Najma; Hussain, Fida

    2005-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is a fluorinated quinolone antibacterial agent extensively used against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. In certain polytherapy programs, ciprofloxacin can be administered with some antacids that could modify its dissolution rate and reduce its absorption leading to therapeutic failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of some antacids on the availability of ciprofloxacin. The release of ciprofloxacin from tablets in the presence of antacids, such as sodium bicarbonate, calcium hydroxide, calcium carbonate, aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, magnesium carbonate, magnesium trisilicate and magaldrate was studied on BP 2002 dissolution test apparatus. These studies were carried out in simulated gastric and intestinal juices for 3 hours at 37 degrees C. The results confirmed that the dissolution rate of tablets was markedly retarded in the presence of all the antacids studied. Magaldrate and calcium carbonate in simulated gastric juice exhibited relatively higher adsorption capacities, as did magnesium trisilicate and calcium hydroxide in simulated intestinal juice.

  14. What Happens during Natural Protein Fibre Dissolution in Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Here, we monitor the dissolution of several natural protein fibres such as wool, human hair and silk, in various ionic liquids (ILs. The dissolution of protein-based materials using ILs is an emerging area exploring the production of new materials from waste products. Wool is a keratin fibre, which is extensively used in the textiles industry and as a result has considerable amounts of waste produced each year. Wool, along with human hair, has a unique morphology whereby the outer layer, the cuticle, is heavily cross linked with disulphide bonds, whereas silk does not have this outer layer. Here we show how ILs dissolve natural protein fibres and how the mechanism of dissolution is directly related to the structure and morphology of the wool fibre.

  15. A novel off-center paddle impeller (OPI) dissolution testing system for reproducible dissolution testing of solid dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yimin; Armenante, Piero M

    2012-02-01

    Dissolution testing is routinely conducted in the pharmaceutical industry to provide in vitro drug release information for quality control purposes. The most common dissolution testing system for solid dosage forms is the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Dissolution Testing Apparatus 2. This apparatus is very sensitive to the initial location of the tablet, which cannot be controlled because the tablet is dropped into the vessel at the beginning of the test and it may rest at random locations at the vessel's bottom. In this work, a modified Apparatus 2 in which the impeller was placed 8 mm off center in the vessel was designed and tested. This new design was termed "OPI" for "off-center paddle impeller." Dissolution tests were conducted with the OPI apparatus for nine different tablet locations using both disintegrating tablets (prednisone) and nondisintegrating tablets (salicylic acid). The dissolution profiles in the OPI apparatus were largely independent of the tablet location at the vessel's bottom, whereas those obtained in the Standard System generated statistically different profiles depending on the tablet location. The newly proposed OPI system can effectively eliminate artifacts generated by random settling of the tablet at the vessel's bottom, thus making the test more robust. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Principles of calcite dissolution in human and artificial otoconia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Erik Walther

    Full Text Available Human otoconia provide mechanical stimuli to deflect hair cells of the vestibular sensory epithelium for purposes of detecting linear acceleration and head tilts. During lifetime, the volume and number of otoconia are gradually reduced. In a process of degeneration morphological changes occur. Structural changes in human otoconia are assumed to cause vertigo and balance disorders such as benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV. The aim of this study was to investigate the main principles of morphological changes in human otoconia in dissolution experiments by exposure to hydrochloric acid, EDTA, demineralized water and completely purified water respectively. For comparison reasons artificial (biomimetic otoconia (calcite gelatin nanocomposits and natural calcite were used. Morphological changes were detected in time steps by the use of environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM. Under in vitro conditions three main dissolution mechanisms were identified as causing characteristic morphological changes of the specimen under consideration: pH drops in the acidic range, complex formation with calcium ions and changes of ion concentrations in the vicinity of otoconia. Shifts in pH cause a more uniform reduction of otoconia size (isotropic dissolution whereas complexation reactions and changes of the ionic concentrations within the surrounding medium bring about preferred attacks at specific areas (anisotropic dissolution of human and artificial otoconia. Owing to successive reduction of material, all the dissolution mechanisms finally produce fragments and remnants of otoconia. It can be assumed that the organic component of otoconia is not significantly attacked under the given conditions. Artificial otoconia serve as a suitable model system mimicking chemical attacks on biogenic specimens. The underlying principles of calcite dissolution under in vitro conditions may play a role in otoconia degeneration processes such as BPPV.

  17. Development of in situ ion selective sensors for dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohets, Hugo [Antwerp University, Chemistry Department, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Vanhoutte, Koen [Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Turnhoutseweg 30, B-2340 Beerse (Belgium); De Maesschalck, Roy [Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Turnhoutseweg 30, B-2340 Beerse (Belgium); Cockaerts, Paul [Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Turnhoutseweg 30, B-2340 Beerse (Belgium); Vissers, Bert [Antwerp University, Chemistry Department, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Nagels, Luc J. [Antwerp University, Chemistry Department, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)]. E-mail: luc.nagels@ua.ac.be

    2007-01-02

    The dissolution of formulations of the drugs dapoxetine, paliperidone, cinnarizine, tetrazepam, mebeverine, loperamide, galantamine and ibuprofen was studied by an in-line potentiometric measurement system. The transpose of a Nikolskii-Eisenman type function performed the conversion of potential to percentage of dissolution. A novel gradient membrane electrode was developed especially for dissolution, varying continuously in composition from an ionically conducting rubber phase to an electronically conducting solid state PVC/graphite composite. The gradient part had a thickness of 200 {mu}m. The electrodes life span exceeded 6 months. An ion exchange procedure was used to prepare them for one specific drug. This enabled us to use one universal electrode built to measure a wide array of drugs. The system parameters such as accuracy, reproducibility and linearity were presented with the data obtained for the drug dapoxetine. In dissolution, accurate measurements were possible from 10{sup -9} to 10{sup -3} M concentrations, for high log P drugs. The effect of t {sub 90} response times on the measurement error was estimated. The t {sub 90} response times of the electrodes were concentration dependent, and varied between 50 and 10 s for, respectively, 10{sup -6} and 10{sup -3} M concentrations. Potential drift was studied in detail. The measurements performed with these electrodes showed an accuracy of 1%, and inter- and intra electrode variabilities of 0.6 and 1.7%, respectively. The electrodes were successfully applied in colloidal media containing suspended matter, typically formed during dissolution of tablets. The advantages and pitfalls of potentiometry over the presently used techniques for dissolution testing are discussed.

  18. Chlorhexidine gel associated with papain in pulp tissue dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Couto De Oliveira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of 2% chlorhexidine gel associated with 8% papain gel in comparison with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite in bovine pulp tissue dissolution. Materials and Methods Ninety bovine pulps of standardized sizes were used and fragmented into 5-mm sizes. The fragments were removed from the root middle third region. They were divided into 6 experimental groups (n = 15, 1 8% papain; 2 2% chlorhexidine; 3 2% chlorhexidine associated with 8% papain; 4 0.9% saline solution; 5 2.5% sodium hypochlorite; and 6 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. The pulp fragments were weighed and put into immobile test tubes for dissolution for time intervals of 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. Results The 5.25% sodium hypochlorite had greater dissolution potential than the pure papain, and when associated with chlorhexidine, both promoted greater dissolution than did the saline solution and 2% chlorhexidine groups (p < 0.05. The 2.5% sodium hypochlorite promoted dissolution to a lesser extent than the groups with papain within a period of 30 min (p < 0.05, but, was comparable to the saline solution and chlorhexidine. After 120 min, the 2.5% and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite promoted dissolution of 100% of the pulp fragments, and papain, 61%, while chlorhexidine associated with papain and chlorhexidine alone dissolved only 55% and 3%, respectively. Conclusions The 8% papain in gel, both alone and in association with chlorhexidine, was able to dissolve bovine pulp tissue, but to a lesser extent than did 5.25% sodium hypochlorite.

  19. Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Do Not Preferentially Attend to Biological Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annaz, Dagmara; Campbell, Ruth; Coleman, Mike; Milne, Elizabeth; Swettenham, John

    2012-01-01

    Preferential attention to biological motion can be seen in typically developing infants in the first few days of life and is thought to be an important precursor in the development of social communication. We examined whether children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 3-7 years preferentially attend to point-light displays depicting…

  20. Glass composition and solution speciation effects on stage III dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivelpiece, Cory L. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Rice, Jarret A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Pantano, Carlo G. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2017-10-03

    To understand and mitigate the onset of Stage III corrosion of multicomponent oxides waste glasses. Stage III refers to a resumption of the high initial rate of glass dissolution in some glass samples that have otherwise exhibited dissolution at the much lower residual rate for a long time (Stage II). Although the onset of Stage III is known to occur concurrently with the precipitation of particular alteration products, the root cause of the transition is still unknown. Certain glass compositions (notably AFCI) and high pH environmental conditions are also associated with this observed transition.

  1. In situ monitoring of the electrochemical dissolution of tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebsz, Melinda [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Combinatorial Oxide Chemistry at ICTAS, Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria); Kollender, Jan Philipp [Institute for Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials (ICTAS), Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria); Hassel, Achim Walter [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Combinatorial Oxide Chemistry at ICTAS, Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria); Institute for Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials (ICTAS), Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria)

    2017-09-15

    In the present work, which is aimed to monitor in situ the electrochemical dissolution of tungsten by using a Flow-Type Scanning Droplet Cell Microscope (FT-SDCM) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), novel results are reported. The anodic oxide growth and its dissolution on the surface of W have been monitored in situ. The results of this current study show the importance of coupling electrochemical experiments to ICP-MS. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Comparative dissolution testing of paracetamol commercial tablet dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Y; Ozalp, Y; Savaşer, A; Ozkan, S A

    2000-01-01

    Dissolution can best be described as a tool that can provide valuable information about the availability of a drug product. In this study, nine different paracetamol tablet dosage forms available on the Turkish Drug Market have been investigated and physical controls were realized. Paddle and rotating basket apparatus methods were applied to all the formulations. In order to evaluate the dissolution rates, five different kinetics have been studied and the best fitting kinetics was found to be the Hixson-Crowell kinetics. It was found that all the preparations are in accordance with the Pharmacopeia standards.

  3. On the present and future of dissolution-DNP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik

    2016-01-01

    at low temperature followed by a dissolution to produce the room temperature solution of highly polarized spins. This work describes the present and future of dissolution-DNP in the mind of the author. The article describes some of the current trends in the field as well as outlines some of the areas...... where new ideas will make an impact. Most certainly, the future will take unpredicted directions, but hopefully the thoughts presented here will stimulate new ideas that can further advance the field. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  4. Spreading dynamics of an e-commerce preferential information model on scale-free networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chen; Li, Tao; Guan, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Yuanmei; Liu, Xiongding

    2017-02-01

    In order to study the influence of the preferential degree and the heterogeneity of underlying networks on the spread of preferential e-commerce information, we propose a novel susceptible-infected-beneficial model based on scale-free networks. The spreading dynamics of the preferential information are analyzed in detail using the mean-field theory. We determine the basic reproductive number and equilibria. The theoretical analysis indicates that the basic reproductive number depends mainly on the preferential degree and the topology of the underlying networks. We prove the global stability of the information-elimination equilibrium. The permanence of preferential information and the global attractivity of the information-prevailing equilibrium are also studied in detail. Some numerical simulations are presented to verify the theoretical results.

  5. Effect of Mineral Dissolution/Precipitation and CO2 Exsolution on CO2 transport in Geological Carbon Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ruina; Li, Rong; Ma, Jin; He, Di; Jiang, Peixue

    2017-09-19

    injected through the core. The MRI results indicate dissolution of the carbonates during the experiments since the porosity has been increased after the core-flooding experiments. The mineral dissolution changes the pore structure by enlarging the throat diameters and decreasing the pore specific surface areas, resulting in lower CO2/water capillary pressures and changes in the relative permeability. When the reservoir pressure decreases, the CO2 exsolution occurs due to the reduction of solubility. The CO2 bubbles preferentially grow toward the larger pores instead of toward the throats or the finer pores during the depressurization. After exsolution, the exsolved CO2 phase shows low mobility due to the highly dispersed pore-scale morphology, and the well dispersed small bubbles tend to merge without interface contact driven by the Ostwald ripening mechanism. During depressurization, the dissolved carbonate could also precipitate as a result of increasing pH. There is increasing formation water flow resistance and low mobility of the CO2 in the presence of CO2 exsolution and carbonate precipitation. These effects produce a self-sealing mechanism that may reduce unfavorable CO2 migration even in the presence of sudden reservoir depressurization.

  6. Chemical Dissolution Pathways of MoS2 Nanosheets in Biological and Environmental Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongying; von dem Bussche, Annette; Qiu, Yang; Valentin, Thomas M; Gion, Kyle; Kane, Agnes B; Hurt, Robert H

    2016-07-05

    Material stability and dissolution in aqueous media are key issues to address in the development of a new nanomaterial intended for technological application. Dissolution phenomena affect biological and environmental persistence; fate, transport, and biokinetics; device and product stability; and toxicity pathways and mechanisms. This article shows that MoS2 nanosheets are thermodynamically and kinetically unstable to O2-oxidation under ambient conditions in a variety of aqueous media. The oxidation is accompanied by nanosheet degradation and release of soluble molybdenum and sulfur species, and generates protons that can colloidally destabilize the remaining sheets. The oxidation kinetics are pH-dependent, and a kinetic law is developed for use in biokinetic and environmental fate modeling. MoS2 nanosheets fabricated by chemical exfoliation with n-butyl-lithium are a mixture of 1T (primary) and 2H (secondary) phases and oxidize rapidly with a typical half-life of 1-30 days. Ultrasonically exfoliated sheets are in pure 2H phase, and oxidize much more slowly. Cytotoxicity experiments on MoS2 nanosheets and molybdate ion controls reveal the relative roles of the nanosheet and soluble fractions in the biological response. These results indicate that MoS2 nanosheets will not show long-term persistence in living systems and oxic natural waters, with important implications for biomedical applications and environmental risk.

  7. Dissolution Flowsheet for High Flux Isotope Reactor Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, W. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Rudisill, T. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); O' Rourke, P. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Karay, N. S [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-27

    As part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) processing campaign, H-Canyon is planning to begin dissolving High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) fuel in late FY17 or early FY18. Each HFIR fuel core contains inner and outer fuel elements which were fabricated from uranium oxide (U3O8) dispersed in a continuous Al phase using traditional powder metallurgy techniques. Fuels fabricated in this manner, like other SNF’s processed in H-Canyon, dissolve by the same general mechanisms with similar gas generation rates and the production of H2. The HFIR fuel cores will be dissolved and the recovered U will be down-blended into low-enriched U. HFIR fuel was previously processed in H-Canyon using a unique insert in both the 6.1D and 6.4D dissolvers. Multiple cores will be charged to the same dissolver solution maximizing the concentration of dissolved Al. The objective of this study was to identify flowsheet conditions through literature review and laboratory experimentation to safely and efficiently dissolve the HFIR fuel in H-Canyon. Laboratory-scale experiments were performed to evaluate the dissolution of HFIR fuel using both Al 1100 and Al 6061 T6 alloy coupons. The Al 1100 alloy was considered a representative surrogate which provided an upper bound on the generation of flammable (i.e., H2) gas during the dissolution process. The dissolution of the Al 6061 T6 alloy proceeded at a slower rate than the Al 1100 alloy, and was used to verify that the target Al concentration in solution could be achieved for the selected Hg concentration. Mass spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy were used to provide continuous monitoring of the concentration of H2 and other permanent gases in the dissolution offgas, allowing the development of H2 generation rate profiles. The H2 generation rates were subsequently used to evaluate if a full HFIR core could be dissolved in an H-Canyon dissolver without exceeding 60% of the

  8. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  9. Oxidative dissolution of unirradiated Mimas MOX fuel (U/Pu oxides) in carbonated water under oxic and anoxic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odorowski, Mélina [CEA/DEN/DTCD/SECM/LMPA, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); MINES ParisTech, PSL Research University, Centre de Géosciences, 35 rue St Honoré, 77305 Fontainebleau (France); Jégou, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.jegou@cea.fr [CEA/DEN/DTCD/SECM/LMPA, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); De Windt, Laurent [MINES ParisTech, PSL Research University, Centre de Géosciences, 35 rue St Honoré, 77305 Fontainebleau (France); Broudic, Véronique; Peuget, Sylvain; Magnin, Magali; Tribet, Magaly [CEA/DEN/DTCD/SECM/LMPA, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Martin, Christelle [Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs (Andra), DRD/CM, 1-7 rue Jean-Monnet, 92298 Châtenay-Malabry Cedex (France)

    2016-01-15

    Few studies exist concerning the alteration of Mimas Mixed-OXide (MOX) fuel, a mixed plutonium and uranium oxide, and data is needed to better understand its behavior under leaching, especially for radioactive waste disposal. In this study, two leaching experiments were conducted on unirradiated MOX fuel with a strong alpha activity (1.3 × 10{sup 9} Bq.g{sub MOX}{sup −1} reproducing the alpha activity of spent MOX fuel with a burnup of 47 GWd·t{sub HM}{sup −1} after 60 years of decay), one under air (oxic conditions) for 5 months and the other under argon (anoxic conditions with [O{sub 2}] < 1 ppm) for one year in carbonated water (10{sup −2} mol L{sup −1}). For each experiment, solution samples were taken over time and Eh and pH were monitored. The uranium in solution was assayed using a kinetic phosphorescence analyzer (KPA), plutonium and americium were analyzed by a radiochemical route, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generated by the water radiolysis was quantified by chemiluminescence. Surface characterizations were performed before and after leaching using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Electron Probe Microanalyzer (EPMA) and Raman spectroscopy. Solubility diagrams were calculated to support data discussion. The uranium releases from MOX pellets under both oxic and anoxic conditions were similar, demonstrating the predominant effect of alpha radiolysis on the oxidative dissolution of the pellets. The uranium released was found to be mostly in solution as carbonate species according to modeling, whereas the Am and Pu released were significantly sorbed or precipitated onto the TiO{sub 2} reactor. An intermediate fraction of Am (12%) was also present as colloids. SEM and EPMA results indicated a preferential dissolution of the UO{sub 2} matrix compared to the Pu-enriched agglomerates, and Raman spectroscopy showed the Pu-enriched agglomerates were slightly oxidized during leaching. Unlike Pu-enriched zones, the UO{sub 2} grains were much more

  10. Scale dependence of mineral dissolution rates within single pores and fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Steefel, Carl I.; Yang, Li

    2008-01-01

    The possibility that gradients in concentration may develop within single pores and fractures, potentially giving rise to scale-dependent mineral dissolution rates, was investigated with experimentally validated reactive transport modeling. Three important subsurface mineral phases that dissolve at widely different rates, calcite, plagioclase, and iron hydroxide, were considered. Two models for analyzing mineral dissolution kinetics within a single pore were developed: (1) a Poiseuille Flow model that applies laboratory-measured dissolution kinetics at the pore or fracture wall and couples this to a rigorous treatment of both advective and diffusive transport within the pore, and (2) a Well-Mixed Reactor model that assumes complete mixing within the pore, while maintaining the same reactive surface area, average flow rate, geometry, and multicomponent chemistry as the Poiseuille Flow model. For the case of a single fracture, a 1D Plug Flow Reactor model was also considered to quantify the effects of longitudinal versus transverse mixing. Excellent agreement was obtained between results from the Poiseuille Flow model and microfluidic laboratory experiments in which pH 4 and 5 solutions were flowed through a single 500 μm diameter by 4000 μm long cylindrical pore in calcite. The numerical modeling and time scale analysis indicated that rate discrepancies arise primarily where concentration gradients develop under two necessary conditions: (1) comparable rates of reaction and advective transport, and (2) incomplete mixing via molecular diffusion. For plagioclase and iron hydroxide, the scaling effects are negligible at the single pore and fracture scale because of their slow rates. In the case of calcite, where dissolution rates are rapid, scaling effects can develop at high flow rates from 0.1 to 1000 cm/s and for fracture lengths less than 1 cm. Under more normal flow conditions where flow is usually slower than 0.001 cm/s, however, mixing via molecular diffusion

  11. Evaluation of a biphasic in vitro dissolution test for estimating the bioavailability of carbamazepine polymorphic forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jia; Staufenbiel, Sven; Bodmeier, Roland

    2017-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to discriminate three crystal forms of carbamazepine (a BCS II drug) by in vitro dissolution testing and to correlate in vitro data with published in vivo data. A biphasic dissolution system (phosphate buffer pH6.8 and octanol) was used to evaluate the dissolution of the three polymorphic forms and to compare it with conventional single phase dissolution tests performed under sink and non-sink conditions. Similar dissolution profiles of three polymorphic forms were observed in the conventional dissolution test under sink conditions. Although a difference in dissolution was seen in the single phase dissolution test under non-sink conditions as well as in the aqueous phase of the biphasic test, little relevance for in vivo data was observed. In contrast, the biphasic dissolution system could discriminate between the different polymorphic forms in the octanol phase with a ranking of form III>form I>dihydrate form. This was in agreement with the in vivo performance. The dissolved drug available for oral absorption, which was dominated by dissolution and solution-mediated phase transformation, could be reflected in the biphasic dissolution test. Moreover, a good correlation was established between in vitro dissolution in the octanol phase of the biphasic test and in vivo pharmacokinetic data (R(2)=0.99). The biphasic dissolution method is a valuable tool to discriminate between different crystal forms in the formulations of poorly soluble drugs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Enhancement of solubility and dissolution rate of atorvastatin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    22. Padrela L, Rodrigues MA, Velaga SP, Matos HA,. Azevedo EG. Formation of indomethacin–saccharin cocrystals using supercritical fluid technology. Eur J. Pharm Sci 2009; 38: 9-17. 23. Blagden N, Matas M, Gavan PT, York P. Crystal engineering of active pharmaceutical ingredients to improve solubility and dissolution ...

  13. Aluminium fractionation of European volcanic soils by selective dissolution techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Rodeja, E.; Novoa, J.C.; Pontevedra, X.; Martinez-Cortizas, A.; Buurman, P.

    2004-01-01

    Several selective dissolution methods were used to differentiate Al forms in 12 soils formed from volcanic materials (64 andic, vitric and organic horizons) in Iceland, Azores (Portugal), Tenerife (Spain) and Italy. The soils differ in many properties because of differences in parent materials,

  14. Evaluation of the disintegrant and dissolution properties Of Powder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracted cellulose and powder from cocoa pod husk were characterized physicochemical, their distingrant efficacy determined and compared with standard disintegrants such as maize starch and micro crystalliro cellulose. To evaluate the disintegrant and dissolution efficacy of extracted cellulose and powder from cocoa ...

  15. Interaction of Dissolution, Sorption and Biodegradation on Transport ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    58

    Interaction of Dissolution, Sorption and Biodegradation on Transport of. BTEX in a Saturated Groundwater System: Numerical modeling and Spatial moment analysis. Renu Valsala1, Suresh Kumar G2,*. Running title: Transport of dissolved BTEX in saturated aquifer. Resubmitted. To. Journal of Earth System Science.

  16. Saving Sinking Ships: Implications from a Theory of Marital Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laner, Mary Riege

    1978-01-01

    A recently developed theory of marital dissolution that utilizes a systems perspective is briefly presented. The theory was derived from almost 1,300 propositions in extant literature, and is readily understandable to layman, practitioner, and academician. Implications contained within the theory for those concerned with saving floundering marital…

  17. 10 CFR 960.4-2-6 - Dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dissolution. 960.4-2-6 Section 960.4-2-6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE... structural collapse—such that a hydraulic interconnection leading to a loss of waste isolation could occur...

  18. Phosphate Rock Dissolution and Availability in Some Soils of Semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    1Department of Soil Science, University of Ghana, Legon-Accra, Ghana. 2Council for Scientific ... acidulated rock phosphate (PAPR) are possible alternative P sources for these soils. The rate of dissolution of .... involving the three soil series (Bekwai, Nzima and Kokofu), four P sources at a rate of 60 mg P kg-1 soil and a ...

  19. Investigating Dissolution and Precipitation Phenomena with a Smartphone Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Arcia, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    A novel smartphone microscope can be used to observe the dissolution and crystallization of sodium chloride at a microscopic level. Observation of these seemingly simple phenomena through the microscope at 100× magnification can actually reveal some surprising behavior. These experiments offer the opportunity to discuss some basic concepts such as…

  20. Thin film modeling of crystal dissolution and growth in confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Luca; Pierre-Louis, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    We present a continuum model describing dissolution and growth of a crystal contact confined against a substrate. Diffusion and hydrodynamics in the liquid film separating the crystal and the substrate are modeled within the lubrication approximation. The model also accounts for the disjoining pressure and surface tension. Within this framework, we obtain evolution equations which govern the nonequilibrium dynamics of the crystal interface. Based on this model, we explore the problem of dissolution under an external load, known as pressure solution. We find that in steady state, diverging (power-law) crystal-surface repulsions lead to flat contacts with a monotonic increase of the dissolution rate as a function of the load. Forces induced by viscous dissipation then surpass those due to disjoining pressure at large enough loads. In contrast, finite repulsions (exponential) lead to sharp pointy contacts with a dissolution rate independent of the load and the liquid viscosity. Ultimately, in steady state, the crystal never touches the substrate when pressed against it. This result is independent from the nature of the crystal-surface interaction due to the combined effects of viscosity and surface tension.

  1. The Baltimore and Utrecht models for cluster dissolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, H.J.G.L.M.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of the age distributions of star cluster samples of different galaxies has resulted in two very different empirical models for the dissolution of star clusters: the Baltimore model and the Utrecht model. I describe these two models and their differences. The Baltimore model implies that

  2. A Dynamic Flux Dissolution Model for Oxygen Steelmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadrolkar, Ameya; Andersson, Nils Å. I.; Dogan, Neslihan

    2017-02-01

    A modified model for prediction of flux dissolution in oxygen steelmaking process is presented in this study. The aim of this paper is to introduce a procedure for simulating the amount of dissolved lime with respect to the saturation concentration of CaO by coupling the existing thermodynamic and kinetic models simultaneously. The procedure is developed to calculate the saturation concentrations/solubility of CaO in slag using thermodynamic models namely FactSage™, Cell Model, and Thermo-Calc™. Total amount of dissolved lime is evaluated by integrating solubility values in the rate equation of lime dissolution over time taking into account the effects of physical properties and temperature of slag and particle size of flux additions and validated against industrial data available in literature. Comparison between measured and calculated undissolved lime shows a good agreement between them using any thermodynamic models even though there are some differences in the predictions of saturation concentration of CaO in slag. It has been shown that two distinct control mechanisms for lime dissolution in BOF slags exist and consideration of the free lime-controlled mechanism is essential for accurate prediction of dissolution rate of lime in slag.

  3. Stability and Comparative Dissolution Studies of Five Brands of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dissolution profiles of five different brands of norfloxacin (400 mg) tablets designated as A, B, C, D, and E, marketed in Addis Ababa were compared with those of an innovator product (F). The stability of these tablets was evaluated under the influence of accelerated conditions (40 °C + 2 °C and 75% ± 5% RH).

  4. Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Dissolution: An Examination of Recent Marriages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D.; Cohen, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    An ongoing question remains for family researchers: Why does a positive association between cohabitation and marital dissolution exist when one of the primary reasons to cohabit is to test relationship compatibility? Drawing on recently collected data from the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth, the authors examined whether premarital…

  5. Modeling NAPL dissolution from pendular rings in idealized porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rate of NAPL dissolution often governs the clean-up time for subsurface hazardous waste sites. Most formulations for estimating this rate are empirical and assume that the NAPL is the non-wetting fluid. However, field evidence suggests that some waste sites might be organic...

  6. Role of natural convection in the dissolution of sessile droplets

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, Erik; Visser, Claas Willem; Hofhuis, Kevin; Kooij, E Stefan; Zandvliet, Harold J W; Lohse, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    The dissolution process of small (initial (equivalent) radius $R_0 Ra_t$, where $Ra_t = 12$ is the transition Ra-number as extracted from the data. For $Ra < Ra_t$ and smaller, convective transport is progressively overtaken by diffusion and the above scaling relations break down.

  7. Scale and distribution of marine carbonate burial dissolution pores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjiang Shen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is gradually accepted that porosity can be created in burial settings via dissolution by organic acid; TSR derived or hydrothermal fluids. The role of deep-buried carbonate reservoirs is becoming more and more important since the degree and difficulty in petroleum exploration of shallow strata are increasing. A profound understanding of the development scale and prediction of the deep-buried carbonate reservoirs is economically crucial. In addition to the formation mechanism, scale and distribution of burial dissolution pores in burial settings are focused on in recent studies. This paper is based on case studies of deep-buried (>4500 m carbonate reservoirs from the Tarim Basin and Sichuan Basin. Case studies mentioned includes dissolution simulation experiments proposes that an open system is of crucial importance in the development of large-scale burial dissolution pores, the distribution pattern of which is controlled by lithology, pre-existing porosity, and pore throat structures. These findings provided the basis for evaluation and prediction of deep-buried carbonate reservoirs.

  8. Enhanced dissolution of sildenafil citrate as dry foam tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatdee, Somchai; Atipairin, Apichart; Sae Yoon, Attawadee; Srichana, Teerapol; Changsan, Narumon

    2017-01-30

    Dry foam formulation technology is alternative approach to enhance dissolution of the drug. Sildenafil citrate was suspended in sodium dodecyl sulfate solution and adding a mixture of maltodextrin and mannitol as diluent to form a paste. Sildenafil citrate paste was passed through a nozzle spray bottle to obtain smooth foam. The homogeneous foam was dried in a vacuum oven and sieved to obtain dry foam granules. The granules were mixed with croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate and compressed into tablet. All formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical properties and dissolution profiles. All the tested excipients were compatible with sildenafil citrate by both differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and infrared (IR) analysis. There are no X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks representing crystals of sildenafil citrate observed form dry foam formulations. The hardness of tablets was about 5 kg, friability test <1% with a disintegration time <5 min. The sildenafil citrate dry foam tablet had higher dissolution rate in 0.1 N HCl in comparison with commercial sildenafil citrate tablet, sildenafil citrate prepared by direct compression and wet granulation method. Sildenafil citrate dry foam tablet with the high-level composition of surfactant, water and diluent showed enhanced dissolution rate than that of the lower-level composition of these excipients. This formulation was stable under accelerated conditions for at least 6 months.

  9. Dissolution and Quantification of Tantalum-Containing Compounds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    2.1. Equipment. An Anton Paar Perkin-Elmer Multiwave 3000 microwave reaction system equipped with an 8SXF100 rotor and eight polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) reaction vessels was used for the acid dissolution of samples. Flux fusions were performed in Pt crucibles using a high temperature oven supplied by Labequip.

  10. Direct observation of microbial inhibition of calcite dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüttge, Andreas; Conrad, Pamela G

    2004-03-01

    Vertical scanning interferometry (VSI) provides a method for quantification of surface topography at the angstrom to nanometer level. Time-dependent VSI measurements can be used to study the surface-normal retreat across crystal and other solid surfaces during dissolution or corrosion processes. Therefore, VSI can be used to directly and nondestructively measure mineral dissolution rates with high precision. We have used this method to compare the abiotic dissolution behavior of a representative calcite (CaCO(3)) cleavage face with that observed upon addition of an environmental microbe, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, to the crystal surface. From our direct observations, we have concluded that the presence of the microbes results in a significant inhibition of the rate of calcite dissolution. This inhibition appears to be a 2nd-order effect that is related to the formation of etch pits. The opening of etch pits was greatly inhibited in the presence of added bacteria, suggesting that the bacterial cells exert their effect by inhibiting the formation of etch pits at high-energy sites at the crystal surface caused by lattice defects, e.g., screw or point dislocations. The experimental methodology thus provides a nondestructive, directly quantifiable, and easily visualized view of the interactions of microbes and minerals during weathering (or corrosion) processes or during mineral precipitation.

  11. Dissolution of heavy metals from electrostatic precipitator (ESP) dust ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coal based sponge iron industries in India generate considerable quantity of solid waste, 40% of which is flue dust produced from the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) connected to rotary kiln. This paper reports the dissolution of Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn and Fe from the ESP dust using three fungal species, Aspergillus niger, ...

  12. Dissolution of heavy metals from electrostatic precipitator (ESP) dust ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SIBOO

    Coal based sponge iron industries in India generate considerable quantity of solid waste, 40% of which is flue dust produced from the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) connected to rotary kiln. This paper reports the dissolution of Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn and Fe from the ESP dust using three fungal species, Aspergillus niger,.

  13. Dissolution rate enhancement of repaglinide by solid dispersion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The formulations were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray diffractometry (XRD) and differential scanning colorimetry (DSC). Phase solubility study of pure repaglinide, physical mixture and solid dispersion was performed in distilled water. Dissolution studies were carried out in pH 7.4 ...

  14. Alternative Dissolution Methods for Analysis of Niobium containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alternative Dissolution Methods for Analysis of Niobium containing Samples. ... South African Journal of Chemistry ... Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry was applied for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of the different high purity Nb containing samples such as Nb metal, Nb2O5 and NbF5.

  15. Divorce and Union Dissolution: Reverberations over Three Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connidis, Ingrid Arnet

    2003-01-01

    High divorce rates over the past 40 years have affected multiple generations and have long-term consequences for family relationships. This article applies a life course perspective as it explores the reverberation of relationship dissolution beyond the nuclear family. Qualitative data from a study involving 86 adults from 10 three-generation…

  16. Stability and drug dissolution evaluation of Qingkailing soft/hard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stability and drug dissolution evaluation of Qingkailing soft/hard capsules based on multi-component quantification and fingerprint pattern statistical analysis. Ruyu Sun, Huihui Teng, Xiaonan Chen, Shuang Guo, Shan Jia, Mengcheng Zheng, Yang Lu, Jie Bai, Pengyue Li, Shouying Du ...

  17. Evolution, dissolution and reversible generation of gold and silver ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    In this brief communication, we have highlighted for the first time the in situ preparation, dissolution and reversible generation of gold and silver nanoparticles from their cyano complexes by the UV-light. Here we have exhibited the preparation of gold and silver nanoparticles by UV- photoactivation method and then their ...

  18. Dissolution of Metal Supported Spent Auto Catalysts in Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fornalczyk A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Metal supported auto catalysts, have been used in sports and racing cars initially, but nowadays their application systematically increases. In Metal Substrate (supported Converters (MSC, catalytic functions are performed by the Platinum Group Metals (PGM: Pt, Pd, Rh, similarly to the catalysts on ceramic carriers. The contents of these metals make that spent catalytic converters are valuable source of precious metals. All over the world there are many methods for the metals recovery from the ceramic carriers, however, the issue of platinum recovery from metal supported catalysts has not been studied sufficiently yet. The paper presents preliminary results of dissolution of spent automotive catalyst on a metal carrier by means of acids: H2SO4, HCl, HNO3, H3PO4. The main assumption of the research was the dissolution of base metals (Fe, Cr, Al from metallic carrier of catalyst, avoiding dissolution of PGMs. Dissolution was the most effective when concentrated hydrochloric acid, and 2M sulfuric acid (VI was used. It was observed that the dust, remaining after leaching, contained platinum in the level of 0.8% and 0.7%, respectively.

  19. validation of reports of nodules dissolution after repeated ivermectin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal Vol. 78 No. 10 October 2001. VALIDATION OF REPORTS OF NODULES DISSOLUTION AFTER REPEATED IVERMECTIN TREATMENT OF ONCHOCERCIASIS IN SOUTHEASTERN. NIGERIA. С. С Ukaga, BSc, MSc, PhD, Senior Lecturer, I. N.S. Dozie, BSc, MSc. Senior Lecturer and B.E.B ...

  20. Controlled dissolution of colossal quantities of nitrogen in stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2006-01-01

    The solubility of nitrogen in austenitic stainless steel was investigated thermogravimetrically by equilibrating thin foils of AISI 304 and AISI 316 in ammonia/hydrogen gas mixtures. Controlled dissolution of colossal amounts of nitrogen under metastable equilibrium conditions was realized, with ...

  1. 21 CFR 343.90 - Dissolution and drug release testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... as contained in USP 23 at page 139. (g) Aspirin effervescent tablets for oral solution. Aspirin effervescent tablets for oral solution must meet the dissolution standard for aspirin effervescent tablets for... delayed-release tablets. Aspirin delayed-release capsules and aspirin delayed-release tablets must meet...

  2. Ocean acidification: Towards a better understanding of calcite dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmus, Monica M.; Adkins, Jess; Menemenlis, Dimitris

    2016-11-01

    The drastic increase of anthropogenic CO2 emissions over the past two centuries has altered the chemical structure of the ocean, acidifying upper ocean waters. The net impact of this pH decrease on marine ecosystems is still unclear, given the unprecedented rate at which CO2 is being released into the atmosphere. As part of the carbon cycle, calcium carbonate dissolution in sediments neutralizes CO2: phytoplankton at the surface produce carbonate minerals, which sink and reach the seafloor after the organisms die. On time scales of thousands of years, the calcium carbonate in these shells ultimately reacts with CO2 in seawater. Research in this field has been extensive; nevertheless, the dissolution rate law, the impact of boundary layer transport, and the feedback with the global ocean carbon cycle remain controversial. Here, we (i) develop a comprehensive numerical framework via 1D modeling of carbonate dissolution in sediments, (ii) approximate its impact on water column properties by implementing a polynomial approximation to the system's response into a global ocean biogeochemistry general circulation model (OBGCM), and (iii) examine the OBGCM sensitivity response to different formulations of sediment boundary layer properties. We find that, even though the burial equilibration time scales of calcium carbonate are in the order of thousands of years, the formulation of a bottom sediment model along with an improved description of the dissolution rate law can have consequences on multi-year to decadal time scales.

  3. Stick-Jump Mode in Surface Droplet Dissolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietrich, E.; Kooij, Ernst S.; Zhang, Xuehua; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.; Lohse, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    The analogy between evaporating surface droplets in air to dissolving long-chain alcohol droplets in water is worked out. We show that next to the three known modi for surface droplet evaporation or dissolution (constant contact angle mode, constant contact radius mode, and stickslide mode), a

  4. Enhancement of solubility and dissolution rate of atorvastatin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the formation of atorvastatin calcium (AC) co-crystal to improve its solubility and dissolution rate. Method: Co-crystallization of AC in equimolar ratio with isonicotinamide (INA) was carried out by slow solvent evaporation method using methanol. The solid obtained was characterized by powder x-ray ...

  5. Solubility and dissolution enhancement strategies: current understanding and recent trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shashank; Patel, Niketkumar; Lin, Senshang

    2015-06-01

    Identification of lead compounds with higher molecular weight and lower aqueous solubility has become increasingly prevalent with the advent of high throughput screening. Poor aqueous solubility of these lipophilic compounds can drastically affect the dissolution rate and subsequently the drug absorbed in the systemic circulation, imposing a significant burden of time and money during drug development process. Various pre-formulation and formulation strategies have been applied in the past that can improve the aqueous solubility of lipophilic compounds by manipulating either the crystal lattice properties or the activity coefficient of a solute in solution or both, if possible. However, despite various strategies available in the armor of formulation scientist, solubility issue still remains an overriding problem in the drug development process. It is perhaps due to the insufficient conceptual understanding of solubility and dissolution phenomenon that hinders the judgment in selecting suitable strategy for improving aqueous solubility and/or dissolution rate. This article, therefore, focuses on (i) revisiting the theoretical and mathematical concepts associated with solubility and dissolution, (ii) their application in making rationale decision for selecting suitable pre-formulation and formulation strategies and (iii) the relevant research performed in this field in past decade.

  6. Parents' Union Dissolution and Adolescents' School Performance: Comparing Methodological Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisco, Michelle L.; Muller, Chandra; Frank, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study to estimate how parents' union dissolution influences changes in adolescents' mathematics course work gains, overall grade point average, and course failure rates during a window of approximately 1 year (N = 2,629). A…

  7. Facies, dissolution seams and stable isotope compositions of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stable isotope analysis of the limestone shows that 13C and 18O values are compatible with the early Mesoproterozoic open seawater composition. The ribbon limestone facies in the Rohtas Limestone is characterized by micritic beds, each decoupled in a lower band enriched and an upper band depleted in dissolution ...

  8. Adolescent Sexuality and the Risk of Marital Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates whether first sexual intercourse during adolescence is associated with increased risk of first marriage dissolution and tests whether the results are consistent with causal or selection explanations. Drawing on a sample of 3,793 ever-married women from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth, this study estimated…

  9. Evaluation of a dynamic dissolution/permeation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sironi, Daniel; Christensen, Mette; Rosenberg, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Combined dissolution/permeation testing is gaining increasing attention as an in vitro tool for predictive performance ranking of enabling oral formulations. The current aim was to study how in vitro drug permeation evolves under conditions, where the donor concentration is changing (non-steady s...

  10. Adolescents' Explanations for Romantic Dissolutions: A Developmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Jennifer; McIsaac, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the prevalence and developmental significance of romantic break-ups in adolescence, a relatively unexplored area of study. We examined their occurrence in a sample of 910 adolescents, first noting the frequency of these events across age, gender, and romantic experience, and then analyzing the dissolution explanations…

  11. Effect of Different Crystallization Techniques on the Dissolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Ketoprofen crystals were prepared by various crystallization technique including spherical agglomeration (SA), spray drying (SD), freeze drying (FD) and ... The solubility of FD crystals in water increased almost fivefold to 0.0926 mg/ml compared with that of the drug (0.0172 mg/ml), while the dissolution rates of the ...

  12. The Influence of Milling on the Dissolution Performance of Simvastatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Rades

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Particle size reduction is a simple means to enhance the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble BCS-class II and IV drugs. However, the major drawback of this process is the possible introduction of process induced disorder. Drugs with different molecular arrangements may exhibit altered properties such as solubility and dissolution rate and, therefore, process induced solid state modifications need to be monitored. The aim of this study was two-fold: firstly, to investigate the dissolution rates of milled and unmilled simvastatin; and secondly, to screen for the main milling factors, as well as factor interactions in a dry ball milling process using simvastatin as model drug, and to optimize the milling procedure with regard to the opposing responses particle size and process induced disorder by application of a central composite face centered design. Particle size was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and image analysis. Process induced disorder was determined by partial least squares (PLS regression modeling of respective X-ray powder diffractograms (XRPD and Raman spectra. Valid and significant quadratic models were built. The investigated milling factors were milling frequency, milling time and ball quantity at a set drug load, out of which milling frequency was found to be the most important factor for particle size as well as process induced disorder. Milling frequency and milling time exhibited an interaction effect on the responses. The optimum milling settings using the maximum number of milling balls (60 balls with 4 mm diameter was determined to be at a milling frequency of 21 Hz and a milling time of 36 min with a resulting primary particle size of 1.4 μm and a process induced disorder of 6.1% (assessed by Raman spectroscopy and 8.4% (assessed by XRPD, at a set optimization limit of < 2 μm for particle size and < 10% for process induced disorder. This optimum was tested experimentally and the process induced disorder

  13. Organic ligand-induced dissolution kinetics of antimony trioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xingyun; He, Mengchang

    2017-06-01

    The influence of low-molecular-weight dissolved organic matter (LMWDOM) on the dissolution rate of Sb2O3 was investigated. Some representative LMWDOMs with carboxyl, hydroxyl, hydrosulfuryl and amidogen groups occurring naturally in the solution were chosen, namely oxalic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, EDTA, salicylic acid, phthalandione, glycine, thiolactic acid, xylitol, glucose and catechol. These LMWDOMs were dissolved in inert buffers at pH=3.7, 6.6 and 8.6 and added to powdered Sb2O3 in a stirred, thermostatted reactor (25°C). The addition of EDTA, tartaric acid, thiolactic acid, citric acid and oxalic acid solutions at pH3.7 and catechol at pH8.6 increased the rate of release of antimony. In the 10mmol/L thiolactic acid solution, up to 97% by mass of the antimony was released after 120min reaction. There was no effect on the dissolution of Sb2O3 for the other ligands. A weak correlation between dissolution rate with the dissociation constant of ligands and the stability of the dissolved complex was also found. All the results showed that the extent of the promoting effect of ligands on the dissolution of Sb2O3 was not determined by the stability of the dissolved complex, but by the dissociation constant of ligands and detachment rate of surface chelates from the mineral surface. This study can not only help in further understanding the effect of individual low-molecular-weight organic ligands, but also provides a reference to deduce the effect of natural organic matters with oxygen-bearing functional groups on the dissolution of antimony oxide minerals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Numerical modeling of mineral dissolution - precipitation kinetics integrating interfacial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaroual, M. M.

    2016-12-01

    The mechanisms of mineral dissolution/precipitation are complex and interdependent. Within a same rock, the geochemical modelling may have to manage kinetic reactions with high ratios between the most reactive minerals (i.e., carbonates, sulfate salts, etc.) and less reactive minerals (i.e., silica, alumino-silicates, etc.). These ratios (higher than 10+6) induce numerical instabilities for calculating mass and energy transfers between minerals and aqueous phases at the appropriate scales of time and space. The current scientific debate includes: i) changes (or not) of the mineral reactive surface with the progress of the dissolution/precipitation reactions; ii) energy jumps (discontinuity) in the thermodynamic affinity function of some dissolution/precipitation reactions and iii) integration of processes at the "mineral - aqueous solution" interfaces for alumino-silicates, silica and carbonates. In recent works dealing with the specific case of amorphous silica, measurements were performed on nano-metric cross-sections indicating the presence of surface layer between the bulk solution and the mineral. This thin layer is composed by amorphous silica and hydrated silica "permeable" to the transfer of water and ionic chemical constituents. The boundary/interface between the initial mineral and the silica layer is characterized by a high concentration jump of chemical products at the nanoscale and some specific interfacial dissolution/precipitation processes.In this study, the results of numerical simulations dealing with different mechanisms of silicate and carbonate dissolution/precipitation reactions and integrating interfacial processes will be discussed. The application of this approach to silica precipitation is based on laboratory experiments and it highlights the significant role of the "titration" surface induced by surface complexation reactions in the determination of the kinetics of precipitation.

  15. Short communication. Challenges relating to comparison of flavonoid glycosides dissolution profiles from Sutherlandia frutescens products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbamalu, Oluchi N; Syce, James; Samsodien, Halima

    2017-03-01

    Unlike the case of conventional drug formulations, dissolution tests have hitherto not been required for herbal medicinal products commercially available in South Africa. This study investigated dissolution of the South African Sutherlandia frutescens using selected flavonoid glycosides as marker compounds. Dissolution of markers was assessed in three dissolution media at pH 1.2, 4.5 and 6.8, and samples were analysed using a validated HPLC method. The dissolution profile of each marker varied for the different materials investigated. All three media utilised showed differences in flavonoid glycoside dissolution between the S. frutescens products evaluated, with f2 values dissolution from any two of the materials. Dissolution of S. frutescens materials could thus be characterised using the markers in all the media tested. This tool may be employed in the future for comparison of orally administered S. frutescens products, provided between- batch variability is evaluated and found less than between-sample variability.

  16. Synthesis of alkali metal platinates and their dissolution behavior in hydrochloric acid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KASUYA, Ryo; MIKI, Takeshi; MORIKAWA, Hisashi; TAI, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    To decrease the environmental load due to current Pt dissolution processes that use strong acids in combination with oxidizing agents, the synthesis and dissolution of alkali metal platinates in hydrochloric acid (HCl) were examined...

  17. Chitosan and chitosan chlorhydrate based various approaches for enhancement of dissolution rate of carvedilol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shete, Amol S; Yadav, Adhikrao V; Murthy, Srinivasa M

    2012-01-01

    .... There is need to enhance the dissolution rate of carvedilol. The objective of our present investigation was to compare chitosan and chitosan chlorhydrate based various approaches for enhancement of dissolution rate of carvedilol...

  18. Characterization of an active pharmaceutical ingredient by its dissolution properties: amoxicillin trihydrate as a model drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horkovics-Kovats, Stefan

    2004-11-01

    To characterize the dissolution of particles, a dissolution rate coefficient alpha, consisting of a geometric factor gamma and material constant mu, was introduced. The impact of the particle geometry on the initial rate of dissolution was assessed for spherical, cubic and tetrahedral particles. Additionally, a description of dissolution of samples containing multiple populations of particles was derived. A two-population model was employed to characterize sieved fractions of amoxicillin trihydrate. The investigation, using factor analysis, of the influence of dose, particle size and agitation intensity on the dissolution rate coefficient alpha indicated the presence of disintegrating agglomerates in larger particles. Based on the dissolution characteristics of particular particle size fractions and on the determined particle size distribution, the dissolution profile of the mixed sample containing nine sieved fractions in size was successfully predicted. Finally, the limitations of the film theory are discussed in light of the multiple-population dissolution theory.

  19. Preferential reactivation of motivationally relevant information in the ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansink, Carien S; Goltstein, Pieter M; Lankelma, Jan V; Joosten, Ruud N J M A; McNaughton, Bruce L; Pennartz, Cyriel M A

    2008-06-18

    Spontaneous "off-line" reactivation of neuronal activity patterns may contribute to the consolidation of memory traces. The ventral striatum exhibits reactivation and has been implicated in the processing of motivational information. It is unknown, however, whether reactivating neuronal ensembles specifically recapitulate information relating to rewards that were encountered during wakefulness. We demonstrate a prolonged reactivation in rat ventral striatum during quiet wakefulness and slow-wave but not rapid eye movement sleep. Reactivation of reward-related information processed in this structure was particularly prominent, and this was primarily attributable to spike trains temporally linked to reward sites. It was accounted for by small, strongly correlated subgroups in recorded cell assemblies and can thus be characterized as a sparse phenomenon. Our results indicate that reactivated memory traces may not only comprise feature- and context-specific information but also contain a value component.

  20. Solid formulation of a supersaturable self-microemulsifying drug delivery system for valsartan with improved dissolution and bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Dong Woo; Chae, Bo Ram; Kim, Jin Han; Chae, Jun Soo; Shin, Dong Jun; Kim, Chang Hyun; Kim, Sung Rae; Choi, Ji Ho; Song, Seh Hyon; Oh, Dongho; Sohn, Se Il; Choi, Young Wook

    2017-11-07

    In order to improve the dissolution and oral bioavailability of valsartan (VST), and reduce the required volume for treatment, we previously formulated a supersaturable self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SuSMEDDS) composed of VST (80 mg), Capmul ® MCM (13.2 mg), Tween ® 80 (59.2 mg), Transcutol ® P (59.2 mg), and Poloxamer 407 (13.2 mg). In the present study, by using Florite ® PS-10 (119.1 mg) and Vivapur ® 105 (105.6 mg) as solid carriers, VST-loaded solidified SuSMEDDS (S-SuSMEDDS) granules were successfully developed, which possessed good flow properties and rapid drug dissolution. By introducing croscarmellose sodium (31 mg) as a superdisintegrant, S-SuSMEDDS tablets were also successfully formulated, which showed fast disintegration and high dissolution efficiency. Preparation of granules and tablets was successfully optimized using D-optimal mixture design and 3-level factorial design, respectively, resulting in percentage prediction errors of <10%. In pharmacokinetic studies in rats, the relative bioavailability of the optimized granules was 107% and 222% of values obtained for SuSMEDDS and Diovan ® powder, respectively. Therefore, we conclude that novel S-SuSMEDDS formulations offer great potential for developing solid dosage forms of a liquefied formulation such as SuSMEDDS, while improving oral absorption of drugs with poor water solubility.

  1. In Vitro Dissolution and In Vivo Bioavailability of Six Brands of Ciprofloxacin Tablets Administered in Rabbits and Their Pharmacokinetic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Fahmy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to assess the in vitro dissolution and in vivo bioavailability of six brands of ciprofloxacin oral tablets available in the UAE market using rabbits. The in vitro dissolution profiles of the six ciprofloxacin products were determined using the USP dissolution paddle method. Pharmacokinetic modeling using compartmental and noncompartmental analysis was done to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of ciprofloxacin after single-dose oral administration. In vitro release study revealed that the amount of ciprofloxacin released in 20 minutes was not less than 80% of the labeled amount which is in accordance with the pharmacopoeial requirements. All tested products are considered to be very rapid dissolving except for formulae A and D. Ciprofloxacin plasma concentration in rabbits was best fitted to a two-compartment open model. The lowest bioavailability was determined to be for product A (93.24% while the highest bioavailability was determined to be for product E (108.01%. Postmarketing surveillance is very crucial to ensure product quality and eliminating substandard products to be distributed and, consequently, ensure better patient clinical outcome. The tested ciprofloxacin generic products distributed in the UAE market were proven to be of good quality and could be used interchangeably with the branded ciprofloxacin product.

  2. Effect of Microbial and Other Naturally Occurring Polymers on Mineral Dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, S. A.; Vandevivere, P.

    1994-11-21

    Several naturally occurring polymers were tested for their effect on mineral dissolution. Polymers composed primarily of neutral sugars had no effect on dissolution, even at concentrations 1000 times greater than average dissolved organic carbon concentrations found in groundwater. In contrast, alginate, a polysaccharide composed of two uronic acids, inhibited dissolution by 80% at the highest concentration used. A high-molecular-weight polyaspartate also inhibited dissolution, though a lower-molecular-weight polyaspartate had no affect.

  3. Carbonate mineral dissolution kinetics in high pressure experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethlefsen, F.; Dörr, C.; Schäfer, D.; Ebert, M.

    2012-04-01

    The potential CO2 reservoirs in the North German Basin are overlain by a series of Mesozoic barrier rocks and aquifers and finally mostly by Tertiary and Quaternary close-to-surface aquifers. The unexpected rise of stored CO2 from its reservoir into close-to-surface aquifer systems, perhaps through a broken well casing, may pose a threat to groundwater quality because of the acidifying effect of CO2 dissolution in water. The consequences may be further worsening of the groundwater quality due to the mobilization of heavy metals. Buffer mechanisms counteracting the acidification are for instance the dissolution of carbonates. Carbonate dissolution kinetics is comparably fast and carbonates can be abundant in close-to-surface aquifers. The disadvantages of batch experiments compared to column experiments in order to determine rate constants are well known and have for instance been described by v. GRINSVEN and RIEMSDIJK (1992). Therefore, we have designed, developed, tested, and used a high-pressure laboratory column system to simulate aquifer conditions in a flow through setup within the CO2-MoPa project. The calcite dissolution kinetics was determined for CO2-pressures of 6, 10, and 50 bars. The results were evaluated by using the PHREEQC code with a 1-D reactive transport model, applying a LASAGA (1984) -type kinetic dissolution equation (PALANDRI and KHARAKA, 2004; eq. 7). While PALANDRI and KHARAKA (2004) gave calcite dissolution rate constants originating from batch experiments of log kacid = -0.3 and log kneutral = -5.81, the data of the column experiment were best fitted using log kacid = -2.3 and log kneutral = -7.81, so that the rate constants fitted using the lab experiment applying 50 bars pCO2 were approximately 100 times lower than according to the literature data. Rate constants of experiments performed at less CO2 pressure (pCO2 = 6 bars: log kacid = -1.78; log kneutral = -7.29) were only 30 times lower than literature data. These discrepancies in the

  4. The Rate-equation for Biogenic Silica Dissolution in Seawater – New Hypotheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truesdale, V.W.; Greenwood, J.E.; Rendell, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the kinetics of biogenic silica dissolution in seawater, through batch dissolution, where the reaction is observed as the increase in dissolved silicic acid concentration with time. It utilises new data from dissolution of the marine diatom Cyclotella cryptica, and the

  5. In situ dissolution analysis using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and hyperspectral CARS microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fussell, A.L.; Garbacik, E.T.; Offerhaus, Herman L.; Kleinebudde, Peter; Strachan, Clare

    2013-01-01

    The solid-state form of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in an oral dosage form plays an important role in determining the dissolution rate of the API. As the solid-state form can change during dissolution, there is a need to monitor the oral dosage form during dissolution testing. Coherent

  6. 26 CFR 301.6043-1 - Returns regarding liquidation, dissolution, termination, or contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returns regarding liquidation, dissolution... and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6043-1 Returns regarding liquidation, dissolution, termination... liquidations, dissolutions, terminations, or contracts, see §§ l.6043-1, 1.6043-2, and 1.6043-3 of this chapter...

  7. 31 CFR 353.83 - Reissue or payment on dissolution of corporation or partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reissue or payment on dissolution of... Reissue or payment on dissolution of corporation or partnership. (a) Corporations. A bond registered in the name of a private corporation which is in the process of dissolution will be paid to the...

  8. 12 CFR 16.9 - Securities offered and sold in holding company dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... dissolution. 16.9 Section 16.9 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERING DISCLOSURE RULES § 16.9 Securities offered and sold in holding company dissolution. Offers and sales of bank issued securities in connection with the dissolution of the holding company of...

  9. 26 CFR 1.6043-3 - Return regarding liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Return regarding liquidation, dissolution... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Information Returns § 1.6043-3 Return regarding liquidation, dissolution... years preceding any liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of the...

  10. 26 CFR 1.6043-1 - Return regarding corporate dissolution or liquidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Return regarding corporate dissolution or... dissolution or liquidation. (a) Requirement of returns. Within 30 days after the adoption of any resolution or plan for or in respect of the dissolution of a corporation or the liquidation of the whole or any part...

  11. 31 CFR 315.83 - Reissue or payment on dissolution of corporation or partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reissue or payment on dissolution of... and Officers § 315.83 Reissue or payment on dissolution of corporation or partnership. (a) Corporations. A bond registered in the name of a private corporation which is in the process of dissolution...

  12. Dissolution kinetics of nanoscale liquid Pb/Bi inclusions at a grain boundary in aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokofjev, S.I.; Johnson, Erik; Zhilin, V.M.

    2008-01-01

    . Dissolution of the inclusions was observed until their complete disappearance. Digitized video recordings of the process of dissolution were used to obtain the dependence of the inclusion size with time. The kinetics of the dissolution of the grain boundary inclusions can be described with a model where...

  13. Dissolution and Protection of Aluminium Oxide in Corrosive Aqueous Media - An Ellipsometry and Reflectometry Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlsson, P.M.; Postmus, B.R.; Palmqvist, A.E.C.

    2009-01-01

    Dissolution of alumina has been studied from wafers in aqueous solution by means of ellipsometry and reflectometry. It was discovered that the dissolution of aluminium oxide is promoted by ethanol amines like N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)glycine and triethanolamine, and that this dissolution is retarded

  14. Is attention based on spatial contextual memory preferentially guided by low spatial frequency signals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Zita Patai

    Full Text Available A popular model of visual perception states that coarse information (carried by low spatial frequencies along the dorsal stream is rapidly transmitted to prefrontal and medial temporal areas, activating contextual information from memory, which can in turn constrain detailed input carried by high spatial frequencies arriving at a slower rate along the ventral visual stream, thus facilitating the processing of ambiguous visual stimuli. We were interested in testing whether this model contributes to memory-guided orienting of attention. In particular, we asked whether global, low-spatial frequency (LSF inputs play a dominant role in triggering contextual memories in order to facilitate the processing of the upcoming target stimulus. We explored this question over four experiments. The first experiment replicated the LSF advantage reported in perceptual discrimination tasks by showing that participants were faster and more accurate at matching a low spatial frequency version of a scene, compared to a high spatial frequency version, to its original counterpart in a forced-choice task. The subsequent three experiments tested the relative contributions of low versus high spatial frequencies during memory-guided covert spatial attention orienting tasks. Replicating the effects of memory-guided attention, pre-exposure to scenes associated with specific spatial memories for target locations (memory cues led to higher perceptual discrimination and faster response times to identify targets embedded in the scenes. However, either high or low spatial frequency cues were equally effective; LSF signals did not selectively or preferentially contribute to the memory-driven attention benefits to performance. Our results challenge a generalized model that LSFs activate contextual memories, which in turn bias attention and facilitate perception.

  15. Zika virus preferentially replicates in the female reproductive tract after vaginal inoculation of rhesus macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanteri, Marion; Zarbock, Katie; Rourke, Tracy; Ma, Zhong-min; O’Connor, Shelby

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus that can cause severe defects in an infected fetus. ZIKV is also transmitted by sexual contact, although the relative importance of sexual transmission is unclear. To better understand the role of sexual transmission in ZIKV pathogenesis, a nonhuman primate (NHP) model of vaginal transmission was developed. ZIKV was readily transmitted to mature cycling female rhesus macaque (RM) by vaginal inoculation with 104–106 plaque-forming units (PFU). However, there was variability in susceptibility between the individual RM with 1–>8 vaginal inoculations required to establish infection. After treatment with Depoprovera, a widely used contraceptive progestin, two RM that initially resisted 8 vaginal ZIKV inoculations became infected after one ZIKV inoculation. Thus, Depoprovera seemed to enhance susceptibility to vaginal ZIKV transmission. Unexpectedly, the kinetics of virus replication and dissemination after intravaginal ZIKV inoculation were markedly different from RM infected with ZIKV by subcutaneous (SQ) virus inoculation. Several groups have reported that after SQ ZIKV inoculation vRNA is rapidly detected in blood plasma with vRNA less common in urine and saliva and only rarely detected in female reproductive tract (FRT) secretions. In contrast, in vaginally inoculated RM, plasma vRNA is delayed for several days and ZIKV replication in, and vRNA shedding from, the FRT was found in all 6 animals. Further, after intravaginal transmission ZIKV RNA shedding from FRT secretions was detected before or simultaneously with plasma vRNA, and persisted for at least as long. Thus, ZIKV replication in the FRT was independent of, and often preceded virus replication in the tissues contributing to plasma vRNA. These results support the conclusion that ZIKV preferentially replicates in the FRT after vaginal transmission, but not after SQ transmission, and raise the possibility that there is enhanced fetal infection and pathology

  16. Metabolic Value Chemoattractants Are Preferentially Recognized at Broad Ligand Range Chemoreceptor of Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Fernández

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria have evolved a wide range of chemoreceptors with different ligand specificities. Typically, chemoreceptors bind ligands with elevated specificity and ligands serve as growth substrates. However, there is a chemoreceptor family that has a broad ligand specificity including many compounds that are not of metabolic value. To advance the understanding of this family, we have used the PcaY_PP (PP2643 chemoreceptor of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as a model. Using Isothermal Titration Calorimetry we showed here that the recombinant ligand binding domain (LBD of PcaY_PP recognizes 17 different C6-ring containing carboxylic acids with KD values between 3.7 and 138 μM and chemoeffector affinity correlated with the magnitude of the chemotactic response. Mutation of the pcaY_PP gene abolished chemotaxis to these compounds; phenotype that was restored following gene complementation. Growth experiments using PcaY_PP ligands as sole C-sources revealed functional relationships between their metabolic potential and affinity for the chemoreceptor. Thus, only 7 PcaY_PP ligands supported growth and their KD values correlated with the length of the bacterial lag phase. Furthermore, PcaY_PP ligands that did not support growth had significantly higher KD values than those that did. The receptor has thus binds preferentially compounds that serve as C-sources and amongst them those that rapidly promote growth. Tightest binding compounds were quinate, shikimate, 3-dehydroshikimate and protocatechuate, which are at the interception of the biosynthetic shikimate and catabolic quinate pathways. Analytical ultracentrifugation studies showed that ligand free PcaY_PP-LBD is present in a monomer-dimer equilibrium (KD = 57.5 μM. Ligand binding caused a complete shift to the dimeric state, which appears to be a general feature of four-helix bundle LBDs. This study indicates that the metabolic potential of compounds is an important parameter in the molecular recognition

  17. Iceberg-hosted nanoparticulate Fe in the Southern Ocean: Mineralogy, origin, dissolution kinetics and source of bioavailable Fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiswell, Rob

    2011-06-01

    Sediments from icebergs and glaciers contain nanopartculate Fe(III) oxyhydroxides (including ferrihydrite) which form in aqueous, oxic (micro)environments where Fe(II)-bearing rock minerals oxidise and high degrees of supersaturation are promoted by freezing and thawing. An ascorbic acid extraction dissolves only labile Fe present in fresh (loosely aggregated) ferrihydrite that is directly or indirectly bioavailable. Glacial and iceberg sediments contain ferrihydrite aggregates that provide 0.04 to 0.17% Fe soluble in ascorbic acid, rather larger than the concentrations in a limited suite of atmospheric dusts. The dissolution behaviour of labile Fe from glacial and iceberg sediments by ascorbic acid is controlled by the access of reactant, or removal of solute, through micropores to or from active sites in the interior of ferrihydrite aggregates. A first-order kinetic model is presented to examine the rates at which bioavailable Fe can be supplied by melting icebergs in the Weddell Sea. The model utilizes rate constants from the literature for the processes which solubilise Fe from nanoparticulate ferrihydrite (dissolution, photochemical reduction and grazing) and the processes that remove Fe nanoparticulates (sinking, scavenging and incorporation in faecal material), and render them less reactive (transformation, aging). Model results demonstrate that icebergs can supply bioavailable Fe to the Weddell Sea by the dissolution of nanoparticulate ferrihydrite (despite loss/removal of nanoparticles by sinking, aging, transformation, scavenging and incorporation into faecal pellets) at rates that are comparable to atmospheric dust. Dissolution enhanced by photochemical reduction and grazing provides the most rapid rates of bioavailable Fe production.

  18. Preferential Interaction of Na+ over K+ to Carboxylate-functionalized Silver Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elucidating mechanistic interactions between specific ions (Na+/ K+) and nanoparticle surfaces to alter particle stability in polar media has received little attention. We investigated relative preferential binding of Na+ and K+ to carboxylate-functionalized silver nanoparticles ...

  19. TWO MEASURES OF THE DEPENDENCE OF PREFERENTIAL RANKINGS ON CATEGORICAL VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lissowski Grzegorz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to apply a general methodology for constructing statistical methods, which is based on decision theory, to give a statistical description of preferential rankings, with a focus on the rankings’ dependence on categorical variables. In the paper, I use functions of description errors that are based on the Kemeny and Hamming distances between preferential orderings, but the proposed methodology can also be applied to other methods of estimating description errors.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of clays: swelling, sedimentation, dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvinskikh, Sergey; Furo, Istvan

    2010-05-01

    While most magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applications concern medical research, there is a rapidly increasing number of MRI studies in the field of environmental science and technology. In this presentation, MRI will be introduced from the latter perspective. While many processes in these areas are similar to those addressed in medical applications of MRI, parameters and experimental implementations are often quite different and, in many respects, far more demanding. This hinders direct transfer of existing methods developed for biomedical research, especially when facing the challenging task of obtaining spatially resolved quantitative information. In MRI investigation of soils, clays, and rocks, mainly water signal is detected, similarly to MRI of biological and medical samples. However, a strong variation of water mobility and a wide spread of water spin relaxation properties in these materials make it difficult to use standard MRI approaches. Other significant limitations can be identified as following: T2 relaxation and probe dead time effects; molecular diffusion artifacts; varying dielectric losses and induced currents in conductive samples; limited dynamic range; blurring artifacts accompanying drive for increasing sensitivity and/or imaging speed. Despite these limitations, by combining MRI techniques developed for solid and liquid states and using independent information on relaxation properties of water, interacting with the material of interest, true images of distributions of both water, material and molecular properties in a wide range of concentrations can be obtained. Examples of MRI application will be given in the areas of soil and mineral research where understanding water transport and erosion processes is one of the key challenges. Efforts in developing and adapting MRI approaches to study these kinds of systems will be outlined as well. Extensive studies of clay/water interaction have been carried out in order to provide a quantitative

  1. The influence of milling on the dissolution performance of simvastatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimper, Ulrike; Aaltonen, Jaakko; Krauel-Goellner, Karen

    2012-01-01

    , as well as factor interactions in a dry ball milling process using simvastatin as model drug, and to optimize the milling procedure with regard to the opposing responses particle size and process induced disorder by application of a central composite face centered design. Particle size was assessed...... properties such as solubility and dissolution rate and, therefore, process induced solid state modifications need to be monitored. The aim of this study was two-fold: firstly, to investigate the dissolution rates of milled and unmilled simvastatin; and secondly, to screen for the main milling factors...... by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image analysis. Process induced disorder was determined by partial least squares (PLS) regression modeling of respective X-ray powder diffractograms (XRPD) and Raman spectra. Valid and significant quadratic models were built. The investigated milling factors were...

  2. Comparative evaluation of methods to quantify dissolution of nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Nanna B.; Kruse, Susanne; Baun, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Effects and behaviour of nanomaterials in the environment depends on the materials' specific physical and chemical properties and for certain nanomaterials (e.g., Ag, ZnO and CuO) aqueous solubility is of outmost importance. The solubility of metals salts is normally described as a maximum...... dissolved concentration or by the solubility constant (Ksp). For nanomaterials it is essential to also assess solubility kinetics as nanomaterials will often not dissolve instantaneously upon contact with artificial aqueous media or natural waters. Dissolution kinetics will thereby influence their short...... and long-term environmental fate as well as laboratory test results. This highlights the need to evaluate and improve the reliability of methods applied to assess the solubility kinetics of nanomaterials. Based on existing OECD guidelines and guidance documents on aqueous dissolution of metals and metal...

  3. Interactions between sparfloxacin and antacids - dissolution and adsorption studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Fida; Arayne, M Saeed; Sultana, Najma

    2006-01-01

    Sparfloxacin is a broad-spectrum oral fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agent with a long elimination half-life, extensively used against both Gram-positive as well as Gram-negative microorganism. Concurrent administration of antacids and sparfloxacin decreases the gastrointestinal absorption of sparfloxacin and therapeutic failure may result. The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of some antacids on the availability of sparfloxacin. The release of sparfloxacin from tablets in the presence of antacids like sodium bicarbonate, calcium hydroxide, calcium carbonate, aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, magnesium carbonate, magnesium trisilicate and magaldrate has been studied on BP 2003 dissolution test apparatus. These studies were carried out in simulated gastric and intestinal juices for three hours at 37 degrees C. The results confirmed that the dissolution rate of tablets was markedly retarded in the presence all of antacids studied, whereas magaldrate and calcium carbonate exhibited relatively higher adsorption capacities in simulated gastric juice and magnesium trisilicate and calcium hydroxide in simulated intestinal juice.

  4. Compaction of porous rock by dissolution on discrete stylolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angheluta, Luiza; Mathiesen, Joachim; Aharonov, Einat

    2012-01-01

    Compaction of sedimentary porous rock by dissolution and precipitation is a complex deformation mechanism, that is often localized on stylolites and pressure solution seams. We consider a one-dimensional model of compaction near a thin clay-rich stylolite embedded in a porous rock. Under the assu......Compaction of sedimentary porous rock by dissolution and precipitation is a complex deformation mechanism, that is often localized on stylolites and pressure solution seams. We consider a one-dimensional model of compaction near a thin clay-rich stylolite embedded in a porous rock. Under...... the assumption that the clay enhances solubility, the model predicts a reactive transport away from the clay layer followed by pore cementation. The evolution of the porosity, reactant transport, and compaction rate are studied as functions of model parameters and shown to reach a stationary state. We find good...

  5. Mesoporous Silica Molecular Sieve based Nanocarriers: Transpiring Drug Dissolution Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattnaik, Satyanarayan; Pathak, Kamla

    2017-01-01

    Improvement of oral bioavailability through enhancement of dissolution for poorly soluble drugs has been a very promising approach. Recently, mesoporous silica based molecular sieves have demonstrated excellent properties to enhance the dissolution velocity of poorly water-soluble drugs. Current research in this area is focused on investigating the factors influencing the drug release from these carriers, the kinetics of drug release and manufacturing approaches to scale-up production for commercial manufacture. This comprehensive review provides an overview of different methods adopted for synthesis of mesoporous materials, influence of processing factors on properties of these materials and drug loading methods. The drug release kinetics from mesoporous silica systems, the manufacturability and stability of these formulations are reviewed. Finally, the safety and biocompatibility issues related to these silica based materials are discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Polymeric Nanosuspensions for Enhanced Dissolution of Water Insoluble Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Yadollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to formulate and evaluate polymeric nanosuspensions containing three model water insoluble drugs, nifedipine (NIF, carbamazepine (CBZ, and ibuprofen (IBU with various physicochemical properties. The nanosuspensions were prepared from hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP by a cosolvent technique with polyethylene glycol (PEG-300 and water as the cosolvents. Physicochemical and morphological characteristics of the nanosuspensions (particle size, polydispersity index, and crystallinity have been correlated with the drug release behaviour. The effects of polymer, drug ratio on the physical, morphological, and dissolution characteristics of the drugs are reported. Drug release is significantly enhanced from the nanosuspensions; for example, the maximum NIF, IBU, and CBZ concentrations after 8-hour dissolution are increased approximately 37, 2, and 1.2 times, respectively, in comparison with the pure powdered drugs. Based on this solubilization enhancement performance, the nanosuspensions have potential for increasing the orally dosed bioavailability of NIF, IBU, and CBZ.

  7. Improvement of dissolution rate of indomethacin by inkjet printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickström, Henrika; Palo, Mirja; Rijckaert, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare printable inks of the poorly water soluble drug indomethacin (IMC), fabricate printed systems with flexible doses and investigate the effect of ink excipients on the printability, dissolution rate and the solid state properties of the drug. A piezoelectric...... inkjet printer was used to print 1×1cm2 squares onto a paper substrate and an impermeable transparency film. l-arginine (ARG) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were used as additional formulation excipients. Accurately dosed samples were generated as a result of the ink and droplet formation optimization....... Increased dissolution rate was obtained for all formulations. The formulation with IMC and ARG printed on transparency film resulted in a co-amorphous system. The solid state characteristics of the printed drug on porous paper substrates were not possible to determine due to strong interference from...

  8. Brief overview on cellulose dissolution/regeneration interactions and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medronho, Bruno; Lindman, Björn

    2015-08-01

    The development of cellulose dissolution/regeneration strategies constitutes an increasingly active research field. These are fundamental aspects of many production processes and applications. A wide variety of suitable solvents for cellulose is already available. Nevertheless, most solvent systems have important limitations, and there is an intense activity in both industrial and academic research aiming to optimize existing solvents and develop new ones. Cellulose solvents are of highly different nature giving great challenges in the understanding of the subtle balance between the different interactions. Here, we briefly review the cellulose dissolution and regeneration mechanisms for some selected solvents. Insolubility is often attributed to strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding between cellulose molecules. However, recent work rather emphasizes the role of cellulose charge and the concomitant ion entropy effects, as well as hydrophobic interactions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Preferential targeting of apoptosis in tumor versus normal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woynarowska, Barbara A; Woynarowski, Jan M

    2002-07-18

    Elimination of cancer cells by early apoptosis is preferred over other forms of cell growth inhibition. Apoptosis directly leads to tumor regression and reduces risks of selecting more aggressive and/or drug-resistant phenotypes that are often responsible for tumor regrowth and treatment failure. Although DNA damage by anticancer drugs is commonly recognized as an apoptotic stimulus, there is enormous variability in the magnitude and timing of such effects. Especially potent and rapid apoptosis seems to be a hallmark of various alkylating anticancer drugs that are regarded as DNA-reactive agents but are observed to react mainly with cellular proteins. Our studies with such dual-action drugs (irofulven, oxaliplatin) suggest that not only DNA damage, but also protein damage, contributes to apoptosis induction. DNA damage is well known to initiate death-signaling pathways leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. Protein damage, in turn, can distort cell redox homeostasis, which facilitates apoptosis execution. Such dual effects can be particularly lethal to tumor cells, which tend to function under pro-oxidative conditions. In contrast to tumor cells that are highly susceptible, normal cells show marginal apoptotic responses to the dual action drugs. This protection of normal cells might reflect their greater ability to buffer pro-oxidative changes and quickly restore redox homeostasis, despite substantial drug uptake and macromolecular binding. Importantly, by targeting the death process at multiple points, DNA- and protein-damaging drugs can be less vulnerable to various bypass mechanisms possible with single targets. The reviewed studies provide a proof of concept that differential apoptosis targeting in cancer versus normal cells can be a basis for tumor selectivity of anticancer drugs.

  10. Development and validation of a dissolution test for diltiazem hydrochloride in immediate release capsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciane Ferreira Mendonça

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the development and validation of a dissolution test for 60 mg of diltiazem hydrochloride in immediate release capsules. The best dissolution in vitro profile was achieved using potassium phosphate buffer at pH 6.8 as the dissolution medium and paddle as the apparatus at 50 rpm. The drug concentrations in the dissolution media were determined by UV spectrophotometry and HPLC and a statistical analysis revealed that there were significant differences between HPLC and spectrophotometry. This study illustrates the importance of an official method for the dissolution test, since there is no official monograph for diltiazem hydrochloride in capsules.

  11. Carburizer particle dissolution in liquid cast iron – computer simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bartocha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper issue of dissolution of carburizing materials (anthracite, petroleum coke and graphite particle in liquid metal and its computer simulation are presented. Relative movement rate of particle and liquid metal and thermophsical properties of carburizing materials (thermal conductivity coefficient, specific heat, thermal diffusivity, density are taken into consideration in calculations. Calculations have been carried out in aspect of metal bath carburization in metallurgical furnaces.

  12. ENHANCEMENT OF SOLUBILITY AND DISSOLUTION PROPERTY OF GRISEOFULVIN BY NANOCRYSTALLIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Phanchaxari M Dandagi; Sumit Kaushik; Shaktish Telsang

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop the formulation of griseofulvin by nanocrystallization for the enhancement of solubility and dissolution property of drug. In the present study the area of interest are drugs belonging to class II of BCS classification. Nanocrystal is a new carrier free colloidal drug delivery system with particle size ranging from 100-1000 nm, and is considered as a viable drug delivery strategy to develop the poorly soluble drugs. In the present work an attempt was made ...

  13. Chlorite: Geochemical properties, Dissolution kinetcis and Ni(II) sorption

    OpenAIRE

    Zazzi, Åsa

    2009-01-01

    In Sweden, among other countries, a deep multi-barrier geological repository, KBS-3, is planned for the burial of nuclear waste. One of the barriers is identified as the grantic bedrock itself and in this environment chlorite is present at surfaces in fracture zones. This thesis is focused on characterisation of chlorite samples and studies of their dissolution and sorption behaviour, in order to verify chlorites capacity to retard possible radionuclide migration in the case of leaking canist...

  14. Chlorhexidine gel associated with papain in pulp tissue dissolution

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Couto De Oliveira; Caio Souza Ferraz; Carlos Vieira Andrade Júnior; Matheus Melo Pithon

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of 2% chlorhexidine gel associated with 8% papain gel in comparison with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite in bovine pulp tissue dissolution. Materials and Methods Ninety bovine pulps of standardized sizes were used and fragmented into 5-mm sizes. The fragments were removed from the root middle third region. They were divided into 6 experimental groups (n = 15), 1) 8% papain; 2) 2% chlorhexidine; 3) 2% chlorhexidine associated with 8% pap...

  15. Characterization of transport parameters during limestone dissolution experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Luquot, Linda; Rötting, Tobias; Casalinuovo, Diosenia; Carrera, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    CO2 sequestration in deep geological formation is considered an option to reduce CO2 emissions in the atmosphere. After injection the CO2 will slowly dissolve into the pore water producing low pH fluids with a high capacity for dissolving carbonates. Limestone rock dissolution induces geometrical parameters changes such as porosity, pore size distribution, or tortuosity which may consequently modify transport properties (permeability, diffusion coefficient). Characterizing these changes is es...

  16. Extradyadic involvement and relationship dissolution in heterosexual women university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negash, Sesen; Cui, Ming; Fincham, Frank D; Pasley, Kay

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the role of extradyadic involvement (EDI) in heterosexual dating relationships among young adult females (N = 539). A considerable percentage of participants (36 %) reported that they had engaged in an extradyadic emotional or sexual relationship within the last 2 months. Results from logistic regression analyses supported the general hypothesis that emotional and sexual EDI were both significantly associated with relationship dissolution. These associations remained strong even after controlling for participants' age, relationship duration, and relationship quality. The findings also showed that the strength of the association between acts of emotional or sexual extradyadic behaviors and relationship dissolution was linked to relationship quality, gender of the actor, and type of EDI (emotional vs. sexual). Specifically, compared to participants who reported poor relationship quality, those who reported high relationship quality were more likely to end the partnership if they reported emotional or sexual EDI. Findings suggest that individuals in higher quality relationships appear to have considerably more to lose in their relationship when emotional or sexual EDI occurs. This, in part, may be because the more satisfactory the relationship the more disillusionment one may feel when betrayed by their romantic partner. Overall, the present findings underscore the multifaceted nature of the relationships between EDI and relationship dissolution. We call for more research that rigorously examines what contextual factors influence young adults in dating relationships to dissolve relationships following EDI.

  17. Effect of particle size on Bioglass {sup trademark} dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepulveda, P.; Jones, J.R.; Hench, L.L. [Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials

    2001-07-01

    The dissolution behaviour of melt-derived 45S5 and sol-gel derived 58S Bioglass {sup trademark} powders produced with various particle size ranges was evaluated in this work. The powders were characterized for particle size distribution, specific surface area, porosity and textural features. Dissolution studies were carried out in simulated body fluid (SBF) and in {alpha}-MEM based culture medium, at 37 C under dynamic conditions (1 Hz) for periods of 30 min, 1, 2, 4, 8, 17 and 22 hours. The concentrations of elements dissolved from the glasses were evaluated using induced coupled plasma analysis (ICP). The reacted powders were analysed using FTIR to observe the formation of a hydroxycarbonate layer on the surface, which gives indication of the material bioactivity. The results show that the varying the particle size distribution of bioactive glasses provides a means to control dissolution rates and rate of HCA layer formation. Thereby, it can be conveniently used as a tool to obtain controlled delivery of the bioactive glass components that stimulate osteogenesis. (orig.)

  18. Bioglass dissolution: a comparison between SBF solution and hydrolytic etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, R.; March, J. [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC/CCNH), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas; Silva, A.C., E-mail: roger.borges@aluno.ufabc.edu.br, E-mail: juliana.marchi@ufabc.edu.br, E-mail: dasilva.ac@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP/CCTM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais

    2012-07-01

    The evaluation of chemical dissolution phenomena of the glasses in general is important because it is related to the bioactivity. This paper aims a comparative study of the bioglass dissolution between in vitro bioactivity test in SBF (Simulated Body Fluid) solution and the chemical durability test, in glasses on SiO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}O-CaO with 6wt% de P{sub 2}O{sub 5} system. The glasses were obtained by melting at 1500°C/2h and annealed at 500°C/2h followed by natural cooling. To in vitro test, the samples were immersed in SBF solution in different periods (1, 3, 7 and 14 days) at 7,25 pH and 37 deg C. For the hydrolytic resistance test were performed in a Soxhlet column. The physic-chemical and morphological characterization of the samples before and after both tests was realized through XRD, DRIFT and SEM. The samples presented a difference in kinetics dissolution for both tests that allow an improved understanding of the glasses bioactivity mechanism. (author)

  19. Preparation and dissolution characteristics of griseofulvin solid dispersions with saccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masataka; Ugajin, Takashi; Nozawa, Yasuo; Sadzuka, Yasuyuki; Miyagishima, Atsuo; Sonobe, Takashi

    2002-12-05

    To improve the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs, we studied physical characteristics of griseofulvin (GF) solid dispersions with saccharides as the dispersion carrier using a roll mixing method. In all carriers tested, roll mixtures of GF and saccharides gradually became amorphous, and the solubility of GF increased. The solubility of GF was higher in the mixtures with higher molecular weight carriers such as corn starch and processed starch. The dissolution of GF was markedly improved by the GF-Britishgum roll mixture. The initial dissolution rate of these mixtures was 170-fold higher than GF alone. The surface tension of carrier aqueous solutions was low in the processed starch with branched sugar chains. The initial dissolution rate of GF in physical mixtures was correlated with the surface tension of carrier aqueous solutions. The stability of the amorphous state of GF at a high humidity was maintained in the mixtures with carriers with a high molecular weight. These results indicated that the solubility of GF was markedly improved in the roll mixtures. It was suggested that the saccharides with a high molecular weight are useful carriers for solid dispersions.

  20. Griseofulvin micronization and dissolution rate improvement by supercritical assisted atomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverchon, E; Della Porta, G; Spada, A; Antonacci, A

    2004-11-01

    Supercritical assisted atomization (SAA) was used to micronize griseofulvin (GF), selected as a model compound, to verify the performance of this innovative process. SAA is based on the solubilization of supercritical carbon dioxide in a liquid solution containing the drug. The ternary mixture is then sprayed through a nozzle and microparticles are formed as a consequence of the enhanced atomization. Precipitation temperature and drug concentration in the liquid solution were studied to evaluate their influence on morphology and size of precipitated particles. A good particle size control was obtained and GF spherical particles with mean diameters ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 microm were produced with a narrow particle size distribution. Processed GF was characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography-UV/vis, headspace-gas chromatography-flame ionization detection, differential scanning calorimetry, BET and X-ray analyses. No drug degradation was observed and a solvent residue (acetone) less than 800 ppm was measured. GF microparticles showed good stability and surface areas ranging from about 4 to 6 m(2) g(-1); moreover, the micronized drug retained the crystalline habit. GF capsules were formulated with starch and used to compare the dissolution rate of SAA-processed and conventional jet-milled drug. A faster dissolution and a better reproducibility of the dissolution profile were observed for SAA-processed GF.

  1. SON68 glass dissolution driven by magnesium silicate precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleury, Benjamin, E-mail: benjamin.fleury@cea.fr [CEA Marcoule, DEN/DTCD/SECM/LCLT, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-cèze (France); Godon, Nicole [CEA Marcoule, DEN/DTCD/SECM/LCLT, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-cèze (France); Ayral, André [IEM, University Montpellier 2, CC 047, Place Eugène Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Gin, Stéphane [CEA Marcoule, DEN/DTCD/SECM/LCLT, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-cèze (France)

    2013-11-15

    Experimental results are reported on the effect of magnesium silicate precipitation on the mechanisms and rate of borosilicate glass dissolution. Leaching experiments with SON68 glass, a borosilicate containing no Mg, were carried out in initially deionized water at 50 °C with a glass-surface-area-to-solution-volume ratio of 20,000 m{sup −1}. After 29 days of alteration the experimental conditions were modified by the addition of Mg to trigger the precipitation of Mg-silicate. Additional experiments were conducted to investigate the importance of other parameters such as pH or dissolved silica on the mechanisms of precipitation of Mg-silicates and their consequences on the glass dissolution rate. Mg-silicates precipitate immediately after Mg is added. The amount of altered glass increases with the quantity of added Mg, and is smaller when silicon is added in solution. A time lag is observed between the addition of magnesium and the resumption of glass alteration because silicon is first provided by partial dissolution of the previously formed alteration gel. It is shown that nucleation does not limit Mg-silicate precipitation. A pH above 8 is necessary for the phase to precipitate under the investigated experimental conditions. On the other hand the glass alteration kinetics limits the precipitation if the magnesium is supplied in solution at a non-limiting rate.

  2. Dissolution enhancement of curcumin via curcumin-prebiotic inulin nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Mohammad M; Salem, Mu'taz Sheikh

    2015-01-01

    Dissolution enhancement of curcumin via prebiotic inulin designed to orally deliver poorly water-soluble curcumin at duodenum low acidity (pH 5.5) was investigated. Different prebiotic inulin-curcumin nanoparticles were synthesized in ethanol-water binary system at different pre-adjusted pH values. Characterization via FTIR, XRD and TGA revealed the formation of curcumin-inulin conjugates, whereas surface morphology via SEM and TEM techniques implied the formation of nanoparticle beads and nanoclusters. Prebiotic inulin-curcumin nanoparticles prepared at pH 7.0 demonstrated a maximum curcumin dissolution enhancement of ≈90% with respect to 30% for curcumin alone at pH 5.5. Power law constant values were in accordance with dissolution enhancement investigations. All samples show Fickian diffusion mechanism. XRD investigations confirm that inulin maintain its crystalline structure in curcumin-inulin conjugate structure, which confirms that it can exert successfully its prebiotic role in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Therefore, the use of curcumin-inulin nanoparticles can perform dual-mission in the GI tract at the duodenum environment; release of 90% of curcumin followed by prebiotic activity of inulin, which will probably play a significant role in cancer therapeutics for the coming generations.

  3. Salt dissolution and sinkhole formation: Results of laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Imri; Eyal, Shalev; Yoseph, Yechieli; Ittai, Gavrieli; Elad, Levanon; Haim, Gvirtzman

    2016-10-01

    The accepted mechanism for the formation of thousands of sinkholes along the coast of the Dead Sea suggests that their primary cause is dissolution of a salt layer by groundwater undersaturated with respect to halite. This is related to the drop in the Dead Sea level, which caused a corresponding drop of the freshwater-saltwater interface, resulting in fresher groundwater replacing the brines that were in contact with the salt layer. In this study we used physical laboratory experiments to examine the validity of this mechanism by reproducing the full dynamic natural process and to examine the impact of different hydrogeological characteristics on this process. The experimental results show surface subsidence and sinkhole formation. The stratigraphic configurations of the aquifer, together with the mechanical properties of the salt layer, determine the dynamic patterns of the sinkhole formation (instantaneous versus gradual formation). Laboratory experiments were also used to study the potential impact of future stratification in the Dead Sea, if and when the "Red Sea-Dead Sea Canal" project is carried out, and the Dead Sea level remains stable. The results show that the dissolution rates are slower by 1 order of magnitude in comparison with a nonstratified saltwater body, and therefore, the processes of salt dissolution and sinkhole formation will be relatively restrained under these conditions.

  4. Determination of the carbonate dissolution mechanism of Lactococcus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanmiş, Derya; Orhan, Furkan; Güllüce, Medine; Şahin, Fikrettin

    2017-04-01

    Magnesite, the main source for magnesium and magnesium derivatives, are also commonly used in the production of caustic, dead-burned and fused magnesia. World magnesite resources are estimated to be at 12 billion tonnes mostly located in China, Russia, North Korea, Australia and Turkey. Turkey is the second producer of the magnesite. Magnesite deposits in Turkey are sedimentary magnesite which have been formed in specific conditions as high concentrations of MgSO4 and CO2 and presence of certain organic salts or created by hot or cold dissolution connected with carbonate rocks mainly with dolomites. According to the genesis of magnesite deposits, they have some impurities as calcium, quartz, iron, etc. Impurities of magnesite, especially CaCO3, reduce its economic value and industrial usability. In our previous study, we have performed biotechnologically enrichment of magnesite by Lactococcus sp., which gave significantly important results. However, we had no information about carbonate dissolution mechanism of bacteria. Therefore, it is aimed to reveal the metabolites of Lactococcus sp. and mechanism leading to the carbonate dissolution (MgCO3 and CaCO3).

  5. Oxidative dissolution of ADOPT compared to standard UO2 fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Kristina; Roth, Olivia; Jonsson, Mats

    2017-05-01

    In this work we have studied oxidative dissolution of pure UO2 and ADOPT (UO2 doped with Al and Cr) pellets using H2O2 and gammaradiolysis to induce the process. There is a small but significant difference in the oxidative dissolution rate of UO2 and ADOPT pellets, respectively. However, the difference in oxidative dissolution yield is insignificant. Leaching experiments were also performed on in-reactor irradiated ADOPT and UO2 pellets under oxidizing conditions. The results indicate that the U(VI) release is slightly slower from the ADOPT pellet compared to the UO2. This could be attributed to differences in exposed surface area. However, fission products with low UO2 solubility display a higher relative release from ADOPT fuel compared to standard UO2-fuel. This is attributed to a lower matrix solubility imposed by the dopants in ADOPT fuel. The release of Cs is higher from UO2 which is attributed to the larger grain size of ADOPT.

  6. Dissolution of lignin in green urea aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyu; Li, Ying; Qiu, Xueqing; Liu, Di; Yang, Dongjie; Liu, Weifeng; Qian, Yong

    2017-12-01

    The dissolution problem is the main obstacle for the value-added modification and depolymerization of industrial lignin. Here, a green urea aqueous solution for complete dissolution of various lignin is presented and the dissolution mechanism is analyzed by AFM, DLS and NMR. The results show that the molecular interaction of lignin decreases from 32.3 mN/m in pure water to 11.3 mN/m in urea aqueous solution. The immobility of 1H NMR spectra and the shift of 17O NMR spectra of urea in different lignin/urea solutions indicate that the oxygen of carbonyl in urea and the hydrogen of hydroxyl in lignin form new hydrogen bonds and break the original hydrogen bonds among lignin molecules. The shift of 1H NMR spectra of lignin and the decrease of interactions in model compound polystyrene indicate that urea also breaks the π-π interactions between aromatic rings of lignin. Lignin dissolved in urea aqueous has good antioxidant activity and it can scavenge at least 63% free radicals in 16 min.

  7. Dissolution-recrystallization method for high efficiency perovskite solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Fei; Luo, Junsheng; Wan, Zhongquan; Liu, Xingzhao; Jia, Chunyang, E-mail: cyjia@uestc.edu.cn

    2017-06-30

    Highlights: • Dissolution-recrystallization method can improve perovskite crystallization. • Dissolution-recrystallization method can improve TiO{sub 2}/perovskite interface. • The optimal perovskite solar cell obtains the champion PCE of 16.76%. • The optimal devices are of high reproducibility. - Abstract: In this work, a dissolution-recrystallization method (DRM) with chlorobenzene and dimethylsulfoxide treating the perovskite films during the spin-coating process is reported. This is the first time that DRM is used to control perovskite crystallization and improve the device performance. Furthermore, the DRM is good for reducing defects and grain boundaries, improving perovskite crystallization and even improving TiO{sub 2}/perovskite interface. By optimizing, the DRM2-treated perovskite solar cell (PSC) obtains the best photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of 16.76% under AM 1.5 G illumination (100 mW cm{sup −2}) with enhanced J{sub sc} and V{sub oc} compared to CB-treated PSC.

  8. Effect of dissolution on the load–settlement behavior of shallow foundations

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Minsu

    2016-03-10

    Mineral dissolution and solid-liquid phase change may cause settlement or affect the bearing capacity of shallow foundations. The effect of gradual grain dissolution on small-scale shallow foundation behavior is investigated using the discrete element method. Results show that dissolution is most detrimental during early stages, as initially contacting particles shrink and force chains must reform throughout the medium. Porosity tends to increase during dissolution and force chains evolve into strong localized forces with a honeycomb topology. Higher settlements are required to mobilize bearing resistance in postdissolution sediments than in pre-dissolution ones. Subsurface mineral dissolution beneath a footing under load is the worst condition; in fact, settlements in such cases are higher than when a foundation load is applied on a sediment that has already experienced dissolution. © the author(s) or their institution(s).

  9. Dissolution mechanism of calcium apatites in acids: A review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V

    2012-01-01

    Eight dissolution models of calcium apatites (both fluorapatite and hydroxyapatite) in acids were drawn from the published literature, analyzed and discussed. Major limitations and drawbacks of the models were conversed in details. The models were shown to deal with different aspects of apatite dissolution phenomenon and none of them was able to describe the dissolution process in general. Therefore, an attempt to combine the findings obtained by different researchers was performed which resulted in creation of the general description of apatite dissolution in acids. For this purpose, eight dissolution models were assumed to complement each other and provide the correct description of the specific aspects of apatite dissolution. The general description considers all possible dissolution stages involved and points out to some missing and unclear phenomena to be experimentally studied and verified in future. This creates a new methodological approach to investigate reaction mechanisms based on sets of affine data, obtained by various research groups under dissimilar experimental conditions. PMID:25237611

  10. Biorelevant characterisation of amorphous furosemide salt exhibits conversion to a furosemide hydrate during dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line Hagner; Gordon, Sarah; Pajander, Jari Pekka

    2013-01-01

    Biorelevant dissolution behaviour of the amorphous sodium salt and amorphous acid forms of furosemide was evaluated, together with investigations of the solid state changes during in vitro dissolution in medium simulating the conditions in the small intestine. UV imaging of the two amorphous forms......, as well as of crystalline furosemide salt and acid showed a higher rate of dissolution of the salt forms in comparison with the two acid forms. The measured dissolution rates of the four furosemide forms from the UV imaging system and from eluted effluent samples were consistent with dissolution rates...... showed a conversion of the amorphous furosemide salt to a more stable polymorph. It was found by thermogravimetric analysis and hot stage microscopy that the salt forms of furosemide converted to a trihydrate during dissolution. It can be concluded that during biorelevant dissolution, the amorphous...

  11. Preferential repair of ionizing radiation-induced damage in the transcribed strand of an active human gene is defective in Cockayne syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leadon, S.A. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)); Copper, P.K. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1993-11-15

    Cells from patients with Cockayne syndrome (CS), which are sensitive to killing by UV although overall damage removal appears normal, are specifically defective in repair of UV damage in actively transcribe genes. Because several CS strains display cross-sensitivity to killing by ionizing radiation, the authors examined whether ionizing radiation-induced damage in active genes is preferentially repaired by normal cells and whether the radiosensitivity of CS cells can be explained by a defect in this process. They found that ionizing radiation-induced damage was repaired more rapidly in the transcriptionally active metallothionein IIA (MTIIA) gene than in the inactive MTIIB gene or in the genome overall in normal cells as a result of faster repair on the transcribed strand of MTIIA. Cells of the radiosensitive CS strain CS1AN are completely defective in this strand-selective repair of ionizing radiation-induced damage, although their overall repair rate appears normal. CS3BE cells, which are intermediate in radiosensitivity, do exhibit more rapid repair of the transcribed strand but at a reduced rate compared to normal cells. Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A cells, which are hypersensitive to UV light because of a defect in the nucleotide excision repair pathway but do not show increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation, preferentially repair ionizing radiation-induced damage on the transcribed strand of MTIIA. Thus, the ability to rapidly repair ionizing radiation-induced damage in actively transcribing genes correlates with cell survival. The results extend the generality of preferential repair in active genes to include damage other than bulky lesions.

  12. Preferential repair of ionizing radiation-induced damage in the transcribed strand of an active human gene is defective in Cockayne syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadon, S A; Cooper, P K

    1993-11-15

    Cells from patients with Cockayne syndrome (CS), which are sensitive to killing by UV although overall damage removal appears normal, are specifically defective in repair of UV damage in actively transcribed genes. Because several CS strains display cross-sensitivity to killing by ionizing radiation, we examined whether ionizing radiation-induced damage in active genes is preferentially repaired by normal cells and whether the radiosensitivity of CS cells can be explained by a defect in this process. We found that ionizing radiation-induced damage was repaired more rapidly in the transcriptionally active metallothionein IIA (MTIIA) gene than in the inactive MTIIB gene or in the genome overall in normal cells as a result of faster repair on the transcribed strand of MTIIA. Cells of the radiosensitive CS strain CS1AN are completely defective in this strand-selective repair of ionizing radiation-induced damage, although their overall repair rate appears normal. CS3BE cells, which are intermediate in radiosensitivity, do exhibit more rapid repair of the transcribed strand but at a reduced rate compared to normal cells. Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A cells, which are hypersensitive to UV light because of a defect in the nucleotide excision repair pathway but do not show increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation, preferentially repair ionizing radiation-induced damage on the transcribed strand of MTIIA. Thus, the ability to rapidly repair ionizing radiation-induced damage in actively transcribing genes correlates with cell survival. Our results extend the generality of preferential repair in active genes to include damage other than bulky lesions.

  13. Interactions between a poorly soluble cationic drug and sodium dodecyl sulfate in dissolution medium and their impact on in vitro dissolution behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zongyun; Parikh, Shuchi; Fish, William P

    2017-11-18

    In the pharmaceutical industry, in vitro dissolution testing ofsolid oral dosage forms is a very important tool for drug development and quality control. However, ion-pairing interaction between the ionic drugand surfactants in dissolution medium often occurs, resulting in inconsistent and incomplete drug release. The aim of this study is toevaluate the effects ofsodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) mediated medium onthe dissolution behaviors of a poorly soluble cationic drug (Drug B). The study was carried out by measuring solubility of Drug B substance and dissolution rate of Drug B product in media containing SDS.Desolubilization of Drug B substance was observed at pH 4.5 in the presence of SDS at concentrations below critical micelle concentration (CMC) which is attributed to the formation of an insoluble di-dodecyl sulfate salt between SDS and Drug B. This ion-pairing effect is less significant with increasing medium pH where Drug B is less ionized and CMC of SDS is lower. In medium at pH 4.5, dissolution of Drug B product was found incomplete with SDS concentration below CMC due to the desolubilization of Drug B substance. In media with SDS level above CMC, the dissolution rate is rather slower with higher inter-vessel variations compared to that obtained in pH 4.5 medium without SDS. The dissolution results demonstrate that the presence of SDS in medium generates unexpected irregular dissolution profiles for Drug B which are attributed to incompatible dissolution medium for this particular drug. Therefore, non-ionic surfactant was selected for Drug B product dissolution method and ion-pairing effect in SDS mediated medium should be evaluated when developing a dissolution method for any poorly soluble cationic drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimization of the dissolution of molybdenum disks. FY-16 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkac, Peter [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rotsch, David A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chemerisov, Sergey D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bailey, James L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Krebs, John F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is providing technical development assistance to NorthStar Medical Technologies LLC in its pursuit of two pathways for production of molybdenum-99: the 98Mo(n,γ) 99Mo reaction and the photonuclear reaction, 100Mo(γ,n)99Mo. Processing of irradiated targets, from either production mode, requires dissolution of the target material in H2O2 followed by a concentration step, addition of ferric ion to precipitate impurities, and conversion of the final solution to 5M potassium hydroxide solution of potassium molybdate. Currently, NorthStar is using pressed and sintered Mo disks as targets. Several options are being considered for the design of Mo targets for the production of 99Mo using the (γ,n) reaction. In the current design, the target holder contains a series of sintered Mo disks lined up perpendicular to two incident electron beams, one entering from each side of the target stack. In this configuration, the front-most disks absorb most of the heat from the electron beam and need to be thinner to allow for better cooling, while the middle of the target can be thicker. Distribution of the total mass of Mo allows for larger masses of Mo material and thus larger production batches of 99Mo. A limitation of the sintering approach is the production of very thin disks. Recent advances in 3D printing allow for much thinner target components can be achieved than when the traditional press-and-sinter approach is used. We have demonstrated that several factors can play important roles in dissolution behavior: particle size of Mo metal used for production of targets, sintering conditions, degree of open porosity, and thickness of the sintered Mo targets. Here we report experimental results from studies of small-scale dissolution of sintered Mo disks fabricated from various recycled and commercial Mo materials, and dissolution of 3D-printed Mo disks that were

  15. Dissolution and pharmacokinetics of baicalin-polyvinylpyrrolidone coprecipitate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bibo; He, Mei; Li, Wei; Luo, Zhibin; Guo, Ying; Li, Yajun; Zang, Chunbao; Wang, Bo; Li, Fang; Li, Shaolin; Ji, Ping

    2013-11-01

    Baicalin-polyvinylpyrrolidone coprecipitate was prepared with the aim of improving the dissolution and bioavailability of the baicalin. The dissolution of the coprecipitate in capsule form was tested and compared with baicalin active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) capsules. A sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection method was established to determine the concentration of baicalin in plasma. The liquid-liquid extraction and solid phase extraction methods were used to pretreat the baicalin plasma sample. The pharmacokinetics of the coprecipitate capsules were tested and compared with the API capsules in six beagle dogs after crossover oral administration. The results of the dissolution demonstrated that the dissolution of the coprecipitate capsules was 21.02, 2.02 and 3.29 times that of the API capsules in 0.1 mol/l HCl solution, pH 4.5 solution and water, respectively, but it was slightly lower than that of the API capsules in a pH 6.8 solution. The calibration curve showed a good linearity at concentrations between 3.648 ng/mL and 364.8 ng/mL (r = 0.998). The baicalin plasma sample was successfully pretreated, with endogenous impurities almost completely removed. The pharmacokinetics of the coprecipitate capsules and the API capsules indicated that the mean values of Cmax were 127.04 ± 10.6 and 27.49 ± 36 μg/l, and those of AUC(0-24h) were 1080.23 ± 336.43 and 337.84 ± 127.64 μg/l × h, respectively. Compared with the baicalin API capsules, the relative bioavailability of the coprecipitate capsules was 338.2% ± 93.2%. From these observations of improved dissolution and pharmacokinetic behaviours, a good relationship was found in vitro and in vivo, indicating that the coprecipitate could be a promising formulation strategy for insoluble baicalin. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  16. Modelling capillary hysteresis effects on preferential flow through melting and cold layered snowpacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Nicolas R.; Pomeroy, John W.

    2017-09-01

    Accurate estimation of the amount and timing of water flux through melting snowpacks is important for runoff prediction in cold regions. Most existing snowmelt models only account for one-dimensional matrix flow and neglect to simulate the formation of preferential flow paths. Consideration of lateral and preferential flows has proven critical to improve the performance of soil and groundwater porous media flow models. A two-dimensional physically-based snowpack model that simulates snowmelt, refreezing of meltwater, heat and water flows, and preferential flow paths is presented. The model assumes thermal equilibrium between solid and liquid phases and uses recent snow physics advances to estimate snowpack hydraulic and thermal properties. For the first time, capillary hysteresis is accounted in a snowmelt model. A finite volume method is applied to solve for the 2D coupled heat and mass transfer equations. The model with capillary hysteresis provided better simulations of water suction at the wet to dry snow interface in a wetting snow sample than did a model that only accounted for the boundary drying curve. Capillary hysteresis also improved simulations of preferential flow path dynamics and the snowpack discharge hydrograph. Simulating preferential flow in a subfreezing snowpack allowed the model to generate ice layers, and increased the vertical exchange of energy, thus modelling a faster warming of the snowpack than would be possible without preferential flow. The model is thus capable of simulating many attributes of heterogeneous natural melting snowpacks. These features not only qualitatively improve water flow simulations, but improve the understanding of snowmelt flow processes for both level and sloping terrain, and illuminate how uncertainty in snowmelt-derived runoff calculations might be reduced through the inclusion of more realistic preferential flow through snowpacks.

  17. IMPROVING THE MECHANISM OF PREFERENTIAL LENDING TO AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lemishko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Basic tools of the mechanism of preferential lending to agricultural enterprises of Ukraine are considered in the article. The analysis of state and dynamics of lending to agricultural enterprises for the period 2001–2014 are done. The accent of attention on the need of state regulation intensification of the formation of an effective mechanism of preferential crediting to agricultural enterprises is marked. Methods. In the article are used tabular, graphical and statistical methods for economic research. Information base of research are legislative and legal acts, which regulate activity of agricultural enterprises, report data from the Ministry of Agrarian Policy and Food of Ukraine, the Annual Report of the National Bank of Ukraine, the State Statistics Service of Ukraine, taxed financial statements of agricultural enterprises, the results of own research. Results. In the process of research, it was found that effectiveness of crediting, primarily, determined by the validity of credit policy, effectiveness of the key factors of credit mechanism and macro-financial stability of the state. It is found that the mechanism of preferential lending to agricultural enterprises in Ukraine was not optimized and perfected at the appropriate level throughout the study period, the volume of direct support to agricultural production, which is also preferential loans to agricultural enterprises, were insufficient. Practical meaning. It is proved that improve of the mechanism of preferential lending to agricultural enterprises should be based on optimizing the needs of the state, borrowers (subjects of the agricultural sector, lenders (banks and non-bank institutions and financial market regulators. Value/originality. Ways to improve the mechanism of preferential lending to agricultural enterprises by creating appropriate institutional framework to support agro-industrial complex, intensification of cooperation of agricultural enterprises and banking

  18. Lysozyme in water-acetonitrile mixtures: Preferential solvation at the inner edge of excess hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkin, Vladimir A.; Kuchierskaya, Alexandra A.

    2017-06-01

    Preferential solvation/hydration is an effective way for regulating the mechanism of the protein destabilization/stabilization. Organic solvent/water sorption and residual enzyme activity measurements were performed to monitor the preferential solvation/hydration of hen egg-white lysozyme at high and low water content in acetonitrile at 25 °C. The obtained results show that the protein destabilization/stabilization depends essentially on the initial hydration level of lysozyme and the water content in acetonitrile. There are three composition regimes for the dried lysozyme. At high water content, the lysozyme has a higher affinity for water than for acetonitrile. The residual enzyme activity values are close to 100%. At the intermediate water content, the dehydrated lysozyme has a higher affinity for acetonitrile than for water. A minimum on the residual enzyme activity curve was observed in this concentration range. At the lowest water content, the organic solvent molecules are preferentially excluded from the dried lysozyme, resulting in the preferential hydration. The residual catalytic activity is ˜80%, compared with that observed after incubation in pure water. Two distinct schemes are operative for the hydrated lysozyme. At high and intermediate water content, lysozyme is preferentially hydrated. However, in contrast to the dried protein, at the intermediate water content, the initially hydrated lysozyme has the increased preferential hydration parameters. At low water content, the preferential binding of the acetonitrile molecules to the initially hydrated lysozyme was detected. No residual enzyme activity was observed in the water-poor acetonitrile. Our data clearly show that the initial hydration level of the protein macromolecules is one of the key factors that govern the stability of the protein-water-organic solvent systems.

  19. In vitro dissolution methodology, mini-Gastrointestinal Simulator (mGIS), predicts better in vivo dissolution of a weak base drug, dasatinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Takeuchi, Susumu; Matsui, Kazuki; Amidon, Gregory E; Amidon, Gordon L

    2015-08-30

    USP apparatus I and II are gold standard methodologies for determining the in vitro dissolution profiles of test drugs. However, it is difficult to use in vitro dissolution results to predict in vivo dissolution, particularly the pH-dependent solubility of weak acid and base drugs, because the USP apparatus contains one vessel with a fixed pH for the test drug, limiting insight into in vivo drug dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs. This discrepancy underscores the need to develop new in vitro dissolution methodology that better predicts in vivo response to assure the therapeutic efficacy and safety of oral drug products. Thus, the development of the in vivo predictive dissolution (IPD) methodology is necessitated. The major goals of in vitro dissolution are to ensure the performance of oral drug products and the support of drug formulation design, including bioequivalence (BE). Orally administered anticancer drugs, such as dasatinib and erlotinib (tyrosine kinase inhibitors), are used to treat various types of cancer. These drugs are weak bases that exhibit pH-dependent and high solubility in the acidic stomach and low solubility in the small intestine (>pH 6.0). Therefore, these drugs supersaturate and/or precipitate when they move from the stomach to the small intestine. Also of importance, gastric acidity for cancer patients may be altered with aging (reduction of gastric fluid secretion) and/or co-administration of acid-reducing agents. These may result in changes to the dissolution profiles of weak base and the reduction of drug absorption and efficacy. In vitro dissolution methodologies that assess the impact of these physiological changes in the GI condition are expected to better predict in vivo dissolution of oral medications for patients and, hence, better assess efficacy, toxicity and safety concerns. The objective of this present study is to determine the initial conditions for a mini-Gastrointestinal Simulator (mGIS) to assess in vivo

  20. The kinetics of Dissolution of Biologically Formed Calcific Deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokidi, Stamatia; Koutsoukos, Petros

    2015-04-01

    The calcification of aortic valves results in the formation of non stoichiometric apatitic deposits which may have serious health implications because of the fact that these minerals adhere tenaciously on tissues like heart valves and arteries causing permanent damage which is partly due to their low solubility. In the present work, calcium phosphate biominerals were extracted from clinically removed tissues and were characterized with respect to their mineralogical constituents and other properties including morphology, specific surface area analyses and thermogravimetric analysis. In all cases, the biominerals may be described as non stoichiometric apatitic materials, although traces of the precursor phase of octacalcium phosphate (Ca8H2(PO4)6•5H2O, OCP) were identified on the basis of their morphological examination. The kinetics of dissolution of the biomineral deposits was investigated in solutions undersaturated with respect to hydroxyapatite (Ca5(PO4)3OH, HAP) at conditions of constant undersaturation at pH 7.40, 37°C, 0.15M NaCl. Synthetic stoichiometric HAP was used as the control mineral. The experiments in the present work used solutions prepared from calcium chloride and sodium hydrogen phosphate and the relative undersaturation, σ, was in the range 0.38-0.74 with respect to HAP and 0.49-0.85 with respect to OCP (σ=1 in water). The dissolution process started immediately upon the introduction of an accurately weighted amount of powdered biomineral in the undersaturated solutions homogenized by magnetic stirring. Inert atmosphere was ensured with the bubbling of water vapor saturated nitrogen through the demineralizing solutions. A glass/Ag/AgCl combination electrode was used as a probe to monitor the process and to control the addition of diluent solutions with the stoichiometry of the dissolving mineral. The measurements of the rates of crystal dissolution, showed a parabolic dependence on the relative solution undersaturation for HAP and higher